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1

Comparative transcriptome analysis of Gossypium hirsutum L. in response to sap sucking insects: aphid and whitefly  

PubMed Central

Background Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is a major fiber crop that is grown worldwide; it faces extensive damage from sap-sucking insects, including aphids and whiteflies. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis was performed to understand the molecular details of interaction between Gossypium hirsutum L. and sap-sucking pests, namely Aphis gossypii (Aphid) and Bemisia tabacci (Whiteflies). Roche’s GS-Titanium was used to sequence transcriptomes of cotton infested with aphids and whiteflies for 2 h and 24 h. Results A total of 100935 contigs were produced with an average length of 529 bp after an assembly in all five selected conditions. The Blastn of the non-redundant (nr) cotton EST database resulted in the identification of 580 novel contigs in the cotton plant. It should be noted that in spite of minimal physical damage caused by the sap-sucking insects, they can change the gene expression of plants in 2 h of infestation; further change in gene expression due to whiteflies is quicker than due to aphids. The impact of the whitefly 24 h after infestation was more or less similar to that of the aphid 2 h after infestation. Aphids and whiteflies affect many genes that are regulated by various phytohormones and in response to microbial infection, indicating the involvement of complex crosstalk between these pathways. The KOBAS analysis of differentially regulated transcripts in response to aphids and whiteflies indicated that both the insects induce the metabolism of amino acids biosynthesis specially in case of whiteflies infestation at later phase. Further we also observed that expression of transcript related to photosynthesis specially carbon fixation were significantly influenced by infestation of Aphids and Whiteflies. Conclusions A comparison of different transcriptomes leads to the identification of differentially and temporally regulated transcripts in response to infestation by aphids and whiteflies. Most of these differentially expressed contigs were related to genes involved in biotic, abiotic stresses and enzymatic activities related to hydrolases, transferases, and kinases. The expression of some marker genes such as the overexpressors of cationic peroxidase 3, lipoxygenase I, TGA2, and non-specific lipase, which are involved in phytohormonal-mediated plant resistance development, was suppressed after infestation by aphids and whiteflies, indicating that insects suppressed plant resistance in order to facilitate their infestation. We also concluded that cotton shares several pathways such as phagosomes, RNA transport, and amino acid metabolism with Arabidopsis in response to the infestation by aphids and whiteflies. PMID:23577705

2013-01-01

2

Resistance to sap-sucking insects in modern-day agriculture  

PubMed Central

Plants and herbivores have co-evolved in their natural habitats for about 350 million years, but since the domestication of crops, plant resistance against insects has taken a different turn. With the onset of monoculture-driven modern agriculture, selective pressure on insects to overcome resistances has dramatically increased. Therefore plant breeders have resorted to high-tech tools to continuously create new insect-resistant crops. Efforts in the past 30 years have resulted in elucidation of mechanisms of many effective plant defenses against insect herbivores. Here, we critically appraise these efforts and – with a focus on sap-sucking insects – discuss how these findings have contributed to herbivore-resistant crops. Moreover, in this review we try to assess where future challenges and opportunities lay ahead. Of particular importance will be a mandatory reduction in systemic pesticide usage and thus a greater reliance on alternative methods, such as improved plant genetics for plant resistance to insect herbivores. PMID:23818892

VanDoorn, Arjen; de Vos, Martin

2013-01-01

3

Development of transgenic cotton lines expressing Allium sativum agglutinin (ASAL) for enhanced resistance against major sap-sucking pests.  

PubMed

Mannose-specific Allium sativum leaf agglutinin encoding gene (ASAL) and herbicide tolerance gene (BAR) were introduced into an elite cotton inbred line (NC-601) employing Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Cotton transformants were produced from the phosphinothricin (PPT)-resistant shoots obtained after co-cultivation of mature embryos with the Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harbouring recombinant binary vector pCAMBIA3300-ASAL-BAR. PCR and Southern blot analysis confirmed the presence and stable integration of ASAL and BAR genes in various transformants of cotton. Basta leaf-dip assay, northern blot, western blot and ELISA analyses disclosed variable expression of BAR and ASAL transgenes in different transformants. Transgenes, ASAL and BAR, were stably inherited and showed co-segregation in T1 generation in a Mendelian fashion for both PPT tolerance and insect resistance. In planta insect bioassays on T2 and T3 homozygous ASAL-transgenic lines revealed potent entomotoxic effects of ASAL on jassid and whitefly insects, as evidenced by significant decreases in the survival, development and fecundity of the insects when compared to the untransformed controls. Furthermore, the transgenic cotton lines conferred higher levels of resistance (1-2 score) with minimal plant damage against these major sucking pests when bioassays were carried out employing standard screening techniques. The developed transgenics could serve as a potential genetic resource in recombination breeding aimed at improving the pest resistance of cotton. This study represents the first report of its kind dealing with the development of transgenic cotton resistant to two major sap-sucking insects. PMID:24023750

Vajhala, Chakravarthy S K; Sadumpati, Vijaya Kumar; Nunna, Hariprasad Rao; Puligundla, Sateesh Kumar; Vudem, Dashavantha Reddy; Khareedu, Venkateswara Rao

2013-01-01

4

Development of Transgenic Cotton Lines Expressing Allium sativum Agglutinin (ASAL) for Enhanced Resistance against Major Sap-Sucking Pests  

PubMed Central

Mannose-specific Allium sativum leaf agglutinin encoding gene (ASAL) and herbicide tolerance gene (BAR) were introduced into an elite cotton inbred line (NC-601) employing Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Cotton transformants were produced from the phosphinothricin (PPT)-resistant shoots obtained after co-cultivation of mature embryos with the Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harbouring recombinant binary vector pCAMBIA3300-ASAL-BAR. PCR and Southern blot analysis confirmed the presence and stable integration of ASAL and BAR genes in various transformants of cotton. Basta leaf-dip assay, northern blot, western blot and ELISA analyses disclosed variable expression of BAR and ASAL transgenes in different transformants. Transgenes, ASAL and BAR, were stably inherited and showed co-segregation in T1 generation in a Mendelian fashion for both PPT tolerance and insect resistance. In planta insect bioassays on T2 and T3 homozygous ASAL-transgenic lines revealed potent entomotoxic effects of ASAL on jassid and whitefly insects, as evidenced by significant decreases in the survival, development and fecundity of the insects when compared to the untransformed controls. Furthermore, the transgenic cotton lines conferred higher levels of resistance (1–2 score) with minimal plant damage against these major sucking pests when bioassays were carried out employing standard screening techniques. The developed transgenics could serve as a potential genetic resource in recombination breeding aimed at improving the pest resistance of cotton. This study represents the first report of its kind dealing with the development of transgenic cotton resistant to two major sap-sucking insects. PMID:24023750

Nunna, Hariprasad Rao; Puligundla, Sateesh Kumar; Vudem, Dashavantha Reddy; Khareedu, Venkateswara Rao

2013-01-01

5

Putative protein digestion in a sap-sucking homopteran plant pest (rice brown plant hopper; Nilaparvata lugens: Delphacidae)--identification of trypsin-like and cathepsin B-like proteases.  

PubMed

Sap-sucking phytophagous insect species of the order Hemiptera have been assumed not to carry out digestive proteolysis, but instead to rely on free amino acids in the phloem and xylem saps for their nutritional requirements. Extracts prepared from isolated guts of rice brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens), a homopteran crop pest, were shown to contain protease activity, with hydrolysis of both protein and synthetic peptide substrates being observed. Assays with specific inhibitors suggested that a trypsin-like serine protease was responsible for most of hydrolytic activity against synthetic substrates. A cDNA library was prepared from RNA extracted from N. lugens gut tissue, and screened for protease-encoding sequences. cDNAs for a cathepsin B-like protease and a trypsin-like protease were isolated and fully characterised; the latter exhibits a novel C-terminal region and an unusual activation mechanism, and represents a small gene family. Soya bean Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (SKTI) is an effective inhibitor of protein hydrolysis by N. lugens gut extracts in vitro, explaining why transgenic rice plants expressing this protein are partially resistant to the insect (Mol. Breed. 5 (1999) 1). It is suggested that digestive proteolysis may be widespread in sap-sucking homoptera, and can make a significant contribution to nutrition. PMID:12213233

Foissac, X; Edwards, M G; Du, J P; Gatehouse, A M R; Gatehouse, J A

2002-09-01

6

Heavy metal levels in two biennial pine insects with sap-sucking and gall-forming life-styles.  

PubMed

The concentrations of cadmium, copper, nickel and lead were studied in two biennial pine insects in relation to the deposition of heavy metals in the environment around the industrialised town of Harjavalta in southwestern Finland. Sap-sucking pine bark bugs, Aradus cinnamomeus (Heteroptera, Aradidae), and gall-forming pine resin gall moths, Petrova resinella (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) were collected on sample plots located at logarithmic distances along 9 km-long transects from the distinctive emission source. The responses of these insects representing different life-style were compared. Heavy metal concentrations in A. cinnamomeus were highest (Cd 17 microg g(-1), Cu 1900 microg g(-1), Ni 220 microg g(-1), Pb 32 microg g(-1)) in the vicinity of the factor complex, and lowest in the outermost zones. This trend followed a linear regression model. The pattern was less clear in P. resinella, the concentrations being only one-tenth of those recorded in A. cinnamomeus. Correlations between metal levels in A. cinnamomeus and previously examined Sphagnum moss bags proved to be highly significant in every case. The differences in the heavy metal concentrations of these two insect species, which occupy the same trophic position, would appear to be due to the differences in their feeding characteristics. Heavy metals accumulate in the posterior bulb of the midgut in the discontinuous alimentary system of A. cinnamomeus, while P. resinella is likely to secrete most of the metals into the walls of the galls. The almost total absence of these two insect species near the factory complex seems to be associated with the high concentrations of metals. PMID:15092695

Heliövaara, K; Väisänen, R; Braunschweiler, H; Lodenius, M

1987-01-01

7

Allergenicity Assessment of Allium sativum Leaf Agglutinin, a Potential Candidate Protein for Developing Sap Sucking Insect Resistant Food Crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundMannose-binding Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL) is highly antinutritional and toxic to various phloem-feeding hemipteran insects. ASAL has been expressed in a number of agriculturally important crops to develop resistance against those insects. Awareness of the safety aspect of ASAL is absolutely essential for developing ASAL transgenic plants.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsFollowing the guidelines framed by the Food and Agriculture Organization\\/World Health Organization,

Hossain Ali Mondal; Dipankar Chakraborti; Pralay Majumder; Pampa Roy; Amit Roy; Swati Gupta Bhattacharya; Sampa Das

2011-01-01

8

Allergenicity Assessment of Allium sativum Leaf Agglutinin, a Potential Candidate Protein for Developing Sap Sucking Insect Resistant Food Crops  

PubMed Central

Background Mannose-binding Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL) is highly antinutritional and toxic to various phloem-feeding hemipteran insects. ASAL has been expressed in a number of agriculturally important crops to develop resistance against those insects. Awareness of the safety aspect of ASAL is absolutely essential for developing ASAL transgenic plants. Methodology/Principal Findings Following the guidelines framed by the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization, the source of the gene, its sequence homology with potent allergens, clinical tests on mammalian systems, and the pepsin resistance and thermostability of the protein were considered to address the issue. No significant homology to the ASAL sequence was detected when compared to known allergenic proteins. The ELISA of blood sera collected from known allergy patients also failed to show significant evidence of cross-reactivity. In vitro and in vivo assays both indicated the digestibility of ASAL in the presence of pepsin in a minimum time period. Conclusions/Significance With these experiments, we concluded that ASAL does not possess any apparent features of an allergen. This is the first report regarding the monitoring of the allergenicity of any mannose-binding monocot lectin having insecticidal efficacy against hemipteran insects. PMID:22110739

Mondal, Hossain Ali; Chakraborti, Dipankar; Majumder, Pralay; Roy, Pampa; Roy, Amit; Bhattacharya, Swati Gupta; Das, Sampa

2011-01-01

9

Citrus tristeza virus-based RNAi in citrus plants induces gene silencing in Diaphorina citri, a phloem-sap sucking insect vector of citrus greening disease (Huanglongbing).  

PubMed

A transient expression vector based on Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is unusually stable. Because of its stability it is being considered for use in the field to control Huanglongbing (HLB), which is caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) and vectored by Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri. In the absence of effective control strategies for CLas, emphasis has been on control of D. citri. Coincident cohabitation in phloem tissue by CLas, D. citri and CTV was exploited to develop a novel method to mitigate HLB through RNA interference (RNAi). Since CTV has three RNA silencing suppressors, it was not known if CTV-based vector could induce RNAi in citrus. Yet, expression of sequences targeting citrus phytoene desaturase gene by CTV-RNAi resulted in photo-bleaching phenotype. CTV-RNAi vector, engineered with truncated abnormal wing disc (Awd) gene of D. citri, induced altered Awd expression when silencing triggers ingested by feeding D. citri nymphs. Decreased Awd in nymphs resulted in malformed-wing phenotype in adults and increased adult mortality. This impaired ability of D. citri to fly would potentially limit the successful vectoring of CLas bacteria between citrus trees in the grove. CTV-RNAi vector would be relevant for fast-track screening of candidate sequences for RNAi-mediated pest control. PMID:24572372

Hajeri, Subhas; Killiny, Nabil; El-Mohtar, Choaa; Dawson, William O; Gowda, Siddarame

2014-04-20

10

Retargeting of the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cyt2Aa against hemipteran insect pests  

PubMed Central

Although transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins have been used successfully for management of lepidopteran and coleopteran pest species, the sap-sucking insects (Hemiptera) are not particularly susceptible to Bt toxins. To overcome this limitation, we demonstrate that addition of a short peptide sequence selected for binding to the gut of the targeted pest species serves to increase toxicity against said pest. Insertion of a 12-aa pea aphid gut-binding peptide by adding to or replacing amino acids in one of three loops of the Bt cytolytic toxin, Cyt2Aa, resulted in enhanced binding and toxicity against both the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, and the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae. This strategy may allow for transgenic plant-mediated suppression of other hemipteran pests, which include some of the most important pests of global agriculture. PMID:23650347

Chougule, Nanasaheb P.; Li, Huarong; Liu, Sijun; Linz, Lucas B.; Narva, Kenneth E.; Meade, Thomas; Bonning, Bryony C.

2013-01-01

11

Retargeting of the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cyt2Aa against hemipteran insect pests.  

PubMed

Although transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins have been used successfully for management of lepidopteran and coleopteran pest species, the sap-sucking insects (Hemiptera) are not particularly susceptible to Bt toxins. To overcome this limitation, we demonstrate that addition of a short peptide sequence selected for binding to the gut of the targeted pest species serves to increase toxicity against said pest. Insertion of a 12-aa pea aphid gut-binding peptide by adding to or replacing amino acids in one of three loops of the Bt cytolytic toxin, Cyt2Aa, resulted in enhanced binding and toxicity against both the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, and the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae. This strategy may allow for transgenic plant-mediated suppression of other hemipteran pests, which include some of the most important pests of global agriculture. PMID:23650347

Chougule, Nanasaheb P; Li, Huarong; Liu, Sijun; Linz, Lucas B; Narva, Kenneth E; Meade, Thomas; Bonning, Bryony C

2013-05-21

12

Toxins for Transgenic Resistance to Hemipteran Pests  

PubMed Central

The sap sucking insects (Hemiptera), which include aphids, whiteflies, plant bugs and stink bugs, have emerged as major agricultural pests. The Hemiptera cause direct damage by feeding on crops, and in some cases indirect damage by transmission of plant viruses. Current management relies almost exclusively on application of classical chemical insecticides. While the development of transgenic crops expressing toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has provided effective plant protection against some insect pests, Bt toxins exhibit little toxicity against sap sucking insects. Indeed, the pest status of some Hemiptera on Bt-transgenic plants has increased in the absence of pesticide application. The increased pest status of numerous hemipteran species, combined with increased prevalence of resistance to chemical insecticides, provides impetus for the development of biologically based, alternative management strategies. Here, we provide an overview of approaches toward transgenic resistance to hemipteran pests. PMID:22822455

Chougule, Nanasaheb P.; Bonning, Bryony C.

2012-01-01

13

Important Insect Pests of Fruit - Important Insect Pests of Nuts - Field Crop Insect Pests - Insect Pests of Vegetable Crops.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of four agriculture extension service publications from Pennsylvania State University. The titles are: (1) Important Insect Pests of Fruit; (2) Important Insect Pests of Nuts; (3) Field Crop Insect Pests; and (4) Insect Pests of Vegetable Crops. The first publication gives the hosts, injury, and description of 22 insect

Gesell, Stanley G.; And Others

14

Corn Insect Pests  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Historically, the major corn insect pests have been corn rootworms (northern and western), European corn borer, and black cutworm. Bt-corn hybrids are effective against most of these pests. However, Bt-corn hybrids are not effective against corn leaf aphid, corn root aphid, sap beetles, corn rootwor...

15

Cotton insect pest management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton production is challenged worldwide by a diversity of arthropod pests that require management to prevent or reduce crop damage. Advances in arthropod control technologies and improved insect and crop management systems have dramatically reduced levels of arthropod damage and the need for inse...

16

Insect Pest Management in Virginia  

E-print Network

Insect Pest Management in Virginia Cotton, Peanut, and Soybean Tidewater Agricultural Research MANAGEMENT IN VIRGINIA COTTON, PEANUT, AND SOYBEAN 2011 D. Ames Herbert, Jr., Extension Entomologist. Ray Clarke, Dinwiddie Co. Donald Turner, Dinwiddie Co. Greg Jenkins, Gloucester Co. Kirby Farms

Liskiewicz, Maciej

17

Managing Insect Pests of Texas Sunflower  

E-print Network

Insect pests are often a major limiting factor in Texas sunflower production. This publication describes the major insect pests infesting the sunflower head, stalk, foliage and roots, and offers suggestions for controlling them, including a table...

Patrick, Carl D.

1999-02-15

18

Managing Insect Pests of Texas Sunflower.  

E-print Network

)OC rA245.7 ~73 ? t44Pests of Texas Sunflower ? Texas Agricultural Extension Service Zerle L. Carpenter. Director The Texas A&M University System College Station. Texas . CONTENTS INSECT PESTS INFESTING... THE HEAD Sunflower Moth .......................... 4 Sunflower Bud Moth (Suleimaj ........ . . 5 Headclipper Weevil .................... 6 Seed Weevils ......................... 6 INSECT PESTS INFESTING THE STALK Stem Weevil...

Patrick, Carl D.

1983-01-01

19

Radar, Insect Population Ecology, and Pest Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discussions included: (1) the potential role of radar in insect ecology studies and pest management; (2) the potential role of radar in correlating atmospheric phenomena with insect movement; (3) the present and future radar systems; (4) program objectives required to adapt radar to insect ecology studies and pest management; and (5) the specific action items to achieve the objectives.

Vaughn, C. R. (editor); Wolf, W. (editor); Klassen, W. (editor)

1979-01-01

20

Biological control of potato insect pest  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A variety of pest insects attack the potato crop and reduce yields. This book chapter reviews the known insect natural enemies for major potato pests around the world: Coleoptera (beetles) including Colorado potato beetle, 28-spotted lady beetle, and Andean potato weevil complex; potato tuber moths,...

21

Insect pest management in forest ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the role of insects in forest ecosystems is vital to the development of environmentally and economically sound pest management strategies in forestry Most of the research on forest insects has been confined to phytophagous species associated with economically important tree species The roles of most other insects in forest environments have generally been ignored, including the natural enemies and

Donald L. Dahlsten; David L. Rowney

1983-01-01

22

Symbiont-mediated functions in insect hosts  

PubMed Central

The bacterial endosymbionts occur in a diverse array of insect species and are usually rely within the vertical transmission from mothers to offspring. In addition to primary symbionts, plant sap-sucking insects may also harbor several diverse secondary symbionts. Bacterial symbionts play a prominent role in insect nutritional ecology by aiding in digestion of food or supplementing nutrients that insect hosts can’t obtain sufficient amounts from a restricted diet of plant phloem. Currently, several other ecologically relevant traits mediated by endosymbionts are being investigated, including defense toward pathogens and parasites, adaption to environment, influences on insect-plant interactions, and impact of population dynamics. Here, we review recent theoretical predictions and experimental observations of these traits mediated by endosymbionts and suggest that clarifying the roles of symbiotic microbes may be important to offer insights for ameliorating pest invasiveness or impact. PMID:23710278

Su, Qi; Zhou, Xiaomao; Zhang, Youjun

2013-01-01

23

Management of insect pests and weeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cuban government has undertaken the task of transforming insect pest and weed management from conventional to organic and more sustainable approaches on a nationwide basis. This paper addresses past programs and current major areas of research and implementation as well as provides examples of programs in insect and weed management. Topics covered include the newly constructed network of Centers

Jeff Dlott; Ivette Perfecto; Peter Rosset; Larry Burkham; Julio Monterrey; John Vandermeer

1993-01-01

24

Nursery Crop Production Problems & Issues - Insect Pests  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What insects present problems in nursery crop production, how can they be identified, and how can they be best controlled? First, let's look at the following scenarios to gain an understanding of insect problems that can occur within nursery crop production. Nursery Crop Production Insect Pest Management Scenarios Now read Plant Farm Nursery Website to identify the insect described in the first scenario. Next, read Tree Shrub Damage to identify the insect issue described within the second scenario. Read Extension Service Website to gain a better understanding ...

Mr. Wells

2012-04-05

25

Common Insect and Mite Pests of Humans  

E-print Network

E-485 9/08 Common Insect and Mite Pests of Humans Wizzie Brown and Noel Troxclair* B *Extension Program Specialist, and Associate Professor and Extension Entomologist, The Texas A&M System Figure 1. Head louse. Photo by Michael Merchant. ites from... baseboards. Although a pest management professional is needed manage bedbugs, some actions can help reduce their populations: ? Thoroughly clean the infested area, paying close attention to cracks and crevices where the bugs may be hiding. ? Vacuum...

Brown, Elizabeth; Troxclair, Noel N.

2008-09-25

26

Insect Pests of Ornamental Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tutorials on pests of ornamentals. Each tutorial has 50 questions; incorrect answers lead to additional information. Covers spider mites, broad mites, thrips, lace bugs, mealybugs, aphids and whiteflies. Requires Windows. $15. Tutorials are easy to use once loaded on the hard drive. Images are of high quality. Part number SW 162.

0000-00-00

27

Management of Stored Wheat Insect Pests in the USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management of stored-grain insect pests by farmers or elevator managers should be based upon a knowledge of the grain storage environment and the ecology of insect pests. Grain storage facilities and practices, geographical location, government policies, and marketing demands for grain quality are discussed as factors influencing stored-grain insect pest management decisions in the United States. Typical practices include a

David W. Hagstrum; Carl Reed; Phil Kenkel

1999-01-01

28

Insect Pests of Field Crops. MP-28.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document addresses the principles of field crop insect control through biological, mechanical, and chemical processes. Identification, life history, damage, pesticides, pesticide use and environmental considerations are presented for the major pests of corn, alfalfa, beans, small grains, sugar beets, and potatoes. Each section is accompanied…

Burkhardt, Chris C.

29

Sustainable Biocontrol of Apple Insect Pests  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biocontrol of insect pests is a cornerstone to sustainable production of apples and other crops. The ecology of orchards lends itself to the application of many management options which will enhance the sustainability of biocontrol. Orchards remain in place for decades, allowing for an evolution o...

30

Insect Pests Models and Insecticide Application  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the past, the dominant approach in theoretical pest management ecology has emphasized the use of simple analytical or mathematical models and the analysis of systems in equilibrium. Recent advancements in computer technology have provided the opportunity for ecological insect modelers to move aw...

31

SOME INSECT PESTS NEW TO FLORIDA SUGARCANE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The number of insect and mite species attacking sugarcane in Florida has increased over time. Five new pest species were discovered during the 31-year period 1964 to 1995, one species indigenous to Florida with no previous association with sugarcane and four invasive species entirely new to the Eve...

32

Insect pest management in forest ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the role of insects in forest ecosystems is vital to the development of environmentally and economically sound pest management strategies in forestry Most of the research on forest insects has been confined to phytophagous species associated with economically important tree species The roles of most other insects in forest environments have generally been ignored, including the natural enemies and associates of phytophagous species identified as being important In the past few years several investigations have begun to reevaluate the role of phytophagous species responsible for perturbation in forest ecosystems, and it appears that these species may be playing an important role in the primary productivity of those ecosystems Also, there is an increasing awareness that forest pest managers have been treating the symptoms and not the causes of the problems in the forest Many insect problems are associated with poor sites or sites where trees are growing poorly because of crowding As a result, there is considerable emphasis on the hazard rating of stands of trees for their susceptibility to various phytophagous insects The next step is to manipulate forest stands to make them less susceptible to forest pest complexes A thinning study in California is used as an example and shows that tree mortality in ponderosa pine ( Pinus ponderosa) attributable to the western pine beetle ( Dendroctonus brevicomis) can be reduced by commercial thinning to reduce stocking

Dahlsten, Donald L.; Rowney, David L.

1983-01-01

33

Plant Volatiles-based Insect Pest Management in Organic Farming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic agriculture is increasing in popularity worldwide due to the rapidly growing market for organic products. In organic production, insects present a major pest challenge that negatively impacts crop health and yield. To successfully manage an organic farmland, an effective insect pest management program is key. In this review, we first describe the approaches currently used for pest management in

Gitika Shrivastava; Mary Rogers; Annette Wszelaki; Dilip R. Panthee; Feng Chen

2010-01-01

34

Insect pests of tea and their management.  

PubMed

Globally, 1031 species of arthropods are associated with the intensively managed tea Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze monoculture. All parts of the plant, leaf, stem, root, flower, and seed, are fed upon by at least one pest species, resulting in an 11%-55% loss in yield if left unchecked. There has been heavy use of organosynthetic pesticides since the 1950s to defend the plant against these pests, leading to rapid conversion of innocuous species into pests, development of resistance, and undesirable pesticide residues in made tea. As a result of importer and consumer concerns, pesticide residues have become a major problem for the tea industry. Integrated pest management (IPM) may help to overcome the overuse of pesticides and subsequent residues. We review the advances made in our understanding of the biology and ecology of major insect and mite pests of tea, host plant resistance, cultural practices, biocontrol measures, and need-based application of botanicals and safer pesticides to understand the present status of IPM and to identify future challenges to improvement. PMID:19067632

Hazarika, Lakshmi K; Bhuyan, Mantu; Hazarika, Budhindra N

2009-01-01

35

Lantana and Verbena: How to Combat Insect and Mite Pests  

E-print Network

Several insect and mite pests attack lantana and verbena, which are perennial ornamental plants found in many Texas landscapes. This publication describes the most common pests and explains how to manage them....

Mott, Dale; Merchant, Michael E.

2005-02-21

36

Managing Insects and Mite Pests of Texas Sorghum  

E-print Network

This is the complete guide for Texas sorghum growers. It covers an integrated approach to managing insect and mite pests to help growers prevent, diagnose and control damaging infestations. This publication offers suggestions for managing 26 insect...

Cronholm, Gregory B.; Knutson, Allen E.; Parker, Roy D.; Pendleton, Bonnie

2007-06-20

37

Insect Pheromones: Mastering Communication to Control Pests  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Web site contains an interesting, in-depth article on the use of insect pheromones in pest management. The article is one of many from Beyond Discovery: The Path from Research to Human Benefit; a NAS-sponsored series designed to demonstrate "how science works by illustrating how basic research produces knowledge that can lead to practical results of human benefit." No formal lesson plans are provided, but the article comes with a helpful glossary, related Web links, and a timeline of events.

38

50 CFR 35.7 - Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease. 35.7 Section 35.7 Wildlife...wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease. To the extent necessary, the Director...wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease to prevent unacceptable loss of...

2013-10-01

39

50 CFR 35.7 - Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease. 35.7 Section 35.7 Wildlife...wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease. To the extent necessary, the Director...wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease to prevent unacceptable loss of...

2014-10-01

40

50 CFR 35.7 - Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease. 35.7 Section 35.7 Wildlife...wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease. To the extent necessary, the Director...wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease to prevent unacceptable loss of...

2012-10-01

41

50 CFR 35.7 - Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease. 35.7 Section 35.7 Wildlife...wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease. To the extent necessary, the Director...wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease to prevent unacceptable loss of...

2010-10-01

42

50 CFR 35.7 - Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease...General Rules § 35.7 Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease...Director shall prescribe measures to control wildfires, insects, pest plants, and...

2011-10-01

43

Controlling insect pests & diseases in organic pecan and peach production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A number of insect pests and diseases can cause severe damage in orchard crops such as pecan and peach. David Shapiro-Ilan and Clive Bock from the USDA-ARS Fruit and Tree Nut Research Laboratory in Byron GA provided information on current or potential organic solutions to control the key insect pest...

44

North Dakota Sunflower Insect Pest Survey, 2006-2008  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The major insect pest species that cause economic losses to sunflower producers in North Dakota are banded sunflower moth (Cochylis hospes Walsingham), red sunflower seed weevil (Smicronyx fulvus Le Conte), and sunflower midge (Contarinia schulzi Gagne). New emerging insect pests include lygus bugs ...

45

Current status and future perspectives on sunflower insect pests  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

While occasional insect pests of cultivated sunflowers may be managed by conventional or reduced-risk insecticides, the cumulative costs and risks of relying on insecticides to suppress perennial or severe pests (common in North America) call for exploration of broader pest management strategies. Re...

46

Managing Insect and Mite Pests of Texas Small Grains  

E-print Network

resistance to greenbug. 6 Tillage and other management factors Tillage has long been recognized as important for insect control. It not only destroys host plants, but also may bury some insects too deep for survival. Plowing under stubble reduces... when used with other compatible pest control practices in an integrated pest management program. These practices include cultural control, host plant resistance and the selective use of insecticides when other practices fail to keep pest numbers...

Patrick, Carl D.; Knutson, Allen E.

2006-07-05

47

Insect pests of beans in Africa: their ecology and management.  

PubMed

Damage by insect pests, inter alia, is considered the limiting factor of bean production in Africa. This paper reviews the current status of insect pests of beans, focusing on their ecology and management, as well as the potential for integrated pest management (IPM) approaches in subsistence farming conditions, under which most beans are grown in Africa. Although numerous insect pests attack all parts of beans, bean stem maggots and bruchids are the most important field and storage pests, respectively. Foliage beetles, flower thrips, pollen beetles, pod borers, pod bugs, and sap suckers such as aphids also inflict significant damage. Control of bean pests in Africa is achieved through the use of a traditional IPM approach that consists of appropriate sowing dates, optimum plant density, varietal mixtures, intercropping, good crop husbandry, and locally available materials. Research should focus on low-input IPM approaches that encompass farmers' current practices, host-plant resistance, and natural biological control. PMID:15012324

Abate, T; Ampofo, J K

1996-01-01

48

Automatic monitoring of insect pests in stored grain  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Manual sampling of insects in stored grain is a laborious and time consuming process. Automation of grain sampling should help to increase the adoption of stored-grain integrated pest management. To make accurate insect management decisions, managers need to know both the insect species and numbers ...

49

Coconut leaf bioactivity toward generalist maize insect pests  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tropical plants are often more resistant to insects than temperate plants due to evolution of robust defenses to cope with a more constant insect threat. Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) has very few chewing leaf feeding insect pests and was tested against two omnivorous leaf feeding caterpillar species,...

50

Stored Grain Insect Area-wide Integrated Pest Management (IPM)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

When wheat is mixed with wheat from other locations as it moves through the grain-marketing system, insect infestation can be spread to larger quantities of wheat, which increases the overall cost of insect pest management. In Kansas and Oklahoma, insect infestations currently are managed primarily...

51

Delivery of intrahemocoelic peptides for insect pest management.  

PubMed

The extensive use of chemical insecticides for insect pest management has resulted in insecticide resistance now being recorded in >500 species of insects and mites. Although gut-active toxins such as those derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been successfully used for insect pest management, a diverse range of insect-specific insecticidal peptides remains an untapped resource for pest management efforts. These toxins act within the insect hemocoel (body cavity) and hence require a delivery system to access their target site. Here, we summarize recent developments for appropriate delivery of such intrahemocoelic insect toxins, via fusion to a second protein such as a plant lectin or a luteovirus coat protein for transcytosis across the gut epithelium, or via entomopathogenic fungi. PMID:24331760

Bonning, Bryony C; Chougule, Nanasaheb P

2014-02-01

52

[Comprehensive assessment on management measures of rice insect pests].  

PubMed

Based on the investigation of arthropods biodiversity and insect pests controlling effect in the paddy fields of demonstration area of organic rice production in Guangzhou, a comprehensive assessment on the economic, social, and ecological profits and costs of organic rice production in study area was conducted by using analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The results indicated that among all insect pests controlling measures, organic rice planting had the best comprehensive benefits, with a weight value of 0.5355. Ecological cost played a dominant role in comprehensive costs, and that of traditional pesticide-based insect pests control was most cruel, with a weight value of comprehensive costs being 0.6252. From the viewpoint of the ratio of comprehensive profits to comprehensive costs (RPC), organic rice planting was better than any other insect pests controlling modes, whose RPC was 2.4776, being accorded with the requirement of sustainable development of agriculture. PMID:19288731

Luo, Shu-ping; Huang, Shou-shan; Liang, Guang-wen; Yuan, Wei; Liu, Jia-li; Zhang, Qing-wen; Liu, Xiao-xia

2008-12-01

53

Demonstrating companion planting to control insect pests of vegetables  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Whiteflies and aphids are major insect pests of vegetables in the southeastern US. There is increasing interest in the use of cultural and more sustainable methods to control these pests. Previous studies have shown that hover fly generalist predators were collected from several perennial and annual...

54

Control of key pecan insect pests using biorational pesticides  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Key pecan insect pests include the pecan weevil, Curculio caryae, black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae, and stink bugs. Alternative control tactics are needed for management of these pests in organic and conventional systems. Our objective was to evaluate the potential utility of several a...

55

Insect pest management decisions in food processing facilities  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pest management decision making in food processing facilities such as flour mills, rice mills, human and pet food manufacturing facilities, distribution centers and warehouses, and retail stores is a challenging undertaking. Insect pest management programs require an understanding of the food facili...

56

PEST&CROP INDEX 2007 INSECTS, MITES & NEMATODES  

E-print Network

, and Beetles ­ 13 What is That Gigantic Beetle - 16 Mexican Bean Beetle Millipede Expect the Unexpected WhenPEST&CROP INDEX 2007 INSECTS, MITES & NEMATODES Asian Lady Beetle Asiatic Garden Beetle A New Field Crops Pest for Indiana: Asiatic Garden Beetle ­ 11 Asiatic Beetle Grub Update - 12 Alfalfa Weevil

Ginzel, Matthew

57

Managing Insect and Mite Pests in Vegetable Gardens  

E-print Network

objects where pests such as cut- worms, slugs, snails, pillbugs and sowbugs can congregate. Mulches help maintain moisture and provide shelter for spiders and predatory insects; however, mulch also provides shelter for pests. Select pest... be used inside the garden to control fire ants; be careful to avoid burning the applicator or the plants. For more information on fire ant management see http://fireants.tamu.edu. Snails and slugs: Products containing met- aldehyde are the primary...

Jackman, John A.

2008-02-19

58

SPATIAL VARIABILITY IN CORN AND SOYBEAN INSECT PESTS: PRECISION FARMING AND INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT FOR THE FUTURE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Public and private research effort is being invested in site-specific insect pest management but progress in this area lags behind other aspects of site-specific agriculture. The existence of field-level spatial variability in populations of key pests of soybean and corn suggests that a site-specif...

59

BIODIVERSITY Insect pests and pathogens of Australian  

E-print Network

in their native environments. Keywords Biological invasions, fungal tree pathogens, new encounter diseases, novel threatened by invasive alien pests and pathogens (Wingfield et al., 2010). The reality of this threat first invasive alien pest and pathogen problems have continued to appear in native woody ecosys- tems and forests

60

INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT IN STORED GRAIN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This presentation will feature a discussion how the use of insecticides can be optimized through integrated pest management. The primary and major secondary pests of stored grains will be presented as targets for insecticidal control. Current registered insecticides that are used for the various ph...

61

Applications of acoustics in insect pest management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Acoustic technology has been applied for many years in studies of insect communication and in the monitoring of calling-insect population levels, geographic distributions, and diversity, as well as in the detection of cryptic insects in soil, wood, container crops, and stored products. Acoustic devi...

62

Monitoring Sterile and Wild Insects in Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management Programmes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insect pest control programmes, which integrate the release of sterile insects, can be efficient only if the released insects have an optimal biological quality. Frequent monitoring of the quality of reared insects after being released in the field is an important but often neglected component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique (SIT). Parameters

M. J. B. VREYSEN

63

Identification and Control of Common Insect Pests of Ornamental Shrubs and Trees.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University introduces the identification and control of common ornamental insect pests. For each of the insects or insect groups (i.e. aphids) identified in this publication, information on host plants, pest description, and damage caused by the pest is given. Also a calendar…

Gesell, Stanley G.

64

Insect Pest Management in Food Legumes: Future Strategies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Food legumes such as chickpea, pigeonpea, cowpea, field pea, lentil, faba bean, blackgram, greengram, grasspea, and Phaseolus beans play an important role in the daily diets of people worldwide. A large number of insect pests attack these crops and cause extensive losses, namely Helicoverpa pod bo...

65

MANAGING INSECT PESTS OF POTATO Ricky E. Foster, Extension Entomologist  

E-print Network

Vegetable Insects E-96-W PURDUE EXTENSION Colorado potato beetle (l) larva and (r) adult (Photo Credit: J BEETLE The most devastating pest of potato in Indiana is the Colorado potato beetle (CPB). The adult tolerate more than 6-8% defoliation. Colorado potato beetle damage (Photo Credit: W. Cranshaw) #12

Ginzel, Matthew

66

PEST&CROP INDEX 2009 INSECTS, MITES & NEMATODES  

E-print Network

and Red Bugs in Soybean - 12 Corn Flea Beetle Winter Temperatures, Corn Flea Beetle Survival is Predictable For Insect Pests - 3 Japanese Beetle Japanese Beetles Emerging - 12 Japanese Beetle in Corn - 17 Soybean Aphid Migration to Winter Host: Started Strong But Ended Weak - 27 Spider Mites Yellow Beans, Many

Ginzel, Matthew

67

PEST&CROP INDEX 2008 INSECTS, MITES & NEMATODES  

E-print Network

­ 10 Armyworm and Slugs, Here and There ­ 11 Whorl Feeding Worms in Late Corn - 14 Bean Leaf Beetle Bean Leaf Beetle Pod Feeding on Late Soybean ­ 23 Black Cutworm Black Cutworm Spring Arrival MetPEST&CROP INDEX 2008 INSECTS, MITES & NEMATODES Asiatic Garden Beetle Asiatic Garden Beetle is Back

Ginzel, Matthew

68

Responses of Lettuce Cultivars to Insect Pests in Southern Florida  

E-print Network

, aphids SUMMARY. Banded cucumber beetle [BCB (Diabrotica balteata)], serpentine leaf- miner [SL (Liriomyza trifolii)], and aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) are among the major insect pests that cause significant significantly in their responses to infestations of BCB and aphids. Cultivar 70096 had the lowest percent (3

Florida, University of

69

Urban Warming Drives Insect Pest Abundance on Street Trees  

PubMed Central

Cities profoundly alter biological communities, favoring some species over others, though the mechanisms that govern these changes are largely unknown. Herbivorous arthropod pests are often more abundant in urban than in rural areas, and urban outbreaks have been attributed to reduced control by predators and parasitoids and to increased susceptibility of stressed urban plants. These hypotheses, however, leave many outbreaks unexplained and fail to predict variation in pest abundance within cities. Here we show that the abundance of a common insect pest is positively related to temperature even when controlling for other habitat characteristics. The scale insect Parthenolecanium quercifex was 13 times more abundant on willow oak trees in the hottest parts of Raleigh, NC, in the southeastern United States, than in cooler areas, though parasitism rates were similar. We further separated the effects of heat from those of natural enemies and plant quality in a greenhouse reciprocal transplant experiment. P. quercifex collected from hot urban trees became more abundant in hot greenhouses than in cool greenhouses, whereas the abundance of P. quercifex collected from cooler urban trees remained low in hot and cool greenhouses. Parthenolecanium quercifex living in urban hot spots succeed with warming, and they do so because some demes have either acclimatized or adapted to high temperatures. Our results provide the first evidence that heat can be a key driver of insect pest outbreaks on urban trees. Since urban warming is similar in magnitude to global warming predicted in the next 50 years, pest abundance on city trees may foreshadow widespread outbreaks as natural forests also grow warmer. PMID:23544087

Meineke, Emily K.; Dunn, Robert R.; Sexton, Joseph O.; Frank, Steven D.

2013-01-01

70

Insect-attracting and antimicrobial properties of antifreeze for monitoring insect pests and natural enemies in stored corn  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Insect infestations in stored grain cause extensive damage worldwide. Storage insect pests including the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), Sitophilus spp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and their natural enemies [e.g., Cephalonomia tarsalis (Ashmead) (Hymenopter...

71

Improved dry-fleshed sweetpotato genotypes resistant to insect pests.  

PubMed

Thirty-five mostly dry-fleshed sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. (Convolvulaceae), genotypes from the USDA-ARS/Clemson University sweetpotato breeding program were evaluated in nine field experiments at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory, Charleston, SC, from 1998 to 2004. There were highly significant entry effects for percentage of uninjured roots; wireworm, Diabrotica, and Systena (WDS) index; percentage of roots damaged by sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers); percentage of roots damaged by sweetpotato flea beetle, Chaetocnema confinis Crotch); and percentage of roots damaged by white grub larvae (primarily Plectris aliena Chapin). The susceptible control, 'SC1149-19', had a significantly lower percentage of uninjured roots, a significantly higher WDS rating, and higher percentage infestations of flea beetle, grubs, and sweetpotato weevils than all other sweetpotato entries in this study. Twenty-seven genotypes had significantly less insect damage than 'Beauregard', the leading commercial orange-fleshed cultivar in the United States. In addition, 11 genotypes had significantly less insect injury than 'Picadito', a commercial boniato-type sweetpotato grown extensively in southern Florida. Overall, no genotypes were more resistant to soil insect pests than the resistant checks 'Sumor' and 'Regal'. Many of the advanced dry-flesh sweetpotato genotypes had high levels of resistance to soil insect pests, and they represent a useful source of advanced germplasm for use in sweetpotato breeding programs. PMID:17066825

Jackson, D Michael; Bohac, J R

2006-10-01

72

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2014 CORN INSECT CONTROL  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2014 43 CORN INSECT CONTROL Francis to prevent or avoid injury, transgenic Bt corn, at-planting insecticides (including seed treatments in each field where corn is to be planted. Major insect pests of corn in South Carolina. Insect

Duchowski, Andrew T.

73

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 TOBACCO INSECT CONTROL  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2013 266 TOBACCO INSECT CONTROL Francis lost or becoming ineffective. When insect pest populations reach economic threshold levels, control measures must be taken. The ultimate line of defense against insect enemies is the use of chemicals

Stuart, Steven J.

74

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2014 TOBACCO INSECT CONTROL  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2014 279 TOBACCO INSECT CONTROL Francis lost or becoming ineffective. When insect pest populations reach economic threshold levels, control measures must be taken. The ultimate line of defense against insect enemies is the use of chemicals

Duchowski, Andrew T.

75

Targeting an antimicrobial effector function in insect immunity as a pest control strategy  

E-print Network

Insect pests such as termites cause damages to crops and man-made structures estimated at over $30 billion per year, imposing a global challenge for the human economy. Here, we report a strategy for compromising insect ...

Raman, Rahul

76

Sampling stored product insect pests: a comparison of four statistical sampling models for probability of pest detection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Statistically robust sampling strategies form an integral component of grain storage and handling activities throughout the world. Developing sampling strategies to target biological pests such as insects in stored grain is inherently difficult due to species biology and behavioral characteristics. ...

77

RECENT TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES FOR MANAGING INSECT PESTS OF STORED-GRAIN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Automation of grain sampling for insect pests should help to increase the adoption of stored-grain integrated pest management programs. Currently, there are acoustic sensors and electronic grain probe traps that are available for monitoring insects in stored grain. Both the acoustic and electronic g...

78

Soil fertility management and insect pests: harmonizing soil and plant health in agroecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultural methods such as crop fertilization can affect susceptibility of plants to insect pests by altering plant tissue nutrient levels. Research shows that the ability of a crop plant to resist or tolerate insect pests and diseases is tied to optimal physical, chemical and mainly biological properties of soils. Soils with high organic matter and active soil biology generally exhibit

Miguel A. Altieri; Clara I. Nicholls

2003-01-01

79

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 SOYBEAN INSECT CONTROL  

E-print Network

are a problem in your area (mainly the southern Coastal Plain), continue scouting until leaves shed (well into R the beans back, and then count and identify insects. Divide by three to get the number of pests per row foot threshold for foliage-feeding pests or pest combinations is 30 percent leaf-area loss before bloom and 15

Stuart, Steven J.

80

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2014 SOYBEAN INSECT CONTROL  

E-print Network

are a problem in your area (mainly the southern Coastal Plain), continue scouting until leaves shed (well into R the beans back, and then count and identify insects. Divide by three to get the number of pests per row foot threshold for foliage-feeding pests or pest combinations is 30 percent leaf-area loss before bloom and 15

Duchowski, Andrew T.

81

Bats Track and Exploit Changes in Insect Pest Populations  

PubMed Central

The role of bats or any generalist predator in suppressing prey populations depends on the predator's ability to track and exploit available prey. Using a qPCR fecal DNA assay, we document significant association between numbers of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) consuming corn earworm (CEW) moths (Helicoverpa zea) and seasonal fluctuations in CEW populations. This result is consistent with earlier research linking the bats' diet to patterns of migration, abundance, and crop infestation by important insect pests. Here we confirm opportunistic feeding on one of the world's most destructive insects and support model estimates of the bats' ecosystem services. Regression analysis of CEW consumption versus the moth's abundance at four insect trapping sites further indicates that bats track local abundance of CEW within the regional landscape. Estimates of CEW gene copies in the feces of bats are not associated with seasonal or local patterns of CEW abundance, and results of captive feeding experiments indicate that our qPCR assay does not provide a direct measure of numbers or biomass of prey consumed. Our results support growing evidence for the role of generalist predators, and bats specifically, as agents for biological control and speak to the value of conserving indigenous generalist predators. PMID:22952782

McCracken, Gary F.; Westbrook, John K.; Brown, Veronica A.; Eldridge, Melanie; Federico, Paula; Kunz, Thomas H.

2012-01-01

82

Weed manipulation for insect pest management in corn  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Populations of insect pests and associated predaceous arthropods were sampled by direct observation and other relative methods in simple and diversified corn habitats at two sites in north Florida during 1978 and 1979. Through various cultural manipulations, characteristic weed communities were established selectively in alternate rows within corn plots. Fall armyworm ( Spodoptera frugiperda J. E. Smith) incidence was consistently higher in the weed-free habitats than in the corn habitats containing natural weed complexes or selected weed associations. Corn earworm ( Heliothis zea Boddie) damage was similar in all weed-free and weedy treatments, suggesting that this insect is not affected greatly by weed diversity. Only the diversification of corn with a strip of soybean significantly reduced corn earworm damage. In one site, distance between plots was reduced. Because predators moved freely between habitats, it was difficult to identify between-treatment differences in the composition of predator communities. In the other site, increased distances between plots minimized such migrations, resulting in greater population densities and diversity of common foliage insect predators in the weed-manipulated corn systems than in the weed-free plots. Trophic relationships in the weedy habitats were more complex than food webs in monocultures. Predator diversity (measured as mean number of species per area) and predator density was higher in com plots surrounded by mature, complex vegetation than at those surrounded by annual crops. This suggests that diverse adjacent areas to crops provide refuge for predators, thus acting as colonization sources.

Altieri, M. A.; Whitcomb, W. H.

1980-11-01

83

Control of key pecan insect pests using biorational pesticides.  

PubMed

Key pecan insect pests include the black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis), pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), and stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Alternative control tactics are needed for management of these pests in organic and conventional systems. Our objective was to evaluate the potential utility of several alternative insecticides including three plant extract formulations, eucalyptus extract, citrus extract-8.92%, and citrus extract-19.4%, and two microbial insecticides, Chromobacterium subtsugae (Martin et al.) and Isaria fumosorosea (Wize). In the laboratory, eucalyptus extract, citrus extract-8.92%, citrus extract-19.4%, and C. subtsugae caused M. caryaefoliae mortality (mortality was reached approximately 78, 83, and 96%, respectively). In field tests, combined applications of I. fumosorosea with eucalyptus extract were synergistic and caused up to 82% mortality in M. caryaefoliae. In laboratory assays focusing on C. caryae suppression, C. subtsugae reduced feeding and oviposition damage, eucalyptus extract and citrus extract-19.4% were ineffective, and antagonism was observed when citrus extract-19.4% was combined with the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser). In field tests, C. subtsugae reduced C. caryae damage by 55% within the first 3d, and caused 74.5% corrected mortality within 7 d posttreatment. In the laboratory, C. subtsugae and eucalyptus extract did not cause mortality in the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say). Applications of C. subtsugae for suppression of C. caryae, and eucalyptus extract plus I. fumosorosea for control of M. caryaefoliae show promise as alternative insecticides and should be evaluated further. PMID:23448039

Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Cottrell, Ted E; Jackson, Mark A; Wood, Bruce W

2013-02-01

84

Nicotiana tabacum agglutinin is active against Lepidopteran pest insects.  

PubMed

A jasmonate-inducible lectin called Nicotiana tabacum agglutinin or NICTABA was found in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Samsun) leaves. Since NICTABA expression is also induced after insect herbivory, a role in the defence response of tobacco was suggested. In this report, a detailed analysis was made of the entomotoxic properties of NICTABA using different transgenic approaches. First, purified NICTABA was shown to be strongly resistant to proteolytic degradation by enzymes present in the Lepidopteran midgut. To address the question of whether NICTABA is also active against Lepidopteran larvae, transgenic N. tabacum plants that silence endogenous NICTABA expression were constructed using RNA interference. Feeding experiments with these transgenic N. tabacum plants demonstrated that silencing of NICTABA expression enhances the larval performance of the generalist pest insect Spodoptera littoralis. In a second transgenic approach, NICTABA was ectopically expressed in the wild diploid tobacco Nicotiana attenuata, a species that lacks a functional NICTABA gene. When these transgenic N. attenuata plants were used in feeding experiments with S. littoralis larvae, a clear reduction in mass gain and significantly slower development were observed. In addition, feeding experiments with the Solanaceae specialist, Manduca sexta, provided further evidence that NICTABA exerts clear entomotoxic effects on Lepidopteran larvae. PMID:20018900

Vandenborre, Gianni; Groten, Karin; Smagghe, Guy; Lannoo, Nausicaä; Baldwin, Ian T; Van Damme, Els J M

2010-02-01

85

Multiscale approach to pest insect monitoring: Random walks, pattern formation, synchronization, and networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pest insects pose a significant threat to food production worldwide resulting in annual losses worth hundreds of billions of dollars. Pest control attempts to prevent pest outbreaks that could otherwise destroy a sward. It is good practice in integrated pest management to recommend control actions (usually pesticides application) only when the pest density exceeds a certain threshold. Accurate estimation of pest population density in ecosystems, especially in agro-ecosystems, is therefore very important, and this is the overall goal of the pest insect monitoring. However, this is a complex and challenging task; providing accurate information about pest abundance is hardly possible without taking into account the complexity of ecosystems' dynamics, in particular, the existence of multiple scales. In the case of pest insects, monitoring has three different spatial scales, each of them having their own scale-specific goal and their own approaches to data collection and interpretation. In this paper, we review recent progress in mathematical models and methods applied at each of these scales and show how it helps to improve the accuracy and robustness of pest population density estimation.

Petrovskii, Sergei; Petrovskaya, Natalia; Bearup, Daniel

2014-09-01

86

1978 Insect Pest Management Guide: Home, Yard, and Garden. Circular 900.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication lists certain insecticides to control insect pests of food, fabrics, structures, man and animals, lawns, shrubs, trees, flowers and vegetables. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of insecticides to combat infestation. (CS)

Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

87

Insect pests of sweetpotato in Uganda: farmers' perceptions of their importance and control practices.  

PubMed

Insect pests are among the most important constraints limiting sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) production in Africa. However, there is inadequate information about farmers' knowledge, perceptions and practices in the management of key insect pests. This has hindered development of effective pest management approaches for smallholder farmers. A standard questionnaire was used to interview individual sweetpotato farmers (n?=?192) about their perception and management practices regarding insect pests in six major sweetpotato producing districts of Uganda. The majority (93%) of farmers perceived insect pests to be a very serious problem. With the exception of Masindi and Wakiso districts where the sweetpotato butterfly (Acraea acerata) was the number one constraint, sweetpotato weevils (Cylas puncticollis and C. brunneus) were ranked as the most important insect pests. Insecticide use in sweetpotato fields was very low being highest (28-38% of households) in districts where A. acerata infestation is the biggest problem. On average, 65% and 87% of the farmers took no action to control A. acerata and Cylas spp., respectively. Farmers were more conversant with the presence of and damage by A. acerata than of Cylas spp. as they thought that Cylas spp. root damage was brought about by a prolonged dry season. Different levels of field resistance (ability of a variety to tolerate damage) of sweetpotato landraces to A. acerata (eight landraces) and Cylas spp. (six landraces) were reported by farmers in all the six districts. This perceived level of resistance to insect damage by landraces needs to be investigated. To improve farmers' capabilities for sweetpotato insect pest management, it is crucial to train them in the basic knowledge of insect pest biology and control. PMID:25279278

Okonya, Joshua Sikhu; Mwanga, Robert Om; Syndikus, Katja; Kroschel, Jürgen

2014-01-01

88

Field Guide to Common Insect Pests of Urban Trees in the Northeast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For each insect, the following information is presented: host plant, photographs, damage information, life cycle, and management recommendations. This is an excellent collection of tree pests, and the species accounts are accurate, well-laid out, informative, and well illustrated. However, in the table of contents, white pine aphid and white pine weevil are mis-placed under "sawflies," and the heading for "Honeylocust Insect Pests" and the link for "Honeylocust Plant Bug" are transposed.

0000-00-00

89

A SURVEY OF FIVE STEM-FEEDING INSECT PESTS OF WHEAT IN THE NORTHERN GREAT PLAINS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Insect pests are important constraints to small grain production across the northern Great Plains. Pests such as the wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus, the wheat stem maggot, Meromyza americana, the Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor, the wheat joint worm, Tetramesa tritici, and the wheat strawworm, ...

90

1229 Insect Pest Status and Economics of Bt Cotton Cultivation under Irrigated Ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results : Insect pest status on Bt cotton has not changed with regard to sucking pest complex, but there is significant reduction of all the three bollworm population \\/ incidence viz., Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner), Earias vittella (Fabricius) and Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) throughout the crop growth, as compared to non Bt cotton hybrid. However, higher incidence of dusky cotton bug. Oxycarenus

Basavaraj V. Patil

91

Managing Insect and Mite Pests of Legumes, Grasses and Forage Crops in Texas.  

E-print Network

L I AZ43. / 8873 B-1401 N0.1401 1988 Texas Agricultural Extension Service - \\ Managing Insect and Mite Pests of Legumes, Grasses and Forage Crops in Texas Texas Agricultural Extension Service Zerle t. Carpenter, Director The Texas A...&M University System College Station, Texas TABLE OF CONTENTS INSECTICIDE APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 POLICY STATEMENT FOR MAKING PEST MANAGEMENT SUGGESTIONS...

Allen, C.T.; Hoelscher, Clifford E.

1988-01-01

92

Managing Insect Pests of Cacti and Other Succulents in Water-Efficient Landscapes  

E-print Network

Cacti and other succulents are popular landscape plants, especially where water is scarce. But a number of native and exotic pests can make it difficult to grow them. Learn how to identify and manage twelve insect pests that can damage your water...

Drees, Bastiaan M.

2008-11-06

93

Alien Invasive Insect and Mite Pests and Weeds in India and Their Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past ten years at least six species of insect and mite pests have invaded India affecting agricultural production. Some of the recent invasive pests in India are psyllid, Heteropsylla cubana Crawford on Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) De Witt; American serpentine leaf miner, Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) on a number of vegetables and orna- mental plants; coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei

C. A. VIRAKTAMATH

94

Insect pest problems in tropical agroforestry systems: Contributory factors and strategies for management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry trees are attacked by a wide spectrum of insects at all stages of their growth just like other annual and perennial crops. Pest management in agroforestry has not received much attention so far, but recent emphasis on producing high value tree products in agroforestry and using improved germplasm in traditional systems, and emergence of serious pest problems in some

M. R. Rao; M. P. Singh; R. Day

2000-01-01

95

Influences of trees on abundance of natural enemies of insect pests: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we review the use of natural enemies in crop pest management and describe research needed to better meet information needs for practical applications. Endemic natural enemies (predators and parasites) offer a potential but understudied approach to controlling insect pests in agricultural systems. With the current high interest in environmental stewardship, such an approach has special appeal as

M. E. Dix; R. J. Johnson; M. O. Harrell; R. M. Case; R. J. Wright; L. Hodges; J. R. Brandle; M. M. Schoeneberger; N. J. Sunderman; R. L. Fitzmaurice; L. J. Young; K. G. Hubbard

1995-01-01

96

Research toward control of key pecan insect pests using biorational pesticides  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Key pecan insect pests include the pecan weevil, Curculio caryae, black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae, and stink bugs. Alternative control tactics are needed for management of these pests in organic and conventional systems. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of several alternativ...

97

Interaction between juniper Juniperus communis L. and its fruit pest insects: Pest abundance, fruit characteristics and seed viability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships between the fruit features of Juniperus communis and the presence of fruit pests were studied in Sierra Nevada, SE Spain. The abundance of two insect species — a pulp-sucking scale and a seed-predator wasp — was surveyed with respect both to fruit characteristics and to viability of seeds contained therein. Seed-predator pressure was not significantly related to any

Daniel García

1998-01-01

98

Grape Insect and mite pests-2012 field season Department of Entomology  

E-print Network

Grape Insect and mite pests-2012 field season Greg Loeb Department of Entomology Cornell University insect feeding damage on the fruit that remains. Here I am thinking specifically about grape berry moth to sell the crop, be aware that we tend to see much higher levels of grape berry moth damage (increased

Keinan, Alon

99

Tissue-Specific Transcriptomics of the Exotic Invasive Insect Pest Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe insect midgut and fat body represent major tissue interfaces that deal with several important physiological functions including digestion, detoxification and immune response. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), is an exotic invasive insect pest that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) primarily in the Midwestern United States and Ontario, Canada. However, despite its high impact status little

Omprakash Mittapalli; Xiaodong Bai; Praveen Mamidala; Swapna Priya Rajarapu; Pierluigi Bonello; Daniel A. Herms; Michael N. Nitabach

2010-01-01

100

Biology and Control of Insect and Related Pests of Livestock in Wyoming. MP-23.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides information that a potential insecticide applicator can utilize to safely and effectively control insects and related pests of livestock. The first section of the manual discusses the general methods of preparation and application of insecticides. The second section concerns itself with the recognition of insect problems,…

Lloyd, John E.

101

A naturally occurring plant cysteine protease possesses remarkable toxicity against insect pests and synergizes Bacillus thuringiensis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

When caterpillars feed on maize (Zea maize L.) lines with native resistance to several Lepidopteran pests, a defensive systeine protease, Mir1-CP, rapidly accumulates at the wound site. Mir1-CP has been shown to inhibit caterpillar growth in vivo by attacking and permeabilizing the insect’s peritro...

102

INSECT PESTS OF POTATOES IN THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE AND THE POTENTIAL FOR THEIR CONTROL USING ENTOMOPATHOGENS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis, has been used extensively in crops, forests, and aquatic habitats for control of pest insects. Its safety and that of other insect specific bacteria for vertebrates and nontarget invertebrates have been reported in hundreds of studies. Short term effects on n...

103

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2014 COTTON INSECT MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2014 100 COTTON INSECT MANAGEMENT Jeremy cotton in South Carolina. Hundreds of species of insects may be found in cotton, but only a limited 1996, cotton growers in South Carolina have planted cotton varieties protected from tobacco budworm

Duchowski, Andrew T.

104

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 COTTON INSECT MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2013 93 COTTON INSECT MANAGEMENT Jeremy cotton in South Carolina. Hundreds of species of insects may be found in cotton, but only a limited 1996, cotton growers in South Carolina have planted cotton varieties protected from tobacco budworm

Stuart, Steven J.

105

Towards environmentally and human friendly insect pest control technologies: Photosensitization of leafminer flies Liriomyza bryoniae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of new, ecologically safe technologies to control insect pest populations is of great importance. Photoactive compounds usually used for photosensitization might be effective as pesticide agents, with low impact on the environment, being non-toxic and not mutagenic. Phosensitizer accumulates within the insect body and, following exposure to visible light, induces lethal photochemical reactions and death. The aim of this

Živil? Lukšien?; Natalija Kuril?ik; Saulius Jurš?nas; Sandra Radžiut?; Vincas B?da

2007-01-01

106

Ecology of the spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris: an important generalist predator of invasive insect pests  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) is a generalist predator known to feed on over 75 insect species, several of which are important invasive insect pests. A substantial body of knowledge from our research studies on the ecology of this predator will be presente...

107

Phylogeny of economically important insect pests that infesting several crops species in Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reported molecular data on insect pests of commercial crops in Peninsular Malaysia. Fifteen insect pests (Metisa plana, Calliteara horsefeldii, Cotesia vestalis, Bactrocera papayae, Bactrocera carambolae, Bactrocera latifrons, Conopomorpha cramella, Sesamia inferens, Chilo polychrysa, Rhynchophorus vulneratus, and Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) of nine crops were sampled (oil palm, coconut, paddy, cocoa, starfruit, angled loofah, guava, chili and mustard) and also four species that belong to the fern's pest (Herpetogramma platycapna) and storage and rice pests (Tribolium castaneum, Oryzaephilus surinamensis and Cadra cautella). The presented phylogeny summarized the initial phylogenetic hypothesis, which concerning by implementation of the economically important insect pests. In this paper, phylogenetic relationships among 39 individuals of 15 species that belonging to three orders under 12 genera were inferred from DNA sequences of mitochondrial marker, cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and nuclear marker, ribosomal DNA 28S D2 region. The phylogenies resulted from the phylogenetic analyses of both genes are relatively similar, but differ in the sequence of evolution. Interestingly, this most recent molecular data of COI sequences data by using Bayesian Inference analysis resulted a more-resolved phylogeny that corroborated with traditional hypotheses of holometabolan relationships based on traditional hypotheses of holometabolan relationships and most of recently molecular study compared to 28S sequences. This finding provides the information on relationships of pests species, which infested several crops in Malaysia and also estimation on Holometabola's order relationships. The identification of the larval stages of insect pests could be done accurately, without waiting the emergence of adults and supported by the phylogenetic tree.

Ghazali, Siti Zafirah; Zain, Badrul Munir Md.; Yaakop, Salmah

2014-09-01

108

Pest Insect Olfaction in an Insecticide-Contaminated Environment: Info-Disruption or Hormesis Effect  

PubMed Central

Most animals, including pest insects, live in an “odor world” and depend strongly on chemical stimuli to get information on their biotic and abiotic environment. Although integrated pest management strategies including the use of insect growth regulators (IGRs) are increasingly developed, most insect pest treatments rely on neurotoxic chemicals. These molecules are known to disrupt synaptic transmission, affecting therefore sensory systems. The wide-spread use of neurotoxic insecticides and the growing use of IGRs result in residual accumulation of low concentrations in the environment. These insecticide residues could act as an “info-disruptor” by modifying the chemical communication system, and therefore decrease chances of reproduction in target insects. However, residues can also induce a non-expected hormesis effect by enhancing reproduction abilities. Low insecticide doses might thus induce adaptive processes in the olfactory pathway of target insects, favoring the development of resistance. The effect of sublethal doses of insecticides has mainly been studied in beneficial insects such as honeybees. We review here what is known on the effects of sublethal doses of insecticides on the olfactory system of insect pests. PMID:22457653

Tricoire-Leignel, Hélène; Thany, Steeve Hervé; Gadenne, Christophe; Anton, Sylvia

2012-01-01

109

Tea: Biological control of insect and mite pests in China  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tea is one of the most economically important crops in China. To secure its production and quality conservation biological control within the context of integrated pest management (IPM) has been widely popularized for better control of arthropod pests on tea with less chemical insecticide usage and ...

110

FIELD ABUNDANCES OF INSECT PREDATORS AND INSECT PESTS ON ? ? ? ? ?-ENDOTOXIN-PRODUCING TRANSGENIC COTTON IN NORTHERN CHINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

China is one of the largest producers of cotton in the world. Insect pests such as cotton bollworm, cotton aphid, and mirids are the major factors that contribute to a decrease in cotton production. Transgenic cotton that expresses a gene derived from the bacterium Bacil- lus thuringiensis (Bt) has been deployed for combating cotton bollworm since 1997 in China, and

Kongming WU; Kejian LIN; Jin MIAO; Yongjun ZHANG

111

Insect pest densities across site-specific management zones of irrigated corn in northeastern Colorado.  

PubMed

The ability to manage insect pests in a site-specific manner is hindered by the costs and time required to describe pest densities and distributions. The purpose of this study was to determine whether insect pest distributions are related to site-specific management zones (SSMZs). Site-specific management zones, as described in this study, delineate fields into three zones of similar yield potential: high, medium, and low productivity. If insect densities vary across SSMZs, it is possible that management decisions could be made at the SSMZ level instead of treating the whole field. This research was conducted during summers 2001 and 2002 on cooperators' farms in northeastern Colorado. Surveys were conducted within corn, Zea mays L., fields, so that densities of three common insect pests of Colorado corn could be compared across SSMZ. The three insect pests were western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte; European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (HiAbner); and western bean cutworm, Richia albicosta (Smith). D. v. virgifera larvae and adults were most common in the high-productivity SSMZ. O. nubilalis larval abundance was similar at three fields, whereas in a fourth field the larvae were most common in the high-productivity SSMZ. In one field that contained substantial numbers of R. albicosta, egg abundance was similar across SSMZs, whereas larvae were most common in the high-productivity SSMZ. Site-specific management zones seemed to correlate well with the abundance of some insect pests and might prove useful for managing insects in a site-specific manner. PMID:17598539

Davidson, Silas A; Peairs, Frank B; Khosla, Rajiv

2007-06-01

112

Myco-biocontrol of insect pests: factors involved, mechanism, and regulation.  

PubMed

The growing demand for reducing chemical inputs in agriculture and increased resistance to insecticides have provided great impetus to the development of alternative forms of insect-pest control. Myco-biocontrol offers an attractive alternative to the use of chemical pesticides. Myco-biocontrol agents are naturally occurring organisms which are perceived as less damaging to the environment. Their mode of action appears little complex which makes it highly unlikely that resistance could be developed to a biopesticide. Past research has shown some promise of the use of fungi as a selective pesticide. The current paper updates us about the recent progress in the field of myco-biocontrol of insect pests and their possible mechanism of action to further enhance our understanding about the biological control of insect pests. PMID:22567344

Sandhu, Sardul Singh; Sharma, Anil K; Beniwal, Vikas; Goel, Gunjan; Batra, Priya; Kumar, Anil; Jaglan, Sundeep; Sharma, A K; Malhotra, Sonal

2012-01-01

113

Myco-Biocontrol of Insect Pests: Factors Involved, Mechanism, and Regulation  

PubMed Central

The growing demand for reducing chemical inputs in agriculture and increased resistance to insecticides have provided great impetus to the development of alternative forms of insect-pest control. Myco-biocontrol offers an attractive alternative to the use of chemical pesticides. Myco-biocontrol agents are naturally occurring organisms which are perceived as less damaging to the environment. Their mode of action appears little complex which makes it highly unlikely that resistance could be developed to a biopesticide. Past research has shown some promise of the use of fungi as a selective pesticide. The current paper updates us about the recent progress in the field of myco-biocontrol of insect pests and their possible mechanism of action to further enhance our understanding about the biological control of insect pests. PMID:22567344

Sandhu, Sardul Singh; Sharma, Anil K.; Beniwal, Vikas; Goel, Gunjan; Batra, Priya; Kumar, Anil; Jaglan, Sundeep; Sharma, A. K.; Malhotra, Sonal

2012-01-01

114

Insect and Mite Pests of Grain Sorghum -- Management Approaches.  

E-print Network

more than twice per season. Demeton. Apply once per season. Dimethoate. Do not apply more than three times per season. Disulfoton. Do not apply foliar spray or granules more than three times per crop season. Granular formulation recommended as whorl... are often applied to seed to control stored grain pests. These insecticides are not effective substitutes for the . control of soil pests. Planter Box Treatment Some insecticides are formulated as materials to be applied to seed in the planter box...

Anonymous,

1979-01-01

115

Towards environmentally and human friendly insect pest control technologies: photosensitization of leafminer flies Liriomyza bryoniae.  

PubMed

Development of new, ecologically safe technologies to control insect pest populations is of great importance. Photoactive compounds usually used for photosensitization might be effective as pesticide agents, with low impact on the environment, being non-toxic and not mutagenic. Phosensitizer accumulates within the insect body and, following exposure to visible light, induces lethal photochemical reactions and death. The aim of this study is to evaluate the possible usage of several photosensitizers (acridine orange, aminolevulinic acid, hematoporphyrin dimethyl ether, methylene blue) as photopesticides to control population of polyphagous plant pest Liriomyza bryoniae (Kaltenbach, 1858) (Diptera, Agromyzidae). Fluorescence measurements of intact cooled insects indicate that insect feeding with bait containing HPde and sugar induces remarkable accumulation of this compound in the body of insect. This accumulation is strongly dependent on sex and feeding duration. The highest HPde amount in the body of insect was detected 16 h after feeding, whereas no significant photosensitizer amount was detected in the same insect following 48 h. Following irradiation with visible light results in fast death of L. bryoniae. Of importance to note that survival of insects after feeding and irradiation depends on sex: female insect died much faster than males. PMID:17766141

Luksiene, Zivile; Kurilcik, Natalija; Jursenas, Saulius; Radziute, Sandra; B?da, Vincas

2007-11-12

116

Nonmarket economic impacts of forest insect pests: A literature review. Forest Service general technical report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of research on the nonmarket economic impacts of forest insect pests. The majority of the research reports are journal articles or fulfillment of three USDA Forest Service research contracts. This report also reviews the foundations for methodologies used and classifies the forest insect pests studied, the regions in which research has been conducted, the designated land-use areas, the stakeholders, the values, the measurement methods used, and the measures of value indicators. Information on each research project is described with relevant information condensed in tabular form.

Rosenberger, R.S.; Smith, E.L.

1997-05-01

117

Entomopathogenic Nematodes for Control of Insect Pests Above and Below Ground with Comments on Commercial Production  

PubMed Central

Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) have been utilized in classical, conservation, and augmentative biological control programs. The vast majority of applied research has focused on their potential as inundatively applied augmentative biological control agents. Extensive research over the past three decades has demonstrated both their successes and failures for control of insect pests of crops, ornamental plants, trees and lawn and turf. In this paper we present highlights of their development for control of insect pests above and below ground. The target insects include those from foliar, soil surface, cryptic and subterranean habitats. Advances in mass-production and formulation technology of EPNs, the discovery of numerous efficacious isolates/strains, and the desirability of reducing pesticide usage have resulted in a surge of commercial use and development of EPNs. Commercially produced EPNs are currently in use for control of scarab larvae in lawns and turf, fungus gnats in mushroom production, invasive mole crickets in lawn and turf, black vine weevil in nursery plants, and Diaprepes root weevil in citrus in addition to other pest insects. However, demonstrated successful control of several other insects, often has not lead to capture of a significant share of the pesticide market for these pests. PMID:23482993

Lacey, Lawrence A.; Georgis, Ramon

2012-01-01

118

Pest Management Science Pest Manag Sci (2008) Insect growth regulator effects of  

E-print Network

and neem oil on survivorship, development and fecundity of Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and its pests in organic agriculture, approved insecticides, such as neem, are periodically utilized to reduce damaging pest populations. The authors evaluated direct spray treatments of two neem formulations

Sheridan, Jennifer

119

ADVANCES IN INTEGRATING INSECT GROWTH REGULATORS INTO STORAGE PEST MANAGEMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Insect growth regulators (IGRs) are insecticides that mimic insect-produced hormones that regulate the developmental process. They generally have little or no mammalian toxicity, and are considered reduced-risk insecticides that are often exempt from tolerance requirements of regulatory agencies. Al...

120

PEST&CROP INDEX 2010 INSECTS, MITES & NEMATODES  

E-print Network

Done It? - 11 Bean Leaf Beetle Overwintering Survival of Insects: Was It Too Cold For Them? - 3 Black to Whorl Corn, Who Done It? ­ 11 Corn Earworm Moth Flight Quite Impressive - 21 Corn Flea Beetle Winter Temperatures, Corn Flea Beetle Survival, and Potential for Stewart's Wilt - 2 European Corn Borer Insect Damage

Ginzel, Matthew

121

PEST&CROP INDEX 2006 INSECTS, MITES & NEMATODES  

E-print Network

Fall Armyworm - 17 Worms in the Ear - 20 Bean Leaf Beetle Winter Temperatures and Field Crop Insects - 1 Bean Leaf Beetle Finding Early Soybean - 5 Bean Leaf Beetle Pod Feeding - 22 Black Cutworm Winter Moth Flight - 19 Worms in the Ear - 20 Corn Flea Beetle Winter Temperatures and Field Crop Insects - 1

Ginzel, Matthew

122

Pest&Crop INDEX 2003 INSECTS, MITES, AND NEMATODES  

E-print Network

Aphids Aphids in Wheat - 7 Armyworm Be Alert for Fall Armyworm Damage - 18 Bean Leaf Beetle Winter Temperatures and Field Crop Insects ­ 1 Bean Leaf Beetle Winter Survival and Early Season Damage ­ 5 Watch Emerging Soybeans for Bean Leaf Beetle - 11 Black Cutworm Winter Temperatures and Field Crop Insects ­ 1

Ginzel, Matthew

123

Pest&Crop INDEX 2005 INSECTS, MITES & NEMATODES  

E-print Network

Leaf Beetle Bean Leaf Beetle Waking Up from Winter's Nap ­ 6 Chewing Insects and Soybean Yield ­ 18 Inspect Seed Production Soybean for Bean Leaf Beetle Pod Feeding - 23 Black Cutworm Black Cutworm Adult and Rootworm Beetles Emerging - 15 Chewing Insects and Soybean Yield - 18 Mexican Bean Beetle Mexican Bean

Ginzel, Matthew

124

Development of Reference Transcriptomes for the Major Field Insect Pests of Cowpea: A Toolbox for Insect Pest Management Approaches in West Africa  

PubMed Central

Cowpea is a widely cultivated and major nutritional source of protein for many people that live in West Africa. Annual yields and longevity of grain storage is greatly reduced by feeding damage caused by a complex of insect pests that include the pod sucking bugs, Anoplocnemis curvipes Fabricius (Hemiptera: Coreidae) and Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stål (Hemiptera: Coreidae); as well as phloem-feeding cowpea aphids, Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and flower thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Efforts to control these pests remain a challenge and there is a need to understand the structure and movement of these pest populations in order to facilitate the development of integrated pest management strategies (IPM). Molecular tools have the potential to help facilitate a better understanding of pest populations. Towards this goal, we used 454 pyrosequencing technology to generate 319,126, 176,262, 320,722 and 227,882 raw reads from A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti, respectively. The reads were de novo assembled into 11,687, 7,647, 10,652 and 7,348 transcripts for A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti, respectively. Functional annotation of the resulting transcripts identified genes putatively involved in insecticide resistance, pathogen defense and immunity. Additionally, sequences that matched the primary aphid endosymbiont, Buchnera aphidicola, were identified among A. craccivora transcripts. Furthermore, 742, 97, 607 and 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were respectively predicted among A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti transcripts, and will likely be valuable tools for future molecular genetic marker development. These results demonstrate that Roche 454-based transcriptome sequencing could be useful for the development of genomic resources for cowpea pest insects in West Africa. PMID:24278221

Agunbiade, Tolulope A.; Sun, Weilin; Coates, Brad S.; Djouaka, Rousseau; Tamò, Manuele; Ba, Malick N.; Binso-Dabire, Clementine; Baoua, Ibrahim; Olds, Brett P.; Pittendrigh, Barry R.

2013-01-01

125

Development of reference transcriptomes for the major field insect pests of cowpea: a toolbox for insect pest management approaches in west Africa.  

PubMed

Cowpea is a widely cultivated and major nutritional source of protein for many people that live in West Africa. Annual yields and longevity of grain storage is greatly reduced by feeding damage caused by a complex of insect pests that include the pod sucking bugs, Anoplocnemis curvipes Fabricius (Hemiptera: Coreidae) and Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stål (Hemiptera: Coreidae); as well as phloem-feeding cowpea aphids, Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and flower thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Efforts to control these pests remain a challenge and there is a need to understand the structure and movement of these pest populations in order to facilitate the development of integrated pest management strategies (IPM). Molecular tools have the potential to help facilitate a better understanding of pest populations. Towards this goal, we used 454 pyrosequencing technology to generate 319,126, 176,262, 320,722 and 227,882 raw reads from A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti, respectively. The reads were de novo assembled into 11,687, 7,647, 10,652 and 7,348 transcripts for A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti, respectively. Functional annotation of the resulting transcripts identified genes putatively involved in insecticide resistance, pathogen defense and immunity. Additionally, sequences that matched the primary aphid endosymbiont, Buchnera aphidicola, were identified among A. craccivora transcripts. Furthermore, 742, 97, 607 and 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were respectively predicted among A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti transcripts, and will likely be valuable tools for future molecular genetic marker development. These results demonstrate that Roche 454-based transcriptome sequencing could be useful for the development of genomic resources for cowpea pest insects in West Africa. PMID:24278221

Agunbiade, Tolulope A; Sun, Weilin; Coates, Brad S; Djouaka, Rousseau; Tamò, Manuele; Ba, Malick N; Binso-Dabire, Clementine; Baoua, Ibrahim; Olds, Brett P; Pittendrigh, Barry R

2013-01-01

126

Exotic insect pests and pathogens pose the most serious current threat to the forests of eastern North  

E-print Network

Articles Exotic insect pests and pathogens pose the most serious current threat to the forests of eastern North America.The litany of pest and pathogen introductions is long; it includes well of many of these pests and pathogens has been studied to the extent that researchers know (or are learning

Berkowitz, Alan R.

127

Biological control of pests and insects. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of biological agents to control insects and pests. Radiation, genetic breeding, bacteria, fungi, viruses, and pheromones are discussed as alternatives to pesticidal management. Methods for monitoring the effectiveness and environmental impact of these agents are reviewed. Population control of fruit flies, spruce sawflies, flies, mosquitoes, cockroaches, gypsy moths, and other agriculturally-important insects is also discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-04-01

128

Biological control of pests and insects. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of biological agents to control insects and pests. Radiation, genetic breeding, bacteria, fungi, viruses, and pheromones are discussed as alternatives to pesticidal management. Methods for monitoring the effectiveness and environmental impact of these agents are reviewed. Population control of fruit flies, spruce sawflies, flies, mosquitoes, cockroaches, gypsy moths, and other agriculturally-important insects is also discussed. (Contains a minimum of 190 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-02-01

129

HOST PLANT RESISTANCE AND INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT IN CHICKPEA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nearly 60 insect species feed on chickpea worldwide, of which cutworms (black cutworm - Agrotis ipsilon and turnip moth - Agrotis segetum), leaf feeding caterpillars (leaf caterpillar - Spodoptera exigua and hairy caterpillar - Spilarctia oblique), leaf miners (Liriomyza cicerina), aphids (Aphis cra...

130

Host Plant Resistance and Insect Pest Management in Chickpea  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nearly 60 insect species feed on chickpea worldwide, of which cutworms (black cutworm - Agrotis ipsilon and turnip moth - Agrotis segetum), leaf feeding caterpillars (leaf caterpillar - Spodoptera exigua and hairy caterpillar - Spilarctia oblique), leaf miners (Liriomyza cicerina), aphids (Aphis cr...

131

INSECT GROWTH REGULATORS (IGRS) IN PEST MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This presentation is part of the symposium "Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in Stored Product Entomology", presented at the 5th National IPM Conference. The use of IGRs as grain protectants, contact insecticides, and aerosols will be described and discussed using examples from current research proj...

132

PEST&CROP INDEX 2011 INSECTS, MITES & NEMATODES  

E-print Network

Bean Leaf Beetle Time to Scout Smart: High Risk Fields and Potential Pests ­ 8 Bean Leaf Beetle Pod Feeding on Late Maturing Soybean ­ 23 YouTube Video: Considerations for Bean Leaf Beetle Feeding in Late the Radar for Most ­ 25 Corn Earworm Corn Flea Beetle European Corn Borer European Corn Borer, Forgotten

Ginzel, Matthew

133

Some analytical and numerical approaches to understanding trap counts resulting from pest insect immigration.  

PubMed

Monitoring of pest insects is an important part of the integrated pest management. It aims to provide information about pest insect abundance at a given location. This includes data collection, usually using traps, and their subsequent analysis and/or interpretation. However, interpretation of trap count (number of insects caught over a fixed time) remains a challenging problem. First, an increase in either the population density or insects activity can result in a similar increase in the number of insects trapped (the so called "activity-density" problem). Second, a genuine increase of the local population density can be attributed to qualitatively different ecological mechanisms such as multiplication or immigration. Identification of the true factor causing an increase in trap count is important as different mechanisms require different control strategies. In this paper, we consider a mean-field mathematical model of insect trapping based on the diffusion equation. Although the diffusion equation is a well-studied model, its analytical solution in closed form is actually available only for a few special cases, whilst in a more general case the problem has to be solved numerically. We choose finite differences as the baseline numerical method and show that numerical solution of the problem, especially in the realistic 2D case, is not at all straightforward as it requires a sufficiently accurate approximation of the diffusion fluxes. Once the numerical method is justified and tested, we apply it to the corresponding boundary problem where different types of boundary forcing describe different scenarios of pest insect immigration and reveal the corresponding patterns in the trap count growth. PMID:25744607

Bearup, Daniel; Petrovskaya, Natalia; Petrovskii, Sergei

2015-05-01

134

Tracking the global dispersal of a cosmopolitan insect pest, the peach potato aphid  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Global commerce and human transportation are responsible for the range expansion of various insect pests such as the plant sucking aphids. High resolution DNA markers provide the opportunity to examine the genetic structure of aphid populations, identify aphid genotypes and infer their evolutionary history and routes of expansion which is of value in developing management strategies. One of the

John T Margaritopoulos; Louise Kasprowicz; Gaynor L Malloch; Brian Fenton

2009-01-01

135

Comparison of gene expression in the salivary glands of three major insect pests of cereals  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Hessian fly, the wheat midge, and the rice gall midge are among the most important insect pests of cereals worldwide. Plant resistance is the most effective method of control; however, the use of resistant cultivars leads to the development of biotypes that can survive on formerly resistant cult...

136

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 PEANUT INSECT MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2013 172 PEANUT INSECT MANAGEMENT J. W spotted wilt). All commercial peanuts planted in S. C. should be treated at-planting with a preventative later in the season. Burrower bugs primarily attack reduced-tillage peanut fields under drought stress

Stuart, Steven J.

137

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2014 PEANUT INSECT MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2014 182 PEANUT INSECT MANAGEMENT J. W spotted wilt). All commercial peanuts planted in S. C. should be treated at-planting with a preventative in-furrow insecticide (Thimet/Phorate 20G, or Cruser Maxx Peanut + Orthene at an estimated 20DAP

Duchowski, Andrew T.

138

Analysis of importations for biological control of insect pests and weeds in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Importations of biological control agents for insect pests and weeds in New Zealand are summarized and factors contributing to the relative success of the programmes are examined. The establishment rate of 30.9% is similar to that achieved worldwide, but is significantly lower than the rate achieved in the island habitat of Hawaii. The pioneering role of New Zealand in biological

P. J. Cameron; R. L. Hill; J. Bain; W. P. Thomas

1993-01-01

139

Microbial Control of Insect Pests in Temperate Orchard Systems: Potential for Incorporation into IPM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Due to their selectivity and safety, microbial control agents appear to be ready made components of IPM systems that will not pose a threat to applicators or the environment and will allow other natural enemies to function. Control of several orchard pest insects using microbial control agents, incl...

140

Microbial control of insect pests in temperate orchard systems: status and future prospects  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Due to their selectivity and safety, microbial control agents (MCAs) are ready made components of IPM systems that will not pose a threat to applicators or the environment. Control of several orchard pest insects using MCAs, including viruses, Bacillus thuringiensis, fungi and entomopathogenic nemat...

141

LEGISLATIVE AND REGULATORY ACTIONS AFFECTING INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT FOR POST-HARVEST SYSTEMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The 1996 Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) has resulted in policy interpretations and regulatory decisions that have severely impacted insect pest management programs for stored products in the United States. The food safety aspects of this law, especially as targeted to children and other vulnerab...

142

Maize planting time and arthropod abundance in southern Mindanao, Philippines. I. Population dynamics of insect pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monthly plantings conducted over 4 years in a rainfed triple maize cropping system in southern Mindanao, Philippines, revealed the Asian corn borer (ACB) Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée) as the most important insect pest. Of minor importance and being restricted to one crop stage were rice seedling maggot Atherigona oryzae Malloch, thrips Thrips palmi Karny and Megalurothrips usitatus (Bagnall), corn leafhopper Cicadulina

J. A. Litsinger; C. G. Dela Cruz; B. L. Canapi; A. T. Barrion

2007-01-01

143

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops 2013 FARM-STORED GRAIN INSECT MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops ­ 2013 290 FARM-STORED GRAIN INSECT MANAGEMENT Robert G. Bellinger, Extension Entomologist The quality of farm-stored grain is at its peak when. At harvest, for instance, make sure that your harvesting equipment is adjusted to minimize breaking

Stuart, Steven J.

144

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 CORN INSECT CONTROL  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2013 42 CORN INSECT CONTROL Francis P. F PHI PGI COMMENTS Armyworm (fall armyworm) Bt-resistant corn AGRISURE CB AGRISURE GT 3000 AGRISURE VIPTERA 3111 AGRISURE VIPTERA 3110 HERCULEX I HERCULEX XTRA YIELDGARD CORN BORER YIELDGARD PLUS YIELDGARD

Stuart, Steven J.

145

New/Emerging Pests in Alaska: Will Climate Change Favor Insect Expansion Into Alaska  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Because of its geographical isolation and climatic constraints, Alaska agriculture is considered relatively free of diseases and insect pests. However, since 1973, the winter temperatures in Alaska have increased by 2-3 C'. It is logical to assume that continued global climate change could produce ...

146

Directional flow of aeration to manage insect pests in stored wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Using low-volume ambient air to cool stored grain is a common management practice in the southern plains, but little research has been done recently to determine if the direction of airflow makes a difference regarding the cooling and insect pest populations. We conducted a study by using suction ae...

147

The Insect Ecdysone Receptor is a Good Potential Target for RNAi-based Pest Control  

PubMed Central

RNA interference (RNAi) has great potential for use in insect pest control. However, some significant challenges must be overcome before RNAi-based pest control can become a reality. One challenge is the proper selection of a good target gene for RNAi. Here, we report that the insect ecdysone receptor (EcR) is a good potential target for RNAi-based pest control in the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens, a serious insect pest of rice plants. We demonstrated that the use of a 360 bp fragment (NlEcR-c) that is common between NlEcR-A and NlEcR-B for feeding RNAi experiments significantly decreased the relative mRNA expression levels of NlEcR compared with those in the dsGFP control. Feeding RNAi also resulted in a significant reduction in the number of offspring per pair of N. lugens. Consequently, a transgenic rice line expressing NlEcR dsRNA was constructed by Agrobacterium- mediated transformation. The results of qRT-PCR showed that the total copy number of the target gene in all transgenic rice lines was 2. Northern blot analysis showed that the small RNA of the hairpin dsNlEcR-c was successfully expressed in the transgenic rice lines. After newly hatched nymphs of N. lugens fed on the transgenic rice lines, effective RNAi was observed. The NlEcR expression levels in all lines examined were decreased significantly compared with the control. In all lines, the survival rate of the nymphs was nearly 90%, and the average number of offspring per pair in the treated groups was significantly less than that observed in the control, with a decrease of 44.18-66.27%. These findings support an RNAi-based pest control strategy and are also important for the management of rice insect pests. PMID:25516715

Yu, Rong; Xu, Xinping; Liang, Yongkang; Tian, Honggang; Pan, Zhanqing; Jin, Shouheng; Wang, Na; Zhang, Wenqing

2014-01-01

148

Pest control. Full crop protection from an insect pest by expression of long double-stranded RNAs in plastids.  

PubMed

Double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) targeted against essential genes can trigger a lethal RNA interference (RNAi) response in insect pests. The application of this concept in plant protection is hampered by the presence of an endogenous plant RNAi pathway that processes dsRNAs into short interfering RNAs. We found that long dsRNAs can be stably produced in chloroplasts, a cellular compartment that appears to lack an RNAi machinery. When expressed from the chloroplast genome, dsRNAs accumulated to as much as 0.4% of the total cellular RNA. Transplastomic potato plants producing dsRNAs targeted against the ?-actin gene of the Colorado potato beetle, a notorious agricultural pest, were protected from herbivory and were lethal to its larvae. Thus, chloroplast expression of long dsRNAs can provide crop protection without chemical pesticides. PMID:25722411

Zhang, Jiang; Khan, Sher Afzal; Hasse, Claudia; Ruf, Stephanie; Heckel, David G; Bock, Ralph

2015-02-27

149

Integrated Pest Management of Sunflower Insect Pests in the Northern Great Plains  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sunflowers are native to North America and include 50 species in the genus Helianthus. Thus, associated insects have coevolved with the plants for centuries. A number of these insect species have made the transition from the wild plants to the cultivated plant to feed and develop. These species affe...

150

Managing Insect Pests ofTexas Insect pests are often a major limiting factor in Texas sunflower  

E-print Network

sunflower yield and know when those pests are most likely to occur during the growth of the plant are laid on the plant within 4 to 7 days after buds begin to open (late R4 growth stage, see Fig. 6). Eggs. The small, black seeds of oilseed sunflower contain 38 to 50 percent oil. They are processed into sunflower

Mukhtar, Saqib

151

Intercropping for Management of Insect Pests of Castor, Ricinus communis, in the Semi—Arid Tropics of India  

PubMed Central

Intercropping is one of the important cultural practices in pest management and is based on the principle of reducing insect pests by increasing the diversity of an ecosystem. On—farm experiments were conducted in villages of semi—arid tropical (SAT) India to identify the appropriate combination of castor (Ricinus communis L.) (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae) and intercropping in relation to pest incidence. The diversity created by introducing cluster bean, cowpea, black gram, or groundnut as intercrops in castor (1:2 ratio proportions) resulted in reduction of incidence of insect pests, namely semilooper (Achaea janata L.), leaf hopper (Empoasca flavescens Fabricius), and shoot and capsule borer (Conogethes punctiferalis Guenee). A buildup of natural enemies (Microplitis, coccinellids, and spiders) of the major pests of castor was also observed in these intercropping systems and resulted in the reduction of insect pests. Further, these systems were more efficient agronomically and economically, and were thus more profitable than a castor monocrop. PMID:22934569

Srinivasa Rao, M.; Venkateswarlu, B.

2012-01-01

152

Intercropping for management of insect pests of castor, Ricinus communis, in the semi-arid tropics of India.  

PubMed

Intercropping is one of the important cultural practices in pest management and is based on the principle of reducing insect pests by increasing the diversity of an ecosystem. On-farm experiments were conducted in villages of semi-arid tropical (SAT) India to identify the appropriate combination of castor (Ricinus communis L.) (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae) and intercropping in relation to pest incidence. The diversity created by introducing cluster bean, cowpea, black gram, or groundnut as intercrops in castor (1:2 ratio proportions) resulted in reduction of incidence of insect pests, namely semilooper (Achaea janata L.), leaf hopper (Empoasca flavescens Fabricius), and shoot and capsule borer (Conogethes punctiferalis Guenee). A buildup of natural enemies (Microplitis, coccinellids, and spiders) of the major pests of castor was also observed in these intercropping systems and resulted in the reduction of insect pests. Further, these systems were more efficient agronomically and economically, and were thus more profitable than a castor monocrop. PMID:22934569

Rao, M Srinivasa; Rama Rao, C A; Srinivas, K; Pratibha, G; Vidya Sekhar, S M; Sree Vani, G; Venkateswarlu, B

2012-01-01

153

EFFICACY OF THE ENTOMOPATHOGENIC NEMATODE STEINERNEMA RIOBRAVE AGAINST THE STORED PRODUCT INSECT PESTS TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM AND PLODIA INTERPUNCTELLA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Insects that attack stored grain and grain-based products can cause severe damage and economic loss. Persistence of insects in hidden refugia and infestation resulting from insects moving from refugia into products contributes to their pest status. Entomopathogenic nematodes have not been previousl...

154

Transcriptome Analysis in Cotton Boll Weevil (Anthonomus grandis) and RNA Interference in Insect Pests  

PubMed Central

Cotton plants are subjected to the attack of several insect pests. In Brazil, the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, is the most important cotton pest. The use of insecticidal proteins and gene silencing by interference RNA (RNAi) as techniques for insect control are promising strategies, which has been applied in the last few years. For this insect, there are not much available molecular information on databases. Using 454-pyrosequencing methodology, the transcriptome of all developmental stages of the insect pest, A. grandis, was analyzed. The A. grandis transcriptome analysis resulted in more than 500.000 reads and a data set of high quality 20,841 contigs. After sequence assembly and annotation, around 10,600 contigs had at least one BLAST hit against NCBI non-redundant protein database and 65.7% was similar to Tribolium castaneum sequences. A comparison of A. grandis, Drosophila melanogaster and Bombyx mori protein families’ data showed higher similarity to dipteran than to lepidopteran sequences. Several contigs of genes encoding proteins involved in RNAi mechanism were found. PAZ Domains sequences extracted from the transcriptome showed high similarity and conservation for the most important functional and structural motifs when compared to PAZ Domains from 5 species. Two SID-like contigs were phylogenetically analyzed and grouped with T. castaneum SID-like proteins. No RdRP gene was found. A contig matching chitin synthase 1 was mined from the transcriptome. dsRNA microinjection of a chitin synthase gene to A. grandis female adults resulted in normal oviposition of unviable eggs and malformed alive larvae that were unable to develop in artificial diet. This is the first study that characterizes the transcriptome of the coleopteran, A. grandis. A new and representative transcriptome database for this insect pest is now available. All data support the state of the art of RNAi mechanism in insects. PMID:24386449

Coelho, Roberta Ramos; Antonino de Souza Jr, José Dijair; Togawa, Roberto Coiti; Silva-Junior, Orzenil Bonfim; Pappas-Jr, Georgios Joannis; da Silva, Maria Cristina Mattar; Engler, Gilbert; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

2013-01-01

155

Supplemental Insert for "Managing Insect Pests of Texas Sunflower,"  

E-print Network

full grown (http://entowww.tamu.edu/images/insects/fieldguide/bimg178.html). Biology and Life Cycle such as wild sunflower, ragweed and cocklebur may also serve as important overwintering hosts. Larvae begin to pupate in early summer and adults begin to emerge in late June and continue emergence through August

Mukhtar, Saqib

156

PEST&CROP INDEX 2012 INSECTS, MITES & NEMATODES  

E-print Network

Asiatic Garden Beetle Asiatic Garden Beetle Grub Is Back - 6 Bean Leaf Beetle Just the Facts Ma'am: Effects of a Mild Winter on Insect Populations ­ 1 VIDEO: Assessing Early Bean Leaf Beetle Feeding ­ 8 Bean Leaf Beetle Pod Feeding - 22 Black Cutworm Black Cutworm Moth Arrival Early with Eye

Ginzel, Matthew

157

INSECTS, MITES, AND NEMATODES 2004 PEST&CROP INDEX  

E-print Network

Wheat in NE Indiana - 11 Armyworm Still Going - 12 Bean Leaf Beetle Bean Leaf Beetle Looking for First Emerging Soybean ­ 7 Late Season Bean Leaf Beetle Pod Feeding - 23 Black Cutworm Black Cutworm Adult! ­ 16 Soybean Insects and Defoliation ­ 19 Mexican Bean Beetle Appearing in Southern County Soybean

Ginzel, Matthew

158

Insect-attracting and antimicrobial properties of antifreeze for monitoring insect pests and natural enemies in stored corn.  

PubMed

Insect infestations in stored grain cause extensive damage worldwide. Storage insect pests, including the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae); Sitophilus spp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae); and their natural enemies [e.g., Cephalonomia tarsalis (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae), and Anisopteromalus calandrae (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)] inhabit a temporary, but stable ecosystem with constant environmental conditions. The objective of the present experiment was to assess the efficacy of using ethylene glycol antifreeze in combination with nutrient solutions to monitor storage insect pest and natural enemy populations in three bins of corn, Zea mays L. The treatments were deionized water, a diluted (1:5 antifreeze:water) antifreeze solution, 10% honey, 10% honey in the diluted antifreeze solution, 10% beer in the diluted antifreeze solution, 10% sucrose in the diluted antifreeze solution, and a commercial pheromone trap suspended in a 3.8-liter container filled with 300-ml of diluted antifreeze solution. The seven treatments captured storage insect pests and their natural enemies in the bins at 33-36 degrees C and 51-55% RH. The pheromone trap in the container with the diluted antifreeze captured significantly more P. interpunctella than the other treatments, but a lower percentage (7.6%) of these captures were females compared with the rest of the treatments (> 40% females). All trapping solutions also captured Sitophilus spp. and other beetle species, but the captures of the coleopteran pests were not significantly different among the seven treatments (P > 0.05). Two parasitoid wasps also were captured in the study. The number of A. calandrae was different among the seven treatments (P < 0.05), whereas the number of C. tarsalis was not different among the treatments (P > 0.05). Most A. calandrae adults were captured by the 10% honey in the diluted antifreeze, whereas the fewest were captured in the deionized water. Microbial growth was observed in the 10% honey solution, but no microbial growth occurred in the rest of the treatments, including 10% honey in the diluted antifreeze solution. The results of insect captures and microbial growth demonstrated that antifreeze could be used as a part of storage insect monitoring and/or control programs. PMID:18459433

Ni, Xinzhi; Gunawan, Gunawati; Brown, Steve L; Sumner, Paul E; Ruberson, John R; Buntin, G David; Holbrook, C Corley; Lee, R Dewey; Streett, Douglas A; Throne, James E; Campbell, James F

2008-04-01

159

Feeding Behavior of a Potential Insect Pest, Lygus hesperus, on Four New Industrial Crops for the Arid Southwestern USA.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Camelina (Camelina sativa), guayule (Parthenium argentatum), lesquerella (Physaria fendleri), and vernonia ( Centrapalus pauciflorus [formerly Vernonia galamensis]) are either under limited commercial production or being developed for production in the southwestern USA. Insect pests are a potential ...

160

[Effects of cutting on the population dynamics of main insect pests on alfalfa].  

PubMed

A systematic investigation was made on the effects of cutting on the population dynamics of main insect pests on alfalfa in Dingxi of Gansu Province. The results showed that the effects of cutting varied significantly with the kinds of insect pests. The seasonal average population densities of Therioaphis trifolii, Acyrthosiphon pisum and thrips decreased significantly and maintained at a low level under the first cutting in early June, but less variation was observed under the second cutting in mid-July. Plant bug presented somewhat different picture. In the early period of first cutting, its seasonal average population density decreased significantly but increased then, and was significantly higher in early August, compared with that in uncut field. Opposite with T. trifolii, A. pisum and thrips, the seasonal average population density of plant bug was more affected by second cutting. PMID:18533546

Liu, Chang-Zhong; Yan, Lin; Wei, Lie-Xin; Zhang, Fang; Qian, Xiu-Juan

2008-03-01

161

Activity of an essential oil derived from Chenopodium ambrosioides on greenhouse insect pests.  

PubMed

This study involved both greenhouse and laboratory experiments evaluating the effect of an essential oil product (QRD 400) derived from Chenopodium ambrosioides variety nr. Ambrosioides L. (Chenopodiaceae) on greenhouse insect pests that feed on different plant parts: citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso); longtailed mealybug, Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti); western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), and fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.). Treatments were applied to coleus, Solenostemon scutellarioides plants; transvaal daisy, Gerbera jamesonii flowers; or growing medium, depending on the insect pest. The essential oil was most effective, based on adult emergence, on both the second and third instars of the fungus gnat Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila when applied as a drench to growing medium. In addition, there was a significant rate response for QRD 400 on fungus gnats. The QRD 400 treatment had the highest percentage of mortality on longtailed mealybug (55%) compared with the other treatments. However, the essential oil was less effective against citrus mealybug (3% mortality) and western flower thrips adults (18-34% mortality) compared with standard insecticides, such as acetamiprid (TriStar) and spinosad (Conserve), which are typically used by greenhouse producers. This lack of efficacy may be associated with volatility and short residual properties of the essential oil or with the essential oil taking longer to kill insect pests. Other insecticides and miticides evaluated, including sesame oil, garlic, paraffinic oil, and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis, provided minimal control of the designated insect pests. In addition, adult rove beetle Atheta coriaria Kraatz adults were not effective in controlling the larval instars of fungus gnats when applied at a rate of five adults per container. PMID:17461071

Cloyd, Raymond A; Chiasson, Helene

2007-04-01

162

Releases of biological control agents of insect pests on Easter Island (Pacific Ocean)  

Microsoft Academic Search

For half a century, agriculture on Easter Island has been affected by an increasing number of accidentally introduced insect\\u000a pests. Due to the absence of natural enemies and other factors, these have reached high density levels which claimed for intensive\\u000a use of pesticides. A project supported by the National Funds for Regional Development (FNDR) was established in 1984 to develop

S. R. Ripa; P. S. Rojas; G. Velasco

1995-01-01

163

Insecticide resistance in five major insect pests of cotton in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insecticide resistance to representatives of commonly used insecticide groups (pyrethroids—cypermethrin; organophosphates—chlorpyriphos; cyclodienes—endosulfan) was determined in five major insect pests of cotton from the main cotton growing regions of India with emphasis on Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra. The cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) exhibited widespread resistance to cypermethrin with 23–8022-fold resistance being recorded in field strains. Resistance to endosulfan and chlorpyriphos

K. R. Kranthi; D. R. Jadhav; S. Kranthi; R. R. Wanjari; S. S. Ali; D. A. Russell

2002-01-01

164

AH EATING BLOCK SYSTEM FOR STUDYING THERMAL DEATH KINETICS OF INSECT PESTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel heating block system to provide rates of temperature increase between 0.2 and 28°C\\/min was developed for investigating thermal death kinetics of insect pests. The finite element method was used to analyze heat transfer through the block system and during the heating of fifth-instar codling moths ( Cydia pomonella L.). Measured heating rates of the block agreed with finite

J. N. Ikediala; J. Tang; T. Wig

165

Incidence and Severity of Rice Diseases and Insect Pests in Relation to Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Climatic factors especially temperature and relative humidity are the key factors influencing development of any insect pest\\u000a and disease of rice. CO2 is the key factor for global climate change, resulting increase in temperature. The intergovernmental panel on climate change\\u000a predicted that with the current emission scenario, global mean temperature would rise between 0.9°C and 3.5°C by the year\\u000a 2100.

Mainul Haq; M. A. Taher Mia; M. F. Rabbi; M. A. Ali

166

Insect pest management of winter planted cotton in coastal rice?fallows of West Bengal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts to grow some Indian strains of G. hirsutum cotton in the dry winter season, with the residual soil moisture of rice?fallows in tropical coastal West Bengal, including the sundarbans (India), were initiated in 1969–70. Earias vitella (Stoll) was the ‘key’ insect pest from the presquaring to the boll maturing stage, while Heliothis armigera (Hubner) was an occasional mid?and late?season

A. K. Dutt; J. L. Saha

1990-01-01

167

[Occurrence of insect pests in hospitals in Poland].  

PubMed

The prevalent synantropic species present in hospitals in Poland was the German cockroach (Blattella germanica L.), found in about 70% hospitals. It was followed by Oriental cockroach (Blatta orientais L.) and Pharaoh's ant (Monomorium pharaonis L.) occurred in 40% and 17% of hospitals respectively. Kitchens, laundries and lavatories were the most often infested places. Preliminary investigation of German cockroaches caught in hospitals in Poland showed on their body surfaces presence of bacteria known as these causing nosocomial infection. Several strains were resistant to antibacterial drugs widely used for treatment and showed insensitivity to chemical disinfectants used for surface treatment. Additional risk elements in Poland could be high resistance levels to many insecticides used for insect control in hospitals. PMID:12910602

Gliniewicz, Aleksandra; Sawicka, Bozena; Czajka, Ewa

2003-01-01

168

Floricultural Insects and Related Pests - Biology and Control, Section I. Florogram - Specialty Manual Issue for Commercial Greenhouse Growers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed by the Massachusetts Cooperative Extension Service as a guide for the control of the most common insects and related pests of floricultural crops grown commercially in glass and plastic houses in Massachusetts. The publication consists of two sections. The first section presents a description of the major pests of…

Gentile, A. G.; Scanlon, D. T.

169

Relative densities of natural enemy and pest insects within California hedgerows.  

PubMed

Research on hedgerow design for supporting communities of natural enemies for biological control lags behind farmer innovation in California, where assemblages of perennial plant species have been used on crop field margins in the last decade. We compared natural enemy to pest ratios between fields with hedgerows and fields with weedy margins by sampling beneficial insects and key pests of vegetables on sticky cards. We used biweekly vacuum samples to measure the distribution of key insect taxa among native perennial plant species with respect to the timing and intensity of bloom. Sticky cards indicated a trend that field margins with hedgerows support a higher ratio of natural enemies to pests compared with weedy borders. Hedgerow plant species hosted different relative densities of a generally overlapping insect community, and the timing and intensity of bloom only explained a small proportion of the variation in insect abundance at plant species and among hedgerows, with the exception of Orius spp. on Achillea millefolium L. and Baccharis pilularis De Candolle. Indicator Species Analysis showed an affinity of parasitic wasps, especially in the super-family Chalcidoidea, for B. pilularis whether or not it was in flower. A. millefolium was attractive to predatory and herbivorous homopterans; Heteromeles arbutifolia (Lindley) Roemer and B. pilularis to Diabrotica undecimpunctata undecimpunctata Mannerheim; and Rhamnus californica Eschsch to Hemerobiidae. Perennial hedgerows can be designed through species selection to support particular beneficial insect taxa, but plant resources beyond floral availability may be critical in providing structural refuges, alternative prey, and other attractive qualities that are often overlooked. PMID:23905731

Gareau, Tara L Pisani; Letourneau, Deborah K; Shennan, Carol

2013-08-01

170

Restoring a maize root signal that attracts insect-killing nematodes to control a major pest  

PubMed Central

When attacked by herbivorous insects, plants emit volatile compounds that attract natural enemies of the insects. It has been proposed that these volatile signals can be manipulated to improve crop protection. Here, we demonstrate the full potential of this strategy by restoring the emission of a specific belowground signal emitted by insect-damaged maize roots. The western corn rootworm induces the roots of many maize varieties to emit (E)-?-caryophyllene, which attracts entomopathogenic nematodes that infect and kill the voracious root pest. However, most North American maize varieties have lost the ability to emit (E)-?-caryophyllene and may therefore receive little protection from the nematodes. To restore the signal, a nonemitting maize line was transformed with a (E)-?-caryophyllene synthase gene from oregano, resulting in constitutive emissions of this sesquiterpene. In rootworm-infested field plots in which nematodes were released, the (E)-?-caryophyllene-emitting plants suffered significantly less root damage and had 60% fewer adult beetles emerge than untransformed, nonemitting lines. This demonstration that plant volatile emissions can be manipulated to enhance the effectiveness of biological control agents opens the way for novel and ecologically sound strategies to fight a variety of insect pests. PMID:19666594

Degenhardt, Jörg; Hiltpold, Ivan; Köllner, Tobias G.; Frey, Monika; Gierl, Alfons; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Hibbard, Bruce E.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Turlings, Ted C. J.

2009-01-01

171

Restoring a maize root signal that attracts insect-killing nematodes to control a major pest.  

PubMed

When attacked by herbivorous insects, plants emit volatile compounds that attract natural enemies of the insects. It has been proposed that these volatile signals can be manipulated to improve crop protection. Here, we demonstrate the full potential of this strategy by restoring the emission of a specific belowground signal emitted by insect-damaged maize roots. The western corn rootworm induces the roots of many maize varieties to emit (E)-beta-caryophyllene, which attracts entomopathogenic nematodes that infect and kill the voracious root pest. However, most North American maize varieties have lost the ability to emit (E)-beta-caryophyllene and may therefore receive little protection from the nematodes. To restore the signal, a nonemitting maize line was transformed with a (E)-beta-caryophyllene synthase gene from oregano, resulting in constitutive emissions of this sesquiterpene. In rootworm-infested field plots in which nematodes were released, the (E)-beta-caryophyllene-emitting plants suffered significantly less root damage and had 60% fewer adult beetles emerge than untransformed, nonemitting lines. This demonstration that plant volatile emissions can be manipulated to enhance the effectiveness of biological control agents opens the way for novel and ecologically sound strategies to fight a variety of insect pests. PMID:19666594

Degenhardt, Jörg; Hiltpold, Ivan; Köllner, Tobias G; Frey, Monika; Gierl, Alfons; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Hibbard, Bruce E; Ellersieck, Mark R; Turlings, Ted C J

2009-08-11

172

Effect of volatile constituents from Securidaca longepedunculata on insect pests of stored grain.  

PubMed

Securidaca longepedunculata Fers (Polygalaceae) is commonly used as a traditional medicine in many parts of Africa as well as against a number of invertebrate pests, including insects infesting stored grain. The present study showed that S. longepedunculata root powder, its methanol extract, and the main volatile component, methyl salicylate, exhibit repellent and toxic properties to Sitophilus zeamais adults. Adult S. zeamais that were given a choice between untreated maize and maize treated with root powder, extract, or synthetic methyl salicylate in a four-way choice olfactometer significantly preferred the control maize. Methyl salicylate vapor also had a dose-dependant fumigant effect against S. zeamais, Rhyzopertha dominica, and Prostephanus truncates, with a LD100 achieved with a 60microl dose in a 1-l container against all three insect species after 24 hr of exposure. Probit analyses estimated LD50 values between 34 and 36 microl (95% CI) for all insect species. Furthermore, prolonged exposure for 6 days showed that lower amounts (30 microl) of methyl salicylate vapor were able to induce 100% adult mortality of the three insect species. The implications are discussed in the context of improving stored product pest control by small-scale subsistence farmers in Africa. PMID:15856785

Jayasekara, Thamara K; Stevenson, Philip C; Hall, David R; Belmain, Steven R

2005-02-01

173

Diseases and Insect Pests of Ornamental Plants 11:776:391 (3 credits) period (3:55 to 5:15 p.m.)  

E-print Network

Diseases and Insect Pests of Ornamental Plants 11:776:391 (3 credits) MW 5th period (3:55 to 5:15 p is to familiarize students with common insect and disease problems that occur during the production and maintenance management context. In each class, several diseases or insect pests will be profiled. Student profile

Chen, Kuang-Yu

174

Insect Pests of Shade Trees and Shrubs: A Guide for Commercial Nurserymen and Arborists. Publication E-41.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide presents information on controlling insect pests of ornamental trees and shrubs. It is organized for easy reference by nurserymen, arborists, and others desirous of controlling insect damage. General information given includes notes on spraying and sprayers, insecticides, general purpose sprays, phytotoxicity, and health precautions.…

Schuder, Donald L.

175

Virtual bats: manipulating the activities of bats and insects as a practical application for integrated pest control  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many insects, including many agricultural pests, respond to the ultrasonic calls of bats by taking evasive action and curtailing flight activity. Earlier attempts to exploit this co-evolved relationship to inhibit insect activity for crop protection (Belton and Kempster 1962) showed promise, but we...

176

Efficacy of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema riobrave against the stored-product insect pests Tribolium castaneum and Plodia interpunctella  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persistence of stored-product insects in hidden refugia and their subsequent movement into stored commodities resulting in product infestation contributes to their pest status and represents a potential target for biological control agents. Entomopathogenic nematodes have not been previously tested against stored-product insects in environments such as empty grain bins or food processing and warehouse facilities, but their effectiveness at finding

Olgaly Ramos-Rodríguez; James F. Campbell; Sonny B. Ramaswamy

2007-01-01

177

Fluorescent sperm marking to improve the fight against the pest insect Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann; Diptera: Tephritidae).  

PubMed

The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) involving area-wide release of mass-reared and sterilized pest insects has proven successful to reduce, control and eradicate economically important pest species, such as the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly). For the efficient application, effective monitoring to assess the number and mating success of the released medflies is essential. Here, we report sperm-specific marking systems based on the spermatogenesis-specific Ceratitis capitata beta2-tubulin (Ccbeta2t) promoter. Fluorescent sperm can be isolated from testes or spermathecae. The marking does not cause general disadvantages in preliminary laboratory competitiveness assays. Therefore, transgenic sperm marking could serve as a major improvement for monitoring medfly SIT programs. The use of such harmless transgenic markers will serve as an ideal initial condition to transfer insect transgenesis technology from the laboratory to field applications. Moreover, effective and easily recognizable sperm marking will make novel studies possible on medfly reproductive biology which will help to further improve SIT programs. PMID:18504022

Scolari, Francesca; Schetelig, Marc F; Bertin, Sabrina; Malacrida, Anna R; Gasperi, Giuliano; Wimmer, Ernst A

2008-06-01

178

ChiloDB: a genomic and transcriptome database for an important rice insect pest Chilo suppressalis.  

PubMed

ChiloDB is an integrated resource that will be of use to the rice stem borer research community. The rice striped stem borer (SSB), Chilo suppressalis Walker, is a major rice pest that causes severe yield losses in most rice-producing countries. A draft genome of this insect is available. The aims of ChiloDB are (i) to store recently acquired genomic sequence and transcriptome data and integrate them with protein-coding genes, microRNAs, piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) data and (ii) to provide comprehensive search tools and downloadable data sets for comparative genomics and gene annotation of this important rice pest. ChiloDB contains the first version of the official SSB gene set, comprising 80,479 scaffolds and 10?221 annotated protein-coding genes. Additionally, 262 SSB microRNA genes predicted from a small RNA library, 82?639 piRNAs identified using the piRNApredictor software, 37,040 transcripts from a midgut transcriptome and 69?977 transcripts from a mixed sample have all been integrated into ChiloDB. ChiloDB was constructed using a data structure that is compatible with data resources, which will be incorporated into the database in the future. This resource will serve as a long-term and open-access database for research on the biology, evolution and pest control of SSB. To the best of our knowledge, ChiloDB is one of the first genomic and transcriptome database for rice insect pests. Database URL: http://ento.njau.edu.cn/ChiloDB. PMID:24997141

Yin, Chuanlin; Liu, Ying; Liu, Jinding; Xiao, Huamei; Huang, Shuiqing; Lin, Yongjun; Han, Zhaojun; Li, Fei

2014-01-01

179

ChiloDB: a genomic and transcriptome database for an important rice insect pest Chilo suppressalis  

PubMed Central

ChiloDB is an integrated resource that will be of use to the rice stem borer research community. The rice striped stem borer (SSB), Chilo suppressalis Walker, is a major rice pest that causes severe yield losses in most rice-producing countries. A draft genome of this insect is available. The aims of ChiloDB are (i) to store recently acquired genomic sequence and transcriptome data and integrate them with protein-coding genes, microRNAs, piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) data and (ii) to provide comprehensive search tools and downloadable data sets for comparative genomics and gene annotation of this important rice pest. ChiloDB contains the first version of the official SSB gene set, comprising 80?479 scaffolds and 10?221 annotated protein-coding genes. Additionally, 262 SSB microRNA genes predicted from a small RNA library, 82?639 piRNAs identified using the piRNApredictor software, 37?040 transcripts from a midgut transcriptome and 69?977 transcripts from a mixed sample have all been integrated into ChiloDB. ChiloDB was constructed using a data structure that is compatible with data resources, which will be incorporated into the database in the future. This resource will serve as a long-term and open-access database for research on the biology, evolution and pest control of SSB. To the best of our knowledge, ChiloDB is one of the first genomic and transcriptome database for rice insect pests. Database URL: http://ento.njau.edu.cn/ChiloDB. PMID:24997141

Yin, Chuanlin; Liu, Ying; Liu, Jinding; Xiao, Huamei; Huang, Shuiqing; Lin, Yongjun; Han, Zhaojun; Li, Fei

2014-01-01

180

The toxin and antidote puzzle: new ways to control insect pest populations through manipulating inheritance.  

PubMed

Insects carry out essential ecological functions, such as pollination, but also cause extensive damage to agricultural crops, and transmit human diseases such as malaria and dengue fever. Advances in insect transgenesis are making it increasingly feasible to engineer genes conferring desirable phenotypes, and gene drive systems are required to spread these genes into wild populations. Medea provides one solution, being able to spread into a population from very low initial frequencies through the action of a maternally-expressed toxin linked to a zygotically-expressed antidote. Several other toxin-antidote combinations are imaginable that distort the offspring ratio in favor of a desired transgene, or drive the population towards an all-male crash. We explore two such systems--Semele, which is capable of spreading a desired transgene into an isolated population in a confined manner; and Merea, which is capable of inducing a local population crash when located on the Z chromosome of a Lepidopteron pest. PMID:21876382

Marshall, John M

2011-01-01

181

Ancient pests: the season of the Santorini Minoan volcanic eruption and a date from insect chitin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attributing a season and a date to the volcanic eruption of Santorini in the Aegean has become possible by using preserved remains of the bean weevil, Bruchus rufipes, pests of pulses, from the storage jars of the West House, in the Bronze Age settlement at Akrotiri. We have applied an improved pre-treatment methodology for dating the charred insects, and this provides a date of 1744-1538 BC. This date is within the range of others obtained from pulses from the same context and confirms the utility of chitin as a dating material. Based on the nature of the insect material and the life cycle of the species involved, we argue for a summer eruption, which took place after harvest, shortly after this material was transported into the West House storeroom.

Panagiotakopulu, Eva; Higham, Thomas; Sarpaki, Anaya; Buckland, Paul; Doumas, Christos

2013-07-01

182

Ancient pests: the season of the Santorini Minoan volcanic eruption and a date from insect chitin.  

PubMed

Attributing a season and a date to the volcanic eruption of Santorini in the Aegean has become possible by using preserved remains of the bean weevil, Bruchus rufipes, pests of pulses, from the storage jars of the West House, in the Bronze Age settlement at Akrotiri. We have applied an improved pre-treatment methodology for dating the charred insects, and this provides a date of 1744-1538 BC. This date is within the range of others obtained from pulses from the same context and confirms the utility of chitin as a dating material. Based on the nature of the insect material and the life cycle of the species involved, we argue for a summer eruption, which took place after harvest, shortly after this material was transported into the West House storeroom. PMID:23793358

Panagiotakopulu, Eva; Higham, Thomas; Sarpaki, Anaya; Buckland, Paul; Doumas, Christos

2013-07-01

183

Riding the Trojan horse: combating pest insects with their own symbionts  

PubMed Central

Summary Insects form an extremely large group of animals and bear a consequently large variety of associated microbes. This microbiota includes very specific and obligate symbionts that provide essential functions to the host, and facultative partners that are not necessarily required for survival. The Tephritidae is a large family that includes many fruit pests such as the Mediterranean fruit fly (the medfly, Ceratitis capitata) and the Olive fly (Bactrocera oleae). Community and functional analyses showed that the microbiota of both flies contribute to their diet, and affect host fitness parameters. The analysis of the microbiota's community structure of mass?reared, sterilized medfly males used in the sterile insect technique revealed a strong reduction in Klebsiella spp. compared with non?sterile and wild flies. Inoculation of sterile males with this gut population affected female mating behaviour as they preferentially mated with inoculated versus non?inoculated males. These studies suggest that control can be significantly improved by manipulating symbionts in pest animals. PMID:21338477

Jurkevitch, Edouard

2011-01-01

184

Riding the Trojan horse: combating pest insects with their own symbionts.  

PubMed

Insects form an extremely large group of animals and bear a consequently large variety of associated microbes. This microbiota includes very specific and obligate symbionts that provide essential functions to the host, and facultative partners that are not necessarily required for survival. The Tephritidae is a large family that includes many fruit pests such as the Mediterranean fruit fly (the medfly, Ceratitis capitata) and the Olive fly (Bactrocera oleae). Community and functional analyses showed that the microbiota of both flies contribute to their diet, and affect host fitness parameters. The analysis of the microbiota's community structure of mass-reared, sterilized medfly males used in the sterile insect technique revealed a strong reduction in Klebsiella spp. compared with non-sterile and wild flies. Inoculation of sterile males with this gut population affected female mating behaviour as they preferentially mated with inoculated versus non-inoculated males. These studies suggest that control can be significantly improved by manipulating symbionts in pest animals. PMID:21338477

Jurkevitch, Edouard

2011-09-01

185

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic crop: an environment friendly insect-pest management strategy.  

PubMed

Introduction of DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane) and following move towards indiscriminate use of synthetic chemical insecticides led to the contamination of water and food sources, poisoning of non-target beneficial insects and development of insect-pests resistant to the chemical insecticides. Increased public concems about the adverse environmental effects of indiscriminate use of chemical insecticides prompted search of altemative methods for insect-pest control. One of the promising alternatives has been the use of biological control agents. There is well-documented history of safe application of Bt (B. thuringiensis, a gram positive soil bacterium) as effective biopesticides and a number of reports of expression of delta-endotoxin gene(s) in crop plants are available. Only a few insecticidal sprays are required on Bt transgenic crops, which not only save cost and time, but also reduce health risks. Insects exhibit remarkable ability to develop resistance to different insecticidal compounds, which raises concern about the unsystematic use of Bt transgenic technology also. Though resistance to Bt products among insect species under field conditions has been rare, laboratory studies show that insects are capable of developing high levels of resistance to one ormore Cry proteins. Now it is generally agreed that 'high-dose/refuge strategy' is the most promising and practical approach to prolong the effectiveness of Bt toxins. Although manybiosafety concerns, ethical and moral issues exist, area under Bt transgenic crops is rapidly increasing and they are cultivated on more than 32 million hectares world over Even after reservation of European Union (EU) for acceptance of geneticaly modified (GM) crops, 6 out of 25 countries have already adopted Bt crops and many otherindustrial countries will adopt Bt transgenic crops in near future. While the modem biotechnology has been recognized to have a great potential for the promotion of human well-being, adoption of biosafety protocol is necessary to protect human health and environment from the possible adverse effects of the products of genetic engineering. The debate between proponents and opponents of GM technology has created major obstacles in hamessing benefits of the technology It has now become clear that transgenics willbe accepted by the public only when doubts related with general risks and environmental safety are adequately dispelled. Thus, there is need to organize public awareness and present the benefits of Bt transgenic crops to improve social attitude for their rational deployment. In this review, an attempt has been made to discuss social and environmental safety issues of Bt transgenic crops. PMID:19295059

Kumar, Suresh; Chandra, Amaresh; Pandey, K C

2008-09-01

186

Numerical and Functional Responses of Forest Bats to a Major Insect Pest in Pine Plantations  

PubMed Central

Global change is expected to modify the frequency and magnitude of defoliating insect outbreaks in forest ecosystems. Bats are increasingly acknowledged as effective biocontrol agents for pest insect populations. However, a better understanding is required of whether and how bat communities contribute to the resilience of forests to man- and climate-driven biotic disturbances. We studied the responses of forest insectivorous bats to a major pine defoliator, the pine processionary moth pityocampa, which is currently expanding its range in response to global warming. We used pheromone traps and ultrasound bat recorders to estimate the abundance and activity of moths and predatory bats along the edge of infested pine stands. We used synthetic pheromone to evaluate the effects of experimentally increased moth availability on bat foraging activity. We also evaluated the top-down regulation of moth population by estimating T. pityocampa larval colonies abundance on the same edges the following winter. We observed a close spatio-temporal matching between emergent moths and foraging bats, with bat activity significantly increasing with moth abundance. The foraging activity of some bat species was significantly higher near pheromone lures, i.e. in areas of expected increased prey availability. Furthermore moth reproductive success significantly decreased with increasing bat activity during the flight period of adult moths. These findings suggest that bats, at least in condition of low prey density, exhibit numerical and functional responses to a specific and abundant prey, which may ultimately result in an effective top-down regulation of the population of the prey. These observations are consistent with bats being useful agents for the biocontrol of insect pest populations in plantation forests. PMID:25285523

Charbonnier, Yohan; Barbaro, Luc; Theillout, Amandine; Jactel, Hervé

2014-01-01

187

Numerical and functional responses of forest bats to a major insect pest in pine plantations.  

PubMed

Global change is expected to modify the frequency and magnitude of defoliating insect outbreaks in forest ecosystems. Bats are increasingly acknowledged as effective biocontrol agents for pest insect populations. However, a better understanding is required of whether and how bat communities contribute to the resilience of forests to man- and climate-driven biotic disturbances. We studied the responses of forest insectivorous bats to a major pine defoliator, the pine processionary moth pityocampa, which is currently expanding its range in response to global warming. We used pheromone traps and ultrasound bat recorders to estimate the abundance and activity of moths and predatory bats along the edge of infested pine stands. We used synthetic pheromone to evaluate the effects of experimentally increased moth availability on bat foraging activity. We also evaluated the top-down regulation of moth population by estimating T. pityocampa larval colonies abundance on the same edges the following winter. We observed a close spatio-temporal matching between emergent moths and foraging bats, with bat activity significantly increasing with moth abundance. The foraging activity of some bat species was significantly higher near pheromone lures, i.e. in areas of expected increased prey availability. Furthermore moth reproductive success significantly decreased with increasing bat activity during the flight period of adult moths. These findings suggest that bats, at least in condition of low prey density, exhibit numerical and functional responses to a specific and abundant prey, which may ultimately result in an effective top-down regulation of the population of the prey. These observations are consistent with bats being useful agents for the biocontrol of insect pest populations in plantation forests. PMID:25285523

Charbonnier, Yohan; Barbaro, Luc; Theillout, Amandine; Jactel, Hervé

2014-01-01

188

Toxicity of seven foliar insecticides to four insect parasitoids attacking citrus and cotton pests.  

PubMed

Laboratory studies were carried out to compare the toxicity of seven foliar insecticides to four species of adult beneficial insects representing two families of Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae (Aphytis melinus Debach, Eretmocerus eremicus Rose & Zolnerowich, and Encarsiaformosa Gahan) and Mymaridae (Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault) that attack California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell); sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (both E. eremicus and E. formosa); and glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar), respectively. Insecticides from four pesticide classes were evaluated using a petri dish bioassay technique across a range of concentrations to develop dosage-mortality regressions. Insecticides tested included acetamiprid (neonicotinoid); chlorpyrifos (organophosphate); bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, and fenpropathrin (pyrethroids); and buprofezin and pyriproxyfen (insect growth regulators [IGRs]). Chlorpyrifos was consistently the most toxic pesticide to all four species of beneficial insects tested based on LC50 values recorded 24 h posttreatment compared with 48-h LC50 values with the neonicotinoid and pyrethroids or 96 h with the IGRs. Among the three pyrethroids, fenpropathrin was usually less toxic (except similar toxicity to A. melinus) than was cyfluthrin, and it was normally less toxic (except similar toxicity with E. formosa) than was bifenthrin. Acetamiprid was generally less toxic than bifenthrin (except similar toxicity with G. ashmeadi). The IGRs buprofezin and pyriproxyfen were usually less toxic than the contact pesticides, but we did not test for possible impacts on female fecundity. For all seven pesticides tested, A. melinus was the most susceptible parasitoid of the four test species. The data presented here will provide pest managers with specific information on the compatibility of select insecticides with natural enemies attacking citrus and cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., pests. PMID:17849851

Prabhaker, Nilima; Morse, J G; Castle, S J; Naranjo, S E; Henneberry, T J; Toscano, N C

2007-08-01

189

Science and Management of Pest Insects, Plant Pathogens and Goal: Colorado State University will enhance its focus and depth in undergraduate education, graduate education, research,  

E-print Network

Science and Management of Pest Insects, Plant Pathogens and Weeds Goal: Colorado State University in entomology, plant pathology, and weed science; be recognized as a primary source of pest management expertise and applied science regarding pest species (their taxonomy, genomics, population genetics, and ecology

190

EYcacy of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema riobrave against the stored-product insect pests Tribolium castaneum and Plodia interpunctella  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persistence of stored-product insects in hidden refugia and their subsequent movement into stored commodities resulting in product infestation contributes to their pest status and represents a potential target for biological control agents. Entomopathogenic nematodes have not been previously tested against stored-product insects in environments such as empty grain bins or food processing and ware- house facilities, but their eVectiveness at

Olgaly Ramos-Rodríguez; James F. Campbell; Sonny B. Ramaswamy

191

A Simulation Approach to Assessing Sampling Strategies for Insect Pests: An Example with the Balsam Gall Midge  

E-print Network

Gall Midge R. Drew Carleton1,2 *, Stephen B. Heard3 , Peter J. Silk1 1 Canadian Forest Service simulation with ``pre-sampling'' data. We illustrate our approach using data for balsam gall midge to Assessing Sampling Strategies for Insect Pests: An Example with the Balsam Gall Midge. PLoS ONE 8(12): e

Heard, Stephen B.

192

Introduction The apple maggot is one of the most important economic insect pests of apples in New  

E-print Network

Hampshire. This native insect is also known as the "railroad worm." It is a northern pest of apples, ranging laying does not occur until 8-10 days after the fly has emerged. The eggs are deposited in tiny punctures throughout the apple. The maggot feeding resembles a complex system of railroads. That is how the name

New Hampshire, University of

193

Advances in RNA interference: dsRNA treatment in trees and grapevines for insect pest population suppression  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

RNA interference (RNAi) is a breakthrough technology that has significantly impacted contemporary approaches to control the damage caused by insect pests. Most well-known RNAi studies continue to rely on injecting the dsRNA molecules directly into the organism; this approach is not suitable for use...

194

A Naturally Occurring Plant Cysteine Protease Possesses Remarkable Toxicity against Insect Pests and Synergizes Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

When caterpillars feed on maize (Zea maize L.) lines with native resistance to several Lepidopteran pests, a defensive cysteine protease, Mir1-CP, rapidly accumulates at the wound site. Mir1-CP has been shown to inhibit caterpillar growth in vivo by attacking and permeabilizing the insect's peritrophic matrix (PM), a structure that surrounds the food bolus, assists in digestion and protects the midgut

Srinidi Mohan; Peter W. K. Ma; W. Paul Williams; Dawn S. Luthe; Juergen Kroymann

2008-01-01

195

Unexpected Effects of Low Doses of a Neonicotinoid Insecticide on Behavioral Responses to Sex Pheromone in a Pest Insect  

PubMed Central

In moths, which include many agricultural pest species, males are attracted by female-emitted sex pheromones. Although integrated pest management strategies are increasingly developed, most insect pest treatments rely on widespread use of neurotoxic chemicals, including neonicotinoid insecticides. Residual accumulation of low concentrations of these insecticides in the environment is known to be harmful to beneficial insects such as honey bees. This environmental stress probably acts as an “info-disruptor” by modifying the chemical communication system, and therefore decreases chances of reproduction in target insects that largely rely on olfactory communication. However, low doses of pollutants could on the contrary induce adaptive processes in the olfactory pathway, thus enhancing reproduction. Here we tested the effects of acute oral treatments with different low doses of the neonicotinoid clothianidin on the behavioral responses to sex pheromone in the moth Agrotis ipsilon using wind tunnel experiments. We show that low doses of clothianidin induce a biphasic effect on pheromone-guided behavior. Surprisingly, we found a hormetic-like effect, improving orientation behavior at the LD20 dose corresponding to 10 ng clothianidin. On the contrary, a negative effect, disturbing orientation behavior, was elicited by a treatment with a dose below the LD0 dose corresponding to 0.25 ng clothianidin. No clothianidin effect was observed on behavioral responses to plant odor. Our results indicate that risk assessment has to include unexpected effects of residues on the life history traits of pest insects, which could then lead to their adaptation to environmental stress. PMID:25517118

Rabhi, Kaouther K.; Esancy, Kali; Voisin, Anouk; Crespin, Lucille; Le Corre, Julie; Tricoire-Leignel, Hélène; Anton, Sylvia; Gadenne, Christophe

2014-01-01

196

Integration of endemic natural enemies and Bacillus thuringiensis to manage insect pests of Brassica crops in North Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brassica crops, principally varieties of Brassica oleracea and Brassica campestris, account for over half the total vegetable production in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK). The crops are attacked by a complex of insects and the two major pest species, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) and Pieris rapae L. (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) represent the principal constraints to Brassica crop production.

Michael J. Furlong; Kim Hak Ju; Pak Wi Su; Jo Kwang Chol; Ri Chang Il; Myron P. Zalucki

2008-01-01

197

Australian endemic pest tephritids: genetic, molecular and microbial tools for improved Sterile Insect Technique  

PubMed Central

Among Australian endemic tephritid fruit flies, the sibling species Bactrocera tryoni and Bactrocera neohumeralis have been serious horticultural pests since the introduction of horticulture in the nineteenth century. More recently, Bactrocera jarvisi has also been declared a pest in northern Australia. After several decades of genetic research there is now a range of classical and molecular genetic tools that can be used to develop improved Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) strains for control of these pests. Four-way crossing strategies have the potential to overcome the problem of inbreeding in mass-reared strains of B. tryoni. The ability to produce hybrids between B. tryoni and the other two species in the laboratory has proved useful for the development of genetically marked strains. The identification of Y-chromosome markers in B. jarvisi means that male and female embryos can be distinguished in any strain that carries a B. jarvisi Y chromosome. This has enabled the study of homologues of the sex-determination genes during development of B jarvisi and B. tryoni, which is necessary for the generation of genetic-sexing strains. Germ-line transformation has been established and a draft genome sequence for B. tryoni released. Transcriptomes from various species, tissues and developmental stages, to aid in identification of manipulation targets for improving SIT, have been assembled and are in the pipeline. Broad analyses of the microbiome have revealed a metagenome that is highly variable within and across species and defined by the environment. More specific analyses detected Wolbachia at low prevalence in the tropics but absent in temperate regions, suggesting a possible role for this endosymbiont in future control strategies. PMID:25470996

2014-01-01

198

Modelling mortality of a stored grain insect pest with fumigation: probit, logistic or Cauchy model?  

PubMed

Computer simulation models can provide a relatively fast, safe and inexpensive means to judge and weigh the merits of various pest control management options. However, the usefulness of such simulation models relies on the accurate estimation of important model parameters, such as the pest mortality under different treatments and conditions. Recently, an individual-based simulation model of population dynamics and resistance evolution has been developed for the stored grain insect pest Rhyzopertha dominica, based on experimental results showing that alleles at two different loci are involved in resistance to the grain fumigant phosphine. In this paper, we describe how we used three generalized linear models, probit, logistic and Cauchy models, each employing two- and four-parameter sub-models, to fit experimental data sets for five genotypes for which detailed mortality data was already available. Instead of the usual statistical iterative maximum likelihood estimation, a direct algebraic approach, generalized inverse matrix technique, was used to estimate the mortality model parameters. As this technique needs to perturb the observed mortality proportions if the proportions include 0 or 1, a golden section search approach was used to find the optimal perturbation in terms of minimum least squares (L2) error. The results show that the estimates using the probit model were the most accurate in terms of L2 errors between observed and predicted mortality values. These errors with the probit model ranged from 0.049% to 5.3%, from 0.381% to 8.1% with the logistic model and from 8.3% to 48.2% with the Cauchy model. Meanwhile, the generalized inverse matrix technique achieved similar results to the maximum likelihood estimation ones, but is less time consuming and computationally demanding. We also describe how we constructed a two-parameter model to estimate the mortalities for each of the remaining four genotypes based on realistic genetic assumptions. PMID:23473941

Shi, Mingren; Renton, Michael

2013-06-01

199

Role of two insect growth regulators in integrated pest management of citrus scales.  

PubMed

Portions of two commercial citrus orchards were treated for two consecutive years with buprofezin or three consecutive years with pyriproxyfen in a replicated plot design to determine the long-term impact of these insect growth regulators (IGRs) on the San Joaquin Valley California integrated pest management program. Pyriproxyfen reduced the target pest, California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii Maskell, to nondetectable levels on leaf samples approximately 4 mo after treatment. Pyriproxyfen treatments reduced the California red scale parasitoid Aphytis melinus DeBach to a greater extent than the parasitoid Comperiella bifasciata Howard collected on sticky cards. Treatments of lemons Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f. infested with scale parasitized by A. melinus showed only 33% direct mortality of the parasitoid, suggesting the population reduction observed on sticky cards was due to low host density. Three years of pyriproxyfen treatments did not maintain citricola scale, Coccus pseudomagnoliarum (Kuwana), below the treatment threshold and cottony cushion scale, Icerya purchasi Maskell, was slowly but incompletely controlled. Buprofezin reduced California red scale to very low but detectable levels approximately 5 mo after treatment. Buprofezin treatments resulted in similar levels of reduction of the two parasitoids A. melinus and C. bifasciata collected on sticky cards. Treatments of lemons infested with scale parasitized by A. melinus showed only 7% mortality of the parasitoids, suggesting the population reduction observed on sticky cards was due to low host density. Citricola scale was not present in this orchard, and cottony cushion scale was slowly and incompletely controlled by buprofezin. These field plots demonstrated that IGRs can act as organophosphate insecticide replacements for California red scale control; however, their narrower spectrum of activity and disruption of coccinellid beetles can allow other scale species to attain primary pest status. PMID:16813306

Grafton-Cardwell, E E; Lee, J E; Stewart, J R; Olsen, K D

2006-06-01

200

Adaptive horizontal transfer of a bacterial gene to an invasive insect pest of coffee  

PubMed Central

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) involves the nonsexual transmission of genetic material across species boundaries. Although often detected in prokaryotes, examples of HGT involving animals are relatively rare, and any evolutionary advantage conferred to the recipient is typically obscure. We identified a gene (HhMAN1) from the coffee berry borer beetle, Hypothenemus hampei, a devastating pest of coffee, which shows clear evidence of HGT from bacteria. HhMAN1 encodes a mannanase, representing a class of glycosyl hydrolases that has not previously been reported in insects. Recombinant HhMAN1 protein hydrolyzes coffee berry galactomannan, the major storage polysaccharide in this species and the presumed food of H. hampei. HhMAN1 was found to be widespread in a broad biogeographic survey of H. hampei accessions, indicating that the HGT event occurred before radiation of the insect from West Africa to Asia and South America. However, the gene was not detected in the closely related species H. obscurus (the tropical nut borer or “false berry borer”), which does not colonize coffee beans. Thus, HGT of HhMAN1 from bacteria represents a likely adaptation to a specific ecological niche and may have been promoted by intensive agricultural practices. PMID:22371593

Acuña, Ricardo; Padilla, Beatriz E.; Flórez-Ramos, Claudia P.; Rubio, José D.; Herrera, Juan C.; Benavides, Pablo; Lee, Sang-Jik; Yeats, Trevor H.; Egan, Ashley N.; Doyle, Jeffrey J.; Rose, Jocelyn K. C.

2012-01-01

201

Adaptive horizontal transfer of a bacterial gene to an invasive insect pest of coffee.  

PubMed

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) involves the nonsexual transmission of genetic material across species boundaries. Although often detected in prokaryotes, examples of HGT involving animals are relatively rare, and any evolutionary advantage conferred to the recipient is typically obscure. We identified a gene (HhMAN1) from the coffee berry borer beetle, Hypothenemus hampei, a devastating pest of coffee, which shows clear evidence of HGT from bacteria. HhMAN1 encodes a mannanase, representing a class of glycosyl hydrolases that has not previously been reported in insects. Recombinant HhMAN1 protein hydrolyzes coffee berry galactomannan, the major storage polysaccharide in this species and the presumed food of H. hampei. HhMAN1 was found to be widespread in a broad biogeographic survey of H. hampei accessions, indicating that the HGT event occurred before radiation of the insect from West Africa to Asia and South America. However, the gene was not detected in the closely related species H. obscurus (the tropical nut borer or "false berry borer"), which does not colonize coffee beans. Thus, HGT of HhMAN1 from bacteria represents a likely adaptation to a specific ecological niche and may have been promoted by intensive agricultural practices. PMID:22371593

Acuña, Ricardo; Padilla, Beatriz E; Flórez-Ramos, Claudia P; Rubio, José D; Herrera, Juan C; Benavides, Pablo; Lee, Sang-Jik; Yeats, Trevor H; Egan, Ashley N; Doyle, Jeffrey J; Rose, Jocelyn K C

2012-03-13

202

Rapid, one-step DNA extraction for insect pest identification by using DNA barcodes.  

PubMed

Early detection of economically important insects is critical to preventing their establishment as serious pests. To accomplish this, tools for rapid and accurate species identification are needed. DNA barcoding, using short DNA sequences as species "genetic identification tags," has already shown large potential as a tool for rapid and accurate detection of economically important insects. DNA extraction is the critical first step in generating DNA barcodes and can be a rate-limiting step in very large barcoding studies. Consequently, a DNA extraction method that is rapid, easy to use, cost-effective, robust enough to cope with range of qualities and quantities of tissue, and can be adapted to robotic systems will provide the best method for high-throughput production of DNA barcodes. We tested the performance of a new commercial kit (prepGEM), which uses a novel, streamlined approach to DNA extraction, and we compared it with two other commercial kits (ChargeSwitch and Aquapure), which differ in their method of DNA extraction. We compared performance of these kits by measuring percentage of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) success and mean PCR product yield across a variety of arthropod taxa, whichincluded freshly collected, ethanol-preserved, and dried specimens of different ages. ChargeSwitch and prepGEM performed equally well, but they outperformed Aquapure. prepGEM was much faster, easier to use, and cheaper than ChargeSwitch, but ChargeSwitch performed slightly better for older (> 5-yr-old) dried insect specimens. Overall, prepGEM may provide a highly streamlined method of DNA extraction for fresh, ethanol-preserved, and young, dried specimens, especially when adapted for high-throughput, robotic systems. PMID:18459420

Ball, Shelley L; Armstrong, Karen F

2008-04-01

203

Tissue-Specific Transcriptomics of the Exotic Invasive Insect Pest Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)  

PubMed Central

Background The insect midgut and fat body represent major tissue interfaces that deal with several important physiological functions including digestion, detoxification and immune response. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), is an exotic invasive insect pest that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) primarily in the Midwestern United States and Ontario, Canada. However, despite its high impact status little knowledge exists for A. planipennis at the molecular level. Methodology and Principal Findings Newer-generation Roche-454 pyrosequencing was used to obtain 126,185 reads for the midgut and 240,848 reads for the fat body, which were assembled into 25,173 and 37,661 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for the midgut and the fat body of A. planipennis larvae, respectively. Among these ESTs, 36% of the midgut and 38% of the fat body sequences showed similarity to proteins in the GenBank nr database. A high number of the midgut sequences contained chitin-binding peritrophin (248)and trypsin (98) domains; while the fat body sequences showed high occurrence of cytochrome P450s (85) and protein kinase (123) domains. Further, the midgut transcriptome of A. planipennis revealed putative microbial transcripts encoding for cell-wall degrading enzymes such as polygalacturonases and endoglucanases. A significant number of SNPs (137 in midgut and 347 in fat body) and microsatellite loci (317 in midgut and 571 in fat body) were predicted in the A. planipennis transcripts. An initial assessment of cytochrome P450s belonging to various CYP clades revealed distinct expression patterns at the tissue level. Conclusions and Significance To our knowledge this study is one of the first to illuminate tissue-specific gene expression in an invasive insect of high ecological and economic consequence. These findings will lay the foundation for future gene expression and functional studies in A. planipennis. PMID:21060843

Mittapalli, Omprakash; Bai, Xiaodong; Bonello, Pierluigi; Herms, Daniel A.

2010-01-01

204

Insect herbivores associated with an evergreen tree Goniorrhachis marginata Taub. (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) in a tropical dry forest.  

PubMed

Goniorrhachis marginata Taub. (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) is a tree species found in Brazilian tropical dry forests that retain their leaves during the dry season. That being, we addressed the following question: i) How do insect diversity (sap-sucking and chewing), leaf herbivory and defensive traits (tannin and leaf sclerophylly) vary on the evergreen tree species G. marginata between seasons? The abundance of sap-sucking insects was higher in the dry season than in the rainy season. However, we did not verify any difference in the species richness and abundance of chewing insects between seasons. Leaf herbivory was higher in the rainy season, whereas leaf sclerophylly was higher in the dry season. However, herbivory was not related to sclerophylly. Insect herbivores likely decrease their folivory activity during the dry season due to life history patterns or changes in behaviour, possibly entering diapause or inactivity during this period. Therefore, G. marginata acts as a likely keystone species, serving as a moist refuge for the insect fauna during the dry season in tropical dry forest, and the presence of this evergreen species is crucial to conservation strategies of this threatened ecosystem. PMID:25296211

Silva, J O; Neves, F S

2014-08-01

205

Integrated pest management: the push-pull approach for controlling insect pests and weeds of cereals, and its potential for other agricultural systems including animal husbandry.  

PubMed

This paper describes the 'push-pull' or 'stimulo-deterrent diversionary' strategy in relation to current and potential examples from our own experiences. The push-pull effect is established by exploiting semiochemicals to repel insect pests from the crop ('push') and to attract them into trap crops ('pull'). The systems exemplified here have been developed for subsistence farming in Africa and delivery of the semiochemicals is entirely by companion cropping, i.e. intercropping for the push and trap cropping for the pull. The main target was a series of lepidopterous pests attacking maize and other cereals. Although the area given to the cereal crop itself is reduced under the push-pull system, higher yields are produced per unit area. An important spin-off from the project is that the companion crops are valuable forage for farm animals. Leguminous intercrops also provide advantages with regard to plant nutrition and some of the trap crops help with water retention and in reducing land erosion. A major benefit is that certain intercrop plants provide dramatic control of the African witchweed (striga). Animal husbandry forms an essential part of intensive subsistence agriculture in Africa and developments using analogous push-pull control strategies for insect pests of cattle are exemplified. PMID:17652071

Hassanali, Ahmed; Herren, Hans; Khan, Zeyaur R; Pickett, John A; Woodcock, Christine M

2008-02-12

206

Plants Attract Parasitic Wasps to Defend Themselves against Insect Pests by Releasing Hexenol  

PubMed Central

Background Plant volatiles play an important role in defending plants against insect attacks by attracting their natural enemies. For example, green leaf volatiles (GLVs) and terpenoids emitted from herbivore-damaged plants were found to be important in the host location of parasitic wasps. However, evidence of the functional roles and mechanisms of these semio-chemicals from a system of multiple plants in prey location by the parasitoid is limited. Little is known about the potential evolutionary trends between herbivore-induced host plant volatiles and the host location of their parasitoids. Methodology/Principal Findings The present study includes hierarchical cluster analyses of plant volatile profiles from seven families of host and non-host plants of pea leafminer, Liriomyza huidobrensis, and behavioral responses of a naive parasitic wasp, Opius dissitus, to some principal volatile compounds. Here we show that plants can effectively pull wasps, O. dissitus, towards them by releasing a universally induced compound, (Z)-3-hexenol, and potentially keep these plants safe from parasitic assaults by leafminer pests, L. huidobrensis. Specifically, we found that volatile profiles from healthy plants revealed a partly phylogenetic signal, while the inducible compounds of the infested-plants did not result from the fact that the induced plant volatiles dominate most of the volatile blends of the host and non-host plants of the leafminer pests. We further show that the parasitoids are capable of distinguishing the damaged host plant from the non-host plant of the leafminers. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that, as the most passive scenario of plant involvement, leafminers and mechanical damages evoke similar semio-chemicals. Using ubiquitous compounds, such as hexenol, for host location by general parasitoids could be an adaptation of the most conservative evolution of tritrophic interaction. Although for this, other compounds may be used to improve the precision of the host location by the parasitoids. PMID:17786223

Wei, Jianing; Wang, Lizhong; Zhu, Junwei; Zhang, Sufang; Nandi, Owi I.; Kang, Le

2007-01-01

207

Ecdysone agonists: mechanism and importance in controlling insect pests of agriculture and forestry.  

PubMed

Molting is the result of the expression of a cascade of genes that is sequentially both up and down-regulated by the molting hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), which is secreted as a pulse during each instar. Benzoyl hydrazine analogs of 20E act like the native molting hormone at the molecular level by binding with the ecdysone receptor complex and transactivating a succession of molt initiating transcription factors that, in turn, induce the expression of a group of molt-related genes. As a result of the expression of these up-regulated genes, the larva undergoes apolysis and head capsule slippage and takes on the appearance of the pharate larva. However, unlike 20E, which is cleared at this juncture, allowing the down-regulated genes to be expressed, these synthetic analogs bind strongly to the receptors and remain in place and repress all the down-regulatory genes such as the ones necessary for cuticle elaboration, sclerotization, and ecdysis resulting in a developmental arrest in this state. As a result, the treated larva goes into a precocious incomplete molt that is lethal. Two of the analogs, tebufenozide and methoxyfenozide, are lepidopteran specific and have good control potential for open feeding larvae that ingest this material while a third one, halofenozide, acts on coleopteran larvae. Since they specifically act through an insect receptor complex, they have little or no effect on non-target species, making them environmentally attractive pest control agents. Some insects, however, show resistance to these analogs and this could be, inter alia, due to an ATP Binding Cassette Transporter like system that selectively pumps out the analogs. PMID:14635180

Retnakaran, Arthur; Krell, Peter; Feng, Qili; Arif, Basil

2003-12-01

208

The Phorbol Ester Fraction from Jatropha curcas Seed Oil: Potential and Limits for Crop Protection against Insect Pests  

PubMed Central

The physic nut shrub, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae), has been considered as a “miracle tree”, particularly as a source of alternate fuel. Various extracts of the plant have been reported to have insecticidal/acaricidal or molluscicidal/anthelminthic activities on vectors of medical or veterinary interest or on agricultural or non-agricultural pests. Among those extracts, the phorbol ester fraction from seed oil has been reported as a promising candidate for use as a plant-derived protectant of a variety of crops, from a range of pre-harvest and post-harvest insect pests. However, such extracts have not been widely used, despite the “boom” in the development of the crop in the tropics during recent years, and societal concerns about overuse of systemic chemical pesticides. There are many potential explanations to such a lack of use of Jatropha insecticidal extracts. On the one hand, the application of extracts potentially harmful to human health on stored food grain, might not be relevant. The problem of decomposition of phorbol esters and other compounds toxic to crop pests in the field needing further evaluation before such extracts can be widely used, may also be a partial explanation. High variability of phorbol ester content and hence of insecticidal activity among physic nut cultivars/ecotypes may be another. Phytotoxicity to crops may be further limitation. Apparent obstacles to a wider application of such extracts are the costs and problems involved with registration and legal approval. On the other hand, more studies should be conducted on molluscicidal activity on slugs and land snails which are major pests of crops, particularly in conservation agriculture systems. Further evaluation of toxicity to natural enemies of insect pests and studies on other beneficial insects such as pollinators are also needed. PMID:23203190

Ratnadass, Alain; Wink, Michael

2012-01-01

209

The phorbol ester fraction from Jatropha curcas seed oil: potential and limits for crop protection against insect pests.  

PubMed

The physic nut shrub, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae), has been considered as a "miracle tree", particularly as a source of alternate fuel. Various extracts of the plant have been reported to have insecticidal/acaricidal or molluscicidal/anthelminthic activities on vectors of medical or veterinary interest or on agricultural or non-agricultural pests. Among those extracts, the phorbol ester fraction from seed oil has been reported as a promising candidate for use as a plant-derived protectant of a variety of crops, from a range of pre-harvest and post-harvest insect pests. However, such extracts have not been widely used, despite the "boom" in the development of the crop in the tropics during recent years, and societal concerns about overuse of systemic chemical pesticides. There are many potential explanations to such a lack of use of Jatropha insecticidal extracts. On the one hand, the application of extracts potentially harmful to human health on stored food grain, might not be relevant. The problem of decomposition of phorbol esters and other compounds toxic to crop pests in the field needing further evaluation before such extracts can be widely used, may also be a partial explanation. High variability of phorbol ester content and hence of insecticidal activity among physic nut cultivars/ecotypes may be another. Phytotoxicity to crops may be further limitation. Apparent obstacles to a wider application of such extracts are the costs and problems involved with registration and legal approval. On the other hand, more studies should be conducted on molluscicidal activity on slugs and land snails which are major pests of crops, particularly in conservation agriculture systems. Further evaluation of toxicity to natural enemies of insect pests and studies on other beneficial insects such as pollinators are also needed. PMID:23203190

Ratnadass, Alain; Wink, Michael

2012-01-01

210

Applying GIS and population genetics for managing livestock insect pests: case studies of tsetse and screwworm flies.  

PubMed

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have supported a Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Applying GIS and population genetics for managing livestock insect pests'. This six-year CRP (2008-2013) focused on research aimed at under-pinning the Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management (AW-IPM) of populations of tsetse and screwworm flies, and this introductory paper to the Special Issue integrates the findings of the CRP participants and discusses them in a broader context. The tools and techniques for mapping and modelling the distributions of genetically-characterised populations of tsetse and screwworm flies are increasingly used by researchers and managers for more effective decision-making in AW-IPM programmes, as illustrated by the reports in this Special Issue. Currently, the insect pests are often characterized only by neutral genetic markers suitable for recognizing spatially isolated populations that are sometimes associated with specific environments. Two challenges for those involved in AW-IPM are the standardization of best practice to permit the efficient application of GIS and genetic tools by regional teams, and the need to develop further the mapping and modelling of parasite and pest phenotypes that are epidemiologically important. PMID:24713196

Feldmann, U; Ready, P D

2014-10-01

211

Monitoring Pest Insect Traps by Means of Low-Power Image Sensor Technologies  

PubMed Central

Monitoring pest insect populations is currently a key issue in agriculture and forestry protection. At the farm level, human operators typically must perform periodical surveys of the traps disseminated through the field. This is a labor-, time- and cost-consuming activity, in particular for large plantations or large forestry areas, so it would be of great advantage to have an affordable system capable of doing this task automatically in an accurate and a more efficient way. This paper proposes an autonomous monitoring system based on a low-cost image sensor that it is able to capture and send images of the trap contents to a remote control station with the periodicity demanded by the trapping application. Our autonomous monitoring system will be able to cover large areas with very low energy consumption. This issue would be the main key point in our study; since the operational live of the overall monitoring system should be extended to months of continuous operation without any kind of maintenance (i.e., battery replacement). The images delivered by image sensors would be time-stamped and processed in the control station to get the number of individuals found at each trap. All the information would be conveniently stored at the control station, and accessible via Internet by means of available network services at control station (WiFi, WiMax, 3G/4G, etc.). PMID:23202232

López, Otoniel; Rach, Miguel Martinez; Migallon, Hector; Malumbres, Manuel P.; Bonastre, Alberto; Serrano, Juan J.

2012-01-01

212

Functional haplodiploidy: a mechanism for the spread of insecticide resistance in an important international insect pest.  

PubMed Central

The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most important insect pest of coffee worldwide and has an unusual life history that ensures a high degree of inbreeding. Individual females lay a predominantly female brood within individual coffee berries and because males are flightless there is almost entirely full sib mating. We investigated the genetics associated with this interesting life history after the important discovery of resistance to the cyclodiene type insecticide endosulfan. Both the inheritance of the resistance phenotype and the resistance-associated point mutation in the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor gene Rdl were examined. Consistent with haplodiploidy, males failed to express and transmit paternally derived resistance alleles. Furthermore, while cytological examination revealed that males are diploid, one set of chromosomes was condensed, and probably nonfunctional, in the somatic cells of all males examined. Moreover, although two sets of chromosomes were present in primary spermatocytes, the chromosomes failed to pair before the single meiotic division, and only one set was packaged in sperm. Thus, the coffee berry borer is "functionally" haplodiploid. Its genetics and life history may therefore represent an interesting intermediate step in the evolution of true haplodiploidy. The influence of this breeding system on the spread of insecticide resistance is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7568233

Brun, L O; Stuart, J; Gaudichon, V; Aronstein, K; French-Constant, R H

1995-01-01

213

Functional haplodiploidy: a mechanism for the spread of insecticide resistance in an important international insect pest.  

PubMed

The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most important insect pest of coffee worldwide and has an unusual life history that ensures a high degree of inbreeding. Individual females lay a predominantly female brood within individual coffee berries and because males are flightless there is almost entirely full sib mating. We investigated the genetics associated with this interesting life history after the important discovery of resistance to the cyclodiene type insecticide endosulfan. Both the inheritance of the resistance phenotype and the resistance-associated point mutation in the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor gene Rdl were examined. Consistent with haplodiploidy, males failed to express and transmit paternally derived resistance alleles. Furthermore, while cytological examination revealed that males are diploid, one set of chromosomes was condensed, and probably nonfunctional, in the somatic cells of all males examined. Moreover, although two sets of chromosomes were present in primary spermatocytes, the chromosomes failed to pair before the single meiotic division, and only one set was packaged in sperm. Thus, the coffee berry borer is "functionally" haplodiploid. Its genetics and life history may therefore represent an interesting intermediate step in the evolution of true haplodiploidy. The influence of this breeding system on the spread of insecticide resistance is discussed. PMID:7568233

Brun, L O; Stuart, J; Gaudichon, V; Aronstein, K; French-Constant, R H

1995-10-10

214

Enhancement of biological control agents for use against forest insect pests and diseases through biotechnology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research and development efforts in our research group are focused on the generation of more efficacious biological control agents through the techniques of biotechnology for use against forest insect pests and diseases. Effective biological controls for the gypsy moth and for tree fungal wilt pathogens are under development. The successful use of Gypchek, a formulation of the Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdNPV), in gypsy moth control programs has generated considerable interest in that agent. As a consequence of its specificity, LdPNV has negligible adverse ecological impacts compared to most gypsy moth control agents. However, LdNPV is not competitive with other control agents in terms of cost and efficacy. We are investigating several parameters of LdNPV replication and polyhedra production in order to enhance viral potency and efficacy thus mitigating the current disadvantages of LdNPV for gypsy moth control, and have identified LdNPV variants that will facilitate these efforts. Tree endophytic bacteria that synthesize antifungal compounds were identified and an antibiotic compound from one of these bacteria was characterized. The feasibility of developing tree endophytes as biological control agents for tree vascular fungal pathogens is being investigated.

Slavicek, James M.

1991-01-01

215

Monitoring pest insect traps by means of low-power image sensor technologies.  

PubMed

Monitoring pest insect populations is currently a key issue in agriculture and forestry protection. At the farm level, human operators typically must perform periodical surveys of the traps disseminated through the field. This is a labor-, time- and cost-consuming activity, in particular for large plantations or large forestry areas, so it would be of great advantage to have an affordable system capable of doing this task automatically in an accurate and a more efficient way. This paper proposes an autonomous monitoring system based on a low-cost image sensor that it is able to capture and send images of the trap contents to a remote control station with the periodicity demanded by the trapping application. Our autonomous monitoring system will be able to cover large areas with very low energy consumption. This issue would be the main key point in our study; since the operational live of the overall monitoring system should be extended to months of continuous operation without any kind of maintenance (i.e., battery replacement). The images delivered by image sensors would be time-stamped and processed in the control station to get the number of individuals found at each trap. All the information would be conveniently stored at the control station, and accessible via Internet by means of available network services at control station (WiFi, WiMax, 3G/4G, etc.). PMID:23202232

López, Otoniel; Rach, Miguel Martinez; Migallon, Hector; Malumbres, Manuel P; Bonastre, Alberto; Serrano, Juan J

2012-01-01

216

Guidelines for the use of mathematics in operational area-wide integrated pest management programs using the sterile insect technique with a special focus on Tephritid Fruit Flies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pest control managers can benefit from using mathematical approaches, particularly models, when implementing area-wide pest control programs that include sterile insect technique (SIT), especially when these are used to calculate required rates of sterile releases to result in suppression or eradica...

217

Using district-level occurrences in MaxEnt for predicting the invasion potential of an exotic insect pest in India  

E-print Network

2014 Keywords: Cotton pest Ecological niche modeling Insect pest Invasive species MaxEnt Phenacoccus the potential distribution of invasive species is an iterative process, and our study is the first attempt map. Ã? 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Invasive species are one of the major

MacDonald, Lee

218

1978 Insect Pest Management Guide: Field and Forage Crops. Circular 899.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This circular lists suggested uses of insecticides for the control of field crop pests. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of insecticides to control pests in field corn, alfalfa and clover, small grains, soybeans and grain sorghum. (CS)

Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

219

Developing trap cropping systems for effective organic management of key insect pests of cucurbit crops (IPM)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Trap cropping is a behaviorally-based pest management approach that functions by planting highly attractive plants next to a higher value crop so as to attract the pest to the trap crop plants, thus preventing or making less likely the arrival of the pest to the main crop (= cash crop). In 2012, a s...

220

Biological activity of ethanolic extract fractions of Dracaena arborea against infestation of stored grains by two storage insect pests.  

PubMed

As part of on-going efforts to use eco-friendly alternatives to chemical pesticides, ethanolic extract of dried leaves of Dracaena arborea (Willd.) Link (Dragon tree; Dracaenaceae) dissolved in distilled water and partitioned between equal volumes of n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol was assessed in the laboratory against infestation by Sitophillus zeamais Motsch. and Callosobruchus maculatus Walp. in stored maize and cowpea, respectively. One hundred grams each of maize grains and cowpea seeds were treated with 400 mg kg(-1) of each extract fraction to evaluate contact toxicity, damage assessment, effect on eggs and immature stages and progeny production in both insect species. Contact toxicity by topical application, toxicity upon filter paper application and repellency using area preference method were carried out on the two insect species. Results showed that the extract fraction caused significant (p < or = 0.05) mortality of both insect pests with a high residual contact activity against S. zeamais. Grain damage was significantly (p < or = 0.01) reduced, while progeny production and development of eggs within grains were inhibited. The extract fractions evoked a strong repellent action against S. zeamais but moderate action against C. maculatus. The full potentials of using extract fractions of D. arborea as grain protectant against infestation by insect pests is discussed. PMID:19817125

Epidi, T T; Udo, I O

2009-07-01

221

Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition by Biofumigant (Coumaran) from Leaves of Lantana camara in Stored Grain and Household Insect Pests  

PubMed Central

Recent studies proved that the biofumigants could be an alternative to chemical fumigants against stored grain insect pests. For this reason, it is necessary to understand the mode of action of biofumigants. In the present study the prospectus of utilising Lantana camara as a potent fumigant insecticide is being discussed. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by Coumaran, an active ingredient extracted from the plant L. camara, was studied. The biofumigant was used as an enzyme inhibitor and acetylthiocholine iodide as a substrate along with Ellman's reagent to carry out the reactions. The in vivo inhibition was observed in both dose dependent and time dependent in case of housefly, and the nervous tissue (ganglion) and the whole insect homogenate of stored grain insect exposed to Coumaran. The possible mode of action of Coumaran as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor is discussed. PMID:25025036

Raghavendra, Anjanappa; Bakthavatsalam, Nandagopal

2014-01-01

222

Acetylcholinesterase inhibition by biofumigant (Coumaran) from leaves of Lantana camara in stored grain and household insect pests.  

PubMed

Recent studies proved that the biofumigants could be an alternative to chemical fumigants against stored grain insect pests. For this reason, it is necessary to understand the mode of action of biofumigants. In the present study the prospectus of utilising Lantana camara as a potent fumigant insecticide is being discussed. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by Coumaran, an active ingredient extracted from the plant L. camara, was studied. The biofumigant was used as an enzyme inhibitor and acetylthiocholine iodide as a substrate along with Ellman's reagent to carry out the reactions. The in vivo inhibition was observed in both dose dependent and time dependent in case of housefly, and the nervous tissue (ganglion) and the whole insect homogenate of stored grain insect exposed to Coumaran. The possible mode of action of Coumaran as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor is discussed. PMID:25025036

Rajashekar, Yallappa; Raghavendra, Anjanappa; Bakthavatsalam, Nandagopal

2014-01-01

223

Insect-specific irreversible inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase in pests including the bed bug, the eastern yellowjacket, German and American cockroaches, and the confused flour beetle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insecticides directed against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) are facing increased resistance among target species as well as increasing concerns for human toxicity. The result has been a resurgence of disease vectors, insects destructive to agriculture, and residential pests. We previously reported a free cysteine (Cys) residue at the entrance to the AChE active site in some insects but not higher vertebrates. We

Gregory A. Polsinelli; Sanjay K. Singh; Rajesh K. Mishra; Robert Suranyi; David W. Ragsdale; Yuan-Ping Pang; Stephen Brimijoin

2010-01-01

224

Influence of cover crops on insect pests and predators in conservation tillage cotton.  

PubMed

In fall 2000, an on-farm sustainable agricultural research project was established for cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., in Tift County, Georgia. The objective of our 2-yr research project was to determine the impact of several cover crops on pest and predator insects in cotton. The five cover crop treatments included 1) cereal rye, Secale cereale L., a standard grass cover crop; 2) crimson clover, Trifolium incarnatum L., a standard legume cover crop; 3) a legume mixture of balansa clover, Trifolium michelianum Savi; crimson clover; and hairy vetch, Vicia villosa Roth; 4) a legume mixture + rye combination; and 5) no cover crop in conventionally tilled fields. Three main groups or species of pests were collected in cover crops and cotton: 1) the heliothines Heliothis virescens (F.) and Helicoverpa zea (Boddie); 2) the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois); and 3) stink bugs. The main stink bugs collected were the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.); the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say); and the green stink bug, Acrosternum hilare (Say). Cotton aphids, Aphis gossypii Glover, were collected only on cotton. For both years of the study, the heliothines were the only pests that exceeded their economic threshold in cotton, and the number of times this threshold was exceeded in cotton was higher in control cotton than in crimson clover and rye cotton. Heliothine predators and aphidophagous lady beetles occurred in cover crops and cotton during both years of the experiment. Geocoris punctipes (Say), Orius insidiosus (Say), and red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren were relatively the most abundant heliothine predators observed. Lady beetles included the convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville; the sevenspotted lady beetle, Coccinella septempunctata L.; spotted lady beetle, Coleomegilla maculata (DeGeer); and the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas). Density of G. punctipes was higher in cotton fields previously planted in crimson clover compared with control cotton fields for all combined sampling dates in 2001. Intercropping cotton in live strips of cover crop was probably responsible for the relay of G. punctipes onto cotton in these crimson clover fields. Density of O. insidiosus was not significantly different between cover crop and control cotton fields. Lady beetles seemed to relay from cover crops into cotton. Conservation of the habitat of fire ants during planting probably was responsible for the higher density of red imported fire ants observed in all conservation tillage cotton fields relative to control cotton fields. Reduction in the number of times in which economic thresholds for heliothines were exceeded in crimson clover and rye compared with control fields indicated that the buildup of predaceous fire ants and G. punctipes in these cover crops subsequently resulted in reduction in the level of heliothines in conservation tillage cotton with these cover crops compared with conventional tillage cotton without cover crops. PMID:15384330

Tillman, Glynn; Schomberg, Harry; Phatak, Sharad; Mullinix, Benjamin; Lachnicht, Sharon; Timper, Patricia; Olson, Dawn

2004-08-01

225

Deer herbivory alters forest response to canopy decline caused by an exotic insect pest.  

PubMed

Hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA; Adelges tsugae) infestations have resulted in the continuing decline of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) throughout much of the eastern United States. While the initial impacts of HWA infestations have been documented, our understanding of forest response to this disturbance remains incomplete. HWA infestation is not occurring in isolation but within a complex ecological context. The role of potentially important interacting factors, such as elevated levels of white-tailed deer herbivory, is poorly understood. Despite the potential for herbivory to alter forest successional trajectories following a canopy disturbance, little is known about herbivory-disturbance interactions, and herbivory is rarely considered in assessing forest response to a co-occurring disturbance. We used repeated censuses of deer exclosures and paired controls (400 paired plots) to quantify the impact of deer herbivory on tree seedling species abundance in 10 eastern hemlock ravines that span a gradient in HWA-induced canopy decline severity. Use of a maximum likelihood estimation framework and information theoretics allowed us to quantify the strength of evidence for alternative models developed to estimate the impacts of herbivory on tree seedling abundance as a function of varying herbivore density and canopy decline severity. The exclusion of deer herbivory had marked impacts on the abundance of the studied seedling species: Acer rubrum, Acer saccharum, Betula lenta, Nyssa sylvatica, Quercus montana, and Tsuga canadensis. For all six species, the relationship between seedling abundance and deer density was either exponential or saturating. Although the functional form of the response varied among seedling species, the inclusion of both deer density and canopy decline severity measures consistently resulted in models with substantially greater support. Canopy decline resulted in higher proportional herbivory impacts and altered the ranking of herbivory impacts by seedling species. Our results suggest that, by changing species' competitive abilities, white-tailed deer herbivory alters the trajectory of forest response to this exotic insect pest and has the potential to shift future overstory composition. PMID:18488602

Eschtruth, Anne K; Battles, John J

2008-03-01

226

Massively parallel pyrosequencing-based transcriptome analyses of small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus), a vector insect transmitting rice stripe virus (RSV)  

PubMed Central

Background The small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus) is an important agricultural pest that not only damages rice plants by sap-sucking, but also acts as a vector that transmits rice stripe virus (RSV), which can cause even more serious yield loss. Despite being a model organism for studying entomology, population biology, plant protection, molecular interactions among plants, viruses and insects, only a few genomic sequences are available for this species. To investigate its transcriptome and determine the differences between viruliferous and naïve L. striatellus, we employed 454-FLX high-throughput pyrosequencing to generate EST databases of this insect. Results We obtained 201,281 and 218,681 high-quality reads from viruliferous and naïve L. striatellus, respectively, with an average read length as 230 bp. These reads were assembled into contigs and two EST databases were generated. When all reads were combined, 16,885 contigs and 24,607 singletons (a total of 41,492 unigenes) were obtained, which represents a transcriptome of the insect. BlastX search against the NCBI-NR database revealed that only 6,873 (16.6%) of these unigenes have significant matches. Comparison of the distribution of GO classification among viruliferous, naïve, and combined EST databases indicated that these libraries are broadly representative of the L. striatellus transcriptomes. Functionally diverse transcripts from RSV, endosymbiotic bacteria Wolbachia and yeast-like symbiotes were identified, which reflects the possible lifestyles of these microbial symbionts that live in the cells of the host insect. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that L. striatellus encodes similar innate immunity regulatory systems as other insects, such as RNA interference, JAK/STAT and partial Imd cascades, which might be involved in defense against viral infection. In addition, we determined the differences in gene expression between vector and naïve samples, which generated a list of candidate genes that are potentially involved in the symbiosis of L. striatellus and RSV. Conclusions To our knowledge, the present study is the first description of a genomic project for L. striatellus. The identification of transcripts from RSV, Wolbachia, yeast-like symbiotes and genes abundantly expressed in viruliferous insect, provided a starting-point for investigating the molecular basis of symbiosis among these organisms. PMID:20462456

2010-01-01

227

1978 Insect Pest Management Guide: Commercial Vegetable Crops and Greenhouse Vegetables. Circular 897.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This circular lists suggested uses of insecticides for the control of pests by commercial vegetable farmers. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of insecticides to control pests of cabbage and related crops, beans, cucumbers and other vine crops, tomatoes, potatoes, peppers, corn, and onions. (CS)

Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

228

Enhancing predation of a subterranean insect pest: a conservation benefit of winter vegetation in agroecosystems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

1. Generalist predator communities are abundant and diverse in agroecosystems, but pests often persist nevertheless. Winter vegetation (e.g., cover crops) provides an agronomically sound opportunity to conserve predator communities and promote their impact on pests. We evaluate whether winter vegeta...

229

Geographical origin of an introduced insect pest, Listronotus bonariensis (Kuschel), determined by RAPD analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Argentine stem weevil, Listronotus bonariensis (Kuschel) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is an important introduced pasture pest in New Zealand. In this study geographical populations of this species were analysed using polymerase chain reaction-based randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), in an attempt to determine the geographical origin of the pest. Morphologically indistinguishable individuals were collected from nine South American, five New Zealand

C Lenney Williams; S L Goldson; D B Baird; D W Bullock

1994-01-01

230

Resistance of National Sweetpotato Collaborator’s Group Genotypes to Soil Insect Pests, Charleston, SC, 2010  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three insect susceptible cultivars (‘Beauregard’ [B63], 'Beauregard' [B94-14], and 'SC 1149-19'), two insect-resistant cultivars ('Charleston Scarlet' and ‘Ruddy’), and 7 regional genotypes from the 2010 National Sweetpotato Collaborator Trials were evaluated for insect resistance in replicated fiel...

231

EVALUATION OF REGIONAL SWEETPOTATO GENOTYPES FOR RESISTANCE TO SOIL INSECT PESTS, 2007  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three insect susceptible cultivars ('Beauregard' [B94-14], ‘Liberty’, and 'SC 1149-19'), two insect-resistant cultivars ('Charleston Scarlet' and ‘Ruddy’), and 6 regional genotypes from the 2007 National Sweetpotato Collaborator Trials were evaluated for insect resistance in replicated field trials ...

232

Evaluation of Sweetpotato Plant Introductions for Resistance to Soil Insect Pests, 2006  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An insect-susceptible, orange-fleshed check cultivar (‘SC1149 19’), two insect-resistant check cultivars (‘Ruddy’ and ‘Sumor’), and 26 plant introductions (PI) from the National Plant Germplasm System, sweetpotato collection, Griffin, GA, were evaluated for insect resistance in replicated field tria...

233

Evaluation of heirloom sweetpotato cultivars for resistance to soil insect pests, 2011  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two insect susceptible cultivars (‘Beauregard’ and 'SC 1149-19'), two insect-resistant cultivars ('Charleston Scarlet' and ‘Ruddy’), and 64 heirloom sweetpotato cultivars were evaluated for insect resistance in replicated field trials at Charleston, SC, in 2011. Twenty-eight genotypes had significa...

234

Evaluation of regional sweetpotato genotypes for resistance to soil insect pests, 2012  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three insect susceptible sweetpotato cultivars (‘Beauregard’ [B63 & B94-14] and 'SC1149 19'), two insect-resistant sweetpotato cultivars ('Charleston Scarlet' and ‘Ruddy’), and ten regional sweetpotato genotypes from the 2012 National Sweetpotato Collaborator Trials were evaluated for insect resista...

235

Evaluation of Dry-Fleshed Sweetpotato Genotypes For Resistance To Soil Insect Pests, 2010  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An insect susceptible check cultivar (‘SC1149 19’), an insect resistant check cultivar (‘Ruddy’), 37 advanced dry-fleshed genotypes, and six other dry-fleshed cultivars (‘Liberty’, ‘NC Japanese’, ‘Picadito’, ‘Sumor’, ‘Tanzania’, and ‘Xushu-18’) were evaluated for insect resistance in replicated fiel...

236

Incorporating carbon storage into the optimal management of forest insect pests: a case study of the southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmerman) in the New Jersey Pinelands.  

PubMed

Forest insect pest disturbance is increasing in certain areas of North America as many insect species, such as the southern pine beetle, expand their range due to a warming climate. Because insect pests are beginning to occupy forests that are managed for multiple uses and have not been managed for pests before, it is becoming increasingly important to determine how forests should be managed for pests when non-timber ecosystem services are considered in addition to traditional costs and revenues. One example of a service that is increasingly considered in forest management and that may affect forest pest management is carbon sequestration. This manuscript seeks to understand whether the incorporation of forest carbon sequestration into cost-benefit analysis of different forest pest management strategies affects the financially optimal strategy. We examine this question through a case study of the southern pine beetle (SPB) in a new area of SPB expansion, the New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve (NJPR). We utilize a forest ecology and economics model and include field data from the NJPR as well as outbreak probability statistics from previous years. We find under the majority of scenarios, incorporating forest carbon sequestration shifts the financially optimal SPB management strategy from preventative thinning toward no management or reactionary management in forest stands in New Jersey. These results contradict the current recommended treatment strategy for SPB and signify that the inclusion of multiple ecosystem services into a cost-benefit analysis may drastically alter which pest management strategy is economically optimal. PMID:24938795

Niemiec, Rebecca M; Lutz, David A; Howarth, Richard B

2014-10-01

237

Influence of diet conditions on predation response of a predatory mite to a polyphagous insect pest  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), an invasive polyphagous species, is an economically important pest. A modified standard petri dish assay method was employed to examine the functional response and predation capacity of predatory mites (Amblyseius swirskii Anthias-...

238

INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT IN STORED PRODUCTS USING REDUCED-RISK INSECTICIDES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In recent years there has been increased interest throughout most developed countries in replacing older conventional neurotoxic insecticides used in pest management programs, including those used for stored products. Registrations for older compounds are being either withdrawn completely or altere...

239

Role of behavioural studies in the development of management strategies for forest insect pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under forestry conditions, management techniques aimed at maintenance of pest populations at moderate levels have greater\\u000a chance of success than conventional methods of pest control. Simple behavioural observations can sometimes be used to great\\u000a advantage in the development of such methods, some examples of which are given. Although there has been considerable excitement\\u000a over the past two decades on the

K S S Nair

1985-01-01

240

Effects of organic and synthetic fertilizer sources on pest and predatory insects associated with tomatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of organic (composted cow manure) and synthetic (NPK) fertilizers on pests (aphids and flea beetles) and predatory\\u000a arthropods (anthocorids, coccinellids and chrysopids) associated with tomatoes were evaluated in a 2-year randomized complete\\u000a block field experiment. Our data suggested that the application of either organic or synthetic fertilizers could increase\\u000a pest populations on tomatoes. However, there were lower populations

Erdal N. Yard?m; Clive A. Edwards

2003-01-01

241

Mechanisms for flowering plants to benefit arthropod natural enemies of insect pests: prospects for enhanced use in agriculture.  

PubMed

Reduction of noncrop habitats, intensive use of pesticides and high levels of disturbance associated with intensive crop production simplify the farming landscape and bring about a sharp decline of biodiversity. This, in turn, weakens the biological control ecosystem service provided by arthropod natural enemies. Strategic use of flowering plants to enhance plant biodiversity in a well-targeted manner can provide natural enemies with food sources and shelter to improve biological control and reduce dependence on chemical pesticides. This article reviews the nutritional value of various types of plant-derived food for natural enemies, possible adverse effects on pest management, and the practical application of flowering plants in orchards, vegetables and field crops, agricultural systems where most research has taken place. Prospects for more effective use of flowering plants to maximize biological control of insect pests in agroecosystem are good but depend up on selection of optimal plant species based on information on the ecological mechanisms by which natural enemies are selectively favored over pest species. PMID:23955976

Lu, Zhong-Xian; Zhu, Ping-Yang; Gurr, Geoff M; Zheng, Xu-Song; Read, Donna M Y; Heong, Kong-Luen; Yang, Ya-Jun; Xu, Hong-Xing

2014-02-01

242

[Research progress in chemical communication among insect-resistant genetically modified plants, insect pests and natural enemies].  

PubMed

Semiochemicals released by plants or insects play an important role in the communication among plants, phytophagous insects and their natural enemies. They thus form a chemical information network which regulates intra- and inter-specific behaviors and sustains the composition and structure of plant and insect communities. The application of insect-resistant genetically modified (IRGM) crops may affect the chemical communication within and among the tritrophic levels, and thus cause disturbances to the biotic community structure and the stability of the farmland ecosystem. This has raised concerns about the environmental safety of IRGM crops and triggered research worldwide. In the current article we provided a brief summary of the chemical communication among plants, herbivores and natural enemies; analyzed the potential of IRGM crops to affect the chemical communication between plants and arthropods and the related mechanisms; and discussed the current research progress and the future prospects in this field. We hope that this will promote the research in this field by Chinese scientists and increase our understanding of the potential effects of growing of IRGM crops on the arthropod community structure. PMID:25509100

Liu, Qing-Song; Li, Yun-He; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Peng, Yu-Fa

2014-08-01

243

Dispersion of stored grain insect pests in a wheat?filled silo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of insects in a wheat?filled large concrete silo was studied by drawing grain samples from the whole vertical depth by means of a special probe. The major insect species found were: Trogoderma granarium (Khapra beetle), Rhyzopertha dominica (Lesser grain borer), and Tribolium castaneum (Red flour beetle). Maximum activity of all species was found on the grain surface although

Tariq Mahmood; Mohammad Sajjad Ahmad; Hafiz Ahmad

1996-01-01

244

Improvement of pest resistance in transgenic tobacco plants expressing dsRNA of an insect-associated gene EcR.  

PubMed

The adoption of pest-resistant transgenic plants to reduce yield loss and pesticide utilization has been successful in the past three decades. Recently, transgenic plant expressing double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) targeting pest genes emerges as a promising strategy for improving pest resistance in crops. The steroid hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), predominately controls insect molting via its nuclear receptor complex, EcR-USP. Here we report that pest resistance is improved in transgenic tobacco plants expressing dsRNA of EcR from the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, a serious lepidopteran pest for a variety of crops. When H. armigera larvae were fed with the whole transgenic tobacco plants expressing EcR dsRNA, resistance to H. armigera was significantly improved in transgenic plants. Meanwhile, when H. armigera larvae were fed with leaves of transgenic tobacco plants expressing EcR dsRNA, its EcR mRNA level was dramatically decreased causing molting defects and larval lethality. In addition, the transgenic tobacco plants expressing H. armigera EcR dsRNA were also resistant to another lepidopteran pest, the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, due to the high similarity in the nucleotide sequences of their EcR genes. This study provides additional evidence that transgenic plant expressing dsRNA targeting insect-associated genes is able to improve pest resistance. PMID:22685585

Zhu, Jin-Qi; Liu, Shumin; Ma, Yao; Zhang, Jia-Qi; Qi, Hai-Sheng; Wei, Zhao-Jun; Yao, Qiong; Zhang, Wen-Qing; Li, Sheng

2012-01-01

245

A simulation approach to assessing sampling strategies for insect pests: an example with the balsam gall midge.  

PubMed

Estimation of pest density is a basic requirement for integrated pest management in agriculture and forestry, and efficiency in density estimation is a common goal. Sequential sampling techniques promise efficient sampling, but their application can involve cumbersome mathematics and/or intensive warm-up sampling when pests have complex within- or between-site distributions. We provide tools for assessing the efficiency of sequential sampling and of alternative, simpler sampling plans, using computer simulation with "pre-sampling" data. We illustrate our approach using data for balsam gall midge (Paradiplosis tumifex) attack in Christmas tree farms. Paradiplosis tumifex proved recalcitrant to sequential sampling techniques. Midge distributions could not be fit by a common negative binomial distribution across sites. Local parameterization, using warm-up samples to estimate the clumping parameter k for each site, performed poorly: k estimates were unreliable even for samples of n ? 100 trees. These methods were further confounded by significant within-site spatial autocorrelation. Much simpler sampling schemes, involving random or belt-transect sampling to preset sample sizes, were effective and efficient for P. tumifex. Sampling via belt transects (through the longest dimension of a stand) was the most efficient, with sample means converging on true mean density for sample sizes of n ? 25-40 trees. Pre-sampling and simulation techniques provide a simple method for assessing sampling strategies for estimating insect infestation. We suspect that many pests will resemble P. tumifex in challenging the assumptions of sequential sampling methods. Our software will allow practitioners to optimize sampling strategies before they are brought to real-world applications, while potentially avoiding the need for the cumbersome calculations required for sequential sampling methods. PMID:24376556

Carleton, R Drew; Heard, Stephen B; Silk, Peter J

2013-01-01

246

A Simulation Approach to Assessing Sampling Strategies for Insect Pests: An Example with the Balsam Gall Midge  

PubMed Central

Estimation of pest density is a basic requirement for integrated pest management in agriculture and forestry, and efficiency in density estimation is a common goal. Sequential sampling techniques promise efficient sampling, but their application can involve cumbersome mathematics and/or intensive warm-up sampling when pests have complex within- or between-site distributions. We provide tools for assessing the efficiency of sequential sampling and of alternative, simpler sampling plans, using computer simulation with “pre-sampling” data. We illustrate our approach using data for balsam gall midge (Paradiplosis tumifex) attack in Christmas tree farms. Paradiplosis tumifex proved recalcitrant to sequential sampling techniques. Midge distributions could not be fit by a common negative binomial distribution across sites. Local parameterization, using warm-up samples to estimate the clumping parameter k for each site, performed poorly: k estimates were unreliable even for samples of n?100 trees. These methods were further confounded by significant within-site spatial autocorrelation. Much simpler sampling schemes, involving random or belt-transect sampling to preset sample sizes, were effective and efficient for P. tumifex. Sampling via belt transects (through the longest dimension of a stand) was the most efficient, with sample means converging on true mean density for sample sizes of n?25–40 trees. Pre-sampling and simulation techniques provide a simple method for assessing sampling strategies for estimating insect infestation. We suspect that many pests will resemble P. tumifex in challenging the assumptions of sequential sampling methods. Our software will allow practitioners to optimize sampling strategies before they are brought to real-world applications, while potentially avoiding the need for the cumbersome calculations required for sequential sampling methods. PMID:24376556

Carleton, R. Drew; Heard, Stephen B.; Silk, Peter J.

2013-01-01

247

[Preliminary evaluation of the incidence and control of insects--pest control in Polish hospitals].  

PubMed

The evaluation of the infestation and methods of insect disease vectors control in 748 hospitals in Poland in the period of 1990 to 1995 were done. The insect species, places of their occurrence and control agents were analysed. Blattella germanica L. occurred most frequently (71% hospitals). Blatta orientalis and Monomorium pharaonis were found in 40% and 17% hospitals respectively. Kitchens, laundries and baths were most infested. Sometimes insects were found also in central sterilization units and operating theaters. Controls of insects in hospitals were performed one to four times a year mostly by spraying with residual formulation. The control agents contained pyrethroids (mostly permethrin, but also deltamethrin and cypermethrin) and carbamates (bendiocarb, propoxur). Baits with hydramethylnon, boric acid, methoprene and chlorpyrifos were used not very often. The authors suggest reduction in using the spraying agents. The baits are recommended because they delay the development of the resistance to pesticides in controlling insect populations and are safer. PMID:9432707

Krzemi?ska, A; Sawicka, B; Gliniewicz, A; Kanclerski, K

1997-01-01

248

Population-level effects of fitness costs associated with repressible female-lethal transgene insertions in two pest insects  

PubMed Central

Genetic control strategies offer great potential for the sustainable and effective control of insect pests. These strategies involve the field release of transgenic insects with the aim of introducing engineered alleles into wild populations, either permanently or transiently. Their efficacy can therefore be reduced if transgene-associated fitness costs reduce the relative performance of released insects. We describe a method of measuring the fitness costs associated with transgenes by analyzing their evolutionary trajectories when placed in competition with wild-type alleles in replicated cage populations. Using this method, we estimated lifetime fitness costs associated with two repressible female-lethal transgenes in the diamondback moth and olive fly as being acceptable for field suppression programs. Furthermore, using these estimates of genotype-level fitness costs, we were able to project longer-term evolutionary trajectories for the transgenes investigated. Results from these projections demonstrate that although transgene-associated fitness costs will ultimately cause these transgenes to become extinct, even when engineered lethality is repressed, they may persist for varying periods of time before doing so. This implies that tetracycline-mediated transgene field persistence in these strains is unlikely and suggests that realistic estimates of transgene-associated fitness costs may be useful in trialing ‘uncoupled’ gene drive system components in the field. PMID:24944572

Harvey-Samuel, Tim; Ant, Thomas; Gong, Hongfei; Morrison, Neil I; Alphey, Luke

2014-01-01

249

Geographical origin of an introduced insect pest, Listronotus bonariensis (Kuschel), determined by RAPD analysis.  

PubMed

The Argentine stem weevil, Listronotus bonariensis (Kuschel) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is an important introduced pasture pest in New Zealand. In this study geographical populations of this species were analysed using polymerase chain reaction-based randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), in an attempt to determine the geographical origin of the pest. Morphologically indistinguishable individuals were collected from nine South American, five New Zealand and one Australian populations. Ten primers were screened for usefulness, two of which revealed significant, scorable polymorphisms between these populations. The results indicated that the sampled New Zealand L. bonariensis populations originated from the east coast of South America. PMID:8200816

Williams, C L; Goldson, S L; Baird, D B; Bullock, D W

1994-04-01

250

Toxicity of seven foliar insecticides to four insect parasitoids attacking citrus and cotton pests  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Laboratory studies were carried out to compare the relative toxicity of seven foliar insecticides against four species of beneficial insects representing two families of HYmenoptera: Aphelinidae (Aphytis melinus Debach, Eretmocerus eremicus Rose & Zolnerowich, and Encarsia formosa Gahan) and MYmarid...

251

Unraveling the mystery of compost teas used for organic disease and insect pest  

E-print Network

Unraveling the mystery of compost teas used for organic disease and insect GilleN #12;What are compost teas? · Watery extracts (teas) made from placing compost in a mesh bag and soaking in water · Plant vs. animal (manure

252

Improved quality management to enhance the efficacy of the sterile insect technique for lepidopteran pests  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lepidoptera are among the most severe pests of food and fibre crops in the world and are mainly controlled using broad spectrum insecticides. This does not lead to sustainable control and farmers are demanding alternative control tools which are both effective and friendly to the environment. The st...

253

Blueberry gall midge: A major insect pest of blueberries in the southeastern United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Blueberry gall midge (BGM) (Dasineura oxycoccana: Ceccidomyidae) is a major pest of blueberries in the southeast United States. Larvae attack leaf and flower buds, causing up to 80% yield loss. Eggs hatch in a few days and larvae develop inside the protective bud. Larval feeding destroys the bud ...

254

Biology and management of insect pests in North American intensively managed hardwood forest systems.  

SciTech Connect

Annu. Rev. Entomol. 50:1-29. Abstract Increasing demand for wood and wood products is putting stress on traditional forest production areas, leading to long-term economic and environmental concerns. Intensively managed hardwood forest systems (IMHFS), grown using conventional agricultural as well as forestry methods, can help alleviate potential problems in natural forest production areas. Although IMHFS can produce more biomass per hectare per year than natural forests, the ecologically simplified, monocultural systems may greatly increase the crops susceptibility to pests. Species in the genera Populus and Salix comprise the greatest acreage in IMHFS in North America, but other species, including Liquidambar styracifua and Platanus occidentalis, are also important. We discuss life histories, realized and potential damage, and management options for the most economically infuential pests that affect these hardwood species. The substantial inherent challenges associated with pest management in the monocultural environments created by IMHFS are reviewed. Finally, we discuss ways to design IMHFS that may reduce their susceptibility to pests, increase their growth and productivity potential, and create a more sustainable environment.

Coyle, David R.; Nebeker, T., E.; Hart, E., R.; Mattson, W., J.

2005-01-01

255

MANAGING INSECT PESTS OF COMMERCIALLY GROWN CRUCIFERS Ricky E. Foster, Extension Entomologist  

E-print Network

suffer from water loss and reduced photosynthetic capability. Problems from flea beetles can be reduced flea beetle (Photo Credit: C. Eastman) The crucifers include cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussels in the seed furrow or as transplant drenches. FLEA BEETLES Flea beetles are almost always a pest of crucifers

Ginzel, Matthew

256

Managing Insect and Mite Pests of Legumes, Grasses and Forage Crops in Texas.  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Webworms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Grasshoppers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Blister Beetles..., :. .dh as varietal selection; biological control, involving conservation of existing natural enemies of pests; host-plant resistance; and selected use of insecticides. Although most of the management tools are usual- ly available, pesticides...

Neeb, Charles W.; Thomas, John G.

1982-01-01

257

The slithering bullet: beneficial nematodes for suppression of peach insect pests  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar, is a major pest of stone and pome fruits. Stone fruits are also plagued by clear-winged moths such as peachtree borer (Synanthedon exitiosa) and lesser peachtree borer (Synanthedon pictipes). Microbial control agents have potential as alternative management t...

258

COORDINATED DIABROTICA GENETICS RESEARCH: ACCELERATING PROGRESS ON AN URGENT INSECT PEST PROBLEM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Corn rootworms, Diabrotica spp., represent the most destructive pest complex of continuous corn (Zea mays) in North America, and the western corn rootworm (D. virgifera virgifera) (WCR) is now posing a major and spreading risk to corn in Europe since it was first detected in the early 1990s. Corn r...

259

HOUSEHOLD AND STRUCTURAL INSECTS Comparative Study of Integrated Pest Management and Baiting for  

E-print Network

for German Cockroach Management in Public Housing CHANGLU WANG AND GARY W. BENNETT Center for Urban-wide cockroach integrated pest management (IPM) program compared with bait alone treatment in public housing. In total, 12 buildings (66 apartments) were treated and monitored for cockroach infestations over 7 mo

Wang, Changlu

260

Management of insect pests of soybean: effects of sowing date and intercropping on damage and grain yield in the Nigerian Sudan savanna  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field trials were carried out during the 2001–2002 cropping seasons at Maiduguri, Nigeria, to determine the effects of defoliation and pod damage by insect pests on grain yield of soybean. The factorial experiments consisted of four sowing dates (31 July, 7, 14 and 21 August in 2001 and 21 and 28 July and 4 and 11 August in 2002), four

B. M. Sastawa; M. Lawan; Y. T. Maina

2004-01-01

261

Perceived Consequences of Herbicide-Tolerant and Insect-Resistant Crops on Integrated Pest Management Strategies in the Western United States: Results of an Online Survey  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We conducted an online survey to assess the potential effects of herbicide-tolerant (HT) and insect-resistant (IR) crops on integrated pest management (IPM) practices in the Western United States. For HT crops, participants perceived a decrease in several IPM practices, including crop and herbicide ...

262

Factors determining the use of botanical insect pest control methods by small-holder farmers in the Lake Victoria basin, Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

A farm survey was conducted in three representative administrative districts of the Lake Victoria Basin (LVB), Kenya to document farmers' indigenous knowledge and the factors that influence the use of botanicals instead of synthetic insecticides in insect pest management. A total of 65 farm households were randomly sampled using stratified sampling procedure. The maximum likelihood log model was used to

A. L. Deng; J. O. Ogendo; G. Owuor; P. K. Bett; E. O. Omolo; M. Mugisha-Kamatenesi; J. M. Mihale

263

AT A GLANCE. INSECT AND DISEASE PROBLEMS THAT SHOULD BE CONSIDERED THIS WEEK. PEST/DISEASE WEEK OF June 13 WEEK OF JUNE 20  

E-print Network

AT A GLANCE. INSECT AND DISEASE PROBLEMS THAT SHOULD BE CONSIDERED THIS WEEK. PEST/DISEASE WEEK;line however is that if the new leaves are looked at, there are no spots and the plant is growing out a fly, and then again 7-10 days later. In many cases, this has meant that a grower may not have to treat

Goodman, Robert M.

264

Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov., a xylanolytic, ustilaginomycetous yeast species isolated from an insect pest of sugarcane roots.  

PubMed

A novel ustilaginomycetous yeast isolated from the intestinal tract of an insect pest of sugarcane roots in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil, represents a novel species of the genus Pseudozyma based on molecular analyses of the D1/D2 rDNA large subunit and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1+ITS2) regions. The name Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov. is proposed for this species, with GHG001(T) (?=?CBS 13268(T)?=?UFMG-CM-Y307(T)) as the type strain. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is a sister species of Pseudozyma vetiver, originally isolated from leaves of vetiver grass and sugarcane in Thailand. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is able to grow well with xylan as the sole carbon source and produces high levels of an endo-1,4-xylanase that has a higher specific activity in comparison with other eukaryotic xylanases. This enzyme has a variety of industrial applications, indicating the great biotechnological potential of P. brasiliensis. PMID:24682702

Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro; Borges, Thuanny A; Corrêa dos Santos, Renato Augusto; Freitas, Larissa F D; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Riaño-Pachón, Diego Mauricio

2014-06-01

265

Evaluation of insecticides and application methods against Contarinia nasturtii (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a new invasive insect pest in the United States.  

PubMed

The midge Contarinia nasturtii (Keiffer), a serious gall-forming insect pest of cruciferous plants in Europe and southwestern Asia, was first reported in the United States in summer 2004. It had not been recorded in North America until its discovery in Ontario, Canada, in 2000. Efficacy of 20 insecticides belonging to 12 different classes was evaluated by using a foliar spray, soil drench, or seed treatment method. The broccoli cultivar 'Packman' was used in all tests at the suitable stage of four to five true leaves. Results indicated that foliar sprays of lambda-cyhalothrin, acephate, acetamiprid, chlorpyrifos, and methomyl reduced C. nasturtii larval populations by 96.7-100%. Except for acetamiprid, the other four insecticides also were effective against adults and provided 100% mortality after 24 h. When applied by drench, acetamiprid, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam provided 100% control of C. nasturtii larvae, and the duration of efficacy lasted at least 7 wk. When applied as seed treatment, clothianidin and thiamethoxam provided 100% control of larvae and did not significantly affect seed germination. Imidacloprid also provided 100% control but the percentage of germination after treatment was only 62% (96.9% in check). These results indicate that several insecticides may significantly reduce midge populations. The nicotinoid class of insecticides, which has strong systemic activity, is likely to be the first choice. It is necessary to explore and develop other control methods such as cultural control and host resistance to develop an effective integrated pest management system. PMID:16573331

Wu, Qing-Jun; Zhao, Jian-Zhou; Taylor, Alan G; Shelton, Anthony M

2006-02-01

266

Construction of a recombinant Bacillus velezensis strain as an integrated control agent against plant diseases and insect pests.  

PubMed

To construct a new recombinant strain of Bacillus velezensis that has antifungal and insecticidal activity via the expression of the insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis crystal protein, a B. thuringiensis expression vector (pHT1K-1Ac) was generated that contained the B. thuringiensis cry1Ac gene under the control of its endogenous promoter in a minimal E. coli-B. thuringiensis shuttle vector (pHT1K). This vector was introduced into a B. velezensis isolate that showed high antifungal activities against several plant diseases, including rice blast (Magnaporthe grisea), rice sheath blight (Rhizotonia solani), tomato gray mold (Botrytis cinerea), tomato late blight (Phytophthora infestans), and wheat leaf rust (Puccinia recondita), by electroporation. The recombinant B. velezensis strain was confirmed by PCR using cry1Ac-specific primers. Additionally, the recombinant strain produced a protein approximately 130 kDa in size and parasporal inclusion bodies similar to B. thuringiensis. The in vivo antifungal activity assay demonstrated that the activity of the recombinant B. velezensis strain was maintained at the same level as that of wild-type B. velezensis. Furthermore, it exhibited high insecticidal activity against a lepidopteran pest, Plutella xylostella, although its activity was lower than that of a recombinant B. thuringiensis strain, whereas wild-type B. velezensis strain did not show any insecticidal activity. These results suggest that this recombinant B. velezensis strain can be used to control harmful insect pests and fungal diseases simultaneously in one crop. PMID:19884784

Roh, Jong Yul; Liu, Qin; Choi, Jae Young; Wang, Yong; Shim, Hee Jin; Xu, Hong Guang; Choi, Gyung Ja; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Je, Yeon Ho

2009-10-01

267

A Naturally Occurring Plant Cysteine Protease Possesses Remarkable Toxicity against Insect Pests and Synergizes Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin  

PubMed Central

When caterpillars feed on maize (Zea maize L.) lines with native resistance to several Lepidopteran pests, a defensive cysteine protease, Mir1-CP, rapidly accumulates at the wound site. Mir1-CP has been shown to inhibit caterpillar growth in vivo by attacking and permeabilizing the insect's peritrophic matrix (PM), a structure that surrounds the food bolus, assists in digestion and protects the midgut from microbes and toxins. PM permeabilization weakens the caterpillar defenses by facilitating the movement of other insecticidal proteins in the diet to the midgut microvilli and thereby enhancing their toxicity. To directly determine the toxicity of Mir1-CP, the purified recombinant enzyme was directly tested against four economically significant Lepidopteran pests in bioassays. Mir1-CP LC50 values were 1.8, 3.6, 0.6, and 8.0 ppm for corn earworm, tobacco budworm, fall armyworm and southwestern corn borer, respectively. These values were the same order of magnitude as those determined for the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Bt-CryIIA. In addition to being directly toxic to the larvae, 60 ppb Mir1-CP synergized sublethal concentrations of Bt-CryIIA in all four species. Permeabilization of the PM by Mir1-CP probably provides ready access to Bt-binding sites on the midgut microvilli and increases its activity. Consequently, Mir1-CP could be used for controlling caterpillar pests in maize using non-transgenic approaches and potentially could be used in other crops either singly or in combination with Bt-toxins. PMID:18335057

Mohan, Srinidi; Ma, Peter W. K.; Williams, W. Paul; Luthe, Dawn S.

2008-01-01

268

Fine-scale geographical origin of an insect pest invading North America.  

PubMed

Invasive species may rapidly spread throughout new areas once introduced, which may potentially lead to serious damage to local fauna and flora. Information on geographical origins, introduction routes, and biology in native regions of such invasive species is of critical importance in identifying means of transport, preventing reintroduction, and establishing control/eradication methods. The plataspid stinkbug Megacopta cribraria, known as kudzu bug, recently invaded North America and now has become not only an agricultural pest of soybean but also a nuisance pest. Here we investigate the geographical origin of the invasive M. cribraria populations. Phylogeographical analyses based on 8.7 kb mitochondrial DNA sequences of the introduced and East Asian native Megacopta populations identified a well-supported clade consisting of the introduced populations and M. punctatissima populations in the Kyushu region of Japan, which strongly suggests that the invading M. cribraria populations are derived from a M. punctatissima population in the Kyushu region. Therefore, the region is proposed as a promising source of natural enemies for biological control of the invasive pest. Based on the phylogenetic information, relationship and treatment of the two Megacopta species are discussed. PMID:24551228

Hosokawa, Takahiro; Nikoh, Naruo; Fukatsu, Takema

2014-01-01

269

Fine-Scale Geographical Origin of an Insect Pest Invading North America  

PubMed Central

Invasive species may rapidly spread throughout new areas once introduced, which may potentially lead to serious damage to local fauna and flora. Information on geographical origins, introduction routes, and biology in native regions of such invasive species is of critical importance in identifying means of transport, preventing reintroduction, and establishing control/eradication methods. The plataspid stinkbug Megacopta cribraria, known as kudzu bug, recently invaded North America and now has become not only an agricultural pest of soybean but also a nuisance pest. Here we investigate the geographical origin of the invasive M. cribraria populations. Phylogeographical analyses based on 8.7 kb mitochondrial DNA sequences of the introduced and East Asian native Megacopta populations identified a well-supported clade consisting of the introduced populations and M. punctatissima populations in the Kyushu region of Japan, which strongly suggests that the invading M. cribraria populations are derived from a M. punctatissima population in the Kyushu region. Therefore, the region is proposed as a promising source of natural enemies for biological control of the invasive pest. Based on the phylogenetic information, relationship and treatment of the two Megacopta species are discussed. PMID:24551228

Hosokawa, Takahiro; Nikoh, Naruo; Fukatsu, Takema

2014-01-01

270

In situ detection of small-size insect pests sampled on traps using multifractal analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a multifractal analysis for detecting the small-size pest (e.g., whitefly) images from a sticky trap in situ. An automatic attraction system is utilized for collecting pests from greenhouse plants. We applied multifractal analysis to segment action of whitefly images based on the local singularity and global image characteristics. According to the theory of multifractal dimension, the candidate blobs of whiteflies are initially defined from the sticky-trap image. Two schemes, fixed thresholding and regional minima obtainment, were utilized for feature extraction of candidate whitefly image areas. The experiment was conducted with the field images in a greenhouse. Detection results were compared with other adaptive segmentation algorithms. Values of F measuring precision and recall score were higher for the proposed multifractal analysis (96.5%) compared with conventional methods such as Watershed (92.2%) and Otsu (73.1%). The true positive rate of multifractal analysis was 94.3% and the false positive rate minimal level at 1.3%. Detection performance was further tested via human observation. The degree of scattering between manual and automatic counting was remarkably higher with multifractal analysis (R2=0.992) compared with Watershed (R2=0.895) and Otsu (R2=0.353), ensuring overall detection of the small-size pests is most feasible with multifractal analysis in field conditions.

Xia, Chunlei; Lee, Jang-Myung; Li, Yan; Chung, Bu-Keun; Chon, Tae-Soo

2012-02-01

271

Molecular cloning and expression of an alpha-amylase inhibitor from rye with potential for controlling insect pests.  

PubMed

Alpha-amylase inhibitors have important roles in plant defense mechanisms, particularly against insects, and several of these inhibitors have been expressed in different crops to increase their resistance to particular insects. In this work, we report the cloning and expression of a gene encoding for a new alpha-amylase inhibitor (BIII) from rye (Secale cereale) seeds. The BIII gene contains 354 nucleotides that encode for 118 amino acids sequence. A 313 bp fragment of the gene was expressed in Escherichia coli and resulted in a functional inhibitor that reduced the activity of alpha-amylases of larvae of the coleopteran pests Acanthoscelides obtectus, Zabrotess subfasciatus and Anthonomus grandis. In contrast, the inhibitor did not inhibit the activity of porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase. Although the amino acid sequence of BIII showed high identity with those of bifunctional inhibitors, the recombinant protein was unable to inhibit trypsin-like serine proteinases. The effects of recombinant BIII were evaluated in vivo against A. grandis. When first instar larvae were reared on an artificial diet containing four different concentrations of BIII, a reduction in larval weight and a mortality of 83% were observed at the highest concentration. PMID:16003953

Dias, Simoni C; Franco, Octávio L; Magalhães, Cláudio P; de Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo B; Laumann, Raúl A; Figueira, Edson L Z; Melo, Francislete R; Grossi-De-Sá, Maria F

2005-02-01

272

KEEP EXOTIC INSECT PESTS AWAY FROM INDIANA TREES DON'T MOVE FIREWOOD!  

E-print Network

the Emerald Ash Borer are major threats to Indiana's trees. Emerald Ash Borer, a non-native beetle discovered ash firewood. To help protect Indiana from the Emerald Ash Borer and other exotic insects: USE LOCAL, For more information on the Emerald Ash Borer: EMERALD ASH BORER Contact the Indiana Department of Natural

Ginzel, Matthew

273

Reduced Population Control of an Insect Pest in Managed Willow Monocultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThere is a general belief that insect outbreak risk is higher in plant monocultures than in natural and more diverse habitats, although empirical studies investigating this relationship are lacking. In this study, using density data collected over seven years at 40 study sites, we compare the temporal population variability of the leaf beetle Phratora vulgatissima between willow plantations and natural

Peter Dalin; Oskar Kindvall; Christer Björkman; Andrew Wilby

2009-01-01

274

Desiccation increases the efficacy of Beauveria bassiana for stored grain pest insects  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effect of desiccation stress on the efficacy of Beauveria bassiana for stored-product insects was investigated in laboratory bioassays. The mortality of B. bassiana-treated Plodia interpunctella larvae was greater at a vapor pressure deficit (VPD) of 2.42 kPa or 1.87 kPa than at 1.06 kPa. Moist...

275

Evaluation of Advanced Sweetpotato Genotypes for Resistance to Soil Insect Pests, 2009  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This report describes a field evaluation of advanced orange-fleshed sweetpotato genotypes from the USDA ARS sweetpotato breeding program at the U. S. Vegetable Laboratory (USVL), Charleston, SC in 2009. This field experiment included four insect-susceptible check cultivars (‘Beauregard’, ‘Diane’, ‘...

276

Directional Flow of Summer Aeration to Manage Insect Pests in Stored Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field trials were conducted in metal wheat storage bins to determine whether pressure aeration, pushing ambient air from the bottom, or suction aeration, pulling air down from the top, would be more efficient at cooling the wheat mass and thereby limiting insect population growth. Aeration was accom...

277

Desiccation increases the efficacy of Beauveria bassiana for stored-grain pest insect control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of desiccation stress on the efficacy of Beauveria bassiana for controlling stored-product insects was investigated in laboratory bioassays. The mortality of B. bassiana-treated Plodia interpunctella larvae was greater at a vapor pressure deficit (VPD) of 2.42 or 1.87kPa than at 1.06kPa. Moisture also had significant effects on the mortalities of adult rice weevils, Sitophilus oryzae and maize weevils,

Jeffrey C. Lord

2007-01-01

278

Safety and Advantages of Bacillus thuringiensis-Protected Plants to Control Insect Pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants modified to express insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (referred to as Bt-protected plants) provide a safe and highly effective method of insect control. Bt-protected corn, cotton, and potato were introduced into the United States in 1995\\/1996 and grown on a total of approximately 10 million acres in 1997, 20 million acres in 1998, and 29 million acres globally in

Fred S. Betz; Bruce G. Hammond; Roy L. Fuchs

2000-01-01

279

Investigation on penetration of three conventional foodstuffs packaging polymers with two different thicknesses by larvae and adults of major species of stored-product pest insects.  

PubMed

Despite modern methods of packaging, stored agricultural products are still under attack by stored-insect pests. Therefore, determination of the best polymer and appropriate thickness inhibiting the penetration of the insects must be considered. In this study, we investigated the ability of penetration and the rates of contamination by nine important stored product pest insects for three conventional flexible polymers (polyethylene, cellophane and polypropylene) at two thicknesses (16.5 and 29 microm), which are used as pouches for packing of agricultural products. We used adults of T. castaneum (Coleoptera), S. granarius (Coleoptera), R. dominica (Coleoptera), C. maculates (Coleoptera), O. surinamensis (Coleoptera), and larvae of P. interpunctella (Lepidoptera), E. kuehniella (Lepidoptera), S. cerealella (Lepidoptera) and T. granarium (Coleoptera). Results showed that for most of the species penetration occurred between 4 days and 2 weeks, but there were significant differences (p < or = 0.05) in the penetration of three polymers (cellophane, polyethylene and polypropylene) by the insects. Among the polymers, polyethylene with a thickness of 16.5 microm showed the highest degree of penetration and was the most unsuitable polymer for packaging of foodstuffs. Application of this polymer led to a complete infestation of the product and a lot of punctures were created by the insects. In contrast, no penetration was observed in polypropylene polymer with a thickness of 29 microm. Furthermore, adults and larvae of all species showed a much lower penetration when there was no food present in the pouches and this was the case for all polymers tested. PMID:20222605

Allahvaisi, Somayeh; Purmirza, Ali Asghar; Safaralizade, Mohamad Hasan

2009-01-01

280

Insects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All insects have six jointed legs and a hard exoskeleton covering. The bodies of insects are divided into three parts- the head, the thorax, and the abdomen. Insects are the only animals to have wings and most insects have a pair of antennae.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)

2008-06-12

281

Scale Insects, edition 2, a tool for the identification of potential pest scales at U.S.A. ports-of-entry (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Coccoidea)  

PubMed Central

Abstract We provide a general overview of features and technical specifications of an online, interactive tool for the identification of scale insects of concern to the U.S.A. ports-of-entry. Full lists of terminal taxa included in the keys (of which there are four), a list of features used in them, and a discussion of the structure of the tool are provided. We also briefly discuss the advantages of interactive keys for the identification of potential scale insect pests. The interactive key is freely accessible on http://idtools.org/id/scales/index.php PMID:25152668

Miller, Douglass R.; Rung, Alessandra; Parikh, Grishma

2014-01-01

282

Budding of peste des petits ruminants virus-like particles from insect cell membrane based on intracellular co-expression of peste des petits ruminants virus M, H and N proteins by recombinant baculoviruses.  

PubMed

Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), an etiological agent of peste des petits ruminants (PPR), is classified into the genus Morbillivirus in the family Paramyxovirida. In this study, two full-length open reading frames (ORF) corresponding to the PPRV matrix (M) and haemagglutinin (H) genes underwent a codon-optimization based on insect cells, respectively. Two codon-optimized ORFs along with one native nucleocapsid (N) ORF were used to construct recombinant baculoviruses co-expressing the PPRV M, H and N proteins in insect cells. Analysis of Western blot, immunofluorescence, confocal microscopy and flow cytometry demonstrated co-expression of the three proteins but at different levels in insect cells, and PPR virus-like particles (VLPs) budded further from cell membrane based on self-assembly of the three proteins by viewing of ultrathin section with a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Subsequently, a small number of VLPs were purified by sucrose density gradient centrifugation for TEM viewing. The PPR VLPs, either purified by sucrose density gradient centrifugation or budding from insect cell membrane on ultrathin section, morphologically resembled authentic PPRVs but were smaller in diameter by the TEM examination. PMID:24992672

Liu, Fuxiao; Wu, Xiaodong; Zhao, Yonggang; Li, Lin; Wang, Zhiliang

2014-10-01

283

Second-Generation Sequencing Supply an Effective Way to Screen RNAi Targets in Large Scale for Potential Application in Pest Insect Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key of RNAi approach success for potential insect pest control is mainly dependent on careful target selection and a convenient delivery system. We adopted second-generation sequencing technology to screen RNAi targets. Illumina's RNA-seq and digital gene expression tag profile (DGE-tag) technologies were used to screen optimal RNAi targets from Ostrinia furnalalis. Total 14690 stage specific genes were obtained which

Yubing Wang; Hao Zhang; Haichao Li; Xuexia Miao; Frederic Marion-Poll

2011-01-01

284

Designing Insects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article reflects on how most transgenic research is still in early development, but issues surrounding the use of transgenic insects need to be addressed. Examples are their impact on the environment, the potential risks to human health, and their advantages and disadvantages in controlling crop pests. The article showcases some insects specifically engineered to control agricultural pests.

Thomas Miller (University of California- Riverside; )

2004-10-01

285

Effect of a plant growth regulator prohexadione-calcium on insect pests of apple and pear.  

PubMed

The effect of prohexadione-calcium, a plant growth regulator that inhibits gibberellin metabolism, on Cacopsylla pyricoloa (Foerster) in pear trees, and Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) and Aphis spireacola Patch, in apple trees was studied. C. pyricoloa and A. spireacola populations were significantly reduced in prohexadione-calcium-treated pear and apple, respectively. Insecticide control of both pests with imidacloprid was synergized in treatments with prohexadione-calcium. In apples treated with prohexadione-calcium, there was a significant reduction in the number of C. rosaceana shelters per tree and amount of fruit injury at harvest attributable to the C. rosaceana. There was an additive effect when tebufenozide was used to control C. rosaceana in trees treated with prohexadione-calcium. Prohexadione-calcium significantly reduced vegetative growth in both pears and apples. Synergistic and additive treatment effects of prohexadione-calcium and pesticides used in this study may be due to better penetration and coverage of pesticides due to reduced foliar growth or to changes in the nutritional quality of the host plants. PMID:15889734

Paulson, G S; Hull, L A; Biddinger, D J

2005-04-01

286

Captures of pest fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and nontarget insects in BioLure and torula yeast traps in Hawaii.  

PubMed

MultiLure traps were deployed in a Hawaiian orchard to compare the attraction of economically important fruit flies and nontarget insects to the three-component BioLure and torula yeast food lures. Either water or a 20% propylene glycol solution was used to dissolve the torula yeast or as capture fluid in BioLure traps. Torula yeast in water was more attractive than BioLure for male and female Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) and Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and as attractive for Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), and the addition of propylene glycol significantly inhibited the attractiveness of torula yeast. The known synergistic effect of propylene glycol with BioLure, resulting in increased captures of Anastrepha flies, was not observed with Bactrocera. Nontarget Drosophilidae, Neriidae, Phoridae, Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, and Muscidae were more strongly attracted to BioLure, and both lures collected Chloropidae equally. As with fruit flies, propylene glycol in torula yeast significantly decreased nontarget captures. The results therefore suggest that torula yeast in water is a more effective attractant than BioLure for pest Bactrocera while minimizing nontarget captures. PMID:22546461

Leblanc, Luc; Vargas, Roger I; Rubinoff, Daniel

2010-10-01

287

Microbial control of cotton pests. Part I: Use of the naturally occurring entomopathogenic fungus Aspergillus sp. (BC 639) in the management of Creontiades dilutus (Stal) (Hemiptera: Miridae) and beneficial insects on transgenic cotton crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and adoption of transgenic (Bt) crops that express the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin has reduced the use of synthetic insecticide on transgenic crops to target Helicoverpa spp., the major insect pest of cotton in Australia. However, it has also increased the threat posed by sucking pests, particularly Creontiades dilutus (green mirid), which are unaffected by the Bt toxins

Robert K. Mensah; Leah Austin

2012-01-01

288

Assessment of insecticide resistance in five insect pests attacking field and vegetable crops in Nicaragua.  

PubMed

Field populations of Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), Plutella xylostella (L.), Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) were tested for resistance to several insecticides commonly used in Nicariagua. Assays were conducted to estimate the LD50s or LC50s and the corresponding resistance ratios. A diagnostic concentration was used to discriminate between susceptible and resistant strains of H. hampei. The tests with >6,000 H. hampei adults collected from six different sites indicate the absence of resistance to endosulfan. Resistance to cypermethrin, deltamethrin, chlorfluazuron, thiocyclam, and methamidophos was documented in six field populations of P. xylostella. High levels of resistance to cypermethrin and deltamethrin, but moderate levels of resistance to chlorpyriphos and methomyl, were also documented in two field populations of S. exigua. Moderate levels of resistance to cypermethrin, deltamethrin and chlorpyriphos were also documented in three field populations of H. zea. Moderate to high levels of resistance to bifenthrin, methamidophos and endosulfan were documented in four field populations of B. tabaci. The presence of significant correlations between LD50s or LC50s suggests the occurrence of cross-resistance or simultaneous selection for resistance by different insecticides with different modes of action. Our data could not differentiate between these two possibilities. Because insecticides will continue being used in Nicaragua, a resistance management program is urgently needed. The implementation of integrated pest management tactics must be accompanied by specific regulations for pesticide registration. In the future, pesticide registration regulations in Nicaragua should include periodic resistance monitoring. The mechanisms to cover the costs of resistance monitoring and resistance management should also be established. PMID:11142313

Pérez, C J; Alvarado, P; Narváez, C; Miranda, F; Hernández, L; Vanegas, H; Hruska, A; Shelton, A M

2000-12-01

289

Farmers' insect pest management practices and pesticidal plant use in the protection of stored maize and beans in Southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Storage losses due to pests threaten livelihoods of farmers across Africa. Synthetic pesticides provide effective control when used correctly but resource-poor farmers cannot afford them. A survey of farmer ethno-ecological knowledge of pests of stored maize and bean, and their pest management practices including pesticidal plant use, was conducted in eastern Zambia and northern Malawi. Almost all respondents reported serious

John Kamanula; Gudeta W. Sileshi; Steven R. Belmain; Phosiso Sola; Brighton M. Mvumi; Greenwell K. C. Nyirenda; Stephen P. Nyirenda; Philip C. Stevenson

2010-01-01

290

Identification and Structural Characterization of Novel Cyclotide with Activity against an Insect Pest of Sugar Cane*  

PubMed Central

Cyclotides are a family of plant-derived cyclic peptides comprising six conserved cysteine residues connected by three intermolecular disulfide bonds that form a knotted structure known as a cyclic cystine knot (CCK). This structural motif is responsible for the pronounced stability of cyclotides against chemical, thermal, or proteolytic degradation and has sparked growing interest in this family of peptides. Here, we isolated and characterized a novel cyclotide from Palicourea rigida (Rubiaceae), which was named parigidin-br1. The sequence indicated that this peptide is a member of the bracelet subfamily of cyclotides. Parigidin-br1 showed potent insecticidal activity against neonate larvae of Lepidoptera (Diatraea saccharalis), causing 60% mortality at a concentration of 1 ?m but had no detectable antibacterial effects. A decrease in the in vitro viability of the insect cell line from Spodoptera frugiperda (SF-9) was observed in the presence of parigidin-br1, consistent with in vivo insecticidal activity. Transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy of SF-9 cells after incubation with parigidin-br1 or parigidin-br1-fluorescein isothiocyanate, respectively, revealed extensive cell lysis and swelling of cells, consistent with an insecticidal mechanism involving membrane disruption. This hypothesis was supported by in silico analyses, which suggested that parigidin-br1 is able to complex with cell lipids. Overall, the results suggest promise for the development of parigidin-br1 as a novel biopesticide. PMID:22074926

Pinto, Michelle F. S.; Fensterseifer, Isabel C. M.; Migliolo, Ludovico; Sousa, Daniel A.; de Capdville, Guy; Arboleda-Valencia, Jorge W.; Colgrave, Michelle L.; Craik, David J.; Magalhães, Beatriz S.; Dias, Simoni C.; Franco, Octávio L.

2012-01-01

291

Efficacy of insect growth regulators as grain protectants against two stored-product pests in wheat and maize.  

PubMed

Insect growth regulators (IGRs) (two juvenile hormone analogues [fenoxycarb and pyriproxifen], four chitin synthesis inhibitors [diflubenzuron, flufenoxuron, lufenuron, and triflumuron], one ecdysteroid agonist [methoxyfenozide], and one combination of chitin synthesis inhibitors and juvenile hormone analogues [lufenuron plus fenoxycarb]) were tested in the laboratory against adults of Prostephanus truncatus in maize and against adults of Rhyzopertha dominica in wheat. The tested IGRs were applied in maize at three doses (1, 5, and 10 ppm) and assessed at three temperature levels (20, 25, and 30°C) in the case of P. truncatus, while in the case of R. dominica the above doses were assessed only at 25°C in wheat. In addition to progeny production, mortality of the treated adults after 14 days of exposure in the IGR-treated commodities was assessed. All IGRs were very effective (>88.5% suppression of progeny) against the tested species at doses of $ 5 ppm, while diflubenzuron at 25°C in the case of P. truncatus or lufenuron and pyriproxyfen in the case of R. dominica completely suppressed (100%) progeny production when they were applied at 1 ppm. At all tested doses, the highest values of R. dominica parental mortality were observed in wheat treated with lufenuron plus fenoxycarb. Temperature at the levels examined in the present study did not appear to affect the overall performance in a great extent of the tested IGRs in terms of adult mortality or suppression of progeny production against P. truncatus in treated maize. The tested IGRs may be considered viable grain protectants and therefore as potential components in stored-product integrated pest management. PMID:22564945

Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Athanassiou, Christos G; Vayias, Basileios J; Tomanovi?, Zeljko

2012-05-01

292

Insect-specific irreversible inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase in pests including the bed bug, the eastern yellowjacket, German and American cockroaches, and the confused flour beetle.  

PubMed

Insecticides directed against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) are facing increased resistance among target species as well as increasing concerns for human toxicity. The result has been a resurgence of disease vectors, insects destructive to agriculture, and residential pests. We previously reported a free cysteine (Cys) residue at the entrance to the AChE active site in some insects but not higher vertebrates. We also reported Cys-targeting methanethiosulfonate molecules (AMTSn), which, under conditions that spared human AChE, caused total irreversible inhibition of aphid AChE, 95% inhibition of AChE from the malaria vector mosquito (Anopheles gambia), and >80% inhibition of activity from the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) and northern house mosquito (Culex pipiens). We now find the same compounds inhibit AChE from cockroaches (Blattella germanica and Periplaneta americana), the flour beetle (Tribolium confusum), the multi-colored Asian ladybird beetle (Harmonia axyridis), the bed bug (Cimex lectularius), and a wasp (Vespula maculifrons), with IC(50) values of approximately 1-11muM. Our results support further study of Cys-targeting inhibitors as conceptually novel insecticides that may be free of resistance in a range of insect pests and disease vectors and, compared with current compounds, should demonstrate much lower toxicity to mammals, birds, and fish. PMID:20109441

Polsinelli, Gregory A; Singh, Sanjay K; Mishra, Rajesh K; Suranyi, Robert; Ragsdale, David W; Pang, Yuan-Ping; Brimijoin, Stephen

2010-09-01

293

Pests in and Around the Home  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Knowledgebase of urban, structure, lawn and landscape pests. Includes sections on pest management theory; biting and stinging insects; pests of food, fabric and wood; occasional invaders; lawn pests; landscape pests, and some vertebrate pests. Includes pest identification keys. This is an excellent resource, although much of the material is specific to Florida. Vertebrate pest management sections are also of high quality and interesting. Requires a CD-ROM drive and a web browser. $25.

0000-00-00

294

Predictive Modeling of the Effects of Climate Change on the Infestation Patterns of a Migratory Crop Pest Insect.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Climate change is projected to expand the distribution of warm-climate agricultural pests with significant adverse economic consequences. Adapting U.S. agriculture to this emerging problem requires the timely monitoring of pest movements, an understanding of the meteorological factors that define mi...

295

Improving the cost-effectiveness, trade and safety of biological control for agricultural insect pests using nuclear techniques  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

If appropriately applied, biological control offers one of the most promising, environmentally sound, and sustainable control tactics for arthropod pests and weeds for application as part of an integrated pest management (IPM) approach. Public support for biological control as one of the preferred m...

296

A fungal insecticide engineered for fast per os killing of caterpillars has high field efficacy and safety in full-season control of cabbage insect pests.  

PubMed

Fungal insecticides developed from filamentous pathogens of insects are notorious for their slow killing action through cuticle penetration, depressing commercial interest and practical application. Genetic engineering may accelerate their killing action but cause ecological risk. Here we show that a Beauveria bassiana formulation, HV8 (BbHV8), engineered for fast per os killing of caterpillars by an insect midgut-acting toxin (Vip3Aa1) overexpressed in conidia has both high field efficacy and safety in full-season protection of cabbage from the damage of an insect pest complex dominated by Pieris rapae larvae, followed by Plutella xylostella larvae and aphids. In two fields repeatedly sprayed during summer, BbHV8 resulted in overall mean efficacies of killing of 71% and 75%, which were similar or close to the 70% and 83% efficacies achieved by commercially recommended emamectin benzoate but much higher than the 31% and 48% efficacies achieved by the same formulation of the parental wild-type strain (WT). Both BbHV8 and WT sprays exerted no adverse effect on a nontarget spider community during the trials, and the sprays did not influence saprophytic fungi in soil samples taken from the field plots during 4 months after the last spray. Strikingly, BbHV8 and the WT showed low fitness when they were released into the environment because both were decreasingly recovered from the field lacking native B. bassiana strains (undetectable 5 months after the spray), and the recovered isolates became much less tolerant to high temperature and UV-B irradiation. Our results highlight for the first time that a rationally engineered fungal insecticide can compete with a chemical counterpart to combat insect pests at an affordable cost and with low ecological risk. PMID:23956386

Liu, Yong-Jie; Liu, Jing; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Feng, Ming-Guang

2013-10-01

297

A Fungal Insecticide Engineered for Fast Per Os Killing of Caterpillars Has High Field Efficacy and Safety in Full-Season Control of Cabbage Insect Pests  

PubMed Central

Fungal insecticides developed from filamentous pathogens of insects are notorious for their slow killing action through cuticle penetration, depressing commercial interest and practical application. Genetic engineering may accelerate their killing action but cause ecological risk. Here we show that a Beauveria bassiana formulation, HV8 (BbHV8), engineered for fast per os killing of caterpillars by an insect midgut-acting toxin (Vip3Aa1) overexpressed in conidia has both high field efficacy and safety in full-season protection of cabbage from the damage of an insect pest complex dominated by Pieris rapae larvae, followed by Plutella xylostella larvae and aphids. In two fields repeatedly sprayed during summer, BbHV8 resulted in overall mean efficacies of killing of 71% and 75%, which were similar or close to the 70% and 83% efficacies achieved by commercially recommended emamectin benzoate but much higher than the 31% and 48% efficacies achieved by the same formulation of the parental wild-type strain (WT). Both BbHV8 and WT sprays exerted no adverse effect on a nontarget spider community during the trials, and the sprays did not influence saprophytic fungi in soil samples taken from the field plots during 4 months after the last spray. Strikingly, BbHV8 and the WT showed low fitness when they were released into the environment because both were decreasingly recovered from the field lacking native B. bassiana strains (undetectable 5 months after the spray), and the recovered isolates became much less tolerant to high temperature and UV-B irradiation. Our results highlight for the first time that a rationally engineered fungal insecticide can compete with a chemical counterpart to combat insect pests at an affordable cost and with low ecological risk. PMID:23956386

Liu, Yong-Jie; Liu, Jing; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Liu, Shu-Sheng

2013-01-01

298

STORED PRODUCT INSECT BEHAVIOR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

What makes an insect a pest of the food industry? Any answer to this question likely involves some aspect of the pest’s behavior. Stored-product insects have a diverse array of behavioral traits that enable them to thrive in the environments created by humans for the processing and storage of food...

299

Expression of snowdrop lectin in transgenic tobacco plants results in added protection against aphids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The range of sap-sucking insect pests to which GNA, (the mannose specific lectin from snowdrops (Galanthus nivalis) has been shown to be insecticidal in artificial diets has been extended to include the peach potato aphid (Myzus persicae). A gene construct for constitutive expression of GNA from the CaMV35S gene promoter has been introduced into tobacco plants. A transgenic tobacco line

V. A. Hilder; K. S. Powell; A. M. R. Gatehouse; J. A. Gatehouse; L. N. Gatehouse; Y. Shi; W. D. O. Hamilton; A. Merryweather; C. A. Newell; J. C. Timans; W. J. Peumans; E. van Damme; D. Boulter

1995-01-01

300

HORTICULTURAL & FOREST CROPS 2014 Nursery Crops: Organic Controls for Insect Pests of Nursery Crops 4-17  

E-print Network

immediately. For borers, inject directly into galleries using syringe or turkey baster. Aqueous sprays to trunk are effective. Rates are on label. Not effective against foliar feeding pests as desiccation

Liskiewicz, Maciej

301

Pest management with natural products  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The 2012 Philadelphia ACS Symposium on Natural Products for Pest Management introduced recent discoveries and applications of natural products from insect, terrestrial plant, microbial, and synthetic sources for the management of insects, weeds, plant pathogenic microbes, and nematodes. The symposiu...

302

Transcriptome and full-length cDNA resources for the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, a major insect pest of pine forests.  

PubMed

Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are major insect pests of many woody plants around the world. The mountain pine beetle (MPB), Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a significant historical pest of western North American pine forests. It is currently devastating pine forests in western North America--particularly in British Columbia, Canada--and is beginning to expand its host range eastward into the Canadian boreal forest, which extends to the Atlantic coast of North America. Limited genomic resources are available for this and other bark beetle pests, restricting the use of genomics-based information to help monitor, predict, and manage the spread of these insects. To overcome these limitations, we generated comprehensive transcriptome resources from fourteen full-length enriched cDNA libraries through paired-end Sanger sequencing of 100,000 cDNA clones, and single-end Roche 454 pyrosequencing of three of these cDNA libraries. Hybrid de novo assembly of the 3.4 million sequences resulted in 20,571 isotigs in 14,410 isogroups and 246,848 singletons. In addition, over 2300 non-redundant full-length cDNA clones putatively containing complete open reading frames, including 47 cytochrome P450s, were sequenced fully to high quality. This first large-scale genomics resource for bark beetles provides the relevant sequence information for gene discovery; functional and population genomics; comparative analyses; and for future efforts to annotate the MPB genome. These resources permit the study of this beetle at the molecular level and will inform research in other Dendroctonus spp. and more generally in the Curculionidae and other Coleoptera. PMID:22516182

Keeling, Christopher I; Henderson, Hannah; Li, Maria; Yuen, Mack; Clark, Erin L; Fraser, Jordie D; Huber, Dezene P W; Liao, Nancy Y; Docking, T Roderick; Birol, Inanc; Chan, Simon K; Taylor, Greg A; Palmquist, Diana; Jones, Steven J M; Bohlmann, Joerg

2012-08-01

303

Insect Spotlight Articles  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This is a series of articles designed to highlight the unique aspects of insect biology, provide insight on the interactions between insects and humans, and to present information on pest management. Topic insects will include economically important pests, natural enemies, and commonly encountered i...

304

DEVELOPMENT OF THE STERILE INSECT TECHNIQUE TO MANAGE AN INVASIVE INSECT PEST, CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM, ATTACKING PRICKLY PEAR CACTUS IN QUINTANA ROO, MEXICO, AND SOUTHEASTERN USA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The most successful classical biological control of weeds program has been the control of invasive prickly-pear cactus (Opuntia spp.) by the Argentine cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum. However, the moth has now become an invasive pest in the southeastern USA and its ability to dramatically control ...

305

Genetics and biology of Anastrepha fraterculus: research supporting the use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) to control this pest in Argentina  

PubMed Central

Two species of true fruit flies (taxonomic family Tephritidae) are considered pests of fruit and vegetable production in Argentina: the cosmopolitan Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann) and the new world South American fruit fly (Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemann). The distribution of these two species in Argentina overlaps north of the capital, Buenos Aires. Regarding the control of these two pests, the varied geographical fruit producing regions in Argentina are in different fly control situations. One part is under a programme using the sterile insect technique (SIT) for the eradication of C. capitata, because A. fraterculus is not present in this area. The application of the SIT to control C. capitata north of the present line with the possibility of A. fraterculus occupying the niche left vacant by C. capitata becomes a cause of much concern. Only initial steps have been taken to investigate the genetics and biology of A. fraterculus. Consequently, only fragmentary information has been recorded in the literature regarding the use of SIT to control this species. For these reasons, the research to develop a SIT protocol to control A. fraterculus is greatly needed. In recent years, research groups have been building a network in Argentina in order to address particular aspects of the development of the SIT for Anastrepha fraterculus. The problems being addressed by these groups include improvement of artificial diets, facilitation of insect mass rearing, radiation doses and conditions for insect sterilisation, basic knowledge supporting the development of males-only strains, reduction of male maturation time to facilitate releases, identification and isolation of chemical communication signals, and a good deal of population genetic studies. This paper is the product of a concerted effort to gather all this knowledge scattered in numerous and often hard-to-access reports and papers and summarize their basic conclusions in a single publication. PMID:25471175

2014-01-01

306

Genetics and biology of Anastrepha fraterculus: research supporting the use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) to control this pest in Argentina.  

PubMed

Two species of true fruit flies (taxonomic family Tephritidae) are considered pests of fruit and vegetable production in Argentina: the cosmopolitan Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann) and the new world South American fruit fly (Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemann). The distribution of these two species in Argentina overlaps north of the capital, Buenos Aires. Regarding the control of these two pests, the varied geographical fruit producing regions in Argentina are in different fly control situations. One part is under a programme using the sterile insect technique (SIT) for the eradication of C. capitata, because A. fraterculus is not present in this area. The application of the SIT to control C. capitata north of the present line with the possibility of A. fraterculus occupying the niche left vacant by C. capitata becomes a cause of much concern. Only initial steps have been taken to investigate the genetics and biology of A. fraterculus. Consequently, only fragmentary information has been recorded in the literature regarding the use of SIT to control this species. For these reasons, the research to develop a SIT protocol to control A. fraterculus is greatly needed. In recent years, research groups have been building a network in Argentina in order to address particular aspects of the development of the SIT for Anastrepha fraterculus. The problems being addressed by these groups include improvement of artificial diets, facilitation of insect mass rearing, radiation doses and conditions for insect sterilisation, basic knowledge supporting the development of males-only strains, reduction of male maturation time to facilitate releases, identification and isolation of chemical communication signals, and a good deal of population genetic studies. This paper is the product of a concerted effort to gather all this knowledge scattered in numerous and often hard-to-access reports and papers and summarize their basic conclusions in a single publication. PMID:25471175

Cladera, Jorge L; Vilardi, Juan C; Juri, Marianela; Paulin, Laura E; Giardini, M Cecilia; Gómez Cendra, Paula V; Segura, Diego F; Lanzavecchia, Silvia B

2014-12-01

307

Brown Planthopper Nudivirus DNA Integrated in Its Host Genome  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera:Delphacidae), is one of the most destructive insect pests of rice crops in Asia. Nudivirus-like sequences were identified during the whole-genome sequencing of BPH. PCR examination showed that the virus sequences were present in all of the 22 BPH populations collected from East, Southeast, and South Asia. Thirty-two of the 33 nudivirus core genes were identified, including 20 homologues of baculovirus core genes. In addition, several gene clusters that were arranged collinearly with those of other nudiviruses were found in the partial virus genome. In a phylogenetic tree constructed using the supermatrix method, the original virus was grouped with other nudiviruses and was closely related to polydnavirus. Taken together, these data indicated that the virus sequences belong to a new member of the family Nudiviridae. More specifically, the virus sequences were integrated into the chromosome of its insect host during coevolution. This study is the first report of a large double-stranded circular DNA virus genome in a sap-sucking hemipteran insect. IMPORTANCE This is the first report of a large double-stranded DNA virus integrated genome in the planthopper, a plant sap-sucking hemipteran insect. It is an exciting addition to the evolutionary story of bracoviruses (polydnaviruses), nudiviruses, and baculoviruses. The results on the virus sequences integrated in the chromosomes of its insect host also represent a story of successful coevolution of an invertebrate virus and a plant sap-sucking insect. PMID:24574410

Cheng, Ruo-Lin; Xi, Yu; Lou, Yi-Han; Wang, Zhuo; Xu, Ji-Yu; Xu, Hai-Jun

2014-01-01

308

PERSPECTIVES FOR BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF STORED-PRODUCT PESTS USING ENTOMOPATHOGENS, ALONE AND IN COMBINATION WITH BENEFICIAL INSECTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Among insect pathogens, Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (Btk) and Plodia interpunctella granulovirus have reached commercialization for control of stored product Lepidoptera, but have limited use. Coleoptera lack microbial insecticide products but have many natural microbial control agents, e...

309

Thermal Tolerance of the Coffee Berry Borer Hypothenemus hampei: Predictions of Climate Change Impact on a Tropical Insect Pest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coffee is predicted to be severely affected by climate change. We determined the thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer , Hypothenemus hampei, the most devastating pest of coffee worldwide, and make inferences on the possible effects of climate change using climatic data from Colombia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. For this, the effect of eight temperature regimes (15, 20, 23,

Juliana Jaramillo; Adenirin Chabi-Olaye; Charles Kamonjo; Alvaro Jaramillo; Fernando E. Vega; Hans-Michael Poehling; Christian Borgemeister

2009-01-01

310

Tritrophic interactions among Bt maize, an insect pest and entomopathogens: effects on development and survival of western corn rootworm  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agricultural systems often provide a model for testing ecological hypotheses, while ecological theory can enable more effective pest management. One of the best examples of this is the interaction between host-plant resistance and natural enemies. With the advent of crops that are genetically modifi...

311

Second-Generation Sequencing Supply an Effective Way to Screen RNAi Targets in Large Scale for Potential Application in Pest Insect Control  

PubMed Central

The key of RNAi approach success for potential insect pest control is mainly dependent on careful target selection and a convenient delivery system. We adopted second-generation sequencing technology to screen RNAi targets. Illumina's RNA-seq and digital gene expression tag profile (DGE-tag) technologies were used to screen optimal RNAi targets from Ostrinia furnalalis. Total 14690 stage specific genes were obtained which can be considered as potential targets, and 47 were confirmed by qRT-PCR. Ten larval stage specific expression genes were selected for RNAi test. When 50 ng/µl dsRNAs of the genes DS10 and DS28 were directly sprayed on the newly hatched larvae which placed on the filter paper, the larval mortalities were around 40?50%, while the dsRNAs of ten genes were sprayed on the larvae along with artificial diet, the mortalities reached 73% to 100% at 5 d after treatment. The qRT-PCR analysis verified the correlation between larval mortality and the down-regulation of the target gene expression. Topically applied fluorescent dsRNA confirmed that dsRNA did penetrate the body wall and circulate in the body cavity. It seems likely that the combination of DGE-tag with RNA-seq is a rapid, high-throughput, cost less and an easy way to select the candidate target genes for RNAi. More importantly, it demonstrated that dsRNAs are able to penetrate the integument and cause larval developmental stunt and/or death in a lepidopteron insect. This finding largely broadens the target selection for RNAi from just gut-specific genes to the targets in whole insects and may lead to new strategies for designing RNAi-based technology against insect damage. PMID:21494551

Li, Haichao; Miao, Xuexia

2011-01-01

312

Formation of peste des petits ruminants spikeless virus-like particles by co-expression of M and N proteins in insect cells.  

PubMed

Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) has a non-segmented negative sense RNA genome and is classified within the Morbillivirus genus of the Paramyxoviridae. Using the Bac-to-Bac® baculovirus expression system, we constructed recombinant baculoviruses that were able to co-express the PPRV matrix and nucleocapsid proteins in insect cells under the control of the polyhedron and p10 promoters, respectively. The results showed that although both structural proteins were expressed at a relatively low level, the interaction between them caused the formation of virus-like particles (VLPs) by viewing of transmission electron microscopy. The VLPs morphologically resembled authentic PPRVs but lacked spikes protruding from the particulate surfaces. Interestingly, the diameter of PPRV VLPs ranged from 100 to 150 nm, far less than the mean diameter (400-500 nm) of parental virions. PMID:24269081

Liu, Fuxiao; Wu, Xiaodong; Li, Lin; Liu, Zengshan; Wang, Zhiliang

2014-02-01

313

Blend effects in the toxicity of the essential oil constituents of Ocimum kilimandscharicum and Ocimum kenyense (Labiateae) on two post-harvest insect pests.  

PubMed

The lethal toxicity of major components of the essential oils of Ocimium kilimandscharicum and O. kenyense and of selected blends of these against Sitophilus zeamais and Rhyzopertha dominica were compared with those of the full blends of the essential oils. The compounds were assayed in amounts and proportions present in the minimum 100% lethal dose of the oils. Whereas a major component of O. kilimandscharicum was found to be largely responsible for the toxic action of its essential oil against R. dominica, the results with the other treatments indicated that the toxic action of the essential oils were due to the combined effects of different components, either with or without significant individual toxic action of their own against the insects. The significance of the results and their implication in screening and using plants and their phytochemicals for pest and microbial control are highlighted. PMID:11393518

Bekele, J; Hassanali, A

2001-06-01

314

Vegetable Crop Pests. MEP 311.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland, this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests of vegetable crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of insects, weeds, and diseases.…

Kantzes, James G.; And Others

315

Fruit Crop Pests. MEP 312.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests of fruit crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of insects, weeds, and diseases. Also in…

Weaver, Leslie O.; And Others

316

Post-Mating Interactions and Their Effects on Fitness of Female and Male Echinothrips americanus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a New Insect Pest in China  

PubMed Central

Post-mating, sexual interactions of opposite sexes differ considerably in different organisms. Post-mating interactions such as re-mating behavior and male harassment can affect the fitness of both sexes. Echinothrips americanus is a new insect pest in Mainland China, and little is known about its post-mating interactions. In this study, we observed re-mating frequency and male harassment frequency and their effects on fitness parameters and offspring sex ratios of E. americanus females. Furthermore, we tested the impact of mating and post-mating interactions on fitness parameters of males. Our results revealed that the re-mating frequency in female adults was extremely low during a 30-day period. However, post-mating interactions between females and males, consisting mainly of male harassment and female resistance, did occur and significantly reduced female longevity and fecundity. Interestingly, increased access to males did not affect the ratio of female offspring. For males, mating dramatically reduced their longevity. However, post-mating interactions with females had no effects on the longevity of mated males. These results enrich our basic knowledge about female and male mating and post-mating behaviors in this species and provide important information about factors that may influence population regulation of this important pest species. PMID:24489956

Li, Xiao-Wei; Jiang, Hong-Xue; Zhang, Xiao-Chen; Shelton, Anthony M.; Feng, Ji-Nian

2014-01-01

317

Impact of Regulatory Decisions on Emerging Pest Control Research  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pest control research is an enormously broad field. Pests can be segregated into broad biological categories such as rodents, insects, nematodes, weeds, fungi, bacteria. Pests can be categorized by the product or environment in which the pest occurs such as crop pests, stored product pests, forest p...

318

Stress for invasion success? Temperature stress of preceding generations modifies the response to insecticide stress in an invasive pest insect  

PubMed Central

Adaptation to stressful environments is one important factor influencing species invasion success. Tolerance to one stress may be complicated by exposure to other stressors experienced by the preceding generations. We studied whether parental temperature stress affects tolerance to insecticide in the invasive Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata. Field-collected pyrethroid-resistant beetles were reared under either stressful (17°C) or favourable (23°C) insecticide-free environments for three generations. Then, larvae were exposed to pyrethroid insecticides in common garden conditions (23°C). Beetles were in general tolerant to stress. The parental temperature stress alone affected beetles positively (increased adult weight) but it impaired their tolerance to insecticide exposure. In contrast, offspring from the favourable temperature regime showed compensatory weight gain in response to insecticide exposure. Our study emphasizes the potential of cross-generational effects modifying species stress tolerance. When resistant pest populations invade benign environments, a re-application of insecticides may enhance their performance via hormetic effects. In turn, opposite effects may arise if parental generations have been exposed to temperature stress. Thus, the outcome of management practices of invasive pest species is difficult to predict unless we also incorporate knowledge of the evolutionary and recent (preceding generations) stress history of the given populations into pest management. PMID:23467574

Piiroinen, Saija; Lyytinen, Anne; Lindström, Leena

2013-01-01

319

Stress for invasion success? Temperature stress of preceding generations modifies the response to insecticide stress in an invasive pest insect.  

PubMed

Adaptation to stressful environments is one important factor influencing species invasion success. Tolerance to one stress may be complicated by exposure to other stressors experienced by the preceding generations. We studied whether parental temperature stress affects tolerance to insecticide in the invasive Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata. Field-collected pyrethroid-resistant beetles were reared under either stressful (17°C) or favourable (23°C) insecticide-free environments for three generations. Then, larvae were exposed to pyrethroid insecticides in common garden conditions (23°C). Beetles were in general tolerant to stress. The parental temperature stress alone affected beetles positively (increased adult weight) but it impaired their tolerance to insecticide exposure. In contrast, offspring from the favourable temperature regime showed compensatory weight gain in response to insecticide exposure. Our study emphasizes the potential of cross-generational effects modifying species stress tolerance. When resistant pest populations invade benign environments, a re-application of insecticides may enhance their performance via hormetic effects. In turn, opposite effects may arise if parental generations have been exposed to temperature stress. Thus, the outcome of management practices of invasive pest species is difficult to predict unless we also incorporate knowledge of the evolutionary and recent (preceding generations) stress history of the given populations into pest management. PMID:23467574

Piiroinen, Saija; Lyytinen, Anne; Lindström, Leena

2013-02-01

320

Limited genetic exchanges between populations of an insect pest living on uncultivated and related cultivated host plants.  

PubMed

Habitats in agroecosystems are ephemeral, and are characterized by frequent disturbances forcing pest species to successively colonize various hosts belonging either to the cultivated or to the uncultivated part of the agricultural landscape. The role of wild habitats as reservoirs or refuges for the aphid Sitobion avenae that colonize cultivated fields was assessed by investigating the genetic structure of populations collected on both cereal crops (wheat, barley and oat) and uncultivated hosts (Yorkshire fog, cocksfoot, bulbous oatgrass and tall oatgrass) in western France. Classical genetic analyses and Bayesian clustering algorithms indicate that genetic differentiation is high between populations collected on uncultivated hosts and on crops, revealing a relatively limited gene flow between the uncultivated margins and the cultivated part of the agroecosystem. A closer genetic relatedness was observed between populations living on plants belonging to the same tribe (Triticeae, Poeae and Aveneae tribes) where aphid genotypes appeared not to be specialized on a single host, but rather using a group of related plant species. Causes of this ecological differentiation and its implications for integrated pest management of S. avenae as cereals pest are discussed. PMID:16024367

Vialatte, Aude; Dedryver, Charles-Antoine; Simon, Jean-Christophe; Galman, Marina; Plantegenest, Manuel

2005-05-22

321

Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 7A: General and Household Pest Control. CS-19. Category 7B: Termite Control, CS-20. Category 7C: Food Industry Pest Control, CS-21. Category 7D: Community Insect Control, CS-22.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The first section discusses general and household pest control and is concerned with parasitic pests and man, stored product pests, and irritating vertebrates. Section two is devoted to identifying and controlling structural pests such…

Stockdale, Harold J., Ed.; And Others

322

INSECT & MITE IDENTIFICATION  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

About fifty pest and beneficial insects and arthropods are pictured and described on these pages. Most of the images are full color with excellent behavior and control information. Insects are categorized into foliage feeders, root feeders, sucking insects, and beneficial insects.

0000-00-00

323

Field Guide to Predators, Parasites and Pathogens Attacking Insect and Mite Pests of Cotton: Recognizing the Good Bugs in Cotton  

E-print Network

) on cotton leaves, aphid mummies in aphid colonies (p. 107) and adult parasitic wasps or flies searching cot- ton plants for hosts. Parasites may be solitary (one develops per host) or gregarious (more than one develops per host). They also tend... and take over, converting the host into a virus factory. In the case of the nuclear polyhedrosis virus- es often found in cotton pests, the virus somehow induces the host to climb up the plant before it dies. The host then darkens and dies, dangling from a...

Knutson, Allen E.; Ruberson, John

2005-07-08

324

Fusion proteins containing insect-specific toxins as pest control agents: snowdrop lectin delivers fused insecticidal spider venom toxin to insect haemolymph following oral ingestion.  

PubMed

The mannose-specific snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin: GNA), when fed to insects, binds to the gut epithelium and passes into the haemolymph. The ability of GNA to act as a carrier protein to deliver an insecticidal spider venom neurotoxin (Segestria florentina toxin 1: SFI1) to the haemolymph of lepidopteran larvae was investigated. Constructs encoding SFI1 and an SFI1/GNA fusion protein were expressed in Pichia pastoris. The insecticidal activity of purified recombinant proteins on injection was found to be comparable to published values for SfI1 purified from spider venom [Toxicon 40 (2002) 125]. Whereas neither GNA nor SFI1 alone showed acute toxicity when fed to larvae of tomato moth (Lacanobia oleracea), feeding SFI1/GNA fusion at 2.5% of dietary proteins was insecticidal to first stadium larvae, causing 100% mortality after 6 days. The protein also showed a significant, dose dependent, toxicity towards fourth and fifth stadium larvae, with growth reduced by up to approximately 90% over a 4-day assay period compared to controls. Delivery of intact SFI1/GNA to the haemolymph in these insects was shown by western blotting; haemolymph samples from fusion-fed larvae contained a GNA-immunoreactive protein of the same molecular weight as the SFI1/GNA fusion. SFI1/GNA and similar fusion proteins offer a novel and effective approach for delivering haemolymph active toxins by oral administration, which could be used in crop protection by expression in transgenic plants. PMID:15037094

Fitches, Elaine; Edwards, Martin G; Mee, Christopher; Grishin, Eugene; Gatehouse, Angharad M R; Edwards, John P; Gatehouse, John A

2004-01-01

325

Evaluation of Atriplex lines for selenium accumulation, salt tolerance and suitability for a key agricultural insect pest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty Atriplex lines were examined for potential habitat improvement and phytoremediation of selenium (Se) contaminated sites. Studies were conducted to determine the biomass production, Se accumulation, and resistance of each line to the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, an agriculturally important insect. Plants were tested using three salinity treatments: (1) control, no Se; (2) NaCl and CaCl2 salts and 1 mg

D. B. Vickerman; M. C. Shannon; G. S. Banuelos; C. M Grieve; J. T Trumble

2002-01-01

326

Pests and Diseases 1 Exotic longhorn beetle  

E-print Network

in Malaysia. The symposium title, Biological Invasions of Forest Insect Pests - Agents of Global Change-ordinator of a session on the biology of quarantine pests and diseases and a joint paper by Joan Webber and Clive Brasier

327

Insect Answers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage from Texas A&M University's Department of Entomology is a consolidated body of information on insects. Clicking on "Insect Help Publications" provides links to a number of extension service documents, with topics such as Home Gardens, Urban and Household, Medical and Veterinary, and Spanish. Other Insect Answers include information on managing pest problems, insect images and sounds, identification, and honey bees. On the right hand side of the page more information about the Entomology Department can be found as well as their bi-monthly podcast: Bug Bytes.

328

Thermal Tolerance of the Coffee Berry Borer Hypothenemus hampei: Predictions of Climate Change Impact on a Tropical Insect Pest  

PubMed Central

Coffee is predicted to be severely affected by climate change. We determined the thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer , Hypothenemus hampei, the most devastating pest of coffee worldwide, and make inferences on the possible effects of climate change using climatic data from Colombia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. For this, the effect of eight temperature regimes (15, 20, 23, 25, 27, 30, 33 and 35°C) on the bionomics of H. hampei was studied. Successful egg to adult development occurred between 20–30°C. Using linear regression and a modified Logan model, the lower and upper thresholds for development were estimated at 14.9 and 32°C, respectively. In Kenya and Colombia, the number of pest generations per year was considerably and positively correlated with the warming tolerance. Analysing 32 years of climatic data from Jimma (Ethiopia) revealed that before 1984 it was too cold for H. hampei to complete even one generation per year, but thereafter, because of rising temperatures in the area, 1–2 generations per year/coffee season could be completed. Calculated data on warming tolerance and thermal safety margins of H. hampei for the three East African locations showed considerably high variability compared to the Colombian site. The model indicates that for every 1°C rise in thermal optimum (Topt.), the maximum intrinsic rate of increase (rmax) will increase by an average of 8.5%. The effects of climate change on the further range of H. hampei distribution and possible adaption strategies are discussed. Abstracts in Spanish and French are provided as supplementary material Abstract S1 and Abstract S2. PMID:19649255

Jaramillo, Juliana; Chabi-Olaye, Adenirin; Kamonjo, Charles; Jaramillo, Alvaro; Vega, Fernando E.; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Borgemeister, Christian

2009-01-01

329

Thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei: predictions of climate change impact on a tropical insect pest.  

PubMed

Coffee is predicted to be severely affected by climate change. We determined the thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, the most devastating pest of coffee worldwide, and make inferences on the possible effects of climate change using climatic data from Colombia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. For this, the effect of eight temperature regimes (15, 20, 23, 25, 27, 30, 33 and 35 degrees C) on the bionomics of H. hampei was studied. Successful egg to adult development occurred between 20-30 degrees C. Using linear regression and a modified Logan model, the lower and upper thresholds for development were estimated at 14.9 and 32 degrees C, respectively. In Kenya and Colombia, the number of pest generations per year was considerably and positively correlated with the warming tolerance. Analysing 32 years of climatic data from Jimma (Ethiopia) revealed that before 1984 it was too cold for H. hampei to complete even one generation per year, but thereafter, because of rising temperatures in the area, 1-2 generations per year/coffee season could be completed. Calculated data on warming tolerance and thermal safety margins of H. hampei for the three East African locations showed considerably high variability compared to the Colombian site. The model indicates that for every 1 degrees C rise in thermal optimum (T(opt.)), the maximum intrinsic rate of increase (r(max)) will increase by an average of 8.5%. The effects of climate change on the further range of H. hampei distribution and possible adaption strategies are discussed. Abstracts in Spanish and French are provided as supplementary material Abstract S1 and Abstract S2. PMID:19649255

Jaramillo, Juliana; Chabi-Olaye, Adenirin; Kamonjo, Charles; Jaramillo, Alvaro; Vega, Fernando E; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Borgemeister, Christian

2009-01-01

330

Agriculture and the promotion of insect pests: rice cultivation in river floodplains and malaria vectors in The Gambia  

PubMed Central

Background Anthropogenic modification of natural habitats can create conditions in which pest species associated with humans can thrive. In order to mitigate for these changes, it is necessary to determine which aspects of human management are associated with the promotion of those pests. Anopheles gambiae, the main Africa malaria vector, often breeds in rice fields. Here the impact of the ancient practice of 'swamp rice' cultivation, on the floodplains of the Gambia River, on the production of anopheline mosquitoes was investigated. Methods Routine surveys were carried out along 500 m transects crossing rice fields from the landward edge of the floodplains to the river during the 2006 rainy season. Aquatic invertebrates were sampled using area samplers and emergence traps and fish sampled using nets. Semi-field experiments were used to investigate whether nutrients used for swamp rice cultivation affected mosquito larval abundance. Results At the beginning of the rainy season rice is grown on the landward edge of the floodplain; the first area to flood with fresh water and one rich in cattle dung. Later, rice plants are transplanted close to the river, the last area to dry out on the floodplain. Nearly all larval and adult stages of malaria vectors were collected 0–100 m from the landward edge of the floodplains, where immature rice plants were grown. These paddies contained stagnant freshwater with high quantities of cattle faeces. Semi-field studies demonstrated that cattle faeces nearly doubled the number of anopheline larvae compared with untreated water. Conclusion Swamp rice cultivation creates ideal breeding sites for malaria vectors. However, only those close to the landward edge harboured vectors. These sites were productive since they were large areas of standing freshwater, rich in nutrients, protected from fish, and situated close to human habitation, where egg-laying mosquitoes from the villages had short distances to fly. The traditional practice of 'swamp rice' cultivation uses different bodies of water on the floodplains to cultivate rice during the rainy season. A consequence of this cultivation is the provizion of ideal conditions for malaria vectors to thrive. As the demand for locally-produced rice grows, increased rice farming will generate great numbers of vectors; emphasizing the need to protect local communities against malaria. PMID:19635125

Jarju, Lamin BS; Fillinger, Ulrike; Green, Clare; Louca, Vasilis; Majambere, Silas; Lindsay, Steven W

2009-01-01

331

Beneficial Insects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tutorials on insect predators that feed on insect and mite pests. Each tutorial has 50 questions; incorrect answers lead to additional information. Covers lady beetles, mantids, lacewings, stink bugs, robber flies, assassin bugs, syrphid flies, spiders, ground beetles, big-eyed bugs and wasps. Some illusstrations are most appropriate for the southern U.S. Information is accurate. Requires Windows; program must be downloaded to hard -drive before use, but once loaded is intuitive. $15.

0000-00-00

332

Population Suppression in Support of the Sterile Insect Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suppression or eradication of insect pest populations by the release of sterile insects is often dependent on supplementary methods of pest reduction to levels where the target pest population can be overflooded with sterile insects. Population suppression activities take place in advance of, or coincide with, the production of sterile insects. Supplementary methods to remove breeding opportunities, or management methods

R. L. MANGAN

333

Acoustic indicators for targeted detection of stored product and urban insect pests by inexpensive infrared, acoustic, and virbrational detection of movement  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Crawling or running, scraping or shuffling, and wriggling activity of three stored-product pests, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), and Stegobium paniceum (L.) (Coleoptera: Anobiidae), and two urban pests, Blattella germanic...

334

Insect Transgenesis and the Sterile Insect Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The establishment of broadly applicable insect transgenesis systems will enable the analyses of gene function in diverse insect\\u000a species. This will greatly increase our understanding of diverse aspects of biology so far not functionally addressable. Moreover,\\u000a insect transgenesis will provide novel strategies for insect pest management and the means to impair transmission of pathogens\\u000a by human disease vectors. Especially the

Marc F. Schetelig; Ernst A. Wimmer

335

Forest Pest Control. Manual 94.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in forest pest control. The text discusses disease problems, insects, and herbicide use in both established forests and nurseries. (CS)

Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

336

Forest defoliator outbreaks under climate change: effects on the frequency and severity of outbreaks of five pine insect pests.  

PubMed

To identify general patterns in the effects of climate change on the outbreak dynamics of forest-defoliating insect species, we examined a 212-year record (1800-2011) of outbreaks of five pine-defoliating species (Bupalus piniarius, Panolis flammea, Lymantria monacha, Dendrolimus pini, and Diprion pini) in Bavaria, Germany for the evidence of climate-driven changes in the severity, cyclicity, and frequency of outbreaks. We also accounted for historical changes in forestry practices and examined effects of past insecticide use to suppress outbreaks. Analysis of relationships between severity or occurrence of outbreaks and detrended measures of temperature and precipitation revealed a mixture of positive and negative relationships between temperature and outbreak activity. Two moth species (P. flammea and Dendrolimus pini) exhibited lower outbreak activity following years or decades of unusually warm temperatures, whereas a sawfly (Diprion pini), for which voltinism is influenced by temperature, displayed increased outbreak occurrence in years of high summer temperatures. We detected only one apparent effect of precipitation, which showed Dendrolimus pini outbreaks tending to follow drought. Wavelet analysis of outbreak time series suggested climate change may be associated with collapse of L. monacha and Dendrolimus pini outbreak cycles (loss of cyclicity and discontinuation of outbreaks, respectively), but high-frequency cycles for B. piniarius and P. flammea in the late 1900s. Regional outbreak severity was generally not related to past suppression efforts (area treated with insecticides). Recent shifts in forestry practices affecting tree species composition roughly coincided with high-frequency outbreak cycles in B. piniarius and P. flammea but are unlikely to explain the detected relationships between climate and outbreak severity or collapses of outbreak cycles. Our results highlight both individualistic responses of different pine-defoliating species to climate changes and some patterns that are consistent across defoliator species in this and other forest systems, including collapsing of population cycles. PMID:24464875

Haynes, Kyle J; Allstadt, Andrew J; Klimetzek, Dietrich

2014-06-01

337

Turfgrass Insects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tutorials on insects that are common pests of turfgrass. Each tutorial has 50 questions; incorrect answers lead to additional information. Covers chinch bug, fall armyworm, tropical sod webworm, mole crickets, ground pearls, white grubs, spittle bugs, banks grass mite, Burmudagrass mite and fire ants. Tutorials are easy to use once loaded on the hard drive. Requires Windows. $15. Part number SW 163.

0000-00-00

338

Vegetable Pests II  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Photographic gallery containing 96 images of pests that attack vegetables, including adults, pupae, larvae, and eggs; and what the insect damage looks like. Covers mites, true bugs, hoppers, whiteflies, aphids, grasshoppers, crickets, and thrips. Most of the images are of good quality; some are exceptional. Some images depict frequently photographed insects, but several are unique. Images are offered in 3 resolutions and file formats. Requires a CD-ROM drive and a web browser.

0000-00-00

339

Pest control in postharvest nuts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This chapter discusses the impact of insect infestations on the quality of postharvest nuts. The chapter first reviews the biology of key field pests that may be found in harvested nuts, and pests found in nut storage and processing facilities. The chapter then reviews current and developing control...

340

Agricultural Plant Pest Control. Manual 93.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides for the agricultural plant pest control category. The text discusses the insect pests including caterpillars, beetles, and soil inhabiting insects; diseases and nematodes; and weeds. Consideration is given…

Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

341

Agricultural Plant Pest Control. Bulletin 763.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual gives general information on plant pests and pesticides. First, the life-cycle and habits of some common insect pests are given. These include caterpillars, beetles and beetle larvae, and sucking insects. Next, plant diseases such as leaf diseases, wilts, root and crown rots, stem cankers, fruit rots, seed and seedling diseases, and…

French, John C.; And Others

342

Ornamental and Turf Pest Control. Bulletin 764.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual gives descriptions of and methods for control of diseases and insect pests of ornamental plants, weeds, and diseases and insect pests of turf plants. Included are diseases caused by fungi such as cankers, leaf galls, and rust; diseases caused by bacteria such as bacterial blight and crown gall; and diseases caused by nematodes and…

Bowyer, Timothy H.; And Others

343

Forest Pest Control. Sale Publication 4072.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The forest pests discussed in this guide are weeds, insects, diseases, and vertebrates. The guide gives information about types of forests, characteristics of common forest pests, pest control methods, pesticides and application equipment used in forestry, and environmental and human hazards. (Author/BB)

Stimmann, M. W., Ed.

344

Ornamental, Turf and Nursery Pests. MEP 308.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland, this publication introduces the identification and control of common turf and plant pests that can be found in the urban environment. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests such as insects, weeds, and…

Morgan, Omar D.; And Others

345

Current control methods for diamondback moth and other brassica insect pests and the prospects for improved management with lepidopteran-resistant Bt vegetable brassicas in Asia and Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.), remains a major pest of brassica crops worldwide. DBM has been estimated globally to cost US$ 1 billion in direct losses and control costs. Chemical control of this pest remains difficult due to the rapid development of resistance to insecticides and to their effect on natural enemies. These problems are especially severe in

D. Grzywacz; A. Rossbach; A. Rauf; D. A. Russell; R. Srinivasan; A. M. Shelton

2010-01-01

346

Kaolin clay, a particle film against Helopeltis collaris Stal (Hemiptera: Miridae) one of the major insect pests of cacao in the Philippines: Preliminary assessment  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Helopeltis collaris Stal, commonly known as cacao mirid or capsid bug is one of the major pests of cacao in Southeast Asia. Recent survey of cacao pests in the Philippines showed that cacao mirid bug is causing significant yield loss particularly in cacao growing areas in Luzon. Kaolin is a naturall...

347

Bridging conventional and molecular genetics of sorghum insect resistance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sustainable production of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, depends on effective control of insect pests as they continue to compete with humans for the sorghum crop. Insect pests are major constraint in sorghum production, and nearly 150 insect species are serious pests of this crop worldwide,...

348

Managing Insect and Mite Pests  

E-print Network

an infestation with insecticides when preventive methods are not fully effective and sampling justifies the need METHODS .............................................7 Seed insecticide treatments ............................................7 Soil insecticide treatments ............................................ 7 Foliar and grain head

Mukhtar, Saqib

349

RNA Viruses Infecting Pest Insects  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

RNA viruses are viruses whose genetic material is ribonucleic acid (RNA). RNA viruses may be double or single-stranded based on the type of RNA they contain. Single-stranded RNA viruses can be further grouped into negative sense or positive-sense viruses according to the polarity of their RNA. Fur...

350

Insect Pests Attacking Truck Crops  

E-print Network

for puncturing through the outer skin of plants and pumping the sap from underneath. Hence no outside solid matter is ever talcen into the stomach and for that reason poisons cannot be aclministered. For these, contact insecticides, such as whale oil soap... as to keep the end of the fertilizer guide out of the ground. KEROSENE EMULSION. This is perhaps the most generally used of all the contact insecticides of its class. It is best prepared as follows: Take one pound of whale oil soap and boil in a gallon...

Mally, Frederick W. (Frederick William)

1902-01-01

351

Insect Pest Management in Virginia  

E-print Network

Williams, Chesapeake Randy & Lance Everett, Dinwiddie Co. George Reiter, Dinwiddie Co. Greg Jenkins, Virginia Beach Edward Winslow, Belvidere, NC Gary Respass, Beaufort Co., NC Barry Bryant, Jackson, NC Kelly

Liskiewicz, Maciej

352

Insect Control (1): Use of Pheromones  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses current research relating to the use of pheromones as a means of controlling insect pests. These chemicals, which are secreted by insects to affect the behavior of other individuals of the same species, may be used to eliminate pests without destroying their predators and other beneficial insects. (JR)

Marx, Jean L.

1973-01-01

353

HOME GROUNDS & ANIMALS 2014 Lawn: Insects 5-3  

E-print Network

of insect pests than one that is water-stressed. Local weather conditions also influence the type by watering. Insects Curt Laub, Research Associate, Entomology, Virginia Tech #12;HOME GROUNDS & ANIMALS 2014HOME GROUNDS & ANIMALS 2014 Lawn: Insects 5-3 Overview The best way to minimize insect pests

Liskiewicz, Maciej

354

TOBACCO INSECT MANAGEMENT Paul J. Semtner, Retired Extension Entomologist  

E-print Network

TOBACCO INSECT MANAGEMENT Paul J. Semtner, Retired Extension Entomologist Several species of insects cause serious damage to tobacco in the field, the greenhouse, and in storage. Insects damage disease pathogens. Integrated pest management (IPM) is the best way to manage insect pests on tobacco

Buehrer, R. Michael

355

Comparative evaluation of phenoloxidase in different larval stages of four lepidopteran pests after exposure to Bacillus thuringiensis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Some lepidopteran insects are important agricultural pests, causing serious crop damage. Microbial entomopathogen-based bioinsecticides are considered effective pest control alternatives to synthetic chemicals. However, insects can defend against pathogens by innate mechanisms, including phenoloxi...

356

Competitive release of an agricultural insect pest: The case of stink bug outbreaks in transgenic Bt cotton in the southeast US  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Empirical studies on the ecological causes of agricultural pest outbreaks have focused primarily on two biotic factors—release from natural enemies and changes in host plant quality. Release from competition, on the other hand, has been theorized as a potential cause but never tested. With the ex...

357

Monitoring Bacillus thuringiensis-Susceptibility in Insect Pests That Occur in Large Geographies: How to Get the Best Information When Two Countries are Involved  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The adoption of Bacillus thuringiensis-expressing cotton around the world has been proven to be beneficial for growers and the environment. The effectiveness of this important genetically-modified crop can be jeopardized by the development of B. thuringiensis-resistance in pests, with the possibilit...

358

Efficacy of plant essential oils against two major insect pests of coffee (Coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, and antestia bug, Antestiopsis intricata) and maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coffee berry borer, antestia bug and maize weevil are serious pest of coffee and maize, respectively. Bioassays of plant essential oils were conducted with coffee berry borer, antestia bug and the maize weevil. Essential oils of Thymus vulgaris, Aloysia sp., Ruta chalepensis, Chenopodium ambrosioides and Cymbopogon nardus resulted in 80%–90% mortality of coffee berry borer, whereas essential oils of C.

Esayas Mendesil; Mekuria Tadesse; Merid Negash

2011-01-01

359

Efficacy of plant essential oils against two major insect pests of coffee (Coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, and antestia bug, Antestiopsis intricata) and maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coffee berry borer, antestia bug and maize weevil are serious pest of coffee and maize, respectively. Bioassays of plant essential oils were conducted with coffee berry borer, antestia bug and the maize weevil. Essential oils of Thymus vulgaris, Aloysia sp., Ruta chalepensis, Chenopodium ambrosioides and Cymbopogon nardus resulted in 80%–90% mortality of coffee berry borer, whereas essential oils of C.

Esayas Mendesil; Mekuria Tadesse; Merid Negash

2012-01-01

360

Relationships between insect and disease pest damages and thinning practice in plantations of Japanese red cedar and Hinoki cypress in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently in Japan, thinning in conifer plantations is promoted as government policy, because many plantations are left without thinning. Unthinned conifer plantations were suspected to display less public functions of forests. Thinning is indispensable for proper management of conifer plantations, though thinning is not necessary to decrease the risk of disease and pest damages. Here the author reviewed on the

SATO Shigeho

2007-01-01

361

19 CFR 12.31 - Plant pests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.31 Plant pests...submitted to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant...

2013-04-01

362

19 CFR 12.31 - Plant pests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.31 Plant pests...submitted to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant...

2010-04-01

363

19 CFR 12.31 - Plant pests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.31 Plant pests...submitted to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant...

2012-04-01

364

19 CFR 12.31 - Plant pests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.31 Plant pests...submitted to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant...

2014-04-01

365

19 CFR 12.31 - Plant pests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.31 Plant pests...submitted to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant...

2011-04-01

366

Evaluation of corn hybrids expressing Cry1F, cry1A.105, Cry2Ab2, Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1, and Cry3Bb1 against southern United States insect pests.  

PubMed

Studies were conducted across the southern United States to characterize the efficacy of multiple Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) events in a field corn, Zea mays L., hybrid for control of common lepidopteran and coleopteran pests. Cry1F protein in event TC1507 and Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 proteins in event MON 89034 were evaluated against pests infesting corn on above-ground plant tissue including foliage, stalks, and ears. Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 proteins in event DAS-59122-7 and Cry3Bb1 in event MON 88017 were evaluated against the larvae of Mexican corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera zeae Krysan and Smith, which occur below-ground. Field corn hybrids containing Cry1F, Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2, Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1, and Cry3Bb1 insecticidal proteins (SmartStax) consistently demonstrated reductions in plant injury and/or reduced larval survivorship as compared with a non-Bt field corn hybrid. Efficacy provided by a field corn hybrid with multiple Bt proteins was statistically equal to or significantly better than corn hybrids containing a single event active against target pests. Single event field corn hybrids provided very high levels of control of southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella (Dyar), lesser cornstalk borer, Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zeller), and fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), and were not significantly different than field corn hybrids with multiple events. Significant increases in efficacy were observed for a field corn hybrid with multiple Bt events for sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and Mexican corn rootworm. Utilization of field corn hybrids containing multiple Bt events provides a means for managing insect resistance to Bt proteins and reduces non-Bt corn refuge requirements. PMID:23156183

Siebert, M W; Nolting, S P; Hendrix, W; Dhavala, S; Craig, C; Leonard, B R; Stewart, S D; All, J; Musser, F R; Buntin, G D; Samuel, L

2012-10-01

367

Training for Certification: Forest Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial pesticide applicators. Focusing on forest pest control, this publication examines plant and animal pest control practices for southern tree species. Contents include: (1) identification of insects, diseases, and weed tree species;…

Parker, Robert C., Comp.

368

Training for Certification: Ornamental & Turf Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial pesticide applicators. Focusing on ornamental and turf plant pest control, this publication examines the control of plant diseases, insects, and weeds. The contents are divided into a section on ornamental pest control and one on…

Mississippi State Univ., State College. Cooperative Extension Service.

369

Pinellia ternata agglutinin expression in chloroplasts confers broad spectrum resistance against aphid, whitefly, Lepidopteran insects, bacterial and viral pathogens  

PubMed Central

Summary Broad spectrum protection against different insects and pathogens requires multigene engineering. However, such broad spectrum protection against biotic stress is provided by a single protein in some medicinal plants. Therefore, tobacco chloroplasts were transformed with the agglutinin gene from Pinellia ternata (pta), a widely cultivated Chinese medicinal herb. Pinellia ternata agglutinin (PTA) was expressed up to 9.2% of total soluble protein in mature leaves. Purified PTA showed similar hemagglutination activity as snowdrop lectin. Artificial diet with purified PTA from transplastomic plants showed marked and broad insecticidal activity. In planta bioassays conducted with T0 or T1 generation PTA lines showed that the growth of aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) was reduced by 89%–92% when compared with untransformed (UT) plants. Similarly, the larval survival and total population of whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) on transplastomic lines were reduced by 91%–93% when compared with UT plants. This is indeed the first report of lectin controlling whitefly infestation. When transplastomic PTA leaves were fed to corn earworm (Helicoverpa zea), tobacco budworm (Heliothis virescens) or the beet armyworm (spodoptera exigua), 100% mortality was observed against all these three insects. In planta bioassays revealed Erwinia population to be 10 000-fold higher in control than in PTA lines. Similar results were observed with tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) challenge. Therefore, broad spectrum resistance to homopteran (sap-sucking), Lepidopteran insects as well as anti-bacterial or anti-viral activity observed in PTA lines provides a new option to engineer protection against biotic stress by hyper-expression of an unique protein that is naturally present in a medicinal plant. PMID:22077160

Jin, Shuangxia; Zhang, Xianlong; Daniell, Henry

2012-01-01

370

Visualizing a plant defense and insect counterploy: alkaloid distribution in Lobelia leaves trenched by a plusiine caterpillar.  

PubMed

Insects that feed on plants protected by latex canals often sever leaf veins or cut trenches across leaves before feeding distal to the cuts. The insects thereby depressurize the canals and reduce latex exudation at their prospective feeding site. How the cuts affect the distribution and concentration of latex chemicals was not known. We modified a microwave-assisted extraction technique to analyze the spatial distribution of alkaloids in leaves of Lobelia cardinalis (Campanulaceae) that have been trenched by a plusiine caterpillar, Enigmogramma basigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). We produced sharp two dimensional maps of alkaloid distribution by microwaving leaves to transfer alkaloids to TLC plates that were then sprayed with Dragendorff's reagent to visualize the alkaloids. The leaf prints were photographed and analyzed with image processing software for quantifying alkaloid levels. A comparison of control and trenched leaves documented that trenching reduces alkaloid levels by approximately 50% both distal and proximal to the trench. The trench becomes greatly enriched in alkaloids due to latex draining from surrounding areas. Measurements of exudation from trenched leaves demonstrate that latex pressures are rapidly restored proximal, but not distal to the trench. Thus, the trench serves not only to drain latex with alkaloids from the caterpillar's prospective feeding site, but also to isolate this section, thereby preventing an influx of latex from an extensive area that likely extends beyond the leaf. Microwave-assisted extraction of leaves has potential for diverse applications that include visualizing the impact of pathogens, leaf miners, sap-sucking insects, and other herbivores on the distribution and abundance of alkaloids and other important defensive compounds. PMID:19468794

Oppel, Craig B; Dussourd, David E; Garimella, Umadevi

2009-06-01

371

COMPATIBILITY AND POTENTIAL SYNERGISM BETWEEN THE ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGUS BEAUVERIA BASSIANA AND THE INSECT GROWTH REGULATOR AZADIRACHTIN FOR CONTROL OF THE GREENHOUSE PESTS MYZUS PERSICAE AND APHIS GOSSYPII  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

One factor limiting the ability of entomopathogenic fungi to control rapidly developing insects such as aphids is the fact that frequent molting allows them to effectively remove fungal propagules before they can penetrate the cuticle, thus dramatically reducing their susceptibility to infection. O...

372

Thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): inferences of climate change impact on a tropical insect pest  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We determined the thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, and make inferences on the possible effects of climate change on the insect using climatic data from Colombia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. The extremes for coffee berry borer survival are 59 and 86 degrees F, but ...

373

Forest Pest Control. Bulletin 759.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual describes the major forest types, the major species, seed orchards, and tree nurseries. Methods of identifying forest insect pests and diseases are given. The most common types of insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides are described. Both sprayer and granular applicator methods are discussed. Environmental considerations are…

Coleman, V. Rodney

374

Aquatic Pest Control. Manual 99.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the aquatic pest control category. The text discusses various water use situations; aquatic weed identification; herbicide use and effects; and aquatic insects and their control. (CS)

Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

375

Naturally-occurring pathogens and invasive insects  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The successful establishment of introduced pest insects has been attributed, in part, to the pest insects’ separation from natural control agents in their native ranges. This concept, i.e., the ‘enemies release hypothesis’, is commonly referenced in the literature as a mechanism that fosters invasi...

376

Habitat manipulation to mitigate the impacts of invasive arthropod pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exotic invaders are some of the most serious insect pests of agricultural crops around the globe. Increasingly, the structure\\u000a of landscape and habitat is recognized as having a major influence on both insect pests and their natural enemies. Habitat\\u000a manipulation that aims at conserving natural enemies can potentially contribute to safer and more effective control of invasive\\u000a pests. In this

Mattias JonssonSteve; Steve D. Wratten; Doug A. Landis; Jean-Marie L. Tompkins; Ross Cullen

2010-01-01

377

Bioactive compounds for pest and weed control  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The control of insect pests and invasive weeds has become more species-selective because of activity-guided isolation, structure elucidation, and total synthesis of naturally produced substances with important biological activities. Examples of isolated compounds include insect pheromones, antifeed...

378

Beneficial Insects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tutorials on insect predators that feed on insect and mite pests. Each tutorial has 50 questions; incorrect answers lead to additional information. Covers brown lacewings, ambush bugs, dragonflies, damselflies, paper wasps, earwigs, long-legged flies, predaceous mites, damsel bugs, minute pirate bug, tiger beetles, tachnid flies, parasitic nematodes, entomopathogenic fungi and viruses. Requires Windows. SOme illustrations may be most apporopriate for the southern U.S. A couple of the questions have rather arbitrary answers; in general, the tutorials are well constructed and the information is accurate. Requires Windows operating system; program must be downloaded to the comptuer's hard drive, but once loaded is easy to launch and use. $15. Part number SW 154.

0000-00-00

379

Self-Assembly and Release of Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus-Like Particles in an Insect Cell-Baculovirus System and Their Immunogenicity in Mice and Goats  

PubMed Central

Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an acute, febrile, viral disease of small ruminants that has a significant economic impact. For many viral diseases, vaccination with virus-like particles (VLPs) has shown considerable promise as a prophylactic approach; however, the processes of assembly and release of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) VLPs are not well characterized, and their immunogenicity in the host is unknown. In this study, VLPs of PPRV were generated in a baculovirus system through simultaneous expression of PPRV matrix (M) protein and hemaglutin in (H) or fusion (F) protein. The released VLPs showed morphology similar to that of the native virus particles. Subcutaneous injection of these VLPs (PPRV-H, PPRV-F) into mice and goats elicited PPRV-specific IgG production, increased the levels of virus neutralizing antibodies, and promoted lymphocyte proliferation. Without adjuvants, the immune response induced by the PPRV-H VLPs was comparable to that obtained using equivalent amounts of PPRV vaccine. Thus, our results demonstrated that VLPs containing PPRV M protein and H or F protein are potential “differentiating infected from vaccinated animals” (DIVA) vaccine candidates for the surveillance and eradication of PPR. PMID:25117931

Li, Wenchao; Jin, Hongyan; Sui, Xiukun; Zhao, Zhanzhong; Yang, Chenghuai; Wang, Wenquan; Li, Junping; Li, Gang

2014-01-01

380

Self-assembly and release of peste des petits ruminants virus-like particles in an insect cell-baculovirus system and their immunogenicity in mice and goats.  

PubMed

Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an acute, febrile, viral disease of small ruminants that has a significant economic impact. For many viral diseases, vaccination with virus-like particles (VLPs) has shown considerable promise as a prophylactic approach; however, the processes of assembly and release of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) VLPs are not well characterized, and their immunogenicity in the host is unknown. In this study, VLPs of PPRV were generated in a baculovirus system through simultaneous expression of PPRV matrix (M) protein and hemaglutin in (H) or fusion (F) protein. The released VLPs showed morphology similar to that of the native virus particles. Subcutaneous injection of these VLPs (PPRV-H, PPRV-F) into mice and goats elicited PPRV-specific IgG production, increased the levels of virus neutralizing antibodies, and promoted lymphocyte proliferation. Without adjuvants, the immune response induced by the PPRV-H VLPs was comparable to that obtained using equivalent amounts of PPRV vaccine. Thus, our results demonstrated that VLPs containing PPRV M protein and H or F protein are potential "differentiating infected from vaccinated animals" (DIVA) vaccine candidates for the surveillance and eradication of PPR. PMID:25117931

Li, Wenchao; Jin, Hongyan; Sui, Xiukun; Zhao, Zhanzhong; Yang, Chenghuai; Wang, Wenquan; Li, Junping; Li, Gang

2014-01-01

381

Biocontroh The Potential of Entomophilic Nematodes in Insect Management1  

E-print Network

Biocontroh The Potential of Entomophilic Nematodes in Insect Management1 John M. Webster 2 Abstract nematodes in controlling insect pests. The paper considers some of the major contributions to our knowledge of entomophilic nematology; factors involved in insect pest management and how they are applicable to the use

382

Efficacy of pyramided Bt proteins Cry1F, Cry1A.105, and cry2Ab2 expressed in Smartstax corn hybrids against lepidopteran insect pests in the northern United States.  

PubMed

Commercial field corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids transformed to express some or all of the lepidopteran insect-resistant traits present in SmartStax corn hybrids were evaluated for insecticidal efficacy against a wide range oflepidopteran corn pests common to the northern United States, during 2008 to 2011 at locations in 15 states. SmartStax hybrids contain a pyramid of two Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) derived events for lepidopteran control: event TC1507 expressing Cry1F protein and MON 89034 expressing CrylA.105 + Cry2Ab2. These studies focused on characterization of the relative efficacy of each event when expressed alone or in combination, and compared with non-Bt hybrid. Corn hybrids containing pyramided insecticidal proteins Cry1F + Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 (SmartStax) consistently showed reduced plant feeding damage by a wide range of lepidopteran larvae compared with single event and non-Bt hybrids. Corn hybrids expressing TC1507 or MON 89034 as single or pyramided events were consistently efficacious against Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner). SmartStax hybrids had less injury from Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel) and Striacosta albicosta (Smith) than corn hybrids containing only event MON 89034 but were not more efficacious than single event TC1507 hybrids. Corn hybrids with event MON 89034 provided better control of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), than event TC1507 alone. Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) efficacy was higher for hybrids with pyramid events and single events compared with the non-Bt hybrids. The spectra of activity of events TC1507 and MON 89034 differed. The combination of TC1507 + MON 89034 provided redundant control of some pests where the spectra overlapped and thereby are expected to confer a resistance management benefit. PMID:24665726

Rule, D M; Nolting, S P; Prasifka, P L; Storer, N P; Hopkins, B W; Scherder, E F; Siebert, M W; Hendrix, W H

2014-02-01

383

Integrating augmentative biocontrol and inherited sterility for management of lepidopteran pests  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Insect pest management can benefit from the integration of biological control agents and the release of sterile insect pests (hosts). Released sterile or semi-sterile insects and their sterile progeny may augment natural enemies by serving as hosts for build-up of the natural enemies prior to the t...

384

Integrated Insect Control May Alter Pesticide Use Pattern  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of predators, parasites, bacteria, viruses, hormones, pheromones, and sterile-male release and insect-resistance imparting techniques in pest control. Concludes with comments from chemical pesticide companies as popular attitudes toward the integrated pest management. (CC)

Worthy, Ward

1973-01-01

385

Differential Expression Patterns in Chemosensory and Non-Chemosensory Tissues of Putative Chemosensory Genes Identified by Transcriptome Analysis of Insect Pest the Purple Stem Borer Sesamia inferens (Walker)  

PubMed Central

Background A large number of insect chemosensory genes from different gene subfamilies have been identified and annotated, but their functional diversity and complexity are largely unknown. A systemic examination of expression patterns in chemosensory organs could provide important information. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified 92 putative chemosensory genes by analysing the transcriptome of the antennae and female sex pheromone gland of the purple stem borer Sesamia inferens, among them 87 are novel in this species, including 24 transcripts encoding for odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 24 for chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 2 for sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs), 39 for odorant receptors (ORs) and 3 for ionotropic receptors (IRs). The transcriptome analyses were validated and quantified with a detailed global expression profiling by Reverse Transcription-PCR for all 92 transcripts and by Quantitative Real Time RT-PCR for selected 16 ones. Among the chemosensory gene subfamilies, CSP transcripts are most widely and evenly expressed in different tissues and stages, OBP transcripts showed a clear antenna bias and most of OR transcripts are only detected in adult antennae. Our results also revealed that some OR transcripts, such as the transcripts of SNMP2 and 2 IRs were expressed in non-chemosensory tissues, and some CSP transcripts were antenna-biased expression. Furthermore, no chemosensory transcript is specific to female sex pheromone gland and very few are found in the heads. Conclusion Our study revealed that there are a large number of chemosensory genes expressed in S. inferens, and some of them displayed unusual expression profile in non-chemosensory tissues. The identification of a large set of putative chemosensory genes of each subfamily from a single insect species, together with their different expression profiles provide further information in understanding the functions of these chemosensory genes in S. inferens as well as other insects. PMID:23894529

Zhang, Ya-Nan; Jin, Jun-Yan; Jin, Rong; Xia, Yi-Han; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Deng, Jian-Yu; Dong, Shuang-Lin

2013-01-01

386

Insects: What are Insects?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project you will investigate insects. By the end of the project you will asnwer the essential quesetion " What are insects?" Today, you and your group members will begin by investigating what insects are in nature. Insects come in different shapes, sizes and colors. Before your groups begins the activity, take a look at some pictures by clicking the Insect Pictures link Insect Pictures. Next, your group will read the brief summary from ...

Mrs. Martin

2009-10-22

387

Coffee Insects: Ecology and Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coffee is one of the most important agricultural commodities in the world and is grown in more than 50 countries throughout the tropics. Several insect pests have been reported in coffee, the most important being the coffee leaf miner, the coffee berry borer, and the coffee stem borers. The basic biology of these insects is discussed.

Fernando E. Vega; Francisco Posada; Francisco Infante

388

IAEA/FAO training course on uses of isotopes and radiation in integrated pest management (IPM) with special reference to the sterile insect technique  

SciTech Connect

This International Short Course which has been held in Gainesville, Florida, since 1963, was presented for the thirteenth time during the period 16 May through 24 June, 1988. Of the 20 students selected 18 arrived in Gainesville for the course. The strength of the course results from the many who contribute their time and expertise to lecture or hold laboratories or demonstrations for the students. The quality of the lectures was excellent. The top personnel in the field of SIT, IPM and insect biology and control presented information on a variety of research and operational programs. Appendix D contains copies of the summaries that were submitted by lecturers. Appendix E contains copies of the handouts that were given to the students. A large number of reprints were supplied at the request of the students by the various labs and lectures. Not all lecturers or laboratory sessions supplied handouts or summaries. However, those included present a summary of information presented.

Not Available

1988-01-01

389

Mesoamerican Origin and Pre- and Post-Columbian Expansions of the Ranges of Acanthoscelides obtectus Say, a Cosmopolitan Insect Pest of the Common Bean  

PubMed Central

An unprecedented global transfer of agricultural resources followed the discovery of the New World; one consequence of this process was that staple food plants of Neotropical origin, such as the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), soon expanded their ranges overseas. Yet many pests and diseases were also transported. Acanthoscelides obtectus is a cosmopolitan seed predator associated with P. vulgaris. Codispersal within the host seed seems to be an important determinant of the ability of A. obtectus to expand its range over long distances. We examined the phylogeographic structure of A. obtectus by (a) sampling three mitochondrial gene sequences (12s rRNA, 16s rRNA, and the gene that encodes cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI)) throughout most of the species’ range and (b) exploring its late evolutionary history. Our findings indicate a Mesoamerican origin for the current genealogical lineages of A. obtectus. Each of the two major centers of genetic diversity of P. vulgaris (the Andes and Mesoamerica) contains a highly differentiated lineage of the bean beetle. Brazil has two additional, closely related lineages, both of which predate the Andean lineage and have the Mesoamerican lineage as their ancestor. The cosmopolitan distribution of A. obtectus has resulted from recent expansions of the two Brazilian lineages. We present additional evidence for both pre-Columbian and post-Columbian range expansions as likely events that shaped the current distribution of A. obtectus worldwide. PMID:23936139

Oliveira, Márcia Rodrigues Carvalho; Corrêa, Alberto Soares; de Souza, Giselle Anselmo; Guedes, Raul Narciso Carvalho; de Oliveira, Luiz Orlando

2013-01-01

390

Mesoamerican origin and pre- and post-columbian expansions of the ranges of Acanthoscelides obtectus say, a cosmopolitan insect pest of the common bean.  

PubMed

An unprecedented global transfer of agricultural resources followed the discovery of the New World; one consequence of this process was that staple food plants of Neotropical origin, such as the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), soon expanded their ranges overseas. Yet many pests and diseases were also transported. Acanthoscelides obtectus is a cosmopolitan seed predator associated with P. vulgaris. Codispersal within the host seed seems to be an important determinant of the ability of A. obtectus to expand its range over long distances. We examined the phylogeographic structure of A. obtectus by (a) sampling three mitochondrial gene sequences (12s rRNA, 16s rRNA, and the gene that encodes cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI)) throughout most of the species' range and (b) exploring its late evolutionary history. Our findings indicate a Mesoamerican origin for the current genealogical lineages of A. obtectus. Each of the two major centers of genetic diversity of P. vulgaris (the Andes and Mesoamerica) contains a highly differentiated lineage of the bean beetle. Brazil has two additional, closely related lineages, both of which predate the Andean lineage and have the Mesoamerican lineage as their ancestor. The cosmopolitan distribution of A. obtectus has resulted from recent expansions of the two Brazilian lineages. We present additional evidence for both pre-Columbian and post-Columbian range expansions as likely events that shaped the current distribution of A. obtectus worldwide. PMID:23936139

Oliveira, Márcia Rodrigues Carvalho; Corrêa, Alberto Soares; de Souza, Giselle Anselmo; Guedes, Raul Narciso Carvalho; de Oliveira, Luiz Orlando

2013-01-01

391

In vitro production of two chitinolytic proteins with an inhibiting effect on the insect coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and the fungus Hemileia vastatrix the most limiting pests of coffee crops.  

PubMed

Two genes from Streptomyces albidoflavus, one exochitinase (905-bp) and an endochitinase (1100-bp) were functionally expressed in Escherichia coli in form of a fusion protein with a maltose binding protein (MBP). The goal was to produce and test proteins that inhibit both the coffee berry borer insect Hypothenemus hampei and the coffee rust fungus Hemileia vastatrix. Both recombinant proteins MBP/exochitinase and MBP/endochitinase showed chitinolytic activity. When recombinant purified proteins were added to an artificial coffee-based diet for the coffee berry borer, MBP/exochitinase at a concentration of 0.5% W/W caused delayed growth of larvae and 100% mortality between days 8 and 15, while MBP/endochitinase caused 100% mortality at day 35. H. vastatrix urediniospores presented total cell wall degradation in their germinative tubes within 18 h of exposure to the proteins at enzyme concentrations of 5 and 6 mg ml-1, with exochitinase having the greatest effect. The dual deleterious effect of S. albidoflavus chitinases on two of the most limiting coffee pests worldwide, the coffee borer and the coffee rust, make them potential elements to be incorporated in integrated control strategies. PMID:22464210

Martínez, Claudia P; Echeverri, Claudia; Florez, Juan C; Gaitan, Alvaro L; Góngora, Carmenza E

2012-01-01

392

In vitro production of two chitinolytic proteins with an inhibiting effect on the insect coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and the fungus Hemileia vastatrix the most limiting pests of coffee crops  

PubMed Central

Two genes from Streptomyces albidoflavus, one exochitinase (905-bp) and an endochitinase (1100-bp) were functionally expressed in Escherichia coli in form of a fusion protein with a maltose binding protein (MBP). The goal was to produce and test proteins that inhibit both the coffee berry borer insect Hypothenemus hampei and the coffee rust fungus Hemileia vastatrix. Both recombinant proteins MBP/exochitinase and MBP/endochitinase showed chitinolytic activity. When recombinant purified proteins were added to an artificial coffee-based diet for the coffee berry borer, MBP/exochitinase at a concentration of 0.5% W/W caused delayed growth of larvae and 100% mortality between days 8 and 15, while MBP/endochitinase caused 100% mortality at day 35. H. vastatrix urediniospores presented total cell wall degradation in their germinative tubes within 18 h of exposure to the proteins at enzyme concentrations of 5 and 6 mg ml-1, with exochitinase having the greatest effect. The dual deleterious effect of S. albidoflavus chitinases on two of the most limiting coffee pests worldwide, the coffee borer and the coffee rust, make them potential elements to be incorporated in integrated control strategies. PMID:22464210

2012-01-01

393

Dispersal of forest insects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dispersal flights of selected species of forest insects which are associated with periodic outbreaks of pests that occur over large contiguous forested areas are discussed. Gypsy moths, spruce budworms, and forest tent caterpillars were studied for their massive migrations in forested areas. Results indicate that large dispersals into forested areas are due to the females, except in the case of the gypsy moth.

Mcmanus, M. L.

1979-01-01

394

Managing Soybean Insects.  

E-print Network

weed hosts early in the production season. When numerous, damage may be sufficient to cause some loss in plant stand near field margins. This insect is one c:i the major defoliators c:i Group IV soybean varieties. Spot or perimeter treatment may... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Plant Damage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Seedling and Early-Season Pests...

Drees, Bastiaan M.; Way, Michael O.

1988-01-01

395

Virus-Induced Tubule: a Vehicle for Rapid Spread of Virions through Basal Lamina from Midgut Epithelium in the Insect Vector  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The plant reoviruses, plant rhabdoviruses, tospoviruses, and tenuiviruses are transmitted by insect vectors in a persistent propagative manner. These viruses induce the formation of viral inclusions to facilitate viral propagation in insect vectors. The intestines of insect vectors are formed by epithelial cells that lie on the noncellular basal lamina surrounded by visceral muscle tissue. Here, we demonstrate that a recently identified plant reovirus, southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), exploits virus-containing tubules composed of virus-encoded nonstructural protein P7-1 to directly cross the basal lamina from the initially infected epithelium toward visceral muscle tissues in the intestine of its vector, the white-backed planthopper (Sogatella furcifera). Furthermore, such tubules spread along visceral muscle tissues through a direct interaction of P7-1 and actin. The destruction of tubule assembly by RNA interference with synthesized double-stranded RNA targeting the P7-1 gene inhibited viral spread in the insect vector in vitro and in vivo. All these results show for the first time that a virus employs virus-induced tubule as a vehicle for viral spread from the initially infected midgut epithelium through the basal lamina, facilitating the rapid dissemination of virus from the intestine of the insect vector. IMPORTANCE Numerous plant viruses are transmitted in a persistent manner by sap-sucking insects, including thrips, aphids, planthoppers, and leafhoppers. These viruses, ingested by the insects, establish their primary infection in the intestinal epithelium of the insect vector. Subsequently, the invading virus manages to transverse the basal lamina, a noncellular layer lining the intestine, a barrier that may theoretically hinder viral spread. The mechanism by which plant viruses cross the basal lamina is unknown. Here, we report that a plant virus has evolved to exploit virus-induced tubules to pass through the basal lamina from the initially infected midgut epithelium of the insect vector, thus revealing the previously undescribed pathway adapted by the virus for rapid dissemination of virions from the intestine of the insect vector. PMID:24965461

Jia, Dongsheng; Mao, Qianzhuo; Chen, Hongyan; Wang, Aiming; Liu, Yuyan; Wang, Haitao; Xie, Lianhui

2014-01-01

396

FRAGMENTS OF ATP SYNTHASE MEDIATE PLANT PERCEPTION OF INSECT ATTACK.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pathogen and insect attack induce targeted plant biochemical defenses through the direct perception of pest-derived elicitors. Indirect pathogen recognition also occurs through the surveillance of inappropriately proteolyzed plant proteins. The analogous indirect perception of insects is unknown. We...

397

Transgenic tobacco and apple plants expressing biotin-binding proteins are resistant to two cosmopolitan insect pests, potato tuber moth and lightbrown apple moth, respectively.  

PubMed

Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun) and apple (Malus x domestica cv. Royal Gala) plants expressing avidin or strepavidin were produced using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. ELISA assays showed that avidin expression ranged from 3.1 to 4.6 microM in tobacco and from 1.9 to 11.2 microM in apple and streptavidin expression ranged from 11.4 to 24.5 microM in tobacco and from 0.4 to 14.6 microM in apple. Expressed at these levels, both biotin-binding proteins conferred a high level of insect resistance on transformed tobacco plants to larval potato tuber moth (PTM), Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (fam. Gelechiidae) and on apple plants to larvae of the lightbrown apple moth (LBAM) Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (fam. Tortricidae). More than 90% of PTM larvae died on tobacco plants expressing either avidin or streptavidin genes within 9 days of inoculation. Mortality of LBAM larvae was significantly higher (P < 0.05) on three avidin-expressing (89.6, 84.9 and 80.1%) and two streptavidin-expressing (90 and 82.5%) apple plant lines than on non-transformed control plants (14.1%) after 21 days. Weight of LBAM larvae was also significantly reduced by feeding on all apple shoots expressing avidin and on apple shoots expressing streptavidin at levels of 3.8 microM and above. PMID:14713196

Markwick, Ngaire P; Docherty, Lisa C; Phung, Margaret M; Lester, Melissa T; Murray, Colleen; Yao, Jia-Long; Mitra, Deepali S; Cohen, Daniel; Beuning, Lesley L; Kutty-Amma, Sumathi; Christeller, John T

2003-12-01

398

Insect economic levels in relation to crop production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels of economic insect damage and their effects on crop production are the most often-discussed issue in insect management today. The economic injury level (EIL) concept is the base for decision-making in most integrated pest management (IPM) programs. IPM programs are fundamentally different from control approaches that handle insect problems by focusing on tolerating insect effects. EIL is essential for

Nabil E. El-Wakeil

2010-01-01

399

Lawn and Turf Pest Control: A Guide for Commercial Applicators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed for use in training commercial pesticide applicators. It gives identification and control information for common lawn and turf diseases, insects, nematodes, weeds, and vertebrate pests. It also discusses phytotoxicity, environmental concerns, and application methods. (BB)

Khan, M. S.

400

Ribonucleic acid interference (RNAi) and control of citrus pests  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ribonucleic acid interference, RNAi, applications and function are described for the non-scientist to bring a better understanding of how this emerging technology is providing environmentally friendly, non-transgenic, insect pest control. ...

401

Area-Wide Pest Management: Environmental, Economic and Food Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insect pests destroy approximately 14% of all potential food production despite the yearly application of more than 3000 million\\u000a kilograms of pesticides. This contributes to rising human malnutrition which in 2004 was estimated by the World Health Organization\\u000a to have reached 3700 million - the largest number in history. Several major insect pests of crops and livestock are effectively\\u000a controlled

D. Pimentel

402

Cotton Insect Losses 1991 Compiled for National Cotton Council  

E-print Network

Cotton Insect Losses 1991 Compiled for National Cotton Council Robert B. Head, Chairman Cooperative to have produced the greatest pest related losses in U. S. cotton in 1991. Aphid losses reported at 2. This is true for sweet potato whiteflies. These insects have been pests of cotton in California and Arizona

Ray, David

403

Sustainable management of insect-resistant GE crops  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Crop genetically engineered to provide resistance to specific groups of insect pests have been adopted by millions of growers throughout the world. Here we document the effects of transgenic crops on pest population densities, beneficial insect densities and biological control services, insecticide ...

404

Insect resistance to Bt crops: evidence versus theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolution of insect resistance threatens the continued success of transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins that kill pests. The approach used most widely to delay insect resistance to Bt crops is the refuge strategy, which requires refuges of host plants without Bt toxins near Bt crops to promote survival of susceptible pests. However, large-scale tests of the refuge strategy

Aaron J Gassmann; David W Crowder; Yves Carriére; Bruce E Tabashnik

2008-01-01

405

Behavior, biology and ecology of stored fruit and nut insects  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tree nuts and dried fruits vary widely in their quality as hosts for insect pests, but stored product pests can cause economic loss even in commodities that are generally poor hosts. Economic damage can be due to commodity consumed, but the very presence of insect body parts, frass, or webbing can c...

406

Impact of Entomopathogens on Pest Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Adaptation by pest insects to the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) can alter their susceptibility to other pathogens. As the number of acres planted in crops engineered to produce Bt toxin increases, many key agricultural pests undergo strong selection to evolve resistance to Bt. In conjuncti...

407

ARS RESEARCH ON NATURAL PRODUCTS FOR PEST MANAGEMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recent research of the Agricultural Research Service of USDA on the use of natural products to manage pests is summarized. Studies of the use of both phtyochemicals and diatomaceous earth to manage insect pests are discussed. Chemically characterized compounds, such as a saponin from pepper (Capsi...

408

ARS RESEARCH ON NATURAL PRODUCTS FOR PEST MANAGEMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recent research of the Agricultural Research Service of USDA on the use of natural products to manage pests is summarized. Studies of the use of both phytochemicals and diatomaceous earth to manage insect pests are discussed. Chemically characterized compounds, such as a saponin from pepper (Caps...

409

Manipulation of arthropod pathogens for integrated pest management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A great diversity of pathogenic microorganisms and nematodes has been developed for microbial biological control of insect and other arthropod pests. These control agents have many characteristics that determine their capacities to provide reliable pest control, and these characteristics must be ta...

410

RNAi at work: Targeting invertebrate pests and beneficial organisms' diseases  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Invertebrates present two types of large scale RNAi application opportunities: pest control and beneficial insect health. The former involves the introduction of sustainable applications to keep pest populations low, and the latter represents the challenge of keeping beneficial organisms healthy. RN...

411

2010 Pest Management Guide for Wine Grapes in Oregon  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This is a pest management guide developed for use by vineyard managers in Oregon. This guide represents some of the best recommendations for chemicals, formulations, and usage rates of products that are intended to prevent, manage and control vineyard diseases, insects, weeds, and vertebrate pests. ...

412

The Hawaii Fruit Fly Area-Wide Pest Management Program  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are among the most economically important pests attacking soft fruits worldwide. The Hawaii Fruit Fly Area-Wide Pest Management (AWPM) Program was initiated in 1999 to suppress fruit flies below economic thresholds while reducing the use of organophosphate insect...

413

Global warming presents new challenges for maize pest management  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been conjectured that global warming will increase the prevalence of insect pests in many agro-ecosystems. In this paper, we quantitatively assess four of the key pests of maize, one of the most important systems in North American grain production. Using empirically generated estimates of pest overwintering thresholds and degree-day requirements, along with climate change projections from a high-resolution

Noah S Diffenbaugh; Christian H Krupke; Michael A White; Corinne E Alexander

2008-01-01

414

Insect Eradication and Containment of Invasive Alien Species  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Insect eradication programs are nearly always targeted at recently arrived invasive species with significant pest potential. They attempt to contain a pest to a defined area and then completely eliminate the pest from that area. From a Federal regulatory standpoint, eradication programs are undert...

415

Optimizing pyramided transgenic Bt crops for sustainable pest management.  

PubMed

Transgenic crop pyramids producing two or more Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins that kill the same insect pest have been widely used to delay evolution of pest resistance. To assess the potential of pyramids to achieve this goal, we analyze data from 38 studies that report effects of ten Bt toxins used in transgenic crops against 15 insect pests. We find that compared with optimal low levels of insect survival, survival on currently used pyramids is often higher for both susceptible insects and insects resistant to one of the toxins in the pyramid. Furthermore, we find that cross-resistance and antagonism between toxins used in pyramids are common, and that these problems are associated with the similarity of the amino acid sequences of domains II and III of the toxins, respectively. This analysis should assist in future pyramid design and the development of sustainable resistance management strategies. PMID:25599179

Carrière, Yves; Crickmore, Neil; Tabashnik, Bruce E

2015-02-01

416

Towards integrated pest management in red clover seed production.  

PubMed

The development of integrated pest management is hampered by lack of information on how insect pest abundances relate to yield losses, and how pests are affected by control measures. In this study, we develop integrated pest management tactics for Apion spp. weevils (Coleoptera: Brentidae) in seed production of red clover, Trifolium pratense L. We tested a method to forecast pest damage, quantified the relationship between pest abundance and yield, and evaluated chemical and biological pest control in 29 Swedish red clover fields in 2008 and 2011. Pest inflorescence abundance, which had a highly negative effect on yield, could be predicted with pan trap catches of adult pests. In 2008, chemical control with typically one application of pyrethroids was ineffective both in decreasing pest abundances and in increasing yields. In 2011, when chemical control included applications of the neonicotinoid thiacloprid, pest abundances decreased and yields increased considerably in treated field zones. A post hoc analysis indicated that using pyrethroids in addition to thiacloprid was largely redundant. Infestation rates by parasitoids was higher and reached average levels of around 40% in insecticide treated field zones in 2011, which is a level of interest for biological pest control. Based on the data presented, an economic threshold for chemical control is developed, and guidelines are provided on minimum effective chemical pest control. PMID:23156158

Lundin, Ola; Rundlöf, Maj; Smith, Henrik G; Bommarco, Riccardo

2012-10-01

417

Insect Pathogens as Biological Control Agents: Do They Have a Future?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Naturally occurring entomopathogens are important regulatory factors in insect populations. Many species are employed as biological control agents of insect pests in row and glasshouse crops, orchards, ornamentals, range, turf and lawn, stored products, and forestry and for abatement of pest and vector insects of veterinary and medical importance. The comparison of entomopathogens with conventional chemical pesticides is usually solely

L. A. Lacey; R. Frutos; H. K. Kaya; P. Vail

2001-01-01

418

BREEDING WHEAT FOR RESISTANCE TO INSECTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Host-plant resistance plays an important role in the management of the insect pests of wheat (Triticum sp.). Five pests, Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor), Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia), wheat midge (Sitodiplosis mosellana), greenbug (Schizaphis graminum) and the wheat stem sawfly (Cephus s...

419

Using entomopathogenic nematodes for crop insect control  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this paper is to provide an overview on using entomopathogenic nematodes for insect pest control. Entomopathogenic nematodes (genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis), are be used as natural biopesticides. Unlike plant parasitic nematodes, which can be serious crop pests, entomopat...

420

Insect Ferritins: typical or atypical?  

PubMed Central

Insects transmit millions of cases of disease each year, and cost millions of dollars in agricultural losses. The control of insect-borne diseases is vital for numerous developing countries, and the management of agricultural insect pests is a very serious business for developed countries. Control methods should target insect-specific traits in order to avoid non-target effects, especially in mammals. Since insect cells have had a billion years of evolutionary divergence from those of vertebrates, they differ in many ways that might be promising for the insect control field—especially, in iron metabolism because current studies have indicated that significant differences exist between insect and mammalian systems. Insect iron metabolism differs from that of vertebrates in the following respects. Insect ferritins have a heavier mass than mammalian ferritins. Unlike their mammalian counterparts, the insect ferritin subunits are often glycosylated and are synthesized with a signal peptide. The crystal structure of insect ferritin also shows a tetrahedral symmetry consisting of 12 heavy chain and 12 light chain subunits in contrast to that of mammalian ferritin that exhibits an octahedral symmetry made of 24 heavy chain and 24 light chain subunits. Insect ferritins associate primarily with the vacuolar system and serve as iron transporters—quite the opposite of the mammalian ferritins, which are mainly cytoplasmic and serve as iron storage proteins. This review will discuss these differences. PMID:20230873

Pham, Daphne Q. D.; Winzerling, Joy J.

2010-01-01

421

Introduction to 2009 Symposium on Alternative Methods of Controlling Pests and Diseases  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Numerous pests and diseases limit potato productivity, and control of weeds, insects and pathogens remains a costly part of potato production. Although conventional agrichemical pest control is amazingly effective, interest in non-synthetic chemical and integrated methods of pest management is drive...

422

Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Home, Institutional, and Structural Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed to assist pest control operators to prepare for certification under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. The primary focus of this publication is on home, institutional, and structural pest control. The ten sections included describe: (1) Insect control; (2) Rodent control; (3) Special situation pest control; (4)…

Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

423

The importance of economic injury levels in the development of integrated pest control programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Although economic injury levels have long been considered of importance in determining the needs for pest control measures, they take on added significance in integrated pest control programs. The designation of damage tolerance levels defines the goals of the integrated control effort. These management goals should be defined in terms of damage not numbers of pests. Although insect numbers

Ray F. Smith

1969-01-01

424

Pest management update on sunflower midge  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The sunflower midge (Contarinia schulzi) is a serious insect pest of sunflower, causing bud and head deformation that lead to poor seed development, and in many cases no seed development. This presentation describes the life cycle of the sunflower midge and shows images of infested sunflower heads. ...

425

1976 Commercial Vegetable Pest Control Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains pest control information for commercial vegetable production. It was prepared for agricultural supply dealers, extension agents, fieldmen, and growers. It gives general precautions, information on seed treatment, growing disease-free seedlings and transplants, general soil insect control, general weed control, and spraying…

MacNab, A. A.; And Others

426

Redirect research to control coffee pest  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

One hundred years ago, one of the most significant biological invasions of an agricultural insect pest in the Americas was initiated. Endemic to Africa, the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was accidentally introduced to Brazil in 1913 and years later invaded coff...

427

DEMONSTRATING INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT OF HOT PEPPERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We studied the effects of organic and synthetic chemical fertilizers on crop growth, yield and associated insect pests for two varieties of hot pepper, Capsicum chinense Jacquin (Solanaceae): “Scotch Bonnet” and “Caribbean Red” in north Florida. Hot peppers were grown under three treatments: poultr...

428

Demonstrating Integrated Pest Management of Hot Peppers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We studied the effects of organic and synthetic chemical fertilizers on crop growth, yield and associated insect pests for two varieties of hot pepper, Capsicum chinense Jacquin (Solanaceae): “Scotch Bonnet” and “Caribbean Red” in north Florida. Hot peppers were grown under three treatments: poultr...

429

Leafhopper and psyllid pests of potato  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Leafhoppers and psyllids are important pests of potato worldwide. These insects cause damage to potato by direct feeding or by acting as vectors of potato pathogens. Economically important leafhoppers that attack potato include Empoasca fabae, Macrosteles fascifrons, and Circulifer tenellus. E. faba...

430

Natural compounds for pest and weed control.  

PubMed

The control of insect pests and invasive weeds has become more species-selective because of activity-guided isolation, structure elucidation, and total synthesis of naturally produced substances with important biological activities. Examples of isolated compounds include insect pheromones, antifeedants, and prostaglandins, as well as growth regulators for plants and insects. Synthetic analogues of natural substances have been prepared to explore the relationships between chemical structure and observed biological activity. Recent scientific advances have resulted from better methods for the chemical synthesis of target compounds and better analytical methods. The capability of analytical instrumentation continues to advance rapidly, enabling new insights. PMID:19719128

Petroski, Richard J; Stanley, David W

2009-09-23

431

Managing Cotton Insects in the High Plains, Rolling Plains and Trans Pecos Areas of Texas--2008  

E-print Network

E-6 5-08 Managing Cotton Insects in the High Plains, Rolling Plains and Trans Pecos Areas of Texas 2008 Contents Page Pest Management Principles ......................................................................... 3 Insecticide... ..................................................................................... 6 Management Decisions ................................................................................... 7 Scouting Decisions .......................................................................................... 7 Early-Season Pests...

Siders, Kerry; Baugh, Brant A.; Sansone, Chris; Kerns, David L.

2008-04-29

432

Insect Controls for Organic Gardeners.  

E-print Network

pest insects. Once an in sect's identity is known, you can learn about its life cycle, seasonal cycle, habits and host plants, and thus exercise more effective control mea sures. You can 'obtain assistance with insect identifi cation from your... of the host plant. Waiting until the soil is warm enough for corn and bean seeds to germinate quickly reduces seed maggot damage. Hot caps (milk cartons, paper sacks or similar ma terials placed over plants) used during the early season not only...

Lewis, Kenneth R.; Turney, H.A.

1979-01-01

433

Psyllid lineup: the pests that carry zebra chip  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli, is as an economically important insect pest of potatoes, tomatoes, and other solanaceous crops in the western U.S., Mexico, Central America and New Zealand. This insect has historically been linked to psyllid yellows disease, but more recently has been sho...

434

Sustainability of Transgenic Insecticidal Cultivars: Integrating Pest Genetics and Ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review examines potential impacts of transgenic cultivars on insect pop- ulation dynamics and evolution. Experience with classically bred, insecticidal cultivars has demonstrated that a solid understanding of both the target insect's ecology and the cultivar's performance under varied field conditions will be es- sential for predicting area-wide effects of transgenic cultivars on pest and natural enemy dynamics. This experience

Fred Gould

1998-01-01

435

Plant essential oils for pest and disease management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain essential plant oils, widely used as fragrances and flavors in the perfume and food industries, have long been reputed to repel insects. Recent investigations in several countries confirm that some plant essential oils not only repel insects, but have contact and fumigant insecticidal actions against specific pests, and fungicidal actions against some important plant pathogens. As part of an

Murray B. Isman

2000-01-01

436

Managing Insects and Related Pests of Roses  

E-print Network

-Step Method Do-It- Yourself Fire Ant Control); Figure 4. A thrips. Figure 3. A spider mite. n White grubs (see L-1131, White Grubs in Texas Turfgrass); n Snails and slugs (see L-1737, Snails and Slugs); n Centipedes and millipedes (see L-1747, Centipedes... carbaryl (5%), Greenlight Bug & Snail Bait armyworms, crickets, earwigs, for use in lawns, metaldehyde (1%) grasshoppers, sowbugs, pillbugs, flowerbeds, ornamental snails, slugs and home vegetable gardens diazinon (4.2%), Fertilome Triple-Action aphids...

Drees, Bastiaan M.; Pemberton, Brent; Cole, Charles L.

1999-07-12

437

Plant - Insect Relation in Buckwheat Agrocoenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

species of insects are registered at buckwheat field. About 50 species of them are pests. As a rule, their density is not high, so there are no specialized protective measures against them. The largest part (about 100 species) are insects, connected with buckwheat flowers, Among them the typical pollina­ tors are: honey bee (Apis mellifera), wild bees, and bumblebees. Flies

438

2008 Sunflower Insect Trap Monitoring Network  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A regional insect trap network was developed by the National Sunflower Association, USDA-ARS, and North Dakota State University Extension Service to monitor for two major insect pests of sunflower in 2008 including the sunflower moth, Homoeosoma electellum (Hulst) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and the b...

439

Scope and Basic Principles of Insect Pathology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Insects are the dominant animals in the world with more than one million described species. The vast majority of insects are innocuous or beneficial to humans, but a small percentage are pests that require a significant amount of our time, effort and funds to reduce their negative effects on food pr...

440

MONITORING FOR PEST ACTIVITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Integrated pest management programs for food processing and storage facilities depend on an effective pest-monitoring program. In turn, the foundation of a pest-monitoring program is an understanding of pest behavior and ecology. In this presentation, I will cover issues related to determining pes...

441

Genetic, Molecular and Genomic Basis of Rice Defense against Insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice is the world's most important staple crop, feeding more than half of the world's population. Insects and other arthropods present an important constraint in rice production. This paper begins with an introduction to major insect pests of rice and their impact, followed by a description of some of the approaches currently used in insect management programs of rice. Then

Hao Chen; Michael J. Stout; Qian Qian; Feng Chen

2012-01-01

442

THERMAL DESIGN OF SHIPPING CONTAINERS FOR BENEFICIAL INSECTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of chemical pesticides to control stored product insects can be reduced with Integrated Pest Management (IPM) practices such as the use of natural enemies, like parasitoids, to control harmful insects. In this study, improved specifications were developed for shipping containers to deliver healthy beneficial insects to IPM practitioners. Heat transfer through the container walls was evaluated to determine

M. E. Casada; M. S. Ram; P. W. Flinn

443

Revised 1/09 INSECT IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL  

E-print Network

Revised 1/09 INSECT IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL Items with *are required for control recommendations ____________ INSECT IDENTIFICATION INFORMATION Human or animal pests will be accepted ONLY in vials filled _________________________________________ 8. Symptoms : insect boring chewed galls loose bark stippling/speckling other ___________________ 9

Duchowski, Andrew T.

444

Multiorganismal insects: diversity and function of resident microorganisms.  

PubMed

All insects are colonized by microorganisms on the insect exoskeleton, in the gut and hemocoel, and within insect cells. The insect microbiota is generally different from microorganisms in the external environment, including ingested food. Specifically, certain microbial taxa are favored by the conditions and resources in the insect habitat, by their tolerance of insect immunity, and by specific mechanisms for their transmission. The resident microorganisms can promote insect fitness by contributing to nutrition, especially by providing essential amino acids, B vitamins, and, for fungal partners, sterols. Some microorganisms protect their insect hosts against pathogens, parasitoids, and other parasites by synthesizing specific toxins or modifying the insect immune system. Priorities for future research include elucidation of microbial contributions to detoxification, especially of plant allelochemicals in phytophagous insects, and resistance to pathogens; as well as their role in among-insect communication; and the potential value of manipulation of the microbiota to control insect pests. PMID:25341109

Douglas, Angela E

2015-01-01

445

Global warming presents new challenges for maize pest management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been conjectured that global warming will increase the prevalence of insect pests in many agro-ecosystems. In this paper, we quantitatively assess four of the key pests of maize, one of the most important systems in North American grain production. Using empirically generated estimates of pest overwintering thresholds and degree-day requirements, along with climate change projections from a high-resolution climate model, we project potential future ranges for each of these pests in the United States. Our analysis suggests the possibility of increased winter survival and greater degree-day accumulations for each of the pests surveyed. We find that relaxed cold limitation could expand the range of all four pest taxa, including a substantial range expansion in the case of corn earworm (H. zea), a migratory, cold-intolerant pest. Because the corn earworm is a cosmopolitan pest that has shown resistance to insecticides, our results suggest that this expansion could also threaten other crops, including those in high-value areas of the western United States. Because managing significant additional pressure from this suite of established pests would require additional pest management inputs, the projected decreases in cold limitation and increases in heat accumulation have the potential to significantly alter the pest management landscape for North American maize production. Further, these range expansions could have substantial economic impacts through increased seed and insecticide costs, decreased yields, and the downstream effects of changes in crop yield variability.

Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Krupke, Christian H.; White, Michael A.; Alexander, Corinne E.

2008-10-01

446

A novel mechanism of insect resistance engineered into tobacco  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major goal of plant genetic engineering is the introduction of agronomically desirable phenotypic traits into crop plants in situations where conventional breeding methods have been unsuccessful. One such target is enhanced resistance to insect pests which, in view of the estimated production losses world-wide and the heavy costs of protective treatments, is very important. We report here that a gene encoding a cowpea trypsin inhibitor, which has been shown to give some measure of field resistance to insect pests1, confers, when transferred to tobacco, enhanced resistance to this species' own herbivorous insect pests.

Hilder, Vaughan A.; Gatehouse, Angharad M. R.; Sheerman, Suzanne E.; Barker, Richard F.; Boulter, Donald

1987-11-01

447

HOME GROUNDS & ANIMALS 2014 Nuisance Insects of the House and Yard: Household Insects 6-7  

E-print Network

HOME GROUNDS & ANIMALS 2014 Nuisance Insects of the House and Yard: Household Insects 6-7 Household of these measures will make the home inhospitable to pests limiting their survival. Bat Bugs Prevention: Bat bugs inside a structure are typically the result of bats or birds roosting in the attic. If the bat bug

Liskiewicz, Maciej

448

REMOTE SENSING AND SITE SPECIFIC MANAGEMENT OF COTTON PESTS IN EXPERIMENTALAND FARM FIELDS IN THE MISSISSIPPI DELTA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Insect and mite pests frequently cause major crop losses in cotton and often require expensive whole-field applications of pesticides. Site specific management of insect pests has recently been successfully practiced at the farm level using remote sensing to direct variable rate insecticide applicat...

449

EFFECTS OF IRRADIATION ON THE REPRODUCTIVE ABILITY OF ZONITOIDES ARBOREUS (SAY), A SNAIL PEST OF ORCHID ROOTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Due to increased international trade, there has been an increase in the risk of invasion by alien pest species, including pest species of slugs and snails. Irradiation has proven useful as an quarantine treatment for control of insect pests infesting horticultural commodities, and this technology c...

450

Evolutionary diversification of the bean beetle genus Callosobruchus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae): traits associated with stored-product pest status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the fact that many plant-feeding insects are pests, little effort has been made to identify key evolutionary trait transitions that allow taxa to acquire or lose pest status. A large proportion of species in the genus Callosobruchus are economically important pests of stored, dry postharvest beans of the tribe Phaseoleae. However, the evolution of this feeding habit is poorly

M. TUDA; J. RÖNN; S. BURANAPANICHP; N. WASANO; G. ARNQVIST

451

Improving mycoinsecticides for insect biological control.  

PubMed

The desire for decreased reliance on chemical pesticides continues to fuel interest in alternative means for pest control including the use of naturally occurring microbial insect pathogens. Insects, as vectors of disease causing agents or as agricultural pests, are responsible for millions of deaths and significant economic losses worldwide, placing stresses on productivity (GDP) and human health and welfare. In addition, alterations in climate change are likely to affect insect ranges, expanding their access to previously constrained geographic areas, a potentially worrisome outcome. Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana, two cosmopolitan fungal pathogens of insects found in almost all ecosystems, are the most commonly applied mycoinsecticides for a variety of insect control purposes. The availability of the complete genomes for both organisms coupled to robust technologies for their transformation has led to several advances in engineering these fungi for greater efficacy and/or utility in pest control applications. Here, we will provide an overview of the fungal-insect and fungal-plant interactions that occur and highlight recent advances in the genetic engineering of these fungi. The latter work has resulted in the development of strains displaying (1) increased resistance to abiotic stress, (2) increased cuticular targeting and degradation, (3) increased virulence via expression of insecticidal protein/peptide toxins, (4) the ability to block transmission of disease causing agents, and (5) the ability to target specific insect hosts, decrease host fecundity, and/or alter insect behaviors. PMID:25503318

Ortiz-Urquiza, Almudena; Luo, Zhibing; Keyhani, Nemat O

2015-02-01

452

Insect Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners use several types of insect sampling and collection equipment to make an insect collection. Learners can collect insects from their schoolyard or yard at home. Insect collections are a good way to estimate the abundance and number of species in an area. This can be a longterm project over a period of days or weeks.

2012-12-18

453

INTREGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The integrated pest management triangle describes the need for developing a biologically based pest management strategy. Leafy spurge control tools become more expensive and less sustainable as you move from a sound biologically-based management plan....

454

Pest Control and Pesticide Use in Hospitals in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

An assessment of the occurrence and control of pests in hospitals in Poland was carried out in the years 2003–04. The results were also compared with those from a preliminary evaluation carried out in the years 1990–95. The 2003\\/04 study showed a lower level of infestation in the hospitals examined than previously. The predominant insect pest species was still the

Aleksandra Gliniewicz; Ewa Mikulak

2006-01-01

455

Suggestions for Controlling Insects in Farm-Stored Grain.  

E-print Network

pest species - rice or corn weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.), lesser grain borer, Rhizopertha dominica (F.), and Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Oliv.) - are the most destructive stored-grain insects in Texas. The granary weevil, Sitophilus...

Hamman, Philip J.

1982-01-01

456

Biology and Thermal Death Kinetics of Selected Insects  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Heat treatments have been suggested as alternatives to fumigation for a variety of postharvest applications. This paper describes the general biology of several economically important insect pests in the international trade of agricultural commodities and presents fundamental thermal death kinetics ...

457

Automated pattern analysis: A newsilent partner in insect acoustic detection studies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This seminar reviews methods that have been developed for automated analysis of field-collected sounds used to estimate pest populations and guide insect pest management decisions. Several examples are presented of successful usage of acoustic technology to map insect distributions in field environ...

458

Area-wide control of insects with screwworm as an example  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), are devastating pests of warm blooded animals. They have been eradicated from continental North America using the sterile insect technique (SIT). Proper implementation of SIT is an example of the requirements of area-wide control of insect pests. Area-...

459

Intervention of Phytohormone Pathways by Pathogen Effectors[OPEN  

PubMed Central

The constant struggle between plants and microbes has driven the evolution of multiple defense strategies in the host as well as offense strategies in the pathogen. To defend themselves from pathogen attack, plants often rely on elaborate signaling networks regulated by phytohormones. In turn, pathogens have adopted innovative strategies to manipulate phytohormone-regulated defenses. Tactics frequently employed by plant pathogens involve hijacking, evading, or disrupting hormone signaling pathways and/or crosstalk. As reviewed here, this is achieved mechanistically via pathogen-derived molecules known as effectors, which target phytohormone receptors, transcriptional activators and repressors, and other components of phytohormone signaling in the host plant. Herbivores and sap-sucking insects employ obligate pathogens such as viruses, phytoplasma, or symbiotic bacteria to intervene with phytohormone-regulated defenses. Overall, an improved understanding of phytohormone intervention strategies employed by pests and pathogens during their interactions with plants will ultimately lead to the development of new crop protection strategies. PMID:24920334

Kazan, Kemal; Lyons, Rebecca

2014-01-01

460

Insects of the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico. Forest Service general technical report  

SciTech Connect

In this review of the literature on forest entomology in Puerto Rico, emphasis is given to research conducted in the Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF). This review should serve as an introduction to the insects inhabiting the LEF for researchers and as a guide for the identification of possible insect pests. There are three sections to this review. The first deals with basic insect ecology; the second, forest insect pests; and the third, insect attacks on dry wood and during wood seasoning. The reference section and appendices contain information on the systematics and taxonomy of different insect orders found in Puerto Rico.

Torres, J.A.

1994-07-01

461

Science Nation: Social Insects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Yellow jackets are wasps, and though they seem eager to inflict pain, they do have some important redeeming qualities. They kill harmful garden pests and are among the most social insects on the planet, along with their stinging cousins, the ants and the social bees. In all three species, the queen lays all the eggs and the workers service the queen and help her raise the young. Georgia Institute of Technology biology professor Michael Goodisman is using National Science Foundation (NSF) support to try and understand these complex relationships and how they impact these intricate communities.

462

Ornamental and Shade Tree Pest Control: A Guide for Commercial Applicators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a training manual for commercial pesticide applicators. It gives information for identification and control of diseases, insects, mites, weeds, and vertebrate pests of shade and ornamental trees. Phytotoxicity, environmental concerns, and pesticide application information is also given. (BB)

Khan, M. S.

463

Airborne multi-spectral remote sensing with ground truth for areawide pest management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Scientists and researchers have been developing, integrating, and evaluating multiple strategies and technologies into a systems approach for management of field crop insect pests. Remote sensing along with Global Positioning Systems, Geographic Information Systems, and variable rate technology are...

464

SUSCEPTIBILITY OF PEST NEZARA VIRIDULA (HETEROPTERA: PENTATOMIDAE) AND PARASITOID TRICHOPODA PENNIPES (DIPTERA: TACHINIDAE) TO SELECTED INSECTICIDES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Susceptibility of a pest stink bug, the brown stink bug (BSB), Euschistus servus (Say) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), and the predatory stink bug, the spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris (Say) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), to cyfluthrin, dicrotophos, indoxacarb, oxamyl, and tralomethrin, insectic...

465

Status of pesticide resistance in arthropod pests in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A complex of events and factors, pertinent to a specific insect and insecticide, governs the development of resistance to\\u000a insecticides. In Israel, resistance to conventional and novel insecticides occurred in insect pests such asBemisia tabaci andSpodoptera littoralis (that damage agricultural crops),Tribolium castaneum and other flour beetles (that contaminate stored products), andPediculus humanus spp., house flies and mosquitoes (that threaten public

A. R. Horowitz; Phyllis G. Weintraub; I. Ishaaya

1998-01-01

466

Sampling Plans, Selective Insecticides and Sustainability: The Case for IPM as ‘informed pest management’  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

IPM is considered the central paradigm of insect pest management and is often characterized as a comprehensive use of multiple control tactics to reduce pest status while minimizing economic and environmental costs. As the principal precursor of IPM, the integrated control concept formulated the ec...

467

Biology and ecology of the Western Flower Thrips. The making of a pest  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the past 30 years, the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) has become one of the most important agricultural pests worldwide. Certain biological attributes of this insect predispose it to be a direct pest across a wide range of crops. In additio...

468

Historical Perspectives on Apple Production: Fruit Tree Pest Management, Regulation and  

E-print Network

2 Historical Perspectives on Apple Production: Fruit Tree Pest Management, Regulation and New. Historical Use of Pesticides in Apple Production Overview of Apple Production and Pest Management Prior in Apple Production Chemical Residues in Early Insect Management Historical Chemical Regulation Recent

Jentsch, Peter J.

469

Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Fruit Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators prepare for certification under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. The primary focus of this publication is on fruit pest control. Sections included are: (1) Causes of fruit diseases; (2) Fruit fungicides and bactericides; (3) Insect and mite pests; (4) Insecticides and miticides;…

Brunner, J.; And Others

470

Potential for microbial biological control of coleopteran and hemipteran pests of potato  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Numerous insects in the orders Coleoptera and Hemiptera are major pests of potato, Solanum tuberosum, worldwide. Although these pests are currently managed almost exclusively with chemical insecticides, there is continuing demand for alternative controls that pose lower environmental and health ris...

471

The impacts of a changing climate on forest pests and diseases  

E-print Network

climate on forest pests and diseases Pests move ­ globally, despite Plant Health rules They also cope development rates; timing of bud burst versus egg hatch of defoliating moths; flight & dispersal Winter temperatures - over-winter survival, dormancy Rainfall & wind - mortality; dispersal & fecundity during insect

472

United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service research on natural products for pest management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research of the Agricultural Research Service of USDA on the use of natural products to manage pests is summarized. Studies of the use of both phytochemicals and diatomaceous earth to manage insect pests are discussed. Chemically characterized compounds, such as a saponin from pepper (Capsicum frutescens L), benzaldehyde, chitosan and 2-deoxy-D-glucose are being studied as natural fungicides. Resin glycosides

Stephen O Duke; Scott R Baerson; Franck E Dayan; Agnes M Rimando; Brian E Scheffler; Mario R Tellez; David E Wedge; Kevin K Schrader; David H Akey; Frank H Arthur; Anthony J De Lucca; Donna M Gibson; Howard F Harrison Jr; Joseph K Peterson; David R Gealy; Thomas Tworkoski; Charles L Wilson; J Brad Morris

2003-01-01

473

Biology and Ecology of the Western Flower Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae): The Making of a Pest  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the past 30 years, the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) has become one of the most important agricultural pests worldwide. Certain biological attributes of this insect predispose it to be a direct pest across a wide range of crops. In additio...

474

Pesticide Applicator Certification Training, Manual No. 1a: Agricultural Pest Control. a. Plant.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides information needed to meet the minimum standards for certification as an applicator of pesticides in the agricultural plant pest control category. Adapted for the State of Virginia, the text discusses: (1) the basics of insecticides; (2) insect pests; (3) selection and calibration of applicator equipment; and (4) the proper…

Allen, W. A.; And Others

475

Insect Tolerant Cotton in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

India is one of the 13 “biotech mega-countries” in the world, growing Bt cotton commercially since 2002 (http:\\/\\/www.isaaa.org\\/). Bollgard® hybrids were approved for commercial release in 2002, followed by Bollgard II® hybrids in 2006; these were followed\\u000a by Bt cotton hybrids with two other events. In this chapter, we discuss insect pests in cotton and insecticide resistance\\u000a in major cotton

S. Parimi; B. R. Char; R. K. Goravale; C. B. Chaporkar

476

Integrated Pest Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Australian Academy of Science's NOVA Online (discussed in the March 3, 1999 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) has added a report on integrated pest management. After 25 years, Western Australia's Ord River valley is making a comeback in cotton cultivation. This area was once abandoned because of "an uncontrollable infestation" of two native caterpillars. The article discusses integrated pest management and how it can be used to control persistent pests.

477

Towards the elements of successful insect RNAi  

PubMed Central

RNA interference (RNAi), the sequence-specific suppression of gene expression, offers great opportunities for insect science, especially to analyze gene function, manage pest populations, and reduce disease pathogens. The accumulating body of literature on insect RNAi has revealed that the efficiency of RNAi varies between different species, the mode of RNAi delivery, and the genes being targeted. There is also variation in the duration of transcript suppression. At present, we have a limited capacity to predict the ideal experimental strategy for RNAi of a particular gene/insect because of our incomplete understanding of whether and how the RNAi signal is amplified and spread among insect cells. Consequently, development of the optimal RNAi protocols is a highly empirical process. This limitation can be relieved by systematic analysis of the molecular physiological basis of RNAi mechanisms in insects. An enhanced conceptual understanding of RNAi function in insects will facilitate the application of RNAi for dissection of gene function, and to fast-track the application of RNAi to both control pests and develop effective methods to protect beneficial insects and non-insect arthropods, particularly the honey bee (Apis mellifera) and cultured Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) from viral and parasitic diseases. PMID:24041495

Scott, Jeffrey G.; Michel, Kristin; Bartholomay, Lyric; Siegfried, Blair D.; Hunter, Wayne B.; Smagghe, Guy; Zhu, Kun Yan; Douglas, Angela E.

2013-01-01

478

AN EFFICIENT METHOD TO ISOLATE INSECT PATHOGENS: MICROBIAL COMBINATORICS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Very few bacteria have been successfully used to control pest insects. We developed an efficient and cost-effective approach to isolate insect pathogenic bacteria. Analogous to the simultaneous screening of multiple compounds used in combinatorial chemistry, microbes from a single soil were grown on...

479

Insect Pheromones: Useful Lessons for Crustacean Pheromone Programs?  

E-print Network

Chapter 27 Insect Pheromones: Useful Lessons for Crustacean Pheromone Programs? Thomas C. Baker Abstract Insect pheromones, especially sex pheromones, have successfully con- tributed to pest management programs around the world since the 1970s. In this chapter I examine some of the ways in which pheromones

480

New research with insect growth regulators and fogging  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Insect growth regulators (IGRs) are seen as reduced-risk insecticides to replace conventional neurotoxins for insect pest management in stored products. The use of IGRs will be discussed, with reference to different application methods and available commercial products. Similarly, aerosol insecticid...

481

HOW IMPORTANT IS STORED-PRODUCT INSECT INVASION FROM OUTSIDE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

It has long been know that stored-product insects can enter buildings from outside and that sealing off routes of entry is an important part of a pest management program. However, the relative importance of active insect immigration into buildings as a source of infestation compared to importation ...

482

Insect Cold Storage Technology: Design and Practical Applications  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Unlike agrochemicals, most insects used in research and/or pest control programs have a relatively short shelf-life. Many insects need to be maintained by continuous culture while others may have the inherent capacity to enter dormancy for varying periods of time. Utilization of cold temperature t...

483

Radio frequency treatments for insect disinfestation of dried legumes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dried pulses (chickpeas, green peas or lentils) are valuable export commodities in the US Pacific Northwest. A major problem in the marketing of these products is infestation by insect pests. Typically, chemical fumigants are used to disinfest product, but regulatory issues, insect resistance, envi...

484

MICROBIAL COMBINATORICS: A NOVEL APPROACH FOR ISOLATING INSECT PATHOGENS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bacteria, such as Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner, can successfully control pest insects that damage food crops, vector diseases, and defoliate trees. Isolation of these bacteria has been conventionally from soil and sporadically from dead insects. These observations were combined to isolate insec...

485

A computer model of insect traps in a landscape  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Attractant-based trap networks are important elements of invasive insect detection, pest control, and basic research programs. We present a landscape-level spatially explicit model of trap networks that incorporates variable attractiveness of traps and a movement model for insect dispersion. We desc...

486

Grain sorghum hybrid resistance to insect and bird damage - 2013  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seven grain sorghum hybrids were evaluated for resistance to insect and bird damage in 2012. Although their damage was relatively low in general in 2012, five insect pests were observed on sorghum in south Georgia. They could be listed in order of importance as follows: sorghum midge, leaf-footed ...

487

Insect and bird resistance in 11 grain sorghum hybrids - 2010  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Grain sorghum is a good rotation crop in the southern Coastal Plain region, where it can be affected by a variety of insects and pathogens from the seedling stage through maturity. Diseases were of minimal importance in 2010. Although their damage was relatively low, nine insect pests were recorded...

488

Pest management and other agricultural practices among farmers growing cruciferous vegetables in the Central and Western highlands of Kenya and the Western Himalayas of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of 125 farmers was conducted in 2005 in the Central and Western highlands of Kenya and the Kullu valley in the Western Himalayas of India to investigate pest management practices and constraints among farmers growing cruciferous vegetables. Lepidopteran insects were the most important pests affecting the crops and pest management relied primarily on application of pyrethroid and\\/or organophosphate

Francisco R. Badenes-Perez; Anthony M. Shelton

2006-01-01

489

Potential Use of a Serpin from Arabidopsis for Pest Control  

PubMed Central

Although genetically modified (GM) plants expressing toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protect agricultural crops against lepidopteran and coleopteran pests, field-evolved resistance to Bt toxins has been reported for populations of several lepidopteran species. Moreover, some important agricultural pests, like phloem-feeding insects, are not susceptible to Bt crops. Complementary pest control strategies are therefore necessary to assure that the benefits provided by those insect-resistant transgenic plants are not compromised and to target those pests that are not susceptible. Experimental GM plants producing plant protease inhibitors have been shown to confer resistance against a wide range of agricultural pests. In this study we assessed the potential of AtSerpin1, a serpin from Arabidopsis thaliana (L). Heynh., for pest control. In vitro assays were conducted with a wide range of pests that rely mainly on either serine or cysteine proteases for digestion and also with three non-target organisms occurring in agricultural crops. AtSerpin1 inhibited proteases from all pest and non-target species assayed. Subsequently, the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis Boisduval and the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) were fed on artificial diets containing AtSerpin1, and S. littoralis was also fed on transgenic Arabidopsis plants overproducing AtSerpin1. AtSerpin1 supplied in the artificial diet or by transgenic plants reduced the growth of S. littoralis larvae by 65% and 38%, respectively, relative to controls. Nymphs of A. pisum exposed to diets containing AtSerpin1 suffered high mortality levels (LC50?=?637 µg ml?1). The results indicate that AtSerpin1 is a good candidate for exploitation in pest control. PMID:21655276

Alvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; Maharramov, Jafar; Carrillo, Laura; Vandenabeele, Steven; Vercammen, Dominique; Van Breusegem, Frank; Smagghe, Guy

2011-01-01

490

Potential use of a serpin from Arabidopsis for pest control.  

PubMed

Although genetically modified (GM) plants expressing toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protect agricultural crops against lepidopteran and coleopteran pests, field-evolved resistance to Bt toxins has been reported for populations of several lepidopteran species. Moreover, some important agricultural pests, like phloem-feeding insects, are not susceptible to Bt crops. Complementary pest control strategies are therefore necessary to assure that the benefits provided by those insect-resistant transgenic plants are not compromised and to target those pests that are not susceptible. Experimental GM plants producing plant protease inhibitors have been shown to confer resistance against a wide range of agricultural pests. In this study we assessed the potential of AtSerpin1, a serpin from Arabidopsis thaliana (L). Heynh., for pest control. In vitro assays were conducted with a wide range of pests that rely mainly on either serine or cysteine proteases for digestion and also with three non-target organisms occurring in agricultural crops. AtSerpin1 inhibited proteases from all pest and non-target species assayed. Subsequently, the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis Boisduval and the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) were fed on artificial diets containing AtSerpin1, and S. littoralis was also fed on transgenic Arabidopsis plants overproducing AtSerpin1. AtSerpin1 supplied in the artificial diet or by transgenic plants reduced the growth of S. littoralis larvae by 65% and 38%, respectively, relative to controls. Nymphs of A. pisum exposed to diets containing AtSerpin1 suffered high mortality levels (LC(50)?=?637 µg ml(-1)). The results indicate that AtSerpin1 is a good candidate for exploitation in pest control. PMID:21655276

Alvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; Maharramov, Jafar; Carrillo, Laura; Vandenabeele, Steven; Vercammen, Dominique; Van Breusegem, Frank; Smagghe, Guy

2011-01-01

491

Predicting boll weevil eradication induced pest outbreaks in Texas cotton  

E-print Network

mortality of many beneficial insects, and a greater risk of secondary pest outbreaks. Notable among the latter are the outbreaks of beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua H?bner) and cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover) in the Lower Rio Grande Valley in 1995...

Butler, James Joseph

2004-11-15

492

Compendium of Wheat Diseases and Pests, Third Edition  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Compendium of Wheat Diseases and Pests, Third Edition, is a practical guidebook for the identification and management of over 150 important diseases, insects, and other disorders of wheat. Over 70 expert authors contributed diagnostic photographs and authoritative chapters to this edition. For e...

493

Pest Damage and Integrated Control INTEGRATING DWARF MISTLETOE  

E-print Network

our sights on the research now needed and improve the odds of getting forest resource managers of the insects and diseases involved, (2) the dynamics of forest stand development, (3) the socioeconomic: A broader, more comprehensive concept of forest pest management is needed to make it a really integral

Standiford, Richard B.

494

The genome of the model beetle and pest Tribolium castaneum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tribolium castaneum is a representative of earth’s most numerous eukaryotic order, a powerful model organism for the study of generalized insect development, and also an important pest of stored agricultural products. We describe its genome sequence here. This omnivorous beetle has evolved an abil...

495

Coffee pest and disease management options for smallholders in Malawi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main source of income for up to 9000 smallholders in northern Malawi is coffee, yields of which are affected by insect pests, namely white stem borer (Monochamus leuconotus) and green scale (Coccus alpinus), and diseases – coffee berry disease (Colletotrichum kahawae) and leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix). Economic liberalisation in Malawi has removed subsidies from inputs and without credit schemes

R. J. Hillocks; N. A. Phiri; D. Overfield

1999-01-01

496

Nitric oxide as a potent fumigant for postharvest pest control  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There is a great demand for safe and effective alternative fumigants to replace methyl bromide and other toxic fumigants for pest control. Nitric oxide, a common signal molecule in biological systems, was found to be effective and safe to control insects under ultralow oxygen conditions. Fumigatio...

497

PERIMETER TREATMENT FOR STORED-PRODUCT PEST IMMIGRATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A discussion of ongoing research to determine strategies to limit immigration of various stored product pests will be presented. Prevention of infestation is an important component of IPM. In this presentation, current research into preventing or reducing the impact of insect immigration will be p...

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