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1

Molecular characterization of a novel vegetative insecticidal protein from Bacillus thuringiensis effective against sap-sucking insect pest.  

PubMed

Several isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) were screened for the vegetative insecticidal protein (Vip) effective against sap-sucking insect pests. Screening results were based on LC(50) values against cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii), one of the dangerous pests of various crop plants including cotton. Among the isolates, the Bt#BREF24 showed promising results, and upon purification the aphidicidal protein was recognized as a binary toxin. One of the components of this binary toxin was identified by peptide sequencing to be a homolog of Vip2A that has been reported previously in other Bacillus spp. Vip2 belongs to the binary toxin group Vip1-Vip2, and is responsible for the enzymatic activity; and Vip1 is the translocation and receptor binding protein. The two genes encoding the corresponding proteins of the binary toxin, designated as vip2Ae and vip1Ae, were cloned from the Bt#BREF24, sequenced, and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. Aphid feeding assay with the recombinant proteins confirmed that these proteins are indeed the two components of the binary toxins, and the presence of both partners is essential for the activity. Aphid specificity of the binary toxin was further verified by ligand blotting experiment, which identified an ~50 kDa receptor in the brush border membrane vesicles of the cotton aphids only, but not in the lepidopteran insects. Our finding holds a promise of its use in future as a candidate gene for developing transgenic crop plants tolerant against sap-sucking insect pests. PMID:21952370

Sattar, Sampurna; Maiti, Mrinal K

2011-09-01

2

Particle-bombardment-mediated co-transformation of elite Chinese rice cultivars with genes conferring resistance to bacterial blight and sap-sucking insect pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Transgenic rice plants were generated using particle bombardment to simultaneously introduce the rice Xa21 gene effective against bacterial blight and the Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (snowdrop lectin; gna) gene effective against sap-sucking insect pests, specifically the brown plant hopper. Using three plasmids, we co-transformed\\u000a 5- to 10-d-old, mature seed-derived rice (Oryza sativa L.) callus of two elite Chinese rice cultivars,

Kexuan Tang; Porntip Tinjuangjun; Yanan Xu; Xiaofen Sun; John A. Gatehouse; Pamela C. Ronald; Huaxiong Qi; Xinggui Lu; Paul Christou; Ajay Kohli

1999-01-01

3

Comparative transcriptome analysis of Gossypium hirsutum L. in response to sap sucking insects: aphid and whitefly  

PubMed Central

Background Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is a major fiber crop that is grown worldwide; it faces extensive damage from sap-sucking insects, including aphids and whiteflies. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis was performed to understand the molecular details of interaction between Gossypium hirsutum L. and sap-sucking pests, namely Aphis gossypii (Aphid) and Bemisia tabacci (Whiteflies). Roche’s GS-Titanium was used to sequence transcriptomes of cotton infested with aphids and whiteflies for 2 h and 24 h. Results A total of 100935 contigs were produced with an average length of 529 bp after an assembly in all five selected conditions. The Blastn of the non-redundant (nr) cotton EST database resulted in the identification of 580 novel contigs in the cotton plant. It should be noted that in spite of minimal physical damage caused by the sap-sucking insects, they can change the gene expression of plants in 2 h of infestation; further change in gene expression due to whiteflies is quicker than due to aphids. The impact of the whitefly 24 h after infestation was more or less similar to that of the aphid 2 h after infestation. Aphids and whiteflies affect many genes that are regulated by various phytohormones and in response to microbial infection, indicating the involvement of complex crosstalk between these pathways. The KOBAS analysis of differentially regulated transcripts in response to aphids and whiteflies indicated that both the insects induce the metabolism of amino acids biosynthesis specially in case of whiteflies infestation at later phase. Further we also observed that expression of transcript related to photosynthesis specially carbon fixation were significantly influenced by infestation of Aphids and Whiteflies. Conclusions A comparison of different transcriptomes leads to the identification of differentially and temporally regulated transcripts in response to infestation by aphids and whiteflies. Most of these differentially expressed contigs were related to genes involved in biotic, abiotic stresses and enzymatic activities related to hydrolases, transferases, and kinases. The expression of some marker genes such as the overexpressors of cationic peroxidase 3, lipoxygenase I, TGA2, and non-specific lipase, which are involved in phytohormonal-mediated plant resistance development, was suppressed after infestation by aphids and whiteflies, indicating that insects suppressed plant resistance in order to facilitate their infestation. We also concluded that cotton shares several pathways such as phagosomes, RNA transport, and amino acid metabolism with Arabidopsis in response to the infestation by aphids and whiteflies.

2013-01-01

4

Transgenic rice expressing Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL) exhibits high-level resistance against major sap-sucking pests  

PubMed Central

Background Rice (Oryza sativa) productivity is adversely impacted by numerous biotic and abiotic factors. An approximate 52% of the global production of rice is lost annually owing to the damage caused by biotic factors, of which ~21% is attributed to the attack of insect pests. In this paper we report the isolation, cloning and characterization of Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (asal) gene, and its expression in elite indica rice cultivars using Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation method. The stable transgenic lines, expressing ASAL, showed explicit resistance against major sap-sucking pests. Results Allium sativum leaf lectin gene (asal), coding for mannose binding homodimeric protein (ASAL) from garlic plants, has been isolated and introduced into elite indica rice cultivars susceptible to sap-sucking insects, viz., brown planthopper (BPH), green leafhopper (GLH) and whitebacked planthopper (WBPH). Embryogenic calli of rice were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium harbouring pSB111 super-binary vector comprising garlic lectin gene asal along with the herbicide resistance gene bar, both under the control of CaMV35S promoter. PCR and Southern blot analyses confirmed stable integration of transgenes into the genomes of rice plants. Northern and western blot analyses revealed expression of ASAL in different transgenic rice lines. In primary transformants, the level of ASAL protein, as estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, varied between 0.74% and 1.45% of the total soluble proteins. In planta insect bioassays on transgenic rice lines revealed potent entomotoxic effects of ASAL on BPH, GLH and WBPH insects, as evidenced by significant decreases in the survival, development and fecundity of the insects. Conclusion In planta insect bioassays were carried out on asal transgenic rice lines employing standard screening techniques followed in conventional breeding for selection of insect resistant plants. The ASAL expressing rice plants, bestowed with high entomotoxic effects, imparted appreciable resistance against three major sap-sucking insects. Our results amply demonstrate that transgenic indica rice harbouring asal exhibit surpassing resistance against BPH, GLH and WBPH insects. The prototypic asal transgenic rice lines appear promising for direct commercial cultivation besides serving as a potential genetic resource in recombination breeding.

Yarasi, Bharathi; Sadumpati, Vijayakumar; Immanni, China Pasalu; Vudem, Dasavantha Reddy; Khareedu, Venkateswara Rao

2008-01-01

5

Transgenic rice expressing Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL) exhibits high-level resistance against major sap-sucking pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Rice (Oryza sativa) productivity is adversely impacted by numerous biotic and abiotic factors. An approximate 52% of the global production of rice is lost annually owing to the damage caused by biotic factors, of which ~21% is attributed to the attack of insect pests. In this paper we report the isolation, cloning and characterization of Allium sativum leaf agglutinin

Bharathi Yarasi; Vijayakumar Sadumpati; China Pasalu Immanni; Dasavantha Reddy Vudem; Venkateswara Rao Khareedu

2008-01-01

6

The Genetic Properties of the Primary Endosymbionts of Mealybugs Differ from Those of Other Endosymbionts of Plant Sap-Sucking Insects  

PubMed Central

Mealybugs (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Pseudococcidae), like aphids and psyllids, are plant sap-sucking insects that have an obligate association with prokaryotic endosymbionts that are acquired through vertical, maternal transmission. We sequenced two fragments of the genome of Tremblaya princeps, the endosymbiont of mealybugs, which is a member of the ? subdivision of the Proteobacteria. Each of the fragments (35 and 30 kb) contains a copy of 16S-23S-5S rRNA genes. A total of 37 open reading frames were detected, which corresponded to putative rRNA proteins, chaperones, and enzymes of branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis, DNA replication, protein translation, and RNA synthesis. The genome of T. princeps has a number of properties that distinguish it from the genomes of Buchnera aphidicola and Carsonella ruddii, the endosymbionts of aphids and psyllids, respectively. Among these properties are a high G+C content (57.1 mol%), the same G+C content in intergenic spaces and structural genes, and similar G+C contents of the genes encoding highly and poorly conserved proteins. The high G+C content has a substantial effect on protein composition; about one-third of the residues consist of four amino acids with high-G+C-content codons. Sequence analysis of DNA fragments containing the rRNA operon and adjacent regions from endosymbionts of several mealybug species suggested that there was a single duplication of the rRNA operon and the adjacent genes in an ancestor of the present T. princeps. Subsequently, in one mealybug lineage rpS15, one of the duplicated genes, was retained, while in another lineage it decayed. These results extend the diversity of the types of endosymbiotic associations found in plant sap-sucking insects.

Baumann, Linda; Thao, MyLo Ly; Hess, Justin M.; Johnson, Marshall W.; Baumann, Paul

2002-01-01

7

Allergenicity Assessment of Allium sativum Leaf Agglutinin, a Potential Candidate Protein for Developing Sap Sucking Insect Resistant Food Crops  

PubMed Central

Background Mannose-binding Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL) is highly antinutritional and toxic to various phloem-feeding hemipteran insects. ASAL has been expressed in a number of agriculturally important crops to develop resistance against those insects. Awareness of the safety aspect of ASAL is absolutely essential for developing ASAL transgenic plants. Methodology/Principal Findings Following the guidelines framed by the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization, the source of the gene, its sequence homology with potent allergens, clinical tests on mammalian systems, and the pepsin resistance and thermostability of the protein were considered to address the issue. No significant homology to the ASAL sequence was detected when compared to known allergenic proteins. The ELISA of blood sera collected from known allergy patients also failed to show significant evidence of cross-reactivity. In vitro and in vivo assays both indicated the digestibility of ASAL in the presence of pepsin in a minimum time period. Conclusions/Significance With these experiments, we concluded that ASAL does not possess any apparent features of an allergen. This is the first report regarding the monitoring of the allergenicity of any mannose-binding monocot lectin having insecticidal efficacy against hemipteran insects.

Mondal, Hossain Ali; Chakraborti, Dipankar; Majumder, Pralay; Roy, Pampa; Roy, Amit; Bhattacharya, Swati Gupta; Das, Sampa

2011-01-01

8

Citrus tristeza virus-based RNAi in citrus plants induces gene silencing in Diaphorina citri, a phloem-sap sucking insect vector of citrus greening disease (Huanglongbing).  

PubMed

A transient expression vector based on Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is unusually stable. Because of its stability it is being considered for use in the field to control Huanglongbing (HLB), which is caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) and vectored by Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri. In the absence of effective control strategies for CLas, emphasis has been on control of D. citri. Coincident cohabitation in phloem tissue by CLas, D. citri and CTV was exploited to develop a novel method to mitigate HLB through RNA interference (RNAi). Since CTV has three RNA silencing suppressors, it was not known if CTV-based vector could induce RNAi in citrus. Yet, expression of sequences targeting citrus phytoene desaturase gene by CTV-RNAi resulted in photo-bleaching phenotype. CTV-RNAi vector, engineered with truncated abnormal wing disc (Awd) gene of D. citri, induced altered Awd expression when silencing triggers ingested by feeding D. citri nymphs. Decreased Awd in nymphs resulted in malformed-wing phenotype in adults and increased adult mortality. This impaired ability of D. citri to fly would potentially limit the successful vectoring of CLas bacteria between citrus trees in the grove. CTV-RNAi vector would be relevant for fast-track screening of candidate sequences for RNAi-mediated pest control. PMID:24572372

Hajeri, Subhas; Killiny, Nabil; El-Mohtar, Choaa; Dawson, William O; Gowda, Siddarame

2014-04-20

9

Retargeting of the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cyt2Aa against hemipteran insect pests  

PubMed Central

Although transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins have been used successfully for management of lepidopteran and coleopteran pest species, the sap-sucking insects (Hemiptera) are not particularly susceptible to Bt toxins. To overcome this limitation, we demonstrate that addition of a short peptide sequence selected for binding to the gut of the targeted pest species serves to increase toxicity against said pest. Insertion of a 12-aa pea aphid gut-binding peptide by adding to or replacing amino acids in one of three loops of the Bt cytolytic toxin, Cyt2Aa, resulted in enhanced binding and toxicity against both the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, and the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae. This strategy may allow for transgenic plant-mediated suppression of other hemipteran pests, which include some of the most important pests of global agriculture.

Chougule, Nanasaheb P.; Li, Huarong; Liu, Sijun; Linz, Lucas B.; Narva, Kenneth E.; Meade, Thomas; Bonning, Bryony C.

2013-01-01

10

Retargeting of the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cyt2Aa against hemipteran insect pests.  

PubMed

Although transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins have been used successfully for management of lepidopteran and coleopteran pest species, the sap-sucking insects (Hemiptera) are not particularly susceptible to Bt toxins. To overcome this limitation, we demonstrate that addition of a short peptide sequence selected for binding to the gut of the targeted pest species serves to increase toxicity against said pest. Insertion of a 12-aa pea aphid gut-binding peptide by adding to or replacing amino acids in one of three loops of the Bt cytolytic toxin, Cyt2Aa, resulted in enhanced binding and toxicity against both the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, and the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae. This strategy may allow for transgenic plant-mediated suppression of other hemipteran pests, which include some of the most important pests of global agriculture. PMID:23650347

Chougule, Nanasaheb P; Li, Huarong; Liu, Sijun; Linz, Lucas B; Narva, Kenneth E; Meade, Thomas; Bonning, Bryony C

2013-05-21

11

Toxins for Transgenic Resistance to Hemipteran Pests  

PubMed Central

The sap sucking insects (Hemiptera), which include aphids, whiteflies, plant bugs and stink bugs, have emerged as major agricultural pests. The Hemiptera cause direct damage by feeding on crops, and in some cases indirect damage by transmission of plant viruses. Current management relies almost exclusively on application of classical chemical insecticides. While the development of transgenic crops expressing toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has provided effective plant protection against some insect pests, Bt toxins exhibit little toxicity against sap sucking insects. Indeed, the pest status of some Hemiptera on Bt-transgenic plants has increased in the absence of pesticide application. The increased pest status of numerous hemipteran species, combined with increased prevalence of resistance to chemical insecticides, provides impetus for the development of biologically based, alternative management strategies. Here, we provide an overview of approaches toward transgenic resistance to hemipteran pests.

Chougule, Nanasaheb P.; Bonning, Bryony C.

2012-01-01

12

Massively parallel pyrosequencing-based transcriptome analyses of small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus), a vector insect transmitting rice stripe virus (RSV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus) is an important agricultural pest that not only damages rice plants by sap-sucking, but also acts as a vector that transmits rice stripe virus (RSV), which can cause even more serious yield loss. Despite being a model organism for studying entomology, population biology, plant protection, molecular interactions among plants, viruses and insects, only

Fujie Zhang; Hongyan Guo; Huajun Zheng; Tong Zhou; Yijun Zhou; Shengyue Wang; Rongxiang Fang; Wei Qian; Xiaoying Chen

2010-01-01

13

Flufenerim, a novel insecticide acting on diverse insect pests: biological mode of action and biochemical aspects.  

PubMed

A new chemical compound was tested for its insecticidal activity against several major insect pests. The compound, called "flufenerim", has a core pyrimidine structure and an unknown mode of action and showed potent activity against the sweet potato whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), the green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer), and the African cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval); however, it did not show any activity against two thrips species: western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and tobacco thrips Thrips tabaci (Lindeman). The compound was relatively potent against the three tested pests and caused mortality rates that reached up to 100% at concentrations under 10 mg of active ingredient (ai) L(-1). The action of the compound was very fast, and mortality was observed within 48 h after exposure of the insects to treated leaves. A unique characteristic of this compound is its very short residual activity, which approximates to 4 days after application under laboratory conditions and to 2 days under outdoor conditions for both B. tabaci and S. littoralis. Although this new compound's mode of action is yet unknown, its rapid and potent action against sap-sucking pests suggests that it acts on a very important target site in the insect body and possibly could be applied very close to harvesting. PMID:20958045

Ghanim, Murad; Lebedev, Galina; Kontsedalov, Svetlana; Ishaaya, Isaac

2011-04-13

14

Insect pests of pigeonpea and their management.  

PubMed

Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) is an important crop in semi-arid tropical and subtropical farming systems, providing high quality vegetable protein, animal feed, and firewood. Insect pests feeding on flowers, pods, and seeds are the most important biotic constraint affecting pigeonpea yields. This review summarizes the biology and ecology of the three most important groups of pests: flower- and pod-feeding Lepidoptera, pod-sucking Hemiptera, and seed-feeding Diptera and Hymenoptera. Recent research investigating the complex interactions among pigeonpea, its key pests, and their natural enemies is also reviewed. These relationships have implications on the pest status of individual species and on possible control strategies. Pigeonpea pest management research has focused until recently on the identification and development of resistant cultivars and on chemical control. Future research must focus on environmentally sound pest management strategies that are compatible with the needs and limitations of pigeonpea farmers. Several priority areas for research are suggested. PMID:15012370

Shanower, T G; Romeis, J; Minja, E M

1999-01-01

15

Insect Pests of Lentil and Their Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lentil is one of the world’s most important food plants and is particularly so in North Africa and South Asia and parts of\\u000a North America, Europe and Australia. Consequently the crop is exposed to a broad spectrum of insect species in a wide variety\\u000a of locations. The management of insect pests of the crop is crucial to optimizing production. The

Philip C. Stevenson; M. K. Dhillon; H. C. Sharma; M. El Bouhssini

16

Insect Pests of Ornamental Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tutorials on pests of ornamentals. Each tutorial has 50 questions; incorrect answers lead to additional information. Covers spider mites, broad mites, thrips, lace bugs, mealybugs, aphids and whiteflies. Requires Windows. $15. Tutorials are easy to use once loaded on the hard drive. Images are of high quality. Part number SW 162.

0002-11-30

17

Insect Pests of Field Crops. MP-28.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document addresses the principles of field crop insect control through biological, mechanical, and chemical processes. Identification, life history, damage, pesticides, pesticide use and environmental considerations are presented for the major pests of corn, alfalfa, beans, small grains, sugar beets, and potatoes. Each section is accompanied…

Burkhardt, Chris C.

18

Insect pest management in forest ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the role of insects in forest ecosystems is vital to the development of environmentally and economically sound pest management strategies in forestry Most of the research on forest insects has been confined to phytophagous species associated with economically important tree species The roles of most other insects in forest environments have generally been ignored, including the natural enemies and associates of phytophagous species identified as being important In the past few years several investigations have begun to reevaluate the role of phytophagous species responsible for perturbation in forest ecosystems, and it appears that these species may be playing an important role in the primary productivity of those ecosystems Also, there is an increasing awareness that forest pest managers have been treating the symptoms and not the causes of the problems in the forest Many insect problems are associated with poor sites or sites where trees are growing poorly because of crowding As a result, there is considerable emphasis on the hazard rating of stands of trees for their susceptibility to various phytophagous insects The next step is to manipulate forest stands to make them less susceptible to forest pest complexes A thinning study in California is used as an example and shows that tree mortality in ponderosa pine ( Pinus ponderosa) attributable to the western pine beetle ( Dendroctonus brevicomis) can be reduced by commercial thinning to reduce stocking

Dahlsten, Donald L.; Rowney, David L.

1983-01-01

19

Symbiont-mediated functions in insect hosts  

PubMed Central

The bacterial endosymbionts occur in a diverse array of insect species and are usually rely within the vertical transmission from mothers to offspring. In addition to primary symbionts, plant sap-sucking insects may also harbor several diverse secondary symbionts. Bacterial symbionts play a prominent role in insect nutritional ecology by aiding in digestion of food or supplementing nutrients that insect hosts can’t obtain sufficient amounts from a restricted diet of plant phloem. Currently, several other ecologically relevant traits mediated by endosymbionts are being investigated, including defense toward pathogens and parasites, adaption to environment, influences on insect-plant interactions, and impact of population dynamics. Here, we review recent theoretical predictions and experimental observations of these traits mediated by endosymbionts and suggest that clarifying the roles of symbiotic microbes may be important to offer insights for ameliorating pest invasiveness or impact.

Su, Qi; Zhou, Xiaomao; Zhang, Youjun

2013-01-01

20

ALIAN INSECT PESTS ON INTRODUCED WOODY PLANTS IN SLOVAKIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resistance of woody plants to pests and diseases is one of the basic indicators of their successful introduction. In recent years, there are records of occurrence and damaging activity of new insect pests on introduced woody plants. The presence of insect pests in Slovakia has increased mainly due to arrivals from warmer European zones and other countries. The present paper

P. HRUBÍK

21

[Evaluation of plant protectants against pest insects].  

PubMed

An interference index of population control (IIPC) was constructed for investigating the complex effects of plant protectants, including the effects of repelling insect pests away from the plant, deterring the egg laying of adults and the continuation of feeding, and causing death by toxicity. At the same time, indicated by IIPC, the alcohol extracts of some common plants, such as Eucalytus rubusta, Wedelia chinensis etc. and the neem oil gave very good results to protect the plant against Plutella xylostella. The D-C-Tron NR Petroleum Spray Oil (CALTEX) also gave an excellent effect to protect citrus against red mite. All the experiments show the important role of the repellent effect on the pests. PMID:11766564

Pang, X; Zhang, M; Hou, Y; Jiao, Y; Cen, Y

2000-02-01

22

Insect Pheromones: Mastering Communication to Control Pests  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Web site contains an interesting, in-depth article on the use of insect pheromones in pest management. The article is one of many from Beyond Discovery: The Path from Research to Human Benefit; a NAS-sponsored series designed to demonstrate "how science works by illustrating how basic research produces knowledge that can lead to practical results of human benefit." No formal lesson plans are provided, but the article comes with a helpful glossary, related Web links, and a timeline of events.

23

EXOTIC FORIEST INSECT PESTS AND THEIR IMPACT ON NAGEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 4500 exotic organisms are now established in the United States, of which over 400 are insects that feed on trees and shrubs. While most exotic insects cause little or no damage, a few have become serious pests and have greatly altered native forest ecosystems. Three of the most recently introduced exotic forest pests are the pine shoot beetle,

Therese M. Poland; Robert A. Haack

24

50 CFR 35.7 - Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease. 35.7 Section 35.7 Wildlife...wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease. To the extent necessary, the Director...wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease to prevent unacceptable loss of...

2013-10-01

25

The potential of botanical essential oils for insect pest control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today,Insect Pest management (IPM) has to face up to the economic andecological consequences of the use of pest control measures.Fifty years of sustained struggle against harmful insects usingsynthetic and oil-derivative molecules has produced perversesecondary effects (mammalian toxicity, insect resistance andecological hazards). The diversification of the approachesinherent in IPM is necessary for better environmental protection.Among the alternative strategies, the use of

CATHERINE REGNAULT-ROGER

1997-01-01

26

Enhanced Methanol Production in Plants Provides Broad Spectrum Insect Resistance  

PubMed Central

Plants naturally emit methanol as volatile organic compound. Methanol is toxic to insect pests; but the quantity produced by most of the plants is not enough to protect them against invading insect pests. In the present study, we demonstrated that the over-expression of pectin methylesterase, derived from Arabidopsis thaliana and Aspergillus niger, in transgenic tobacco plants enhances methanol production and resistance to polyphagous insect pests. Methanol content in the leaves of transgenic plants was measured using proton nuclear spectroscopy (1H NMR) and spectra showed up to 16 fold higher methanol as compared to control wild type (WT) plants. A maximum of 100 and 85% mortality in chewing insects Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura larvae was observed, respectively when fed on transgenic plants leaves. The surviving larvae showed less feeding, severe growth retardation and could not develop into pupae. In-planta bioassay on transgenic lines showed up to 99 and 75% reduction in the population multiplication of plant sap sucking pests Myzus persicae (aphid) and Bemisia tabaci (whitefly), respectively. Most of the phenotypic characters of transgenic plants were similar to WT plants. Confocal microscopy showed no deformities in cellular integrity, structure and density of stomata and trichomes of transgenic plants compared to WT. Pollen germination and tube formation was also not affected in transgenic plants. Cell wall enzyme transcript levels were comparable with WT. This study demonstrated for the first time that methanol emission can be utilized for imparting broad range insect resistance in plants.

Dixit, Sameer; Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar; Singh, Harpal; Sidhu, Om Prakash; Verma, Praveen Chandra; K, Chandrashekar

2013-01-01

27

Insect Pests of Tea and Their Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globally, 1031 species of arthropods are associated with the intensively managed tea Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze monoculture. All parts of the plant, leaf, stem, root, flower, and seed, are fed upon by at least one pest species, resulting in an 11%-55% loss in yield if left unchecked. There has been heavy use of organosynthetic pesticides since the 1950s to

Lakshmi K. Hazarika; Mantu Bhuyan; Budhindra N. Hazarika

2009-01-01

28

Insect pests of millets and their management: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

About a hundred insect pests attack millets in the field and during storage. Some are common throughout the millet growing areas. Stem borers and grain midge are of regular occurrence. White grubs are important in India. Spike worms have recently become serious in the sub?Sahelian zone of West Africa. Sporadic attacks of blister beetles, armyworms, grasshoppers, chinch bugs, leaf beetles,

R. T. Gahukar

1989-01-01

29

Second generation insect pest problems on high yielding rices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional lowland rices of Asia are photoperiod sensitive and ripen at the end of the monsoon rainy season, producing stable but low yields even under environmental extremes. The dry season fallow of these single rice crop systems breaks insect and plant virus disease cycles limiting pest buildup. Modern rices developed in the sixties to feed a growing human population attain

James A. Litsinger

1989-01-01

30

Endocrine strategies for the control of ectoparasites and insect pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing knowledge about endocrine mechanisms in arthropods facilitates the biorational search for drugs against insect pests and parasites that interfere with arthropod hormone action. Juvenile hormone mimics have been successfully applied for about 20 years; however, resistance to juvenile hormone analogues has developed. The introduction of moulting hormone agonists, which compete for binding to the ecdysteroid receptor, is expected

Margarethe Spindler-Barth

1992-01-01

31

Farmers’ perceptions and management practices of insect pests on stored sorghum in southwestern Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveys were undertaken in six districts of southwestern Ethiopia from July to October 2003 to investigate farmers’ perceptions and management practices of insect pests on traditionally stored sorghum. The survey involved 138 randomly selected farmers who were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Storage insect pests were perceived as the major insect pests of sorghum. The majority of the farmers estimated

Esayas Mendesil; Chemeda Abdeta; Abush Tesfaye; Zekarias Shumeta; Habte Jifar

2007-01-01

32

Farmers' perceptions of insect pests and pest management practices in Bt cotton in the Punjab, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to (1) examine the factors involved in the adoption or non-adoption of Bt cotton, (2) identify sources of Bt cotton seed acquisition, and (3) evaluate farmers' knowledge and perception of insect pests incidence and management practices in Bt cotton in the Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 150 farmers growing Bt cotton expressing Cry1Ac protein

Muhammad Arshad; Anjum Suhail; M. Dildar Gogi; M. Yaseen; M. Asghar; M. Tayyib; Haider Karar; Faisal Hafeez; Unsar Naeem Ullah

2009-01-01

33

Insect pest management agents: hormonogen esters (juvenogens).  

PubMed

The chemical part of this investigation focused on designing structures and synthesizing a series of six new esters (juvenogens), derived from biologically active insect juvenile hormone bioanalogues (juvenoids, JHAs) and unsaturated short-chain linear and branched fatty acids for possible application as biochemically targeted insect hormonogen agents. The structures of the new compounds were assigned on the basis of a detailed NMR analysis of their (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra. The biological part of this investigation focused on introductory biological screening tests with these compounds against the red firebug (Pyrrhocoris apterus), termites (Reticulitermes santonensis and Prorhinotermes simplex), and the blowfly (Neobellieria bullata). The biological activity of the juvenogens was studied in relation to the fatty acid functionality in the structures. Notable biological activity in topical tests and medium activity in peroral tests was found for the juvenogens 3 and 7 with P. apterus. The compounds 6 and 8 showed the lowest activity in both topical and oral assays with P. apterus. Considerable effect of all tested juvenogens was observed in P. simplex; however, the juvenogens 5 and 6 (derivatives of the only branched short-chain fatty acid) showed no activity against R. santonensis. The effect of the compounds 3-8 on larval hatching of N. bullata was only moderate (larval hatching 80-90%); however, the proliferation effect caused by 5, 6, and 8 is more pronounced than the effect caused by 3, 4, and 7. PMID:17691805

Wimmer, Zdenek; Jurcek, Ondrej; Jedlicka, Pavel; Hanus, Robert; Kuldová, Jelena; Hrdý, Ivan; Bennettová, Blanka; Saman, David

2007-09-01

34

Urban Warming Drives Insect Pest Abundance on Street Trees  

PubMed Central

Cities profoundly alter biological communities, favoring some species over others, though the mechanisms that govern these changes are largely unknown. Herbivorous arthropod pests are often more abundant in urban than in rural areas, and urban outbreaks have been attributed to reduced control by predators and parasitoids and to increased susceptibility of stressed urban plants. These hypotheses, however, leave many outbreaks unexplained and fail to predict variation in pest abundance within cities. Here we show that the abundance of a common insect pest is positively related to temperature even when controlling for other habitat characteristics. The scale insect Parthenolecanium quercifex was 13 times more abundant on willow oak trees in the hottest parts of Raleigh, NC, in the southeastern United States, than in cooler areas, though parasitism rates were similar. We further separated the effects of heat from those of natural enemies and plant quality in a greenhouse reciprocal transplant experiment. P. quercifex collected from hot urban trees became more abundant in hot greenhouses than in cool greenhouses, whereas the abundance of P. quercifex collected from cooler urban trees remained low in hot and cool greenhouses. Parthenolecanium quercifex living in urban hot spots succeed with warming, and they do so because some demes have either acclimatized or adapted to high temperatures. Our results provide the first evidence that heat can be a key driver of insect pest outbreaks on urban trees. Since urban warming is similar in magnitude to global warming predicted in the next 50 years, pest abundance on city trees may foreshadow widespread outbreaks as natural forests also grow warmer.

Meineke, Emily K.; Dunn, Robert R.; Sexton, Joseph O.; Frank, Steven D.

2013-01-01

35

Tracking movement in small insect pests, with special reference to aphid populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insects are among the greatest pests of agriculture, horticulture and forestry world-wide, inflicting damage and economic costs both directly and by transmitting plant viruses. Many kinds of insects are now resistant or cross-resistant to pesticides. In order to combat these pests, including for purposes of immediate control or to follow movements in order to better understand pest biology, tracking studies

Gugs Lushai; Hugh D Loxdale

2004-01-01

36

Inhibition of insect pest -amylases by little and Wnger millet inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inhibitory eVect of three proteinaceous inhibitors isolated from little and Wnger millet was examined on gut -amylases for four stored grain and four phytophagous insect-pests. Additionally, using native PAGE, several -amylases isozymes were observed in all insect-pests studied. Furthermore, thermostabilities and the pH optimum for insect-pests -amylases, which varied from acidic to alka- line, were also determined. On the

S. Sivakumar; M. Mohan; O. L. Franco; B. Thayumanavan

37

Inhibition of insect pest ?-amylases by little and finger millet inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inhibitory effect of three proteinaceous inhibitors isolated from little and finger millet was examined on gut ?-amylases for four stored grain and four phytophagous insect-pests. Additionally, using native PAGE, several ?-amylases isozymes were observed in all insect-pests studied. Furthermore, thermostabilities and the pH optimum for insect-pests ?-amylases, which varied from acidic to alkaline, were also determined. On the other

S. Sivakumar; M. Mohan; O. L. Franco; B. Thayumanavan

2006-01-01

38

Practical applications of insects' sexual development for pest control.  

PubMed

Elucidation of the sex differentiation pathway in insects offers an opportunity to understand key aspects of evolutionary developmental biology. In addition, it provides the understanding necessary to manipulate insects in order to develop new synthetic genetics-based tools for the control of pest insects. Considerable progress has been made in this, especially in improvements to the sterile insect technique (SIT). Large scale sex separation is considered highly desirable or essential for most SIT targets. This separation can be provided by genetic methods based on sex-specific gene expression. Investigation of sex determination by many groups has provided molecular components and methods for this. Though the primary sex determination signal varies considerably, key regulatory genes and mechanisms remain surprisingly similar. In most cases studied so far, a primary signal is transmitted to a basal gene at the bottom of the hierarchy (dsx) through an alternative splicing cascade; dsx is itself differentially spliced in males and females. A sex-specific alternative splicing system therefore offers an attractive route to achieve female-specific expression. Experience has shown that alternative splicing modules can be developed with cross-species function; modularity and standardisation and re-use of parts are key principles of synthetic biology. Both female-killing and sex reversal (XX females to phenotypic males) can in principle also be used as efficient alternatives to sterilisation in SIT-like methods. Sexual maturity is yet another area where understanding of sexual development may be applied to insect control programmes. Further detailed understanding of this crucial aspect of insect biology will undoubtedly continue to underpin innovative practical applications. PMID:24401199

Koukidou, M; Alphey, L

2014-01-01

39

Optimal sterile insect release for area-wide integrated pest management in a density regulated pest population.  

PubMed

To determine optimal sterile insect release policies in area-wide integrated pest management is a challenge that users of this pest control method inevitably confront. In this note we provide approximations to best policies of release through the use of simulated annealing. The discrete time model for the population dynamics includes the effects of sterile insect release and density dependence in the pest population. Spatial movement is introduced through integrodifference equations, which allow the use of the stochastic search in cases where movement is described through arbitrary dispersal kernels. As a byproduct of the computations, an assessment of appropriate control zone sizes is possible. PMID:24506557

Gordillo, Luis F

2014-06-01

40

Bats Track and Exploit Changes in Insect Pest Populations  

PubMed Central

The role of bats or any generalist predator in suppressing prey populations depends on the predator's ability to track and exploit available prey. Using a qPCR fecal DNA assay, we document significant association between numbers of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) consuming corn earworm (CEW) moths (Helicoverpa zea) and seasonal fluctuations in CEW populations. This result is consistent with earlier research linking the bats' diet to patterns of migration, abundance, and crop infestation by important insect pests. Here we confirm opportunistic feeding on one of the world's most destructive insects and support model estimates of the bats' ecosystem services. Regression analysis of CEW consumption versus the moth's abundance at four insect trapping sites further indicates that bats track local abundance of CEW within the regional landscape. Estimates of CEW gene copies in the feces of bats are not associated with seasonal or local patterns of CEW abundance, and results of captive feeding experiments indicate that our qPCR assay does not provide a direct measure of numbers or biomass of prey consumed. Our results support growing evidence for the role of generalist predators, and bats specifically, as agents for biological control and speak to the value of conserving indigenous generalist predators.

McCracken, Gary F.; Westbrook, John K.; Brown, Veronica A.; Eldridge, Melanie; Federico, Paula; Kunz, Thomas H.

2012-01-01

41

Proteomic analysis of Metarhizium anisopliae secretion in the presence of the insect pest Callosobruchus maculatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop improvement in agriculture generally focuses on yield, seed quality and nutritional characteristics, as opposed to resistance to biotic stresses. Consequently, natural antifeedant toxins are often rare in seed material, with commercial crops being prone to insect pest predation. In the specific case of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), smallholder cropping is affected by insect pests that reproduce inside the stored seeds.

A. M. Murad; E. F. Noronha; R. N. G. Miller; F. T. Costa; C. D. Pereira; A. Mehta; R. A. Caldas; O. L. Franco

2008-01-01

42

Soil fertility management and insect pests: harmonizing soil and plant health in agroecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultural methods such as crop fertilization can affect susceptibility of plants to insect pests by altering plant tissue nutrient levels. Research shows that the ability of a crop plant to resist or tolerate insect pests and diseases is tied to optimal physical, chemical and mainly biological properties of soils. Soils with high organic matter and active soil biology generally exhibit

Miguel A. Altieri; Clara I. Nicholls

2003-01-01

43

Control of key pecan insect pests using biorational pesticides.  

PubMed

Key pecan insect pests include the black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis), pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), and stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Alternative control tactics are needed for management of these pests in organic and conventional systems. Our objective was to evaluate the potential utility of several alternative insecticides including three plant extract formulations, eucalyptus extract, citrus extract-8.92%, and citrus extract-19.4%, and two microbial insecticides, Chromobacterium subtsugae (Martin et al.) and Isaria fumosorosea (Wize). In the laboratory, eucalyptus extract, citrus extract-8.92%, citrus extract-19.4%, and C. subtsugae caused M. caryaefoliae mortality (mortality was reached approximately 78, 83, and 96%, respectively). In field tests, combined applications of I. fumosorosea with eucalyptus extract were synergistic and caused up to 82% mortality in M. caryaefoliae. In laboratory assays focusing on C. caryae suppression, C. subtsugae reduced feeding and oviposition damage, eucalyptus extract and citrus extract-19.4% were ineffective, and antagonism was observed when citrus extract-19.4% was combined with the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser). In field tests, C. subtsugae reduced C. caryae damage by 55% within the first 3d, and caused 74.5% corrected mortality within 7 d posttreatment. In the laboratory, C. subtsugae and eucalyptus extract did not cause mortality in the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say). Applications of C. subtsugae for suppression of C. caryae, and eucalyptus extract plus I. fumosorosea for control of M. caryaefoliae show promise as alternative insecticides and should be evaluated further. PMID:23448039

Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Cottrell, Ted E; Jackson, Mark A; Wood, Bruce W

2013-02-01

44

Dielectric Properties of Fruits and Insect Pests as related to Radio Frequency and Microwave Treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information on dielectric properties of commodities and insect pests is needed in developing thermal treatments for postharvest insect control based on radio frequency (RF) and microwave energy. Dielectric properties of six commodities along with four associated insect pests were measured between 1 and 1800MHz using an open-ended coaxial-line probe technique and at temperatures between 20 and 60°C. The dielectric loss

S. Wang; J. Tang; J. A. Johnson; E. Mitcham; J. D. Hansen; G. Hallman; S. R. Drake; Y. Wang

2003-01-01

45

[Effects of insecticides on insect pest-natural enemy community in early rice fields].  

PubMed

This paper studied the effects of triazophos, shachongshuang, abamectin, and Bt + imidacloprid on the insect pest-natural enemy community in early rice fields in the Yangtze-Huaihe region of Anhui Province. The results showed that all of the test insecticides had significant effects in controlling the growth of major insect pest populations. The average value of insect pest-natural enemy community diversity under effects of triazophos, shachongshuang, abamectin, and Bt + imidacloprid was 1.545, 1.562, 1.691 and 1.915, respectively, while that in control plot was 1.897. After two weeks of applying insecticides, the plots applied with shachongshuang and abamectin had a similar composition of insect pest-natural enemy community, but the community composition was significantly different between the plots applied with triazophos and Bt + imidacloprid. From the viewpoints of community stability and pest control, Bt + imidacloprid had the best effect, and shachongshuang and abamectin were better than triazophos. PMID:16883826

Jiang, Junqi; Miao, Yong; Zou, Yunding; Li, Guiting

2006-05-01

46

1978 Insect Pest Management Guide: Home, Yard, and Garden. Circular 900.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication lists certain insecticides to control insect pests of food, fabrics, structures, man and animals, lawns, shrubs, trees, flowers and vegetables. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of insecticides to combat infestation. (CS)

Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

47

Fluorescent nanoparticle delivered dsRNA toward genetic control of insect pests.  

PubMed

A fluorescent cationic core-shell nanoparticle efficiently enters into cells with high transfection efficacy. A FNP/CHT10-dsRNA complex is orally fed to insect pests and knocks down a midgut-specific chitinase gene of the Asian corn borer, which leads to death. This is the first report on the genetic control of insect pests through a non-viral gene delivery system to knock down key developmental gene expression. PMID:23794475

He, Bicheng; Chu, Yuan; Yin, Meizhen; Müllen, Klaus; An, Chunju; Shen, Jie

2013-09-01

48

Modelling selection for resistance to methods of insect pest control in combination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of resistance to insecticides is now widespread among insects. Other methods of pest control are also potentially\\u000a at risk of encountering resistance. A modelling approach is presented here to evaluate the effects of combining methods of\\u000a insect pest control on the selection for resistance to the control methods. This analysis is based on partitioning the total\\u000a mortality acting

Hugh J. Barclay

1996-01-01

49

Field Guide to Common Insect Pests of Urban Trees in the Northeast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For each insect, the following information is presented: host plant, photographs, damage information, life cycle, and management recommendations. This is an excellent collection of tree pests, and the species accounts are accurate, well-laid out, informative, and well illustrated. However, in the table of contents, white pine aphid and white pine weevil are mis-placed under "sawflies," and the heading for "Honeylocust Insect Pests" and the link for "Honeylocust Plant Bug" are transposed.

0002-11-30

50

Genetic engineering of rice for resistance to homopteran insect pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rice brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens) is a serious pest of rice crops throughout Asia, damaging plants both through its feeding behavior and by acting as a virus vector. Like many homopteran pests of crops, it is primarily a phloem feeder, abstract- ing sap via specially adapted mouthparts. An artificial diet bioassay system for this pest was developed to

J. A. Gatehouse; K. Powell; H. Edmonds

51

Interaction between juniper Juniperus communis L. and its fruit pest insects: Pest abundance, fruit characteristics and seed viability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships between the fruit features of Juniperus communis and the presence of fruit pests were studied in Sierra Nevada, SE Spain. The abundance of two insect species — a pulp-sucking scale and a seed-predator wasp — was surveyed with respect both to fruit characteristics and to viability of seeds contained therein. Seed-predator pressure was not significantly related to any

Daniel García

1998-01-01

52

Insect pest problems in tropical agroforestry systems: Contributory factors and strategies for management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry trees are attacked by a wide spectrum of insects at all stages of their growth just like other annual and perennial crops. Pest management in agroforestry has not received much attention so far, but recent emphasis on producing high value tree products in agroforestry and using improved germplasm in traditional systems, and emergence of serious pest problems in some

M. R. Rao; M. P. Singh; R. Day

2000-01-01

53

Integrated management of insect pests, diseases and weeds of cotton in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated pest management systems were developed originally in response to the appearance of insect populations with resistance to common insecticides. Cotton with its heavy dependence on insecticidal sprays was one of the first crops in which the effectiveness of control declined due to resistance in the target pests. Although insecticide resistance is more of a problem in large scale production

R. J. Hillocks

1995-01-01

54

Diseases and insect pests of Gmelina arborea : real threats and real opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gmelina arborea Roxb. (gmelina) is a rapidly growing tree, which due to its drought tolerance and excellent wood properties, is emerging as an important plantation species. Perhaps the greatest threat to plantations of this tree is damage due to pests and diseases. Numerous insect pests and pathogens have been recorded in stands of gmelina in areas where the trees are

M. J. Wingfield; D. J. Robison

2004-01-01

55

Microbial Control of Insect Pests in Temperate Orchard Systems: Potential for Incorporation into IPM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of their selectivity and safety, microbial control agents (MCAs) appear to be ready-made components of integrated pest management (IPM) systems that do not pose a threat to applica- tors or the environment and allow other natural enemies to func- tion. Control of several orchard pest insects using MCAs, including viruses, Bacillus thuringiensis, fungi, and entomopathogenic nema- todes (EPNs), have

Lawrence A. Lacey; David I. Shapiro-Ilan

2008-01-01

56

ISSUES RELATING TO THE PRACTICAL USE OF TRANSGENIC CROPS FOR INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The implementation of transgenic plants for insect pest management requires a thorough evaluation of the risks, costs and benefits. Currently, all commercialised transgenic crops for insect control contain genes expressing specific Bt toxins. Excluding environmental and human health concerns, the most apparent risk for these Bt-plants is development of resistance to Bt toxins. The high dose\\/refuge strategy is accepted as

D. A. J. TEULON; J. E. LOSEY

57

Status of insect pests of faba bean in the Mediterranean region and methods of control  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY - In the Mediterranean region the faba bean crop is liable to attack by several insect pests in the field and during storage. Some of them cause extensive damage and require the development of control methods. The most important field insects are the black aphids, Aphis fabae and Aphis craccivora. Besides studies on chemical control, a laboratov screening of

S. WEIGAND; S. I. BISHARA; NADI EL-SEID

58

Tissue-Specific Transcriptomics of the Exotic Invasive Insect Pest Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe insect midgut and fat body represent major tissue interfaces that deal with several important physiological functions including digestion, detoxification and immune response. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), is an exotic invasive insect pest that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) primarily in the Midwestern United States and Ontario, Canada. However, despite its high impact status little

Omprakash Mittapalli; Xiaodong Bai; Praveen Mamidala; Swapna Priya Rajarapu; Pierluigi Bonello; Daniel A. Herms; Michael N. Nitabach

2010-01-01

59

[Quantitative analysis of insect pest and natural enemy communities in Red Fuji apple orchard].  

PubMed

The insect pest and natural enemy communities in Red Fuji apple orchard in Mouping District of Yantai City were quantitatively analyzed by multivariate analysis. The temporal structure of the communities was grouped into five continuous stages by using optimal sorting method, and the community characteristics at each stage were described. The dominant pests and natural enemies were determined at different growth stages of apple trees through analyzing the sub-communities of the insect pests and the predatory and parasitic enemies by principal component analysis and factor analysis. Canonical correlation analysis showed that there were significant correlations between the dominant insect pests and the dominant natural enemies, especially between Lithocolletis ringoniella and its parasitoids, between Aphis citricola and its parasitoids, and between Tetranychus viennensis and its obligatory predatory enemies, Stethorus punctillum and Amblyseius orientalis. PMID:19565766

Zheng, Fang-Qiang; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Qu, Cheng-Huai; Liu, Xue-Qian; Qu, Shu-Juan

2009-04-01

60

Engineering of Bt Transgenic Rice for Insect Pest Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem borer is a serious pest that causes considerable yield losses of rice in Asia. Pesticides have been used broadly to control this pest. Transgenic Bt rice for a wide variety of cultivation conditions have been developed and reported on earlier. Wereview work done todevelop Bt rice with multiple Bt genes that have different receptor binding domains, and with a

S. K. Datta; G. Chandel; J. Tu; N. Baisakh; K. Datta

2003-01-01

61

Pest Insect Olfaction in an Insecticide-Contaminated Environment: Info-Disruption or Hormesis Effect  

PubMed Central

Most animals, including pest insects, live in an “odor world” and depend strongly on chemical stimuli to get information on their biotic and abiotic environment. Although integrated pest management strategies including the use of insect growth regulators (IGRs) are increasingly developed, most insect pest treatments rely on neurotoxic chemicals. These molecules are known to disrupt synaptic transmission, affecting therefore sensory systems. The wide-spread use of neurotoxic insecticides and the growing use of IGRs result in residual accumulation of low concentrations in the environment. These insecticide residues could act as an “info-disruptor” by modifying the chemical communication system, and therefore decrease chances of reproduction in target insects. However, residues can also induce a non-expected hormesis effect by enhancing reproduction abilities. Low insecticide doses might thus induce adaptive processes in the olfactory pathway of target insects, favoring the development of resistance. The effect of sublethal doses of insecticides has mainly been studied in beneficial insects such as honeybees. We review here what is known on the effects of sublethal doses of insecticides on the olfactory system of insect pests.

Tricoire-Leignel, Helene; Thany, Steeve Herve; Gadenne, Christophe; Anton, Sylvia

2012-01-01

62

Invasive Insect and Nematode Pests from North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of 447 alien insect, phytophagous mite, spider and nematode species in Japan, 415 are insect species. Most were introduced after the end of the Edo period (1859). Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera and Hymenoptera represent the major taxonomic groups in decreasing order of number of species. They include 58 insect and nematode species from the United States. Among them, the following

Keizi KIRITANI; Nobuo MORIMOTO

2004-01-01

63

Monitoring insect pests in retail stores by trapping and spatial analysis.  

PubMed

Stored-product insects are a perennial problem in retail stores, where they damage and contaminate susceptible merchandise such as food products and animal feed. Historically, pest management in these stores has relied heavily on chemical insecticides, but environmental and health issues have dictated use of safer methods, and these require better monitoring. A monitoring procedure that employs an array of moth and beetle traps combined with spatial (contour) analysis of trap catch was tested in three department stores and two pet stores. The rate of capture increased with the level of infestation but was essentially constant over 4- to 5-d trapping periods. Contour analysis effectively located foci of infestation and reflected population changes produced by applications of the insect growth regulator (S)-hydroprene. The most abundant insects were Plodia interpunctella (Hiibner), Lasioderma serricorne (F.), Oryzaephilus mercator (Fauvel), Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), and Cryptolestes pusillus (Schönherr). The results indicate that contour analysis of trap counts provides a useful monitoring tool for management of storage pests in retail stores. It identifies trouble spots and permits selection, timing, and precision targeting of control measures to achieve maximum pest suppression with minimum pesticide risk. It permits managers and pest control operators to visualize pest problems over an entire store, to monitor changes over time, and to evaluate the effectiveness of control intervention. The contour maps themselves, along with records of control applications and stock rotation, provide permanent documentation of pest problems and the effectiveness of pest management procedures. PMID:11057728

Arbogast, R T; Kendra, P E; Mankin, R W; McGovern, J E

2000-10-01

64

FIELD ABUNDANCES OF INSECT PREDATORS AND INSECT PESTS ON ? ? ? ? ?-ENDOTOXIN-PRODUCING TRANSGENIC COTTON IN NORTHERN CHINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

China is one of the largest producers of cotton in the world. Insect pests such as cotton bollworm, cotton aphid, and mirids are the major factors that contribute to a decrease in cotton production. Transgenic cotton that expresses a gene derived from the bacterium Bacil- lus thuringiensis (Bt) has been deployed for combating cotton bollworm since 1997 in China, and

Kongming WU; Kejian LIN; Jin MIAO; Yongjun ZHANG

65

Recent advances in hormones in insect pest control  

Microsoft Academic Search

New approaches to the development of insect control agents have been revealed through the description of natural and synthetic\\u000a compounds capable of interfering with the processes of development and reproduction of the target insects. The review presents\\u000a information on novel insecticides that mimic the action of two insect growth and developmental hormone classes, the ecdysteroids\\u000a and the juvenile hormones. Neuropeptide

K. H. Hoffmann; M. W. Lorenz

1998-01-01

66

Myco-Biocontrol of Insect Pests: Factors Involved, Mechanism, and Regulation  

PubMed Central

The growing demand for reducing chemical inputs in agriculture and increased resistance to insecticides have provided great impetus to the development of alternative forms of insect-pest control. Myco-biocontrol offers an attractive alternative to the use of chemical pesticides. Myco-biocontrol agents are naturally occurring organisms which are perceived as less damaging to the environment. Their mode of action appears little complex which makes it highly unlikely that resistance could be developed to a biopesticide. Past research has shown some promise of the use of fungi as a selective pesticide. The current paper updates us about the recent progress in the field of myco-biocontrol of insect pests and their possible mechanism of action to further enhance our understanding about the biological control of insect pests.

Sandhu, Sardul Singh; Sharma, Anil K.; Beniwal, Vikas; Goel, Gunjan; Batra, Priya; Kumar, Anil; Jaglan, Sundeep; Sharma, A. K.; Malhotra, Sonal

2012-01-01

67

Transgenic Plants for Insect Pest Control: A Forward Looking Scientific Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the first successes of plant biotechnology has been the creation and commercialisation of transgenic crops exhibiting\\u000a resistance to major insect pests. First generation products encompassed plants with single insecticidal Bt genes with resistance\\u000a against major pests of corn and cotton. Modelling studies predicted that usefulness of these resistant plants would be short-lived,\\u000a as a result of the ability

N. Ferry; M. G. Edwards; J. Gatehouse; T. Capell; P. Christou; A. M. R. Gatehouse

2006-01-01

68

Forest Insect Pest Management and Forest Management in China: An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the Seventh National Forest Inventory (2004–2008), China’s forests cover an area of 195.45 million ha, or 20.36%\\u000a of the total land area. China has the most rapidly increasing forest resources in the world. However, China is also a country\\u000a with serious forest pest problems. There are more than 8,000 species of potential forest pests in China, including insects,\\u000a plant

Lanzhu JiZhen; Zhen Wang; Xiaowei Wang; Linli An

69

Towards environmentally and human friendly insect pest control technologies: photosensitization of leafminer flies Liriomyza bryoniae.  

PubMed

Development of new, ecologically safe technologies to control insect pest populations is of great importance. Photoactive compounds usually used for photosensitization might be effective as pesticide agents, with low impact on the environment, being non-toxic and not mutagenic. Phosensitizer accumulates within the insect body and, following exposure to visible light, induces lethal photochemical reactions and death. The aim of this study is to evaluate the possible usage of several photosensitizers (acridine orange, aminolevulinic acid, hematoporphyrin dimethyl ether, methylene blue) as photopesticides to control population of polyphagous plant pest Liriomyza bryoniae (Kaltenbach, 1858) (Diptera, Agromyzidae). Fluorescence measurements of intact cooled insects indicate that insect feeding with bait containing HPde and sugar induces remarkable accumulation of this compound in the body of insect. This accumulation is strongly dependent on sex and feeding duration. The highest HPde amount in the body of insect was detected 16 h after feeding, whereas no significant photosensitizer amount was detected in the same insect following 48 h. Following irradiation with visible light results in fast death of L. bryoniae. Of importance to note that survival of insects after feeding and irradiation depends on sex: female insect died much faster than males. PMID:17766141

Luksiene, Zivile; Kurilcik, Natalija; Jursenas, Saulius; Radziute, Sandra; B?da, Vincas

2007-11-12

70

Development of reference transcriptomes for the major field insect pests of cowpea: a toolbox for insect pest management approaches in west Africa.  

PubMed

Cowpea is a widely cultivated and major nutritional source of protein for many people that live in West Africa. Annual yields and longevity of grain storage is greatly reduced by feeding damage caused by a complex of insect pests that include the pod sucking bugs, Anoplocnemis curvipes Fabricius (Hemiptera: Coreidae) and Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stål (Hemiptera: Coreidae); as well as phloem-feeding cowpea aphids, Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and flower thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Efforts to control these pests remain a challenge and there is a need to understand the structure and movement of these pest populations in order to facilitate the development of integrated pest management strategies (IPM). Molecular tools have the potential to help facilitate a better understanding of pest populations. Towards this goal, we used 454 pyrosequencing technology to generate 319,126, 176,262, 320,722 and 227,882 raw reads from A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti, respectively. The reads were de novo assembled into 11,687, 7,647, 10,652 and 7,348 transcripts for A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti, respectively. Functional annotation of the resulting transcripts identified genes putatively involved in insecticide resistance, pathogen defense and immunity. Additionally, sequences that matched the primary aphid endosymbiont, Buchnera aphidicola, were identified among A. craccivora transcripts. Furthermore, 742, 97, 607 and 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were respectively predicted among A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti transcripts, and will likely be valuable tools for future molecular genetic marker development. These results demonstrate that Roche 454-based transcriptome sequencing could be useful for the development of genomic resources for cowpea pest insects in West Africa. PMID:24278221

Agunbiade, Tolulope A; Sun, Weilin; Coates, Brad S; Djouaka, Rousseau; Tamò, Manuele; Ba, Malick N; Binso-Dabire, Clementine; Baoua, Ibrahim; Olds, Brett P; Pittendrigh, Barry R

2013-01-01

71

Entomopathogenic Nematodes for Control of Insect Pests Above and Below Ground with Comments on Commercial Production  

PubMed Central

Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) have been utilized in classical, conservation, and augmentative biological control programs. The vast majority of applied research has focused on their potential as inundatively applied augmentative biological control agents. Extensive research over the past three decades has demonstrated both their successes and failures for control of insect pests of crops, ornamental plants, trees and lawn and turf. In this paper we present highlights of their development for control of insect pests above and below ground. The target insects include those from foliar, soil surface, cryptic and subterranean habitats. Advances in mass-production and formulation technology of EPNs, the discovery of numerous efficacious isolates/strains, and the desirability of reducing pesticide usage have resulted in a surge of commercial use and development of EPNs. Commercially produced EPNs are currently in use for control of scarab larvae in lawns and turf, fungus gnats in mushroom production, invasive mole crickets in lawn and turf, black vine weevil in nursery plants, and Diaprepes root weevil in citrus in addition to other pest insects. However, demonstrated successful control of several other insects, often has not lead to capture of a significant share of the pesticide market for these pests.

Lacey, Lawrence A.; Georgis, Ramon

2012-01-01

72

Effects of host plant resistance on insect pests and its parasitoid: A case study of wheat-aphid–parasitoid system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Host plant resistance can effectively reduce pest insect populations, but a concern is whether plant resistance could also negatively affect the natural enemies of the insect pests. In this paper the effect of three wheat cultivars on the population of an aphid species, Sitobion avenae (F.) and it’s parasitoids, Aphidius spp., were investigated in the field experiments in 2004 and

Qing-Nian Cai; Xiao-Mu Ma; Xin Zhao; Ya-Zhong Cao; Xiao-Qin Yang

2009-01-01

73

Euserica modesta Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae): a new record for a chafer insect pest attacking citrus orchards in Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many pests and diseases are widely spread and attack several plants and agricultural products. During September 2008, a new chafer insect pest, Euserica modesta Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) was recorded for the first time in the south Sinai region, north of Egypt. This insect was shown to attack and destroy flowers and leaves of citrus orchards. It was identified by the

A. S. H. Abdel-Moniem

2011-01-01

74

Euserica modesta Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae): a new record for a chafer insect pest attacking citrus orchards in Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many pests and diseases are widely spread and attack several plants and agricultural products. During September 2008, a new chafer insect pest, Euserica modesta Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) was recorded for the first time in the south Sinai region, north of Egypt. This insect was shown to attack and destroy flowers and leaves of citrus orchards. It was identified by the

A. S. H. Abdel-Moniem

2010-01-01

75

Biological control of pests and insects. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of biological agents to control insects and pests. Radiation, genetic breeding, bacteria, fungi, viruses, and pheromones are discussed as alternatives to pesticidal management. Methods for monitoring the effectiveness and environmental impact of these agents are reviewed. Population control of fruit flies, spruce sawflies, flies, mosquitoes, cockroaches, gypsy moths, and other agriculturally-important insects is also discussed. (Contains a minimum of 190 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-02-01

76

Insect Pest Control on Potato: Harmonization of Alternative and Conventional Control Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of insect pest management strategies for potato has long been based on the eventual replacement of insecticides\\u000a by alternative methods. This paper discusses the importance of moving away from this confrontational approach and toward the\\u000a harmonization of conventional and alternative insect control concepts. A harmonized set of control methods should speed up\\u000a progress towards a truly integrated management

Gilles Boiteau

2010-01-01

77

Biological control of pests and insects. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of biological agents to control insects and pests. Radiation, genetic breeding, bacteria, fungi, viruses, and pheromones are discussed as alternatives to pesticidal management. Methods for monitoring the effectiveness and environmental impact of these agents are reviewed. Population control of fruit flies, spruce sawflies, flies, mosquitoes, cockroaches, gypsy moths, and other agriculturally-important insects is also discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-04-01

78

Effect of gamma Irradiation on Insect Pest of Rice in Storage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was conducted to determine the effect of gamma irradiation on insect pest of rice, stored for a period of 24 months, and packed in four different packaging materials. They were then exposed to gamma radiation using Gamma Cell 220, in a /sup 60/...

R. M. Rita N. Noorma

1987-01-01

79

Integration of Entomopathogenic Nematodes with Bacillus thuringiensis or Pesticidal Soap for Control of Insect Pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integration of entomopathogenic nematodes and Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki or a pesticidal soap controlled insect pests inhabiting the soil and foliage in the greenhouse. The nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora controlled larvae of the masked chafer Cyclocephala hirta or the black vine weevil Otiorhynchus sulcatus in the soil and a commercial formulation of B. thuringiensis (Javelin) controlled larvae of the cabbage

H. K. Kaya; T. M. Burlando; H. Y. Choo; G. S. Thurston

1995-01-01

80

Maize planting time and arthropod abundance in southern Mindanao, Philippines. I. Population dynamics of insect pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monthly plantings conducted over 4 years in a rainfed triple maize cropping system in southern Mindanao, Philippines, revealed the Asian corn borer (ACB) Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée) as the most important insect pest. Of minor importance and being restricted to one crop stage were rice seedling maggot Atherigona oryzae Malloch, thrips Thrips palmi Karny and Megalurothrips usitatus (Bagnall), corn leafhopper Cicadulina

J. A. Litsinger; C. G. Dela Cruz; B. L. Canapi; A. T. Barrion

2007-01-01

81

GENE-FOR-GENE DISEASE RESISTANCE: BRIDGING INSECT PEST AND PATHOGEN DEFENSE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Active plant defense, also known as gene-for-gene resistance, is triggered when a plant resistance (R) gene recognizes the intrusion of a specific insect pest or pathogen. Activation of plant defense includes an array of physiological and transcriptional reprogramming. During the past decade, a large number of plant R genes that confer resistance to diverse group of pathogens have been cloned

ISGOUHI KALOSHIAN

2004-01-01

82

Could resistance to transgenic plants produce a new species of insect pest?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have shown developmental asynchrony between Bacillus thuringiensis resistant and susceptible strains to occur in two insect species, the pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypella) and the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella). With the widespread planting of B. thuringiensis transgenic crops, individuals of many pest species will be exposed to intense and continuous selection pressure. In species with such ecological adaptation to

H. Cerda; D. J. Wright

2002-01-01

83

Research achievements in plant resistance to insect pests of cool season food legumes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant resistance to at least 17 field and storage insect pests of cool season food legumes has been identified. For the most part, this resistance was located in the primary gene pools of grain legumes via conventional laboratory, greenhouse, and field screening methods. The use of analytical techniques (i.e., capillary gas chromatography) to characterize plant chemicals that mediate the host

S. L. Clement; N. Sharaf El-Din; S. Weigand; S. S. Lateef

1993-01-01

84

Potential role of transgenic approaches in the control of cowpea insect pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crops' incompatibility makes conventional breeding approaches untenable in transferring available insect resistance from wild Vigna sp. into cowpea. The alternative recourse is to isolate and transfer alien resistance genes using genetic transformation. This has the added advantage of using useful genes from distantly related organisms to control cowpea pests. Artifi cial diet bioassays carried out on the Maruca pod borer,

J. Machuka

85

Insect pests and associated root pathogens of sainfoin in western USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sainfoin, Onobrychis viciifolia, Scop., is a perennial forage legume that was introduced into North America as an alternative to alfalfa, Medicago sativa L. Sainfoin does not cause bloating in livestock, is comparatively drought-resistant, and is not attacked by several economically important alfalfa insect pests. Plant survival in long-term sainfoin fields is reduced by root pathogens that invade through scars caused

Wendell L Morrill; Raymond L Ditterline; S. Dennis Cash

1998-01-01

86

Tracking the global dispersal of a cosmopolitan insect pest, the peach potato aphid  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Global commerce and human transportation are responsible for the range expansion of various insect pests such as the plant sucking aphids. High resolution DNA markers provide the opportunity to examine the genetic structure of aphid populations, identify aphid genotypes and infer their evolutionary history and routes of expansion which is of value in developing management strategies. One of the

John T Margaritopoulos; Louise Kasprowicz; Gaynor L Malloch; Brian Fenton

2009-01-01

87

Mechanisms and diversity of resistance to insect pests in wild relatives of groundnut.  

PubMed

The levels of resistance to insect pests in cultivated groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) germplasm are quite low, and therefore, we screened 30 accessions of Arachis spp. and 12 derived lines for resistance to insect pests under field and greenhouse conditions. Accessions belonging to Arachis cardenasii, Arachis duranensis, Arachis kempff-mercadoi, Arachis monticola, Arachis stenosperma, Arachis paraguariensis, Arachis pusilla, and Arachis triseminata showed multiple resistance to the leaf miner Aproaerema modicella, Helicoverpa armigera, Empoasca kerri, and to rust, Puccnia arachidis Speg., and late leaf spot, Cercosporidium personatum (Berk. et Curt.). Arachis cardenasii (ICG 8216), Arachis ipaensis (ICG 8206), A. paraguariensis (ICG 8130), and Arachis appressipila (ICG 8946) showed resistance to leaf feeding and antibiosis to Spodoptera litura under no-choice conditions. Six lines, derived from wild relatives, showed resistance to H. armigera and S. litura, and/or leaf miner. Plant morphological characteristics such as main stem thickness, hypanthium length, leaflet shape and length, leaf hairiness, standard petal length and petal markings, basal leaflet width, main stem thickness and hairiness, stipule adnation length and width, and peg length showed significant correlation and/or regression coefficients with damage by H. armigera, S. litura, and leafhoppers, and these traits can possibly be used as markers to select for resistance to these insect pests. Principal component analysis placed the Arachis spp. accessions into five groups, and these differences can be exploited to diversify resistance to the target insect pests in groundnut. PMID:14977130

Sharma, H C; Pampapathy, G; Dwivedi, S L; Reddy, L J

2003-12-01

88

Agonists\\/Antagonists of the Insect Kinin and Pyrokinin\\/PBAN Neuropeptide Classes as Tools for Rational Pest Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a While insect neuropeptides of the insect kinin (IK) and pyrokinin\\/PBAN (PK\\/PBAN) family are both potent and specific, these\\u000a molecular messengers are not suitably designed to be effective either as pest insect control agents and\\/or tools for insect\\u000a neuroendocrinologists. Neuropeptides are rapidly degraded by peptidases in the hemolymph and tissues within insects and generally\\u000a exhibit poor bioavailability (Nachman et al. 2001,

Ronald J. Nachman

89

Can juvenogens, biochemically targeted hormonogen compounds, assist in environmentally safe insect pest management?  

PubMed

Two different types of juvenogens, biochemically targeted hormonogen compounds were tested for their potency to act as insect pest management agents. In the performed biological screening, wax-like esteric juvenogens (3-10) proved to be convenient agents for controlling blowfly and termites, and displayed species selectivity: cis-N-{2-[4-(2-butanoyloxycyclohexyl)methyl]phenoxy}ethyl carbamate (3) was highly active on blowfly (Neobellieria bullata), while trans-N-{2-[4-(2-hexadecanoyloxycyclohexyl)methyl]-phenoxy}ethyl carbamate (6) showed high activity on termite (Prorhinotermes simplex). Glycosidic juvenogens, isomeric N-{2-{4-{[2-(beta-D-galactopyranosyloxy)cyclohexyl]methyl}phenoxy}ethyl carbamates (13 and 14), were proved to act as systemic agents, suitable for protecting plants against phytophagous insects (e.g. aphids). Due to the prolonged action of juvenogens, which is connected with the sequential liberating of the biologically active molecule of the insect juvenile hormone bioanalog from the juvenogen molecule by means of enzymic systems of target insects and/or their host plants, more insect individuals can be treated by juvenogens, which are species-targeted structures due to their different physicochemical properties. The results achieved with both types of juvenogens were promising, concerning their final effect on the tested insect species, and the compounds 3-6, 9 (cis-(9Z)-N-{2-[4-(2-(octadec-9-enoyl)oxycyclohexyl)methyl]phenoxy}ethyl carbamate), 13 and 14 proved to represent convenient insect pest management agents for potential practical applications against different insect pests. PMID:16731341

Wimmer, Zdenek; Kuldová, Jelena; Hrdý, Ivan; Bennettová, Blanka

2006-06-01

90

The use of floral homeotic mutants as a novel way to obtain durable resistance to insect pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a novel strategy for the introduction of durable insect resistance in crops. This strategy was based on intervention in the natural relationship between plants and insects. For many insects, including pests such as thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis), the flower is an important factor in their life cycle, serving either as a food source or as a place for

M. M. Kater; J. Franken; H. Inggamer; M. Gretenkort; Tunen van A. J; C. Mollema; G. C. Angenent

2003-01-01

91

Using Drosophila melanogaster to validate metabolism-based insecticide resistance from insect pests.  

PubMed

Identifying molecular mechanisms of insecticide resistance is important for preserving insecticide efficacy, developing new insecticides and implementing insect control. The metabolic detoxification of insecticides is a widespread resistance mechanism. Enzymes with the potential to detoxify insecticides are commonly encoded by members of the large cytochrome P450, glutathione S-transferase and carboxylesterase gene families, all rapidly evolving in insects. Here, we demonstrate that the model insect Drosophila melanogaster is useful for functionally validating the role of metabolic enzymes in conferring metabolism-based insecticide resistance. Alleles of three well-characterized genes from different pest insects were expressed in transgenic D. melanogaster : a carboxylesterase gene (?E7) from the Australian sheep blowfly Lucilia cuprina, a glutathione S-transferase gene (GstE2) from the mosquito Anopheles gambiae and a cytochrome P450 gene (Cyp6cm1) from the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. For all genes, expression in D. melanogaster resulted in insecticide resistance phenotypes mirroring those observed in resistant populations of the pest species. Using D. melanogaster to assess the potential for novel metabolic resistance mechanisms to evolve in pest species is discussed. PMID:23023059

Daborn, Phillip J; Lumb, Christopher; Harrop, Thomas W R; Blasetti, Alex; Pasricha, Shivani; Morin, Shai; Mitchell, Sara N; Donnelly, Martin J; Müller, Pie; Batterham, Philip

2012-12-01

92

Riding the Trojan horse: combating pest insects with their own symbionts  

PubMed Central

Summary Insects form an extremely large group of animals and bear a consequently large variety of associated microbes. This microbiota includes very specific and obligate symbionts that provide essential functions to the host, and facultative partners that are not necessarily required for survival. The Tephritidae is a large family that includes many fruit pests such as the Mediterranean fruit fly (the medfly, Ceratitis capitata) and the Olive fly (Bactrocera oleae). Community and functional analyses showed that the microbiota of both flies contribute to their diet, and affect host fitness parameters. The analysis of the microbiota's community structure of mass?reared, sterilized medfly males used in the sterile insect technique revealed a strong reduction in Klebsiella spp. compared with non?sterile and wild flies. Inoculation of sterile males with this gut population affected female mating behaviour as they preferentially mated with inoculated versus non?inoculated males. These studies suggest that control can be significantly improved by manipulating symbionts in pest animals.

Jurkevitch, Edouard

2011-01-01

93

Activity of an essential oil derived from Chenopodium ambrosioides on greenhouse insect pests.  

PubMed

This study involved both greenhouse and laboratory experiments evaluating the effect of an essential oil product (QRD 400) derived from Chenopodium ambrosioides variety nr. Ambrosioides L. (Chenopodiaceae) on greenhouse insect pests that feed on different plant parts: citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso); longtailed mealybug, Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti); western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), and fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.). Treatments were applied to coleus, Solenostemon scutellarioides plants; transvaal daisy, Gerbera jamesonii flowers; or growing medium, depending on the insect pest. The essential oil was most effective, based on adult emergence, on both the second and third instars of the fungus gnat Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila when applied as a drench to growing medium. In addition, there was a significant rate response for QRD 400 on fungus gnats. The QRD 400 treatment had the highest percentage of mortality on longtailed mealybug (55%) compared with the other treatments. However, the essential oil was less effective against citrus mealybug (3% mortality) and western flower thrips adults (18-34% mortality) compared with standard insecticides, such as acetamiprid (TriStar) and spinosad (Conserve), which are typically used by greenhouse producers. This lack of efficacy may be associated with volatility and short residual properties of the essential oil or with the essential oil taking longer to kill insect pests. Other insecticides and miticides evaluated, including sesame oil, garlic, paraffinic oil, and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis, provided minimal control of the designated insect pests. In addition, adult rove beetle Atheta coriaria Kraatz adults were not effective in controlling the larval instars of fungus gnats when applied at a rate of five adults per container. PMID:17461071

Cloyd, Raymond A; Chiasson, Helene

2007-04-01

94

The influence of landscape on insect pest dynamics: a case study in southeastern France  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managing the spatial distribution of crop and non-crop habitats over landscapes could be used as a means to reduce insect\\u000a pest densities. In this study, we investigated whether or not landscape characteristics affected the number of codling moths\\u000a in commercial orchards. To do this, we collected overwintering larvae in 2006 and 2007 in 76 orchards over a 70 km² area in

Benoît Ricci; Pierre Franck; Jean-François Toubon; Jean-Charles Bouvier; Benoît Sauphanor; Claire Lavigne

2009-01-01

95

Targeting an antimicrobial effector function in insect immunity as a pest control strategy  

PubMed Central

Insect pests such as termites cause damages to crops and man-made structures estimated at over $30 billion per year, imposing a global challenge for the human economy. Here, we report a strategy for compromising insect immunity that might lead to the development of nontoxic, sustainable pest control methods. Gram-negative bacteria binding proteins (GNBPs) are critical for sensing pathogenic infection and triggering effector responses. We report that termite GNBP-2 (tGNBP-2) shows ?(1,3)-glucanase effector activity previously unknown in animal immunity and is a pleiotropic pattern recognition receptor and an antimicrobial effector protein. Termites incorporate this protein into the nest building material, where it functions as a nest-embedded sensor that cleaves and releases pathogenic components, priming termites for improved antimicrobial defense. By means of rational design, we present an inexpensive, nontoxic small molecule glycomimetic that blocks tGNBP-2, thus exposing termites in vivo to accelerated infection and death from specific and opportunistic pathogens. Such a molecule, introduced into building materials and agricultural methods, could protect valuable assets from insect pests.

Bulmer, Mark S.; Bachelet, Ido; Raman, Rahul; Rosengaus, Rebeca B.; Sasisekharan, Ram

2009-01-01

96

Exploitation of Insect Vibrational Signals Reveals a New Method of Pest Management  

PubMed Central

Food production is considered to be the main source of human impact on the environment and the concerns about detrimental effects of pesticides on biodiversity and human health are likely to lead to an increasingly restricted use of chemicals in agriculture. Since the first successful field trial, pheromone based mating disruption enabled sustainable insect control, which resulted in reduced levels of pesticide use. Organic farming is one of the fastest growing segments of agriculture and with the continuously growing public concern about use of pesticides, the main remaining challenge in increasing the safety of the global food production is to identify appropriate alternative mating disruption approaches for the numerous insect pests that do not rely on chemical communication. In the present study, we show for the first time that effective mating disruption based on substrate-borne vibrational signals can be achieved in the field. When disruptive vibrational signals were applied to grapevine plants through a supporting wire, mating frequency of the leafhopper pest Scaphoideus titanus dropped to 9 % in semi-field conditions and to 4 % in a mature vineyard. The underlying mechanism of this environmentally friendly pest-control tactic is a masking of the vibrational signals used in mate recognition and location. Because vibrational communication is widespread in insects, mating disruption using substrate vibrations can transform many open field and greenhouse based farming systems.

Eriksson, Anna; Anfora, Gianfranco; Lucchi, Andrea; Lanzo, Francesco; Virant-Doberlet, Meta; Mazzoni, Valerio

2012-01-01

97

Relative densities of natural enemy and pest insects within California hedgerows.  

PubMed

Research on hedgerow design for supporting communities of natural enemies for biological control lags behind farmer innovation in California, where assemblages of perennial plant species have been used on crop field margins in the last decade. We compared natural enemy to pest ratios between fields with hedgerows and fields with weedy margins by sampling beneficial insects and key pests of vegetables on sticky cards. We used biweekly vacuum samples to measure the distribution of key insect taxa among native perennial plant species with respect to the timing and intensity of bloom. Sticky cards indicated a trend that field margins with hedgerows support a higher ratio of natural enemies to pests compared with weedy borders. Hedgerow plant species hosted different relative densities of a generally overlapping insect community, and the timing and intensity of bloom only explained a small proportion of the variation in insect abundance at plant species and among hedgerows, with the exception of Orius spp. on Achillea millefolium L. and Baccharis pilularis De Candolle. Indicator Species Analysis showed an affinity of parasitic wasps, especially in the super-family Chalcidoidea, for B. pilularis whether or not it was in flower. A. millefolium was attractive to predatory and herbivorous homopterans; Heteromeles arbutifolia (Lindley) Roemer and B. pilularis to Diabrotica undecimpunctata undecimpunctata Mannerheim; and Rhamnus californica Eschsch to Hemerobiidae. Perennial hedgerows can be designed through species selection to support particular beneficial insect taxa, but plant resources beyond floral availability may be critical in providing structural refuges, alternative prey, and other attractive qualities that are often overlooked. PMID:23905731

Gareau, Tara L Pisani; Letourneau, Deborah K; Shennan, Carol

2013-08-01

98

Floricultural Insects and Related Pests - Biology and Control, Section I. Florogram - Specialty Manual Issue for Commercial Greenhouse Growers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed by the Massachusetts Cooperative Extension Service as a guide for the control of the most common insects and related pests of floricultural crops grown commercially in glass and plastic houses in Massachusetts. The publication consists of two sections. The first section presents a description of the major pests of…

Gentile, A. G.; Scanlon, D. T.

99

Prospects of using Metarhizium anisopliae to check the breeding of insect pest, Oryctes rhinoceros L. in coconut leaf vermicomposting sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

During vermicomposting of coconut leaves by the earthworm Eudrilus sp., Oryctes rhinoceros L. (rhinoceros beetle), an insect pest of palms, was found to breed in the decomposing organic material. Metarhizium anisopliae var. major was tried as a biocontrol agent for management of this pest. The effect of pathogen at spore loads of 103, 104 and 105 per 10g of substrate

Murali Gopal; Alka Gupta; George V. Thomas

2006-01-01

100

Restoring a maize root signal that attracts insect-killing nematodes to control a major pest  

PubMed Central

When attacked by herbivorous insects, plants emit volatile compounds that attract natural enemies of the insects. It has been proposed that these volatile signals can be manipulated to improve crop protection. Here, we demonstrate the full potential of this strategy by restoring the emission of a specific belowground signal emitted by insect-damaged maize roots. The western corn rootworm induces the roots of many maize varieties to emit (E)-?-caryophyllene, which attracts entomopathogenic nematodes that infect and kill the voracious root pest. However, most North American maize varieties have lost the ability to emit (E)-?-caryophyllene and may therefore receive little protection from the nematodes. To restore the signal, a nonemitting maize line was transformed with a (E)-?-caryophyllene synthase gene from oregano, resulting in constitutive emissions of this sesquiterpene. In rootworm-infested field plots in which nematodes were released, the (E)-?-caryophyllene-emitting plants suffered significantly less root damage and had 60% fewer adult beetles emerge than untransformed, nonemitting lines. This demonstration that plant volatile emissions can be manipulated to enhance the effectiveness of biological control agents opens the way for novel and ecologically sound strategies to fight a variety of insect pests.

Degenhardt, Jorg; Hiltpold, Ivan; Kollner, Tobias G.; Frey, Monika; Gierl, Alfons; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Hibbard, Bruce E.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Turlings, Ted C. J.

2009-01-01

101

Evaluation of a commercially available beneficial insect habitat for management of lepidoptera pests.  

PubMed

A field study was conducted in 2003 and 2004 at the Center for Environmental Farming Systems in Goldsboro, NC, to evaluate the effectiveness of a commercially available beneficial insect habitat in decreasing pest caterpillar populations in organically managed tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., plots. Six pairs of tomato plots were established and a commercial beneficial insect habitat seed mix (Peaceful Valley's Good Bug Blend) transplanted around the perimeter of treatment plots, whereas a brown-top millet, Brachiaria ramose (L.) Stapf., border was planted around control plots. Egg predation, egg parasitism by trichogrammatid wasps, and larval parasitism by braconid wasps was monitored throughout the growing season to determine whether habitat increased their activity. In both years of this study, the density of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and Manduca spp. eggs was not significantly different between treatment and control plots. Although parasitism was the most important component of egg mortality (19-49%), parasitism was not significantly different between habitat types. Identifiable predation was a minor component (3-9%) of egg fate; it is possible that unidentified predation may be part of the approximately 35-52% of eggs that met unknown fates. Larval parasitism levels ranged from approximately 10 to 90% but was not significantly influenced by the presence of beneficial insect habitat in either year of the study. These results demonstrate that natural enemy activity in organic tomatoes was not amplified, and pest populations were not reduced by the presence of a commercially available beneficial insect habitat. PMID:16813293

Forehand, L M; Orr, D B; Linker, H M

2006-06-01

102

COMPUTER MODELING FOR SIMULATING STORED PRODUCT INSECT PEST POPULATION DYNAMICS AND INSECTICIDE RESISTANCE POTENTIAL IN FOOD PROCESSING PLANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Routine stored product pest management strategies are practiced without valid pre and post treatment insect density estimations. Therefore, the degree and duration of insect suppression obtained are often unknown. A preliminary computer model simulating T. castaneum population growth was developed using existing biological data to understand population dynamics in food processing facilities. This model will be useful in developing efficient

S. PRABHAKARAN; B. M. SCHNEIDER; R. E. WILLIAMS; S. L. RAY

103

Protein proteinase inhibitor genes in combat against insects, pests, and pathogens: natural and engineered phytoprotection.  

PubMed

The continual need to increase food production necessitates the development and application of novel biotechnologies to enable the provision of improved crop varieties in a timely and cost-effective way. A milestone in this field was the introduction of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) entomotoxic proteins into plants. Despite the success of this technology, there is need for development of alternative strategies of phytoprotection. Biotechnology offers sustainable solutions to the problem of pests, pathogens, and plant parasitic nematodes in the form of other insecticidal protein genes. A variety of genes, besides (Bt) toxins that are now available for genetic engineering for pest resistance are genes for vegetative insecticidal proteins, proteinase inhibitors, alpha-amylase inhibitors, and plant lectins. This review presents a comprehensive summary of research efforts that focus on the potential use and advantages of using proteinase inhibitor genes to engineer insect- and pest-resistance. Crop protection by means of PI genes is an important component of Integrated Pest Management programmes. PMID:15464737

Haq, Soghra Khatun; Atif, Shaikh Muhammad; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

2004-11-01

104

Accumulation of pest insects on eucalyptus in California: random process or smoking gun.  

PubMed

Eucalyptus spp., native to Australia, have been introduced into many parts of the world as important timber and ornamental trees. Although the trees have important silvicultural qualities, they also have generated intense dissatisfaction, particularly among groups of individuals in California. The trees have benefited from the lack of insect pests and diseases in their adventive ranges but that has changed over the past four decades. In California, two species of insect herbivores were introduced between the time trees were first introduced to the state in the middle of the 19th century and 1983. Between 1983 and 2008, an additional 16 Australian insect pests of eucalyptus have become established in the state. The modes or routes of introduction have never been established. However, examinations of different temporal and spatial patterns suggest that the introductions were nonrandom processes. It is possible that they occurred because of increased trade or movement of people, but the hypothesis that there were intentional introductions also must be considered. The rapid accumulation of introduced herbivores on an ornamental plant system in a single state is a cautionary example of what could happen if a major food or fiber crop were intentionally targeted. PMID:21309212

Paine, Timothy D; Millar, Jocelyn G; Daane, Kent M

2010-12-01

105

ChiloDB: a genomic and transcriptome database for an important rice insect pest Chilo suppressalis  

PubMed Central

ChiloDB is an integrated resource that will be of use to the rice stem borer research community. The rice striped stem borer (SSB), Chilo suppressalis Walker, is a major rice pest that causes severe yield losses in most rice-producing countries. A draft genome of this insect is available. The aims of ChiloDB are (i) to store recently acquired genomic sequence and transcriptome data and integrate them with protein-coding genes, microRNAs, piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) data and (ii) to provide comprehensive search tools and downloadable data sets for comparative genomics and gene annotation of this important rice pest. ChiloDB contains the first version of the official SSB gene set, comprising 80?479 scaffolds and 10?221 annotated protein-coding genes. Additionally, 262 SSB microRNA genes predicted from a small RNA library, 82?639 piRNAs identified using the piRNApredictor software, 37?040 transcripts from a midgut transcriptome and 69?977 transcripts from a mixed sample have all been integrated into ChiloDB. ChiloDB was constructed using a data structure that is compatible with data resources, which will be incorporated into the database in the future. This resource will serve as a long-term and open-access database for research on the biology, evolution and pest control of SSB. To the best of our knowledge, ChiloDB is one of the first genomic and transcriptome database for rice insect pests. Database URL: http://ento.njau.edu.cn/ChiloDB.

Yin, Chuanlin; Liu, Ying; Liu, Jinding; Xiao, Huamei; Huang, Shuiqing; Lin, Yongjun; Han, Zhaojun; Li, Fei

2014-01-01

106

ChiloDB: a genomic and transcriptome database for an important rice insect pest Chilo suppressalis.  

PubMed

ChiloDB is an integrated resource that will be of use to the rice stem borer research community. The rice striped stem borer (SSB), Chilo suppressalis Walker, is a major rice pest that causes severe yield losses in most rice-producing countries. A draft genome of this insect is available. The aims of ChiloDB are (i) to store recently acquired genomic sequence and transcriptome data and integrate them with protein-coding genes, microRNAs, piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) data and (ii) to provide comprehensive search tools and downloadable data sets for comparative genomics and gene annotation of this important rice pest. ChiloDB contains the first version of the official SSB gene set, comprising 80?479 scaffolds and 10?221 annotated protein-coding genes. Additionally, 262 SSB microRNA genes predicted from a small RNA library, 82?639 piRNAs identified using the piRNApredictor software, 37?040 transcripts from a midgut transcriptome and 69?977 transcripts from a mixed sample have all been integrated into ChiloDB. ChiloDB was constructed using a data structure that is compatible with data resources, which will be incorporated into the database in the future. This resource will serve as a long-term and open-access database for research on the biology, evolution and pest control of SSB. To the best of our knowledge, ChiloDB is one of the first genomic and transcriptome database for rice insect pests. Database URL: http://ento.njau.edu.cn/ChiloDB. PMID:24997141

Yin, Chuanlin; Liu, Ying; Liu, Jinding; Xiao, Huamei; Huang, Shuiqing; Lin, Yongjun; Han, Zhaojun; Li, Fei

2014-01-01

107

Ancient pests: the season of the Santorini Minoan volcanic eruption and a date from insect chitin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attributing a season and a date to the volcanic eruption of Santorini in the Aegean has become possible by using preserved remains of the bean weevil, Bruchus rufipes, pests of pulses, from the storage jars of the West House, in the Bronze Age settlement at Akrotiri. We have applied an improved pre-treatment methodology for dating the charred insects, and this provides a date of 1744-1538 BC. This date is within the range of others obtained from pulses from the same context and confirms the utility of chitin as a dating material. Based on the nature of the insect material and the life cycle of the species involved, we argue for a summer eruption, which took place after harvest, shortly after this material was transported into the West House storeroom.

Panagiotakopulu, Eva; Higham, Thomas; Sarpaki, Anaya; Buckland, Paul; Doumas, Christos

2013-07-01

108

Efficacy of Piper (Piperaceae) extracts for control of common home and garden insect pests.  

PubMed

Extracts from three species of the plant family Piperaceae, Piper nigrum [L.], Piper guineense [Schum & Thonn, and Piper tuberculatum [Jacq.], were tested for efficacy against insects from five orders. All three species contain isobutyl amides, plant secondary compounds that act as neurotoxins in insects. These materials are considered safe to mammals because Piper spp. were used for centuries for spice and medicinal purposes. When 24-h P. nigrum LC50 values were compared between common insect pests from eastern Canada and the northeastern United States, the most sensitive species in order of increasing lethal concentration were eastern tent caterpillar, Malacosoma americanum (F.) < European pine sawfly larvae, Neodiprion sertifer (Geoffroy) < spindle ermine moth larvae, Yponomeuta cagnagella [Hübner] < viburnum leaf beetle larvae, Pyrrhalta viburni [Paykull] < stripped cucumber beetle adults, Acalymma vittatum (F.) < Colorado potato beetle adults, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) < Japanese beetle adults, Popillia japonica [Newman] < hairy chinch bug, Blissus leucopterus hirtis [Montandon]. The life stage tested was the point at which each species causes the greatest amount of damage to the host plant and the point at which most gardeners would likely choose to treat with a conventional synthetic insecticide. Greenhouse trials revealed that the pepper formulations also had a repellent activity, thus protecting plant leaves from 1) herbivory (lily leaf beetle, Lilioceris lilii [Scopoli], adults and larvae and stripped cucumber beetle adults) and 2) oviposition [European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner)]. Combinations with other botanical extracts were additive at best in toxicity and repellent trials. Nontarget toxicity to beneficial invertebrates is a possibility because the P. nigrum LC50 for beneficial ladybird beetles was 0.2%. P. nigrum extracts can provide a reasonable level of control against lepidopteran and European pine sawfly larvae and also will work as a short-term repellent and feeding deterrent. It is recommended that the use of Piper extracts be restricted to small-scale spot treatments in residential areas where insect pest outbreaks have occurred. PMID:15384353

Scott, I M; Jensen, H; Nicol, R; Lesage, L; Bradbury, R; Sánchez-Vindas, P; Poveda, L; Arnason, J T; Philogène, B J R

2004-08-01

109

Riding the Trojan horse: combating pest insects with their own symbionts.  

PubMed

Insects form an extremely large group of animals and bear a consequently large variety of associated microbes. This microbiota includes very specific and obligate symbionts that provide essential functions to the host, and facultative partners that are not necessarily required for survival. The Tephritidae is a large family that includes many fruit pests such as the Mediterranean fruit fly (the medfly, Ceratitis capitata) and the Olive fly (Bactrocera oleae). Community and functional analyses showed that the microbiota of both flies contribute to their diet, and affect host fitness parameters. The analysis of the microbiota's community structure of mass-reared, sterilized medfly males used in the sterile insect technique revealed a strong reduction in Klebsiella spp. compared with non-sterile and wild flies. Inoculation of sterile males with this gut population affected female mating behaviour as they preferentially mated with inoculated versus non-inoculated males. These studies suggest that control can be significantly improved by manipulating symbionts in pest animals. PMID:21338477

Jurkevitch, Edouard

2011-09-01

110

Transgenic organisms expressing genes from Bacillus thuringiensis to combat insect pests§  

PubMed Central

Various subspecies (ssp.) of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are considered the best agents known so far to control insects, being highly specific and safe, easily mass produced and with long shelf life.1 The para-crystalline body that is produced during sporulation in the exosporium includes polypeptides named ?-endotoxins, each killing a specific set of insects. The different entomopathogenic toxins of various Bt ssp. can be manipulated genetically in an educated way to construct more efficient transgenic bacteria or plants that express combinations of toxin genes to control pests.2 Joint research projects in our respective laboratories during the last decade demonstrate what can be done by implementing certain ideas using molecular biology with Bt ssp. israelensis (Bti) as a model system. Here, we describe our progress achieved with Gram-negative bacterial species, including cyanobacteria, and some preliminary experiments to form transgenic plants, mainly to control mosquitoes (Diptera), but also a particular Lepidopteran and Coleopteran pest species. In addition, a system is described by which environment-damaging genes can be removed from the recombinants thus alleviating procedures for obtaining permits to release them in nature.

Ben-Dov, Eitan; Borovsky, Dov; Boussiba, Sammy; Einav, Monica; Gindin, Galina; Horowitz, A Rami; Kolot, Mikhail; Melnikov, Olga; Mendel, Zvi; Yagil, Ezra

2010-01-01

111

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic crop: an environment friendly insect-pest management strategy.  

PubMed

Introduction of DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane) and following move towards indiscriminate use of synthetic chemical insecticides led to the contamination of water and food sources, poisoning of non-target beneficial insects and development of insect-pests resistant to the chemical insecticides. Increased public concems about the adverse environmental effects of indiscriminate use of chemical insecticides prompted search of altemative methods for insect-pest control. One of the promising alternatives has been the use of biological control agents. There is well-documented history of safe application of Bt (B. thuringiensis, a gram positive soil bacterium) as effective biopesticides and a number of reports of expression of delta-endotoxin gene(s) in crop plants are available. Only a few insecticidal sprays are required on Bt transgenic crops, which not only save cost and time, but also reduce health risks. Insects exhibit remarkable ability to develop resistance to different insecticidal compounds, which raises concern about the unsystematic use of Bt transgenic technology also. Though resistance to Bt products among insect species under field conditions has been rare, laboratory studies show that insects are capable of developing high levels of resistance to one ormore Cry proteins. Now it is generally agreed that 'high-dose/refuge strategy' is the most promising and practical approach to prolong the effectiveness of Bt toxins. Although manybiosafety concerns, ethical and moral issues exist, area under Bt transgenic crops is rapidly increasing and they are cultivated on more than 32 million hectares world over Even after reservation of European Union (EU) for acceptance of geneticaly modified (GM) crops, 6 out of 25 countries have already adopted Bt crops and many otherindustrial countries will adopt Bt transgenic crops in near future. While the modem biotechnology has been recognized to have a great potential for the promotion of human well-being, adoption of biosafety protocol is necessary to protect human health and environment from the possible adverse effects of the products of genetic engineering. The debate between proponents and opponents of GM technology has created major obstacles in hamessing benefits of the technology It has now become clear that transgenics willbe accepted by the public only when doubts related with general risks and environmental safety are adequately dispelled. Thus, there is need to organize public awareness and present the benefits of Bt transgenic crops to improve social attitude for their rational deployment. In this review, an attempt has been made to discuss social and environmental safety issues of Bt transgenic crops. PMID:19295059

Kumar, Suresh; Chandra, Amaresh; Pandey, K C

2008-09-01

112

The I-SPy Insect Indicator: an effective trap for the detection of insect pests in empty stores and on flat surfaces in the cereal and food trades  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new trap, the CSL I-SPy Insect Indicator®, has been assessed for monitoring adults of the principal crawling beetle pests of stored products in empty premises and on flat surfaces in grain stores and flour mills in the UK.The new trap was compared with the Igrox Insect Monitoring Peanut-free Bait Bag, the Storgard® Flit-Trak M2 trap and the Pantry Patrol™

L. E Collins; J Chambers

2003-01-01

113

Dynamics of Bt-crop biomass upon invasion of a Bt-resistant insect pest: A mathematical model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulation of some consequences of invasion of a Bt-resistant insect pest into an agricultural eco-system containing a Bt\\u000a crop shows that such invasion alters the plant biomass dynamics, decreases the crop yield, and impairs yield predictability.\\u000a The yield is poorly predictable in a small region of parameter values, which depends on the duration of the insect reproductive\\u000a period relative to

A. V. Rusakov; A. B. Medvinsky; B.-L. Li; M. M. Gonik

2009-01-01

114

Effects of Aldicarb on Nematodes, Early Season Insect Pests, and Yield of Soybean  

PubMed Central

The effects of aldicarb on soybean cyst (Heterodera glycines) and root-knot (Meloidogyne incognita and M. arenaria) nematode populations, early season insect pests and soybean (Glycine max) yield were evaluated in five field experiments in northern and southern Alabama. Aldicarb significantly (P = 0.05) reduced nematode populations in only two cases: M. arenaria in Centennial soybean in the Wiregrass site and M. incognita in Bedford soybean in a Tennessee Valley site. No significant difference (P = 0.05) in mean percentage main stem or petiole girdling by threecornered alfalfa hopper (Spissistilus festinus) or in mean number of plants damaged by lesser cornstalk borer (Elasmopalpus lignosellus) occurred among treatments in any experiment. Soybean yields were significantly (P = 0.05) increased in only two cases: in the nematode susceptible Essex and Cobb cultivars planted in the Tennessee Valley and Gulf Coast sites, respectively. Unusually dry 1986 weather conditions may have reduced the activity of aldicarb.

Herbert, D. A.; Rodriguez-Kabana, R.; Backman, P. A.; Mack, T. P.

1987-01-01

115

Effects of aldicarb on nematodes, early season insect pests, and yield of soybean.  

PubMed

The effects of aldicarb on soybean cyst (Heterodera glycines) and root-knot (Meloidogyne incognita and M. arenaria) nematode populations, early season insect pests and soybean (Glycine max) yield were evaluated in five field experiments in northern and southern Alabama. Aldicarb significantly (P = 0.05) reduced nematode populations in only two cases: M. arenaria in Centennial soybean in the Wiregrass site and M. incognita in Bedford soybean in a Tennessee Valley site. No significant difference (P = 0.05) in mean percentage main stem or petiole girdling by threecornered alfalfa hopper (Spissistilus festinus) or in mean number of plants damaged by lesser cornstalk borer (Elasmopalpus lignosellus) occurred among treatments in any experiment. Soybean yields were significantly (P = 0.05) increased in only two cases: in the nematode susceptible Essex and Cobb cultivars planted in the Tennessee Valley and Gulf Coast sites, respectively. Unusually dry 1986 weather conditions may have reduced the activity of aldicarb. PMID:19290282

Herbert, D A; Rodríguez-Kábana, R; Backman, P A; Mack, T P

1987-10-01

116

Movento ®, an innovative ambimobile insecticide for sucking insect pest control in agriculture: Biological profile and field performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tetramic acid derivative spirotetramat (brand name Movento®), has shown an outstanding performance against sucking insect pests in laboratory and greenhouse assays as well as in semi-field and field trials. The product acts as an inhibitor of lipid biosynthesis and affects juvenile stages with additional effects on adult fecundity. There is no cross-resistance to any other insecticide. After foliar application

Ernst Brück; Alfred Elbert; Reiner Fischer; Stephen Krueger; Jürgen Kühnhold; A. Michael Klueken; Ralf Nauen; Jean-Francois Niebes; Udo Reckmann; Hans-Jürgen Schnorbach; Robert Steffens; Xavier van Waetermeulen

2009-01-01

117

Complexity in specificities and expression of Helicoverpa armigera gut proteinases explains polyphagous nature of the insect pest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Helicoverpa armigera is a devastating pest of cotton and other important crop plants all over the world. A detailed biochemical investigation of H. armigera gut proteinases is essential for planning effective proteinase inhibitor (PI)-based strategies to counter the insect infestation. In this study, we report the complexity of gut proteinase composition of H. armigera fed on four different host plants,

Aparna G. Patankar; Ashok P. Giri; Abhay M. Harsulkar; Mohini N. Sainani; Vasanti V. Deshpande; Prabhakar K. Ranjekar; Vidya S. Gupta

2001-01-01

118

Logical simulation of processes at forming of winter wheat Germplasm with complex resistance to insect pests and pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was developed simulative model of a process of the hybridological analysis for studying of a character of the properties’ heritability of complex resistance of the winter wheat to insect pests and pathogens.The possiblity of this method to be used for forecasting of the processes of forming complexly resistant hybrids of the winter wheat and a character of heritability of

Michail Lesovoi; Vladimir Smelyanets; Aziz Aifaoui; Victor Vasilenko; Alexandr Bratus

1994-01-01

119

Logical simulation of processes at forming of winter wheat Germplasm with complex resistance to insect pests and pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was developed the principle of logical simulation on a computer of processes at forming of genepool of the winter wheat with complex resistance to pest insects and diseases.It was demonstrated the possibility to simulate the breeding process with the usage of a computer and methods of mathematical logic. This allows to make models of the process of crossing, backcrossing

Michail Lesovoi; Vladimir Smelyanets; Aziz Aifaoui; Victor Vasilenko; Alexander Bratus

1994-01-01

120

Insect pest management in African agriculture: Challenges in the current millenium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pest management on a global scale experienced a total revolution after World War II when synthetic organic compounds were in agriculture and public health. However, it soon became apparent that there were many limitations in the use of chemicals for pest management. In agriculture, problems of pest resurgence, secondary pest outbreaks, pest resistance and adverse effects of pesticides on the

O. O. Banwo; R. S. Adamu

2003-01-01

121

Role of two insect growth regulators in integrated pest management of citrus scales.  

PubMed

Portions of two commercial citrus orchards were treated for two consecutive years with buprofezin or three consecutive years with pyriproxyfen in a replicated plot design to determine the long-term impact of these insect growth regulators (IGRs) on the San Joaquin Valley California integrated pest management program. Pyriproxyfen reduced the target pest, California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii Maskell, to nondetectable levels on leaf samples approximately 4 mo after treatment. Pyriproxyfen treatments reduced the California red scale parasitoid Aphytis melinus DeBach to a greater extent than the parasitoid Comperiella bifasciata Howard collected on sticky cards. Treatments of lemons Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f. infested with scale parasitized by A. melinus showed only 33% direct mortality of the parasitoid, suggesting the population reduction observed on sticky cards was due to low host density. Three years of pyriproxyfen treatments did not maintain citricola scale, Coccus pseudomagnoliarum (Kuwana), below the treatment threshold and cottony cushion scale, Icerya purchasi Maskell, was slowly but incompletely controlled. Buprofezin reduced California red scale to very low but detectable levels approximately 5 mo after treatment. Buprofezin treatments resulted in similar levels of reduction of the two parasitoids A. melinus and C. bifasciata collected on sticky cards. Treatments of lemons infested with scale parasitized by A. melinus showed only 7% mortality of the parasitoids, suggesting the population reduction observed on sticky cards was due to low host density. Citricola scale was not present in this orchard, and cottony cushion scale was slowly and incompletely controlled by buprofezin. These field plots demonstrated that IGRs can act as organophosphate insecticide replacements for California red scale control; however, their narrower spectrum of activity and disruption of coccinellid beetles can allow other scale species to attain primary pest status. PMID:16813306

Grafton-Cardwell, E E; Lee, J E; Stewart, J R; Olsen, K D

2006-06-01

122

New dispenser types for integrated pest management of agriculturally significant insect pests: an algorithm with specialized searching capacity in electronic data bases.  

PubMed

Pheromone effects discovered some 130 years, but scientifically defined just half a century ago, are a great bonus for basic and applied biology. Specifically, pest management efforts have been advanced in many insect orders, either for purposes or monitoring, mass trapping, or for mating disruption. Finding and applying a new search algorithm, nearly 20,000 entries in the pheromone literature have been counted, a number much higher than originally anticipated. This compilation contains identified and thus synthesizable structures for all major orders of insects. Among them are hundreds of agriculturally significant insect pests whose aggregated damages and costly control measures range in the multibillions of dollars annually. Unfortunately, and despite a lot of effort within the international entomological scene, the number of efficient and cheap engineering solutions for dispensing pheromones under variable field conditions is uncomfortably lagging behind. Some innovative approaches are cited from the relevant literature in an attempt to rectify this situation. Recently, specifically designed electrospun organic nanofibers offer a lot of promise. With their use, the mating communication of vineyard insects like Lobesia botrana (Lep.: Tortricidae) can be disrupted for periods of seven weeks. PMID:23885431

Hummel, H E; Eisinger, M T; Hein, D F; Breuer, M; Schmid, S; Leithold, G

2012-01-01

123

Adaptive horizontal transfer of a bacterial gene to an invasive insect pest of coffee  

PubMed Central

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) involves the nonsexual transmission of genetic material across species boundaries. Although often detected in prokaryotes, examples of HGT involving animals are relatively rare, and any evolutionary advantage conferred to the recipient is typically obscure. We identified a gene (HhMAN1) from the coffee berry borer beetle, Hypothenemus hampei, a devastating pest of coffee, which shows clear evidence of HGT from bacteria. HhMAN1 encodes a mannanase, representing a class of glycosyl hydrolases that has not previously been reported in insects. Recombinant HhMAN1 protein hydrolyzes coffee berry galactomannan, the major storage polysaccharide in this species and the presumed food of H. hampei. HhMAN1 was found to be widespread in a broad biogeographic survey of H. hampei accessions, indicating that the HGT event occurred before radiation of the insect from West Africa to Asia and South America. However, the gene was not detected in the closely related species H. obscurus (the tropical nut borer or “false berry borer”), which does not colonize coffee beans. Thus, HGT of HhMAN1 from bacteria represents a likely adaptation to a specific ecological niche and may have been promoted by intensive agricultural practices.

Acuna, Ricardo; Padilla, Beatriz E.; Florez-Ramos, Claudia P.; Rubio, Jose D.; Herrera, Juan C.; Benavides, Pablo; Lee, Sang-Jik; Yeats, Trevor H.; Egan, Ashley N.; Doyle, Jeffrey J.; Rose, Jocelyn K. C.

2012-01-01

124

Adaptive horizontal transfer of a bacterial gene to an invasive insect pest of coffee.  

PubMed

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) involves the nonsexual transmission of genetic material across species boundaries. Although often detected in prokaryotes, examples of HGT involving animals are relatively rare, and any evolutionary advantage conferred to the recipient is typically obscure. We identified a gene (HhMAN1) from the coffee berry borer beetle, Hypothenemus hampei, a devastating pest of coffee, which shows clear evidence of HGT from bacteria. HhMAN1 encodes a mannanase, representing a class of glycosyl hydrolases that has not previously been reported in insects. Recombinant HhMAN1 protein hydrolyzes coffee berry galactomannan, the major storage polysaccharide in this species and the presumed food of H. hampei. HhMAN1 was found to be widespread in a broad biogeographic survey of H. hampei accessions, indicating that the HGT event occurred before radiation of the insect from West Africa to Asia and South America. However, the gene was not detected in the closely related species H. obscurus (the tropical nut borer or "false berry borer"), which does not colonize coffee beans. Thus, HGT of HhMAN1 from bacteria represents a likely adaptation to a specific ecological niche and may have been promoted by intensive agricultural practices. PMID:22371593

Acuña, Ricardo; Padilla, Beatriz E; Flórez-Ramos, Claudia P; Rubio, José D; Herrera, Juan C; Benavides, Pablo; Lee, Sang-Jik; Yeats, Trevor H; Egan, Ashley N; Doyle, Jeffrey J; Rose, Jocelyn K C

2012-03-13

125

Tissue-Specific Transcriptomics of the Exotic Invasive Insect Pest Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)  

PubMed Central

Background The insect midgut and fat body represent major tissue interfaces that deal with several important physiological functions including digestion, detoxification and immune response. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), is an exotic invasive insect pest that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) primarily in the Midwestern United States and Ontario, Canada. However, despite its high impact status little knowledge exists for A. planipennis at the molecular level. Methodology and Principal Findings Newer-generation Roche-454 pyrosequencing was used to obtain 126,185 reads for the midgut and 240,848 reads for the fat body, which were assembled into 25,173 and 37,661 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for the midgut and the fat body of A. planipennis larvae, respectively. Among these ESTs, 36% of the midgut and 38% of the fat body sequences showed similarity to proteins in the GenBank nr database. A high number of the midgut sequences contained chitin-binding peritrophin (248)and trypsin (98) domains; while the fat body sequences showed high occurrence of cytochrome P450s (85) and protein kinase (123) domains. Further, the midgut transcriptome of A. planipennis revealed putative microbial transcripts encoding for cell-wall degrading enzymes such as polygalacturonases and endoglucanases. A significant number of SNPs (137 in midgut and 347 in fat body) and microsatellite loci (317 in midgut and 571 in fat body) were predicted in the A. planipennis transcripts. An initial assessment of cytochrome P450s belonging to various CYP clades revealed distinct expression patterns at the tissue level. Conclusions and Significance To our knowledge this study is one of the first to illuminate tissue-specific gene expression in an invasive insect of high ecological and economic consequence. These findings will lay the foundation for future gene expression and functional studies in A. planipennis.

Mittapalli, Omprakash; Bai, Xiaodong; Bonello, Pierluigi; Herms, Daniel A.

2010-01-01

126

Plants Attract Parasitic Wasps to Defend Themselves against Insect Pests by Releasing Hexenol  

PubMed Central

Background Plant volatiles play an important role in defending plants against insect attacks by attracting their natural enemies. For example, green leaf volatiles (GLVs) and terpenoids emitted from herbivore-damaged plants were found to be important in the host location of parasitic wasps. However, evidence of the functional roles and mechanisms of these semio-chemicals from a system of multiple plants in prey location by the parasitoid is limited. Little is known about the potential evolutionary trends between herbivore-induced host plant volatiles and the host location of their parasitoids. Methodology/Principal Findings The present study includes hierarchical cluster analyses of plant volatile profiles from seven families of host and non-host plants of pea leafminer, Liriomyza huidobrensis, and behavioral responses of a naive parasitic wasp, Opius dissitus, to some principal volatile compounds. Here we show that plants can effectively pull wasps, O. dissitus, towards them by releasing a universally induced compound, (Z)-3-hexenol, and potentially keep these plants safe from parasitic assaults by leafminer pests, L. huidobrensis. Specifically, we found that volatile profiles from healthy plants revealed a partly phylogenetic signal, while the inducible compounds of the infested-plants did not result from the fact that the induced plant volatiles dominate most of the volatile blends of the host and non-host plants of the leafminer pests. We further show that the parasitoids are capable of distinguishing the damaged host plant from the non-host plant of the leafminers. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that, as the most passive scenario of plant involvement, leafminers and mechanical damages evoke similar semio-chemicals. Using ubiquitous compounds, such as hexenol, for host location by general parasitoids could be an adaptation of the most conservative evolution of tritrophic interaction. Although for this, other compounds may be used to improve the precision of the host location by the parasitoids.

Wei, Jianing; Wang, Lizhong; Zhu, Junwei; Zhang, Sufang; Nandi, Owi I.; Kang, Le

2007-01-01

127

[Sensitization and allergic pathology in a group of workers employed in insect breeding for biological pest control].  

PubMed

On the basis of the results of a previous study and immuno-allergological tests, a group of workers employed in breeding insects for biological pest control were studied to ascertain whether any new sensitizations to arthropods recently included in the work cycle occurred and whether any new allergic diseases were observed. The results confirmed a high sensitization to Ephestia kuehniella and to Orius, the latter probably due to contamination; sensitization to Tetranicus urticae and to Planococcus citri were observed, although to a lesser degree. It is concluded that the insects used in biological pest control are highly allergogenic and that the protective devices used up to the present were ineffective; the authors therefore recommend the use of closed or semi-closed cycles along with local ventilation equipment. PMID:9379990

Cipolla, C; Lugo, G; Sassi, C; Belisario, A; Nucci, M C; Palermo, A; Pescarelli, M A; Nobile, M; Raffi, G B

1997-01-01

128

The Phorbol Ester Fraction from Jatropha curcas Seed Oil: Potential and Limits for Crop Protection against Insect Pests  

PubMed Central

The physic nut shrub, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae), has been considered as a “miracle tree”, particularly as a source of alternate fuel. Various extracts of the plant have been reported to have insecticidal/acaricidal or molluscicidal/anthelminthic activities on vectors of medical or veterinary interest or on agricultural or non-agricultural pests. Among those extracts, the phorbol ester fraction from seed oil has been reported as a promising candidate for use as a plant-derived protectant of a variety of crops, from a range of pre-harvest and post-harvest insect pests. However, such extracts have not been widely used, despite the “boom” in the development of the crop in the tropics during recent years, and societal concerns about overuse of systemic chemical pesticides. There are many potential explanations to such a lack of use of Jatropha insecticidal extracts. On the one hand, the application of extracts potentially harmful to human health on stored food grain, might not be relevant. The problem of decomposition of phorbol esters and other compounds toxic to crop pests in the field needing further evaluation before such extracts can be widely used, may also be a partial explanation. High variability of phorbol ester content and hence of insecticidal activity among physic nut cultivars/ecotypes may be another. Phytotoxicity to crops may be further limitation. Apparent obstacles to a wider application of such extracts are the costs and problems involved with registration and legal approval. On the other hand, more studies should be conducted on molluscicidal activity on slugs and land snails which are major pests of crops, particularly in conservation agriculture systems. Further evaluation of toxicity to natural enemies of insect pests and studies on other beneficial insects such as pollinators are also needed.

Ratnadass, Alain; Wink, Michael

2012-01-01

129

Monitoring Pest Insect Traps by Means of Low-Power Image Sensor Technologies  

PubMed Central

Monitoring pest insect populations is currently a key issue in agriculture and forestry protection. At the farm level, human operators typically must perform periodical surveys of the traps disseminated through the field. This is a labor-, time- and cost-consuming activity, in particular for large plantations or large forestry areas, so it would be of great advantage to have an affordable system capable of doing this task automatically in an accurate and a more efficient way. This paper proposes an autonomous monitoring system based on a low-cost image sensor that it is able to capture and send images of the trap contents to a remote control station with the periodicity demanded by the trapping application. Our autonomous monitoring system will be able to cover large areas with very low energy consumption. This issue would be the main key point in our study; since the operational live of the overall monitoring system should be extended to months of continuous operation without any kind of maintenance (i.e., battery replacement). The images delivered by image sensors would be time-stamped and processed in the control station to get the number of individuals found at each trap. All the information would be conveniently stored at the control station, and accessible via Internet by means of available network services at control station (WiFi, WiMax, 3G/4G, etc.).

Lopez, Otoniel; Rach, Miguel Martinez; Migallon, Hector; Malumbres, Manuel P.; Bonastre, Alberto; Serrano, Juan J.

2012-01-01

130

Monitoring pest insect traps by means of low-power image sensor technologies.  

PubMed

Monitoring pest insect populations is currently a key issue in agriculture and forestry protection. At the farm level, human operators typically must perform periodical surveys of the traps disseminated through the field. This is a labor-, time- and cost-consuming activity, in particular for large plantations or large forestry areas, so it would be of great advantage to have an affordable system capable of doing this task automatically in an accurate and a more efficient way. This paper proposes an autonomous monitoring system based on a low-cost image sensor that it is able to capture and send images of the trap contents to a remote control station with the periodicity demanded by the trapping application. Our autonomous monitoring system will be able to cover large areas with very low energy consumption. This issue would be the main key point in our study; since the operational live of the overall monitoring system should be extended to months of continuous operation without any kind of maintenance (i.e., battery replacement). The images delivered by image sensors would be time-stamped and processed in the control station to get the number of individuals found at each trap. All the information would be conveniently stored at the control station, and accessible via Internet by means of available network services at control station (WiFi, WiMax, 3G/4G, etc.). PMID:23202232

López, Otoniel; Rach, Miguel Martinez; Migallon, Hector; Malumbres, Manuel P; Bonastre, Alberto; Serrano, Juan J

2012-01-01

131

Evaluation of responses of five cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) varieties to field infestation by major insect pests of cowpea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was conducted to evaluate yield response of five cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) varieties to field infestation and damage by major insect pests of cowpea. Three local varieties of cowpea, namely, Sokoto, Oloyin and Drum, and two International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) varieties, IT 90K-277-2 and IT90K-76, were planted on the Teaching and Research Farm of University

Adebola Adedoyin Osipitan; Sunday O. Adigbo; R. Joda Abiodun

2011-01-01

132

Founder effects and phenotypic variation in Adelges cooleyi , an insect pest introduced to the eastern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduced organisms experience founder effects including genetic bottlenecks that result in significant reductions in genetic\\u000a variation. Genetic bottlenecks may constrain the evolution of phenotypic traits that facilitate success in novel habitats.\\u000a We examined the effect of introduction into novel environments on genetic diversity of an insect pest, Adelges cooleyi, which was introduced into the eastern United States during the mid

Robert G. Ahern; David J. Hawthorne; Michael J. Raupp

2009-01-01

133

Resistance among accessions of the genera lycopersicon and solanum to four of the main insect pests of tomato in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory, greenhouse and field experiments were conducted to identify plant accessions of the genusLycopersicon and ofSolarium pennellii resistant toSpodoptera littoralis (Boisd.),Plusia chalcites (Esp.),Heliothis armigera (Hbn.), andPhthorimaea operculella (Zeu.), four insect pests of the cultivated tomato. Percent survival, larval weight, duration of development, damage scores,\\u000a etc., were the criteria used to determine the relative resistance of the examined accessions. TheL. hirsutum

J. A. Juvik; M. J. Berlinger; Tselila Ben-David; J. Rudich

1982-01-01

134

Evaluation of responses of five cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) varieties to field infestation by major insect pests of cowpea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was conducted to evaluate yield response of five cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) varieties to field infestation and damage by major insect pests of cowpea. Three local varieties of cowpea, namely, Sokoto, Oloyin and Drum, and two International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) varieties, IT 90K-277-2 and IT90K-76, were planted on the Teaching and Research Farm of University

Adebola Adedoyin Osipitan; Sunday O. Adigbo; R. Joda Abiodun

2012-01-01

135

[Diagnosis of cucumber diseases and insect pests by fluorescence spectroscopy technology based on PCA-sVM].  

PubMed

The diagnosis model of the cucumber diseases and insect pests was established by laser-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (LICF) spectroscopy technology combined with support vector machines (SVM) algorithm in the present research. This model would be used to realize the fast and exact diagnosis of the cucumber diseases and insect pests. The noise of original spectrum was reduced by three methods, including Savitzky-Golay smoothing (SG), Savitzky-Golay smoothing combined with fast Fourier transform (FFT) and Savitzy-Golay smoothing combined with first derivative transform (FDT). According to the accumulative reliabilities (AR) seven principal components (PCs) were selected to replace the complex spectral data. The one hundred fifty samples were randomly separated into the calibration set and the validation set. Support vector machines (SVM) algorithm with four kinds of kernel functions was used to establish diagnosis models of the cucumber diseases and insect pests based on the calibration set, then these models were applied to the diagnosis of the validation set. According to the best diagnosis accuracy of cross-validation method in calibration set, the parameters of four kinds of kernel function models were optimized, and the capabilities of SVM with different kernel function were compared. Results showed that SVM with the ploy kernel function had the best identification capabilities and the accuracy was 98. 3% after the original spectrum noise was reduced by SG+FDT+ PCA. This research indicated that the method of PCA-SVM had a good identification effect and could realize rapid diagnosis of the cucumber diseases and insect pests as a new method. PMID:21284175

Yang, Hao-yu; Yu, Hai-ye; Liu, Xu; Zhang, Lei; Sui, Yuan-yuan

2010-11-01

136

1978 Insect Pest Management Guide: Field and Forage Crops. Circular 899.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This circular lists suggested uses of insecticides for the control of field crop pests. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of insecticides to control pests in field corn, alfalfa and clover, small grains, soybeans and grain sorghum. (CS)

Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

137

Tracking the global dispersal of a cosmopolitan insect pest, the peach potato aphid  

PubMed Central

Background Global commerce and human transportation are responsible for the range expansion of various insect pests such as the plant sucking aphids. High resolution DNA markers provide the opportunity to examine the genetic structure of aphid populations, identify aphid genotypes and infer their evolutionary history and routes of expansion which is of value in developing management strategies. One of the most widespread aphid species is the peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae, which is considered as a serious pest on various crops in many parts of the world. The present study examined the genetic variation of this aphid at a world scale and then related this to distribution patterns. In particular, 197 aphid parthenogenetic lineages from around the world were analysed with six microsatellite loci. Results Bayesian clustering and admixture analysis split the aphid genotypes into three genetic clusters: European M. persicae persicae, New Zealand M. persicae persicae and Global M. persicae nicotianae. This partition was supported by FST and genetic distance analyses. The results showed two further points, a possible connection between genotypes found in the UK and New Zealand and globalization of nicotianae associated with colonisation of regions where tobacco is not cultivated. In addition, we report the presence of geographically widespread clones and for the first time the presence of a nicotianae genotype in the Old and New World. Lastly, heterozygote deficiency was detected in some sexual and asexual populations. Conclusion The study revealed important genetic variation among the aphid populations we examined and this was partitioned according to region and host-plant. Clonal selection and gene flow between sexual and asexual lineages are important factors shaping the genetic structure of the aphid populations. In addition, the results reflected the globalization of two subspecies of M. persicae with successful clones being spread at various scales throughout the world. A subspecies appears to result from direct selection on tobacco plants. This information highlights the ultimate ability of a polyphagous aphid species to generate and maintain ecologically successful gene combinations through clonal propagation and the role of human transportation and global commerce for expanding their range.

Margaritopoulos, John T; Kasprowicz, Louise; Malloch, Gaynor L; Fenton, Brian

2009-01-01

138

Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition by Biofumigant (Coumaran) from Leaves of Lantana camara in Stored Grain and Household Insect Pests  

PubMed Central

Recent studies proved that the biofumigants could be an alternative to chemical fumigants against stored grain insect pests. For this reason, it is necessary to understand the mode of action of biofumigants. In the present study the prospectus of utilising Lantana camara as a potent fumigant insecticide is being discussed. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by Coumaran, an active ingredient extracted from the plant L. camara, was studied. The biofumigant was used as an enzyme inhibitor and acetylthiocholine iodide as a substrate along with Ellman's reagent to carry out the reactions. The in vivo inhibition was observed in both dose dependent and time dependent in case of housefly, and the nervous tissue (ganglion) and the whole insect homogenate of stored grain insect exposed to Coumaran. The possible mode of action of Coumaran as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor is discussed.

Raghavendra, Anjanappa; Bakthavatsalam, Nandagopal

2014-01-01

139

Influence of cover crops on insect pests and predators in conservation tillage cotton.  

PubMed

In fall 2000, an on-farm sustainable agricultural research project was established for cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., in Tift County, Georgia. The objective of our 2-yr research project was to determine the impact of several cover crops on pest and predator insects in cotton. The five cover crop treatments included 1) cereal rye, Secale cereale L., a standard grass cover crop; 2) crimson clover, Trifolium incarnatum L., a standard legume cover crop; 3) a legume mixture of balansa clover, Trifolium michelianum Savi; crimson clover; and hairy vetch, Vicia villosa Roth; 4) a legume mixture + rye combination; and 5) no cover crop in conventionally tilled fields. Three main groups or species of pests were collected in cover crops and cotton: 1) the heliothines Heliothis virescens (F.) and Helicoverpa zea (Boddie); 2) the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois); and 3) stink bugs. The main stink bugs collected were the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.); the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say); and the green stink bug, Acrosternum hilare (Say). Cotton aphids, Aphis gossypii Glover, were collected only on cotton. For both years of the study, the heliothines were the only pests that exceeded their economic threshold in cotton, and the number of times this threshold was exceeded in cotton was higher in control cotton than in crimson clover and rye cotton. Heliothine predators and aphidophagous lady beetles occurred in cover crops and cotton during both years of the experiment. Geocoris punctipes (Say), Orius insidiosus (Say), and red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren were relatively the most abundant heliothine predators observed. Lady beetles included the convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville; the sevenspotted lady beetle, Coccinella septempunctata L.; spotted lady beetle, Coleomegilla maculata (DeGeer); and the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas). Density of G. punctipes was higher in cotton fields previously planted in crimson clover compared with control cotton fields for all combined sampling dates in 2001. Intercropping cotton in live strips of cover crop was probably responsible for the relay of G. punctipes onto cotton in these crimson clover fields. Density of O. insidiosus was not significantly different between cover crop and control cotton fields. Lady beetles seemed to relay from cover crops into cotton. Conservation of the habitat of fire ants during planting probably was responsible for the higher density of red imported fire ants observed in all conservation tillage cotton fields relative to control cotton fields. Reduction in the number of times in which economic thresholds for heliothines were exceeded in crimson clover and rye compared with control fields indicated that the buildup of predaceous fire ants and G. punctipes in these cover crops subsequently resulted in reduction in the level of heliothines in conservation tillage cotton with these cover crops compared with conventional tillage cotton without cover crops. PMID:15384330

Tillman, Glynn; Schomberg, Harry; Phatak, Sharad; Mullinix, Benjamin; Lachnicht, Sharon; Timper, Patricia; Olson, Dawn

2004-08-01

140

Management of Plum Curculio and Catfacing Insects on Peaches in Central Alabama: Standard Crop Stage–Based vs. Integrated Pest Management–Based Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plum curculio, tarnished plant bug, brown stink bug, and green stink bug are the major insect pests causing fruit damage on peaches grown in the southeastern United States. Insect management aids, monitoring techniques, predictive models, and action thresholds for southeastern peaches are either lacking or they are not robust enough to facilitate industry acceptance of as-needed insecticide applications during the

Wheeler G. Foshee III; Robert T. Boozer; Eugene K. Blythe; Dan L. Horton; Jason Burkett

2008-01-01

141

1978 Insect Pest Management Guide: Commercial Vegetable Crops and Greenhouse Vegetables. Circular 897.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This circular lists suggested uses of insecticides for the control of pests by commercial vegetable farmers. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of insecticides to control pests of cabbage and related crops, beans, cucumbers and other vine crops, tomatoes, potatoes, peppers, corn, and onions. (CS)

Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

142

First results of the application of a new Neemazal powder formulation in hydroponics against different pest insects.  

PubMed

NeemAzal PC (0.5% Azadirachtin) is a new standardised powder formulation from the seed kernels of the tropical Neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) with an inert carrier. First experiments with beans--as a model-system for hydroponics--show that active ingredient is taken up by the plants through the roots and is transported efficiently with the plant sap to the leaves. After application of NeemAzal PC solution (0.01-1%) to the roots sucking (Aphis fabae Hom., Aphididae) and free feeding (Heliothis armigera Lep., Noctuidae) pest insects can be controlled efficiently. The effects are concentration and time dependent. PMID:12696431

Hummel, Edmund; Kleeberg, Hubertus

2002-01-01

143

Prospects of using Metarhizium anisopliae to check the breeding of insect pest, Oryctes rhinoceros L. in coconut leaf vermicomposting sites.  

PubMed

During vermicomposting of coconut leaves by the earthworm Eudrilus sp., Oryctes rhinoceros L. (rhinoceros beetle), an insect pest of palms, was found to breed in the decomposing organic material. Metarhizium anisopliae var. major was tried as a biocontrol agent for management of this pest. The effect of pathogen at spore loads of 10(3), 10(4) and 10(5) per 10 g of substrate was tested in laboratory on Eudrilus sp. kept with O. rhinoceros grubs and on Eudrilus sp. alone for the pathogenic capability of the fungus on the pest and its possible toxicity towards the vermin. The efficacy of the entomopathogen was also tested in the field in vermicomposting tanks. In laboratory bioassay, 100% mycosis of O. rhinoceros grubs could be obtained while the entomopathogen had no toxic effect on the earthworms. There was a positive change in the number and weight of the earthworms on treatment with M. anisopliae. In the field, application of M. anisopliae reduced O. rhinoceros grubs in the vermicomposting tanks upto an extent of 72%. In conclusion, M. anisopliae could effectively control O. rhinoceros in vermicomposting sites and was non-hazardous to the vermicomposting process as well as the Eudrilus sp. PMID:16230009

Gopal, Murali; Gupta, Alka; Thomas, George V

2006-10-01

144

Biological activities of Trewia nudiflora extracts against certain economically important insect pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ethanol extract ofTrewia nudiflora (Euphorbiaceae) seed was tested as an agent for controlling several economically important insects. Results suggest that this plant extract acts as an antifeedant for the spotted cucumber beetle (Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi Barber) and the European corn borer [Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner)] but not for the other insects tested. Also indicated were morphogenic effects on the codlingmoth

B. Freedman; D. K. Reed; R. G. Powell; R. V. Madrigal; C. R. Smith

1982-01-01

145

Major Insect Pests in North Dakota Shelterbelts: Abundance and Distribution by Climate and Host Age.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Over 30 species of insects and mites were found on 23 species of trees and shrubs. A prevalence index was devised to compare relative numbers of insects and their impact on hosts. The caragana blister beetle, woolly elm aphid, boxelder twig borer, poplar ...

P. C. Kennedy L. F. Wilson

1969-01-01

146

Molecular Cloning and Expression of an ? Amylase Inhibitor from Rye with Potential for Controlling Insect Pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alpha-amylase inhibitors have important roles in plant defense mechanisms, particularly against insects, and several of these inhibitors have been expressed in different crops to increase their resistance to particular insects. In this work, we report the cloning and expression of a gene encoding for a new a-amylase inhibitor (BIII) from rye (Secale cereale) seeds. The BIII gene contains 354 nucleotides

Simoni C. Dias; Octávio L. Franco; Cláudio P. Magalhães; Osmundo B. de Oliveira-Neto; Raú A. Laumann; Edson L. Z. Figueira; Francislete R. Melo; Maria F. Grossi-de-Sá

2005-01-01

147

[Preliminary evaluation of the incidence and control of insects--pest control in Polish hospitals].  

PubMed

The evaluation of the infestation and methods of insect disease vectors control in 748 hospitals in Poland in the period of 1990 to 1995 were done. The insect species, places of their occurrence and control agents were analysed. Blattella germanica L. occurred most frequently (71% hospitals). Blatta orientalis and Monomorium pharaonis were found in 40% and 17% hospitals respectively. Kitchens, laundries and baths were most infested. Sometimes insects were found also in central sterilization units and operating theaters. Controls of insects in hospitals were performed one to four times a year mostly by spraying with residual formulation. The control agents contained pyrethroids (mostly permethrin, but also deltamethrin and cypermethrin) and carbamates (bendiocarb, propoxur). Baits with hydramethylnon, boric acid, methoprene and chlorpyrifos were used not very often. The authors suggest reduction in using the spraying agents. The baits are recommended because they delay the development of the resistance to pesticides in controlling insect populations and are safer. PMID:9432707

Krzemi?ska, A; Sawicka, B; Gliniewicz, A; Kanclerski, K

1997-01-01

148

Improvement of Pest Resistance in Transgenic Tobacco Plants Expressing dsRNA of an Insect-Associated Gene EcR  

PubMed Central

The adoption of pest-resistant transgenic plants to reduce yield loss and pesticide utilization has been successful in the past three decades. Recently, transgenic plant expressing double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) targeting pest genes emerges as a promising strategy for improving pest resistance in crops. The steroid hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), predominately controls insect molting via its nuclear receptor complex, EcR-USP. Here we report that pest resistance is improved in transgenic tobacco plants expressing dsRNA of EcR from the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, a serious lepidopteran pest for a variety of crops. When H. armigera larvae were fed with the whole transgenic tobacco plants expressing EcR dsRNA, resistance to H. armigera was significantly improved in transgenic plants. Meanwhile, when H. armigera larvae were fed with leaves of transgenic tobacco plants expressing EcR dsRNA, its EcR mRNA level was dramatically decreased causing molting defects and larval lethality. In addition, the transgenic tobacco plants expressing H. armigera EcR dsRNA were also resistant to another lepidopteran pest, the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, due to the high similarity in the nucleotide sequences of their EcR genes. This study provides additional evidence that transgenic plant expressing dsRNA targeting insect-associated genes is able to improve pest resistance.

Ma, Yao; Zhang, Jia-Qi; Qi, Hai-Sheng; Wei, Zhao-Jun; Yao, Qiong; Zhang, Wen-Qing; Li, Sheng

2012-01-01

149

Population-level effects of fitness costs associated with repressible female-lethal transgene insertions in two pest insects.  

PubMed

Genetic control strategies offer great potential for the sustainable and effective control of insect pests. These strategies involve the field release of transgenic insects with the aim of introducing engineered alleles into wild populations, either permanently or transiently. Their efficacy can therefore be reduced if transgene-associated fitness costs reduce the relative performance of released insects. We describe a method of measuring the fitness costs associated with transgenes by analyzing their evolutionary trajectories when placed in competition with wild-type alleles in replicated cage populations. Using this method, we estimated lifetime fitness costs associated with two repressible female-lethal transgenes in the diamondback moth and olive fly as being acceptable for field suppression programs. Furthermore, using these estimates of genotype-level fitness costs, we were able to project longer-term evolutionary trajectories for the transgenes investigated. Results from these projections demonstrate that although transgene-associated fitness costs will ultimately cause these transgenes to become extinct, even when engineered lethality is repressed, they may persist for varying periods of time before doing so. This implies that tetracycline-mediated transgene field persistence in these strains is unlikely and suggests that realistic estimates of transgene-associated fitness costs may be useful in trialing 'uncoupled' gene drive system components in the field. PMID:24944572

Harvey-Samuel, Tim; Ant, Thomas; Gong, Hongfei; Morrison, Neil I; Alphey, Luke

2014-05-01

150

Population-level effects of fitness costs associated with repressible female-lethal transgene insertions in two pest insects  

PubMed Central

Genetic control strategies offer great potential for the sustainable and effective control of insect pests. These strategies involve the field release of transgenic insects with the aim of introducing engineered alleles into wild populations, either permanently or transiently. Their efficacy can therefore be reduced if transgene-associated fitness costs reduce the relative performance of released insects. We describe a method of measuring the fitness costs associated with transgenes by analyzing their evolutionary trajectories when placed in competition with wild-type alleles in replicated cage populations. Using this method, we estimated lifetime fitness costs associated with two repressible female-lethal transgenes in the diamondback moth and olive fly as being acceptable for field suppression programs. Furthermore, using these estimates of genotype-level fitness costs, we were able to project longer-term evolutionary trajectories for the transgenes investigated. Results from these projections demonstrate that although transgene-associated fitness costs will ultimately cause these transgenes to become extinct, even when engineered lethality is repressed, they may persist for varying periods of time before doing so. This implies that tetracycline-mediated transgene field persistence in these strains is unlikely and suggests that realistic estimates of transgene-associated fitness costs may be useful in trialing ‘uncoupled’ gene drive system components in the field.

Harvey-Samuel, Tim; Ant, Thomas; Gong, Hongfei; Morrison, Neil I; Alphey, Luke

2014-01-01

151

Evaluation of Atriplex lines for selenium accumulation, salt tolerance and suitability for a key agricultural insect pest.  

PubMed

Thirty Atriplex lines were examined for potential habitat improvement and phytoremediation of selenium (Se) contaminated sites. Studies were conducted to determine the biomass production, Se accumulation, and resistance of each line to the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, an agriculturally important insect. Plants were tested using three salinity treatments: (1) control, no Se; (2) NaCl and CaCl2 salts and 1 mg l(-1) Se (12.7 microM) added as sodium selenate; and (3) iso-osmotic to treatment 2 containing high concentrations of sulfate and I mg l(-1) Se added as sodium selenate. Insect bioassays measured survival, growth, and development. Atriplex patula. A. spongiosa 415862, A. hortensis, A. hortensis 379088 and A. hortensis 379092 were among the top biomass producers and Se accumulators, yet they exhibited significantly reduced insect growth, development, and survival. High background sulfate strongly reduced Se accumulation, suggesting that phytoremediation potential is greatest in saline areas having low to moderate sulfate levels. However, these lines grew well in high salinity soils, indicating possible use as a self-seeding cover crop to improve habitat. All plant lines grown in control and high sulfate salinity treatments are acceptable oviposition sites for S. exigua, indicating that these plants would help reduce populations of this key agricultural pest. PMID:12395860

Vickerman, D B; Shannon, M C; Bañuelos, G S; Grieve, C M; Trumble, J T

2002-01-01

152

Biology and management of insect pests in North American intensively managed hardwood forest systems.  

SciTech Connect

Annu. Rev. Entomol. 50:1-29. Abstract Increasing demand for wood and wood products is putting stress on traditional forest production areas, leading to long-term economic and environmental concerns. Intensively managed hardwood forest systems (IMHFS), grown using conventional agricultural as well as forestry methods, can help alleviate potential problems in natural forest production areas. Although IMHFS can produce more biomass per hectare per year than natural forests, the ecologically simplified, monocultural systems may greatly increase the crops susceptibility to pests. Species in the genera Populus and Salix comprise the greatest acreage in IMHFS in North America, but other species, including Liquidambar styracifua and Platanus occidentalis, are also important. We discuss life histories, realized and potential damage, and management options for the most economically infuential pests that affect these hardwood species. The substantial inherent challenges associated with pest management in the monocultural environments created by IMHFS are reviewed. Finally, we discuss ways to design IMHFS that may reduce their susceptibility to pests, increase their growth and productivity potential, and create a more sustainable environment.

Coyle, David R.; Nebeker, T., E.; Hart, E., R.; Mattson, W., J.

2005-01-01

153

Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov., a xylanolytic, ustilaginomycetous yeast species isolated from an insect pest of sugarcane roots.  

PubMed

A novel ustilaginomycetous yeast isolated from the intestinal tract of an insect pest of sugarcane roots in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil, represents a novel species of the genus Pseudozyma based on molecular analyses of the D1/D2 rDNA large subunit and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1+ITS2) regions. The name Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov. is proposed for this species, with GHG001(T) (?=?CBS 13268(T)?=?UFMG-CM-Y307(T)) as the type strain. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is a sister species of Pseudozyma vetiver, originally isolated from leaves of vetiver grass and sugarcane in Thailand. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is able to grow well with xylan as the sole carbon source and produces high levels of an endo-1,4-xylanase that has a higher specific activity in comparison with other eukaryotic xylanases. This enzyme has a variety of industrial applications, indicating the great biotechnological potential of P. brasiliensis. PMID:24682702

Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro; Borges, Thuanny A; Corrêa dos Santos, Renato Augusto; Freitas, Larissa F D; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Riaño-Pachón, Diego Mauricio

2014-06-01

154

Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility as a means for insect pest population control  

PubMed Central

Biological control is the purposeful introduction of parasites, predators, and pathogens to reduce or suppress pest populations. Wolbachia are inherited bacteria of arthropods that have recently attracted attention for their potential as new biocontrol agents. Wolbachia manipulate host reproduction by using several strategies, one of which is cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) [Stouthamer, R., Breeuwer, J. A. J. & Hurst, G. D. D. (1999) Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 53, 71–102]. We established Wolbachia-infected lines of the medfly Ceratitis capitata using the infected cherry fruit fly Rhagoletis cerasi as donor. Wolbachia induced complete CI in the novel host. Laboratory cage populations were completely suppressed by single releases of infected males, suggesting that Wolbachia-induced CI could be used as a novel environmentally friendly tool for the control of medfly populations. The results also encourage the introduction of Wolbachia into pest and vector species of economic and hygenic relevance to suppress or modify natural populations.

Zabalou, Sofia; Riegler, Markus; Theodorakopoulou, Marianna; Stauffer, Christian; Savakis, Charalambos; Bourtzis, Kostas

2004-01-01

155

Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility as a means for insect pest population control.  

PubMed

Biological control is the purposeful introduction of parasites, predators, and pathogens to reduce or suppress pest populations. Wolbachia are inherited bacteria of arthropods that have recently attracted attention for their potential as new biocontrol agents. Wolbachia manipulate host reproduction by using several strategies, one of which is cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) [Stouthamer, R., Breeuwer, J. A. J. & Hurst, G. D. D. (1999) Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 53, 71-102]. We established Wolbachia-infected lines of the medfly Ceratitis capitata using the infected cherry fruit fly Rhagoletis cerasi as donor. Wolbachia induced complete CI in the novel host. Laboratory cage populations were completely suppressed by single releases of infected males, suggesting that Wolbachia-induced CI could be used as a novel environmentally friendly tool for the control of medfly populations. The results also encourage the introduction of Wolbachia into pest and vector species of economic and hygenic relevance to suppress or modify natural populations. PMID:15469918

Zabalou, Sofia; Riegler, Markus; Theodorakopoulou, Marianna; Stauffer, Christian; Savakis, Charalambos; Bourtzis, Kostas

2004-10-19

156

Global and regional pest insects and their antagonists in orchards: spatial dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial dynamics of herbivores gains importance when slowly acting pest-management tools are employed. The temporal pattern of the techniques to be used in an agroecosystem has received some attention, particularly with respect to the preservation of certain natural enemies (e.g. predatory mites) as well as with respect to resistance-management programs. The spatial pattern of the techniques applied in neighbouring

Silvia Dorn; Peter Schumacher; Cyrus Abivardi; Rainer Meyhöfer

1999-01-01

157

Impact of Climate Change on Voltinism and Prospective Diapause Induction of a Global Pest Insect - Cydia pomonella (L.)  

PubMed Central

Global warming will lead to earlier beginnings and prolongation of growing seasons in temperate regions and will have pronounced effects on phenology and life-history adaptation in many species. These changes were not easy to simulate for actual phenologies because of the rudimentary temporal (season) and spatial (regional) resolution of climate model projections. We investigate the effect of climate change on the regional incidence of a pest insect with nearly worldwide distribution and very high potential for adaptation to season length and temperature – the Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella. Seasonal and regional climate change signals were downscaled to the hourly temporal scale of a pest phenology model and the spatial scale of pest habitats using a stochastic weather generator operating at daily scale in combination with a re-sampling approach for simulation of hourly weather data. Under future conditions of increased temperatures (2045–2074), the present risk of below 20% for a pronounced second generation (peak larval emergence) in Switzerland will increase to 70–100%. The risk of an additional third generation will increase from presently 0–2% to 100%. We identified a significant two-week shift to earlier dates in phenological stages, such as overwintering adult flight. The relative extent (magnitude) of first generation pupae and all later stages will significantly increase. The presence of first generation pupae and later stages will be prolonged. A significant decrease in the length of overlap of first and second generation larval emergence was identified. Such shifts in phenology may induce changes in life-history traits regulating the life cycle. An accordingly life-history adaptation in photoperiodic diapause induction to shorter day-length is expected and would thereby even more increase the risk of an additional generation. With respect to Codling Moth management, the shifts in phenology and voltinism projected here will require adaptations of plant protection strategies to maintain their sustainability.

Stoeckli, Sibylle; Hirschi, Martin; Spirig, Christoph; Calanca, Pierluigi; Rotach, Mathias W.; Samietz, Jorg

2012-01-01

158

A naturally occurring plant cysteine protease possesses remarkable toxicity against insect pests and synergizes Bacillus thuringiensis toxin.  

PubMed

When caterpillars feed on maize (Zea maize L.) lines with native resistance to several Lepidopteran pests, a defensive cysteine protease, Mir1-CP, rapidly accumulates at the wound site. Mir1-CP has been shown to inhibit caterpillar growth in vivo by attacking and permeabilizing the insect's peritrophic matrix (PM), a structure that surrounds the food bolus, assists in digestion and protects the midgut from microbes and toxins. PM permeabilization weakens the caterpillar defenses by facilitating the movement of other insecticidal proteins in the diet to the midgut microvilli and thereby enhancing their toxicity. To directly determine the toxicity of Mir1-CP, the purified recombinant enzyme was directly tested against four economically significant Lepidopteran pests in bioassays. Mir1-CP LC(50) values were 1.8, 3.6, 0.6, and 8.0 ppm for corn earworm, tobacco budworm, fall armyworm and southwestern corn borer, respectively. These values were the same order of magnitude as those determined for the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Bt-CryIIA. In addition to being directly toxic to the larvae, 60 ppb Mir1-CP synergized sublethal concentrations of Bt-CryIIA in all four species. Permeabilization of the PM by Mir1-CP probably provides ready access to Bt-binding sites on the midgut microvilli and increases its activity. Consequently, Mir1-CP could be used for controlling caterpillar pests in maize using non-transgenic approaches and potentially could be used in other crops either singly or in combination with Bt-toxins. PMID:18335057

Mohan, Srinidi; Ma, Peter W K; Williams, W Paul; Luthe, Dawn S

2008-01-01

159

Construction of a recombinant Bacillus velezensis strain as an integrated control agent against plant diseases and insect pests.  

PubMed

To construct a new recombinant strain of Bacillus velezensis that has antifungal and insecticidal activity via the expression of the insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis crystal protein, a B. thuringiensis expression vector (pHT1K-1Ac) was generated that contained the B. thuringiensis cry1Ac gene under the control of its endogenous promoter in a minimal E. coli-B. thuringiensis shuttle vector (pHT1K). This vector was introduced into a B. velezensis isolate that showed high antifungal activities against several plant diseases, including rice blast (Magnaporthe grisea), rice sheath blight (Rhizotonia solani), tomato gray mold (Botrytis cinerea), tomato late blight (Phytophthora infestans), and wheat leaf rust (Puccinia recondita), by electroporation. The recombinant B. velezensis strain was confirmed by PCR using cry1Ac-specific primers. Additionally, the recombinant strain produced a protein approximately 130 kDa in size and parasporal inclusion bodies similar to B. thuringiensis. The in vivo antifungal activity assay demonstrated that the activity of the recombinant B. velezensis strain was maintained at the same level as that of wild-type B. velezensis. Furthermore, it exhibited high insecticidal activity against a lepidopteran pest, Plutella xylostella, although its activity was lower than that of a recombinant B. thuringiensis strain, whereas wild-type B. velezensis strain did not show any insecticidal activity. These results suggest that this recombinant B. velezensis strain can be used to control harmful insect pests and fungal diseases simultaneously in one crop. PMID:19884784

Roh, Jong Yul; Liu, Qin; Choi, Jae Young; Wang, Yong; Shim, Hee Jin; Xu, Hong Guang; Choi, Gyung Ja; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Je, Yeon Ho

2009-10-01

160

Endogenous overexpression of Populus MYB186 increases trichome density, improves insect pest resistance, and impacts plant growth.  

PubMed

Trichomes are specialized epidermal cells that generally play a role in reducing transpiration and act as a deterrent to herbivory. In a screen of activation-tagged Populus tremula × Populus alba 717-1B4 trees, we identified a mutant line, fuzzy, with increased foliar trichome density. This mutant also had a 35% increase in growth rate and a 200% increase in the rate of photosynthesis as compared with wild-type poplar. The fuzzy mutant had significant resistance to feeding by larvae of the white-spotted tussock moth (Orgyia leucostigma), a generalist insect pest of poplar trees. The fuzzy trichome phenotype is attributable to activation tagging and increased expression of the gene encoding PtaMYB186, which is related to Arabidopsis thaliana MYB106, a known regulator of trichome initiation. The fuzzy phenotype can be recapitulated by overexpressing PtaMYB186 in poplar. PtaMYB186 overexpression results in reconfiguration of the poplar transcriptome, with changes in the transcript abundance of suites of genes that are related to trichome differentiation. It is notable that a plant with misexpression of a gene responsible for trichome development also had altered traits related to growth rate and pest resistance, suggesting that non-intuitive facets of plant development might be useful targets for plant improvement. PMID:20807210

Plett, Jonathan M; Wilkins, Olivia; Campbell, Malcolm M; Ralph, Steven G; Regan, Sharon

2010-11-01

161

Reduced Population Control of an Insect Pest in Managed Willow Monocultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThere is a general belief that insect outbreak risk is higher in plant monocultures than in natural and more diverse habitats, although empirical studies investigating this relationship are lacking. In this study, using density data collected over seven years at 40 study sites, we compare the temporal population variability of the leaf beetle Phratora vulgatissima between willow plantations and natural

Peter Dalin; Oskar Kindvall; Christer Björkman; Andrew Wilby

2009-01-01

162

Ash Pests: A Guide to Major Insects, Diseases, Air Pollution Injury, and Chemical Injury.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ashes (Fraxinus spp.) are one of the authors' more valuable hardwood resources--some 275 million board feet of ash lumber are sawn annually in the United States. Insects, diseases, and pollutants are continuing problems for the ashes, but few actually...

J. D. Solomon T. D. Leininger A. D. Wilson R. L. Anderson L. C. Thompson

1993-01-01

163

Proteinase inhibitors from Nicotiana alata enhance plant resistance to insect pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ornamental tobacco (Nicotiana alata) produces one 6-kDa chymotrypsin inhibitor and four 6-kDa trypsin inhibitors from a single 40.3-kDa precursor protein. Three different approaches have been used to assess the potential of these proteinase inhibitors (PIs) in insect control. The first was an in-vitro approach in which all five inhibitors, the single chymotrypsin inhibitor or three of the four trypsin

Robyn L Heath; Garrick McDonald; John T Christeller; Marcus Lee; Kaye Bateman; Jenny West; Robyn Van Heeswijck; Marilyn A Anderson

1997-01-01

164

Accumulation of a chymotrypsin inhibitor in transgenic tobacco can affect the growth of insect pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

A member of the potato proteinase inhibitor II (PPI II) gene family that encodes for a chymotrypsin iso-inhibitor has been introduced into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) usingAgrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated T-DNA transfer. Analysis of the primary transgenic plants (designated R0) confirmed that the introduced gene is being expressed and the inhibitor accumulates as an intact and fully functional protein. For insect feeding trials,

Michael T. McManus; Derek W. R. White; Peter G. McGregor

1994-01-01

165

Current developments in microbial control of insect pests and prospects for the early 21st century  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of microbial control in crop and forest protection and the abatement of insects of medical and veterinary importance\\u000a has expanded considerably with the discovery and development of new microbial control agents and genetic improvement in bacterial\\u000a and viral pathogens, and improvements in formulation, application options and compatibility with other interventions. A synopsis\\u000a of the literature regarding the current

L. A. Lacey; M. S. Goettel

1995-01-01

166

Enhanced Bioactivity of Recombinant Baculoviruses Expressing Insect-Specific Spider Toxins in Lepidopteran Crop Pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two genetically enhanced isolates of theAutographa californicanuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) expressing insect-specific neurotoxin genes from the spidersDiguetia canitiesandTegenaria agrestiswere evaluated for their commercial potential. Since prevention of feeding damage is of primary importance in assessing agronomic efficacy, a method for estimating the median time to cessation of feeding (FT50) was developed. Neonate droplet feeding assays with preoccluded virus samples were

Patrick R. Hughes; H. Alan Wood; Jane P. Breen; Sandra F. Simpson; Angelina J. Duggan; Jane A. Dybas

1997-01-01

167

Recent developments and future prospects in insect pest control in transgenic crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adoption of insect-resistant transgenic crops has been increasing annually at double-digit rates since the commercial release of first-generation maize and cotton expressing a single modified Bacillus thuringiensis toxin (Bt) nine years ago. Studies have shown that these Bt crops can be successfully deployed in agriculture, which has led to a decrease in pesticide usage, and that they are environmentally

Paul Christou; Teresa Capell; Ajay Kohli; John A. Gatehouse; Angharad M. R. Gatehouse

2006-01-01

168

Safety and Advantages of Bacillus thuringiensis-Protected Plants to Control Insect Pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants modified to express insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (referred to as Bt-protected plants) provide a safe and highly effective method of insect control. Bt-protected corn, cotton, and potato were introduced into the United States in 1995\\/1996 and grown on a total of approximately 10 million acres in 1997, 20 million acres in 1998, and 29 million acres globally in

Fred S. Betz; Bruce G. Hammond; Roy L. Fuchs

2000-01-01

169

Biological activities ofTrewia nudiflora extracts against certain economically important insect pests.  

PubMed

An ethanol extract ofTrewia nudiflora (Euphorbiaceae) seed was tested as an agent for controlling several economically important insects. Results suggest that this plant extract acts as an antifeedant for the spotted cucumber beetle (Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi Barber) and the European corn borer [Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner)] but not for the other insects tested. Also indicated were morphogenic effects on the codlingmoth [Laspeyresia pomonella (L.)], disruption of the normal life cycle of the redbanded leafroller [Argyrotaenia velutinana (Walker)], and reduction in the progeny of the plum curculio [Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst)]. In addition, the extract was toxic to the striped cucumber beetle [Acalymma vittatum (F.)] and gave 100% control of the chicken body louse [Menacanthus stramineus (Nitzsch)] from 5 to 28 days. Fractionation of the extract was monitored by a bioassay usingO. nubilalis. This fractionation yielded six pure compounds, the most abundant of which was trewiasine. Its LD50 was 7.4 ppm when incorporated into the diet ofO. nubilalis. Dose-mortality relationships for the other compounds withO. nubilalis are presented. PMID:24414952

Freedman, B; Reed, D K; Powell, R G; Madrigal, R V; Smith, C R

1982-02-01

170

Effects of weed cover composition on insect pest and natural enemy abundance in a field of Dracaena marginata (Asparagales: Asparagaceae) in Costa Rica.  

PubMed

Weeds and their influence on pest and natural enemy populations were studied on a commercial ornamental farm during 2009 in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica. A baseline survey of the entire production plot was conducted in February, along a 5 by 5 m grid to characterize and map initial weed communities of plants, cicadellids, katydids, and armored scales. In total, 50 plant species from 21 families were found. Seven weed treatments were established to determine how weed manipulations would affect communities of our targeted pests and natural enemies. These treatments were selected based on reported effects of specific weed cover on herbivorous insects and natural enemies, or by their use by growers as a cover crop. Treatments ranged from weed-free to being completely covered with endemic species of weeds. Although some weed treatments changed pest abundances, responses differed among arthropod pests, with the strongest effects observed for Caldwelliola and Empoasca leafhoppers. Removal of all weeds increased the abundance of Empoasca, whereas leaving mostly cyperacaeous weeds increased the abundance of Caldwelliola. Weed manipulations had no effect on the abundance of katydid and scale populations. No weed treatment reduced the abundance of all three of the target pests. Differential responses of the two leafhopper species to the same weed treatments support hypotheses, suggesting that noncrop plants can alter the abundance of pests through their effects on arthropod host finding and acceptance, as well as their impacts on natural enemies. PMID:24517852

Sadof, Clifford S; Linkimer, Mildred; Hidalgo, Eduardo; Casanoves, Fernando; Gibson, Kevin; Benjamin, Tamara J

2014-04-01

171

Effectiveness of glues used for harmonic radar tag attachment and impact on survival and behavior of three insect pests.  

PubMed

The ability of three cyanoacrylate glues to ensure a durable bond between the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), the plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), or the corn rootworms (Western Corn Rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte and Northern Corn Rootworm, Diabrotica longicornis Smith and Lawrence) and the harmonic radar tag without impact on behavior and survival was assessed as part of a study on the use of harmonic radar technology to track these insect pests. Droplets of 0.1 mg of Krazy Glue, Loctite, and Bowman FSA applied to the pronotum had no effect on the survival of the Colorado potato beetle or plum curculio after 5 and 7 d, but caused > 40% mortality after only 4 h with both the western and northern corn rootworms. The three glues created an effective bond lasting 4-5 d between the harmonic radar tag and the Colorado potato beetle in > 85% of cases and the plum curculio in almost 50% of cases. There was no detectable impact of the glue treatment on feeding or walking behavior of the Colorado potato beetle. Analysis of the same behaviors with the plum curculio showed no impact on the ability to walk on a vertical surface, the speed of travel, or the duration of travel. There was no significant impact on feeding by female plum curculio but indication that males treated with Krazy Glue fed less. Overall, results quantified the effectiveness of the cyanoacrylate glues at providing a durable bond with no significant impact on mobility or behavior of the Colorado potato beetle or plum curculios. However, the toxicity of the glues against the corn rootworms suggests that similar toxicity or sublethal effects may exist with other insects. PMID:19791611

Boiteau, G; Meloche, F; Vincent, C; Leskey, T C

2009-02-01

172

Procarboxypeptidase A from the insect pest Helicoverpa armigera and its derived enzyme. Two forms with new functional properties.  

PubMed

Although there is a significant knowledge about mammalian metallocarboxypeptidases, the data available on this family of enzymes is very poor for invertebrate forms. Here we present the biochemical characterization of a metallocarboxypeptidase from the insect Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a devastating pest spread in subtropical regions of Europe, Asia, Africa and Oceania. The zymogen of this carboxypeptidase (PCPAHa) has been expressed at high levels in a Pichia pastoris system and shown to display the characteristics of the enzyme purified from the insect midgut. The in vitro activation process of the proenzyme differs significantly from the mammalian ones. The lysine-specific endoprotease LysC activates PCPAHa four times more efficiently than trypsin, the general activating enzyme for all previously studied metalloprocarboxypeptidases. LysC and trypsin independently use two different activation targets and the presence of sugars in the vicinity of the LysC activation point affects the activation process, indicating a possible modulation of the activation mechanism. During the activation with LysC the prodomain is degraded, while the carboxypeptidase moiety remains intact except for a C-terminal octapeptide that is rapidly released. Interestingly, the sequence at the cleavage point for the release of the octapeptide is also found at the boundary between the activation peptide and the enzyme moieties. The active enzyme (CPAHa) is shown to have a very broad substrate specificity, as it appears to be the only known metallocarboxypeptidase capable of efficiently hydrolysing basic and aliphatic residues and, to a much lower extent, acidic residues. Two carboxypeptidase inhibitors, from potato and leech, were tested against CPAHa. The former, of vegetal origin, is the most efficient metallocarboxypeptidase inhibitor described so far, with a Ki in the pm range. PMID:12846836

Bayés, Alex; Sonnenschein, Anka; Daura, Xavier; Vendrell, Josep; Aviles, Francesc X

2003-07-01

173

[Creation of transgenic sugar beet lines expressing insect pest resistance genes cry1C and cry2A].  

PubMed

Impact of insect pests makes a significant limitation of the sugar beet crop yield. Integration of cry-genes of Bacillus thuringiensis into plant genome is one of the promising strategies to ensure plant resistance. The aim of this work was to obtain sugar beet lines (based on the MM 1/2 line) transformed with cry2A and cry1Cgenes. We have optimized transformation protocol and direct plant let regeneration protocol from leaf explants using 1 mg/l benzylaminopurine as well as 0,25 mg/l benzylaminopurine and 0,1 mg/l indole-butyric acid. Consequently, transgenic sugar beet lines transformed with vector constructs pRD400-cry1C and pRD400-cry2A have been obtained. PCR analysis revealed integration of cry2A and cry1C into genome of transgenic lines and expression of these genes in leaf tissues was shown by reverse transcription PCR. PMID:24818505

Litvin, D I; Sivura, V V; Kurilo, V V; Oleneva, V D; Emets, A I; Blium, Ia B

2014-01-01

174

Conjugation of ?-endotoxin from Bacillus thuringiensis with abamectin of Streptomyces avermitilis as a new type of biocide, GCSC-BtA, for control of agricultural insect pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conjugation of -endotoxin from Bacillus thuringiensis with abamectin, a toxin of Streptomyces avermitilis, was carried out to form a new type of biocide, GCSC-BtA based on Germany-China Scientific Cooperation research, for the control of agricultural insect pests. The strategy for biochemical linkage was designed by conjugating an amino group in B.t. protoxin with a carboxyl group in carboxylated abamectin under

B. Liu; C. Sengonca

2003-01-01

175

Activity of leucine aminopeptidase of Telchin licus licus: an important insect pest of sugarcane.  

PubMed

The enzymatic activity of leucine aminopeptidase (EC 3.4.11.1) from the intestinal tract of sugarcane giant borer (Telchin licus licus) was assayed by using a simple and sensitive spectrophotometric assay that uses L-leucyl-2- naphthylamide as substrate. In this assay, L-leucyl-2-naphthylamide is hydrolyzed to produce 2-naphthylamine and Lleucine. The product 2-naphthylamine reacts with Fast Black K and can be monitored using a continuous spectrophotometric measurement at 590 nm. The data on the kinetic parameters indicates that the Km for the L-leucyl-2- naphthylamide at pH 7.0 was found to be lower than those found for other LAP substrates. The Km and Vmax for the LAP were determined to be 84.03 µM and 357.14 enzymatic units mg(-1), respectively. A noticeable difference of LAP activity between the two insect orders tested was observed. This method could be used to screen for natural LAP inhibitors. PMID:24410745

Valencia, Jorge W Arboleda; de Sá, Maria Fátima Grossi; Jiménez, Arnubio Valencia

2014-06-01

176

Identification and Structural Characterization of Novel Cyclotide with Activity against an Insect Pest of Sugar Cane*  

PubMed Central

Cyclotides are a family of plant-derived cyclic peptides comprising six conserved cysteine residues connected by three intermolecular disulfide bonds that form a knotted structure known as a cyclic cystine knot (CCK). This structural motif is responsible for the pronounced stability of cyclotides against chemical, thermal, or proteolytic degradation and has sparked growing interest in this family of peptides. Here, we isolated and characterized a novel cyclotide from Palicourea rigida (Rubiaceae), which was named parigidin-br1. The sequence indicated that this peptide is a member of the bracelet subfamily of cyclotides. Parigidin-br1 showed potent insecticidal activity against neonate larvae of Lepidoptera (Diatraea saccharalis), causing 60% mortality at a concentration of 1 ?m but had no detectable antibacterial effects. A decrease in the in vitro viability of the insect cell line from Spodoptera frugiperda (SF-9) was observed in the presence of parigidin-br1, consistent with in vivo insecticidal activity. Transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy of SF-9 cells after incubation with parigidin-br1 or parigidin-br1-fluorescein isothiocyanate, respectively, revealed extensive cell lysis and swelling of cells, consistent with an insecticidal mechanism involving membrane disruption. This hypothesis was supported by in silico analyses, which suggested that parigidin-br1 is able to complex with cell lipids. Overall, the results suggest promise for the development of parigidin-br1 as a novel biopesticide.

Pinto, Michelle F. S.; Fensterseifer, Isabel C. M.; Migliolo, Ludovico; Sousa, Daniel A.; de Capdville, Guy; Arboleda-Valencia, Jorge W.; Colgrave, Michelle L.; Craik, David J.; Magalhaes, Beatriz S.; Dias, Simoni C.; Franco, Octavio L.

2012-01-01

177

Identification and structural characterization of novel cyclotide with activity against an insect pest of sugar cane.  

PubMed

Cyclotides are a family of plant-derived cyclic peptides comprising six conserved cysteine residues connected by three intermolecular disulfide bonds that form a knotted structure known as a cyclic cystine knot (CCK). This structural motif is responsible for the pronounced stability of cyclotides against chemical, thermal, or proteolytic degradation and has sparked growing interest in this family of peptides. Here, we isolated and characterized a novel cyclotide from Palicourea rigida (Rubiaceae), which was named parigidin-br1. The sequence indicated that this peptide is a member of the bracelet subfamily of cyclotides. Parigidin-br1 showed potent insecticidal activity against neonate larvae of Lepidoptera (Diatraea saccharalis), causing 60% mortality at a concentration of 1 ?m but had no detectable antibacterial effects. A decrease in the in vitro viability of the insect cell line from Spodoptera frugiperda (SF-9) was observed in the presence of parigidin-br1, consistent with in vivo insecticidal activity. Transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy of SF-9 cells after incubation with parigidin-br1 or parigidin-br1-fluorescein isothiocyanate, respectively, revealed extensive cell lysis and swelling of cells, consistent with an insecticidal mechanism involving membrane disruption. This hypothesis was supported by in silico analyses, which suggested that parigidin-br1 is able to complex with cell lipids. Overall, the results suggest promise for the development of parigidin-br1 as a novel biopesticide. PMID:22074926

Pinto, Michelle F S; Fensterseifer, Isabel C M; Migliolo, Ludovico; Sousa, Daniel A; de Capdville, Guy; Arboleda-Valencia, Jorge W; Colgrave, Michelle L; Craik, David J; Magalhães, Beatriz S; Dias, Simoni C; Franco, Octávio L

2012-01-01

178

Designing Insects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article reflects on how most transgenic research is still in early development, but issues surrounding the use of transgenic insects need to be addressed. Examples are their impact on the environment, the potential risks to human health, and their advantages and disadvantages in controlling crop pests. The article showcases some insects specifically engineered to control agricultural pests.

Thomas Miller (University of California- Riverside;)

2004-10-01

179

Efficacy of insect growth regulators as grain protectants against two stored-product pests in wheat and maize.  

PubMed

Insect growth regulators (IGRs) (two juvenile hormone analogues [fenoxycarb and pyriproxifen], four chitin synthesis inhibitors [diflubenzuron, flufenoxuron, lufenuron, and triflumuron], one ecdysteroid agonist [methoxyfenozide], and one combination of chitin synthesis inhibitors and juvenile hormone analogues [lufenuron plus fenoxycarb]) were tested in the laboratory against adults of Prostephanus truncatus in maize and against adults of Rhyzopertha dominica in wheat. The tested IGRs were applied in maize at three doses (1, 5, and 10 ppm) and assessed at three temperature levels (20, 25, and 30°C) in the case of P. truncatus, while in the case of R. dominica the above doses were assessed only at 25°C in wheat. In addition to progeny production, mortality of the treated adults after 14 days of exposure in the IGR-treated commodities was assessed. All IGRs were very effective (>88.5% suppression of progeny) against the tested species at doses of $ 5 ppm, while diflubenzuron at 25°C in the case of P. truncatus or lufenuron and pyriproxyfen in the case of R. dominica completely suppressed (100%) progeny production when they were applied at 1 ppm. At all tested doses, the highest values of R. dominica parental mortality were observed in wheat treated with lufenuron plus fenoxycarb. Temperature at the levels examined in the present study did not appear to affect the overall performance in a great extent of the tested IGRs in terms of adult mortality or suppression of progeny production against P. truncatus in treated maize. The tested IGRs may be considered viable grain protectants and therefore as potential components in stored-product integrated pest management. PMID:22564945

Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Athanassiou, Christos G; Vayias, Basileios J; Tomanovi?, Zeljko

2012-05-01

180

Sugarcane Pests and Their Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Over 100 species of insects, besides non-insect pests like mites, nematodes, jackals, rats, squirrels, and birds have been identified as damaging the sugarcane crop in India. Of these, about 25 species of insects are considered as major pests. These inclu...

A. N. Kalra

1982-01-01

181

Pests in and Around the Home  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Knowledgebase of urban, structure, lawn and landscape pests. Includes sections on pest management theory; biting and stinging insects; pests of food, fabric and wood; occasional invaders; lawn pests; landscape pests, and some vertebrate pests. Includes pest identification keys. This is an excellent resource, although much of the material is specific to Florida. Vertebrate pest management sections are also of high quality and interesting. Requires a CD-ROM drive and a web browser. $25.

0002-11-30

182

Fighting the global pest problem: Preface to the special Toxicon issue on insecticidal toxins and their potential for insect pest control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arthropod pests are responsible for major crop devastation and are vectors for the transmission of new and re-emerging diseases in humans and livestock. Despite many years of effective control by conventional agrochemical insecticides, a number of factors are threatening the effectiveness and continued use of these agents. These include the development of insecticide resistance and use-cancellation or de-registration of some

Graham M. Nicholson

2007-01-01

183

Shared flowering phenology, insect pests, and pathogens among wild, weedy, and cultivated rice in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam: implications for transgenic rice.  

PubMed

Many varieties of transgenic rice are under development in countries where wild and weedy relatives co-occur with the crop. To evaluate possible risks associated with pollen-mediated transgene dispersal, we conducted a two-year survey in Vietnam to examine overlapping flowering periods of rice (Oryza sativa L.), weedy rice (O. sativa), and wild rice (O. rufipogon Griff.), all of which are inter-fertile. We surveyed populations in two regions of the Mekong Delta, northern and southern, and at three sites in each of three habitats per region: fresh water, saline water, and acid sulfate soil. Weedy rice frequently flowered simultaneously with neighboring cultivated rice plants. Flowering was more seasonal in wild rice and often peaked in November and December. Peak flowering times of wild rice overlapped with adjacent rice fields at all of the saline sites and half of the acid sulfate sites. The longer flowering season of wild rice ensured that crop-to-wild gene flow was possible in fresh water habitats as well. Our second objective was to determine whether wild and weedy rice populations are exposed to pests that could be targeted by future transgenes, which may then provide fitness benefits. These populations shared many pathogen and insect herbivore species with cultivated rice (leaffolder, locust, cricket, planthoppers, rice bug, stem borer, sheath blight, blast, bacterial leaf blight, and brown spot). Damage by leaffolders and locusts was the most frequently observed insect feeding damage on all three rice types. Indicator species analysis revealed that most of the insect herbivores were associated with particular habitats, demonstrating the importance of broad geographic sampling for transgenic rice risk assessment. These survey data and the strong likelihood of gene flow from cultivated rice suggest that further studies are needed to examine the effects of transgenic traits such as resistance to pests on the abundance of wild and weedy rice. PMID:18549769

Cohen, Michael B; Arpaia, Salvatore; Lan, La Pham; Chau, Luong Minh; Snow, Allison A

2008-01-01

184

19 CFR 12.31 - Plant pests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.31 Plant pests. The importation in a live state of insects which are injurious to cultivated...the eggs, pupae, or larvae of such insects, except for scientific purposes...

2013-04-01

185

Nematophagous fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom) Samson is also a biological agent for control of greenhouse insects and mite pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathogenicity of nematophagous fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom) Samson in control of the most destructive greenhouse pests such as: greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum, glasshouse red spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii and western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis was examined in laboratory and pot experiments. The fungus showed the greatest efficacy in controlling winged and wingless\\u000a forms of the

?aneta Fiedler; Danuta Sosnowska

2007-01-01

186

Thermal Tolerance of the Coffee Berry Borer Hypothenemus hampei: Predictions of Climate Change Impact on a Tropical Insect Pest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coffee is predicted to be severely affected by climate change. We determined the thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer , Hypothenemus hampei, the most devastating pest of coffee worldwide, and make inferences on the possible effects of climate change using climatic data from Colombia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. For this, the effect of eight temperature regimes (15, 20, 23,

Juliana Jaramillo; Adenirin Chabi-Olaye; Charles Kamonjo; Alvaro Jaramillo; Fernando E. Vega; Hans-Michael Poehling; Christian Borgemeister; Sean Rands

2009-01-01

187

An integrated approach to the management of the major diseases and insect pests of peas in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prophylactic fungicidal seed treatment, foliar fungicidal sprays and insecticidal sprays were compared in different combinations against the major pea pest complex. The severity of powdery mildew (Erysiphe polygoni) rust (Uromyces vinciae?fabae) and leaf blight (Ascochyta pisi) and damage caused by pod borer (Etiella zlnckenella) and leaf miner (Chromatomyia horticola) were recorded at their lowest level in treatments where fungicidal and

S. K. Singh; S. J. Rahman; B. R. Gupta; C. S. Kalha

1992-01-01

188

Efficacy of neem pesticides on whorl larva, stem-borer and panicle insect pests of sorghum in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two field trials were conducted from 2003 to 2005 on the effects of neem pesticides on whorl larva, stem-borer and panicle pests of sorghum. In the first trial (2003–2004) the effect of neem seed granules (NSG) and carbofuran (furadan 3G®) inserted into the sorghum whorl at 30, 40 and 50 days after sowing (DAS) were tested on whorl larva, stem

Chinwe E. Anaso

2010-01-01

189

Stress for invasion success? Temperature stress of preceding generations modifies the response to insecticide stress in an invasive pest insect  

PubMed Central

Adaptation to stressful environments is one important factor influencing species invasion success. Tolerance to one stress may be complicated by exposure to other stressors experienced by the preceding generations. We studied whether parental temperature stress affects tolerance to insecticide in the invasive Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata. Field-collected pyrethroid-resistant beetles were reared under either stressful (17°C) or favourable (23°C) insecticide-free environments for three generations. Then, larvae were exposed to pyrethroid insecticides in common garden conditions (23°C). Beetles were in general tolerant to stress. The parental temperature stress alone affected beetles positively (increased adult weight) but it impaired their tolerance to insecticide exposure. In contrast, offspring from the favourable temperature regime showed compensatory weight gain in response to insecticide exposure. Our study emphasizes the potential of cross-generational effects modifying species stress tolerance. When resistant pest populations invade benign environments, a re-application of insecticides may enhance their performance via hormetic effects. In turn, opposite effects may arise if parental generations have been exposed to temperature stress. Thus, the outcome of management practices of invasive pest species is difficult to predict unless we also incorporate knowledge of the evolutionary and recent (preceding generations) stress history of the given populations into pest management.

Piiroinen, Saija; Lyytinen, Anne; Lindstrom, Leena

2013-01-01

190

Limited genetic exchanges between populations of an insect pest living on uncultivated and related cultivated host plants  

PubMed Central

Habitats in agroecosystems are ephemeral, and are characterized by frequent disturbances forcing pest species to successively colonize various hosts belonging either to the cultivated or to the uncultivated part of the agricultural landscape. The role of wild habitats as reservoirs or refuges for the aphid Sitobion avenae that colonize cultivated fields was assessed by investigating the genetic structure of populations collected on both cereal crops (wheat, barley and oat) and uncultivated hosts (Yorkshire fog, cocksfoot, bulbous oatgrass and tall oatgrass) in western France. Classical genetic analyses and Bayesian clustering algorithms indicate that genetic differentiation is high between populations collected on uncultivated hosts and on crops, revealing a relatively limited gene flow between the uncultivated margins and the cultivated part of the agroecosystem. A closer genetic relatedness was observed between populations living on plants belonging to the same tribe (Triticeae, Poeae and Aveneae tribes) where aphid genotypes appeared not to be specialized on a single host, but rather using a group of related plant species. Causes of this ecological differentiation and its implications for integrated pest management of S. avenae as cereals pest are discussed.

Vialatte, Aude; Dedryver, Charles-Antoine; Simon, Jean-Christophe; Galman, Marina; Plantegenest, Manuel

2005-01-01

191

Stress for invasion success? Temperature stress of preceding generations modifies the response to insecticide stress in an invasive pest insect.  

PubMed

Adaptation to stressful environments is one important factor influencing species invasion success. Tolerance to one stress may be complicated by exposure to other stressors experienced by the preceding generations. We studied whether parental temperature stress affects tolerance to insecticide in the invasive Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata. Field-collected pyrethroid-resistant beetles were reared under either stressful (17°C) or favourable (23°C) insecticide-free environments for three generations. Then, larvae were exposed to pyrethroid insecticides in common garden conditions (23°C). Beetles were in general tolerant to stress. The parental temperature stress alone affected beetles positively (increased adult weight) but it impaired their tolerance to insecticide exposure. In contrast, offspring from the favourable temperature regime showed compensatory weight gain in response to insecticide exposure. Our study emphasizes the potential of cross-generational effects modifying species stress tolerance. When resistant pest populations invade benign environments, a re-application of insecticides may enhance their performance via hormetic effects. In turn, opposite effects may arise if parental generations have been exposed to temperature stress. Thus, the outcome of management practices of invasive pest species is difficult to predict unless we also incorporate knowledge of the evolutionary and recent (preceding generations) stress history of the given populations into pest management. PMID:23467574

Piiroinen, Saija; Lyytinen, Anne; Lindström, Leena

2013-02-01

192

Phloem-specific expression of the lectin gene from Allium sativum confers resistance to the sap-sucker Nilaparvata lugens.  

PubMed

Rice production is severely hampered by insect pests. Garlic lectin gene (ASAL) holds great promise in conferring protection against chewing (lepidopteran) and sap-sucking (homopteran) insect pests. We have developed transgenic rice lines resistant to sap-sucking brown hopper (Nilaparvata lugens) by ectopic expression of ASAL in their phloem tissues. Molecular analyses of T0 lines confirmed stable integration of transgene. T1 lines (NP 1-2, 4-3, 11-6 & 17-7) showed active transcription and translation of ASAL transgene. ELISA revealed ASAL expression was as high as 0.95% of total soluble protein. Insect bioassays on T2 homozygous lines (NP 18 & 32) revealed significant reduction (~74-83%) in survival rate, development and fecundity of brown hoppers in comparison to wild type. Transgenics exhibited enhanced resistance (1-2 score) against brown hoppers, minimal plant damage and no growth penalty or phenotypic abnormalities. PMID:24563293

Chandrasekhar, Kottakota; Vijayalakshmi, Muvva; Vani, Kalasamudramu; Kaul, Tanushri; Reddy, Malireddy K

2014-05-01

193

Examination of the biological effects of high anionic peroxidase production in tobacco plants grown under field conditions. I. Insect pest damage.  

PubMed

At least 25 wild type and high peroxidase tobacco Nicotiana tabacum L. plants were examined semiweekly over several weeks for pest insect distribution and damage in a 2 year field study. Incidence and/or severity of naturally occurring caterpillar damage (dingy cutworm (Feltia ducens Walker), black cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel), tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta L.), and false tobacco budworm (= corn earworm Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)) was significantly reduced at several sample dates for high peroxidase vs. wild type plants. These results parallel those of prior laboratory studies with caterpillars. The number of adult whiteflies (Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) per plant was significantly reduced on high peroxidase compared to wild type plants on most sample dates in both years. The number of plants with leaves containing >100 aphids (primarily Myzus persicae Sulzer) per leaf on high peroxidase plants was significantly lower that on wild type plants after an equivalent invasion period in both years. A significantly higher proportion of aphids were found dead on leaf five of high peroxidase compared to wild type plants at most sample dates in both years. These results indicate that high peroxidase plants have resistance to a wide range of insects, implicating this enzyme as a broad range resistance mechanism. PMID:16604460

Dowd, Patrick F; Lagrimini, L Mark

2006-04-01

194

Evaluation of Atriplex lines for selenium accumulation, salt tolerance and suitability for a key agricultural insect pest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty Atriplex lines were examined for potential habitat improvement and phytoremediation of selenium (Se) contaminated sites. Studies were conducted to determine the biomass production, Se accumulation, and resistance of each line to the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, an agriculturally important insect. Plants were tested using three salinity treatments: (1) control, no Se; (2) NaCl and CaCl2 salts and 1 mg

D. B. Vickerman; M. C. Shannon; G. S. Banuelos; C. M Grieve; J. T Trumble

2002-01-01

195

Ash pests: A guide to major insects, diseases, air pollution injury, and chemical injury. Forest Service general technical report  

SciTech Connect

The ashes (Fraxinus spp.) are one of the authors' more valuable hardwood resources--some 275 million board feet of ash lumber are sawn annually in the United States. Insects, diseases, and pollutants are continuing problems for the ashes, but few actually threaten their widespread use. Disease, simply stated, is a condition of abnormal growth resulting from infection by a biotic agent (fungus, bacterium, or virus), or induced by an abiotic stress such as drought or air pollution.

Solomon, J.D.; Leininger, T.D.; Wilson, A.D.; Anderson, R.L.; Thompson, L.C.

1993-09-01

196

Differential peroxidase activities in three different crops upon insect feeding  

PubMed Central

Peroxidases are the ubiquitous enzyme and reported to be present in all living genera. They catalyses reduction of peroxide and generate reactive oxygen species. In the present study we demonstrated that insect infestation induces peroxidase activity in sap and total soluble protein (TSP) of plant leaves. Three important crop plants viz. tomato, cowpea and cotton were used for this study. After infestation of chewing insect, Peroxidase activity in the sap and TSP of all the studied plants were enhanced in the range of 1.6 to 3.14 fold. Similar observations were also obtained with feeding of sap sucking insects, in which increment in peroxidase activity of sap and TSP was in the range of 1.8 to 2.53 fold. Enhanced peroxidase activity was reconfirmed by in-gel peroxidase assay. Enzyme kinetic study showed turn over efficiency of peroxidase from cotton (~101.3 min-1) was almost similar to tomato (~100.8 min-1) but higher than cowpea (~98.21min-1). MS/MS analysis of observed band showed significant similarity with the reported peroxidases in database.

Singh, Harpal; Dixit, Sameer; Verma, Praveen Chandra; Singh, Pradhyumna Kumar

2013-01-01

197

Thermal Tolerance of the Coffee Berry Borer Hypothenemus hampei: Predictions of Climate Change Impact on a Tropical Insect Pest  

PubMed Central

Coffee is predicted to be severely affected by climate change. We determined the thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer , Hypothenemus hampei, the most devastating pest of coffee worldwide, and make inferences on the possible effects of climate change using climatic data from Colombia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. For this, the effect of eight temperature regimes (15, 20, 23, 25, 27, 30, 33 and 35°C) on the bionomics of H. hampei was studied. Successful egg to adult development occurred between 20–30°C. Using linear regression and a modified Logan model, the lower and upper thresholds for development were estimated at 14.9 and 32°C, respectively. In Kenya and Colombia, the number of pest generations per year was considerably and positively correlated with the warming tolerance. Analysing 32 years of climatic data from Jimma (Ethiopia) revealed that before 1984 it was too cold for H. hampei to complete even one generation per year, but thereafter, because of rising temperatures in the area, 1–2 generations per year/coffee season could be completed. Calculated data on warming tolerance and thermal safety margins of H. hampei for the three East African locations showed considerably high variability compared to the Colombian site. The model indicates that for every 1°C rise in thermal optimum (Topt.), the maximum intrinsic rate of increase (rmax) will increase by an average of 8.5%. The effects of climate change on the further range of H. hampei distribution and possible adaption strategies are discussed. Abstracts in Spanish and French are provided as supplementary material Abstract S1 and Abstract S2.

Jaramillo, Juliana; Chabi-Olaye, Adenirin; Kamonjo, Charles; Jaramillo, Alvaro; Vega, Fernando E.; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Borgemeister, Christian

2009-01-01

198

Sequencing and structural homology modeling of the ecdysone receptor in two chrysopids used in biological control of pest insects.  

PubMed

In insects, the process of molting and metamorphosis are mainly regulated by a steroidal hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and its analogs (ecdysteroids) that specifically bind to the ecdysone receptor ligand-binding domain (EcR-LBD). Currently, several synthetic non-steroidal ecdysone agonists, including tebufenozide, are commercially available as insecticides. Tebufenozide exerts its activity by binding to the 20E-binding site and thus activating EcR permanently. It appears that subtle differences in the architecture among LBDs may underpin the differential binding affinity of tebufenozide across taxonomic orders. In brief, first we demonstrated the harmlessness of tebufenozide towards Chrysoperla externa (Ce). Then, a molecular analysis of EcR-LBD of two neuropteran insects Chrysoperla carnea and Ce was presented. Finally, we constructed a chrysopid in silico homology model docked ponasterone A (PonA) and tebufenozide into the binding pocket and analyzed the amino acids indentified as critical for binding to PonA and tebufenozide. Due to a restrict extent in the cavity at the bottom of the ecdysone-binding pocket a steric clash occurred upon docking of tebufenozide. The absence of harm biological effect and the docking results suggest that tebufenozide is prevented of any deleterious effects on chrysopids. PMID:22270356

Zotti, Moises João; Christiaens, Olivier; Rougé, Pierre; Grutzmacher, Anderson Dionei; Zimmer, Paulo Dejalma; Smagghe, Guy

2012-04-01

199

Agriculture and the promotion of insect pests: rice cultivation in river floodplains and malaria vectors in The Gambia  

PubMed Central

Background Anthropogenic modification of natural habitats can create conditions in which pest species associated with humans can thrive. In order to mitigate for these changes, it is necessary to determine which aspects of human management are associated with the promotion of those pests. Anopheles gambiae, the main Africa malaria vector, often breeds in rice fields. Here the impact of the ancient practice of 'swamp rice' cultivation, on the floodplains of the Gambia River, on the production of anopheline mosquitoes was investigated. Methods Routine surveys were carried out along 500 m transects crossing rice fields from the landward edge of the floodplains to the river during the 2006 rainy season. Aquatic invertebrates were sampled using area samplers and emergence traps and fish sampled using nets. Semi-field experiments were used to investigate whether nutrients used for swamp rice cultivation affected mosquito larval abundance. Results At the beginning of the rainy season rice is grown on the landward edge of the floodplain; the first area to flood with fresh water and one rich in cattle dung. Later, rice plants are transplanted close to the river, the last area to dry out on the floodplain. Nearly all larval and adult stages of malaria vectors were collected 0–100 m from the landward edge of the floodplains, where immature rice plants were grown. These paddies contained stagnant freshwater with high quantities of cattle faeces. Semi-field studies demonstrated that cattle faeces nearly doubled the number of anopheline larvae compared with untreated water. Conclusion Swamp rice cultivation creates ideal breeding sites for malaria vectors. However, only those close to the landward edge harboured vectors. These sites were productive since they were large areas of standing freshwater, rich in nutrients, protected from fish, and situated close to human habitation, where egg-laying mosquitoes from the villages had short distances to fly. The traditional practice of 'swamp rice' cultivation uses different bodies of water on the floodplains to cultivate rice during the rainy season. A consequence of this cultivation is the provizion of ideal conditions for malaria vectors to thrive. As the demand for locally-produced rice grows, increased rice farming will generate great numbers of vectors; emphasizing the need to protect local communities against malaria.

Jarju, Lamin BS; Fillinger, Ulrike; Green, Clare; Louca, Vasilis; Majambere, Silas; Lindsay, Steven W

2009-01-01

200

INSECT & MITE IDENTIFICATION  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

About fifty pest and beneficial insects and arthropods are pictured and described on these pages. Most of the images are full color with excellent behavior and control information. Insects are categorized into foliage feeders, root feeders, sucking insects, and beneficial insects.

0002-11-30

201

Expression of snowdrop lectin in transgenic tobacco plants results in added protection against aphids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The range of sap-sucking insect pests to which GNA, (the mannose specific lectin from snowdrops (Galanthus nivalis) has been shown to be insecticidal in artificial diets has been extended to include the peach potato aphid (Myzus persicae). A gene construct for constitutive expression of GNA from the CaMV35S gene promoter has been introduced into tobacco plants. A transgenic tobacco line

V. A. Hilder; K. S. Powell; A. M. R. Gatehouse; J. A. Gatehouse; L. N. Gatehouse; Y. Shi; W. D. O. Hamilton; A. Merryweather; C. A. Newell; J. C. Timans; W. J. Peumans; E. van Damme; D. Boulter

1995-01-01

202

Proceedings of the Joint US/USSR Conference on the Production, Selection and Standardization of Entomopathogenic Fungi of Project V, Microbiological Control of Insect Pests, of the US/USSR Joint Working Group on the Production of Substances by Microbiological Means (1st) Held at Jurmula (Riga), Latvia, SSR on 20-21 May 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The conference dealt with the production, selection, and standardization of entomopathogenic fungi. The objectives were to: (1) review past work and determine the current status of use of entomopathogenic fungi for controlling insect pests in both the USA...

1979-01-01

203

Insect Answers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage from Texas A&M University's Department of Entomology is a consolidated body of information on insects. Clicking on "Insect Help Publications" provides links to a number of extension service documents, with topics such as Home Gardens, Urban and Household, Medical and Veterinary, and Spanish. Other Insect Answers include information on managing pest problems, insect images and sounds, identification, and honey bees. On the right hand side of the page more information about the Entomology Department can be found as well as their bi-monthly podcast: Bug Bytes.

2007-11-28

204

Biological control of an insect pest by gut-colonizing Enterobacter cloacae transformed with ice nucleation gene.  

PubMed

The ice nucleation (IN) gene inaA of epiphytic Erwinia (Pantoea) ananas IN10 was transformed into Enterobacter cloacae WBMH-3-CMr originated from the faeces of silkworms. The transformant designated as Ent. cloacae WBMH-3-CMr(pICE6S13) exhibited IN activity, unlike the parent strain. The transgenic strain was ingested by mulberry pyralid larvae, fed on detached mulberry leaves, and the supercooling capacity and cold hardiness of these larvae were examined. The mean supercooling point (SCP) of the larvae ingesting the transgenic strain was - 3.3 degrees C, 8 degrees C higher than that of larvae treated with distilled water (control) and 1.5 C higher than an ice nucleation active (INA) strain of Erw. ananas. The SCPs of the larvae were stably maintained over the 9 d after ingestion. The maintenance of these high SCPs was due to transgenic Ent. cloacae having a more stable and efficient gut colonization than Erw. ananas, which is identified by the distribution of a narrower range of SCPs (-2 to -5 degrees C) in larvae treated with the transgenic stain. Furthermore, most of the larvae ingesting the transgenic strain froze and died when they were exposed to cold conditions of -5 degrees C for 18 h, 3 or 7 d after ingestion. In contrast, most of the larvae ingesting no bacterium did not die under similar conditions. On the other hand, the growth ability of Ent. cloacae WBMH-3-CMr on mulberry leaves tended to be lower than that of epiphytic Erw. ananas, as assayed by pot tests. These findings would expand the possibility of biological control using INA bacteria since Ent. cloacae would harbour a broader host (insect) range for gut colonization and a smaller affinity to plants to benefit from prevention of plant frost injury. PMID:10735247

Watanabe, K; Abe, K; Sato, M

2000-01-01

205

Forest defoliator outbreaks under climate change: effects on the frequency and severity of outbreaks of five pine insect pests.  

PubMed

To identify general patterns in the effects of climate change on the outbreak dynamics of forest-defoliating insect species, we examined a 212-year record (1800-2011) of outbreaks of five pine-defoliating species (Bupalus piniarius, Panolis flammea, Lymantria monacha, Dendrolimus pini, and Diprion pini) in Bavaria, Germany for the evidence of climate-driven changes in the severity, cyclicity, and frequency of outbreaks. We also accounted for historical changes in forestry practices and examined effects of past insecticide use to suppress outbreaks. Analysis of relationships between severity or occurrence of outbreaks and detrended measures of temperature and precipitation revealed a mixture of positive and negative relationships between temperature and outbreak activity. Two moth species (P. flammea and Dendrolimus pini) exhibited lower outbreak activity following years or decades of unusually warm temperatures, whereas a sawfly (Diprion pini), for which voltinism is influenced by temperature, displayed increased outbreak occurrence in years of high summer temperatures. We detected only one apparent effect of precipitation, which showed Dendrolimus pini outbreaks tending to follow drought. Wavelet analysis of outbreak time series suggested climate change may be associated with collapse of L. monacha and Dendrolimus pini outbreak cycles (loss of cyclicity and discontinuation of outbreaks, respectively), but high-frequency cycles for B. piniarius and P. flammea in the late 1900s. Regional outbreak severity was generally not related to past suppression efforts (area treated with insecticides). Recent shifts in forestry practices affecting tree species composition roughly coincided with high-frequency outbreak cycles in B. piniarius and P. flammea but are unlikely to explain the detected relationships between climate and outbreak severity or collapses of outbreak cycles. Our results highlight both individualistic responses of different pine-defoliating species to climate changes and some patterns that are consistent across defoliator species in this and other forest systems, including collapsing of population cycles. PMID:24464875

Haynes, Kyle J; Allstadt, Andrew J; Klimetzek, Dietrich

2014-06-01

206

Forest Pest Control. Manual 94.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in forest pest control. The text discusses disease problems, insects, and herbicide use in both established forests and nurseries. (CS)

Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

207

Beneficial Insects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tutorials on insect predators that feed on insect and mite pests. Each tutorial has 50 questions; incorrect answers lead to additional information. Covers lady beetles, mantids, lacewings, stink bugs, robber flies, assassin bugs, syrphid flies, spiders, ground beetles, big-eyed bugs and wasps. Some illusstrations are most appropriate for the southern U.S. Information is accurate. Requires Windows; program must be downloaded to hard -drive before use, but once loaded is intuitive. $15.

0002-11-30

208

Agricultural Plant Pest Control. Bulletin 763.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual gives general information on plant pests and pesticides. First, the life-cycle and habits of some common insect pests are given. These include caterpillars, beetles and beetle larvae, and sucking insects. Next, plant diseases such as leaf diseases, wilts, root and crown rots, stem cankers, fruit rots, seed and seedling diseases, and…

French, John C.; And Others

209

Ornamental, Turf and Nursery Pests. MEP 308.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland, this publication introduces the identification and control of common turf and plant pests that can be found in the urban environment. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests such as insects, weeds, and…

Morgan, Omar D.; And Others

210

Current control methods for diamondback moth and other brassica insect pests and the prospects for improved management with lepidopteran-resistant Bt vegetable brassicas in Asia and Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.), remains a major pest of brassica crops worldwide. DBM has been estimated globally to cost US$ 1 billion in direct losses and control costs. Chemical control of this pest remains difficult due to the rapid development of resistance to insecticides and to their effect on natural enemies. These problems are especially severe in

D. Grzywacz; A. Rossbach; A. Rauf; D. A. Russell; R. Srinivasan; A. M. Shelton

2010-01-01

211

Bayesian analysis of the species-specific lengthening of the growing season in two European countries and the influence of an insect pest.  

PubMed

A recent lengthening of the growing season in mid and higher latitudes of the northern hemisphere is reported as a clear indicator for climate change impacts. Using data from Germany (1951-2003) and Slovenia (1961-2004), we study whether changes in the start, end, and length of the growing season differ among four deciduous broad-leaved tree species and countries, how the changes are related to temperature changes, and what might be the confounding effects of an insect attack. The functional behaviour of the phenological and climatological time series and their trends are not analysed by linear regression, but by a new Bayesian approach taking into account different models for the functional description (one change-point, linear, constant models). We find advanced leaf unfolding in both countries with the same species order (oak > horse chestnut, beech, and birch). However, this advance is non linear over time and more apparent in Germany with clear change-points in the late 1970s, followed by marked advances (on average 3.67 days decade(-1) in the 2000s). In Slovenia, we find a more gradual advance of onset dates (on average 0.8 days decade(-1) in the 2000s). Leaf colouring of birch, beech, and oak has been slightly delayed in the last 3 decades, especially in Germany, however with no clear functional behaviour. Abrupt changes in leaf colouring dates of horse chestnut with recent advancing onset dates can be linked across countries to damage by a newly emerging pest, the horse chestnut leaf-miner (Cameraria ohridella). The lengthening of the growing season, more distinct in Germany than in Slovenia (on average 4.2 and 1.0 days decade(-1) in the 2000s, respectively), exhibits the same species order in both countries (oak > birch > beech). Damage by horse chestnut leaf-miner leads to reduced lengthening (Germany) and drastic shortening (Slovenia) of the horse chestnut growing season (-12 days decade(-1) in the 2000s). Advanced spring leaf unfolding and lengthening of the growing season of oak, beech and birch are highly significantly related to increasing March temperatures in both countries. Only beech and oak leaf unfolding in Germany, which is generally observed later in the year than that of the other two species, is more closely correlated with April temperatures, which comparably exhibit marked change-points at the end of the 1970s. PMID:17805581

Menzel, Annette; Estrella, Nicole; Heitland, Werner; Susnik, Andreja; Schleip, Christoph; Dose, Volker

2008-01-01

212

Pest Control Section Biochemical Group, Progress Report 1982-86.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Reserch efforts in the Pest Control Section, BARC, a continuator of insect sterilization and pest control section of the erstwhile Biology and Agriculture Division, were continued to develop integrated management practices for the control of important ins...

1988-01-01

213

Control of Insects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the preferred practice of the invention, the sex pheromone, or its components, of the insect pest is artificially distributed in the prior art manner into the pest-infested area. It usually is necessary to formulate them into slow-release compositions,...

W. J. Lewis D. A. Norlund R. C. Gueldener J. H. Tumlinson P. Allen

1983-01-01

214

Insect Control (1): Use of Pheromones  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses current research relating to the use of pheromones as a means of controlling insect pests. These chemicals, which are secreted by insects to affect the behavior of other individuals of the same species, may be used to eliminate pests without destroying their predators and other beneficial insects. (JR)

Marx, Jean L.

1973-01-01

215

Relationships among soilborne bean seedling diseases, Lablab purpureus L. and maize stover residue management, bean insect pests, and soil characteristics in Trans Nzoia district, Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smallholder farmers who practice continuous maize (Zea mays L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivation in the highlands of eastern African have been introduced to new leguminous crops for soil fertility enhancement. However, little is known about the impact these crops may have on farmers’ pre-existing crop pest problems. We investigated the cumulative effects of 7 years of differential management

Beth A. Medvecky; Quirine M. Ketterings; Eric B. Nelson

2007-01-01

216

Monitoring Bacillus thuringiensis-susceptibility in insect pests that occur in large geographies: How to get the best information when two countries are involved  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adoption of cotton producing insecticidal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis, commonly referred to as Bt cotton, around the world has proven to be beneficial for growers and the environment. The effectiveness of this important genetically-modified crop can be jeopardized by the development of resistance to Bt cotton by pests it is meant to control, with the possibility that this phenomenon

Carlos A. Blanco; Omaththage P. Perera; Debbie Boykin; Craig Abel; Jeff Gore; Sharlene R. Matten; Juan C. Ramírez-Sagahon; Antonio P. Terán-Vargas

2007-01-01

217

Evaluation of corn hybrids expressing Cry1F, cry1A.105, Cry2Ab2, Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1, and Cry3Bb1 against southern United States insect pests.  

PubMed

Studies were conducted across the southern United States to characterize the efficacy of multiple Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) events in a field corn, Zea mays L., hybrid for control of common lepidopteran and coleopteran pests. Cry1F protein in event TC1507 and Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 proteins in event MON 89034 were evaluated against pests infesting corn on above-ground plant tissue including foliage, stalks, and ears. Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 proteins in event DAS-59122-7 and Cry3Bb1 in event MON 88017 were evaluated against the larvae of Mexican corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera zeae Krysan and Smith, which occur below-ground. Field corn hybrids containing Cry1F, Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2, Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1, and Cry3Bb1 insecticidal proteins (SmartStax) consistently demonstrated reductions in plant injury and/or reduced larval survivorship as compared with a non-Bt field corn hybrid. Efficacy provided by a field corn hybrid with multiple Bt proteins was statistically equal to or significantly better than corn hybrids containing a single event active against target pests. Single event field corn hybrids provided very high levels of control of southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella (Dyar), lesser cornstalk borer, Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zeller), and fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), and were not significantly different than field corn hybrids with multiple events. Significant increases in efficacy were observed for a field corn hybrid with multiple Bt events for sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and Mexican corn rootworm. Utilization of field corn hybrids containing multiple Bt events provides a means for managing insect resistance to Bt proteins and reduces non-Bt corn refuge requirements. PMID:23156183

Siebert, M W; Nolting, S P; Hendrix, W; Dhavala, S; Craig, C; Leonard, B R; Stewart, S D; All, J; Musser, F R; Buntin, G D; Samuel, L

2012-10-01

218

Training for Certification: Forest Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial pesticide applicators. Focusing on forest pest control, this publication examines plant and animal pest control practices for southern tree species. Contents include: (1) identification of insects, diseases, and weed tree species;…

Parker, Robert C., Comp.

219

Training for Certification: Ornamental & Turf Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial pesticide applicators. Focusing on ornamental and turf plant pest control, this publication examines the control of plant diseases, insects, and weeds. The contents are divided into a section on ornamental pest control and one on…

Mississippi State Univ., State College. Cooperative Extension Service.

220

Aquatic Pest Control. Manual 99.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the aquatic pest control category. The text discusses various water use situations; aquatic weed identification; herbicide use and effects; and aquatic insects and their control. (CS)

Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

221

Forest Pest Control. Bulletin 759.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual describes the major forest types, the major species, seed orchards, and tree nurseries. Methods of identifying forest insect pests and diseases are given. The most common types of insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides are described. Both sprayer and granular applicator methods are discussed. Environmental considerations are…

Coleman, V. Rodney

222

Use of Geographic Information Systems and Spatial Analysis in Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management Programmes that Integrate the Sterile Insect Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advantages that geographic information systems (GIS) and associated technologies can offer, in terms of the design and implementation of area-wide programmes of insect and\\/or disease suppression, are becoming increasingly recognised, even if the realization of this potential has not been fully exploited and for some area-wide programmes adoption appears to be progressing slowly. This chapter provides a basic introduction

J. Cox; M. Vreysen

223

Constitutive expression of a cowpea trypsin inhibitor gene, CpTi , in transgenic rice plants confers resistance to two major rice insect pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gene encoding a cowpea trypsin inhibitor (CpTI), which confers insect resistance in trangenic tobacco, was introduced into rice. Expression of the CpTi gene driven by the constitutively active promoter of the rice actin 1 gene (Act1) leads to high-level accumulation of the CpTI protein in transgenic rice plants. Protein extracts from transgenic rice plants exhibit a strong inhibitory activity

Deping Xu; Qingzhong Xue; David McElroy; Yogesh Mawal; Vaughan A. Hilder; Ray Wu

1996-01-01

224

Pests on commercial mushrooms in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungivorous arthropods including mites, collembolans and insects were reviewed focusing on commercial mushroom pests in each taxon. Insects collected from mushroom fruiting bodies play roles not only of fungivores but also of phoretic hosts of smaller invertebrates. Their function should be considered for sound control measures. To learn biology and ecology of fungivores in field mushrooms is crucial because it

OKABE Kimiko

2006-01-01

225

Biological aspects of Eriopis connexa (Germar) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) fed on different insect pests of maize (Zea mays L.) and sorghum [Sorghum bicolor L. (Moench.)].  

PubMed

Eriopis connexa (Germar) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) occurs in several countries of South America and its mass rearing is important for biological control programmes. This work evaluated biological aspects of E. connexa larva fed on eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) frozen for one day, fresh eggs of Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), S. frugiperda newly-hatched caterpillars, nymphs of Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Duration of larva, pupa and larva to adult stages differed among prey offered, whereas the prepupa stage was similar. Larva, pupa, prepupa and larva to adult viabilities were equal or major of 87.5% in all prey, except for larva fed on newly-hatched larvae of S. frugiperda. Eriopis connexa has good adaptation to different prey corroborating its polyphagous feeding habit, which evidences the potential of this natural enemy for controlling corn and sorghum pests. PMID:23917572

Silva, R B; Cruz, I; Zanuncio, J C; Figueiredo, M L C; Canevari, G C; Pereira, A G; Serrão, J E

2013-05-01

226

Beneficial Insects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tutorials on insect predators that feed on insect and mite pests. Each tutorial has 50 questions; incorrect answers lead to additional information. Covers brown lacewings, ambush bugs, dragonflies, damselflies, paper wasps, earwigs, long-legged flies, predaceous mites, damsel bugs, minute pirate bug, tiger beetles, tachnid flies, parasitic nematodes, entomopathogenic fungi and viruses. Requires Windows. SOme illustrations may be most apporopriate for the southern U.S. A couple of the questions have rather arbitrary answers; in general, the tutorials are well constructed and the information is accurate. Requires Windows operating system; program must be downloaded to the comptuer's hard drive, but once loaded is easy to launch and use. $15. Part number SW 154.

0002-11-30

227

Toxicity and pharmacokinetics of insect growth regulators and other novel insecticides on pupae of Hyposoter didmator (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), a parasitoid of early larval instars of lepidopteran pests.  

PubMed

Susceptibility of the lepidopteran parasitoid Hyposoter didymator (Thunberg) to seven modern insecticides, azadirachtin, diflubenzuron, halofenozide, methoxyfenozide, pyriproxyfen, tebufenozide, and spinosad, was tested in the laboratory. Pupae were exposed to different doses of each compound by direct topical application. At the field recommended doses, methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide had no effect on H. didymator. Halofenozide had a low effect on both adult emergence and adult survival but the progeny size and parasitism capacity were not affected. Diflubenzuron was moderately toxic to the parasitoid, while azadirachtin, pyriproxyfen and spinosad were very toxic, affecting all its life parameters. In the pyriproxyfen and spinosad treatments, no progeny was obtained. As a second approach of this study, we determined the rate of penetration through the pupal cocoon and absorption in the parasitoid body as pharmacokinetic parameters important for toxicity. Most of the radioactivity was retained in the silken cocoon, indicating a low accumulation in the parasitoid body. Among all compounds tested, diflubenzuron exhibited the highest absorption in the parasitoid body, followed by pyriproxyfen. For halofenozide, methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide, low absorption (<2%) was found. In addition, we tested for the presence of molting hormone receptors in Hyposoter tissues using a monoclonal antibody 9B9. Our data suggest that the use of diflubenzuron azadirachtin, pyriproxyfen, halofenozide, and spinosad in combination with H. didymator in integrated pest management (IPM) programs should be carefully evaluated. Methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide could be considered safe for this parasitoid. PMID:14503575

Schneider, Marcela Inés; Smagghe, Guy; Gobbi, Antonio; Viñuela, Elisa

2003-08-01

228

IAEA/FAO training course on uses of isotopes and radiation in integrated pest management (IPM) with special reference to the sterile insect technique  

SciTech Connect

This International Short Course which has been held in Gainesville, Florida, since 1963, was presented for the thirteenth time during the period 16 May through 24 June, 1988. Of the 20 students selected 18 arrived in Gainesville for the course. The strength of the course results from the many who contribute their time and expertise to lecture or hold laboratories or demonstrations for the students. The quality of the lectures was excellent. The top personnel in the field of SIT, IPM and insect biology and control presented information on a variety of research and operational programs. Appendix D contains copies of the summaries that were submitted by lecturers. Appendix E contains copies of the handouts that were given to the students. A large number of reprints were supplied at the request of the students by the various labs and lectures. Not all lecturers or laboratory sessions supplied handouts or summaries. However, those included present a summary of information presented.

Not Available

1988-01-01

229

In vitro production of two chitinolytic proteins with an inhibiting effect on the insect coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and the fungus Hemileia vastatrix the most limiting pests of coffee crops.  

PubMed

Two genes from Streptomyces albidoflavus, one exochitinase (905-bp) and an endochitinase (1100-bp) were functionally expressed in Escherichia coli in form of a fusion protein with a maltose binding protein (MBP). The goal was to produce and test proteins that inhibit both the coffee berry borer insect Hypothenemus hampei and the coffee rust fungus Hemileia vastatrix. Both recombinant proteins MBP/exochitinase and MBP/endochitinase showed chitinolytic activity. When recombinant purified proteins were added to an artificial coffee-based diet for the coffee berry borer, MBP/exochitinase at a concentration of 0.5% W/W caused delayed growth of larvae and 100% mortality between days 8 and 15, while MBP/endochitinase caused 100% mortality at day 35. H. vastatrix urediniospores presented total cell wall degradation in their germinative tubes within 18 h of exposure to the proteins at enzyme concentrations of 5 and 6 mg ml-1, with exochitinase having the greatest effect. The dual deleterious effect of S. albidoflavus chitinases on two of the most limiting coffee pests worldwide, the coffee borer and the coffee rust, make them potential elements to be incorporated in integrated control strategies. PMID:22464210

Martínez, Claudia P; Echeverri, Claudia; Florez, Juan C; Gaitan, Alvaro L; Góngora, Carmenza E

2012-01-01

230

In vitro production of two chitinolytic proteins with an inhibiting effect on the insect coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and the fungus Hemileia vastatrix the most limiting pests of coffee crops  

PubMed Central

Two genes from Streptomyces albidoflavus, one exochitinase (905-bp) and an endochitinase (1100-bp) were functionally expressed in Escherichia coli in form of a fusion protein with a maltose binding protein (MBP). The goal was to produce and test proteins that inhibit both the coffee berry borer insect Hypothenemus hampei and the coffee rust fungus Hemileia vastatrix. Both recombinant proteins MBP/exochitinase and MBP/endochitinase showed chitinolytic activity. When recombinant purified proteins were added to an artificial coffee-based diet for the coffee berry borer, MBP/exochitinase at a concentration of 0.5% W/W caused delayed growth of larvae and 100% mortality between days 8 and 15, while MBP/endochitinase caused 100% mortality at day 35. H. vastatrix urediniospores presented total cell wall degradation in their germinative tubes within 18 h of exposure to the proteins at enzyme concentrations of 5 and 6 mg ml-1, with exochitinase having the greatest effect. The dual deleterious effect of S. albidoflavus chitinases on two of the most limiting coffee pests worldwide, the coffee borer and the coffee rust, make them potential elements to be incorporated in integrated control strategies.

2012-01-01

231

Establishment of the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique for genotyping of pollen beetle (Meligethes aeneus)--a noxious insect pest on oilseed rape (Brassica napus).  

PubMed

In order to conduct studies concerning genetic variability of pollen beetles (Meligethes aeneus), a genotyping protocol was established. No genome information is available for pollen beetles so the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique was chosen since it does not depend on any prior sequence information of the samples and also is a sensitive and robust technique. However, several modifications were needed in order to adapt the method for analysis of pollen beetles. Basic modifications included (i) alterations of DNA purification, (ii) use of two six-cutter restriction enzymes, (iii) and modified PCR conditions. This protocol resulted in a favourable number of fragments of an appropriate size range for standard gel analysis by a DNA sequencer applicable to a single insect and even body parts enabling different assays to be conducted on a single specimen. Pollen beetles from different areas of Sweden were analysed to verify the reproducibility and efficacy of the protocol as well as for phenetic analysis. The high reproducibility of the modified AFLP protocol allows it to be used as a reliable tool for genotype analysis of pollen beetles. PMID:15040453

Kazachkova, Nadiya; Fahleson, Jan; Meijer, Johan

2004-03-01

232

Purification and characterization of a trypsin-papain inhibitor from Pithecelobium dumosum seeds and its in vitro effects towards digestive enzymes from insect pests.  

PubMed

A novel trypsin-papain inhibitor, named PdKI-2, was purified from the seeds of Pithecelobium dumosum seeds by TCA precipitation, Trypsin-Sepharose chromatography and reversed-phase HPLC. PdKI-2 had an M(r) of 18.1 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE and was composed of a single polypeptide chain. The inhibition on trypsin was stable at pH range 2-10, temperature of 50 degrees C and had a K(i) value of 1.65 x 10(-8)M, with a competitive inhibition mechanism. PdKI-2 was also active to papain, a cysteine proteinase, and showed a noncompetitive inhibition mechanism and K(i) value of 5.1 x 10(-7)M. PdKI-2 was effective against digestive proteinase from bruchids Zabrotes subfasciatus and Callosobruchus maculatus; Dipteran Ceratitis capitata; Lepidopterans Plodia interpunctella and Alabama argillacea, with 74.5%, 70.0%, 70.3%, 48.7%, and 13.6% inhibition, respectively. Results support that PdKI-2 is a member of Kunitz-inhibitor family and its effect on digestive enzyme larvae from diverse orders indicated this protein as a potent insect antifeedant. PMID:17888672

Oliveira, Adeliana S; Migliolo, Ludovico; Aquino, Rodrigo O; Ribeiro, Jannison K C; Macedo, Leonardo L P; Andrade, Lucia B S; Bemquerer, Marcelo P; Santos, Elizeu A; Kiyota, Sumika; de Sales, Maurício P

2007-01-01

233

Integrated Insect Control May Alter Pesticide Use Pattern  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of predators, parasites, bacteria, viruses, hormones, pheromones, and sterile-male release and insect-resistance imparting techniques in pest control. Concludes with comments from chemical pesticide companies as popular attitudes toward the integrated pest management. (CC)

Worthy, Ward

1973-01-01

234

Insects: What are Insects?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project you will investigate insects. By the end of the project you will asnwer the essential quesetion " What are insects?" Today, you and your group members will begin by investigating what insects are in nature. Insects come in different shapes, sizes and colors. Before your groups begins the activity, take a look at some pictures by clicking the Insect Pictures link Insect Pictures. Next, your group will read the brief summary from ...

Martin, Mrs.

2009-10-22

235

Biorational Pest Control – An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Fifty years ago, Stern et al. (1959) introduced the concept of “Integrated Control” during a time when insect pest control\\u000a was mostly based on broad-spectrum, conventional insecticides such as organochlorines, organophosphates (OPs), and carbamates,\\u000a all neurotoxic. Their work on economic thresholds and economic injury levels implemented within an ecological framework where\\u000a chemical and biological controls could thrive together is the

A. Rami Horowitz; Peter C. Ellsworth; Isaac Ishaaya

236

Dispersal of forest insects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dispersal flights of selected species of forest insects which are associated with periodic outbreaks of pests that occur over large contiguous forested areas are discussed. Gypsy moths, spruce budworms, and forest tent caterpillars were studied for their massive migrations in forested areas. Results indicate that large dispersals into forested areas are due to the females, except in the case of the gypsy moth.

Mcmanus, M. L.

1979-01-01

237

Visualizing a plant defense and insect counterploy: alkaloid distribution in Lobelia leaves trenched by a plusiine caterpillar.  

PubMed

Insects that feed on plants protected by latex canals often sever leaf veins or cut trenches across leaves before feeding distal to the cuts. The insects thereby depressurize the canals and reduce latex exudation at their prospective feeding site. How the cuts affect the distribution and concentration of latex chemicals was not known. We modified a microwave-assisted extraction technique to analyze the spatial distribution of alkaloids in leaves of Lobelia cardinalis (Campanulaceae) that have been trenched by a plusiine caterpillar, Enigmogramma basigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). We produced sharp two dimensional maps of alkaloid distribution by microwaving leaves to transfer alkaloids to TLC plates that were then sprayed with Dragendorff's reagent to visualize the alkaloids. The leaf prints were photographed and analyzed with image processing software for quantifying alkaloid levels. A comparison of control and trenched leaves documented that trenching reduces alkaloid levels by approximately 50% both distal and proximal to the trench. The trench becomes greatly enriched in alkaloids due to latex draining from surrounding areas. Measurements of exudation from trenched leaves demonstrate that latex pressures are rapidly restored proximal, but not distal to the trench. Thus, the trench serves not only to drain latex with alkaloids from the caterpillar's prospective feeding site, but also to isolate this section, thereby preventing an influx of latex from an extensive area that likely extends beyond the leaf. Microwave-assisted extraction of leaves has potential for diverse applications that include visualizing the impact of pathogens, leaf miners, sap-sucking insects, and other herbivores on the distribution and abundance of alkaloids and other important defensive compounds. PMID:19468794

Oppel, Craig B; Dussourd, David E; Garimella, Umadevi

2009-06-01

238

Insect Resistance (PAT-APPL-11-270 883).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention provides a method for establishing commercial cultivars of impatiens having elevated resistance to a specified insect pest. The resistance provided through use of the invention reduces physical damage to the plant caused by insect feeding, a...

D. F. Warnock

2005-01-01

239

Lawn and Turf Pest Control: A Guide for Commercial Applicators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed for use in training commercial pesticide applicators. It gives identification and control information for common lawn and turf diseases, insects, nematodes, weeds, and vertebrate pests. It also discusses phytotoxicity, environmental concerns, and application methods. (BB)

Khan, M. S.

240

Global warming presents new challenges for maize pest management  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been conjectured that global warming will increase the prevalence of insect pests in many agro-ecosystems. In this paper, we quantitatively assess four of the key pests of maize, one of the most important systems in North American grain production. Using empirically generated estimates of pest overwintering thresholds and degree-day requirements, along with climate change projections from a high-resolution

Noah S Diffenbaugh; Christian H Krupke; Michael A White; Corinne E Alexander

2008-01-01

241

Study on Integrated Pest Management for Libraries and Archives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study addresses the problems caused by the major insect and rodent pests and molds and mildews in libraries and archives; the damage they do to collections; and techniques for their prevention and control. Guidelines are also provided for the development and initiation of an Integrated Pest Management program for facilities housing library…

Parker, Thomas A.

242

Towards integrated pest management in red clover seed production.  

PubMed

The development of integrated pest management is hampered by lack of information on how insect pest abundances relate to yield losses, and how pests are affected by control measures. In this study, we develop integrated pest management tactics for Apion spp. weevils (Coleoptera: Brentidae) in seed production of red clover, Trifolium pratense L. We tested a method to forecast pest damage, quantified the relationship between pest abundance and yield, and evaluated chemical and biological pest control in 29 Swedish red clover fields in 2008 and 2011. Pest inflorescence abundance, which had a highly negative effect on yield, could be predicted with pan trap catches of adult pests. In 2008, chemical control with typically one application of pyrethroids was ineffective both in decreasing pest abundances and in increasing yields. In 2011, when chemical control included applications of the neonicotinoid thiacloprid, pest abundances decreased and yields increased considerably in treated field zones. A post hoc analysis indicated that using pyrethroids in addition to thiacloprid was largely redundant. Infestation rates by parasitoids was higher and reached average levels of around 40% in insecticide treated field zones in 2011, which is a level of interest for biological pest control. Based on the data presented, an economic threshold for chemical control is developed, and guidelines are provided on minimum effective chemical pest control. PMID:23156158

Lundin, Ola; Rundlöf, Maj; Smith, Henrik G; Bommarco, Riccardo

2012-10-01

243

The Applicability of Remote Sensing to Earth Biological Problems. Part 2: The Potential of Remote Sensing in Pest Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Five troublesome insect pest groups were chosen for study. These represent a broad spectrum of life cycles, ecological indicators, pest management strategies, and remote sensing requirements. Background data, and field study results for each of these subj...

J. T. Polhemus

1980-01-01

244

1976 Commercial Vegetable Pest Control Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains pest control information for commercial vegetable production. It was prepared for agricultural supply dealers, extension agents, fieldmen, and growers. It gives general precautions, information on seed treatment, growing disease-free seedlings and transplants, general soil insect control, general weed control, and spraying…

MacNab, A. A.; And Others

245

Natural compounds for pest and weed control.  

PubMed

The control of insect pests and invasive weeds has become more species-selective because of activity-guided isolation, structure elucidation, and total synthesis of naturally produced substances with important biological activities. Examples of isolated compounds include insect pheromones, antifeedants, and prostaglandins, as well as growth regulators for plants and insects. Synthetic analogues of natural substances have been prepared to explore the relationships between chemical structure and observed biological activity. Recent scientific advances have resulted from better methods for the chemical synthesis of target compounds and better analytical methods. The capability of analytical instrumentation continues to advance rapidly, enabling new insights. PMID:19719128

Petroski, Richard J; Stanley, David W

2009-09-23

246

Farmers’ cultural practices and their effects on pest control in sweetpotato in South Nyanza, Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sweetpotato weevils (Cylas puncticollis (Bohe.) and C. brunneus (Fabr.) Coteoptera: Apionidae) are the most important insect pests in South Nyanza, Kenya's principal sweetpotato?growing district. A pest of secondary importance is the sweetpotato butterfly (Acraea acerata (Hew.) Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Cultural control is currently the most promising component of an integrated pest management strategy for subsistence sweetpotato farmers in Kenya. A survey

N. E. J. M. Smit; L. O. Matengo

1995-01-01

247

The importance of economic injury levels in the development of integrated pest control programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Although economic injury levels have long been considered of importance in determining the needs for pest control measures, they take on added significance in integrated pest control programs. The designation of damage tolerance levels defines the goals of the integrated control effort. These management goals should be defined in terms of damage not numbers of pests. Although insect numbers

Ray F. Smith

1969-01-01

248

Identifying Stored-Grain Insects Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proper identification of insects in grain storage facilities is critical for predicting development of pest populations and for making management decisions. However, many stored- grain insect pests are difficult to identify, even for trained personnel. We examined the possibility that near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy could be used for taxonomic purposes based on the premise that every species may have a unique

F. E. DOWELL; J. E. THRONE; D. WANG; J. E. BAKER

249

The impact of Global Warming on global crop yields due to changes in pest pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A billion people currently lack reliable access to sufficient food and almost half of the calories feeding these people come from just three crops: rice, maize, wheat. Insect pests are among the largest factors affecting the yield of these three crops, but models assessing the effects of global warming on crops rarely consider changes in insect pest pressure on crop yields. We use well-established relationships between temperature and insect physiology to project climate-driven changes in pest pressure, defined as integrated population metabolism, for the three major crops. By the middle of this century, under most scenarios, insect pest pressure is projected to increase by more than 50% in temperate areas, while increases in tropical regions will be more modest. Yield relationships indicate that the largest increases in insect pest pressure are likely to occur in areas where yield is greatest, suggesting increased strain on global food markets.

Battisti, D. S.; Tewksbury, J. J.; Deutsch, C. A.

2011-12-01

250

Nuke 'Em! Library Pest Control Using a Microwave.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the threats to books and periodicals posed by such insects as book lice, termites, cockroaches, silverfish, firebrats, and beetles; reviews past methods of pest control; and describes a technique for insect control using microwaves. The results of tests of microwave effects on publications are reported, necessary precautions are…

Brezner, Jerome; Luner, Philip

1989-01-01

251

A Comparative Analysis of Electronic and Chemical Pest Repellent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently it was argued by pest control manufacturer that repellents using high frequency sound for insect invasions are superior to the conventional chemical sprays and treatments. High frequency sound is known to repel certain insects and other animals, and permethrin is a common household pesticide also with repellent properties. It is important for the general public to know differences in

Lydia Ausberry

252

Sustainability of Transgenic Insecticidal Cultivars: Integrating Pest Genetics and Ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review examines potential impacts of transgenic cultivars on insect pop- ulation dynamics and evolution. Experience with classically bred, insecticidal cultivars has demonstrated that a solid understanding of both the target insect's ecology and the cultivar's performance under varied field conditions will be es- sential for predicting area-wide effects of transgenic cultivars on pest and natural enemy dynamics. This experience

Fred Gould

1998-01-01

253

Insect Pathogens as Biological Control Agents: Do They Have a Future?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Naturally occurring entomopathogens are important regulatory factors in insect populations. Many species are employed as biological control agents of insect pests in row and glasshouse crops, orchards, ornamentals, range, turf and lawn, stored products, and forestry and for abatement of pest and vector insects of veterinary and medical importance. The comparison of entomopathogens with conventional chemical pesticides is usually solely

L. A. Lacey; R. Frutos; H. K. Kaya; P. Vail

2001-01-01

254

Sources of wheat resistance to Sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Puton, in Syria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Puton, is the most damaging insect pest of wheat in West and Central Asia and East Europe. Host plant resistance has been\\u000a investigated as one component of a total integrated pest management program for the control of this pest. In Syria, field\\u000a screening of artificially infested wheat accessions from the International Center for Agricultural Research in

Mustapha El Bouhssini; Abdallah Joubi; Zakaria Ibrahim; Fawzi Rihawi

2009-01-01

255

A Review of Resurgence and Replacement Causing Pest Outbreaks in IPM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insect and mite pest resurgence occurs when an insecticide or acaricide treatment destroys the pest population and kills,\\u000a repels, irritates or otherwise deters the natural enemies of the pest. The residual activity of the insecticide then expires\\u000a and the pest population is able to increase more rapidly and to a higher abundance when natural enemies are absent or in low

James D. Dutcher

256

Global warming presents new challenges for maize pest management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been conjectured that global warming will increase the prevalence of insect pests in many agro-ecosystems. In this paper, we quantitatively assess four of the key pests of maize, one of the most important systems in North American grain production. Using empirically generated estimates of pest overwintering thresholds and degree-day requirements, along with climate change projections from a high-resolution climate model, we project potential future ranges for each of these pests in the United States. Our analysis suggests the possibility of increased winter survival and greater degree-day accumulations for each of the pests surveyed. We find that relaxed cold limitation could expand the range of all four pest taxa, including a substantial range expansion in the case of corn earworm (H. zea), a migratory, cold-intolerant pest. Because the corn earworm is a cosmopolitan pest that has shown resistance to insecticides, our results suggest that this expansion could also threaten other crops, including those in high-value areas of the western United States. Because managing significant additional pressure from this suite of established pests would require additional pest management inputs, the projected decreases in cold limitation and increases in heat accumulation have the potential to significantly alter the pest management landscape for North American maize production. Further, these range expansions could have substantial economic impacts through increased seed and insecticide costs, decreased yields, and the downstream effects of changes in crop yield variability.

Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Krupke, Christian H.; White, Michael A.; Alexander, Corinne E.

2008-10-01

257

Methods and compositions for controlling pests  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention is directed to pest-controlling compositions comprising as active ingredients one or more .beta.-diones, particularly .beta.-diketones and .beta.-triketones, and to the use of these compositions inter alia for preventing, eradicating, destroying, repelling or mitigating harmful, annoying or undesired pests including insects, arachnids, helminths, molluscs, protozoa and viruses. The present invention is further directed to processes of preparing .beta.-diones by de novo synthesis or from natural sources such as volatile oil-bearing plants from families including Alliaceae, Apiaceae, Asteraceae, Cannabinaceae, Lamiaceae, Pteridaceae, Myrtaceae, Myoporaceae, Proteaceae, Rutaceae and Zingiberaceae.

2010-10-26

258

Plant–insect interactions: molecular approaches to insect resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in our understanding of induced responses in plants and their regulation, brought about by a revolution in molecular biology, have re-focused attention on the potential exploitation of endogenous resistance mechanisms for crop protection. The future goal of crop biotechnology is thus to engineer a durable, multimechanistic resistance to insect pests through an understanding of the diversity of plant

Natalie Ferry; Martin G Edwards; John A Gatehouse

2004-01-01

259

Incredible Insects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We are learning about insects in first grade! Insects are all around. Insects can be big or small. People who study insects are called Entomologists. There are 2 things ALL insects have. Do you know what they are? Use the links below to find out! Watch this! University of Illinois Extension-Schools Online: Let?s Talk About Insects What did you learn? How many BODY PARTS do insects have? Insect Body Parts How many body parts do YOU have? Who has more? How many LEGS does an insect have? Insect Legs How many legs to YOU have? Who has more? Fun Stuff... Listen to your favorite insect. The Songs of Insects Check out these beautiful butterflies! Butterflies Bugs in your backyard! Insect fun at home. We're going on a BUG HUNT! Bug Hunt ...

Pentek, Mrs.

2009-09-11

260

Genetic, Molecular and Genomic Basis of Rice Defense against Insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice is the world's most important staple crop, feeding more than half of the world's population. Insects and other arthropods present an important constraint in rice production. This paper begins with an introduction to major insect pests of rice and their impact, followed by a description of some of the approaches currently used in insect management programs of rice. Then

Hao Chen; Michael J. Stout; Qian Qian; Feng Chen

2012-01-01

261

Exploring the Insect World, An Outdoor Teaching Technique.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information about the insect world and its advantages for the elementary classroom teacher is given in this paper, along with activities which can teach students about insects. The insect world tends to be noticed by the average person only when the small creatures become pests or inhabit man's abode. However, young students have a sharp sense of…

Rillo, Thomas J.

262

Suppressing resistance to Bt cotton with sterile insect releases.  

PubMed

Genetically engineered crops that produce insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are grown widely for pest control. However, insect adaptation can reduce the toxins' efficacy. The predominant strategy for delaying pest resistance to Bt crops requires refuges of non-Bt host plants to provide susceptible insects to mate with resistant insects. Variable farmer compliance is one of the limitations of this approach. Here we report the benefits of an alternative strategy where sterile insects are released to mate with resistant insects and refuges are scarce or absent. Computer simulations show that this approach works in principle against pests with recessive or dominant inheritance of resistance. During a large-scale, four-year field deployment of this strategy in Arizona, resistance of pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella) to Bt cotton did not increase. A multitactic eradication program that included the release of sterile moths reduced pink bollworm abundance by >99%, while eliminating insecticide sprays against this key invasive pest. PMID:21057498

Tabashnik, Bruce E; Sisterson, Mark S; Ellsworth, Peter C; Dennehy, Timothy J; Antilla, Larry; Liesner, Leighton; Whitlow, Mike; Staten, Robert T; Fabrick, Jeffrey A; Unnithan, Gopalan C; Yelich, Alex J; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Harpold, Virginia S; Li, Xianchun; Carrière, Yves

2010-12-01

263

A novel mechanism of insect resistance engineered into tobacco  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major goal of plant genetic engineering is the introduction of agronomically desirable phenotypic traits into crop plants in situations where conventional breeding methods have been unsuccessful. One such target is enhanced resistance to insect pests which, in view of the estimated production losses world-wide and the heavy costs of protective treatments, is very important. We report here that a gene encoding a cowpea trypsin inhibitor, which has been shown to give some measure of field resistance to insect pests1, confers, when transferred to tobacco, enhanced resistance to this species' own herbivorous insect pests.

Hilder, Vaughan A.; Gatehouse, Angharad M. R.; Sheerman, Suzanne E.; Barker, Richard F.; Boulter, Donald

1987-11-01

264

A Tin Pest Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case study details a tin pest failure that occurred on plated electrical connectors exposed to low temperatures during\\u000a storage. Analysis indicated that the bismuth additives specified to combat tin pest were not present in sufficient quantities,\\u000a and the degradation suffered by the connectors was confirmed as tin pest. New regulations (Restriction of Hazardous Substances\\u000a Directive, ROHS) are limiting the

Neil Douglas Burns

2009-01-01

265

Integrated Pest Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Australian Academy of Science's NOVA Online (discussed in the March 3, 1999 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) has added a report on integrated pest management. After 25 years, Western Australia's Ord River valley is making a comeback in cotton cultivation. This area was once abandoned because of "an uncontrollable infestation" of two native caterpillars. The article discusses integrated pest management and how it can be used to control persistent pests.

266

77 FR 41366 - Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc.; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk Assessment, and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No...Biotechnology, Inc.; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk Assessment, and Environmental...for Insect Resistance AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA....

2012-07-13

267

76 FR 37770 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk Assessment, and Environmental Assessment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No...Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk Assessment, and Environmental...for Insect Resistance AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA....

2011-06-28

268

Ornamental and Shade Tree Pest Control: A Guide for Commercial Applicators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a training manual for commercial pesticide applicators. It gives information for identification and control of diseases, insects, mites, weeds, and vertebrate pests of shade and ornamental trees. Phytotoxicity, environmental concerns, and pesticide application information is also given. (BB)

Khan, M. S.

269

Transgenic Bt Corn Hybrids and Pest Management in the USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Corn, Zea mays L., grown in many areas of the United States suffers from a variety of insect species that attack virtually all parts of\\u000a the growing plant. Many conventional pest management programs have been developed to combat these insects with varying degrees\\u000a of success. In the mid-1990s, the commercial introduction and subsequent widespread adoption of Bt transgenic hybrids has

Siddharth Tiwari; Roger R. Youngman

270

Structural Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed for those who seek certification as pesticide applicators for industrial, institutional, structural, and health-related pest control. It is divided into six sections covering general pest control, wood-destroying organisms, bird control, fumigation, rodent control, and industrial weed control. The manual gives information…

Kahn, M. S.; Hoffman, W. M.

271

Pesticide Applicator Certification Training, Manual No. 1a: Agricultural Pest Control. a. Plant.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides information needed to meet the minimum standards for certification as an applicator of pesticides in the agricultural plant pest control category. Adapted for the State of Virginia, the text discusses: (1) the basics of insecticides; (2) insect pests; (3) selection and calibration of applicator equipment; and (4) the proper…

Allen, W. A.; And Others

272

Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Fruit Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators prepare for certification under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. The primary focus of this publication is on fruit pest control. Sections included are: (1) Causes of fruit diseases; (2) Fruit fungicides and bactericides; (3) Insect and mite pests; (4) Insecticides and miticides;…

Brunner, J.; And Others

273

Insects of the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico. Forest Service general technical report  

SciTech Connect

In this review of the literature on forest entomology in Puerto Rico, emphasis is given to research conducted in the Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF). This review should serve as an introduction to the insects inhabiting the LEF for researchers and as a guide for the identification of possible insect pests. There are three sections to this review. The first deals with basic insect ecology; the second, forest insect pests; and the third, insect attacks on dry wood and during wood seasoning. The reference section and appendices contain information on the systematics and taxonomy of different insect orders found in Puerto Rico.

Torres, J.A.

1994-07-01

274

Potential Use of a Serpin from Arabidopsis for Pest Control  

PubMed Central

Although genetically modified (GM) plants expressing toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protect agricultural crops against lepidopteran and coleopteran pests, field-evolved resistance to Bt toxins has been reported for populations of several lepidopteran species. Moreover, some important agricultural pests, like phloem-feeding insects, are not susceptible to Bt crops. Complementary pest control strategies are therefore necessary to assure that the benefits provided by those insect-resistant transgenic plants are not compromised and to target those pests that are not susceptible. Experimental GM plants producing plant protease inhibitors have been shown to confer resistance against a wide range of agricultural pests. In this study we assessed the potential of AtSerpin1, a serpin from Arabidopsis thaliana (L). Heynh., for pest control. In vitro assays were conducted with a wide range of pests that rely mainly on either serine or cysteine proteases for digestion and also with three non-target organisms occurring in agricultural crops. AtSerpin1 inhibited proteases from all pest and non-target species assayed. Subsequently, the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis Boisduval and the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) were fed on artificial diets containing AtSerpin1, and S. littoralis was also fed on transgenic Arabidopsis plants overproducing AtSerpin1. AtSerpin1 supplied in the artificial diet or by transgenic plants reduced the growth of S. littoralis larvae by 65% and 38%, respectively, relative to controls. Nymphs of A. pisum exposed to diets containing AtSerpin1 suffered high mortality levels (LC50?=?637 µg ml?1). The results indicate that AtSerpin1 is a good candidate for exploitation in pest control.

Alvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; Maharramov, Jafar; Carrillo, Laura; Vandenabeele, Steven; Vercammen, Dominique; Van Breusegem, Frank; Smagghe, Guy

2011-01-01

275

LANDSCAPE PEST MONITORING METHODS AND TRAINING MANAGERS TO USE THEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring is the systematic collection and re- cording of information on pests and damage. Scale insects and aphids, respectively, can be efficiently monitored using sticky tape traps and water sensitive paper. We describe these monitoring techniques, present examples of their use in con- trolling citricola scale infesting Chinese hackberry and painted maple aphid infesting silver maple, and discuss our methods

Steve H. Dreistadt; Mary Louise Flint

1995-01-01

276

Forest Pest Control and Timber Treatment Category Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. The document is a compilation of pamphlets and circulars which discuss forest management, control of undesirable woody plants, herbicides in forestry, diseases and insect pests, and equipment for pesticide application. (CS)

Bowman, James S.; Turmel, Jon P.

277

The genome of the model beetle and pest Tribolium castaneum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tribolium castaneum is a member of the most species-rich eukaryotic order, a powerful model organism for the study of generalized insect development, and an important pest of stored agricultural products. We describe its genome sequence here. This omnivorous beetle has evolved the ability to interact with a diverse chemical environment, as shown by large expansions in odorant and gustatory receptors,

Stephen Richards; Richard A. Gibbs; George M. Weinstock; Susan J. Brown; Robin Denell; Richard W. Beeman; G. Bucher; M. Friedrich; C. J. P. Grimmelikhuijzen; M. Klingler; M. D. Lorenzen; S. Roth; R. Schroder; D. Tautz; E. M. Zdobnov; D. Muzny; T. Attaway; S. Bell; C. J. Buhay; M. N. Chandrabose; D. Chavez; K. P. Clerk-Blankenburg; A. Cree; M. Dao; C. Davis; J. Chacko; H. Dinh; S. Dugan-Rocha; G. Fowler; T. T. Garner; J. Garnes; A. Gnirke; A. Hawes; J. Hernandez; S. Hines; M. Holder; J. Hume; S. N. Jhangiani; V. Joshi; Z. M. Khan; L. Jackson; C. Kovar; A. Kowis; S. Lee; L. R. Lewis; J. Margolis; M. Morgan; L. V. Nazareth; N. Nguyen; G. Okwuonu; D. Parker; S. J. Ruiz; J. Santibanez; J. Savard; S. E. Scherer; B. Schneider; E. Sodergren; S. Vattahil; D. Villasana; C. S. White; R. Wright; J. Lord; B. Oppert; S. Brown; L. J. Wang; Y. Liu; K. Worley; C. G. Elsik; J. T. Reese; E. Elhaik; G. Landan; D. Graur; P. Arensburger; P. Atkinson; J. Beidler; J. P. Demuth; D. W. Drury; Y. Z. Du; H. Fujiwara; V. Maselli; M. Osanai; H. M. Robertson; Z. Tu; J. J. Wang; S. Z. Wang; H. Song; L. Zhang; D. Werner; M. Stanke; B. Morgenstern; V. Solovyev; P. Kosarev; G. Brown; H. C. Chen; O. Ermolaeva; W. Hlavina; Y. Kapustin; B. Kiryutin

2008-01-01

278

INSECTICIDE CONCENTRATIONS IN AIR AFTER APPLICATION OF PEST CONTROL STRIPS  

EPA Science Inventory

Contamination of air in homes due to spraying of pesticides is of concern to the public. A pest control strip which kills creeping and crawling insects by contact is one method of reducing the amount of insecticide in the air. Several different insecticides are now available in t...

279

Applicator Training Manual for: Agricultural Animal Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual discusses pesticide safety and environmental considerations, pesticide toxicity, residue potential, pesticide formulations, and application techniques. In addition, descriptions of, and methods for controlling insects and related pests that attack cattle, sheep and goats, swine, horses and other equines, and poultry are given. These…

Christensen, Christian M.

280

Insect Investigations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a field investigation or bio-blitz where students are collecting as many different types of insects as they can. Back in the lab, they will record their findings, sort and classify the insects found. This will lead into a class discussion on biodiversity and the importance of insects and their benefits all living things.

281

Pest Management Specialist (AFSC 56650).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This eight-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for pest management specialists. Covered in the individual volumes are civil engineering; pest management (entomology, pest management planning and coordination, and safety and protective equipment); pest management chemicals and…

Air Univ., Gunter AFS, Ala. Extension Course Inst.

282

Practical importance for conservation of insect diversity in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insects are one of the most important groups in the natural world. They affect the life and welfare of humans in many different ways. While some insects are referred to as pests, others are beneficial to humans. For example, they may serve a function as pollinators of many cultivated plants, as natural enemies of harmful species, or as producers of

Minsheng You; Dunming Xu; Hongjiao Cai; Liette Vasseur

2005-01-01

283

Biodiversity, conservation and inventory: why insects matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Western culture views insects and arachnids as pests and vermin that need to be controlled. They usually are not considered as something to be preserved. Accordingly, arthropods and other small organisms have not been taken seriously for conservation by policy makers and the conservation community at large. Having existed for more than 400 million years and after surviving the Permian

Ke Chung Kim

1993-01-01

284

Chapter 7 The Present and Future Role of Insect-Resistant Genetically Modified Potato Cultivars in IPM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato, Solanum tuberosum L., is one of the world's principal food crops. Important potato insect pests include Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say, potato tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller), and aphids, especially as they transmit potato leafroll virus and potato virus Y. Management of insect pests of potato relies almost entirely on chemical insecticides. Potato breeding is complicated by the potato's

Edward J. Grafius; David S. Douches

285

My Insect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use information gathered from a variety of sources to design and make their own insect. Learners design and create an insect using household and/or arts and crafts materials. This discovery activity also enables learners to investigate insect structure and reinforces classification points. There are also optional discover sheets on pages 2-4 that can help learners think about how to design their insect. No particular materials are required--items listed in the materials section are suggestions.

Fenton, Trish; Pitts, Kieren; Ramel, Gordon; Bater, John; Henderson, Ian; Lin, Lorraine

2012-06-26

286

In vivo bioinsecticidal activity toward Ceratitis capitata (fruit fly) and Callosobruchus maculatus (cowpea weevil) and in vitro bioinsecticidal activity toward different orders of insect pests of a trypsin inhibitor purified from tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica) seeds.  

PubMed

A proteinaceous inhibitor with high activity against trypsin-like serine proteinases was purified from seeds of the tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica) by gel filtration on Shephacryl S-200 followed by a reverse-phase HPLC Vidac C18 TP. The inhibitor, called the tamarind trypsin inhibitor (TTI), showed a Mr of 21.42 kDa by mass spectrometry analysis. TTI was a noncompetitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 1.7 x 10(-9) M. In vitro bioinsecticidal activity against insect digestive enzymes from different orders showed that TTI had remarkable activity against enzymes from coleopteran, Anthonomus grandis (29.6%), Zabrotes subfasciatus (51.6%), Callosobruchus maculatus (86.7%), Rhyzopertha dominica(88.2%), and lepidopteron, Plodia interpuncptella (26.7%), Alabama argillacea (53.8%), and Spodoptera frugiperda (75.5%). Also, digestive enzymes from Diptera, Ceratitis capitata (fruit fly), were inhibited (52.9%). In vivo bioinsecticidal assays toward C. capitata and C. maculatus larvae were developed. The concentration of TTI (w/w) in the artificial seed necessary to cause 50% mortality (LD50) of larvae was 3.6%, and that to reduce mass larvae by 50.0% (ED50) was 3.2%. Furthermore, the mass C. capitata larvae were affected at 53.2% and produced approximately 34% mortality at a level of 4.0% (w/w) of TTI incorporated in artificial diets. PMID:15913299

Araújo, Carina L; Bezerra, Ingrid W L; Oliveira, Adeliana S; Moura, Fabiano T; Macedo, Leonardo L P; Gomes, Carlos E M; Barbosa, Aulus E A D; Macedo, Francisco P; Souza, Tánia M S; Franco, Octavio L; Bloch-J, Carlos; Sales, Mauricio P

2005-06-01

287

Toxin delivery by the coat protein of an aphid-vectored plant virus provides plant resistance to aphids.  

PubMed

The sap-sucking insects (order Hemiptera), including aphids, planthoppers, whiteflies and stink bugs, present one of the greatest challenges for pest management in global agriculture. Insect neurotoxins offer an alternative to chemical insecticides for controlling these pests, but require delivery into the insect hemocoel. Here we use the coat protein of a luteovirus, an aphid-vectored plant virus, to deliver a spider-derived, insect-specific toxin that acts within the hemocoel. The luteovirid coat protein is sufficient for delivery of fused proteins into the hemocoel of pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum, without virion assembly. We show that when four aphid pest species-A. pisum, Rhopalosiphum padi, Aphis glycines and Myzus persicae-feed on a recombinant coat protein-toxin fusion, either in an experimental membrane sachet or in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, they experience significant mortality. Aphids fed on these fusion proteins showed signs of neurotoxin-induced paralysis. Luteovirid coat protein-insect neurotoxin fusions represent a promising strategy for transgenic control of aphids and potentially other hemipteran pests. PMID:24316580

Bonning, Bryony C; Pal, Narinder; Liu, Sijun; Wang, Zhaohui; Sivakumar, S; Dixon, Philip M; King, Glenn F; Miller, W Allen

2014-01-01

288

Engineered Repressible Lethality for Controlling the Pink Bollworm, a Lepidopteran Pest of Cotton  

PubMed Central

The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an environmentally friendly method of pest control in which insects are mass-produced, irradiated and released to mate with wild counterparts. SIT has been used to control major pest insects including the pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella Saunders), a global pest of cotton. Transgenic technology has the potential to overcome disadvantages associated with the SIT, such as the damaging effects of radiation on released insects. A method called RIDL (Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal) is designed to circumvent the need to irradiate insects before release. Premature death of insects’ progeny can be engineered to provide an equivalent to sterilisation. Moreover, this trait can be suppressed by the provision of a dietary antidote. In the pink bollworm, we generated transformed strains using different DNA constructs, which showed moderate-to-100% engineered mortality. In permissive conditions, this effect was largely suppressed. Survival data on cotton in field cages indicated that field conditions increase the lethal effect. One strain, called OX3402C, showed highly penetrant and highly repressible lethality, and was tested on host plants where its larvae caused minimal damage before death. These results highlight a potentially valuable insecticide-free tool against pink bollworm, and indicate its potential for development in other lepidopteran pests.

Morrison, Neil I.; Simmons, Gregory S.; Fu, Guoliang; O'Connell, Sinead; Walker, Adam S.; Dafa'alla, Tarig; Walters, Michelle; Claus, John; Tang, Guolei; Jin, Li; Marubbi, Thea; Epton, Matthew J.; Harris, Claire L.; Staten, Robert T.; Miller, Ernest; Miller, Thomas A.; Alphey, Luke

2012-01-01

289

Insect Keepers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Insects are fascinating creatures--especially when you and your students get up close and personal with them! To that end, the authors facilitated an inquiry-based investigation with an emphasis on identification of the different types of insects found in the school yard, their characteristics, their habitat, and what they eat, while engaging the…

Moore, Virginia J.; Chessin, Debby A.; Theobald, Becky

2010-01-01

290

insects drawer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Insects are the dominant group of "hexapoda", arthropods with six legs. They were the first animals to develop flight. Although insects are the most common animals presently on Earth, the delicate structure of their exoskeleton limits the number of fossil representatives.

2001-03-01

291

Insect Keepers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Insects are fascinating creatures--especially when you and your students get up close and personal with them! To that end, the authors facilitated an inquiry-based investigation with an emphasis on identification of the different types of insects found in

Theobald, Becky; Chessin, Debby A.; Moore, Virginia J.

2010-03-01

292

WoodyBug: Knowledgebase of Pest and Beneficial Arthropods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Knowledgebase of pest and beneficial arthropods of woody ornamentals of the southeastern United States. Pests include aphids, borers, chewing insects, galls, lace bugs, leafminers, scales, spider mites, thrips and whiteflies. Other topics include host plant resistance, biologically compatible pesticides, scouting, monitoring and beneficial organisms. Requires a CD-ROM drive and a web browser. $12. This resource is extremely informative and easy to navigate once launched; however, a more intuitive "gateway" would be desireable. The taxa covered by the resource are skewed towards those found in Florida and other parts of the south, but much of the information will be useful in other parts of North America.

0002-11-30

293

DIARES-IPM: a diagnostic advisory rule-based expert system for integrated pest management in Solanaceous crop systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a DIagnostic Advisory Rule-based Expert System for Integrated Pest Management (DIARES-IPM) in Solanaceous crops. DIARES-IPM is an operational automatic identification tool that helps non-experts to identify pests (insects, diseases, nutritional deficiencies and beneficial insects) and suggest the appropriate treatments. The objective of this expert system was to serve as a diagnostic, extension and educational tool in vegetable

B. D. Mahaman; H. C. Passam; A. B. Sideridis; C. P. Yialouris

2003-01-01

294

Intervention of Phytohormone Pathways by Pathogen Effectors[OPEN  

PubMed Central

The constant struggle between plants and microbes has driven the evolution of multiple defense strategies in the host as well as offense strategies in the pathogen. To defend themselves from pathogen attack, plants often rely on elaborate signaling networks regulated by phytohormones. In turn, pathogens have adopted innovative strategies to manipulate phytohormone-regulated defenses. Tactics frequently employed by plant pathogens involve hijacking, evading, or disrupting hormone signaling pathways and/or crosstalk. As reviewed here, this is achieved mechanistically via pathogen-derived molecules known as effectors, which target phytohormone receptors, transcriptional activators and repressors, and other components of phytohormone signaling in the host plant. Herbivores and sap-sucking insects employ obligate pathogens such as viruses, phytoplasma, or symbiotic bacteria to intervene with phytohormone-regulated defenses. Overall, an improved understanding of phytohormone intervention strategies employed by pests and pathogens during their interactions with plants will ultimately lead to the development of new crop protection strategies.

Kazan, Kemal; Lyons, Rebecca

2014-01-01

295

Bean Gall Weevil and Blister Beetle as New Pests on Red Kidney Bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) an important cash crop is attacked by eight species of insect pests which cause considerable damage. They included thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis; aphids, Aphis craccivora; whitefly, Bemisia tobaci; hairy caterpillar, Spilosoma obliqua; stemfly, Ophiomyia phaseoli; pulse beetle Callosobruchus chinensis; bean gall weevil Alcidodes signatus and blister beetle Cyaneolylta coerculea. Of all these pests, bean gall

D. P. Abrol; V. V. Ramamurthy; K. Srivastava

2006-01-01

296

Control of three major bollworm pests of cotton in Pakistan by a single application of their combined sex pheromones  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Punjab province of Pakistan, cotton is subject to attack by three major bollworm pests: Pectinophora gossypiella, Earias vittella and £ insulana. Because of the difficulty of controlling these pests once their larvae have penetrated the bolls, early season control is essential. A non?toxic method is desirable if beneficial insects are not to be destroyed. Tests with a Mitsubishi

B. R. Critchley; D. G. Campion; G. G. Cavanagh; D. J. Chamberlain; M. R. Attique

1987-01-01

297

Monitoring Stored-Product Pests in Food Processing Plants with Pheromone Trapping, Contour Mapping, and Mark-Recapture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distribution and movement patterns of severalspecies of stored-product pests in a food processing plant were investigated. The objectives of this study were to determine the temporal and spatialvariation in abundance of stored-product pests using pheromone traps; assess the effectiveness of trap type, location, and number on monitoring insect populations; and to evaluate the nature of pheromone trap capture hot spots

J. F. Campbell; M. A. Mullen; A. K. Dowdy

2002-01-01

298

The War Against Pests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Insecticides should not be the only weapons of war used against pests; in addition to them, a strategy aimed at winning the millenial warfare should combine the tactical use of natural plant enemies, reinforced plant genetic qualities, and the application of adequate ecological techniques. (BL)

Smith, Ray F.

1973-01-01

299

Public Health Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual supplies information helpful to individuals wishing to become certified in public health pest control. It is designed as a technical reference for vector control workers and as preparatory material for structural applicators of restricted use pesticides to meet the General Standards of Competency required of commercial applicators. The…

Arizona Univ., Tucson. Cooperative Extension Service.

300

Bt sweet corn and selective insecticides: impacts on pests and predators.  

PubMed

Sweet corn, Zea mays L., is attacked by a variety of insect pests that can cause severe losses to the producer. Current control practices are largely limited to the application of broad-spectrum insecticides that can have a substantial and deleterious impact on the natural enemy complex. Predators have been shown to provide partial control of sweet corn pests when not killed by broad-spectrum insecticides. New products that specifically target the pest species, while being relatively benign to other insects, could provide more integrated control. In field trials we found that transgenic Bt sweet corn, and the foliar insecticides indoxacarb and spinosad are all less toxic to the most abundant predators in sweet corn (Coleomegilla maculate [DeGeer], Harmonia axyridis [Pallas], and Orius insidiosus [Sav]) than the pyrethroid lambda cyhalothrin. Indoxacarb, however, was moderately toxic to coccinellids and spinosad and indoxacarb were somewhat toxic to O. insidiosus nymphs at field rates. Bt sweet corn and spinosad were able to provide control of the lepidopteran pests better than or equal to lambda cyhalothrin. The choice of insecticide material made a significant impact on survival of the pests and predators, while the frequency of application mainly affected the pests and the rate applied had little effect on either pests or predators. These results demonstrate that some of the new products available in sweet corn allow a truly integrated biological and chemical pest control program in sweet corn, making future advances in conservation, augmentation and classical biological control more feasible. PMID:12650347

Musser, Fred R; Shelton, Anthony M

2003-02-01

301

Insect Defenses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A page from Dr. John Meyer's General Entomology course at NC State University detailing how insects defend themselves. Topics covered include speed, playing-dead, urticating hairs, chemical defenses, protective coloration and more.

0002-11-30

302

Integrated Pest Management in Fruits – Theory and Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pest management practices used in several deciduous fruit crops are discussed. The chapter begins by noting the geographic\\u000a origin and approximate date of domestication of several fruit crops and the need for more fruit breeding programs to identify\\u000a and incorporate insect resistant genes into more fruit cultivars. It is assumed that fruit production probably began as small\\u000a plantings where growers

Donn T. Johnson

303

Natural enemy interactions constrain pest control in complex agricultural landscapes.  

PubMed

Biological control of pests by natural enemies is a major ecosystem service delivered to agriculture worldwide. Quantifying and predicting its effectiveness at large spatial scales is critical for increased sustainability of agricultural production. Landscape complexity is known to benefit natural enemies, but its effects on interactions between natural enemies and the consequences for crop damage and yield are unclear. Here, we show that pest control at the landscape scale is driven by differences in natural enemy interactions across landscapes, rather than by the effectiveness of individual natural enemy guilds. In a field exclusion experiment, pest control by flying insect enemies increased with landscape complexity. However, so did antagonistic interactions between flying insects and birds, which were neutral in simple landscapes and increasingly negative in complex landscapes. Negative natural enemy interactions thus constrained pest control in complex landscapes. These results show that, by altering natural enemy interactions, landscape complexity can provide ecosystem services as well as disservices. Careful handling of the tradeoffs among multiple ecosystem services, biodiversity, and societal concerns is thus crucial and depends on our ability to predict the functional consequences of landscape-scale changes in trophic interactions. PMID:23513216

Martin, Emily A; Reineking, Björn; Seo, Bumsuk; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

2013-04-01

304

Process protocols based on radio frequency energy to control field and storage pests in in-shell walnuts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A practical process protocol was developed to control insect pests in in-shell walnuts using a 27 MHz pilot scale radio frequency (RF) system. Fifth-instars, that had been determined to be the most heat resistant life stage for navel orangeworm (Amyelois transitella [Walker]) using a heating block system, were selected as the targeted insect in the protocol development. RF heating to

S. Wang; J. Tang; J. A. Johnson; E. Mitcham; J. D. Hansen; R. P. Cavalieri; J. Bower; B. Biasi

2002-01-01

305

[Investigation and controlling measure of main diseases and pests on Artemisia annua].  

PubMed

According to the investigations in Guangxi area, there are 3 kind diseases and 11 kind insect pests on Artemisia annua L. In which main diseases and peste are the stem rot, cataplexy, Myzus persicase, Agrotis ypsilon and Diarthronomyia chrysanthemi. This article reports the main symptom, the cause of disease, the shape characteristic, the harm situation emphatically as well as the preventing and controlling measure. PMID:18323197

Liang, Hui-ling; Wei, Xiao; Tang, Hui; Jiang, Yun-sheng; Wang, Man-lian

2007-11-01

306

Wood-Inhabiting Insects in Houses: Their Identification, Biology, Prevention and Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This manual is designed to provide a comprehensive reference source for appraisers, architects, builders, inspectors, and pest control technicians on the prevention and control of wood - inhabiting insects in houses. Emphasis is placed on descriptions of ...

H. B. Moore

1979-01-01

307

Control de Parasitos y de Insectos de Ganado Vacuno (Parasite and Insect Control in Cattle).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Control of pests in cattle is involved and complicated, requiring a variety of treatment methods. The following eight pamphlets explain specific parasites and insects with possible cures. Controlling internal parasites using phenothizines which includes d...

1973-01-01

308

Compatibility of garlic (Allium sativum L.) leaf agglutinin and Cry1Ac ?-endotoxin for gene pyramiding.  

PubMed

?-Endotoxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been used as bio-pesticides for the control of lepidopteran insect pests. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) leaf agglutinin (ASAL), being toxic to several sap-sucking pests and some lepidopteran pests, may be a good candidate for pyramiding with ?-endotoxins in transgenic plants for enhancing the range of resistance to insect pests. Since ASAL shares the midgut receptors with Cry1Ac in Helicoverpa armigera, there is possibility of antagonism in their toxicity. Our study demonstrated that ASAL increased the toxicity of Cry1Ac against H. armigera while Cry1Ac did not alter the toxicity of ASAL against cotton aphids. The two toxins interacted and increased binding of each other to brush border membrane vesicle (BBMV) proteins and to the two important receptors, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aminopeptidase N (APN). The results indicated that the toxins had different binding sites on the ALP and APN but influenced mutual binding. We conclude that ASAL can be safely employed with Cry1Ac for developing transgenic crops for wider insect resistance. PMID:21870043

Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar; Singh, Seema; Chandrashekar, Krishnappa; Tuli, Rakesh; Singh, Pradhyumna Kumar

2012-03-01

309

The risk of exotic and native plants as hosts for four pest thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripinae).  

PubMed

Interactions among insect pests, crops and weeds are well recognised. In fact, the elimination of weed hosts outside of the crop is a common practice to control many insect-vectored viruses. However, little is known about interactions among insect pests, crops and native vegetation, and whether native plants may be used to revegetate areas where weed hosts have been eliminated as part of horticultural management regimes. We used the Northern Adelaide Plains horticultural region (South Australia, Australia) as a model system to study the potential of various plant taxa in hosting four pest thrips (three exotic, one native; Frankliniella occidentalis, F. schultzei, Thrips tabaci and T. imaginis) when located adjacent to, and distant from, horticultural crops. Flower funnels were used for standardised sampling of thrips on flowers from 19 exotic weed and 12 native plant species, representing 13 and three families, respectively. Flowers were sampled monthly over a year, and statistical analyses were performed to identify significant determinants of probability of thrips occurrence and density. Plant family was found to significantly influence both measures for each thrips species. In addition, crop proximity influenced the probability of occurrence for the two Frankliniella species (but only influenced density of the key pest F. occidentalis), and season influenced density of all four pest thrips. All native plant species tested had a low likelihood of hosting the three exotic thrips species. Overall, results suggest that judicious choice of surrounding vegetation has potential to be an important component of integrated pest management (IPM) while increasing biodiversity conservation. PMID:20569517

Schellhorn, N A; Glatz, R V; Wood, G M

2010-10-01

310

GENETIC ENGINEERING OF INSECT TOLERANCE IN VAUruT: IMPROVED TRANSFORMATION EFFICIENCY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genes encoding the insecticidal crystal proteins (ICPs) of BacIllus thuringiensis are good candidates for protecting walnut plants against insect pests. Ve have estimated the dose response of three important walnut pests (codling moth, navel orangeworm and Indianmeal moth) with two highly purified insecticidal proteins of Bacillus thurJ.nglensis and show that these three insects are highly sensitive to these proteins.

Abhaya M. Dandekar; Gale H. McGranahan; Patrick V. Vail; Sandra L. Uratsu; Charles Leslie; J. Steven Tebbets; Darlene Hoffman

311

The Present and Future Role of Insect-Resistant Genetically Modified Potato Cultivars in IPM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato, Solanum tuberosum L., is one of the world’s principal food crops. Important potato insect pests include Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say, potato tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller), and aphids, especially as they transmit potato leafroll virus and potato virus Y. Management of insect pests of\\u000a potato relies almost entirely on chemical insecticides. Potato breeding is complicated by the potato’s

Edward J. Grafius; David S. Douches

312

EFECTIVIDAD DE EXTRACTOS BOTÁNICOS DE DIEZ PLANTAS SOBRE LA MORTALIDAD Y REPELENCIA DE LARVAS DE Rhynchophorus palmarum L., INSECTO PLAGA DEL PIJUAYO Bactris gasipaes KUNTH EN LA AMAZONÍA DEL PERÚ Effectiveness of botanical extracts from ten plants on mortality and larval repellency of Rhynchophorus palmarum L., an insect pest of the Peach palm Bactris gasipaes Kunth in Amazonian Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

A B S T R A C T Pest resistance to chemical insecticides has grown in recent years, which is the motive for the search for alternative methods, such as plants with larvicidal activity. The objective of this research was to evaluate mortality and larval repellency of Rhynchophorus palmarum L. (Curculionidae), a pest of the Peach palm Bactris gasipaes Kunth

313

Insect Mouthparts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site contains a pictorial guide to insect mouthparts, a complicated topic served well by this simple yet effective tutorial. Created by University of Ottawa entomology professor Dr. Houseman -- using material adapted from Digital Zoology (on CD from McGraw-Hill) -- this site provides labeled diagrams and high quality photos of chewing, siphoning, piercing, sponging, and combination mouthparts. Users may view images by category or click through the entire set in sequence. The photographs are intirguing enough to invite a look from anyone interested in insects, especially those not opposed to the occasional decapitated grasshopper head.

2008-01-22

314

Insect-resistant transgenic plants in a multi-trophic context  

Microsoft Academic Search

So far, genetic engineering of plants in the context of insect pest control has involved insertion of genes that code for toxins, and may be characterized as the incorporation of biopesticides into classical plant breeding. In the context of pesticide usage in pest control, natural enemies of herbivores have received increasing attention, because carnivorous arthropods are an important component of

Astrid T. Groot; Marcel Dicke

2002-01-01

315

Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 1B: Agricultural Insect Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide provides basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the control of economic insect pests on field and forage crops, especially corn, soybeans, and alfalfa. Full color photographs of the more destructive pests are provided to aid in identification of problems. Precautions and…

Stockdale, Harold J.; Ryan, Stephen O.

316

Resource concentration dilutes a key pest in indigenous potato agriculture.  

PubMed

Modern restructuring of agricultural landscapes, due to the expansion of monocultures and the resulting elimination of non-crop habitat, is routinely blamed for rising populations of agricultural insect pests. However, landscape studies demonstrating a positive correlation between pest densities and the spatial extent of crop monocultures are rare. We test this hypothesis with a data set from 140 subsistence farms in the Andes and find the inverse correlation. Infestations by the Andean potato weevil (Premnotrypes spp.), the most important pest in Andean potato agriculture, decrease with increasing amounts of potato in the landscape. A statistical model predicts that aggregating potato fields may outperform the management of Andean potato weevils by IPM and chemical control. We speculate that the strong pest suppression generated by aggregating potato fields may partly explain why indigenous potato farmers cluster their potato fields under a traditional rotation system common in Andean agriculture (i.e., "sectoral fallow"). Our results suggest that some agricultural pests may also respond negatively to the expansion of monocultures, and that manipulating the spatial arrangement of host crops may offer an important tool for some IPM programs. PMID:21563583

Parsa, Soroush; Ccanto, Raul; Rosenheim, Jay A

2011-03-01

317

Pest Ants and Cockroaches  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tutorials on pest ants and cockroaches. Each tutorial has 50 questions; incorrect answers lead to additional information. Covers acrobat ant, Argentine ant, bigheaded ant, crazy ant, Florida carpenter ant, ghost ant, imported fire ant, little fire ant, native fire ant and Pharaoh ant, American cockroach, Australian cockroach, brown cockroach, brownbanded cockroach, Cuban cockroach, Florida woods cockroaches, German cockroach, oriental cockroach, smokybrown cockroach and Surinam cockroach. Requires Windows. program must be downloaded on to hardrive, but once installed is intuitive. many of the species depicted in these tutorials are restricted to Florida and the extreme southern U.S. $15. Part number SW 157.

0002-11-30

318

Integration of botanicals and microbials for management of crop and human pests.  

PubMed

Insect pests inflict damage to humans, farm animals, and crops. Human and animal pests put more than 100 million people and 80 million cattle at risk worldwide. Plant pests are the main reason for destroying one fifth of the world's total crop production annually. Anopheles stephensi is the major vector of human malaria in Middle East and South Asian regions. Spodoptera litura is a polyphagous pest of vegetables and field crops. Because of its broad host range, this insect is also known as cluster caterpillar, common cutworm, cotton leafworm, tobacco cutworm, tobacco caterpillar, and tropical armyworm. The toxic effects of methanolic extract of Senna alata and microbial insecticide, Bacillus sphericus, were tested against the polyphagous crop pest, S. litura (Fab.), and the malarial vector, A. stephensi. Results from the present study states that B. sphericus is more toxic than S. alata to both the crop pest and mosquito. The malarial vector, A. stephensi, was found to be susceptible than the crop pest, S. litura. Both the botanical and microbial insecticide showed excellent larvicidal, pupicidal, longevity, fecundity, and growth regulatory activities. Median lethal concentrations of B. sphericus and methanolic extract of S. alata observed to kill the third instar of S. litura were 0.52 and 193.09 ppm and A. stephensi were 0.40 and 174.64 ppm, respectively. PMID:23052771

Naresh Kumar, A; Murugan, K; Madhiyazhagan, P

2013-01-01

319

The Molecular Biology Toolbox and Its Use in Basic and Applied Insect Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This overview examines recent progress in the application of molecular tools to the study of insect biology and the development of pest management strategies. The sequencing and annotation of insect genomes, coupled with analyses using comparative genomics, are providing new insights into the molecular underpinnings of insect-specific processes and shedding light on their evolutionary relationships. Researchers investigate the functions of insect genes using indirect approaches such as expression profiling, and direct methods such as insertional mutagenesis and RNA interference. Biotechnological applications to pest management include the development of resistant crops and trees that express insect-specific toxins, the design of microbial agents with enhanced insecticidal potency, and the engineering of insects that can transfer lethal genes to natural populations following their mass release in the field. Comparative genomics analyses also make it possible to identify insect-specific genes that can be targeted for rational insecticide design, using tools such as cell-based, high-throughput screening assays.

Michel Cusson (Canadian Forest Service and Université Laval - Quebec;)

2008-09-01

320

Sterile-Insect Methods for Control of Mosquito-Borne Diseases: An Analysis  

PubMed Central

Abstract Effective vector control, and more specifically mosquito control, is a complex and difficult problem, as illustrated by the continuing prevalence (and spread) of mosquito-transmitted diseases. The sterile insect technique and similar methods control certain agricultural insect pest populations in a species-specific, environmentally sound, and effective manner; there is increased interest in applying this approach to vector control. Such an approach, like all others in use and development, is not a one-size-fits-all solution, and will be more appropriate in some situations than others. In addition, the proposed release of pest insects, and more so genetically modified pest insects, is bound to raise questions in the general public and the scientific community as to such a method's efficacy, safety, and sustainability. This article attempts to address these concerns and indicate where sterile-insect methods are likely to be useful for vector control.

Benedict, Mark; Bellini, Romeo; Clark, Gary G.; Dame, David A.; Service, Mike W.; Dobson, Stephen L.

2010-01-01

321

Eastern Subterranean Termite and Wood-Destroying Insects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tutorials on wood-destroying pest insects. Each tutorial has 50 questions; incorrect answers lead to additional information. Covers identification, life cycle, biology, damage and colony structure of the Eastern subterranean termite as well as covering powderpost beetles, old house borer, termites, carpenter ants and carpenter bees. Requires Windows, and the tutorials must first be installed on the computer's hard drive. Once installed and launched, the tutorials are intuitive to use. These tutorials will be most valuable to those studying structural pest management in pest management professional prepratory classes and perhaps in general economic entomology classes. $15. Part number SW 158.

0002-11-30

322

Pest Control in Corn and Soybeans: Weeds - Insects - Diseases.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document gives the characteristics and application rates for herbicides used to control annual weeds in corn, annual and perennial broadleaf weeds in corn, quackgrass and yellow nutsedge in corn, and annual weeds in soybeans. It also gives insecticide use information for corn and soybeans. A brief discussion of disease control in corn and…

Doersch, R. E.; And Others

323

Proceedings: Integrating Cultural Tactics into the Management of Bark Beetle and Reforestation Pests. (Conference) Held in Vallombrosa, Italy on September 1-3, 1996.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication contains 31 research papers aobut forest insect biology, ecology, and physiology as they relate to the integration of cultural tactics into the management of bark beetle and reforestration pests. These papers were presented at a joint mee...

A. M. Liebhold F. M. Stephen J. C. Gregoire K. R. Day S. M. Salom

1997-01-01

324

Indirect Effects of Fishery Exploitation and Pest Control in a Riverine Food Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used an energy-based food web model to evaluate indirect effects of fishery exploitation and aquatic insect pest control on food web structure and recreational fisheries in the New River, West Virginia. Key groups represented in the model were aquatic insects, age-1 and age-2 crayfish (Cambaridae), age-1 and age-2 larvae of the dobsonfly Corydalus cornutus (hellgrammites), prey fishes, and age-0

Michael J. Roell; Donald J. Orth

1998-01-01

325

Boosting the sterile insect technique to control mosquitoes.  

PubMed

Mosquitoes are vectors of major diseases. Auto-dissemination recently proved very efficient to control Aedes species, using adult females contaminated with dissemination stations of juvenile hormone to treat breeding habitats, but cannot be used at large scales. Here we propose to combine it to the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) to create a new control concept, named 'boosted SIT' that might enable the area-wide eradication of mosquitoes and many other vectors and insect pests. PMID:24746400

Bouyer, Jérémy; Lefrançois, Thierry

2014-06-01

326

Monitoring in banana pest management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring in banana pest management is an important activity for commercial and\\/or smallholder banana production. It is required to detect the occurrence of newly introduced pest species, those which have previously been of minor importance, and for new variants which pose particular threats. Monitoring is important strategically in providing early warning of problems that may arise, and in some cases

M. J. Jeger; J. M. Waller; A. Johanson; S. R. Gowen

1996-01-01

327

Integrated Pest Management for Turfgrass and Ornamentals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Problems encountered in controlling pests with chemical toxicants; Benefits of an integrated pest management approach to turfgrass and ornamentals; Current research towards understanding the pest and the site; State of the art research on contro...

A. R. Leslie R. L. Metcalf

1989-01-01

328

insect Aerodynamics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page describes current research about insect flight dynamics. It focuses on the work of biologist R. McNeill Alexander of the University of Leeds, whose research team has built large-scale models of insects to test their flight aerodynamics in wind tunnels. At the bottom of the page is a small (160 x 120) QuickTime video of a Morpho butterfly (Order Lepidoptera, Family Nymphalidae) with detailed views of its wing scales. It is an excerpt from the Alien Empire miniseries of the Public Broadcasting Service's Nature series. The video requires QuickTime and may not be accessible to those with older or slow computers. The link to the "enhanced multimedia video clip" did not work at the time of this review.

0002-11-30

329

The Economic Value of Ecological Services Provided by Insects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer reviewed resource from BioScience is on the economic value of ecological services provided by insects. In this article we focus on the vital ecological services provided by insects. We restrict our focus to services provided by "wild" insects; we do not include services from domesticated or mass-reared insect species. The four insect services for which we provide value estimates--dung burial, pest control, pollination, and wildlife nutrition--were chosen not because of their importance but because of the availability of data and an algorithm for their estimation. We base our estimations of the value of each service on projections of losses that would accrue if insects were not functioning at their current level. We estimate the annual value of these ecological services provided in the United States to be at least $57 billion, an amount that justifies greater investment in the conservation of these services

JOHN E. LOSEY and MACE VAUGHAN (;)

2006-04-01

330

An Automated Flying-Insect-Detection System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automated flying-insect-detection system (AFIDS) was developed as a proof-of-concept instrument for real-time detection and identification of flying insects. This type of system has use in public health and homeland security decision support, agriculture and military pest management, and/or entomological research. Insects are first lured into the AFIDS integrated sphere by insect attractants. Once inside the sphere, the insect's wing beats cause alterations in light intensity that is detected by a photoelectric sensor. Following detection, the insects are encouraged (with the use of a small fan) to move out of the sphere and into a designated insect trap where they are held for taxonomic identification or serological testing. The acquired electronic wing beat signatures are preprocessed (Fourier transformed) in real-time to display a periodic signal. These signals are sent to the end user where they are graphically displayed. All AFIDS data are pre-processed in the field with the use of a laptop computer equipped with LABVIEW. The AFIDS software can be programmed to run continuously or at specific time intervals when insects are prevalent. A special DC-restored transimpedance amplifier reduces the contributions of low-frequency background light signals, and affords approximately two orders of magnitude greater AC gain than conventional amplifiers. This greatly increases the signal-to-noise ratio and enables the detection of small changes in light intensity. The AFIDS light source consists of high-intensity Al GaInP light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The AFIDS circuitry minimizes brightness fluctuations in the LEDs and when integrated with an integrating sphere, creates a diffuse uniform light field. The insect wing beats isotropically scatter the diffuse light in the sphere and create wing beat signatures that are detected by the sensor. This configuration minimizes variations in signal associated with insect flight orientation.

Vann, Timi; Andrews, Jane C.; Howell, Dane; Ryan, Robert

2005-01-01

331

Pest management of a prey-predator model with sexual favoritism.  

PubMed

Although sex of prey is an important factor for the risk of predating, few articles consider the consequences of sexual favoritism and the corresponding effects on the impulsive predator-prey dynamics and its utility in biological control. This paper investigates the pest management strategy of a prey-predator system model with sexual favoritism. An impulsive differential equation which models the process of periodically releasing natural enemies and spraying pesticides at different fixed time for pest control is proposed and investigated. It is proved that the pest-eradication periodic solution is globally asymptotically stable under the assumption that the release amount of the predator is greater than some critical value. Permanent conditions are established under the assumption that the release amount of the predator is less than another critical value. In particular, two single control strategies are proposed. Furthermore, we compare three pest control strategies and find that if we choose narrow-spectrum pesticides that targeted to a specific pest's life cycle to kill the pest, then the combined strategy is preferable. Finally, the corresponding system with no sexual favoritism is investigated. The results indicate that we can release fewer amount of the predators to eliminate the preys with sexual favoritism than without and any strong sexual favoritism will drive the pest towards extinction. In view of the biological meaning, the sexual favoritism plays a more active role in suppressing insect pests. PMID:19015368

Pei, Yongzhen; Yang, Yong; Li, Changguo; Chen, Lansun

2009-06-01

332

OMIGA: Optimized Maker-Based Insect Genome Annotation.  

PubMed

Insects are one of the largest classes of animals on Earth and constitute more than half of all living species. The i5k initiative has begun sequencing of more than 5,000 insect genomes, which should greatly help in exploring insect resource and pest control. Insect genome annotation remains challenging because many insects have high levels of heterozygosity. To improve the quality of insect genome annotation, we developed a pipeline, named Optimized Maker-Based Insect Genome Annotation (OMIGA), to predict protein-coding genes from insect genomes. We first mapped RNA-Seq reads to genomic scaffolds to determine transcribed regions using Bowtie, and the putative transcripts were assembled using Cufflink. We then selected highly reliable transcripts with intact coding sequences to train de novo gene prediction software, including Augustus. The re-trained software was used to predict genes from insect genomes. Exonerate was used to refine gene structure and to determine near exact exon/intron boundary in the genome. Finally, we used the software Maker to integrate data from RNA-Seq, de novo gene prediction, and protein alignment to produce an official gene set. The OMIGA pipeline was used to annotate the draft genome of an important insect pest, Chilo suppressalis, yielding 12,548 genes. Different strategies were compared, which demonstrated that OMIGA had the best performance. In summary, we present a comprehensive pipeline for identifying genes in insect genomes that can be widely used to improve the annotation quality in insects. OMIGA is provided at http://ento.njau.edu.cn/omiga.html . PMID:24609470

Liu, Jinding; Xiao, Huamei; Huang, Shuiqing; Li, Fei

2014-08-01

333

Role of Dehydrodiferulates in Maize Resistance to Pests and Diseases  

PubMed Central

Phenolic esters have attracted considerable interest due to the potential they offer for peroxidase catalysed cross-linking of cell wall polysaccharides. Particularly, feruloyl residues undergo radical coupling reactions that result in cross-linking (intra-/intermolecular) between polysaccharides, between polysaccharides and lignin and, between polysaccharides and proteins. This review addresses for the first time different studies in which it is established that cross-linking by dehydrodiferulates contributes to maize’s defences to pests and diseases. Dehydrodiferulate cross-links are involved in maize defence mechanisms against insects such as the European, Mediterranean, and tropical corn borers and, storage pest as the maize weevil. In addition, cross-links are also discussed to be involved in genetic resistance of maize to fungus diseases as Gibberella ear and stalk rot. Resistance against insects and fungus attending dehydrodiferulates could go hand in hand. Quantitative trait loci mapping for these cell wall components could be a useful tool for enhancing resistance to pest and diseases in future breeding programs.

Santiago, Rogelio; Malvar, Rosa A.

2010-01-01

334

Agricultural pest monitoring using fluorescence lidar techniques. Feasibility study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fluorescence of different types of planthopper ( Hemiptera) and moth ( Lepidoptera), which constitute important Chinese agricultural pests, was investigated both in situ in a laboratory setting and remotely using a fluorescence light detection and ranging (lidar) system operating at a range of about 50 m. The natural autofluorescence of different species, as well as the fluorescence from insects that had been dusted with fluorescent dye powder for identification were studied. Autofluorescence spectra of both moths and planthoppers show a maximum intensity peak around 450 nm. Bleaching upon long-time laser illumination was modest and did not affect the shape of the spectrum. A single dyed rice planthopper, a few mm in size, could be detected at 50 m distance by using the fluorescence lidar system. By employing various marking dyes, different types of agricultural pest could be determined. We suggest that lidar may be used in studies of migration and movement of pest insects, including studies of their behavior in the vicinity of pheromone traps and in pheromone-treated fields.

Mei, L.; Guan, Z. G.; Zhou, H. J.; Lv, J.; Zhu, Z. R.; Cheng, J. A.; Chen, F. J.; Löfstedt, C.; Svanberg, S.; Somesfalean, G.

2012-03-01

335

IAEA/FAO interregional training course on use of radiation in insect control and entomology with special emphasis on the sterile insect technique. Final report, May 4--June 15, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The principal focus of the course was the application of Radiation in Entomology to achieve Area Wide Pest Suppression or Eradication. To achieve this objective formal lectures, discussion groups, laboratory exercises and field trips were held covering the details of: (1) principles, programs and research of all aspects of the Sterile Insect Technique; (2) insect biology and control; (3) integrated pest management; (4) population dynamics and models related to the development of SIT and insect population suppression; (5) fundamentals of computers for helping in development of SIT; (6) the importance of economic considerations in formulating area wide pest management programs. The course included tours of local laboratories of the University, USDA, and the State Division of Plant Industry (DPI), and a site visit to a citrus production area in which the pest-free zone concept of pest management for fruit export is utilized.

NONE

1994-12-31

336

Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Right-of-Way Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators who are engaged in right-of-way pest control to meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of Agriculture for certification. While the majority of material in this guide pertains to vegetation management, the guide also addresses right-of-way insect and fungus control. An introduction…

Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

337

Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Public Health Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed to assist public health pest control officials in meeting the certification required under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. The four sections included describe: (1) Insects of public health significance in Michigan; (2) Other arthropods that affect man; (3) Swimmers' itch parasite and snail host; and (4)…

Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

338

Understanding heliothine (Lepidoptera: Heliothinae) pests: what is a host plant?  

PubMed

Heliothine moths (Lepidoptera: Heliothinae) include some of the world's most devastating pest species. Whereas the majority of nonpest heliothinae specialize on a single plant family, genus, or species, pest species are highly polyphagous, with populations often escalating in size as they move from one crop species to another. Here, we examine the current literature on heliothine host-selection behavior with the aim of providing a knowledge base for research scientists and pest managers. We review the host relations of pest heliothines, with a particular focus on Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), the most economically damaging of all heliothine species. We then consider the important question of what constitutes a host plant in these moths, and some of the problems that arise when trying to determine host plant status from empirical studies on host use. The top six host plant families in the two main Australian pest species (H. armigera and Helicoverpa punctigera Wallengren) are the same and the top three (Asteraceae, Fabaceae, and Malvaceae) are ranked the same (in terms of the number of host species on which eggs or larvae have been identified), suggesting that these species may use similar cues to identify their hosts. In contrast, for the two key pest heliothines in the Americas, the Fabaceae contains approximately 1/3 of hosts for both. For Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), the remaining hosts are more evenly distributed, with Solanaceae next, followed by Poaceae, Asteraceae, Malvaceae, and Rosaceae. For Heliothis virescens (F.), the next highest five families are Malvaceae, Asteraceae, Solanaceae, Convolvulaceae, and Scrophulariaceae. Again there is considerable overlap in host use at generic and even species level. H. armigera is the most widely distributed and recorded from 68 plant families worldwide, but only 14 families are recorded as a containing a host in all geographic areas. A few crop hosts are used throughout the range as expected, but in some cases there are anomalies, perhaps because host plant relation studies are not comparable. Studies on the attraction of heliothines to plant odors are examined in the context of our current understanding of insect olfaction, with the aim of better understanding the connection between odor perception and host choice. Finally, we discuss research into sustainable management of pest heliothines using knowledge of heliothine behavior and ecology. A coordinated international research effort is needed to advance our knowledge on host relations in widely distributed polyphagous species instead of the localized, piecemeal approaches to understanding these insects that has been the norm to date. PMID:25026644

Cunningham, John Paul; Zalucki, Myron P

2014-06-01

339

When ecosystem services interact: crop pollination benefits depend on the level of pest control  

PubMed Central

Pollination is a key ecosystem service which most often has been studied in isolation although effects of pollination on seed set might depend on, and interact with, other services important for crop production. We tested three competing hypotheses on how insect pollination and pest control might jointly affect seed set: independent, compensatory or synergistic effects. For this, we performed a cage experiment with two levels of insect pollination and simulated pest control in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) grown for seed. There was a synergistic interaction between the two services: the gain in seed set obtained when simultaneously increasing pollination and pest control outweighed the sum of seed set gains obtained when increasing each service separately. This study shows that interactions can alter the benefits obtained from service-providing organisms, and this needs to be considered to properly manage multiple ecosystem services.

Lundin, Ola; Smith, Henrik G.; Rundlof, Maj; Bommarco, Riccardo

2013-01-01

340

The de novo Transcriptome and Its Analysis in the Worldwide Vegetable Pest, Delia antiqua (Diptera: Anthomyiidae).  

PubMed

The onion maggot Delia antiqua is a major insect pest of cultivated vegetables, especially the onion, and a good model to investigate the molecular mechanisms of diapause. To better understand the biology and diapause mechanism of the insect pest species, D. antiqua, the transcriptome was sequenced using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. Approximately 54 million reads were obtained, trimmed, and assembled into 29,659 unigenes, with an average length of 607 bp and an N50 of 818 bp. Among these unigenes, 21,605 (72.8%) were annotated in the public databases. All unigenes were then compared against Drosophila melanogaster and Anopheles gambiae. Codon usage bias was analyzed and 332 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were detected in this organism. These data represent the most comprehensive transcriptomic resource currently available for D. antiqua and will facilitate the study of genetics, genomics, diapause, and further pest control of D. antiqua. PMID:24615268

Zhang, Yu-Juan; Hao, Youjin; Si, Fengling; Ren, Shuang; Hu, Ganyu; Shen, Li; Chen, Bin

2014-01-01

341

When ecosystem services interact: crop pollination benefits depend on the level of pest control.  

PubMed

Pollination is a key ecosystem service which most often has been studied in isolation although effects of pollination on seed set might depend on, and interact with, other services important for crop production. We tested three competing hypotheses on how insect pollination and pest control might jointly affect seed set: independent, compensatory or synergistic effects. For this, we performed a cage experiment with two levels of insect pollination and simulated pest control in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) grown for seed. There was a synergistic interaction between the two services: the gain in seed set obtained when simultaneously increasing pollination and pest control outweighed the sum of seed set gains obtained when increasing each service separately. This study shows that interactions can alter the benefits obtained from service-providing organisms, and this needs to be considered to properly manage multiple ecosystem services. PMID:23269852

Lundin, Ola; Smith, Henrik G; Rundlöf, Maj; Bommarco, Riccardo

2013-02-22

342

SIMPLE SYSTEM FOR THE PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF INFECTIVITY AND PATHOGENESIS OF INSECT VIRUS IN A NONTARGET ESTUARINE SHRIMP  

EPA Science Inventory

Biological control agents (biorationals) are increasingly important in pest control concepts. Certain insect viruses, particularly the baculoviruses (nuclear polyhedrosis viruses), are considered to have potential as biological pesticides, and could be used widely in the environm...

343

Role of Population Genetics in the Sterile Insect Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection and analysis of genetic variation in natural and laboratory populations are reviewed. The application of population genetic methods and theory can help to plan and evaluate the implementation of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that use the sterile insect technique (SIT). Population genetic studies can play an important role in estimating dispersal rates and thus gene flow

E. S. KRAFSUR

344

Insect resistance management in GM crops: past, present and future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic plants expressing insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) were first commercialized in 1996 amid concern from some scientists, regulators and environmentalists that the widespread use of Bt crops would inevitably lead to resistance and the loss of a 'public good,' specifically, the susceptibility of insect pests to Bt proteins. Eight years later, Bt corn and cotton have

Sarah L Bates; Jian-Zhou Zhao; Richard T Roush; Anthony M Shelton

2005-01-01

345

Insect Invaders Capture Headlines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lately, a few insects not native to the North American continent have made headlines while making themselves at home. According to a recent study from the journal Science, a European fruit fly species, Drosophila subobscura, has replaced close to 95 percent of native North and South American fruit flies in the 20 years it has been in these climes. Even more striking is the fact that the non-native flies have evolved in the process. Over the last 10,000 years, European D. subobscura flies that lived in higher latitudes produced individuals with wing sizes that were four percent larger than their lower latitude counterparts. Strangely, in North America, it has taken less than two decades for the higher latitude fruit fly to grow to be four percent larger than those living south. In essence, the fruit fly population has transformed itself almost as fast as it has taken over its new environment. The findings point scientists to new questions regarding both the rapid evolution of an invader along with the ecological consequences of its arrival. Another recent report, from Reuters, describes the Asian long-horned beetle's devastation of trees in New York and Chicago. The beetle has been called the worst non-native pest since the gypsy moth, and the government is searching for solutions to this menace which bores holes into trees and damages their vascular systems. This week's In the News takes a closer look at these adaptable invaders and the problems of invasive species in general.

Ramanujan, Krishna.

346

Broadening the application of evolutionarily based genetic pest management.  

PubMed

Insect- and tick-vectored diseases such as malaria, dengue fever, and Lyme disease cause human suffering, and current approaches for prevention are not adequate. Invasive plants and animals such as Scotch broom, zebra mussels, and gypsy moths continue to cause environmental damage and economic losses in agriculture and forestry. Rodents transmit diseases and cause major pre- and postharvest losses, especially in less affluent countries. Each of these problems might benefit from the developing field of Genetic Pest Management that is conceptually based on principles of evolutionary biology. This article briefly describes the history of this field, new molecular tools in this field, and potential applications of those tools. There will be a need for evolutionary biologists to interact with researchers and practitioners in a variety of other fields to determine the most appropriate targets for genetic pest management, the most appropriate methods for specific targets, and the potential of natural selection to diminish the effectiveness of genetic pest management. In addition to producing environmentally sustainable pest management solutions, research efforts in this area could lead to new insights about the evolution of selfish genetic elements in natural systems and will provide students with the opportunity to develop a more sophisticated understanding of the role of evolutionary biology in solving societal problems. PMID:17999722

Gould, Fred

2008-02-01

347

The monoterpene limonene in orange peels attracts pests and microorganisms  

PubMed Central

Plant volatiles include terpenoids, which are generally involved in plant defense, repelling pests and pathogens and attracting insects for herbivore control, pollination and seed dispersal. Orange fruits accumulate the monoterpene limonene at high levels in the oil glands of their fruit peels. When limonene production was downregulated in orange fruits by the transgenic expression of a limonene synthase (CitMTSE1) in the antisense configuration, these fruits were resistant to the fungus Penicillium digitatum (Pers.) Sacc. and the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri and were less attractive to the medfly pest Ceratitis capitata. These responses were reversed when the antisense transgenic orange fruits were treated with limonene. To gain more insight into the role of the limonene concentration in fruit responses to pests and pathogens, we attempted to overexpress CitMTSE1 in the sense configuration in transgenic orange fruits. Only slight increases in the amount of limonene were found in sense transgenic fruits, maybe due to the detrimental effect that excessive limonene accumulation would have on plant development. Collectively, these results suggest that when limonene reaches peak levels as the fruit develops, it becomes a signal for pest and pathogen attraction, which facilitate access to the fruit for pulp consumers and seed dispersers.

Rodriguez, Ana; Andres, Victoria San; Cervera, Magdalena; Redondo, Ana; Alquezar, Berta; Shimada, Takehiko; Gadea, Jose; Rodrigo, Maria; Zacarias, Lorenzo; Palou, Lluis; Lopez, Maria M.; Castanera, Pedro; Pena, Leandro

2011-01-01

348

Molecular systematics of aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae): new insights from the long-wavelength opsin gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viviparous aphids (Aphididae) constitute a monophyletic group within the Homoptera with more than 4000 extant species worldwide but higher diversity in temperate regions. Several aspects of their biology account for attention paid to this group of insects. Their plant-sap-sucking way of feeding with many species transmitting viruses to crop plants has important implications on crop management strategies. Cyclical parthenogenesis associated

Benjam??n Ortiz-Rivas; Andrés Moya; David Mart??nez-Torres

2004-01-01

349

AETHALZONZDAE: FUNCTIONAL EQUIVALENTS OF EXTRAFLORAL NEC TARIES IN BAUHZNZA (CESALPZNZONZDEA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bauhinia forficata Link (Cesalpinionidea), is a common tree of the sub-tropical region of South Ameri- ca, and is heavily utilized as an urban shade tree. Among many of the phytophagous insects associated with this species is the polyphagous Aethalion reticulatum (L.). This sap sucking bug forms colonies on small branches or the base of flowers and developing seed pods. Colonies

H. G. Fowler

1992-01-01

350

Mechanisms by which pesticides affect insect immunity.  

PubMed

The current state of knowledge regarding the effect of pesticides on insect immunity is reviewed here. A basic understanding of these interactions is needed for several reasons, including to improve methods for controlling pest insects in agricultural settings, for controlling insect vectors of human diseases, and for reducing mortality in beneficial insects. Bees are particularly vulnerable to sublethal pesticide exposures because they gather nectar and pollen, concentrating environmental toxins in their nests in the process. Pesticides do have effects on immunity. Organophosphates and some botanicals have been found to impact hemocyte number, differentiation, and thus affect phagocytosis. The phenoloxidase cascade and malanization have also been shown to be affected by several insecticides. Many synthetic insecticides increase oxidative stress, and this could have severe impacts on the production of some antimicrobial peptides in insects, but research is needed to determine the actual effects. Pesticides can also affect grooming behaviors, rendering insects more susceptible to disease. Despite laboratory data documenting pesticide/pathogen interactions, little field data is available at the population level. PMID:22206912

James, R R; Xu, J

2012-02-01

351

Insects, infestations and nutrient fluxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest ecosystems are characterized by a high temporal and spatial variability in the vertical transfer of energy and matter within the canopy and the soil compartment. The mechanisms and controlling factors behind canopy processes and system-internal transfer dynamics are imperfectly understood at the moment. Seasonal flux diversities and inhomogeneities in throughfall composition have been reported from coniferous and deciduous forests, and in most cases leaf leaching has been considered as principle driver for differences in the amount and quality of nutrients and organic compounds (Tukey and Morgan 1963). Since herbivorous insects and the processes they initiate received less attention in past times, ecologists now emphasize the need for linking biological processes occurring in different ecosystem strata to explain rates and variability of nutrient cycling (Bardgett et al. 1998, Wardle et al. 2004). Consequently, herbivore insects in the canopies of forests are increasingly identified to play an important role for the (re)cycling and availability of nutrients, or, more generally, for the functioning of ecosystems not only in outbreak situations but also at endemic (non-outbreak) density levels (Stadler et al. 2001, Hunter et al. 2003). Before, little attention was paid to insect herbivores when quantifying element and energy fluxes through ecosystems, although the numerous and different functions insects fulfill in ecosystems (e.g. as pollinators, herbivores or detritivores) were unanimously recognized (Schowalter 2000). Amongst the reasons for this restraint was the argument that the total biomass of insects tends to be relatively low compared to the biomass of trees or the pool of soil organic matter (Ohmart et al. 1983). A second argument which was put forward to justify the inferior role of insects in nutrient cycling were the supposed low defoliation losses between 5-10% of the annual leaf biomass, or net primary production, due to insect herbivory under endemic situations (Larrson and Tenow 1980). However, at times of insect mass outbreaks with leaf area losses up to 100%, nutrient fluxes are strongly affected at the ecosystem level and consequently attract greater attention (Grace 1986). In this context, mass outbreaks of herbivore insects constitute a class of ecosystem disturbance (Pickett and White 1985). More specific, insect pests meet the criteria of biogeochemical "hot spots" and "hot moments" (McClain et al. 2003) as they induce temporal-spatial process heterogeneity or changes in biogeochemical reaction rates, but not necessarily changes in the structure of ecosystems or landscapes. This contribution presents a compilation of literature and own research data on insect herbivory effects on nutrient cycling and ecosystem functioning from the plot to the catchment scale. It focuses on temperate forest ecosystems and on short-term impacts as exerted by two focal functional groups of herbivore canopy insects (leaf and sap feeders). In detail, research results on effects operating on short temporal scales are presented including a) alterations in throughfall fluxes encompassing dissolved and particulate organic matter fractions, b) alterations in the amount, timing and quality of frass and honeydew deposition and c) soil microbial activity and decomposition processes.

Michalzik, B.

2012-04-01

352

Method for treating aquatic pests  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A novel method for eliminating or reducing, or otherwise treating, aquatic pests using juglone or juglone analogs is described. The methods are useful for removing zebra mussels and quagga mussels from water intake pipes and various other underwater hard surfaces. In addition, the methods are useful for treating dinoflaggellates, algae and amphipods, among other pests, from ballast water. A great advantage that these methods have over current protocols is that they have low environmental risk.

2000-12-26

353

Using citizen science programs to identify host resistance in pest-invaded forests.  

PubMed

Threats to native forests from non-native insects and pathogens (pests) are generally addressed with methods such as quarantine, eradication, biological control, and development of resistant stock through hybridization and breeding. In conjunction with such efforts, it may be useful to have citizen scientists locate rare surviving trees that may be naturally pest resistant or tolerant. The degree of resistance of individual trees identified in this way can be tested under controlled conditions, and the most resistant individuals can be integrated into plant breeding programs aimed at developing pest-resistant native stock. Involving citizen scientists in programs aimed at identifying rare trees that survive colonization by pests provides a low-cost means of maximizing search efforts across wide geographic regions and may provide an effective supplement to existing management approaches. PMID:20735452

Ingwell, Laura L; Preisser, Evan L

2011-02-01

354

Analysis of sustainable pest control using a pesticide and a screened refuge  

PubMed Central

We describe and analyze a ‘screened refuge’ technique for indefinitely sustaining control of insect pests using transgenic pesticidal crops or an applied pesticide, even when resistance is not recessive. The screen is a physical barrier that restricts pest movement. In a deterministic discrete-time model of the use of this technique, we obtain asymptotic analytical formulas for the two important equilibria of the system in terms of the refuge size and the pest fitnesses, mutation rates, and mobility out of and into the refuge. One of the equilibria is stable and is the point at which the pest population is controlled. The other is a saddle whose stable manifold bounds the basin of attraction of the former: its location provides a measure of the tolerance of the control mechanism to perturbations in the resistant allele density.

Ringland, John; George, Prasanth

2011-01-01

355

Stinging Insect Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

Stinging Insect Allergy Overview Symptoms & Diagnosis Treatment & Management Stinging Insect Allergy Overview Most of us develop redness and swelling at the ... Join us on Facebook and Twitter . Stinging Insect Allergy Symptoms & Diagnosis Symptoms Most people develop pain, redness ...

356

Hanford site integrated pest management plan  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site Integrated Pest Management Plan (HSIPMP) defines the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) decision process and subsequent strategies by which pest problems are to be solved at all Hanford Site properties per DOE-RL Site Infrastructure Division memo (WHC 9505090). The HSIPMP defines the roles that contractor organizations play in supporting the IPM process. In short the IPM process anticipates and prevents pest activity and infestation by combining several strategies to achieve long-term pest control solutions.

Giddings, R.F.

1996-04-09

357

Endosymbiotic bacteria in insects: guardians of the immune system?  

PubMed Central

Insects have evolved obligate, mutualistic interactions with bacteria without further transmission to other eukaryotic organisms. Such long-term obligate partnerships between insects and bacteria have a profound effect on various physiological functions of the host. Here we provide an overview of the effects of endosymbiotic bacteria on the insect immune system as well as on the immune response of insects to pathogenic infections. Potential mechanisms through which endosymbionts can affect the ability of their host to resist an infection are discussed in the light of recent findings. We finally point out unresolved questions for future research and speculate how the current knowledge can be employed to design and implement measures for the effective control of agricultural insect pests and vectors of diseases.

Eleftherianos, Ioannis; Atri, Jaishri; Accetta, Julia; Castillo, Julio C.

2013-01-01

358

Mechanisms of plant defense against insect herbivores  

PubMed Central

Plants respond to herbivory through various morphological, biochemicals, and molecular mechanisms to counter/offset the effects of herbivore attack. The biochemical mechanisms of defense against the herbivores are wide-ranging, highly dynamic, and are mediated both by direct and indirect defenses. The defensive compounds are either produced constitutively or in response to plant damage, and affect feeding, growth, and survival of herbivores. In addition, plants also release volatile organic compounds that attract the natural enemies of the herbivores. These strategies either act independently or in conjunction with each other. However, our understanding of these defensive mechanisms is still limited. Induced resistance could be exploited as an important tool for the pest management to minimize the amounts of insecticides used for pest control. Host plant resistance to insects, particularly, induced resistance, can also be manipulated with the use of chemical elicitors of secondary metabolites, which confer resistance to insects. By understanding the mechanisms of induced resistance, we can predict the herbivores that are likely to be affected by induced responses. The elicitors of induced responses can be sprayed on crop plants to build up the natural defense system against damage caused by herbivores. The induced responses can also be engineered genetically, so that the defensive compounds are constitutively produced in plants against are challenged by the herbivory. Induced resistance can be exploited for developing crop cultivars, which readily produce the inducible response upon mild infestation, and can act as one of components of integrated pest management for sustainable crop production.

War, Abdul Rashid; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; Ahmad, Tariq; Buhroo, Abdul Ahad; Hussain, Barkat; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Sharma, Hari Chand

2012-01-01

359

A multi-scale, landscape approach to predicting insect populations in agroecosystems.  

PubMed

Landscape composition affects ecosystems services, including agricultural pest management. However, relationships between land use and agricultural insects are not well understood, and many complexities remain to be explored. Here we examine whether nonagricultural landscapes can directly suppress agricultural pests, how multiple spatial scales of land use concurrently affect insect populations, and the relationships between regional land use and insect populations. We tracked densities of three specialist corn (Zea mays) pests (Ostrinia nubilalis, European corn borer; Diabrotica virgifera, western corn rootworm; Diabrotica barberi, northern corn rootworm), and two generalist predator lady beetles (Coleomegilla maculata and Propylea quatuordecimpunctata) in field corn and determined their relationships to agricultural land use at three spatial scales (field perimeter, 1-km, and 20-km radius areas). Pest densities were either higher (D. virgifera and D. barberi) or unchanged (O. nubilalis) in landscapes with more corn, while natural enemy densities were either lower (C. maculata) or unchanged (P. quatuordecimpunctata). Results for D. virgifera and D. barberi indicate that decreasing the area of preferred crop in the landscape can directly suppress specialist insect pests. Multiple scales of land use affected populations of D. virgifera and C. maculata, and D. virgifera populations showed strong relationships with regional, 20-km-scale land use. These results suggest that farm planning and government policies aimed at diversifying local and regional agricultural landscapes show promise for increasing biological control and directly suppressing agricultural pests. PMID:21830718

O'Rourke, Megan E; Rienzo-Stack, Kaitlin; Power, Alison G

2011-07-01

360

An Automated Flying-Insect Detection System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automated flying-insect detection system (AFIDS) was developed as a proof-of-concept instrument for real-time detection and identification of flying insects. This type of system has use in public health and homeland-security decision support, agriculture and military pest management, and/or entomological research. Insects are first lured into the AFIDS integrated sphere by insect attractants. Once inside the sphere, the insect s wing beats cause alterations in light intensity that is detected by a photoelectric sensor. Following detection, the insects are encouraged (with the use of a small fan) to move out of the sphere and into a designated insect trap where they are held for taxonomic identification or serological testing. The acquired electronic wing-beat signatures are preprocessed (Fourier transformed) in real time to display a periodic signal. These signals are sent to the end user where they are graphically. All AFIDS data are preprocessed in the field with the use of a laptop computer equipped with LabVIEW. The AFIDS software can be programmed to run continuously or at specific time intervals when insects are prevalent. A special DC-restored transimpedance amplifier reduces the contributions of low-frequency background light signals, and affords approximately two orders of magnitude greater AC gain than conventional amplifiers. This greatly increases the signal-to-noise ratio and enables the detection of small changes in light intensity. The AFIDS light source consists of high-intensity Al-GaInP light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The AFIDS circuitry minimizes brightness fluctuations in the LEDs and when integrated with an integrating sphere, creates a diffuse uniform light field. The insect wing beats isotropically scatter the diffuse light in the sphere and create wing-beat signatures that are detected by the sensor. This configuration minimizes variations in signal associated with insect flight orientation. Preliminary data indicate that AFIDS has sufficient sensitivity and frequency measuring capability to differentiate between male and female mosquitoes (Figure 1, bottom panel) and fruit flies (data not shown). Similar studies show that AFIDS can be utilized to detect discrete differences between two mosquito species, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. When fully deployable, a wireless network of AFIDS monitors could be used in combination with other remotely sensed data and visually displayed in a geographic information system (GIS) to provide real-time surveillance (see Figure 2). More accurate and sensitive insect population forecasts and effective rapid response and mitigation of insect issues would then be possible.

Vann, Timi; Andrews, Jane C.; Howell, Dane; Ryan, Robert

2007-01-01

361

Odorant receptors of a primitive hymenopteran pest, the wheat stem sawfly.  

PubMed

The wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus, is an herbivorous hymenopteran that feeds exclusively on members of the Graminae family. Synanthropically, it has become one of the most important insect pests of wheat grown in the northern Great Plains region of the USA and Canada. Insecticides are generally ineffective because of the wheat stem sawfly's extended adult flight period and its inaccessible larval stage, during which it feeds within the wheat stems, making it virtually intractable to most pest management strategies. While research towards integrated pest management strategies based on insect olfaction has proved promising, nothing is known about the molecular basis of olfaction in this important pest species. In this study we identified 28 unique odorant receptor (Or) transcripts from an antennal transcriptome. A phylogenetic analysis with the predicted Ors from the honey bee and jewel wasp genomes revealed at least four clades conserved amongst all three Hymenoptera species. Antennal expression levels were analysed using quantitative real-time PCR, and one male-biased and five female-biased Ors were identified. This study provides the basis for future functional analyses to identify behaviourally active odours that can be used to help develop olfactory-mediated pest management tools. PMID:23964849

Gress, J C; Robertson, H M; Weaver, D K; Dlaki?, M; Wanner, K W

2013-12-01

362

Molecular biology of insect sodium channels and pyrethroid resistance.  

PubMed

Voltage-gated sodium channels are essential for the initiation and propagation of the action potential in neurons and other excitable cells. Because of their critical roles in electrical signaling, sodium channels are targets of a variety of naturally occurring and synthetic neurotoxins, including several classes of insecticides. This review is intended to provide an update on the molecular biology of insect sodium channels and the molecular mechanism of pyrethroid resistance. Although mammalian and insect sodium channels share fundamental topological and functional properties, most insect species carry only one sodium channel gene, compared to multiple sodium channel genes found in each mammalian species. Recent studies showed that two posttranscriptional mechanisms, alternative splicing and RNA editing, are involved in generating functional diversity of sodium channels in insects. More than 50 sodium channel mutations have been identified to be responsible for or associated with knockdown resistance (kdr) to pyrethroids in various arthropod pests and disease vectors. Elucidation of molecular mechanism of kdr led to the identification of dual receptor sites of pyrethroids on insect sodium channels. Many of the kdr mutations appear to be located within or close to the two receptor sites. The accumulating knowledge of insect sodium channels and their interactions with insecticides provides a foundation for understanding the neurophysiology of sodium channels in vivo and the development of new and safer insecticides for effective control of arthropod pests and human disease vectors. PMID:24704279

Dong, Ke; Du, Yuzhe; Rinkevich, Frank; Nomura, Yoshiko; Xu, Peng; Wang, Lingxin; Silver, Kristopher; Zhorov, Boris S

2014-07-01

363

Large-Scale Management of Insect Resistance to Transgenic Cotton in Arizona: Can Transgenic Insecticidal Crops be Sustained?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major challenge for agriculture is management of insect resistance to toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produced by transgenic crops. Here we describe how a large-scale program is being developed in Arizona for management of resistance to Bt cotton in the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), and other insect pests of cotton. Financial support from growers makes this

Yves Carrière; Timothy J. Dennehy; Brent Pedersen; Shirley Haller; Christa Ellers-Kirk; Larry Antilla; Yong-Biao Liu; Elizabeth Willott; Bruce E. Tabashnik

2001-01-01

364

Intra- and interspecific interactions among Tribolium castaneum and Cryptolestes ferrugineus in stored wheat at different insect densities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryptolestes ferrugineus and Tribolium castaneum are important economi- cal pests of stored grain in Canada. Insects were reared separately or together on hard red spring wheat at three insect densities representing 1000, 500, and 250 adults per kilogram of wheat for single species and twice that of single densities for mixed species, in the laboratory (30°C, 70% RH). The experiment

Raj B. Hulasare; Noel D. G. White; Digvir S. Jayas; Colin J. Demianyk

365

Phylogeographic insights into an irruptive pest outbreak.  

PubMed

Irruptive forest insect pests cause considerable ecological and economic damage, and their outbreaks have been increasing in frequency and severity. We use a phylogeographic approach to understand the location and progression of an outbreak by the MPB (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins), an irruptive bark beetle that has caused unprecedented damage to lodgepole pine forests in western North America and is poised to expand its range across the boreal forest. We sampled MPB populations across British Columbia and Alberta and used phylogeographic methods to describe lineage diversification, characterize population structure, investigate expansion dynamics, and identify source populations of the outbreak. Using 1181 bp of mitochondrial DNA sequence from 267 individuals, we found high haplotype diversity, low nucleotide diversity, and limited lineage diversification. The overall pattern was consistent with isolation by distance at a continental scale, and with reduced diversity and population structure in the northerly, outbreak regions. Post-Pleistocene expansion was detected, however more recent expansion signals were not detected, potentially due to the size and rapid rate of range expansion. Based on the limited genetic structure, there were likely multiple source populations in southern British Columbia, although the magnitude of the demographic expansion and rate of spread have obscured the signature of these source populations. Our data highlight the need for caution in interpreting phylogeographic results for species with similar demographics. PMID:22837836

Cullingham, Catherine I; Roe, Amanda D; Sperling, Felix A H; Coltman, David W

2012-05-01

366

Plant volatile analogues strengthen attractiveness to insect.  

PubMed

Green leaf bug Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) is one of the major pests in agriculture. Management of A. lucorum was largely achieved by using pesticides. However, the increasing population of A. lucorum since growing Bt cotton widely and the increased awareness of ecoenvironment and agricultural product safety makes their population-control very challenging. Therefore this study was conducted to explore a novel ecological approach, synthetic plant volatile analogues, to manage the pest. Here, plant volatile analogues were first designed and synthesized by combining the bioactive components of ?-ionone and benzaldehyde. The stabilities of ?-ionone, benzaldehyde and analogue 3 g were tested. The electroantennogram (EAG) responses of A. lucorum adult antennae to the analogues were recorded. And the behavior assay and filed experiment were also conducted. In this study, thirteen analogues were acquired. The analogue 3 g was demonstrated to be more stable than ?-ionone and benzaldehyde in the environment. Many of the analogues elicited EAG responses, and the EAG response values to 3 g remained unchanged during seven-day period. 3 g was also demonstrated to be attractive to A. lucorum adults in the laboratory behavior experiment and in the field. Its attractiveness persisted longer than ?-ionone and benzaldehyde. This indicated that 3 g can strengthen attractiveness to insect and has potential as an attractant. Our results suggest that synthetic plant volatile analogues can strengthen attractiveness to insect. This is the first published study about synthetic plant volatile analogues that have the potential to be used in pest control. Our results will support a new ecological approach to pest control and it will be helpful to ecoenvironment and agricultural product safety. PMID:24911460

Sun, Yufeng; Yu, Hao; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Pickett, John A; Wu, Kongming

2014-01-01

367

Plant Volatile Analogues Strengthen Attractiveness to Insect  

PubMed Central

Green leaf bug Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) is one of the major pests in agriculture. Management of A. lucorum was largely achieved by using pesticides. However, the increasing population of A. lucorum since growing Bt cotton widely and the increased awareness of ecoenvironment and agricultural product safety makes their population-control very challenging. Therefore this study was conducted to explore a novel ecological approach, synthetic plant volatile analogues, to manage the pest. Here, plant volatile analogues were first designed and synthesized by combining the bioactive components of ?-ionone and benzaldehyde. The stabilities of ?-ionone, benzaldehyde and analogue 3 g were tested. The electroantennogram (EAG) responses of A. lucorum adult antennae to the analogues were recorded. And the behavior assay and filed experiment were also conducted. In this study, thirteen analogues were acquired. The analogue 3 g was demonstrated to be more stable than ?-ionone and benzaldehyde in the environment. Many of the analogues elicited EAG responses, and the EAG response values to 3 g remained unchanged during seven-day period. 3 g was also demonstrated to be attractive to A. lucorum adults in the laboratory behavior experiment and in the field. Its attractiveness persisted longer than ?-ionone and benzaldehyde. This indicated that 3 g can strengthen attractiveness to insect and has potential as an attractant. Our results suggest that synthetic plant volatile analogues can strengthen attractiveness to insect. This is the first published study about synthetic plant volatile analogues that have the potential to be used in pest control. Our results will support a new ecological approach to pest control and it will be helpful to ecoenvironment and agricultural product safety.

Sun, Yufeng; Yu, Hao; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Pickett, John A.; Wu, Kongming

2014-01-01

368

Evolutionary history predicts plant defense against an invasive pest  

PubMed Central

It has long been hypothesized that invasive pests may be facilitated by the evolutionary naïveté of their new hosts, but this prediction has never been examined in a phylogenetic framework. To address the hypothesis, we have been studying the invasive viburnum leaf beetle (Pyrrhalta viburni), which is decimating North American native species of Viburnum, a clade of worldwide importance as understory shrubs and ornamentals. In a phylogenetic field experiment using 16 species of Viburnum, we show that old-world Viburnum species that evolved in the presence of Pyrrhalta beetles mount a massive defensive wound response that crushes eggs of the pest insect; in contrast, naïve North American species that share no evolutionary history with Pyrrhalta beetles show a markedly lower response. This convergent continental difference in the defensive response of Viburnum spp. against insect oviposition contrasts with little difference in the quality of leaves for beetle larvae. Females show strong oviposition preferences that correspond with larval performance regardless of continental origin, which has facilitated colonization of susceptible North American species. Thus, although much attention has been paid to escape from enemies as a factor in the establishment and spread of nonnative organisms, the colonization of undefended resources seems to play a major role in the success of invasive species such as the viburnum leaf beetle.

Desurmont, Gaylord A.; Donoghue, Michael J.; Clement, Wendy L.; Agrawal, Anurag A.

2011-01-01

369

Defense strategies used by two sympatric vineyard moth pests.  

PubMed

Natural enemies including parasitoids are the major biological cause of mortality among phytophagous insects. In response to parasitism, these insects have evolved a set of defenses to protect themselves, including behavioral, morphological, physiological and immunological barriers. According to life history theory, resources are partitioned to various functions including defense, implying trade-offs among defense mechanisms. In this study we characterized the relative investment in behavioral, physical and immunological defense systems in two sympatric species of Tortricidae (Eupoecilia ambiguella, Lobesia botrana) which are important grapevine moth pests. We also estimated the parasitism by parasitoids in natural populations of both species, to infer the relative success of the investment strategies used by each moth. We demonstrated that larvae invest differently in defense systems according to the species. Relative to L. botrana, E. ambiguella larvae invested more into morphological defenses and less into behavioral defenses, and exhibited lower basal levels of immune defense but strongly responded to immune challenge. L. botrana larvae in a natural population were more heavily parasitized by various parasitoid species than E. ambiguella, suggesting that the efficacy of defense strategies against parasitoids is not equal among species. These results have implications for understanding of regulation in communities, and in the development of biological control strategies for these two grapevine pests. PMID:24662468

Vogelweith, Fanny; Thiéry, Denis; Moret, Yannick; Colin, Eloïse; Motreuil, Sébastien; Moreau, Jérôme

2014-05-01

370

New Pest Response Guidelines: Temperate Terrestrial Gastropods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Use New Pest Response Guidelines: Temperate Terrestrial Gastropods as a guide when designing a program to detect, monitor, control, contain, or eradicate an infestation of temperate climate pest snails and slugs in the United States and collaborating terr...

2008-01-01

371

Forest Pest Conditions in California, 2001.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The California Forest Pest Council, a 501(3)c non-profit organization, was founded in 1951 as the California Forest Pest Control Action Council. Membership is open to public and private forest managers, foresters, silviculturists, entomologists, pathologi...

2001-01-01

372

Synergistic pest-control compositions  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Pest control compositions, blends, and formulations are disclosed. The blends contain, in a synergistic combinations, at least two ingredients such as Lilac Flower Oil, D-Limonene, Thyme Oil, Lime Oil, Black Seed Oil, Wintergreen Oil, Linalool, Tetrahydrolinalool, Vanillin, Isopropyl myristate, Piperonal (aldehyde), Geraniol, Geraniol 60, Triethyl Citrate, and Methyl Salicylate.

2014-05-27

373

On automatic bioacoustic detection of pests: the cases of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus and Sitophilus oryzae.  

PubMed

The present work reports research efforts toward development and evaluation of a unified framework for automatic bioacoustic recognition of specific insect pests. Our approach is based on capturing and automatically recognizing the acoustic emission resulting from typical behaviors, e.g., locomotion and feeding, of the target pests. After acquisition the signals are amplified, filtered, parameterized, and classified by advanced machine learning methods on a portable computer. Specifically, we investigate an advanced signal parameterization scheme that relies on variable size signal segmentation. The feature vector computed for each segment of the signal is composed of the dominant harmonic, which carry information about the periodicity of the signal, and the cepstral coefficients, which carry information about the relative distribution of energy among the different spectral sub-bands. This parameterization offers a reliable representation of both the acoustic emissions of the pests of interest and the interferences from the environment. We illustrate the practical significance of our methodology on two specific cases: 1) a devastating pest for palm plantations, namely, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier and 2) a pest that attacks warehouse stored rice (Oryza sativa L.), the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (both Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Dryophorinae). These pests are known in many countries around the world and contribute for significant economical loss. The proposed approach led to detection results in real field trials, reaching 99.1% on real-field recordings of R. ferrugineus and 100% for S. oryzae. PMID:19736784

Potamitis, Ilyas; Ganchev, Todor; Kontodimas, Dimitris

2009-08-01

374

Major Arthropod Pests of North Carolina  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A comprehensive listing of arthropod pests arranged and searchable by commodity type. The listing includes pests of small fruits, ornamental plants, flowers, forests, corn, tobacco, turf, peanuts, cotton, and much more. Pests are listed by common and species name with life history data, images, and control strategies.

0002-11-30

375

Effectiveness of spinosad as a grain protectant against resistant beetle and psocid pests of stored grain in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effectiveness of the bacterium-derived insecticide, spinosad, was determined against eight storage pests of Australia. Laboratory experiments were carried out on relevant resistant strains of four beetle and four psocid species, with the aim of determining the potential of spinosad as a new grain protectant. To explore the possibility that spinosad could have delayed effects, we exposed all insects for 14d

Manoj K. Nayak; Gregory J. Daglish; Valerie S. Byrne

2005-01-01

376

Comparison of Predator and Pest Communities in Washington Potato Fields Treated with Broad-Spectrum, Selective, or Organic Insecticides  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the northwestern United States, insect pests of potatoes (Solanumtuberosum L.) have typically been controlled using broad-spectrum insecticides. However, the loss or impending loss of many broad-spectrum chemicals is increasing the use of selective insecticides, and organic potato production is growing in the region. In the 2001 and 2002 growing seasons, we intensively sampled the arthropods in 31 (14 in

Amanda M. Koss; Andrew S. Jensen; Alan Schreiber; Keith S. Pike; William E. Snyder

2005-01-01

377

Multiple effects of two drivers of agricultural change, labour shortage and water scarcity, on rice pest profiles in tropical Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of shortage of agricultural labour, represented by direct-seeding technologies replacing transplanting, and of water scarcity, represented by limited water supply, on rice pests (pathogens, weeds, insects) were studied. The analysis was based on a field characterisation data set covering six sites in tropical Asia and several cropping seasons. Two-way ANOVAs and MANOVA were, respectively, used to test the

Serge Savary; Nancy P. Castilla; F. A. Elazegui; Paul S. Teng

2005-01-01

378

Efficacy of essential oils of Caesulia axillaris and Mentha arvensis against some storage pests causing biodeterioration of food commodities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oils of Caesulia axillaris and Mentha arvensis have been tested for their fumigant activity in the management of biodeterioration of stored wheat samples by Aspergillus flavus and the insect pests, Sitophilus oryzae and Tribolium castaneum, at 1300 and 600 ppm, respectively. The findings indicate the efficacy of the oils as potent fumigants for management of the biodeterioration of

Jaya Varma; N. K Dubey

2001-01-01

379

Insects, Insecticides and Hormesis: Evidence and Considerations for Study  

PubMed Central

Insects are ubiquitous, crucial components of almost all terrestrial and fresh water ecosystems. In agricultural settings they are subjected to, intentionally or unintentionally, an array of synthetic pesticides and other chemical stressors. These ecological underpinnings, the amenability of insects to laboratory and field experiments, and our strong knowledgebase in insecticide toxicology, make the insect-insecticide model an excellent one to study many questions surrounding hormesis. Moreover, there is practical importance for agriculture with evidence of pest population growth being accelerated by insecticide hormesis. Nevertheless, insects have been underutilized in studies of hormesis. Where hormesis hypotheses have been tested, results clearly demonstrate stimulatory effects on multiple taxa as measured through several biological endpoints, both at individual and population levels. However, many basic questions are outstanding given the myriad of chemicals, responses, and ecological interactions that are likely to occur.

Cutler, G. Christopher

2013-01-01

380

United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service research on managing insect resistance to insecticides.  

PubMed

Insecticide resistance has developed within many classes of pesticide, and over 500 species of insects and mites are resistant to one or more insecticides. Insecticide resistance and the consequent losses of food and fiber caused by failure to control insect and mite pests causes economic losses of several billion dollars worldwide each year. It is the goal of insect resistance management (IRM) to preserve useful pesticides by slowing, preventing or reversing development of resistance in pests. Important aspects of this goal are understanding the development of resistance and monitoring to determine ways to prevent its development. We describe programs specific to missions of the US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, which are designed to characterize insecticide resistance in insects and mites with the goal of managing pests in an ecologically acceptable manner. Resistance management of cotton, potatoes, vegetables, melons, ornamentals, greenhouse crops, corn, stored grains, livestock, honeybees and mites, as well as management of transgenic crops are evaluated. We conclude that IRM is a vital part of stewardship of any pest management product and must be a combined effort of manufacturers, growers, consultants, extension services and grower organizations, working closely with regulators, to achieve logistically and economically feasible systems that prolong the effectiveness of all pest-control products. PMID:12846328

Elzen, Gary W; Hardee, Dick D

2003-01-01

381

Imidacloprid in melon guttation fluid: a potential mode of exposure for pest and beneficial organisms.  

PubMed

ELISA techniques were used to detect imidacloprid in guttation fluid of young cantaloupe plants in Arizona. Imidacloprid was detected at up to 4.1 microg/ml (ppm) in a coincidental guttation collection 3 d after a top label rate soil application and at 37 microg/ml one d after a separate top label rate soil application study. These imidacloprid titers exceed reported median oral toxicities for several insect species by factors of 10 or more. Pesticides in guttation fluid are a relatively unexplored route of exposure for both pest and beneficial insects, and could represent an important risk for both of these groups in guttation-prone environments. PMID:22420257

Hoffmann, Eric J; Castle, Steven J

2012-02-01

382

A Suite of Models to Support the Quantitative Assessment of Spread in Pest Risk Analysis  

PubMed Central

Pest Risk Analyses (PRAs) are conducted worldwide to decide whether and how exotic plant pests should be regulated to prevent invasion. There is an increasing demand for science-based risk mapping in PRA. Spread plays a key role in determining the potential distribution of pests, but there is no suitable spread modelling tool available for pest risk analysts. Existing models are species specific, biologically and technically complex, and data hungry. Here we present a set of four simple and generic spread models that can be parameterised with limited data. Simulations with these models generate maps of the potential expansion of an invasive species at continental scale. The models have one to three biological parameters. They differ in whether they treat spatial processes implicitly or explicitly, and in whether they consider pest density or pest presence/absence only. The four models represent four complementary perspectives on the process of invasion and, because they have different initial conditions, they can be considered as alternative scenarios. All models take into account habitat distribution and climate. We present an application of each of the four models to the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, using historic data on its spread in Europe. Further tests as proof of concept were conducted with a broad range of taxa (insects, nematodes, plants, and plant pathogens). Pest risk analysts, the intended model users, found the model outputs to be generally credible and useful. The estimation of parameters from data requires insights into population dynamics theory, and this requires guidance. If used appropriately, these generic spread models provide a transparent and objective tool for evaluating the potential spread of pests in PRAs. Further work is needed to validate models, build familiarity in the user community and create a database of species parameters to help realize their potential in PRA practice.

Robinet, Christelle; Kehlenbeck, Hella; Kriticos, Darren J.; Baker, Richard H. A.; Battisti, Andrea; Brunel, Sarah; Dupin, Maxime; Eyre, Dominic; Faccoli, Massimo; Ilieva, Zhenya; Kenis, Marc; Knight, Jon; Reynaud, Philippe; Yart, Annie; van der Werf, Wopke

2012-01-01

383

A suite of models to support the quantitative assessment of spread in pest risk analysis.  

PubMed

Pest Risk Analyses (PRAs) are conducted worldwide to decide whether and how exotic plant pests should be regulated to prevent invasion. There is an increasing demand for science-based risk mapping in PRA. Spread plays a key role in determining the potential distribution of pests, but there is no suitable spread modelling tool available for pest risk analysts. Existing models are species specific, biologically and technically complex, and data hungry. Here we present a set of four simple and generic spread models that can be parameterised with limited data. Simulations with these models generate maps of the potential expansion of an invasive species at continental scale. The models have one to three biological parameters. They differ in whether they treat spatial processes implicitly or explicitly, and in whether they consider pest density or pest presence/absence only. The four models represent four complementary perspectives on the process of invasion and, because they have different initial conditions, they can be considered as alternative scenarios. All models take into account habitat distribution and climate. We present an application of each of the four models to the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, using historic data on its spread in Europe. Further tests as proof of concept were conducted with a broad range of taxa (insects, nematodes, plants, and plant pathogens). Pest risk analysts, the intended model users, found the model outputs to be generally credible and useful. The estimation of parameters from data requires insights into population dynamics theory, and this requires guidance. If used appropriately, these generic spread models provide a transparent and objective tool for evaluating the potential spread of pests in PRAs. Further work is needed to validate models, build familiarity in the user community and create a database of species parameters to help realize their potential in PRA practice. PMID:23056174

Robinet, Christelle; Kehlenbeck, Hella; Kriticos, Darren J; Baker, Richard H A; Battisti, Andrea; Brunel, Sarah; Dupin, Maxime; Eyre, Dominic; Faccoli, Massimo; Ilieva, Zhenya; Kenis, Marc; Knight, Jon; Reynaud, Philippe; Yart, Annie; van der Werf, Wopke

2012-01-01

384

Insect Bites and Stings  

MedlinePLUS

Most insect bites are harmless, though they sometimes cause discomfort. Bee, wasp, and hornet stings and fire ant bites ... hurt. Mosquito, flea, and mite bites usually itch. Insects can also spread diseases. In the United States, ...

385

Insect Sting Allergy: Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... Director, Health Initiatives View full profile Insect Sting Allergy: Symptoms Insect sting reactions can be classified as ... Calendar Read the News View Daily Pollen Count Allergy Treatment Programs At National Jewish Health, some of ...

386

Insect repellent composition  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present application provides insect repellent compositions that include lemongrass oil and p-menthane-3,8-diol. Vanillin or a vanillin-type component may also be included in the insect repellent composition.

2010-12-07

387

Insects: An Interdisciplinary Unit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author talks about an interdisciplinary unit on insects, and presents activities that can help students practice communication skills (interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational) and learn about insects with hands-on activities.

Leger, Heather

2007-01-01

388

Plant/Insect Interactions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This list of 12 investigative questions is designed to help students observe how insects interact with plants in their habitat. The one-page printable PDF list includes questions about the insect behavior and the plant characteristics.

389

Respiration in Aquatic Insects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article: (1) explains the respiratory patterns of several freshwater insects; (2) describes the differences and mechanisms of spiracular cutaneous, and gill respiration; and (3) discusses behavioral aspects of selected aquatic insects. (ML)

MacFarland, John

1985-01-01

390

Comparative genomics of insect juvenile hormone biosynthesis?  

PubMed Central

The biosynthesis of insect juvenile hormone (JH) and its neuroendocrine control are attractive targets for chemical control of insect pests and vectors of disease. To facilitate the molecular study of JH biosynthesis, we analyzed ESTs from the glands producing JH, the corpora allata (CA) in the cockroach Diploptera punctata, an insect long used as a physiological model species and compared them with ESTs from the CA of the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Anopheles albimanus. The predicted genes were analyzed according to their probable functions with the Gene Ontology classification, and compared to Drosophila and Anopheles gambiae genes. A large number of reciprocal matches in the cDNA libraries of cockroach and mosquito CA were found. These matches defined known and suspected enzymes of the JH biosynthetic pathway, but also several proteins associated with signal transduction that might play a role in the modulation of JH synthesis by neuropeptides. The identification in both cockroach and mosquito CA of homologs of the small ligand binding proteins from insects, Takeout/JH binding protein and retinol-binding protein highlights a hitherto unsuspected complexity of metabolite trafficking, perhaps JH precursor trafficking, in these endocrine glands. Furthermore, many reciprocal matches for genes of unknown function may provide a fertile ground for an in-depth study of allatal-specific cell physiology.

Noriega, F.G.; Ribeiro, J.M.C.; Koener, J.F.; Valenzuela, J.G.; Hernandez-Martinez, S.; Pham, V.M.; Feyereisen, R.

2009-01-01

391

Neuropeptide Physiology in Insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a In a search for more environmentally benign alternatives to chemical pesticides, insect neuropeptides have been suggested as\\u000a ideal candidates. Neuropeptides are neuromodulators and\\/or neurohormones that regulate most major physiological and behavioral\\u000a processes in insects. The major neuropeptide structures have been identified through peptide purification in insects (peptidomics)\\u000a and insect genome projects. Neuropeptide receptors have been identified and characterized in Drosophila

William G. Bendena

392

Molecular technologies to improve the effectiveness of the sterile insect technique.  

PubMed

The application of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) in area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes continues to increase. However, programme efficiency can still be considerably enhanced when certain components of the technology are improved, such as the development of improved strains for mass rearing and release. These include strains that (1) produce only male insects for sterilization and release and (2) carry easily identifiable markers to identify released sterile insects in the field. Using both classical and modern biotechnology techniques, key insect pests are targeted, where SIT programmes are being implemented. The pests include mosquitoes, the Mexican fruit fly, the codling moth, the oriental fruit fly and the pink bollworm. This special issue summarizes the results of research efforts aimed at the development and evaluation of new strains to a level where a decision can be made as to their suitability for use in large scale SIT programmes. Major beneficiaries will be operational AW-IPM programmes that apply the SIT against major insect pests. PMID:21258957

Franz, Gerald; Robinson, Alan S

2011-01-01

393

Antioxidant defense response in a galling insect  

PubMed Central

Herbivorous insect species are constantly challenged with reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from endogenous and exogenous sources. ROS produced within insects because of stress and prooxidant allelochemicals produced by host plants in response to herbivory require a complex mode of antioxidant defense during insect/plant interactions. Some insect herbivores have a midgut-based defense against the suite of ROS encountered. Because the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor) is the major insect pest of wheat worldwide, and an emerging model for all gall midges, we investigated its antioxidant responses during interaction with its host plant. Quantitative data for two phospholipid glutathione peroxidases (MdesPHGPX-1 and MdesPHGPX-2), two catalases (MdesCAT-1 and MdesCAT-2), and two superoxide dismutases (MdesSOD-1 and MdesSOD-2) revealed high levels of all of the mRNAs in the midgut of larvae on susceptible wheat (compatible interaction). During development of the Hessian fly on susceptible wheat, a differential expression pattern was observed for all six genes. Analysis of larvae on resistant wheat (incompatible interaction) compared with larvae on susceptible wheat showed increased levels of mRNAs in larvae on resistant wheat for all of the antioxidant genes except MdesSOD-1 and MdesSOD-2. We postulate that the increased mRNA levels of MdesPHGPX-1, MdesPHGPX-2, MdesCAT-1, and MdesCAT-2 reflect responses to ROS encountered by larvae while feeding on resistant wheat seedlings and/or ROS generated endogenously in larvae because of stress/starvation. These results provide an opportunity to understand the cooperative antioxidant defense responses in the Hessian fly/wheat interaction and may be applicable to other insect/plant interactions.

Mittapalli, Omprakash; Neal, Jonathan J.; Shukle, Richard H.

2007-01-01

394

Earthworms, Collembola and residue management change wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) and herbivore pest performance (Aphidina: Rhophalosiphum padi )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management practices of arable systems determine the distribution of soil organic matter thereby changing decomposer animal\\u000a activity and their impact on nutrient mineralization, plant growth and plant–herbivore interactions. Decomposer-mediated changes\\u000a in plant growth and insect pest performance were investigated in wheat–aphid model systems in the greenhouse. Three types\\u000a of litter distribution were established: litter patch at the soil surface (simulating

Xin Ke; Stefan Scheu

2008-01-01

395

Corn Rootworm - Part 1: Description of Corn Rootworm and Other Early Season Corn Pests  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson will discuss the corn rootworm complex, which consists ofthe northern, western, and southern corn rootworm, focusing on thenorthern and western species. The information in this lesson will focuson the biology of corn rootworms in the north central Corn Belt,including Iowa and Nebraska. Crop producers, crop scouts, students, andthe general public may find the information in this lesson helpful foridentifying corn rootworm, other corn pests, and the feeding damagecaused by each insect.

396

Environmental Impacts of Microbial Control Agents Used for Control of Invasive Pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

A range of bacteria, viruses, fungi, protists and nematodes has been used for control and eradication of invasive pests. Insect\\u000a pathogens vary in key characteristics such as specificity, mode of action and persistence, all of which determine their safety\\u000a profile with respect to impacts on non-target species. Laboratory testing against beneficial species and post-application\\u000a monitoring of impacts support the view

Maureen O’Callaghan; Michael Brownbridge

397

Termites as Pests of Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a While pest species of termites are thought to belong predominantly to four families comprising the lower termites, the species\\u000a causing the most damage to tropical agriculture belong to three of the four subfamilies of higher termites, lacking protist\\u000a symbionts. A wide range of crops are affected, including trees in plantations and orchards, coconuts, palms, sugar cane, rice,\\u000a maize, wheat, sorghum,

Corinne Rouland-Lefèvre

398

Incredible Insect Mouths  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson shows children that insects have different kinds of mouths. It also notes the kinds of foods that different insects eat. It is a hands-on experiment type of lesson in which the children act as insects and use different tools for their "mouths."

Stewart, Kelly

2012-02-20

399

Exploring Sound with Insects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Differences in insect morphology and movement during singing provide a fascinating opportunity for students to investigate insects while learning about the characteristics of sound. In the activities described here, students use a free online computer software program to explore the songs of the major singing insects and experiment with making…

Robertson, Laura; Meyer, John R.

2010-01-01

400

Insects On Film  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A playful site dedicated to insects in films, with discussions of how the insects were portrayed in fiction as well as in documentaries. The site suffers a bit from having not been updated in the past few years, but there have been many good insect films to include.

0002-11-30

401

Insects and Others.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several ideas for observing insects and soil animals in the classroom are provided. Also provided are: (1) procedures for making insect cages with milk cartons; (2) suggestions for collecting and feeding insects; and (3) techniques for collecting and identifying soil animals. (BC)

Mills, Richard

1984-01-01

402

Response of insect parasitism to elevation depends on host and parasitoid life-history strategies.  

PubMed

How global warming will affect insect parasitoids and their role as natural enemies of insect pests is difficult to assess within a short period of time. Considering that elevation gradients can be used as analogues for global warming, we carried out meta-analyses of 27 correlations between parasitoid richness and elevation and 140 correlations between parasitism rate and elevation in natural and semi-natural environments. We also explored various covariates that may explain the observed responses. Both parasitism rates and parasitoid species richness significantly decreased with increasing elevation. The decrease was greater for ectoparasitoids and parasitoids of ectophagous insects than for endoparasitoids and parasitoids of endophagous hosts, possibly because these latter are better protected from adverse and extreme climatic conditions occurring at higher elevations. Although our results suggest an increase of parasitism with increasing temperature, other factors regulating herbivorous insects have to be considered before concluding that climate warming will lead to a decrease in pest density. PMID:23760164

Péré, Christelle; Jactel, Hervé; Kenis, Marc

2013-08-23

403

Microbial management of arthropod pests of tea: current state and prospects.  

PubMed

Sustainable tea cultivation will rely increasingly on alternatives to conventional chemical insecticides for pest management that are environment-friendly and reduce the amount of pesticide residues in made tea. Entomopathogens can provide effective control, conserve biodiversity, and serve as alternatives to chemical insecticides under several conditions. Due to their specificity for insects, these pathogens including viruses, bacteria, and fungi are ideal candidates for incorporation in the integrated pest management strategies for tea where their effects on other natural enemies will be minimal. Biological and ecological characteristics of several dominant natural entomopathogenic microorganisms have been well documented throughout the tea-growing countries particularly China, Japan, and India. But research to convert them to microbial insecticide formulations for tea pest control by evolving suitable techniques for production, standardization, formulation, and application has not progressed well except in Japan and China to some extent. Increased use of microbial control will depend on a variety of factors including improvements in the pathogens' virulence, formulation, delivery, etc. and an increased awareness of their attributes by growers and the general public. In this review, we provide an overview of microbial control of the key insect pests of tea and also the scope for future studies for their better utilization. PMID:24760230

Roy, Somnath; Muraleedharan, Narayanannair

2014-06-01

404

Recruitment of entomopathogenic nematodes by insect-damaged maize roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants under attack by arthropod herbivores often emit volatile compounds from their leaves that attract natural enemies of the herbivores. Here we report the first identification of an insect-induced belowground plant signal, (E)-beta-caryophyllene, which strongly attracts an entomopathogenic nematode. Maize roots release this sesquiterpene in response to feeding by larvae of the beetle Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, a maize pest that

Sergio Rasmann; Tobias G. Köllner; Jörg Degenhardt; Ivan Hiltpold; Stefan Toepfer; Ulrich Kuhlmann; Jonathan Gershenzon; Ted C. J. Turlings

2005-01-01

405

Partitioning Yield Loss on Yellow Squash into Nematode and Insect Components  

PubMed Central

The effect of a contplex of several insect and nematode pests on yield of yellow squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) was examined in two field tests in southern Florida. Applications of permethrin for insect control and oxamyl primarily for nematode control plus some insect control were made alone and in combination to achieve differential reduction of various insect and nematode components contributing to yield loss. The effect of these components on yield was further analyzed by multiple regression. Yield losses in weight of small fruit to nematode and insect pests together were estimated at 23.4% and 30.4% in each of the two tests, respectively. In the first test, this loss was attributed to the melonworm, Diaphania hyalinata, while in the second test, it was attributed to D. hyalinata and the nematodes Quinisulcius acutus and particularly Rotylenchulus reniforrnis. D. hyalinata accounted for further losses of 9.0% and 10.3%, respectively, from direct damage to the fruit. Despite the presence of low levels of Diabrotica balteata, Liriomyza sativae, and Myzus persicae, yields were little affected by these pests. Prediction of yield loss by multiple regression analysis was more accurate when both insect and nematode populations were present in the plots than when nematodes alone were present.

McSorley, R.; Waddill, V. H.

1982-01-01

406

Partitioning yield loss on yellow squash into nematode and insect components.  

PubMed

The effect of a contplex of several insect and nematode pests on yield of yellow squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) was examined in two field tests in southern Florida. Applications of permethrin for insect control and oxamyl primarily for nematode control plus some insect control were made alone and in combination to achieve differential reduction of various insect and nematode components contributing to yield loss. The effect of these components on yield was further analyzed by multiple regression. Yield losses in weight of small fruit to nematode and insect pests together were estimated at 23.4% and 30.4% in each of the two tests, respectively. In the first test, this loss was attributed to the melonworm, Diaphania hyalinata, while in the second test, it was attributed to D. hyalinata and the nematodes Quinisulcius acutus and particularly Rotylenchulus reniforrnis. D. hyalinata accounted for further losses of 9.0% and 10.3%, respectively, from direct damage to the fruit. Despite the presence of low levels of Diabrotica balteata, Liriomyza sativae, and Myzus persicae, yields were little affected by these pests. Prediction of yield loss by multiple regression analysis was more accurate when both insect and nematode populations were present in the plots than when nematodes alone were present. PMID:19295683

McSorley, R; Waddill, V H

1982-01-01

407

Insect Mating - How Insects Attract a Mate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A short popular article detailing three major methods of insect mate seeking; visual cues, auditory cues, and pheromones. Embedded links take you to further about.com articles about cicadas, pheromones, and other topics.

0002-11-30

408

Pest Status and Distribution of the Stem Borer, Dectes texanus, in Kansas  

PubMed Central

The Dectes stem borer, Dectes texanus LeConte (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is currently receiving increased attention as a pest of soybeans in the Great Plains of North America. Field surveys were conducted in 1999 and in 2008 to record the distribution of this pest in Kansas. These surveys documented an increase in the abundance of the pest and an expansion in the range of this insect westward and eastward. The percentage of fields with more than 50% of plants infested also increased from 4% in 1999 to 11% in 2008. The far eastern counties still had surprisingly few infested fields even though much of the Kansas soybean acreage is located in these counties. It is not clear if D. texanus simply haven't expanded into eastern Kansas yet or if there is an ecological barrier that keeps them from doing so. Field crop entomologists from across eastern North America were sent an email questionnaire and their responses indicate that this pest is now well established as a pest of soybeans in at least 14 states across eastern North America.

Buschman, Lawrent L.; Sloderbeck, Phillip E.

2010-01-01

409

Natural products for pest control: an analysis of their role, value and future.  

PubMed

Natural products (NPs) have long been used as pesticides and have broadly served as a source of inspiration for a great many commercial synthetic organic fungicides, herbicides and insecticides that are in the market today. In light of the continuing need for new tools to address an ever-changing array of fungal, weed and insect pests, NPs continue to be a source of models and templates for the development of new pest control agents. Interestingly, an examination of the literature suggests that NP models exist for many of the pest control agents that were discovered by other means, suggesting that, had circumstances been different, these NPs could have served as inspiration for the discovery of a great many more of today's pest control agents. Here, an attempt is made to answer questions regarding the existence of an NP model for existing classes of pesticides and what is needed for the discovery of new NPs and NP models for pest control agents. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:24478254

Gerwick, B Clifford; Sparks, Thomas C

2014-08-01

410

Changes in protease activity and Cry3Aa toxin binding in the Colorado potato beetle: implications for insect resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Widespread commercial use of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins to control pest insects has increased the likelihood for development of insect resistance to this entomopathogen. In this study, we investigated protease activity profiles and toxin-binding capacities in the midgut of a strain of Colorado potato beetle (CPB) that has developed resistance to the Cry3Aa toxin of B. thuringiensis subsp. tenebrionis. Histological

Olga Loseva; Mohamed Ibrahim; Mehmet Candas; C. Noah Koller; Leah S. Bauer; Lee A. Bulla Jr

2002-01-01

411

Pest Control: An Assessment of Present and Alternative Technologies. Volume II. Corn/Soybeans Pest Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study of current and prospective pest control strategies focuses on the problems involving commercial corn and soybean production for feed purposes. It examines current pest control practices, direct and indirect benefits and costs, and future implic...

1976-01-01

412

Pest Control: An Assessment of Present and Alternative Technologies. Volume IV. Forest Pest Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this volume, forest pest control policy is viewed as part of the broader policies of forest management principles and objectives. The text discusses the nature of forest pest problems involving the pathological stress of abiotic and biotic disease agen...

1976-01-01

413

Optimized Scorpion Polypeptide LMX: A Pest Control Protein Effective against Rice Leaf Folder  

PubMed Central

Lepidopteran insect pests are the main class of pests causing significant damage to crop plant yields. Insecticidal scorpion peptides exhibit toxicity specific for insects. Here, we report that a peptide LMX, optimized from the insect-specific scorpion neurotoxin LqhIT2, showed high levels of activity against rice leaf folder in vitro and in planta. Oral ingestion of LMX protein led to a significant decrease in feeding on rice leaves, repression of larval growth and development, delay in molting, and increase in larval lethality. Compared with LqhIT2 protein, the stability and insecticidal efficacy of LMX was better. Meanwhile, biochemical analysis showed that LMX protein ingestion dramatically decreased ecdysone content in rice leaf folder larvae, and down-regulated enzymatic activities of the detoxification system (?-naphthyl acetate esterase and glutathione S-transferase), the digestive system (tryptase and chymotrypsin), and the antioxidant system (catalase). These changes were tightly correlated with the dosage of LMX protein. Transgene analysis showed that the rate of leaf damage, and the number of damaged tillers and leaves in the transgenic line were greatly reduced relative to wild type plants and empty vector plants. Based on these observations, we propose that the insect-specific scorpion neurotoxin peptide LMX is an attractive and effective alternative molecule for the protection of rice from rice leaf folder.

Tianpei, Xiuzi; Zhu, Yingguo; Li, Shaoqing

2014-01-01

414

New Pest Response Guidelines: Giant African Snails: Snail Pests in the Family Achatinidae.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Use New Pest Response Guidelines. Giant African Snails: Snail Pests in the Family Achatinidae as a guide when designing a program to detect, monitor, control, contain, or eradicate an infestation of achatinids. If these pests are detected in the United St...

2007-01-01

415

Induction of systemic acquired resistance in cotton by BTH has a negligible effect on phytophagous insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whether or not chemical changes in plants in response to pests (insects and pathogens) are general or specific remains unclear. Some evidence indicates that an induced response (IR) to arthropods via the octadecanoid pathway represents a distinct mechanism from the salicylic acid-based pathway of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) to pathogens. To further test this hypothesis, young cotton seedlings were activated

Moshe Inbar; Hamed Doostdar; Dan Gerling; Richard T. Mayer

2001-01-01

416

Discovery of New Insect Control Agents from Xerophytic Plants. Phase 1 Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Over 800 species of xerophytic plants from the arid and semi-arid regions of the western U.S. were screened for activity against recognized pest insects. Five plant species were discovered to possess promising biological activity, and were investigated fo...

J. A. Klocke, M. F. Balandrin

1984-01-01

417

Association of Sphaeropsis sapinea with insect infestation following hail damage of Pinus radiata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following a hail storm in the southern Cape province of South Africa, about 2000 ha of Pinus radiata plantations suffered die-back associated with Sphaeropsis sapinea. A series of sample plots in these plantations yielded information on the association of trees infected by S. sapinea with colonisation of tissue by two species of cambiophagous insect pests. The infestation of diseased trees,

J. B. Zwolinski; W. J. Swart; M. J. Wingfield

1995-01-01

418

From the Cover: Mosquitoes smell and avoid the insect repellent DEET  

Microsoft Academic Search

The insect repellent DEET is effective against a variety of medically important pests, but its mode of action still draws considerable debate. The widely accepted hypothesis that DEET interferes with the detection of lactic acid has been challenged by demonstrated DEET-induced repellency in the absence of lactic acid. The most recent hypothesis suggests that DEET masks or jams the olfactory

Zainulabeuddin Syed; Walter S. Leal

2008-01-01

419

Monitoring the agricultural landscape for insect resistance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Farmers in 25 countries on six continents are using plant biotechnology to solve difficult crop production challenges and conserve the environment. In fact, 13.3 million farmers, which include 90 percent of the farming in developing countries, choose to plant biotech crops. Over the past decade, farmers increased area planted in genetically modified (GM) crops by more than 10 percent each year, thus increasing their farm income by more than 44 billion US dollars (1996-2007), and achieved economic, environmental and social benefits in crops such as soybeans, canola, corn and cotton. To date, total acres of biotech crops harvested exceed more than 2 billion with a proven 13-year history of safe use. Over the next decade, expanded adoption combined with current research on 57 crops in 63 countries will broaden the advantages of genetically modified foods for growers, consumers and the environment. Genetically modified (GM) crops with the ability to produce toxins lethal to specific insect pests are covering a larger percentage of the agricultural landscape every year. The United States department of Agriculture (USDA) estimated that 63 percent of corn and 65 percent of cotton contained these specific genetic traits in 2009. The toxins could protect billions of dollars of loss from insect damage for crops valued at greater than 165 billion US dollars in 2008. The stable and efficient production of these crops has taken on even more importance in recent years with their use, not only as a food source, but now also a source of fuel. It is in the best interest of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to ensure the continued efficacy of toxin producing GM crops as their use reduces pesticides harmful to humans and animals. However, population genetics models have indicated the risk of insect pests developing resistance to these toxins if a high percentage of acreage is grown in these crops. The USEPA is developing methods to monitor the agricultural landscape to ensure resistance is not developing. USEPA is teaming with NASA to perform this monitoring using models and NASA earth observation imagery from airborne and satellite platforms. Using multiple spatial, temporal and spectral resolutions, the project is monitoring the entire Midwestern "Corn Belt". By applying these methods, the project has successfully delineated insect infestations in genetically modified corn fields. Insect resistance development is expected to present itself as infestations thus indicating potential identification of resistance if it develops in genetically modified crops. The USEPA and NASA are currently considering the development of plans to potentially extend this aircraft research to other crops and develop a micro-satellite application.

Casas, Joseph; Glaser, J. A.; Copenhaver, Ken

420

Population genomics of a symbiont in the early stages of a pest invasion.  

PubMed

Invasive species often depend on microbial symbionts, but few studies have examined the evolutionary dynamics of symbionts during the early stages of an invasion. The insect Megacopta cribraria and its bacterial nutritional symbiont Candidatus Ishikawaella capsulata invaded the southeastern US in 2009. While M. cribraria was initially discovered on wild kudzu plants, it was found as a pest on soybeans within 1 year of infestation. Because prior research suggests Ishikawaella confers the pest status--that is, the ability to thrive on soybeans--in some Megacopta species, we performed a genomic study on Ishikawaella from US. Megacopta cribraria populations to understand the role of the symbiont in driving host plant preferences. We included Ishikawaella samples collected in the first days of the invasion in 2009 and from 23 locations across the insect's 2011 US range. The 0.75 Mb symbiont genome revealed only 47 fixed differences from the pest-conferring Ishikawaella in Japan, with only one amino acid change in a nutrition-provisioning gene. This similarity, along with a lack of fixed substitutions in the US symbiont population, indicates that Ishikawella likely arrived in the US capable of being a soybean pest. Analyses of allele frequency changes between 2009 and 2011 uncover signatures of both positive and negative selection and suggest that symbionts on soybeans and kudzu experience differential selection for genes related to nutrient provisioning. Our data reveal the evolutionary trajectory of an important insect-bacteria symbiosis in the early stages of an invasion, highlighting the role microbial symbionts may play in the spread of invasive species. PMID:23841878

Brown, Amanda M V; Huynh, Lynn Y; Bolender, Caitlin M; Nelson, Kelly G; McCutcheon, John P

2014-03-01

421

Insects in Psychiatry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Insects in Psychiatry" originally was published in the February 1994 issue of Cultural Entomology Digest. The article presents a succinct (roughly 4,000-word) overview of the role of insects in psychiatric disorders. It provides helpful distinctions among insect phobias, delusions of parasitosis, and illusions of parasitosis, along with more than 30 selected references. The article provides an excellent entree into the not-uncommon role of insects in psychiatry. It would be comprehensible and of interest to a wide range of students.

0002-11-30

422

Y-linked markers for improved population control of the tephritid fruit fly pest, Anastrepha suspensa.  

PubMed

Insect pest control programs incorporating the sterile insect technique (SIT) rely on the mass production and release of sterilized insects to reduce the wild-type population through infertile matings. Most effective programs release only males to avoid any crop damage caused by female fruit flies or transmission of disease by female mosquitoes. Therefore, the females have to be eliminated, preferably in an early developmental stage, during mass rearing. Different systems and techniques have been created for the sex separation of a few insect species. One of these is the transgenic sex-specific fluorescent protein marking of the insects with automated fluorescent-based sorting of the individuals to achieve sex separation. Here we describe the Y-linked integration of fluorescent markers driven by the widely active Drosophila melanogaster polyubiquitin promoter in the Caribfly, Anastrepha suspensa. Four strains with Y-linked integrations were established with one line expressing the DsRed fluorescent protein marker during embryogenesis. This line now has the possibility for use with automated sex separation in rearing, and the same transgene markers could be used in other insects for similar applications. PMID:23719710

Schetelig, Marc F; Handler, Alfred M

2013-01-01

423

Termite Pest Control - Industrial. Manual 96.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the termite pest control category. The text discusses general pests, especially ants, and wood-destroying organisms such as termites, beetles, and fungi. (CS)

Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

424

Training for Certification: Demonstration & Research Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial pesticide applicators. Focusing on agricultural pest control, this publication includes a full range of topics from uses of pesticides for agricultural animal pest control to the toxicity of common pesticides to fish and bees.…

Mississippi State Univ., State College. Cooperative Extension Service.

425

Identification and characterization of resistance to cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch) in Medicago truncatula  

PubMed Central

Background Cowpea aphid (CPA; Aphis craccivora) is the most important insect pest of cowpea and also causes significant yield losses in other legume crops including alfalfa, beans, chickpea, lentils, lupins and peanuts. In many of these crops there is no natural genetic resistance to this sap-sucking insect or resistance genes have been overcome by newly emerged CPA biotypes. Results In this study, we screened a subset of the Medicago truncatula core collection of the South Australian Research and Development Institute (SARDI) and identified strong resistance to CPA in a M. truncatula accession SA30199, compared to all other M. truncatula accessions tested. The biology of resistance to CPA in SA30199 plants was characterised compared to the highly susceptible accession Borung and showed that resistance occurred at the level of the phloem, required an intact plant and involved a combination of antixenosis and antibiosis. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis using a F2 population (n?=?150) from a cross between SA30199 and Borung revealed that resistance to CPA is controlled in part by a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 2, explaining 39% of the antibiosis resistance. Conclusions The identification of strong CPA resistance in M. truncatula allows for the identification of key regulators and genes important in this model legume to give effective CPA resistance that may have relevance for other legume crops. The identified locus will also facilitate marker assisted breeding of M. truncatula for increased resistance to CPA and potentially other closely related Medicago species such as alfalfa.

2012-01-01

426

Insect Repellents: Use and Effectiveness  

MedlinePLUS

Insect Repellents: Use and Effectiveness Quick Resources Search tool for EPA-registered repellents and their protection times Ask ... link for protection times Consumer Survey Results on Insect Repellent Labels Clothing Treated with Insect Repellents Repellency Awareness ...

427

Zoogeography of Insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of the geographical distribution of insects is a subject which has received attention from many entomologists, yet one which is still in an infant stage of development. Knowledge of the distribution of higher verte­ brates has progressed to the point where it is fairly well understood, but this is by no means true for insects. Not only are

J. LINSLEY GRESSITT

1958-01-01

428

Insect Physiology Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A large database dedicated to research articles about various topics of insect physiology. Topics range from excretion to diapause to temperature and water regulation. There are also extensive listings of resources (academic units, funding, journals) and course data on insect physiology.

0002-11-30

429

Social Insect Networks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Social insect colonies have many of the properties of adaptive networks. The simple rules governing how local interactions among individuals translate into group behaviors are found across social groups, giving social insects the potential to have a profound impact on our understanding of the interplay between network dynamics and social evolution.

Jennifer Fewell (Arizona State University;School of Life Sciences)

2003-09-26

430

Glue-Line Insects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity for fourth- and fifth-grade students in which they create a realistic or imaginative insect of their choice following a brief slide presentation on insects. Explains that the activity combines the use of line, shape, and color and takes two 40-minute class periods. (CMK)

Dugas, Christine

2001-01-01

431

Insect Bites and Stings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides general information about medical care for bee stings, fleas, mites, chiggers, spider bites, ticks and Lyme disease. Most information centers on the treatment of such insect bites, with some background about individual taxa. There is little discussed about the general biology of the insects mentioned.

0002-11-30

432

Corazonin in insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corazonin is a peptidergic neurohormone of insects that is expressed in neurosecretory neurons of the pars lateralis of the protocerebrum and transported via nervi corporis cardiaci to the storage lobes of the corpora cardiaca. This peptide occurs with a single isoform in all insects studied so far, with the exception of the Coleoptera in which no corazonin form could be

Reinhard Predel; Susanne Neupert; William K. Russell; Olaf Scheibner; Ronald J. Nachman

2007-01-01

433

Methyl Bromide: Effective Pest Management Tool and Environmental Threat  

PubMed Central

Methyl bromide is used extensively on a global basis as a pesticide against nematodes, weeds, insects, fungi, bacteria, and rodents. As a soil fumigant, it is used in significant quantities in the production of strawberry and tomato, as well as other agriculture commodities. Grain, fresh fruit, forestry products, and other materials are fumigated with methyl bromide to control pest infestations during transport and storage. Structures also are treated with this chemical to control wood-destroying insects and rodents. However, methyl bromide has been identified as a significant ozone-depleting substance, resulting in regulatory actions being taken by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the United Nations Environment Program (Montreal Protocol). The science linking methyl bromide to ozone depletion is strong and was reinforced by the 1994 UNEP Montreal Protocol Science Assessment on Ozone Depletion, which states, "Methyl bromide continues to be viewed as a significant ozone-depleting compound." Identifying efficacious and viable alternatives in the near term is critical.

Thomas, W. B.

1996-01-01

434

Dissecting Insect Flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"What force does an insect wing generate?" Finding answers to this enduring question is an essential step toward our understanding of interactions of moving objects with fluids that enable most living species such as insects, birds, and fish to travel efficiently and us to follow similar suit with sails, oars, and airfoils. We give a brief history of research in insect flight and discuss recent findings in unsteady aerodynamics of flapping flight at intermediate range Reynolds numbers (10 104). In particular, we examine the unsteady mechanisms in uniform and accelerated motions, forward and hovering flight, as well as passive flight of free-falling objects. The results obtained by "taking the insects apart" helped us to resolve previous puzzles about the force estimates in hovering insects, to ellucidate basic mechanisms essential to flapping flight, and to gain insights about the efficieny of flight.

Wang, Z. Jane

2005-01-01

435

Transcriptomic dissection of sexual differences in Bemisia tabaci, an invasive agricultural pest worldwide  

PubMed Central

Sex difference involving chromosomes and gene expression has been extensively documented. In this study, the gender difference in the sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci was investigated using Illumina-based transcriptomic analysis. Gender-based RNAseq data produced 27?Gb reads, and subsequent de novo assembly generated 93,948 transcripts with a N50 of 1,853?bp. A total of 1,351 differentially expressed genes were identified between male and female B. tabaci, and majority of them were female-biased. Pathway and GO enrichment experiments exhibited a gender-specific expression, including enriched translation in females, and enhanced structural constituent of cuticle in male whiteflies. In addition, a putative transformer2 gene (tra2) was cloned, and the structural feature and expression profile of tra2 were investigated. Sexually dimorphic transcriptome is an uncharted territory for the agricultural insect pests. Molecular understanding of sex determination in B. tabaci, an emerging invasive insect pest worldwide, will provide potential molecular target(s) for genetic pest control alternatives.

Xie, Wen; Guo, Litao; Jiao, Xiaoguo; Yang, Nina; Yang, Xin; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Zhou, Xuguo; Zhang, Youjun

2014-01-01

436

[Dynamics and combined injuries of main pest species in rice cropping zones of Yunnan, Southwest China].  

PubMed

A series of rice pest injuries (due to pathogens, insects, and weeds) were surveyed in 286 farmers' fields for major rice varieties of three rice cropping zones of Yunnan Province, Southwest China. The composition and dynamics of main pest species were analyzed, and the trend of rice pest succession in Yunnan was discussed based upon landmark publications. The results showed that the three rice cropping zones had different pest characteristics as regard to main species, dynamics and combined injuries. Sheath rot, bacterial leaf blight, rice stripe, leaf hoppers, armyworms and stem borers were serious in the japonica rice zone. Sheath blight and rice stripe were serious in the japonica-indica interlacing zone. Leaf blast, sheath blight, leaf folders and weeds above rice crop canopy were serious in the indica rice zone. False smut, plant hoppers and weeds below rice crop canopy were ubiquitous and serious in the three kinds of rice cropping zones. Many kinds of weed infestation emerged in the whole rice cropping seasons. Echinochloa crusgalli, Sagittaria pygmaea, Potamogeton distinctus and Spirodela polyrhiza were the main species of weeds in the rice cropping zones of Yunnan. Overall, levels of combined injuries due to pests in the japonica rice zone and the indica rice zone were higher than that in the japonica-indica interlacing zone. In terms of the trend of rice pest succession in Yunnan, injuries due to false smut, sheath blight and plant hoppers seemed to be in a worse tendency in all rice cropping zones of Yunnan, while dominants species of weeds in the paddy fields are shifting from the annual weeds to the perennial malignant weeds. PMID:24765862

Dong, Kun; Dong, Yan; Wang, Hai-Long; Zhang, Li-Min; Zan, Qing-An; Chen, Bin; Li, Zheng-Yue

2014-01-01

437

United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service stored-grain areawide integrated pest management program.  

PubMed

The USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) funded a demonstration project (1998-2002) for areawide IPM for stored wheat in Kansas and Oklahoma. This project was a collaboration of researchers at the ARS Grain Marketing and Production Research Center in Manhattan, Kansas, Kansas State University, and Oklahoma State University. The project utilized two elevator networks, one in each state, for a total of 28 grain elevators. These elevators stored approximately 31 million bushels of wheat, which is approximately 1.2% of the annual national production. Stored wheat was followed as it moved from farm to the country elevator and finally to the terminal elevator. During this study, thousands of grain samples were taken in concrete elevator silos. Wheat stored at elevators was frequently infested by several insect species, which sometimes reached high numbers and damaged the grain. Fumigation using aluminum phosphide pellets was the main method for managing these insect pests in elevators in the USA. Fumigation decisions tended to be based on past experience with controlling stored-grain insects, or were calendar based. Integrated pest management (IPM) requires sampling and risk benefit analysis. We found that the best sampling method for estimating insect density, without turning the grain from one bin to another, was the vacuum probe sampler. Decision support software, Stored Grain Advisor Pro (SGA Pro) was developed that interprets insect sampling data, and provides grain managers with a risk analysis report detailing which bins are at low, moderate or high risk for insect-caused economic losses. Insect density was predicted up to three months in the future based on current insect density, grain temperature and moisture. Because sampling costs money, there is a trade-off between frequency of sampling and the cost of fumigation. The insect growth model in SGA Pro reduces the need to sample as often, thereby making the program more cost-effective. SGA Pro was validated during the final year of the areawide program. Based on data from 533 bins, SGA Pro accurately predicted which bins were at low, moderate or high risk. Only in two out of 533 bins did SGA Pro incorrectly predict bins as being low risk and, in both cases, insect density was only high (> two insects kg(-1)) at the surface, which suggested recent immigration. SGA Pro is superior to calendar-based management because it ensures that grain is only treated when insect densities exceed economic thresholds (two insects kg(-1)). This approach will reduce the frequency of fumigation while maintaining high grain quality. Minimizing the use of fumigant improves worker safety and reduces both control costs and harm to the environment. PMID:12846311

Flinn, Paul W; Hagstrum, David W; Reed, Carl; Phillips, Tom W

2003-01-01

438

Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 1D: Fruit and Vegetable Pest Control and Supplement. CS-12 and CS-12a.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The major weed and insect pests of fruits and vegetables are pictured and discussed. Suggested methods for control by utilizing herbicides and pesticides are presented with attention given to safety considerations for both humans and the…

Epstein, Abraham H.; And Others

439

Potential shortfall of pyramided transgenic cotton for insect resistance management.  

PubMed

To delay evolution of pest resistance to transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), the "pyramid" strategy uses plants that produce two or more toxins that kill the same pest. In the United States, this strategy has been adopted widely, with two-toxin Bt cotton replacing one-toxin Bt cotton. Although two-toxin plants are likely to be more durable than one-toxin plants, the extent of this advantage depends on several conditions. One key assumption favoring success of two-toxin plants is that they kill insects selected for resistance to one toxin, which is called "redundant killing." Here we tested this assumption for a major pest, Helicoverpa zea, on transgenic cotton producing Bt toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab. Selection with Cry1Ac increased survival on two-toxin cotton, which contradicts the assumption. The concentration of Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab declined during the growing season, which would tend to exacerbate this problem. Furthermore, analysis of results from 21 selection experiments with eight species of lepidopteran pests indicates that some cross-resistance typically occurs between Cry1A and Cry2A toxins. Incorporation of empirical data into simulation models shows that the observed deviations from ideal conditions could greatly reduce the benefits of the pyramid strategy for pests like H. zea, which have inherently low susceptibility to Bt toxins and have been exposed extensively to one of the toxins in the pyramid before two-toxin plants are adopted. For such pests, the pyramid strategy could be improved by incorporating empirical data on deviations from ideal assumptions about redundant killing and cross-resistance. PMID:23530245

Brévault, Thierry; Heuberger, Shannon; Zhang, Min; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Ni, Xinzhi; Masson, Luke; Li, Xianchiun; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Carrière, Yves

2013-04-01

440

Effectiveness of spinosad (naturalytes) in controlling the cowpea storage pest, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

The biopesticide Spinosad controls many insect pests of stored-food products. Laboratory and field trials were carried out to determine the efficacy of this pesticide against the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), the main storage pest of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata, Walp, in West Africa. In the laboratory, Spinosad caused high mortality of adult C. maculatus and decreased the number of eggs laid by females. Spinosad, however, was less toxic in the 24 h treatment to C. maculatus than deltamethrin, an insecticide commonly used in Burkina Faso to control this insect. In "on-farm" experiments, Spinosad was effective in controlling C. maculatus. After 6 mo of storage, the number of insects emerging from cowpeas seeds was reduced by >80% by coating seeds with Spinosad but only by 43% by coating with deltamethrin. Less than 20% of the seeds were perforated in the Spinosad treatment compared with 29% for deltamethrin. Spinosad controlled C. maculatus throughout the 6 mo of cowpea storage whereas deltamethrin failed to control C. maculatus after 3 mo of storage. Spinosad has the potential to be more effective in controlling C. maculatus than deltamethrin. PMID:20214388

Sanon, Antoine; Ba, Niango M; Binso-Dabire, Clementine L; Pittendrigh, Barry R

2010-02-01

441

Evolution and the microbial control of insects  

PubMed Central

Insect pathogens can be utilized in a variety of pest management approaches, from inundative release to augmentation and classical biological control, and microevolution and the consideration of evolutionary principles can potentially influence the success of all these strategies. Considerable diversity exists in natural entomopathogen populations and this diversity can be either beneficial or detrimental for pest suppression, depending on the pathogen and its mode of competition, and this should be considered in the selection of isolates for biological control. Target hosts can exhibit considerable variation in their susceptibility to entomopathogens, and cases of field-evolved resistance have been documented for Bacillus thuringiensis and baculoviruses. Strong selection, limited pathogen diversity, reduced gene flow, and host plant chemistry are linked to cases of resistance and should be considered when developing resistance management strategies. Pre- and post-release monitoring of microbial control programs have received little attention; however, to date there have been no reports of host-range evolution or long-term negative effects on nontarget hosts. Comparative analyses of pathogen population structure, virulence, and host resistance over time are required to elucidate the evolutionary dynamics of microbial control systems.

Cory, Jenny S; Franklin, Michelle T

2012-01-01

442

Evolution and the microbial control of insects.  

PubMed

Insect pathogens can be utilized in a variety of pest management approaches, from inundative release to augmentation and classical biological control, and microevolution and the consideration of evolutionary principles can potentially influence the success of all these strategies. Considerable diversity exists in natural entomopathogen populations and this diversity can be either beneficial or detrimental for pest suppression, depending on the pathogen and its mode of competition, and this should be considered in the selection of isolates for biological control. Target hosts can exhibit considerable variation in their susceptibility to entomopathogens, and cases of field-evolved resistance have been documented for Bacillus thuringiensis and baculoviruses. Strong selection, limited pathogen diversity, reduced gene flow, and host plant chemistry are linked to cases of resistance and should be considered when developing resistance management strategies. Pre- and post-release monitoring of microbial control programs have received little attention; however, to date there have been no reports of host-range evolution or long-term negative effects on nontarget hosts. Comparative analyses of pathogen population structure, virulence, and host resistance over time are required to elucidate the evolutionary dynamics of microbial control systems. PMID:22949921

Cory, Jenny S; Franklin, Michelle T

2012-07-01

443

Genetic characterization of populations of a de novo arisen sugar beet pest, aubeonymus mariaefranciscae (coleoptera, curculionidae), by RAPD analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The weevil Aubeonymus mariaefranciscae is an important pest of sugar beet crops in southern Spain that was first described as a new species in 1979. We have studied\\u000a the genetic variability of this insect by RAPD analysis of 122 individuals using eight primers. The high resolution provided\\u000a by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPDs), in combination with efficient genetic distance estimators,

Ana Taberner; Joaquín Dopazo; Pedro Castafiera

1997-01-01

444

Pest Control on the "Fly"  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

FlyCracker(R), a non-toxic and environmentally safe pesticide, can be used to treat and control fly problems in closed environments such as milking sheds, cattle barns and hutches, equine stables, swine pens, poultry plants, food-packing plants, and even restaurants, as well as in some outdoor animal husbandry environments. The product can be applied safely in the presence of animals and humans, and was recently permitted for use on organic farms as livestock production aids. FlyCracker's carbohydrate technology kills fly larvae within 24 hours. By killing larvae before they reach the adult stages, FlyCracker eradicates another potential breeding population. Because the process is physical-not chemical-flies and other insects never develop resistance to the treatment, giving way to unlimited use of product, while still keeping the same powerful effect.

2002-01-01

445

Evolution of insect P450  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first fully sequenced insect genomes were those of the fruitfly and the mosquito, both from the order Diptera. Now, with an increasing number and diversity of insect genomes becoming available, the diversity of insect P450 genes can be better appreciated and tentative ideas about the evolution of the CYP (cytochrome P450) superfamily in insects can be proposed. There are

R. Feyereisen

2006-01-01

446

Insects of West Virginia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As of this writing two orders and one suborder of insects are covered: Odonata, Auchenorrhyncha, and Coleoptera. This is largely a photo gallery with some distinctive character descriptions and distribution information.

0002-11-30

447

Insects and climate change  

SciTech Connect

In this article the author describes some of the significant late glacial and Holocene changes that occurred in the Rocky Mountains, including the regional extirpation of certain beetle species. The fossil data presented here summarize what is known about regional insect responses to climate change in terms of species stability and geographic distribution. To minimize potential problems of species interactions (i.e., insect-host plant relationships, host-parasite relationships, and other interactions that tie a particular insect species' distribution to that of another organism), only predators and scavengers are discussed. These insects respond most rapidly to environmental changes, because for the most part they are not tied to any particular type of vegetation.

Elias, S.A. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States))

1991-09-01

448

Insect bites and stings  

MedlinePLUS

Insect bites and stings can cause an immediate skin reaction. The bite from fire ants and the sting from bees, wasps, and hornets are usually painful. Bites caused by mosquitoes, fleas, and mites are more ...

449

Insect Sting Allergy: Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... Director, Health Initiatives View full profile Insect Sting Allergy: Treatment Venom allergy shots (immunotherapy) are highly effective ... Calendar Read the News View Daily Pollen Count Allergy Treatment Programs At National Jewish Health, some of ...

450

Allergies to Insect Venom  

MedlinePLUS

... in a semicircular pattern with a sterile pustule forming after several hours at each sting site. There ... of strong smelling perfume, cologne, hair oil, hair spray or lotions as insects may be attracted by ...