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1

Transgenic rice expressing Allium sativum leaf lectin with enhanced resistance against sap-sucking insect pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mannose binding Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL) has been shown to be antifeedant and insecticidal against sap-sucking insects. In the present investigation, ASAL coding sequence was expressed under the control of CaMV35S promoter in a chimeric gene cassette containing plant selection marker, hpt and gusA reporter gene of pCAMBIA1301 binary vector in an elite indica rice cv. IR64. Many fertile

Prasenjit Saha; Pralay Majumder; Indrajit Dutta; Tui Ray; S. C. Roy; Sampa Das

2006-01-01

2

Molecular characterization of a novel vegetative insecticidal protein from Bacillus thuringiensis effective against sap-sucking insect pest.  

PubMed

Several isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) were screened for the vegetative insecticidal protein (Vip) effective against sap-sucking insect pests. Screening results were based on LC(50) values against cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii), one of the dangerous pests of various crop plants including cotton. Among the isolates, the Bt#BREF24 showed promising results, and upon purification the aphidicidal protein was recognized as a binary toxin. One of the components of this binary toxin was identified by peptide sequencing to be a homolog of Vip2A that has been reported previously in other Bacillus spp. Vip2 belongs to the binary toxin group Vip1-Vip2, and is responsible for the enzymatic activity; and Vip1 is the translocation and receptor binding protein. The two genes encoding the corresponding proteins of the binary toxin, designated as vip2Ae and vip1Ae, were cloned from the Bt#BREF24, sequenced, and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. Aphid feeding assay with the recombinant proteins confirmed that these proteins are indeed the two components of the binary toxins, and the presence of both partners is essential for the activity. Aphid specificity of the binary toxin was further verified by ligand blotting experiment, which identified an ~50 kDa receptor in the brush border membrane vesicles of the cotton aphids only, but not in the lepidopteran insects. Our finding holds a promise of its use in future as a candidate gene for developing transgenic crop plants tolerant against sap-sucking insect pests. PMID:21952370

Sattar, Sampurna; Maiti, Mrinal K

2011-09-01

3

Particle-bombardment-mediated co-transformation of elite Chinese rice cultivars with genes conferring resistance to bacterial blight and sap-sucking insect pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Transgenic rice plants were generated using particle bombardment to simultaneously introduce the rice Xa21 gene effective against bacterial blight and the Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (snowdrop lectin; gna) gene effective against sap-sucking insect pests, specifically the brown plant hopper. Using three plasmids, we co-transformed\\u000a 5- to 10-d-old, mature seed-derived rice (Oryza sativa L.) callus of two elite Chinese rice cultivars,

Kexuan Tang; Porntip Tinjuangjun; Yanan Xu; Xiaofen Sun; John A. Gatehouse; Pamela C. Ronald; Huaxiong Qi; Xinggui Lu; Paul Christou; Ajay Kohli

1999-01-01

4

Comparative transcriptome analysis of Gossypium hirsutum L. in response to sap sucking insects: aphid and whitefly  

PubMed Central

Background Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is a major fiber crop that is grown worldwide; it faces extensive damage from sap-sucking insects, including aphids and whiteflies. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis was performed to understand the molecular details of interaction between Gossypium hirsutum L. and sap-sucking pests, namely Aphis gossypii (Aphid) and Bemisia tabacci (Whiteflies). Roche’s GS-Titanium was used to sequence transcriptomes of cotton infested with aphids and whiteflies for 2 h and 24 h. Results A total of 100935 contigs were produced with an average length of 529 bp after an assembly in all five selected conditions. The Blastn of the non-redundant (nr) cotton EST database resulted in the identification of 580 novel contigs in the cotton plant. It should be noted that in spite of minimal physical damage caused by the sap-sucking insects, they can change the gene expression of plants in 2 h of infestation; further change in gene expression due to whiteflies is quicker than due to aphids. The impact of the whitefly 24 h after infestation was more or less similar to that of the aphid 2 h after infestation. Aphids and whiteflies affect many genes that are regulated by various phytohormones and in response to microbial infection, indicating the involvement of complex crosstalk between these pathways. The KOBAS analysis of differentially regulated transcripts in response to aphids and whiteflies indicated that both the insects induce the metabolism of amino acids biosynthesis specially in case of whiteflies infestation at later phase. Further we also observed that expression of transcript related to photosynthesis specially carbon fixation were significantly influenced by infestation of Aphids and Whiteflies. Conclusions A comparison of different transcriptomes leads to the identification of differentially and temporally regulated transcripts in response to infestation by aphids and whiteflies. Most of these differentially expressed contigs were related to genes involved in biotic, abiotic stresses and enzymatic activities related to hydrolases, transferases, and kinases. The expression of some marker genes such as the overexpressors of cationic peroxidase 3, lipoxygenase I, TGA2, and non-specific lipase, which are involved in phytohormonal-mediated plant resistance development, was suppressed after infestation by aphids and whiteflies, indicating that insects suppressed plant resistance in order to facilitate their infestation. We also concluded that cotton shares several pathways such as phagosomes, RNA transport, and amino acid metabolism with Arabidopsis in response to the infestation by aphids and whiteflies.

2013-01-01

5

Transgenic rice expressing Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL) exhibits high-level resistance against major sap-sucking pests  

PubMed Central

Background Rice (Oryza sativa) productivity is adversely impacted by numerous biotic and abiotic factors. An approximate 52% of the global production of rice is lost annually owing to the damage caused by biotic factors, of which ~21% is attributed to the attack of insect pests. In this paper we report the isolation, cloning and characterization of Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (asal) gene, and its expression in elite indica rice cultivars using Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation method. The stable transgenic lines, expressing ASAL, showed explicit resistance against major sap-sucking pests. Results Allium sativum leaf lectin gene (asal), coding for mannose binding homodimeric protein (ASAL) from garlic plants, has been isolated and introduced into elite indica rice cultivars susceptible to sap-sucking insects, viz., brown planthopper (BPH), green leafhopper (GLH) and whitebacked planthopper (WBPH). Embryogenic calli of rice were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium harbouring pSB111 super-binary vector comprising garlic lectin gene asal along with the herbicide resistance gene bar, both under the control of CaMV35S promoter. PCR and Southern blot analyses confirmed stable integration of transgenes into the genomes of rice plants. Northern and western blot analyses revealed expression of ASAL in different transgenic rice lines. In primary transformants, the level of ASAL protein, as estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, varied between 0.74% and 1.45% of the total soluble proteins. In planta insect bioassays on transgenic rice lines revealed potent entomotoxic effects of ASAL on BPH, GLH and WBPH insects, as evidenced by significant decreases in the survival, development and fecundity of the insects. Conclusion In planta insect bioassays were carried out on asal transgenic rice lines employing standard screening techniques followed in conventional breeding for selection of insect resistant plants. The ASAL expressing rice plants, bestowed with high entomotoxic effects, imparted appreciable resistance against three major sap-sucking insects. Our results amply demonstrate that transgenic indica rice harbouring asal exhibit surpassing resistance against BPH, GLH and WBPH insects. The prototypic asal transgenic rice lines appear promising for direct commercial cultivation besides serving as a potential genetic resource in recombination breeding.

Yarasi, Bharathi; Sadumpati, Vijayakumar; Immanni, China Pasalu; Vudem, Dasavantha Reddy; Khareedu, Venkateswara Rao

2008-01-01

6

Resistance to sap-sucking insects in modern-day agriculture.  

PubMed

Plants and herbivores have co-evolved in their natural habitats for about 350 million years, but since the domestication of crops, plant resistance against insects has taken a different turn. With the onset of monoculture-driven modern agriculture, selective pressure on insects to overcome resistances has dramatically increased. Therefore plant breeders have resorted to high-tech tools to continuously create new insect-resistant crops. Efforts in the past 30 years have resulted in elucidation of mechanisms of many effective plant defenses against insect herbivores. Here, we critically appraise these efforts and - with a focus on sap-sucking insects - discuss how these findings have contributed to herbivore-resistant crops. Moreover, in this review we try to assess where future challenges and opportunities lay ahead. Of particular importance will be a mandatory reduction in systemic pesticide usage and thus a greater reliance on alternative methods, such as improved plant genetics for plant resistance to insect herbivores. PMID:23818892

Vandoorn, Arjen; de Vos, Martin

2013-06-27

7

Development of transgenic cotton lines expressing Allium sativum agglutinin (ASAL) for enhanced resistance against major sap-sucking pests.  

PubMed

Mannose-specific Allium sativum leaf agglutinin encoding gene (ASAL) and herbicide tolerance gene (BAR) were introduced into an elite cotton inbred line (NC-601) employing Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Cotton transformants were produced from the phosphinothricin (PPT)-resistant shoots obtained after co-cultivation of mature embryos with the Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harbouring recombinant binary vector pCAMBIA3300-ASAL-BAR. PCR and Southern blot analysis confirmed the presence and stable integration of ASAL and BAR genes in various transformants of cotton. Basta leaf-dip assay, northern blot, western blot and ELISA analyses disclosed variable expression of BAR and ASAL transgenes in different transformants. Transgenes, ASAL and BAR, were stably inherited and showed co-segregation in T1 generation in a Mendelian fashion for both PPT tolerance and insect resistance. In planta insect bioassays on T2 and T3 homozygous ASAL-transgenic lines revealed potent entomotoxic effects of ASAL on jassid and whitefly insects, as evidenced by significant decreases in the survival, development and fecundity of the insects when compared to the untransformed controls. Furthermore, the transgenic cotton lines conferred higher levels of resistance (1-2 score) with minimal plant damage against these major sucking pests when bioassays were carried out employing standard screening techniques. The developed transgenics could serve as a potential genetic resource in recombination breeding aimed at improving the pest resistance of cotton. This study represents the first report of its kind dealing with the development of transgenic cotton resistant to two major sap-sucking insects. PMID:24023750

Vajhala, Chakravarthy S K; Sadumpati, Vijaya Kumar; Nunna, Hariprasad Rao; Puligundla, Sateesh Kumar; Vudem, Dashavantha Reddy; Khareedu, Venkateswara Rao

2013-09-04

8

Novel inducible antibacterial peptides from a hemipteran insect, the sap-sucking bug Pyrrhocoris apterus.  

PubMed Central

Insects belonging to the recent orders of the endopterygote clade (Lepidoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Coleoptera) respond to bacterial challenge by the rapid and transient synthesis of a battery of potent antibacterial peptides which are secreted into their haemolymph. Here we present the first report on inducible antibacterial molecules in the sap-sucking bug Pyrrhocoris apterus, a representative species of the Hemiptera, which predated the Endoptergotes by at least 50 million years in evolution. We have isolated and characterized from immune blood of this species three novel peptides or polypeptides: (i) a 43-residue cysteine-rich anti-(Gram-positive bacteria) peptide which is a new member of the family of insect defensins; (ii) a 20-residue proline-rich peptide carrying an O-glycosylated substitution (N-acetylgalactosamine), active against Gram-negative bacteria; (iii) a 133-residue glycine-rich polypeptide also active against Gram-negative bacteria. The proline-rich peptide shows high sequence similarities with drosocin, an O-glycosylated antibacterial peptide from Drosophila, and also with the N-terminal domain of diptericin, an inducible 9 kDa antibacterial peptide from members of the order Diptera, whereas the glycine-rich peptide has similarities with the glycine-rich domain of diptericin. We discuss the evolutionary aspects of these findings. Images Figure 1 Figure 3

Cociancich, S; Dupont, A; Hegy, G; Lanot, R; Holder, F; Hetru, C; Hoffmann, J A; Bulet, P

1994-01-01

9

Seasonality of sap-sucking insects (Auchenorrhyncha, Hemiptera) feeding on Ficus (Moraceae) in a lowland rain forest in New Guinea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sap-sucking insects (Auchenorrhyncha, Hemiptera) were sampled quantitatively from the foliage of 15 species of Ficus (Moraceae) in a lowland rain forest in Papua New Guinea. Continuous sampling throughout 12 months produced 61,777 individuals\\u000a and 491 species. Two seasonality parameters, circular statistics and Lloyd's index, were calculated for 139 species with a\\u000a sample size of more than 36 individuals. Most of

Vojtech Novotny; Yves Basset

1998-01-01

10

Allergenicity Assessment of Allium sativum Leaf Agglutinin, a Potential Candidate Protein for Developing Sap Sucking Insect Resistant Food Crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundMannose-binding Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL) is highly antinutritional and toxic to various phloem-feeding hemipteran insects. ASAL has been expressed in a number of agriculturally important crops to develop resistance against those insects. Awareness of the safety aspect of ASAL is absolutely essential for developing ASAL transgenic plants.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsFollowing the guidelines framed by the Food and Agriculture Organization\\/World Health Organization,

Hossain Ali Mondal; Dipankar Chakraborti; Pralay Majumder; Pampa Roy; Amit Roy; Swati Gupta Bhattacharya; Sampa Das

2011-01-01

11

Chitin synthase 1 gene and its two alternative splicing variants from two sap-sucking insects, Nilaparvata lugens and Laodelphax striatellus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).  

PubMed

Chitin synthase (CHS) is an enzyme that is required for chitin formation in insect cuticles and other tissues. In this study, CHS genes from two destructive rice insect pests, the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens and the small brown planthopper Laodelphax striatellus, were cloned. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these genes belonged to class CHS1 of the CHS gene family. Most insects possess two CHS genes (CHS1 and CHS2); however, genome and transcriptome searches showed that N. lugens possibly possess only CHS1 in both databases. Two transcript variants (CHS1a and CHS1b) resulting from exclusively alternative splicing (exon 19a or 19b in N. lugens) were identified for each of the two rice planthopper CHS1s. Gene structure comparison using the genomes that are currently sequenced showed that the CHS1 genes in all insects except Acyrthosiphon pisum have two transcript variants. Transcription of NlCHS1a reached its highest level just after molting, whereas NlCHS1b reached its highest expression level 1-2 days before molting. Injection of the N. lugens nymphs with double-strand RNA (dsRNA) of CHS1, CHS1a and CHS1b reduced the corresponding variant transcript levels and exhibited subsequent phenotypes. Silencing of CHS1 and CHS1a resulted in elongated distal wing pads and the "wasp-waisted" or crimpled cuticle phenotypes and eventually died, whereas the phenotypes caused by injection of NlCHS1b dsRNA seem not so obvious although slightly increased mortality was observed. Our results suggest that N. lugens likely lacks CHS2 and CHS1 may be efficient target gene for RNAi-based N. lugens control. PMID:22634163

Wang, Ying; Fan, Hai-Wei; Huang, Hai-Jian; Xue, Jian; Wu, Wen-Juan; Bao, Yan-Yuan; Xu, Hai-Jun; Zhu, Zeng-Rong; Cheng, Jia-An; Zhang, Chuan-Xi

2012-05-24

12

INSECT PESTS OF SORGHUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter presents a practical approach involving the use of multiple methods to manage insect pests of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. The approach emphasizes ways to avoid and prevent damaging insect pest infestations, and estimate insect abundance and evaluate severity of damage to determine when remedial action with insecticide is justified. Insect pests (including color plates), their biologies, and

George L. Teetes; Bonnie B. Pendleton

13

Toxins for Transgenic Resistance to Hemipteran Pests  

PubMed Central

The sap sucking insects (Hemiptera), which include aphids, whiteflies, plant bugs and stink bugs, have emerged as major agricultural pests. The Hemiptera cause direct damage by feeding on crops, and in some cases indirect damage by transmission of plant viruses. Current management relies almost exclusively on application of classical chemical insecticides. While the development of transgenic crops expressing toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has provided effective plant protection against some insect pests, Bt toxins exhibit little toxicity against sap sucking insects. Indeed, the pest status of some Hemiptera on Bt-transgenic plants has increased in the absence of pesticide application. The increased pest status of numerous hemipteran species, combined with increased prevalence of resistance to chemical insecticides, provides impetus for the development of biologically based, alternative management strategies. Here, we provide an overview of approaches toward transgenic resistance to hemipteran pests.

Chougule, Nanasaheb P.; Bonning, Bryony C.

2012-01-01

14

Important Insect Pests of Fruit - Important Insect Pests of Nuts - Field Crop Insect Pests - Insect Pests of Vegetable Crops.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document consists of four agriculture extension service publications from Pennsylvania State University. The titles are: (1) Important Insect Pests of Fruit; (2) Important Insect Pests of Nuts; (3) Field Crop Insect Pests; and (4) Insect Pests of Vegetable Crops. The first publication gives the hosts, injury, and description of 22 insect

Gesell, Stanley G.; And Others

15

Massively parallel pyrosequencing-based transcriptome analyses of small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus), a vector insect transmitting rice stripe virus (RSV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus) is an important agricultural pest that not only damages rice plants by sap-sucking, but also acts as a vector that transmits rice stripe virus (RSV), which can cause even more serious yield loss. Despite being a model organism for studying entomology, population biology, plant protection, molecular interactions among plants, viruses and insects, only

Fujie Zhang; Hongyan Guo; Huajun Zheng; Tong Zhou; Yijun Zhou; Shengyue Wang; Rongxiang Fang; Wei Qian; Xiaoying Chen

2010-01-01

16

Symbiont-mediated functions in insect hosts  

PubMed Central

The bacterial endosymbionts occur in a diverse array of insect species and are usually rely within the vertical transmission from mothers to offspring. In addition to primary symbionts, plant sap-sucking insects may also harbor several diverse secondary symbionts. Bacterial symbionts play a prominent role in insect nutritional ecology by aiding in digestion of food or supplementing nutrients that insect hosts can’t obtain sufficient amounts from a restricted diet of plant phloem. Currently, several other ecologically relevant traits mediated by endosymbionts are being investigated, including defense toward pathogens and parasites, adaption to environment, influences on insect-plant interactions, and impact of population dynamics. Here, we review recent theoretical predictions and experimental observations of these traits mediated by endosymbionts and suggest that clarifying the roles of symbiotic microbes may be important to offer insights for ameliorating pest invasiveness or impact.

Su, Qi; Zhou, Xiaomao; Zhang, Youjun

2013-01-01

17

Symbiont-mediated functions in insect hosts.  

PubMed

The bacterial endosymbionts occur in a diverse array of insect species and are usually rely within the vertical transmission from mothers to offspring. In addition to primary symbionts, plant sap-sucking insects may also harbor several diverse secondary symbionts. Bacterial symbionts play a prominent role in insect nutritional ecology by aiding in digestion of food or supplementing nutrients that insect hosts can't obtain sufficient amounts from a restricted diet of plant phloem. Currently, several other ecologically relevant traits mediated by endosymbionts are being investigated, including defense toward pathogens and parasites, adaption to environment, influences on insect-plant interactions, and impact of population dynamics. Here, we review recent theoretical predictions and experimental observations of these traits mediated by endosymbionts and suggest that clarifying the roles of symbiotic microbes may be important to offer insights for ameliorating pest invasiveness or impact. PMID:23710278

Su, Qi; Zhou, Xiaomao; Zhang, Youjun

2013-04-09

18

SOME INSECT PESTS NEW TO FLORIDA SUGARCANE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The number of insect and mite species attacking sugarcane in Florida has increased over time. Five new pest species were discovered during the 31-year period 1964 to 1995, one species indigenous to Florida with no previous association with sugarcane and four invasive species entirely new to the Eve...

19

Insect Pests Models and Insecticide Application  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the past, the dominant approach in theoretical pest management ecology has emphasized the use of simple analytical or mathematical models and the analysis of systems in equilibrium. Recent advancements in computer technology have provided the opportunity for ecological insect modelers to move aw...

20

Management of Stored Wheat Insect Pests in the USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management of stored-grain insect pests by farmers or elevator managers should be based upon a knowledge of the grain storage environment and the ecology of insect pests. Grain storage facilities and practices, geographical location, government policies, and marketing demands for grain quality are discussed as factors influencing stored-grain insect pest management decisions in the United States. Typical practices include a

David W. Hagstrum; Carl Reed; Phil Kenkel

1999-01-01

21

New insect pests of sugarcane in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five new insect pests were observed to infest sugarcane at Kannur in Kerala and at Coimbatore in Tamil Nadu, India. The leaf\\u000a minerAphanisticus aeneus Kerremans, was found to feed on all the species ofSaccharum exceptS. sinense. The laminar pubescence and colour did not appear to play any role in antixenosis.Chrysonolomyia sp. was found parasitising its pupae gregariously. Beetles of the

N. Mukunthan; R. Nirmala

2002-01-01

22

Plant Volatiles-based Insect Pest Management in Organic Farming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic agriculture is increasing in popularity worldwide due to the rapidly growing market for organic products. In organic production, insects present a major pest challenge that negatively impacts crop health and yield. To successfully manage an organic farmland, an effective insect pest management program is key. In this review, we first describe the approaches currently used for pest management in

Gitika Shrivastava; Mary Rogers; Annette Wszelaki; Dilip R. Panthee; Feng Chen

2010-01-01

23

A survey of rice insect pests in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of rice insect pests conducted during 1983–87 in Nigeria revealed 70 species of pests, 14 parasitoids and two predators. Both incidence and severity of pests varied considerably across different climatic zones and rice agro?ecosystems. Thirteen Insects were classified as major pests. They are: stalk?eyed fly. Diopsis longicornis Macquart; lepidopterous stem borers. Mallarpha separatella Rag., Chllo zacconius Blesz, Sesamia

M. S. Alam

1992-01-01

24

50 CFR 35.7 - Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease. 35.7 Section 35... Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease. To the extent necessary...measures to control wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease to prevent unacceptable...

2012-10-01

25

50 CFR 35.7 - Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-10-01 false Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease...General Rules § 35.7 Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease...Director shall prescribe measures to control wildfires, insects, pest plants, and...

2009-10-01

26

50 CFR 35.7 - Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease...General Rules § 35.7 Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease...Director shall prescribe measures to control wildfires, insects, pest plants, and...

2010-10-01

27

QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF INSECT PEST DAMAGE TO FIGS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Previous researchers have listed insect pests associated with figs in California, but the proportion of damage caused by different pests has not been described quantitatively. As broad spectrum insecticides have been replaced by less toxic but more species-specific pest management methods, this inf...

28

Breeding Vegetable Crops for Resistance to Insect Pests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper reviews the work done on resistance of various vegetable crops (excluding potato and sweet corn) to common insect pests (excluding mites) in different countries. Results on source of resistance to melon aphid, striped and spotted cucumber beetle...

P. Nath

1978-01-01

29

Monitoring Sterile and Wild Insects in Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management Programmes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insect pest control programmes, which integrate the release of sterile insects, can be efficient only if the released insects have an optimal biological quality. Frequent monitoring of the quality of reared insects after being released in the field is an important but often neglected component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique (SIT). Parameters

M. J. B. VREYSEN

30

Species richness of insect herbivore communities on Ficus in Papua New Guinea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insect herbivores were sampled from the foliage of 15 species of Ficus (Moraceae) in rainforest and coastal habitats in the Madang area, Papua New Guinea. The collection included 13 193 individuals representing 349 species of leaf-chewing insects and 44 900 individuals representing 430 species of sap-sucking insects. Despite a high sampling intensity, the species accumulation curve did not reach an

YVES BASSET; VOJTECH NOVOTNY

1999-01-01

31

Identification and Control of Common Insect Pests of Ornamental Shrubs and Trees.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University introduces the identification and control of common ornamental insect pests. For each of the insects or insect groups (i.e. aphids) identified in this publication, information on host plants, pest description, and damage caused by the pest is given. Also a calendar…

Gesell, Stanley G.

32

Insect pest management in tropical Asian irrigated rice.  

PubMed

Abundant natural enemies in tropical Asian irrigated rice usually prevent significant insect pest problems. Integrated pest management (IPM) extension education of depth and quality is required to discourage unnecessary insecticide use that upsets this natural balance, and to empower farmers as expert managers of a healthy paddy ecosystem. Farmers' skill and collaboration will be particularly important for sustainable exploitation of the potential of new, higher-yielding and pest-resistant rice. IPM "technology transfer" through training and visit (T&V) extension systems failed, although mass media campaigns encouraging farmer participatory research can reduce insecticide use. The "farmer first" approach of participatory nonformal education in farmer field schools, followed by community IPM activities emphasizing farmer-training-farmer and research by farmers, has had greater success in achieving IPM implementation. Extension challenges are a key topic for rice IPM research, and new pest management technology must promote, rather than endanger, ecological balance in rice paddies. PMID:10761589

Matteson, P C

2000-01-01

33

Farmers' perceptions of insect pests and pest management practices in Bt cotton in the Punjab, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to (1) examine the factors involved in the adoption or non-adoption of Bt cotton, (2) identify sources of Bt cotton seed acquisition, and (3) evaluate farmers' knowledge and perception of insect pests incidence and management practices in Bt cotton in the Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 150 farmers growing Bt cotton expressing Cry1Ac protein

Muhammad Arshad; Anjum Suhail; M. Dildar Gogi; M. Yaseen; M. Asghar; M. Tayyib; Haider Karar; Faisal Hafeez; Unsar Naeem Ullah

2009-01-01

34

Urban warming drives insect pest abundance on street trees.  

PubMed

Cities profoundly alter biological communities, favoring some species over others, though the mechanisms that govern these changes are largely unknown. Herbivorous arthropod pests are often more abundant in urban than in rural areas, and urban outbreaks have been attributed to reduced control by predators and parasitoids and to increased susceptibility of stressed urban plants. These hypotheses, however, leave many outbreaks unexplained and fail to predict variation in pest abundance within cities. Here we show that the abundance of a common insect pest is positively related to temperature even when controlling for other habitat characteristics. The scale insect Parthenolecanium quercifex was 13 times more abundant on willow oak trees in the hottest parts of Raleigh, NC, in the southeastern United States, than in cooler areas, though parasitism rates were similar. We further separated the effects of heat from those of natural enemies and plant quality in a greenhouse reciprocal transplant experiment. P. quercifex collected from hot urban trees became more abundant in hot greenhouses than in cool greenhouses, whereas the abundance of P. quercifex collected from cooler urban trees remained low in hot and cool greenhouses. Parthenolecanium quercifex living in urban hot spots succeed with warming, and they do so because some demes have either acclimatized or adapted to high temperatures. Our results provide the first evidence that heat can be a key driver of insect pest outbreaks on urban trees. Since urban warming is similar in magnitude to global warming predicted in the next 50 years, pest abundance on city trees may foreshadow widespread outbreaks as natural forests also grow warmer. PMID:23544087

Meineke, Emily K; Dunn, Robert R; Sexton, Joseph O; Frank, Steven D

2013-03-27

35

Latest and effective methods of controlling insect pests on rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

With increased rice production under improved methods, the problem of plant protection is more accentuated. Insect infestation\\u000a is found to be more in rice under high fertility. The usual indirect methods advocated till now, have not achieved the expected\\u000a results. Chemical method of control appears to be the most effective at present. Insecticidal control of pests that feed on\\u000a the

P. Israel

1959-01-01

36

TEMPERATURE-DEPENDENT DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF SELECTED SUBTROPICAL AND TROPICAL FRUITS AND ASSOCIATED INSECT PESTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the dielectric properties of commodities and insect pests is important in developing thermal treatments for postharvest insect control based on radio frequency (RF) and microwave energy. The dielectric properties of six subtropical and tropical fruits along with four associated insect pests were measured between 1 and 1800 MHz using an open-ended coaxial-line probe technique and at temperatures between

S. Wang; M. Monzon; Y. Gazit; J. Tang; E. J. Mitcham; J. W. Armstrong

37

Research on Prediction about Fruit Tree Diseases and Insect Pests Based on Neural Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit tree diseases and insect pests always occur which are related to weather. According to weather information and occurrence\\u000a status of fruit tree diseases and insect pests in orchards of the Qixia county for 11 years, the MATLAB neural network toolbox\\u000a was used to build up the prediction system about fruit tree diseases and insect pests based on Back Propagation

Gang Liu; Hongyan Shen; Xuehong Yang; Yinbing Ge

38

Weed manipulation for insect pest management in corn  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Populations of insect pests and associated predaceous arthropods were sampled by direct observation and other relative methods in simple and diversified corn habitats at two sites in north Florida during 1978 and 1979. Through various cultural manipulations, characteristic weed communities were established selectively in alternate rows within corn plots. Fall armyworm ( Spodoptera frugiperda J. E. Smith) incidence was consistently higher in the weed-free habitats than in the corn habitats containing natural weed complexes or selected weed associations. Corn earworm ( Heliothis zea Boddie) damage was similar in all weed-free and weedy treatments, suggesting that this insect is not affected greatly by weed diversity. Only the diversification of corn with a strip of soybean significantly reduced corn earworm damage. In one site, distance between plots was reduced. Because predators moved freely between habitats, it was difficult to identify between-treatment differences in the composition of predator communities. In the other site, increased distances between plots minimized such migrations, resulting in greater population densities and diversity of common foliage insect predators in the weed-manipulated corn systems than in the weed-free plots. Trophic relationships in the weedy habitats were more complex than food webs in monocultures. Predator diversity (measured as mean number of species per area) and predator density was higher in com plots surrounded by mature, complex vegetation than at those surrounded by annual crops. This suggests that diverse adjacent areas to crops provide refuge for predators, thus acting as colonization sources.

Altieri, M. A.; Whitcomb, W. H.

1980-11-01

39

Bats Track and Exploit Changes in Insect Pest Populations  

PubMed Central

The role of bats or any generalist predator in suppressing prey populations depends on the predator's ability to track and exploit available prey. Using a qPCR fecal DNA assay, we document significant association between numbers of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) consuming corn earworm (CEW) moths (Helicoverpa zea) and seasonal fluctuations in CEW populations. This result is consistent with earlier research linking the bats' diet to patterns of migration, abundance, and crop infestation by important insect pests. Here we confirm opportunistic feeding on one of the world's most destructive insects and support model estimates of the bats' ecosystem services. Regression analysis of CEW consumption versus the moth's abundance at four insect trapping sites further indicates that bats track local abundance of CEW within the regional landscape. Estimates of CEW gene copies in the feces of bats are not associated with seasonal or local patterns of CEW abundance, and results of captive feeding experiments indicate that our qPCR assay does not provide a direct measure of numbers or biomass of prey consumed. Our results support growing evidence for the role of generalist predators, and bats specifically, as agents for biological control and speak to the value of conserving indigenous generalist predators.

McCracken, Gary F.; Westbrook, John K.; Brown, Veronica A.; Eldridge, Melanie; Federico, Paula; Kunz, Thomas H.

2012-01-01

40

Bats track and exploit changes in insect pest populations.  

PubMed

The role of bats or any generalist predator in suppressing prey populations depends on the predator's ability to track and exploit available prey. Using a qPCR fecal DNA assay, we document significant association between numbers of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) consuming corn earworm (CEW) moths (Helicoverpa zea) and seasonal fluctuations in CEW populations. This result is consistent with earlier research linking the bats' diet to patterns of migration, abundance, and crop infestation by important insect pests. Here we confirm opportunistic feeding on one of the world's most destructive insects and support model estimates of the bats' ecosystem services. Regression analysis of CEW consumption versus the moth's abundance at four insect trapping sites further indicates that bats track local abundance of CEW within the regional landscape. Estimates of CEW gene copies in the feces of bats are not associated with seasonal or local patterns of CEW abundance, and results of captive feeding experiments indicate that our qPCR assay does not provide a direct measure of numbers or biomass of prey consumed. Our results support growing evidence for the role of generalist predators, and bats specifically, as agents for biological control and speak to the value of conserving indigenous generalist predators. PMID:22952782

McCracken, Gary F; Westbrook, John K; Brown, Veronica A; Eldridge, Melanie; Federico, Paula; Kunz, Thomas H

2012-08-31

41

Description and Biology of Insects and Related Pests Injurious to Vegetable Crops - For Commercial Growers Only.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual is designed by the Massachusetts Cooperative Extension Service as a guide for the control of the most common insects and related pests of vegetable crops grown commercially in Massachusetts. It contains general information on insects and specific descriptions of the major pests, their life cycles, and the damage they cause. The topics…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

42

RECENT TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES FOR MANAGING INSECT PESTS OF STORED-GRAIN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Automation of grain sampling for insect pests should help to increase the adoption of stored-grain integrated pest management programs. Currently, there are acoustic sensors and electronic grain probe traps that are available for monitoring insects in stored grain. Both the acoustic and electronic g...

43

Soil fertility management and insect pests: harmonizing soil and plant health in agroecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultural methods such as crop fertilization can affect susceptibility of plants to insect pests by altering plant tissue nutrient levels. Research shows that the ability of a crop plant to resist or tolerate insect pests and diseases is tied to optimal physical, chemical and mainly biological properties of soils. Soils with high organic matter and active soil biology generally exhibit

Miguel A. Altieri; Clara I. Nicholls

2003-01-01

44

Proteomic analysis of Metarhizium anisopliae secretion in the presence of the insect pest Callosobruchus maculatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop improvement in agriculture generally focuses on yield, seed quality and nutritional characteristics, as opposed to resistance to biotic stresses. Consequently, natural antifeedant toxins are often rare in seed material, with commercial crops being prone to insect pest predation. In the specific case of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), smallholder cropping is affected by insect pests that reproduce inside the stored seeds.

A. M. Murad; E. F. Noronha; R. N. G. Miller; F. T. Costa; C. D. Pereira; A. Mehta; R. A. Caldas; O. L. Franco

2008-01-01

45

Predicting insect pest status under climate change scenarios: combining experimental data and population dynamics modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change could profoundly affect the status of agricultural insect pests. Several approaches have been used to predict how the temperature and precipitation changes could modify the abundances, distributions or status of insect pests. In this article it is demonstrated how the use of simple models, such as Ricker's classic equation, including a mechanistic representation of the influence of exogenous

S. A. Estay; M. Lima; F. A. Labra

2009-01-01

46

Control of key pecan insect pests using biorational pesticides.  

PubMed

Key pecan insect pests include the black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis), pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), and stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Alternative control tactics are needed for management of these pests in organic and conventional systems. Our objective was to evaluate the potential utility of several alternative insecticides including three plant extract formulations, eucalyptus extract, citrus extract-8.92%, and citrus extract-19.4%, and two microbial insecticides, Chromobacterium subtsugae (Martin et al.) and Isaria fumosorosea (Wize). In the laboratory, eucalyptus extract, citrus extract-8.92%, citrus extract-19.4%, and C. subtsugae caused M. caryaefoliae mortality (mortality was reached approximately 78, 83, and 96%, respectively). In field tests, combined applications of I. fumosorosea with eucalyptus extract were synergistic and caused up to 82% mortality in M. caryaefoliae. In laboratory assays focusing on C. caryae suppression, C. subtsugae reduced feeding and oviposition damage, eucalyptus extract and citrus extract-19.4% were ineffective, and antagonism was observed when citrus extract-19.4% was combined with the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser). In field tests, C. subtsugae reduced C. caryae damage by 55% within the first 3d, and caused 74.5% corrected mortality within 7 d posttreatment. In the laboratory, C. subtsugae and eucalyptus extract did not cause mortality in the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say). Applications of C. subtsugae for suppression of C. caryae, and eucalyptus extract plus I. fumosorosea for control of M. caryaefoliae show promise as alternative insecticides and should be evaluated further. PMID:23448039

Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Cottrell, Ted E; Jackson, Mark A; Wood, Bruce W

2013-02-01

47

[Effects of insecticides on insect pest-natural enemy community in early rice fields].  

PubMed

This paper studied the effects of triazophos, shachongshuang, abamectin, and Bt + imidacloprid on the insect pest-natural enemy community in early rice fields in the Yangtze-Huaihe region of Anhui Province. The results showed that all of the test insecticides had significant effects in controlling the growth of major insect pest populations. The average value of insect pest-natural enemy community diversity under effects of triazophos, shachongshuang, abamectin, and Bt + imidacloprid was 1.545, 1.562, 1.691 and 1.915, respectively, while that in control plot was 1.897. After two weeks of applying insecticides, the plots applied with shachongshuang and abamectin had a similar composition of insect pest-natural enemy community, but the community composition was significantly different between the plots applied with triazophos and Bt + imidacloprid. From the viewpoints of community stability and pest control, Bt + imidacloprid had the best effect, and shachongshuang and abamectin were better than triazophos. PMID:16883826

Jiang, Junqi; Miao, Yong; Zou, Yunding; Li, Guiting

2006-05-01

48

Changing farmers' perceptions and practices: the case of insect pest control in central Luzon, Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the decades, rice farmers have become dependent on chemicals to control insect pests. Farmers perceive that all insects are harmful and that insecticide is very effective in controlling them, aside from being very convenient to use. Empirical evidence shows that farmers' perceptions about insects and consequently their control practices can be changed through experiential methods. Experience can be achieved

F. G. Palis

1998-01-01

49

Qpais: A Web-Based Expert System for Assistedidentification of Quarantine Stored Insect Pests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stored insect pests can seriously depredate stored products causing worldwide economic losses. Pests enter countries traveling with transported goods. Inspection and Quarantine activities are essential to prevent the invasion and spread of pests. Identification of quarantine stored insect pests is an important component of the China's Inspection and Quarantine procedure, and it is necessary not only to identify whether the species captured is an invasive species, but determine control procedures for stored insect pests. With the development of information technologies, many expert systems that aid in the identification of agricultural pests have been developed. Expert systems for the identification of quarantine stored insect pests are rare and are mainly developed for stand-alone PCs. This paper describes the development of a web-based expert system for identification of quarantine stored insect pests as part of the China 11th Five-Year National Scientific and Technological Support Project (115 Project). Based on user needs, textual knowledge and images were gathered from the literature and expert interviews. ASP.NET, C# and SQL language were used to program the system. Improvement of identification efficiency and flexibility was achieved using a new inference method called characteristic-select-based spatial distance method. The expert system can assist identifying 150 species of quarantine stored insect pests and provide detailed information for each species. The expert system has also been evaluated using two steps: system testing and identification testing. With a 85% rate of correct identification and high efficiency, the system evaluation shows that this expert system can be used in identification work of quarantine stored insect pests.

Huang, Han; Rajotte, Edwin G.; Li, Zhihong; Chen, Ke; Zhang, Shengfang

50

1978 Insect Pest Management Guide: Home, Yard, and Garden. Circular 900.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication lists certain insecticides to control insect pests of food, fabrics, structures, man and animals, lawns, shrubs, trees, flowers and vegetables. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of insecticides to combat infestation. (CS)|

Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

51

Enhancement of Biological Control Agents for Use Against Forest Insect Pests and Diseases Through Biotechnology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research and development efforts in our research group are focused on the generation of more efficacious biological control agents through the techniques of biotechnology for use against forest insect pests and diseases. Effective biological controls for ...

J. M. Slavicek

1991-01-01

52

Proteomic analysis of Metarhizium anisopliae secretion in the presence of the insect pest Callosobruchus maculatus.  

PubMed

Crop improvement in agriculture generally focuses on yield, seed quality and nutritional characteristics, as opposed to resistance to biotic stresses. Consequently, natural antifeedant toxins are often rare in seed material, with commercial crops being prone to insect pest predation. In the specific case of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), smallholder cropping is affected by insect pests that reproduce inside the stored seeds. Entomopathogenic organisms can offer an alternative to conventional pesticides for pest control, producing hydrolases that degrade insect exoskeleton. In this study, protein secretions of the ascomycete Metarhizium anisopliae, which conferred bioinsecticidal activity against Callosobruchus maculatus, were characterized via 2D electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Proteases, reductases and acetyltransferase enzymes were detected. These may be involved in degradation and nutrient uptake from dehydrated C. maculatus. Proteins identified in this work allowed description of metabolic pathways. Their potential applications in biotechnology include both novel compound development and production of genetically modified plants resistant to insect pests. PMID:19047744

Murad, André M; Noronha, Eliane F; Miller, Robert N G; Costa, Fabio T; Pereira, Caroline D; Mehta, Angela; Caldas, Ruy A; Franco, Octávio L

2008-12-01

53

Genetic engineering of rice for resistance to homopteran insect pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rice brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens) is a serious pest of rice crops throughout Asia, damaging plants both through its feeding behavior and by acting as a virus vector. Like many homopteran pests of crops, it is primarily a phloem feeder, abstract- ing sap via specially adapted mouthparts. An artificial diet bioassay system for this pest was developed to

J. A. Gatehouse; K. Powell; H. Edmonds

54

Research on Publishing System of Fruit Tree Diseases and Insect Pests Based on Webgis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A web publishing system of fruit tree diseases and insect pests was developed based on WebGIS. It can publish most of the\\u000a new information of fruit tree diseases and insect pests with the spatial and zone features in the orchard. It can also make\\u000a appropriate prevention and cure decision in time. This system provides many analysis methods, including spatial query,

Zhifang Yang; Gang Liu; Yongsheng Si

55

Fluorescent Nanoparticle Delivered dsRNA Toward Genetic Control of Insect Pests.  

PubMed

A fluorescent cationic core-shell nanoparticle efficiently enters into cells with high transfection efficacy. A FNP/CHT10-dsRNA complex is orally fed to insect pests and knocks down a midgut-specific chitinase gene of the Asian corn borer, which leads to death. This is the first report on the genetic control of insect pests through a non-viral gene delivery system to knock down key developmental gene expression. PMID:23794475

He, Bicheng; Chu, Yuan; Yin, Meizhen; Müllen, Klaus; An, Chunju; Shen, Jie

2013-06-24

56

Defence Mechanisms of Brassicaceae: Implications for Plant-Insect Interactions and Potential for Integrated Pest Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Brassica crops are grown worldwide for oil, food and feed purposes, and constitute a significant economic value due to their nutritional,\\u000a medicinal, bioindustrial, biocontrol and crop rotation properties. Insect pests cause enormous yield and economic losses in\\u000a Brassica crop production every year, and are a threat to global agriculture. In order to overcome these insect pests, Brassica species themselves use

Ishita Ahuja; Jens Rohloff; Atle Magnar Bones

57

Influence of Climatic Changes on the Abundance of Major Insect Pests of Sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The abundance of major sugarcane insect pests like top shoot borer, stem borer and rootstock borer were investigated for the\\u000a last 28 years from 1980 to 2007 at Ishurdi, Pabna. The incidence of these major insect pests occurs in the months of March\\u000a to October. The abundance of top shoot borer, Scirpophaga excerptalis Walker, was positively correlated with rainfall (r

58

Interaction between juniper Juniperus communis L. and its fruit pest insects: Pest abundance, fruit characteristics and seed viability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships between the fruit features of Juniperus communis and the presence of fruit pests were studied in Sierra Nevada, SE Spain. The abundance of two insect species — a pulp-sucking scale and a seed-predator wasp — was surveyed with respect both to fruit characteristics and to viability of seeds contained therein. Seed-predator pressure was not significantly related to any

Daniel García

1998-01-01

59

Integrated rice insect pest control in the Guangdong Province of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are about 13 species of rice insect pests which are common and of major significance in Guangdong Province, China. Rice\\u000a pest management in China is based on cultural practices, biological control, insecticides, light traps, varietal resistance\\u000a and other control methods. Natural control by preservation of natural enemies of pests plays a very positive role in the integrated\\u000a control of

Li Li-Ying

1982-01-01

60

Insect pest problems in tropical agroforestry systems: Contributory factors and strategies for management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry trees are attacked by a wide spectrum of insects at all stages of their growth just like other annual and perennial crops. Pest management in agroforestry has not received much attention so far, but recent emphasis on producing high value tree products in agroforestry and using improved germplasm in traditional systems, and emergence of serious pest problems in some

M. R. Rao; M. P. Singh; R. Day

2000-01-01

61

Germplasm evaluation for resistance to insect pests of the sunflower head  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The key insect pests attacking the sunflower head and seeds include the sunflower moth, the red sunflower seed weevil, the banded sunflower moth, and the sunflower midge. There is a need to reduce losses from these pests by providing long-term economical management for sunflower growers. In 2005, su...

62

Major insect pests and economics of fresh-market tomato in eastern Virginia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major insect pests of fresh-market tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Miller, in eastern Virginia were identified as those responsible for reducing marketable fruit yield from 1998 through 2000. Nineteen arthropod pest species infested spring- and fall-grown tomato crops, but only thrips, stink bugs, and Lepidopterans, particularly the corn earworm (Helicoverpa zea [Boddie]), reduced yield. Fruit injury by thrips and stink bugs was

Brian A. Nault; John Speese III

2002-01-01

63

Application of GIS technology in monitoring and warning system for crop diseases and insect pests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By researching and analyzing the crop diseases and insect pests, we find the distribution and spread of crop diseases and insect pests have tight touch with the time and space information, which provides a premise of applying geography information system (GIS) and spatial interpolation technology especially. By considering the particularity of spatial interpolation on the plant diseases and insect pests in agriculture, the authors bring forward one new method: multifactors spatial interpolation model. It is made up of many factors, such as spatial orientation relationship, topological relationship, distance relationship and national weather conditions so on. Then, on the basis of building the multi-factors spatial interpolation model, the monitor and warning system of crop diseases and insect pests is constructed by using GIS technology and ArcIMS software. The basic functions, such as map visualization, information query, data input, data management, spatial interpolation, are implemented. What's more, by using the multi-factors spatial interpolation model, the effluence and spread speed of crop diseases and insect pests are showed and the monitoring and early-warning of crop diseases and insect pests is implemented.

Wu, Xiaofang; Wang, Changwei; Xu, Zhiyong; Hu, Yueming

2008-10-01

64

Tissue-Specific Transcriptomics of the Exotic Invasive Insect Pest Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe insect midgut and fat body represent major tissue interfaces that deal with several important physiological functions including digestion, detoxification and immune response. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), is an exotic invasive insect pest that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) primarily in the Midwestern United States and Ontario, Canada. However, despite its high impact status little

Omprakash Mittapalli; Xiaodong Bai; Praveen Mamidala; Swapna Priya Rajarapu; Pierluigi Bonello; Daniel A. Herms; Michael N. Nitabach

2010-01-01

65

Biology and Control of Insect and Related Pests of Livestock in Wyoming. MP-23.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document provides information that a potential insecticide applicator can utilize to safely and effectively control insects and related pests of livestock. The first section of the manual discusses the general methods of preparation and application of insecticides. The second section concerns itself with the recognition of insect problems,…

Lloyd, John E.

66

[Quantitative analysis of insect pest and natural enemy communities in Red Fuji apple orchard].  

PubMed

The insect pest and natural enemy communities in Red Fuji apple orchard in Mouping District of Yantai City were quantitatively analyzed by multivariate analysis. The temporal structure of the communities was grouped into five continuous stages by using optimal sorting method, and the community characteristics at each stage were described. The dominant pests and natural enemies were determined at different growth stages of apple trees through analyzing the sub-communities of the insect pests and the predatory and parasitic enemies by principal component analysis and factor analysis. Canonical correlation analysis showed that there were significant correlations between the dominant insect pests and the dominant natural enemies, especially between Lithocolletis ringoniella and its parasitoids, between Aphis citricola and its parasitoids, and between Tetranychus viennensis and its obligatory predatory enemies, Stethorus punctillum and Amblyseius orientalis. PMID:19565766

Zheng, Fang-Qiang; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Qu, Cheng-Huai; Liu, Xue-Qian; Qu, Shu-Juan

2009-04-01

67

Insect Pests of Stored Grain Products. A Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The presence of insects in stored products is a worldwide recognized problem. In this report chemical and physical methods to control insect infestations in stored products are discussed. Special attention is given to the use of ionizing radiation to cont...

N. Chuaqui-Offermanns

1987-01-01

68

Tea: Biological control of insect and mite pests in China  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tea is one of the most economically important crops in China. To secure its production and quality conservation biological control within the context of integrated pest management (IPM) has been widely popularized for better control of arthropod pests on tea with less chemical insecticide usage and ...

69

Invasive Insect and Nematode Pests from North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of 447 alien insect, phytophagous mite, spider and nematode species in Japan, 415 are insect species. Most were introduced after the end of the Edo period (1859). Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera and Hymenoptera represent the major taxonomic groups in decreasing order of number of species. They include 58 insect and nematode species from the United States. Among them, the following

Keizi KIRITANI; Nobuo MORIMOTO

2004-01-01

70

Pest Insect Olfaction in an Insecticide-Contaminated Environment: Info-Disruption or Hormesis Effect  

PubMed Central

Most animals, including pest insects, live in an “odor world” and depend strongly on chemical stimuli to get information on their biotic and abiotic environment. Although integrated pest management strategies including the use of insect growth regulators (IGRs) are increasingly developed, most insect pest treatments rely on neurotoxic chemicals. These molecules are known to disrupt synaptic transmission, affecting therefore sensory systems. The wide-spread use of neurotoxic insecticides and the growing use of IGRs result in residual accumulation of low concentrations in the environment. These insecticide residues could act as an “info-disruptor” by modifying the chemical communication system, and therefore decrease chances of reproduction in target insects. However, residues can also induce a non-expected hormesis effect by enhancing reproduction abilities. Low insecticide doses might thus induce adaptive processes in the olfactory pathway of target insects, favoring the development of resistance. The effect of sublethal doses of insecticides has mainly been studied in beneficial insects such as honeybees. We review here what is known on the effects of sublethal doses of insecticides on the olfactory system of insect pests.

Tricoire-Leignel, Helene; Thany, Steeve Herve; Gadenne, Christophe; Anton, Sylvia

2012-01-01

71

Transgenic avidin maize is resistant to storage insect pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Avidin is a glycoprotein found in chicken egg white, that sequesters the vitamin biotin. Here we show that when present in maize at levels of ?100 p.p.m., avidin is toxic to and prevents development of insects that damage grains during storage. Insect toxicity is caused by a biotin deficiency, as shown by prevention of toxicity with biotin supplementation. The avidin

Thomas D. Morgan; James E. Throne; Floyd E. Dowell; Michele Bailey; John A. Howard; Karl J. Kramer

2000-01-01

72

Forest Insect Pest Management and Forest Management in China: An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the Seventh National Forest Inventory (2004–2008), China’s forests cover an area of 195.45 million ha, or 20.36%\\u000a of the total land area. China has the most rapidly increasing forest resources in the world. However, China is also a country\\u000a with serious forest pest problems. There are more than 8,000 species of potential forest pests in China, including insects,\\u000a plant

Lanzhu JiZhen; Zhen Wang; Xiaowei Wang; Linli An

73

Insect Pests and Spiders in Oilseed Rape and Their Response to Site and Landscape Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The abundance of the insect pests: pollen beetle (Meligethes aeneus), stem weevils (Ceutorhynchus napi, C. pallidactylus) and brassica pod midge (Dasineura brassicae), pest damage, species richness and activity density of spiders, and density, body size and offspring of the wolf spider,\\u000a Pardosa agrestis, in oilseed rape fields relative to site and landscape factors were investigated. Abundances of pollen beetles and

Thomas Frank; Thomas Drapela; Dietmar Moser; Johann G. Zaller

74

Studies on the application of fungi and bacteria controlling insect pests in Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diversity of interrelationships between fungi, bacteria and insects presents unlimited opportunities for studying antagonistic fungi and bacteria causing mortality in insects by producing disease and toxins which are detrimental to insect life and can be used to control harmful insects. Fungal and bacterial parasitism has been used effectively for controlling agricultural pests all over the world. Its application has

Syed R. A. Gardezi

2006-01-01

75

Nonmarket Economic Impacts of Forest Insect Pests: A Literature ...  

Treesearch

This report also reviews the foundations for methodologies used and ... Keywords : forest insects, nonmarket valuation, economic methods, forest health. ... by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.

76

Safe and fit genetically modified insects for pest control: from lab to field applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insect transgenesis is continuously being improved to increase the efficacy of population suppression and replacement strategies\\u000a directed to the control of insect species of economic and sanitary interest. An essential prerequisite for the success of\\u000a both pest control applications is that the fitness of the transformant individuals is not impaired, so that, once released\\u000a in the field, they can efficiently

F. Scolari; P. Siciliano; P. Gabrieli; L. M. Gomulski; A. Bonomi; G. Gasperi; A. R. Malacrida

2011-01-01

77

Neuropeptide Receptors as Possible Targets for Development of Insect Pest Control Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Various insect species have a severe impact on human welfare and environment and thus force us to continuously develop novel\\u000a agents for pest control. Neuropeptides constitute a very versatile class of bioactive messenger molecules that initiate and\\/or\\u000a regulate a wide array of vital biological processes in insects by acting on their respective receptors in the plasmamembrane\\u000a of target cells. These

Matthias B. Van Hiel; Tom Van Loy; Jeroen Poels; Hans Peter Vandersmissen; Heleen Verlinden; Liesbeth Badisco; Jozef Vanden Broeck

78

MANAGEMENT OF INSECT AND MITE PESTS OF AVOCADO  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of pest species is known from California avocado orchards (2) but most are seldom noticed. Species which are usually present but of minor or no economic significance include the omnivorous looper, Subulodes caberata Guenee, the amorbia, Amorbia essigana Busck, the latania scale, Hemiberlesia lataniae Signoret, the brown soft scale Coccus hesperidum L., the long-tailed mealybug Pseudococcus adonidum

J. A. McMurtry

79

Biological control: Implications of the analogy between the trophic interactions of insect pest-parasitoid and snail-trematode systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

KURIS, A. M., 1973. Biological control: implications of the analogy between the trophic interactions of insect pest-parasitoid and snail-trematode systems. Experi- mental Parasitology 33, 365-379. An analogy between the tropic interactions of insect pest-hymenopterous parasitoid and snail-larval trematode systems is proposed. The goal of most agricultural pest management programs is increase in production of a plant crop, the deleterious agent

ARMAND M. KURIS

1973-01-01

80

Damage characteristics produced by insect pests in packaging film  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the morphology of damage produced by three important stored-product pest species, Rhyzopertha dominica, Sitophilus oryzae and Lasioderma serricorne, in food packaging film. Three different types of plastic film (polypropylene 25?m, polyethylene 50?m and polyester 12?m), a multilayer film (paper, polyethylene 15?m, aluminium 7?m and polyethylene 30?m), and cigarette paper were compared. Damage was examined using a stereomicroscope

J. Riudavets; I. Salas; M. J. Pons

2007-01-01

81

Analysis of importations for biological control of insect pests and weeds in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Importations of biological control agents for insect pests and weeds in New Zealand are summarized and factors contributing to the relative success of the programmes are examined. The establishment rate of 30.9% is similar to that achieved worldwide, but is significantly lower than the rate achieved in the island habitat of Hawaii. The pioneering role of New Zealand in biological

P. J. Cameron; R. L. Hill; J. Bain; W. P. Thomas

1993-01-01

82

Integration of Entomopathogenic Nematodes with Bacillus thuringiensis or Pesticidal Soap for Control of Insect Pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integration of entomopathogenic nematodes and Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki or a pesticidal soap controlled insect pests inhabiting the soil and foliage in the greenhouse. The nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora controlled larvae of the masked chafer Cyclocephala hirta or the black vine weevil Otiorhynchus sulcatus in the soil and a commercial formulation of B. thuringiensis (Javelin) controlled larvae of the cabbage

H. K. Kaya; T. M. Burlando; H. Y. Choo; G. S. Thurston

1995-01-01

83

An Artificial Neural Network–based Expert System for Fruit Tree Disease and Insect Pest Diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the development of an expert system for fruit tree disease and insect pest diagnosis based on artificial neural network (ANN) and geographic information system (GIS). A multiple knowledge acquisition approach was adopted, consisting of interview expert, questionnaire, Web-based search and literature review. The production rule was adopted as the formation of knowledge representation in the system. The

Gang Liu; Xuehong Yang; Yinbing Ge; Yuxin Miao

2006-01-01

84

Management of Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management Programmes that Integrate the Sterile Insect Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective management of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique (SIT) is key to success. Programme planning includes collection of baseline data and a feasibility assessment. The optimal management structure is where the programme can be implemented effectively and flexibly, independent of government politics, bureaucracy, and even corruption that impede timely goal achievement. Ideally, programmes

V. A. DYCK; J. Reyes Flores; M. J. B. VREYSEN; E. E. REGIDOR FERNÁNDEZ; T. Teruya; B. Barnes; P. Gómez Riera; D. Lindquist; M. Loosjes

85

Recent advances in fumigation for control of insect pests in dried fruits and nuts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

United States agricultural industries are facing, with increasing frequency, environmental and pest-related food safety requirements that are fundamentally difficult to balance. Failure to properly disinfest commodities in trade and marketing channels can result in insect- and microbial-derived dam...

86

Insect pests and yield potential of vegetable soybean (Endamame) produced in Georgia  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A series of replicated field experiments was conducted with vegetable soybean (edamame), Glycine max (L.) Merrill, to assess the impacts of cultivars, planting dates, and insecticidal controls on insect pest abundance, crop damage and yield potential. The velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatali...

87

Reducing Cold-Hardiness of Insect Pests Using Ice Nucleating Active Microbes  

Microsoft Academic Search

As concerns continue to mount regarding the environmental and human health consequences of using chemical controls for insect pests, a wide variety of alternative approaches are receiving increased attention. Crop rotation, tillage practices, genetically-engineered crop varieties, and the use of predators, parasites, and pathogens as agents of biological control are representative of these strategies. In this chapter we describe the

Richard E. Lee; Jon P. Costanzo; Marcia R. Lee

88

New/Emerging Pests in Alaska: Will Climate Change Favor Insect Expansion Into Alaska  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Because of its geographical isolation and climatic constraints, Alaska agriculture is considered relatively free of diseases and insect pests. However, since 1973, the winter temperatures in Alaska have increased by 2-3 C'. It is logical to assume that continued global climate change could produce ...

89

Effects of bird predation on some pest insect populations in corn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intensive agriculture has led to a decrease in biodiversity in many areas of the world. Poisoning birds directly or eliminating habitats suitable for birds within an agricultural landscape, may remove potential control agents of insect pests. The main objective of this project was to investigate the effects of excluding avian species from portions of cornfields through the use of bird-proof

A Tremblay; P Mineau; R. K Stewart

2001-01-01

90

CONTROL OF INSECT PESTS IN PERSIMMON WITH SPRAY OILS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy and safety to plants of mineral spray oils for use against mealybugs were assessed in field trials on persimmon. Repeated applications of oil and adjuvant-enhanced oil in the three months prior to harvest had no deleterious effects on fruit size or quality. Fortnightly applications of such oils in a commercial orchard maintained fruit insect- free. Oil sprays, enhanced

R. E. GASKIN; B. H. ROHITHA; P. T. HOLLAND

91

Agonists\\/Antagonists of the Insect Kinin and Pyrokinin\\/PBAN Neuropeptide Classes as Tools for Rational Pest Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a While insect neuropeptides of the insect kinin (IK) and pyrokinin\\/PBAN (PK\\/PBAN) family are both potent and specific, these\\u000a molecular messengers are not suitably designed to be effective either as pest insect control agents and\\/or tools for insect\\u000a neuroendocrinologists. Neuropeptides are rapidly degraded by peptidases in the hemolymph and tissues within insects and generally\\u000a exhibit poor bioavailability (Nachman et al. 2001,

Ronald J. Nachman

92

Intercropping for Management of Insect Pests of Castor, Ricinus communis, in the Semi--Arid Tropics of India  

PubMed Central

Intercropping is one of the important cultural practices in pest management and is based on the principle of reducing insect pests by increasing the diversity of an ecosystem. On—farm experiments were conducted in villages of semi—arid tropical (SAT) India to identify the appropriate combination of castor (Ricinus communis L.) (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae) and intercropping in relation to pest incidence. The diversity created by introducing cluster bean, cowpea, black gram, or groundnut as intercrops in castor (1:2 ratio proportions) resulted in reduction of incidence of insect pests, namely semilooper (Achaea janata L.), leaf hopper (Empoasca flavescens Fabricius), and shoot and capsule borer (Conogethes punctiferalis Guenee). A buildup of natural enemies (Microplitis, coccinellids, and spiders) of the major pests of castor was also observed in these intercropping systems and resulted in the reduction of insect pests. Further, these systems were more efficient agronomically and economically, and were thus more profitable than a castor monocrop.

Srinivasa Rao, M.; Venkateswarlu, B.

2012-01-01

93

Insect-attracting and antimicrobial properties of antifreeze for monitoring insect pests and natural enemies in stored corn.  

PubMed

Insect infestations in stored grain cause extensive damage worldwide. Storage insect pests, including the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae); Sitophilus spp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae); and their natural enemies [e.g., Cephalonomia tarsalis (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae), and Anisopteromalus calandrae (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)] inhabit a temporary, but stable ecosystem with constant environmental conditions. The objective of the present experiment was to assess the efficacy of using ethylene glycol antifreeze in combination with nutrient solutions to monitor storage insect pest and natural enemy populations in three bins of corn, Zea mays L. The treatments were deionized water, a diluted (1:5 antifreeze:water) antifreeze solution, 10% honey, 10% honey in the diluted antifreeze solution, 10% beer in the diluted antifreeze solution, 10% sucrose in the diluted antifreeze solution, and a commercial pheromone trap suspended in a 3.8-liter container filled with 300-ml of diluted antifreeze solution. The seven treatments captured storage insect pests and their natural enemies in the bins at 33-36 degrees C and 51-55% RH. The pheromone trap in the container with the diluted antifreeze captured significantly more P. interpunctella than the other treatments, but a lower percentage (7.6%) of these captures were females compared with the rest of the treatments (> 40% females). All trapping solutions also captured Sitophilus spp. and other beetle species, but the captures of the coleopteran pests were not significantly different among the seven treatments (P > 0.05). Two parasitoid wasps also were captured in the study. The number of A. calandrae was different among the seven treatments (P < 0.05), whereas the number of C. tarsalis was not different among the treatments (P > 0.05). Most A. calandrae adults were captured by the 10% honey in the diluted antifreeze, whereas the fewest were captured in the deionized water. Microbial growth was observed in the 10% honey solution, but no microbial growth occurred in the rest of the treatments, including 10% honey in the diluted antifreeze solution. The results of insect captures and microbial growth demonstrated that antifreeze could be used as a part of storage insect monitoring and/or control programs. PMID:18459433

Ni, Xinzhi; Gunawan, Gunawati; Brown, Steve L; Sumner, Paul E; Ruberson, John R; Buntin, G David; Holbrook, C Corley; Lee, R Dewey; Streett, Douglas A; Throne, James E; Campbell, James F

2008-04-01

94

Spider-venom peptides: structure, pharmacology, and potential for control of insect pests.  

PubMed

Spider venoms are an incredibly rich source of disulfide-rich insecticidal peptides that have been tuned over millions of years to target a wide range of receptors and ion channels in the insect nervous system. These peptides can act individually, or as part of larger toxin cabals, to rapidly immobilize envenomated prey owing to their debilitating effects on nervous system function. Most of these peptides contain a unique arrangement of disulfide bonds that provides them with extreme resistance to proteases. As a result, these peptides are highly stable in the insect gut and hemolymph and many of them are orally active. Thus, spider-venom peptides can be used as stand-alone bioinsecticides, or transgenes encoding these peptides can be used to engineer insect-resistant crops or enhanced entomopathogens. We critically review the potential of spider-venom peptides to control insect pests and highlight their advantages and disadvantages compared with conventional chemical insecticides. PMID:23020618

King, Glenn F; Hardy, Margaret C

2012-09-27

95

QUARANTINE TREATMENT OF STORAGE INSECT PESTS UNDER VACUUM OR CO 2 IN TRANSPORTABLE SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of our investigation was to identify the combinations that enhance the effectiveness of insect control based on vacuum or CO2 in combination with increased temperatures as quarantine treatment of storage pests. In laboratory studies with Lasioderma serricorne exposed to low pressures at 30ºC, LT99 value for adults was 15 h when exposed to 25 mm Hg. Trogoderma granarium

S. NAVARRO; G. SABIO; M. RINDNER; A. AZRIELI

96

Feeding Behavior of a Potential Insect Pest, Lygus hesperus, on Four New Industrial Crops for the Arid Southwestern USA.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Camelina (Camelina sativa), guayule (Parthenium argentatum), lesquerella (Physaria fendleri), and vernonia ( Centrapalus pauciflorus [formerly Vernonia galamensis]) are either under limited commercial production or being developed for production in the southwestern USA. Insect pests are a potential ...

97

Targeting an antimicrobial effector function in insect immunity as a pest control strategy.  

PubMed

Insect pests such as termites cause damages to crops and man-made structures estimated at over $30 billion per year, imposing a global challenge for the human economy. Here, we report a strategy for compromising insect immunity that might lead to the development of nontoxic, sustainable pest control methods. Gram-negative bacteria binding proteins (GNBPs) are critical for sensing pathogenic infection and triggering effector responses. We report that termite GNBP-2 (tGNBP-2) shows beta(1,3)-glucanase effector activity previously unknown in animal immunity and is a pleiotropic pattern recognition receptor and an antimicrobial effector protein. Termites incorporate this protein into the nest building material, where it functions as a nest-embedded sensor that cleaves and releases pathogenic components, priming termites for improved antimicrobial defense. By means of rational design, we present an inexpensive, nontoxic small molecule glycomimetic that blocks tGNBP-2, thus exposing termites in vivo to accelerated infection and death from specific and opportunistic pathogens. Such a molecule, introduced into building materials and agricultural methods, could protect valuable assets from insect pests. PMID:19506247

Bulmer, Mark S; Bachelet, Ido; Raman, Rahul; Rosengaus, Rebeca B; Sasisekharan, Ram

2009-06-08

98

Exploitation of Insect Vibrational Signals Reveals a New Method of Pest Management  

PubMed Central

Food production is considered to be the main source of human impact on the environment and the concerns about detrimental effects of pesticides on biodiversity and human health are likely to lead to an increasingly restricted use of chemicals in agriculture. Since the first successful field trial, pheromone based mating disruption enabled sustainable insect control, which resulted in reduced levels of pesticide use. Organic farming is one of the fastest growing segments of agriculture and with the continuously growing public concern about use of pesticides, the main remaining challenge in increasing the safety of the global food production is to identify appropriate alternative mating disruption approaches for the numerous insect pests that do not rely on chemical communication. In the present study, we show for the first time that effective mating disruption based on substrate-borne vibrational signals can be achieved in the field. When disruptive vibrational signals were applied to grapevine plants through a supporting wire, mating frequency of the leafhopper pest Scaphoideus titanus dropped to 9 % in semi-field conditions and to 4 % in a mature vineyard. The underlying mechanism of this environmentally friendly pest-control tactic is a masking of the vibrational signals used in mate recognition and location. Because vibrational communication is widespread in insects, mating disruption using substrate vibrations can transform many open field and greenhouse based farming systems.

Eriksson, Anna; Anfora, Gianfranco; Lucchi, Andrea; Lanzo, Francesco; Virant-Doberlet, Meta; Mazzoni, Valerio

2012-01-01

99

Exploitation of insect vibrational signals reveals a new method of pest management.  

PubMed

Food production is considered to be the main source of human impact on the environment and the concerns about detrimental effects of pesticides on biodiversity and human health are likely to lead to an increasingly restricted use of chemicals in agriculture. Since the first successful field trial, pheromone based mating disruption enabled sustainable insect control, which resulted in reduced levels of pesticide use. Organic farming is one of the fastest growing segments of agriculture and with the continuously growing public concern about use of pesticides, the main remaining challenge in increasing the safety of the global food production is to identify appropriate alternative mating disruption approaches for the numerous insect pests that do not rely on chemical communication. In the present study, we show for the first time that effective mating disruption based on substrate-borne vibrational signals can be achieved in the field. When disruptive vibrational signals were applied to grapevine plants through a supporting wire, mating frequency of the leafhopper pest Scaphoideus titanus dropped to 9 % in semi-field conditions and to 4 % in a mature vineyard. The underlying mechanism of this environmentally friendly pest-control tactic is a masking of the vibrational signals used in mate recognition and location. Because vibrational communication is widespread in insects, mating disruption using substrate vibrations can transform many open field and greenhouse based farming systems. PMID:22457726

Eriksson, Anna; Anfora, Gianfranco; Lucchi, Andrea; Lanzo, Francesco; Virant-Doberlet, Meta; Mazzoni, Valerio

2012-03-21

100

Relative densities of natural enemy and pest insects within California hedgerows.  

PubMed

Research on hedgerow design for supporting communities of natural enemies for biological control lags behind farmer innovation in California, where assemblages of perennial plant species have been used on crop field margins in the last decade. We compared natural enemy to pest ratios between fields with hedgerows and fields with weedy margins by sampling beneficial insects and key pests of vegetables on sticky cards. We used biweekly vacuum samples to measure the distribution of key insect taxa among native perennial plant species with respect to the timing and intensity of bloom. Sticky cards indicated a trend that field margins with hedgerows support a higher ratio of natural enemies to pests compared with weedy borders. Hedgerow plant species hosted different relative densities of a generally overlapping insect community, and the timing and intensity of bloom only explained a small proportion of the variation in insect abundance at plant species and among hedgerows, with the exception of Orius spp. on Achillea millefolium L. and Baccharis pilularis De Candolle. Indicator Species Analysis showed an affinity of parasitic wasps, especially in the super-family Chalcidoidea, for B. pilularis whether or not it was in flower. A. millefolium was attractive to predatory and herbivorous homopterans; Heteromeles arbutifolia (Lindley) Roemer and B. pilularis to Diabrotica undecimpunctata undecimpunctata Mannerheim; and Rhamnus californica Eschsch to Hemerobiidae. Perennial hedgerows can be designed through species selection to support particular beneficial insect taxa, but plant resources beyond floral availability may be critical in providing structural refuges, alternative prey, and other attractive qualities that are often overlooked. PMID:23905731

Gareau, Tara L Pisani; Letourneau, Deborah K; Shennan, Carol

2013-08-01

101

Future prospects for application of insect pathogens as a component of integrated pest management in tropical root crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insect pests and phytophagous mites cause a considerable loss to tropical root crops in the field. Major pests include the sweet potato weevil Cylas puncticollis, cassava mealybug Phenacoccus manihoti, cassava green spider mite Mononychellus tanajoa, yam beetle Heteroligus meles, and taro hornworm Hippotion celerio. Field and laboratory evaluation experiments indicate that entomopathogenic microorganisms may be adequately used in the management

M. O. Odindo

1992-01-01

102

Floricultural Insects and Related Pests - Biology and Control, Section I. Florogram - Specialty Manual Issue for Commercial Greenhouse Growers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual is designed by the Massachusetts Cooperative Extension Service as a guide for the control of the most common insects and related pests of floricultural crops grown commercially in glass and plastic houses in Massachusetts. The publication consists of two sections. The first section presents a description of the major pests of…

Gentile, A. G.; Scanlon, D. T.

103

Reduced Population Control of an Insect Pest in Managed Willow Monocultures  

PubMed Central

Background There is a general belief that insect outbreak risk is higher in plant monocultures than in natural and more diverse habitats, although empirical studies investigating this relationship are lacking. In this study, using density data collected over seven years at 40 study sites, we compare the temporal population variability of the leaf beetle Phratora vulgatissima between willow plantations and natural willow habitats. Methodology/Principal Findings The study was conducted in 1999–2005. The density of adult P. vulgatissima was estimated in the spring every year by a knock-down sampling technique. We used two measures of population variability, CV and PV, to compare temporal variations in leaf beetle density between plantation and natural habitat. Relationships between density and variability were also analyzed to discern potential underlying processes behind stability in the two systems. The results showed that the leaf beetle P. vulgatissima had a greater temporal population variability and outbreak risk in willow plantations than in natural willow habitats. We hypothesize that the greater population stability observed in the natural habitat was due to two separate processes operating at different levels of beetle density. First, stable low population equilibrium can be achieved by the relatively high density of generalist predators observed in natural stands. Second, stable equilibrium can also be imposed at higher beetle density due to competition, which occurs through depletion of resources (plant foliage) in the natural habitat. In willow plantations, competition is reduced mainly because plants grow close enough for beetle larvae to move to another plant when foliage is consumed. Conclusion/Significance To our knowledge, this is the first empirical study confirming that insect pest outbreak risk is higher in monocultures. The study suggests that comparative studies of insect population dynamics in different habitats may improve our ability to predict insect pest outbreaks and could facilitate the development of sustainable pest control in managed systems.

Dalin, Peter; Kindvall, Oskar; Bjorkman, Christer

2009-01-01

104

Insect Pests of Shade Trees and Shrubs: A Guide for Commercial Nurserymen and Arborists. Publication E-41.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide presents information on controlling insect pests of ornamental trees and shrubs. It is organized for easy reference by nurserymen, arborists, and others desirous of controlling insect damage. General information given includes notes on spraying and sprayers, insecticides, general purpose sprays, phytotoxicity, and health precautions.…

Schuder, Donald L.

105

HYDROPRENE: MODE OF ACTION, CURRENT STATUS IN STORED-PRODUCT PEST MANAGEMENT, INSECT RESISTANCE, AND FUTURE PROSPECTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hydroprene is a juvenile hormone analogue used in stored-product insect pest management. The popularity of this insect growth regulator has increased in recent years due to the change of pesticide laws in the United States and also due to change of consumer preferences world-wide. Alternatives to co...

106

Strain improvement of fungal insecticides for controlling insect pests and vector-borne diseases.  

PubMed

Insect pathogenic fungi play an important natural role in controlling insect pests. However, few have been successfully commercialized due to low virulence and sensitivity to abiotic stresses that produce inconsistent results in field applications. These limitations are inherent in most naturally occurring biological control agents but development of recombinant DNA techniques has made it possible to significantly improve the insecticidal efficacy of fungi and their tolerance to adverse conditions, including UV. These advances have been achieved by combining new knowledge derived from basic studies of the molecular biology of these pathogens, technical developments that enable very precise regulation of gene expression, and genes encoding insecticidal proteins from other organisms, particularly spiders and scorpions. Recent coverage of genomes is helping determine the identity, origin, and evolution of traits needed for diverse lifestyles and host switching. In future, such knowledge combined with the precision and malleability of molecular techniques will allow design of multiple pathogens with different strategies and host ranges to be used for different ecosystems, and that will avoid the possibility of the host developing resistance. With increasing public concern over the continued use of synthetic chemical insecticides, these new types of biological insecticides offer a range of environmental-friendly options for cost-effective control of insect pests. PMID:22245564

Fang, Weiguo; Azimzadeh, Philippe; St Leger, Raymond J

2012-01-13

107

Efficacy of Piper (Piperaceae) extracts for control of common home and garden insect pests.  

PubMed

Extracts from three species of the plant family Piperaceae, Piper nigrum [L.], Piper guineense [Schum & Thonn, and Piper tuberculatum [Jacq.], were tested for efficacy against insects from five orders. All three species contain isobutyl amides, plant secondary compounds that act as neurotoxins in insects. These materials are considered safe to mammals because Piper spp. were used for centuries for spice and medicinal purposes. When 24-h P. nigrum LC50 values were compared between common insect pests from eastern Canada and the northeastern United States, the most sensitive species in order of increasing lethal concentration were eastern tent caterpillar, Malacosoma americanum (F.) < European pine sawfly larvae, Neodiprion sertifer (Geoffroy) < spindle ermine moth larvae, Yponomeuta cagnagella [Hübner] < viburnum leaf beetle larvae, Pyrrhalta viburni [Paykull] < stripped cucumber beetle adults, Acalymma vittatum (F.) < Colorado potato beetle adults, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) < Japanese beetle adults, Popillia japonica [Newman] < hairy chinch bug, Blissus leucopterus hirtis [Montandon]. The life stage tested was the point at which each species causes the greatest amount of damage to the host plant and the point at which most gardeners would likely choose to treat with a conventional synthetic insecticide. Greenhouse trials revealed that the pepper formulations also had a repellent activity, thus protecting plant leaves from 1) herbivory (lily leaf beetle, Lilioceris lilii [Scopoli], adults and larvae and stripped cucumber beetle adults) and 2) oviposition [European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner)]. Combinations with other botanical extracts were additive at best in toxicity and repellent trials. Nontarget toxicity to beneficial invertebrates is a possibility because the P. nigrum LC50 for beneficial ladybird beetles was 0.2%. P. nigrum extracts can provide a reasonable level of control against lepidopteran and European pine sawfly larvae and also will work as a short-term repellent and feeding deterrent. It is recommended that the use of Piper extracts be restricted to small-scale spot treatments in residential areas where insect pest outbreaks have occurred. PMID:15384353

Scott, I M; Jensen, H; Nicol, R; Lesage, L; Bradbury, R; Sánchez-Vindas, P; Poveda, L; Arnason, J T; Philogène, B J R

2004-08-01

108

Transgenic organisms expressing genes from Bacillus thuringiensis to combat insect pests.  

PubMed

Various subspecies (ssp.) of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are considered the best agents known so far to control insects, being highly specific and safe, easily mass produced and with long shelf life.1 The para-crystalline body that is produced during sporulation in the exosporium includes polypeptides named ?-endotoxins, each killing a specific set of insects. The different entomopathogenic toxins of various Bt ssp. can be manipulated genetically in an educated way to construct more efficient transgenic bacteria or plants that express combinations of toxin genes to control pests.2 Joint research projects in our respective laboratories during the last decade demonstrate what can be done by implementing certain ideas using molecular biology with Bt ssp. israelensis (Bti) as a model system. Here, we describe our progress achieved with Gram-negative bacterial species, including cyanobacteria, and some preliminary experiments to form transgenic plants, mainly to control mosquitoes (Diptera), but also a particular Lepidopteran and Coleopteran pest species. In addition, a system is described by which environment-damaging genes can be removed from the recombinants thus alleviating procedures for obtaining permits to release them in nature. PMID:21326834

Zaritsky, Arieh; Ben-Dov, Eitan; Borovsky, Dov; Boussiba, Sammy; Einav, Monica; Gindin, Galina; Horowitz, A Rami; Kolot, Mikhail; Melnikov, Olga; Mendel, Zvi; Yagil, Ezra

109

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic crop: an environment friendly insect-pest management strategy.  

PubMed

Introduction of DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane) and following move towards indiscriminate use of synthetic chemical insecticides led to the contamination of water and food sources, poisoning of non-target beneficial insects and development of insect-pests resistant to the chemical insecticides. Increased public concems about the adverse environmental effects of indiscriminate use of chemical insecticides prompted search of altemative methods for insect-pest control. One of the promising alternatives has been the use of biological control agents. There is well-documented history of safe application of Bt (B. thuringiensis, a gram positive soil bacterium) as effective biopesticides and a number of reports of expression of delta-endotoxin gene(s) in crop plants are available. Only a few insecticidal sprays are required on Bt transgenic crops, which not only save cost and time, but also reduce health risks. Insects exhibit remarkable ability to develop resistance to different insecticidal compounds, which raises concern about the unsystematic use of Bt transgenic technology also. Though resistance to Bt products among insect species under field conditions has been rare, laboratory studies show that insects are capable of developing high levels of resistance to one ormore Cry proteins. Now it is generally agreed that 'high-dose/refuge strategy' is the most promising and practical approach to prolong the effectiveness of Bt toxins. Although manybiosafety concerns, ethical and moral issues exist, area under Bt transgenic crops is rapidly increasing and they are cultivated on more than 32 million hectares world over Even after reservation of European Union (EU) for acceptance of geneticaly modified (GM) crops, 6 out of 25 countries have already adopted Bt crops and many otherindustrial countries will adopt Bt transgenic crops in near future. While the modem biotechnology has been recognized to have a great potential for the promotion of human well-being, adoption of biosafety protocol is necessary to protect human health and environment from the possible adverse effects of the products of genetic engineering. The debate between proponents and opponents of GM technology has created major obstacles in hamessing benefits of the technology It has now become clear that transgenics willbe accepted by the public only when doubts related with general risks and environmental safety are adequately dispelled. Thus, there is need to organize public awareness and present the benefits of Bt transgenic crops to improve social attitude for their rational deployment. In this review, an attempt has been made to discuss social and environmental safety issues of Bt transgenic crops. PMID:19295059

Kumar, Suresh; Chandra, Amaresh; Pandey, K C

2008-09-01

110

Ground-dwelling predators can affect within-field pest insect emergence in winter oilseed rape fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated, (i) whether the emergence from pupation of two coleopteran pest insect groups in oilseed rape (OSR, Brassica napus L.)—pollen beetles (Meligethes spp. F., Nitidulidae) and stem weevils (Ceutorhynchus pallidactylus Marsh and C. napi Gyll., Curculionidae)—is affected by the exclusion of ground-dwelling predatory arthropods, and (ii) the role for pest control\\u000a of the widely abundant carabid beetles Anchomenus dorsalis

Johann G. Zaller; Dietmar Moser; Thomas Drapela; Thomas Frank

2009-01-01

111

Toxicity of seven foliar insecticides to four insect parasitoids attacking citrus and cotton pests.  

PubMed

Laboratory studies were carried out to compare the toxicity of seven foliar insecticides to four species of adult beneficial insects representing two families of Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae (Aphytis melinus Debach, Eretmocerus eremicus Rose & Zolnerowich, and Encarsiaformosa Gahan) and Mymaridae (Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault) that attack California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell); sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (both E. eremicus and E. formosa); and glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar), respectively. Insecticides from four pesticide classes were evaluated using a petri dish bioassay technique across a range of concentrations to develop dosage-mortality regressions. Insecticides tested included acetamiprid (neonicotinoid); chlorpyrifos (organophosphate); bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, and fenpropathrin (pyrethroids); and buprofezin and pyriproxyfen (insect growth regulators [IGRs]). Chlorpyrifos was consistently the most toxic pesticide to all four species of beneficial insects tested based on LC50 values recorded 24 h posttreatment compared with 48-h LC50 values with the neonicotinoid and pyrethroids or 96 h with the IGRs. Among the three pyrethroids, fenpropathrin was usually less toxic (except similar toxicity to A. melinus) than was cyfluthrin, and it was normally less toxic (except similar toxicity with E. formosa) than was bifenthrin. Acetamiprid was generally less toxic than bifenthrin (except similar toxicity with G. ashmeadi). The IGRs buprofezin and pyriproxyfen were usually less toxic than the contact pesticides, but we did not test for possible impacts on female fecundity. For all seven pesticides tested, A. melinus was the most susceptible parasitoid of the four test species. The data presented here will provide pest managers with specific information on the compatibility of select insecticides with natural enemies attacking citrus and cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., pests. PMID:17849851

Prabhaker, Nilima; Morse, J G; Castle, S J; Naranjo, S E; Henneberry, T J; Toscano, N C

2007-08-01

112

Integration of endemic natural enemies and Bacillus thuringiensis to manage insect pests of Brassica crops in North Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brassica crops, principally varieties of Brassica oleracea and Brassica campestris, account for over half the total vegetable production in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK). The crops are attacked by a complex of insects and the two major pest species, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) and Pieris rapae L. (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) represent the principal constraints to Brassica crop production.

Michael J. Furlong; Kim Hak Ju; Pak Wi Su; Jo Kwang Chol; Ri Chang Il; Myron P. Zalucki

2008-01-01

113

Insect pest management in African agriculture: Challenges in the current millenium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pest management on a global scale experienced a total revolution after World War II when synthetic organic compounds were in agriculture and public health. However, it soon became apparent that there were many limitations in the use of chemicals for pest management. In agriculture, problems of pest resurgence, secondary pest outbreaks, pest resistance and adverse effects of pesticides on the

O. O. Banwo; R. S. Adamu

2003-01-01

114

Modelling mortality of a stored grain insect pest with fumigation: probit, logistic or Cauchy model?  

PubMed

Computer simulation models can provide a relatively fast, safe and inexpensive means to judge and weigh the merits of various pest control management options. However, the usefulness of such simulation models relies on the accurate estimation of important model parameters, such as the pest mortality under different treatments and conditions. Recently, an individual-based simulation model of population dynamics and resistance evolution has been developed for the stored grain insect pest Rhyzopertha dominica, based on experimental results showing that alleles at two different loci are involved in resistance to the grain fumigant phosphine. In this paper, we describe how we used three generalized linear models, probit, logistic and Cauchy models, each employing two- and four-parameter sub-models, to fit experimental data sets for five genotypes for which detailed mortality data was already available. Instead of the usual statistical iterative maximum likelihood estimation, a direct algebraic approach, generalized inverse matrix technique, was used to estimate the mortality model parameters. As this technique needs to perturb the observed mortality proportions if the proportions include 0 or 1, a golden section search approach was used to find the optimal perturbation in terms of minimum least squares (L2) error. The results show that the estimates using the probit model were the most accurate in terms of L2 errors between observed and predicted mortality values. These errors with the probit model ranged from 0.049% to 5.3%, from 0.381% to 8.1% with the logistic model and from 8.3% to 48.2% with the Cauchy model. Meanwhile, the generalized inverse matrix technique achieved similar results to the maximum likelihood estimation ones, but is less time consuming and computationally demanding. We also describe how we constructed a two-parameter model to estimate the mortalities for each of the remaining four genotypes based on realistic genetic assumptions. PMID:23473941

Shi, Mingren; Renton, Michael

2013-03-05

115

Role of two insect growth regulators in integrated pest management of citrus scales.  

PubMed

Portions of two commercial citrus orchards were treated for two consecutive years with buprofezin or three consecutive years with pyriproxyfen in a replicated plot design to determine the long-term impact of these insect growth regulators (IGRs) on the San Joaquin Valley California integrated pest management program. Pyriproxyfen reduced the target pest, California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii Maskell, to nondetectable levels on leaf samples approximately 4 mo after treatment. Pyriproxyfen treatments reduced the California red scale parasitoid Aphytis melinus DeBach to a greater extent than the parasitoid Comperiella bifasciata Howard collected on sticky cards. Treatments of lemons Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f. infested with scale parasitized by A. melinus showed only 33% direct mortality of the parasitoid, suggesting the population reduction observed on sticky cards was due to low host density. Three years of pyriproxyfen treatments did not maintain citricola scale, Coccus pseudomagnoliarum (Kuwana), below the treatment threshold and cottony cushion scale, Icerya purchasi Maskell, was slowly but incompletely controlled. Buprofezin reduced California red scale to very low but detectable levels approximately 5 mo after treatment. Buprofezin treatments resulted in similar levels of reduction of the two parasitoids A. melinus and C. bifasciata collected on sticky cards. Treatments of lemons infested with scale parasitized by A. melinus showed only 7% mortality of the parasitoids, suggesting the population reduction observed on sticky cards was due to low host density. Citricola scale was not present in this orchard, and cottony cushion scale was slowly and incompletely controlled by buprofezin. These field plots demonstrated that IGRs can act as organophosphate insecticide replacements for California red scale control; however, their narrower spectrum of activity and disruption of coccinellid beetles can allow other scale species to attain primary pest status. PMID:16813306

Grafton-Cardwell, E E; Lee, J E; Stewart, J R; Olsen, K D

2006-06-01

116

New dispenser types for integrated pest management of agriculturally significant insect pests: an algorithm with specialized searching capacity in electronic data bases.  

PubMed

Pheromone effects discovered some 130 years, but scientifically defined just half a century ago, are a great bonus for basic and applied biology. Specifically, pest management efforts have been advanced in many insect orders, either for purposes or monitoring, mass trapping, or for mating disruption. Finding and applying a new search algorithm, nearly 20,000 entries in the pheromone literature have been counted, a number much higher than originally anticipated. This compilation contains identified and thus synthesizable structures for all major orders of insects. Among them are hundreds of agriculturally significant insect pests whose aggregated damages and costly control measures range in the multibillions of dollars annually. Unfortunately, and despite a lot of effort within the international entomological scene, the number of efficient and cheap engineering solutions for dispensing pheromones under variable field conditions is uncomfortably lagging behind. Some innovative approaches are cited from the relevant literature in an attempt to rectify this situation. Recently, specifically designed electrospun organic nanofibers offer a lot of promise. With their use, the mating communication of vineyard insects like Lobesia botrana (Lep.: Tortricidae) can be disrupted for periods of seven weeks. PMID:23885431

Hummel, H E; Eisinger, M T; Hein, D F; Breuer, M; Schmid, S; Leithold, G

2012-01-01

117

Tissue-Specific Transcriptomics of the Exotic Invasive Insect Pest Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)  

PubMed Central

Background The insect midgut and fat body represent major tissue interfaces that deal with several important physiological functions including digestion, detoxification and immune response. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), is an exotic invasive insect pest that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) primarily in the Midwestern United States and Ontario, Canada. However, despite its high impact status little knowledge exists for A. planipennis at the molecular level. Methodology and Principal Findings Newer-generation Roche-454 pyrosequencing was used to obtain 126,185 reads for the midgut and 240,848 reads for the fat body, which were assembled into 25,173 and 37,661 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for the midgut and the fat body of A. planipennis larvae, respectively. Among these ESTs, 36% of the midgut and 38% of the fat body sequences showed similarity to proteins in the GenBank nr database. A high number of the midgut sequences contained chitin-binding peritrophin (248)and trypsin (98) domains; while the fat body sequences showed high occurrence of cytochrome P450s (85) and protein kinase (123) domains. Further, the midgut transcriptome of A. planipennis revealed putative microbial transcripts encoding for cell-wall degrading enzymes such as polygalacturonases and endoglucanases. A significant number of SNPs (137 in midgut and 347 in fat body) and microsatellite loci (317 in midgut and 571 in fat body) were predicted in the A. planipennis transcripts. An initial assessment of cytochrome P450s belonging to various CYP clades revealed distinct expression patterns at the tissue level. Conclusions and Significance To our knowledge this study is one of the first to illuminate tissue-specific gene expression in an invasive insect of high ecological and economic consequence. These findings will lay the foundation for future gene expression and functional studies in A. planipennis.

Mittapalli, Omprakash; Bai, Xiaodong; Bonello, Pierluigi; Herms, Daniel A.

2010-01-01

118

Functional haplodiploidy: a mechanism for the spread of insecticide resistance in an important international insect pest.  

PubMed Central

The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most important insect pest of coffee worldwide and has an unusual life history that ensures a high degree of inbreeding. Individual females lay a predominantly female brood within individual coffee berries and because males are flightless there is almost entirely full sib mating. We investigated the genetics associated with this interesting life history after the important discovery of resistance to the cyclodiene type insecticide endosulfan. Both the inheritance of the resistance phenotype and the resistance-associated point mutation in the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor gene Rdl were examined. Consistent with haplodiploidy, males failed to express and transmit paternally derived resistance alleles. Furthermore, while cytological examination revealed that males are diploid, one set of chromosomes was condensed, and probably nonfunctional, in the somatic cells of all males examined. Moreover, although two sets of chromosomes were present in primary spermatocytes, the chromosomes failed to pair before the single meiotic division, and only one set was packaged in sperm. Thus, the coffee berry borer is "functionally" haplodiploid. Its genetics and life history may therefore represent an interesting intermediate step in the evolution of true haplodiploidy. The influence of this breeding system on the spread of insecticide resistance is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5

Brun, L O; Stuart, J; Gaudichon, V; Aronstein, K; French-Constant, R H

1995-01-01

119

Monitoring pest insect traps by means of low-power image sensor technologies.  

PubMed

Monitoring pest insect populations is currently a key issue in agriculture and forestry protection. At the farm level, human operators typically must perform periodical surveys of the traps disseminated through the field. This is a labor-, time- and cost-consuming activity, in particular for large plantations or large forestry areas, so it would be of great advantage to have an affordable system capable of doing this task automatically in an accurate and a more efficient way. This paper proposes an autonomous monitoring system based on a low-cost image sensor that it is able to capture and send images of the trap contents to a remote control station with the periodicity demanded by the trapping application. Our autonomous monitoring system will be able to cover large areas with very low energy consumption. This issue would be the main key point in our study; since the operational live of the overall monitoring system should be extended to months of continuous operation without any kind of maintenance (i.e., battery replacement). The images delivered by image sensors would be time-stamped and processed in the control station to get the number of individuals found at each trap. All the information would be conveniently stored at the control station, and accessible via Internet by means of available network services at control station (WiFi, WiMax, 3G/4G, etc.). PMID:23202232

López, Otoniel; Rach, Miguel Martinez; Migallon, Hector; Malumbres, Manuel P; Bonastre, Alberto; Serrano, Juan J

2012-11-13

120

Monitoring Pest Insect Traps by Means of Low-Power Image Sensor Technologies  

PubMed Central

Monitoring pest insect populations is currently a key issue in agriculture and forestry protection. At the farm level, human operators typically must perform periodical surveys of the traps disseminated through the field. This is a labor-, time- and cost-consuming activity, in particular for large plantations or large forestry areas, so it would be of great advantage to have an affordable system capable of doing this task automatically in an accurate and a more efficient way. This paper proposes an autonomous monitoring system based on a low-cost image sensor that it is able to capture and send images of the trap contents to a remote control station with the periodicity demanded by the trapping application. Our autonomous monitoring system will be able to cover large areas with very low energy consumption. This issue would be the main key point in our study; since the operational live of the overall monitoring system should be extended to months of continuous operation without any kind of maintenance (i.e., battery replacement). The images delivered by image sensors would be time-stamped and processed in the control station to get the number of individuals found at each trap. All the information would be conveniently stored at the control station, and accessible via Internet by means of available network services at control station (WiFi, WiMax, 3G/4G, etc.).

Lopez, Otoniel; Rach, Miguel Martinez; Migallon, Hector; Malumbres, Manuel P.; Bonastre, Alberto; Serrano, Juan J.

2012-01-01

121

The Phorbol Ester Fraction from Jatropha curcas Seed Oil: Potential and Limits for Crop Protection against Insect Pests.  

PubMed

The physic nut shrub, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae), has been considered as a "miracle tree", particularly as a source of alternate fuel. Various extracts of the plant have been reported to have insecticidal/acaricidal or molluscicidal/anthelminthic activities on vectors of medical or veterinary interest or on agricultural or non-agricultural pests. Among those extracts, the phorbol ester fraction from seed oil has been reported as a promising candidate for use as a plant-derived protectant of a variety of crops, from a range of pre-harvest and post-harvest insect pests. However, such extracts have not been widely used, despite the "boom" in the development of the crop in the tropics during recent years, and societal concerns about overuse of systemic chemical pesticides. There are many potential explanations to such a lack of use of Jatropha insecticidal extracts. On the one hand, the application of extracts potentially harmful to human health on stored food grain, might not be relevant. The problem of decomposition of phorbol esters and other compounds toxic to crop pests in the field needing further evaluation before such extracts can be widely used, may also be a partial explanation. High variability of phorbol ester content and hence of insecticidal activity among physic nut cultivars/ecotypes may be another. Phytotoxicity to crops may be further limitation. Apparent obstacles to a wider application of such extracts are the costs and problems involved with registration and legal approval. On the other hand, more studies should be conducted on molluscicidal activity on slugs and land snails which are major pests of crops, particularly in conservation agriculture systems. Further evaluation of toxicity to natural enemies of insect pests and studies on other beneficial insects such as pollinators are also needed. PMID:23203190

Ratnadass, Alain; Wink, Michael

2012-11-30

122

Public Relations and Political Support in Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management Programmes that Integrate the Sterile Insect Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The public relations component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique (SIT) has a large impact on programme success. Full-time professionals should direct public relations activities and secure vital political support from governments and community organizations. Good communication among programme staff, and between programme staff and the public, is required to maintain participation and

V. A. DYCK; E. E. REGIDOR FERNÁNDEZ; J. Reyes Flores; T. Teruya; B. Barnes; P. GÓmez Riera; D. Lindquist; R. Reuben

123

Founder effects and phenotypic variation in Adelges cooleyi , an insect pest introduced to the eastern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduced organisms experience founder effects including genetic bottlenecks that result in significant reductions in genetic\\u000a variation. Genetic bottlenecks may constrain the evolution of phenotypic traits that facilitate success in novel habitats.\\u000a We examined the effect of introduction into novel environments on genetic diversity of an insect pest, Adelges cooleyi, which was introduced into the eastern United States during the mid

Robert G. Ahern; David J. Hawthorne; Michael J. Raupp

2009-01-01

124

PROTECTION OF STORED MAIZE FROM INSECT PESTS USING A TWO-COMPONENT BIOLOGICAL CONTROL METHOD CONSISTING OF A HYMENOPTERAN PARASITOID, THEOCOLAX ELEGANS, AND TRANSGENIC AVIDIN MAIZE POWDER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biological control materials consisting of the hymenopteran parasitoid, Theocolax elegans (Westwood), and transgenic avidin maize (corn) powder were tested to determine if the individual or combination treatment would protect stored grain from infestation by both internal and external insect pests. ...

125

Using Trichogramma Westwood (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) for insect pest biological control in cotton crops: an Australian perspective  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Trichogramma Westwood egg parasitoids alone generally fail to suppress heliothine pests when released in established cotton growing regions. Factors hindering their success include indiscriminate use of detrimental insecticides, compensation for minimal pest larval hatch due to their activity via re...

126

1978 Insect Pest Management Guide: Field and Forage Crops. Circular 899.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This circular lists suggested uses of insecticides for the control of field crop pests. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of insecticides to control pests in field corn, alfalfa and clover, small grains, soybeans and grain sorghum. (CS)|

Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

127

Insect control with $gamma$ rays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sterile insect release method (SIRM) for insect pest control with ; gamma radiation uses the insect pest to control itself. It provides the ; following advantages: where a pest insect is able to live or survive, the sterile ; insect will duplicate its behavior, therefore, there is no haven for the pest; ; the insect pest need not, reach

J. E. Simon F; A. M. Srb

1973-01-01

128

Improvement of Pest Resistance in Transgenic Tobacco Plants Expressing dsRNA of an Insect-Associated Gene EcR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adoption of pest-resistant transgenic plants to reduce yield loss and pesticide utilization has been successful in the past three decades. Recently, transgenic plant expressing double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) targeting pest genes emerges as a promising strategy for improving pest resistance in crops. The steroid hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), predominately controls insect molting via its nuclear receptor complex, EcR-USP. Here we report

Jin-Qi Zhu; Shumin Liu; Yao Ma; Jia-Qi Zhang; Hai-Sheng Qi; Zhao-Jun Wei; Qiong Yao; Wen-Qing Zhang; Sheng Li

2012-01-01

129

Biological activity of ethanolic extract fractions of Dracaena arborea against infestation of stored grains by two storage insect pests.  

PubMed

As part of on-going efforts to use eco-friendly alternatives to chemical pesticides, ethanolic extract of dried leaves of Dracaena arborea (Willd.) Link (Dragon tree; Dracaenaceae) dissolved in distilled water and partitioned between equal volumes of n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol was assessed in the laboratory against infestation by Sitophillus zeamais Motsch. and Callosobruchus maculatus Walp. in stored maize and cowpea, respectively. One hundred grams each of maize grains and cowpea seeds were treated with 400 mg kg(-1) of each extract fraction to evaluate contact toxicity, damage assessment, effect on eggs and immature stages and progeny production in both insect species. Contact toxicity by topical application, toxicity upon filter paper application and repellency using area preference method were carried out on the two insect species. Results showed that the extract fraction caused significant (p < or = 0.05) mortality of both insect pests with a high residual contact activity against S. zeamais. Grain damage was significantly (p < or = 0.01) reduced, while progeny production and development of eggs within grains were inhibited. The extract fractions evoked a strong repellent action against S. zeamais but moderate action against C. maculatus. The full potentials of using extract fractions of D. arborea as grain protectant against infestation by insect pests is discussed. PMID:19817125

Epidi, T T; Udo, I O

2009-07-01

130

Insect-specific irreversible inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase in pests including the bed bug, the eastern yellowjacket, German and American cockroaches, and the confused flour beetle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insecticides directed against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) are facing increased resistance among target species as well as increasing concerns for human toxicity. The result has been a resurgence of disease vectors, insects destructive to agriculture, and residential pests. We previously reported a free cysteine (Cys) residue at the entrance to the AChE active site in some insects but not higher vertebrates. We

Gregory A. Polsinelli; Sanjay K. Singh; Rajesh K. Mishra; Robert Suranyi; David W. Ragsdale; Yuan-Ping Pang; Stephen Brimijoin

2010-01-01

131

1978 Insect Pest Management Guide: Commercial Vegetable Crops and Greenhouse Vegetables. Circular 897.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This circular lists suggested uses of insecticides for the control of pests by commercial vegetable farmers. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of insecticides to control pests of cabbage and related crops, beans, cucumbers and other vine crops, tomatoes, potatoes, peppers, corn, and onions. (CS)|

Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

132

Resistance of National Sweetpotato Collaborator’s Group Genotypes to Soil Insect Pests, Charleston, SC, 2010  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three insect susceptible cultivars (‘Beauregard’ [B63], 'Beauregard' [B94-14], and 'SC 1149-19'), two insect-resistant cultivars ('Charleston Scarlet' and ‘Ruddy’), and 7 regional genotypes from the 2010 National Sweetpotato Collaborator Trials were evaluated for insect resistance in replicated fiel...

133

Resistance of National Sweetpotato Collaborator's Group Genotypes to Soil Insect Pests, Charleston, SC, 2011  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three insect susceptible sweetpotato cultivars (‘Beauregard’ [B63 & B94-14] and 'SC1149 19'), two insect-resistant sweetpotato cultivars ('Charleston Scarlet' and ‘Ruddy’), and ten regional sweetpotato genotypes from the 2011 National Sweetpotato Collaborator Trials were evaluated for insect resista...

134

EVALUATION OF REGIONAL SWEETPOTATO ENTRIES FOR RESISTANCE TO SOIL INSECT PESTS, 2002.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Four insect susceptible cultivars ('Beauregard', 'Hernandez', 'Porto Rico', and 'SC 1149-19'), two insect-resistant cultivars ('Regal' and 'Sumor'), and 9 regional entries from the 2002 National Sweetpotato Collaborator Trials were evaluated for insect resistance in replicated field trials at Charle...

135

Resistance of national sweetpotato collaborator's group genotypes to soil insect pests, Charleston, S.C., 2012  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three insect susceptible sweetpotato cultivars (‘Beauregard’ [B63 & B94-14] and 'SC1149 19'), two insect-resistant sweetpotato cultivars ('Charleston Scarlet' and ‘Ruddy’), and ten regional sweetpotato genotypes from the 2011 National Sweetpotato Collaborator Trials were evaluated for insect resista...

136

Evaluation of Regional Sweetpotato Genotypes for Resistance to Soil Insect Pests, 2010  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three insect susceptible cultivars (‘Beauregard’ [B63], 'Beauregard' [B94-14], and 'SC 1149-19'), two insect-resistant cultivars ('Charleston Scarlet' and ‘Ruddy’), and 7 regional genotypes from the 2010 National Sweetpotato Collaborator Trials were evaluated for insect resistance in replicated fiel...

137

Evaluation of Regional Sweetpotato Genotypes for Resistance to Soil Insect Pests, 2009  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three insect susceptible cultivars (‘Beauregard’ [B63], 'Beauregard' [B94-14], and 'SC 1149-19'), two insect-resistant cultivars ('Charleston Scarlet' and ‘Ruddy’), and 7 regional genotypes from the 2009 National Sweetpotato Collaborator Trials were evaluated for insect resistance in replicated fiel...

138

Evalution of advanced sweetpotato genotypes for resistance to soil insect pests, 2010  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three insect susceptible cultivars (‘Beauregard’, ‘Hernandez’, and 'SC 1149-19'), two insect-resistant cultivars ('Charleston Scarlet' and ‘Ruddy’), and 43 advanced sweetpotato genotypes were evaluated for insect resistance in replicated field trials at Charleston, SC. Thirty-three genotypes had si...

139

Resistance of National Sweetpotato Collaborator’s Group Genotypes to Soil Insect Pests, Charleston, SC, 2009  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three insect susceptible cultivars (‘Beauregard’ [B63], 'Beauregard' [B94-14], and 'SC 1149-19'), two insect-resistant cultivars ('Charleston Scarlet' and ‘Ruddy’), and 7 regional genotypes from the 2009 National Sweetpotato Collaborator Trials were evaluated for insect resistance in replicated fiel...

140

EVALUATION OF REGIONAL SWEETPOTATO GENOTYPES FOR RESISTANCE TO SOIL INSECT PESTS, 2008  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Four insect susceptible cultivars (‘Beauregard’ [B63], 'Beauregard' [B94-14], ‘Liberty’, and 'SC 1149-19'), two insect-resistant cultivars ('Charleston Scarlet' and ‘Ruddy’), and 7 regional genotypes from the 2008 National Sweetpotato Collaborator Trials were evaluated for insect resistance in repli...

141

Role of behavioural studies in the development of management strategies for forest insect pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under forestry conditions, management techniques aimed at maintenance of pest populations at moderate levels have greater\\u000a chance of success than conventional methods of pest control. Simple behavioural observations can sometimes be used to great\\u000a advantage in the development of such methods, some examples of which are given. Although there has been considerable excitement\\u000a over the past two decades on the

K S S Nair

1985-01-01

142

PATHOGENICITY OF THREE ENTOMOPATHOGENIC NEMATODE SPECIES TO SOME MAJOR STORED PRODUCT INSECT PESTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Stored product insect infestations can be caused by persistence in, and immigration from, refugia in and around storage facilities. Chemical controls are widely used to treat insects in refugia such as cracks and crevices and empty bins. Entomopathogenic nematodes (Nematoda, Heterorhabditidae and...

143

EFFECTS OF A KILLED-COVER CROP MULCH ON SOIL INSECT PESTS OF SWEETPOTATOES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

One insect-resistant ('Ruddy') and two insect-susceptible ('SC1149-19' and 'Beauregard') sweetpotato genotypes were grown in either conventionally tilled plots (CT) or in a killed-cover crop (KKC) tillage system at the US Vegetable Laboratory, Charleston, SC, in 2002 and 2003. Four-row plots (100 p...

144

[Techniques of diseases, insect pests and weeds control and their efficacy in bio-rational rice production].  

PubMed

Studies on the efficacy of bio-rational pesticides and agricultural methods against the chief diseases, insect pests and weeds of rice showed that the efficacy of the mixtures of jingangmycin and bacillus-cereus, and jingangmycin and polyoxin against rice sheath blight were 75.16%-94.27% after sprayed once at the tiller and boot end stages of rice, respectively, and better than that of chemical fungicide triadimefon. The efficacy of kasugamycin and blasticidin was 50.54%-72.67% on rice leaf blast and 76.66%-87.42% on rice head blast, and equal to the chemical fungicide tricyclazole after sprayed once at the initial stage of rice leaf blast occurrence and the initial and end stages of earing, respectively. The efficacy of bacillus thuringiensis on Chilo suppressalis and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis was better than that of chemical insecticide bisultap, and the efficacy of saponin-nicotine and matrine was equal to that of chemical insecticide bisultap when the three biorational insecticides were sprayed at 1-2 instar larvae of pests. The efficacy of saponin-nicotine and matrine was above 70%, and lower than that of chemical insecticide imidacloprid 3-30 d after sprayed at 1-2 instar larvae of Nilaparvata lugens. The occurrence of weeds could be controlled, and the rice yield could be raised when the suitable non-thorough decomposed organism was applied or weeding was carried after the field had been ploughed twice before rice transplant. The rice yield could be raised by using biorational pesticides and agricultural methods against the chief diseases, insect pests and weeds of rice. The residue of pesticides in rice was lower in the bio-control area than in the chemical control area, according with the demands of health target of green food. PMID:15139200

Li, Baotong; Shi, Qinghua; Fang, Jiahai; Pan, Xiaohua

2004-01-01

145

Cloning and functional characterisation of two novel nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha subunits from the insect pest Myzus persicae.  

PubMed

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors play a major role in excitatory neurotransmission in insect CNSs and constitute an important target for insecticides. Here, we report the isolation and functional characterisation of two cDNAs encoding nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha subunits from a major insect pest, the peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae. These two subunits, termed Mp alpha1 and Mp alpha2, are respective structural homologues of the Drosophila D alpha2/Schistocerca gregaria alphaL1 alpha-subunit pair and the Drosophila ALS alpha subunit. Xenopus oocyte expression confirmed that each Myzus subunit can form functional acetylcholine- or nicotine-gated channels. However, some electrophysiological and pharmacological properties of the Myzus subunits were distinct from those encoded by the corresponding Drosophila subunits. Coexpression of the Myzus subunits with the chick beta2 subunit revealed other differences from the Drosophila system, as only very limited potentiation of agonist-induced currents was observed with Mp alpha2 and none with Mp alpha1. Available data therefore indicate that structurally homologous insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha subunits from different species can exhibit distinctive physiological and pharmacological characteristics. PMID:9721715

Sgard, F; Fraser, S P; Katkowska, M J; Djamgoz, M B; Dunbar, S J; Windass, J D

1998-09-01

146

Herbicide (2,4-D) Increases Insect and Pathogen Pests on Corn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corn leaf aphids, European corn borers, and southern corn leaf blight were more abundant on corn exposed to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) herbicide than they were on unexposed corn. Protein levels were higher in corn plants that were exposed to several dosages of 2,4-D, and this may have favored the growth of pests.

I. N. Oka; David Pimentel

1976-01-01

147

Biology and management of insect pests in North American intensively managed hardwood forest systems.  

SciTech Connect

Annu. Rev. Entomol. 50:1-29. Abstract Increasing demand for wood and wood products is putting stress on traditional forest production areas, leading to long-term economic and environmental concerns. Intensively managed hardwood forest systems (IMHFS), grown using conventional agricultural as well as forestry methods, can help alleviate potential problems in natural forest production areas. Although IMHFS can produce more biomass per hectare per year than natural forests, the ecologically simplified, monocultural systems may greatly increase the crops susceptibility to pests. Species in the genera Populus and Salix comprise the greatest acreage in IMHFS in North America, but other species, including Liquidambar styracifua and Platanus occidentalis, are also important. We discuss life histories, realized and potential damage, and management options for the most economically infuential pests that affect these hardwood species. The substantial inherent challenges associated with pest management in the monocultural environments created by IMHFS are reviewed. Finally, we discuss ways to design IMHFS that may reduce their susceptibility to pests, increase their growth and productivity potential, and create a more sustainable environment.

Coyle, David R.; Nebeker, T., E.; Hart, E., R.; Mattson, W., J.

2005-01-01

148

Chemical Control of Insect Pests and Insecticide Resistance in Oilseed Rape  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Public concerns about environmental hazards and widespread resistance in pollen beetle populations on oilseed rape in Europe\\u000a are threatening the availability of a variety of insecticidal modes of action for pest control on the crop. For a sustainable\\u000a use of insecticides any overuse has to be avoided to minimize risk of resistance development. Pollen beetles are present in\\u000a the crop

Thomas Thieme; Udo Heimbach; Andreas Müller

149

Moving On: Farmer Education in Integrated Insect Pest and Disease Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter explores intensive hands-on occupational education for farmers in selected European, African, Latin American\\u000a countries and in south India. An Indian case study of Farmer Field Schools for Integrated Pest and Production Management (IPPM)\\u000a to ensure food security and livelihood improvement is presented, to introduce discussion of the role of IPPM beyond improving\\u000a agriculture productivity. Does it enable farmers

Janice Jiggins; Francesca Mancini

2009-01-01

150

Ecoinformatics for integrated pest management: expanding the applied insect ecologist's tool-kit.  

PubMed

Experimentation has been the cornerstone of much of integrated pest management (IPM) research. Here, we aim to open a discussion on the possible merits of expanding the use of observational studies, and in particular the use of data from farmers or private pest management consultants in "ecoinformatics" studies, as tools that might complement traditional, experimental research. The manifold advantages of experimentation are widely appreciated: experiments provide definitive inferences regarding causal relationships between key variables, can produce uniform and high-quality data sets, and are highly flexible in the treatments that can be evaluated. Perhaps less widely considered, however, are the possible disadvantages of experimental research. Using the yield-impact study to focus the discussion, we address some reasons why observational or ecoinformatics approaches might be attractive as complements to experimentation. A survey of the literature suggests that many contemporary yield-impact studies lack sufficient statistical power to resolve the small, but economically important, effects on crop yield that shape pest management decision-making by farmers. Ecoinformatics-based data sets can be substantially larger than experimental data sets and therefore hold out the promise of enhanced power. Ecoinformatics approaches also address problems at the spatial and temporal scales at which farming is conducted, can achieve higher levels of "external validity," and can allow researchers to efficiently screen many variables during the initial, exploratory phases of research projects. Experimental, observational, and ecoinformatics-based approaches may, if used together, provide more efficient solutions to problems in pest management than can any single approach, used in isolation. PMID:21510177

Rosenheim, Jay A; Parsa, Soroush; Forbes, Andrew A; Krimmel, William A; Law, Yao Hua; Segoli, Michal; Segoli, Moran; Sivakoff, Frances S; Zaviezo, Tania; Gross, Kevin

2011-04-01

151

Remote Diagnosis and Control Expert System for Citrus Agricultural Diseases and Insect Pests Based on BP Neural Network and WebGIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, on the basis of full investigation and a lot of comparison with expert systems at home and abroad, introducing Web technology, WebGIS and BP neural network technology into expert system and taking full use of their respective advantages, we have designed and developed a remote diagnosis and control expert system for citrus agricultural diseases and insect pests

Xiao Laisheng; Wang Zhengxia; Peng Xiaohong; Wu Min; Yu Guangzhou

2009-01-01

152

Management of insect pests of soybean: effects of sowing date and intercropping on damage and grain yield in the Nigerian Sudan savanna  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field trials were carried out during the 2001–2002 cropping seasons at Maiduguri, Nigeria, to determine the effects of defoliation and pod damage by insect pests on grain yield of soybean. The factorial experiments consisted of four sowing dates (31 July, 7, 14 and 21 August in 2001 and 21 and 28 July and 4 and 11 August in 2002), four

B. M. Sastawa; M. Lawan; Y. T. Maina

2004-01-01

153

In situ detection of small-size insect pests sampled on traps using multifractal analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a multifractal analysis for detecting the small-size pest (e.g., whitefly) images from a sticky trap in situ. An automatic attraction system is utilized for collecting pests from greenhouse plants. We applied multifractal analysis to segment action of whitefly images based on the local singularity and global image characteristics. According to the theory of multifractal dimension, the candidate blobs of whiteflies are initially defined from the sticky-trap image. Two schemes, fixed thresholding and regional minima obtainment, were utilized for feature extraction of candidate whitefly image areas. The experiment was conducted with the field images in a greenhouse. Detection results were compared with other adaptive segmentation algorithms. Values of F measuring precision and recall score were higher for the proposed multifractal analysis (96.5%) compared with conventional methods such as Watershed (92.2%) and Otsu (73.1%). The true positive rate of multifractal analysis was 94.3% and the false positive rate minimal level at 1.3%. Detection performance was further tested via human observation. The degree of scattering between manual and automatic counting was remarkably higher with multifractal analysis (R2=0.992) compared with Watershed (R2=0.895) and Otsu (R2=0.353), ensuring overall detection of the small-size pests is most feasible with multifractal analysis in field conditions.

Xia, Chunlei; Lee, Jang-Myung; Li, Yan; Chung, Bu-Keun; Chon, Tae-Soo

2012-02-01

154

A Naturally Occurring Plant Cysteine Protease Possesses Remarkable Toxicity against Insect Pests and Synergizes Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin  

PubMed Central

When caterpillars feed on maize (Zea maize L.) lines with native resistance to several Lepidopteran pests, a defensive cysteine protease, Mir1-CP, rapidly accumulates at the wound site. Mir1-CP has been shown to inhibit caterpillar growth in vivo by attacking and permeabilizing the insect's peritrophic matrix (PM), a structure that surrounds the food bolus, assists in digestion and protects the midgut from microbes and toxins. PM permeabilization weakens the caterpillar defenses by facilitating the movement of other insecticidal proteins in the diet to the midgut microvilli and thereby enhancing their toxicity. To directly determine the toxicity of Mir1-CP, the purified recombinant enzyme was directly tested against four economically significant Lepidopteran pests in bioassays. Mir1-CP LC50 values were 1.8, 3.6, 0.6, and 8.0 ppm for corn earworm, tobacco budworm, fall armyworm and southwestern corn borer, respectively. These values were the same order of magnitude as those determined for the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Bt-CryIIA. In addition to being directly toxic to the larvae, 60 ppb Mir1-CP synergized sublethal concentrations of Bt-CryIIA in all four species. Permeabilization of the PM by Mir1-CP probably provides ready access to Bt-binding sites on the midgut microvilli and increases its activity. Consequently, Mir1-CP could be used for controlling caterpillar pests in maize using non-transgenic approaches and potentially could be used in other crops either singly or in combination with Bt-toxins.

Mohan, Srinidi; Ma, Peter W. K.; Williams, W. Paul; Luthe, Dawn S.

2008-01-01

155

Impact of climate change on voltinism and prospective diapause induction of a global pest insect--Cydia pomonella (L.).  

PubMed

Global warming will lead to earlier beginnings and prolongation of growing seasons in temperate regions and will have pronounced effects on phenology and life-history adaptation in many species. These changes were not easy to simulate for actual phenologies because of the rudimentary temporal (season) and spatial (regional) resolution of climate model projections. We investigate the effect of climate change on the regional incidence of a pest insect with nearly worldwide distribution and very high potential for adaptation to season length and temperature--the Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella. Seasonal and regional climate change signals were downscaled to the hourly temporal scale of a pest phenology model and the spatial scale of pest habitats using a stochastic weather generator operating at daily scale in combination with a re-sampling approach for simulation of hourly weather data. Under future conditions of increased temperatures (2045-2074), the present risk of below 20% for a pronounced second generation (peak larval emergence) in Switzerland will increase to 70-100%. The risk of an additional third generation will increase from presently 0-2% to 100%. We identified a significant two-week shift to earlier dates in phenological stages, such as overwintering adult flight. The relative extent (magnitude) of first generation pupae and all later stages will significantly increase. The presence of first generation pupae and later stages will be prolonged. A significant decrease in the length of overlap of first and second generation larval emergence was identified. Such shifts in phenology may induce changes in life-history traits regulating the life cycle. An accordingly life-history adaptation in photoperiodic diapause induction to shorter day-length is expected and would thereby even more increase the risk of an additional generation. With respect to Codling Moth management, the shifts in phenology and voltinism projected here will require adaptations of plant protection strategies to maintain their sustainability. PMID:22539997

Stoeckli, Sibylle; Hirschi, Martin; Spirig, Christoph; Calanca, Pierluigi; Rotach, Mathias W; Samietz, Jörg

2012-04-23

156

Shade tree management affects fruit abortion, insect pests and pathogens of cacao  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mortality of cacao fruits caused by early fruit abortion or insect and pathogen attacks was investigated in differently managed agroforestry systems in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Nine agroforestry systems shaded by three different types of tree stands were selected, which represented a decrease in structural heterogeneity: forest remnants, diverse planted trees and one or two species of planted leguminose trees.

Merijn M. Bos; Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter; Teja Tscharntke

2007-01-01

157

Performance of the Microsprayer, with Application for Pheromone-Mediated Control of Insect Pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electronically controlled device has been designed to provide reliable, precise, season-long release of insect pheromones without the need for maintenance, refilling, or component replacement. The operational performance of this dispenser technology was evaluated under laboratory and field conditions throughout the summer of 1998 in orchards of Michigan apple (Malus spp.). A simple electronic circuit controlled the opening of an

RUFUS ISAACS; MICHAEL ULCZYNSKI; BRIAN WRIGHT; LARRY J. GUT; JAMES R. MILLER

1999-01-01

158

Desiccation increases the efficacy of Beauveria bassiana for stored grain pest insects  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effect of desiccation stress on the efficacy of Beauveria bassiana for stored-product insects was investigated in laboratory bioassays. The mortality of B. bassiana-treated Plodia interpunctella larvae was greater at a vapor pressure deficit (VPD) of 2.42 kPa or 1.87 kPa than at 1.06 kPa. Moist...

159

TESTING OF THE INSECT PEST CONTROL FUNGUS BEAUVERIA BASSIANA IN GRASS SHRIMP PALAEMONETES PUGIO  

EPA Science Inventory

Embryos, larvae and adult grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio were exposed to spores of the insect-control fungus Beauveria bassiana. onidiospores attached to embryos held by gravid females and remained with the egg mass for at least 6 d. In the first experiment where individual deve...

160

EVALUATION OF DRY FLESHED SWEETPOTATO GENOTYPES FOR RESISTANCE TO SOIL INSECT PESTS, 2003  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This report describes a field evaluation of advanced dry fleshed sweetpotato germplasm from the USDA ARS sweetpotato breeding program at the U. S. Vegetable Laboratory (USVL), Charleston, SC. This field experiment included two insect susceptible, moist orange fleshed check cultivars (‘Beauregard’ a...

161

Evaluation of Advanced Sweetpotato Genotypes for Resistance to Soil Insect Pests, 2009  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This report describes a field evaluation of advanced orange-fleshed sweetpotato genotypes from the USDA ARS sweetpotato breeding program at the U. S. Vegetable Laboratory (USVL), Charleston, SC in 2009. This field experiment included four insect-susceptible check cultivars (‘Beauregard’, ‘Diane’, ‘...

162

Evaluation of Advanced Sweetpotato Genotypes for Resistance to Soil Insect Pests, 2008  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This report describes a field evaluation of advanced orange-fleshed sweetpotato genotypes from the USDA ARS sweetpotato breeding program at the U. S. Vegetable Laboratory (USVL), Charleston, SC in 2008. This field experiment included four insect-susceptible check cultivars (‘Beauregard’, ‘Diane’, ‘...

163

EVALUATION OF DRY-FLESHED SWEETPOTATO ENTRIES FOR RESISTANCE TO SOIL INSECT PESTS, 2002.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This report describes two field evaluations of advanced dry fleshed sweetpotato germplasm from the USDA, ARS sweetpotato breeding program at the U. S. Vegetable Laboratory, Charleston, SC. These field experiments included an insect susceptible, orange fleshed check cultivar ('Beauregard'), an insec...

164

Evaluation of Advanced Sweetpotato Genotypes For Resistance To Soil Insect Pests, 2006  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This report describes a field evaluation of advanced orange-fleshed sweetpotato genotypes from the USDA ARS sweetpotato breeding program at the U. S. Vegetable Laboratory (USVL), Charleston, SC. This field experiment included two insect susceptible check cultivars (‘Beauregard’and ‘SC1149 19’), two...

165

Ash Pests: A Guide to Major Insects, Diseases, Air Pollution Injury, and Chemical Injury.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ashes (Fraxinus spp.) are one of the authors' more valuable hardwood resources--some 275 million board feet of ash lumber are sawn annually in the United States. Insects, diseases, and pollutants are continuing problems for the ashes, but few actually...

J. D. Solomon T. D. Leininger A. D. Wilson R. L. Anderson L. C. Thompson

1993-01-01

166

Evaluation of Dry-fleshed Sweetpotato Genotypes for Resistance to Soil Insect Pest, 2005  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This report describes a field evaluation of advanced dry fleshed sweetpotato genotypes from the USDA ARS sweetpotato breeding program at the US Vegetable Laboratory (USVL), Charleston, SC. This field experiment included two insect susceptible, moist orange fleshed check cultivars (‘Beauregard’ and ...

167

Impact of Relative Humidity on Adult Weight and Size of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), sweetpotato whitefly, is a serious global sap-sucking insect pest that carries many infectious diseases when feeding on many types of crops. A study was conducted to determine the influence of relative humidity (RH) on body size and mass of B. tabaci. The B-biotype B. t...

168

Accumulation of a chymotrypsin inhibitor in transgenic tobacco can affect the growth of insect pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

A member of the potato proteinase inhibitor II (PPI II) gene family that encodes for a chymotrypsin iso-inhibitor has been introduced into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) usingAgrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated T-DNA transfer. Analysis of the primary transgenic plants (designated R0) confirmed that the introduced gene is being expressed and the inhibitor accumulates as an intact and fully functional protein. For insect feeding trials,

Michael T. McManus; Derek W. R. White; Peter G. McGregor

1994-01-01

169

Use of a regulatory mechanism of sex determination in pest insect control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sexual development of an insect is defined through a hierarchical control of several sex determining genes. Of these genes,\\u000a transformer (tra) and doublesex (dsx) are well characterized and functionally conserved, especially dsx. Both genes are regulated at the transcriptional level through sex-specific alternative splicing. Incorporation of a genetically\\u000a engineered sexspecific splicing module derived from these genes in transgenic systems,

Tarig Dafa’alla; Guoliang Fu; Luke Alphey

2010-01-01

170

Recent developments and future prospects in insect pest control in transgenic crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adoption of insect-resistant transgenic crops has been increasing annually at double-digit rates since the commercial release of first-generation maize and cotton expressing a single modified Bacillus thuringiensis toxin (Bt) nine years ago. Studies have shown that these Bt crops can be successfully deployed in agriculture, which has led to a decrease in pesticide usage, and that they are environmentally

Paul Christou; Teresa Capell; Ajay Kohli; John A. Gatehouse; Angharad M. R. Gatehouse

2006-01-01

171

Safety and Advantages of Bacillus thuringiensis-Protected Plants to Control Insect Pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants modified to express insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (referred to as Bt-protected plants) provide a safe and highly effective method of insect control. Bt-protected corn, cotton, and potato were introduced into the United States in 1995\\/1996 and grown on a total of approximately 10 million acres in 1997, 20 million acres in 1998, and 29 million acres globally in

Fred S. Betz; Bruce G. Hammond; Roy L. Fuchs

2000-01-01

172

Chromobacterium subtsugae sp. nov., a betaproteobacterium toxic to Colorado potato beetle and other insect pests.  

PubMed

Strain PRAA4-1(T), a motile, Gram-negative, violet-pigmented bacterium, was isolated from Maryland forest soil and found to be orally toxic to Colorado potato beetle larvae and other insects. Morphological, biological, biochemical and molecular characterization revealed that this strain was most similar to Chromobacterium violaceum, the type species and only currently recognized member of the genus Chromobacterium. DNA-DNA hybridization with C. violaceum ATCC 12472(T) was 27 %. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain PRAA4-1(T) and Chromobacterium violaceum form a monophyletic clade, with the closest ancestral taxon Vogesella indigofera within the Betaproteobacteria. On the basis of phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic analyses, strain PRAA4-1(T) (=NRRL B-30655(T)=DSM 17043(T)) is proposed as the type strain of a novel species of the genus Chromobacterium, Chromobacterium subtsugae sp. nov. PMID:17473247

Martin, Phyllis A W; Gundersen-Rindal, Dawn; Blackburn, Michael; Buyer, Jeffrey

2007-05-01

173

Effects of a sex-ratio distorting endosymbiont on mtDNA variation in a global insect pest  

PubMed Central

Background Patterns of mtDNA variation within a species reflect long-term population structure, but may also be influenced by maternally inherited endosymbionts, such as Wolbachia. These bacteria often alter host reproductive biology and can drive particular mtDNA haplotypes through populations. We investigated the impacts of Wolbachia infection and geography on mtDNA variation in the diamondback moth, a major global pest whose geographic distribution reflects both natural processes and transport via human agricultural activities. Results The mtDNA phylogeny of 95 individuals sampled from 10 countries on four continents revealed two major clades. One contained only Wolbachia-infected individuals from Malaysia and Kenya, while the other contained only uninfected individuals, from all countries including Malaysia and Kenya. Within the uninfected group was a further clade containing all individuals from Australasia and displaying very limited sequence variation. In contrast, a biparental nuclear gene phylogeny did not have infected and uninfected clades, supporting the notion that maternally-inherited Wolbachia are responsible for the mtDNA pattern. Only about 5% (15/306) of our global sample of individuals was infected with the plutWB1 isolate and even within infected local populations, many insects were uninfected. Comparisons of infected and uninfected isofemale lines revealed that plutWB1 is associated with sex ratio distortion. Uninfected lines have a 1:1 sex ratio, while infected ones show a 2:1 female bias. Conclusion The main correlate of mtDNA variation in P. xylostella is presence or absence of the plutWB1 infection. This is associated with substantial sex ratio distortion and the underlying mechanisms deserve further study. In contrast, geographic origin is a poor predictor of moth mtDNA sequences, reflecting human activity in moving the insects around the globe. The exception is a clade of Australasian individuals, which may reflect a bottleneck during their recent introduction to this region.

Delgado, Ana M; Cook, James M

2009-01-01

174

Effect of a plant growth regulator prohexadione-calcium on insect pests of apple and pear.  

PubMed

The effect of prohexadione-calcium, a plant growth regulator that inhibits gibberellin metabolism, on Cacopsylla pyricoloa (Foerster) in pear trees, and Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) and Aphis spireacola Patch, in apple trees was studied. C. pyricoloa and A. spireacola populations were significantly reduced in prohexadione-calcium-treated pear and apple, respectively. Insecticide control of both pests with imidacloprid was synergized in treatments with prohexadione-calcium. In apples treated with prohexadione-calcium, there was a significant reduction in the number of C. rosaceana shelters per tree and amount of fruit injury at harvest attributable to the C. rosaceana. There was an additive effect when tebufenozide was used to control C. rosaceana in trees treated with prohexadione-calcium. Prohexadione-calcium significantly reduced vegetative growth in both pears and apples. Synergistic and additive treatment effects of prohexadione-calcium and pesticides used in this study may be due to better penetration and coverage of pesticides due to reduced foliar growth or to changes in the nutritional quality of the host plants. PMID:15889734

Paulson, G S; Hull, L A; Biddinger, D J

2005-04-01

175

Captures of pest fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and nontarget insects in BioLure and torula yeast traps in Hawaii.  

PubMed

MultiLure traps were deployed in a Hawaiian orchard to compare the attraction of economically important fruit flies and nontarget insects to the three-component BioLure and torula yeast food lures. Either water or a 20% propylene glycol solution was used to dissolve the torula yeast or as capture fluid in BioLure traps. Torula yeast in water was more attractive than BioLure for male and female Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) and Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and as attractive for Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), and the addition of propylene glycol significantly inhibited the attractiveness of torula yeast. The known synergistic effect of propylene glycol with BioLure, resulting in increased captures of Anastrepha flies, was not observed with Bactrocera. Nontarget Drosophilidae, Neriidae, Phoridae, Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, and Muscidae were more strongly attracted to BioLure, and both lures collected Chloropidae equally. As with fruit flies, propylene glycol in torula yeast significantly decreased nontarget captures. The results therefore suggest that torula yeast in water is a more effective attractant than BioLure for pest Bactrocera while minimizing nontarget captures. PMID:22546461

Leblanc, Luc; Vargas, Roger I; Rubinoff, Daniel

2010-10-01

176

Second-Generation Sequencing Supply an Effective Way to Screen RNAi Targets in Large Scale for Potential Application in Pest Insect Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key of RNAi approach success for potential insect pest control is mainly dependent on careful target selection and a convenient delivery system. We adopted second-generation sequencing technology to screen RNAi targets. Illumina's RNA-seq and digital gene expression tag profile (DGE-tag) technologies were used to screen optimal RNAi targets from Ostrinia furnalalis. Total 14690 stage specific genes were obtained which

Yubing Wang; Hao Zhang; Haichao Li; Xuexia Miao; Frederic Marion-Poll

2011-01-01

177

Improving the cost-effectiveness, trade and safety of biological control for agricultural insect pests using nuclear techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

If appropriately applied, biological control offers one of the most promising, environmentally sound, and sustainable control tactics for arthropod pests and weeds for application as part of an integrated pest management (IPM) approach. Public support for biological control as one of the preferred methods of managing non-indigenous and indigenous pests is increasing in many countries. An FAO\\/IAEA Coordinated Research Project

Jorge Hendrichs; Kenneth Bloem; Gernot Hoch; James E. Carpenter; Patrick Greany; Alan S. Robinson

2009-01-01

178

Identification of Immature Insects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A Virginia Tech. page devoted to identification of household insect pest immatures. Eight illustrated categories allow the user to match their pest to a likely species. This is just one of several pages devoted to insect identification.

0002-11-30

179

Designing Insects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article reflects on how most transgenic research is still in early development, but issues surrounding the use of transgenic insects need to be addressed. Examples are their impact on the environment, the potential risks to human health, and their advantages and disadvantages in controlling crop pests. The article showcases some insects specifically engineered to control agricultural pests.

Thomas Miller (University of California- Riverside;)

2004-10-01

180

Insect-specific irreversible inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase in pests including the bed bug, the eastern yellowjacket, German and American cockroaches, and the confused flour beetle.  

PubMed

Insecticides directed against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) are facing increased resistance among target species as well as increasing concerns for human toxicity. The result has been a resurgence of disease vectors, insects destructive to agriculture, and residential pests. We previously reported a free cysteine (Cys) residue at the entrance to the AChE active site in some insects but not higher vertebrates. We also reported Cys-targeting methanethiosulfonate molecules (AMTSn), which, under conditions that spared human AChE, caused total irreversible inhibition of aphid AChE, 95% inhibition of AChE from the malaria vector mosquito (Anopheles gambia), and >80% inhibition of activity from the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) and northern house mosquito (Culex pipiens). We now find the same compounds inhibit AChE from cockroaches (Blattella germanica and Periplaneta americana), the flour beetle (Tribolium confusum), the multi-colored Asian ladybird beetle (Harmonia axyridis), the bed bug (Cimex lectularius), and a wasp (Vespula maculifrons), with IC(50) values of approximately 1-11muM. Our results support further study of Cys-targeting inhibitors as conceptually novel insecticides that may be free of resistance in a range of insect pests and disease vectors and, compared with current compounds, should demonstrate much lower toxicity to mammals, birds, and fish. PMID:20109441

Polsinelli, Gregory A; Singh, Sanjay K; Mishra, Rajesh K; Suranyi, Robert; Ragsdale, David W; Pang, Yuan-Ping; Brimijoin, Stephen

2010-01-28

181

Natural Enemies and the Evolution of Resistance to Transgenic Insecticidal Crops by Pest Insects: The Role of Egg Mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore the inßuence of egg mortality dynamics on the rate at which target pests evolve resistance to high-dose transgenic insecticidal crops. We develop a two-patch deterministic population genetic model in which pests can develop in either toxic or nontoxic (refuge) Þelds, and their eggs are subject to varying levels and forms of egg mortality. The three standard forms of

George E. Heimpel; Claudia Neuhauser; D. A. Andow

2005-01-01

182

Agonists/Antagonists of the insect kinin and pyrokinin/PBAN neuropeptide classes as tools for rational pest control  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The IK and PK/PBAN insect neuropeptide classes regulate critical aspects of water balance, digestion, reproduction, defense and development in insects. These neuropeptides are nonetheless subject to degradation by peptidases in the hemolymph and gut of insects and, for the most part, lack efficient ...

183

MICROBIAL CONTROL OF INSECTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Naturally-occurring pathogens of insects are important regulatory factors in insect populations. Many species are employed as biological control agents of insect pests in crops, ornamentals, range, turf and lawn, stored products, and forestry and for abatement of pest and vector insects of veterina...

184

Pests in and Around the Home  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Knowledgebase of urban, structure, lawn and landscape pests. Includes sections on pest management theory; biting and stinging insects; pests of food, fabric and wood; occasional invaders; lawn pests; landscape pests, and some vertebrate pests. Includes pest identification keys. This is an excellent resource, although much of the material is specific to Florida. Vertebrate pest management sections are also of high quality and interesting. Requires a CD-ROM drive and a web browser. $25.

0002-11-30

185

A fungal insecticide engineered for fast per os killing of caterpillars has high field efficacy and safety in full-season control of cabbage insect pests.  

PubMed

Fungal insecticides developed from filamentous pathogens of insects are notorious for their slow killing action through cuticle penetration, depressing commercial interest and practical application. Genetic engineering may accelerate their killing action but cause ecological risk. Here we show that a Beauveria bassiana formulation, HV8 (BbHV8), engineered for fast per os killing of caterpillars by an insect midgut-acting toxin (Vip3Aa1) overexpressed in conidia has both high field efficacy and safety in full-season protection of cabbage from the damage of an insect pest complex dominated by Pieris rapae larvae, followed by Plutella xylostella larvae and aphids. In two fields repeatedly sprayed during summer, BbHV8 resulted in overall mean efficacies of killing of 71% and 75%, which were similar or close to the 70% and 83% efficacies achieved by commercially recommended emamectin benzoate but much higher than the 31% and 48% efficacies achieved by the same formulation of the parental wild-type strain (WT). Both BbHV8 and WT sprays exerted no adverse effect on a nontarget spider community during the trials, and the sprays did not influence saprophytic fungi in soil samples taken from the field plots during 4 months after the last spray. Strikingly, BbHV8 and the WT showed low fitness when they were released into the environment because both were decreasingly recovered from the field lacking native B. bassiana strains (undetectable 5 months after the spray), and the recovered isolates became much less tolerant to high temperature and UV-B irradiation. Our results highlight for the first time that a rationally engineered fungal insecticide can compete with a chemical counterpart to combat insect pests at an affordable cost and with low ecological risk. PMID:23956386

Liu, Yong-Jie; Liu, Jing; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Feng, Ming-Guang

2013-08-16

186

Pest Management in Seafood Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Insect and rodent pests are serious threats to the sanitation and quality control standards necessary in seafood processing. To meet the changing standards of sanitation and quality required of seafood processing establishments, pest control operations mu...

W. H. Robinson

1981-01-01

187

Conifer Pests in New Mexico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This guide is intended to help homeowners and forest managers in identifying and controlling forest and ornamental tree pests. The guide focuses on insect and disease pests, but also discusses natural and human-caused environmental problems.

R. Cain D. Parker

2004-01-01

188

Evaluation of Plant Introductions and Dry-Fleshed Sweetpotato Genotypes for Resistance to Soil Insect Pests, 2007  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two insect-susceptible, orange-fleshed check cultivars (‘Beauregard’ and ‘SC1149 19’), three insect-resistant check cultivars (‘Regal’, ‘Ruddy’ and ‘Sumor’), 21 dry-flesh genotypes from the USVL sweetpotato breeding program, and 12 other varieties and plant introductions (PI) obtained from the Natio...

189

Transcriptome and full-length cDNA resources for the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, a major insect pest of pine forests.  

PubMed

Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are major insect pests of many woody plants around the world. The mountain pine beetle (MPB), Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a significant historical pest of western North American pine forests. It is currently devastating pine forests in western North America--particularly in British Columbia, Canada--and is beginning to expand its host range eastward into the Canadian boreal forest, which extends to the Atlantic coast of North America. Limited genomic resources are available for this and other bark beetle pests, restricting the use of genomics-based information to help monitor, predict, and manage the spread of these insects. To overcome these limitations, we generated comprehensive transcriptome resources from fourteen full-length enriched cDNA libraries through paired-end Sanger sequencing of 100,000 cDNA clones, and single-end Roche 454 pyrosequencing of three of these cDNA libraries. Hybrid de novo assembly of the 3.4 million sequences resulted in 20,571 isotigs in 14,410 isogroups and 246,848 singletons. In addition, over 2300 non-redundant full-length cDNA clones putatively containing complete open reading frames, including 47 cytochrome P450s, were sequenced fully to high quality. This first large-scale genomics resource for bark beetles provides the relevant sequence information for gene discovery; functional and population genomics; comparative analyses; and for future efforts to annotate the MPB genome. These resources permit the study of this beetle at the molecular level and will inform research in other Dendroctonus spp. and more generally in the Curculionidae and other Coleoptera. PMID:22516182

Keeling, Christopher I; Henderson, Hannah; Li, Maria; Yuen, Mack; Clark, Erin L; Fraser, Jordie D; Huber, Dezene P W; Liao, Nancy Y; Docking, T Roderick; Birol, Inanc; Chan, Simon K; Taylor, Greg A; Palmquist, Diana; Jones, Steven J M; Bohlmann, Joerg

2012-04-07

190

STORED PRODUCT INSECT BEHAVIOR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

What makes an insect a pest of the food industry? Any answer to this question likely involves some aspect of the pest’s behavior. Stored-product insects have a diverse array of behavioral traits that enable them to thrive in the environments created by humans for the processing and storage of food...

191

SCALE INSECTS ON PECAN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Insect control in pecan orchards typically focuses on those pests that are apparent and cause noticeable economic damage. However, there are other pests of pecan that somehow slip through the cracks of pest management programs. Included in this category are the scale insects. As a group, scale inse...

192

PERSPECTIVES FOR BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF STORED-PRODUCT PESTS USING ENTOMOPATHOGENS, ALONE AND IN COMBINATION WITH BENEFICIAL INSECTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Among insect pathogens, Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (Btk) and Plodia interpunctella granulovirus have reached commercialization for control of stored product Lepidoptera, but have limited use. Coleoptera lack microbial insecticide products but have many natural microbial control agents, e...

193

PERSPECTIVES FOR BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF STORED-PRODUCT PESTS USING ENTOMOPATHOGENS, ALONE AND IN COMBINATION WITH BENEFICIAL INSECTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Among insect pathogens, Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (Btk) and Plodia interpunctella granulovirus have reached commercialization for control of stored product Lepidoptera, but have limited use. Coleoptera lack microbial insecticide products but have many natural microbial control agents, ...

194

Thermal Tolerance of the Coffee Berry Borer Hypothenemus hampei: Predictions of Climate Change Impact on a Tropical Insect Pest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coffee is predicted to be severely affected by climate change. We determined the thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer , Hypothenemus hampei, the most devastating pest of coffee worldwide, and make inferences on the possible effects of climate change using climatic data from Colombia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. For this, the effect of eight temperature regimes (15, 20, 23,

Juliana Jaramillo; Adenirin Chabi-Olaye; Charles Kamonjo; Alvaro Jaramillo; Fernando E. Vega; Hans-Michael Poehling; Christian Borgemeister

2009-01-01

195

Engineering Insects for the Sterile Insect Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mass-release of sterile insects (the sterile insect technique (SIT)) is a highly effective component of area-wide methods\\u000a of pest control with no environmental impact. The SIT relies on the sterilization of large numbers of insects, usually by\\u000a irradiation. The SIT has been used successfully against several pest insects. However, modern biotechnology could potentially\\u000a provide several improvements. These include: (1)

L. S. Alphey

196

Monitoring Bacillus thuringiensis-susceptibility in insect pests that occur in large geographies: how to get the best information when two countries are involved.  

PubMed

The adoption of cotton producing insecticidal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis, commonly referred to as Bt cotton, around the world has proven to be beneficial for growers and the environment. The effectiveness of this important genetically-modified crop can be jeopardized by the development of resistance to Bt cotton by pests it is meant to control, with the possibility that this phenomenon could develop in one country and spread to another by means of insect migration. To preserve the effectiveness of this agricultural biotechnology, regulatory agencies have developed plans to mitigate the development of resistance, and research institutions constantly monitor for shifts in Bt-susceptibility in important pests. If Bt-resistance is detected, this finding needs to be corroborated by an independent laboratory according to current regulatory requirements; a process that presents numerous challenges. We investigated the biological activity of Bt-incorporated diet on Helicoverpa virescens L. after it was stored for several days at different temperatures. Diet stored up to nine days at different temperatures (-14 to 27 degrees C) produced the same biological effect on H. virescens as freshly-prepared diet. Elevating the temperature of Bt stock solution to 76 degrees C as compared to 26 degrees C yielded significantly higher reading of apparent Cry1Ac concentration from MVP II, but not enough to elicit a significant biological response when these stock solutions were incorporated into insect artificial diet. These findings are important particularly when the confirmation of resistance is done at a distant location, such as Mexico, or when diet is shared between laboratories, and must be stored for later use, as in the case of international collaboration. PMID:17499760

Blanco, Carlos A; Perera, Omaththage P; Boykin, Debbie; Abel, Craig; Gore, Jeff; Matten, Sharlene R; Ramírez-Sagahon, Juan C; Terán-Vargas, Antonio P

2007-03-27

197

The broad-leaf herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid turns rice into a living trap for a major insect pest and a parasitic wasp.  

PubMed

Synthetic chemical elicitors of plant defense have been touted as a powerful means for sustainable crop protection. Yet, they have never been successfully applied to control insect pests in the field. We developed a high-throughput chemical genetics screening system based on a herbivore-induced linalool synthase promoter fused to a ?-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter construct to test synthetic compounds for their potential to induce rice defenses. We identified 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), an auxin homolog and widely used herbicide in monocotyledonous crops, as a potent elicitor of rice defenses. Low doses of 2,4-D induced a strong defensive reaction upstream of the jasmonic acid and ethylene pathways, resulting in a marked increase in trypsin proteinase inhibitor activity and volatile production. Induced plants were more resistant to the striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis, but became highly attractive to the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens and its main egg parasitoid Anagrus nilaparvatae. In a field experiment, 2,4-D application turned rice plants into living traps for N. lugens by attracting parasitoids. Our findings demonstrate the potential of auxin homologs as defensive signals and show the potential of the herbicide to turn rice into a selective catch crop for an economically important pest. PMID:22313362

Xin, Zhaojun; Yu, Zhaonan; Erb, Matthias; Turlings, Ted C J; Wang, Baohui; Qi, Jinfeng; Liu, Shengning; Lou, Yonggen

2012-02-07

198

Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 7A: General and Household Pest Control. CS-19. Category 7B: Termite Control, CS-20. Category 7C: Food Industry Pest Control, CS-21. Category 7D: Community Insect Control, CS-22.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The first section discusses general and household pest control and is concerned with parasitic pests and man, stored product pests, and irritating vertebrates. Section two is devoted to identifying and controlling structural pests such…

Stockdale, Harold J., Ed.; And Others

199

Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 7A: General and Household Pest Control. CS-19. Category 7B: Termite Control, CS-20. Category 7C: Food Industry Pest Control, CS-21. Category 7D: Community Insect Control, CS-22.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The first section discusses general and household pest control and is concerned with parasitic pests and man, stored product pests, and irritating vertebrates. Section two is devoted to identifying and controlling structural pests such…

Stockdale, Harold J., Ed.; And Others

200

Economic losses due to insect pests on avocado fruit in the Nelspruit\\/Hazyview region of South Africa during 1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of insect damage to 61 036 avocado fruits of five cultivars, was conducted at eight packhouses in the Nelspruit\\/Hazyview region. Stink bugs (incl Nezara viridula (L)), coconut bug (Pseudotheraptus wayi Brown), fruitfly (Pterandrus rosa (Karsch) and Ceratitis capitata (Weidemann)), thrips (Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis Bouché and Selenothrips rubrocinctus (Giard)), and false codling moth (Cryptophlebia leucotreta (Meyrick)) were the most important

C Erichsen; A Schoeman

1992-01-01

201

Examination of the biological effects of high anionic peroxidase production in tobacco plants grown under field conditions. I. Insect pest damage.  

PubMed

At least 25 wild type and high peroxidase tobacco Nicotiana tabacum L. plants were examined semiweekly over several weeks for pest insect distribution and damage in a 2 year field study. Incidence and/or severity of naturally occurring caterpillar damage (dingy cutworm (Feltia ducens Walker), black cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel), tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta L.), and false tobacco budworm (= corn earworm Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)) was significantly reduced at several sample dates for high peroxidase vs. wild type plants. These results parallel those of prior laboratory studies with caterpillars. The number of adult whiteflies (Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) per plant was significantly reduced on high peroxidase compared to wild type plants on most sample dates in both years. The number of plants with leaves containing >100 aphids (primarily Myzus persicae Sulzer) per leaf on high peroxidase plants was significantly lower that on wild type plants after an equivalent invasion period in both years. A significantly higher proportion of aphids were found dead on leaf five of high peroxidase compared to wild type plants at most sample dates in both years. These results indicate that high peroxidase plants have resistance to a wide range of insects, implicating this enzyme as a broad range resistance mechanism. PMID:16604460

Dowd, Patrick F; Lagrimini, L Mark

2006-04-01

202

Expression of snowdrop lectin in transgenic tobacco plants results in added protection against aphids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The range of sap-sucking insect pests to which GNA, (the mannose specific lectin from snowdrops (Galanthus nivalis) has been shown to be insecticidal in artificial diets has been extended to include the peach potato aphid (Myzus persicae). A gene construct for constitutive expression of GNA from the CaMV35S gene promoter has been introduced into tobacco plants. A transgenic tobacco line

V. A. Hilder; K. S. Powell; A. M. R. Gatehouse; J. A. Gatehouse; L. N. Gatehouse; Y. Shi; W. D. O. Hamilton; A. Merryweather; C. A. Newell; J. C. Timans; W. J. Peumans; E. van Damme; D. Boulter

1995-01-01

203

Non-Chemical Means of Pest Management in the Highways Landscape.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research project was directed towards the development of a nonchemical insect pest management program. The management of insect pests in highway landscapes involves the solution of various interacting problems some in common with agricultural pest man...

D. Pinnock

1976-01-01

204

Thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei: predictions of climate change impact on a tropical insect pest.  

PubMed

Coffee is predicted to be severely affected by climate change. We determined the thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, the most devastating pest of coffee worldwide, and make inferences on the possible effects of climate change using climatic data from Colombia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. For this, the effect of eight temperature regimes (15, 20, 23, 25, 27, 30, 33 and 35 degrees C) on the bionomics of H. hampei was studied. Successful egg to adult development occurred between 20-30 degrees C. Using linear regression and a modified Logan model, the lower and upper thresholds for development were estimated at 14.9 and 32 degrees C, respectively. In Kenya and Colombia, the number of pest generations per year was considerably and positively correlated with the warming tolerance. Analysing 32 years of climatic data from Jimma (Ethiopia) revealed that before 1984 it was too cold for H. hampei to complete even one generation per year, but thereafter, because of rising temperatures in the area, 1-2 generations per year/coffee season could be completed. Calculated data on warming tolerance and thermal safety margins of H. hampei for the three East African locations showed considerably high variability compared to the Colombian site. The model indicates that for every 1 degrees C rise in thermal optimum (T(opt.)), the maximum intrinsic rate of increase (r(max)) will increase by an average of 8.5%. The effects of climate change on the further range of H. hampei distribution and possible adaption strategies are discussed. Abstracts in Spanish and French are provided as supplementary material Abstract S1 and Abstract S2. PMID:19649255

Jaramillo, Juliana; Chabi-Olaye, Adenirin; Kamonjo, Charles; Jaramillo, Alvaro; Vega, Fernando E; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Borgemeister, Christian

2009-08-03

205

Sequencing and structural homology modeling of the ecdysone receptor in two chrysopids used in biological control of pest insects.  

PubMed

In insects, the process of molting and metamorphosis are mainly regulated by a steroidal hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and its analogs (ecdysteroids) that specifically bind to the ecdysone receptor ligand-binding domain (EcR-LBD). Currently, several synthetic non-steroidal ecdysone agonists, including tebufenozide, are commercially available as insecticides. Tebufenozide exerts its activity by binding to the 20E-binding site and thus activating EcR permanently. It appears that subtle differences in the architecture among LBDs may underpin the differential binding affinity of tebufenozide across taxonomic orders. In brief, first we demonstrated the harmlessness of tebufenozide towards Chrysoperla externa (Ce). Then, a molecular analysis of EcR-LBD of two neuropteran insects Chrysoperla carnea and Ce was presented. Finally, we constructed a chrysopid in silico homology model docked ponasterone A (PonA) and tebufenozide into the binding pocket and analyzed the amino acids indentified as critical for binding to PonA and tebufenozide. Due to a restrict extent in the cavity at the bottom of the ecdysone-binding pocket a steric clash occurred upon docking of tebufenozide. The absence of harm biological effect and the docking results suggest that tebufenozide is prevented of any deleterious effects on chrysopids. PMID:22270356

Zotti, Moises João; Christiaens, Olivier; Rougé, Pierre; Grutzmacher, Anderson Dionei; Zimmer, Paulo Dejalma; Smagghe, Guy

2012-01-24

206

Ecological studies on San José scale, Diaspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock) (Homoptera: Diaspididae) as a new insect pest on pear trees in Burg El-Arab area, Alexandria, Egypt.  

PubMed

The San José scale, D. perniciosus (Comstock) (Homoptera: Diaspididae) was noticed on pear trees all the year round in Burg El-Arab area (50 km West of Alexandria). Bio ecology and population fluctuations of this serious scale insect were carried out during the two subsequent seasons of September, 2004 until August, 2006. The calculated infestation rates (%) assured the presence of three peaks in both seasons. The estimated densities of fluctuating individuals of D. perniciosus on the inspected pear trees showed two distinctly prominent peaks, in addition to an overlapping one between them. It means, that the San Josè scale, D. perniciosus had three overlapping annual generations on pear trees in Burg El-Arab area under an irrigation system. The individuals of all stages could be found on trees all over the year. The population of the inspected immature stages; adult females and adult males were recorded and discussed as well as the parasitized individuals by the aphilinid parasitoid, Aphytis diaspidis (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). The population density of the San José scale (SJS) reached its maximum during spring, folLowed by summer, winter, whereas the least percentage was recorded in autumn months. The obtained data showed also variable effects of the prevailing abiotic factors on the dynamical oscillation of (SJS) individuals. The daily mean temperature and the dew point were not the dominant efficient physical factors. On the contrary, it has been proved that there were either significant strong negative or positive relationships between daily relative humidity, wind speed, infestation rate, and population density of this studied insect pest. PMID:19226784

Moursi Khadiga, S; Mesbah, H A; Mourad, A K; Abdel-Razak Soad, I

2008-01-01

207

Future fitness of female insect pests in temporally stable and unstable habitats and its impact on habitat utility as refugees for insect resistance management.  

PubMed

The long-term fitness of individuals is examined in complex and temporally dynamic ecosystems. We call this multigeneration fitness measure "future fitness". Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a polyphagous insect that feeds on many wild and cultivated hosts. While four generations of H. zea occur during the cropping season in the U.S. Mid Southern agroecosysem, the latter two generations were of most interest, as corn (which has been largely nontransgenic in the Mid-South) dominates the first two generations in the cropping system. In simulations of the evolution of resistance to Bt-transgenic crops, cotton refuge areas were found to be significantly more effective than similar soybean acreages at delaying the evolution of resistance. Cotton is a suitable host for H. zea during two late summer generations, while a soybean field is suitable for only one of these generations, therefore soybean fields of other maturity groups were simulated as being attractive during the alternative generation. A hypothetical soybean variety was tested in which a single field would be attractive over both generations and it was found to be significantly more effective at delaying resistance than simulated conventional soybean varieties. Finally, the placement of individuals emerging at the start of the 3rd (first without corn) generation was simulated in either refuge cotton, conventional soybean and the hypothetical long attractive soybean and the mean number of offspring produced was measured at the end of the season. Although females in conventional and long soybean crops had the same expected fecundity, because of differences in temporal stability of the two crops, the long soybean simulations had significantly more H. zea individuals at the end of the season than the conventional soybean simulations. These simulations demonstrate that the long-term fecundity associated with an individual is dependent not only on the fecundity of that individual in its current habitat, but also the temporal stability of habitats, the ecosystem at large and the likelihood that the individual's offspring will move into different habitats. PMID:19619032

Caprio, Michael A; Parker, C D; Schneider, John C

2009-01-01

208

Proceedings of the Joint US/USSR Conference on the Production, Selection and Standardization of Entomopathogenic Fungi of Project V, Microbiological Control of Insect Pests, of the US/USSR Joint Working Group on the Production of Substances by Microbiological Means (1st) Held at Jurmula (Riga), Latvia, SSR on 20-21 May 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The conference dealt with the production, selection, and standardization of entomopathogenic fungi. The objectives were to: (1) review past work and determine the current status of use of entomopathogenic fungi for controlling insect pests in both the USA...

1979-01-01

209

Biological control of an insect pest by gut-colonizing Enterobacter cloacae transformed with ice nucleation gene.  

PubMed

The ice nucleation (IN) gene inaA of epiphytic Erwinia (Pantoea) ananas IN10 was transformed into Enterobacter cloacae WBMH-3-CMr originated from the faeces of silkworms. The transformant designated as Ent. cloacae WBMH-3-CMr(pICE6S13) exhibited IN activity, unlike the parent strain. The transgenic strain was ingested by mulberry pyralid larvae, fed on detached mulberry leaves, and the supercooling capacity and cold hardiness of these larvae were examined. The mean supercooling point (SCP) of the larvae ingesting the transgenic strain was - 3.3 degrees C, 8 degrees C higher than that of larvae treated with distilled water (control) and 1.5 C higher than an ice nucleation active (INA) strain of Erw. ananas. The SCPs of the larvae were stably maintained over the 9 d after ingestion. The maintenance of these high SCPs was due to transgenic Ent. cloacae having a more stable and efficient gut colonization than Erw. ananas, which is identified by the distribution of a narrower range of SCPs (-2 to -5 degrees C) in larvae treated with the transgenic stain. Furthermore, most of the larvae ingesting the transgenic strain froze and died when they were exposed to cold conditions of -5 degrees C for 18 h, 3 or 7 d after ingestion. In contrast, most of the larvae ingesting no bacterium did not die under similar conditions. On the other hand, the growth ability of Ent. cloacae WBMH-3-CMr on mulberry leaves tended to be lower than that of epiphytic Erw. ananas, as assayed by pot tests. These findings would expand the possibility of biological control using INA bacteria since Ent. cloacae would harbour a broader host (insect) range for gut colonization and a smaller affinity to plants to benefit from prevention of plant frost injury. PMID:10735247

Watanabe, K; Abe, K; Sato, M

2000-01-01

210

Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.) is a biological pest control agent. A living bacteria that occurs naturally in soil, B.t. produces poisons that cause disease in insect larvae. B.t. is sprayed in cities and forests, and is commonly used by organic farmers on crops with pest problems. Common targets include mosquitoes, black flies, gypsy moths, spruce budworms, and beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 One of the traits that initially favoured B.t. over synthetic pesticides was its selectivity: different subspecies of the B.t. bacteria affect different insects. B.t. has over 19 subspecies, and 5 are used commercially: kurstaki in forest pest control, israelensis for mosquitoes and black flies, and aiyawai, morrisoni, and san diego in crop production. 2 This specificity is also important

211

Industrial and Institutional Pest Control. Sale Publication 4073.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide gives information needed to meet Environmental Protection Agency standards on industrial and institutional pest control, and to help prepare for certification. It gives descriptions and pictures of general insect pests, parasitic pests of man, occasional invaders, wood-destroying pests, stored product pests, vertebrates, and weeds. The…

Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

212

Beneficial Insects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tutorials on insect predators that feed on insect and mite pests. Each tutorial has 50 questions; incorrect answers lead to additional information. Covers lady beetles, mantids, lacewings, stink bugs, robber flies, assassin bugs, syrphid flies, spiders, ground beetles, big-eyed bugs and wasps. Some illusstrations are most appropriate for the southern U.S. Information is accurate. Requires Windows; program must be downloaded to hard -drive before use, but once loaded is intuitive. $15.

0002-11-30

213

Forest Pest Control. Manual 94.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in forest pest control. The text discusses disease problems, insects, and herbicide use in both established forests and nurseries. (CS)|

Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

214

Pest control in postharvest nuts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This chapter discusses the impact of insect infestations on the quality of postharvest nuts. The chapter first reviews the biology of key field pests that may be found in harvested nuts, and pests found in nut storage and processing facilities. The chapter then reviews current and developing control...

215

Population Suppression in Support of the Sterile Insect Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suppression or eradication of insect pest populations by the release of sterile insects is often dependent on supplementary methods of pest reduction to levels where the target pest population can be overflooded with sterile insects. Population suppression activities take place in advance of, or coincide with, the production of sterile insects. Supplementary methods to remove breeding opportunities, or management methods

R. L. MANGAN

216

POPULATION SUPPRESSION IN SUPPORT OF THE STERILE INSECT TECHNIQUE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Suppression or eradication of insect pest populations by release of sterile insects (SIT) is dependent on over-flooding the target pest population with sterile insects. Population suppression activities usually coincide with production of sterile insects. The pests that have been targets for steri...

217

Turfgrass Insects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tutorials on insects that are common pests of turfgrass. Each tutorial has 50 questions; incorrect answers lead to additional information. Covers chinch bug, fall armyworm, tropical sod webworm, mole crickets, ground pearls, white grubs, spittle bugs, banks grass mite, Burmudagrass mite and fire ants. Tutorials are easy to use once loaded on the hard drive. Requires Windows. $15. Part number SW 163.

0002-11-30

218

Agricultural Plant Pest Control. Manual 93.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides for the agricultural plant pest control category. The text discusses the insect pests including caterpillars, beetles, and soil inhabiting insects; diseases and nematodes; and weeds. Consideration is given…

Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

219

Ornamental and Turf Pest Control. Bulletin 764.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual gives descriptions of and methods for control of diseases and insect pests of ornamental plants, weeds, and diseases and insect pests of turf plants. Included are diseases caused by fungi such as cankers, leaf galls, and rust; diseases caused by bacteria such as bacterial blight and crown gall; and diseases caused by nematodes and…

Bowyer, Timothy H.; And Others

220

Agricultural Plant Pest Control. Manual 93.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides for the agricultural plant pest control category. The text discusses the insect pests including caterpillars, beetles, and soil inhabiting insects; diseases and nematodes; and weeds. Consideration is given…

Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

221

Agricultural Plant Pest Control. Bulletin 763.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual gives general information on plant pests and pesticides. First, the life-cycle and habits of some common insect pests are given. These include caterpillars, beetles and beetle larvae, and sucking insects. Next, plant diseases such as leaf diseases, wilts, root and crown rots, stem cankers, fruit rots, seed and seedling diseases, and…

French, John C.; And Others

222

Ornamental and Turf Pest Control. Bulletin 764.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual gives descriptions of and methods for control of diseases and insect pests of ornamental plants, weeds, and diseases and insect pests of turf plants. Included are diseases caused by fungi such as cankers, leaf galls, and rust; diseases caused by bacteria such as bacterial blight and crown gall; and diseases caused by nematodes and…

Bowyer, Timothy H.; And Others

223

Current control methods for diamondback moth and other brassica insect pests and the prospects for improved management with lepidopteran-resistant Bt vegetable brassicas in Asia and Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.), remains a major pest of brassica crops worldwide. DBM has been estimated globally to cost US$ 1 billion in direct losses and control costs. Chemical control of this pest remains difficult due to the rapid development of resistance to insecticides and to their effect on natural enemies. These problems are especially severe in

D. Grzywacz; A. Rossbach; A. Rauf; D. A. Russell; R. Srinivasan; A. M. Shelton

2010-01-01

224

Beneficial Insects and Insect Pollinators on Milkweed in South Georgia  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Insect pollinators are essential for the reproduction of more than two-thirds of the world’s crops, and beneficial insects play an important role in managing pest insects in agricultural farmscapes. These insects depend on nectar for their survival in these farmscapes. The flowers of tropical milkwe...

225

A comparison of alternative plant mixes for conservation bio-control by native beneficial arthropods in vegetable cropping systems in Queensland Australia.  

PubMed

Cucurbit crops host a range of serious sap-sucking insect pests, including silverleaf whitefly (SLW) and aphids, which potentially represent considerable risk to the Australian horticulture industry. These pests are extremely polyphagous with a wide host range. Chemical control is made difficult due to resistance and pollution, and other side-effects are associated with insecticide use. Consequently, there is much interest in maximising the role of biological control in the management of these sap-sucking insect pests. This study aimed to evaluate companion cropping alongside cucurbit crops in a tropical setting as a means to increase the populations of beneficial insects and spiders so as to control the major sap-sucking insect pests. The population of beneficial and harmful insects, with a focus on SLW and aphids, and other invertebrates were sampled weekly on four different crops which could be used for habitat manipulation: Goodbug Mix (GBM; a proprietary seed mixture including self-sowing annual and perennial herbaceous flower species); lablab (Lablab purpureus L. Sweet); lucerne (Medicago sativa L.); and niger (Guizotia abyssinica (L.f.) Cass.). Lablab hosted the highest numbers of beneficial insects (larvae and adults of lacewing (Mallada signata (Schneider)), ladybird beetles (Coccinella transversalis Fabricius) and spiders) while GBM hosted the highest numbers of European bees (Apis mellifera Linnaeus) and spiders. Lucerne and niger showed little promise in hosting beneficial insects, but lucerne hosted significantly more spiders (double the numbers) than niger. Lucerne hosted sig-nificantly more of the harmful insect species of aphids (Aphis gossypii (Glover)) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer)) and heliothis (Heliothis armigera Hübner). Niger hosted significantly more vegetable weevils (Listroderes difficillis (Germar)) than the other three species. Therefore, lablab and GBM appear to be viable options to grow within cucurbits or as field boundary crops to attract and increase beneficial insects and spiders for the control of sap-sucking insect pests. Use of these bio-control strategies affords the opportunity to minimise pesticide usage and the risks associated with pollution. PMID:19323854

Qureshi, S A; Midmore, D J; Syeda, S S; Reid, D J

2009-03-27

226

Neuropeptide physiology in insects.  

PubMed

In a search for more environmentally benign alternatives to chemical pesticides, insect neuropeptides have been suggested as ideal candidates. Neuropeptides are neuromodulators and/or neurohormones that regulate most major physiological and behavioral processes in insects. The major neuropeptide structures have been identified through peptide purification in insects (peptidomics) and insect genome projects. Neuropeptide receptors have been identified and characterized in Drosophila and similar receptors are being targeted in other insects considered to be economically detrimental pests in agriculture and forestry. Defining neuropeptide action in different insect systems has been more challenging and as a consequence, identifying unique targets for potential pest control is also a challenge. In this chapter, neuropeptide biosynthesis as well as select physiological processes are examined with a view to pest control targets. The application of molecular techniques to transform insects with neuropeptide or neuropeptide receptor genes, or knockout genes to identify potential pest control targets, is a relatively new area that offers promise to insect control. Insect immune systems may also be manipulated through neuropeptides which may aid in compromising the insects ability to defend against foreign invasion. PMID:21189679

Bendena, William G

2010-01-01

227

Bridging conventional and molecular genetics of sorghum insect resistance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sustainable production of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, depends on effective control of insect pests as they continue to compete with humans for the sorghum crop. Insect pests are major constraint in sorghum production, and nearly 150 insect species are serious pests of this crop worldwide,...

228

Bactrocera tryoni and closely related pest tephritids—molecular analysis and prospects for transgenic control strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bactrocera tryoni is a serious pest of horticulture in eastern Australia. Here we review molecular data relevant to pest status and development of a transformation system for this species. The development of transformation vectors for non-drosophilid insects has opened the door to the possibility of improving the sterile insect technique (SIT), by genetically engineering factory strains of pest insects to

Kathryn A. Raphael; Steven Whyard; Deborah Shearman; Xin An; Marianne Frommer

2004-01-01

229

Insect Control (1): Use of Pheromones  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses current research relating to the use of pheromones as a means of controlling insect pests. These chemicals, which are secreted by insects to affect the behavior of other individuals of the same species, may be used to eliminate pests without destroying their predators and other beneficial insects. (JR)|

Marx, Jean L.

1973-01-01

230

Relationships among soilborne bean seedling diseases, Lablab purpureus L. and maize stover residue management, bean insect pests, and soil characteristics in Trans Nzoia district, Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smallholder farmers who practice continuous maize (Zea mays L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivation in the highlands of eastern African have been introduced to new leguminous crops for soil fertility enhancement. However, little is known about the impact these crops may have on farmers’ pre-existing crop pest problems. We investigated the cumulative effects of 7 years of differential management

Beth A. Medvecky; Quirine M. Ketterings; Eric B. Nelson

2007-01-01

231

Genetic engineering of insect viruses for insect biological control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insect viruses can be exploited for the biological control of insect pests and serve as well as vehicles for the introduction\\u000a of ‘foreign genes’ into insect cells and insects. The present work describes some of the molecular events that take place\\u000a during the replication of theGalleria mellonella densonucleosis virus in the insect host. Viral RNA and protein synthesis were monitored.

N. Chejanovsky; J. Tal

1992-01-01

232

Insects and Bugs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|They have been around for centuries. They sting, they bite. They cause intense itching or painful sores. They even cause allergic reactions and sometimes death. There are two types of insects that are pests to humans--those that sting and those that bite. The insects that bite do so with their mouths and include mosquitoes, chiggers, and ticks.…

Sutherland, Karen

2009-01-01

233

Insecticidal activity of the root extract of Decalepis hamiltonii against stored-product insect pests and its application in grain protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root extracts of Decalepis hamiltonii were tested for insecticidal activity against the stored products pests, Rhyzopertha domonica, Sitophilus oryzae, Stigobium pancieum, Tribolium castaneum and Callosobruchus chinensis, in residual and contact toxicity bioassays. Methanolic extract showed LC50 value of 0.14 mg\\/cm2 for all the test species in a filter paper residual bioassay. The extract was effective as a grain protectant for

Y. Rajashekar; N. Gunasekaran; T. Shivanandappa

2010-01-01

234

Coccinellids and the Modern Pest Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the concept of integrated pest control combining chemical and biological methods. Describes many examples of the successful use of coccinellids beetles to control other insects. Cites ecological and physiological research studies related to predator prey relationships involving coccinellids. (EB)|

Hodek, Ivo

1970-01-01

235

Evaluation of corn hybrids expressing Cry1F, cry1A.105, Cry2Ab2, Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1, and Cry3Bb1 against southern United States insect pests.  

PubMed

Studies were conducted across the southern United States to characterize the efficacy of multiple Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) events in a field corn, Zea mays L., hybrid for control of common lepidopteran and coleopteran pests. Cry1F protein in event TC1507 and Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 proteins in event MON 89034 were evaluated against pests infesting corn on above-ground plant tissue including foliage, stalks, and ears. Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 proteins in event DAS-59122-7 and Cry3Bb1 in event MON 88017 were evaluated against the larvae of Mexican corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera zeae Krysan and Smith, which occur below-ground. Field corn hybrids containing Cry1F, Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2, Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1, and Cry3Bb1 insecticidal proteins (SmartStax) consistently demonstrated reductions in plant injury and/or reduced larval survivorship as compared with a non-Bt field corn hybrid. Efficacy provided by a field corn hybrid with multiple Bt proteins was statistically equal to or significantly better than corn hybrids containing a single event active against target pests. Single event field corn hybrids provided very high levels of control of southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella (Dyar), lesser cornstalk borer, Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zeller), and fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), and were not significantly different than field corn hybrids with multiple events. Significant increases in efficacy were observed for a field corn hybrid with multiple Bt events for sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and Mexican corn rootworm. Utilization of field corn hybrids containing multiple Bt events provides a means for managing insect resistance to Bt proteins and reduces non-Bt corn refuge requirements. PMID:23156183

Siebert, M W; Nolting, S P; Hendrix, W; Dhavala, S; Craig, C; Leonard, B R; Stewart, S D; All, J; Musser, F R; Buntin, G D; Samuel, L

2012-10-01

236

Thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): inferences of climate change impact on a tropical insect pest  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We determined the thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, and make inferences on the possible effects of climate change on the insect using climatic data from Colombia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. The extremes for coffee berry borer survival are 59 and 86 degrees F, but ...

237

PEST Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

PEST is an acronym for four sources of change: political, economic, social and technological. PEST analysis is a powerful and widely used tool for understanding strategic risk. It identifies the changes and the effects of the external macro environment on a firm's competitive position. Strategists seek to understand external factors and evaluate how business models will have to evolve, in

T. Sammut-Bonnici; D. Galea

238

Training for Certification: Forest Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial pesticide applicators. Focusing on forest pest control, this publication examines plant and animal pest control practices for southern tree species. Contents include: (1) identification of insects, diseases, and weed tree species;…

Parker, Robert C., Comp.

239

Training for Certification: Forest Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial pesticide applicators. Focusing on forest pest control, this publication examines plant and animal pest control practices for southern tree species. Contents include: (1) identification of insects, diseases, and weed tree species;…

Parker, Robert C., Comp.

240

Forest Pest Control. Bulletin 759.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual describes the major forest types, the major species, seed orchards, and tree nurseries. Methods of identifying forest insect pests and diseases are given. The most common types of insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides are described. Both sprayer and granular applicator methods are discussed. Environmental considerations are…

Coleman, V. Rodney

241

Aquatic Pest Control. Manual 99.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the aquatic pest control category. The text discusses various water use situations; aquatic weed identification; herbicide use and effects; and aquatic insects and their control. (CS)|

Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

242

Beauveria bassiana for the control of Sunn Pest (Eurygaster integriceps) (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae) and aspects of the insect's daily activity relevant to a mycoinsecticide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of investigations was carried out at ICARDA during April–June 2004 and May–June 2005 to investigate the use of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana to control Eurygaster integriceps and to determine aspects of the insect's biology that could be relevant to control with the fungus. Application in 2004 of an oil-based formulation of B. bassiana showed distribution of the

Steve Edgington; Dave Moore; Mustapha El Bouhssini; Ziad Sayyadi

2007-01-01

243

Use of Geographic Information Systems and Spatial Analysis in Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management Programmes that Integrate the Sterile Insect Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advantages that geographic information systems (GIS) and associated technologies can offer, in terms of the design and implementation of area-wide programmes of insect and\\/or disease suppression, are becoming increasingly recognised, even if the realization of this potential has not been fully exploited and for some area-wide programmes adoption appears to be progressing slowly. This chapter provides a basic introduction

J. Cox; M. Vreysen

244

Potential Use of a Serpin from Arabidopsis for Pest Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although genetically modified (GM) plants expressing toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protect agricultural crops against lepidopteran and coleopteran pests, field-evolved resistance to Bt toxins has been reported for populations of several lepidopteran species. Moreover, some important agricultural pests, like phloem-feeding insects, are not susceptible to Bt crops. Complementary pest control strategies are therefore necessary to assure that the benefits provided

Fernando Alvarez-Alfageme; Jafar Maharramov; Laura Carrillo; Steven Vandenabeele; Dominique Vercammen; Frank van Breusegem; Guy Smagghe; Miguel A. Blazquez

2011-01-01

245

Pest control methods  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Certain embodiments of the methods and compositions of matter disclosed herein relate to: "simultaneous" control of rodents and at least one insect pest (e.g., cockroach, ant, tick) using the same bait; control of ticks by orally administering to mammals a diet composition comprising fipronil; enhancing insecticide efficacy through use of a diet composition that comprises a Generation-I rodenticide and an insecticide; use of imidacloprid in a diet composition orally administerable to mammals in an uncontrolled setting; and use of at least one insecticide to enhance the efficacy of a rodenticide.

2011-05-17

246

An Integrated Control Scheme for Cocoa Pests and Diseases in Papua New Guinea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pest control recommendations in Papua New Guinea cocoa plantings are based on an integrated approach to insect pest and disease management. The most damaging problems are Pantorhytes weevils, black pod and bark canker disease (both caused by Phytophthora palmivora) but vascular streak dieback (VSD) disease is important in some areas of the country. Most other insect pests can be kept

E. S. C. Smith

1981-01-01

247

Acquiring Forest Insect Impact Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Acquisition of pest impact information is a dynamic, continuing phase of management planning. Measurements should include classification of insect effects on individual trees and quantification of the effects on stand characteristics. The evaluation of th...

W. E. Cole

1976-01-01

248

Guide to Major Insects, Diseases, Air Pollution Injury, and Chemical Injury of Sycamore.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This booklet will help nurserymen, forest woodland managers, pest control operators, and homeowners to identify and control pest problems on sycamore trees. The major insect and disease pests of sycamores in the Eastern United States are emphasized. Descr...

T. D. Leininger J. D. Solomon A. D. Wilson N. M. Shiff

1999-01-01

249

Beneficial Insects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tutorials on insect predators that feed on insect and mite pests. Each tutorial has 50 questions; incorrect answers lead to additional information. Covers brown lacewings, ambush bugs, dragonflies, damselflies, paper wasps, earwigs, long-legged flies, predaceous mites, damsel bugs, minute pirate bug, tiger beetles, tachnid flies, parasitic nematodes, entomopathogenic fungi and viruses. Requires Windows. SOme illustrations may be most apporopriate for the southern U.S. A couple of the questions have rather arbitrary answers; in general, the tutorials are well constructed and the information is accurate. Requires Windows operating system; program must be downloaded to the comptuer's hard drive, but once loaded is easy to launch and use. $15. Part number SW 154.

0002-11-30

250

IAEA/FAO training course on uses of isotopes and radiation in integrated pest management (IPM) with special reference to the sterile insect technique  

SciTech Connect

This International Short Course which has been held in Gainesville, Florida, since 1963, was presented for the thirteenth time during the period 16 May through 24 June, 1988. Of the 20 students selected 18 arrived in Gainesville for the course. The strength of the course results from the many who contribute their time and expertise to lecture or hold laboratories or demonstrations for the students. The quality of the lectures was excellent. The top personnel in the field of SIT, IPM and insect biology and control presented information on a variety of research and operational programs. Appendix D contains copies of the summaries that were submitted by lecturers. Appendix E contains copies of the handouts that were given to the students. A large number of reprints were supplied at the request of the students by the various labs and lectures. Not all lecturers or laboratory sessions supplied handouts or summaries. However, those included present a summary of information presented.

Not Available

1988-01-01

251

Environment and the Sterile Insect Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an exceptionally promising pest control method in terms of efficacy and environmental compatibility. Assessments of environmental risks vary according to the status and origin of the target pests. The suppression or eradication of exotic pest populations with the SIT raises few environmental concerns, and these are related mainly to pre-release suppression techniques. However, the

P. Nagel; R. Peveling

252

In vitro production of two chitinolytic proteins with an inhibiting effect on the insect coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and the fungus Hemileia vastatrix the most limiting pests of coffee crops  

PubMed Central

Two genes from Streptomyces albidoflavus, one exochitinase (905-bp) and an endochitinase (1100-bp) were functionally expressed in Escherichia coli in form of a fusion protein with a maltose binding protein (MBP). The goal was to produce and test proteins that inhibit both the coffee berry borer insect Hypothenemus hampei and the coffee rust fungus Hemileia vastatrix. Both recombinant proteins MBP/exochitinase and MBP/endochitinase showed chitinolytic activity. When recombinant purified proteins were added to an artificial coffee-based diet for the coffee berry borer, MBP/exochitinase at a concentration of 0.5% W/W caused delayed growth of larvae and 100% mortality between days 8 and 15, while MBP/endochitinase caused 100% mortality at day 35. H. vastatrix urediniospores presented total cell wall degradation in their germinative tubes within 18 h of exposure to the proteins at enzyme concentrations of 5 and 6 mg ml-1, with exochitinase having the greatest effect. The dual deleterious effect of S. albidoflavus chitinases on two of the most limiting coffee pests worldwide, the coffee borer and the coffee rust, make them potential elements to be incorporated in integrated control strategies.

2012-01-01

253

In vitro production of two chitinolytic proteins with an inhibiting effect on the insect coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and the fungus Hemileia vastatrix the most limiting pests of coffee crops.  

PubMed

Two genes from Streptomyces albidoflavus, one exochitinase (905-bp) and an endochitinase (1100-bp) were functionally expressed in Escherichia coli in form of a fusion protein with a maltose binding protein (MBP). The goal was to produce and test proteins that inhibit both the coffee berry borer insect Hypothenemus hampei and the coffee rust fungus Hemileia vastatrix. Both recombinant proteins MBP/exochitinase and MBP/endochitinase showed chitinolytic activity. When recombinant purified proteins were added to an artificial coffee-based diet for the coffee berry borer, MBP/exochitinase at a concentration of 0.5% W/W caused delayed growth of larvae and 100% mortality between days 8 and 15, while MBP/endochitinase caused 100% mortality at day 35. H. vastatrix urediniospores presented total cell wall degradation in their germinative tubes within 18 h of exposure to the proteins at enzyme concentrations of 5 and 6 mg ml-1, with exochitinase having the greatest effect. The dual deleterious effect of S. albidoflavus chitinases on two of the most limiting coffee pests worldwide, the coffee borer and the coffee rust, make them potential elements to be incorporated in integrated control strategies. PMID:22464210

Martínez, Claudia P; Echeverri, Claudia; Florez, Juan C; Gaitan, Alvaro L; Góngora, Carmenza E

2012-03-30

254

Insects: What are Insects?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project you will investigate insects. By the end of the project you will asnwer the essential quesetion " What are insects?" Today, you and your group members will begin by investigating what insects are in nature. Insects come in different shapes, sizes and colors. Before your groups begins the activity, take a look at some pictures by clicking the Insect Pictures link Insect Pictures. Next, your group will read the brief summary from ...

Martin, Mrs.

2009-10-22

255

Purification and characterization of a trypsin-papain inhibitor from Pithecelobium dumosum seeds and its in vitro effects towards digestive enzymes from insect pests.  

PubMed

A novel trypsin-papain inhibitor, named PdKI-2, was purified from the seeds of Pithecelobium dumosum seeds by TCA precipitation, Trypsin-Sepharose chromatography and reversed-phase HPLC. PdKI-2 had an M(r) of 18.1 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE and was composed of a single polypeptide chain. The inhibition on trypsin was stable at pH range 2-10, temperature of 50 degrees C and had a K(i) value of 1.65 x 10(-8)M, with a competitive inhibition mechanism. PdKI-2 was also active to papain, a cysteine proteinase, and showed a noncompetitive inhibition mechanism and K(i) value of 5.1 x 10(-7)M. PdKI-2 was effective against digestive proteinase from bruchids Zabrotes subfasciatus and Callosobruchus maculatus; Dipteran Ceratitis capitata; Lepidopterans Plodia interpunctella and Alabama argillacea, with 74.5%, 70.0%, 70.3%, 48.7%, and 13.6% inhibition, respectively. Results support that PdKI-2 is a member of Kunitz-inhibitor family and its effect on digestive enzyme larvae from diverse orders indicated this protein as a potent insect antifeedant. PMID:17888672

Oliveira, Adeliana S; Migliolo, Ludovico; Aquino, Rodrigo O; Ribeiro, Jannison K C; Macedo, Leonardo L P; Andrade, Lucia B S; Bemquerer, Marcelo P; Santos, Elizeu A; Kiyota, Sumika; de Sales, Maurício P

2007-08-11

256

Integrated Pest Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first Web site is an integrated pest management (IPM) resource from the University of Minnesota Extension Service (1) with a number of regional newsletters and crop specific fact sheets. The next resource from the University of California (2) is a comprehensive overview of IPM dealing with a wide range of topics including weather, weeds, and pesticides. Cornell University's Guide to Natural Enemies in North America (3) (last mentioned in the December 10, 1997 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) is a tutorial and guide to the beneficial insects that help control weeds, diseases, and pests. The home page for the Center for Integrated Pest Management (4) is a gateway to IPM research. Teachers wishing to incorporate the ecological concepts of IPM into their classrooms may be interested in this curriculum developed by Michigan State University (5) downloadable in Adobe Acrobat Reader format. Users looking to stay current on the subject of IPM may want to check out the IPMnet newsletters (6) from the Consortium for International Crop Protection. Brief reports of several IPM successes are posted on this New York State IPM Web site (7). Lastly, the home gardener may benefit from this (8) Texas A&M University site focusing on IPM for the home vegetable garden.

2002-01-01

257

Pinellia ternata agglutinin expression in chloroplasts confers broad spectrum resistance against aphid, whitefly, Lepidopteran insects, bacterial and viral pathogens.  

PubMed

Broad spectrum protection against different insects and pathogens requires multigene engineering. However, such broad spectrum protection against biotic stress is provided by a single protein in some medicinal plants. Therefore, tobacco chloroplasts were transformed with the agglutinin gene from Pinellia ternata (pta), a widely cultivated Chinese medicinal herb. Pinellia ternata agglutinin (PTA) was expressed up to 9.2% of total soluble protein in mature leaves. Purified PTA showed similar hemagglutination activity as snowdrop lectin. Artificial diet with purified PTA from transplastomic plants showed marked and broad insecticidal activity. In planta bioassays conducted with T0 or T1 generation PTA lines showed that the growth of aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) was reduced by 89%-92% when compared with untransformed (UT) plants. Similarly, the larval survival and total population of whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) on transplastomic lines were reduced by 91%-93% when compared with UT plants. This is indeed the first report of lectin controlling whitefly infestation. When transplastomic PTA leaves were fed to corn earworm (Helicoverpa zea), tobacco budworm (Heliothis virescens) or the beet armyworm (spodoptera exigua), 100% mortality was observed against all these three insects. In planta bioassays revealed Erwinia population to be 10,000-fold higher in control than in PTA lines. Similar results were observed with tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) challenge. Therefore, broad spectrum resistance to homopteran (sap-sucking), Lepidopteran insects as well as anti-bacterial or anti-viral activity observed in PTA lines provides a new option to engineer protection against biotic stress by hyper-expression of an unique protein that is naturally present in a medicinal plant. PMID:22077160

Jin, Shuangxia; Zhang, Xianlong; Daniell, Henry

2011-11-13

258

Visualizing a plant defense and insect counterploy: alkaloid distribution in Lobelia leaves trenched by a plusiine caterpillar.  

PubMed

Insects that feed on plants protected by latex canals often sever leaf veins or cut trenches across leaves before feeding distal to the cuts. The insects thereby depressurize the canals and reduce latex exudation at their prospective feeding site. How the cuts affect the distribution and concentration of latex chemicals was not known. We modified a microwave-assisted extraction technique to analyze the spatial distribution of alkaloids in leaves of Lobelia cardinalis (Campanulaceae) that have been trenched by a plusiine caterpillar, Enigmogramma basigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). We produced sharp two dimensional maps of alkaloid distribution by microwaving leaves to transfer alkaloids to TLC plates that were then sprayed with Dragendorff's reagent to visualize the alkaloids. The leaf prints were photographed and analyzed with image processing software for quantifying alkaloid levels. A comparison of control and trenched leaves documented that trenching reduces alkaloid levels by approximately 50% both distal and proximal to the trench. The trench becomes greatly enriched in alkaloids due to latex draining from surrounding areas. Measurements of exudation from trenched leaves demonstrate that latex pressures are rapidly restored proximal, but not distal to the trench. Thus, the trench serves not only to drain latex with alkaloids from the caterpillar's prospective feeding site, but also to isolate this section, thereby preventing an influx of latex from an extensive area that likely extends beyond the leaf. Microwave-assisted extraction of leaves has potential for diverse applications that include visualizing the impact of pathogens, leaf miners, sap-sucking insects, and other herbivores on the distribution and abundance of alkaloids and other important defensive compounds. PMID:19468794

Oppel, Craig B; Dussourd, David E; Garimella, Umadevi

2009-05-26

259

Integrated Insect Control May Alter Pesticide Use Pattern  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the use of predators, parasites, bacteria, viruses, hormones, pheromones, and sterile-male release and insect-resistance imparting techniques in pest control. Concludes with comments from chemical pesticide companies as popular attitudes toward the integrated pest management. (CC)|

Worthy, Ward

1973-01-01

260

Airborne multispectral remote sensing with ground truth for areawide pest management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Scientists and engineers in areawide pest management programs have been developing, integrating, and evaluating multiple strategies and technologies into a systems approach for management of field crop insect pests. Remote sensing along with global positioning systems, geographic information system...

261

People and Insects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides: (1) background information on how insects affect human lives, both positively and negatively, and on integrated pest management strategies; (2) student activities; and (3) materials (ready-to-copy games, puzzles, coloring pages, worksheets, and/or mazes). Each activity includes an objective, recommended age level(s), subject area(s),…

NatureScope, 1985

1985-01-01

262

People and Insects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides: (1) background information on how insects affect human lives, both positively and negatively, and on integrated pest management strategies; (2) student activities; and (3) materials (ready-to-copy games, puzzles, coloring pages, worksheets, and/or mazes). Each activity includes an objective, recommended age level(s), subject area(s),…

NatureScope, 1985

1985-01-01

263

Storage arthropod pest detection - current status and future directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key element of a grain storage integrated pest management (IPM) system is the ability to monitor for the presence of arthropod pests and to reliably detect these, as early as possible, at low population densities. There has been considerable progress in the development of traps for monitoring storage insects and mites and progress has also been made in the

M. E. Wakefield

264

Monitoring of Pear Psylla for Pest Management Decisions and Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Foerster) (Homoptera: Psyllidae), is one of the key insect pests in North American pear production. In some growing areas, more than 50% of dollars spent to control arthropod pests in commercial pear are directed specifically at controlling this species. Control measures require accurate and timely information about dispersal, onset of egg-laying in spring, densities in the

David R. Horton

1999-01-01

265

Study on Integrated Pest Management for Libraries and Archives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study addresses the problems caused by the major insect and rodent pests and molds and mildews in libraries and archives; the damage they do to collections; and techniques for their prevention and control. Guidelines are also provided for the development and initiation of an Integrated Pest Management program for facilities housing library…

Parker, Thomas A.

266

Future weed, pest and disease problems for plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As climate and atmospheric carbon dioxide [CO2] shift in response to anthropogenic change, the outbreak and damage induced by agricultural pests, principally weeds, insects, and diseases may increase. Although the interaction of climate/[CO2] and the impact of agricultural pests has been recognized...

267

Image processing for distance diagnosis in pest management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image processing for pest management (IPPM) is an interactive distance diagnostic tool for the diagnosis and identification of diseases and insects. The objective of the IPPM was the automation of the diagnostic process based on interaction of growers and experts via the Internet, to enable pest diagnosis in crops at the earliest possible stage, using photographs produced by growers, coupled

Y. Koumpouros; B. D. Mahaman; M. Maliappis; H. C. Passam; A. B. Sideridis; V. Zorkadis

2004-01-01

268

Biologically based pest controls: Markets, industries, and products. Special report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numbers and amounts of conventional pesticides to combat insect pests, weeds and plant diseases are likely to decline. Although biologically based pest control products have been touted as possible replacements, such products now comprise less than 2% of the market in the United States. Twelve large multinational companies market 80% of the world`s pesticides, valued at about $200 billion, and

R. L. Ridgway; M. N. Inscoe; K. W. Thorpe

1994-01-01

269

Study on Integrated Pest Management for Libraries and Archives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study addresses the problems caused by the major insect and rodent pests and molds and mildews in libraries and archives; the damage they do to collections; and techniques for their prevention and control. Guidelines are also provided for the development and initiation of an Integrated Pest Management program for facilities housing library…

Parker, Thomas A.

270

ARS RESEARCH ON NATURAL PRODUCTS FOR PEST MANAGEMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recent research of the Agricultural Research Service of USDA on the use of natural products to manage pests is summarized. Studies of the use of both phytochemicals and diatomaceous earth to manage insect pests are discussed. Chemically characterized compounds, such as a saponin from pepper (Caps...

271

ARS RESEARCH ON NATURAL PRODUCTS FOR PEST MANAGEMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recent research of the Agricultural Research Service of USDA on the use of natural products to manage pests is summarized. Studies of the use of both phtyochemicals and diatomaceous earth to manage insect pests are discussed. Chemically characterized compounds, such as a saponin from pepper (Capsi...

272

MANAGEMENT OF LATE SEASON INSECT PESTS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Insecticides and acaricides account for about 10% of the budget required to grow cotton in the San Joaquin Valley during the typical year. Estimates of cotton yield loss from spider mites, cotton aphids, lygus bugs, and lepidopterous larvae in the SJV have been as high as 15% during the peak years ...

273

Towards integrated pest management in red clover seed production.  

PubMed

The development of integrated pest management is hampered by lack of information on how insect pest abundances relate to yield losses, and how pests are affected by control measures. In this study, we develop integrated pest management tactics for Apion spp. weevils (Coleoptera: Brentidae) in seed production of red clover, Trifolium pratense L. We tested a method to forecast pest damage, quantified the relationship between pest abundance and yield, and evaluated chemical and biological pest control in 29 Swedish red clover fields in 2008 and 2011. Pest inflorescence abundance, which had a highly negative effect on yield, could be predicted with pan trap catches of adult pests. In 2008, chemical control with typically one application of pyrethroids was ineffective both in decreasing pest abundances and in increasing yields. In 2011, when chemical control included applications of the neonicotinoid thiacloprid, pest abundances decreased and yields increased considerably in treated field zones. A post hoc analysis indicated that using pyrethroids in addition to thiacloprid was largely redundant. Infestation rates by parasitoids was higher and reached average levels of around 40% in insecticide treated field zones in 2011, which is a level of interest for biological pest control. Based on the data presented, an economic threshold for chemical control is developed, and guidelines are provided on minimum effective chemical pest control. PMID:23156158

Lundin, Ola; Rundlöf, Maj; Smith, Henrik G; Bommarco, Riccardo

2012-10-01

274

BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF STORED PRODUCT PESTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This book chapter provides a review of biological control agents used to suppress insect pests of stored grain and food processing facilities. Biological control has several advantages compared to chemical insecticides. Natural enemies leave no harmful chemical residues; and after release in a stora...

275

Introduction: Temperature Sensitivity and Integrated Pest Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperature is one of the principal factors delimitating survival and reproduction of insects and mites. Temperature extremes are a cause of significant natural mortality in populations and offer a rich potential that can be exploited for the development of environmentally safe pest management strategies. The omnipresence of temperature stress has resulted in a wealth of physiological and behavioral adaptations that

Guy J. Hallman; David L. Denlinger

276

1976 Commercial Vegetable Pest Control Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide contains pest control information for commercial vegetable production. It was prepared for agricultural supply dealers, extension agents, fieldmen, and growers. It gives general precautions, information on seed treatment, growing disease-free seedlings and transplants, general soil insect control, general weed control, and spraying…

MacNab, A. A.; And Others

277

Redirect research to control coffee pest  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

One hundred years ago, one of the most significant biological invasions of an agricultural insect pest in the Americas was initiated. Endemic to Africa, the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was accidentally introduced to Brazil in 1913 and years later invaded coff...

278

Insect resistance to Bt crops: evidence versus theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolution of insect resistance threatens the continued success of transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins that kill pests. The approach used most widely to delay insect resistance to Bt crops is the refuge strategy, which requires refuges of host plants without Bt toxins near Bt crops to promote survival of susceptible pests. However, large-scale tests of the refuge strategy

Aaron J Gassmann; David W Crowder; Yves Carriére; Bruce E Tabashnik

2008-01-01

279

genetic technologies to E nhance the Sterile Insect technique (SIt )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) has been used very successfully against range of pest insects, including various tephritid fruit flies, several moths and a small number of livestock pests. However, modern genetics could potentially provide several improvements that would increase the cost-effectiveness of SIT, and extend the range of suitable species. These include (i) improved identification of released individuals by

Luke Alphey; Pam Baker; Rosemary S. Burton; George C. Condon; Kirsty C. Condon; Tarig H. Dafa' alla; Matthew J. Epton; Guoliang Fu; Peng Gong; Li Jin; Geneviève Labbé; Neil I. Morrison; Derric D. Nimmo; Sinead O'Connell; Caroline E. Phillips; Andrew Plackett; Sarah Scaife; Alexander Woods

280

Dynamics of insect resistance in Bt-corn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of genetically modified Bt-corn, incorporating various toxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis that act as a chemical defense against insect pests, such as the European Corn Borer, provides farmers with a new pest management option. However, the emergence of insect resistance is a threat to the continued use of Bt-corn. The United States Environment Protection Agency (US EPA) has

Nicholas A. Linacre; Colin J. Thompson

2004-01-01

281

Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Home, Institutional, and Structural Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed to assist pest control operators to prepare for certification under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. The primary focus of this publication is on home, institutional, and structural pest control. The ten sections included describe: (1) Insect control; (2) Rodent control; (3) Special situation pest control; (4)…

Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

282

HISTORY, USE AND FUTURE OF MICROBIAL INSECTICIDES IN URBAN PEST CONTROL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial (bio) insecticides are products based on living micro-organisms which are pathogenic to insects. These micro-organisms have a long history of study and are considered to have great potential as pest control agents. However. in the past research has concentrated on pests of agriculture and, to a lesser extent, on medical and veterinary arthropods. Pests of the urban environment have

C. PRIOR

283

Effects of training on acquisition of pest management knowledge and skills by small vegetable farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of farmer field school (FFS) and the conventional (classroom lectures) training on acquisition of pest management knowledge and skills by small vegetable farmers were studied in Yunnan province, China from 2003 to 2007. There were significant gains of knowledge about vegetable pests, natural enemies, insect and disease ecology and pest management among the FFS farmers, but were no significant

Puyun Yang; Wenxin Liu; Xunan Shan; Ping Li; Jinyu Zhou; Jianping Lu; Yahong Li

2008-01-01

284

Research on the Diagnosis Method of Crop Pests and Diseases Based on the Heuristic Search  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diagnosis of crop diseases and insect pests depends on the position, pest apparent, and the impact of physiological biochemical and ecological factors, etc., so it is difficult to meet the requirements for the credibility of solving goal by applying a conventional logic-reasoning model. On the basis of the analysis on pests and diseases with hierarchical structure, the fuzzy membership

Chunjiang Zhao; Huarui Wu

2009-01-01

285

Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Home, Institutional, and Structural Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual is designed to assist pest control operators to prepare for certification under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. The primary focus of this publication is on home, institutional, and structural pest control. The ten sections included describe: (1) Insect control; (2) Rodent control; (3) Special situation pest control; (4)…

Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

286

BREEDING WHEAT FOR RESISTANCE TO INSECTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Host-plant resistance plays an important role in the management of the insect pests of wheat (Triticum sp.). Five pests, Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor), Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia), wheat midge (Sitodiplosis mosellana), greenbug (Schizaphis graminum) and the wheat stem sawfly (Cephus s...

287

Nuke 'Em! Library Pest Control Using a Microwave.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the threats to books and periodicals posed by such insects as book lice, termites, cockroaches, silverfish, firebrats, and beetles; reviews past methods of pest control; and describes a technique for insect control using microwaves. The results of tests of microwave effects on publications are reported, necessary precautions are…

Brezner, Jerome; Luner, Philip

1989-01-01

288

Nuke 'Em! Library Pest Control Using a Microwave.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the threats to books and periodicals posed by such insects as book lice, termites, cockroaches, silverfish, firebrats, and beetles; reviews past methods of pest control; and describes a technique for insect control using microwaves. The results of tests of microwave effects on publications are reported, necessary precautions are…

Brezner, Jerome; Luner, Philip

1989-01-01

289

Psyllid lineup: the pests that carry zebra chip  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli, is as an economically important insect pest of potatoes, tomatoes, and other solanaceous crops in the western U.S., Mexico, Central America and New Zealand. This insect has historically been linked to psyllid yellows disease, but more recently has been sho...

290

Insect Ferritins: typical or atypical?  

PubMed Central

Insects transmit millions of cases of disease each year, and cost millions of dollars in agricultural losses. The control of insect-borne diseases is vital for numerous developing countries, and the management of agricultural insect pests is a very serious business for developed countries. Control methods should target insect-specific traits in order to avoid non-target effects, especially in mammals. Since insect cells have had a billion years of evolutionary divergence from those of vertebrates, they differ in many ways that might be promising for the insect control field—especially, in iron metabolism because current studies have indicated that significant differences exist between insect and mammalian systems. Insect iron metabolism differs from that of vertebrates in the following respects. Insect ferritins have a heavier mass than mammalian ferritins. Unlike their mammalian counterparts, the insect ferritin subunits are often glycosylated and are synthesized with a signal peptide. The crystal structure of insect ferritin also shows a tetrahedral symmetry consisting of 12 heavy chain and 12 light chain subunits in contrast to that of mammalian ferritin that exhibits an octahedral symmetry made of 24 heavy chain and 24 light chain subunits. Insect ferritins associate primarily with the vacuolar system and serve as iron transporters—quite the opposite of the mammalian ferritins, which are mainly cytoplasmic and serve as iron storage proteins. This review will discuss these differences.

Pham, Daphne Q. D.; Winzerling, Joy J.

2010-01-01

291

Possible Effects of Genetically Modified Plants on Insects in the Plant Food Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: During the last years, there has been increasing focus on the environmental effects of genetically modified plants, not only hybridization and gene flow, but also effects on insects. A general overview of possible effects of genetically modified plants on insects ,is presented. Insects from different levels of the plant food web ,are included: herbivores (pests and non-pests), pollinators, predators\\/parasitoids

Eline B. Hågvar; Solveig Aasen

292

Insect Pathogens as Biological Control Agents: Do They Have a Future?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Naturally occurring entomopathogens are important regulatory factors in insect populations. Many species are employed as biological control agents of insect pests in row and glasshouse crops, orchards, ornamentals, range, turf and lawn, stored products, and forestry and for abatement of pest and vector insects of veterinary and medical importance. The comparison of entomopathogens with conventional chemical pesticides is usually solely

L. A. Lacey; R. Frutos; H. K. Kaya; P. Vail

2001-01-01

293

Prospects for managing turfgrass pests with reduced chemical inputs.  

PubMed

Turfgrass culture, a multibillion dollar industry in the United States, poses unique challenges for integrated pest management. Why insect control on lawns, golf courses, and sport fields remains insecticide-driven, and how entomological research and extension can best support nascent initiatives in environmental golf and sustainable lawn care are explored. High standards for aesthetics and playability, prevailing business models, risk management-driven control decisions, and difficulty in predicting pest outbreaks fuel present reliance on preventive insecticides. New insights into pest biology, sampling methodology, microbial insecticides, plant resistance, and conservation biological control are reviewed. Those gains, and innovations in reduced-risk insecticides, should make it possible to begin constructing holistic management plans for key turfgrass pests. Nurturing the public's interest in wildlife habitat preservation, including beneficial insects, may be one means to change aesthetic perceptions and gain leeway for implementing integrated pest management practices that lend stability to turfgrass settings. PMID:21910640

Held, David W; Potter, Daniel A

2011-09-09

294

Plant - Insect Relation in Buckwheat Agrocoenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

species of insects are registered at buckwheat field. About 50 species of them are pests. As a rule, their density is not high, so there are no specialized protective measures against them. The largest part (about 100 species) are insects, connected with buckwheat flowers, Among them the typical pollina­ tors are: honey bee (Apis mellifera), wild bees, and bumblebees. Flies

295

Biological control: Insect pathogens, parasitoids, and predators  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This book chapter provides an overview of biological control of insect pests of stored grain and stored products. The advantages and disadvantages of biological control for stored-product insect control are discussed. There are several species of protozoa, viruses, and bacteria that could be used to...

296

2008 Sunflower Insect Trap Monitoring Network  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A regional insect trap network was developed by the National Sunflower Association, USDA-ARS, and North Dakota State University Extension Service to monitor for two major insect pests of sunflower in 2008 including the sunflower moth, Homoeosoma electellum (Hulst) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and the b...

297

History of the Sterile Insect Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1930s and 1940s the idea of releasing insects of pest species to introduce sterility (sterile insect technique or SIT) into wild populations, and thus control them, was independently conceived in three extremely diverse intellectual environments. The key researchers were A. S. Serebrovskii at Moscow State University, F. L. Vanderplank at a tsetse field research station in rural Tanganyika

W. Klassen; C. F. CURTIS

298

Scope and Basic Principles of Insect Pathology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Insects are the dominant animals in the world with more than one million described species. The vast majority of insects are innocuous or beneficial to humans, but a small percentage are pests that require a significant amount of our time, effort and funds to reduce their negative effects on food pr...

299

Acres of Insects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Arizona Center for Insect Science Education Outreach has developed this new resource for high school teachers. Using insects as model organisms, the Web site examines a range of complexities involved with the world's food supply. There are currently two lesson sequences: Great Gravidity, a population ecology lesson, and The Enforcers, a lesson on predator-prey relationships that focuses on biological control of insect pests. Both lessons include introductory activities that prepare students for a long-term (3-4 week) research project, as well as including data analyses and optional activities. These substantial lesson plans have an interactive and interdisciplinary focus, making them appealing to a wide range of high school students.

2002-01-01

300

Impacts of abiotic factors on population fluctuation of insect fauna of Vigna radiata and Tetranychus urticae Koch in Sindh, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of temperature and relative humidity on population dynamics of insect pests of mung bean was studied during mung bean\\u000a growing season of 2005. Insect pests included thrips (Thrips tabaci Lind.) and field cricket (Gryllus assimilis) and one arachnid pest mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch). Results revealed that the maximum population of thrips and mites was observed on August 23, 2005

Yasir Ahmed Khan; Wajad Nazeer; Asifa Hameed; Jehanzeb Farooq; Muhammad Rafiq Shahid

2011-01-01

301

Observing Insects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how to observe and study the fascinating world of insects in public parks, backyards, and gardens. Discusses the activities and habits of several common insects. Includes addresses for sources of beneficial insects, seeds, and plants. (nine references) (JJK)

Arbel, Ilil

1991-01-01

302

Method for Use in Studies of Insect Chemical Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTEREST in the possibility of using behaviour-inducing chemicals to assist in the control of insect pests has stimulated efforts to isolate, identify and synthesize insect pheromones and food and oviposition attractants. Identification of these substances is usually difficult because of the low concentration of biologically active material in the insect or plant source. Usually fractionation of a crude extract followed

J. E. Moorhouse; R. Yeadon; P. S. BEEVOR; BRENDA F. NESBITT

1969-01-01

303

Genetic, Molecular and Genomic Basis of Rice Defense against Insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice is the world's most important staple crop, feeding more than half of the world's population. Insects and other arthropods present an important constraint in rice production. This paper begins with an introduction to major insect pests of rice and their impact, followed by a description of some of the approaches currently used in insect management programs of rice. Then

Hao Chen; Michael J. Stout; Qian Qian; Feng Chen

2012-01-01

304

Y-Linked markers for improved population control of the tephritid fruit fly pest, Anastrepha suspensa  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Insect pest control programs incorporating the sterile insect technique (SIT) rely on the mass production and release of sterilized insects to reduce the wild-type population through infertile matings. Most effective programs release only males to avoid any crop damage caused by female fruit flies o...

305

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

This Research Summary describes an alternative approach towards pest management--an approach that takes into account both the necessity and the danger of pesticides. Integrated pest management involves the carefully managed use of multiple pest control tactics. It is a highly eff...

306

A novel mechanism of insect resistance engineered into tobacco  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major goal of plant genetic engineering is the introduction of agronomically desirable phenotypic traits into crop plants in situations where conventional breeding methods have been unsuccessful. One such target is enhanced resistance to insect pests which, in view of the estimated production losses world-wide and the heavy costs of protective treatments, is very important. We report here that a gene encoding a cowpea trypsin inhibitor, which has been shown to give some measure of field resistance to insect pests1, confers, when transferred to tobacco, enhanced resistance to this species' own herbivorous insect pests.

Hilder, Vaughan A.; Gatehouse, Angharad M. R.; Sheerman, Suzanne E.; Barker, Richard F.; Boulter, Donald

1987-11-01

307

Evolutionary diversification of the bean beetle genus Callosobruchus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae): traits associated with stored-product pest status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the fact that many plant-feeding insects are pests, little effort has been made to identify key evolutionary trait transitions that allow taxa to acquire or lose pest status. A large proportion of species in the genus Callosobruchus are economically important pests of stored, dry postharvest beans of the tribe Phaseoleae. However, the evolution of this feeding habit is poorly

M. TUDA; J. RÖNN; S. BURANAPANICHP; N. WASANO; G. ARNQVIST

308

Technological Advances to Enhance Agricultural Pest Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biotechnology offers new solutions to existing and future pest problems in agriculture including, for the first time, possible\\u000a tools to use against insect transmitted pathogens causing plant diseases. Here, we describe the strategy first described as\\u000a Autocidal Biological Control applied for the development of conditional lethal pink bollworm strains. When these strains are\\u000a mass-reared, the lethal gene expression is suppressed

Thomas A. Miller; Carol R. Lauzon; David J. Lampe

309

Germline transformants spreading out to many insect species.  

PubMed

The past 5 years have witnessed significant advances in our ability to introduce genes into the genomes of insects of medical and agricultural importance. A number of transposable elements now exist that are proving to be sufficiently robust to allow genetic transformation of species within three orders of insects. In particular all of these transposable elements can be used genetically to transform mosquitoes. These developments, together with the use of suitable genes as genetic markers, have enabled several genes and promoters to be transferred between insect species and their effects on the phenotype of the transgenic insect determined. Within a very short period of time, insights into the function of insect promoters in homologous and heterologous insect species are being gained. Furthermore, strategies aimed at ameliorating the harmful effects of pest insects, such as their ability to vector human pathogens, are now being tested in the pest insects themselves. We review the progress that has been made in the development of transgenic technology in pest insect species and conclude that the repertoire of transposable element-based genetic tools, long available to Drosophila geneticists, can now be applied to other insect species. In addition, it is likely that these developments will lead to the generation of pest insects that display a significantly reduced ability to transmit pathogens in the near future. PMID:12000097

Atkinson, Peter W; James, Anthony A

2002-01-01

310

The use of Bacillus thuringiensis on Forest Integrated Pest Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus thuringiensis is a major microbial insecticide and a source of genes encoding several proteins toxic to insects. In this paper the authors\\u000a give a brief summary ofBacillus thuringiensis used on the integrated pest management in forestry. The derivatives of Bt strain HD1 subspkurstaki have been widely used to control the forest pests such as the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar),

Li Gui-ming; Zhang Xiang-yue; Wang Lu-quan

2001-01-01

311

Does varying cowpea spacing provide better protection against cowpea pests?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insect pest incidence, abundance, damage and grain yield of four cowpea pests: aphids, Aphis craccivora Koch, bean flower thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti (Trybom), legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Fabricius) and the pod-sucking bug (PSB) complex were measured across a range of plant spacing using two cowpea varieties, a breeding line (IT86D-715) which is semi-erect and a popular spreading cultivar grown in

J. A. N. Asiwe; S. Nokoe; L. E. N. Jackai; F. K. Ewete

2005-01-01

312

Use of Airborne Multi-Spectral Imagery in Pest Management Systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Scientists and researchers have been developing, integrating, and evaluating multiple strategies and technologies into a systems approach for management of field crop insect pests. Remote sensing along with Global Positioning Systems, Geographic Information Systems, and variable rate technology are...

313

Airborne multi-spectral remote sensing with ground truth for areawide pest management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Scientists and researchers have been developing, integrating, and evaluating multiple strategies and technologies into a systems approach for management of field crop insect pests. Remote sensing along with Global Positioning Systems, Geographic Information Systems, and variable rate technology are...

314

SUSCEPTIBILITY OF PEST NEZARA VIRIDULA (HETEROPTERA: PENTATOMIDAE) AND PARASITOID TRICHOPODA PENNIPES (DIPTERA: TACHINIDAE) TO SELECTED INSECTICIDES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Susceptibility of a pest stink bug, the brown stink bug (BSB), Euschistus servus (Say) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), and the predatory stink bug, the spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris (Say) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), to cyfluthrin, dicrotophos, indoxacarb, oxamyl, and tralomethrin, insectic...

315

Integrated Pest Management Plan for Control of the Eucalyptus Longhorned Borer in California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research program sponsored by California Department of Transportation on the Eucalyptus longhorned borer has produced a multi-faceted and integrated pest management program for control of the insect. Tree stress, particularly water stress, has been id...

T. D. Paine J. G. Millar

1994-01-01

316

Transgenic Bt Corn Hybrids and Pest Management in the USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Corn, Zea mays L., grown in many areas of the United States suffers from a variety of insect species that attack virtually all parts of\\u000a the growing plant. Many conventional pest management programs have been developed to combat these insects with varying degrees\\u000a of success. In the mid-1990s, the commercial introduction and subsequent widespread adoption of Bt transgenic hybrids has

Siddharth Tiwari; Roger R. Youngman

317

Integrated pest management in cowpea: Effect of time and frequency of insecticide application on productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cowpeas suffer major yield losses due to insect pests, so insect resistant cowpea varieties are being developed to minimize insecticide use in integrated pest management. Experiments during the cropping seasons of 2002–2004 at Kano, Nigeria, evaluated four cowpea varieties and five combinations of time and frequency of insecticide treatments. One-spray at flowering stage was better than 1-spray at podding stage.

H. A. Ajeigbe; B. B. Singh

2006-01-01

318

Potential for using semiochemicals to protect stored products from insect infestation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods of using semiochemicals to control insect pests of stored grain are reviewed. The application of semiochemicals for pest control in grain storage is in its infancy, so each method is considered using some key examples of successful use on a commercial scale against pests from other areas of agriculture, followed by a summary of any laboratory and pilot studies

P. D. Cox

2004-01-01

319

BARLEY INSECT RESEARCH AT THE USDA-ARS PLANT SCIENCE RESEARCH LABORATORY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Insect pests pose a major constraint to the profitable production of barley in the USA. The use of genetically resistant barley cultivars in conjunction with prudent integrated pest management tactics is an economical, environmentally friendly approach to controlling pest damage. Research is ongoi...

320

Insect Images  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage, part of the USDA Forest Service's "Forest Health Protection" site, contains images of insects found in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. The insects are organized by their feeding behavior and ecology. The site also contains other information that may be useful in researching topics related to forest insects of the region mentioned.

Douce, Keith

2010-02-16

321

A Pest of Importance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato cyst nematodes (PCN), G. rostochiensis and G. pallida, are internationally-recognized quarantine pests and considered the most devastating pests of potatoes worldwide. PCNs continue to spread throughout North America and were recently detected in Idaho (G. pallida) and Quebec and Alberta, Can...

322

Integrated Pest Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After a brief discussion of the problems of pesticide use and the status of current pest control practices, a definition of integrated pest management is given along with some examples of its successful application, and a description of some of the reasons why the concept has not been applied more widely. The major techniques which can be used as…

Council on Environmental Quality, Washington, DC.

323

Biological Barrier against Pests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Methods of controlling harmful cotton pests in northern Afghanistan and southern Tadzhikistan are discussed. The method of using natural enemies of pests for control is compared with the use of pesticides. The effects of both methods on the ecology of the...

E. S. Sugonyaev

1973-01-01

324

Insect transgenesis and its potential role in agriculture and human health.  

PubMed

The ability to genetically engineer insects other than Drosophila melanogaster has further extended modern genetic techniques into important insect pest species ranging from fruit fly pests of horticulture to mosquito vectors of human disease. In only a relatively short period of time, a range of transgenes have been inserted into more than 10 insect pest species. Genetic transformation of these pest species has proven to be a very important laboratory tool in analyzing gene function and effects on phenotype however the full extension of this technology into the field is yet to be realized. Here we briefly review the development of transgenic technology in pest insect species and discuss the challenges that remain in this applied area of insect genetics and entomology. PMID:14871607

Robinson, Alan S; Franz, Gerald; Atkinson, Peter W

2004-02-01

325

Landscape-scale patterns of forest pest and pathogen damage in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathogen and pest outbreaks are recognized as key processes in the dynamics of Western forest ecosystems, yet the spatial patterns of stress and mortality are often complex and difficult to describe in an explicit spatial context, especially when considering the concurrent effects of multiple agents. Blister rust, a fungal pathogen, and mountain pine beetle, an insect pest, are two dominant

Jaclyn A. Hatala; Robert L. Crabtree; Kerry Q. Halligan; Paul R. Moorcroft

2009-01-01

326

Biological control of arthropod pests in outdoor crops - the new challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural regulation of insect pests can be improved by conservation biological control. How- ever, these efforts are not always sufficient to keep pest infestations at an economically acceptable level. In some years or some locations natural enemies may occur in the field too late or in insufficient numbers. Inundative and inoculative biological control can provide a supplement to natural control

Lene Sigsgaard

2006-01-01

327

Chilled versus ambient aeration and fumigation of stored popcorn part 2: Pest management  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the summer of 1994, a prototype grain chiller was tested to determine its efficacy as a pest management tool and its economic competitiveness with conventional pest management techniques. Four popcorn bins (121.5 tonnes) at a commercial facility were utilized. Two bins were managed using traditional ambient aeration and fumigation. The remaining two bins were managed with chilled aeration. Insect

L. J. Mason; R. A. Rulon; D. E. Maier

1997-01-01

328

Sampling Plans, Selective Insecticides and Sustainability: The Case for IPM as ‘informed pest management’  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

IPM is considered the central paradigm of insect pest management and is often characterized as a comprehensive use of multiple control tactics to reduce pest status while minimizing economic and environmental costs. As the principal precursor of IPM, the integrated control concept formulated the ec...

329

Biology and ecology of the Western Flower Thrips. The making of a pest  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the past 30 years, the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) has become one of the most important agricultural pests worldwide. Certain biological attributes of this insect predispose it to be a direct pest across a wide range of crops. In additio...

330

Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Fruit Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators prepare for certification under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. The primary focus of this publication is on fruit pest control. Sections included are: (1) Causes of fruit diseases; (2) Fruit fungicides and bactericides; (3) Insect and mite pests; (4) Insecticides and miticides;…

Brunner, J.; And Others

331

Pesticide Applicator Certification Training, Manual No. 1a: Agricultural Pest Control. a. Plant.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual provides information needed to meet the minimum standards for certification as an applicator of pesticides in the agricultural plant pest control category. Adapted for the State of Virginia, the text discusses: (1) the basics of insecticides; (2) insect pests; (3) selection and calibration of applicator equipment; and (4) the proper…

Allen, W. A.; And Others

332

Effectiveness and profitability of integrated pest management for improving yield on smallholder cocoa farms in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many pests, especially capsid bugs, infest cocoa and contribute to low yields in producing countries. In Ghana, synthetic pesticides are recommended for controlling the insect pests, and a combination of synthetic pesticides and cultural practices for diseases and weeds. However, the farmers in Ghana are not motivated to adopt these recommendations due to the high cost of pesticides and low

E. N. A. Dormon; A. van Huis; C. Leeuwis

2007-01-01

333

Development of an embryonic lethality system for transgenic sit in the fruit pest, ceratitis capitata  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ceratitis capitata, known as one of the world's most destructive insect pest, costs farmers billions of dollars annually. Improved biological strategies are needed to increase the efficacy of area-wide pest management. Transgenic methodology should enhance and widen the applicability of the sterile ...

334

Potential Use of a Serpin from Arabidopsis for Pest Control  

PubMed Central

Although genetically modified (GM) plants expressing toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protect agricultural crops against lepidopteran and coleopteran pests, field-evolved resistance to Bt toxins has been reported for populations of several lepidopteran species. Moreover, some important agricultural pests, like phloem-feeding insects, are not susceptible to Bt crops. Complementary pest control strategies are therefore necessary to assure that the benefits provided by those insect-resistant transgenic plants are not compromised and to target those pests that are not susceptible. Experimental GM plants producing plant protease inhibitors have been shown to confer resistance against a wide range of agricultural pests. In this study we assessed the potential of AtSerpin1, a serpin from Arabidopsis thaliana (L). Heynh., for pest control. In vitro assays were conducted with a wide range of pests that rely mainly on either serine or cysteine proteases for digestion and also with three non-target organisms occurring in agricultural crops. AtSerpin1 inhibited proteases from all pest and non-target species assayed. Subsequently, the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis Boisduval and the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) were fed on artificial diets containing AtSerpin1, and S. littoralis was also fed on transgenic Arabidopsis plants overproducing AtSerpin1. AtSerpin1 supplied in the artificial diet or by transgenic plants reduced the growth of S. littoralis larvae by 65% and 38%, respectively, relative to controls. Nymphs of A. pisum exposed to diets containing AtSerpin1 suffered high mortality levels (LC50?=?637 µg ml?1). The results indicate that AtSerpin1 is a good candidate for exploitation in pest control.

Alvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; Maharramov, Jafar; Carrillo, Laura; Vandenabeele, Steven; Vercammen, Dominique; Van Breusegem, Frank; Smagghe, Guy

2011-01-01

335

Applicator Training Manual for: Agricultural Animal Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual discusses pesticide safety and environmental considerations, pesticide toxicity, residue potential, pesticide formulations, and application techniques. In addition, descriptions of, and methods for controlling insects and related pests that attack cattle, sheep and goats, swine, horses and other equines, and poultry are given. These…

Christensen, Christian M.

336

The genome of the model beetle and pest Tribolium castaneum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tribolium castaneum is a representative of earth’s most numerous eukaryotic order, a powerful model organism for the study of generalized insect development, and also an important pest of stored agricultural products. We describe its genome sequence here. This omnivorous beetle has evolved an abil...

337

The genome of the model beetle and pest Tribolium castaneum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tribolium castaneum is a member of the most species-rich eukaryotic order, a powerful model organism for the study of generalized insect development, and an important pest of stored agricultural products. We describe its genome sequence here. This omnivorous beetle has evolved the ability to interact with a diverse chemical environment, as shown by large expansions in odorant and gustatory receptors,

Stephen Richards; Richard A. Gibbs; George M. Weinstock; Susan J. Brown; Robin Denell; Richard W. Beeman; G. Bucher; M. Friedrich; C. J. P. Grimmelikhuijzen; M. Klingler; M. D. Lorenzen; S. Roth; R. Schroder; D. Tautz; E. M. Zdobnov; D. Muzny; T. Attaway; S. Bell; C. J. Buhay; M. N. Chandrabose; D. Chavez; K. P. Clerk-Blankenburg; A. Cree; M. Dao; C. Davis; J. Chacko; H. Dinh; S. Dugan-Rocha; G. Fowler; T. T. Garner; J. Garnes; A. Gnirke; A. Hawes; J. Hernandez; S. Hines; M. Holder; J. Hume; S. N. Jhangiani; V. Joshi; Z. M. Khan; L. Jackson; C. Kovar; A. Kowis; S. Lee; L. R. Lewis; J. Margolis; M. Morgan; L. V. Nazareth; N. Nguyen; G. Okwuonu; D. Parker; S. J. Ruiz; J. Santibanez; J. Savard; S. E. Scherer; B. Schneider; E. Sodergren; S. Vattahil; D. Villasana; C. S. White; R. Wright; J. Lord; B. Oppert; S. Brown; L. J. Wang; Y. Liu; K. Worley; C. G. Elsik; J. T. Reese; E. Elhaik; G. Landan; D. Graur; P. Arensburger; P. Atkinson; J. Beidler; J. P. Demuth; D. W. Drury; Y. Z. Du; H. Fujiwara; V. Maselli; M. Osanai; H. M. Robertson; Z. Tu; J. J. Wang; S. Z. Wang; H. Song; L. Zhang; D. Werner; M. Stanke; B. Morgenstern; V. Solovyev; P. Kosarev; G. Brown; H. C. Chen; O. Ermolaeva; W. Hlavina; Y. Kapustin; B. Kiryutin

2008-01-01

338

Develop of Diseases Pest Information System Based on WEBGIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the widespread use of WEBGIS system, we design the architecture of diseases and Insect Pest Information System (DIPS) based on WEBGIS. First, expound the structure principle and maintenance methods of the component model management subsystem, propose common interface standards and design interface component model that suitable for WEBGIS system. Then, present design ideas and realization method of intelligent decision

Yinsheng Zhang; Huilin Shan; Dahua Xu

2008-01-01

339

Diamondback moth–host plant interactions: Implications for pest management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.), is a destructive insect pest of cruciferous crops with a cosmopolitan distribution. Its genetic elasticity has enabled it to develop resistance to almost every insecticide applied in the field. Its natural host range is limited to cultivated and wild Brassicaceae that are characterized by having glucosinolates, sulfur-containing secondary plant compounds. Adults utilize an

M. Sarfraz; L. M. Dosdall; B. A. Keddie

2006-01-01

340

Coffee pest and disease management options for smallholders in Malawi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main source of income for up to 9000 smallholders in northern Malawi is coffee, yields of which are affected by insect pests, namely white stem borer (Monochamus leuconotus) and green scale (Coccus alpinus), and diseases – coffee berry disease (Colletotrichum kahawae) and leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix). Economic liberalisation in Malawi has removed subsidies from inputs and without credit schemes

R. J. Hillocks; N. A. Phiri; D. Overfield

1999-01-01

341

PERIMETER TREATMENT FOR STORED-PRODUCT PEST IMMIGRATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A discussion of ongoing research to determine strategies to limit immigration of various stored product pests will be presented. Prevention of infestation is an important component of IPM. In this presentation, current research into preventing or reducing the impact of insect immigration will be p...

342

BIOLOGICALLY-BASED INSECTICIDES FOR PECAN PEST MANAGEMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Insects and mites can cause severe crop losses in pecan, Carya illinoensis Wang., K. Koch. Use of broad spectrum insecticides can be harmful to beneficial natural enemy populations (e.g., lady beetles and lacewings) and lead to outbreaks of non-targeted pests (e.g., aphids). Thus, due to lack of t...

343

Forest Pest Control and Timber Treatment Category Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. The document is a compilation of pamphlets and circulars which discuss forest management, control of undesirable woody plants, herbicides in forestry, diseases and insect pests, and equipment for pesticide application. (CS)|

Bowman, James S.; Turmel, Jon P.

344

PRCATICAL APPLICATIONS OF NEEM AGAINST PESTS OF STORED PRODUCTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been an age-old practice to mix neem materials in stored products for protection against insect pests in countries where neem abounds. Recognition of this bio- dynamism of neem materials and the protection it offered to stored products was experience driven rather than being based on knowledge of neem's bioactive chemical constituents. Little consideration was given to large quantities

Ramesh C. Saxena

345

Thermal Design of Shipping Containers for Beneficial Insects  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The use of chemical pesticides to control stored product insects can be reduced with Integrated Pest Management (IPM) practices such as the use of natural enemies, like parasitoids, to control harmful insects. In this study, improved specifications were developed for shipping containers to deliver h...

346

Practical importance for conservation of insect diversity in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insects are one of the most important groups in the natural world. They affect the life and welfare of humans in many different ways. While some insects are referred to as pests, others are beneficial to humans. For example, they may serve a function as pollinators of many cultivated plants, as natural enemies of harmful species, or as producers of

Minsheng You; Dunming Xu; Hongjiao Cai; Liette Vasseur

2005-01-01

347

60th Annual Insect Research and Conference Report.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This paper provides an overview of cotton losses attributed to insect damage that occurred during the cotton growing season in 2006. In addition, overviews of research conducted on insect pests of cotton are also included. It is primarily comprised of state reports from extension and university pers...

348

Genetic Engineering of Crop for Insect Resistance and Its Biosafety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically engineered crop resistance to insects and pests offers a method of crop protection. In this review ,we focus primarily on those genes with demonstrated effects in transgenic plants ,including Bt toxins genes and those derived from plants , such as protease inhibitor genes ,alpha - amylase inhibitor genes ,lectin genes. The biosafety of insect resistance transgenic crop and the

FENG Ying

2004-01-01

349

Ecology and IPM of Insects at Grain Elevators  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cost-effectiveness of insect pest management depends upon its integration with other elevator operations. Successful integration may require consideration of insect ecology. Field infestation has not been observed for grain received at elevators. Grain may be infested during harvest by residual inse...

350

HOW IMPORTANT IS STORED-PRODUCT INSECT INVASION FROM OUTSIDE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

It has long been know that stored-product insects can enter buildings from outside and that sealing off routes of entry is an important part of a pest management program. However, the relative importance of active insect immigration into buildings as a source of infestation compared to importation ...

351

New research with insect growth regulators and fogging  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Insect growth regulators (IGRs) are seen as reduced-risk insecticides to replace conventional neurotoxins for insect pest management in stored products. The use of IGRs will be discussed, with reference to different application methods and available commercial products. Similarly, aerosol insecticid...

352

Aphis glycines & Halyomorpha halys: Asian agricultural pests recently established in the North America  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Despite regulatory inspections and quarantine, the invasion of insects in new geographic regions continues to cause problems. Several Asian insects are recent examples of invasive agricultural pests in North America. Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, widespread throughout China, Korea, and Japan, was...

353

Pest Management Specialist (AFSC 56650).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This eight-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for pest management specialists. Covered in the individual volumes are civil engineering; pest management (entomology, pest management planning and coordination, and safety and protective equipment); pest management chemicals and…

Air Univ., Gunter AFS, Ala. Extension Course Inst.

354

Transgenic plants as vital components of integrated pest management.  

PubMed

Although integrated pest management (IPM) strategies have been developed worldwide, further improvement of IPM effectiveness is required. The use of transgenic technology to create insect-resistant plants can offer a solution to the limited availability of highly insect-resistant cultivars. Commercially available insect-resistant transgenic crops show clear benefits for agriculture and there are many exciting new developments such as transgenic plants that enhance biological control. Effective evaluation tools are needed to ascertain that transgenic plants do not result in undesired non-target effects. If these conditions are met, there will be ample opportunities for transgenic plants to become key components of environmentally benign and durable pest management systems. Here we discuss the potential and challenges for incorporating transgenic plants in IPM. PMID:19783315

Kos, Martine; van Loon, Joop J A; Dicke, Marcel; Vet, Louise E M

2009-09-23

355

ADVANCES IN DEVELOPING INSECT RESISTANT MAIZE VARIETIES FOR KENYA WITHIN THE INSECT RESISTANT MAIZE FOR AFRICA (IRMA) PROJECT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lepidopteran stem borers are economically important pests of maize, a major staple in Kenya. The Insect Resistant Maize for Africa (IRMA) Project aims at increasing maize production and food security through the development and deployment of insect resistant maize. Bt maize utilizes genes that encode delta-endotoxins; proteins derived from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Suitable genes have been acquired

S. Mugo; H. DeGroote; J. Songa; M. Mulaa; B. Odhiambo; C. Taracha; D. Bergvinson; D. Hoisington; M. Gethi

356

Mutations and their use in insect control.  

PubMed

Traditional chemically based methods for insect control have been shown to have serious limitations, and many alternative approaches have been developed and evaluated, including those based on the use of different types of mutation. The mutagenic action of ionizing radiation was well known in the field of genetics long before it was realized by entomologists that it might be used to induce dominant lethal mutations in insects, which, when released, could sterilize wild female insects. The use of radiation to induce dominant lethal mutations in the sterile insect technique (SIT) is now a major component of many large and successful programs for pest suppression and eradication. Adult insects, and their different developmental stages, differ in their sensitivity to the induction of dominant lethal mutations, and care has to be taken to identify the appropriate dose of radiation that produces the required level of sterility without impairing the overall fitness of the released insect. Sterility can also be introduced into populations through genetic mechanisms, including translocations, hybrid incompatibility, and inherited sterility in Lepidoptera. The latter phenomenon is due to the fact that this group of insects has holokinetic chromosomes. Specific types of mutations can also be used to make improvements to the SIT, especially for the development of strains for the production of only male insects for sterilization and release. These strains utilize male translocations and a variety of selectable mutations, either conditional or visible, so that at some stage of development, the males can be separated from the females. In one major insect pest, Ceratitis capitata, these strains are used routinely in large operational programs. This review summarizes these developments, including the possible future use of transgenic technology in pest control. PMID:12052430

Robinson, Alan S

2002-06-01

357

Insect Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

MY friend Prof. Hughes's story about a fox's cleverness in getting rid of his fleas induces me to recount an instance of insect intelligence which I witnessed about fifty years ago at Elmstead in Essex, a place teeming with insect life. There was a narrow border round the wall of my house; on this I noticed one day a large

Osmond Fisher

1911-01-01

358

Evaluation of the use of insects for biological control of Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae) in Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present status of the imported and naturally occurring insects pests of Lantana camara L. a noxious exotic weed in Zambia, was determined by survey. Of the seven insect species imported in 1969–74, only Teleonemia scrupulosa Stål has become established in Zambia and occurs today all over the country. Two other neotropical lantana insects, namely Ophiomyia lantanae (Froggat) and Lantanophaga

K. Löyttyniemi

1982-01-01

359

Ecological Considerations in Producing and Formulating Fungal Entomopathogens for Use in Insect Biocontrol  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Insect pests persist in a wide-variety of agricultural, arboreal, and urban environments. Effective control with fungal entomopathogens using inundation biocontrol requires an understanding of the ecology of the target insect, fungal pathogen, and the insect-pathogen interaction. Historically, the d...

360

Transgenic Vegetables and Fruits for Control of Insects and Insect-Vectored Pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruits and vegetables are major components of a healthy diet, but are subject to severe pest pressure. Approximately 30% of\\u000a all insecticides applied worldwide are used to control insects affecting vegetables and fruits. Transgenic, or more commonly\\u000a referred to as genetically modified (GM), vegetables and fruits offer unique opportunities for controlling insects and the\\u000a pathogens they transmit. Aphid transmitted viruses

Anthony M. Shelton; Marc Fuchs; Frank A. Shotkoski

361

Engineered Repressible Lethality for Controlling the Pink Bollworm, a Lepidopteran Pest of Cotton  

PubMed Central

The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an environmentally friendly method of pest control in which insects are mass-produced, irradiated and released to mate with wild counterparts. SIT has been used to control major pest insects including the pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella Saunders), a global pest of cotton. Transgenic technology has the potential to overcome disadvantages associated with the SIT, such as the damaging effects of radiation on released insects. A method called RIDL (Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal) is designed to circumvent the need to irradiate insects before release. Premature death of insects’ progeny can be engineered to provide an equivalent to sterilisation. Moreover, this trait can be suppressed by the provision of a dietary antidote. In the pink bollworm, we generated transformed strains using different DNA constructs, which showed moderate-to-100% engineered mortality. In permissive conditions, this effect was largely suppressed. Survival data on cotton in field cages indicated that field conditions increase the lethal effect. One strain, called OX3402C, showed highly penetrant and highly repressible lethality, and was tested on host plants where its larvae caused minimal damage before death. These results highlight a potentially valuable insecticide-free tool against pink bollworm, and indicate its potential for development in other lepidopteran pests.

Morrison, Neil I.; Simmons, Gregory S.; Fu, Guoliang; O'Connell, Sinead; Walker, Adam S.; Dafa'alla, Tarig; Walters, Michelle; Claus, John; Tang, Guolei; Jin, Li; Marubbi, Thea; Epton, Matthew J.; Harris, Claire L.; Staten, Robert T.; Miller, Ernest; Miller, Thomas A.; Alphey, Luke

2012-01-01

362

Physiological Studies and Pest Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the light of new knowledge about insecticides, future research should be conducted by plant and insect physiologists together. Plant physiologists should explain what characteristics in plants attract insects and insect physiologists should study adaptive patterns of insects and combine their knowledge to control insects. (PS)

Philogene, Bernard J. R.

1972-01-01

363

Physiological Studies and Pest Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the light of new knowledge about insecticides, future research should be conducted by plant and insect physiologists together. Plant physiologists should explain what characteristics in plants attract insects and insect physiologists should study adaptive patterns of insects and combine their knowledge to control insects. (PS)|

Philogene, Bernard J. R.

1972-01-01

364

Sugarcane pests and their management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This book chapter discusses sugarcane culture and history, describes arthropod biologies and injury, and identifies sugarcane pest management factors to consider for people interested in commercial sugarcane production. Arthropod groups include 10 orders and 40 families. Sugarcane pest management ...

365

The War Against Pests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Insecticides should not be the only weapons of war used against pests; in addition to them, a strategy aimed at winning the millenial warfare should combine the tactical use of natural plant enemies, reinforced plant genetic qualities, and the application of adequate ecological techniques. (BL)|

Smith, Ray F.

1973-01-01

366

Public Health Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual supplies information helpful to individuals wishing to become certified in public health pest control. It is designed as a technical reference for vector control workers and as preparatory material for structural applicators of restricted use pesticides to meet the General Standards of Competency required of commercial applicators.…

Arizona Univ., Tucson. Cooperative Extension Service.

367

Integrated Pest Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A detailed description of the integrated pest management approach, its stage of development, and the federal effort being initiated to promote its further development and use. It is the result of a CEQ study to define positive approaches in alleviating th...

1972-01-01

368

Comparing conventional and biotechnology-based pest management.  

PubMed

Pest management has changed dramatically during the past 15 years by the introduction of transgenes into crops for the purpose of pest management. Transgenes for herbicide resistance or for production of one or more Bt toxins are the predominant pest management traits currently available. These two traits have been rapidly adopted where available because of their superior efficacy and simplification of pest management for the farmer. Furthermore, they have substantially reduced the use of environmentally and toxicologically suspect pesticides while reducing the carbon footprint of pest management as reduced tillage became more common, along with fewer trips across the field to spray pesticides. The most successful of these products have been glyphosate-resistant crops, which cover approximately 85% of all land occupied by transgenic crops. Over-reliance on glyphosate with continual use of these crops has resulted in the evolution of highly problematic glyphosate-resistant weeds. This situation has resulted in some farmers using weed management methods similar to those used with conventional crops. Evolution of resistance has not been a significant problem with Bt crops, perhaps because of a mandated resistance management strategy. Transgenic crops with multiple genes for resistance to different herbicides and resistance to additional insects will be available in the next few years. These products will offer opportunities for the kind of pest management diversity that is more sustainable than that provided by the first generation of transgenic crops. PMID:21528864

Duke, Stephen O

2011-05-06

369

Urban Pest Management. Selected Readings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These readings provide basic background information on urban integrated pest management and the development of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs for the control of rodents, cockroaches, and head lice. IPM is a decision-making process for deciding if pest supprssion treatments are needed, when they should be initiated, where they should be…

Cowles, Kathleen Letcher, Comp.; And Others

370

Urban Pest Management. Selected Readings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|These readings provide basic background information on urban integrated pest management and the development of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs for the control of rodents, cockroaches, and head lice. IPM is a decision-making process for deciding if pest supprssion treatments are needed, when they should be initiated, where they should be…

Cowles, Kathleen Letcher, Comp.; And Others

371

[Spectral features analysis of Pinus massoniana with pest of Dendrolimus punctatus Walker and levels detection].  

PubMed

Taking 51 field measured hyperspectral data with different pest levels in Yanping, Fujian Province as objects, the spectral reflectance and first derivative features of 4 levels of healthy, mild, moderate and severe insect pest were analyzed. On the basis of 7 detecting parameters construction, the pest level detecting models were built. The results showed that (1) the spectral reflectance of Pinus massoniana with pests were significantly lower than that of healthy state, and the higher the pest level, the lower the reflectance; (2) with the increase in pest level, the spectral reflectance curves' "green peak" and "red valley" of Pinus massoniana gradually disappeared, and the red edge was leveleds (3) the pest led to spectral "green peak" red shift, red edge position blue shift, but the changes in "red valley" and near-infrared position were complicated; (4) CARI, RES, REA and REDVI were highly relevant to pest levels, and the correlations between REP, RERVI, RENDVI and pest level were weak; (5) the multiple linear regression model with the variables of the 7 detection parameters could effectively detect the pest levels of Dendrolimus punctatus Walker, with both the estimation rate and accuracy above 0.85. PMID:23697126

Xu, Zhang-Hua; Liu, Jian; Yu, Kun-Yong; Gong, Cong-Hong; Xie, Wan-Jun; Tang, Meng-Ya; Lai, Ri-Wen; Li, Zeng-Lu

2013-02-01

372

Integrated Pest Management in Fruits – Theory and Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pest management practices used in several deciduous fruit crops are discussed. The chapter begins by noting the geographic\\u000a origin and approximate date of domestication of several fruit crops and the need for more fruit breeding programs to identify\\u000a and incorporate insect resistant genes into more fruit cultivars. It is assumed that fruit production probably began as small\\u000a plantings where growers

Donn T. Johnson

373

Integrated Pest Management for sweetpotato in Eastern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sweetpotato is an important crop in Eastern Africa. Sweetpotato weevils ( Cylas puncticollis Boheman and C. brunneus Fabricius; Coleoptera: Apionidae) cause damage to roots and vines<\\/TT>throughout the crop's production area. Other insect pests of sweetpotato are of regional importance. The aim of the research project was to gain insight in the biology and ecology of sweetpotato weevils and, based on

N. E. J. M. Smit

1997-01-01

374

Control de Parasitos y de Insectos de Ganado Vacuno (Parasite and Insect Control in Cattle).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Control of pests in cattle is involved and complicated, requiring a variety of treatment methods. The following eight pamphlets explain specific parasites and insects with possible cures. Controlling internal parasites using phenothizines which includes d...

1973-01-01

375

Natural enemy interactions constrain pest control in complex agricultural landscapes.  

PubMed

Biological control of pests by natural enemies is a major ecosystem service delivered to agriculture worldwide. Quantifying and predicting its effectiveness at large spatial scales is critical for increased sustainability of agricultural production. Landscape complexity is known to benefit natural enemies, but its effects on interactions between natural enemies and the consequences for crop damage and yield are unclear. Here, we show that pest control at the landscape scale is driven by differences in natural enemy interactions across landscapes, rather than by the effectiveness of individual natural enemy guilds. In a field exclusion experiment, pest control by flying insect enemies increased with landscape complexity. However, so did antagonistic interactions between flying insects and birds, which were neutral in simple landscapes and increasingly negative in complex landscapes. Negative natural enemy interactions thus constrained pest control in complex landscapes. These results show that, by altering natural enemy interactions, landscape complexity can provide ecosystem services as well as disservices. Careful handling of the tradeoffs among multiple ecosystem services, biodiversity, and societal concerns is thus crucial and depends on our ability to predict the functional consequences of landscape-scale changes in trophic interactions. PMID:23513216

Martin, Emily A; Reineking, Björn; Seo, Bumsuk; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

2013-03-19

376

Natural enemy interactions constrain pest control in complex agricultural landscapes  

PubMed Central

Biological control of pests by natural enemies is a major ecosystem service delivered to agriculture worldwide. Quantifying and predicting its effectiveness at large spatial scales is critical for increased sustainability of agricultural production. Landscape complexity is known to benefit natural enemies, but its effects on interactions between natural enemies and the consequences for crop damage and yield are unclear. Here, we show that pest control at the landscape scale is driven by differences in natural enemy interactions across landscapes, rather than by the effectiveness of individual natural enemy guilds. In a field exclusion experiment, pest control by flying insect enemies increased with landscape complexity. However, so did antagonistic interactions between flying insects and birds, which were neutral in simple landscapes and increasingly negative in complex landscapes. Negative natural enemy interactions thus constrained pest control in complex landscapes. These results show that, by altering natural enemy interactions, landscape complexity can provide ecosystem services as well as disservices. Careful handling of the tradeoffs among multiple ecosystem services, biodiversity, and societal concerns is thus crucial and depends on our ability to predict the functional consequences of landscape-scale changes in trophic interactions.

Martin, Emily A.; Reineking, Bjorn; Seo, Bumsuk; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

2013-01-01

377

Avoiding conflicts between insect and weed biological control: selection of non-target species to assess host specificity of cabbage seedpod weevil parasitoids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classical biological control of insect pests and weeds may lead to potential conflicts, where insect pests are closely related to weed biological control agents. Such a conflict may occur in the classical biological control of the cabbage seedpod weevil, Ceutorhynchus obstrictus (Marsham) in North America, which belongs to the same subfamily, Ceutorhynchinae, as a number of agents introduced or proposed

U. Kuhlmann; P. G. Mason; H. L. Hinz; B. Blossey; R. A. De Clerck-Floate; L. M. Dosdall; J. P. McCaffrey; M. Schwarzlaender; O. Olfert; J. Brodeur; A. Gassmann; A. S. McClay; R. N. Wiedenmann

2006-01-01

378

A Model Framework to Estimate Impact and Cost of Genetics-Based Sterile Insect Methods for Dengue Vector Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vector-borne diseases impose enormous health and economic burdens and additional methods to control vector populations are clearly needed. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) has been successful against agricultural pests, but is not in large-scale use for suppressing or eliminating mosquito populations. Genetic RIDL technology (Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal) is a proposed modification that involves releasing insects that

Nina Alphey; Luke Alphey; Michael B. Bonsall; Pedro Lagerblad Oliveira

2011-01-01

379

Residual efficacy of pyriproxyfen and Hydroprene applied to wood, metal, and concrete for control of stored-product insects  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pyriproxyfen and hydroprene are insect growth regulators (IGRs) that have been evaluated to control insect pests of field crops, but there are limited reports of efficacy against stored-product insects. A laboratory study was conducted to determine residual efficacy of pyriproxyfen and hydroprene on...

380

Insect growth regulators and insect control: a critical appraisal.  

PubMed Central

Insect growth regulators (IGRs) of the juvenile hormone type alter physiological processes essential to insect development and appear to act specifically on insects. Three natural juvenile hormones have been found in insects but not in other organisms. Future use of antagonists or inhibitors of hormone synthesis may be technically possible as an advantageous extension of pest control by IGRs. A documented survey of the properties, metabolism, toxicology, and uses of the most commercially advanced chemical, methoprene, shows it to be environmentally acceptable and toxicologically innocuous. Derivation of its current use patterns is discussed and limitations on these are noted. Residue levels and their measurement in the ppb region have allowed exemption from the requirement of tolerances in the EPA registered use of methoprene for mosquito control. Tolerances for foods accompany its fully approved use for control of manure breeding flies through a cattle feed supplement. The human health effects of using this chemical appear to be purely beneficial, but further advances through new IGR chemicals appear unlikely without major changes in regulatory and legislative policy.

Siddall, J B

1976-01-01

381

Glucosinolate Content and Susceptibility for Insect Attack of Three Populations of Sinapis alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sinapis alba is less susceptible to damage by insect pests than Brassica napus. We investigated the composition and distribution of glucosinolates in different plant parts in three populations of S. alba; two populations selected for low-seed-glucosinolate content and one commercial cultivar. We have assessed the susceptibility of low-seed-glucosinolate content populations of S. alba to four insect pests, a flea beetle,

Richard J. Hopkins; Barbara Ekbom; Lisa Henkow

1998-01-01

382

A Binomial and Species-Independent Approach to Trap Capture Analysis of Flying Insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traps for monitoring of ßying insect pests constitute a critical part of integrated pest management strategies. However, interpretation of trap captures is hampered by 1) factors associated with the performance of traps (i.e., lure, trap design, placement); 2) an often poorly deÞned relationship between trap captures and population density; and 3) interpretation approaches being highly speciÞc to a certain insect

Christian Nansen; William G. Meikle; James Campbell; Thomas W. Phillips; Bhadriraju Subramanyam

2008-01-01

383

Insect-resistant transgenic plants in a multi-trophic context  

Microsoft Academic Search

So far, genetic engineering of plants in the context of insect pest control has involved insertion of genes that code for toxins, and may be characterized as the incorporation of biopesticides into classical plant breeding. In the context of pesticide usage in pest control, natural enemies of herbivores have received increasing attention, because carnivorous arthropods are an important component of

Astrid T. Groot; Marcel Dicke

2002-01-01

384

Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 1B: Agricultural Insect Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide provides basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the control of economic insect pests on field and forage crops, especially corn, soybeans, and alfalfa. Full color photographs of the more destructive pests are provided to aid in identification of problems. Precautions and…

Stockdale, Harold J.; Ryan, Stephen O.

385

Sterile-Insect Methods for Control of Mosquito-Borne Diseases: An Analysis  

PubMed Central

Abstract Effective vector control, and more specifically mosquito control, is a complex and difficult problem, as illustrated by the continuing prevalence (and spread) of mosquito-transmitted diseases. The sterile insect technique and similar methods control certain agricultural insect pest populations in a species-specific, environmentally sound, and effective manner; there is increased interest in applying this approach to vector control. Such an approach, like all others in use and development, is not a one-size-fits-all solution, and will be more appropriate in some situations than others. In addition, the proposed release of pest insects, and more so genetically modified pest insects, is bound to raise questions in the general public and the scientific community as to such a method's efficacy, safety, and sustainability. This article attempts to address these concerns and indicate where sterile-insect methods are likely to be useful for vector control.

Benedict, Mark; Bellini, Romeo; Clark, Gary G.; Dame, David A.; Service, Mike W.; Dobson, Stephen L.

2010-01-01

386

Effects of Botanical Composition of Pastures on Insect Pest Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Recent studies have shown that populations of grass grub Costelytra zealandica (White), black beetle Heteronychus arator Fabricius, and white-fringed weevil Graphognafhus leucoloma (Boheman) are markedly influenced by pasture and forage crop species. Grass grub population increases are much greater under favourable legumes such as Trifolium spp. than under grasses. Populations are suppressed by unfavourable species such as Lotus pedunculatus,

R. East; P. D. King

1977-01-01

387

On the ethics of biological control of insect pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the four types of biological control, (1) natural, (2) conservation, (3) augmentation, and (4) importation), ethical concerns have been raised almost exclusively about only one type: importation. These concerns rest largely on fears of extinction of animal species. Importation biological control is a cost-effective alternative to chemical control for basic food crops of resource-poor farmers. Regarding the other types

Jeffery W. Bentley; Robert J. O'Neil

1997-01-01

388

Evolving ecosystems approaches to fruit insect pest management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological studies of agroecosystems have demonstrated both significant environmental problems associated with the intensive physical and chemical control of highly simplified crop production systems, and the largely untapped opportunities for knowledge-intensive bioecological design and management of more complex systems. Barriers for change often over-emphasise economics and lack of appropriate knowledge and technology. Equally important are lack of awareness, particularly of

Stuart B Hill; Charles Vincent; Gérald Chouinard

1999-01-01

389

Insect Pests of Soyabean in Japan and their Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

From thirty species of economic importance, the biology, damage caused and control measures for three pod borers, one pod gallmidge and four stink bugs are reviewed. Some high correlations have been recognised between the percentage of injured seed at harvest time and the mean temperatures of January, July or August, and some equations have been obtained for forecasting the percentage

Y. Kobayashi

1976-01-01

390

Pest Control in Corn and Soybeans: Weeds - Insects - Diseases.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document gives the characteristics and application rates for herbicides used to control annual weeds in corn, annual and perennial broadleaf weeds in corn, quackgrass and yellow nutsedge in corn, and annual weeds in soybeans. It also gives insecticide use information for corn and soybeans. A brief discussion of disease control in corn and…

Doersch, R. E.; And Others

391

Eastern Subterranean Termite and Wood-Destroying Insects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tutorials on wood-destroying pest insects. Each tutorial has 50 questions; incorrect answers lead to additional information. Covers identification, life cycle, biology, damage and colony structure of the Eastern subterranean termite as well as covering powderpost beetles, old house borer, termites, carpenter ants and carpenter bees. Requires Windows, and the tutorials must first be installed on the computer's hard drive. Once installed and launched, the tutorials are intuitive to use. These tutorials will be most valuable to those studying structural pest management in pest management professional prepratory classes and perhaps in general economic entomology classes. $15. Part number SW 158.

0002-11-30

392

Measuring natural pest suppression at different spatial scales affects the importance of local variables.  

PubMed

The role biodiversity plays in the provision of ecosystem services is widely recognized, yet few ecological studies have identified characteristics of natural systems that support and maintain ecosystem services. The purpose of this study was to identify landscape variables correlated with natural pest suppression carried out by arthropod natural enemies, predators and parasitoids. We conducted two field experiments, one observational and one experimental, where landscape variables at broad and local scales were measured and related to natural pest suppression. The first experiment measured natural pest suppression at 16 sites across an urban to rural landscape gradient in south central Wisconsin. We found natural enemy diversity positively affected natural pest suppression, whereas flower diversity negatively affected pest suppression. No relationship was found between natural pest suppression and broad scale variables, which measured the percentage of different land cover classes in the surrounding landscape. In the second experiment, we established small (2- by 3-m) replicated plots that experimentally varied flower diversity (0, 1, or 7 species) within a plot. We found no significant relationship between natural pest suppression and the different levels of flower diversity. The fact that we only found differences in natural pest suppression in our first experiment, which measured natural pest suppression at sites separated by larger distances than our second experiment, suggests the more appropriate scale for measuring ecosystem services performed by mobile organisms like insects, is across broad spatial scales where variation in natural enemies communities and the factors that affect them become more apparent. PMID:23068163

Bennett, A B; Gratton, C

2012-10-01

393

Forest bolsters bird abundance, pest control and coffee yield.  

PubMed

Efforts to maximise crop yields are fuelling agricultural intensification, exacerbating the biodiversity crisis. Low-intensity agricultural practices, however, may not sacrifice yields if they support biodiversity-driven ecosystem services. We quantified the value native predators provide to farmers by consuming coffee's most damaging insect pest, the coffee berry borer beetle (Hypothenemus hampei). Our experiments in Costa Rica showed birds reduced infestation by ~ 50%, bats played a marginal role, and farmland forest cover increased pest removal. We identified borer-consuming bird species by assaying faeces for borer DNA and found higher borer-predator abundances on more forested plantations. Our coarse estimate is that forest patches doubled pest control over 230 km(2) by providing habitat for ~ 55 000 borer-consuming birds. These pest-control services prevented US$75-US$310 ha-year(-1) in damage, a benefit per plantation on par with the average annual income of a Costa Rican citizen. Retaining forest and accounting for pest control demonstrates a win-win for biodiversity and coffee farmers. PMID:23981013

Karp, Daniel S; Mendenhall, Chase D; Sandí, Randi Figueroa; Chaumont, Nicolas; Ehrlich, Paul R; Hadly, Elizabeth A; Daily, Gretchen C

2013-08-27

394

Pest Ants and Cockroaches  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tutorials on pest ants and cockroaches. Each tutorial has 50 questions; incorrect answers lead to additional information. Covers acrobat ant, Argentine ant, bigheaded ant, crazy ant, Florida carpenter ant, ghost ant, imported fire ant, little fire ant, native fire ant and Pharaoh ant, American cockroach, Australian cockroach, brown cockroach, brownbanded cockroach, Cuban cockroach, Florida woods cockroaches, German cockroach, oriental cockroach, smokybrown cockroach and Surinam cockroach. Requires Windows. program must be downloaded on to hardrive, but once installed is intuitive. many of the species depicted in these tutorials are restricted to Florida and the extreme southern U.S. $15. Part number SW 157.

0002-11-30

395

Endocrine disruption in aquatic insects: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is mounting evidence that a wide variety of compounds can have endocrine disrupting effects on humans and wildlife.\\u000a However, investigations so far have focused primarily on exposure to human and other vertebrates, with invertebrate findings\\u000a largely restricted to marine mollusks or to the ecdysteroid and juvenile hormone agonists as purposely synthesized endocrine\\u000a disrupters for the pest management of insects.

Thomas Soin; Guy Smagghe

2007-01-01

396

Expression and Immunolocalisation of the Snowdrop Lectin, GNA in Transgenic Rice Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants generated through particle bombardment expressed high levels of an insecticidal protein (the snowdrop lectin, GNA) directed against sap-sucking insects. Engineered plants expressed GNA either constitutively or in a tissue specific manner, depending on the nature of the promoter used to drive expression of the gene. We used specific antibodies raised against GNA to localize

Duraialagaraja Sudhakar; Xiangdong Fu; Eva Stoger; Sarah Williams; Jacqui Spence; David P. Brown; Muthusamy Bharathi; John A. Gatehouse; Paul Christou

1998-01-01

397

The genome of the model beetle and pest Tribolium castaneum.  

PubMed

Tribolium castaneum is a member of the most species-rich eukaryotic order, a powerful model organism for the study of generalized insect development, and an important pest of stored agricultural products. We describe its genome sequence here. This omnivorous beetle has evolved the ability to interact with a diverse chemical environment, as shown by large expansions in odorant and gustatory receptors, as well as P450 and other detoxification enzymes. Development in Tribolium is more representative of other insects than is Drosophila, a fact reflected in gene content and function. For example, Tribolium has retained more ancestral genes involved in cell-cell communication than Drosophila, some being expressed in the growth zone crucial for axial elongation in short-germ development. Systemic RNA interference in T. castaneum functions differently from that in Caenorhabditis elegans, but nevertheless offers similar power for the elucidation of gene function and identification of targets for selective insect control. PMID:18362917

Richards, Stephen; Gibbs, Richard A; Weinstock, George M; Brown, Susan J; Denell, Robin; Beeman, Richard W; Gibbs, Richard; Beeman, Richard W; Brown, Susan J; Bucher, Gregor; Friedrich, Markus; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P; Klingler, Martin; Lorenzen, Marce; Richards, Stephen; Roth, Siegfried; Schröder, Reinhard; Tautz, Diethard; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Muzny, Donna; Gibbs, Richard A; Weinstock, George M; Attaway, Tony; Bell, Stephanie; Buhay, Christian J; Chandrabose, Mimi N; Chavez, Dean; Clerk-Blankenburg, Kerstin P; Cree, Andrew; Dao, Marvin; Davis, Clay; Chacko, Joseph; Dinh, Huyen; Dugan-Rocha, Shannon; Fowler, Gerald; Garner, Toni T; Garnes, Jeffrey; Gnirke, Andreas; Hawes, Alica; Hernandez, Judith; Hines, Sandra; Holder, Michael; Hume, Jennifer; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Joshi, Vandita; Khan, Ziad Mohid; Jackson, LaRonda; Kovar, Christie; Kowis, Andrea; Lee, Sandra; Lewis, Lora R; Margolis, Jon; Morgan, Margaret; Nazareth, Lynne V; Nguyen, Ngoc; Okwuonu, Geoffrey; Parker, David; Richards, Stephen; Ruiz, San-Juana; Santibanez, Jireh; Savard, Joël; Scherer, Steven E; Schneider, Brian; Sodergren, Erica; Tautz, Diethard; Vattahil, Selina; Villasana, Donna; White, Courtney S; Wright, Rita; Park, Yoonseong; Beeman, Richard W; Lord, Jeff; Oppert, Brenda; Lorenzen, Marce; Brown, Susan; Wang, Liangjiang; Savard, Joël; Tautz, Diethard; Richards, Stephen; Weinstock, George; Gibbs, Richard A; Liu, Yue; Worley, Kim; Weinstock, George; Elsik, Christine G; Reese, Justin T; Elhaik, Eran; Landan, Giddy; Graur, Dan; Arensburger, Peter; Atkinson, Peter; Beeman, Richard W; Beidler, Jim; Brown, Susan J; Demuth, Jeffery P; Drury, Douglas W; Du, Yu-Zhou; Fujiwara, Haruhiko; Lorenzen, Marce; Maselli, Vincenza; Osanai, Mizuko; Park, Yoonseong; Robertson, Hugh M; Tu, Zhijian; Wang, Jian-jun; Wang, Suzhi; Richards, Stephen; Song, Henry; Zhang, Lan; Sodergren, Erica; Werner, Doreen; Stanke, Mario; Morgenstern, Burkhard; Solovyev, Victor; Kosarev, Peter; Brown, Garth; Chen, Hsiu-Chuan; Ermolaeva, Olga; Hlavina, Wratko; Kapustin, Yuri; Kiryutin, Boris; Kitts, Paul; Maglott, Donna; Pruitt, Kim; Sapojnikov, Victor; Souvorov, Alexandre; Mackey, Aaron J; Waterhouse, Robert M; Wyder, Stefan; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Wyder, Stefan; Kriventseva, Evgenia V; Kadowaki, Tatsuhiko; Bork, Peer; Aranda, Manuel; Bao, Riyue; Beermann, Anke; Berns, Nicola; Bolognesi, Renata; Bonneton, François; Bopp, Daniel; Brown, Susan J; Bucher, Gregor; Butts, Thomas; Chaumot, Arnaud; Denell, Robin E; Ferrier, David E K; Friedrich, Markus; Gordon, Cassondra M; Jindra, Marek; Klingler, Martin; Lan, Que; Lattorff, H Michael G; Laudet, Vincent; von Levetsow, Cornelia; Liu, Zhenyi; Lutz, Rebekka; Lynch, Jeremy A; da Fonseca, Rodrigo Nunes; Posnien, Nico; Reuter, Rolf; Roth, Siegfried; Savard, Joël; Schinko, Johannes B; Schmitt, Christian; Schoppmeier, Michael; Schröder, Reinhard; Shippy, Teresa D; Simonnet, Franck; Marques-Souza, Henrique; Tautz, Diethard; Tomoyasu, Yoshinori; Trauner, Jochen; Van der Zee, Maurijn; Vervoort, Michel; Wittkopp, Nadine; Wimmer, Ernst A; Yang, Xiaoyun; Jones, Andrew K; Sattelle, David B; Ebert, Paul R; Nelson, David; Scott, Jeffrey G; Beeman, Richard W; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Kramer, Karl J; Arakane, Yasuyuki; Beeman, Richard W; Zhu, Qingsong; Hogenkamp, David; Dixit, Radhika; Oppert, Brenda; Jiang, Haobo; Zou, Zhen; Marshall, Jeremy; Elpidina, Elena; Vinokurov, Konstantin; Oppert, Cris; Zou, Zhen; Evans, Jay; Lu, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Picheng; Sumathipala, Niranji; Altincicek, Boran; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Williams, Michael; Hultmark, Dan; Hetru, Charles; Jiang, Haobo; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P; Hauser, Frank; Cazzamali, Giuseppe; Williamson, Michael; Park, Yoonseong; Li, Bin; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Predel, Reinhard; Neupert, Susanne; Schachtner, Joachim; Verleyen, Peter; Raible, Florian; Bork, Peer; Friedrich, Markus; Walden, Kimberly K O; Robertson, Hugh M; Angeli, Sergio; Forêt, Sylvain; Bucher, Gregor; Schuetz, Stefan; Maleszka, Ryszard; Wimmer, Ernst A; Beeman, Richard W; Lorenzen, Marce; Tomoyasu, Yoshinori; Miller, Sherry C; Grossmann, Daniela; Bucher, Gregor

2008-03-23

398

Proceedings: Integrating Cultural Tactics into the Management of Bark Beetle and Reforestation Pests. (Conference) Held in Vallombrosa, Italy on September 1-3, 1996.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication contains 31 research papers aobut forest insect biology, ecology, and physiology as they relate to the integration of cultural tactics into the management of bark beetle and reforestration pests. These papers were presented at a joint mee...

A. M. Liebhold F. M. Stephen J. C. Gregoire K. R. Day S. M. Salom

1997-01-01

399

Vertebrate Pest Control. Sale Publication 4077.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide gives descriptions of common vertebrate pests and guidelines for using some common pesticides. The pests discussed are rats, mice, bats, moles, muskrats, ground squirrels, and gophers. Information is given for each pest on the type of damage the pest can do, the habitat and biology of the pest, and the most effective control methods.…

Stimmann, M. W.; Clark, Dell O.

400

Insulated piggyBac vectors for insect transgenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Germ-line transformation of insects is now a widely used method for analyzing gene function and for the development of genetically modified strains suitable for pest control programs. The most widely used transposable element for the germ-line transformation of insects is piggyBac. The site of integration of the transgene can influence gene expression due to the effects of nearby transcription

Abhimanyu Sarkar; Asela Atapattu; Esther J Belikoff; Jörg C Heinrich; Xuelei Li; Carsten Horn; Ernst A Wimmer; Maxwell J Scott

2006-01-01

401

An alternative strategy for sustainable pest resistance in genetically enhanced crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystal protein genes encode insecticidal -endotoxins that are widely used for the development of insect-resistant crops. In this article, we describe an alternative transgenic strategy that has the potential to generate broader and more sustainable levels of resistance against insect pests. Our strategy involves engineering plants with a fusion protein combining the -endotoxin Cry1Ac with the galactose-binding

Luke Mehlo; Daphrose Gahakwa; Pham Trung Nghia; Nguyen Thi Loc; Teresa Capell; John A. Gatehouse; Angharad M. R. Gatehouse; Paul Christou

2005-01-01

402

Insect habitat management in pasture systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two important habitat management strategies in pasture systems involve controlled burning and effective grazing manipulation schemes to maintain native climax grassland vegetation These climax grasslands have historically suffered less insect pest pressure than imported systems However, these types of grasslands are difficult to reestablish after relatively severe disruption by man Also, the proper diversity and stability is difficult to capture in developing imported systems. Imported pastures can exhibit substantial yields per land unit but are often composed of vegetation that rapidly mines nutrients stored by the native vegetation, and often need considerable inputs of fossil fuel, manufactured fertilizers and pesticides, because they are or become very susceptible to pestiferous insects. Habitat manipulation efforts can be effective in regulating forage pest populations below economic levels in imported pasture systems Such efforts include: 1) land use (coupled with plant diversity, grazing, and harvest manipulations), 2) sanitation (including controlled burning), 3) planting dates and harvest times (including grazing manipulations), 4) tillage methods, 5) fertilization, 6) trap crops, 7) water management, and 8) fire management for insect pest suppression and augmentation of natural enemies.

Martin, P. B.

1983-01-01

403

RNAi for Insect Control: Current Perspective and Future Challenges.  

PubMed

The research on the RNA interference (RNAi) for the control of insect pests has made significant growth in recent years. The availability of the genomic sequences of insects has further widened the horizons for the testing of this technology to various insect groups. Different modes of application of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) have been tested; however, the practicability of delivery of dsRNA in insects still remains the biggest challenge. Till date, the oral delivery of dsRNA in insects is one of the efficient approaches for the practical application of this technique. The uptake of dsRNA from the insect gut is mediated either by SID-1/SID-2 transmembrane proteins or by endocytosis; however, the systemic RNAi machinery still remains to be revealed in insect species. The RNAi-mediated gene knockdown has shown striking results in different insect groups, pointing it to be the upcoming technique for insect control. However, before the successful application of this technique for insect control, some potential issues need to be resolved. This review presents the account of prospects and challenges for the use of this technology for insect control. PMID:23904259

Katoch, Rajan; Sethi, Amit; Thakur, Neelam; Murdock, Larry L

2013-08-01

404

Stored Grain Advisor Pro: Decision support system for insect management in commercial grain elevators  

Microsoft Academic Search

A decision support system, Stored Grain Advisor Pro (SGA Pro) was developed to provide insect pest management information for wheat stored at commercial elevators. The program uses a model to predict future risk based on current insect density, grain temperature and moisture. A rule-based system was used to provide advice and recommendations to grain managers. The software was tested in

P. W. Flinn; D. W. Hagstrum; C. R. Reed; T. W. Phillips

2007-01-01

405

A QUANTITATIVE STORED-PRODUCT INSECT MONITORING SYSTEM USING SENSOR OUTPUT ANALOG PROCESSING (SOAP)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A system is described for automated monitoring of pest insects in stored products. It provides quantitative data indicative of the species of detected insects and is self-calibrating to maintain reliable operation across adverse external conditions, including environmental, biological and aging. T...

406

Microbial Symbionts in Insects Influence Down-Regulation of Defense Genes in Maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabrotica virgifera virgifera larvae are root-feeding insects and significant pests to maize in North America and Europe. Little is known regarding how plants respond to insect attack of roots, thus complicating the selection for plant defense targets. Diabrotica virgifera virgifera is the most successful species in its genus and is the only Diabrotica beetle harboring an almost species-wide Wolbachia infection.

Kelli L. Barr; Leonard B. Hearne; Sandra Briesacher; Thomas L. Clark; Georgia E. Davis; Peter Meyer

2010-01-01

407

Longevity of insect-killing nematodes in soil from a pecan orchard  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Entomopathogenic (insect-killing) nematodes are candidates for use as biological control agents for important pecan insect pests such as the pecan weevil, Curculio caryae. In deciding which kind of nematode (species or strain) is the best one to use, it is important to consider which one is likely t...

408

NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTS FOR INSECTS? THE EFFECT OF SELENIUM ON RESISTANCE TO BACULOVIRUS INFECTION.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Herbivorous insects encounter a range of dietary nutrients, antioxidants, co-factors and plant secondary metabolites which may modulate their resistance to microbial infections. A colony of the lepidopteran pest insect Trichoplusia ni has been maintained at BCIRL for generations on an artificial die...

409

IAEA/FAO interregional training course on use of radiation in insect control and entomology with special emphasis on the sterile insect technique. Final report, May 4--June 15, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The principal focus of the course was the application of Radiation in Entomology to achieve Area Wide Pest Suppression or Eradication. To achieve this objective formal lectures, discussion groups, laboratory exercises and field trips were held covering the details of: (1) principles, programs and research of all aspects of the Sterile Insect Technique; (2) insect biology and control; (3) integrated pest management; (4) population dynamics and models related to the development of SIT and insect population suppression; (5) fundamentals of computers for helping in development of SIT; (6) the importance of economic considerations in formulating area wide pest management programs. The course included tours of local laboratories of the University, USDA, and the State Division of Plant Industry (DPI), and a site visit to a citrus production area in which the pest-free zone concept of pest management for fruit export is utilized.

NONE

1994-12-31

410

Role of Dehydrodiferulates in Maize Resistance to Pests and Diseases  

PubMed Central

Phenolic esters have attracted considerable interest due to the potential they offer for peroxidase catalysed cross-linking of cell wall polysaccharides. Particularly, feruloyl residues undergo radical coupling reactions that result in cross-linking (intra-/intermolecular) between polysaccharides, between polysaccharides and lignin and, between polysaccharides and proteins. This review addresses for the first time different studies in which it is established that cross-linking by dehydrodiferulates contributes to maize’s defences to pests and diseases. Dehydrodiferulate cross-links are involved in maize defence mechanisms against insects such as the European, Mediterranean, and tropical corn borers and, storage pest as the maize weevil. In addition, cross-links are also discussed to be involved in genetic resistance of maize to fungus diseases as Gibberella ear and stalk rot. Resistance against insects and fungus attending dehydrodiferulates could go hand in hand. Quantitative trait loci mapping for these cell wall components could be a useful tool for enhancing resistance to pest and diseases in future breeding programs.

Santiago, Rogelio; Malvar, Rosa A.

2010-01-01

411

Agricultural pest monitoring using fluorescence lidar techniques. Feasibility study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fluorescence of different types of planthopper ( Hemiptera) and moth ( Lepidoptera), which constitute important Chinese agricultural pests, was investigated both in situ in a laboratory setting and remotely using a fluorescence light detection and ranging (lidar) system operating at a range of about 50 m. The natural autofluorescence of different species, as well as the fluorescence from insects that had been dusted with fluorescent dye powder for identification were studied. Autofluorescence spectra of both moths and planthoppers show a maximum intensity peak around 450 nm. Bleaching upon long-time laser illumination was modest and did not affect the shape of the spectrum. A single dyed rice planthopper, a few mm in size, could be detected at 50 m distance by using the fluorescence lidar system. By employing various marking dyes, different types of agricultural pest could be determined. We suggest that lidar may be used in studies of migration and movement of pest insects, including studies of their behavior in the vicinity of pheromone traps and in pheromone-treated fields.

Mei, L.; Guan, Z. G.; Zhou, H. J.; Lv, J.; Zhu, Z. R.; Cheng, J. A.; Chen, F. J.; Löfstedt, C.; Svanberg, S.; Somesfalean, G.

2012-03-01

412

Pest management of a prey-predator model with sexual favoritism.  

PubMed

Although sex of prey is an important factor for the risk of predating, few articles consider the consequences of sexual favoritism and the corresponding effects on the impulsive predator-prey dynamics and its utility in biological control. This paper investigates the pest management strategy of a prey-predator system model with sexual favoritism. An impulsive differential equation which models the process of periodically releasing natural enemies and spraying pesticides at different fixed time for pest control is proposed and investigated. It is proved that the pest-eradication periodic solution is globally asymptotically stable under the assumption that the release amount of the predator is greater than some critical value. Permanent conditions are established under the assumption that the release amount of the predator is less than another critical value. In particular, two single control strategies are proposed. Furthermore, we compare three pest control strategies and find that if we choose narrow-spectrum pesticides that targeted to a specific pest's life cycle to kill the pest, then the combined strategy is preferable. Finally, the corresponding system with no sexual favoritism is investigated. The results indicate that we can release fewer amount of the predators to eliminate the preys with sexual favoritism than without and any strong sexual favoritism will drive the pest towards extinction. In view of the biological meaning, the sexual favoritism plays a more active role in suppressing insect pests. PMID:19015368

Pei, Yongzhen; Yang, Yong; Li, Changguo; Chen, Lansun

2008-11-17

413

FOR MANY INSECTS, WINTER SURVIVAL IS IN THE GENES  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A discussion of the surprising number of heat-shock proteins active in hibernating insects that help aid their survival in extreme conditions. The possibility of removing genes responsible for coding these proteins may help in controlling some persistent pest species that overwinter.

0002-11-30

414

Control of Prickly Pear by the Cochineal Insect  

Microsoft Academic Search

AS a result of a long series of tests carried out in Australia under the Commonwealth Prickly Pear Board, it was ascertained that the cochineal insect, Dactylopius tomentosus, could only live on certain species of Opuntia, among which was O. dillenii. As this species was reported to be a pest in India and Ceylon, I was authorised to offer strains

W. B. Alexander

1931-01-01

415

CONTROL OF INDIANMEAL MOTH USING INSECT GROWTH REGULATORS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Indianmeal moth is an important economic pest in food storage facilities. Once the larva reaches the final stage, it will often wander in search of a pupation site. This stage is extremely difficult to kill with residual insecticides. Recent research with the insect growth regulators hydroprene...

416

Insect resistance management in GM crops: past, present and future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic plants expressing insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) were first commercialized in 1996 amid concern from some scientists, regulators and environmentalists that the widespread use of Bt crops would inevitably lead to resistance and the loss of a 'public good,' specifically, the susceptibility of insect pests to Bt proteins. Eight years later, Bt corn and cotton have

Sarah L Bates; Jian-Zhou Zhao; Richard T Roush; Anthony M Shelton

2005-01-01

417

Origin of grain storage and insect species consuming desiccated food  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dwellers of ancient Egypt (km't*) have left in their tombs, paintings and papyri an immeasurable legacy of information concerning their religion, writing, language, agriculture, food storage and pest control. Several insect species (belonging to the families Anobiidae, Braconidae, Cleridae, Curculionidae, Cyclorrhapha, Dermestidae, Phycitidae, Ptinidae and Tenebrionidae) were found in the corpses (kha't) as well as the food offerings (pert

Hermann Levinson; Anna Levinson

1994-01-01

418

Analysis of a sterile insect release model with predation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model for the sterile insect release method of pest control in which the target species is under predatory or parasitic regulation is analyzed. The equations are nondimensionalized and the rescaled parameters are interpreted. There are four types of equilibria, whose existence and stability depend on which of ten regions of parameter space contain the rescaled parameters, and in turn

G. W. Harrison; Hugh J. Barclay; P. van den Driessche

1982-01-01

419

Grain sorghum hybrid resistance to insect and bird damage - 2011  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nine grain sorghum hybrids were evaluated for resistance to sorghum midge and bird damage in 2011. Although their damage was relatively low in general in 2011, nine insect pests were observed on sorghum in south Georgia. They could be listed in order of importance as follows: sorghum midge, leaf-f...

420

PREDICTING INSECT DISTRIBUTIONS FROM CLIMATE AND HABITAT DATA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Knowing the effects of climate and habitat on pest and natural enemy distribution would help target the search for natural enemies, increase establishment of intentional introductions, and improve risk assessment for accidental introductions. Existing methods used to predict insect distributions eit...

421

Resistance of Sweetpotato Genotypes to Soil Insects, Charleston, SC, 2007  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Damage by soil insect pests was evaluated for 12 sweetpotato genotypes as part of the National Sweetpotato Collaborator’s Group Test at the U. S. Vegetable Laboratory in 2007. Sweetpotato entries were Beauregard (B63 and B94-14), Evangeline (L99-35), L01-29, L02-32, Covington, NC Japanese, NC99-573...

422

How varying pest and trap densities affect Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) capture in pheromone traps  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is an important insect pest in food processing facilities. Pheromone trapping is frequently used to monitor red flour beetle populations in structures; however, the optimal trap density and the relationship between trap ...

423

Gene discovery in an invasive tephritid model pest species, the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The medfly, Ceratitis capitata, is a highly invasive agricultural pest that has become a model insect for the development of biological control programs. Despite research into the behavior and classical and population genetics of this organism, the quantity of sequence data available is limited. We have utilized an expressed sequence tag (EST) approach to obtain detailed information on transcriptome

Ludvik M Gomulski; George Dimopoulos; Zhiyong Xi; Marcelo B Soares; Maria F Bonaldo; Anna R Malacrida; Giuliano Gasperi

2008-01-01

424

Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 2: Forest Pest Control. CS-14.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The pamphlet discusses the recognition and control of forest pests such as weeds, insects, disease and vertebrates by application of pesticides. Special attention is given to application methods and precautions to minimize human and…

DeWitt, Jerald R., Ed.

425

Ovicidal Efficacy of Sulfuryl Fluoride to Stored-Product Pests of Dried Fruit  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chemical fumigants are an important component of protecting postharvest commodity from insect pests. Sulfuryl fluoride, originally produced and marketed as the structural fumigant Vikane®, has transitioned toward use in durable commodities as ProFume®. Substantial laboratory- and commercial-scale da...

426

Desert locust outbreaks in the Sahel: resource competition, predation and ecological effects of pest control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. The desert locust Schistocerca gregaria has been considered a major pest since ancient times, as locust swarms holding millions of insects move throughout the Sahel, northern Africa, Middle East and southern Mediterranean countries. Most research has focused on the biology of the species and the development of strategies in locust control, but little is known about the place

JOSÉ A. SÁNCHEZ-ZAPATA; JOSÉ A. DONÁZAR; ANTONIO DELGADO; MANUELA G. FORERO; OLGA CEBALLOS; FERNANDO HIRALDO

427

Evaluation of Forest Pest Management Programs. Economic and Budgetary Background. Addendum to Phase I Reports.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is on the economics of pest management. It is divided into two parts. The first part discusses the insect and disease program of the Forest Service, and the second part discusses the weed management program of the Forest Service. Each program ...

D. Cottingham F. D. Dottavio M. Hunter J. R. Hynson B. O'Sullivan

1980-01-01

428

Principles for Conduct of Pest Risk Analyses: Report of an Expert Workshop  

Microsoft Academic Search

The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) have focused attention on risk assessment of potential insect, weed, and animal pests and diseases of livestock. These risks have traditionally been addressed through quarantine protocols ranging from limits on the geographical areas from which a product may originate, postharvest disinfestation procedures like fumigation,

George M. Gray; Jon C. Allen; David E. Burmaster; Stuart H. Gage; James K. Hammitt; Stanley Kaplan; Ralph L. Keeney; Joseph G. Morse; D. Warner North; Jan P. Nyrop; Alina Stahevitch; Richard Williams

1998-01-01

429

Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 1E: Animal Pest Control. CS-13.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The areas discussed include the economic insect pests on livestock and control treatments; the toxicity and hazards of livestock pesticides; and special considerations when applying pesticides. (CS)|

DeWitt, Jerald R.; Ryan, Stephen O.

430

Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Public Health Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual is designed to assist public health pest control officials in meeting the certification required under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. The four sections included describe: (1) Insects of public health significance in Michigan; (2) Other arthropods that affect man; (3) Swimmers' itch parasite and snail host; and (4)…

Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

431

Climate Change, Irrigation and Pests: Examining Heliothis in the Murray Darling Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Helicoverpa spp. (heliothis) are a major insect pest of cotton, grains and horticulture in the Murray? Darling Basin. Climate change is likely to make conditions more favourable for heliothis. This could cause regional comparative advantages in irrigation systems to change as management costs increase and yields decrease. Irrigation in the Murray Darling Basin produces 12 percent of Australia’s total gross

David Adamson

2010-01-01

432

Pests and Diseases of Betelvine Piper Betle and Their Natural Enemies in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Betelvine (Piper betle) is an important cash crop in India. The cultivation of this crop is seriously threatened by several pest insects, for example the homopterans Aleurocanthus rugosa, Dialeuroides pallida, Aphis gossypii and Tricentrus gibbosulus and the thysanopterans Membrothrips indicus, Zaniothrips ricini, Mymarothrips garuda and Aroidothrips longistylus and by the plant pathogenic fungi Curvularia lunata, Phytophthora parasitica, Colletotrichum piperis and

S. K. Raut; S. S. Bhattacharya

1999-01-01

433

Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Right-of-Way Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators who are engaged in right-of-way pest control to meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of Agriculture for certification. While the majority of material in this guide pertains to vegetation management, the guide also addresses right-of-way insect and fungus control. An introduction…

Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

434

Impact of irrigation on larval density of stem-infesting pests of cultivated sunflower in Kansas  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The guild of stem-infesting insect pests of cultivated sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., within the central Plains is a concern to producers chiefly due to losses caused by plant lodging from the sunflower stem weevil, Cylindrocopturus adspersus (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Dectes texanu...

435

Biology and integrated pest management for the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) ( Coleoptera : Curculionidae )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) is the most important insect pest of bananas and plantains (Musa spp.). The larvae bore in the corm, reducing nutrient uptake and weakening the stability of the plant. Attack in newly planted banana stands can lead to crop failure. In established fields, weevil damage can result in reduced bunch weights, mat die-out and shortened

Clifford S. Gold; Jorge E. Pena; Eldad B. Karamura

2001-01-01

436

SIMPLE SYSTEM FOR THE PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF INFECTIVITY AND PATHOGENESIS OF INSECT VIRUS IN A NONTARGET ESTUARINE SHRIMP  

EPA Science Inventory

Biological control agents (biorationals) are increasingly important in pest control concepts. Certain insect viruses, particularly the baculoviruses (nuclear polyhedrosis viruses), are considered to have potential as biological pesticides, and could be used widely in the environm...

437

Ecological considerations in producing and formulating fungal entomopathogens for use in insect biocontrol  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Insect pests persist in a wide-variety of agricultural, arboreal and urban environments. Effective control with fungal entomopathogens\\u000a using inundation biocontrol requires an understanding of the ecology of the target insect, fungal pathogen, and the insect-pathogen\\u000a interaction. Historically, the development of production and formulation processes for biocontrol fungi has primarily focused\\u000a on reducing costs by maximizing the yield of infective propagules,

Mark A. JacksonChristopher; Christopher A. Dunlap; Stefan T. Jaronski

438

When ecosystem services interact: crop pollination benefits depend on the level of pest control.  

PubMed

Pollination is a key ecosystem service which most often has been studied in isolation although effects of pollination on seed set might depend on, and interact with, other services important for crop production. We tested three competing hypotheses on how insect pollination and pest control might jointly affect seed set: independent, compensatory or synergistic effects. For this, we performed a cage experiment with two levels of insect pollination and simulated pest control in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) grown for seed. There was a synergistic interaction between the two services: the gain in seed set obtained when simultaneously increasing pollination and pest control outweighed the sum of seed set gains obtained when increasing each service separately. This study shows that interactions can alter the benefits obtained from service-providing organisms, and this needs to be considered to properly manage multiple ecosystem services. PMID:23269852

Lundin, Ola; Smith, Henrik G; Rundlöf, Maj; Bommarco, Riccardo

2012-12-26

439

Antibiosis against the green peach aphid requires the Arabidopsis thaliana MYZUS PERSICAE-INDUCED LIPASE1 gene.  

PubMed

The green peach aphid (GPA) (Myzus persicae Sülzer) is an important sap-sucking pest of a large variety of plants, including Arabidopsis thaliana. Arabidopsis utilizes a combination of defenses that deter insects from settling on the plant, limit insect feeding and curtail insect reproduction. We demonstrate that the previously uncharacterized Arabidopsis MPL1 (MYZUS PERSICAE-INDUCED LIPASE1) gene has an important role in defense against the GPA. MPL1 expression was rapidly induced to high level in GPA-infested plants. Furthermore, the GPA population was larger on the mpl1 mutant than the wild-type (WT) plant. In contrast, constitutive over-expression of MPL1 from the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S gene promoter curtailed the size of the GPA population. Insect settling and feeding behavior were unaffected on the mpl1 mutant. However, compared with the phloem-sap enriched petiole exudate from the WT plant, mpl1 petiole exudate was deficient in an activity that restricts insect reproduction on a synthetic diet. Furthermore, MPL1 was required for the heightened accumulation of an antibiotic activity in petiole exudate of the Arabidopsis ssi2 mutant, which exhibits enhanced resistance to GPA. These results indicate that MPL1 has an essential function in antibiosis against GPA. The MPL1 protein exhibits homology to lipases and recombinant MPL1 has lipase activity, thus suggesting that a MPL1-dependent lipid, or a product thereof, has an important role in antibiosis against GPA. PMID:21105927

Louis, Joe; Lorenc-Kukula, Katarzyna; Singh, Vijay; Reese, John; Jander, Georg; Shah, Jyoti

2010-10-26

440

The monoterpene limonene in orange peels attracts pests and microorganisms.  

PubMed

Plant volatiles include terpenoids, which are generally involved in plant defense, repelling pests and pathogens and attracting insects for herbivore control, pollination and seed dispersal. Orange fruits accumulate the monoterpene limonene at high levels in the oil glands of their fruit peels. When limonene production was downregulated in orange fruits by the transgenic expression of a limonene synthase (CitMTSE1) in the antisense configuration, these fruits were resistant to the fungus Penicillium digitatum (Pers.) Sacc. and the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri and were less attractive to the medfly pest Ceratitis capitata. These responses were reversed when the antisense transgenic orange fruits were treated with limonene. To gain more insight into the role of the limonene concentration in fruit responses to pests and pathogens, we attempted to overexpress CitMTSE1 in the sense configuration in transgenic orange fruits. Only slight increases in the amount of limonene were found in sense transgenic fruits, maybe due to the detrimental effect that excessive limonene accumulation would have on plant development. Collectively, these results suggest that when limonene reaches peak levels as the fruit develops, it becomes a signal for pest and pathogen attraction, which facilitate access to the fruit for pulp consumers and seed dispersers. PMID:22212123

Rodríguez, Ana; San Andrés, Victoria; Cervera, Magdalena; Redondo, Ana; Alquézar, Berta; Shimada, Takehiko; Gadea, José; Rodrigo, María; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Palou, Lluís; López, María M; Castañera, Pedro; Peña, Leandro

2011-11-01

441

Differential wound induction of the myrosinase system in oilseed rape ( Brassica napus): contrasting insect damage with mechanical damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diamond-back moth (Plutella xylostella) is a serious insect pest specialised for herbivory on Crucifers although such plants contains the glucosinolate–myrosinase system implied as an important resource to withstand insect pests. We have compared the effects of mechanical wounding using forceps or scissors with herbivory by diamond-back moth larvae on oilseed rape (Brassica napus). The transcript levels of myrosinase binding protein

Bo Pontoppidan; Richard Hopkins; Lars Rask; Johan Meijer

2005-01-01

442

What Makes an Insect an Insect?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background information on characteristics common to all insects, activities, and student materials (ready-to-copy games, puzzles, coloring pages, worksheets, and/or mazes) which describe: how insects are classified; how they are different from other animals; and the main insect characteristics. Activities include recommended age levels,…

NatureScope, 1985

1985-01-01

443

Biological Method of Pest Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Effective biophysical and biochemical methods of attacking pests and diseases of cereal and industrial crops, vegetables, and fruit plantings are being actively developed. Scientists are uncovering and studying within the Soviet Union the natural resource...

P. Bogatenkov

1973-01-01

444

Endosymbiotic bacteria in insects: guardians of the immune system?  

PubMed Central

Insects have evolved obligate, mutualistic interactions with bacteria without further transmission to other eukaryotic organisms. Such long-term obligate partnerships between insects and bacteria have a profound effect on various physiological functions of the host. Here we provide an overview of the effects of endosymbiotic bacteria on the insect immune system as well as on the immune response of insects to pathogenic infections. Potential mechanisms through which endosymbionts can affect the ability of their host to resist an infection are discussed in the light of recent findings. We finally point out unresolved questions for future research and speculate how the current knowledge can be employed to design and implement measures for the effective control of agricultural insect pests and vectors of diseases.

Eleftherianos, Ioannis; Atri, Jaishri; Accetta, Julia; Castillo, Julio C.

2013-01-01

445

Using citizen science programs to identify host resistance in pest-invaded forests.  

PubMed

Threats to native forests from non-native insects and pathogens (pests) are generally addressed with methods such as quarantine, eradication, biological control, and development of resistant stock through hybridization and breeding. In conjunction with such efforts, it may be useful to have citizen scientists locate rare surviving trees that may be naturally pest resistant or tolerant. The degree of resistance of individual trees identified in this way can be tested under controlled conditions, and the most resistant individuals can be integrated into plant breeding programs aimed at developing pest-resistant native stock. Involving citizen scientists in programs aimed at identifying rare trees that survive colonization by pests provides a low-cost means of maximizing search efforts across wide geographic regions and may provide an effective supplement to existing management approaches. PMID:20735452

Ingwell, Laura L; Preisser, Evan L

2010-08-23

446

Effects of the post-harvest application of methyl bromide alternatives on storage pests and quality of dried fig  

Microsoft Academic Search

Storage insect pests, microbial deterioration, and mycotoxins are major threats to dried fruit. Methyl bromide (MeBr) was the fumigant used to control pests until it was banned. The present study compared the use of MeBr (60 g m ?3 for 24 h) and alternatives—magnesium phosphide (1 and 2 g of phosphine (PH3) per ton of dried fig for 5 days),

Kamer Betül MEYVACI; Uygun AKSOY; Ahmet Güray

447

Mechanisms of plant defense against insect herbivores  

PubMed Central

Plants respond to herbivory through various morphological, biochemicals, and molecular mechanisms to counter/offset the effects of herbivore attack. The biochemical mechanisms of defense against the herbivores are wide-ranging, highly dynamic, and are mediated both by direct and indirect defenses. The defensive compounds are either produced constitutively or in response to plant damage, and affect feeding, growth, and survival of herbivores. In addition, plants also release volatile organic compounds that attract the natural enemies of the herbivores. These strategies either act independently or in conjunction with each other. However, our understanding of these defensive mechanisms is still limited. Induced resistance could be exploited as an important tool for the pest management to minimize the amounts of insecticides used for pest control. Host plant resistance to insects, particularly, induced resistance, can also be manipulated with the use of chemical elicitors of secondary metabolites, which confer resistance to insects. By understanding the mechanisms of induced resistance, we can predict the herbivores that are likely to be affected by induced responses. The elicitors of induced responses can be sprayed on crop plants to build up the natural defense system against damage caused by herbivores. The induced responses can also be engineered genetically, so that the defensive compounds are constitutively produced in plants against are challenged by the herbivory. Induced resistance can be exploited for developing crop cultivars, which readily produce the inducible response upon mild infestation, and can act as one of components of integrated pest management for sustainable crop production.

War, Abdul Rashid; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; Ahmad, Tariq; Buhroo, Abdul Ahad; Hussain, Barkat; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Sharma, Hari Chand

2012-01-01

448

Mechanisms of plant defense against insect herbivores.  

PubMed

Plants respond to herbivory through various morphological, biochemicals, and molecular mechanisms to counter/offset the effects of herbivore attack. The biochemical mechanisms of defense against the herbivores are wide-ranging, highly dynamic, and are mediated both by direct and indirect defenses. The defensive compounds are either produced constitutively or in response to plant damage, and affect feeding, growth, and survival of herbivores. In addition, plants also release volatile organic compounds that attract the natural enemies of the herbivores. These strategies either act independently or in conjunction with each other. However, our understanding of these defensive mechanisms is still limited. Induced resistance could be exploited as an important tool for the pest management to minimize the amounts of insecticides used for pest control. Host plant resistance to insects, particularly, induced resistance, can also be manipulated with the use of chemical elicitors of secondary metabolites, which confer resistance to insects. By understanding the mechanisms of induced resistance, we can predict the herbivores that are likely to be affected by induced responses. The elicitors of induced responses can be sprayed on crop plants to build up the natural defense system against damage caused by herbivores. The induced responses can also be engineered genetically, so that the defensive compounds are constitutively produced in plants against are challenged by the herbivory. Induced resistance can be exploited for developing crop cultivars, which readily produce the inducible response upon mild infestation, and can act as one of components of integrated pest management for sustainable crop production. PMID:22895106

War, Abdul Rashid; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; Ahmad, Tariq; Buhroo, Abdul Ahad; Hussain, Barkat; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Sharma, Hari Chand

2012-08-20

449

Pest protection conferred by a Beta vulgaris serine proteinase inhibitor gene.  

PubMed

Proteinase inhibitors provide a means of engineering plant resistance to insect pests. A Beta vulgaris serine proteinase inhibitor gene (BvSTI) was fused to the constitutive CaMV35S promoter for over-expression in Nicotiana benthamiana plants to study its effect on lepidopteran insect pests. Independently derived BvSTI transgenic tobacco T2 homozygous progeny were shown to have relatively high BvSTI gene transcript levels. BvSTI-specific polyclonal antibodies cross-reacted with the expected 30 kDA recombinant BvSTI protein on Western blots. In gel trypsin inhibitor activity assays revealed a major clear zone that corresponded to the BvSTI proteinase inhibitor that was not detected in the untransformed control plants. BvSTI-transgenic plants were bioassayed for resistance to five lepidopteran insect pests. Spodoptera frugiperda, S. exigua and Manduca sexta larvae fed BvSTI leaves had significant reductions in larval weights as compared to larvae fed on untransformed leaves. In contrast, larval weights increased relative to the controls when Heliothis virescens and Agrotis ipsilon larvae were fed on BvSTI leaves. As the larvae entered the pupal stage, pupal sizes reflected the overall larval weights. Some developmental abnormalities of the pupae and emerging moths were noted. These findings suggest that the sugar beet BvSTI gene may prove useful for effective control of several different lepidopteran insect pests in genetically modified tobacco and other plants. The sugar beet serine proteinase inhibitor may be more effective for insect control because sugar beet is cropped in restricted geographical areas thus limiting the exposure of the insects to sugar beet proteinase inhibitors and build up of non-sensitive midgut proteases. PMID:23468963

Smigocki, Ann C; Ivic-Haymes, Snezana; Li, Haiyan; Savi?, Jelena

2013-02-26

450

Hanford site integrated pest management plan  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site Integrated Pest Management Plan (HSIPMP) defines the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) decision process and subsequent strategies by which pest problems are to be solved at all Hanford Site properties per DOE-RL Site Infrastructure Division memo (WHC 9505090). The HSIPMP defines the roles that contractor organizations play in supporting the IPM process. In short the IPM process anticipates and prevents pest activity and infestation by combining several strategies to achieve long-term pest control solutions.

Giddings, R.F.

1996-04-09

451

Insecticide Resistance: Challenge to Pest Management and Basic Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The agricultural use of synthetic insecticides usually protects crops but imposes strong selection pressures that can result in the development of resistance. The most important resistance mechanisms are enhancement of the capacity to metabolically detoxify insecticides and alterations in target sites that prevent insecticides from binding to them. Insect control methods must incorporate strategies to minimize resistance development and preserve the utility of the insecticides. The most promising approach, integrated pest management, includes the use of chemical insecticides in combination with improved cultural and biologically based techniques.

Brattsten, L. B.; Holyoke, C. W.; Leeper, J. R.; Raffa, K. F.

1986-03-01

452

A multi-scale, landscape approach to predicting insect populations in agroecosystems.  

PubMed

Landscape composition affects ecosystems services, including agricultural pest management. However, relationships between land use and agricultural insects are not well understood, and many complexities remain to be explored. Here we examine whether nonagricultural landscapes can directly suppress agricultural pests, how multiple spatial scales of land use concurrently affect insect populations, and the relationships between regional land use and insect populations. We tracked densities of three specialist corn (Zea mays) pests (Ostrinia nubilalis, European corn borer; Diabrotica virgifera, western corn rootworm; Diabrotica barberi, northern corn rootworm), and two generalist predator lady beetles (Coleomegilla maculata and Propylea quatuordecimpunctata) in field corn and determined their relationships to agricultural land use at three spatial scales (field perimeter, 1-km, and 20-km radius areas). Pest densities were either higher (D. virgifera and D. barberi) or unchanged (O. nubilalis) in landscapes with more corn, while natural enemy densities were either lower (C. maculata) or unchanged (P. quatuordecimpunctata). Results for D. virgifera and D. barberi indicate that decreasing the area of preferred crop in the landscape can directly suppress specialist insect pests. Multiple scales of land use affected populations of D. virgifera and C. maculata, and D. virgifera populations showed strong relationships with regional, 20-km-scale land use. These results suggest that farm planning and government policies aimed at diversifying local and regional agricultural landscapes show promise for increasing biological control and directly suppressing agricultural pests. PMID:21830718

O'Rourke, Megan E; Rienzo-Stack, Kaitlin; Power, Alison G

2011-07-01

453

Evolution of the Insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book chronicles the complete evolutionary history of insects--their living diversity and relationships as well as 400 million years of fossils. Introductory sections cover the living species diversity of insects, methods of reconstructing evolutionary relationships, basic insect structure, and the diverse modes of insect fossilization and major fossil deposits. Major sections then explore the relationships and evolution of each order

David Grimaldi; Michael S. Engel

2005-01-01

454

Promise for plant pest control: root-associated pseudomonads with insecticidal activities.  

PubMed

Insects are an important and probably the most challenging pest to control in agriculture, in particular when they feed on belowground parts of plants. The application of synthetic pesticides is problematic owing to side effects on the environment, concerns for public health and the rapid development of resistance. Entomopathogenic bacteria, notably Bacillus thuringiensis and Photorhabdus/Xenorhabdus species, are promising alternatives to chemical insecticides, for they are able to efficiently kill insects and are considered to be environmentally sound and harmless to mammals. However, they have the handicap of showing limited environmental persistence or of depending on a nematode vector for insect infection. Intriguingly, certain strains of plant root-colonizing Pseudomonas bacteria display insect pathogenicity and thus could be formulated to extend the present range of bioinsecticides for protection of plants against root-feeding insects. These entomopathogenic pseudomonads belong to a group of plant-beneficial rhizobacteria that have the remarkable ability to suppress soil-borne plant pathogens, promote plant growth, and induce systemic plant defenses. Here we review for the first time the current knowledge about the occurrence and the molecular basis of insecticidal activity in pseudomonads with an emphasis on plant-beneficial and prominent pathogenic species. We discuss how this fascinating Pseudomonas trait may be exploited for novel root-based approaches to insect control in an integrated pest management framework. PMID:23914197

Kupferschmied, Peter; Maurhofer, Monika; Keel, Christoph

2013-07-31

455

Promise for plant pest control: root-associated pseudomonads with insecticidal activities  

PubMed Central

Insects are an important and probably the most challenging pest to control in agriculture, in particular when they feed on belowground parts of plants. The application of synthetic pesticides is problematic owing to side effects on the environment, concerns for public health and the rapid development of resistance. Entomopathogenic bacteria, notably Bacillus thuringiensis and Photorhabdus/Xenorhabdus species, are promising alternatives to chemical insecticides, for they are able to efficiently kill insects and are considered to be environmentally sound and harmless to mammals. However, they have the handicap of showing limited environmental persistence or of depending on a nematode vector for insect infection. Intriguingly, certain strains of plant root-colonizing Pseudomonas bacteria display insect pathogenicity and thus could be formulated to extend the present range of bioinsecticides for protection of plants against root-feeding insects. These entomopathogenic pseudomonads belong to a group of plant-beneficial rhizobacteria that have the remarkable ability to suppress soil-borne plant pathogens, promote plant growth, and induce systemic plant defenses. Here we review for the first time the current knowledge about the occurrence and the molecular basis of insecticidal activity in pseudomonads with an emphasis on plant-beneficial and prominent pathogenic species. We discuss how this fascinating Pseudomonas trait may be exploited for novel root-based approaches to insect control in an integrated pest management framework.

Kupferschmied, Peter; Maurhofer, Monika; Keel, Christoph

2013-01-01

456

Large-Scale Management of Insect Resistance to Transgenic Cotton in Arizona: Can Transgenic Insecticidal Crops be Sustained?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major challenge for agriculture is management of insect resistance to toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produced by transgenic crops. Here we describe how a large-scale program is being developed in Arizona for management of resistance to Bt cotton in the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), and other insect pests of cotton. Financial support from growers makes this

Yves Carrière; Timothy J. Dennehy; Brent Pedersen; Shirley Haller; Christa Ellers-Kirk; Larry Antilla; Yong-Biao Liu; Elizabeth Willott; Bruce E. Tabashnik

2001-01-01

457

Identification of four novel members of Kunitz-like ?-amylase inhibitors family from Delonix regia with activity toward Coleopteran insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop improvement generally focuses on yield, seed quality and nutritional characteristics, rather than resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. A clear consequence of this approach is the absence of natural anti-feedant toxins in some improved seed materials, allowing predation of commercial crops by insect herbivores. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), commonly cultivated by small farmers, is particularly affected by insect-pests that reproduce

Debora T. Alves; Ilka M. Vasconcelos; José Tadeu Abreu Oliveira; Luciana R. Farias; Simoni C. Dias; Marileusa D. Chiarello; Simone Maria-Neto; Octávio L. Franco

2009-01-01

458

GARLIC PESTS AND PEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN WASHINGTON STATE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Washington State ranks fourth in the U.S. in both the number of farms growing garlic and harvested acres. Acreage has increased substantially in recent years. Weeds pose the major pest management concern for small- and large-scale garlic growers in Washington. Numerous weed species are troublesom...

459

Phylogeographic insights into an irruptive pest outbreak.  

PubMed

Irruptive forest insect pests cause considerable ecological and economic damage, and their outbreaks have been increasing in frequency and severity. We use a phylogeographic approach to understand the location and progression of an outbreak by the MPB (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins), an irruptive bark beetle that has caused unprecedented damage to lodgepole pine forests in western North America and is poised to expand its range across the boreal forest. We sampled MPB populations across British Columbia and Alberta and used phylogeographic methods to describe lineage diversification, characterize population structure, investigate expansion dynamics, and identify source populations of the outbreak. Using 1181 bp of mitochondrial DNA sequence from 267 individuals, we found high haplotype diversity, low nucleotide diversity, and limited lineage diversification. The overall pattern was consistent with isolation by distance at a continental scale, and with reduced diversity and population structure in the northerly, outbreak regions. Post-Pleistocene expansion was detected, however more recent expansion signals were not detected, potentially due to the size and rapid rate of range expansion. Based on the limited genetic structure, there were likely multiple source populations in southern British Columbia, although the magnitude of the demographic expansion and rate of spread have obscured the signature of these source populations. Our data highlight the need for caution in interpreting phylogeographic results for species with similar demographics. PMID:22837836

Cullingham, Catherine I; Roe, Amanda D; Sperling, Felix A H; Coltman, David W

2012-05-01

460

Evolutionary history predicts plant defense against an invasive pest  

PubMed Central

It has long been hypothesized that invasive pests may be facilitated by the evolutionary naïveté of their new hosts, but this prediction has never been examined in a phylogenetic framework. To address the hypothesis, we have been studying the invasive viburnum leaf beetle (Pyrrhalta viburni), which is decimating North American native species of Viburnum, a clade of worldwide importance as understory shrubs and ornamentals. In a phylogenetic field experiment using 16 species of Viburnum, we show that old-world Viburnum species that evolved in the presence of Pyrrhalta beetles mount a massive defensive wound response that crushes eggs of the pest insect; in contrast, naïve North American species that share no evolutionary history with Pyrrhalta beetles show a markedly lower response. This convergent continental difference in the defensive response of Viburnum spp. against insect oviposition contrasts with little difference in the quality of leaves for beetle larvae. Females show strong oviposition preferences that correspond with larval performance regardless of continental origin, which has facilitated colonization of susceptible North American species. Thus, although much attention has been paid to escape from enemies as a factor in the establishment and spread of nonnative organisms, the colonization of undefended resources seems to play a major role in the success of invasive species such as the viburnum leaf beetle.

Desurmont, Gaylord A.; Donoghue, Michael J.; Clement, Wendy L.; Agrawal, Anurag A.

2011-01-01

461

Pre shipping dip treatments using soap, natural oils, and Isaria fumosorosea: potential biopesticides for mitigating the spread of whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) invasive insects on ornamental plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyodidae) is an invasive insect pest affecting different crops including vegetables, fruits, cereals, and ornamentals. The efficacy of some products such as commercial soap, natural oils and Preferal® (based on the entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosorosea ...

462

SYSTEMS TO ADVANCE AND ENHANCE EXOTIC PEST CONTROL-A CASE STUDY OF A GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP IN DEVELOPING MONITORING SYSTEMS FOR USE IN SIT MANAGEMENT OF THE MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increased plant importation, tourism, and trade in agricultural commodities have increased the incidence of introduction of exotic insect pests into pest-free areas of the world, threatening crop and ornamental plant production. The threat of invasion is very pronounced in areas of the world that ...

463

New Pest Response Guidelines: Temperate Terrestrial Gastropods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Use New Pest Response Guidelines: Temperate Terrestrial Gastropods as a guide when designing a program to detect, monitor, control, contain, or eradicate an infestation of temperate climate pest snails and slugs in the United States and collaborating terr...

2008-01-01

464

Early Pest Detection in Greenhouses  

Microsoft Academic Search

We promote in situ early pest detection in green- houses based on video analysis. Our target applica- tion is the detection of bio-aggressors on plant or- gans such as leaves. The goal of this work is to de- fine an innovative decision support system, which handles multi camera data and follows a generic approach to adapt to different categories of

Vincent Martin; Sabine Moisan

465

Establishing pathways of energy flow for insect predators using stable isotope ratios: field and laboratory evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantifying pathways of energy transfer between plants, pests, and beneficial insects is a necessary step toward maintaining\\u000a pest stable agroecosystems in the absence of chemical subsidies. A diet switching experiment utilizing a predatory ladybird\\u000a beetle, Hippodamia variegata (Goeze), evaluated the use of naturally occurring stable C and N isotopes as an economically feasible and safe method for\\u000a quantifying pathways of

P. H. Ostrom; Manuel Colunga-Garcia; Stuart H. Gage

1996-01-01

466

Field-Evolved Insect Resistance to Bt Crops: Definition, Theory, and Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins for insect pest control have been successful, but their efÞcacy is reduced when pests evolve resistance. Here we review the deÞnition of Þeld-evolved resistance, the relationship between resistance and Þeld control problems, the theory underlying strategies for delaying resistance, and resistance monitoring methods. We also analyze resistance monitoring data from Þve continents reported

Bruce E. Tabashnik; J. B. J. Van Rensburg; Yves Carrière

2009-01-01

467

Genetic engineering of crop plants for insect resistance – a critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically engineering inherent crop resistance to insect pests offers the potential of a user-friendly, environment-friendly and consumer-friendly method of crop protection to meet the demands of sustainable agriculture in the 21st century. Work to date has concentrated on the introduction of genes for expression of modified Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins. Impressive results on the control of Bt-susceptible pests have been

Vaughan A. Hilder; Donald Boulter

1999-01-01

468

Comparative genomics of insect juvenile hormone biosynthesis$ F.G. Noriegaa,, J.M.C. Ribeirob, J.F. Koenerc, J.G. Valenzuelab, S. Hernandez-Martinezd, V.M. Phamb, R. Feyereisenc,e  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biosynthesis of insect juvenile hormone (JH) and its neuroendocrine control are attractive targets for chemical control of insect pests and vectors of disease. To facilitate the molecular study of JH biosynthesis, we analyzed ESTs from the glands producing JH, the corpora allata (CA) in the cockroach Diploptera punctata, an insect long used as a physiological model species and compared

469

General Pest Control - Industrial. Manual 95.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the general pest control category. The text discusses general, parasitic and miscellaneous pests such as ants, ticks, and spiders; fabric, wood-destroying, and grain pests such as beetles, termites, and…

Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

470

Major Arthropod Pests of North Carolina  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A comprehensive listing of arthropod pests arranged and searchable by commodity type. The listing includes pests of small fruits, ornamental plants, flowers, forests, corn, tobacco, turf, peanuts, cotton, and much more. Pests are listed by common and species name with life history data, images, and control strategies.

0002-11-30

471

General Pest Control - Industrial. Manual 95.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the general pest control category. The text discusses general, parasitic and miscellaneous pests such as ants, ticks, and spiders; fabric, wood-destroying, and grain pests such as beetles, termites, and…

Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

472

Evaporative cooling in insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insects commonly use behavior to avoid the heat stress and consequent water loss of hot environments. It has been assumed by many to be impossible or impractical for insects to employ evaporative cooling. Despite this assumption, there have been many instances, historically and recently where insects are reported to survive otherwise lethal temperatures by evaporating water. The site of evaporation

Henry D. Prange

1996-01-01

473

Insects and Spiders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This set of teaching aids consists of nine Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing teachers and students with informational reading on insects and spiders. The bulletins have these titles: What Good Are Insects, How Insects Benefit Man, Life of the Honey Bee, Ants and Their Fascinating Ways, Mosquitoes and Other Flies, Caterpillars, Spiders and Silk,…

National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

474

Exploring Sound with Insects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Differences in insect morphology and movement during singing provide a fascinating opportunity for students to investigate insects while learning about the characteristics of sound. In the activities described here, students use a free online computer software program to explore the songs of the major singing insects and experiment with making…

Robertson, Laura; Meyer, John R.

2010-01-01

475

Acoustic Monitoring of Insects  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Farmers, grain elevator managers, and food processors often sample grain for insect damaged kernels and numbers of live adult insects but these easily obtained measurements of insect levels do not provide reliable estimates of the typically much larger populations of internally feeding immature inse...

476

Current management efforts against Cactoblastis cactorum as a pest of North American prickly pear cactus, Opuntia spp.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The unintentional arrival of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) to Florida changed the scope of this celebrated weed biological control agent from savior to pest. Based on this insects’ substantial control of non-native Opuntia spp. (prickly pear cactus) in Australia and other parts of ...

477

?-Amylase inhibitor-1 gene from Phaseolus vulgaris expressed in Coffea arabica plants inhibits ?-amylases from the coffee berry borer pest  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Coffee is an important crop and is crucial to the economy of many developing countries, generating around US$70 billion per year. There are 115 species in the Coffea genus, but only two, C. arabica and C. canephora, are commercially cultivated. Coffee plants are attacked by many pathogens and insect-pests, which affect not only the production of coffee but also

Aulus EAD Barbosa; Érika VS Albuquerque; Maria CM Silva; Djair SL Souza; Osmundo B Oliveira-Neto; Arnubio Valencia; Thales L Rocha; Maria F Grossi-de-Sa

2010-01-01

478

UPDATE ON DEVELOPMENT OF POSTHARVEST PEST CONTROL TREATMENTS FOR NUTS, CITRUS AND TROPICAL FRUITS USING RF ENERGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decline in methyl bromide (MB) use since 1999 and phasing out of MB production by 2005 for most applications have forced the multi-billion dollar U.S. fruit and nut industries to seek alternatives for postharvest control of storage and quarantine insect pests. The need to develop effective and economically viable alternative phytosanitation and quarantine treatments is urgent in order for

J. Tang; S. Wang; E. J. Mitcham; J. A. Johnson; J. D. Hansen; G. Hallman

479

Comparative genomics of insect juvenile hormone biosynthesis?  

PubMed Central

The biosynthesis of insect juvenile hormone (JH) and its neuroendocrine control are attractive targets for chemical control of insect pests and vectors of disease. To facilitate the molecular study of JH biosynthesis, we analyzed ESTs from the glands producing JH, the corpora allata (CA) in the cockroach Diploptera punctata, an insect long used as a physiological model species and compared them with ESTs from the CA of the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Anopheles albimanus. The predicted genes were analyzed according to their probable functions with the Gene Ontology classification, and compared to Drosophila and Anopheles gambiae genes. A large number of reciprocal matches in the cDNA libraries of cockroach and mosquito CA were found. These matches defined known and suspected enzymes of the JH biosynthetic pathway, but also several proteins associated with signal transduction that might play a role in the modulation of JH synthesis by neuropeptides. The identification in both cockroach and mosquito CA of homologs of the small ligand binding proteins from insects, Takeout/JH binding protein and retinol-binding protein highlights a hitherto unsuspected complexity of metabolite trafficking, perhaps JH precursor trafficking, in these endocrine glands. Furthermore, many reciprocal matches for genes of unknown function may provide a fertile ground for an in-depth study of allatal-specific cell physiology.

Noriega, F.G.; Ribeiro, J.M.C.; Koener, J.F.; Valenzuela, J.G.; Hernandez-Martinez, S.; Pham, V.M.; Feyereisen, R.

2009-01-01

480

Outbreaks of forest defoliating insects in Japan, 1950-2000.  

PubMed

In Japan, several forest-defoliating insects reach outbreak levels and cause serious defoliation. Stand mortality sometimes occurs after severe defoliation. However, in general, tree mortality caused by insect defoliation is low because of the prevailing moist climate in Japan. Evergreen conifers are more susceptible to tree mortality as a result of insect defoliation whereas deciduous broad-leaved trees are seldom killed. Insect defoliation occurs more frequently in man-made environments such as among shade trees, orchards, and plantations than in natural habitats. Outbreaks of some defoliators tend to occur in stands of a particular age: e.g. outbreaks of the pine caterpillar, Dendrolimus spectabilis Butler (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) occur more frequently in young pine plantations. In contrast, defoliation caused by outbreaks of lepidopterous and hymenopterous pests in larch plantations is more frequent with stand maturation. There is a relationship between outbreaks of some defoliators and altitude above sea level. Most outbreaks of forest defoliators were terminated by insect pathogens that operated in a density-dependent fashion. Since the 1970s, Japan has been prosperous and can afford to buy timber from abroad. More recently, there has been an increasing demand for timber in Japan, that coincides with a huge demand internationally, so that the country will need to produce more timber locally in the future. The increasing pressure on the forestry industry to meet this demand will require more sophisticated methods of pest control coupled with more sustainable methods of silviculture. PMID:12020368

Kamata, N; Kamata, N

2002-04-01

481

Do Pesticide Hazards to Human Health and Beneficial Insects Cause or Result from IPM Adoption? Mixed Messages from Farmer Field Schools in Nicaragua  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the interaction between farmer training in pest management and effects on acute pesticide poisoning and populations of beneficial insects in Nicaragua. Using farm level data from Nicaraguan bean growers, including graduates of Farmer Field Schools (FFS), other integrated pest management (IPM) outreach methods, and farmers without exposure to IPM, we found that small farmers are influenced by

Ricardo A. Labarta; Scott M. Swinton

2005-01-01

482

Ecological relationships between non-cultivated plants and insect predators in agroecosystems: the case of Dittrichia viscosa (Asteraceae) and Macrolophus melanotoma (Hemiptera: Miridae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species of the genus Macrolophus (Hemiptera: Miridae) are thought to be effective predators in reducing the numbers of several pests in vegetable crops. These predators are omnivorous as in addition to prey they also utilize plant sap for growth and development. Populations of these predators build in non-crop host plants and provide inoculum that augments natural control of insect pests

Dionyssios Perdikis; Charalampos Favas; Dionyssios Lykouressis; Argyro Fantinou

2007-01-01

483

Antioxidant defense response in a galling insect.  

PubMed

Herbivorous insect species are constantly challenged with reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from endogenous and exogenous sources. ROS produced within insects because of stress and prooxidant allelochemicals produced by host plants in response to herbivory require a complex mode of antioxidant defense during insect/plant interactions. Some insect herbivores have a midgut-based defense against the suite of ROS encountered. Because the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor) is the major insect pest of wheat worldwide, and an emerging model for all gall midges, we investigated its antioxidant responses during interaction with its host plant. Quantitative data for two phospholipid glutathione peroxidases (MdesPHGPX-1 and MdesPHGPX-2), two catalases (MdesCAT-1 and MdesCAT-2), and two superoxide dismutases (MdesSOD-1 and MdesSOD-2) revealed high levels of all of the mRNAs in the midgut of larvae on susceptible wheat (compatible interaction). During development of the Hessian fly on susceptible wheat, a differential expression pattern was observed for all six genes. Analysis of larvae on resistant wheat (incompatible interaction) compared with larvae on susceptible wheat showed increased levels of mRNAs in larvae on resistant wheat for all of the antioxidant genes except MdesSOD-1 and MdesSOD-2. We postulate that the increased mRNA levels of MdesPHGPX-1, MdesPHGPX-2, MdesCAT-1, and MdesCAT-2 reflect responses to ROS encountered by larvae while feeding on resistant wheat seedlings and/or ROS generated endogenously in larvae because of stress/starvation. These results provide an opportunity to understand the cooperative antioxidant defense responses in the Hessian fly/wheat interaction and may be applicable to other insect/plant interactions. PMID:17261812

Mittapalli, Omprakash; Neal, Jonathan J; Shukle, Richard H

2007-01-29

484

Insect resistance in sweetpotato plant introduction accessions.  

PubMed

Fifty-five sweetpotato cultivars, experimental breeding clones, and plant introduction (PI) accessions were evaluated in 17 field experiments at the USDA, ARS, U.S. Vegetable Laboratory (Charleston, SC; 12 evaluations, 1997-2010), the Clemson University, Edisto Research and Education Center (Blackville, SC; two evaluations, 1998-1999), and the University of Florida, Tropical Research and Education Center (Homestead, FL; three evaluations, 2005-2007). These experiments included two insect-susceptible control entries ('Beauregard' and 'SC1149-19') and three insect-resistant control cultivars ('Regal,' 'Ruddy,' and 'Sumor'). At each location, genotypes differed significantly in the percentage of uninjured roots WDS (wireworm, Diabrotica, Systena) index, the percentage of roots damaged by the sweetpotato weevil (Cylas formicarius (F.)), the percentage of roots damaged by the sweetpotato flea beetle (Chaetocnema confinis Crotch), and the percentage of roots damaged by white grub larvae (including Plectris aliena Chapin and Phyllophaga spp.). 'SC1149-19' had a significantly lower percentage of uninjured roots, a significantly higher WDS index rating, and significantly higher percentages of infestation by flea beetles, grubs, and sweetpotato weevils than most other sweetpotato genotypes in this study. In addition, 43 of 55 genotypes had significantly less overall insect damage than 'Beauregard,' one of the leading commercial orange-fleshed cultivars in the United States. Ten genotypes had significantly less insect injury than 'Picadito,' a commercial boniato-type sweetpotato grown extensively in southern Florida. Many of these sweetpotato genotypes have high levels of resistance to soil insect pests, and they may be useful as sources of insect resistance for use in sweetpotato breeding programs. PMID:22606838

Jackson, D Michael; Harrison, Howard F; Ryan-Bohac, J R

2012-04-01

485

An alternative strategy for sustainable pest resistance in genetically enhanced crops.  

PubMed

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystal protein genes encode insecticidal delta-endotoxins that are widely used for the development of insect-resistant crops. In this article, we describe an alternative transgenic strategy that has the potential to generate broader and more sustainable levels of resistance against insect pests. Our strategy involves engineering plants with a fusion protein combining the delta-endotoxin Cry1Ac with the galactose-binding domain of the nontoxic ricin B-chain (RB). This fusion, designated BtRB, provides the toxin with additional, binding domains, thus increasing the potential number of interactions at the molecular level in target insects. Transgenic rice and maize plants engineered to express the fusion protein were significantly more toxic in insect bioassays than those containing the Bt gene alone. They were also resistant to a wider range of insects, including important pests that are not normally susceptible to Bt toxins. The potential impact of fusion genes such as BtRB in terms of crop improvement, resistance sustainability, and biosafety is discussed. PMID:15908504

Mehlo, Luke; Gahakwa, Daphrose; Nghia, Pham Trung; Loc, Nguyen Thi; Capell, Teresa; Gatehouse, John A; Gatehouse, Angharad M R; Christou, Paul

2005-05-20

486

An alternative strategy for sustainable pest resistance in genetically enhanced crops  

PubMed Central

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystal protein genes encode insecticidal ?-endotoxins that are widely used for the development of insect-resistant crops. In this article, we describe an alternative transgenic strategy that has the potential to generate broader and more sustainable levels of resistance against insect pests. Our strategy involves engineering plants with a fusion protein combining the ?-endotoxin Cry1Ac with the galactose-binding domain of the nontoxic ricin B-chain (RB). This fusion, designated BtRB, provides the toxin with additional, binding domains, thus increasing the potential number of interactions at the molecular level in target insects. Transgenic rice and maize plants engineered to express the fusion protein were significantly more toxic in insect bioassays than those containing the Bt gene alone. They were also resistant to a wider range of insects, including important pests that are not normally susceptible to Bt toxins. The potential impact of fusion genes such as BtRB in terms of crop improvement, resistance sustainability, and biosafety is discussed.

Mehlo, Luke; Gahakwa, Daphrose; Nghia, Pham Trung; Loc, Nguyen Thi; Capell, Teresa; Gatehouse, John A.; Gatehouse, Angharad M. R.; Christou, Paul

2005-01-01

487

Molecular technologies to improve the effectiveness of the sterile insect technique.  

PubMed

The application of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) in area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes continues to increase. However, programme efficiency can still be considerably enhanced when certain components of the technology are improved, such as the development of improved strains for mass rearing and release. These include strains that (1) produce only male insects for sterilization and release and (2) carry easily identifiable markers to identify released sterile insects in the field. Using both classical and modern biotechnology techniques, key insect pests are targeted, where SIT programmes are being implemented. The pests include mosquitoes, the Mexican fruit fly, the codling moth, the oriental fruit fly and the pink bollworm. This special issue summarizes the results of research efforts aimed at the development and evaluation of new strains to a level where a decision can be made as to their suitability for use in large scale SIT programmes. Major beneficiaries will be operational AW-IPM programmes that apply the SIT against major insect pests. PMID:21258957

Franz, Gerald; Robinson, Alan S

2011-01-01

488

Herbivore induced plant volatiles: their role in plant defense for pest management.  

PubMed

Plants respond to herbivory through different defensive mechanisms. The induction of volatile emission is one of the important and immediate response of plants to herbivory. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) are involved in plant communication with natural enemies of the insect herbivores, neighboring plants, and different parts of the damaged plant. Release of a wide variety of HIPVs in response to herbivore damage and their role in plant-plant, plant-carnivore and intraplant communications represents a new facet of the complex interactions among different trophic levels. HIPVs are released from leaves, flowers, and fruits into the atmosphere or into the soil from roots in response to herbivore attack. Moreover, HIPVs act as feeding and/or oviposition deterrents to insect pests. HIPVs also mediate the interactions between the plants and the microorganisms. This review presents an overview of HIPVs emitted by plants, their role in plant defense against herbivores and their implications for pest management. PMID:22105032

War, Abdul Rashid; Sharma, Hari Chand; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; War, Mohd Yousf; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

2011-12-01

489

Response of insect parasitism to elevation depends on host and parasitoid life-history strategies.  

PubMed

How global warming will affect insect parasitoids and their role as natural enemies of insect pests is difficult to assess within a short period of time. Considering that elevation gradients can be used as analogues for global warming, we carried out meta-analyses of 27 correlations between parasitoid richness and elevation and 140 correlations between parasitism rate and elevation in natural and semi-natural environments. We also explored various covariates that may explain the observed responses. Both parasitism rates and parasitoid species richness significantly decreased with increasing elevation. The decrease was greater for ectoparasitoids and parasitoids of ectophagous insects than for endoparasitoids and parasitoids of endophagous hosts, possibly because these latter are better protected from adverse and extreme climatic conditions occurring at higher elevations. Although our results suggest an increase of parasitism with increasing temperature, other factors regulating herbivorous insects have to be considered before concluding that climate warming will lead to a decrease in pest density. PMID:23760164

Péré, Christelle; Jactel, Hervé; Kenis, Marc

2013-06-12

490

Insect allergy in children.  

PubMed

Allergic reactions to insect bites and stings are common, and the severity of reactions range from local reaction to anaphylaxis. In children, large local reaction to bites and stings is the most common presentation. Stings from insects of the order Hymenoptera (bees, wasps and ants) are the most common cause of insect anaphylaxis; however, the proportion of insect allergic children who develop anaphylaxis to an insect sting is lower than that of insect allergic adults. History is most important in diagnosing anaphylaxis, as laboratory tests can be unreliable. Venom immunotherapy is effective, where suitable allergen extract is available, but is only warranted in children with systemic reactions to insect venom. Large local reactions are at low risk of progression to anaphylaxis on subsequent stings, and hence, venom immunotherapy is not necessary. PMID:23586469

Tan, John W; Campbell, Dianne E

2013-04-16