Sample records for sap-sucking insect pests

  1. Transgenic rice expressing Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL) exhibits high-level resistance against major sap-sucking pests

    PubMed Central

    Yarasi, Bharathi; Sadumpati, Vijayakumar; Immanni, China Pasalu; Vudem, Dasavantha Reddy; Khareedu, Venkateswara Rao

    2008-01-01

    Background Rice (Oryza sativa) productivity is adversely impacted by numerous biotic and abiotic factors. An approximate 52% of the global production of rice is lost annually owing to the damage caused by biotic factors, of which ~21% is attributed to the attack of insect pests. In this paper we report the isolation, cloning and characterization of Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (asal) gene, and its expression in elite indica rice cultivars using Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation method. The stable transgenic lines, expressing ASAL, showed explicit resistance against major sap-sucking pests. Results Allium sativum leaf lectin gene (asal), coding for mannose binding homodimeric protein (ASAL) from garlic plants, has been isolated and introduced into elite indica rice cultivars susceptible to sap-sucking insects, viz., brown planthopper (BPH), green leafhopper (GLH) and whitebacked planthopper (WBPH). Embryogenic calli of rice were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium harbouring pSB111 super-binary vector comprising garlic lectin gene asal along with the herbicide resistance gene bar, both under the control of CaMV35S promoter. PCR and Southern blot analyses confirmed stable integration of transgenes into the genomes of rice plants. Northern and western blot analyses revealed expression of ASAL in different transgenic rice lines. In primary transformants, the level of ASAL protein, as estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, varied between 0.74% and 1.45% of the total soluble proteins. In planta insect bioassays on transgenic rice lines revealed potent entomotoxic effects of ASAL on BPH, GLH and WBPH insects, as evidenced by significant decreases in the survival, development and fecundity of the insects. Conclusion In planta insect bioassays were carried out on asal transgenic rice lines employing standard screening techniques followed in conventional breeding for selection of insect resistant plants. The ASAL expressing rice plants, bestowed with high entomotoxic effects, imparted appreciable resistance against three major sap-sucking insects. Our results amply demonstrate that transgenic indica rice harbouring asal exhibit surpassing resistance against BPH, GLH and WBPH insects. The prototypic asal transgenic rice lines appear promising for direct commercial cultivation besides serving as a potential genetic resource in recombination breeding. PMID:18854007

  2. Resistance to sap-sucking insects in modern-day agriculture

    PubMed Central

    VanDoorn, Arjen; de Vos, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Plants and herbivores have co-evolved in their natural habitats for about 350 million years, but since the domestication of crops, plant resistance against insects has taken a different turn. With the onset of monoculture-driven modern agriculture, selective pressure on insects to overcome resistances has dramatically increased. Therefore plant breeders have resorted to high-tech tools to continuously create new insect-resistant crops. Efforts in the past 30 years have resulted in elucidation of mechanisms of many effective plant defenses against insect herbivores. Here, we critically appraise these efforts and – with a focus on sap-sucking insects – discuss how these findings have contributed to herbivore-resistant crops. Moreover, in this review we try to assess where future challenges and opportunities lay ahead. Of particular importance will be a mandatory reduction in systemic pesticide usage and thus a greater reliance on alternative methods, such as improved plant genetics for plant resistance to insect herbivores. PMID:23818892

  3. Development of transgenic cotton lines expressing Allium sativum agglutinin (ASAL) for enhanced resistance against major sap-sucking pests.

    PubMed

    Vajhala, Chakravarthy S K; Sadumpati, Vijaya Kumar; Nunna, Hariprasad Rao; Puligundla, Sateesh Kumar; Vudem, Dashavantha Reddy; Khareedu, Venkateswara Rao

    2013-01-01

    Mannose-specific Allium sativum leaf agglutinin encoding gene (ASAL) and herbicide tolerance gene (BAR) were introduced into an elite cotton inbred line (NC-601) employing Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Cotton transformants were produced from the phosphinothricin (PPT)-resistant shoots obtained after co-cultivation of mature embryos with the Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harbouring recombinant binary vector pCAMBIA3300-ASAL-BAR. PCR and Southern blot analysis confirmed the presence and stable integration of ASAL and BAR genes in various transformants of cotton. Basta leaf-dip assay, northern blot, western blot and ELISA analyses disclosed variable expression of BAR and ASAL transgenes in different transformants. Transgenes, ASAL and BAR, were stably inherited and showed co-segregation in T1 generation in a Mendelian fashion for both PPT tolerance and insect resistance. In planta insect bioassays on T2 and T3 homozygous ASAL-transgenic lines revealed potent entomotoxic effects of ASAL on jassid and whitefly insects, as evidenced by significant decreases in the survival, development and fecundity of the insects when compared to the untransformed controls. Furthermore, the transgenic cotton lines conferred higher levels of resistance (1-2 score) with minimal plant damage against these major sucking pests when bioassays were carried out employing standard screening techniques. The developed transgenics could serve as a potential genetic resource in recombination breeding aimed at improving the pest resistance of cotton. This study represents the first report of its kind dealing with the development of transgenic cotton resistant to two major sap-sucking insects. PMID:24023750

  4. Seasonality of sap-sucking insects (Auchenorrhyncha, Hemiptera) feeding on Ficus (Moraceae) in a lowland rain forest in New Guinea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vojtech Novotny; Yves Basset

    1998-01-01

    Sap-sucking insects (Auchenorrhyncha, Hemiptera) were sampled quantitatively from the foliage of 15 species of Ficus (Moraceae) in a lowland rain forest in Papua New Guinea. Continuous sampling throughout 12 months produced 61,777 individuals\\u000a and 491 species. Two seasonality parameters, circular statistics and Lloyd's index, were calculated for 139 species with a\\u000a sample size of more than 36 individuals. Most of

  5. Citrus tristeza virus-based RNAi in citrus plants induces gene silencing in Diaphorina citri, a phloem-sap sucking insect vector of citrus greening disease (Huanglongbing).

    PubMed

    Hajeri, Subhas; Killiny, Nabil; El-Mohtar, Choaa; Dawson, William O; Gowda, Siddarame

    2014-04-20

    A transient expression vector based on Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is unusually stable. Because of its stability it is being considered for use in the field to control Huanglongbing (HLB), which is caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) and vectored by Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri. In the absence of effective control strategies for CLas, emphasis has been on control of D. citri. Coincident cohabitation in phloem tissue by CLas, D. citri and CTV was exploited to develop a novel method to mitigate HLB through RNA interference (RNAi). Since CTV has three RNA silencing suppressors, it was not known if CTV-based vector could induce RNAi in citrus. Yet, expression of sequences targeting citrus phytoene desaturase gene by CTV-RNAi resulted in photo-bleaching phenotype. CTV-RNAi vector, engineered with truncated abnormal wing disc (Awd) gene of D. citri, induced altered Awd expression when silencing triggers ingested by feeding D. citri nymphs. Decreased Awd in nymphs resulted in malformed-wing phenotype in adults and increased adult mortality. This impaired ability of D. citri to fly would potentially limit the successful vectoring of CLas bacteria between citrus trees in the grove. CTV-RNAi vector would be relevant for fast-track screening of candidate sequences for RNAi-mediated pest control. PMID:24572372

  6. PEST ALERT: Glycaspis brimblecombei

    E-print Network

    PEST ALERT: Glycaspis brimblecombei Red Gum Lerp Psyllid The red gum lerp psyllid, Glycaspis. Glycaspis brimblecombei was reported in Eucalyptus plantations for the first time in 2013, when susceptible plantations in the near future. Glycaspis brimblecombei is a sap-sucking insect that feeds

  7. Corn Insect Pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historically, the major corn insect pests have been corn rootworms (northern and western), European corn borer, and black cutworm. Bt-corn hybrids are effective against most of these pests. However, Bt-corn hybrids are not effective against corn leaf aphid, corn root aphid, sap beetles, corn rootwor...

  8. Cotton insect pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton production is challenged worldwide by a diversity of arthropod pests that require management to prevent or reduce crop damage. Advances in arthropod control technologies and improved insect and crop management systems have dramatically reduced levels of arthropod damage and the need for inse...

  9. Insect Pest Management in Virginia

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Insect Pest Management in Virginia Cotton, Peanut, and Soybean Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station 2011 VT/1211/AREC-7 #12;1 INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT IN VIRGINIA COTTON, PEANUT, AND SOYBEAN 2011 D. Ames Herbert, Jr., Extension Entomologist

  10. Managing Insect Pests of Texas Sunflower

    E-print Network

    Patrick, Carl D.

    1999-02-15

    Insect pests are often a major limiting factor in Texas sunflower production. This publication describes the major insect pests infesting the sunflower head, stalk, foliage and roots, and offers suggestions for controlling them, including a table...

  11. Biological control of insect pests.

    PubMed

    Kitto, G B

    1983-01-01

    Isozyme techniques have proven particularly useful in the past in the field of biological insect control. In this brief review I have tried to give a small selection of the varied approaches that have been used. In the future, isozyme analysis will undoubtedly play a major role. But genetic analyses, as exemplified by the use of isozymes, form but a small part of the knowledge we must have if biological control programs are to be successful. In a pest management program where one is using both chemical and biological methods it is necessary to know a great deal about the biology of the pests, their parasites, predators, and host plants or animals, together with a knowledge of the general ecology of the area where the problem exists. Too often, major control programs have been started with pitifully inadequate basic knowledge of the insect pest concerned, dooming such projects to a series of frantic and generally makeshift attempts to redeem these inadequacies. We are starting to see a much greater emphasis on interrelationships between scientific disciplines, more basic research being conducted, and a resurgence of interaction between those people who are in the applied field and those in the basic sciences. This dialog must be continued. In closing, I want to emphasize again that in pest control we are involved in the management of a coexistence with insects and I think it appropriate to end with the thoughts of W.J. Holland [1949]: when all cities shall have been long dead and crumbled into dust, and all life shall be on the very last verge of extinction on this globe; then on a bit of lichen, growing on the bald rocks beside the eternal snows of Panama, shall be seated a tiny insect, preening its antenna in the glow of the worn-out sun, representing the sole survival of animal life on this our earth--a melancholy 'bug'. PMID:6642987

  12. Managing Insect Pests of Texas Sunflower.

    E-print Network

    Patrick, Carl D.

    1983-01-01

    THE HEAD Sunflower Moth .......................... 4 Sunflower Bud Moth (Suleimaj ........ . . 5 Headclipper Weevil .................... 6 Seed Weevils ......................... 6 INSECT PESTS INFESTING THE STALK Stem Weevil... Saltmarsh Catel-pillar ...... . .............. 9 Beet Armyworm ......................... 10 Grasshopper ..................... .... .. . 10 INSECT PESTS INFESTING THE ROOTS Carrot Beetle ............................ 11 Root-Boring Moth (Eucosmaj...

  13. BIODIVERSITY Insect pests and pathogens of Australian

    E-print Network

    BIODIVERSITY REVIEW Insect pests and pathogens of Australian acacias grown as non threatened by invasive alien pests and pathogens (Wingfield et al., 2010). The reality of this threat first by the gypsy moth and the chestnut blight pathogens appearing in North America. It is unfortunate that new

  14. Nursery Crop Production Problems & Issues - Insect Pests

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Wells

    2012-04-05

    What insects present problems in nursery crop production, how can they be identified, and how can they be best controlled? First, let's look at the following scenarios to gain an understanding of insect problems that can occur within nursery crop production. Nursery Crop Production Insect Pest Management Scenarios Now read Plant Farm Nursery Website to identify the insect described in the first scenario. Next, read Tree Shrub Damage to identify the insect issue described within the second scenario. Read Extension Service Website to gain a better understanding ...

  15. Managing Insect and Mite Pests

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    ......................................................................11 Yellow sugarcane aphid ................................................12 Corn leaf aphid PESTS ....................................................26 Sugarcane borer, southwestern corn borer ....................................................26 Lesser cornstalk borer ...................................................27 Sugarcane rootstock

  16. Management of Stored Wheat Insect Pests in the USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David W. Hagstrum; Carl Reed; Phil Kenkel

    1999-01-01

    Management of stored-grain insect pests by farmers or elevator managers should be based upon a knowledge of the grain storage environment and the ecology of insect pests. Grain storage facilities and practices, geographical location, government policies, and marketing demands for grain quality are discussed as factors influencing stored-grain insect pest management decisions in the United States. Typical practices include a

  17. Sustainable Biocontrol of Apple Insect Pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biocontrol of insect pests is a cornerstone to sustainable production of apples and other crops. The ecology of orchards lends itself to the application of many management options which will enhance the sustainability of biocontrol. Orchards remain in place for decades, allowing for an evolution o...

  18. SOME INSECT PESTS NEW TO FLORIDA SUGARCANE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The number of insect and mite species attacking sugarcane in Florida has increased over time. Five new pest species were discovered during the 31-year period 1964 to 1995, one species indigenous to Florida with no previous association with sugarcane and four invasive species entirely new to the Eve...

  19. Insect Pests Models and Insecticide Application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past, the dominant approach in theoretical pest management ecology has emphasized the use of simple analytical or mathematical models and the analysis of systems in equilibrium. Recent advancements in computer technology have provided the opportunity for ecological insect modelers to move aw...

  20. Insect Pests Attacking Truck Crops 

    E-print Network

    Mally, Frederick W. (Frederick William)

    1902-01-01

    to the pupa of the butterfly. The molting of the nymph then produces the full grown insect. For example, egg, larva, nymph, grasshopper. These insects haye a direct clevelopment and the growing period occupies the larval as well as the nymph stages. Those.... It lias the property of adhesiveness. It is of such consistency that once it has had time to dry on the plant after being applied, ordinary rains or dews do not wash it off, and it remains effective for a longer period. A Pew hours of bright sunshine...

  1. [Insect pests dissemination by extruded starch packages].

    PubMed

    Fraga, Felipe B; Alencar, Isabel D C C; Tavares, Marcelo T

    2009-01-01

    We observed the viability of extruded starch products used as impact protector for fragile packing as a food source of the following stored grains pests: Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens), Lasioderma serricorne (Fabr.), Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.), Sitophilus oryzae (L.), Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera) and Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera). Cryptolestes ferrugineus, L. serricorne and T. castaneum were found in these products, which are used by them as shelter and food. Under experimentation, we observed the development of O. surinamensis, S. oryzae and P. interpunctella feeding on this food source. Thus, it is recorded the viability of such material to be a potential dispersal vehicle to spread insect pests. PMID:19768278

  2. Managing Insect Pests of Texas Sunflower. 

    E-print Network

    Patrick, Carl D.

    1983-01-01

    Saltmarsh Catel-pillar ...... . .............. 9 Beet Armyworm ......................... 10 Grasshopper ..................... .... .. . 10 INSECT PESTS INFESTING THE ROOTS Carrot Beetle ............................ 11 Root-Boring Moth (Eucosmaj... of true legs. Pupation occurs in the soil. The adult moth has a wingspread of 1 inch. The forewings are grayish brown with a pale spot in the mid-front margin. The hind wings are white with a dark anterior margin. Control of pigweed in and around...

  3. Lantana and Verbena: How to Combat Insect and Mite Pests

    E-print Network

    Mott, Dale; Merchant, Michael E.

    2005-02-21

    Several insect and mite pests attack lantana and verbena, which are perennial ornamental plants found in many Texas landscapes. This publication describes the most common pests and explains how to manage them....

  4. [Evaluation of plant protectants against pest insects].

    PubMed

    Pang, X; Zhang, M; Hou, Y; Jiao, Y; Cen, Y

    2000-02-01

    An interference index of population control (IIPC) was constructed for investigating the complex effects of plant protectants, including the effects of repelling insect pests away from the plant, deterring the egg laying of adults and the continuation of feeding, and causing death by toxicity. At the same time, indicated by IIPC, the alcohol extracts of some common plants, such as Eucalytus rubusta, Wedelia chinensis etc. and the neem oil gave very good results to protect the plant against Plutella xylostella. The D-C-Tron NR Petroleum Spray Oil (CALTEX) also gave an excellent effect to protect citrus against red mite. All the experiments show the important role of the repellent effect on the pests. PMID:11766564

  5. Insect Pheromones: Mastering Communication to Control Pests

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Web site contains an interesting, in-depth article on the use of insect pheromones in pest management. The article is one of many from Beyond Discovery: The Path from Research to Human Benefit; a NAS-sponsored series designed to demonstrate "how science works by illustrating how basic research produces knowledge that can lead to practical results of human benefit." No formal lesson plans are provided, but the article comes with a helpful glossary, related Web links, and a timeline of events.

  6. 50 CFR 35.7 - Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease. 35... WILDERNESS PRESERVATION AND MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.7 Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease. To...control wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease to...

  7. Controlling insect pests & diseases in organic pecan and peach production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of insect pests and diseases can cause severe damage in orchard crops such as pecan and peach. David Shapiro-Ilan and Clive Bock from the USDA-ARS Fruit and Tree Nut Research Laboratory in Byron GA provided information on current or potential organic solutions to control the key insect pest...

  8. Current status and future perspectives on sunflower insect pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While occasional insect pests of cultivated sunflowers may be managed by conventional or reduced-risk insecticides, the cumulative costs and risks of relying on insecticides to suppress perennial or severe pests (common in North America) call for exploration of broader pest management strategies. Re...

  9. Automatic monitoring of insect pests in stored grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manual sampling of insects in stored grain is a laborious and time consuming process. Automation of grain sampling should help to increase the adoption of stored-grain integrated pest management. To make accurate insect management decisions, managers need to know both the insect species and numbers ...

  10. Enhanced Methanol Production in Plants Provides Broad Spectrum Insect Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Sameer; Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar; Singh, Harpal; Sidhu, Om Prakash; Verma, Praveen Chandra; K, Chandrashekar

    2013-01-01

    Plants naturally emit methanol as volatile organic compound. Methanol is toxic to insect pests; but the quantity produced by most of the plants is not enough to protect them against invading insect pests. In the present study, we demonstrated that the over-expression of pectin methylesterase, derived from Arabidopsis thaliana and Aspergillus niger, in transgenic tobacco plants enhances methanol production and resistance to polyphagous insect pests. Methanol content in the leaves of transgenic plants was measured using proton nuclear spectroscopy (1H NMR) and spectra showed up to 16 fold higher methanol as compared to control wild type (WT) plants. A maximum of 100 and 85% mortality in chewing insects Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura larvae was observed, respectively when fed on transgenic plants leaves. The surviving larvae showed less feeding, severe growth retardation and could not develop into pupae. In-planta bioassay on transgenic lines showed up to 99 and 75% reduction in the population multiplication of plant sap sucking pests Myzus persicae (aphid) and Bemisia tabaci (whitefly), respectively. Most of the phenotypic characters of transgenic plants were similar to WT plants. Confocal microscopy showed no deformities in cellular integrity, structure and density of stomata and trichomes of transgenic plants compared to WT. Pollen germination and tube formation was also not affected in transgenic plants. Cell wall enzyme transcript levels were comparable with WT. This study demonstrated for the first time that methanol emission can be utilized for imparting broad range insect resistance in plants. PMID:24223989

  11. Managing Insects and Mite Pests of Texas Sorghum 

    E-print Network

    Cronholm, Gregory B.; Knutson, Allen E.; Parker, Roy D.; Pendleton, Bonnie

    2007-06-20

    Chinch bug .....................................................................16 Corn earworm and fall armyworm (whorlworms) .......17 Banks grass mite ...........................................................18 GRAIN HEAD INSECT PESTS... .......................................................19 Sorghum midge ............................................................19 Corn earworm and fall armyworm (headworms) ........22 Sorghum webworm ........................................................24 Grain head-feeding bugs...

  12. Control of key pecan insect pests using biorational pesticides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Key pecan insect pests include the pecan weevil, Curculio caryae, black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae, and stink bugs. Alternative control tactics are needed for management of these pests in organic and conventional systems. Our objective was to evaluate the potential utility of several a...

  13. Common insect and mite pests of small grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many insects feed on small grains but most do not cause significant damage. Major pest outbreaks are infrequent, but in any given year, some fields will require an insecticide application in order to control a pest outbreak. During severe outbreak years, insecticides may be applied to millions of ...

  14. Insect pest management decisions in food processing facilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pest management decision making in food processing facilities such as flour mills, rice mills, human and pet food manufacturing facilities, distribution centers and warehouses, and retail stores is a challenging undertaking. Insect pest management programs require an understanding of the food facili...

  15. Species richness of insect herbivore communities on Ficus in Papua New Guinea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    YVES BASSET; VOJTECH NOVOTNY

    1999-01-01

    Insect herbivores were sampled from the foliage of 15 species of Ficus (Moraceae) in rainforest and coastal habitats in the Madang area, Papua New Guinea. The collection included 13 193 individuals representing 349 species of leaf-chewing insects and 44 900 individuals representing 430 species of sap-sucking insects. Despite a high sampling intensity, the species accumulation curve did not reach an

  16. Applications of acoustics in insect pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acoustic technology has been applied for many years in studies of insect communication and in the monitoring of calling-insect population levels, geographic distributions, and diversity, as well as in the detection of cryptic insects in soil, wood, container crops, and stored products. Acoustic devi...

  17. INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT IN STORED GRAIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation will feature a discussion how the use of insecticides can be optimized through integrated pest management. The primary and major secondary pests of stored grains will be presented as targets for insecticidal control. Current registered insecticides that are used for the various ph...

  18. Managing Insect and Mite Pests of Texas Small Grains 

    E-print Network

    Patrick, Carl D.; Knutson, Allen E.

    2006-07-05

    Chinch bug and false chinch bug ........................................................................................... 22 Grasshopper... stubble and control- ling volunteer plants and summer weeds will Seasonal Small Grains Pest Profile Planting and crop establishment Harvesting Land preparation Soil insects Hessian fly Flea beetles Fall armyworm Armyworm Greenbug Grasshopper Brown...

  19. Early-season flooding for insect pest control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Wisconsin, there is much interest in the spring flood as a means to not only reduce pest populations, but also to facilitate marsh sanitation and provide frost protection. A large-scale field study was undertaken in 2011 to examine how a 30-40 hour spring flood (late May) would affect key insect ...

  20. MANAGING INSECT PESTS OF POTATO Ricky E. Foster, Extension Entomologist

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    Vegetable Insects E-96-W PURDUE EXTENSION Colorado potato beetle (l) larva and (r) adult (Photo Credit: J BEETLE The most devastating pest of potato in Indiana is the Colorado potato beetle (CPB). The adult tolerate more than 6-8% defoliation. Colorado potato beetle damage (Photo Credit: W. Cranshaw) #12

  1. Insect Pest Management in Food Legumes: Future Strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food legumes such as chickpea, pigeonpea, cowpea, field pea, lentil, faba bean, blackgram, greengram, grasspea, and Phaseolus beans play an important role in the daily diets of people worldwide. A large number of insect pests attack these crops and cause extensive losses, namely Helicoverpa pod bo...

  2. Farmers' perceptions of insect pests and pest management practices in Bt cotton in the Punjab, Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhammad Arshad; Anjum Suhail; M. Dildar Gogi; M. Yaseen; M. Asghar; M. Tayyib; Haider Karar; Faisal Hafeez; Unsar Naeem Ullah

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to (1) examine the factors involved in the adoption or non-adoption of Bt cotton, (2) identify sources of Bt cotton seed acquisition, and (3) evaluate farmers' knowledge and perception of insect pests incidence and management practices in Bt cotton in the Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 150 farmers growing Bt cotton expressing Cry1Ac protein

  3. Managing Insect Pests of Texas Sunflower 

    E-print Network

    Patrick, Carl D.

    1999-02-15

    , white stripes; more mature worms have green and black stripes. These armyworms can best be identified by the black spot on the side of the larva above the second pair of true legs. Pupation occurs in the soil. The adult moth has a wingspread of 1 inch.... Forewings are gray- ish brown with a pale spot in the mid-front mar- gin; hind wings are white with a dark anterior margin. Controlling pigweed in and around sun- flower will reduce this pest. Grasshopper Heavy infestations of grasshoppers periodically...

  4. Managing Insects and Related Pests of Roses 

    E-print Network

    Drees, Bastiaan M.; Pemberton, Brent; Cole, Charles L.

    1999-07-12

    or petals; n Wilted appearance of plant or plant parts; n Curled, malformed leaves and petals; and n Shiny, sticky ?honeydew? or black-colored coating of sooty mold. Chewing pests, such as caterpillars, beetles, grasshoppers and leaf-cutter bees, produce... inch long with relatively long legs and antennae. Species vary in color from black, green, yellow to even pinkish. Some aphids lay eggs; others give birth to live young that mature in 7 to 8 days. Because aphids breed continuously, populations grow...

  5. Common Insect and Mite Pests of Humans 

    E-print Network

    Brown, Elizabeth; Troxclair, Noel N.

    2008-09-25

    that itch. Confirmation that bedbugs are the cause should be based on finding the insects. Because bedbugs are excellent hiders, it may be difficult to detect them. Carefully check cracks and crevices in mattresses, bed frames, walls, and behind..., and pubic. Head lice (Fig. 1) are found on the head, grasping a person?s hair with their claws. If they drop off, they can survive only 1 or 2 days. Louse eggs, called nits, are laid on the head hairs at the juncture of the hair shaft and scalp...

  6. Urban Warming Drives Insect Pest Abundance on Street Trees

    PubMed Central

    Meineke, Emily K.; Dunn, Robert R.; Sexton, Joseph O.; Frank, Steven D.

    2013-01-01

    Cities profoundly alter biological communities, favoring some species over others, though the mechanisms that govern these changes are largely unknown. Herbivorous arthropod pests are often more abundant in urban than in rural areas, and urban outbreaks have been attributed to reduced control by predators and parasitoids and to increased susceptibility of stressed urban plants. These hypotheses, however, leave many outbreaks unexplained and fail to predict variation in pest abundance within cities. Here we show that the abundance of a common insect pest is positively related to temperature even when controlling for other habitat characteristics. The scale insect Parthenolecanium quercifex was 13 times more abundant on willow oak trees in the hottest parts of Raleigh, NC, in the southeastern United States, than in cooler areas, though parasitism rates were similar. We further separated the effects of heat from those of natural enemies and plant quality in a greenhouse reciprocal transplant experiment. P. quercifex collected from hot urban trees became more abundant in hot greenhouses than in cool greenhouses, whereas the abundance of P. quercifex collected from cooler urban trees remained low in hot and cool greenhouses. Parthenolecanium quercifex living in urban hot spots succeed with warming, and they do so because some demes have either acclimatized or adapted to high temperatures. Our results provide the first evidence that heat can be a key driver of insect pest outbreaks on urban trees. Since urban warming is similar in magnitude to global warming predicted in the next 50 years, pest abundance on city trees may foreshadow widespread outbreaks as natural forests also grow warmer. PMID:23544087

  7. Insect-attracting and antimicrobial properties of antifreeze for monitoring insect pests and natural enemies in stored corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect infestations in stored grain cause extensive damage worldwide. Storage insect pests including the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), Sitophilus spp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and their natural enemies [e.g., Cephalonomia tarsalis (Ashmead) (Hymenopter...

  8. Managing Insect and Mite Pests in Vegetable Gardens

    E-print Network

    Jackman, John A.

    2008-02-19

    . Most of the insect-resistant transgenic vegetable varieties incorporate genes of the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis, making them resistant to some caterpillar pests. This resistance inhibits the growth of caterpillars feeding on these plants...), Green Light? Bioganic? series, Bonide? Bio-Neem, and some insecticidal soaps. Monterey? Worm-Ender? is a Bacillus thuringi- ensis product that is simply labeled for caterpil- lars (often referred to as worms) on vegetables. These products...

  9. 7 CFR 305.40 - Garbage treatment schedules for insect pests and pathogens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...schedules for insect pests and pathogens. 305.40 Section 305...Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...schedules for insect pests and pathogens. (a) T415-a, heat treatment...adequate to prevent the spread of plant pests and livestock or...

  10. TEMPERATURE-DEPENDENT DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF SELECTED SUBTROPICAL AND TROPICAL FRUITS AND ASSOCIATED INSECT PESTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Wang; M. Monzon; Y. Gazit; J. Tang; E. J. Mitcham; J. W. Armstrong

    Knowledge of the dielectric properties of commodities and insect pests is important in developing thermal treatments for postharvest insect control based on radio frequency (RF) and microwave energy. The dielectric properties of six subtropical and tropical fruits along with four associated insect pests were measured between 1 and 1800 MHz using an open-ended coaxial-line probe technique and at temperatures between

  11. Insect pests and predators inhabiting roselle plants, Hibiscus sabdariffa L., a medicinal plant in Egypt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. H. Abdel-Moniem; T. E. Abd El-Wahab

    2006-01-01

    Incidence and faunistic composition of insect pests and the associated predators on roselle plants, Hibiscus sabdariffa L. have been studied during the 2002 and 2003 growing seasons in El-Kanater El-Khayria (about 30 km north Cairo), Kalubia governorate, Egypt. Fourteen phytophagous insect species and six insect predators were recorded. The dominance percentage of insect pests was found to be higher than those

  12. RECENT TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES FOR MANAGING INSECT PESTS OF STORED-GRAIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Automation of grain sampling for insect pests should help to increase the adoption of stored-grain integrated pest management programs. Currently, there are acoustic sensors and electronic grain probe traps that are available for monitoring insects in stored grain. Both the acoustic and electronic g...

  13. Bats Track and Exploit Changes in Insect Pest Populations

    PubMed Central

    McCracken, Gary F.; Westbrook, John K.; Brown, Veronica A.; Eldridge, Melanie; Federico, Paula; Kunz, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    The role of bats or any generalist predator in suppressing prey populations depends on the predator's ability to track and exploit available prey. Using a qPCR fecal DNA assay, we document significant association between numbers of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) consuming corn earworm (CEW) moths (Helicoverpa zea) and seasonal fluctuations in CEW populations. This result is consistent with earlier research linking the bats' diet to patterns of migration, abundance, and crop infestation by important insect pests. Here we confirm opportunistic feeding on one of the world's most destructive insects and support model estimates of the bats' ecosystem services. Regression analysis of CEW consumption versus the moth's abundance at four insect trapping sites further indicates that bats track local abundance of CEW within the regional landscape. Estimates of CEW gene copies in the feces of bats are not associated with seasonal or local patterns of CEW abundance, and results of captive feeding experiments indicate that our qPCR assay does not provide a direct measure of numbers or biomass of prey consumed. Our results support growing evidence for the role of generalist predators, and bats specifically, as agents for biological control and speak to the value of conserving indigenous generalist predators. PMID:22952782

  14. Weed manipulation for insect pest management in corn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altieri, M. A.; Whitcomb, W. H.

    1980-11-01

    Populations of insect pests and associated predaceous arthropods were sampled by direct observation and other relative methods in simple and diversified corn habitats at two sites in north Florida during 1978 and 1979. Through various cultural manipulations, characteristic weed communities were established selectively in alternate rows within corn plots. Fall armyworm ( Spodoptera frugiperda J. E. Smith) incidence was consistently higher in the weed-free habitats than in the corn habitats containing natural weed complexes or selected weed associations. Corn earworm ( Heliothis zea Boddie) damage was similar in all weed-free and weedy treatments, suggesting that this insect is not affected greatly by weed diversity. Only the diversification of corn with a strip of soybean significantly reduced corn earworm damage. In one site, distance between plots was reduced. Because predators moved freely between habitats, it was difficult to identify between-treatment differences in the composition of predator communities. In the other site, increased distances between plots minimized such migrations, resulting in greater population densities and diversity of common foliage insect predators in the weed-manipulated corn systems than in the weed-free plots. Trophic relationships in the weedy habitats were more complex than food webs in monocultures. Predator diversity (measured as mean number of species per area) and predator density was higher in com plots surrounded by mature, complex vegetation than at those surrounded by annual crops. This suggests that diverse adjacent areas to crops provide refuge for predators, thus acting as colonization sources.

  15. Dielectric Properties of Fruits and Insect Pests as related to Radio Frequency and Microwave Treatments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Wang; J. Tang; J. A. Johnson; E. Mitcham; J. D. Hansen; G. Hallman; S. R. Drake; Y. Wang

    2003-01-01

    Information on dielectric properties of commodities and insect pests is needed in developing thermal treatments for postharvest insect control based on radio frequency (RF) and microwave energy. Dielectric properties of six commodities along with four associated insect pests were measured between 1 and 1800MHz using an open-ended coaxial-line probe technique and at temperatures between 20 and 60°C. The dielectric loss

  16. Dynamics of the endosymbiont rickettsia in an insect pest.

    PubMed

    Cass, Bodil N; Yallouz, Rachel; Bondy, Elizabeth C; Mozes-Daube, Netta; Horowitz, A Rami; Kelly, Suzanne E; Zchori-Fein, Einat; Hunter, Martha S

    2015-07-01

    A new heritable bacterial association can bring a fresh set of molecular capabilities, providing an insect host with an almost instantaneous genome extension. Increasingly acknowledged as agents of rapid evolution, inherited microbes remain underappreciated players in pest management programs. A Rickettsia bacterium was tracked sweeping through populations of an invasive whitefly provisionally described as the "B" or "MEAM1" of the Bemisia tabaci species complex, in the southwestern USA. In this population, Rickettsia provides strong fitness benefits and distorts whitefly sex ratios under laboratory conditions. In contrast, whiteflies in Israel show few apparent fitness benefits from Rickettsia under laboratory conditions, only slightly decreasing development time. A survey of B. tabaci B samples revealed the distribution of Rickettsia across the cotton-growing regions of Israel and the USA. Thirteen sites from Israel and 22 sites from the USA were sampled. Across the USA, Rickettsia frequencies were heterogeneous among regions, but were generally very high, whereas in Israel, the infection rates were lower and declining. The distinct outcomes of Rickettsia infection in these two countries conform to previously reported phenotypic differences. Intermediate frequencies in some areas in both countries may indicate a cost to infection in certain environments or that the frequencies are in flux. This suggests underlying geographic differences in the interactions between bacterial symbionts and this serious agricultural pest. PMID:25626393

  17. Forest Insect Pest Management and Forest Management in China: An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Lanzhu; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Xiaowei; An, Linli

    2011-12-01

    According to the Seventh National Forest Inventory (2004-2008), China's forests cover an area of 195.45 million ha, or 20.36% of the total land area. China has the most rapidly increasing forest resources in the world. However, China is also a country with serious forest pest problems. There are more than 8,000 species of potential forest pests in China, including insects, plant diseases, rodents and lagomorphs, and hazardous plants. Among them, 300 species are considered as economically or ecologically important, and half of these are serious pests, including 86 species of insects. Forest management and utilization have a considerable influence on the stability and sustainability of forest ecosystems. At the national level, forestry policies always play a major role in forest resource management and forest health protection. In this paper, we present a comprehensive overview of both achievements and challenges in forest management and insect pest control in China. First, we summarize the current status of forest resources and their pests in China. Second, we address the theories, policies, practices and major national actions on forestry and forest insect pest management, including the Engineering Pest Management of China, the National Key Forestry Programs, the Classified Forest Management system, and the Collective Forest Tenure Reform. We analyze and discuss three representative plantations— Eucalyptus, poplar and Masson pine plantations—with respect to their insect diversity, pest problems and pest management measures.

  18. Multiscale approach to pest insect monitoring: Random walks, pattern formation, synchronization, and networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovskii, Sergei; Petrovskaya, Natalia; Bearup, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    Pest insects pose a significant threat to food production worldwide resulting in annual losses worth hundreds of billions of dollars. Pest control attempts to prevent pest outbreaks that could otherwise destroy a sward. It is good practice in integrated pest management to recommend control actions (usually pesticides application) only when the pest density exceeds a certain threshold. Accurate estimation of pest population density in ecosystems, especially in agro-ecosystems, is therefore very important, and this is the overall goal of the pest insect monitoring. However, this is a complex and challenging task; providing accurate information about pest abundance is hardly possible without taking into account the complexity of ecosystems' dynamics, in particular, the existence of multiple scales. In the case of pest insects, monitoring has three different spatial scales, each of them having their own scale-specific goal and their own approaches to data collection and interpretation. In this paper, we review recent progress in mathematical models and methods applied at each of these scales and show how it helps to improve the accuracy and robustness of pest population density estimation.

  19. Multiscale approach to pest insect monitoring: random walks, pattern formation, synchronization, and networks.

    PubMed

    Petrovskii, Sergei; Petrovskaya, Natalia; Bearup, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    Pest insects pose a significant threat to food production worldwide resulting in annual losses worth hundreds of billions of dollars. Pest control attempts to prevent pest outbreaks that could otherwise destroy a sward. It is good practice in integrated pest management to recommend control actions (usually pesticides application) only when the pest density exceeds a certain threshold. Accurate estimation of pest population density in ecosystems, especially in agro-ecosystems, is therefore very important, and this is the overall goal of the pest insect monitoring. However, this is a complex and challenging task; providing accurate information about pest abundance is hardly possible without taking into account the complexity of ecosystems' dynamics, in particular, the existence of multiple scales. In the case of pest insects, monitoring has three different spatial scales, each of them having their own scale-specific goal and their own approaches to data collection and interpretation. In this paper, we review recent progress in mathematical models and methods applied at each of these scales and show how it helps to improve the accuracy and robustness of pest population density estimation. PMID:24618062

  20. 1978 Insect Pest Management Guide: Home, Yard, and Garden. Circular 900.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This publication lists certain insecticides to control insect pests of food, fabrics, structures, man and animals, lawns, shrubs, trees, flowers and vegetables. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of insecticides to combat infestation. (CS)

  1. Insect pests of sweetpotato in Uganda: farmers' perceptions of their importance and control practices.

    PubMed

    Okonya, Joshua Sikhu; Mwanga, Robert Om; Syndikus, Katja; Kroschel, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Insect pests are among the most important constraints limiting sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) production in Africa. However, there is inadequate information about farmers' knowledge, perceptions and practices in the management of key insect pests. This has hindered development of effective pest management approaches for smallholder farmers. A standard questionnaire was used to interview individual sweetpotato farmers (n?=?192) about their perception and management practices regarding insect pests in six major sweetpotato producing districts of Uganda. The majority (93%) of farmers perceived insect pests to be a very serious problem. With the exception of Masindi and Wakiso districts where the sweetpotato butterfly (Acraea acerata) was the number one constraint, sweetpotato weevils (Cylas puncticollis and C. brunneus) were ranked as the most important insect pests. Insecticide use in sweetpotato fields was very low being highest (28-38% of households) in districts where A. acerata infestation is the biggest problem. On average, 65% and 87% of the farmers took no action to control A. acerata and Cylas spp., respectively. Farmers were more conversant with the presence of and damage by A. acerata than of Cylas spp. as they thought that Cylas spp. root damage was brought about by a prolonged dry season. Different levels of field resistance (ability of a variety to tolerate damage) of sweetpotato landraces to A. acerata (eight landraces) and Cylas spp. (six landraces) were reported by farmers in all the six districts. This perceived level of resistance to insect damage by landraces needs to be investigated. To improve farmers' capabilities for sweetpotato insect pest management, it is crucial to train them in the basic knowledge of insect pest biology and control. PMID:25279278

  2. A SURVEY OF FIVE STEM-FEEDING INSECT PESTS OF WHEAT IN THE NORTHERN GREAT PLAINS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect pests are important constraints to small grain production across the northern Great Plains. Pests such as the wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus, the wheat stem maggot, Meromyza americana, the Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor, the wheat joint worm, Tetramesa tritici, and the wheat strawworm, ...

  3. Research toward control of key pecan insect pests using biorational pesticides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Key pecan insect pests include the pecan weevil, Curculio caryae, black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae, and stink bugs. Alternative control tactics are needed for management of these pests in organic and conventional systems. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of several alternativ...

  4. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2014 PASTURE AND HAY INSECT MANAGEMENT

    E-print Network

    Duchowski, Andrew T.

    South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2014 142 PASTURE AND HAY INSECT Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2014 143 ARMYWORMS [True Armyworms (Pseudaletia MANAGEMENT Jay Crouch, Area Agronomy Agent, Brian Beer, Area Livestock Agent, and Robert Bellinger, Ph

  5. Interaction between juniper Juniperus communis L. and its fruit pest insects: Pest abundance, fruit characteristics and seed viability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel García

    1998-01-01

    The relationships between the fruit features of Juniperus communis and the presence of fruit pests were studied in Sierra Nevada, SE Spain. The abundance of two insect species — a pulp-sucking scale and a seed-predator wasp — was surveyed with respect both to fruit characteristics and to viability of seeds contained therein. Seed-predator pressure was not significantly related to any

  6. Managing Insect and Mite Pests of Texas Forage Crops

    E-print Network

    Muegge, Mark A.; Robinson, James V.

    2002-10-09

    This publication describes and illustrates common pests of forage crops in Texas. It discusses treatment options and pesticide application techniques as well as specific insecticides labeled to treat specific pests....

  7. Grape Insect and mite pests-2012 field season Department of Entomology

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    Grape Insect and mite pests-2012 field season Greg Loeb Department of Entomology Cornell University insect feeding damage on the fruit that remains. Here I am thinking specifically about grape berry moth to sell the crop, be aware that we tend to see much higher levels of grape berry moth damage (increased

  8. Biology and Control of Insect and Related Pests of Livestock in Wyoming. MP-23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, John E.

    This document provides information that a potential insecticide applicator can utilize to safely and effectively control insects and related pests of livestock. The first section of the manual discusses the general methods of preparation and application of insecticides. The second section concerns itself with the recognition of insect problems,…

  9. Ecology of the spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris: an important generalist predator of invasive insect pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) is a generalist predator known to feed on over 75 insect species, several of which are important invasive insect pests. A substantial body of knowledge from our research studies on the ecology of this predator will be presente...

  10. INTEGRATED APPROACHES FOR GENETIC IMPROVEMENT OF SORGHUM RESISTANCE TO INSECT PESTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop plants are constantly challenged with various diseases and insect pests. Sorghum is the host to over 150 insect species, which can damage different parts of plants and cause severe economic loss of this crop. Traditional plant breeding efforts, over the past decades, have made tremendous cont...

  11. Evaluation of pest vulnerability of 'Benning' soybean value added and insect resistant near isogenic lines.

    PubMed

    Samuel-Foo, Michelle; All, John N; Boerma, H Roger

    2013-04-01

    Crop enhancement with value added traits may affect vulnerability to insects, and evaluating the susceptibility levels of the various value added traits in elite germplasm would aid in developing integrated pest management strategies. During 2007-2008, five 'Benning' soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr) lines with different value added nutritional traits and four insect resistant quantitative trait loci (QTL) lines were evaluated in an effort to determine their pest vulnerability under artificial and natural insect pest populations. The lines showed variable susceptibility to lepidopterous insect pests classified as defoliators and stem feeders in replicated greenhouse and field tests. The study was carried out in Athens and Midville, GA. The green cloverworm (Hypena scabra (F.)) was the most common lepidopteran defoliator occurring in the fields. Other caterpillar pests found included the soybean looper (Pseudoplusia includens (Walker)), the bollworm (Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)), and the velvetbean caterpillar (Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner)). Data indicated that there was no significantly increased pest susceptibility among the value added cultivars with improved nutritional qualities, with the insect resistant quantitative trait loci lines Benning M and Benning MGH consistently being less susceptible to lepidopterous (Noctuidae) leaf injury. PMID:23786071

  12. Insect cell culture and applications to research and pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Building on earlier research, insect cell culture began with the successful establishment of one cell line from pupal ovarian tissue. The field has grown to the extent that now over 500 insect cell lines have been established from many insect species representing numerous insect Orders and from seve...

  13. Pest persistence and eradication conditions in a deterministic model for sterile insect release.

    PubMed

    Gordillo, Luis F

    2015-07-01

    The release of sterile insects is an environment friendly pest control method used in integrated pest management programmes. Difference or differential equations based on Knipling's model often provide satisfactory qualitative descriptions of pest populations subject to sterile release at relatively high densities with large mating encounter rates, but fail otherwise. In this paper, I derive and explore numerically deterministic population models that include sterile release together with scarce mating encounters in the particular case of species with long lifespan and multiple matings. The differential equations account separately the effects of mating failure due to sterile male release and the frequency of mating encounters. When insects spatial spread is incorporated through diffusion terms, computations reveal the possibility of steady pest persistence in finite size patches. In the presence of density dependence regulation, it is observed that sterile release might contribute to induce sudden suppression of the pest population. PMID:25105593

  14. Managing Insect Pests of Cacti and Other Succulents in Water-Efficient Landscapes 

    E-print Network

    Drees, Bastiaan M.

    2008-11-06

    insects or if the plants look unsightly, there is a good chance that the pests will move to similar plants planted nearby. Even if the plants are pest free, new pests can arrive over time. One exotic pest, the cactus moth (Cactoblastis cactorium...-efficient ornamental plants native to Texas WaterWise plants 1 Red yucca (Hesperaloe parviflora) Adam?s needle yucca (Yucca filamentosa) Soft-tip yucca (Yucca gloriosa) Pendula yucca (Yucca recurviflora) Texas sage (Leucophylum frutescens) Cactus varieties 2 Prickly...

  15. A new method for insect pest monitoring at the nursery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The strawberry rootworm, Paria fragariae Wilcox (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a primary pest of azaleas and other containerized ornamental crops at production nurseries. The cryptic nature of all life stages of this pest can make detection and subsequent control a challenge. The intent of our re...

  16. Molecular insights into resistance mechanisms of lepidopteran insect pests against toxicants.

    PubMed

    Dawkar, Vishal V; Chikate, Yojana R; Lomate, Purushottam R; Dholakia, Bhushan B; Gupta, Vidya S; Giri, Ashok P

    2013-11-01

    Insect pests remain a major reason for crop loss worldwide despite extensive use of chemical insecticides. More than 50% of all insecticides are organophosphates, followed by synthetic pyrethroids, organochlorines, carbamates, and biopesticides, and their continued use may have many environmental, agricultural, medical, and socioeconomic issues. Importantly, only a countable number of insects have acquired the status of crop pests, mostly due to monoculture of crop plants and polyphagous nature of the insects. We focus on adaptations of Lepidopteran insects to phytochemicals and synthetic pesticides in native and modern agricultural systems. Because of heavy use of chemical insecticides, a strong selection pressure is imposed on insect populations, resulting in the emergence of resistance against candidate compound(s). Current knowledge suggests that insects generally implement a three-tier system to overcome the effect of toxic compounds at physiological, biochemical, and genetic levels. Furthermore, we have discussed whether the adaptation to phytochemicals provides an advantage to the insect while encountering synthetic insecticide molecules. Specific metabolic pathways employed by insects to convert deterrents into less toxic forms or their removal from the system are highlighted. Using the proteomics approach, insect proteins interacting with insecticides can be identified, and their modification in resistant insects can be characterized. Also, systems biology studies can offer useful cues to decipher the molecular networks participating in the metabolism of detrimental compounds. PMID:24090158

  17. The efficacy of a novel insecticidal protein, Allium sativum leaf lectin (ASAL), against homopteran insects monitored in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Indrajit; Saha, Prasenjit; Majumder, Pralay; Sarkar, Anindya; Chakraborti, Dipankar; Banerjee, Santanu; Das, Sampa

    2005-11-01

    The homopteran group of polyphagous sucking insect pests causes severe damage to many economically important plants including tobacco. Allium sativum leaf lectin (ASAL), a mannose-binding 25-kDa homodimeric protein, has recently been found to be antagonistic to various sucking insects in the homopteran group through artificial diet bioassay experiments. The present study describes, for the first time, the expression of the ASAL coding sequence under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter in tobacco by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation technology. Molecular analyses demonstrated the integration of the chimeric ASAL gene in tobacco and its inheritance in the progeny plants. Western blot analysis followed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) determined the level of ASAL expression in different lines to be in the range of approximately 0.68%-2% of total soluble plant protein. An in planta bioassay conducted with Myzus persicae, peach potato aphid (a devastating pest of tobacco and many other important plants), revealed that the percentage of insect survival decreased significantly to 16%-20% in T0 plants and T1 progeny, whilst approximately 75% of insects survived on untransformed tobacco plants after 144 h of incubation. Ligand analyses of insect brush border membrane vesicle receptors and expressed ASAL in transgenic tobacco showed that the expressed ASAL binds to the aphid gut receptor in the same manner as native ASAL, pointing to the fact that ASAL maintains the biochemical characteristics even in the transgenic situation. These findings in a model plant open up the possibility of expressing the novel ASAL gene in a wide range of crop plants susceptible to various sap-sucking insects. PMID:17147631

  18. Entomopathogenic nematodes for control of insect pests above and below ground with comments on commercial production.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Lawrence A; Georgis, Ramon

    2012-06-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) have been utilized in classical, conservation, and augmentative biological control programs. The vast majority of applied research has focused on their potential as inundatively applied augmentative biological control agents. Extensive research over the past three decades has demonstrated both their successes and failures for control of insect pests of crops, ornamental plants, trees and lawn and turf. In this paper we present highlights of their development for control of insect pests above and below ground. The target insects include those from foliar, soil surface, cryptic and subterranean habitats. Advances in mass-production and formulation technology of EPNs, the discovery of numerous efficacious isolates/strains, and the desirability of reducing pesticide usage have resulted in a surge of commercial use and development of EPNs. Commercially produced EPNs are currently in use for control of scarab larvae in lawns and turf, fungus gnats in mushroom production, invasive mole crickets in lawn and turf, black vine weevil in nursery plants, and Diaprepes root weevil in citrus in addition to other pest insects. However, demonstrated successful control of several other insects, often has not lead to capture of a significant share of the pesticide market for these pests. PMID:23482993

  19. ADVANCES IN INTEGRATING INSECT GROWTH REGULATORS INTO STORAGE PEST MANAGEMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect growth regulators (IGRs) are insecticides that mimic insect-produced hormones that regulate the developmental process. They generally have little or no mammalian toxicity, and are considered reduced-risk insecticides that are often exempt from tolerance requirements of regulatory agencies. Al...

  20. Transgenic avidin maize is resistant to storage insect pests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas D. Morgan; James E. Throne; Floyd E. Dowell; Michele Bailey; John A. Howard; Karl J. Kramer

    2000-01-01

    Avidin is a glycoprotein found in chicken egg white, that sequesters the vitamin biotin. Here we show that when present in maize at levels of ?100 p.p.m., avidin is toxic to and prevents development of insects that damage grains during storage. Insect toxicity is caused by a biotin deficiency, as shown by prevention of toxicity with biotin supplementation. The avidin

  1. Development of Reference Transcriptomes for the Major Field Insect Pests of Cowpea: A Toolbox for Insect Pest Management Approaches in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Agunbiade, Tolulope A.; Sun, Weilin; Coates, Brad S.; Djouaka, Rousseau; Tamò, Manuele; Ba, Malick N.; Binso-Dabire, Clementine; Baoua, Ibrahim; Olds, Brett P.; Pittendrigh, Barry R.

    2013-01-01

    Cowpea is a widely cultivated and major nutritional source of protein for many people that live in West Africa. Annual yields and longevity of grain storage is greatly reduced by feeding damage caused by a complex of insect pests that include the pod sucking bugs, Anoplocnemis curvipes Fabricius (Hemiptera: Coreidae) and Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stål (Hemiptera: Coreidae); as well as phloem-feeding cowpea aphids, Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and flower thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Efforts to control these pests remain a challenge and there is a need to understand the structure and movement of these pest populations in order to facilitate the development of integrated pest management strategies (IPM). Molecular tools have the potential to help facilitate a better understanding of pest populations. Towards this goal, we used 454 pyrosequencing technology to generate 319,126, 176,262, 320,722 and 227,882 raw reads from A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti, respectively. The reads were de novo assembled into 11,687, 7,647, 10,652 and 7,348 transcripts for A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti, respectively. Functional annotation of the resulting transcripts identified genes putatively involved in insecticide resistance, pathogen defense and immunity. Additionally, sequences that matched the primary aphid endosymbiont, Buchnera aphidicola, were identified among A. craccivora transcripts. Furthermore, 742, 97, 607 and 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were respectively predicted among A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti transcripts, and will likely be valuable tools for future molecular genetic marker development. These results demonstrate that Roche 454-based transcriptome sequencing could be useful for the development of genomic resources for cowpea pest insects in West Africa. PMID:24278221

  2. Lantana and Verbena: How to Combat Insect and Mite Pests 

    E-print Network

    Mott, Dale; Merchant, Michael E.

    2005-02-21

    of plants. The name mealy- bug is derived from the mealy or waxy secretions that cover the body of this insect. Mealybugs are soft-bodied insects that grow to 1 ?4 inch long. They are found at rest or crawling slowly on stems or along veins... Orthene Turf, Tree & Ornamental Spray, WSP ?? azadirachtin Safer Brand BioNEEM Multipurpose Concentrate Insecticide & Repellant ???? Beauveria bassiana Naturalis-O ? carbaryl Chipco Sevin Brand 80WSP, Sevin SL ??? Sevin Brand Insecticide Liquid (21...

  3. Some analytical and numerical approaches to understanding trap counts resulting from pest insect immigration.

    PubMed

    Bearup, Daniel; Petrovskaya, Natalia; Petrovskii, Sergei

    2015-05-01

    Monitoring of pest insects is an important part of the integrated pest management. It aims to provide information about pest insect abundance at a given location. This includes data collection, usually using traps, and their subsequent analysis and/or interpretation. However, interpretation of trap count (number of insects caught over a fixed time) remains a challenging problem. First, an increase in either the population density or insects activity can result in a similar increase in the number of insects trapped (the so called "activity-density" problem). Second, a genuine increase of the local population density can be attributed to qualitatively different ecological mechanisms such as multiplication or immigration. Identification of the true factor causing an increase in trap count is important as different mechanisms require different control strategies. In this paper, we consider a mean-field mathematical model of insect trapping based on the diffusion equation. Although the diffusion equation is a well-studied model, its analytical solution in closed form is actually available only for a few special cases, whilst in a more general case the problem has to be solved numerically. We choose finite differences as the baseline numerical method and show that numerical solution of the problem, especially in the realistic 2D case, is not at all straightforward as it requires a sufficiently accurate approximation of the diffusion fluxes. Once the numerical method is justified and tested, we apply it to the corresponding boundary problem where different types of boundary forcing describe different scenarios of pest insect immigration and reveal the corresponding patterns in the trap count growth. PMID:25744607

  4. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops 2013 FARM-STORED GRAIN INSECT MANAGEMENT

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops ­ 2013 290 FARM-STORED GRAIN INSECT MANAGEMENT Robert G. Bellinger, Extension Entomologist The quality of farm-stored grain is at its peak when. At harvest, for instance, make sure that your harvesting equipment is adjusted to minimize breaking

  5. Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée)(Lepidoptera: Crambidae), an insect pest of Neotropical solanaceous fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tomato fruit borer, Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is one of the most important pests of solanaceous crops in South America. The larva of this insect develops inside the fruit, feeding on the mesocarp and the endosperm; therefore, chemical control is inefficient, yet...

  6. AN INSECT PEST FOR AGRICULTURAL, URBAN, AND WILDLIFE AREAS: THE RED IMPORTED FIRE ANT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Red Imported Fire Ant (RIFA), Solenopsis invicta (Buren), is an insect pest of particular importance in California due to its potential impact on public health, agriculture, and wildlife. In 1997, RIFAs hitchhiked to the Central Valley on honeybee hives brought in from Texas for pollination of a...

  7. STRATEGIES AT THE SUBTROPICAL HORTICULUTRE RESEARCH STATION (USDA/ARS) FORMITIGATING EXOTIC PEST INSECTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 1999, entomology at the USDA/ARS, SHRS was directed to take a proactive approach to the mitigation of exotic insects that threaten U.S. agriculture. The objective of this research is to develop environmentally-safe methods to diminish the risk of introduction of foreign pests into the U.S. Studie...

  8. Insect pests and yield potential of vegetable soybean (Endamame) produced in Georgia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of replicated field experiments was conducted with vegetable soybean (edamame), Glycine max (L.) Merrill, to assess the impacts of cultivars, planting dates, and insecticidal controls on insect pest abundance, crop damage and yield potential. The velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatali...

  9. LEGISLATIVE AND REGULATORY ACTIONS AFFECTING INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT FOR POST-HARVEST SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 1996 Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) has resulted in policy interpretations and regulatory decisions that have severely impacted insect pest management programs for stored products in the United States. The food safety aspects of this law, especially as targeted to children and other vulnerab...

  10. Reduced Population Control of an Insect Pest in Managed Willow Monocultures

    E-print Network

    Reduced Population Control of an Insect Pest in Managed Willow Monocultures Peter Dalin1 *, Oskar compare the temporal population variability of the leaf beetle Phratora vulgatissima between willow plantations and natural willow habitats. Methodology/Principal Findings: The study was conducted in 1999

  11. Should I fight or should I flight? How studying insect aggression can help integrated pest management.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-07-01

    Aggression plays a key role all across the animal kingdom, as it allows the acquisition and/or defence of limited resources (food, mates and territories) in a huge number of species. A large part of our knowledge on aggressive behaviour has been developed on insects of economic importance. How can this knowledge be exploited to enhance integrated pest management? Here, I highlight how knowledge on intraspecific aggression can help IPM both in terms of insect pests (with a focus on the enhancement of the sterile insect technique) and in terms of biological control agents (with a focus on mass-rearing optimisation). Then, I examine what implications for IPM can be outlined from knowledge about interspecific aggressive behaviour. Besides predator-pest aggressive interactions predicted by classic biological control, I focus on what IPM can learn from (i) interspecific aggression among pest species (with special reference to competitive displacement), (ii) defensive behaviour exhibited by prey against predaceous insects and (iii) conflicts among predaceous arthropods sharing the same trophic niche (with special reference to learning/sensitisation practices and artificial manipulation of chemically mediated interactions). © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:25582991

  12. INSECT PESTS OF HOME STORED FOODS Linda J. Mason and Timothy J. Gibb, Extension Entomologists

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    through this whole publication #12;2Insect Pests of Home Stored Foods -- E-37-W DERMESTID BEETLES Members AND FLOUR BEETLES Sometimes collectively called "bran bugs," these reddish-brown beetles are usually less.Thelarvaeareusuallyfoundin infestedmaterial,whereasadultbeetlesoftencrawlabout thekitchenorotherareasaswellasfeedintheinfested material. RedFlourBeetle

  13. Effect of Volatile Constituents from Securidaca Longepedunculata on Insect pests Of Stored Grain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thamara K. Jayasekara; Philip C. Stevenson; David R. Hall; Steven R. Belmain

    2005-01-01

    Securidacalongepedunculata Fers (Polygalaceae) is commonly used as a traditional medicine in many parts of Africa as well as against a number of invertebrate pests, including insects infesting stored grain. The present study showed that S. longepedunculata root powder, its methanol extract, and the main volatile component, methyl salicylate, exhibit repellent and toxic properties to Sitophiluszeamais adults. Adult S. zeamais that

  14. CURRENT RESEARCH ON BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF AVOCADO INSECT AND MITE PESTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. McMurtry

    1961-01-01

    Fortunately, most of the injurious insects and mites on avocados are kept at low levels by parasites or predators. There are a Few pests, however, that are not always effectively controlled by natural enemies, so that damage to the tree or fruit may result, and the use of insecticides is contemplated. Inasmuch as insecticidal treatment can upset the natural balance

  15. Breeding cowpea for resistance to insect pests: attempted crosses between cowpea and Vigna vexillata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Fatokun

    Cowpea is grown mainly for its protein-rich grains, which is consumed in various forms in sub-Saharan Africa. Average grain yield in farmers' fi elds is generally low due to a number of biotic and abiotic stresses. The most important of the biotic stress factors causing extensive grain yield losses in cowpea are postfl owering insect pests such as the legume

  16. MANAGEMENT OF INSECT AND MITE PESTS OF AVOCADO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. McMurtry

    A large number of pest species is known from California avocado orchards (2) but most are seldom noticed. Species which are usually present but of minor or no economic significance include the omnivorous looper, Subulodes caberata Guenee, the amorbia, Amorbia essigana Busck, the latania scale, Hemiberlesia lataniae Signoret, the brown soft scale Coccus hesperidum L., the long-tailed mealybug Pseudococcus adonidum

  17. Interaction between juniper Juniperus communis L. and its fruit pest insects: Pest abundance, fruit characteristics and seed viability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Daniel

    1998-12-01

    The relationships between the fruit features of Juniperus communis and the presence of fruit pests were studied in Sierra Nevada, SE Spain. The abundance of two insect species — a pulp-sucking scale and a seed-predator wasp — was surveyed with respect both to fruit characteristics and to viability of seeds contained therein. Seed-predator pressure was not significantly related to any fruit characteristics; however, pulp suckers tended to be more abundant in plants with low pulp: seed ratios and high fruit-water content. In addition, fruits with high levels of pulp-sucker attack tended to have higher water content. A multi-factor ANOVA, considering the identity of the plant and the attack of the different pests as factors, showed that plant identity accounts for most of the variation in fruit characteristics. The viability of seeds tended to be lower in plants strongly attacked by both pests. Fruits attacked by seed predators showed significantly lower proportions of viable and unviable seeds than did unattacked fruits. Seed viability was also lower in those fruits heavily attacked by pulp suckers, but this pattern is strongly mediated by plant identity. Pest activity proved to be clearly associated with a direct decrease in juniper reproductive capacity. This loss involved a reduction of the viable-seed number, mainly related to the seed predator, as well as a reduction of fruit attractiveness to frugivorous dispersers, related to the pulp sucker.

  18. The Insect Ecdysone Receptor is a Good Potential Target for RNAi-based Pest Control

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Rong; Xu, Xinping; Liang, Yongkang; Tian, Honggang; Pan, Zhanqing; Jin, Shouheng; Wang, Na; Zhang, Wenqing

    2014-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has great potential for use in insect pest control. However, some significant challenges must be overcome before RNAi-based pest control can become a reality. One challenge is the proper selection of a good target gene for RNAi. Here, we report that the insect ecdysone receptor (EcR) is a good potential target for RNAi-based pest control in the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens, a serious insect pest of rice plants. We demonstrated that the use of a 360 bp fragment (NlEcR-c) that is common between NlEcR-A and NlEcR-B for feeding RNAi experiments significantly decreased the relative mRNA expression levels of NlEcR compared with those in the dsGFP control. Feeding RNAi also resulted in a significant reduction in the number of offspring per pair of N. lugens. Consequently, a transgenic rice line expressing NlEcR dsRNA was constructed by Agrobacterium- mediated transformation. The results of qRT-PCR showed that the total copy number of the target gene in all transgenic rice lines was 2. Northern blot analysis showed that the small RNA of the hairpin dsNlEcR-c was successfully expressed in the transgenic rice lines. After newly hatched nymphs of N. lugens fed on the transgenic rice lines, effective RNAi was observed. The NlEcR expression levels in all lines examined were decreased significantly compared with the control. In all lines, the survival rate of the nymphs was nearly 90%, and the average number of offspring per pair in the treated groups was significantly less than that observed in the control, with a decrease of 44.18-66.27%. These findings support an RNAi-based pest control strategy and are also important for the management of rice insect pests. PMID:25516715

  19. Transcriptome Analysis in Cotton Boll Weevil (Anthonomus grandis) and RNA Interference in Insect Pests

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Roberta Ramos; Antonino de Souza Jr, José Dijair; Togawa, Roberto Coiti; Silva-Junior, Orzenil Bonfim; Pappas-Jr, Georgios Joannis; da Silva, Maria Cristina Mattar; Engler, Gilbert; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2013-01-01

    Cotton plants are subjected to the attack of several insect pests. In Brazil, the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, is the most important cotton pest. The use of insecticidal proteins and gene silencing by interference RNA (RNAi) as techniques for insect control are promising strategies, which has been applied in the last few years. For this insect, there are not much available molecular information on databases. Using 454-pyrosequencing methodology, the transcriptome of all developmental stages of the insect pest, A. grandis, was analyzed. The A. grandis transcriptome analysis resulted in more than 500.000 reads and a data set of high quality 20,841 contigs. After sequence assembly and annotation, around 10,600 contigs had at least one BLAST hit against NCBI non-redundant protein database and 65.7% was similar to Tribolium castaneum sequences. A comparison of A. grandis, Drosophila melanogaster and Bombyx mori protein families’ data showed higher similarity to dipteran than to lepidopteran sequences. Several contigs of genes encoding proteins involved in RNAi mechanism were found. PAZ Domains sequences extracted from the transcriptome showed high similarity and conservation for the most important functional and structural motifs when compared to PAZ Domains from 5 species. Two SID-like contigs were phylogenetically analyzed and grouped with T. castaneum SID-like proteins. No RdRP gene was found. A contig matching chitin synthase 1 was mined from the transcriptome. dsRNA microinjection of a chitin synthase gene to A. grandis female adults resulted in normal oviposition of unviable eggs and malformed alive larvae that were unable to develop in artificial diet. This is the first study that characterizes the transcriptome of the coleopteran, A. grandis. A new and representative transcriptome database for this insect pest is now available. All data support the state of the art of RNAi mechanism in insects. PMID:24386449

  20. Damage characteristics produced by insect pests in packaging film

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Riudavets; I. Salas; M. J. Pons

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the morphology of damage produced by three important stored-product pest species, Rhyzopertha dominica, Sitophilus oryzae and Lasioderma serricorne, in food packaging film. Three different types of plastic film (polypropylene 25?m, polyethylene 50?m and polyester 12?m), a multilayer film (paper, polyethylene 15?m, aluminium 7?m and polyethylene 30?m), and cigarette paper were compared. Damage was examined using a stereomicroscope

  1. BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF INSECT PESTS FOR STORED ORGANIC GRAIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field studies have shown that augmentative releases of parasitoid wasps into bins of stored wheat can suppress populations of the lesser grain borer by 90% compared to control bins. Insect fragments from flour samples milled from bins treated with parasitoids were reduced by 89% and the number of in...

  2. Supplemental Insert for "Managing Insect Pests of Texas Sunflower,"

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    that have been noted since the original document was prepared. First, the soybean stem borer, sometimes measures in the insect guide represent more of a `technical' recommendation, whereas as industry practices may refer to the discussion on sunflower head moth in "Common Concerns in West Texas Sunflower

  3. Biotechnology-derived products for insect pest control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efforts to produce microbial-based insecticides have resulted from development of new and improved methods in biotechnology. Microorganisms, metabolites from plants and microorganisms, and transgenic crops have been used to make biotechnologically-derived products for control of insects. New biote...

  4. Insect-attracting and antimicrobial properties of antifreeze for monitoring insect pests and natural enemies in stored corn.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xinzhi; Gunawan, Gunawati; Brown, Steve L; Sumner, Paul E; Ruberson, John R; Buntin, G David; Holbrook, C Corley; Lee, R Dewey; Streett, Douglas A; Throne, James E; Campbell, James F

    2008-04-01

    Insect infestations in stored grain cause extensive damage worldwide. Storage insect pests, including the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae); Sitophilus spp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae); and their natural enemies [e.g., Cephalonomia tarsalis (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae), and Anisopteromalus calandrae (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)] inhabit a temporary, but stable ecosystem with constant environmental conditions. The objective of the present experiment was to assess the efficacy of using ethylene glycol antifreeze in combination with nutrient solutions to monitor storage insect pest and natural enemy populations in three bins of corn, Zea mays L. The treatments were deionized water, a diluted (1:5 antifreeze:water) antifreeze solution, 10% honey, 10% honey in the diluted antifreeze solution, 10% beer in the diluted antifreeze solution, 10% sucrose in the diluted antifreeze solution, and a commercial pheromone trap suspended in a 3.8-liter container filled with 300-ml of diluted antifreeze solution. The seven treatments captured storage insect pests and their natural enemies in the bins at 33-36 degrees C and 51-55% RH. The pheromone trap in the container with the diluted antifreeze captured significantly more P. interpunctella than the other treatments, but a lower percentage (7.6%) of these captures were females compared with the rest of the treatments (> 40% females). All trapping solutions also captured Sitophilus spp. and other beetle species, but the captures of the coleopteran pests were not significantly different among the seven treatments (P > 0.05). Two parasitoid wasps also were captured in the study. The number of A. calandrae was different among the seven treatments (P < 0.05), whereas the number of C. tarsalis was not different among the treatments (P > 0.05). Most A. calandrae adults were captured by the 10% honey in the diluted antifreeze, whereas the fewest were captured in the deionized water. Microbial growth was observed in the 10% honey solution, but no microbial growth occurred in the rest of the treatments, including 10% honey in the diluted antifreeze solution. The results of insect captures and microbial growth demonstrated that antifreeze could be used as a part of storage insect monitoring and/or control programs. PMID:18459433

  5. Competition among agricultural pest insects and its role in pest outbreaks associated with transgenic Bt cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the expansion of transgenic Bt cotton cultivation in the southeast US, stink bugs, particularly Nezara viridula and Euschistus servus [Hemiptera: Pentatomidae], have become serious cotton pests, resulting in continued high insecticide use. Whereas Bt cotton provides effective control of the ca...

  6. Managing Insect and Mite Pests in Vegetable Gardens 

    E-print Network

    Jackman, John A.

    2008-02-19

    acid also are active ingredients in some snail and slug baits. Most snail and slug baits may not be used on vegetables or in the garden; however, Green Light? Snail & Slug Bait states on the label that it can be used in the garden. Grasshoppers... and crickets: Grasshoppers and crickets may move into gardens rapidly, es- pecially when winged. Protecting foliage with an insecticide may not be very successful if these insects invade in large numbers. Insecticides including carbaryl, esfenvalerate...

  7. Wolbachia-Induced Cytoplasmic Incompatibility to Control Insect Pests?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Bourtzis

    Wolbachia are a group of obligatory intracellular and maternally inherited bacteria of arthropods and nematodes, which have recently\\u000a attracted attention for their potential as new biological control agents. Wolbachia are able to invade and maintain themselves in an enormous range of invertebrate species, including insects, mites, spiders,\\u000a springtails, crustaceans and nematodes. Recent surveys using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) suggest

  8. Spider-venom peptides: structure, pharmacology, and potential for control of insect pests.

    PubMed

    King, Glenn F; Hardy, Margaret C

    2013-01-01

    Spider venoms are an incredibly rich source of disulfide-rich insecticidal peptides that have been tuned over millions of years to target a wide range of receptors and ion channels in the insect nervous system. These peptides can act individually, or as part of larger toxin cabals, to rapidly immobilize envenomated prey owing to their debilitating effects on nervous system function. Most of these peptides contain a unique arrangement of disulfide bonds that provides them with extreme resistance to proteases. As a result, these peptides are highly stable in the insect gut and hemolymph and many of them are orally active. Thus, spider-venom peptides can be used as stand-alone bioinsecticides, or transgenes encoding these peptides can be used to engineer insect-resistant crops or enhanced entomopathogens. We critically review the potential of spider-venom peptides to control insect pests and highlight their advantages and disadvantages compared with conventional chemical insecticides. PMID:23020618

  9. Feeding Behavior of a Potential Insect Pest, Lygus hesperus, on Four New Industrial Crops for the Arid Southwestern USA.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Camelina (Camelina sativa), guayule (Parthenium argentatum), lesquerella (Physaria fendleri), and vernonia ( Centrapalus pauciflorus [formerly Vernonia galamensis]) are either under limited commercial production or being developed for production in the southwestern USA. Insect pests are a potential ...

  10. Releases of biological control agents of insect pests on Easter Island (Pacific Ocean)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Ripa; P. S. Rojas; G. Velasco

    1995-01-01

    For half a century, agriculture on Easter Island has been affected by an increasing number of accidentally introduced insect\\u000a pests. Due to the absence of natural enemies and other factors, these have reached high density levels which claimed for intensive\\u000a use of pesticides. A project supported by the National Funds for Regional Development (FNDR) was established in 1984 to develop

  11. Influence of Cover Crops on Insect Pests and Predators in Conservation Tillage Cotton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glynn Tillman; Harry Schomberg; Sharad Phatak; Benjamin Mullinix; Sharon Lachnicht; Patricia Timper; Dawn Olson

    2004-01-01

    In fall 2000, an on-farm sustainable agricultural research project was established for cotton, Gossypiumhirsutum L., in Tift County, Georgia. The objective of our 2-yr research project was to determine the impact of several cover crops on pest and predator insects in cotton.The Þve cover crop treatments included 1) cereal rye, Secalecereale L., a standard grass cover crop; 2) crimson clover,

  12. QUARANTINE TREATMENT OF STORAGE INSECT PESTS UNDER VACUUM OR CO 2 IN TRANSPORTABLE SYSTEMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. NAVARRO; G. SABIO; M. RINDNER; A. AZRIELI

    The objective of our investigation was to identify the combinations that enhance the effectiveness of insect control based on vacuum or CO2 in combination with increased temperatures as quarantine treatment of storage pests. In laboratory studies with Lasioderma serricorne exposed to low pressures at 30ºC, LT99 value for adults was 15 h when exposed to 25 mm Hg. Trogoderma granarium

  13. ENHANCING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MODIFIED ATMOSPHERES TO CONTROL INSECT PESTS IN MUSEUMS AND SIMILAR SENSITIVE AREAS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. REIERSON; M. K. RUST; J. M. KENNEDY; V. DANIEL; S. MAEKAWA

    1996-01-01

    Abstract-Anoxia resulting from contained atmospheres of ~0.1% oxygen (1,000 ppm) was lethal to all stadia of a variety of insect pests commonly,encountered,in museums,and other sensitive areas. Low % 02 in a closed system,was achieved,and maintained,by displacement,with gaseous,nitrogen. The effect of anoxia on representative species of cockroaches (Dictyoptera), fabric beetles (Dermestidae), stored product beetles (Anobiidae), termites (Rhinotermitidae), and wood-boring beetles (Lyctidae)

  14. A modelling methodology to assess the effect of insect pest control on agro-ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Nian-Feng; Ji, Xiang-Yun; Jiang, Jie-Xian; Li, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The extensive use of chemical pesticides for pest management in agricultural systems can entail risks to the complex ecosystems consisting of economic, ecological and social subsystems. To analyze the negative and positive effects of external or internal disturbances on complex ecosystems, we proposed an ecological two-sidedness approach which has been applied to the design of pest-controlling strategies for pesticide pollution management. However, catastrophe theory has not been initially applied to this approach. Thus, we used an approach of integrating ecological two-sidedness with a multi-criterion evaluation method of catastrophe theory to analyze the complexity of agro-ecosystems disturbed by the insecticides and screen out the best insect pest-controlling strategy in cabbage production. The results showed that the order of the values of evaluation index (RCC/CP) for three strategies in cabbage production was “applying frequency vibration lamps and environment-friendly insecticides 8 times” (0.80) < “applying trap devices and environment-friendly insecticides 9 times” (0.83) < “applying common insecticides 14 times” (1.08). The treatment “applying frequency vibration lamps and environment-friendly insecticides 8 times” was considered as the best insect pest-controlling strategy in cabbage production in Shanghai, China. PMID:25906199

  15. Exploitation of insect vibrational signals reveals a new method of pest management.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Anna; Anfora, Gianfranco; Lucchi, Andrea; Lanzo, Francesco; Virant-Doberlet, Meta; Mazzoni, Valerio

    2012-01-01

    Food production is considered to be the main source of human impact on the environment and the concerns about detrimental effects of pesticides on biodiversity and human health are likely to lead to an increasingly restricted use of chemicals in agriculture. Since the first successful field trial, pheromone based mating disruption enabled sustainable insect control, which resulted in reduced levels of pesticide use. Organic farming is one of the fastest growing segments of agriculture and with the continuously growing public concern about use of pesticides, the main remaining challenge in increasing the safety of the global food production is to identify appropriate alternative mating disruption approaches for the numerous insect pests that do not rely on chemical communication. In the present study, we show for the first time that effective mating disruption based on substrate-borne vibrational signals can be achieved in the field. When disruptive vibrational signals were applied to grapevine plants through a supporting wire, mating frequency of the leafhopper pest Scaphoideus titanus dropped to 9 % in semi-field conditions and to 4 % in a mature vineyard. The underlying mechanism of this environmentally friendly pest-control tactic is a masking of the vibrational signals used in mate recognition and location. Because vibrational communication is widespread in insects, mating disruption using substrate vibrations can transform many open field and greenhouse based farming systems. PMID:22457726

  16. Floricultural Insects and Related Pests - Biology and Control, Section I. Florogram - Specialty Manual Issue for Commercial Greenhouse Growers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentile, A. G.; Scanlon, D. T.

    This manual is designed by the Massachusetts Cooperative Extension Service as a guide for the control of the most common insects and related pests of floricultural crops grown commercially in glass and plastic houses in Massachusetts. The publication consists of two sections. The first section presents a description of the major pests of…

  17. Restoring a maize root signal that attracts insect-killing nematodes to control a major pest

    PubMed Central

    Degenhardt, Jörg; Hiltpold, Ivan; Köllner, Tobias G.; Frey, Monika; Gierl, Alfons; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Hibbard, Bruce E.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Turlings, Ted C. J.

    2009-01-01

    When attacked by herbivorous insects, plants emit volatile compounds that attract natural enemies of the insects. It has been proposed that these volatile signals can be manipulated to improve crop protection. Here, we demonstrate the full potential of this strategy by restoring the emission of a specific belowground signal emitted by insect-damaged maize roots. The western corn rootworm induces the roots of many maize varieties to emit (E)-?-caryophyllene, which attracts entomopathogenic nematodes that infect and kill the voracious root pest. However, most North American maize varieties have lost the ability to emit (E)-?-caryophyllene and may therefore receive little protection from the nematodes. To restore the signal, a nonemitting maize line was transformed with a (E)-?-caryophyllene synthase gene from oregano, resulting in constitutive emissions of this sesquiterpene. In rootworm-infested field plots in which nematodes were released, the (E)-?-caryophyllene-emitting plants suffered significantly less root damage and had 60% fewer adult beetles emerge than untransformed, nonemitting lines. This demonstration that plant volatile emissions can be manipulated to enhance the effectiveness of biological control agents opens the way for novel and ecologically sound strategies to fight a variety of insect pests. PMID:19666594

  18. Gut microbiota mediate caffeine detoxification in the primary insect pest of coffee.

    PubMed

    Ceja-Navarro, Javier A; Vega, Fernando E; Karaoz, Ulas; Hao, Zhao; Jenkins, Stefan; Lim, Hsiao Chien; Kosina, Petr; Infante, Francisco; Northen, Trent R; Brodie, Eoin L

    2015-01-01

    The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) is the most devastating insect pest of coffee worldwide with its infestations decreasing crop yield by up to 80%. Caffeine is an alkaloid that can be toxic to insects and is hypothesized to act as a defence mechanism to inhibit herbivory. Here we show that caffeine is degraded in the gut of H. hampei, and that experimental inactivation of the gut microbiota eliminates this activity. We demonstrate that gut microbiota in H. hampei specimens from seven major coffee-producing countries and laboratory-reared colonies share a core of microorganisms. Globally ubiquitous members of the gut microbiota, including prominent Pseudomonas species, subsist on caffeine as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Pseudomonas caffeine demethylase genes are expressed in vivo in the gut of H. hampei, and re-inoculation of antibiotic-treated insects with an isolated Pseudomonas strain reinstates caffeine-degradation ability confirming their key role. PMID:26173063

  19. Insect Pests of Shade Trees and Shrubs: A Guide for Commercial Nurserymen and Arborists. Publication E-41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuder, Donald L.

    This guide presents information on controlling insect pests of ornamental trees and shrubs. It is organized for easy reference by nurserymen, arborists, and others desirous of controlling insect damage. General information given includes notes on spraying and sprayers, insecticides, general purpose sprays, phytotoxicity, and health precautions.…

  20. ChiloDB: a genomic and transcriptome database for an important rice insect pest Chilo suppressalis

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Chuanlin; Liu, Ying; Liu, Jinding; Xiao, Huamei; Huang, Shuiqing; Lin, Yongjun; Han, Zhaojun; Li, Fei

    2014-01-01

    ChiloDB is an integrated resource that will be of use to the rice stem borer research community. The rice striped stem borer (SSB), Chilo suppressalis Walker, is a major rice pest that causes severe yield losses in most rice-producing countries. A draft genome of this insect is available. The aims of ChiloDB are (i) to store recently acquired genomic sequence and transcriptome data and integrate them with protein-coding genes, microRNAs, piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) data and (ii) to provide comprehensive search tools and downloadable data sets for comparative genomics and gene annotation of this important rice pest. ChiloDB contains the first version of the official SSB gene set, comprising 80?479 scaffolds and 10?221 annotated protein-coding genes. Additionally, 262 SSB microRNA genes predicted from a small RNA library, 82?639 piRNAs identified using the piRNApredictor software, 37?040 transcripts from a midgut transcriptome and 69?977 transcripts from a mixed sample have all been integrated into ChiloDB. ChiloDB was constructed using a data structure that is compatible with data resources, which will be incorporated into the database in the future. This resource will serve as a long-term and open-access database for research on the biology, evolution and pest control of SSB. To the best of our knowledge, ChiloDB is one of the first genomic and transcriptome database for rice insect pests. Database URL: http://ento.njau.edu.cn/ChiloDB. PMID:24997141

  1. Effects of plant genotype and insect dispersal rate on the population dynamics of a forest pest.

    PubMed

    Moran, Emily V; Bewick, Sharon; Cobbold, Christina A

    2013-12-01

    It has been shown that plant genotype can strongly affect not only individual herbivore performance, but also community composition and ecosystem function. Few studies, however, have addressed how plant genotype affects herbivore population dynamics. In this paper, we used a simulation modeling approach to ask how the genetic composition of a forest influences pest outbreak dynamics, using the example of aspen (Populus tremuloides) and forest tent caterpillars (FTC; Malacosoma disstria). Specifically, we examined how plant genotype, the relative size of genotypic patches, and the rate of insect dispersal between them, affect the frequency, amplitude, and duration of outbreaks. We found that coupling two different genotypes does not necessarily result in an averaging of insect dynamics. Instead, depending on the ratio of patch sizes, when dispersal rates are moderate, outbreaks in the two-genotype case may be more or less severe than in forests of either genotype alone. Thresholds for different dynamic behaviors were similar for all genotypic combinations. Thus, the qualitative behavior of a stand of two different genotypes can be predicted based on the response of the insect to each genotype, the relative sizes of the two patches, and the scale of insect dispersal. PMID:24597225

  2. The I-SPy Insect Indicator: an effective trap for the detection of insect pests in empty stores and on flat surfaces in the cereal and food trades

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. E Collins; J Chambers

    2003-01-01

    A new trap, the CSL I-SPy Insect Indicator®, has been assessed for monitoring adults of the principal crawling beetle pests of stored products in empty premises and on flat surfaces in grain stores and flour mills in the UK.The new trap was compared with the Igrox Insect Monitoring Peanut-free Bait Bag, the Storgard® Flit-Trak M2 trap and the Pantry Patrol™

  3. Numerical and Functional Responses of Forest Bats to a Major Insect Pest in Pine Plantations

    PubMed Central

    Charbonnier, Yohan; Barbaro, Luc; Theillout, Amandine; Jactel, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    Global change is expected to modify the frequency and magnitude of defoliating insect outbreaks in forest ecosystems. Bats are increasingly acknowledged as effective biocontrol agents for pest insect populations. However, a better understanding is required of whether and how bat communities contribute to the resilience of forests to man- and climate-driven biotic disturbances. We studied the responses of forest insectivorous bats to a major pine defoliator, the pine processionary moth pityocampa, which is currently expanding its range in response to global warming. We used pheromone traps and ultrasound bat recorders to estimate the abundance and activity of moths and predatory bats along the edge of infested pine stands. We used synthetic pheromone to evaluate the effects of experimentally increased moth availability on bat foraging activity. We also evaluated the top-down regulation of moth population by estimating T. pityocampa larval colonies abundance on the same edges the following winter. We observed a close spatio-temporal matching between emergent moths and foraging bats, with bat activity significantly increasing with moth abundance. The foraging activity of some bat species was significantly higher near pheromone lures, i.e. in areas of expected increased prey availability. Furthermore moth reproductive success significantly decreased with increasing bat activity during the flight period of adult moths. These findings suggest that bats, at least in condition of low prey density, exhibit numerical and functional responses to a specific and abundant prey, which may ultimately result in an effective top-down regulation of the population of the prey. These observations are consistent with bats being useful agents for the biocontrol of insect pest populations in plantation forests. PMID:25285523

  4. Science and Management of Pest Insects, Plant Pathogens and Goal: Colorado State University will enhance its focus and depth in undergraduate education, graduate education, research,

    E-print Network

    , high quality, integrated pest management system encompassing the disciplines of entomology, plant and a systems approach will be ongoing. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is the application of disciplinaryScience and Management of Pest Insects, Plant Pathogens and Weeds Goal: Colorado State University

  5. Advances in RNA interference: dsRNA treatment in trees and grapevines for insect pest population suppression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a breakthrough technology that has significantly impacted contemporary approaches to control the damage caused by insect pests. Most well-known RNAi studies continue to rely on injecting the dsRNA molecules directly into the organism; this approach is not suitable for use...

  6. Unexpected effects of low doses of a neonicotinoid insecticide on behavioral responses to sex pheromone in a pest insect.

    PubMed

    Rabhi, Kaouther K; Esancy, Kali; Voisin, Anouk; Crespin, Lucille; Le Corre, Julie; Tricoire-Leignel, Hélène; Anton, Sylvia; Gadenne, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    In moths, which include many agricultural pest species, males are attracted by female-emitted sex pheromones. Although integrated pest management strategies are increasingly developed, most insect pest treatments rely on widespread use of neurotoxic chemicals, including neonicotinoid insecticides. Residual accumulation of low concentrations of these insecticides in the environment is known to be harmful to beneficial insects such as honey bees. This environmental stress probably acts as an "info-disruptor" by modifying the chemical communication system, and therefore decreases chances of reproduction in target insects that largely rely on olfactory communication. However, low doses of pollutants could on the contrary induce adaptive processes in the olfactory pathway, thus enhancing reproduction. Here we tested the effects of acute oral treatments with different low doses of the neonicotinoid clothianidin on the behavioral responses to sex pheromone in the moth Agrotis ipsilon using wind tunnel experiments. We show that low doses of clothianidin induce a biphasic effect on pheromone-guided behavior. Surprisingly, we found a hormetic-like effect, improving orientation behavior at the LD20 dose corresponding to 10 ng clothianidin. On the contrary, a negative effect, disturbing orientation behavior, was elicited by a treatment with a dose below the LD0 dose corresponding to 0.25 ng clothianidin. No clothianidin effect was observed on behavioral responses to plant odor. Our results indicate that risk assessment has to include unexpected effects of residues on the life history traits of pest insects, which could then lead to their adaptation to environmental stress. PMID:25517118

  7. Integration of endemic natural enemies and Bacillus thuringiensis to manage insect pests of Brassica crops in North Korea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Furlong; Kim Hak Ju; Pak Wi Su; Jo Kwang Chol; Ri Chang Il; Myron P. Zalucki

    2008-01-01

    Brassica crops, principally varieties of Brassica oleracea and Brassica campestris, account for over half the total vegetable production in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK). The crops are attacked by a complex of insects and the two major pest species, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) and Pieris rapae L. (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) represent the principal constraints to Brassica crop production.

  8. RNA interference: a new strategy in the evolutionary arms race between human control strategies and insect pests.

    PubMed

    Machado, Vilmar; Rodríguez-García, María Juliana; Sánchez-García, Francisco Javier; Galan, Jose

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between humans and the insect pests of cultivated plants may be considered to be an indirect coevolutionary process, i.e., an arms race. Over time, humans have developed several strategies to minimize the negative impacts of insects on agricultural production. However, insects have made adaptive responses via the evolution of resistance to insecticides, and more recently against Bacillus thuriengiensis. Thus, we need to continuously invest resources in the development of new strategies for crop protection. Recent advances in genomics have demonstrated the possibility of a new weapon or strategy in this war, i.e., gene silencing, which involves blocking the expression of specific genes via mRNA inactivation. In the last decade, several studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of this strategy in the control of different species of insects. However, several technical difficulties need to be overcome to transform this potential into reality, such as the selection of target genes, the concentration of dsRNA, the nucleotide sequence of the dsRNA, the length of dsRNA, persistence in the insect body, and the life stage of the target species where gene silencing is most efficient. This study analyzes several aspects related to the use of gene silencing in pest control and it includes an overview of the inactivation process, as well as the problems that need to be resolved to transform gene silencing into an effective pest control method. PMID:25916161

  9. Effects of a killed-cover crop mulching system on sweetpotato production, soil pests, and insect predators in South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Jackson, D Michael; Harrison, Howard F

    2008-12-01

    Sweetpotatoes, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. (Convolvulaceae), are typically grown on bare soil where weeds and erosion can be serious problems. Conservation tillage systems using cover crop residues as mulch can help reduce these problems, but little is known about how conservation tillage affects yield and quality of sweetpotato or how these systems impact populations of beneficial and pest insects. Therefore, field experiments were conducted at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory, Charleston, SC, in 2002-2004 to evaluate production of sweetpotatoes in conventional tillage versus a conservation tillage system by using an oat (Avena sativa L. (Poaceae)-crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.) (Fabaceae) killed-cover crop (KCC) mulch. The four main treatments were 1) conventional tillage, hand-weeded; 2) KCC, hand-weeded; 3) conventional tillage, weedy; and 4) KCC, weedy. Each main plot was divided into three subplots, whose treatments were sweetpotato genotypes: 'Ruddy', which is resistant to soil insect pests; and 'SC1149-19' and 'Beauregard', which are susceptible to soil insect pests. For both the KCC and conventional tillage systems, sweetpotato yields were higher in plots that received hand weeding than in weedy plots. Orthogonal contrasts revealed a significant effect of tillage treatment (conventional tillage versus KCC) on yield in two of the 3 yr. Ruddy remained resistant to injury by soil insect pests in both cropping systems; and it consistently had significantly higher percentages of clean roots and less damage by wireworm-Diabrotica-Systena complex, sweetpotato flea beetles, grubs, and sweetpotato weevils than the two susceptible genotypes. In general, injury to sweetpotato roots by soil insect pests was not significantly higher in the KCC plots than in the conventionally tilled plots. Also, more fire ants, rove beetles, and carabid beetle were captured by pitfall traps in the KCC plots than in the conventional tillage plots during at least 1 yr of the study. This study suggests that a sweetpotatoes can be successfully grown under a killed-cover crop production system. PMID:19133469

  10. Effect of some Ghanaian plant components on control of two stored-product insect pests of cereals.

    PubMed

    Owusu

    2000-01-15

    In an attempt to find natural and cheaper methods for the control of stored-product pests of cereals, some traditionally useful Ghanaian plant materials were evaluated. Hexane+isopropyl alcohol extract of leaves of Ocimum viride proved most effective in the control of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), followed by that of Chromolaena odorata. O. viride showed strong repellent activity and thus deterred the insects from feeding. It reduced survival of both insect pests to less than 25% after 10 days of treatment at concentrations of 0.1 mg ml(-1) and above. The results show the potential of O. viride and C. odorata in the control of stored-product insects. PMID:11124372

  11. Australian endemic pest tephritids: genetic, molecular and microbial tools for improved Sterile Insect Technique

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Among Australian endemic tephritid fruit flies, the sibling species Bactrocera tryoni and Bactrocera neohumeralis have been serious horticultural pests since the introduction of horticulture in the nineteenth century. More recently, Bactrocera jarvisi has also been declared a pest in northern Australia. After several decades of genetic research there is now a range of classical and molecular genetic tools that can be used to develop improved Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) strains for control of these pests. Four-way crossing strategies have the potential to overcome the problem of inbreeding in mass-reared strains of B. tryoni. The ability to produce hybrids between B. tryoni and the other two species in the laboratory has proved useful for the development of genetically marked strains. The identification of Y-chromosome markers in B. jarvisi means that male and female embryos can be distinguished in any strain that carries a B. jarvisi Y chromosome. This has enabled the study of homologues of the sex-determination genes during development of B jarvisi and B. tryoni, which is necessary for the generation of genetic-sexing strains. Germ-line transformation has been established and a draft genome sequence for B. tryoni released. Transcriptomes from various species, tissues and developmental stages, to aid in identification of manipulation targets for improving SIT, have been assembled and are in the pipeline. Broad analyses of the microbiome have revealed a metagenome that is highly variable within and across species and defined by the environment. More specific analyses detected Wolbachia at low prevalence in the tropics but absent in temperate regions, suggesting a possible role for this endosymbiont in future control strategies. PMID:25470996

  12. Modelling mortality of a stored grain insect pest with fumigation: probit, logistic or Cauchy model?

    PubMed

    Shi, Mingren; Renton, Michael

    2013-06-01

    Computer simulation models can provide a relatively fast, safe and inexpensive means to judge and weigh the merits of various pest control management options. However, the usefulness of such simulation models relies on the accurate estimation of important model parameters, such as the pest mortality under different treatments and conditions. Recently, an individual-based simulation model of population dynamics and resistance evolution has been developed for the stored grain insect pest Rhyzopertha dominica, based on experimental results showing that alleles at two different loci are involved in resistance to the grain fumigant phosphine. In this paper, we describe how we used three generalized linear models, probit, logistic and Cauchy models, each employing two- and four-parameter sub-models, to fit experimental data sets for five genotypes for which detailed mortality data was already available. Instead of the usual statistical iterative maximum likelihood estimation, a direct algebraic approach, generalized inverse matrix technique, was used to estimate the mortality model parameters. As this technique needs to perturb the observed mortality proportions if the proportions include 0 or 1, a golden section search approach was used to find the optimal perturbation in terms of minimum least squares (L2) error. The results show that the estimates using the probit model were the most accurate in terms of L2 errors between observed and predicted mortality values. These errors with the probit model ranged from 0.049% to 5.3%, from 0.381% to 8.1% with the logistic model and from 8.3% to 48.2% with the Cauchy model. Meanwhile, the generalized inverse matrix technique achieved similar results to the maximum likelihood estimation ones, but is less time consuming and computationally demanding. We also describe how we constructed a two-parameter model to estimate the mortalities for each of the remaining four genotypes based on realistic genetic assumptions. PMID:23473941

  13. Future pest status of an insect pest in museums, Attagenus smirnovi: Distribution and food consumption in relation to climate change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lise Stengaard Hansen; Monika Åkerlund; Terje Grøntoft; Morten Ryhl-Svendsen; Anne Lisbeth Schmidt; Jan-Erik Bergh; Karl-Martin Vagn Jensen

    The brown carpet beetle Attagenus smirnovi, Zhantiev 1973 (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) is an important pest of objects of organic origin in museums of cultural and natural history in Europe. Future climate changes are expected to lead to increasing temperatures, which will affect the pest status of this species. In the present study a laboratory investigation was conducted to elucidate the effect

  14. Tissue-Specific Transcriptomics of the Exotic Invasive Insect Pest Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)

    PubMed Central

    Mittapalli, Omprakash; Bai, Xiaodong; Bonello, Pierluigi; Herms, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    Background The insect midgut and fat body represent major tissue interfaces that deal with several important physiological functions including digestion, detoxification and immune response. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), is an exotic invasive insect pest that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) primarily in the Midwestern United States and Ontario, Canada. However, despite its high impact status little knowledge exists for A. planipennis at the molecular level. Methodology and Principal Findings Newer-generation Roche-454 pyrosequencing was used to obtain 126,185 reads for the midgut and 240,848 reads for the fat body, which were assembled into 25,173 and 37,661 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for the midgut and the fat body of A. planipennis larvae, respectively. Among these ESTs, 36% of the midgut and 38% of the fat body sequences showed similarity to proteins in the GenBank nr database. A high number of the midgut sequences contained chitin-binding peritrophin (248)and trypsin (98) domains; while the fat body sequences showed high occurrence of cytochrome P450s (85) and protein kinase (123) domains. Further, the midgut transcriptome of A. planipennis revealed putative microbial transcripts encoding for cell-wall degrading enzymes such as polygalacturonases and endoglucanases. A significant number of SNPs (137 in midgut and 347 in fat body) and microsatellite loci (317 in midgut and 571 in fat body) were predicted in the A. planipennis transcripts. An initial assessment of cytochrome P450s belonging to various CYP clades revealed distinct expression patterns at the tissue level. Conclusions and Significance To our knowledge this study is one of the first to illuminate tissue-specific gene expression in an invasive insect of high ecological and economic consequence. These findings will lay the foundation for future gene expression and functional studies in A. planipennis. PMID:21060843

  15. Adaptive mechanisms of insect pests against plant protease inhibitors and future prospects related to crop protection: a review.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Maria L R; de Oliveira, Caio F R; Costa, Poliene M; Castelhano, Elaine C; Silva-Filho, Marcio C

    2015-01-01

    The overwhelming demand for food requires the application of technology on field. An important issue that limits the productivity of crops is related to insect attacks. Hence, several studies have evaluated the application of different compounds to reduce the field losses, especially insecticide compounds from plant sources. Among them, plant protease inhibitors (PIs) have been studied in both basic and applied researches, displaying positive results in control of some insects. However, certain species are able to bypass the insecticide effects exerted by PIs. In this review, we disclosed the adaptive mechanisms showed by lepidopteran and coleopteran insects, the most expressive insect orders related to crop predation. The structural aspects involved in adaptation mechanisms are presented as well as the newest alternatives for pest control. The application of biotechnological tools in crop protection will be mandatory in agriculture, and it will be up to researchers to find the best candidates for effective control in long-term. PMID:25329404

  16. Managing Insect and Mite Pests of Legumes, Grasses and Forage Crops in Texas. 

    E-print Network

    Neeb, Charles W.; Thomas, John G.

    1982-01-01

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Webworms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Grasshoppers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Blister Beetles... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Above-Ground Pests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Greenbugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Grasshoppers...

  17. The Phorbol Ester Fraction from Jatropha curcas Seed Oil: Potential and Limits for Crop Protection against Insect Pests

    PubMed Central

    Ratnadass, Alain; Wink, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The physic nut shrub, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae), has been considered as a “miracle tree”, particularly as a source of alternate fuel. Various extracts of the plant have been reported to have insecticidal/acaricidal or molluscicidal/anthelminthic activities on vectors of medical or veterinary interest or on agricultural or non-agricultural pests. Among those extracts, the phorbol ester fraction from seed oil has been reported as a promising candidate for use as a plant-derived protectant of a variety of crops, from a range of pre-harvest and post-harvest insect pests. However, such extracts have not been widely used, despite the “boom” in the development of the crop in the tropics during recent years, and societal concerns about overuse of systemic chemical pesticides. There are many potential explanations to such a lack of use of Jatropha insecticidal extracts. On the one hand, the application of extracts potentially harmful to human health on stored food grain, might not be relevant. The problem of decomposition of phorbol esters and other compounds toxic to crop pests in the field needing further evaluation before such extracts can be widely used, may also be a partial explanation. High variability of phorbol ester content and hence of insecticidal activity among physic nut cultivars/ecotypes may be another. Phytotoxicity to crops may be further limitation. Apparent obstacles to a wider application of such extracts are the costs and problems involved with registration and legal approval. On the other hand, more studies should be conducted on molluscicidal activity on slugs and land snails which are major pests of crops, particularly in conservation agriculture systems. Further evaluation of toxicity to natural enemies of insect pests and studies on other beneficial insects such as pollinators are also needed. PMID:23203190

  18. Applying GIS and population genetics for managing livestock insect pests: case studies of tsetse and screwworm flies.

    PubMed

    Feldmann, U; Ready, P D

    2014-10-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have supported a Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Applying GIS and population genetics for managing livestock insect pests'. This six-year CRP (2008-2013) focused on research aimed at under-pinning the Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management (AW-IPM) of populations of tsetse and screwworm flies, and this introductory paper to the Special Issue integrates the findings of the CRP participants and discusses them in a broader context. The tools and techniques for mapping and modelling the distributions of genetically-characterised populations of tsetse and screwworm flies are increasingly used by researchers and managers for more effective decision-making in AW-IPM programmes, as illustrated by the reports in this Special Issue. Currently, the insect pests are often characterized only by neutral genetic markers suitable for recognizing spatially isolated populations that are sometimes associated with specific environments. Two challenges for those involved in AW-IPM are the standardization of best practice to permit the efficient application of GIS and genetic tools by regional teams, and the need to develop further the mapping and modelling of parasite and pest phenotypes that are epidemiologically important. PMID:24713196

  19. Enhancement of biological control agents for use against forest insect pests and diseases through biotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavicek, James M.

    1991-01-01

    Research and development efforts in our research group are focused on the generation of more efficacious biological control agents through the techniques of biotechnology for use against forest insect pests and diseases. Effective biological controls for the gypsy moth and for tree fungal wilt pathogens are under development. The successful use of Gypchek, a formulation of the Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdNPV), in gypsy moth control programs has generated considerable interest in that agent. As a consequence of its specificity, LdPNV has negligible adverse ecological impacts compared to most gypsy moth control agents. However, LdNPV is not competitive with other control agents in terms of cost and efficacy. We are investigating several parameters of LdNPV replication and polyhedra production in order to enhance viral potency and efficacy thus mitigating the current disadvantages of LdNPV for gypsy moth control, and have identified LdNPV variants that will facilitate these efforts. Tree endophytic bacteria that synthesize antifungal compounds were identified and an antibiotic compound from one of these bacteria was characterized. The feasibility of developing tree endophytes as biological control agents for tree vascular fungal pathogens is being investigated.

  20. Evaluation of advanced sweetpotato genotypes for resistance to soil insect pests, 2011

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three insect susceptible check cultivars (‘Beauregard’, ‘Hernandez’, and ‘SC1149 19’), three insect resistant check cultivars (‘Charleston Scarlet’, ‘Regal’, and ‘Ruddy’), and 30 advanced sweetpotato genotypes were evaluated for insect resistance in replicated field trials at Charleston, SC, in 2011...

  1. Using Trichogramma Westwood (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) for insect pest biological control in cotton crops: an Australian perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trichogramma Westwood egg parasitoids alone generally fail to suppress heliothine pests when released in established cotton growing regions. Factors hindering their success include indiscriminate use of detrimental insecticides, compensation for minimal pest larval hatch due to their activity via re...

  2. Identification of Proteins Differentially Regulated in Response to Soybean Aphid Infestation of Soybean Near Isogenic Lines differing in Aphid Resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean aphid, a plant sap sucking insect, has become an important soybean pest in the USA and infestation of soybean by this insect can lead to significant yield losses. The Rag2 gene of soybean, providing resistance to soybean aphid biotypes I (IL) and II (OH), was identified by researchers in...

  3. Fighting the global pest problem: preface to the special Toxicon issue on insecticidal toxins and their potential for insect pest control.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Graham M

    2007-03-15

    Arthropod pests are responsible for major crop devastation and are vectors for the transmission of new and re-emerging diseases in humans and livestock. Despite many years of effective control by conventional agrochemical insecticides, a number of factors are threatening the effectiveness and continued use of these agents. These include the development of insecticide resistance and use-cancellation or de-registration of some insecticides due to human health and environmental concerns. Several approaches are being investigated for the design of new (bio)pesticides. These include the development of transgenic plants and recombinant baculoviruses as delivery systems for a variety of insect-selective toxins. Additional approaches for the development of foliar sprays include the rational design of peptidomimetics based on the key residues of these toxins that interact with the insect target. This special issue provides an overview of these phyletically selective animal, plant and microbial toxins and their diverse mechanisms of action to paralyze or kill arthropods. In addition, it reviews their potential for biopesticide discovery and validation of novel insecticide targets and provides an overview of the strengths and weaknesses of biopesticides in the global control of arthropod pests. PMID:17223148

  4. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition by biofumigant (Coumaran) from leaves of Lantana camara in stored grain and household insect pests.

    PubMed

    Rajashekar, Yallappa; Raghavendra, Anjanappa; Bakthavatsalam, Nandagopal

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies proved that the biofumigants could be an alternative to chemical fumigants against stored grain insect pests. For this reason, it is necessary to understand the mode of action of biofumigants. In the present study the prospectus of utilising Lantana camara as a potent fumigant insecticide is being discussed. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by Coumaran, an active ingredient extracted from the plant L. camara, was studied. The biofumigant was used as an enzyme inhibitor and acetylthiocholine iodide as a substrate along with Ellman's reagent to carry out the reactions. The in vivo inhibition was observed in both dose dependent and time dependent in case of housefly, and the nervous tissue (ganglion) and the whole insect homogenate of stored grain insect exposed to Coumaran. The possible mode of action of Coumaran as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor is discussed. PMID:25025036

  5. Insect-specific irreversible inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase in pests including the bed bug, the eastern yellowjacket, German and American cockroaches, and the confused flour beetle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory A. Polsinelli; Sanjay K. Singh; Rajesh K. Mishra; Robert Suranyi; David W. Ragsdale; Yuan-Ping Pang; Stephen Brimijoin

    2010-01-01

    Insecticides directed against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) are facing increased resistance among target species as well as increasing concerns for human toxicity. The result has been a resurgence of disease vectors, insects destructive to agriculture, and residential pests. We previously reported a free cysteine (Cys) residue at the entrance to the AChE active site in some insects but not higher vertebrates. We

  6. Efficacy of Steinernematid Nematodes Against Three Insect Pests of Crucifers in Quebec

    PubMed Central

    Bélair, G.; Fournier, Y.; Dauphinais, N.

    2003-01-01

    Steinernematid nematodes were evaluated against the three major cruciferous insect pests: the imported cabbageworm Artogeia rapae, the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella, and the cabbage looper Trichoplusia ni. LC50 values of S. carpocapsae All, S. feltiae UK, S. feltiae 27, and S. riobrave 335 were 18.2, 3.6, 5.7, and 8.3 on A. rapae L2; 24.5, 2.3, 6.0, and 15.5 on P. xylostella L3; and 10.1, 4.7, 9.5, and 7.8 on T. ni L2, respectively. Insect mortality from the nematode species and isolates was modulated by temperature. Maximum mortality (100%) was recorded for A. rapae L2 from S. riobrave at 30 °C, 95.8% from S. feltiae, and 91.7% from S. feltiae 27 at 25 °C and 75.7% from S. carpocapsae at 30 °C. Mortality of A. rapae L2 increased with contact time to nematode. Mortality of 76% and 78% was achieved for S. carpocapsae and S. feltiae, respectively, after 12-hour exposure. Susceptibility of A. rapae, P. xylostella, and T. ni larvae to entomopathogenic nematodes increased with larval age development. The addition of adjuvants - Corn Oil (0.9%, 1.8%, 3.6%), Leafshield (3.0%, 6.0%, 12.0%), Seaweed (0.1%) and Agral (0.05%) - significantly increased the density and survival rate of S. carpocapsae on cabbage leaves compared to water only. At 20 °C and 70% relative humidity (RH), survival rates of S. carpocapsae All, S. feltiae UK, and S. riobrave 335 on cabbage leaves were 43%, 2%, and 0% after 4 hours following application. Under field conditions, foliar applications of S. carpocapsae provided 35.3% and 33.0% control of A. rapae (L3-L5) on Brussels sprouts and broccoli in 1996 and 24.9%, 19.4% and 14.9% on Brussels sprouts, broccoli, and cauliflower, respectively, in 1999. Based on our field results, foliar applications of S. carpocapsae do not provide an acceptable level of A. rapae control under Quebec's environmental conditions. PMID:19262759

  7. Planting Sentinel European Trees in Eastern Asia as a Novel Method to Identify Potential Insect Pest Invaders

    PubMed Central

    Roques, Alain; Fan, Jian-ting; Courtial, Béatrice; Zhang, Yan-zhuo; Yart, Annie; Auger-Rozenberg, Marie-Anne; Denux, Olivier; Kenis, Marc; Baker, Richard; Sun, Jiang-hua

    2015-01-01

    Quarantine measures to prevent insect invasions tend to focus on well-known pests but a large proportion of the recent invaders were not known to cause significant damage in their native range, or were not even known to science before their introduction. A novel method is proposed to detect new potential pests of woody plants in their region of origin before they are introduced to a new continent. Since Asia is currently considered to be the main supplier of insect invaders to Europe, sentinel trees were planted in China during 2007-2011 as an early warning tool to identify the potential for additional Asian insect species to colonize European trees. Seedlings (1-1.5 m tall) of five broadleaved (Quercus petraea, Q. suber, Q. ilex, Fagus sylvatica, and Carpinus betulus) and two conifer species (Abies alba and Cupressus sempervirens) were planted in blocks of 100 seedlings at two widely separated sites (one in a nursery near Beijing and the other in a forest environment near Fuyang in eastern China), and then regularly surveyed for colonization by insects. A total of 104 insect species, mostly defoliators, were observed on these new hosts, and at least six species were capable of larval development. Although a number of the insects observed were probably incidental feeders, 38 species had more than five colonization events, mostly infesting Q. petraea, and could be considered as being capable of switching to European trees if introduced to Europe. Three years was shown to be an appropriate duration for the experiment, since the rate of colonization then tended to plateau. A majority of the identified species appeared to have switched from agricultural crops and fruit trees rather than from forest trees. Although these results are promising, the method is not appropriate for xylophagous pests and other groups developing on larger trees. Apart from the logistical problems, the identification to species level of the specimens collected was a major difficulty. This situation could be improved by the development of molecular databases. PMID:25993342

  8. Evaluation of advanced sweetpotato genotypes for resistance to soil insect pests, 2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two insect susceptible check cultivars (‘Beauregard’ and ‘SC1149 19’), three insect resistant check cultivars (‘Charleston Scarlet’, ‘Regal’, and ‘Ruddy’), two commercial varieties (‘Covington’ and ‘Diane’), and 34 advanced genotypes from the USVL sweetpotato breeding program were evaluated for inse...

  9. Incorporating carbon storage into the optimal management of forest insect pests: a case study of the southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmerman) in the New Jersey Pinelands.

    PubMed

    Niemiec, Rebecca M; Lutz, David A; Howarth, Richard B

    2014-10-01

    Forest insect pest disturbance is increasing in certain areas of North America as many insect species, such as the southern pine beetle, expand their range due to a warming climate. Because insect pests are beginning to occupy forests that are managed for multiple uses and have not been managed for pests before, it is becoming increasingly important to determine how forests should be managed for pests when non-timber ecosystem services are considered in addition to traditional costs and revenues. One example of a service that is increasingly considered in forest management and that may affect forest pest management is carbon sequestration. This manuscript seeks to understand whether the incorporation of forest carbon sequestration into cost-benefit analysis of different forest pest management strategies affects the financially optimal strategy. We examine this question through a case study of the southern pine beetle (SPB) in a new area of SPB expansion, the New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve (NJPR). We utilize a forest ecology and economics model and include field data from the NJPR as well as outbreak probability statistics from previous years. We find under the majority of scenarios, incorporating forest carbon sequestration shifts the financially optimal SPB management strategy from preventative thinning toward no management or reactionary management in forest stands in New Jersey. These results contradict the current recommended treatment strategy for SPB and signify that the inclusion of multiple ecosystem services into a cost-benefit analysis may drastically alter which pest management strategy is economically optimal. PMID:24938795

  10. Incorporating Carbon Storage into the Optimal Management of Forest Insect Pests: A Case Study of the Southern Pine Beetle ( Dendroctonus Frontalis Zimmerman) in the New Jersey Pinelands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemiec, Rebecca M.; Lutz, David A.; Howarth, Richard B.

    2014-10-01

    Forest insect pest disturbance is increasing in certain areas of North America as many insect species, such as the southern pine beetle, expand their range due to a warming climate. Because insect pests are beginning to occupy forests that are managed for multiple uses and have not been managed for pests before, it is becoming increasingly important to determine how forests should be managed for pests when non-timber ecosystem services are considered in addition to traditional costs and revenues. One example of a service that is increasingly considered in forest management and that may affect forest pest management is carbon sequestration. This manuscript seeks to understand whether the incorporation of forest carbon sequestration into cost-benefit analysis of different forest pest management strategies affects the financially optimal strategy. We examine this question through a case study of the southern pine beetle (SPB) in a new area of SPB expansion, the New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve (NJPR). We utilize a forest ecology and economics model and include field data from the NJPR as well as outbreak probability statistics from previous years. We find under the majority of scenarios, incorporating forest carbon sequestration shifts the financially optimal SPB management strategy from preventative thinning toward no management or reactionary management in forest stands in New Jersey. These results contradict the current recommended treatment strategy for SPB and signify that the inclusion of multiple ecosystem services into a cost-benefit analysis may drastically alter which pest management strategy is economically optimal.

  11. Evalution of advanced sweetpotato genotypes for resistance to soil insect pests, 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three insect susceptible cultivars (‘Beauregard’, ‘Hernandez’, and 'SC 1149-19'), two insect-resistant cultivars ('Charleston Scarlet' and ‘Ruddy’), and 43 advanced sweetpotato genotypes were evaluated for insect resistance in replicated field trials at Charleston, SC. Thirty-three genotypes had si...

  12. Evaluation of regional sweetpotato genotypes for resistance to soil insect pests, 2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three insect susceptible sweetpotato cultivars (‘Beauregard’ [B63 & B94-14] and 'SC1149 19'), two insect-resistant sweetpotato cultivars ('Charleston Scarlet' and ‘Ruddy’), and ten regional sweetpotato genotypes from the 2012 National Sweetpotato Collaborator Trials were evaluated for insect resista...

  13. Evaluation of Dry-Fleshed Sweetpotato Genotypes For Resistance To Soil Insect Pests, 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An insect susceptible check cultivar (‘SC1149 19’), an insect resistant check cultivar (‘Ruddy’), 37 advanced dry-fleshed genotypes, and six other dry-fleshed cultivars (‘Liberty’, ‘NC Japanese’, ‘Picadito’, ‘Sumor’, ‘Tanzania’, and ‘Xushu-18’) were evaluated for insect resistance in replicated fiel...

  14. Resistance of national sweetpotato collaborator's group genotypes to soil insect pests, Charleston, SC, 2013

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three insect susceptible sweetpotato cultivars (‘Beauregard’ [B63 & B94-14] and 'SC1149 19'), an insect-resistant sweetpotato cultivar (‘Ruddy’), and eight regional sweetpotato genotypes from the 2013 National Sweetpotato Collaborator Trials were evaluated for insect resistance in replicated field t...

  15. Field Guide to Predators, Parasites and Pathogens Attacking Insect and Mite Pests of Cotton: Recognizing the Good Bugs in Cotton 

    E-print Network

    Knutson, Allen E.; Ruberson, John

    2005-07-08

    E-357 7-05 Field Guide to Predators, Parasites and Pathogens Attacking Insect and Mite Pests of Cotton by Allen Knutson and John Ruberson Recognizing the Good Bugs in Cotton B--60476 7/8/05 1:17 PM Page 1 Field Guide to Predators, Parasites... bug, a predator of bollworms and other caterpillars in cotton. Authors: Allen Knutson, Professor and Extension Entomologist, Texas Cooperative Extension, Texas A&M Research and Extension Center-Dallas, 17360 Coit Road, Dallas, TX 75252 John Ruberson...

  16. Investigating effects of surrounding landscape composition and complexity on populations of two polyphagous insect pest groups in Iowa soybean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuntz, Cody Daniel

    The composition and complexity of agro-ecosystems are important factors influencing the population dynamics of insect pests. Understanding these interactions may improve our ability to predict the spatial occurrence of pest outbreaks, thereby informing scouting and management decisions. In 2012 and 2013, two concurrent studies were conducted to examine the relationship between landscapes surrounding Iowa soybean, Glycine max [L.] Merrill, fields and two polyphagous pest groups; Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), and stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Population densities were monitored in soybean within simple and complex agricultural landscapes to determine the response of these pests to landscape complexity. Results revealed P. japonica populations were significantly greater in soybean fields within complex landscapes and were positively associated with area of uncultivated land. The specific compositions of surrounding landscapes were also analyzed to determine the landscape features that explain the greatest variation in P. japonica and stink bug population densities. Results suggested that the area of wooded and grass habitat around fields accounted for the greatest variation in P. japonica populations; however, no discernable relationships were observed with stink bug populations. Sampling also sought to survey the community of stink bugs present in Iowa soybean. The community was predominantly comprised of stink bugs in the genus Euschistus, comprising a combined 91.04% of all captures. Additional species included the green stink bug, Acrosternum hilare (Say) (4.48%); spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris (Say) (2.99%); and red shouldered stink bug, Thyanta custator accerra (McAtee) (1.49%). Future work will be needed to determine if the landscape effects on P. japonica in soybean reported here are representative of other similar polyphagous pests of soybean and if they extend to other host plants as well. Furthermore, additional comprehensive surveys will be needed to better characterize the existing community of stink bug species present in Iowa field crops.

  17. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2014 PEANUT INSECT MANAGEMENT

    E-print Network

    Duchowski, Andrew T.

    kills fire ants and other predators. Granulate cutworms have distinctive chevron or "sergeant stripe. Chapin, Extension Specialist Emeritus See the following table for insect control recommendations. Thrips

  18. Impact of Relative Humidity on Adult Weight and Size of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), sweetpotato whitefly, is a serious global sap-sucking insect pest that carries many infectious diseases when feeding on many types of crops. A study was conducted to determine the influence of relative humidity (RH) on body size and mass of B. tabaci. The B-biotype B. t...

  19. Down-regulation of gibberellic acid in poplar has negligible effects on host-plant suitability and insect pest response

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Buhl, Christine; Strauss, Steven H.; Lindroth, Richard L.

    2015-02-01

    Abstract Endogenous levels and signaling of gibberellin plant hormones such as gibberellic acid (GA) have been genetically down-regulated to create semi-dwarf varieties of poplar. The potential benefits of semi-dwarf stature include reduced risk of wind damage, improved stress tolerance, and improved wood quality. Despite these benefits, modification of growth traits may have consequences for non-target traits that confer defense against insect herbivores. According to the growth-differentiation balance hypothesis, reductions in growth may shift allocation of carbon from growth to chemical resistance traits, thereby altering plant defense. To date, host-plant suitability and pest response have not been comprehensively evaluated in GAmore »down-regulated plants. We quantified chemical resistance and nitrogen (an index of protein) in GA down-regulated and wild-type poplar (Populus alba × P. tremula) genotypes. We also evaluated performance of both generalist (Lymantria dispar) and specialist (Chrysomela scripta) insect pests reared on these genotypes. Our evaluation of resistance traits in four GA down-regulated genotypes revealed increased phenolic glycosides in one modified genotype and reduced lignin in two modified genotypes relative to the non-transgenic wild type. Nitrogen levels did not vary significantly among the experimental genotypes. Generalists reared on the four GA down-regulated genotypes exhibited reduced performance on only one modified genotype relative to the wild type. Specialists, however, performed similarly across all genotypes. Results from this study indicate that although some non-target traits varied among GA down-regulated genotypes, the differences in poplar pest susceptibility were modest and highly genotype-specific.« less

  20. Down-regulation of gibberellic acid in poplar has negligible effects on host-plant suitability and insect pest response

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Buhl, Christine; Strauss, Steven H.; Lindroth, Richard L.

    2015-02-01

    Abstract Endogenous levels and signaling of gibberellin plant hormones such as gibberellic acid (GA) have been genetically down-regulated to create semi-dwarf varieties of poplar. The potential benefits of semi-dwarf stature include reduced risk of wind damage, improved stress tolerance, and improved wood quality. Despite these benefits, modification of growth traits may have consequences for non-target traits that confer defense against insect herbivores. According to the growth-differentiation balance hypothesis, reductions in growth may shift allocation of carbon from growth to chemical resistance traits, thereby altering plant defense. To date, host-plant suitability and pest response have not been comprehensively evaluated in GA down-regulated plants. We quantified chemical resistance and nitrogen (an index of protein) in GA down-regulated and wild-type poplar (Populus alba × P. tremula) genotypes. We also evaluated performance of both generalist (Lymantria dispar) and specialist (Chrysomela scripta) insect pests reared on these genotypes. Our evaluation of resistance traits in four GA down-regulated genotypes revealed increased phenolic glycosides in one modified genotype and reduced lignin in two modified genotypes relative to the non-transgenic wild type. Nitrogen levels did not vary significantly among the experimental genotypes. Generalists reared on the four GA down-regulated genotypes exhibited reduced performance on only one modified genotype relative to the wild type. Specialists, however, performed similarly across all genotypes. Results from this study indicate that although some non-target traits varied among GA down-regulated genotypes, the differences in poplar pest susceptibility were modest and highly genotype-specific.

  1. Improvement of Pest Resistance in Transgenic Tobacco Plants Expressing dsRNA of an Insect-Associated Gene EcR

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yao; Zhang, Jia-Qi; Qi, Hai-Sheng; Wei, Zhao-Jun; Yao, Qiong; Zhang, Wen-Qing; Li, Sheng

    2012-01-01

    The adoption of pest-resistant transgenic plants to reduce yield loss and pesticide utilization has been successful in the past three decades. Recently, transgenic plant expressing double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) targeting pest genes emerges as a promising strategy for improving pest resistance in crops. The steroid hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), predominately controls insect molting via its nuclear receptor complex, EcR-USP. Here we report that pest resistance is improved in transgenic tobacco plants expressing dsRNA of EcR from the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, a serious lepidopteran pest for a variety of crops. When H. armigera larvae were fed with the whole transgenic tobacco plants expressing EcR dsRNA, resistance to H. armigera was significantly improved in transgenic plants. Meanwhile, when H. armigera larvae were fed with leaves of transgenic tobacco plants expressing EcR dsRNA, its EcR mRNA level was dramatically decreased causing molting defects and larval lethality. In addition, the transgenic tobacco plants expressing H. armigera EcR dsRNA were also resistant to another lepidopteran pest, the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, due to the high similarity in the nucleotide sequences of their EcR genes. This study provides additional evidence that transgenic plant expressing dsRNA targeting insect-associated genes is able to improve pest resistance. PMID:22685585

  2. Molecular Cloning and Expression of an ? Amylase Inhibitor from Rye with Potential for Controlling Insect Pests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simoni C. Dias; Octávio L. Franco; Cláudio P. Magalhães; Osmundo B. de Oliveira-Neto; Raú A. Laumann; Edson L. Z. Figueira; Francislete R. Melo; Maria F. Grossi-de-Sá

    2005-01-01

    Alpha-amylase inhibitors have important roles in plant defense mechanisms, particularly against insects, and several of these inhibitors have been expressed in different crops to increase their resistance to particular insects. In this work, we report the cloning and expression of a gene encoding for a new a-amylase inhibitor (BIII) from rye (Secale cereale) seeds. The BIII gene contains 354 nucleotides

  3. Dispersion of stored grain insect pests in a wheat?filled silo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tariq Mahmood; Mohammad Sajjad Ahmad; Hafiz Ahmad

    1996-01-01

    The distribution of insects in a wheat?filled large concrete silo was studied by drawing grain samples from the whole vertical depth by means of a special probe. The major insect species found were: Trogoderma granarium (Khapra beetle), Rhyzopertha dominica (Lesser grain borer), and Tribolium castaneum (Red flour beetle). Maximum activity of all species was found on the grain surface although

  4. Thermal biology, population fluctuations and implications of temperature extremes for the management of two globally significant insect pests.

    PubMed

    Nyamukondiwa, Casper; Weldon, Christopher W; Chown, Steven L; le Roux, Peter C; Terblanche, John S

    2013-12-01

    The link between environmental temperature, physiological processes and population fluctuations is a significant aspect of insect pest management. Here, we explore how thermal biology affects the population abundance of two globally significant pest fruit fly species, Ceratitis capitata (medfly) and C. rosa (Natal fruit fly), including irradiated individuals and those expressing a temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutation that are used in the sterile insect technique. Results show that upper and lower lethal temperatures are seldom encountered at the field sites, while critical minimum temperatures for activity and lower developmental thresholds are crossed more frequently. Estimates of abundance revealed that C. capitata are active year-round, but abundance declines markedly during winter. Temporal autocorrelation of average fortnightly trap captures and of development time, estimated from an integrated model to calculate available degree days, show similar seasonal lags suggesting that population increases in early spring occur after sufficient degree-days have accumulated. By contrast, population collapses coincide tightly with increasing frequency of low temperature events that fall below critical minimum temperatures for activity. Individuals of C. capitata expressing the tsl mutation show greater critical thermal maxima and greater longevity under field conditions than reference individuals. Taken together, this evidence suggests that low temperatures limit populations in the Western Cape, South Africa and likely do so elsewhere. Increasing temperature extremes and warming climates generally may extend the season over which these species are active, and could increase abundance. The sterile insect technique may prove profitable as climates change given that laboratory-reared tsl flies have an advantage under warmer conditions. PMID:24080125

  5. [Preliminary evaluation of the incidence and control of insects--pest control in Polish hospitals].

    PubMed

    Krzemi?ska, A; Sawicka, B; Gliniewicz, A; Kanclerski, K

    1997-01-01

    The evaluation of the infestation and methods of insect disease vectors control in 748 hospitals in Poland in the period of 1990 to 1995 were done. The insect species, places of their occurrence and control agents were analysed. Blattella germanica L. occurred most frequently (71% hospitals). Blatta orientalis and Monomorium pharaonis were found in 40% and 17% hospitals respectively. Kitchens, laundries and baths were most infested. Sometimes insects were found also in central sterilization units and operating theaters. Controls of insects in hospitals were performed one to four times a year mostly by spraying with residual formulation. The control agents contained pyrethroids (mostly permethrin, but also deltamethrin and cypermethrin) and carbamates (bendiocarb, propoxur). Baits with hydramethylnon, boric acid, methoprene and chlorpyrifos were used not very often. The authors suggest reduction in using the spraying agents. The baits are recommended because they delay the development of the resistance to pesticides in controlling insect populations and are safer. PMID:9432707

  6. Semiochemicals to monitor insect pests – future opportunities for an effective host plant volatile blend to attract navel orangeworm in pistachio orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The navel orangeworm (Amyelois transitella) has been a major insect pest of California tree nut orchards for the past five decades. In particular, almond and pistachio orchards suffer major annual economic damage due to both physical and associated fungal damage caused by navel orangeworm larvae. Un...

  7. 3-ALKYL-1-BUTANOL ATTRACTANTS FOR FRUGIVOROUS PEST INSECTS, PATENT NO. 6.224.890

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Compositions and lures are described which provide 3-alkyl-1-butanol vapors and vapor blends of 3-alkyl-1-butanol with one or more compounds selected from the group consisting of acetic acid, ammonia, putrescine and mixtures which function as highly effective attractants for frugivorous pest flies e...

  8. Improved quality management to enhance the efficacy of the sterile insect technique for lepidopteran pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lepidoptera are among the most severe pests of food and fibre crops in the world and are mainly controlled using broad spectrum insecticides. This does not lead to sustainable control and farmers are demanding alternative control tools which are both effective and friendly to the environment. The st...

  9. HOUSEHOLD AND STRUCTURAL INSECTS Comparative Study of Integrated Pest Management and Baiting for

    E-print Network

    Wang, Changlu

    for German Cockroach Management in Public Housing CHANGLU WANG AND GARY W. BENNETT Center for Urban-wide cockroach integrated pest management (IPM) program compared with bait alone treatment in public housing. In total, 12 buildings (66 apartments) were treated and monitored for cockroach infestations over 7 mo

  10. Biology and management of insect pests in North American intensively managed hardwood forest systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Coyle, David R.; Nebeker, T., E.; Hart, E., R.; Mattson, W., J.

    2005-01-01

    Annu. Rev. Entomol. 50:1-29. Abstract Increasing demand for wood and wood products is putting stress on traditional forest production areas, leading to long-term economic and environmental concerns. Intensively managed hardwood forest systems (IMHFS), grown using conventional agricultural as well as forestry methods, can help alleviate potential problems in natural forest production areas. Although IMHFS can produce more biomass per hectare per year than natural forests, the ecologically simplified, monocultural systems may greatly increase the crops susceptibility to pests. Species in the genera Populus and Salix comprise the greatest acreage in IMHFS in North America, but other species, including Liquidambar styracifua and Platanus occidentalis, are also important. We discuss life histories, realized and potential damage, and management options for the most economically infuential pests that affect these hardwood species. The substantial inherent challenges associated with pest management in the monocultural environments created by IMHFS are reviewed. Finally, we discuss ways to design IMHFS that may reduce their susceptibility to pests, increase their growth and productivity potential, and create a more sustainable environment.

  11. Field screening of citrullus lanatus germplasm accessions for resistance to cucurbit insect pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Squash bug, cucumber beetles, and aphids are important pests of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) in most production areas of Oklahoma and Texas. In addition, squash bug has been identified as a vector of Cucurbit Yellow Vine (CYVD), a new and devastating disease of cucurbits in the South Central Regi...

  12. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2014 SMALL GRAIN INSECT CONTROL

    E-print Network

    Duchowski, Andrew T.

    ) Preventative aphid treatment for barley yellow dwarf virus suppression is recommended for high yield wheat on early- planted high-yield-potential wheat (60+ bu/ac). The key pest is the oat-bird cherry aphid which is recommended if you find 8 oat-bird cherry aphids per row foot prior to jointing. Oats are more susceptible

  13. Impact of climate change on voltinism and prospective diapause induction of a global pest insect--Cydia pomonella (L.).

    PubMed

    Stoeckli, Sibylle; Hirschi, Martin; Spirig, Christoph; Calanca, Pierluigi; Rotach, Mathias W; Samietz, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Global warming will lead to earlier beginnings and prolongation of growing seasons in temperate regions and will have pronounced effects on phenology and life-history adaptation in many species. These changes were not easy to simulate for actual phenologies because of the rudimentary temporal (season) and spatial (regional) resolution of climate model projections. We investigate the effect of climate change on the regional incidence of a pest insect with nearly worldwide distribution and very high potential for adaptation to season length and temperature--the Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella. Seasonal and regional climate change signals were downscaled to the hourly temporal scale of a pest phenology model and the spatial scale of pest habitats using a stochastic weather generator operating at daily scale in combination with a re-sampling approach for simulation of hourly weather data. Under future conditions of increased temperatures (2045-2074), the present risk of below 20% for a pronounced second generation (peak larval emergence) in Switzerland will increase to 70-100%. The risk of an additional third generation will increase from presently 0-2% to 100%. We identified a significant two-week shift to earlier dates in phenological stages, such as overwintering adult flight. The relative extent (magnitude) of first generation pupae and all later stages will significantly increase. The presence of first generation pupae and later stages will be prolonged. A significant decrease in the length of overlap of first and second generation larval emergence was identified. Such shifts in phenology may induce changes in life-history traits regulating the life cycle. An accordingly life-history adaptation in photoperiodic diapause induction to shorter day-length is expected and would thereby even more increase the risk of an additional generation. With respect to Codling Moth management, the shifts in phenology and voltinism projected here will require adaptations of plant protection strategies to maintain their sustainability. PMID:22539997

  14. Contact toxicity and repellency of the essential oil of Liriope muscari (DECN.) bailey against three insect tobacco storage pests.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Wang, Ping-Juan; Yang, Kai; Huang, Dong-Ye; Wei, Jian-Yu; Tian, Zhao-Fu; Bai, Jia-Feng; Du, Shu-Shan

    2015-01-01

    In order to find and develop new botanical pesticides against tobacco storage pests, bioactivity screening was performed. The essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of Liriope muscari was investigated by GC/MS and GC/FID. A total of 14 components representing 96.12% of the oil were identified and the main compounds in the oil were found to be methyl eugenol (42.15%) and safrole (17.15%), followed by myristicin (14.18%) and 3,5-dimethoxytoluene (10.60%). After screening, the essential oil exhibit potential insecticidal activity. In the progress of assay, it showed that the essential oil exhibited potent contact toxicity against Tribolium castaneum, Lasioderma serricorne and Liposcelis bostrychophila adults, with LD50 values of 13.36, 11.28 µg/adult and 21.37 µg/cm2, respectively. The essential oil also exhibited strong repellency against the three stored product insects. At the same concentrations, the essential oil was more repellent to T. castaneum than to L. serricorne adults. The results indicate that the essential oil of Liriope muscari has potential to be developed into a natural insecticide or repellent for controlling insects in stored tobacco and traditional Chinese medicinal materials. PMID:25608855

  15. Desiccation increases the efficacy of Beauveria bassiana for stored grain pest insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of desiccation stress on the efficacy of Beauveria bassiana for stored-product insects was investigated in laboratory bioassays. The mortality of B. bassiana-treated Plodia interpunctella larvae was greater at a vapor pressure deficit (VPD) of 2.42 kPa or 1.87 kPa than at 1.06 kPa. Moist...

  16. KEEP EXOTIC INSECT PESTS AWAY FROM INDIANA TREES DON'T MOVE FIREWOOD!

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    the Emerald Ash Borer are major threats to Indiana's trees. Emerald Ash Borer, a non-native beetle discovered ash firewood. To help protect Indiana from the Emerald Ash Borer and other exotic insects: USE LOCAL, For more information on the Emerald Ash Borer: EMERALD ASH BORER Contact the Indiana Department of Natural

  17. Sesquiterpene lactone composition of wild and cultivated sunflowers and biological activity against an insect pest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sesquiterpene lactones in sunflowers, Helianthus spp., are important to interactions with pathogens, weeds and insects. Across a broad range of H. annuus, differences in composition of sesquiterpene lactones extracted from florets were found between wild and cultivated sunflowers, but also between d...

  18. Evaluation of Advanced Sweetpotato Genotypes for Resistance to Soil Insect Pests, 2005

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report describes a field evaluation of advanced orange-fleshed sweetpotato genotypes from the USDA ARS sweetpotato breeding program at the US Vegetable Laboratory (USVL), Charleston, SC. This field experiment included three insect susceptible check cultivars (‘Beauregard’, ‘Porto Rico’, and ‘S...

  19. EVALUATION OF ADVANCED SWEETPOTATO GENOTYPES FOR RESISTANCE TO SOIL INSECT PESTS, 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report describes a field evaluation of advanced orange-fleshed sweetpotato genotypes from the USDA ARS sweetpotato breeding program at the U. S. Vegetable Laboratory (USVL), Charleston, SC. This field experiment included three insect-susceptible check cultivars (‘Beauregard’, ‘Hernandez’, and ...

  20. Natural Isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis:Worldwide Distribution, Characterization, and Activity against Insect Pests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Bernhard; P. Jarrett; M. Meadows; J. Butt; D. J. Ellis; G. M. Roberts; S. Pauli; P. Rodgers; H. D. Burges

    1997-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensiswas isolated from natural samples collected from 80 countries. The majority, 45% of the 5303 isolates, originated from stored products, with 25% originating from soil. The materials richest in isolates active in insects were mushroom compost and stored products. The proportion with bipyramidal-shaped crystals was 46%, while among the range of other shapes 14% were spherical and 4% rectangular.

  1. TESTING OF THE INSECT PEST CONTROL FUNGUS BEAUVERIA BASSIANA IN GRASS SHRIMP PALAEMONETES PUGIO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Embryos, larvae and adult grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio were exposed to spores of the insect-control fungus Beauveria bassiana. onidiospores attached to embryos held by gravid females and remained with the egg mass for at least 6 d. In the first experiment where individual deve...

  2. Evaluation of Advanced Sweetpotato Genotypes for Resistance to Soil Insect Pests, 2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report describes a field evaluation of advanced orange-fleshed sweetpotato genotypes from the USDA ARS sweetpotato breeding program at the U. S. Vegetable Laboratory (USVL), Charleston, SC in 2008. This field experiment included four insect-susceptible check cultivars (‘Beauregard’, ‘Diane’, ‘...

  3. EVALUATION OF DRY FLESHED SWEETPOTATO GENOTYPES FOR RESISTANCE TO SOIL INSECT PESTS, 2003

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report describes a field evaluation of advanced dry fleshed sweetpotato germplasm from the USDA ARS sweetpotato breeding program at the U. S. Vegetable Laboratory (USVL), Charleston, SC. This field experiment included two insect susceptible, moist orange fleshed check cultivars (‘Beauregard’ a...

  4. Evaluation of Advanced Sweetpotato Genotypes For Resistance To Soil Insect Pests, 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report describes a field evaluation of advanced orange-fleshed sweetpotato genotypes from the USDA ARS sweetpotato breeding program at the U. S. Vegetable Laboratory (USVL), Charleston, SC. This field experiment included two insect susceptible check cultivars (‘Beauregard’and ‘SC1149 19’), two...

  5. EVALUATION OF PLANT INTRODUCTIONS AND DRY FLESHED SWEETPOTATO GENOTYPES FOR RESISTANCE TO SOIL INSECT PESTS, 2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report describes two field evaluations of dry fleshed sweetpotato plant introductions (PIs) and genotypes from the USDA ARS sweetpotato breeding program at the U. S. Vegetable Laboratory (USVL), Charleston, SC. The first field experiment had two insect susceptible, moist orange fleshed check c...

  6. EFFICACY OF INSECTICIDES FOR CONTROL OF INSECT PESTS OF PEARL MILLET FOR GRAIN PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum [L.] R. Br.) is an alternative drought-tolerant grain crop for dryland summer production. Few insecticides are registered for use and insect management has not been extensively studied in pearl millet for grain production. Eleven trails were conducted during 2002 –...

  7. Identification of Immature Insects

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    A Virginia Tech. page devoted to identification of household insect pest immatures. Eight illustrated categories allow the user to match their pest to a likely species. This is just one of several pages devoted to insect identification.

  8. Insects

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)

    2008-06-12

    All insects have six jointed legs and a hard exoskeleton covering. The bodies of insects are divided into three parts- the head, the thorax, and the abdomen. Insects are the only animals to have wings and most insects have a pair of antennae.

  9. Effects of weed cover composition on insect pest and natural enemy abundance in a field of Dracaena marginata (Asparagales: Asparagaceae) in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Sadof, Clifford S; Linkimer, Mildred; Hidalgo, Eduardo; Casanoves, Fernando; Gibson, Kevin; Benjamin, Tamara J

    2014-04-01

    Weeds and their influence on pest and natural enemy populations were studied on a commercial ornamental farm during 2009 in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica. A baseline survey of the entire production plot was conducted in February, along a 5 by 5 m grid to characterize and map initial weed communities of plants, cicadellids, katydids, and armored scales. In total, 50 plant species from 21 families were found. Seven weed treatments were established to determine how weed manipulations would affect communities of our targeted pests and natural enemies. These treatments were selected based on reported effects of specific weed cover on herbivorous insects and natural enemies, or by their use by growers as a cover crop. Treatments ranged from weed-free to being completely covered with endemic species of weeds. Although some weed treatments changed pest abundances, responses differed among arthropod pests, with the strongest effects observed for Caldwelliola and Empoasca leafhoppers. Removal of all weeds increased the abundance of Empoasca, whereas leaving mostly cyperacaeous weeds increased the abundance of Caldwelliola. Weed manipulations had no effect on the abundance of katydid and scale populations. No weed treatment reduced the abundance of all three of the target pests. Differential responses of the two leafhopper species to the same weed treatments support hypotheses, suggesting that noncrop plants can alter the abundance of pests through their effects on arthropod host finding and acceptance, as well as their impacts on natural enemies. PMID:24517852

  10. Investigation on penetration of three conventional foodstuffs packaging polymers with two different thicknesses by larvae and adults of major species of stored-product pest insects.

    PubMed

    Allahvaisi, Somayeh; Purmirza, Ali Asghar; Safaralizade, Mohamad Hasan

    2009-01-01

    Despite modern methods of packaging, stored agricultural products are still under attack by stored-insect pests. Therefore, determination of the best polymer and appropriate thickness inhibiting the penetration of the insects must be considered. In this study, we investigated the ability of penetration and the rates of contamination by nine important stored product pest insects for three conventional flexible polymers (polyethylene, cellophane and polypropylene) at two thicknesses (16.5 and 29 microm), which are used as pouches for packing of agricultural products. We used adults of T. castaneum (Coleoptera), S. granarius (Coleoptera), R. dominica (Coleoptera), C. maculates (Coleoptera), O. surinamensis (Coleoptera), and larvae of P. interpunctella (Lepidoptera), E. kuehniella (Lepidoptera), S. cerealella (Lepidoptera) and T. granarium (Coleoptera). Results showed that for most of the species penetration occurred between 4 days and 2 weeks, but there were significant differences (p < or = 0.05) in the penetration of three polymers (cellophane, polyethylene and polypropylene) by the insects. Among the polymers, polyethylene with a thickness of 16.5 microm showed the highest degree of penetration and was the most unsuitable polymer for packaging of foodstuffs. Application of this polymer led to a complete infestation of the product and a lot of punctures were created by the insects. In contrast, no penetration was observed in polypropylene polymer with a thickness of 29 microm. Furthermore, adults and larvae of all species showed a much lower penetration when there was no food present in the pouches and this was the case for all polymers tested. PMID:20222605

  11. Designing Insects

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Thomas Miller (University of California- Riverside; )

    2004-10-01

    The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article reflects on how most transgenic research is still in early development, but issues surrounding the use of transgenic insects need to be addressed. Examples are their impact on the environment, the potential risks to human health, and their advantages and disadvantages in controlling crop pests. The article showcases some insects specifically engineered to control agricultural pests.

  12. Biological activities ofTrewia nudiflora extracts against certain economically important insect pests.

    PubMed

    Freedman, B; Reed, D K; Powell, R G; Madrigal, R V; Smith, C R

    1982-02-01

    An ethanol extract ofTrewia nudiflora (Euphorbiaceae) seed was tested as an agent for controlling several economically important insects. Results suggest that this plant extract acts as an antifeedant for the spotted cucumber beetle (Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi Barber) and the European corn borer [Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner)] but not for the other insects tested. Also indicated were morphogenic effects on the codlingmoth [Laspeyresia pomonella (L.)], disruption of the normal life cycle of the redbanded leafroller [Argyrotaenia velutinana (Walker)], and reduction in the progeny of the plum curculio [Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst)]. In addition, the extract was toxic to the striped cucumber beetle [Acalymma vittatum (F.)] and gave 100% control of the chicken body louse [Menacanthus stramineus (Nitzsch)] from 5 to 28 days. Fractionation of the extract was monitored by a bioassay usingO. nubilalis. This fractionation yielded six pure compounds, the most abundant of which was trewiasine. Its LD50 was 7.4 ppm when incorporated into the diet ofO. nubilalis. Dose-mortality relationships for the other compounds withO. nubilalis are presented. PMID:24414952

  13. Second-Generation Sequencing Supply an Effective Way to Screen RNAi Targets in Large Scale for Potential Application in Pest Insect Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yubing Wang; Hao Zhang; Haichao Li; Xuexia Miao; Frederic Marion-Poll

    2011-01-01

    The key of RNAi approach success for potential insect pest control is mainly dependent on careful target selection and a convenient delivery system. We adopted second-generation sequencing technology to screen RNAi targets. Illumina's RNA-seq and digital gene expression tag profile (DGE-tag) technologies were used to screen optimal RNAi targets from Ostrinia furnalalis. Total 14690 stage specific genes were obtained which

  14. Conjugation of ?-endotoxin from Bacillus thuringiensis with abamectin of Streptomyces avermitilis as a new type of biocide, GCSC-BtA, for control of agricultural insect pests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Liu; C. Sengonca

    2003-01-01

    Conjugation of -endotoxin from Bacillus thuringiensis with abamectin, a toxin of Streptomyces avermitilis, was carried out to form a new type of biocide, GCSC-BtA based on Germany-China Scientific Cooperation research, for the control of agricultural insect pests. The strategy for biochemical linkage was designed by conjugating an amino group in B.t. protoxin with a carboxyl group in carboxylated abamectin under

  15. Effect of a plant growth regulator prohexadione-calcium on insect pests of apple and pear.

    PubMed

    Paulson, G S; Hull, L A; Biddinger, D J

    2005-04-01

    The effect of prohexadione-calcium, a plant growth regulator that inhibits gibberellin metabolism, on Cacopsylla pyricoloa (Foerster) in pear trees, and Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) and Aphis spireacola Patch, in apple trees was studied. C. pyricoloa and A. spireacola populations were significantly reduced in prohexadione-calcium-treated pear and apple, respectively. Insecticide control of both pests with imidacloprid was synergized in treatments with prohexadione-calcium. In apples treated with prohexadione-calcium, there was a significant reduction in the number of C. rosaceana shelters per tree and amount of fruit injury at harvest attributable to the C. rosaceana. There was an additive effect when tebufenozide was used to control C. rosaceana in trees treated with prohexadione-calcium. Prohexadione-calcium significantly reduced vegetative growth in both pears and apples. Synergistic and additive treatment effects of prohexadione-calcium and pesticides used in this study may be due to better penetration and coverage of pesticides due to reduced foliar growth or to changes in the nutritional quality of the host plants. PMID:15889734

  16. Improving the cost-effectiveness, trade and safety of biological control for agricultural insect pests using nuclear techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge Hendrichs; Kenneth Bloem; Gernot Hoch; James E. Carpenter; Patrick Greany; Alan S. Robinson

    2009-01-01

    If appropriately applied, biological control offers one of the most promising, environmentally sound, and sustainable control tactics for arthropod pests and weeds for application as part of an integrated pest management (IPM) approach. Public support for biological control as one of the preferred methods of managing non-indigenous and indigenous pests is increasing in many countries. An FAO\\/IAEA Coordinated Research Project

  17. Integrated Pest Management Ideas

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    - cialist, Vegetables and Specialty Crops. Chemical Controls If a pest problem requires chemical controls and Extension Center #12;Integrated Pest Management Ideas for Vegetable Gardens The best way to control insects help you identify the proper and legal pesticide and the method to use it. Beneficial Insects and Mites

  18. Costs and benefits of thermal acclimation for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): implications for pest control and the sterile insect release programme.

    PubMed

    Chidawanyika, Frank; Terblanche, John S

    2011-07-01

    Sterile insect release (SIR) is used to suppress insect pest populations in agro-ecosystems, but its success hinges on the performance of the released insects and prevailing environmental conditions. For example, low temperatures dramatically reduce SIR efficacy in cooler conditions. Here, we report on the costs and benefits of thermal acclimation for laboratory and field responses of codling moth, Cydia pomonella. Using a component of field fitness, we demonstrate that low temperature acclimated laboratory-reared moths are recaptured significantly more (?2-4×) under cooler conditions in the wild relative to warm-acclimated or control moths. However, improvements in low temperature performance in cold-acclimated moths came at a cost to performance under warmer conditions. At high ambient temperatures, warm-acclimation improved field performance relative to control or cold-acclimated moths. Laboratory assessments of thermal activity and their limits matched the field results, indicating that these laboratory assays may be transferable to field performance. This study demonstrates clear costs and benefits of thermal acclimation on laboratory and field performance and the potential utility of thermal pretreatments for offsetting negative efficacy in SIR programmes under adverse thermal conditions. Consequently, the present work shows that evolutionary principles of phenotypic plasticity can be used to improve field performance and thus possibly enhance pest control programmes seeking increased efficacy. PMID:25568003

  19. A Transformed Bacterium Expressing Double-Stranded RNA Specific to Integrin ?1 Enhances Bt Toxin Efficacy against a Polyphagous Insect Pest, Spodoptera exigua

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunseong; Park, Youngjin; Kim, Yonggyun

    2015-01-01

    Background Oral toxicity of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) specific to integrin ?1 subunit (SeINT) was known in a polyphagous insect pest, Spodoptera exigua. For an application of the dsRNA to control the insect pest, this study prepared a transformed Escherichia coli expressing dsRNA specific to SeINT. Principal Findings The dsRNA expression was driven by T7 RNA polymerase overexpressed by an inducer in the transformed E. coli. The produced dsRNA amount was proportional to the number of the cultured bacteria. The transformed bacteria gave a significant oral toxicity to S. exigua larvae with a significant reduction of the SeINT expression. The resulting insect mortality increased with the fed number of the bacteria. Pretreatment with an ultra-sonication to disrupt bacterial cell wall/membrane significantly increased the insecticidal activity of the transformed bacteria. The larvae treated with the transformed bacteria suffered tissue damage in the midgut epithelium, which exhibited a marked loss of cell-cell contacts and underwent a remarkable cell death. Moreover, these treated larvae became significantly susceptible to a Cry toxin derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Conclusions This study provides a novel and highly efficient application technique to use dsRNA specific to an integrin gene by mixing with a biopesticide, Bt. PMID:26171783

  20. Pests in and Around the Home

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    Knowledgebase of urban, structure, lawn and landscape pests. Includes sections on pest management theory; biting and stinging insects; pests of food, fabric and wood; occasional invaders; lawn pests; landscape pests, and some vertebrate pests. Includes pest identification keys. This is an excellent resource, although much of the material is specific to Florida. Vertebrate pest management sections are also of high quality and interesting. Requires a CD-ROM drive and a web browser. $25.

  1. Phloem-specific expression of the lectin gene from Allium sativum confers resistance to the sap-sucker Nilaparvata lugens.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekhar, Kottakota; Vijayalakshmi, Muvva; Vani, Kalasamudramu; Kaul, Tanushri; Reddy, Malireddy K

    2014-05-01

    Rice production is severely hampered by insect pests. Garlic lectin gene (ASAL) holds great promise in conferring protection against chewing (lepidopteran) and sap-sucking (homopteran) insect pests. We have developed transgenic rice lines resistant to sap-sucking brown hopper (Nilaparvata lugens) by ectopic expression of ASAL in their phloem tissues. Molecular analyses of T0 lines confirmed stable integration of transgene. T1 lines (NP 1-2, 4-3, 11-6 & 17-7) showed active transcription and translation of ASAL transgene. ELISA revealed ASAL expression was as high as 0.95% of total soluble protein. Insect bioassays on T2 homozygous lines (NP 18 & 32) revealed significant reduction (~74-83%) in survival rate, development and fecundity of brown hoppers in comparison to wild type. Transgenics exhibited enhanced resistance (1-2 score) against brown hoppers, minimal plant damage and no growth penalty or phenotypic abnormalities. PMID:24563293

  2. A Fungal Insecticide Engineered for Fast Per Os Killing of Caterpillars Has High Field Efficacy and Safety in Full-Season Control of Cabbage Insect Pests

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong-Jie; Liu, Jing; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Fungal insecticides developed from filamentous pathogens of insects are notorious for their slow killing action through cuticle penetration, depressing commercial interest and practical application. Genetic engineering may accelerate their killing action but cause ecological risk. Here we show that a Beauveria bassiana formulation, HV8 (BbHV8), engineered for fast per os killing of caterpillars by an insect midgut-acting toxin (Vip3Aa1) overexpressed in conidia has both high field efficacy and safety in full-season protection of cabbage from the damage of an insect pest complex dominated by Pieris rapae larvae, followed by Plutella xylostella larvae and aphids. In two fields repeatedly sprayed during summer, BbHV8 resulted in overall mean efficacies of killing of 71% and 75%, which were similar or close to the 70% and 83% efficacies achieved by commercially recommended emamectin benzoate but much higher than the 31% and 48% efficacies achieved by the same formulation of the parental wild-type strain (WT). Both BbHV8 and WT sprays exerted no adverse effect on a nontarget spider community during the trials, and the sprays did not influence saprophytic fungi in soil samples taken from the field plots during 4 months after the last spray. Strikingly, BbHV8 and the WT showed low fitness when they were released into the environment because both were decreasingly recovered from the field lacking native B. bassiana strains (undetectable 5 months after the spray), and the recovered isolates became much less tolerant to high temperature and UV-B irradiation. Our results highlight for the first time that a rationally engineered fungal insecticide can compete with a chemical counterpart to combat insect pests at an affordable cost and with low ecological risk. PMID:23956386

  3. A fungal insecticide engineered for fast per os killing of caterpillars has high field efficacy and safety in full-season control of cabbage insect pests.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Jie; Liu, Jing; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Feng, Ming-Guang

    2013-10-01

    Fungal insecticides developed from filamentous pathogens of insects are notorious for their slow killing action through cuticle penetration, depressing commercial interest and practical application. Genetic engineering may accelerate their killing action but cause ecological risk. Here we show that a Beauveria bassiana formulation, HV8 (BbHV8), engineered for fast per os killing of caterpillars by an insect midgut-acting toxin (Vip3Aa1) overexpressed in conidia has both high field efficacy and safety in full-season protection of cabbage from the damage of an insect pest complex dominated by Pieris rapae larvae, followed by Plutella xylostella larvae and aphids. In two fields repeatedly sprayed during summer, BbHV8 resulted in overall mean efficacies of killing of 71% and 75%, which were similar or close to the 70% and 83% efficacies achieved by commercially recommended emamectin benzoate but much higher than the 31% and 48% efficacies achieved by the same formulation of the parental wild-type strain (WT). Both BbHV8 and WT sprays exerted no adverse effect on a nontarget spider community during the trials, and the sprays did not influence saprophytic fungi in soil samples taken from the field plots during 4 months after the last spray. Strikingly, BbHV8 and the WT showed low fitness when they were released into the environment because both were decreasingly recovered from the field lacking native B. bassiana strains (undetectable 5 months after the spray), and the recovered isolates became much less tolerant to high temperature and UV-B irradiation. Our results highlight for the first time that a rationally engineered fungal insecticide can compete with a chemical counterpart to combat insect pests at an affordable cost and with low ecological risk. PMID:23956386

  4. Transcriptome and full-length cDNA resources for the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, a major insect pest of pine forests.

    PubMed

    Keeling, Christopher I; Henderson, Hannah; Li, Maria; Yuen, Mack; Clark, Erin L; Fraser, Jordie D; Huber, Dezene P W; Liao, Nancy Y; Docking, T Roderick; Birol, Inanc; Chan, Simon K; Taylor, Greg A; Palmquist, Diana; Jones, Steven J M; Bohlmann, Joerg

    2012-08-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are major insect pests of many woody plants around the world. The mountain pine beetle (MPB), Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a significant historical pest of western North American pine forests. It is currently devastating pine forests in western North America--particularly in British Columbia, Canada--and is beginning to expand its host range eastward into the Canadian boreal forest, which extends to the Atlantic coast of North America. Limited genomic resources are available for this and other bark beetle pests, restricting the use of genomics-based information to help monitor, predict, and manage the spread of these insects. To overcome these limitations, we generated comprehensive transcriptome resources from fourteen full-length enriched cDNA libraries through paired-end Sanger sequencing of 100,000 cDNA clones, and single-end Roche 454 pyrosequencing of three of these cDNA libraries. Hybrid de novo assembly of the 3.4 million sequences resulted in 20,571 isotigs in 14,410 isogroups and 246,848 singletons. In addition, over 2300 non-redundant full-length cDNA clones putatively containing complete open reading frames, including 47 cytochrome P450s, were sequenced fully to high quality. This first large-scale genomics resource for bark beetles provides the relevant sequence information for gene discovery; functional and population genomics; comparative analyses; and for future efforts to annotate the MPB genome. These resources permit the study of this beetle at the molecular level and will inform research in other Dendroctonus spp. and more generally in the Curculionidae and other Coleoptera. PMID:22516182

  5. Evaluation of Plant Introductions and Dry-Fleshed Sweetpotato Genotypes for Resistance to Soil Insect Pests, 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two insect-susceptible, orange-fleshed check cultivars (‘Beauregard’ and ‘SC1149 19’), three insect-resistant check cultivars (‘Regal’, ‘Ruddy’ and ‘Sumor’), 21 dry-flesh genotypes from the USVL sweetpotato breeding program, and 12 other varieties and plant introductions (PI) obtained from the Natio...

  6. Acoustic indicators for targeted detection of stored product and urban insect pests by inexpensive infrared, acoustic, and vibrational detection of movement.

    PubMed

    Mankin, R W; Hodges, R D; Nagle, H T; Schal, C; Pereira, R M; Koehler, P G

    2010-10-01

    Crawling and scraping activity of three stored-product pests, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), and Stegobium paniceum (L.) (Coleoptera: Anobiidae), and two urban pests, Blattella germanica (L.) (Blattodea: Blattellidae) and Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), were monitored individually by infrared sensors, microphones, and a piezoelectric sensor in a small arena to evaluate effects of insect locomotory behavior and size on the ability of an inexpensively constructed instrument to detect insects and distinguish among different species. Adults of all species could be detected when crawling or scraping. The smallest insects in the study, first-fourth-instar C. lectularius nymphs, could not be detected easily when crawling, but could be detected when scraping. Sound and vibration sensors detected brief, 3-10-ms impulses from all tested species, often grouped in distinctive trains (bursts), typical of impulses in previous acoustic detection experiments. To consider the potential for targeting or focusing detection on particular species of interest, indicators were developed to assess the likelihood of detection of C. lectularius. Statistically significant differences were found between C. lectularius and other species in distributions of three measured variables: infrared signal durations, sound impulse-burst durations, and sound pressure levels (energy) of impulses that best matched an averaged spectrum (profile) of scraping behavior. Thus, there is potential that signals collected by an inexpensive, polymodal-sensor instrument could be used in automated trapping systems to detect a targeted species, 0.1 mg or larger, in environments where servicing of traps is difficult or when timeliness of trapping information is important. PMID:21061963

  7. Genetics and biology of Anastrepha fraterculus: research supporting the use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) to control this pest in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Cladera, Jorge L; Vilardi, Juan C; Juri, Marianela; Paulin, Laura E; Giardini, M Cecilia; Gómez Cendra, Paula V; Segura, Diego F; Lanzavecchia, Silvia B

    2014-01-01

    Two species of true fruit flies (taxonomic family Tephritidae) are considered pests of fruit and vegetable production in Argentina: the cosmopolitan Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann) and the new world South American fruit fly (Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemann). The distribution of these two species in Argentina overlaps north of the capital, Buenos Aires. Regarding the control of these two pests, the varied geographical fruit producing regions in Argentina are in different fly control situations. One part is under a programme using the sterile insect technique (SIT) for the eradication of C. capitata, because A. fraterculus is not present in this area. The application of the SIT to control C. capitata north of the present line with the possibility of A. fraterculus occupying the niche left vacant by C. capitata becomes a cause of much concern. Only initial steps have been taken to investigate the genetics and biology of A. fraterculus. Consequently, only fragmentary information has been recorded in the literature regarding the use of SIT to control this species. For these reasons, the research to develop a SIT protocol to control A. fraterculus is greatly needed. In recent years, research groups have been building a network in Argentina in order to address particular aspects of the development of the SIT for Anastrepha fraterculus. The problems being addressed by these groups include improvement of artificial diets, facilitation of insect mass rearing, radiation doses and conditions for insect sterilisation, basic knowledge supporting the development of males-only strains, reduction of male maturation time to facilitate releases, identification and isolation of chemical communication signals, and a good deal of population genetic studies. This paper is the product of a concerted effort to gather all this knowledge scattered in numerous and often hard-to-access reports and papers and summarize their basic conclusions in a single publication. PMID:25471175

  8. Genetics and biology of Anastrepha fraterculus: research supporting the use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) to control this pest in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Two species of true fruit flies (taxonomic family Tephritidae) are considered pests of fruit and vegetable production in Argentina: the cosmopolitan Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann) and the new world South American fruit fly (Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemann). The distribution of these two species in Argentina overlaps north of the capital, Buenos Aires. Regarding the control of these two pests, the varied geographical fruit producing regions in Argentina are in different fly control situations. One part is under a programme using the sterile insect technique (SIT) for the eradication of C. capitata, because A. fraterculus is not present in this area. The application of the SIT to control C. capitata north of the present line with the possibility of A. fraterculus occupying the niche left vacant by C. capitata becomes a cause of much concern. Only initial steps have been taken to investigate the genetics and biology of A. fraterculus. Consequently, only fragmentary information has been recorded in the literature regarding the use of SIT to control this species. For these reasons, the research to develop a SIT protocol to control A. fraterculus is greatly needed. In recent years, research groups have been building a network in Argentina in order to address particular aspects of the development of the SIT for Anastrepha fraterculus. The problems being addressed by these groups include improvement of artificial diets, facilitation of insect mass rearing, radiation doses and conditions for insect sterilisation, basic knowledge supporting the development of males-only strains, reduction of male maturation time to facilitate releases, identification and isolation of chemical communication signals, and a good deal of population genetic studies. This paper is the product of a concerted effort to gather all this knowledge scattered in numerous and often hard-to-access reports and papers and summarize their basic conclusions in a single publication. PMID:25471175

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF THE STERILE INSECT TECHNIQUE TO MANAGE AN INVASIVE INSECT PEST, CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM, ATTACKING PRICKLY PEAR CACTUS IN QUINTANA ROO, MEXICO, AND SOUTHEASTERN USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most successful classical biological control of weeds program has been the control of invasive prickly-pear cactus (Opuntia spp.) by the Argentine cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum. However, the moth has now become an invasive pest in the southeastern USA and its ability to dramatically control ...

  10. PERSPECTIVES FOR BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF STORED-PRODUCT PESTS USING ENTOMOPATHOGENS, ALONE AND IN COMBINATION WITH BENEFICIAL INSECTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Among insect pathogens, Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (Btk) and Plodia interpunctella granulovirus have reached commercialization for control of stored product Lepidoptera, but have limited use. Coleoptera lack microbial insecticide products but have many natural microbial control agents, e...

  11. Tritrophic interactions among Bt maize, an insect pest and entomopathogens: effects on development and survival of western corn rootworm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural systems often provide a model for testing ecological hypotheses, while ecological theory can enable more effective pest management. One of the best examples of this is the interaction between host-plant resistance and natural enemies. With the advent of crops that are genetically modifi...

  12. Formation of peste des petits ruminants spikeless virus-like particles by co-expression of M and N proteins in insect cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fuxiao; Wu, Xiaodong; Li, Lin; Liu, Zengshan; Wang, Zhiliang

    2014-02-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) has a non-segmented negative sense RNA genome and is classified within the Morbillivirus genus of the Paramyxoviridae. Using the Bac-to-Bac® baculovirus expression system, we constructed recombinant baculoviruses that were able to co-express the PPRV matrix and nucleocapsid proteins in insect cells under the control of the polyhedron and p10 promoters, respectively. The results showed that although both structural proteins were expressed at a relatively low level, the interaction between them caused the formation of virus-like particles (VLPs) by viewing of transmission electron microscopy. The VLPs morphologically resembled authentic PPRVs but lacked spikes protruding from the particulate surfaces. Interestingly, the diameter of PPRV VLPs ranged from 100 to 150 nm, far less than the mean diameter (400-500 nm) of parental virions. PMID:24269081

  13. Fruit Crop Pests. MEP 312.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Leslie O.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests of fruit crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of insects, weeds, and diseases. Also in…

  14. Vegetable Crop Pests. MEP 311.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantzes, James G.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland, this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests of vegetable crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of insects, weeds, and diseases.…

  15. Brown Planthopper Nudivirus DNA Integrated in Its Host Genome

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ruo-Lin; Xi, Yu; Lou, Yi-Han; Wang, Zhuo; Xu, Ji-Yu; Xu, Hai-Jun

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera:Delphacidae), is one of the most destructive insect pests of rice crops in Asia. Nudivirus-like sequences were identified during the whole-genome sequencing of BPH. PCR examination showed that the virus sequences were present in all of the 22 BPH populations collected from East, Southeast, and South Asia. Thirty-two of the 33 nudivirus core genes were identified, including 20 homologues of baculovirus core genes. In addition, several gene clusters that were arranged collinearly with those of other nudiviruses were found in the partial virus genome. In a phylogenetic tree constructed using the supermatrix method, the original virus was grouped with other nudiviruses and was closely related to polydnavirus. Taken together, these data indicated that the virus sequences belong to a new member of the family Nudiviridae. More specifically, the virus sequences were integrated into the chromosome of its insect host during coevolution. This study is the first report of a large double-stranded circular DNA virus genome in a sap-sucking hemipteran insect. IMPORTANCE This is the first report of a large double-stranded DNA virus integrated genome in the planthopper, a plant sap-sucking hemipteran insect. It is an exciting addition to the evolutionary story of bracoviruses (polydnaviruses), nudiviruses, and baculoviruses. The results on the virus sequences integrated in the chromosomes of its insect host also represent a story of successful coevolution of an invertebrate virus and a plant sap-sucking insect. PMID:24574410

  16. Effects of a sex-ratio distorting endosymbiont on mtDNA variation in a global insect pest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana M Delgado; James M Cook

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patterns of mtDNA variation within a species reflect long-term population structure, but may also be influenced by maternally inherited endosymbionts, such as Wolbachia. These bacteria often alter host reproductive biology and can drive particular mtDNA haplotypes through populations. We investigated the impacts of Wolbachia infection and geography on mtDNA variation in the diamondback moth, a major global pest whose

  17. Stress for invasion success? Temperature stress of preceding generations modifies the response to insecticide stress in an invasive pest insect

    PubMed Central

    Piiroinen, Saija; Lyytinen, Anne; Lindström, Leena

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation to stressful environments is one important factor influencing species invasion success. Tolerance to one stress may be complicated by exposure to other stressors experienced by the preceding generations. We studied whether parental temperature stress affects tolerance to insecticide in the invasive Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata. Field-collected pyrethroid-resistant beetles were reared under either stressful (17°C) or favourable (23°C) insecticide-free environments for three generations. Then, larvae were exposed to pyrethroid insecticides in common garden conditions (23°C). Beetles were in general tolerant to stress. The parental temperature stress alone affected beetles positively (increased adult weight) but it impaired their tolerance to insecticide exposure. In contrast, offspring from the favourable temperature regime showed compensatory weight gain in response to insecticide exposure. Our study emphasizes the potential of cross-generational effects modifying species stress tolerance. When resistant pest populations invade benign environments, a re-application of insecticides may enhance their performance via hormetic effects. In turn, opposite effects may arise if parental generations have been exposed to temperature stress. Thus, the outcome of management practices of invasive pest species is difficult to predict unless we also incorporate knowledge of the evolutionary and recent (preceding generations) stress history of the given populations into pest management. PMID:23467574

  18. Stress for invasion success? Temperature stress of preceding generations modifies the response to insecticide stress in an invasive pest insect.

    PubMed

    Piiroinen, Saija; Lyytinen, Anne; Lindström, Leena

    2013-02-01

    Adaptation to stressful environments is one important factor influencing species invasion success. Tolerance to one stress may be complicated by exposure to other stressors experienced by the preceding generations. We studied whether parental temperature stress affects tolerance to insecticide in the invasive Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata. Field-collected pyrethroid-resistant beetles were reared under either stressful (17°C) or favourable (23°C) insecticide-free environments for three generations. Then, larvae were exposed to pyrethroid insecticides in common garden conditions (23°C). Beetles were in general tolerant to stress. The parental temperature stress alone affected beetles positively (increased adult weight) but it impaired their tolerance to insecticide exposure. In contrast, offspring from the favourable temperature regime showed compensatory weight gain in response to insecticide exposure. Our study emphasizes the potential of cross-generational effects modifying species stress tolerance. When resistant pest populations invade benign environments, a re-application of insecticides may enhance their performance via hormetic effects. In turn, opposite effects may arise if parental generations have been exposed to temperature stress. Thus, the outcome of management practices of invasive pest species is difficult to predict unless we also incorporate knowledge of the evolutionary and recent (preceding generations) stress history of the given populations into pest management. PMID:23467574

  19. INSECT & MITE IDENTIFICATION

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    About fifty pest and beneficial insects and arthropods are pictured and described on these pages. Most of the images are full color with excellent behavior and control information. Insects are categorized into foliage feeders, root feeders, sucking insects, and beneficial insects.

  20. Book Review: Insect Virology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Viruses that infect insects have long been of interest both as a means for controlling insect pest populations in an environmentally safe manner, and also as significant threats to beneficial insects of great value, such as honey bees and silkworms. Insect viruses also have been of intrinsic intere...

  1. Maintenance of primary cell cultures of immunocytes from Cacopsylla spp. psyllids: a new in vitro tool for the study of crop pest insects.

    PubMed

    Monti, M; Mandrioli, M; Bextine, B; Hunter, W B; Alma, A; Tedeschi, R

    2014-10-01

    Primary cell cultures of immunocytes have been developed from the three psyllid species Cacopsylla melanoneura, Cacopsylla pyri (vectors of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma mali' and 'Candidatus Phytoplasma pyri', respectively) and Cacopsylla crataegi. The medium most suitable of those evaluated was Hert-Hunter 70 (HH70) psyllid medium. In fact, good survival and proliferation of the Cacopsylla immunocytes for over 60 d were observed, with mitosis activities starting at 15-d post culture. Moreover, adhesion and phagocytosis activities were confirmed for all the psyllid cell cultures by functionality tests. Morphological examination of cultured immunocytes revealed the presence of different cell types in all the three psyllid species in accordance to published data about insect immunocytes. The in vitro maintenance of psyllid immunocytes represents a powerful tool for a wide range of applications, especially for psyllid cell biology. In particular, in-depth studies on the biology of psyllids as vector insects as well as analyses to understand the mechanisms behind the interactions with pathogens and symbionts are now possible. These cultures can be used as an in vitro model to study psyllid humoral immune responses, which also will allow in-depth investigations on the abilities of psyllids as vectors of phytoplasmas. All these applications provide new opportunities to develop more focused and specific pest control strategies. PMID:24934235

  2. Economic losses due to insect pests on avocado fruit in the Nelspruit\\/Hazyview region of South Africa during 1991

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Erichsen; A Schoeman

    1992-01-01

    A survey of insect damage to 61 036 avocado fruits of five cultivars, was conducted at eight packhouses in the Nelspruit\\/Hazyview region. Stink bugs (incl Nezara viridula (L)), coconut bug (Pseudotheraptus wayi Brown), fruitfly (Pterandrus rosa (Karsch) and Ceratitis capitata (Weidemann)), thrips (Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis Bouché and Selenothrips rubrocinctus (Giard)), and false codling moth (Cryptophlebia leucotreta (Meyrick)) were the most important

  3. Fusion proteins containing insect-specific toxins as pest control agents: snowdrop lectin delivers fused insecticidal spider venom toxin to insect haemolymph following oral ingestion.

    PubMed

    Fitches, Elaine; Edwards, Martin G; Mee, Christopher; Grishin, Eugene; Gatehouse, Angharad M R; Edwards, John P; Gatehouse, John A

    2004-01-01

    The mannose-specific snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin: GNA), when fed to insects, binds to the gut epithelium and passes into the haemolymph. The ability of GNA to act as a carrier protein to deliver an insecticidal spider venom neurotoxin (Segestria florentina toxin 1: SFI1) to the haemolymph of lepidopteran larvae was investigated. Constructs encoding SFI1 and an SFI1/GNA fusion protein were expressed in Pichia pastoris. The insecticidal activity of purified recombinant proteins on injection was found to be comparable to published values for SfI1 purified from spider venom [Toxicon 40 (2002) 125]. Whereas neither GNA nor SFI1 alone showed acute toxicity when fed to larvae of tomato moth (Lacanobia oleracea), feeding SFI1/GNA fusion at 2.5% of dietary proteins was insecticidal to first stadium larvae, causing 100% mortality after 6 days. The protein also showed a significant, dose dependent, toxicity towards fourth and fifth stadium larvae, with growth reduced by up to approximately 90% over a 4-day assay period compared to controls. Delivery of intact SFI1/GNA to the haemolymph in these insects was shown by western blotting; haemolymph samples from fusion-fed larvae contained a GNA-immunoreactive protein of the same molecular weight as the SFI1/GNA fusion. SFI1/GNA and similar fusion proteins offer a novel and effective approach for delivering haemolymph active toxins by oral administration, which could be used in crop protection by expression in transgenic plants. PMID:15037094

  4. Insect Answers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This webpage from Texas A&M University's Department of Entomology is a consolidated body of information on insects. Clicking on "Insect Help Publications" provides links to a number of extension service documents, with topics such as Home Gardens, Urban and Household, Medical and Veterinary, and Spanish. Other Insect Answers include information on managing pest problems, insect images and sounds, identification, and honey bees. On the right hand side of the page more information about the Entomology Department can be found as well as their bi-monthly podcast: Bug Bytes.

  5. Thermal Tolerance of the Coffee Berry Borer Hypothenemus hampei: Predictions of Climate Change Impact on a Tropical Insect Pest

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Chabi-Olaye, Adenirin; Kamonjo, Charles; Jaramillo, Alvaro; Vega, Fernando E.; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Borgemeister, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Coffee is predicted to be severely affected by climate change. We determined the thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer , Hypothenemus hampei, the most devastating pest of coffee worldwide, and make inferences on the possible effects of climate change using climatic data from Colombia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. For this, the effect of eight temperature regimes (15, 20, 23, 25, 27, 30, 33 and 35°C) on the bionomics of H. hampei was studied. Successful egg to adult development occurred between 20–30°C. Using linear regression and a modified Logan model, the lower and upper thresholds for development were estimated at 14.9 and 32°C, respectively. In Kenya and Colombia, the number of pest generations per year was considerably and positively correlated with the warming tolerance. Analysing 32 years of climatic data from Jimma (Ethiopia) revealed that before 1984 it was too cold for H. hampei to complete even one generation per year, but thereafter, because of rising temperatures in the area, 1–2 generations per year/coffee season could be completed. Calculated data on warming tolerance and thermal safety margins of H. hampei for the three East African locations showed considerably high variability compared to the Colombian site. The model indicates that for every 1°C rise in thermal optimum (Topt.), the maximum intrinsic rate of increase (rmax) will increase by an average of 8.5%. The effects of climate change on the further range of H. hampei distribution and possible adaption strategies are discussed. Abstracts in Spanish and French are provided as supplementary material Abstract S1 and Abstract S2. PMID:19649255

  6. Beneficial Insects

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    Tutorials on insect predators that feed on insect and mite pests. Each tutorial has 50 questions; incorrect answers lead to additional information. Covers lady beetles, mantids, lacewings, stink bugs, robber flies, assassin bugs, syrphid flies, spiders, ground beetles, big-eyed bugs and wasps. Some illusstrations are most appropriate for the southern U.S. Information is accurate. Requires Windows; program must be downloaded to hard -drive before use, but once loaded is intuitive. $15.

  7. Acoustic indicators for targeted detection of stored product and urban insect pests by inexpensive infrared, acoustic, and virbrational detection of movement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crawling or running, scraping or shuffling, and wriggling activity of three stored-product pests, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), and Stegobium paniceum (L.) (Coleoptera: Anobiidae), and two urban pests, Blattella germanic...

  8. Functional Interpretation of a Non-Gut Hemocoelic Tissue Aminopeptidase N (APN) in a Lepidopteran Insect Pest Achaea janata

    PubMed Central

    Ningshen, Thuirei Jacob; Aparoy, Polamarasetty; Ventaku, Venkat Rao; Dutta-Gupta, Aparna

    2013-01-01

    Insect midgut membrane-anchored aminopeptidases N (APNs) are Zn++ dependent metalloproteases. Their primary role in dietary protein digestion and also as receptors in Cry toxin-induced pathogenesis is well documented. APN expression in few non-gut hemocoelic tissues of lepidopteran insects has also been reported but their functions are widely unknown. In the present study, we observed specific in vitro interaction of Cry1Aa toxin with a 113 kDa AjAPN1 membrane protein of larval fat body, Malpighian tubule and salivary gland of Achaea janata. Analyses of 3D molecular structure of AjAPN1, the predominantly expressed APN isoform in these non-gut hemocoelic tissues of A. janata showed high structural similarity to the Cry1Aa toxin binding midgut APN of Bombyx mori, especially in the toxin binding region. Structural similarity was further substantiated by in vitro binding of Cry1Aa toxin. RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in significant down-regulation of AjAPN1 transcript and protein expression in fat body and Malpighian tubule but not in salivary gland. Consequently, reduced AjAPN1 expression resulted in larval mortality, larval growth arrest, development of lethal larval-pupal intermediates, development of smaller pupae and emergence of viable defective adults. In vitro Cry1Aa toxin binding analysis of non-gut hemocoelic tissues of AjAPN1 knockdown larvae showed reduced interaction of Cry1Aa toxin with the 113 kDa AjAPN1 protein, correlating well with the significant silencing of AjAPN1 expression. Thus, our observations suggest AjAPN1 expression in non-gut hemocoelic tissues to play important physiological role(s) during post-embryonic development of A. janata. Though specific interaction of Cry1Aa toxin with AjAPN1 of non-gut hemocoelic tissues of A. janata was demonstrated, evidences to prove its functional role as a Cry1Aa toxin receptor will require more in-depth investigation. PMID:24244508

  9. Second Progress Report for a Monitoring Early Warning Project for Amorbia and the Omnivorous Looper, Insect Pests of California Avocados and Citrus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. B. Bailey; K. N. Olsen; N. V. O'Connell; P. A. Phillips; L. M. McDonough

    Amorbia, Amorbia cuneana (Walsingham), and the Omnivorous Looper, Sabulodes aegrotata (Guenee) are sporadic pests of avocados in California. Recently, both of these pests have also been found in citrus in the San Joaquin Valley. Synthetic sex pheromones have been developed for use in monitoring flight activity of these pests. Two sex pheromones have been developed for Amorbia because our research

  10. Insect Resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect pests exhibit a diverse array of genetic-based responses when interacting with crop systems; these changes can be in response to pathogens, symbiotic microbes, host plants, chemicals, and the environment. Agricultural research has for decades focused on gathering crucial information on the bi...

  11. Forest defoliator outbreaks under climate change: effects on the frequency and severity of outbreaks of five pine insect pests.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Kyle J; Allstadt, Andrew J; Klimetzek, Dietrich

    2014-06-01

    To identify general patterns in the effects of climate change on the outbreak dynamics of forest-defoliating insect species, we examined a 212-year record (1800-2011) of outbreaks of five pine-defoliating species (Bupalus piniarius, Panolis flammea, Lymantria monacha, Dendrolimus pini, and Diprion pini) in Bavaria, Germany for the evidence of climate-driven changes in the severity, cyclicity, and frequency of outbreaks. We also accounted for historical changes in forestry practices and examined effects of past insecticide use to suppress outbreaks. Analysis of relationships between severity or occurrence of outbreaks and detrended measures of temperature and precipitation revealed a mixture of positive and negative relationships between temperature and outbreak activity. Two moth species (P. flammea and Dendrolimus pini) exhibited lower outbreak activity following years or decades of unusually warm temperatures, whereas a sawfly (Diprion pini), for which voltinism is influenced by temperature, displayed increased outbreak occurrence in years of high summer temperatures. We detected only one apparent effect of precipitation, which showed Dendrolimus pini outbreaks tending to follow drought. Wavelet analysis of outbreak time series suggested climate change may be associated with collapse of L. monacha and Dendrolimus pini outbreak cycles (loss of cyclicity and discontinuation of outbreaks, respectively), but high-frequency cycles for B. piniarius and P. flammea in the late 1900s. Regional outbreak severity was generally not related to past suppression efforts (area treated with insecticides). Recent shifts in forestry practices affecting tree species composition roughly coincided with high-frequency outbreak cycles in B. piniarius and P. flammea but are unlikely to explain the detected relationships between climate and outbreak severity or collapses of outbreak cycles. Our results highlight both individualistic responses of different pine-defoliating species to climate changes and some patterns that are consistent across defoliator species in this and other forest systems, including collapsing of population cycles. PMID:24464875

  12. Biological control of an insect pest by gut-colonizing Enterobacter cloacae transformed with ice nucleation gene.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, K; Abe, K; Sato, M

    2000-01-01

    The ice nucleation (IN) gene inaA of epiphytic Erwinia (Pantoea) ananas IN10 was transformed into Enterobacter cloacae WBMH-3-CMr originated from the faeces of silkworms. The transformant designated as Ent. cloacae WBMH-3-CMr(pICE6S13) exhibited IN activity, unlike the parent strain. The transgenic strain was ingested by mulberry pyralid larvae, fed on detached mulberry leaves, and the supercooling capacity and cold hardiness of these larvae were examined. The mean supercooling point (SCP) of the larvae ingesting the transgenic strain was - 3.3 degrees C, 8 degrees C higher than that of larvae treated with distilled water (control) and 1.5 C higher than an ice nucleation active (INA) strain of Erw. ananas. The SCPs of the larvae were stably maintained over the 9 d after ingestion. The maintenance of these high SCPs was due to transgenic Ent. cloacae having a more stable and efficient gut colonization than Erw. ananas, which is identified by the distribution of a narrower range of SCPs (-2 to -5 degrees C) in larvae treated with the transgenic stain. Furthermore, most of the larvae ingesting the transgenic strain froze and died when they were exposed to cold conditions of -5 degrees C for 18 h, 3 or 7 d after ingestion. In contrast, most of the larvae ingesting no bacterium did not die under similar conditions. On the other hand, the growth ability of Ent. cloacae WBMH-3-CMr on mulberry leaves tended to be lower than that of epiphytic Erw. ananas, as assayed by pot tests. These findings would expand the possibility of biological control using INA bacteria since Ent. cloacae would harbour a broader host (insect) range for gut colonization and a smaller affinity to plants to benefit from prevention of plant frost injury. PMID:10735247

  13. Vegetable Pests II

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    Photographic gallery containing 96 images of pests that attack vegetables, including adults, pupae, larvae, and eggs; and what the insect damage looks like. Covers mites, true bugs, hoppers, whiteflies, aphids, grasshoppers, crickets, and thrips. Most of the images are of good quality; some are exceptional. Some images depict frequently photographed insects, but several are unique. Images are offered in 3 resolutions and file formats. Requires a CD-ROM drive and a web browser.

  14. Pest control in postharvest nuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter discusses the impact of insect infestations on the quality of postharvest nuts. The chapter first reviews the biology of key field pests that may be found in harvested nuts, and pests found in nut storage and processing facilities. The chapter then reviews current and developing control...

  15. Characterization of a digestive carboxypeptidase from the insect pest corn earworm (Helicoverpa armigera) with novel specificity towards C-terminal glutamate residues.

    PubMed

    Bown, David P; Gatehouse, John A

    2004-05-01

    Carboxypeptidases were purified from guts of larvae of corn earworm (Helicoverpa armigera), a lepidopteran crop pest, by affinity chromatography on immobilized potato carboxypeptidase inhibitor, and characterized by N-terminal sequencing. A larval gut cDNA library was screened using probes based on these protein sequences. cDNA HaCA42 encoded a carboxypeptidase with sequence similarity to enzymes of clan MC [Barrett, A. J., Rawlings, N. D. & Woessner, J. F. (1998) Handbook of Proteolytic Enzymes. Academic Press, London.], but with a novel predicted specificity towards C-terminal acidic residues. This carboxypeptidase was expressed as a recombinant proprotein in the yeast Pichia pastoris. The expressed protein could be activated by treatment with bovine trypsin; degradation of bound pro-region, rather than cleavage of pro-region from mature protein, was the rate-limiting step in activation. Activated HaCA42 carboxypeptidase hydrolysed a synthetic substrate for glutamate carboxypeptidases (FAEE, C-terminal Glu), but did not hydrolyse substrates for carboxypeptidase A or B (FAPP or FAAK, C-terminal Phe or Lys) or methotrexate, cleaved by clan MH glutamate carboxypeptidases. The enzyme was highly specific for C-terminal glutamate in peptide substrates, with slow hydrolysis of C-terminal aspartate also observed. Glutamate carboxypeptidase activity was present in larval gut extract from H. armigera. The HaCA42 protein is the first glutamate-specific metallocarboxypeptidase from clan MC to be identified and characterized. The genome of Drosophila melanogaster contains genes encoding enzymes with similar sequences and predicted specificity, and a cDNA encoding a similar enzyme has been isolated from gut tissue in tsetse fly. We suggest that digestive carboxypeptidases with sequence similarity to the classical mammalian enzymes, but with specificity towards C-terminal glutamate, are widely distributed in insects. PMID:15128309

  16. Agricultural Plant Pest Control. Manual 93.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides for the agricultural plant pest control category. The text discusses the insect pests including caterpillars, beetles, and soil inhabiting insects; diseases and nematodes; and weeds. Consideration is given…

  17. Ornamental, Turf and Nursery Pests. MEP 308.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Omar D.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland, this publication introduces the identification and control of common turf and plant pests that can be found in the urban environment. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests such as insects, weeds, and…

  18. Insects Attacking Forage Crops. 

    E-print Network

    Randolph, N. M.; Garner, C. F.

    1961-01-01

    This is the complete guide for Texas sorghum growers. It covers an integrated approach to managing insect and mite pests to help growers prevent, diagnose and control damaging infestations. This publication offers suggestions ...

  19. Current control methods for diamondback moth and other brassica insect pests and the prospects for improved management with lepidopteran-resistant Bt vegetable brassicas in Asia and Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Grzywacz; A. Rossbach; A. Rauf; D. A. Russell; R. Srinivasan; A. M. Shelton

    2010-01-01

    The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.), remains a major pest of brassica crops worldwide. DBM has been estimated globally to cost US$ 1 billion in direct losses and control costs. Chemical control of this pest remains difficult due to the rapid development of resistance to insecticides and to their effect on natural enemies. These problems are especially severe in

  20. Insects Pests Of Black Walunt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc J. Linit

    Black walnut, Juglans nigra L., is an indigenous tree species that grows over a large portion of the United States east of the 100th meridian. It is a component of many of the eastern forest types but is seldom abundant. It occurs as a minor species in a few forest types and is generally found scattered among other trees. Pure

  1. Insect Pest Management in Virginia

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    , this program would have less scope and meaning to other farmers. Jon & Keith Black, Charles City Co. Frank Kuhar, Entomologist, Eastern Shore AREC, Painter, VA Robert Pitman, Director, Eastern Virginia AREC, Painter, VA Jim Jenrette, Research Assistant, Eastern Shore AREC, Painter, VA Louisiana State University

  2. RNA Viruses Infecting Pest Insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    RNA viruses are viruses whose genetic material is ribonucleic acid (RNA). RNA viruses may be double or single-stranded based on the type of RNA they contain. Single-stranded RNA viruses can be further grouped into negative sense or positive-sense viruses according to the polarity of their RNA. Fur...

  3. UrbanSolutionsCenter Managing Red Imported Fire Ants and Other Landscape Pests

    E-print Network

    Behmer, Spencer T.

    UrbanSolutionsCenter Managing Red Imported Fire Ants and Other Landscape Pests in Urban Areas and safety. This project looks at insect pests found in urban landscapes, from fire ants to insect pests Background Pesticides make possible control of many pests that are difficult to manage through biological

  4. Insects and Bugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Karen

    2009-01-01

    They have been around for centuries. They sting, they bite. They cause intense itching or painful sores. They even cause allergic reactions and sometimes death. There are two types of insects that are pests to humans--those that sting and those that bite. The insects that bite do so with their mouths and include mosquitoes, chiggers, and ticks.…

  5. Monitoring Bacillus thuringiensis-Susceptibility in Insect Pests That Occur in Large Geographies: How to Get the Best Information When Two Countries are Involved

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The adoption of Bacillus thuringiensis-expressing cotton around the world has been proven to be beneficial for growers and the environment. The effectiveness of this important genetically-modified crop can be jeopardized by the development of B. thuringiensis-resistance in pests, with the possibilit...

  6. Most Virginians are aware that the gypsy moth is a seri-ous pest of hardwoods in our state. Although this insect

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Most Virginians are aware that the gypsy moth is a seri- ous pest of hardwoods in our state in moth populations in 2000. This population increase serves as a reminder that, in areas where gypsy moth low to be noticed. Gypsy moth is a native of Europe, Asia, and northern Africa. It was accidentally

  7. Preface: Insect Pathology, 2nd ed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect pathology is an essential component of entomology and provides a non-chemical alternative for insect pest management. There are several groups of organisms that can infect and kill insects including viruses, fungi, microsporidia, bacteria, protists, and nematodes. The dilemma in insect patho...

  8. Planthopper pests of grapevine (in French)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the French vineyards occur two main insect pests belonging to Fulgoromorpha, Hyalesthes obsoletus Signoret (Cixiidae) and Metcalfa pruinosa (Say) (Flatidae). Hyalesthes obsoletus is inducing economic losses by transmitting a phytoplasma, called Stolbur, from wild plants (bindweed, nettle, etc.) t...

  9. Training for Certification: Ornamental & Turf Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Univ., State College. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial pesticide applicators. Focusing on ornamental and turf plant pest control, this publication examines the control of plant diseases, insects, and weeds. The contents are divided into a section on ornamental pest control and one on…

  10. Plant Diseases, Pests and Food Security

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jenifer Huang McBeath; Jerry McBeath

    \\u000a Chapter 5 discusses the plant diseases and pests that affect agricultural production in China, and thus food security. Because\\u000a diseases of plants and insect pests are anthropocentric concepts, we begin the chapter by defining the functions they play\\u000a in ecological renewal and the environmental conditions favoring pathogens and pests. Then we explore the broad range of economic\\u000a damage they do

  11. COMPATIBILITY AND POTENTIAL SYNERGISM BETWEEN THE ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGUS BEAUVERIA BASSIANA AND THE INSECT GROWTH REGULATOR AZADIRACHTIN FOR CONTROL OF THE GREENHOUSE PESTS MYZUS PERSICAE AND APHIS GOSSYPII

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One factor limiting the ability of entomopathogenic fungi to control rapidly developing insects such as aphids is the fact that frequent molting allows them to effectively remove fungal propagules before they can penetrate the cuticle, thus dramatically reducing their susceptibility to infection. O...

  12. Thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): inferences of climate change impact on a tropical insect pest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We determined the thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, and make inferences on the possible effects of climate change on the insect using climatic data from Colombia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. The extremes for coffee berry borer survival are 59 and 86 degrees F, but ...

  13. Scale invariant feature approach for insect monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis O. Solis-Sánchez; Rodrigo Castañeda-Miranda; Juan J. García-Escalante; Irineo Torres-Pacheco; Ramón G. Guevara-González; Celina L. Castañeda-Miranda; Pedro D. Alaniz-Lumbreras

    2011-01-01

    One of the main problems in greenhouse crop production is the presence of pests. In order to address this problem, the implementation of a Integrated Pest Management (IPM) system involving the detection and classification of insects (pests) is essential for intensive production systems. Traditionally, this has been done by placing hunting traps in fields or greenhouses and later manually counting

  14. Using new technology and insect behavior in novel terrestrial and flying insect traps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect traps are commonly used for both population sampling and insect control, the former as part of an integrated pest management (IPM) program. We developed traps for two insects, one as part of a pesticide based IPM system and the other for population control. Our IPM trap is for crawling insect...

  15. Beneficial Insects

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    Tutorials on insect predators that feed on insect and mite pests. Each tutorial has 50 questions; incorrect answers lead to additional information. Covers brown lacewings, ambush bugs, dragonflies, damselflies, paper wasps, earwigs, long-legged flies, predaceous mites, damsel bugs, minute pirate bug, tiger beetles, tachnid flies, parasitic nematodes, entomopathogenic fungi and viruses. Requires Windows. SOme illustrations may be most apporopriate for the southern U.S. A couple of the questions have rather arbitrary answers; in general, the tutorials are well constructed and the information is accurate. Requires Windows operating system; program must be downloaded to the comptuer's hard drive, but once loaded is easy to launch and use. $15. Part number SW 154.

  16. Incidence of pests in jute (Corchorus olitorius L.) ecosystem and pest–weather relationships in West Bengal, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sahidur Rahman; Matiyar Rahaman Khan

    2012-01-01

    Experiment on jute crop was conducted during pre-kharif to kharif seasons (April to August) at Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya (BCKV), West Bengal, India in a view to record the pest incidence on olitorius jute and to determine the weather parameters impacting on pest population in jute under West Bengal conditions. Seventeen different species of pests belonging to insects, mites and

  17. Incidence of pests in jute (Corchorus olitorius L.) ecosystem and pest–weather relationships in West Bengal, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sahidur Rahman; Matiyar Rahaman Khan

    2011-01-01

    Experiment on jute crop was conducted during pre-kharif to kharif seasons (April to August) at Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya (BCKV), West Bengal, India in a view to record the pest incidence on olitorius jute and to determine the weather parameters impacting on pest population in jute under West Bengal conditions. Seventeen different species of pests belonging to insects, mites and

  18. Habitat manipulation to mitigate the impacts of invasive arthropod pests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mattias JonssonSteve; Steve D. Wratten; Doug A. Landis; Jean-Marie L. Tompkins; Ross Cullen

    2010-01-01

    Exotic invaders are some of the most serious insect pests of agricultural crops around the globe. Increasingly, the structure\\u000a of landscape and habitat is recognized as having a major influence on both insect pests and their natural enemies. Habitat\\u000a manipulation that aims at conserving natural enemies can potentially contribute to safer and more effective control of invasive\\u000a pests. In this

  19. Insects Affecting Hardwood Tree Plantings Bradley D. Barnd

    E-print Network

    Insects Affecting Hardwood Tree Plantings Bradley D. Barnd Department of Forestry and Natural of indigenous and invasive insect pests. This publication is intended to provide landowners with an overview of some of the more important insect pests affecting hardwoods in the CHR. It is by no means comprehensive

  20. Action and Inaction Levels in Pest Management. 

    E-print Network

    Sterling, Winfield

    1984-01-01

    concept (137, 138) been extremely useful. Contemporary pest manage systems that have been developed for insect pests and other crops , usually use the economic concept or some modification of it in the m1on-maK1ng process. However, the economic... LOG INSECT DENSITY Figure 3. Schematic of crop yield and pest density (after van Emden 147). Cultivated Acala cotton nomally sheds more than 70 percent of the fruit because the plants cannot meet their carbohydrate demand (40, 81). However, after...

  1. Characterization of the proteasome ß2 subunit gene and its mutant allele in the tephritid fruit fly pest, Anastrepha suspensa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conditional lethal release (CLR) is a proposed variation of the sterile insect technique (SIT) for the biological control of pest insects that would result from the release of transgenic insects carrying dominant conditional lethal genes. After mating with pest insects in the field, lethal gene exp...

  2. Pinellia ternata agglutinin expression in chloroplasts confers broad spectrum resistance against aphid, whitefly, Lepidopteran insects, bacterial and viral pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Shuangxia; Zhang, Xianlong; Daniell, Henry

    2012-01-01

    Summary Broad spectrum protection against different insects and pathogens requires multigene engineering. However, such broad spectrum protection against biotic stress is provided by a single protein in some medicinal plants. Therefore, tobacco chloroplasts were transformed with the agglutinin gene from Pinellia ternata (pta), a widely cultivated Chinese medicinal herb. Pinellia ternata agglutinin (PTA) was expressed up to 9.2% of total soluble protein in mature leaves. Purified PTA showed similar hemagglutination activity as snowdrop lectin. Artificial diet with purified PTA from transplastomic plants showed marked and broad insecticidal activity. In planta bioassays conducted with T0 or T1 generation PTA lines showed that the growth of aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) was reduced by 89%–92% when compared with untransformed (UT) plants. Similarly, the larval survival and total population of whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) on transplastomic lines were reduced by 91%–93% when compared with UT plants. This is indeed the first report of lectin controlling whitefly infestation. When transplastomic PTA leaves were fed to corn earworm (Helicoverpa zea), tobacco budworm (Heliothis virescens) or the beet armyworm (spodoptera exigua), 100% mortality was observed against all these three insects. In planta bioassays revealed Erwinia population to be 10 000-fold higher in control than in PTA lines. Similar results were observed with tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) challenge. Therefore, broad spectrum resistance to homopteran (sap-sucking), Lepidopteran insects as well as anti-bacterial or anti-viral activity observed in PTA lines provides a new option to engineer protection against biotic stress by hyper-expression of an unique protein that is naturally present in a medicinal plant. PMID:22077160

  3. Self-Assembly and Release of Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus-Like Particles in an Insect Cell-Baculovirus System and Their Immunogenicity in Mice and Goats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenchao; Jin, Hongyan; Sui, Xiukun; Zhao, Zhanzhong; Yang, Chenghuai; Wang, Wenquan; Li, Junping; Li, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an acute, febrile, viral disease of small ruminants that has a significant economic impact. For many viral diseases, vaccination with virus-like particles (VLPs) has shown considerable promise as a prophylactic approach; however, the processes of assembly and release of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) VLPs are not well characterized, and their immunogenicity in the host is unknown. In this study, VLPs of PPRV were generated in a baculovirus system through simultaneous expression of PPRV matrix (M) protein and hemaglutin in (H) or fusion (F) protein. The released VLPs showed morphology similar to that of the native virus particles. Subcutaneous injection of these VLPs (PPRV-H, PPRV-F) into mice and goats elicited PPRV-specific IgG production, increased the levels of virus neutralizing antibodies, and promoted lymphocyte proliferation. Without adjuvants, the immune response induced by the PPRV-H VLPs was comparable to that obtained using equivalent amounts of PPRV vaccine. Thus, our results demonstrated that VLPs containing PPRV M protein and H or F protein are potential “differentiating infected from vaccinated animals” (DIVA) vaccine candidates for the surveillance and eradication of PPR. PMID:25117931

  4. Self-assembly and release of peste des petits ruminants virus-like particles in an insect cell-baculovirus system and their immunogenicity in mice and goats.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenchao; Jin, Hongyan; Sui, Xiukun; Zhao, Zhanzhong; Yang, Chenghuai; Wang, Wenquan; Li, Junping; Li, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an acute, febrile, viral disease of small ruminants that has a significant economic impact. For many viral diseases, vaccination with virus-like particles (VLPs) has shown considerable promise as a prophylactic approach; however, the processes of assembly and release of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) VLPs are not well characterized, and their immunogenicity in the host is unknown. In this study, VLPs of PPRV were generated in a baculovirus system through simultaneous expression of PPRV matrix (M) protein and hemaglutin in (H) or fusion (F) protein. The released VLPs showed morphology similar to that of the native virus particles. Subcutaneous injection of these VLPs (PPRV-H, PPRV-F) into mice and goats elicited PPRV-specific IgG production, increased the levels of virus neutralizing antibodies, and promoted lymphocyte proliferation. Without adjuvants, the immune response induced by the PPRV-H VLPs was comparable to that obtained using equivalent amounts of PPRV vaccine. Thus, our results demonstrated that VLPs containing PPRV M protein and H or F protein are potential "differentiating infected from vaccinated animals" (DIVA) vaccine candidates for the surveillance and eradication of PPR. PMID:25117931

  5. Strategic and tactical use of movement information in pest management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knipling, E. F.

    1979-01-01

    Several insect movement problems are discussed. Much more information is needed to make a better appraisal of the practical significance of the insect dispersal problem. Data on the time, rate, and extent of movement of insects are provided. Better techniques for measuring insect movement are developed. A better understanding of the importance of insect movement in the development and implementation of more effective and ecologically acceptable pest management strategies and tactics was proved.

  6. Integrating augmentative biocontrol and inherited sterility for management of lepidopteran pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect pest management can benefit from the integration of biological control agents and the release of sterile insect pests (hosts). Released sterile or semi-sterile insects and their sterile progeny may augment natural enemies by serving as hosts for build-up of the natural enemies prior to the t...

  7. Differential Expression Patterns in Chemosensory and Non-Chemosensory Tissues of Putative Chemosensory Genes Identified by Transcriptome Analysis of Insect Pest the Purple Stem Borer Sesamia inferens (Walker)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ya-Nan; Jin, Jun-Yan; Jin, Rong; Xia, Yi-Han; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Deng, Jian-Yu; Dong, Shuang-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Background A large number of insect chemosensory genes from different gene subfamilies have been identified and annotated, but their functional diversity and complexity are largely unknown. A systemic examination of expression patterns in chemosensory organs could provide important information. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified 92 putative chemosensory genes by analysing the transcriptome of the antennae and female sex pheromone gland of the purple stem borer Sesamia inferens, among them 87 are novel in this species, including 24 transcripts encoding for odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 24 for chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 2 for sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs), 39 for odorant receptors (ORs) and 3 for ionotropic receptors (IRs). The transcriptome analyses were validated and quantified with a detailed global expression profiling by Reverse Transcription-PCR for all 92 transcripts and by Quantitative Real Time RT-PCR for selected 16 ones. Among the chemosensory gene subfamilies, CSP transcripts are most widely and evenly expressed in different tissues and stages, OBP transcripts showed a clear antenna bias and most of OR transcripts are only detected in adult antennae. Our results also revealed that some OR transcripts, such as the transcripts of SNMP2 and 2 IRs were expressed in non-chemosensory tissues, and some CSP transcripts were antenna-biased expression. Furthermore, no chemosensory transcript is specific to female sex pheromone gland and very few are found in the heads. Conclusion Our study revealed that there are a large number of chemosensory genes expressed in S. inferens, and some of them displayed unusual expression profile in non-chemosensory tissues. The identification of a large set of putative chemosensory genes of each subfamily from a single insect species, together with their different expression profiles provide further information in understanding the functions of these chemosensory genes in S. inferens as well as other insects. PMID:23894529

  8. Insects: What are Insects?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Martin

    2009-10-22

    In this project you will investigate insects. By the end of the project you will asnwer the essential quesetion " What are insects?" Today, you and your group members will begin by investigating what insects are in nature. Insects come in different shapes, sizes and colors. Before your groups begins the activity, take a look at some pictures by clicking the Insect Pictures link Insect Pictures. Next, your group will read the brief summary from ...

  9. Airborne multispectral remote sensing with ground truth for areawide pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists and engineers in areawide pest management programs have been developing, integrating, and evaluating multiple strategies and technologies into a systems approach for management of field crop insect pests. Remote sensing along with global positioning systems, geographic information system...

  10. Keeping Pantry Pests Out of the Kitchen Pantry pests such as weevils, beetles, and moths are common but unwanted guests in

    E-print Network

    . Make sure the shelves are dry before the food is returned. If needed, use caulk to seal cracks around particles, insects and insect eggs that are present. This should be sufficient to treat the pests. Can food

  11. InnovationsApplications of insect transgenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ernst A. Wimmer

    2003-01-01

    The recent establishment of broadly applicable genetic transformation systems will allow the analysis of gene function in diverse insect species. This will increase our understanding of developmental and evolutionary biology. Furthermore, insect transgenesis will provide new strategies for insect pest management and methods to impair the transmission of pathogens by human disease vectors. However, these powerful techniques must be applied

  12. Mechanisms by which pesticides affect insect immunity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The known effects of pesticides on insect immunity is reviewed here. A basic understanding of these interactions is needed for several reasons, including to improve methods for controlling pest insects in agricultural settings, for controlling insect vectors of human diseases, and for reducing morta...

  13. People and Insects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Provides: (1) background information on how insects affect human lives, both positively and negatively, and on integrated pest management strategies; (2) student activities; and (3) materials (ready-to-copy games, puzzles, coloring pages, worksheets, and/or mazes). Each activity includes an objective, recommended age level(s), subject area(s),…

  14. cDNA cloning and heterologous expression of a wheat proteinase inhibitor of subtilisin and chymotrypsin (WSCI) that interferes with digestive enzymes of insect pests.

    PubMed

    Di Gennaro, Simone; Ficca, Anna G; Panichi, Daniela; Poerio, Elia

    2005-04-01

    A cDNA encoding the proteinase inhibitor WSCI (wheat subtilisin/chymotrypsin inhibitor) was isolated by RT-PCR. Degenerate oligonucleotide primers were designed based on the amino acid sequence of WSCI and on the nucleotide sequence of the two homologous inhibitors (CI-2A and CI-2B) isolated from barley. For large-scale production, wsci cDNA was cloned into the E. coli vector pGEX-2T. The fusion protein GST-WSCI was efficiently produced in the bacterial expression system and, as the native inhibitor, was capable of inhibiting bacterial subtilisin, mammalian chymotrypsins and chymotrypsin-like activities present in crude extracts of a number of insect larvae ( Helicoverpa armigera , Plodia interpunctella and Tenebrio molitor ). The recombinant protein produced was also able to interfere with chymotrypsin-like activity isolated from immature wheat caryopses. These findings support a physiological role for this inhibitor during grain maturation. PMID:15899701

  15. In vitro production of two chitinolytic proteins with an inhibiting effect on the insect coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and the fungus Hemileia vastatrix the most limiting pests of coffee crops

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Two genes from Streptomyces albidoflavus, one exochitinase (905-bp) and an endochitinase (1100-bp) were functionally expressed in Escherichia coli in form of a fusion protein with a maltose binding protein (MBP). The goal was to produce and test proteins that inhibit both the coffee berry borer insect Hypothenemus hampei and the coffee rust fungus Hemileia vastatrix. Both recombinant proteins MBP/exochitinase and MBP/endochitinase showed chitinolytic activity. When recombinant purified proteins were added to an artificial coffee-based diet for the coffee berry borer, MBP/exochitinase at a concentration of 0.5% W/W caused delayed growth of larvae and 100% mortality between days 8 and 15, while MBP/endochitinase caused 100% mortality at day 35. H. vastatrix urediniospores presented total cell wall degradation in their germinative tubes within 18 h of exposure to the proteins at enzyme concentrations of 5 and 6 mg ml-1, with exochitinase having the greatest effect. The dual deleterious effect of S. albidoflavus chitinases on two of the most limiting coffee pests worldwide, the coffee borer and the coffee rust, make them potential elements to be incorporated in integrated control strategies. PMID:22464210

  16. Mesoamerican Origin and Pre- and Post-Columbian Expansions of the Ranges of Acanthoscelides obtectus Say, a Cosmopolitan Insect Pest of the Common Bean

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Márcia Rodrigues Carvalho; Corrêa, Alberto Soares; de Souza, Giselle Anselmo; Guedes, Raul Narciso Carvalho; de Oliveira, Luiz Orlando

    2013-01-01

    An unprecedented global transfer of agricultural resources followed the discovery of the New World; one consequence of this process was that staple food plants of Neotropical origin, such as the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), soon expanded their ranges overseas. Yet many pests and diseases were also transported. Acanthoscelides obtectus is a cosmopolitan seed predator associated with P. vulgaris. Codispersal within the host seed seems to be an important determinant of the ability of A. obtectus to expand its range over long distances. We examined the phylogeographic structure of A. obtectus by (a) sampling three mitochondrial gene sequences (12s rRNA, 16s rRNA, and the gene that encodes cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI)) throughout most of the species’ range and (b) exploring its late evolutionary history. Our findings indicate a Mesoamerican origin for the current genealogical lineages of A. obtectus. Each of the two major centers of genetic diversity of P. vulgaris (the Andes and Mesoamerica) contains a highly differentiated lineage of the bean beetle. Brazil has two additional, closely related lineages, both of which predate the Andean lineage and have the Mesoamerican lineage as their ancestor. The cosmopolitan distribution of A. obtectus has resulted from recent expansions of the two Brazilian lineages. We present additional evidence for both pre-Columbian and post-Columbian range expansions as likely events that shaped the current distribution of A. obtectus worldwide. PMID:23936139

  17. IR thermography as a tool for the pest management professional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, Jon L.

    2005-03-01

    For years the pest Management Professional has relied on visual and manual inspections to locate insect pest infestations. As building materials have improved, the ability to locate pest problems has become more difficult since building materials are often able to mask the existence of pest infestation. Additionally, these improved building materials have contributed to the pest problem by providing a convenient food and nesting source. Within the past five years, the Pest Management Industry has become aware that IR thermography can aid in the detection of pest infestation by detecting evidence of latent moisture within structures. This paper discusses the use of thermal imaging to detect thermal patterns associated with insect infestation, verification of data and special challenges associated with the inspection process.

  18. Transgenic tobacco and apple plants expressing biotin-binding proteins are resistant to two cosmopolitan insect pests, potato tuber moth and lightbrown apple moth, respectively.

    PubMed

    Markwick, Ngaire P; Docherty, Lisa C; Phung, Margaret M; Lester, Melissa T; Murray, Colleen; Yao, Jia-Long; Mitra, Deepali S; Cohen, Daniel; Beuning, Lesley L; Kutty-Amma, Sumathi; Christeller, John T

    2003-12-01

    Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun) and apple (Malus x domestica cv. Royal Gala) plants expressing avidin or strepavidin were produced using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. ELISA assays showed that avidin expression ranged from 3.1 to 4.6 microM in tobacco and from 1.9 to 11.2 microM in apple and streptavidin expression ranged from 11.4 to 24.5 microM in tobacco and from 0.4 to 14.6 microM in apple. Expressed at these levels, both biotin-binding proteins conferred a high level of insect resistance on transformed tobacco plants to larval potato tuber moth (PTM), Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (fam. Gelechiidae) and on apple plants to larvae of the lightbrown apple moth (LBAM) Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (fam. Tortricidae). More than 90% of PTM larvae died on tobacco plants expressing either avidin or streptavidin genes within 9 days of inoculation. Mortality of LBAM larvae was significantly higher (P < 0.05) on three avidin-expressing (89.6, 84.9 and 80.1%) and two streptavidin-expressing (90 and 82.5%) apple plant lines than on non-transformed control plants (14.1%) after 21 days. Weight of LBAM larvae was also significantly reduced by feeding on all apple shoots expressing avidin and on apple shoots expressing streptavidin at levels of 3.8 microM and above. PMID:14713196

  19. Integrated Pest Management

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    The first Web site is an integrated pest management (IPM) resource from the University of Minnesota Extension Service (1) with a number of regional newsletters and crop specific fact sheets. The next resource from the University of California (2) is a comprehensive overview of IPM dealing with a wide range of topics including weather, weeds, and pesticides. Cornell University's Guide to Natural Enemies in North America (3) (last mentioned in the December 10, 1997 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) is a tutorial and guide to the beneficial insects that help control weeds, diseases, and pests. The home page for the Center for Integrated Pest Management (4) is a gateway to IPM research. Teachers wishing to incorporate the ecological concepts of IPM into their classrooms may be interested in this curriculum developed by Michigan State University (5) downloadable in Adobe Acrobat Reader format. Users looking to stay current on the subject of IPM may want to check out the IPMnet newsletters (6) from the Consortium for International Crop Protection. Brief reports of several IPM successes are posted on this New York State IPM Web site (7). Lastly, the home gardener may benefit from this (8) Texas A&M University site focusing on IPM for the home vegetable garden.

  20. Virus-Induced Tubule: a Vehicle for Rapid Spread of Virions through Basal Lamina from Midgut Epithelium in the Insect Vector

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Dongsheng; Mao, Qianzhuo; Chen, Hongyan; Wang, Aiming; Liu, Yuyan; Wang, Haitao; Xie, Lianhui

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The plant reoviruses, plant rhabdoviruses, tospoviruses, and tenuiviruses are transmitted by insect vectors in a persistent propagative manner. These viruses induce the formation of viral inclusions to facilitate viral propagation in insect vectors. The intestines of insect vectors are formed by epithelial cells that lie on the noncellular basal lamina surrounded by visceral muscle tissue. Here, we demonstrate that a recently identified plant reovirus, southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), exploits virus-containing tubules composed of virus-encoded nonstructural protein P7-1 to directly cross the basal lamina from the initially infected epithelium toward visceral muscle tissues in the intestine of its vector, the white-backed planthopper (Sogatella furcifera). Furthermore, such tubules spread along visceral muscle tissues through a direct interaction of P7-1 and actin. The destruction of tubule assembly by RNA interference with synthesized double-stranded RNA targeting the P7-1 gene inhibited viral spread in the insect vector in vitro and in vivo. All these results show for the first time that a virus employs virus-induced tubule as a vehicle for viral spread from the initially infected midgut epithelium through the basal lamina, facilitating the rapid dissemination of virus from the intestine of the insect vector. IMPORTANCE Numerous plant viruses are transmitted in a persistent manner by sap-sucking insects, including thrips, aphids, planthoppers, and leafhoppers. These viruses, ingested by the insects, establish their primary infection in the intestinal epithelium of the insect vector. Subsequently, the invading virus manages to transverse the basal lamina, a noncellular layer lining the intestine, a barrier that may theoretically hinder viral spread. The mechanism by which plant viruses cross the basal lamina is unknown. Here, we report that a plant virus has evolved to exploit virus-induced tubules to pass through the basal lamina from the initially infected midgut epithelium of the insect vector, thus revealing the previously undescribed pathway adapted by the virus for rapid dissemination of virions from the intestine of the insect vector. PMID:24965461

  1. Biorational Pest Control – An Overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Rami Horowitz; Peter C. Ellsworth; Isaac Ishaaya

    \\u000a Fifty years ago, Stern et al. (1959) introduced the concept of “Integrated Control” during a time when insect pest control\\u000a was mostly based on broad-spectrum, conventional insecticides such as organochlorines, organophosphates (OPs), and carbamates,\\u000a all neurotoxic. Their work on economic thresholds and economic injury levels implemented within an ecological framework where\\u000a chemical and biological controls could thrive together is the

  2. The use and manipulation of insect reproductive molecules for controlling insect populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use and manipulation of insect reproductive molecules, and the genes that encode them, provides a variety of methods to control insect fertility and thus a means of population control for insect pests. Towards this end, we first studied the yolk polypeptide gene from the caribfly, Anastrepha su...

  3. Ribonucleic acid interference (RNAi) and control of citrus pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ribonucleic acid interference, RNAi, applications and function are described for the non-scientist to bring a better understanding of how this emerging technology is providing environmentally friendly, non-transgenic, insect pest control. ...

  4. The toxicity of certain new chlorinated hydrocarbons to cotton pests

    E-print Network

    Merkl, Marvin Eugene

    1953-01-01

    insects* The cotton pests included in these tests were the boll weevil Anthonoimxs grandis Boh*, the cotton leafworm Alabama argillacea (Hbn*), the salt-marsh caterpillar Estigmene acrea (Dr.), the boUvorm Heliothis armigera (Hbn.), two species...

  5. Lawn and Turf Pest Control: A Guide for Commercial Applicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, M. S.

    This manual is designed for use in training commercial pesticide applicators. It gives identification and control information for common lawn and turf diseases, insects, nematodes, weeds, and vertebrate pests. It also discusses phytotoxicity, environmental concerns, and application methods. (BB)

  6. Cotton Insect Losses 1991 Compiled for National Cotton Council

    E-print Network

    Ray, David

    Cotton Insect Losses 1991 Compiled for National Cotton Council Robert B. Head, Chairman Cooperative to have produced the greatest pest related losses in U. S. cotton in 1991. Aphid losses reported at 2. This is true for sweet potato whiteflies. These insects have been pests of cotton in California and Arizona

  7. Behavior, biology and ecology of stored fruit and nut insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tree nuts and dried fruits vary widely in their quality as hosts for insect pests, but stored product pests can cause economic loss even in commodities that are generally poor hosts. Economic damage can be due to commodity consumed, but the very presence of insect body parts, frass, or webbing can c...

  8. 2010 Pest Management Guide for Wine Grapes in Oregon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a pest management guide developed for use by vineyard managers in Oregon. This guide represents some of the best recommendations for chemicals, formulations, and usage rates of products that are intended to prevent, manage and control vineyard diseases, insects, weeds, and vertebrate pests. ...

  9. Study on Integrated Pest Management for Libraries and Archives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Thomas A.

    This study addresses the problems caused by the major insect and rodent pests and molds and mildews in libraries and archives; the damage they do to collections; and techniques for their prevention and control. Guidelines are also provided for the development and initiation of an Integrated Pest Management program for facilities housing library…

  10. RNAi at work: Targeting invertebrate pests and beneficial organisms' diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invertebrates present two types of large scale RNAi application opportunities: pest control and beneficial insect health. The former involves the introduction of sustainable applications to keep pest populations low, and the latter represents the challenge of keeping beneficial organisms healthy. RN...

  11. Image processing for distance diagnosis in pest management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Koumpouros; B. D. Mahaman; M. Maliappis; H. C. Passam; A. B. Sideridis; V. Zorkadis

    2004-01-01

    Image processing for pest management (IPPM) is an interactive distance diagnostic tool for the diagnosis and identification of diseases and insects. The objective of the IPPM was the automation of the diagnostic process based on interaction of growers and experts via the Internet, to enable pest diagnosis in crops at the earliest possible stage, using photographs produced by growers, coupled

  12. ARS RESEARCH ON NATURAL PRODUCTS FOR PEST MANAGEMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent research of the Agricultural Research Service of USDA on the use of natural products to manage pests is summarized. Studies of the use of both phytochemicals and diatomaceous earth to manage insect pests are discussed. Chemically characterized compounds, such as a saponin from pepper (Caps...

  13. ARS RESEARCH ON NATURAL PRODUCTS FOR PEST MANAGEMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent research of the Agricultural Research Service of USDA on the use of natural products to manage pests is summarized. Studies of the use of both phtyochemicals and diatomaceous earth to manage insect pests are discussed. Chemically characterized compounds, such as a saponin from pepper (Capsi...

  14. Insect Pathogens as Biological Control Agents: Do They Have a Future?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. Lacey; R. Frutos; H. K. Kaya; P. Vail

    2001-01-01

    Naturally occurring entomopathogens are important regulatory factors in insect populations. Many species are employed as biological control agents of insect pests in row and glasshouse crops, orchards, ornamentals, range, turf and lawn, stored products, and forestry and for abatement of pest and vector insects of veterinary and medical importance. The comparison of entomopathogens with conventional chemical pesticides is usually solely

  15. Insect infestation in stored animal products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Rajendran; K. M. Hajira Parveen

    2005-01-01

    Published information about insect pest infestation in dried or preserved animal products comprising food items like dried fish and milk powder and non-food materials such as hides and skins, silkworm cocoons, wool and woollen materials, honeybee combs, fishmeal and museum collections\\/exhibits and control measures has been summarised in this review. Beetle and moth pests belonging to the Dermestidae and Tineidae,

  16. BREEDING WHEAT FOR RESISTANCE TO INSECTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Host-plant resistance plays an important role in the management of the insect pests of wheat (Triticum sp.). Five pests, Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor), Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia), wheat midge (Sitodiplosis mosellana), greenbug (Schizaphis graminum) and the wheat stem sawfly (Cephus s...

  17. Using entomopathogenic nematodes for crop insect control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this paper is to provide an overview on using entomopathogenic nematodes for insect pest control. Entomopathogenic nematodes (genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis), are be used as natural biopesticides. Unlike plant parasitic nematodes, which can be serious crop pests, entomopat...

  18. The applicability of remote sensing to Earth biological problems. Part 2: The potential of remote sensing in pest management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polhemus, J. T.

    1980-01-01

    Five troublesome insect pest groups were chosen for study. These represent a broad spectrum of life cycles, ecological indicators, pest management strategies, and remote sensing requirements. Background data, and field study results for each of these subjects is discussed for each insect group. Specific groups studied include tsetse flies, locusts, western rangeland grasshoppers, range caterpillars, and mosquitoes. It is concluded that remote sensing methods are aplicable to the pest management of the insect groups studied.

  19. Farmers’ cultural practices and their effects on pest control in sweetpotato in South Nyanza, Kenya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. E. J. M. Smit; L. O. Matengo

    1995-01-01

    Sweetpotato weevils (Cylas puncticollis (Bohe.) and C. brunneus (Fabr.) Coteoptera: Apionidae) are the most important insect pests in South Nyanza, Kenya's principal sweetpotato?growing district. A pest of secondary importance is the sweetpotato butterfly (Acraea acerata (Hew.) Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Cultural control is currently the most promising component of an integrated pest management strategy for subsistence sweetpotato farmers in Kenya. A survey

  20. The importance of economic injury levels in the development of integrated pest control programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ray F. Smith

    1969-01-01

    Summary Although economic injury levels have long been considered of importance in determining the needs for pest control measures, they take on added significance in integrated pest control programs. The designation of damage tolerance levels defines the goals of the integrated control effort. These management goals should be defined in terms of damage not numbers of pests. Although insect numbers

  1. Biological control of cotton pests in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is one of the most economically important crops in China and insect damage is a major factor affecting production. The strategy of integrated pest management (IPM), where biological control plays an important role, has been widely accepted. Nearly 500 species of natural enemies have been repo...

  2. Demonstrating Integrated Pest Management of Hot Peppers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We studied the effects of organic and synthetic chemical fertilizers on crop growth, yield and associated insect pests for two varieties of hot pepper, Capsicum chinense Jacquin (Solanaceae): “Scotch Bonnet” and “Caribbean Red” in north Florida. Hot peppers were grown under three treatments: poultr...

  3. Managing Turfgrass Insects of the Northeast

    E-print Network

    Wang, Changlu

    Managing Turfgrass Insects of the Northeast Part 3: Surface-feeding insect pests (updated 2') D.Shetlar M.Johnson #12;Billbugs - Development Hunting BB, uneven BB, Small BB Probably similarD. RichmondD. Richmond #12;#12;Injury · Young larvae feed inside grass stems, then burrow down to feed

  4. Biological control: Insect pathogens, parasitoids, and predators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter provides an overview of biological control of insect pests of stored grain and stored products. The advantages and disadvantages of biological control for stored-product insect control are discussed. There are several species of protozoa, viruses, and bacteria that could be used to...

  5. Managing Insects and Related Pests of Roses

    E-print Network

    Drees, Bastiaan M.; Pemberton, Brent; Cole, Charles L.

    1999-07-12

    .?predator of larval and adult thrips, mites, aphids and whitefly pupae. n MITES: Metaseiulus occidentalis, Phytoseiulus persimilis, Mesoseiulus longipes (=Phytoseiulus longipes) and Neoseiulus californicus (Amblyseius californicus)?predatory mites of spider mites... in the soil. n WASPS: Aphelinus abdominalis, Aphidius colemani and Aphidius matricariae?parasitic wasps of aphids (such as green peach aphids); Encarsia formosa and Eretmocerus sp. nr. californicus?parasitic wasps of whiteflies; and Trichogramma spp...

  6. Original article Impact of insects damaging seed cones of cypress,

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Impact of insects damaging seed cones of cypress, Cupressus sempervirens of mainland Greece, Albania and Malta were sampled for comparison. The cone entomofauna (seven insect and one according to the stand. (© Inra/Elsevier, Paris.) Cupressus sempervirens / insect pests/ cone/ seed

  7. THERMAL DESIGN OF SHIPPING CONTAINERS FOR BENEFICIAL INSECTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Casada; M. S. Ram; P. W. Flinn

    The use of chemical pesticides to control stored product insects can be reduced with Integrated Pest Management (IPM) practices such as the use of natural enemies, like parasitoids, to control harmful insects. In this study, improved specifications were developed for shipping containers to deliver healthy beneficial insects to IPM practitioners. Heat transfer through the container walls was evaluated to determine

  8. Horticultural & Forest crops 2014 Floral Crops: Insects 5-19

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Horticultural & Forest crops 2014 Floral Crops: Insects 5-19 Insects Peter B. Schultz, Extension of insects and related pests occur on greenhouse and floral crops, but they attack a wide range of plants, can be highly destructive, and are difficult to control. Many insecticide and miticide formulations

  9. Multiorganismal insects: diversity and function of resident microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Angela E

    2015-01-01

    All insects are colonized by microorganisms on the insect exoskeleton, in the gut and hemocoel, and within insect cells. The insect microbiota is generally different from microorganisms in the external environment, including ingested food. Specifically, certain microbial taxa are favored by the conditions and resources in the insect habitat, by their tolerance of insect immunity, and by specific mechanisms for their transmission. The resident microorganisms can promote insect fitness by contributing to nutrition, especially by providing essential amino acids, B vitamins, and, for fungal partners, sterols. Some microorganisms protect their insect hosts against pathogens, parasitoids, and other parasites by synthesizing specific toxins or modifying the insect immune system. Priorities for future research include elucidation of microbial contributions to detoxification, especially of plant allelochemicals in phytophagous insects, and resistance to pathogens; as well as their role in among-insect communication; and the potential value of manipulation of the microbiota to control insect pests. PMID:25341109

  10. Acres of Insects

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The University of Arizona Center for Insect Science Education Outreach has developed this new resource for high school teachers. Using insects as model organisms, the Web site examines a range of complexities involved with the world's food supply. There are currently two lesson sequences: Great Gravidity, a population ecology lesson, and The Enforcers, a lesson on predator-prey relationships that focuses on biological control of insect pests. Both lessons include introductory activities that prepare students for a long-term (3-4 week) research project, as well as including data analyses and optional activities. These substantial lesson plans have an interactive and interdisciplinary focus, making them appealing to a wide range of high school students.

  11. Y-Linked markers for improved population control of the tephritid fruit fly pest, Anastrepha suspensa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect pest control programs incorporating the sterile insect technique (SIT) rely on the mass production and release of sterilized insects to reduce the wild-type population through infertile matings. Most effective programs release only males to avoid any crop damage caused by female fruit flies o...

  12. Sorghum insect problems and management.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chunshan; Cui, Wei; Feng, Xue; Zhao, Jianzhou; Lu, Guihua

    2011-03-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) has high levels of starch, sugar, and fiber and is one of the most important energy crops in the world. Insect damage is one of the challenges that impacts sorghum biomass production. There are at least 150 insect species that can infest sorghum varieties worldwide. These insects can complete several generations within a growing season, they target various parts of sorghum plants at developmental stages, and they cause significant biomass losses. Genetic research has revealed the existence of resistant genetics in sorghum and insect tolerant sorghum varieties have been identified. Various control methods have been developed, yet more effective management is needed for increasing sorghum biomass production. Although there are no transgenic sorghum products on the market yet, biotechnology has been recognized as an important tool for controlling insect pests and increasing sorghum production. PMID:21205185

  13. Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program August 2013 PEST NOTES Publication 74164

    E-print Network

    Ishida, Yuko

    , dry regions, eye gnats may be present year- round. Ideal temperatures for eye gnat activity Pest Management for Home Gardeners and Landscape Professionals EyE Gnats Eye gnats, including heavy rains result in large increases in the insect's population. Eye gnats have become more of a prob

  14. A novel mechanism of insect resistance engineered into tobacco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilder, Vaughan A.; Gatehouse, Angharad M. R.; Sheerman, Suzanne E.; Barker, Richard F.; Boulter, Donald

    1987-11-01

    A major goal of plant genetic engineering is the introduction of agronomically desirable phenotypic traits into crop plants in situations where conventional breeding methods have been unsuccessful. One such target is enhanced resistance to insect pests which, in view of the estimated production losses world-wide and the heavy costs of protective treatments, is very important. We report here that a gene encoding a cowpea trypsin inhibitor, which has been shown to give some measure of field resistance to insect pests1, confers, when transferred to tobacco, enhanced resistance to this species' own herbivorous insect pests.

  15. Improving mycoinsecticides for insect biological control.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Urquiza, Almudena; Luo, Zhibing; Keyhani, Nemat O

    2015-02-01

    The desire for decreased reliance on chemical pesticides continues to fuel interest in alternative means for pest control including the use of naturally occurring microbial insect pathogens. Insects, as vectors of disease causing agents or as agricultural pests, are responsible for millions of deaths and significant economic losses worldwide, placing stresses on productivity (GDP) and human health and welfare. In addition, alterations in climate change are likely to affect insect ranges, expanding their access to previously constrained geographic areas, a potentially worrisome outcome. Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana, two cosmopolitan fungal pathogens of insects found in almost all ecosystems, are the most commonly applied mycoinsecticides for a variety of insect control purposes. The availability of the complete genomes for both organisms coupled to robust technologies for their transformation has led to several advances in engineering these fungi for greater efficacy and/or utility in pest control applications. Here, we will provide an overview of the fungal-insect and fungal-plant interactions that occur and highlight recent advances in the genetic engineering of these fungi. The latter work has resulted in the development of strains displaying (1) increased resistance to abiotic stress, (2) increased cuticular targeting and degradation, (3) increased virulence via expression of insecticidal protein/peptide toxins, (4) the ability to block transmission of disease causing agents, and (5) the ability to target specific insect hosts, decrease host fecundity, and/or alter insect behaviors. PMID:25503318

  16. HOME GROUNDS & ANIMALS 2014 Regulations and Basic Information: How to Use this Pest Management Guide 1-1

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    HOME GROUNDS & ANIMALS 2014 Regulations and Basic Information: How to Use this Pest Management Guide 1-1 How to Use this Pest Management Guide for Home Grounds and Animals Michael J. Weaver incorporating beneficial insects, animals, and other organisms into a pest management plan to fight off harmful

  17. EFFECTS OF IRRADIATION ON THE REPRODUCTIVE ABILITY OF ZONITOIDES ARBOREUS (SAY), A SNAIL PEST OF ORCHID ROOTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to increased international trade, there has been an increase in the risk of invasion by alien pest species, including pest species of slugs and snails. Irradiation has proven useful as an quarantine treatment for control of insect pests infesting horticultural commodities, and this technology c...

  18. Automated pattern analysis: A newsilent partner in insect acoustic detection studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This seminar reviews methods that have been developed for automated analysis of field-collected sounds used to estimate pest populations and guide insect pest management decisions. Several examples are presented of successful usage of acoustic technology to map insect distributions in field environ...

  19. Biology and Thermal Death Kinetics of Selected Insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat treatments have been suggested as alternatives to fumigation for a variety of postharvest applications. This paper describes the general biology of several economically important insect pests in the international trade of agricultural commodities and presents fundamental thermal death kinetics ...

  20. INTREGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The integrated pest management triangle describes the need for developing a biologically based pest management strategy. Leafy spurge control tools become more expensive and less sustainable as you move from a sound biologically-based management plan....

  1. Short-range movement of major agricultural pests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vansteenwyk, R.

    1979-01-01

    Visual observations of population fluctuations which cannot be accounted for by either mortality or natality are presented. Lygus bugs in the westside of the San Joaquin Valley of California are used as an example. The dispersal of most agricultural pests in one of the less known facets of their biology is discussed. Results indicate a better understanding of insect movement is needed to develop a sound pest management program.

  2. INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Research Summary describes an alternative approach towards pest management--an approach that takes into account both the necessity and the danger of pesticides. Integrated pest management involves the carefully managed use of multiple pest control tactics. It is a highly eff...

  3. Airborne multi-spectral remote sensing with ground truth for areawide pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists and researchers have been developing, integrating, and evaluating multiple strategies and technologies into a systems approach for management of field crop insect pests. Remote sensing along with Global Positioning Systems, Geographic Information Systems, and variable rate technology are...

  4. Use of Airborne Multi-Spectral Imagery in Pest Management Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists and researchers have been developing, integrating, and evaluating multiple strategies and technologies into a systems approach for management of field crop insect pests. Remote sensing along with Global Positioning Systems, Geographic Information Systems, and variable rate technology are...

  5. SUSCEPTIBILITY OF PEST NEZARA VIRIDULA (HETEROPTERA: PENTATOMIDAE) AND PARASITOID TRICHOPODA PENNIPES (DIPTERA: TACHINIDAE) TO SELECTED INSECTICIDES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Susceptibility of a pest stink bug, the brown stink bug (BSB), Euschistus servus (Say) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), and the predatory stink bug, the spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris (Say) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), to cyfluthrin, dicrotophos, indoxacarb, oxamyl, and tralomethrin, insectic...

  6. Marking and retention of harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica (Hahn) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), on pheromone baited and unbaited plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Harlequin bug (HB) is an important pest of cole crops in the USA. The sap-sucking adults and nymphs feed on aboveground plant tissues, and can seriously damage the host. Current control measures on cole crops target mainly lepidopteran pests, and the products generally used do not control harlequin ...

  7. Bioefficacy of indigenous plant products against pests and diseases of Indian forest trees: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. T. Gahukar

    2010-01-01

    This review discusses the bioefficacy of natural products (derived from neem and other tropical trees) which have been used\\u000a against insect pests and diseases attacking forest trees in India. These products are effective, cheaper and eco-friendly\\u000a and act as antifeedant, repellent, sterility inducing, toxic or regulate insect growth. Integration of these products in forest\\u000a pest management strategies would enhance the

  8. Intervention of Phytohormone Pathways by Pathogen Effectors.

    PubMed

    Kazan, Kemal; Lyons, Rebecca

    2014-06-10

    The constant struggle between plants and microbes has driven the evolution of multiple defense strategies in the host as well as offense strategies in the pathogen. To defend themselves from pathogen attack, plants often rely on elaborate signaling networks regulated by phytohormones. In turn, pathogens have adopted innovative strategies to manipulate phytohormone-regulated defenses. Tactics frequently employed by plant pathogens involve hijacking, evading, or disrupting hormone signaling pathways and/or crosstalk. As reviewed here, this is achieved mechanistically via pathogen-derived molecules known as effectors, which target phytohormone receptors, transcriptional activators and repressors, and other components of phytohormone signaling in the host plant. Herbivores and sap-sucking insects employ obligate pathogens such as viruses, phytoplasma, or symbiotic bacteria to intervene with phytohormone-regulated defenses. Overall, an improved understanding of phytohormone intervention strategies employed by pests and pathogens during their interactions with plants will ultimately lead to the development of new crop protection strategies. PMID:24920334

  9. Biology and Ecology of the Western Flower Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae): The Making of a Pest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past 30 years, the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) has become one of the most important agricultural pests worldwide. Certain biological attributes of this insect predispose it to be a direct pest across a wide range of crops. In additio...

  10. Ants are among the most prevalent pests in households. Ants also invade restau-

    E-print Network

    Ishida, Yuko

    Ants are among the most prevalent pests in households. Ants also invade restau- rants, hospitals indoor plants, ants protect and care for honeydew-producing insects such as aphids, soft scales, whiteflies, and mealy- bugs, increasing damage from these pests. Ants also perform many useful functions

  11. POTENTIAL OF MASS TRAPPING FOR LONG-TERM PEST MANAGEMENT AND ERADICATION OF INVASIVE SPECIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Semiochemical-based pest management programs comprise three major approaches including mass trapping, “lure and kill”, and mating disruption that are being used to provide environmentally friendly control methods of insect pests. We discuss similarities and differences between the three approaches o...

  12. Chilled versus ambient aeration and fumigation of stored popcorn part 2: Pest management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. J. Mason; R. A. Rulon; D. E. Maier

    1997-01-01

    During the summer of 1994, a prototype grain chiller was tested to determine its efficacy as a pest management tool and its economic competitiveness with conventional pest management techniques. Four popcorn bins (121.5 tonnes) at a commercial facility were utilized. Two bins were managed using traditional ambient aeration and fumigation. The remaining two bins were managed with chilled aeration. Insect

  13. An integrated pest management program for burrowing shrimp control in oyster aquaculture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brett R. Dumbauld; Steven Booth; Daniel Cheney; Andrew Suhrbier; Hector Beltran

    2006-01-01

    Integrated pest management is widely applied in terrestrial agriculture, but less so in aquaculture. Parallels to insect control in agricultural fields were exploited in this application of integrated pest management principles to control burrowing shrimp Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis in Pacific Northwest U.S.A. oyster aquaculture. The pesticide carbaryl has been applied to oyster aquaculture tracts to control burrowing shrimp

  14. Biology and ecology of the Western Flower Thrips. The making of a pest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past 30 years, the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) has become one of the most important agricultural pests worldwide. Certain biological attributes of this insect predispose it to be a direct pest across a wide range of crops. In additio...

  15. Development of an embryonic lethality system for transgenic sit in the fruit pest, ceratitis capitata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ceratitis capitata, known as one of the world's most destructive insect pest, costs farmers billions of dollars annually. Improved biological strategies are needed to increase the efficacy of area-wide pest management. Transgenic methodology should enhance and widen the applicability of the sterile ...

  16. USDA RAMP PROJECT -New York 2004 REDUCED-RISK PEST MANAGEMENT IN APPLES USING PHEROMONE DISRUPTION

    E-print Network

    Agnello, Arthur M.

    USDA RAMP PROJECT - New York 2004 REDUCED-RISK PEST MANAGEMENT IN APPLES USING PHEROMONE DISRUPTION of a seasonal program to control insect and mite pests of apples using selective (non-OP, carbamate sites set up in 2002 in all major apple growing areas of New York: Western NY (Russell, Appleton; Lamont

  17. Evaluation of Pest Management Tactics for Organic Apple Production A. Agnello, H. Reissig, and D. Combs

    E-print Network

    Agnello, Arthur M.

    Evaluation of Pest Management Tactics for Organic Apple Production A. Agnello, H. Reissig, and D number of both native and introduced insect and mite species attack apples grown in commercial apple orchards. Control of this pest complex is particularly challenging, because unlike the more arid apple

  18. USDA RAMP PROJECT -New York 2005 REDUCED-RISK PEST MANAGEMENT IN APPLES USING PHEROMONE DISRUPTION

    E-print Network

    Agnello, Arthur M.

    USDA RAMP PROJECT - New York 2005 REDUCED-RISK PEST MANAGEMENT IN APPLES USING PHEROMONE DISRUPTION of a seasonal program to control insect and mite pests of apples using selective (non-OP, carbamate sites set up in 2002 in all major apple growing areas of New York: Western NY (Russell, Appleton; Lamont

  19. USDA RAMP PROJECT -New York 2003 REDUCED-RISK PEST MANAGEMENT IN APPLES USING PHEROMONE DISRUPTION

    E-print Network

    Agnello, Arthur M.

    USDA RAMP PROJECT - New York 2003 REDUCED-RISK PEST MANAGEMENT IN APPLES USING PHEROMONE DISRUPTION of a seasonal program to control insect and mite pests of apples using selective (non-OP, carbamate sites set up in 2002 in all major apple growing areas of New York: Western NY (Russell, Appleton; Lamont

  20. Towards the elements of successful insect RNAi.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jeffrey G; Michel, Kristin; Bartholomay, Lyric C; Siegfried, Blair D; Hunter, Wayne B; Smagghe, Guy; Zhu, Kun Yan; Douglas, Angela E

    2013-12-01

    RNA interference (RNAi), the sequence-specific suppression of gene expression, offers great opportunities for insect science, especially to analyze gene function, manage pest populations, and reduce disease pathogens. The accumulating body of literature on insect RNAi has revealed that the efficiency of RNAi varies between different species, the mode of RNAi delivery, and the genes being targeted. There is also variation in the duration of transcript suppression. At present, we have a limited capacity to predict the ideal experimental strategy for RNAi of a particular gene/insect because of our incomplete understanding of whether and how the RNAi signal is amplified and spread among insect cells. Consequently, development of the optimal RNAi protocols is a highly empirical process. This limitation can be relieved by systematic analysis of the molecular physiological basis of RNAi mechanisms in insects. An enhanced conceptual understanding of RNAi function in insects will facilitate the application of RNAi for dissection of gene function, and to fast-track the application of RNAi to both control pests and develop effective methods to protect beneficial insects and non-insect arthropods, particularly the honey bee (Apis mellifera) and cultured Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) from viral and parasitic diseases. PMID:24041495

  1. Towards the elements of successful insect RNAi

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Jeffrey G.; Michel, Kristin; Bartholomay, Lyric; Siegfried, Blair D.; Hunter, Wayne B.; Smagghe, Guy; Zhu, Kun Yan; Douglas, Angela E.

    2013-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi), the sequence-specific suppression of gene expression, offers great opportunities for insect science, especially to analyze gene function, manage pest populations, and reduce disease pathogens. The accumulating body of literature on insect RNAi has revealed that the efficiency of RNAi varies between different species, the mode of RNAi delivery, and the genes being targeted. There is also variation in the duration of transcript suppression. At present, we have a limited capacity to predict the ideal experimental strategy for RNAi of a particular gene/insect because of our incomplete understanding of whether and how the RNAi signal is amplified and spread among insect cells. Consequently, development of the optimal RNAi protocols is a highly empirical process. This limitation can be relieved by systematic analysis of the molecular physiological basis of RNAi mechanisms in insects. An enhanced conceptual understanding of RNAi function in insects will facilitate the application of RNAi for dissection of gene function, and to fast-track the application of RNAi to both control pests and develop effective methods to protect beneficial insects and non-insect arthropods, particularly the honey bee (Apis mellifera) and cultured Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) from viral and parasitic diseases. PMID:24041495

  2. Insect Chitinases: Molecular Biology and Potential Use as Biopesticides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl J Kramer; Subbaratnam Muthukrishnan

    1998-01-01

    Chitin, an insoluble structural polysaccharide that occurs in the exoskeletal and gut linings of insects, is a metabolic target of selective pest control agents. One potential biopesticide is the insect molting enzyme, chitinase, which degrades chitin to low molecular weight, soluble and insoluble oligosaccharides. For several years, our laboratories have been characterizing this enzyme and its gene. Most recently, we

  3. HOW IMPORTANT IS STORED-PRODUCT INSECT INVASION FROM OUTSIDE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has long been know that stored-product insects can enter buildings from outside and that sealing off routes of entry is an important part of a pest management program. However, the relative importance of active insect immigration into buildings as a source of infestation compared to importation ...

  4. Ecology and IPM of Insects at Grain Elevators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cost-effectiveness of insect pest management depends upon its integration with other elevator operations. Successful integration may require consideration of insect ecology. Field infestation has not been observed for grain received at elevators. Grain may be infested during harvest by residual inse...

  5. New research with insect growth regulators and fogging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect growth regulators (IGRs) are seen as reduced-risk insecticides to replace conventional neurotoxins for insect pest management in stored products. The use of IGRs will be discussed, with reference to different application methods and available commercial products. Similarly, aerosol insecticid...

  6. MICROBIAL COMBINATORICS: A NOVEL APPROACH FOR ISOLATING INSECT PATHOGENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacteria, such as Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner, can successfully control pest insects that damage food crops, vector diseases, and defoliate trees. Isolation of these bacteria has been conventionally from soil and sporadically from dead insects. These observations were combined to isolate insec...

  7. Grain sorghum hybrid resistance to insect and bird damage - 2013

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven grain sorghum hybrids were evaluated for resistance to insect and bird damage in 2012. Although their damage was relatively low in general in 2012, five insect pests were observed on sorghum in south Georgia. They could be listed in order of importance as follows: sorghum midge, leaf-footed ...

  8. Radio frequency treatments for insect disinfestation of dried legumes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dried pulses (chickpeas, green peas or lentils) are valuable export commodities in the US Pacific Northwest. A major problem in the marketing of these products is infestation by insect pests. Typically, chemical fumigants are used to disinfest product, but regulatory issues, insect resistance, envi...

  9. Mendel’s legacy lives through management of sugarcane pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Entomology and classical Mendelian genetics have had a long association and Mendel’s legacy continues to live through sugarcane pests. In this paper, we discuss examples of that legacy as applied to conventional and molecular approaches to breeding for insect resistance. We also discuss the applicat...

  10. The genome of the model beetle and pest Tribolium castaneum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Richards; Richard A. Gibbs; George M. Weinstock; Susan J. Brown; Robin Denell; Richard W. Beeman; G. Bucher; M. Friedrich; C. J. P. Grimmelikhuijzen; M. Klingler; M. D. Lorenzen; S. Roth; R. Schroder; D. Tautz; E. M. Zdobnov; D. Muzny; T. Attaway; S. Bell; C. J. Buhay; M. N. Chandrabose; D. Chavez; K. P. Clerk-Blankenburg; A. Cree; M. Dao; C. Davis; J. Chacko; H. Dinh; S. Dugan-Rocha; G. Fowler; T. T. Garner; J. Garnes; A. Gnirke; A. Hawes; J. Hernandez; S. Hines; M. Holder; J. Hume; S. N. Jhangiani; V. Joshi; Z. M. Khan; L. Jackson; C. Kovar; A. Kowis; S. Lee; L. R. Lewis; J. Margolis; M. Morgan; L. V. Nazareth; N. Nguyen; G. Okwuonu; D. Parker; S. J. Ruiz; J. Santibanez; J. Savard; S. E. Scherer; B. Schneider; E. Sodergren; S. Vattahil; D. Villasana; C. S. White; R. Wright; J. Lord; B. Oppert; S. Brown; L. J. Wang; Y. Liu; K. Worley; C. G. Elsik; J. T. Reese; E. Elhaik; G. Landan; D. Graur; P. Arensburger; P. Atkinson; J. Beidler; J. P. Demuth; D. W. Drury; Y. Z. Du; H. Fujiwara; V. Maselli; M. Osanai; H. M. Robertson; Z. Tu; J. J. Wang; S. Z. Wang; H. Song; L. Zhang; D. Werner; M. Stanke; B. Morgenstern; V. Solovyev; P. Kosarev; G. Brown; H. C. Chen; O. Ermolaeva; W. Hlavina; Y. Kapustin; B. Kiryutin

    2008-01-01

    Tribolium castaneum is a member of the most species-rich eukaryotic order, a powerful model organism for the study of generalized insect development, and an important pest of stored agricultural products. We describe its genome sequence here. This omnivorous beetle has evolved the ability to interact with a diverse chemical environment, as shown by large expansions in odorant and gustatory receptors,

  11. PERIMETER TREATMENT FOR STORED-PRODUCT PEST IMMIGRATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A discussion of ongoing research to determine strategies to limit immigration of various stored product pests will be presented. Prevention of infestation is an important component of IPM. In this presentation, current research into preventing or reducing the impact of insect immigration will be p...

  12. OPTIMAL CONTROL OF PEST RESISTANCE TO TRANSGENIC CROP VARIETIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristine Malmkvist Grimsrud; Ray G. Huffaker

    2001-01-01

    Transgenic corn varieties entered the market in 1996. These plant varieties carry a gene from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki, Bt, that makes the plant produce a toxin deadly to the pest insect European Corn Borer (ECB) Ostrinia nubilalis (H?bner). Since ECB may build up genetic resistance to this toxin, the growers of transgenic corn varieties are required to

  13. INSECTICIDE CONCENTRATIONS IN AIR AFTER APPLICATION OF PEST CONTROL STRIPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contamination of air in homes due to spraying of pesticides is of concern to the public. A pest control strip which kills creeping and crawling insects by contact is one method of reducing the amount of insecticide in the air. Several different insecticides are now available in t...

  14. Applicator Training Manual for: Agricultural Animal Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Christian M.

    This manual discusses pesticide safety and environmental considerations, pesticide toxicity, residue potential, pesticide formulations, and application techniques. In addition, descriptions of, and methods for controlling insects and related pests that attack cattle, sheep and goats, swine, horses and other equines, and poultry are given. These…

  15. Diamondback moth–host plant interactions: Implications for pest management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sarfraz; L. M. Dosdall; B. A. Keddie

    2006-01-01

    The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.), is a destructive insect pest of cruciferous crops with a cosmopolitan distribution. Its genetic elasticity has enabled it to develop resistance to almost every insecticide applied in the field. Its natural host range is limited to cultivated and wild Brassicaceae that are characterized by having glucosinolates, sulfur-containing secondary plant compounds. Adults utilize an

  16. Comparison of gene representation in midguts from two phytophagous insects, Bombyx mori and Ips pini, using expressed sequence tags

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea L. Eigenheer; Christopher I. Keeling; Sharon Young; Claus Tittiger

    2003-01-01

    Midgut proteins may provide new molecular targets for insect control. This could be particularly important for some pests, such as pine bark beetles, which are difficult to control by conventional methods. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) provide information about the activity of a particular tissue, and, in the case of pest insects, may quickly identify potential targets. We present here an

  17. Abstract Social insects are among the most successful and damaging of invasive taxa. We

    E-print Network

    Yi, Soojin

    with social insect success in the intro- duced fire ant Solenopsis invicta. Our aim was to determine in invasive social insects. Keywords Insect pest Æ Formicidae Æ Genetic structure Æ Invasive ant Æ. A variety of introduced termites, ants, bees, and wasps cause considerable ecological and economic damage

  18. SEASONAL AND SPATIAL CHANGES IN INSECT DENSITY IN COMMERCIAL ELEVATOR BINS: IMPLICATIONS FOR PHOSPHINE FUMIGATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Results of a 5-year, area-wide IPM program for managing insect pests in commercial grain elevators in Kansas and Oklahoma showed that insects generally invaded stored grain from the top of the grain mass. In stored wheat, the rusty grain beetle was the most common insect species from June-September,...

  19. Acoustic Detection of Insects in Palm Trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial-crop and ornamental palm trees serve important functions in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, and considerable precautions are taken each year to identify and control infestations of a variety of different insect pests. Large weevils, including the red palm weevil and the co...

  20. Potential of ozone as a fumigant to control pests in honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) hives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ozone is a powerful oxidant that can be used as a sanitizer, capable of killing insects and germs, and eliminating odors, taste, and color. For these reasons, it could be useful as a fumigant to sanitize honey comb between uses. The ozone exposure levels required to kill an insect pest and spore for...

  1. Nonrandom extinction patterns can modulate pest control service decline.

    PubMed

    Karp, Daniel S; Moeller, Holly V; Frishkoff, Luke O

    2013-06-01

    Changes in biodiversity will mediate the consequences of agricultural intensification and expansion for ecosystem services. Regulating services, like pollination and pest control, generally decline with species loss. In nature, however, relationships between service provision and species richness are not always strong, partially because anthropogenic disturbances purge species from communities in nonrandom orders. The same traits that make for effective service providers may also confer resistance or sensitivity to anthropogenic disturbances, which may either temper or accelerate declines in service provision with species loss. We modeled a community of predators interacting with insect pest prey, and identified the contexts in which pest control provision was most sensitive to species loss. We found pest populations increased rapidly when functionally unique and dietary-generalist predators were lost first, with up to 20% lower pest control provision than random loss. In general, pest abundance increased most in the scenarios that freed more pest species from predation. Species loss also decreased the likelihood that the most effective service providers were present. In communities composed of species with identical traits, predators were equally effective service providers and, when competing predators went extinct, remaining community members assumed their functional roles. In more realistic trait-diverse communities, predators differed in pest control efficacy, and remaining predators could not fully compensate for the loss of their competitors, causing steeper declines in pest control provision with predator species loss. These results highlight diet breadth in particular as a key predictor of service provision, as it affects both the way species respond to and alter their environments. More generally, our model provides testable hypotheses for predicting how nonrandom species loss alters relationships between biodiversity and pest control provision. PMID:23865234

  2. New records of entomopathogenic fungi infecting Bemisia tabaci and Trialeurodes vaporariorum, pests of horticultural crops, in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) are major crop pests throughout the world. Although extensive research about biological control of whitefly has been conducted towards these insect's parasitoids and predators, several entom...

  3. Engineered Repressible Lethality for Controlling the Pink Bollworm, a Lepidopteran Pest of Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Neil I.; Simmons, Gregory S.; Fu, Guoliang; O’Connell, Sinead; Walker, Adam S.; Dafa’alla, Tarig; Walters, Michelle; Claus, John; Tang, Guolei; Jin, Li; Marubbi, Thea; Epton, Matthew J.; Harris, Claire L.; Staten, Robert T.; Miller, Ernest; Miller, Thomas A.; Alphey, Luke

    2012-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an environmentally friendly method of pest control in which insects are mass-produced, irradiated and released to mate with wild counterparts. SIT has been used to control major pest insects including the pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella Saunders), a global pest of cotton. Transgenic technology has the potential to overcome disadvantages associated with the SIT, such as the damaging effects of radiation on released insects. A method called RIDL (Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal) is designed to circumvent the need to irradiate insects before release. Premature death of insects’ progeny can be engineered to provide an equivalent to sterilisation. Moreover, this trait can be suppressed by the provision of a dietary antidote. In the pink bollworm, we generated transformed strains using different DNA constructs, which showed moderate-to-100% engineered mortality. In permissive conditions, this effect was largely suppressed. Survival data on cotton in field cages indicated that field conditions increase the lethal effect. One strain, called OX3402C, showed highly penetrant and highly repressible lethality, and was tested on host plants where its larvae caused minimal damage before death. These results highlight a potentially valuable insecticide-free tool against pink bollworm, and indicate its potential for development in other lepidopteran pests. PMID:23226548

  4. Poultry Pest Management 

    E-print Network

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K.; Drees, Bastiaan M.

    2007-05-18

    . Poultry operations can be infested by fl ies, mites, lice, bed bugs, fl eas, beetles, red imported fi re ants, chiggers and gnats. But by implementing in- tegrated pest control measures, producers can minimize the damage from these pests. For specifi c... for suppressing other lice will also work for wing lice. Chicken head lice, Cuclutogaster heterogra- phus, are primarily a pest on young birds. They occur on the base of the feathers on the ani- mal?s head and are transmitted through contact. Bed bugs...

  5. Monthly forecasting of agricultural pests in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschi, M.; Dubrovsky, M.; Spirig, C.; Samietz, J.; Calanca, P.; Weigel, A. P.; Fischer, A. M.; Rotach, M. W.

    2012-04-01

    Given the repercussions of pests and diseases on agricultural production, detailed forecasting tools have been developed to simulate the degree of infestation depending on actual weather conditions. The life cycle of pests is most successfully predicted if the micro-climate of the immediate environment (habitat) of the causative organisms can be simulated. Sub-seasonal pest forecasts therefore require weather information for the relevant habitats and the appropriate time scale. The pest forecasting system SOPRA (www.sopra.info) currently in operation in Switzerland relies on such detailed weather information, using hourly weather observations up to the day the forecast is issued, but only a climatology for the forecasting period. Here, we aim at improving the skill of SOPRA forecasts by transforming the weekly information provided by ECMWF monthly forecasts (MOFCs) into hourly weather series as required for the prediction of upcoming life phases of the codling moth, the major insect pest in apple orchards worldwide. Due to the probabilistic nature of operational monthly forecasts and the limited spatial and temporal resolution, their information needs to be post-processed for use in a pest model. In this study, we developed a statistical downscaling approach for MOFCs that includes the following steps: (i) application of a stochastic weather generator to generate a large pool of daily weather series consistent with the climate at a specific location, (ii) a subsequent re-sampling of weather series from this pool to optimally represent the evolution of the weekly MOFC anomalies, and (iii) a final extension to hourly weather series suitable for the pest forecasting model. Results show a clear improvement in the forecast skill of occurrences of upcoming codling moth life phases when incorporating MOFCs as compared to the operational pest forecasting system. This is true both in terms of root mean squared errors and of the continuous rank probability scores of the probabilistic forecasts vs. the mean absolute errors of the deterministic system. Also, the application of the climate conserving recalibration (CCR, Weigel et al. 2009) technique allows for successful correction of the under-confidence in the forecasted occurrences of codling moth life phases. Reference: Weigel, A. P.; Liniger, M. A. & Appenzeller, C. (2009). Seasonal Ensemble Forecasts: Are Recalibrated Single Models Better than Multimodels? Mon. Wea. Rev., 137, 1460-1479.

  6. Pest Management Specialist (AFSC 56650).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Univ., Gunter AFS, Ala. Extension Course Inst.

    This eight-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for pest management specialists. Covered in the individual volumes are civil engineering; pest management (entomology, pest management planning and coordination, and safety and protective equipment); pest management chemicals and…

  7. DIARES-IPM: a diagnostic advisory rule-based expert system for integrated pest management in Solanaceous crop systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. D. Mahaman; H. C. Passam; A. B. Sideridis; C. P. Yialouris

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a DIagnostic Advisory Rule-based Expert System for Integrated Pest Management (DIARES-IPM) in Solanaceous crops. DIARES-IPM is an operational automatic identification tool that helps non-experts to identify pests (insects, diseases, nutritional deficiencies and beneficial insects) and suggest the appropriate treatments. The objective of this expert system was to serve as a diagnostic, extension and educational tool in vegetable

  8. The impact of secondary pests on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops.

    PubMed

    Catarino, Rui; Ceddia, Graziano; Areal, Francisco J; Park, Julian

    2015-06-01

    The intensification of agriculture and the development of synthetic insecticides enabled worldwide grain production to more than double in the last third of the 20th century. However, the heavy dependence and, in some cases, overuse of insecticides has been responsible for negative environmental and ecological impacts across the globe, such as a reduction in biodiversity, insect resistance to insecticides, negative effects on nontarget species (e.g. natural enemies) and the development of secondary pests. The use of recombinant DNA technology to develop genetically engineered insect-resistant crops could mitigate many of the negative side effects of insecticides. One such genetic alteration enables crops to express toxic crystalline (Cry) proteins from the soil bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Despite the widespread adoption of Bt crops, there are still a range of unanswered questions concerning longer term agro-ecosystem interactions. For instance, insect species that are not susceptible to the expressed toxin can develop into secondary pests and cause significant damage to the crop. Here, we review the main causes surrounding secondary pest dynamics in Bt crops and the impact of such outbreaks. Regardless of the causes, if nonsusceptible secondary pest populations exceed economic thresholds, insecticide spraying could become the immediate solution at farmers' disposal, and the sustainable use of this genetic modification technology may be in jeopardy. Based on the literature, recommendations for future research are outlined that will help to improve the knowledge of the possible long-term ecological trophic interactions of employing this technology. PMID:25832330

  9. Insect Locomotion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    A short and clever discussion comparing how insects walk to how people walk. Inverted pendulum motion, and dynamic stability as compared with static stability are discussed with excellent line drawings.

  10. Biocontrol potential of Steinernema thermophilum and its symbiont Xenorhabdus indica against lepidopteran pests: virulence to egg and larval stages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Under laboratory conditions, the biocontrol potential of Steinernema thermophilum was tested against eggs and larval stages of two important lepidopteran insect pests, Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura (polyphagous pests), as well as Galleria mellonella (used as a model host) . In terms of ...

  11. Forest Ecosystem Responses to Exotic Pests and Pathogens in Eastern North America

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    GARY M. LOVETT, CHARLES D. CANHAM, MARY A. ARTHUR, KATHLEEN C. WEATHERS, and ROSS D. FITZHUGH (; )

    2006-05-01

    This peer-reviewed article from BioScience investigates exotic pests and pathogens in eastern North America.The forests of eastern North America have been subjected to repeated introductions of exotic insect pests and pathogens over the last century, and several new pests are currently invading, or threatening to invade, the region. These pests and pathogens can have major short- and long-term impacts on forest ecosystem processes such as productivity, nutrient cycling, and support of consumer food webs. We identify six key features of the biology of exotic animal pests and the ecology of their hosts that are critical to predicting the general nature and severity of those impacts. Using three examples of introduced pests and pathogens in eastern forest ecosystems, we provide a conceptual framework for assessing potential ecosystem-scale effects.

  12. Insect Cell Culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oers van M. M; D. E. Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Insect cell cultures are widely used in studies on insect cell physiology, developmental biology and microbial pathology. In particular, insect cell culture is an indispensable tool for the study of insect viruses. The first continuously growing insect cell cultures were established from lepidopteran insects around 1960. Since then, more than 600 insect cell lines have been described from over 100

  13. WoodyBug: Knowledgebase of Pest and Beneficial Arthropods

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    Knowledgebase of pest and beneficial arthropods of woody ornamentals of the southeastern United States. Pests include aphids, borers, chewing insects, galls, lace bugs, leafminers, scales, spider mites, thrips and whiteflies. Other topics include host plant resistance, biologically compatible pesticides, scouting, monitoring and beneficial organisms. Requires a CD-ROM drive and a web browser. $12. This resource is extremely informative and easy to navigate once launched; however, a more intuitive "gateway" would be desireable. The taxa covered by the resource are skewed towards those found in Florida and other parts of the south, but much of the information will be useful in other parts of North America.

  14. Residual efficacy of pyriproxyfen and Hydroprene applied to wood, metal, and concrete for control of stored-product insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pyriproxyfen and hydroprene are insect growth regulators (IGRs) that have been evaluated to control insect pests of field crops, but there are limited reports of efficacy against stored-product insects. A laboratory study was conducted to determine residual efficacy of pyriproxyfen and hydroprene on...

  15. InsectControl INSECTS ONTOBACCO

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    for grasshoppers and other insects that move from these sites into tobacco fields. After the tobacco is established with grasshoppers. 6. Topinthebuttonorearlyflowerstagetoeliminate food sources for budworms and to make the crop

  16. Insect resistance to Bt crops: evidence versus theory.

    PubMed

    Tabashnik, Bruce E; Gassmann, Aaron J; Crowder, David W; Carriére, Yves

    2008-02-01

    Evolution of insect resistance threatens the continued success of transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins that kill pests. The approach used most widely to delay insect resistance to Bt crops is the refuge strategy, which requires refuges of host plants without Bt toxins near Bt crops to promote survival of susceptible pests. However, large-scale tests of the refuge strategy have been problematic. Analysis of more than a decade of global monitoring data reveals that the frequency of resistance alleles has increased substantially in some field populations of Helicoverpa zea, but not in five other major pests in Australia, China, Spain and the United States. The resistance of H. zea to Bt toxin Cry1Ac in transgenic cotton has not caused widespread crop failures, in part because other tactics augment control of this pest. The field outcomes documented with monitoring data are consistent with the theory underlying the refuge strategy, suggesting that refuges have helped to delay resistance. PMID:18259177

  17. Glucosinolate Content and Susceptibility for Insect Attack of Three Populations of Sinapis alba

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard J. Hopkins; Barbara Ekbom; Lisa Henkow

    1998-01-01

    Sinapis alba is less susceptible to damage by insect pests than Brassica napus. We investigated the composition and distribution of glucosinolates in different plant parts in three populations of S. alba; two populations selected for low-seed-glucosinolate content and one commercial cultivar. We have assessed the susceptibility of low-seed-glucosinolate content populations of S. alba to four insect pests, a flea beetle,

  18. Physiological Studies and Pest Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philogene, Bernard J. R.

    1972-01-01

    In the light of new knowledge about insecticides, future research should be conducted by plant and insect physiologists together. Plant physiologists should explain what characteristics in plants attract insects and insect physiologists should study adaptive patterns of insects and combine their knowledge to control insects. (PS)

  19. The Molecular Biology Toolbox and Its Use in Basic and Applied Insect Science

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Michel Cusson (Canadian Forest Service and Université Laval - Quebec; )

    2008-09-01

    This overview examines recent progress in the application of molecular tools to the study of insect biology and the development of pest management strategies. The sequencing and annotation of insect genomes, coupled with analyses using comparative genomics, are providing new insights into the molecular underpinnings of insect-specific processes and shedding light on their evolutionary relationships. Researchers investigate the functions of insect genes using indirect approaches such as expression profiling, and direct methods such as insertional mutagenesis and RNA interference. Biotechnological applications to pest management include the development of resistant crops and trees that express insect-specific toxins, the design of microbial agents with enhanced insecticidal potency, and the engineering of insects that can transfer lethal genes to natural populations following their mass release in the field. Comparative genomics analyses also make it possible to identify insect-specific genes that can be targeted for rational insecticide design, using tools such as cell-based, high-throughput screening assays.

  20. Bt sweet corn and selective insecticides: impacts on pests and predators.

    PubMed

    Musser, Fred R; Shelton, Anthony M

    2003-02-01

    Sweet corn, Zea mays L., is attacked by a variety of insect pests that can cause severe losses to the producer. Current control practices are largely limited to the application of broad-spectrum insecticides that can have a substantial and deleterious impact on the natural enemy complex. Predators have been shown to provide partial control of sweet corn pests when not killed by broad-spectrum insecticides. New products that specifically target the pest species, while being relatively benign to other insects, could provide more integrated control. In field trials we found that transgenic Bt sweet corn, and the foliar insecticides indoxacarb and spinosad are all less toxic to the most abundant predators in sweet corn (Coleomegilla maculate [DeGeer], Harmonia axyridis [Pallas], and Orius insidiosus [Sav]) than the pyrethroid lambda cyhalothrin. Indoxacarb, however, was moderately toxic to coccinellids and spinosad and indoxacarb were somewhat toxic to O. insidiosus nymphs at field rates. Bt sweet corn and spinosad were able to provide control of the lepidopteran pests better than or equal to lambda cyhalothrin. The choice of insecticide material made a significant impact on survival of the pests and predators, while the frequency of application mainly affected the pests and the rate applied had little effect on either pests or predators. These results demonstrate that some of the new products available in sweet corn allow a truly integrated biological and chemical pest control program in sweet corn, making future advances in conservation, augmentation and classical biological control more feasible. PMID:12650347

  1. Insect Illustrations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    This site provides a set of about 20 insect illustrations, originally drawn on canvas as a WPA project during the Depression and made available by the Department of Entomology at the University of Illinois. The illustrations are primarily overviews of some of the more common insect orders. The size of the original illustrations was ca. 1.0 x 1.5 m, and some of the scanned versions on this site are small and, therefore, lacking in details. Each illustration also has a link to the Tree of Life to provide taxonomic information. The site is of particular value from a historical perspective. Of even more historical value and interest is the associated link to the Department's wonderful lantern slide collection, showing entomologists in profile and in action, along with old pictures of insects and entomological situations in field and laboratory. Those interested in teaching the history of entomology would benefit from the link to the lantern slides.

  2. Cotton Insect Losses for 1993 Michael R. Williams; Extension Entomologist; Chairman

    E-print Network

    Ray, David

    Cotton Insect Losses for 1993 Michael R. Williams; Extension Entomologist; Chairman Cooperative the leading pests of cotton. Lygus and Thrips at 0.88% were tied for third most damaging pest. Beet armyworms cited for damage in some areas in 1993. Weevils currently infest about 52% of all U.S. cotton, while

  3. Using Spray Oils For Insect Control Jim Johnson, Emeritus Professor, Entomology, MSU

    E-print Network

    safe for tender leaves. Vegetable oils and mineral oils have not shown themselves to be effective pest1 Using Spray Oils For Insect Control Jim Johnson, Emeritus Professor, Entomology, MSU Edited again to consider applying spray oils to fruit trees. For pests that overwinter as eggs, it is one

  4. Influence of pymetrozine on feeding behaviors of three rice planthoppers and a rice leafhopper using electrical penetration graphs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pymetrozine reportedly inhibited feeding of plant sap-sucking insects, such as aphids and brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens. By using electrical penetration graph (EPG), this study was conducted to investigate any differential effects of pymetrozine on the feeding behaviors of four major r...

  5. Process protocols based on radio frequency energy to control field and storage pests in in-shell walnuts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Wang; J. Tang; J. A. Johnson; E. Mitcham; J. D. Hansen; R. P. Cavalieri; J. Bower; B. Biasi

    2002-01-01

    A practical process protocol was developed to control insect pests in in-shell walnuts using a 27 MHz pilot scale radio frequency (RF) system. Fifth-instars, that had been determined to be the most heat resistant life stage for navel orangeworm (Amyelois transitella [Walker]) using a heating block system, were selected as the targeted insect in the protocol development. RF heating to

  6. Compatibility of beneficial nematodes and parasitic wasps for control of Indianmeal moth, a pest of stored pecans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In terms of pecan insect management, the bulk of attention is justifiably devoted to protecting the crop during the growing season. However, insect damage can also occur once the pecans are harvested and in storage. Indianmeal moth is one of the primary pests that can attack stored pecans. Due to...

  7. Insect Mouthparts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Web site contains a pictorial guide to insect mouthparts, a complicated topic served well by this simple yet effective tutorial. Created by University of Ottawa entomology professor Dr. Houseman -- using material adapted from Digital Zoology (on CD from McGraw-Hill) -- this site provides labeled diagrams and high quality photos of chewing, siphoning, piercing, sponging, and combination mouthparts. Users may view images by category or click through the entire set in sequence. The photographs are intirguing enough to invite a look from anyone interested in insects, especially those not opposed to the occasional decapitated grasshopper head.

  8. Activity of eight strains of entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae, Heterorhabditidae) against five stored product pests.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho Barbosa Negrisoli, Carla Ruth; Negrisoli Júnior, Aldomario Santo; Bernardi, Daniel; Garcia, Mauro Silveira

    2013-07-01

    Stored product pests are responsible for losses that can amount 10% during cereal storage in the world. Aiming to find an alternative method to the chemicals used for the stored-product pests, eight strains of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) were tested against five species of stored product pests. The bioassays were conducted in microtubes containing paper, inoculated with EPNs and insect diet. All the insect species were susceptible to the EPNs strains. Anagasta kuehniella and Tenebrio molitor larvae and Acanthoscelides obtectus adults were highly sensitive to the higher doses with most species and/or strains of EPNs. Adults of Sitophilus oryzae and Sitophilus zeamais were relatively less sensitive to all EPNs. Therefore, EPNs show as potential control agents for stored products pests in prophylactic applications in warehouses. PMID:23567251

  9. [Effect of transgenic insect-resistant rice on biodiversity].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Zhen

    2011-05-01

    Rice is the most important food crops in maintaining food security in China. The loss of China's annual rice production caused by pests is over ten million tons. Present studies showed that the transgenic insect-resistant rice can substantially reduce the application amount of chemical pesticides. In the case of no pesticide use, the pest density in transgenic rice field is significantly lower than that in non-transgenic field, and the neutral insects and natural enemies of pests increased significantly, indicating that the ecological environment and biodiversity toward the positive direction. The gene flow frequency from transgenic rice is dramatically reduced with the distance increases, reaching less than 0.01% at the distance of 6.2 m. Application of transgenic insect-resistant rice in China has an important significance for ensuring food security, maintaining sustainable agricultural development, and protecting the ecological environment and biodiversity. This review summarized the research progress in transgenic insect-resistant rice and its effect on biodiversity. The research directions and development trends of crop pest controlling in future are discussed. These help to promote better use of transgenic insect-resistant rice. PMID:21586387

  10. Eastern Subterranean Termite and Wood-Destroying Insects

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    Tutorials on wood-destroying pest insects. Each tutorial has 50 questions; incorrect answers lead to additional information. Covers identification, life cycle, biology, damage and colony structure of the Eastern subterranean termite as well as covering powderpost beetles, old house borer, termites, carpenter ants and carpenter bees. Requires Windows, and the tutorials must first be installed on the computer's hard drive. Once installed and launched, the tutorials are intuitive to use. These tutorials will be most valuable to those studying structural pest management in pest management professional prepratory classes and perhaps in general economic entomology classes. $15. Part number SW 158.

  11. Cotton Insects

    E-print Network

    Gaines, J. C.

    1965-01-01

    -striped Armyworm ........... .... ................................ Fall Armyworm ............ .... ................................................ Grasshoppers ............................................................................ Other Minor Insects... and the young mites will de- velop. The almost transparent, spherical eggs hatch in about 4 days and the small six-legged form known as the larva feeds for about 2 or 3 clays, then sheds its skin ancl develops into an eight-legged nymph. The nymphal stage...

  12. Insect Swarms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. A. Jenner

    1879-01-01

    THIS year being remarkable for ``insect swarms,'' it is important that all possible information about them should be gained, so as to satisfactorily account for these phenomena. As to Vanessa cardui, which has been abundant throughout the spring and summer, it is possible that some of those specimens which occurred in the spring were the result of a migration from

  13. Insect Coloration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. D. Hale Carpenter

    1936-01-01

    PROF. ARMSTRONG'S criticisms are easily met. It is not going too far to ``assert that an insect deliberately hides''. The taking temporary shelter from sun is a different matter from assuming a position of complete rest in surroundings best suited to concealment for long periods. The case I mentioned was undoubtedly deliberate choice of a cluster of dead leaves, among

  14. Impact of Insecticides on Parasitoids of Oilseed Rape Pests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernd Ulber; Zdzis?aw Klukowski; Ingrid H. Williams

    \\u000a Insecticide application for control of insect pests on oilseed rape may impact parasitoid activity and the levels of parasitism.\\u000a Field and laboratory studies show that the insecticide product, the dose rate and the timing of application can affect parasitoid\\u000a abundance and levels of parasitism differentially. Insecticides applied during flowering have most potential to threaten parasitoid\\u000a populations. This knowledge will help

  15. Integrated Pest Management for sweetpotato in Eastern Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. E. J. M. Smit

    1997-01-01

    Sweetpotato is an important crop in Eastern Africa. Sweetpotato weevils ( Cylas puncticollis Boheman and C. brunneus Fabricius; Coleoptera: Apionidae) cause damage to roots and vines<\\/TT>throughout the crop's production area. Other insect pests of sweetpotato are of regional importance. The aim of the research project was to gain insight in the biology and ecology of sweetpotato weevils and, based on

  16. Development of Integrated Pest Management in Texas Citrus. 

    E-print Network

    Dean, H.A.; French, J. Victor; Meyerdirk, Dale

    1983-01-01

    throughout (Diathane? Z-78, zineb; Metacide, methyl parathion; and Nialate, ethion excepted) for the convenience of readers (4). Common names of insects and mites as approved by Entomological Society of America (68) will be used. 2Reference should.... Methyl parathion stimulatecl reproduction of brown soft scale (46). Road dust frOl frequently traveled roads can settle on adjacent citrus trees and act as a drying agent thus causing eradication of natural enemies. A discussion of secondary pests...

  17. Pest toxicology: the primary mechanisms of pesticide action.

    PubMed

    Casida, John E

    2009-04-01

    Pesticides are used to control pests before they harm us or our crops. They are selective toxicants in the form and manner used. Pesticides must be effective without human or crop injury. They must also be safe relative to human and environmental toxicology. The study of how the pesticide works on the pest is referred to here as pest toxicology. About 700 pesticides, including insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides, act on perhaps 95 biochemical targets in pest insects, weeds, and destructive fungi. Current insecticides act primarily on four nerve targets, i.e., acetylcholinesterase, the voltage-gated chloride channel, the acetylcholine receptor, and the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor, systems which are present in animals but not plants. Herbicides act mostly on plant specific pathways by blocking photosynthesis, carotenoid synthesis, or aromatic and branched chain amino acid synthesis essential in plants but not mammals. Many fungicides block ergosterol (the fungal sterol) or tubulin biosynthesis or cytochrome c reductase, while others disrupt basic cellular functions. A major limiting factor in the continuing use of almost all pesticides is the selection of strains not only resistant to the selecting or pressuring compounds but also cross-resistant to other pesticides acting at the same target. One approach to reinstating control is to shift from compounds with the resistant target site or mode of action to another set which have a sensitive target. This type of pesticide management led to the formation of Resistance Action Committees for insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides with very knowledgable experts to define resistance groups, which are in fact listings of primary target sites in pest toxicology. Continued success in pest and pesticide management requires an understanding of comparative biochemistry and molecular toxicology considering pests, people, and crops. Defining and applying the principles of pest toxicology are critical to food production and human health. PMID:19284791

  18. Texas Poultry Pest Control Practices

    E-print Network

    Hall, Kent D.; Holloway, Rodney L.; Carey, John B.; Hoelscher, Clifford E.

    1999-06-01

    percent. Other pests named include house flies (listed by 71 percent of respondents), rats (65 percent), varmints (28 percent), black flies (28 percent) and mosquitoes (24 percent). Pests listed by less than 15 percent of respondents include chicken mites... 83% House flies 71% Rats 65% Varmints 28% Black flies 28% Mosquitoes 24% Chicken mites 13% Northern foul mites 10% Chiggers 10% Soldier flies 10% Bed bugs 10% Depluming mites 9% Lice 9% Fowl ticks 8% Table 3. Difficulty of controlling pests. Pest...

  19. Urban Pest Management. Selected Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowles, Kathleen Letcher, Comp.; And Others

    These readings provide basic background information on urban integrated pest management and the development of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs for the control of rodents, cockroaches, and head lice. IPM is a decision-making process for deciding if pest supprssion treatments are needed, when they should be initiated, where they should be…

  20. Transmission and Retention of Salmonella enterica by Phytophagous Hemipteran Insects

    PubMed Central

    Soto-Arias, José Pablo; Groves, Russell L.

    2014-01-01

    Several pest insects of human and livestock habitations are known as vectors of Salmonella enterica; however, the role of plant-feeding insects as vectors of S. enterica to agricultural crops remains unexamined. Using a hemipteran insect pest-lettuce system, we investigated the potential for transmission and retention of S. enterica. Specifically, Macrosteles quadrilineatus and Myzus persicae insects were fed S. enterica-inoculated lettuce leaf discs or artificial liquid diets confined in Parafilm sachets to allow physical contact or exclusively oral ingestion of the pathogen, respectively. After a 24-h acquisition access period, insects were moved onto two consecutive noninoculated leaf discs or liquid diets and allowed a 24-h inoculation access period on each of the two discs or sachets. Similar proportions of individuals from both species ingested S. enterica after a 24-h acquisition access period from inoculated leaf discs, but a significantly higher proportion of M. quadrilineatus retained the pathogen internally after a 48-h inoculation access period. S. enterica was also recovered from the honeydew of both species. After a 48-h inoculation access period, bacteria were recovered from a significantly higher proportion of honeydew samples from M. quadrilineatus than from M. persicae insects. The recovery of S. enterica from leaf discs and liquid diets postfeeding demonstrated that both species of insects were capable of transmitting the bacteria in ways that are not limited to mechanical transmission. Overall, these results suggest that phytophagous insects may serve as potential vectors of S. enterica in association with plants. PMID:24973069

  1. A novel approach to biocontrol: release of live insect hosts pre-infected with entomopathogenic nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a new application approach, we tested the efficacy of releasing live insect hosts that were pre-infected with entomopathogenic nematodes against insect pests living in cryptic habitats. We hypothesized that the pre-infected hosts could carry the next generation of emerging nematode infective juv...

  2. STORED GRAIN ADVISOR PRO: DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR INSECT MANAGEMENT IN COMMERCIAL GRAIN ELEVATORS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A decision support system, Stored Grain Advisor Pro (SGA Pro), was developed to provide insect pest management information for grain stored at commercial elevators. The program uses a model to predict future risk based on current insect density, grain temperature and moisture. A rule-based system wa...

  3. Potential use of proteinase inhibitors and avidin for insect control and Bt resistance management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Complete Bt cotton system puts heavy selection pressure on Lepidoptera insects. Potential development of Bt resistance is major concern over Bt cotton technology. Another emerging problem is shift of pest status due to reduced number of sprays and resistance development in some sucking insects, espe...

  4. Predator Conservation in Cotton: Using Grain Sorghum as a Source for Insect Predators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jarrad R. Prasifka; Peter C. Krauter; Kevin M. Heinz; Christopher G. Sansone; Richard R. Minzenmayer

    1999-01-01

    Adjacent plots of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., and grain sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, were established in 1997 and 1998 to study the movement of generalist predators in this system. Previous authors have suggested that sorghum acts as a source of generalist insect predators for cotton pests but several questions about the dynamics of insect movement remain unanswered. Mark–recapture methods

  5. Milkweed: A resource for increasing stink bug parasitism and aiding insect pollinator and monarch butterfly conservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The flowers of milkweed species can produce a rich supply of nectar, and therefore, planting an insecticide-free milkweed habitat in agricultural farmscapes could possibly conserve monarch butterflies, bees and other insect pollinators, as well as enhance parasitism of insect pests. In peanut-cotton...

  6. Integration of botanicals and microbials for management of crop and human pests.

    PubMed

    Naresh Kumar, A; Murugan, K; Madhiyazhagan, P

    2013-01-01

    Insect pests inflict damage to humans, farm animals, and crops. Human and animal pests put more than 100 million people and 80 million cattle at risk worldwide. Plant pests are the main reason for destroying one fifth of the world's total crop production annually. Anopheles stephensi is the major vector of human malaria in Middle East and South Asian regions. Spodoptera litura is a polyphagous pest of vegetables and field crops. Because of its broad host range, this insect is also known as cluster caterpillar, common cutworm, cotton leafworm, tobacco cutworm, tobacco caterpillar, and tropical armyworm. The toxic effects of methanolic extract of Senna alata and microbial insecticide, Bacillus sphericus, were tested against the polyphagous crop pest, S. litura (Fab.), and the malarial vector, A. stephensi. Results from the present study states that B. sphericus is more toxic than S. alata to both the crop pest and mosquito. The malarial vector, A. stephensi, was found to be susceptible than the crop pest, S. litura. Both the botanical and microbial insecticide showed excellent larvicidal, pupicidal, longevity, fecundity, and growth regulatory activities. Median lethal concentrations of B. sphericus and methanolic extract of S. alata observed to kill the third instar of S. litura were 0.52 and 193.09 ppm and A. stephensi were 0.40 and 174.64 ppm, respectively. PMID:23052771

  7. Indirect Effects of Fishery Exploitation and Pest Control in a Riverine Food Web

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Roell; Donald J. Orth

    1998-01-01

    We used an energy-based food web model to evaluate indirect effects of fishery exploitation and aquatic insect pest control on food web structure and recreational fisheries in the New River, West Virginia. Key groups represented in the model were aquatic insects, age-1 and age-2 crayfish (Cambaridae), age-1 and age-2 larvae of the dobsonfly Corydalus cornutus (hellgrammites), prey fishes, and age-0

  8. Resource concentration dilutes a key pest in indigenous potato agriculture.

    PubMed

    Parsa, Soroush; Ccanto, Raul; Rosenheim, Jay A

    2011-03-01

    Modern restructuring of agricultural landscapes, due to the expansion of monocultures and the resulting elimination of non-crop habitat, is routinely blamed for rising populations of agricultural insect pests. However, landscape studies demonstrating a positive correlation between pest densities and the spatial extent of crop monocultures are rare. We test this hypothesis with a data set from 140 subsistence farms in the Andes and find the inverse correlation. Infestations by the Andean potato weevil (Premnotrypes spp.), the most important pest in Andean potato agriculture, decrease with increasing amounts of potato in the landscape. A statistical model predicts that aggregating potato fields may outperform the management of Andean potato weevils by IPM and chemical control. We speculate that the strong pest suppression generated by aggregating potato fields may partly explain why indigenous potato farmers cluster their potato fields under a traditional rotation system common in Andean agriculture (i.e., "sectoral fallow"). Our results suggest that some agricultural pests may also respond negatively to the expansion of monocultures, and that manipulating the spatial arrangement of host crops may offer an important tool for some IPM programs. PMID:21563583

  9. Stored Product Pest Images

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    Photographic gallery containing 81 images of pests of stored products, including eggs, larvae and pupae and damage photos. Mites, beetles, moths, and psocids are included. A web browser and CD-ROM drive are required to view the images. Images are of high quality and the accompanying text is generally accurate and informative. The larval lesser mealworm is mis-captioned as an adult. Navigation of the images is easy.

  10. Resistance of Sweetpotato Genotypes to Soil Insects, Charleston, SC, 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Damage by soil insect pests was evaluated for 12 sweetpotato genotypes as part of the National Sweetpotato Collaborator’s Group Test at the U. S. Vegetable Laboratory in 2007. Sweetpotato entries were Beauregard (B63 and B94-14), Evangeline (L99-35), L01-29, L02-32, Covington, NC Japanese, NC99-573...

  11. Responses of temperate forest productivity to insect and pathogen disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flower, C. E.; Gonzalez-Meler, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Climate forcing factors have been documented to directly (e.g. CO2 fertilization) or indirectly (e.g. temperature and vapor pressure deficit) affect net primary productivity (NPP) of forests. Climate variations can also affect the vulnerability of forests to pests and pathogens, causing diffuse or widespread mortality. The introduction of novel pests is causing rapid mortality of targeted species with undetermined effects on forest productivity: NPP could decrease or increase depending on the severity (proportion of basal area impacted) and species diversity. We attempted to document the impact of diffuse mortality caused by insect outbreaks on North American temperate forests through synthesis of literature. Despite the large number of studies (>500) only a few (12) documented NPP in a systematic manner. The magnitude of insect and pathogen disturbance was larger in western than eastern forests due to the redundancy and functional diversity of temperate deciduous and mixed deciduous forests. Recovery from disturbance was more rapid from diffuse short duration defoliation events relative to the long lasting impacts of wood boring insects. Forest resilience may decrease as insect disturbance increases, particularly with generalist invasive pests that target a variety of species. We conclude that these biotic interactions, particularly when caused by invasive pests, impose biological forcing to forest NPP at similar magnitude and time scales than climate forcing.

  12. Considerations on the use of transgenic crops for insect control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony M. Shelton

    2007-01-01

    The adoption of agricultural technologies, whether developed through biotechnology or other methods, depends on social, political, regulatory and biological parameters. This article first presents an example of a low-input, non-biotechnological method of pest control that, while seemingly reasonable to researchers and extension agents, was not adopted by farmers. It then analyses a method for insect management developed through biotechnology that

  13. Bees and Beneficial Insects in the Water-Wise Garden

    E-print Network

    Ferrara, Katherine W.

    habitat is under pressure · Free pest control · If you like to eat, thank a pollinator ­30% of the food we eat depends on an animal pollinator ­Native bees and honey bees are in trouble #12;Bees 101 · Honey · Hummingbird sage · Snowberry · CA fuchsia #12;Plant lists #12;Spiders · Feed on insects that get trapped

  14. INSECTS IN FIREWOOD Timothy J. Gibb, Extension Entomologist

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    discovered pest of ash trees (Emerald Ash Borer) has the potential for serious destruction. Its spread that firewood NOT be moved but rather used on site. For more information on the Emerald Ash Borer is cut from dying or storm-damaged trees that are very attractive to many insects, especially wood borers

  15. RNAi strategies to suppress insects of fruit and tree crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of ribonucleic acid interference, RNAi, to reduce plant feeding Hemiptera in fruit tree and grapevines. The successful use of RNAi strategies to reduce insect pests, psyllids and leafhoppers was demonstrated. An RNAi bioassay which absorbs dsRNA into plant tissues provided up to 40 days of act...

  16. Non-transgenic RNAi technology to control insects on citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research demonstrated a non-transgenic delivery method for ribonucleic acid interference, RNAi, that reduced fitness as measured in increased mortality over time, of two insect pests of citrus, ie. psyllids and leafhoppers. The Asian citrus psyllid transmits a deadly plant-infecting bacterium o...

  17. Radio frequency treatments for insect disinfestation of dried pulses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dried pulses, such as chickpeas, green peas or lentils, are valuable export commodities in the US Pacific Northwest. A major problem in the marketing of these products is infestation by insect pests, which may cause importing countries to require phytosanitary treatments before shipment. Typically...

  18. Food searching behaviour of a Lepidoptera pest species is modulated by the foraging gene polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Chardonnet, Floriane; Capdevielle-Dulac, Claire; Chouquet, Bastien; Joly, Nicolas; Harry, Myriam; Le Ru, Bruno; Silvain, Jean-François; Kaiser, Laure

    2014-10-01

    The extent of damage to crop plants from pest insects depends on the foraging behaviour of the insect's feeding stage. Little is known, however, about the genetic and molecular bases of foraging behaviour in phytophagous pest insects. The foraging gene (for), a candidate gene encoding a PKG-I, has an evolutionarily conserved function in feeding strategies. Until now, for had never been studied in Lepidoptera, which includes major pest species. The cereal stem borer Sesamia nonagrioides is therefore a relevant species within this order with which to study conservation of and polymorphism in the for gene, and its role in foraging - a behavioural trait that is directly associated with plant injuries. Full sequencing of for cDNA in S. nonagrioides revealed a high degree of conservation with other insect taxa. Activation of PKG by a cGMP analogue increased larval foraging activity, measured by how frequently larvae moved between food patches in an actimeter. We found one non-synonymous allelic variation in a natural population that defined two allelic variants. These variants presented significantly different levels of foraging activity, and the behaviour was positively correlated to gene expression levels. Our results show that for gene function is conserved in this species of Lepidoptera, and describe an original case of a single nucleotide polymorphism associated with foraging behaviour variation in a pest insect. By illustrating how variation in this single gene can predict phenotype, this work opens new perspectives into the evolutionary context of insect adaptation to plants, as well as pest management. PMID:25274324

  19. Insects, infestations and nutrient fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalzik, B.

    2012-04-01

    Forest ecosystems are characterized by a high temporal and spatial variability in the vertical transfer of energy and matter within the canopy and the soil compartment. The mechanisms and controlling factors behind canopy processes and system-internal transfer dynamics are imperfectly understood at the moment. Seasonal flux diversities and inhomogeneities in throughfall composition have been reported from coniferous and deciduous forests, and in most cases leaf leaching has been considered as principle driver for differences in the amount and quality of nutrients and organic compounds (Tukey and Morgan 1963). Since herbivorous insects and the processes they initiate received less attention in past times, ecologists now emphasize the need for linking biological processes occurring in different ecosystem strata to explain rates and variability of nutrient cycling (Bardgett et al. 1998, Wardle et al. 2004). Consequently, herbivore insects in the canopies of forests are increasingly identified to play an important role for the (re)cycling and availability of nutrients, or, more generally, for the functioning of ecosystems not only in outbreak situations but also at endemic (non-outbreak) density levels (Stadler et al. 2001, Hunter et al. 2003). Before, little attention was paid to insect herbivores when quantifying element and energy fluxes through ecosystems, although the numerous and different functions insects fulfill in ecosystems (e.g. as pollinators, herbivores or detritivores) were unanimously recognized (Schowalter 2000). Amongst the reasons for this restraint was the argument that the total biomass of insects tends to be relatively low compared to the biomass of trees or the pool of soil organic matter (Ohmart et al. 1983). A second argument which was put forward to justify the inferior role of insects in nutrient cycling were the supposed low defoliation losses between 5-10% of the annual leaf biomass, or net primary production, due to insect herbivory under endemic situations (Larrson and Tenow 1980). However, at times of insect mass outbreaks with leaf area losses up to 100%, nutrient fluxes are strongly affected at the ecosystem level and consequently attract greater attention (Grace 1986). In this context, mass outbreaks of herbivore insects constitute a class of ecosystem disturbance (Pickett and White 1985). More specific, insect pests meet the criteria of biogeochemical "hot spots" and "hot moments" (McClain et al. 2003) as they induce temporal-spatial process heterogeneity or changes in biogeochemical reaction rates, but not necessarily changes in the structure of ecosystems or landscapes. This contribution presents a compilation of literature and own research data on insect herbivory effects on nutrient cycling and ecosystem functioning from the plot to the catchment scale. It focuses on temperate forest ecosystems and on short-term impacts as exerted by two focal functional groups of herbivore canopy insects (leaf and sap feeders). In detail, research results on effects operating on short temporal scales are presented including a) alterations in throughfall fluxes encompassing dissolved and particulate organic matter fractions, b) alterations in the amount, timing and quality of frass and honeydew deposition and c) soil microbial activity and decomposition processes.

  20. PEST&CROP INDEX 2010 INSECTS, MITES & NEMATODES

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    WBC Damage to Field Corn ­ 24 WEEDS Control Methods to Control Volunteer Roundup Ready or Glyphosate-Tolerat Corn in a Corn Replant Situation ­ 7 Nitrogen Accumulation by Annual Grass Weeds in Corn ­ Glyphosate Resistant Waterhemp in Indiana - 17 7 Big Corn and Big Weeds ­ 13 VIDEO: Giant Ragweed Glyphosate

  1. Managing Insect and Mite Pests of Texas Corn 

    E-print Network

    Porter, Patrick; Cronholm, Gregory B.; Parker, Roy D.; Troxclair, Noel N.; Patrick, Carl D.; Biles, Stephen; Morrison, William P.

    2006-05-24

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Grasshoppers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Sap Beetles...

  2. Managing Insect and Mite Pests of Texas Corn. 

    E-print Network

    Stewart, J.W.; Patrick, Carl; Cronholm, Gregory B.

    1982-01-01

    .............................. 15 Western Bean Cutworm ............................... 15 Grasshoppers ........................................ 16 INSECTICIDE APPLICATION METHODS ....................................... 17 PROTECTING BEES FROM INSECTICIDES...) Per/Acre Harvest Grazing Carbaryl (Sevin?) (80% WP) 1 '/.-2'h lb. 0 0 Methyl parathion (4Ibs.) 'h pt. 12 12 Chinch Bug Adult chinch bugs are about 1/ 6 inch in length with black bodies and reddish-yellow legs. When fully developed, the white...

  3. Insects and Related Pests Attacking Lawns and Ornamental Plants. 

    E-print Network

    Almand, Lyndon K.; Thomas, John G.

    1968-01-01

    .................................................................................... .................................................................................................. Grasshoppers Leaf Rollers, Leaf Tiers and Leaf Crumplers .......................................... Leaf Miners .................................................................................................. Sowbugs and Pillbugs... and adult. SOUTHERN CHINCH BUGS, Blissu~ insularis Barber Description. Adult chinch bugs are 1/6 to 1/5 inch long, have a black body, reddish-yellow legs and fully developed wings, which lie flat against the back, figure 1. Each front wing is mostly...

  4. Managing Insect and Mite Pests of Texas Forage Crops 

    E-print Network

    Muegge, Mark A.; Robinson, James V.

    2002-10-09

    ................................................................................................................................................................9 Grasshopper................................................................................................................................................................................9 Blister Beetle... ......................................................................................................................................................................19 Grasshopper ............................................................................................................................................................................20 Chinch Bug...

  5. IMPROVED DRY-FLESHED SWEETPOTATO GENOTYPES RESISTANT TO INSECT PESTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty-five mostly dry fleshed sweetpotato genotypes from the USDA ARS/Clemson sweetpotato breeding program were evaluated in nine field experiments at the U. S. Vegetable Laboratory (USVL), Charleston, SC, 1998-2004. There were highly significant entry effects for percent uninjured roots, WDS inde...

  6. Managing Insect and Mite Pests of Commercial Pecans in Texas 

    E-print Network

    Knutson, Allen E.; Ree, Bill

    2004-09-21

    . The young phylloxera are soon completely enclosed in the galls, which range from 1 /10 to 1 inch in diameter. Phylloxera feed inside the gall and complete two generations. Galls then crack open and winged, adult phyl- loxera emerge to lay eggs. The more... inside a trap, where it attracts male casebearer moths. By periodically recording trap catch, you can detect and monitor the emergence of male casebearer. This information can be used to anticipate when eggs will be laid and when egg hatch and nut entry...

  7. Insect and Mite Pests of Grain Sorghum -- Management Approaches.

    E-print Network

    Anonymous,

    1979-01-01

    damage as seeds fail to develop. Effective sorghum midge control requires the successful integration of several activities that ad versely affect midge population density and their po tential to cause crop damage. Planting hybrids of uni form... susceptibility to stalk rotting diseases are also associated with borer damage. Cultivation practices that destroy stalks, expose larvae and bury crop residues greatly reduce borer populations. Rotation with non-host crops and early planting of sorghum also...

  8. Insect and Mite Pests of Grain Sorghum -- Management Approaches. 

    E-print Network

    Anonymous,

    1979-01-01

    . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . ... ..... . .. . ... 16 Spider Mites. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 16 Fall Armyworm - Corn Earworm .. .. . ......... .. . . .. 18 Chinch Bugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 19... False Chinch Bugs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 20 Flea Beetles . ...................................... 20 Sugarcane Borer - Southwestern Corn Borer . . . . . . . . .. 21 Lesser Corn Stalk Borer...

  9. Managing Insect and Mite Pests of Texas Sorghum. 

    E-print Network

    Turney, H.A.; Hoelscher, Clifford E.; Teetes, George L.

    1987-01-01

    Chinch Bugs .................................................. ... ............ 9 Banks Grass Mite .......................................... ... .......... . .... 9 Sorghum Midge ......................................... . ................... 10... Sorghum Webworm ......................................................... 11 Fall Armyworm-Corn Earworm (Whorlworm and Headworm) ................. 12 Panicle-Feeding Bugs ....................................................... 12 Sugarcane Borer...

  10. PEST&CROP INDEX 2007 INSECTS, MITES & NEMATODES

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    , and Beetles ­ 13 What is That Gigantic Beetle - 16 Mexican Bean Beetle Millipede Expect the Unexpected When: Announcing New Website for Nematology ­ 12 Nematode Update ­ Should Corn Growers Be Alarmed About the New

  11. INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT IN VIRGINIA COTTON, PEANUT, SOYBEAN, AND SORGHUM

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    , Prince George Co. Steve Rosbicki, Prince George Co. James Hanzlik & Son, Sussex Co. UNIVERSITY FACULTY, Painter, VA David Norton, Agricultural Specialist, Southern Piedmont AREC, Blackstone, VA Patrick Phipps

  12. Managing Insect and Mite Pests of Commercial Pecans in Texas

    E-print Network

    Knutson, Allen E.; Ree, Bill

    2004-09-21

    cluster. Larvae of later generations require just one or two nuts to complete their feeding, as pecans are larger at that time. Biology: The adult casebearer is a gray moth about 1 /3 inch long with a ridge of dark scales running across the forewings.... The moths are active only at night when they mate and lay eggs on pecan nuts. Most eggs are found on the nutlet tips. Each female lays 50 to 150 eggs during her 5- to 8-day life. The greenish-white to white eggs change to pink or red before hatch...

  13. Texas Poultry Pest Control Practices 

    E-print Network

    Hall, Kent D.; Holloway, Rodney L.; Carey, John B.; Hoelscher, Clifford E.

    1999-06-01

    , northern fowl mites, chiggers, soldier flies, bed bugs, depluming mites, lice and fowl ticks. Survey participants ranked the difficulty of controlling each pest. Those ranked most difficult to control were fire ants, darkling beetles, black flies, house... 83% House flies 71% Rats 65% Varmints 28% Black flies 28% Mosquitoes 24% Chicken mites 13% Northern foul mites 10% Chiggers 10% Soldier flies 10% Bed bugs 10% Depluming mites 9% Lice 9% Fowl ticks 8% Table 3. Difficulty of controlling pests. Pest...

  14. RNAi Technology for Insect Management and Protection of Beneficial Insects from Diseases: Lessons, Challenges and Risk Assessments.

    PubMed

    Zotti, M J; Smagghe, G

    2015-06-01

    The time has passed for us to wonder whether RNA interference (RNAi) effectively controls pest insects or protects beneficial insects from diseases. The RNAi era in insect science began with studies of gene function and genetics that paved the way for the development of novel and highly specific approaches for the management of pest insects and, more recently, for the treatment and prevention of diseases in beneficial insects. The slight differences in components of RNAi pathways are sufficient to provide a high degree of variation in responsiveness among insects. The current framework to assess the negative effects of genetically modified (GM) plants on human health is adequate for RNAi-based GM plants. Because of the mode of action of RNAi and the lack of genomic data for most exposed non-target organisms, it becomes difficult to determine the environmental risks posed by RNAi-based technologies and the benefits provided for the protection of crops. A better understanding of the mechanisms that determine the variability in the sensitivity of insects would accelerate the worldwide release of commercial RNAi-based approaches. PMID:26013264

  15. Endosymbiotic bacteria in insects: guardians of the immune system?

    PubMed Central

    Eleftherianos, Ioannis; Atri, Jaishri; Accetta, Julia; Castillo, Julio C.

    2013-01-01

    Insects have evolved obligate, mutualistic interactions with bacteria without further transmission to other eukaryotic organisms. Such long-term obligate partnerships between insects and bacteria have a profound effect on various physiological functions of the host. Here we provide an overview of the effects of endosymbiotic bacteria on the insect immune system as well as on the immune response of insects to pathogenic infections. Potential mechanisms through which endosymbionts can affect the ability of their host to resist an infection are discussed in the light of recent findings. We finally point out unresolved questions for future research and speculate how the current knowledge can be employed to design and implement measures for the effective control of agricultural insect pests and vectors of diseases. PMID:23508299

  16. Functional agonism of insect odorant receptor ion channels

    PubMed Central

    Pask, Gregory M.; Rinker, David C.; Zwiebel, Laurence J.

    2011-01-01

    In insects, odor cues are discriminated through a divergent family of odorant receptors (ORs). A functional OR complex consists of both a conventional odorant-binding OR and a nonconventional coreceptor (Orco) that is highly conserved across insect taxa. Recent reports have characterized insect ORs as ion channels, but the precise mechanism of signaling remains unclear. We report the identification and characterization of an Orco family agonist, VUAA1, using the Anopheles gambiae coreceptor (AgOrco) and other orthologues. These studies reveal that the Orco family can form functional ion channels in the absence of an odor-binding OR, and in addition, demonstrate a first-in-class agonist to further research in insect OR signaling. In light of the extraordinary conservation and widespread expression of the Orco family, VUAA1 represents a powerful new family of compounds that can be used to disrupt the destructive behaviors of nuisance insects, agricultural pests, and disease vectors alike. PMID:21555561

  17. [Conidiobolus coronatus isolation from a pest aphids of chives (Allium schoenoprasum L.)].

    PubMed

    Comerio, Ricardo Mario; Andorno, Andrea Verónica; Botto, Eduardo Norberto

    2008-09-30

    Conidiobolus coronatus (Entomophthorales), a pathogen of human and some insects, was isolated from dead specimens of the aphid Neotoxoptera formosana present on chives leaves. C. coronatus infected aphids could pose a threat to growers health. Pest control strategies of N. formosana may also contribute to reduce the human infection risk by C. coronatus. PMID:18785794

  18. Compatibility of Two Systematic Neonicotinoids, Imidacloprid and Thiamethoxam with various Natural Enemies of Agricultural Pests.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two systemic neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, are widely used for residual control of a number of insect pests in cotton, vegetables, and citrus. We evaluated their impact on six species of beneficial arthropods including four parasitoid species, Aphytis melinus Gonatocerus ashmeadi, ...

  19. EVALUATION FOR MULTIPLE PEST RESISTANCE IN FALL ARMYWORM- AND CORN EARWORM-RESISTANT MAIZE GERMPLASM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eleven fall armyworm-resistant maize populations and 11 corn earworm-resistant maize inbred lines were evaluated in 2004 and 2005 for their resistance to three major insect pests (i.e., the fall armyworm, the corn earworm, and maize weevil) in the southeastern coastal plain region. Both field scree...

  20. Gene discovery in an invasive tephritid model pest species, the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ludvik M Gomulski; George Dimopoulos; Zhiyong Xi; Marcelo B Soares; Maria F Bonaldo; Anna R Malacrida; Giuliano Gasperi

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The medfly, Ceratitis capitata, is a highly invasive agricultural pest that has become a model insect for the development of biological control programs. Despite research into the behavior and classical and population genetics of this organism, the quantity of sequence data available is limited. We have utilized an expressed sequence tag (EST) approach to obtain detailed information on transcriptome

  1. Growth and yield response of pecan to three levels of pest management in Central Texas

    E-print Network

    Cooper, John Norman

    1984-01-01

    in the Southeastern United States. Insect pests added in 1940 to the USDA' spray recommendations included spittlebugs (~C1 sto ta a oht sa), p a t ca(as (Catocala spp. ), th s Ply (P ri 11 t ~a i ice(tie) a e paean phyllo e a (~ph llo era spp. ). The 1940 spray...

  2. Field screening of sweet sorghum inbred lines for pest resistance and biomass production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is one of the favorable biofuel feedstocks for ethanol production. Fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)] is one of the most serious foliar-feeding insect pests in sorghum production in the southeastern US states. Sev...

  3. Biology and integrated pest management for the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) ( Coleoptera : Curculionidae )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clifford S. Gold; Jorge E. Pena; Eldad B. Karamura

    2001-01-01

    The banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) is the most important insect pest of bananas and plantains (Musa spp.). The larvae bore in the corm, reducing nutrient uptake and weakening the stability of the plant. Attack in newly planted banana stands can lead to crop failure. In established fields, weevil damage can result in reduced bunch weights, mat die-out and shortened

  4. Biodiversity and Biogeography of an Important Inbred Pest of Coffee, Coffee Berry Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pablo Benavides; Fernando E. Vega; Jeanne Romero-Severson; Alex E. Bustillo; Jeffrey J. Stuart

    2005-01-01

    AmpliÞed fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) Þngerprinting was used to examine the genetic variability and biogeography of the most important insect pest of coffee, Coffea arabica L., the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari). H. hampei samples (n 101) from 17 countries on three continents were examined. Only 26 unique Þngerprints (haplotypes) were dis- covered among all samples. Genetic variability was

  5. Pest reduction services by birds in shade and sun coffee in M. D. Johnson1

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Matthew

    ; coffee berry borer; Hypothenemus hampei; migratory bird. Correspondence Matthew D. Johnson, Department results suggest that birds reduced insect pests on our study site. Infestation by the coffee berry borer value of the reduction of coffee berry borer by birds on the 18 ha farm to be US$310 haÀ1 for the 2006

  6. Ovicidal Efficacy of Sulfuryl Fluoride to Stored-Product Pests of Dried Fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemical fumigants are an important component of protecting postharvest commodity from insect pests. Sulfuryl fluoride, originally produced and marketed as the structural fumigant Vikane®, has transitioned toward use in durable commodities as ProFume®. Substantial laboratory- and commercial-scale da...

  7. Pest Ants and Cockroaches

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    Tutorials on pest ants and cockroaches. Each tutorial has 50 questions; incorrect answers lead to additional information. Covers acrobat ant, Argentine ant, bigheaded ant, crazy ant, Florida carpenter ant, ghost ant, imported fire ant, little fire ant, native fire ant and Pharaoh ant, American cockroach, Australian cockroach, brown cockroach, brownbanded cockroach, Cuban cockroach, Florida woods cockroaches, German cockroach, oriental cockroach, smokybrown cockroach and Surinam cockroach. Requires Windows. program must be downloaded on to hardrive, but once installed is intuitive. many of the species depicted in these tutorials are restricted to Florida and the extreme southern U.S. $15. Part number SW 157.

  8. Pest Control in the School Environment: Adopting Integrated Pest Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pesticide Programs.

    As the public becomes more aware of the health and environmental risks pesticides may pose, its interest in seeking the use of equally effective alternative pest control methods increases. School administrators and other persons who have pest control decision-making responsibilities for school buildings and grounds can use this guide to become…

  9. Assessing the risks of releasing a sap-sucking lace bug, Gargaphia decoris , against the invasive tree Solanum mauritianum in New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terence Olckers; Candice K. Borea

    2009-01-01

    The South American tree Solanum mauritianum Scopoli (Solanaceae), a major environmental weed in South Africa and New Zealand, has been targeted for biological control,\\u000a with releases of agents restricted to South Africa. The leaf-sucking lace bug, Gargaphia decoris Drake (Tingidae), so far the only agent released, has become established in South Africa with recent reports of severe damage\\u000a at a

  10. When ecosystem services interact: crop pollination benefits depend on the level of pest control

    PubMed Central

    Lundin, Ola; Smith, Henrik G.; Rundlöf, Maj; Bommarco, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    Pollination is a key ecosystem service which most often has been studied in isolation although effects of pollination on seed set might depend on, and interact with, other services important for crop production. We tested three competing hypotheses on how insect pollination and pest control might jointly affect seed set: independent, compensatory or synergistic effects. For this, we performed a cage experiment with two levels of insect pollination and simulated pest control in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) grown for seed. There was a synergistic interaction between the two services: the gain in seed set obtained when simultaneously increasing pollination and pest control outweighed the sum of seed set gains obtained when increasing each service separately. This study shows that interactions can alter the benefits obtained from service-providing organisms, and this needs to be considered to properly manage multiple ecosystem services. PMID:23269852

  11. Role of Dehydrodiferulates in Maize Resistance to Pests and Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Rogelio; Malvar, Rosa A.

    2010-01-01

    Phenolic esters have attracted considerable interest due to the potential they offer for peroxidase catalysed cross-linking of cell wall polysaccharides. Particularly, feruloyl residues undergo radical coupling reactions that result in cross-linking (intra-/intermolecular) between polysaccharides, between polysaccharides and lignin and, between polysaccharides and proteins. This review addresses for the first time different studies in which it is established that cross-linking by dehydrodiferulates contributes to maize’s defences to pests and diseases. Dehydrodiferulate cross-links are involved in maize defence mechanisms against insects such as the European, Mediterranean, and tropical corn borers and, storage pest as the maize weevil. In addition, cross-links are also discussed to be involved in genetic resistance of maize to fungus diseases as Gibberella ear and stalk rot. Resistance against insects and fungus attending dehydrodiferulates could go hand in hand. Quantitative trait loci mapping for these cell wall components could be a useful tool for enhancing resistance to pest and diseases in future breeding programs. PMID:20386661

  12. Role of dehydrodiferulates in maize resistance to pests and diseases.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Rogelio; Malvar, Rosa A

    2010-01-01

    Phenolic esters have attracted considerable interest due to the potential they offer for peroxidase catalysed cross-linking of cell wall polysaccharides. Particularly, feruloyl residues undergo radical coupling reactions that result in cross-linking (intra-/intermolecular) between polysaccharides, between polysaccharides and lignin and, between polysaccharides and proteins. This review addresses for the first time different studies in which it is established that cross-linking by dehydrodiferulates contributes to maize's defences to pests and diseases. Dehydrodiferulate cross-links are involved in maize defence mechanisms against insects such as the European, Mediterranean, and tropical corn borers and, storage pest as the maize weevil. In addition, cross-links are also discussed to be involved in genetic resistance of maize to fungus diseases as Gibberella ear and stalk rot. Resistance against insects and fungus attending dehydrodiferulates could go hand in hand. Quantitative trait loci mapping for these cell wall components could be a useful tool for enhancing resistance to pest and diseases in future breeding programs. PMID:20386661

  13. Management of plant pathogens and pests using microbial biological control agents. In: Trigiano, R.N. and Ownley, B.H., editors. Plant Pathology Concepts and Laboratory Exercises

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All parts of plants face continual attack by plant pathogens and insects. Some insects are vectors of pathogens. Plant pests can be controlled by a variety of methods including application of pesticides but one of the most stainable and environmentally friendly approaches is biological control. Mic...

  14. Mechanisms of plant defense against insect herbivores.

    PubMed

    War, Abdul Rashid; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; Ahmad, Tariq; Buhroo, Abdul Ahad; Hussain, Barkat; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Sharma, Hari Chand

    2012-10-01

    Plants respond to herbivory through various morphological, biochemicals, and molecular mechanisms to counter/offset the effects of herbivore attack. The biochemical mechanisms of defense against the herbivores are wide-ranging, highly dynamic, and are mediated both by direct and indirect defenses. The defensive compounds are either produced constitutively or in response to plant damage, and affect feeding, growth, and survival of herbivores. In addition, plants also release volatile organic compounds that attract the natural enemies of the herbivores. These strategies either act independently or in conjunction with each other. However, our understanding of these defensive mechanisms is still limited. Induced resistance could be exploited as an important tool for the pest management to minimize the amounts of insecticides used for pest control. Host plant resistance to insects, particularly, induced resistance, can also be manipulated with the use of chemical elicitors of secondary metabolites, which confer resistance to insects. By understanding the mechanisms of induced resistance, we can predict the herbivores that are likely to be affected by induced responses. The elicitors of induced responses can be sprayed on crop plants to build up the natural defense system against damage caused by herbivores. The induced responses can also be engineered genetically, so that the defensive compounds are constitutively produced in plants against are challenged by the herbivory. Induced resistance can be exploited for developing crop cultivars, which readily produce the inducible response upon mild infestation, and can act as one of components of integrated pest management for sustainable crop production. PMID:22895106

  15. Nitric oxide as a potent fumigant for postharvest pest control.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Biao

    2013-12-01

    There is a great demand for safe and effective alternative fumigants to replace methyl bromide and other toxic fumigants for postharvest pest control. Nitric oxide, a common signal molecule in biological systems, was found to be effective and safe to control insects under ultralow oxygen conditions. Four insect species including western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera Thripidae); aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) (Homoptera: Aphididae); confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae); and rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), at various life stages were fumigated with 0.1-2.0% nitric oxide under ultralow oxygen levels of < or = 50 ppm in 1.9-liter glass jars at 2-25 degrees C depending on insect species. Fumigations were effective against all four insect species. Efficacy of nitric oxide fumigation increased with nitric oxide concentration, treatment time, and temperature. There were also considerable variations among insect species as well as life stages in susceptibility to nitric oxide fumigation. Complete control of thrips was achieved in 2 and 8 h with 2.0 and 0.2% nitric oxide, respectively, at 2 degrees C. At the same temperature, complete control of the aphid was achieved in 3, 9, and 12 h with 1.0, 0.5, and 0.2% nitric oxide, respectively. Larvae, pupae, and adults of confused flour beetle were effectively controlled in 24 h with 0.5% nitric oxide at 20 degrees C. Complete mortality of confused flour beetle eggs was achieved in 24 h with 2.0% nitric oxide at 10 degrees C. Rice weevil adults and eggs were effectively controlled with 1.0% nitric oxide in 24 and 48 h, respectively, at 25 degrees C. These results indicate that nitric oxide has potential as a fumigant for postharvest pest control. PMID:24498723

  16. An amino acid substitution inhibits specialist herbivore production of an antagonist effector and recovers insect-induced plant defenses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants respond to insect herbivory through the production of biochemicals that function as either direct defenses or indirect defenses via the attraction of natural enemies. Curiously, attack by even closely related insect pests can result in distinctive levels of induced plant defenses. Despite the...

  17. Molecular Biology of Insect Sodium Channels and Pyrethroid Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Ke; Du, Yuzhe; Rinkevich, Frank; Nomura, Yoshiko; Xu, Peng; Wang, Lingxin; Silver, Kristopher; Zhorov, Boris S.

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are essential for the initiation and propagation of the action potential in neurons and other excitable cells. Because of their critical roles in electrical signaling, sodium channels are targets of a variety of naturally occurring and synthetic neurotoxins, including several classes of insecticides. This review is intended to provide an update on the molecular biology of insect sodium channels and the molecular mechanism of pyrethroid resistance. Although mammalian and insect sodium channels share fundamental topological and functional properties, most insect species carry only one sodium channel gene, compared to multiple sodium channel genes found in each mammalian species. Recent studies showed that two posttranscriptional mechanisms, alternative splicing and RNA editing, are involved in generating functional diversity of sodium channels in insects. More than 50 sodium channel mutations have been identified to be responsible for or associated with knockdown resistance (kdr) to pyrethroids in various arthropod pests and disease vectors. Elucidation of molecular mechanism of kdr led to the identification of dual receptor sites of pyrethroids on insect sodium channels. Most of the kdr mutations appear to be located within or close to the two receptor sites. The accumulating knowledge of insect sodium channels and their interactions with insecticides provides a foundation for understanding the neurophysiology of sodium channels in vivo and the development of new and safer insecticides for effective control of arthropod pests and human disease vectors. PMID:24704279

  18. Biologically based pest controls: Markets, industries, and products. Special report

    SciTech Connect

    Ridgway, R.L.; Inscoe, M.N.; Thorpe, K.W.

    1994-05-20

    Numbers and amounts of conventional pesticides to combat insect pests, weeds and plant diseases are likely to decline. Although biologically based pest control products have been touted as possible replacements, such products now comprise less than 2% of the market in the United States. Twelve large multinational companies market 80% of the world`s pesticides, valued at about $200 billion, and are responsible for about 20% of the activities to develop and/or produce biological products. In the U.S. about 65 small companies are responsible for 80% of the activities on biological products, which are valued at about $165 million. Without major changes in the research, development, and delivery system, biological products are not likely to be practical replacements for significant amounts of conventional pesticides in the foreseeable future.

  19. Biodiversidad de los insectos escama en el aguacate\\/palta en el mundo y su importancia cuarentenaria Biodiversity of the scale insects on avocado in the world and their quarantine importance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takumasa Kondo; Jazmín Adriana Muñoz Velasco

    An updated list of scale insects on avocados in the world and Colombia, Chile, Mexico, Peru and the USA is provided. Information on the biodi- versity of scale insects on avocados in the world is provided and the im- portance of scale insects as quarantine pests is discussed.

  20. Plant Volatile Analogues Strengthen Attractiveness to Insect

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yufeng; Yu, Hao; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Pickett, John A.; Wu, Kongming

    2014-01-01

    Green leaf bug Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) is one of the major pests in agriculture. Management of A. lucorum was largely achieved by using pesticides. However, the increasing population of A. lucorum since growing Bt cotton widely and the increased awareness of ecoenvironment and agricultural product safety makes their population-control very challenging. Therefore this study was conducted to explore a novel ecological approach, synthetic plant volatile analogues, to manage the pest. Here, plant volatile analogues were first designed and synthesized by combining the bioactive components of ?-ionone and benzaldehyde. The stabilities of ?-ionone, benzaldehyde and analogue 3 g were tested. The electroantennogram (EAG) responses of A. lucorum adult antennae to the analogues were recorded. And the behavior assay and filed experiment were also conducted. In this study, thirteen analogues were acquired. The analogue 3 g was demonstrated to be more stable than ?-ionone and benzaldehyde in the environment. Many of the analogues elicited EAG responses, and the EAG response values to 3 g remained unchanged during seven-day period. 3 g was also demonstrated to be attractive to A. lucorum adults in the laboratory behavior experiment and in the field. Its attractiveness persisted longer than ?-ionone and benzaldehyde. This indicated that 3 g can strengthen attractiveness to insect and has potential as an attractant. Our results suggest that synthetic plant volatile analogues can strengthen attractiveness to insect. This is the first published study about synthetic plant volatile analogues that have the potential to be used in pest control. Our results will support a new ecological approach to pest control and it will be helpful to ecoenvironment and agricultural product safety. PMID:24911460

  1. Cis-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid stimulates rice defense response to a piercing-sucking insect.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hui-Min; Li, Hai-Chao; Zhou, Shi-Rong; Xue, Hong-Wei; Miao, Xue-Xia

    2014-11-01

    The brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens) is a destructive, monophagous, piercing-sucking insect pest of rice. Previous studies indicated that jasmonic acid (JA) positively regulates rice defense against chewing insect pests but negatively regulates it against the piercing-sucking insect of BPH. We here demonstrated that overexpression of allene oxide cyclase (AOC) but not OPR3 (cis-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) reductase 3, an enzyme adjacent to AOC in the JA synthetic pathway) significantly increased rice resistance to BPH, mainly by reducing the feeding activity and survival rate. Further analysis revealed that plant response to BPH under AOC overexpression was independent of the JA pathway and that significantly higher OPDA levels stimulated rice resistance to BPH. Microarray analysis identified multiple candidate resistance-related genes under AOC overexpression. OPDA treatment stimulated the resistance of radish seedlings to green peach aphid Myzus persicae, another piercing-sucking insect. These results imply that rice resistance to chewing insects and to sucking insects can be enhanced simultaneously through AOC-mediated increases of JA and OPDA and provide direct evidence of the potential application of OPDA in stimulating plant defense responses to piercing-sucking insect pests in agriculture. PMID:25239066

  2. Establishing pathways of energy flow for insect predators using stable isotope ratios: field and laboratory evidence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. H. Ostrom; Manuel Colunga-Garcia; Stuart H. Gage

    1996-01-01

    Quantifying pathways of energy transfer between plants, pests, and beneficial insects is a necessary step toward maintaining\\u000a pest stable agroecosystems in the absence of chemical subsidies. A diet switching experiment utilizing a predatory ladybird\\u000a beetle, Hippodamia variegata (Goeze), evaluated the use of naturally occurring stable C and N isotopes as an economically feasible and safe method for\\u000a quantifying pathways of

  3. Insects, Insecticides and Hormesis: Evidence and Considerations for Study

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, G. Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Insects are ubiquitous, crucial components of almost all terrestrial and fresh water ecosystems. In agricultural settings they are subjected to, intentionally or unintentionally, an array of synthetic pesticides and other chemical stressors. These ecological underpinnings, the amenability of insects to laboratory and field experiments, and our strong knowledgebase in insecticide toxicology, make the insect-insecticide model an excellent one to study many questions surrounding hormesis. Moreover, there is practical importance for agriculture with evidence of pest population growth being accelerated by insecticide hormesis. Nevertheless, insects have been underutilized in studies of hormesis. Where hormesis hypotheses have been tested, results clearly demonstrate stimulatory effects on multiple taxa as measured through several biological endpoints, both at individual and population levels. However, many basic questions are outstanding given the myriad of chemicals, responses, and ecological interactions that are likely to occur. PMID:23930099

  4. Effective Control of Household Pests

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the environment. Resources Posters: Aging Resources Online Order Form Don't Feed Pests Spills (PDF) (1 pg, ... 850K) Publication Number 100-F-09-027 Chinese Traditional | (PDF) (2 pp, 1.51MB) Publication Number EPA- ...

  5. SPODOBASE : an EST database for the lepidopteran crop pest Spodoptera

    PubMed Central

    Nègre, Vincent; Hôtelier, Thierry; Volkoff, Anne-Nathalie; Gimenez, Sylvie; Cousserans, François; Mita, Kazuei; Sabau, Xavier; Rocher, Janick; López-Ferber, Miguel; d'Alençon, Emmanuelle; Audant, Pascaline; Sabourault, Cécile; Bidegainberry, Vincent; Hilliou, Frédérique; Fournier, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Background The Lepidoptera Spodoptera frugiperda is a pest which causes widespread economic damage on a variety of crop plants. It is also well known through its famous Sf9 cell line which is used for numerous heterologous protein productions. Species of the Spodoptera genus are used as model for pesticide resistance and to study virus host interactions. A genomic approach is now a critical step for further new developments in biology and pathology of these insects, and the results of ESTs sequencing efforts need to be structured into databases providing an integrated set of tools and informations. Description The ESTs from five independent cDNA libraries, prepared from three different S. frugiperda tissues (hemocytes, midgut and fat body) and from the Sf9 cell line, are deposited in the database. These tissues were chosen because of their importance in biological processes such as immune response, development and plant/insect interaction. So far, the SPODOBASE contains 29,325 ESTs, which are cleaned and clustered into non-redundant sets (2294 clusters and 6103 singletons). The SPODOBASE is constructed in such a way that other ESTs from S. frugiperda or other species may be added. User can retrieve information using text searches, pre-formatted queries, query assistant or blast searches. Annotation is provided against NCBI, UNIPROT or Bombyx mori ESTs databases, and with GO-Slim vocabulary. Conclusion The SPODOBASE database provides integrated access to expressed sequence tags (EST) from the lepidopteran insect Spodoptera frugiperda. It is a publicly available structured database with insect pest sequences which will allow identification of a number of genes and comprehensive cloning of gene families of interest for scientific community. SPODOBASE is available from URL: PMID:16796757

  6. Odorant receptors of a primitive hymenopteran pest, the wheat stem sawfly.

    PubMed

    Gress, J C; Robertson, H M; Weaver, D K; Dlaki?, M; Wanner, K W

    2013-12-01

    The wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus, is an herbivorous hymenopteran that feeds exclusively on members of the Graminae family. Synanthropically, it has become one of the most important insect pests of wheat grown in the northern Great Plains region of the USA and Canada. Insecticides are generally ineffective because of the wheat stem sawfly's extended adult flight period and its inaccessible larval stage, during which it feeds within the wheat stems, making it virtually intractable to most pest management strategies. While research towards integrated pest management strategies based on insect olfaction has proved promising, nothing is known about the molecular basis of olfaction in this important pest species. In this study we identified 28 unique odorant receptor (Or) transcripts from an antennal transcriptome. A phylogenetic analysis with the predicted Ors from the honey bee and jewel wasp genomes revealed at least four clades conserved amongst all three Hymenoptera species. Antennal expression levels were analysed using quantitative real-time PCR, and one male-biased and five female-biased Ors were identified. This study provides the basis for future functional analyses to identify behaviourally active odours that can be used to help develop olfactory-mediated pest management tools. PMID:23964849

  7. Liebhold, A.M., W.L. Macdonald, D.Bergdahl, and V.C. Mastro. 1995. Invasion by Exotic Forest Pests: A Threat to Forest Ecosystems. Forest Science Monographs 30. 49 p.

    E-print Network

    Liebhold, Andrew

    are invading new continents at an increasing rate. Biological invasions of insect, plants, and fungal pest, impact, and management of selected exotic forest pests. Biological invasions are probably the most, eradication #12;3 The term biological invasion connotes the expansion of a species' geographic range into new

  8. Ecophysiology and insect herbivory

    SciTech Connect

    Clancy, K.M.; Wagner, M.R.; Reich, P.B.

    1995-07-01

    The relationship of insect herbivory to conifer physiology is examined. Aspects of nutrient assimilation, nutrient distribution, water stress, and climatic change are correlated to defoliation by insects. Other factors examined include plant age, density, structure, soils, and plant genotype.

  9. Exploring Sound With Insects

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John R. Meyer

    2010-01-01

    Differences in insect morphology and movement during singing provide a fascinating opportunity for students to investigate insects while learning about the characteristics of sound. In the activities described here, students use a free online computer sof

  10. Comparative genomics of insect juvenile hormone biosynthesis?

    PubMed Central

    Noriega, F.G.; Ribeiro, J.M.C.; Koener, J.F.; Valenzuela, J.G.; Hernandez-Martinez, S.; Pham, V.M.; Feyereisen, R.

    2009-01-01

    The biosynthesis of insect juvenile hormone (JH) and its neuroendocrine control are attractive targets for chemical control of insect pests and vectors of disease. To facilitate the molecular study of JH biosynthesis, we analyzed ESTs from the glands producing JH, the corpora allata (CA) in the cockroach Diploptera punctata, an insect long used as a physiological model species and compared them with ESTs from the CA of the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Anopheles albimanus. The predicted genes were analyzed according to their probable functions with the Gene Ontology classification, and compared to Drosophila and Anopheles gambiae genes. A large number of reciprocal matches in the cDNA libraries of cockroach and mosquito CA were found. These matches defined known and suspected enzymes of the JH biosynthetic pathway, but also several proteins associated with signal transduction that might play a role in the modulation of JH synthesis by neuropeptides. The identification in both cockroach and mosquito CA of homologs of the small ligand binding proteins from insects, Takeout/JH binding protein and retinol-binding protein highlights a hitherto unsuspected complexity of metabolite trafficking, perhaps JH precursor trafficking, in these endocrine glands. Furthermore, many reciprocal matches for genes of unknown function may provide a fertile ground for an in-depth study of allatal-specific cell physiology. PMID:16551550

  11. A New Approach to Quantify Semiochemical Effects on Insects Based on Energy Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Rory P.; Richards, Rebecca; Hartnell, Angharad; King, Andrew J.; Piasecka, Justyna; Gaihre, Yogendra K.; Butt, Tariq

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Our ability to document insect preference for semiochemicals is pivotal in pest control as these agents can improve monitoring and be deployed within integrated pest management programmes for more efficacious control of pest species. However, methods used to date have drawbacks that limit their utility. We present and test a new concept for determining insect motivation to move towards, or away from, semiochemicals by noting direction and speed of movement as animals work against a defined energy landscape (environmentally dependent variation in the cost of transport) requiring different powers to negotiate. We conducted trials with the pine weevils Hylobius abietis and peach-potato aphids Myzus persicae exposed to various attractants and repellents and placed so that they either moved up defined slopes against gravity or had to travel over variously rough surfaces. Results Linear Mixed Models demonstrated clear reductions in travel speed by insects moving along increasingly energetically taxing energy landscapes but also that responses varied according to different semiochemicals, thus highlighting the value of energy landscapes as a new concept to help measure insect motivation to access or avoid different attractants or repellents across individuals. Conclusions New sensitive, detailed indicators of insect motivation derived from this approach should prove important in pest control across the world. PMID:25171062

  12. Molecular technologies to improve the effectiveness of the sterile insect technique.

    PubMed

    Franz, Gerald; Robinson, Alan S

    2011-01-01

    The application of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) in area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes continues to increase. However, programme efficiency can still be considerably enhanced when certain components of the technology are improved, such as the development of improved strains for mass rearing and release. These include strains that (1) produce only male insects for sterilization and release and (2) carry easily identifiable markers to identify released sterile insects in the field. Using both classical and modern biotechnology techniques, key insect pests are targeted, where SIT programmes are being implemented. The pests include mosquitoes, the Mexican fruit fly, the codling moth, the oriental fruit fly and the pink bollworm. This special issue summarizes the results of research efforts aimed at the development and evaluation of new strains to a level where a decision can be made as to their suitability for use in large scale SIT programmes. Major beneficiaries will be operational AW-IPM programmes that apply the SIT against major insect pests. PMID:21258957

  13. Acoustic Monitoring of Insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farmers, grain elevator managers, and food processors often sample grain for insect damaged kernels and numbers of live adult insects but these easily obtained measurements of insect levels do not provide reliable estimates of the typically much larger populations of internally feeding immature inse...

  14. Insect glutathione transferases.

    PubMed

    Ketterman, Albert J; Saisawang, Chonticha; Wongsantichon, Jantana

    2011-05-01

    This article is an overview of the current knowledge of insect glutathione transferases. Three major topics are discussed: the glutathione transferase contributions to insecticide resistance, the polymorphic nature of the insect glutathione transferase superfamily, and a summary of the current structure-function studies on insect glutathione transferases. PMID:21323601

  15. Evaporative cooling in insects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry D. Prange

    1996-01-01

    Insects commonly use behavior to avoid the heat stress and consequent water loss of hot environments. It has been assumed by many to be impossible or impractical for insects to employ evaporative cooling. Despite this assumption, there have been many instances, historically and recently where insects are reported to survive otherwise lethal temperatures by evaporating water. The site of evaporation

  16. INSECT BIOLOGY AND IDENTIFICATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An overview of the biology of five important stored-product pests (Indianmeal moth, red flour beetle, lesser grain borer, sawtoothed grain beetle, and warehouse beetle) will be presented. For each pest species, aspects of their taxonomy, lifecycle, behavior, and population dynamics will be covered....

  17. Evolutionary history predicts plant defense against an invasive pest

    PubMed Central

    Desurmont, Gaylord A.; Donoghue, Michael J.; Clement, Wendy L.; Agrawal, Anurag A.

    2011-01-01

    It has long been hypothesized that invasive pests may be facilitated by the evolutionary naïveté of their new hosts, but this prediction has never been examined in a phylogenetic framework. To address the hypothesis, we have been studying the invasive viburnum leaf beetle (Pyrrhalta viburni), which is decimating North American native species of Viburnum, a clade of worldwide importance as understory shrubs and ornamentals. In a phylogenetic field experiment using 16 species of Viburnum, we show that old-world Viburnum species that evolved in the presence of Pyrrhalta beetles mount a massive defensive wound response that crushes eggs of the pest insect; in contrast, naïve North American species that share no evolutionary history with Pyrrhalta beetles show a markedly lower response. This convergent continental difference in the defensive response of Viburnum spp. against insect oviposition contrasts with little difference in the quality of leaves for beetle larvae. Females show strong oviposition preferences that correspond with larval performance regardless of continental origin, which has facilitated colonization of susceptible North American species. Thus, although much attention has been paid to escape from enemies as a factor in the establishment and spread of nonnative organisms, the colonization of undefended resources seems to play a major role in the success of invasive species such as the viburnum leaf beetle. PMID:21482779

  18. Journal of Insect Science:Vol. 10 | Article 161 Frchette et al. Journal of Insect Science | www.insectscience.org 1

    E-print Network

    Lucas, Éric

    . tarijense to the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrlysomelidae production is hindered by a complex of insect pests. In Quebec, Canada, the Colorado potato beetle), the potato flea beetle Epitrix cucumeris (Harris), and the potato leafhopper Empoasca fabae (Harris

  19. Molecular technologies to improve the effectiveness of the sterile insect technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald Franz; Alan S. Robinson

    2011-01-01

    The application of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) in area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes continues\\u000a to increase. However, programme efficiency can still be considerably enhanced when certain components of the technology are\\u000a improved, such as the development of improved strains for mass rearing and release. These include strains that (1) produce\\u000a only male insects for sterilization and release and

  20. Integration of Insect-Resistant Genetically Modified Crops within IPM Programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George G. Kennedy

    Although host plant resistance has long been an important insect management tactic, its wide-spread use has been constrained\\u000a by the limited availability of elite cultivars possessing high levels of resistance to key pest species. The application of\\u000a recombinant DNA technology to genetically engineer insect-resistant crop plants has provided a way to eliminate this constraint\\u000a and make host plant resistance a

  1. Transgenic bt rice does not challenge host preference of the target pest of rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic Bt rice line T2A-1 expressed a synthetic cry2A gene and exhibited high resistance to Lepidoptera pests, including Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Plant volatile cues usually are essential for phytophagous insects to locate the food source and oviposition site. ...

  2. Process protocols based on radio frequency energy to control field and storage pests in in-shell walnuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A practical process protocol was developed to control insect pests in in-shell walnuts using a 27 MHz pilot scale radio frequency (RF) system. Fifth-instars, that had been determined to be the most heat resistant life stage for navel orangeworm (Amyelois transitella [Walker]) using a heating block s...

  3. Development of a competitive ELISA for detecting antibodies to the peste des petits ruminants virus using a recombinant nucleobrotein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Diallo

    1995-01-01

    A competitive ELISA based on the reaction between a monoclonal antibody (mAb) and a recombinant nucleoprotein of the peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) was developed. This protein was obtained in large quantities from insect cells infected with a PPR nucleoprotein recombinant baculovirus (N-B). The competitive ELISA was compared with the virus neutralisation test (VNT) for detecting specific antibodies to

  4. Use of infochemicals in pest management with special reference to the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILLIAM TINZAARA; MARCEL DICKE; ARNOLD VAN HUIS; CLIFFORD S. GOLD

    2002-01-01

    Infochemicals play an important role in the biology of many insect species. An understanding of their role in plant-herbivore-carnivore interactions can be used in the development of tools for the enhancement of environmentally benign alternatives to synthetic pesticides. This review discusses how chemical information mediates ecological interactions between organisms and the role of infochemicals in integrated pest management. Infochemicals can

  5. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Using NASA Sensors to Perform Crop Type Assessment for Monitoring Insect Resistance in Corn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, David; Copenhaver, Ken; Anderson, Daniel; Hilbert, Kent

    2007-01-01

    The EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) is tasked to monitor for insect pest resistance to transgenic crops. Several models have been developed to understand the resistance properties of insects. The Population Genetics Simulator model is used in the EPA PIRDSS (Pest Infestation and Resistance Decision Support System). The EPA Office of Pesticide Programs uses the DSS to help understand the potential for insect pest resistance development and the likelihood that insect pest resistance will negatively affect transgenic corn. Once the DSS identifies areas of concern, crews are deployed to collect insect pest samples, which are tested to identify whether they have developed resistance to the toxins in transgenic corn pesticides. In this candidate solution, VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) vegetation index products will be used to build hypertemporal layerstacks for crop type and phenology assessment. The current phenology attribute is determined by using the current time of year to index the expected growth stage of the crop. VIIRS might provide more accurate crop type assessment and also might give a better estimate on the crop growth stage.

  6. Phylogeographic insights into an irruptive pest outbreak.

    PubMed

    Cullingham, Catherine I; Roe, Amanda D; Sperling, Felix A H; Coltman, David W

    2012-05-01

    Irruptive forest insect pests cause considerable ecological and economic damage, and their outbreaks have been increasing in frequency and severity. We use a phylogeographic approach to understand the location and progression of an outbreak by the MPB (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins), an irruptive bark beetle that has caused unprecedented damage to lodgepole pine forests in western North America and is poised to expand its range across the boreal forest. We sampled MPB populations across British Columbia and Alberta and used phylogeographic methods to describe lineage diversification, characterize population structure, investigate expansion dynamics, and identify source populations of the outbreak. Using 1181 bp of mitochondrial DNA sequence from 267 individuals, we found high haplotype diversity, low nucleotide diversity, and limited lineage diversification. The overall pattern was consistent with isolation by distance at a continental scale, and with reduced diversity and population structure in the northerly, outbreak regions. Post-Pleistocene expansion was detected, however more recent expansion signals were not detected, potentially due to the size and rapid rate of range expansion. Based on the limited genetic structure, there were likely multiple source populations in southern British Columbia, although the magnitude of the demographic expansion and rate of spread have obscured the signature of these source populations. Our data highlight the need for caution in interpreting phylogeographic results for species with similar demographics. PMID:22837836

  7. Phylogeographic insights into an irruptive pest outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Cullingham, Catherine I; Roe, Amanda D; Sperling, Felix A H; Coltman, David W

    2012-01-01

    Irruptive forest insect pests cause considerable ecological and economic damage, and their outbreaks have been increasing in frequency and severity. We use a phylogeographic approach to understand the location and progression of an outbreak by the MPB (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins), an irruptive bark beetle that has caused unprecedented damage to lodgepole pine forests in western North America and is poised to expand its range across the boreal forest. We sampled MPB populations across British Columbia and Alberta and used phylogeographic methods to describe lineage diversification, characterize population structure, investigate expansion dynamics, and identify source populations of the outbreak. Using 1181 bp of mitochondrial DNA sequence from 267 individuals, we found high haplotype diversity, low nucleotide diversity, and limited lineage diversification. The overall pattern was consistent with isolation by distance at a continental scale, and with reduced diversity and population structure in the northerly, outbreak regions. Post-Pleistocene expansion was detected, however more recent expansion signals were not detected, potentially due to the size and rapid rate of range expansion. Based on the limited genetic structure, there were likely multiple source populations in southern British Columbia, although the magnitude of the demographic expansion and rate of spread have obscured the signature of these source populations. Our data highlight the need for caution in interpreting phylogeographic results for species with similar demographics. PMID:22837836

  8. Molecular and Insecticidal Characterization of a Novel Cry-Related Protein from Bacillus Thuringiensis Toxic against Myzus persicae

    PubMed Central

    Palma, Leopoldo; Muñoz, Delia; Berry, Colin; Murillo, Jesús; Ruiz de Escudero, Iñigo; Caballero, Primitivo

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the insecticidal activity of a novel Bacillus thuringiensis Cry-related protein with a deduced 799 amino acid sequence (~89 kDa) and ~19% pairwise identity to the 95-kDa-aphidicidal protein (sequence number 204) from patent US 8318900 and ~40% pairwise identity to the cancer cell killing Cry proteins (parasporins Cry41Ab1 and Cry41Aa1), respectively. This novel Cry-related protein contained the five conserved amino acid blocks and the three conserved domains commonly found in 3-domain Cry proteins. The protein exhibited toxic activity against the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Homoptera: Aphididae) with the lowest mean lethal concentration (LC50 = 32.7 ?g/mL) reported to date for a given Cry protein and this insect species, whereas it had no lethal toxicity against the Lepidoptera of the family Noctuidae Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), Mamestra brassicae (L.), Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), S. frugiperda (J.E. Smith) and S. littoralis (Boisduval), at concentrations as high as ~3.5 ?g/cm2. This novel Cry-related protein may become a promising environmentally friendly tool for the biological control of M. persicae and possibly also for other sap sucking insect pests. PMID:25384108

  9. Molecular and insecticidal characterization of a novel Cry-related protein from Bacillus thuringiensis toxic against Myzus persicae.

    PubMed

    Palma, Leopoldo; Muñoz, Delia; Berry, Colin; Murillo, Jesús; de Escudero, Iñigo Ruiz; Caballero, Primitivo

    2014-11-01

    This study describes the insecticidal activity of a novel Bacillus thuringiensis Cry-related protein with a deduced 799 amino acid sequence (~89 kDa) and ~19% pairwise identity to the 95-kDa-aphidicidal protein (sequence number 204) from patent US 8318900 and ~40% pairwise identity to the cancer cell killing Cry proteins (parasporins Cry41Ab1 and Cry41Aa1), respectively. This novel Cry-related protein contained the five conserved amino acid blocks and the three conserved domains commonly found in 3-domain Cry proteins. The protein exhibited toxic activity against the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Homoptera: Aphididae) with the lowest mean lethal concentration (LC50 = 32.7 ?g/mL) reported to date for a given Cry protein and this insect species, whereas it had no lethal toxicity against the Lepidoptera of the family Noctuidae Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), Mamestra brassicae (L.), Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), S. frugiperda (J.E. Smith) and S. littoralis (Boisduval), at concentrations as high as ~3.5 ?g/cm2. This novel Cry-related protein may become a promising environmentally friendly tool for the biological control of M. persicae and possibly also for other sap sucking insect pests. PMID:25384108

  10. Barriers in a tropical orchard landscape: how the presence or absence of hedges influences insect dispersal in mixed orchards of Carica papaya and Manilkara zapota.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence of plants in the form of a hedge may hinder or alter movement of certain insects into and within an orchard. We investigated the impact that the presence of a hedge of tall grass had on infestation by various pests into mixed orchards of papaya and sapodilla. For most insects there was ...

  11. Adopting Integrated Pest Management in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, William E.

    1991-01-01

    The development of an effective Integrated Pest Management program is discussed. Provided are the common goals and procedures involved in adopting an Integrated Pest Management program for schools. (CW)

  12. Pantry and Fabric Pests in the Home

    E-print Network

    Merchant, Michael E.; Brown, Wizzie

    2008-10-22

    Pests such as Indian meal moths and various beetles and weevils can infest stored food. Dermestes beetles and clothes moths attack stored fabrics, hides and feathers. The first step in controlling these pests is learning to identify them and find...

  13. Sample NRCS Integrated Pest Management

    E-print Network

    Isaacs, Rufus

    erosion. Invasive species control on agricultural land. Habitat concerning Beneficial insects: __________________________ Farm number: ___________________________ Tract number: ___________________________ Crop rotation is located in Rice County Minnesota. The property has a mix of orchard blocks, crop land, hay/pasture land

  14. Use of Airborne MultiSpectral Imagery in Pest Management Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Huang; Y. Lan; W. C. Hoffmann

    A multi-spectral imaging system for use on agricultural aircraft was developed and tested to provide images of fields and help farmers and crop consultants manage agricultural lands. The results of this research indicate that the airborne MS4100 multi-spectral imaging system has a great potential for use in areawide pest management systems, such as weed control or detection of insect damage.

  15. Eco-Friendly Management of Major Pests of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Praveen; N. Dhandapani

    2001-01-01

    Studies were carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of different biocontrol agents against the major pests of okra, a leafhopper, Amrasca biguttula biguttula, sweet potato whitefly, Bemesia tabaci and cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii as well as fruitboring insects, Helicoverpa armigera and Earias vitella in Coimbalore, Tamil Nadu, India. The results revealed that release\\/application of the predator, Chrysoperla carnea (25,000 larvae\\/ha\\/release)

  16. A Suite of Models to Support the Quantitative Assessment of Spread in Pest Risk Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Robinet, Christelle; Kehlenbeck, Hella; Kriticos, Darren J.; Baker, Richard H. A.; Battisti, Andrea; Brunel, Sarah; Dupin, Maxime; Eyre, Dominic; Faccoli, Massimo; Ilieva, Zhenya; Kenis, Marc; Knight, Jon; Reynaud, Philippe; Yart, Annie; van der Werf, Wopke

    2012-01-01

    Pest Risk Analyses (PRAs) are conducted worldwide to decide whether and how exotic plant pests should be regulated to prevent invasion. There is an increasing demand for science-based risk mapping in PRA. Spread plays a key role in determining the potential distribution of pests, but there is no suitable spread modelling tool available for pest risk analysts. Existing models are species specific, biologically and technically complex, and data hungry. Here we present a set of four simple and generic spread models that can be parameterised with limited data. Simulations with these models generate maps of the potential expansion of an invasive species at continental scale. The models have one to three biological parameters. They differ in whether they treat spatial processes implicitly or explicitly, and in whether they consider pest density or pest presence/absence only. The four models represent four complementary perspectives on the process of invasion and, because they have different initial conditions, they can be considered as alternative scenarios. All models take into account habitat distribution and climate. We present an application of each of the four models to the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, using historic data on its spread in Europe. Further tests as proof of concept were conducted with a broad range of taxa (insects, nematodes, plants, and plant pathogens). Pest risk analysts, the intended model users, found the model outputs to be generally credible and useful. The estimation of parameters from data requires insights into population dynamics theory, and this requires guidance. If used appropriately, these generic spread models provide a transparent and objective tool for evaluating the potential spread of pests in PRAs. Further work is needed to validate models, build familiarity in the user community and create a database of species parameters to help realize their potential in PRA practice. PMID:23056174

  17. Integrated Management of Structural Pests in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Dept. of Public Health, Springfield.

    The state of Illinois is encouraging schools to better inspect and evaluate the causes of their pest infestation problems through use of the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) guidelines developed by the Illinois Department of Public Health. This guide reviews the philosophy and organization of an IPM program for structural pests in schools,…

  18. Field and Forage Crop Pests. MEP 310.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Omar, D.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland, this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests that can be found in field and forage crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of…

  19. Microbial management of arthropod pests of tea: current state and prospects.

    PubMed

    Roy, Somnath; Muraleedharan, Narayanannair

    2014-06-01

    Sustainable tea cultivation will rely increasingly on alternatives to conventional chemical insecticides for pest management that are environment-friendly and reduce the amount of pesticide residues in made tea. Entomopathogens can provide effective control, conserve biodiversity, and serve as alternatives to chemical insecticides under several conditions. Due to their specificity for insects, these pathogens including viruses, bacteria, and fungi are ideal candidates for incorporation in the integrated pest management strategies for tea where their effects on other natural enemies will be minimal. Biological and ecological characteristics of several dominant natural entomopathogenic microorganisms have been well documented throughout the tea-growing countries particularly China, Japan, and India. But research to convert them to microbial insecticide formulations for tea pest control by evolving suitable techniques for production, standardization, formulation, and application has not progressed well except in Japan and China to some extent. Increased use of microbial control will depend on a variety of factors including improvements in the pathogens' virulence, formulation, delivery, etc. and an increased awareness of their attributes by growers and the general public. In this review, we provide an overview of microbial control of the key insect pests of tea and also the scope for future studies for their better utilization. PMID:24760230

  20. Pests vs. drought as determinants of plant distribution along a tropical rainfall gradient.

    PubMed

    Brenes-Arguedas, Tania; Coley, Phyllis D; Kursar, Thomas A

    2009-07-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that shape the distribution of organisms can help explain patterns of local and regional biodiversity and predict the susceptibility of communities to environmental change. In the species-rich tropics, a gradient in rainfall between wet evergreen and dry seasonal forests correlates with turnover of plant species. The strength of the dry season has previously been shown to correlate with species composition. Herbivores and pathogens (pests) have also been hypothesized to be important drivers of plant distribution, although empirical evidence is lacking. In this study we experimentally tested the existence of a gradient in pest pressure across a rainfall gradient in the Isthmus of Panama and measured the influence of pests relative to drought on species turnover. We established two common gardens on the dry and wet sides of the Isthmus using seedlings from 24 plant species with contrasting distributions along the Isthmus. By experimentally manipulating water availability and insect herbivore access, we showed that pests are not as strong a determinant of plant distributions as is seasonal drought. Seasonal drought in the dry site excluded wet-distribution species by significantly increasing their seedling mortality. Pathogen mortality and insect herbivore damage were both higher in the wet site, supporting the existence of a gradient in pest pressure. However, contrary to predictions, we found little evidence that dry-distribution species suffered significantly more pest attack than wet-distribution species. Instead, we hypothesize that dry-distribution species are limited from colonizing wetter forests by their inherently slower growth rates imposed by drought adaptations. We conclude that mechanisms limiting the recruitment of dry-distribution species in wet forests are not nearly as strong as those limiting wet-distribution species from dry forests. PMID:19694125