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1

Comparative transcriptome analysis of Gossypium hirsutum L. in response to sap sucking insects: aphid and whitefly  

PubMed Central

Background Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is a major fiber crop that is grown worldwide; it faces extensive damage from sap-sucking insects, including aphids and whiteflies. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis was performed to understand the molecular details of interaction between Gossypium hirsutum L. and sap-sucking pests, namely Aphis gossypii (Aphid) and Bemisia tabacci (Whiteflies). Roche’s GS-Titanium was used to sequence transcriptomes of cotton infested with aphids and whiteflies for 2 h and 24 h. Results A total of 100935 contigs were produced with an average length of 529 bp after an assembly in all five selected conditions. The Blastn of the non-redundant (nr) cotton EST database resulted in the identification of 580 novel contigs in the cotton plant. It should be noted that in spite of minimal physical damage caused by the sap-sucking insects, they can change the gene expression of plants in 2 h of infestation; further change in gene expression due to whiteflies is quicker than due to aphids. The impact of the whitefly 24 h after infestation was more or less similar to that of the aphid 2 h after infestation. Aphids and whiteflies affect many genes that are regulated by various phytohormones and in response to microbial infection, indicating the involvement of complex crosstalk between these pathways. The KOBAS analysis of differentially regulated transcripts in response to aphids and whiteflies indicated that both the insects induce the metabolism of amino acids biosynthesis specially in case of whiteflies infestation at later phase. Further we also observed that expression of transcript related to photosynthesis specially carbon fixation were significantly influenced by infestation of Aphids and Whiteflies. Conclusions A comparison of different transcriptomes leads to the identification of differentially and temporally regulated transcripts in response to infestation by aphids and whiteflies. Most of these differentially expressed contigs were related to genes involved in biotic, abiotic stresses and enzymatic activities related to hydrolases, transferases, and kinases. The expression of some marker genes such as the overexpressors of cationic peroxidase 3, lipoxygenase I, TGA2, and non-specific lipase, which are involved in phytohormonal-mediated plant resistance development, was suppressed after infestation by aphids and whiteflies, indicating that insects suppressed plant resistance in order to facilitate their infestation. We also concluded that cotton shares several pathways such as phagosomes, RNA transport, and amino acid metabolism with Arabidopsis in response to the infestation by aphids and whiteflies. PMID:23577705

2013-01-01

2

Resistance to sap-sucking insects in modern-day agriculture.  

PubMed

Plants and herbivores have co-evolved in their natural habitats for about 350 million years, but since the domestication of crops, plant resistance against insects has taken a different turn. With the onset of monoculture-driven modern agriculture, selective pressure on insects to overcome resistances has dramatically increased. Therefore plant breeders have resorted to high-tech tools to continuously create new insect-resistant crops. Efforts in the past 30 years have resulted in elucidation of mechanisms of many effective plant defenses against insect herbivores. Here, we critically appraise these efforts and - with a focus on sap-sucking insects - discuss how these findings have contributed to herbivore-resistant crops. Moreover, in this review we try to assess where future challenges and opportunities lay ahead. Of particular importance will be a mandatory reduction in systemic pesticide usage and thus a greater reliance on alternative methods, such as improved plant genetics for plant resistance to insect herbivores. PMID:23818892

Vandoorn, Arjen; de Vos, Martin

2013-01-01

3

Novel inducible antibacterial peptides from a hemipteran insect, the sap-sucking bug Pyrrhocoris apterus.  

PubMed Central

Insects belonging to the recent orders of the endopterygote clade (Lepidoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Coleoptera) respond to bacterial challenge by the rapid and transient synthesis of a battery of potent antibacterial peptides which are secreted into their haemolymph. Here we present the first report on inducible antibacterial molecules in the sap-sucking bug Pyrrhocoris apterus, a representative species of the Hemiptera, which predated the Endoptergotes by at least 50 million years in evolution. We have isolated and characterized from immune blood of this species three novel peptides or polypeptides: (i) a 43-residue cysteine-rich anti-(Gram-positive bacteria) peptide which is a new member of the family of insect defensins; (ii) a 20-residue proline-rich peptide carrying an O-glycosylated substitution (N-acetylgalactosamine), active against Gram-negative bacteria; (iii) a 133-residue glycine-rich polypeptide also active against Gram-negative bacteria. The proline-rich peptide shows high sequence similarities with drosocin, an O-glycosylated antibacterial peptide from Drosophila, and also with the N-terminal domain of diptericin, an inducible 9 kDa antibacterial peptide from members of the order Diptera, whereas the glycine-rich peptide has similarities with the glycine-rich domain of diptericin. We discuss the evolutionary aspects of these findings. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:8002963

Cociancich, S; Dupont, A; Hegy, G; Lanot, R; Holder, F; Hetru, C; Hoffmann, J A; Bulet, P

1994-01-01

4

Cre/lox system to develop selectable marker free transgenic tobacco plants conferring resistance against sap sucking homopteran insect.  

PubMed

A binary expression vector was constructed containing the insecticidal gene Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL), and a selectable nptII marker gene cassette, flanked by lox sites. Similarly, another binary vector was developed with the chimeric cre gene construct. Transformed tobacco plants were generated with these two independent vectors. Each of the T(0) lox plants was crossed with T(0) Cre plants. PCR analyses followed by the sequencing of the target T-DNA part of the hybrid T(1) plants demonstrated the excision of the nptII gene in highly precised manner in certain percentage of the T(1) hybrid lines. The frequency of such marker gene excision was calculated to be 19.2% in the hybrids. Marker free plants were able to express ASAL efficiently and reduce the survivability of Myzus persiceae, the deadly pest of tobacco significantly, compared to the control tobacco plants. Results of PCR and Southern blot analyses of some of the T(2) plants detected the absence of cre as well as nptII genes. Thus, the crossing strategy involving Cre/lox system for the excision of marker genes appears to be very effective and easy to execute. Documentation of such marker excision phenomenon in the transgenic plants expressing the important insecticidal protein for the first time has a great significance from agricultural and biotechnological points of view. PMID:18663453

Chakraborti, Dipankar; Sarkar, Anindya; Mondal, Hossain A; Schuermann, David; Hohn, Barbara; Sarmah, Bidyut K; Das, Sampa

2008-10-01

5

Citrus tristeza virus-based RNAi in citrus plants induces gene silencing in Diaphorina citri, a phloem-sap sucking insect vector of citrus greening disease (Huanglongbing).  

PubMed

A transient expression vector based on Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is unusually stable. Because of its stability it is being considered for use in the field to control Huanglongbing (HLB), which is caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) and vectored by Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri. In the absence of effective control strategies for CLas, emphasis has been on control of D. citri. Coincident cohabitation in phloem tissue by CLas, D. citri and CTV was exploited to develop a novel method to mitigate HLB through RNA interference (RNAi). Since CTV has three RNA silencing suppressors, it was not known if CTV-based vector could induce RNAi in citrus. Yet, expression of sequences targeting citrus phytoene desaturase gene by CTV-RNAi resulted in photo-bleaching phenotype. CTV-RNAi vector, engineered with truncated abnormal wing disc (Awd) gene of D. citri, induced altered Awd expression when silencing triggers ingested by feeding D. citri nymphs. Decreased Awd in nymphs resulted in malformed-wing phenotype in adults and increased adult mortality. This impaired ability of D. citri to fly would potentially limit the successful vectoring of CLas bacteria between citrus trees in the grove. CTV-RNAi vector would be relevant for fast-track screening of candidate sequences for RNAi-mediated pest control. PMID:24572372

Hajeri, Subhas; Killiny, Nabil; El-Mohtar, Choaa; Dawson, William O; Gowda, Siddarame

2014-04-20

6

Retargeting of the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cyt2Aa against hemipteran insect pests.  

PubMed

Although transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins have been used successfully for management of lepidopteran and coleopteran pest species, the sap-sucking insects (Hemiptera) are not particularly susceptible to Bt toxins. To overcome this limitation, we demonstrate that addition of a short peptide sequence selected for binding to the gut of the targeted pest species serves to increase toxicity against said pest. Insertion of a 12-aa pea aphid gut-binding peptide by adding to or replacing amino acids in one of three loops of the Bt cytolytic toxin, Cyt2Aa, resulted in enhanced binding and toxicity against both the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, and the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae. This strategy may allow for transgenic plant-mediated suppression of other hemipteran pests, which include some of the most important pests of global agriculture. PMID:23650347

Chougule, Nanasaheb P; Li, Huarong; Liu, Sijun; Linz, Lucas B; Narva, Kenneth E; Meade, Thomas; Bonning, Bryony C

2013-05-21

7

Retargeting of the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cyt2Aa against hemipteran insect pests  

PubMed Central

Although transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins have been used successfully for management of lepidopteran and coleopteran pest species, the sap-sucking insects (Hemiptera) are not particularly susceptible to Bt toxins. To overcome this limitation, we demonstrate that addition of a short peptide sequence selected for binding to the gut of the targeted pest species serves to increase toxicity against said pest. Insertion of a 12-aa pea aphid gut-binding peptide by adding to or replacing amino acids in one of three loops of the Bt cytolytic toxin, Cyt2Aa, resulted in enhanced binding and toxicity against both the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, and the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae. This strategy may allow for transgenic plant-mediated suppression of other hemipteran pests, which include some of the most important pests of global agriculture. PMID:23650347

Chougule, Nanasaheb P.; Li, Huarong; Liu, Sijun; Linz, Lucas B.; Narva, Kenneth E.; Meade, Thomas; Bonning, Bryony C.

2013-01-01

8

Important Insect Pests of Fruit - Important Insect Pests of Nuts - Field Crop Insect Pests - Insect Pests of Vegetable Crops.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of four agriculture extension service publications from Pennsylvania State University. The titles are: (1) Important Insect Pests of Fruit; (2) Important Insect Pests of Nuts; (3) Field Crop Insect Pests; and (4) Insect Pests of Vegetable Crops. The first publication gives the hosts, injury, and description of 22 insect

Gesell, Stanley G.; And Others

9

Insect conservation and pest management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issue of insect conservation in pest management has many conflicting aspects. For instance, it is desirable to conserve a pest residue in order to maintain natural enemy population and it is imperative to conserve natural enemies. However, conservation of pest species is not relevant if the pest species is an exotic invader and a candidate for eradication, mainly because

Marcos Kogan; John D. Lattin

1993-01-01

10

Insects and Related Pests Attacking Lawns and Ornamental Plants.  

E-print Network

.............................................................................................. 3 Leafhoppers .................................................................................................... 3 Chiggers ........................................................................................................ 4 Chewing Pests... ........................................................................................................ 9 Scale Insects .................................................................................................. 10 Chewing Pests .................................................................................................... Armyworms...

Almand, Lyndon K.; Thomas, John G.

1968-01-01

11

Radar, Insect Population Ecology, and Pest Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discussions included: (1) the potential role of radar in insect ecology studies and pest management; (2) the potential role of radar in correlating atmospheric phenomena with insect movement; (3) the present and future radar systems; (4) program objectives required to adapt radar to insect ecology studies and pest management; and (5) the specific action items to achieve the objectives.

Vaughn, C. R. (editor); Wolf, W. (editor); Klassen, W. (editor)

1979-01-01

12

Insect pest management in forest ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the role of insects in forest ecosystems is vital to the development of environmentally and economically sound pest management strategies in forestry Most of the research on forest insects has been confined to phytophagous species associated with economically important tree species The roles of most other insects in forest environments have generally been ignored, including the natural enemies and

Donald L. Dahlsten; David L. Rowney

1983-01-01

13

Chemical environment manipulation for pest insects control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical environment of pest species may be considered a habitat susceptible to management Management may be by means of manipulation of the environment of the pest for population suppression or for enhancement of natural enemies Examples of each are reviewed here Chemical stimuli influencing the behavior of phytophagous insects include host plant originated stimuli and pheromones The latter, especially

J. A. Greenblatt; W. J. Lewis

1983-01-01

14

Management of insect pests and weeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cuban government has undertaken the task of transforming insect pest and weed management from conventional to organic and more sustainable approaches on a nationwide basis. This paper addresses past programs and current major areas of research and implementation as well as provides examples of programs in insect and weed management. Topics covered include the newly constructed network of Centers

Jeff Dlott; Ivette Perfecto; Peter Rosset; Larry Burkham; Julio Monterrey; John Vandermeer

1993-01-01

15

Chemical environment manipulation for pest insects control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical environment of pest species may be considered a habitat susceptible to management Management may be by means of manipulation of the environment of the pest for population suppression or for enhancement of natural enemies Examples of each are reviewed here Chemical stimuli influencing the behavior of phytophagous insects include host plant originated stimuli and pheromones The latter, especially sex pheromones, have proved most successful as tools for manipulation of pest population dynamics Factors influencing search behavior of natural enemies include habitat characteristics such as crop, associated plants and plant assemblages, host plant characteristics, influence of associated organisms, and characteristics of the searching entomophage Recent studies have shown potential for simultaneous management of a pest species and enhancement of natural enemies using pest pheromones

Greenblatt, J. A.; Lewis, W. J.

1983-01-01

16

Managing Insect Pests of Texas Sunflower.  

E-print Network

............ 11 INSECTICIDE APPLICATION ............... 12 POLICY FOR MAKING INSECT CONTROL SUGGESTIONS ................. 12 PROTECTING THE BEES AND OTHER POLLINATORS FROM INSECTICIDES ...... 13 INSECTICIDES USED ON SUNFLOWER GROUPED ACCORDING... entomologist , The Texas A&M University SyS tem. 3 Until insect resistant or tolerant hybrids are developed. producers will need to rely on insecticides to control these pests. Crop rotation. weed control, volunteer sunflower control and fall tillage...

Patrick, Carl D.

1983-01-01

17

INSECT PHENOLOGY AND INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Success of any pest management program re- quires knowing when to apply a treatment. Due to year to year weather variation, the calendar method is the least precise. Plant phenology is a more precise way to time treatments but it is subject to years when insect and plant development are not well synchronized. Pheromone trapping can be very precise but

Mark E. Ascerno

1991-01-01

18

Insect pest management in forest ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the role of insects in forest ecosystems is vital to the development of environmentally and economically sound pest management strategies in forestry Most of the research on forest insects has been confined to phytophagous species associated with economically important tree species The roles of most other insects in forest environments have generally been ignored, including the natural enemies and associates of phytophagous species identified as being important In the past few years several investigations have begun to reevaluate the role of phytophagous species responsible for perturbation in forest ecosystems, and it appears that these species may be playing an important role in the primary productivity of those ecosystems Also, there is an increasing awareness that forest pest managers have been treating the symptoms and not the causes of the problems in the forest Many insect problems are associated with poor sites or sites where trees are growing poorly because of crowding As a result, there is considerable emphasis on the hazard rating of stands of trees for their susceptibility to various phytophagous insects The next step is to manipulate forest stands to make them less susceptible to forest pest complexes A thinning study in California is used as an example and shows that tree mortality in ponderosa pine ( Pinus ponderosa) attributable to the western pine beetle ( Dendroctonus brevicomis) can be reduced by commercial thinning to reduce stocking

Dahlsten, Donald L.; Rowney, David L.

1983-01-01

19

Selectable antibiotic resistance marker gene-free transgenic rice harbouring the garlic leaf lectin gene exhibits resistance to sap-sucking planthoppers.  

PubMed

Rice, the major food crop of world is severely affected by homopteran sucking pests. We introduced coding sequence of Allium sativum leaf agglutinin, ASAL, in rice cultivar IR64 to develop sustainable resistance against sap-sucking planthoppers as well as eliminated the selectable antibiotic-resistant marker gene hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt) exploiting cre/lox site-specific recombination system. An expression vector was constructed containing the coding sequence of ASAL, a potent controlling agent against green leafhoppers (GLH, Nephotettix virescens) and brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens). The selectable marker (hpt) gene cassette was cloned within two lox sites of the same vector. Alongside, another vector was developed with chimeric cre recombinase gene cassette. Reciprocal crosses were performed between three single-copy T(0) plants with ASAL- lox-hpt-lox T-DNA and three single-copy T(0) plants with cre-bar T-DNA. Marker gene excisions were detected in T(1) hybrids through hygromycin sensitivity assay. Molecular analysis of T(1) plants exhibited 27.4% recombination efficiency. T(2) progenies of L03C04(1) hybrid parent showed 25% cre negative ASAL-expressing plants. Northern blot, western blot and ELISA showed significant level of ASAL expression in five marker-free T(2) progeny plants. In planta bioassay of GLH and BPH performed on these T(2) progenies exhibited radical reduction in survivability and fecundity compared with the untransformed control plants. PMID:20094886

Sengupta, Subhadipa; Chakraborti, Dipankar; Mondal, Hossain A; Das, Sampa

2010-03-01

20

Insect Pests Attacking Truck Crops  

E-print Network

. ~ .................................. DR. A. C. OLIVER. .Douglasville. 1 WM. MALONE ........................................... Hunter. I STATION COUNCIL. 1 R. H. WRITLOCK, President. I i JEFFERSON JOHNSON, J. H. CONNELL, H. H. HARRINGTOX, 39. FRANCIS. , STATION STAFF. 1 I I J... the greatest possible protection against fungus diseases or insect visits. Hot beds in winter, or seed beds for midsummer or autumn, should be well preparec! fully a month ahead of seed so~ving. The soil should be well dug LIP; watered thoroughly...

Mally, Frederick W. (Frederick William)

1902-01-01

21

Controlling Cotton's Insect Pests: A New System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton is more heavily treated with insecticides than any other crop in the United States. In southern Texas, this heavy treatment resulted in insecticide-resistant strains of major pests which almost destroyed the industry in the late 1960's and early 1970's. An integrated insect control program based on new short-season cotton varieties and traditional cultural practices has restored production in the

Perry L. Adkisson; George A. Niles; J. Knox Walker; Luther S. Bird; Helen B. Scott

1982-01-01

22

Insect pests of tea and their management.  

PubMed

Globally, 1031 species of arthropods are associated with the intensively managed tea Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze monoculture. All parts of the plant, leaf, stem, root, flower, and seed, are fed upon by at least one pest species, resulting in an 11%-55% loss in yield if left unchecked. There has been heavy use of organosynthetic pesticides since the 1950s to defend the plant against these pests, leading to rapid conversion of innocuous species into pests, development of resistance, and undesirable pesticide residues in made tea. As a result of importer and consumer concerns, pesticide residues have become a major problem for the tea industry. Integrated pest management (IPM) may help to overcome the overuse of pesticides and subsequent residues. We review the advances made in our understanding of the biology and ecology of major insect and mite pests of tea, host plant resistance, cultural practices, biocontrol measures, and need-based application of botanicals and safer pesticides to understand the present status of IPM and to identify future challenges to improvement. PMID:19067632

Hazarika, Lakshmi K; Bhuyan, Mantu; Hazarika, Budhindra N

2009-01-01

23

Plant Volatiles-based Insect Pest Management in Organic Farming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic agriculture is increasing in popularity worldwide due to the rapidly growing market for organic products. In organic production, insects present a major pest challenge that negatively impacts crop health and yield. To successfully manage an organic farmland, an effective insect pest management program is key. In this review, we first describe the approaches currently used for pest management in

Gitika Shrivastava; Mary Rogers; Annette Wszelaki; Dilip R. Panthee; Feng Chen

2010-01-01

24

Managing Insect and Mite Pests of Texas Corn  

E-print Network

Insect pest control procedures are discussed for each stage of crop development. The characteristics of individual pests, economic thresholds and specific recommendations for chemical control are presented, including insecticide application methods....

Porter, Patrick; Cronholm, Gregory B.; Parker, Roy D.; Troxclair, Noel N.; Patrick, Carl D.; Biles, Stephen; Morrison, William P.

2006-05-24

25

Controlling Cotton's Insect Pests: A New System.  

PubMed

Cotton is more heavily treated with insecticides than any other crop in the United States. In southern Texas, this heavy treatment resulted in insecticide- resistant strains of major pests which almost destroyed the industry in the late 1960's and early 1970's. An integrated insect control program based on new short-season cotton varieties and traditional cultural practices has restored production in the area. The new system has been widely implemented because it produces greater net returns by reducing the use of insecticides, fertilizer, and irrigation. PMID:17809777

Adkisson, P L; Niles, G A; Walker, J K; Bird, L S; Scott, H B

1982-04-01

26

Obligate symbiont involved in pest status of host insect.  

PubMed

The origin of specific insect genotypes that enable efficient use of agricultural plants is an important subject not only in applied fields like pest control and management but also in basic disciplines like evolutionary biology. Conventionally, it has been presupposed that such pest-related ecological traits are attributed to genes encoded in the insect genomes. Here, however, we report that pest status of an insect is principally determined by symbiont genotype rather than by insect genotype. A pest stinkbug species, Megacopta punctatissima, performed well on crop legumes, while a closely related non-pest species, Megacopta cribraria, suffered low egg hatch rate on the plants. When their obligate gut symbiotic bacteria were experimentally exchanged between the species, their performance on the crop legumes was, strikingly, completely reversed: the pest species suffered low egg hatch rate, whereas the non-pest species restored normal egg hatch rate and showed good performance. The low egg hatch rates were attributed to nymphal mortality before or upon hatching, which were associated with the symbiont from the non-pest stinkbug irrespective of the host insect species. Our finding sheds new light on the evolutionary origin of insect pests, potentially leading to novel approaches to pest control and management. PMID:17567556

Hosokawa, Takahiro; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Shimada, Masakazu; Fukatsu, Takema

2007-08-22

27

INSECTS, MITES, AND NEMATODES 2004 PEST&CROP INDEX  

E-print Network

Fields ­ 20 Soybean Cyst Nematode Update ­ 20 Root Knot Nematodes in Soybean ­ How Widespread of Soybean Cyst Nematode - 26 Proper Grain Storage Part II: Insect Pest Management Practices - 26 JapaneseINSECTS, MITES, AND NEMATODES 2004 PEST&CROP INDEX Alfalfa Weevil Alfalfa Weevil Damage Beginning

Ginzel, Matthew

28

Managing Insect and Mite Pests in Vegetable Gardens  

E-print Network

. Recog- nizing how an insect feeds can help a gardener select the proper insecticides; choose stomach poisons for chewing insects or contact poisons for sucking insects. Plan ahead When planning a vegetable garden, consider possible pests and how.... These agencies do not consider effectiveness in the registration process. Labeled insecticides may or may not be effective in killing pests that are mentioned on the product label. The number of products available for use in home vegetable gardens...

Jackman, John A.

2008-02-19

29

The potential of botanical essential oils for insect pest control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today,Insect Pest management (IPM) has to face up to the economic andecological consequences of the use of pest control measures.Fifty years of sustained struggle against harmful insects usingsynthetic and oil-derivative molecules has produced perversesecondary effects (mammalian toxicity, insect resistance andecological hazards). The diversification of the approachesinherent in IPM is necessary for better environmental protection.Among the alternative strategies, the use of

CATHERINE REGNAULT-ROGER

1997-01-01

30

Insect Pest Management in Tropical Asian Irrigated Rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abundant natural enemies in tropical Asian irrigated rice usually pre- vent significant insect pest problems. Integrated pest management (IPM) extension education of depth and quality is required to discourage unnecessary insecticide use that upsets this natural balance, and to empower farmers as expert managers of a healthy paddy ecosystem. Farmers' skill and collaboration will be particularly impor- tant for sustainable

P. C. Matteson

2000-01-01

31

Enhanced Methanol Production in Plants Provides Broad Spectrum Insect Resistance  

PubMed Central

Plants naturally emit methanol as volatile organic compound. Methanol is toxic to insect pests; but the quantity produced by most of the plants is not enough to protect them against invading insect pests. In the present study, we demonstrated that the over-expression of pectin methylesterase, derived from Arabidopsis thaliana and Aspergillus niger, in transgenic tobacco plants enhances methanol production and resistance to polyphagous insect pests. Methanol content in the leaves of transgenic plants was measured using proton nuclear spectroscopy (1H NMR) and spectra showed up to 16 fold higher methanol as compared to control wild type (WT) plants. A maximum of 100 and 85% mortality in chewing insects Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura larvae was observed, respectively when fed on transgenic plants leaves. The surviving larvae showed less feeding, severe growth retardation and could not develop into pupae. In-planta bioassay on transgenic lines showed up to 99 and 75% reduction in the population multiplication of plant sap sucking pests Myzus persicae (aphid) and Bemisia tabaci (whitefly), respectively. Most of the phenotypic characters of transgenic plants were similar to WT plants. Confocal microscopy showed no deformities in cellular integrity, structure and density of stomata and trichomes of transgenic plants compared to WT. Pollen germination and tube formation was also not affected in transgenic plants. Cell wall enzyme transcript levels were comparable with WT. This study demonstrated for the first time that methanol emission can be utilized for imparting broad range insect resistance in plants. PMID:24223989

Dixit, Sameer; Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar; Singh, Harpal; Sidhu, Om Prakash; Verma, Praveen Chandra; K, Chandrashekar

2013-01-01

32

Insect Pests of Tea and Their Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globally, 1031 species of arthropods are associated with the intensively managed tea Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze monoculture. All parts of the plant, leaf, stem, root, flower, and seed, are fed upon by at least one pest species, resulting in an 11%-55% loss in yield if left unchecked. There has been heavy use of organosynthetic pesticides since the 1950s to

Lakshmi K. Hazarika; Mantu Bhuyan; Budhindra N. Hazarika

2009-01-01

33

PEST&CROP INDEX 2007 INSECTS, MITES & NEMATODES  

E-print Network

Top Soil is Dry - 9 Nematodes Nematode Updates 2007: Soybean Cyst Nematode ­ 4 Nematode Updates Corn Cyst Nematode - 22 Other Potato Leafhopper It's Potato Leafhopper in Alfalfa Time ­ 10 LeafhopperPEST&CROP INDEX 2007 INSECTS, MITES & NEMATODES Asian Lady Beetle Asiatic Garden Beetle A New Field

Ginzel, Matthew

34

PEST&CROP INDEX 2008 INSECTS, MITES & NEMATODES  

E-print Network

/Dying Seedlings ­ 8 Nematode Updates 2008: Soybean Cyst Nematode - 18 Potato Leafhopper Potato LeafhoppersPEST&CROP INDEX 2008 INSECTS, MITES & NEMATODES Asiatic Garden Beetle Asiatic Garden Beetle is Back Bean Leaf Beetle Pod Feeding on Late Soybean ­ 23 Black Cutworm Black Cutworm Spring Arrival Met

Ginzel, Matthew

35

Second generation insect pest problems on high yielding rices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional lowland rices of Asia are photoperiod sensitive and ripen at the end of the monsoon rainy season, producing stable but low yields even under environmental extremes. The dry season fallow of these single rice crop systems breaks insect and plant virus disease cycles limiting pest buildup. Modern rices developed in the sixties to feed a growing human population attain

James A. Litsinger

1989-01-01

36

Transgenic avidin maize is resistant to storage insect pests.  

PubMed

Avidin is a glycoprotein found in chicken egg white, that sequesters the vitamin biotin. Here we show that when present in maize at levels of > or =100 p.p.m., avidin is toxic to and prevents development of insects that damage grains during storage. Insect toxicity is caused by a biotin deficiency, as shown by prevention of toxicity with biotin supplementation. The avidin maize is not, however, toxic to mice when administered as the sole component of their diet for 21 days. These dates suggest that avidin expression in food or feed grain crops can be used as a biopesticide against a spectrum of stored-produce insect pests. PMID:10835608

Kramer, K J; Morgan, T D; Throne, J E; Dowell, F E; Bailey, M; Howard, J A

2000-06-01

37

Identification and Control of Common Insect Pests of Ornamental Shrubs and Trees.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University introduces the identification and control of common ornamental insect pests. For each of the insects or insect groups (i.e. aphids) identified in this publication, information on host plants, pest description, and damage caused by the pest is given. Also a calendar…

Gesell, Stanley G.

38

Insects and Related Pests of Trees, Shrubs, and Lawns. MP-25R.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document discusses identification and control of the pests of trees and shrubs. The insects are grouped according to feeding habits and the type of damage caused to plants. Categories include the sucking insects and mites, leaf eating insects, pests attacking trunks and branches, and gall causing insects. (CS)

Spackman, Everett W.; Lawson, Fred A.

39

Urban Warming Drives Insect Pest Abundance on Street Trees  

PubMed Central

Cities profoundly alter biological communities, favoring some species over others, though the mechanisms that govern these changes are largely unknown. Herbivorous arthropod pests are often more abundant in urban than in rural areas, and urban outbreaks have been attributed to reduced control by predators and parasitoids and to increased susceptibility of stressed urban plants. These hypotheses, however, leave many outbreaks unexplained and fail to predict variation in pest abundance within cities. Here we show that the abundance of a common insect pest is positively related to temperature even when controlling for other habitat characteristics. The scale insect Parthenolecanium quercifex was 13 times more abundant on willow oak trees in the hottest parts of Raleigh, NC, in the southeastern United States, than in cooler areas, though parasitism rates were similar. We further separated the effects of heat from those of natural enemies and plant quality in a greenhouse reciprocal transplant experiment. P. quercifex collected from hot urban trees became more abundant in hot greenhouses than in cool greenhouses, whereas the abundance of P. quercifex collected from cooler urban trees remained low in hot and cool greenhouses. Parthenolecanium quercifex living in urban hot spots succeed with warming, and they do so because some demes have either acclimatized or adapted to high temperatures. Our results provide the first evidence that heat can be a key driver of insect pest outbreaks on urban trees. Since urban warming is similar in magnitude to global warming predicted in the next 50 years, pest abundance on city trees may foreshadow widespread outbreaks as natural forests also grow warmer. PMID:23544087

Meineke, Emily K.; Dunn, Robert R.; Sexton, Joseph O.; Frank, Steven D.

2013-01-01

40

Improved dry-fleshed sweetpotato genotypes resistant to insect pests.  

PubMed

Thirty-five mostly dry-fleshed sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. (Convolvulaceae), genotypes from the USDA-ARS/Clemson University sweetpotato breeding program were evaluated in nine field experiments at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory, Charleston, SC, from 1998 to 2004. There were highly significant entry effects for percentage of uninjured roots; wireworm, Diabrotica, and Systena (WDS) index; percentage of roots damaged by sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers); percentage of roots damaged by sweetpotato flea beetle, Chaetocnema confinis Crotch); and percentage of roots damaged by white grub larvae (primarily Plectris aliena Chapin). The susceptible control, 'SC1149-19', had a significantly lower percentage of uninjured roots, a significantly higher WDS rating, and higher percentage infestations of flea beetle, grubs, and sweetpotato weevils than all other sweetpotato entries in this study. Twenty-seven genotypes had significantly less insect damage than 'Beauregard', the leading commercial orange-fleshed cultivar in the United States. In addition, 11 genotypes had significantly less insect injury than 'Picadito', a commercial boniato-type sweetpotato grown extensively in southern Florida. Overall, no genotypes were more resistant to soil insect pests than the resistant checks 'Sumor' and 'Regal'. Many of the advanced dry-flesh sweetpotato genotypes had high levels of resistance to soil insect pests, and they represent a useful source of advanced germplasm for use in sweetpotato breeding programs. PMID:17066825

Jackson, D Michael; Bohac, J R

2006-10-01

41

Inhibition of insect pest ?-amylases by little and finger millet inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inhibitory effect of three proteinaceous inhibitors isolated from little and finger millet was examined on gut ?-amylases for four stored grain and four phytophagous insect-pests. Additionally, using native PAGE, several ?-amylases isozymes were observed in all insect-pests studied. Furthermore, thermostabilities and the pH optimum for insect-pests ?-amylases, which varied from acidic to alkaline, were also determined. On the other

S. Sivakumar; M. Mohan; O. L. Franco; B. Thayumanavan

2006-01-01

42

Inhibition of insect pest -amylases by little and Wnger millet inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inhibitory eVect of three proteinaceous inhibitors isolated from little and Wnger millet was examined on gut -amylases for four stored grain and four phytophagous insect-pests. Additionally, using native PAGE, several -amylases isozymes were observed in all insect-pests studied. Furthermore, thermostabilities and the pH optimum for insect-pests -amylases, which varied from acidic to alka- line, were also determined. On the

S. Sivakumar; M. Mohan; O. L. Franco; B. Thayumanavan

43

Exotic insect pests and pathogens pose the most serious current threat to the forests of eastern North  

E-print Network

Articles Exotic insect pests and pathogens pose the most serious current threat to the forests States,the primary animal pests are insects, but this analysis could also apply to other types of animal to repeated introductions of exotic insect pests and pathogens over the last century, and several new pests

Berkowitz, Alan R.

44

Targeting an antimicrobial effector function in insect immunity as a pest control strategy  

E-print Network

Insect pests such as termites cause damages to crops and man-made structures estimated at over $30 billion per year, imposing a global challenge for the human economy. Here, we report a strategy for compromising insect ...

Raman, Rahul

45

Bats Track and Exploit Changes in Insect Pest Populations  

PubMed Central

The role of bats or any generalist predator in suppressing prey populations depends on the predator's ability to track and exploit available prey. Using a qPCR fecal DNA assay, we document significant association between numbers of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) consuming corn earworm (CEW) moths (Helicoverpa zea) and seasonal fluctuations in CEW populations. This result is consistent with earlier research linking the bats' diet to patterns of migration, abundance, and crop infestation by important insect pests. Here we confirm opportunistic feeding on one of the world's most destructive insects and support model estimates of the bats' ecosystem services. Regression analysis of CEW consumption versus the moth's abundance at four insect trapping sites further indicates that bats track local abundance of CEW within the regional landscape. Estimates of CEW gene copies in the feces of bats are not associated with seasonal or local patterns of CEW abundance, and results of captive feeding experiments indicate that our qPCR assay does not provide a direct measure of numbers or biomass of prey consumed. Our results support growing evidence for the role of generalist predators, and bats specifically, as agents for biological control and speak to the value of conserving indigenous generalist predators. PMID:22952782

McCracken, Gary F.; Westbrook, John K.; Brown, Veronica A.; Eldridge, Melanie; Federico, Paula; Kunz, Thomas H.

2012-01-01

46

Optimal sterile insect release for area-wide integrated pest management in a density regulated pest population.  

PubMed

To determine optimal sterile insect release policies in area-wide integrated pest management is a challenge that users of this pest control method inevitably confront. In this note we provide approximations to best policies of release through the use of simulated annealing. The discrete time model for the population dynamics includes the effects of sterile insect release and density dependence in the pest population. Spatial movement is introduced through integrodifference equations, which allow the use of the stochastic search in cases where movement is described through arbitrary dispersal kernels. As a byproduct of the computations, an assessment of appropriate control zone sizes is possible. PMID:24506557

Gordillo, Luis F

2014-06-01

47

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 SOYBEAN INSECT CONTROL  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2013 233 SOYBEAN INSECT CONTROL Jeremy K. Greene, Research/Extension Entomologist The keys to managing insect pests in soybean are to: Scout fields. Accurately calibrate spray equipment, and properly apply insecticides. SCOUTING Check soybeans regularly from

Stuart, Steven J.

48

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2014 SOYBEAN INSECT CONTROL  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2014 245 SOYBEAN INSECT CONTROL Jeremy K. Greene, Research/Extension Entomologist The keys to managing insect pests in soybean are to: 1. Scout and rate. 5. Accurately calibrate spray equipment, and properly apply insecticides. SCOUTING Check soybeans

Duchowski, Andrew T.

49

Description and Biology of Insects and Related Pests Injurious to Vegetable Crops - For Commercial Growers Only.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed by the Massachusetts Cooperative Extension Service as a guide for the control of the most common insects and related pests of vegetable crops grown commercially in Massachusetts. It contains general information on insects and specific descriptions of the major pests, their life cycles, and the damage they cause. The topics…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

50

Can Vetiver Grass be Used to Manage Insect Pests on Crops?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apart from its well known soil conservation properties, vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty; syn. Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash) is reported to be repellent to many insect species. However, infestation of vetiver by pests of other crops has been recorded and concerns raised about vetiver grass being a refuge for insects pests. This paper addresses the benefits that vetiver may

J. Van den Berg; C. Midega; L. J. Wadhams; Z. R. Khan

51

Introduction Once thought of as the most destructive insect pest on apple, this  

E-print Network

that are applied to control other insects (curculio, apple maggot for example) also provide control of codling moth, principally directed against apple maggot. Tree Fruit Codling Moth Pest Fact Sheet 2 #12;Contact your countyIntroduction Once thought of as the most destructive insect pest on apple, this European native now

New Hampshire, University of

52

Soil fertility management and insect pests: harmonizing soil and plant health in agroecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultural methods such as crop fertilization can affect susceptibility of plants to insect pests by altering plant tissue nutrient levels. Research shows that the ability of a crop plant to resist or tolerate insect pests and diseases is tied to optimal physical, chemical and mainly biological properties of soils. Soils with high organic matter and active soil biology generally exhibit

Miguel A. Altieri; Clara I. Nicholls

2003-01-01

53

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2014 TOBACCO INSECT CONTROL  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2014 279 TOBACCO INSECT CONTROL Francis even in high cash crops such as tobacco. Indiscriminate use of insecticides destroys beneficial insects they can do much damage to tobacco. Beneficial insects are very important. Economic Threshold

Duchowski, Andrew T.

54

Changing farmers' perceptions and practices: the case of insect pest control in central Luzon, Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the decades, rice farmers have become dependent on chemicals to control insect pests. Farmers perceive that all insects are harmful and that insecticide is very effective in controlling them, aside from being very convenient to use. Empirical evidence shows that farmers' perceptions about insects and consequently their control practices can be changed through experiential methods. Experience can be achieved

F. G. Palis

1998-01-01

55

Forest Insect Pest Management and Forest Management in China: An Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the Seventh National Forest Inventory (2004-2008), China's forests cover an area of 195.45 million ha, or 20.36% of the total land area. China has the most rapidly increasing forest resources in the world. However, China is also a country with serious forest pest problems. There are more than 8,000 species of potential forest pests in China, including insects, plant diseases, rodents and lagomorphs, and hazardous plants. Among them, 300 species are considered as economically or ecologically important, and half of these are serious pests, including 86 species of insects. Forest management and utilization have a considerable influence on the stability and sustainability of forest ecosystems. At the national level, forestry policies always play a major role in forest resource management and forest health protection. In this paper, we present a comprehensive overview of both achievements and challenges in forest management and insect pest control in China. First, we summarize the current status of forest resources and their pests in China. Second, we address the theories, policies, practices and major national actions on forestry and forest insect pest management, including the Engineering Pest Management of China, the National Key Forestry Programs, the Classified Forest Management system, and the Collective Forest Tenure Reform. We analyze and discuss three representative plantations— Eucalyptus, poplar and Masson pine plantations—with respect to their insect diversity, pest problems and pest management measures.

Ji, Lanzhu; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Xiaowei; An, Linli

2011-12-01

56

Integrated pest management (IPM) is an ecological approach to pest control that combines several different techniques to maintain pests below damaging levels. Pests may include insects, spiders, mites, diseases, weeds,  

E-print Network

the environment and maintain food quality. Specific techniques of integrated pest management programs vary different techniques to maintain pests below damaging levels. Pests may include insects, spiders, mites to justify action. · Cultural practices Modifications of planting, growing, cultivation and harvesting

New Hampshire, University of

57

Multiscale approach to pest insect monitoring: Random walks, pattern formation, synchronization, and networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pest insects pose a significant threat to food production worldwide resulting in annual losses worth hundreds of billions of dollars. Pest control attempts to prevent pest outbreaks that could otherwise destroy a sward. It is good practice in integrated pest management to recommend control actions (usually pesticides application) only when the pest density exceeds a certain threshold. Accurate estimation of pest population density in ecosystems, especially in agro-ecosystems, is therefore very important, and this is the overall goal of the pest insect monitoring. However, this is a complex and challenging task; providing accurate information about pest abundance is hardly possible without taking into account the complexity of ecosystems' dynamics, in particular, the existence of multiple scales. In the case of pest insects, monitoring has three different spatial scales, each of them having their own scale-specific goal and their own approaches to data collection and interpretation. In this paper, we review recent progress in mathematical models and methods applied at each of these scales and show how it helps to improve the accuracy and robustness of pest population density estimation.

Petrovskii, Sergei; Petrovskaya, Natalia; Bearup, Daniel

2014-09-01

58

Multiscale approach to pest insect monitoring: random walks, pattern formation, synchronization, and networks.  

PubMed

Pest insects pose a significant threat to food production worldwide resulting in annual losses worth hundreds of billions of dollars. Pest control attempts to prevent pest outbreaks that could otherwise destroy a sward. It is good practice in integrated pest management to recommend control actions (usually pesticides application) only when the pest density exceeds a certain threshold. Accurate estimation of pest population density in ecosystems, especially in agro-ecosystems, is therefore very important, and this is the overall goal of the pest insect monitoring. However, this is a complex and challenging task; providing accurate information about pest abundance is hardly possible without taking into account the complexity of ecosystems' dynamics, in particular, the existence of multiple scales. In the case of pest insects, monitoring has three different spatial scales, each of them having their own scale-specific goal and their own approaches to data collection and interpretation. In this paper, we review recent progress in mathematical models and methods applied at each of these scales and show how it helps to improve the accuracy and robustness of pest population density estimation. PMID:24618062

Petrovskii, Sergei; Petrovskaya, Natalia; Bearup, Daniel

2014-09-01

59

Enhancement of Biological Control Agents for Use Against Forest Insect Pests and Diseases Through Biotechnology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research and development efforts in our research group are focused on the generation of more efficacious biological control agents through the techniques of biotechnology for use against forest insect pests and diseases. Effective biological controls for ...

J. M. Slavicek

1991-01-01

60

Managing Insect and Mite Pests of Texas Forage Crops  

E-print Network

This publication describes and illustrates common pests of forage crops in Texas. It discusses treatment options and pesticide application techniques as well as specific insecticides labeled to treat specific pests....

Muegge, Mark A.; Robinson, James V.

2002-10-09

61

Field Guide to Common Insect Pests of Urban Trees in the Northeast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For each insect, the following information is presented: host plant, photographs, damage information, life cycle, and management recommendations. This is an excellent collection of tree pests, and the species accounts are accurate, well-laid out, informative, and well illustrated. However, in the table of contents, white pine aphid and white pine weevil are mis-placed under "sawflies," and the heading for "Honeylocust Insect Pests" and the link for "Honeylocust Plant Bug" are transposed.

0002-11-30

62

Insect pests of sweetpotato in Uganda: farmers' perceptions of their importance and control practices.  

PubMed

Insect pests are among the most important constraints limiting sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) production in Africa. However, there is inadequate information about farmers' knowledge, perceptions and practices in the management of key insect pests. This has hindered development of effective pest management approaches for smallholder farmers. A standard questionnaire was used to interview individual sweetpotato farmers (n?=?192) about their perception and management practices regarding insect pests in six major sweetpotato producing districts of Uganda. The majority (93%) of farmers perceived insect pests to be a very serious problem. With the exception of Masindi and Wakiso districts where the sweetpotato butterfly (Acraea acerata) was the number one constraint, sweetpotato weevils (Cylas puncticollis and C. brunneus) were ranked as the most important insect pests. Insecticide use in sweetpotato fields was very low being highest (28-38% of households) in districts where A. acerata infestation is the biggest problem. On average, 65% and 87% of the farmers took no action to control A. acerata and Cylas spp., respectively. Farmers were more conversant with the presence of and damage by A. acerata than of Cylas spp. as they thought that Cylas spp. root damage was brought about by a prolonged dry season. Different levels of field resistance (ability of a variety to tolerate damage) of sweetpotato landraces to A. acerata (eight landraces) and Cylas spp. (six landraces) were reported by farmers in all the six districts. This perceived level of resistance to insect damage by landraces needs to be investigated. To improve farmers' capabilities for sweetpotato insect pest management, it is crucial to train them in the basic knowledge of insect pest biology and control. PMID:25279278

Okonya, Joshua Sikhu; Mwanga, Robert Om; Syndikus, Katja; Kroschel, Jürgen

2014-01-01

63

Managing Insect and Mite Pests of Texas Small Grains  

E-print Network

, such as crop rotation, fertilization, variety and plant- ing date selection; ? biological control, including the use of pests? natural enemies; and ? chemical control, the judicious use of selected insecticides and rates to keep pest numbers below economically... is the release of natural enemies into areas where they do not occur naturally. This method has been effective where an exotic pest has entered Texas without the natural enemies that help control the pest in its native country. For example, several species...

Patrick, Carl D.; Knutson, Allen E.

2006-07-05

64

Managing Insect Pests of Cacti and Other Succulents in Water-Efficient Landscapes  

E-print Network

Cacti and other succulents are popular landscape plants, especially where water is scarce. But a number of native and exotic pests can make it difficult to grow them. Learn how to identify and manage twelve insect pests that can damage your water...

Drees, Bastiaan M.

2008-11-06

65

Interaction between juniper Juniperus communis L. and its fruit pest insects: Pest abundance, fruit characteristics and seed viability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships between the fruit features of Juniperus communis and the presence of fruit pests were studied in Sierra Nevada, SE Spain. The abundance of two insect species — a pulp-sucking scale and a seed-predator wasp — was surveyed with respect both to fruit characteristics and to viability of seeds contained therein. Seed-predator pressure was not significantly related to any

Daniel García

1998-01-01

66

MANAGEMENT OF INSECT PESTS ON FRESH MARKET TOMATOES Ricky E. Foster, Extension Entomologist  

E-print Network

MANAGEMENT OF INSECT PESTS ON FRESH MARKET TOMATOES Ricky E. Foster, Extension Entomologist Department of Entomology Vegetable Insects E-97-W PURDUE EXTENSION Tomato fruitworm larva (Photo Credit: G. Brust) Corn earworm adult (Photo Credit: W. Cranshaw) Fresh market tomatoes can withstand considerable

Ginzel, Matthew

67

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2014 COTTON INSECT MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

the last several years, almost 99% of the cotton acreage in South Carolina was planted to varietiesSouth Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2014 100 COTTON INSECT MANAGEMENT Jeremy cotton in South Carolina. Hundreds of species of insects may be found in cotton, but only a limited

Duchowski, Andrew T.

68

Automatic monitoring of pest insects traps by Zigbee-based wireless networking of image sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring pest insect population is currently a key issue in crop protection. At farm level it is routinely operated by repeated surveys by a human operator of adhesive traps, disseminated through the field, where insects remain stuck when attracted. This is a labor- and time-consuming activity, and it would be of great advantage for farmers to have an affordable system

P. Tirelli; N. A. Borghese; F. Pedersini; G. Galassi; R. Oberti

2011-01-01

69

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2014 CORN INSECT CONTROL  

E-print Network

are available, each characterized by an `event' (i.e. a successful insertion of the genetic package into a plant to prevent or avoid injury, transgenic Bt corn, at-planting insecticides (including seed treatments in each field where corn is to be planted. Major insect pests of corn in South Carolina. Insect

Duchowski, Andrew T.

70

Phylogeny of economically important insect pests that infesting several crops species in Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reported molecular data on insect pests of commercial crops in Peninsular Malaysia. Fifteen insect pests (Metisa plana, Calliteara horsefeldii, Cotesia vestalis, Bactrocera papayae, Bactrocera carambolae, Bactrocera latifrons, Conopomorpha cramella, Sesamia inferens, Chilo polychrysa, Rhynchophorus vulneratus, and Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) of nine crops were sampled (oil palm, coconut, paddy, cocoa, starfruit, angled loofah, guava, chili and mustard) and also four species that belong to the fern's pest (Herpetogramma platycapna) and storage and rice pests (Tribolium castaneum, Oryzaephilus surinamensis and Cadra cautella). The presented phylogeny summarized the initial phylogenetic hypothesis, which concerning by implementation of the economically important insect pests. In this paper, phylogenetic relationships among 39 individuals of 15 species that belonging to three orders under 12 genera were inferred from DNA sequences of mitochondrial marker, cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and nuclear marker, ribosomal DNA 28S D2 region. The phylogenies resulted from the phylogenetic analyses of both genes are relatively similar, but differ in the sequence of evolution. Interestingly, this most recent molecular data of COI sequences data by using Bayesian Inference analysis resulted a more-resolved phylogeny that corroborated with traditional hypotheses of holometabolan relationships based on traditional hypotheses of holometabolan relationships and most of recently molecular study compared to 28S sequences. This finding provides the information on relationships of pests species, which infested several crops in Malaysia and also estimation on Holometabola's order relationships. The identification of the larval stages of insect pests could be done accurately, without waiting the emergence of adults and supported by the phylogenetic tree.

Ghazali, Siti Zafirah; Zain, Badrul Munir Md.; Yaakop, Salmah

2014-09-01

71

Pest Management Science Pest Manag Sci (2008) Insect growth regulator effects of  

E-print Network

.2 Arthropod pest management in organic agriculture Arthropod pest management in organic farming emphasizes pests in organic agriculture, approved insecticides, such as neem, are periodically utilized to reduce for soybean aphid management in organic soybeans. 2008 Society of Chemical Industry Keywords: organic

Sheridan, Jennifer

72

Field Guide to Predators, Parasites and Pathogens Attacking Insect and Mite Pests of Cotton: Recognizing the Good Bugs in Cotton  

E-print Network

The role of natural enemies in cotton pest management has often been obscured by the widespread use of broad-spectrum insecticides. However, cotton can support a large complex of insects, spiders and mites that feed on cotton pests. Changes...

Knutson, Allen E.; Ruberson, John

2005-07-08

73

FIELD ABUNDANCES OF INSECT PREDATORS AND INSECT PESTS ON ? ? ? ? ?-ENDOTOXIN-PRODUCING TRANSGENIC COTTON IN NORTHERN CHINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

China is one of the largest producers of cotton in the world. Insect pests such as cotton bollworm, cotton aphid, and mirids are the major factors that contribute to a decrease in cotton production. Transgenic cotton that expresses a gene derived from the bacterium Bacil- lus thuringiensis (Bt) has been deployed for combating cotton bollworm since 1997 in China, and

Kongming WU; Kejian LIN; Jin MIAO; Yongjun ZHANG

74

Transgenic plants for insect pest control: a forward looking scientific perspective.  

PubMed

One of the first successes of plant biotechnology has been the creation and commercialisation of transgenic crops exhibiting resistance to major insect pests. First generation products encompassed plants with single insecticidal Bt genes with resistance against major pests of corn and cotton. Modelling studies predicted that usefulness of these resistant plants would be short-lived, as a result of the ability of insects to develop resistance against single insecticidal gene products. However, despite such dire predictions no such collapse has taken place and the acreage of transgenic insect resistance crops has been increasing at a steady rate over the 9 years since the deployment of the first transgenic insect resistant plant. However, in order to assure durability and sustainability of resistance, novel strategies have been contemplated and are being developed. This perspective addresses a number of potentially useful strategies to assure the longevity of second and third generation insect resistant plants. PMID:16475006

Ferry, N; Edwards, M G; Gatehouse, J; Capell, T; Christou, P; Gatehouse, A M R

2006-02-01

75

Molecular insights into resistance mechanisms of lepidopteran insect pests against toxicants.  

PubMed

Insect pests remain a major reason for crop loss worldwide despite extensive use of chemical insecticides. More than 50% of all insecticides are organophosphates, followed by synthetic pyrethroids, organochlorines, carbamates, and biopesticides, and their continued use may have many environmental, agricultural, medical, and socioeconomic issues. Importantly, only a countable number of insects have acquired the status of crop pests, mostly due to monoculture of crop plants and polyphagous nature of the insects. We focus on adaptations of Lepidopteran insects to phytochemicals and synthetic pesticides in native and modern agricultural systems. Because of heavy use of chemical insecticides, a strong selection pressure is imposed on insect populations, resulting in the emergence of resistance against candidate compound(s). Current knowledge suggests that insects generally implement a three-tier system to overcome the effect of toxic compounds at physiological, biochemical, and genetic levels. Furthermore, we have discussed whether the adaptation to phytochemicals provides an advantage to the insect while encountering synthetic insecticide molecules. Specific metabolic pathways employed by insects to convert deterrents into less toxic forms or their removal from the system are highlighted. Using the proteomics approach, insect proteins interacting with insecticides can be identified, and their modification in resistant insects can be characterized. Also, systems biology studies can offer useful cues to decipher the molecular networks participating in the metabolism of detrimental compounds. PMID:24090158

Dawkar, Vishal V; Chikate, Yojana R; Lomate, Purushottam R; Dholakia, Bhushan B; Gupta, Vidya S; Giri, Ashok P

2013-11-01

76

Managing Insect and Mite Pests of Texas Sorghum.  

E-print Network

-Southwestern Corn Borer ......................... .. ....... 14 HYBRID SEED PRODUCTION FIELDS ........................................ 14 PROTECTING BEES AND OTHER POLLINATORS FROM INSECTiCiDES ...... 14 POUNDS OF ACTUAL INSECTICIDE IN DIFFERENT QUANTITIES... be aware of the probable occurrence of various pests (Figure 3, page 16) , be able to correctly identify pests and be aware of the various methods that aid in their suppression . Proper choice and careful use of insecticides are important...

Turney, H.A.; Hoelscher, Clifford E.; Teetes, George L.

1987-01-01

77

Myco-Biocontrol of Insect Pests: Factors Involved, Mechanism, and Regulation  

PubMed Central

The growing demand for reducing chemical inputs in agriculture and increased resistance to insecticides have provided great impetus to the development of alternative forms of insect-pest control. Myco-biocontrol offers an attractive alternative to the use of chemical pesticides. Myco-biocontrol agents are naturally occurring organisms which are perceived as less damaging to the environment. Their mode of action appears little complex which makes it highly unlikely that resistance could be developed to a biopesticide. Past research has shown some promise of the use of fungi as a selective pesticide. The current paper updates us about the recent progress in the field of myco-biocontrol of insect pests and their possible mechanism of action to further enhance our understanding about the biological control of insect pests. PMID:22567344

Sandhu, Sardul Singh; Sharma, Anil K.; Beniwal, Vikas; Goel, Gunjan; Batra, Priya; Kumar, Anil; Jaglan, Sundeep; Sharma, A. K.; Malhotra, Sonal

2012-01-01

78

Feasibility, limitation and possible solutions of RNAi-based technology for insect pest control.  

PubMed

Numerous studies indicate that target gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) could lead to insect death. This phenomenon has been considered as a potential strategy for insect pest control, and it is termed RNAi-mediated crop protection. However, there are many limitations using RNAi-based technology for pest control, with the effectiveness target gene selection and reliable double-strand RNA (dsRNA) delivery being two of the major challenges. With respect to target gene selection, at present, the use of homologous genes and genome-scale high-throughput screening are the main strategies adopted by researchers. Once the target gene is identified, dsRNA can be delivered by micro-injection or by feeding as a dietary component. However, micro-injection, which is the most common method, can only be used in laboratory experiments. Expression of dsRNAs directed against insect genes in transgenic plants and spraying dsRNA reagents have been shown to induce RNAi effects on target insects. Hence, RNAi-mediated crop protection has been considered as a potential new-generation technology for pest control, or as a complementary method of existing pest control strategies; however, further development to improve the efficacy of protection and range of species affected is necessary. In this review, we have summarized current research on RNAi-based technology for pest insect management. Current progress has proven that RNAi technology has the potential to be a tool for designing a new generation of insect control measures. To accelerate its practical application in crop protection, further study on dsRNA uptake mechanisms based on the knowledge of insect physiology and biochemistry is needed. PMID:23955822

Zhang, Hao; Li, Hai-Chao; Miao, Xue-Xia

2013-02-01

79

Development of Reference Transcriptomes for the Major Field Insect Pests of Cowpea: A Toolbox for Insect Pest Management Approaches in West Africa  

PubMed Central

Cowpea is a widely cultivated and major nutritional source of protein for many people that live in West Africa. Annual yields and longevity of grain storage is greatly reduced by feeding damage caused by a complex of insect pests that include the pod sucking bugs, Anoplocnemis curvipes Fabricius (Hemiptera: Coreidae) and Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stål (Hemiptera: Coreidae); as well as phloem-feeding cowpea aphids, Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and flower thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Efforts to control these pests remain a challenge and there is a need to understand the structure and movement of these pest populations in order to facilitate the development of integrated pest management strategies (IPM). Molecular tools have the potential to help facilitate a better understanding of pest populations. Towards this goal, we used 454 pyrosequencing technology to generate 319,126, 176,262, 320,722 and 227,882 raw reads from A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti, respectively. The reads were de novo assembled into 11,687, 7,647, 10,652 and 7,348 transcripts for A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti, respectively. Functional annotation of the resulting transcripts identified genes putatively involved in insecticide resistance, pathogen defense and immunity. Additionally, sequences that matched the primary aphid endosymbiont, Buchnera aphidicola, were identified among A. craccivora transcripts. Furthermore, 742, 97, 607 and 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were respectively predicted among A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti transcripts, and will likely be valuable tools for future molecular genetic marker development. These results demonstrate that Roche 454-based transcriptome sequencing could be useful for the development of genomic resources for cowpea pest insects in West Africa. PMID:24278221

Agunbiade, Tolulope A.; Sun, Weilin; Coates, Brad S.; Djouaka, Rousseau; Tamo, Manuele; Ba, Malick N.; Binso-Dabire, Clementine; Baoua, Ibrahim; Olds, Brett P.; Pittendrigh, Barry R.

2013-01-01

80

Development of reference transcriptomes for the major field insect pests of cowpea: a toolbox for insect pest management approaches in west Africa.  

PubMed

Cowpea is a widely cultivated and major nutritional source of protein for many people that live in West Africa. Annual yields and longevity of grain storage is greatly reduced by feeding damage caused by a complex of insect pests that include the pod sucking bugs, Anoplocnemis curvipes Fabricius (Hemiptera: Coreidae) and Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stål (Hemiptera: Coreidae); as well as phloem-feeding cowpea aphids, Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and flower thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Efforts to control these pests remain a challenge and there is a need to understand the structure and movement of these pest populations in order to facilitate the development of integrated pest management strategies (IPM). Molecular tools have the potential to help facilitate a better understanding of pest populations. Towards this goal, we used 454 pyrosequencing technology to generate 319,126, 176,262, 320,722 and 227,882 raw reads from A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti, respectively. The reads were de novo assembled into 11,687, 7,647, 10,652 and 7,348 transcripts for A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti, respectively. Functional annotation of the resulting transcripts identified genes putatively involved in insecticide resistance, pathogen defense and immunity. Additionally, sequences that matched the primary aphid endosymbiont, Buchnera aphidicola, were identified among A. craccivora transcripts. Furthermore, 742, 97, 607 and 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were respectively predicted among A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti transcripts, and will likely be valuable tools for future molecular genetic marker development. These results demonstrate that Roche 454-based transcriptome sequencing could be useful for the development of genomic resources for cowpea pest insects in West Africa. PMID:24278221

Agunbiade, Tolulope A; Sun, Weilin; Coates, Brad S; Djouaka, Rousseau; Tamò, Manuele; Ba, Malick N; Binso-Dabire, Clementine; Baoua, Ibrahim; Olds, Brett P; Pittendrigh, Barry R

2013-01-01

81

Insect and Mite Pests of Grain Sorghum -- Management Approaches.  

E-print Network

.............................. 21 FIGURES Sorghum Pest Occurrence Profile ................. .. .. . 12 Sorghum Flowering Dates .............. .. ............ 14 INSECTICIDE APPLICATION METHODS .............. 22 PRECAUTIONS ...................................... 22 PROTECTING... BEES AND OTHER POLLINATORS FROM INSECTICIDES ............. 22 POLICY STATEMENT FOR MAKING CHEMICAL CONTROL SUGGESTIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 24 This publication was prepared by entomologists of the Texas Ag ricultural...

Anonymous,

1979-01-01

82

Brazilian free-tailed bats as insect pest regulators in transgenic and conventional cotton crops.  

PubMed

During the past 12000 years agricultural systems have transitioned from natural habitats to conventional agricultural regions and recently to large areas of genetically engineered (GE) croplands. This GE revolution occurred for cotton in a span of slightly more than a decade during which a switch occurred in major cotton production areas from growing 100% conventional cotton to an environment in which 95% transgenics are grown. Ecological interactions between GE targeted insects and other insectivorous insects have been investigated. However, the relationships between ecological functions (such as herbivory and ecosystem transport) and agronomic benefits of avian or mammalian insectivores in the transgenic environment generally remain unclear, although the importance of some agricultural pest management services provided by insectivorous species such as the Brazilian free-tailed bat, Tadarida brasiliensis, have been recognized. We developed a dynamic model to predict regional-scale ecological functions in agricultural food webs by using the indicators of insect pest herbivory measured by cotton boll damage and insect emigration from cotton. In the south-central Texas Winter Garden agricultural region we find that the process of insectivory by bats has a considerable impact on both the ecology and valuation of harvest in Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic and nontransgenic cotton crops. Predation on agricultural pests by insectivorous bats may enhance the economic value of agricultural systems by reducing the frequency of required spraying and delaying the ultimate need for new pesticides. In the Winter Garden region, the presence of large numbers of insectivorous bats yields a regional summer dispersion of adult pest insects from Bt cotton that is considerably reduced from the moth emigration when bats are absent in either transgenic or non-transgenic crops. This regional decrease of pest numbers impacts insect herbivory on a transcontinental scale. With a few exceptions, we find that the agronomics of both Bt and conventional cotton production is more profitable when large numbers of insectivorous bats are present. PMID:18536245

Federico, Paula; Hallam, Thomas G; McCracken, Gary F; Purucker, S Thomas; Grant, William E; Correa-Sandoval, A Nelly; Westbrook, John K; Medellin, Rodrigo A; Cleveland, Cutler J; Sansone, Chris G; López, Juan D; Betke, Margrit; Moreno-Valdez, Arnulfo; Kunz, Thomas H

2008-06-01

83

Insect ryanodine receptors: molecular targets for novel pest control chemicals.  

PubMed

Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are a distinct class of ligand-gated calcium channels controlling the release of calcium from intracellular stores. They are located on the sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle and the endoplasmic reticulum of neurons and many other cell types. Ryanodine, a plant alkaloid and an important ligand used to characterize and purify the receptor, has served as a natural botanical insecticide, but attempts to generate synthetic commercial analogues of ryanodine have proved unsuccessful. Recently two classes of synthetic chemicals have emerged resulting in commercial insecticides that target insect RyRs. The phthalic acid diamide class has yielded flubendiamide, the first synthetic ryanodine receptor insecticide to be commercialized. Shortly after the discovery of the phthalic diamides, the anthranilic diamides were discovered. This class has produced the insecticides Rynaxypyr and Cyazypyr. Here we review the structure and functions of insect RyRs and address the modes of action of phthalic acid diamides and anthranilic diamides on insect ryanodine receptors. Particularly intersting is the inherent selectivity both chemical classes exhibit for insect RyRs over their mammalian counterparts. The future prospects for RyRs as a commercially-validated target site for insect control chemicals are also considered. PMID:18696132

Sattelle, David B; Cordova, Daniel; Cheek, Timothy R

2008-09-01

84

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 COTTON INSECT MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

treatments should only be applied when numbers of insect pests reach levels that correspond to the economic the Recommendations Committee adopted thresholds calling for insecticide treatments when egg and small worm numbers in lower concentrations in blooms, pollen, and dried bloom tags, creating a window of opportunity for small

Stuart, Steven J.

85

Tracking the global dispersal of a cosmopolitan insect pest, the peach potato aphid  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Global commerce and human transportation are responsible for the range expansion of various insect pests such as the plant sucking aphids. High resolution DNA markers provide the opportunity to examine the genetic structure of aphid populations, identify aphid genotypes and infer their evolutionary history and routes of expansion which is of value in developing management strategies. One of the

John T Margaritopoulos; Louise Kasprowicz; Gaynor L Malloch; Brian Fenton

2009-01-01

86

Effect of Volatile Constituents from Securidaca Longepedunculata on Insect pests Of Stored Grain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Securidacalongepedunculata Fers (Polygalaceae) is commonly used as a traditional medicine in many parts of Africa as well as against a number of invertebrate pests, including insects infesting stored grain. The present study showed that S. longepedunculata root powder, its methanol extract, and the main volatile component, methyl salicylate, exhibit repellent and toxic properties to Sitophiluszeamais adults. Adult S. zeamais that

Thamara K. Jayasekara; Philip C. Stevenson; David R. Hall; Steven R. Belmain

2005-01-01

87

Interaction between juniper Juniperus communis L. and its fruit pest insects: Pest abundance, fruit characteristics and seed viability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationships between the fruit features of Juniperus communis and the presence of fruit pests were studied in Sierra Nevada, SE Spain. The abundance of two insect species — a pulp-sucking scale and a seed-predator wasp — was surveyed with respect both to fruit characteristics and to viability of seeds contained therein. Seed-predator pressure was not significantly related to any fruit characteristics; however, pulp suckers tended to be more abundant in plants with low pulp: seed ratios and high fruit-water content. In addition, fruits with high levels of pulp-sucker attack tended to have higher water content. A multi-factor ANOVA, considering the identity of the plant and the attack of the different pests as factors, showed that plant identity accounts for most of the variation in fruit characteristics. The viability of seeds tended to be lower in plants strongly attacked by both pests. Fruits attacked by seed predators showed significantly lower proportions of viable and unviable seeds than did unattacked fruits. Seed viability was also lower in those fruits heavily attacked by pulp suckers, but this pattern is strongly mediated by plant identity. Pest activity proved to be clearly associated with a direct decrease in juniper reproductive capacity. This loss involved a reduction of the viable-seed number, mainly related to the seed predator, as well as a reduction of fruit attractiveness to frugivorous dispersers, related to the pulp sucker.

García, Daniel

1998-12-01

88

Transcriptome Analysis in Cotton Boll Weevil (Anthonomus grandis) and RNA Interference in Insect Pests  

PubMed Central

Cotton plants are subjected to the attack of several insect pests. In Brazil, the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, is the most important cotton pest. The use of insecticidal proteins and gene silencing by interference RNA (RNAi) as techniques for insect control are promising strategies, which has been applied in the last few years. For this insect, there are not much available molecular information on databases. Using 454-pyrosequencing methodology, the transcriptome of all developmental stages of the insect pest, A. grandis, was analyzed. The A. grandis transcriptome analysis resulted in more than 500.000 reads and a data set of high quality 20,841 contigs. After sequence assembly and annotation, around 10,600 contigs had at least one BLAST hit against NCBI non-redundant protein database and 65.7% was similar to Tribolium castaneum sequences. A comparison of A. grandis, Drosophila melanogaster and Bombyx mori protein families’ data showed higher similarity to dipteran than to lepidopteran sequences. Several contigs of genes encoding proteins involved in RNAi mechanism were found. PAZ Domains sequences extracted from the transcriptome showed high similarity and conservation for the most important functional and structural motifs when compared to PAZ Domains from 5 species. Two SID-like contigs were phylogenetically analyzed and grouped with T. castaneum SID-like proteins. No RdRP gene was found. A contig matching chitin synthase 1 was mined from the transcriptome. dsRNA microinjection of a chitin synthase gene to A. grandis female adults resulted in normal oviposition of unviable eggs and malformed alive larvae that were unable to develop in artificial diet. This is the first study that characterizes the transcriptome of the coleopteran, A. grandis. A new and representative transcriptome database for this insect pest is now available. All data support the state of the art of RNAi mechanism in insects. PMID:24386449

Coelho, Roberta Ramos; Antonino de Souza Jr, Jose Dijair; Togawa, Roberto Coiti; Silva-Junior, Orzenil Bonfim; Pappas-Jr, Georgios Joannis; da Silva, Maria Cristina Mattar; Engler, Gilbert; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

2013-01-01

89

The triple alliance: how a plant-ant, living in an ant-plant, acquires the third partner, a scale insect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Mutualistic associations between ants and plants often involve a third partner, scale insects (Hemiptera, Coccoidea). In southeast Asia, plant-ants of the genus Cladomyrma live together with coccoids in hollowed twigs of a wide range of ant-plants (myrmecophytes). Established colonies never lack sap-sucking scale insects and the ants appear to be dependent on the honeydew excretions of their trophobionts. Acquisition

J. Moog; L. G. Saw; R. Hashim; U. Maschwitz

2005-01-01

90

Intercropping for management of insect pests of castor, Ricinus communis, in the semi-arid tropics of India.  

PubMed

Intercropping is one of the important cultural practices in pest management and is based on the principle of reducing insect pests by increasing the diversity of an ecosystem. On-farm experiments were conducted in villages of semi-arid tropical (SAT) India to identify the appropriate combination of castor (Ricinus communis L.) (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae) and intercropping in relation to pest incidence. The diversity created by introducing cluster bean, cowpea, black gram, or groundnut as intercrops in castor (1:2 ratio proportions) resulted in reduction of incidence of insect pests, namely semilooper (Achaea janata L.), leaf hopper (Empoasca flavescens Fabricius), and shoot and capsule borer (Conogethes punctiferalis Guenee). A buildup of natural enemies (Microplitis, coccinellids, and spiders) of the major pests of castor was also observed in these intercropping systems and resulted in the reduction of insect pests. Further, these systems were more efficient agronomically and economically, and were thus more profitable than a castor monocrop. PMID:22934569

Rao, M Srinivasa; Rama Rao, C A; Srinivas, K; Pratibha, G; Vidya Sekhar, S M; Sree Vani, G; Venkateswarlu, B

2012-01-01

91

Intercropping for Management of Insect Pests of Castor, Ricinus communis, in the Semi--Arid Tropics of India  

PubMed Central

Intercropping is one of the important cultural practices in pest management and is based on the principle of reducing insect pests by increasing the diversity of an ecosystem. On—farm experiments were conducted in villages of semi—arid tropical (SAT) India to identify the appropriate combination of castor (Ricinus communis L.) (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae) and intercropping in relation to pest incidence. The diversity created by introducing cluster bean, cowpea, black gram, or groundnut as intercrops in castor (1:2 ratio proportions) resulted in reduction of incidence of insect pests, namely semilooper (Achaea janata L.), leaf hopper (Empoasca flavescens Fabricius), and shoot and capsule borer (Conogethes punctiferalis Guenee). A buildup of natural enemies (Microplitis, coccinellids, and spiders) of the major pests of castor was also observed in these intercropping systems and resulted in the reduction of insect pests. Further, these systems were more efficient agronomically and economically, and were thus more profitable than a castor monocrop. PMID:22934569

Srinivasa Rao, M.; Venkateswarlu, B.

2012-01-01

92

Managing Insect and Mite Pests of Commercial Pecans in Texas  

E-print Network

closely related to aphids. These insects cause conspicuous swellings, called galls, to form on leaves, twigs and nuts. The two most important species attacking pecans are pecan leaf phylloxera and pecan phylloxera. Pecan leaf phylloxera form galls... production. Biology: Phylloxera survive the winter as eggs in bark crevices. In spring, tiny nymphs emerge during budbreak and feed on new growth. Nymphs secrete a substance while feeding that stimulates plant tissue to develop abnormally, creating galls...

Knutson, Allen E.; Ree, Bill

2004-09-21

93

Combining pest control and resistance management: synergy of engineered insects with Bt crops.  

PubMed

Transgenic crops producing insecticidal toxins are widely used to control insect pests. Their benefits would be lost if resistance to the toxins became widespread in pest populations. The most widely used resistance management method is the high-dose/refuge strategy. This requires toxin-free host plants as refuges near insecticidal crops, and toxin doses intended to be sufficiently high to kill insects heterozygous for a resistant allele, thereby rendering resistance functionally recessive. We have previously shown by mathematical modeling that mass-release of harmless susceptible (toxin-sensitive) insects engineered with repressible female-specific lethality using release of insects carrying a dominant lethal ([RIDL] Oxitec Limited, United Kingdom) technology could substantially delay or reverse the spread of resistance and reduce refuge sizes. Here, we explore this proposal in depth, studying a wide range of scenarios, considering impacts on population dynamics as well as evolution of allele frequencies, comparing with releases of natural fertile susceptible insects, and examining the effect of seasonality. We investigate the outcome for pest control for which the plant-incorporated toxins are not necessarily at a high dose (i.e., they might not kill all homozygous susceptible and all heterozygous insects). We demonstrate that a RIDL-based approach could form an effective component of a resistance management strategy in a wide range of genetic and ecological circumstances. Because there are significant threshold effects for several variables, we expect that a margin of error would be advisable in setting release ratios and refuge sizes, especially as the frequency and properties of resistant alleles may be difficult to measure accurately in the field. PMID:19449654

Alphey, Nina; Bonsall, Michael B; Alphey, Luke

2009-04-01

94

Incidence and Severity of Rice Diseases and Insect Pests in Relation to Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Climatic factors especially temperature and relative humidity are the key factors influencing development of any insect pest\\u000a and disease of rice. CO2 is the key factor for global climate change, resulting increase in temperature. The intergovernmental panel on climate change\\u000a predicted that with the current emission scenario, global mean temperature would rise between 0.9°C and 3.5°C by the year\\u000a 2100.

Mainul Haq; M. A. Taher Mia; M. F. Rabbi; M. A. Ali

95

Insect pest management of winter planted cotton in coastal rice?fallows of West Bengal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts to grow some Indian strains of G. hirsutum cotton in the dry winter season, with the residual soil moisture of rice?fallows in tropical coastal West Bengal, including the sundarbans (India), were initiated in 1969–70. Earias vitella (Stoll) was the ‘key’ insect pest from the presquaring to the boll maturing stage, while Heliothis armigera (Hubner) was an occasional mid?and late?season

A. K. Dutt; J. L. Saha

1990-01-01

96

Releases of biological control agents of insect pests on Easter Island (Pacific Ocean)  

Microsoft Academic Search

For half a century, agriculture on Easter Island has been affected by an increasing number of accidentally introduced insect\\u000a pests. Due to the absence of natural enemies and other factors, these have reached high density levels which claimed for intensive\\u000a use of pesticides. A project supported by the National Funds for Regional Development (FNDR) was established in 1984 to develop

S. R. Ripa; P. S. Rojas; G. Velasco

1995-01-01

97

AH EATING BLOCK SYSTEM FOR STUDYING THERMAL DEATH KINETICS OF INSECT PESTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel heating block system to provide rates of temperature increase between 0.2 and 28°C\\/min was developed for investigating thermal death kinetics of insect pests. The finite element method was used to analyze heat transfer through the block system and during the heating of fifth-instar codling moths ( Cydia pomonella L.). Measured heating rates of the block agreed with finite

J. N. Ikediala; J. Tang; T. Wig

98

Insecticide resistance in five major insect pests of cotton in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insecticide resistance to representatives of commonly used insecticide groups (pyrethroids—cypermethrin; organophosphates—chlorpyriphos; cyclodienes—endosulfan) was determined in five major insect pests of cotton from the main cotton growing regions of India with emphasis on Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra. The cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) exhibited widespread resistance to cypermethrin with 23–8022-fold resistance being recorded in field strains. Resistance to endosulfan and chlorpyriphos

K. R. Kranthi; D. R. Jadhav; S. Kranthi; R. R. Wanjari; S. S. Ali; D. A. Russell

2002-01-01

99

Insect Pests of Shade Trees and Shrubs: A Guide for Commercial Nurserymen and Arborists. Publication E-41.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide presents information on controlling insect pests of ornamental trees and shrubs. It is organized for easy reference by nurserymen, arborists, and others desirous of controlling insect damage. General information given includes notes on spraying and sprayers, insecticides, general purpose sprays, phytotoxicity, and health precautions.…

Schuder, Donald L.

100

Ancient pests: the season of the Santorini Minoan volcanic eruption and a date from insect chitin.  

PubMed

Attributing a season and a date to the volcanic eruption of Santorini in the Aegean has become possible by using preserved remains of the bean weevil, Bruchus rufipes, pests of pulses, from the storage jars of the West House, in the Bronze Age settlement at Akrotiri. We have applied an improved pre-treatment methodology for dating the charred insects, and this provides a date of 1744-1538 BC. This date is within the range of others obtained from pulses from the same context and confirms the utility of chitin as a dating material. Based on the nature of the insect material and the life cycle of the species involved, we argue for a summer eruption, which took place after harvest, shortly after this material was transported into the West House storeroom. PMID:23793358

Panagiotakopulu, Eva; Higham, Thomas; Sarpaki, Anaya; Buckland, Paul; Doumas, Christos

2013-07-01

101

Efficacy of Piper (Piperaceae) extracts for control of common home and garden insect pests.  

PubMed

Extracts from three species of the plant family Piperaceae, Piper nigrum [L.], Piper guineense [Schum & Thonn, and Piper tuberculatum [Jacq.], were tested for efficacy against insects from five orders. All three species contain isobutyl amides, plant secondary compounds that act as neurotoxins in insects. These materials are considered safe to mammals because Piper spp. were used for centuries for spice and medicinal purposes. When 24-h P. nigrum LC50 values were compared between common insect pests from eastern Canada and the northeastern United States, the most sensitive species in order of increasing lethal concentration were eastern tent caterpillar, Malacosoma americanum (F.) < European pine sawfly larvae, Neodiprion sertifer (Geoffroy) < spindle ermine moth larvae, Yponomeuta cagnagella [Hübner] < viburnum leaf beetle larvae, Pyrrhalta viburni [Paykull] < stripped cucumber beetle adults, Acalymma vittatum (F.) < Colorado potato beetle adults, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) < Japanese beetle adults, Popillia japonica [Newman] < hairy chinch bug, Blissus leucopterus hirtis [Montandon]. The life stage tested was the point at which each species causes the greatest amount of damage to the host plant and the point at which most gardeners would likely choose to treat with a conventional synthetic insecticide. Greenhouse trials revealed that the pepper formulations also had a repellent activity, thus protecting plant leaves from 1) herbivory (lily leaf beetle, Lilioceris lilii [Scopoli], adults and larvae and stripped cucumber beetle adults) and 2) oviposition [European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner)]. Combinations with other botanical extracts were additive at best in toxicity and repellent trials. Nontarget toxicity to beneficial invertebrates is a possibility because the P. nigrum LC50 for beneficial ladybird beetles was 0.2%. P. nigrum extracts can provide a reasonable level of control against lepidopteran and European pine sawfly larvae and also will work as a short-term repellent and feeding deterrent. It is recommended that the use of Piper extracts be restricted to small-scale spot treatments in residential areas where insect pest outbreaks have occurred. PMID:15384353

Scott, I M; Jensen, H; Nicol, R; Lesage, L; Bradbury, R; Sánchez-Vindas, P; Poveda, L; Arnason, J T; Philogène, B J R

2004-08-01

102

Effects of plant genotype and insect dispersal rate on the population dynamics of a forest pest.  

PubMed

It has been shown that plant genotype can strongly affect not only individual herbivore performance, but also community composition and ecosystem function. Few studies, however, have addressed how plant genotype affects herbivore population dynamics. In this paper, we used a simulation modeling approach to ask how the genetic composition of a forest influences pest outbreak dynamics, using the example of aspen (Populus tremuloides) and forest tent caterpillars (FTC; Malacosoma disstria). Specifically, we examined how plant genotype, the relative size of genotypic patches, and the rate of insect dispersal between them, affect the frequency, amplitude, and duration of outbreaks. We found that coupling two different genotypes does not necessarily result in an averaging of insect dynamics. Instead, depending on the ratio of patch sizes, when dispersal rates are moderate, outbreaks in the two-genotype case may be more or less severe than in forests of either genotype alone. Thresholds for different dynamic behaviors were similar for all genotypic combinations. Thus, the qualitative behavior of a stand of two different genotypes can be predicted based on the response of the insect to each genotype, the relative sizes of the two patches, and the scale of insect dispersal. PMID:24597225

Moran, Emily V; Bewick, Sharon; Cobbold, Christina A

2013-12-01

103

Riding the Trojan horse: combating pest insects with their own symbionts.  

PubMed

Insects form an extremely large group of animals and bear a consequently large variety of associated microbes. This microbiota includes very specific and obligate symbionts that provide essential functions to the host, and facultative partners that are not necessarily required for survival. The Tephritidae is a large family that includes many fruit pests such as the Mediterranean fruit fly (the medfly, Ceratitis capitata) and the Olive fly (Bactrocera oleae). Community and functional analyses showed that the microbiota of both flies contribute to their diet, and affect host fitness parameters. The analysis of the microbiota's community structure of mass-reared, sterilized medfly males used in the sterile insect technique revealed a strong reduction in Klebsiella spp. compared with non-sterile and wild flies. Inoculation of sterile males with this gut population affected female mating behaviour as they preferentially mated with inoculated versus non-inoculated males. These studies suggest that control can be significantly improved by manipulating symbionts in pest animals. PMID:21338477

Jurkevitch, Edouard

2011-09-01

104

The I-SPy Insect Indicator: an effective trap for the detection of insect pests in empty stores and on flat surfaces in the cereal and food trades  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new trap, the CSL I-SPy Insect Indicator®, has been assessed for monitoring adults of the principal crawling beetle pests of stored products in empty premises and on flat surfaces in grain stores and flour mills in the UK.The new trap was compared with the Igrox Insect Monitoring Peanut-free Bait Bag, the Storgard® Flit-Trak M2 trap and the Pantry Patrol™

L. E Collins; J Chambers

2003-01-01

105

Numerical and Functional Responses of Forest Bats to a Major Insect Pest in Pine Plantations  

PubMed Central

Global change is expected to modify the frequency and magnitude of defoliating insect outbreaks in forest ecosystems. Bats are increasingly acknowledged as effective biocontrol agents for pest insect populations. However, a better understanding is required of whether and how bat communities contribute to the resilience of forests to man- and climate-driven biotic disturbances. We studied the responses of forest insectivorous bats to a major pine defoliator, the pine processionary moth pityocampa, which is currently expanding its range in response to global warming. We used pheromone traps and ultrasound bat recorders to estimate the abundance and activity of moths and predatory bats along the edge of infested pine stands. We used synthetic pheromone to evaluate the effects of experimentally increased moth availability on bat foraging activity. We also evaluated the top-down regulation of moth population by estimating T. pityocampa larval colonies abundance on the same edges the following winter. We observed a close spatio-temporal matching between emergent moths and foraging bats, with bat activity significantly increasing with moth abundance. The foraging activity of some bat species was significantly higher near pheromone lures, i.e. in areas of expected increased prey availability. Furthermore moth reproductive success significantly decreased with increasing bat activity during the flight period of adult moths. These findings suggest that bats, at least in condition of low prey density, exhibit numerical and functional responses to a specific and abundant prey, which may ultimately result in an effective top-down regulation of the population of the prey. These observations are consistent with bats being useful agents for the biocontrol of insect pest populations in plantation forests. PMID:25285523

Charbonnier, Yohan; Barbaro, Luc; Theillout, Amandine; Jactel, Herve

2014-01-01

106

Modeling the integration of parasitoid, insecticide, and transgenic insecticidal crop for the long-term control of an insect pest.  

PubMed

The tools of insect pest management include host plant resistance, biological control, and insecticides and how they are integrated will influence the durability of each. We created a detailed model of the population dynamics and population genetics of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L., and its parasitoid, Diadegma insulare (Cresson), to study long-term pest management in broccoli Brassica oleracea L. Given this pest's history of evolving resistance to various toxins, we also evaluated the evolution of resistance to transgenic insecticidal Bt broccoli (expressing Cry1Ac) and two types of insecticides. Simulations demonstrated that parasitism provided the most reliable, long-term control of P. xylostella populations. Use of Bt broccoli with a 10% insecticide-free refuge did not reduce the long-term contribution of parasitism to pest control. Small refuges within Bt broccoli fields can delay evolution of resistance > 30 generations if resistance alleles are rare in the pest population. However, the effectiveness of these refuges can be compromised by insecticide use. Rainfall mortality during the pest's egg and neonate stages significantly influences pest control but especially resistance management. Our model results support the idea that Bt crops and biological control can be integrated in integrated pest management and actually synergistically support each other. However, the planting and maintenance of toxin-free refuges are critical to this integration. PMID:23865173

Onstad, David W; Liu, Xiaoxia; Chen, Mao; Roush, Rick; Shelton, Anthony M

2013-06-01

107

[Multispectral imaging system for the plant diseases and insect pests diagnosis].  

PubMed

For a reliable diagnosis of plant diseases and insect pests, it is very important to reproduce the original color of the object. But it is not certain by conventional color imaging systems. Multispectral imaging techniques are capable of providing additional useful spectral information of common pathological samples using image acquisition The authors present a multispectral imaging system for the diagnosis. This system uses 16 narrow-band filters, a monochrome CCD camera, and standard illumination environment. Spectral match angle and color difference can be obtained through measurements and analysis of 8 Macbeth color patch using PR-715 spectraScan and multispectral imaging system. In addition, the color image and spectral reflectance of cucumber diseased leaves were reproduced using the multispectral imaging system. In the experiment, it was confirmed that the system realized good accuracy in the color reproduction and spectral reflectance reproduction from a limited number of color bands. PMID:19626892

Feng, Jie; Liao, Ning-fang; Liang, Min-yong; Zhao, Bo; Dai, Zhi-fu

2009-04-01

108

Estimation of the number of founders of an invasive pest insect population: the fire ant Solenopsis invicta in the USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determination of the number of founders responsible for the establishment of invasive populations is important for developing biologically based management practices, predicting the invasive potential of species, and making inferences about ecological and evolutionary processes. The fire ant Solenopsis invicta is a major invasive pest insect first introduced into the USA from its native South American range in the mid-1930s.

Kenneth G. Ross; D. DeWayne Shoemaker

2008-01-01

109

Cotton Insect Pests and Natural Enemies in Conventional and Conservation Tillage Systems at AG-CARES, Lamesa, TX, 2003.  

E-print Network

plants 5-7% of its cotton acreage with Bt-cotton. Information on arthropod biology and behaviorTITLE: Cotton Insect Pests and Natural Enemies in Conventional and Conservation Tillage Systems Research Scientist, Research Associate, Graduate Research Assistants (TAES). INTRODUCTION: Cotton

Mukhtar, Saqib

110

The Present Status of Research on Chemosterilants in the United States and Central America for the Control of Insect Pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report, based on a four month visit to laboratories of the U.S.D.A. in the United States and Central America describes the progress made to date in the use of the sterility principle for the control of insect pests. Preliminary screening methods are described for the evaluation of potential chemosterilants, as well as the possible application of some of the

D. G. Campion B. Sc

1965-01-01

111

Introduction The apple maggot is one of the most important economic insect pests of apples in New  

E-print Network

Introduction The apple maggot is one of the most important economic insect pests of apples in New Maggot can infest 100% of a season's apple crop. In recent years, it has invaded parts of California of Wisconsin and and Michigan it attacks cherries. Description The adult Apple Maggot is slightly smaller than

New Hampshire, University of

112

Evaluation of Insecticides and Application Methods Against Contarinia nasturtii (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a New Invasive Insect Pest in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The midge Contarinia nasturtii (Keiffer), a serious gall-forming insect pest of crucif- erous plants in Europe and southwestern Asia, was Þrst reported in the United States in summer 2004. It had not been recorded in North America until its discovery in Ontario, Canada, in 2000. EfÞcacy of 20 insecticides belonging to 12 different classes was evaluated by using a foliar

Qing-Jun Wu; Jian-Zhou Zhao; Alan G. Taylor; Anthony M. Shelton

2006-01-01

113

Effects of a killed-cover crop mulching system on sweetpotato production, soil pests, and insect predators in South Carolina.  

PubMed

Sweetpotatoes, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. (Convolvulaceae), are typically grown on bare soil where weeds and erosion can be serious problems. Conservation tillage systems using cover crop residues as mulch can help reduce these problems, but little is known about how conservation tillage affects yield and quality of sweetpotato or how these systems impact populations of beneficial and pest insects. Therefore, field experiments were conducted at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory, Charleston, SC, in 2002-2004 to evaluate production of sweetpotatoes in conventional tillage versus a conservation tillage system by using an oat (Avena sativa L. (Poaceae)-crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.) (Fabaceae) killed-cover crop (KCC) mulch. The four main treatments were 1) conventional tillage, hand-weeded; 2) KCC, hand-weeded; 3) conventional tillage, weedy; and 4) KCC, weedy. Each main plot was divided into three subplots, whose treatments were sweetpotato genotypes: 'Ruddy', which is resistant to soil insect pests; and 'SC1149-19' and 'Beauregard', which are susceptible to soil insect pests. For both the KCC and conventional tillage systems, sweetpotato yields were higher in plots that received hand weeding than in weedy plots. Orthogonal contrasts revealed a significant effect of tillage treatment (conventional tillage versus KCC) on yield in two of the 3 yr. Ruddy remained resistant to injury by soil insect pests in both cropping systems; and it consistently had significantly higher percentages of clean roots and less damage by wireworm-Diabrotica-Systena complex, sweetpotato flea beetles, grubs, and sweetpotato weevils than the two susceptible genotypes. In general, injury to sweetpotato roots by soil insect pests was not significantly higher in the KCC plots than in the conventionally tilled plots. Also, more fire ants, rove beetles, and carabid beetle were captured by pitfall traps in the KCC plots than in the conventional tillage plots during at least 1 yr of the study. This study suggests that a sweetpotatoes can be successfully grown under a killed-cover crop production system. PMID:19133469

Jackson, D Michael; Harrison, Howard F

2008-12-01

114

Tissue-Specific Transcriptomics of the Exotic Invasive Insect Pest Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)  

PubMed Central

Background The insect midgut and fat body represent major tissue interfaces that deal with several important physiological functions including digestion, detoxification and immune response. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), is an exotic invasive insect pest that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) primarily in the Midwestern United States and Ontario, Canada. However, despite its high impact status little knowledge exists for A. planipennis at the molecular level. Methodology and Principal Findings Newer-generation Roche-454 pyrosequencing was used to obtain 126,185 reads for the midgut and 240,848 reads for the fat body, which were assembled into 25,173 and 37,661 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for the midgut and the fat body of A. planipennis larvae, respectively. Among these ESTs, 36% of the midgut and 38% of the fat body sequences showed similarity to proteins in the GenBank nr database. A high number of the midgut sequences contained chitin-binding peritrophin (248)and trypsin (98) domains; while the fat body sequences showed high occurrence of cytochrome P450s (85) and protein kinase (123) domains. Further, the midgut transcriptome of A. planipennis revealed putative microbial transcripts encoding for cell-wall degrading enzymes such as polygalacturonases and endoglucanases. A significant number of SNPs (137 in midgut and 347 in fat body) and microsatellite loci (317 in midgut and 571 in fat body) were predicted in the A. planipennis transcripts. An initial assessment of cytochrome P450s belonging to various CYP clades revealed distinct expression patterns at the tissue level. Conclusions and Significance To our knowledge this study is one of the first to illuminate tissue-specific gene expression in an invasive insect of high ecological and economic consequence. These findings will lay the foundation for future gene expression and functional studies in A. planipennis. PMID:21060843

Mittapalli, Omprakash; Bai, Xiaodong; Bonello, Pierluigi; Herms, Daniel A.

2010-01-01

115

Growth-inhibition effects of pacifastin-like peptides on a pest insect: the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria.  

PubMed

The main reason for the varying degrees of success of peptidase inhibitors (PI) as biological insecticides is the existence of a poorly understood mechanism, which allows pest insects to compensate for PI present in their diet. To challenge this highly flexible physiological mechanism and to prolong the inhibitory effect of PI on insect growth, a number of measures were taken into account before and during experiments with a notorious pest insect, the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria: (i) non-plant PI (pacifastin-related inhibitors) were used to reduce the risk of a specific co-evolutionary adaptation of the pest insect, (ii) based on the main types of digestive enzymes present in the midgut, mixtures of multiple PI with different enzyme specificity were selected, allowing for a maximal inhibition of the proteolytic activity and (iii) digestive peptidase samples were taken during oral administration experiments to study compensatory mechanisms. Contrary to larvae fed on a diet containing plant-derived PI, a significant growth impediment was observed in larvae that were fed a mixture of different pacifastin-like PI. Nevertheless, the growth inhibition effect of this PI mixture attenuated after a few days, Moreover, a comprehensive study of the observed responses after oral administration of PI revealed that S. gregaria larvae can adjust their secreted digestive enzyme activities in two distinct ways depending on the composition/concentration of the PI-mixture. PMID:21736908

Spit, Jornt; Breugelmans, Bert; van Hoef, Vincent; Simonet, Gert; Zels, Sven; Broeck, Jozef Vanden

2012-03-01

116

The Phorbol Ester Fraction from Jatropha curcas Seed Oil: Potential and Limits for Crop Protection against Insect Pests  

PubMed Central

The physic nut shrub, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae), has been considered as a “miracle tree”, particularly as a source of alternate fuel. Various extracts of the plant have been reported to have insecticidal/acaricidal or molluscicidal/anthelminthic activities on vectors of medical or veterinary interest or on agricultural or non-agricultural pests. Among those extracts, the phorbol ester fraction from seed oil has been reported as a promising candidate for use as a plant-derived protectant of a variety of crops, from a range of pre-harvest and post-harvest insect pests. However, such extracts have not been widely used, despite the “boom” in the development of the crop in the tropics during recent years, and societal concerns about overuse of systemic chemical pesticides. There are many potential explanations to such a lack of use of Jatropha insecticidal extracts. On the one hand, the application of extracts potentially harmful to human health on stored food grain, might not be relevant. The problem of decomposition of phorbol esters and other compounds toxic to crop pests in the field needing further evaluation before such extracts can be widely used, may also be a partial explanation. High variability of phorbol ester content and hence of insecticidal activity among physic nut cultivars/ecotypes may be another. Phytotoxicity to crops may be further limitation. Apparent obstacles to a wider application of such extracts are the costs and problems involved with registration and legal approval. On the other hand, more studies should be conducted on molluscicidal activity on slugs and land snails which are major pests of crops, particularly in conservation agriculture systems. Further evaluation of toxicity to natural enemies of insect pests and studies on other beneficial insects such as pollinators are also needed. PMID:23203190

Ratnadass, Alain; Wink, Michael

2012-01-01

117

The Phorbol Ester Fraction from Jatropha curcas Seed Oil: Potential and Limits for Crop Protection against Insect Pests.  

PubMed

The physic nut shrub, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae), has been considered as a "miracle tree", particularly as a source of alternate fuel. Various extracts of the plant have been reported to have insecticidal/acaricidal or molluscicidal/anthelminthic activities on vectors of medical or veterinary interest or on agricultural or non-agricultural pests. Among those extracts, the phorbol ester fraction from seed oil has been reported as a promising candidate for use as a plant-derived protectant of a variety of crops, from a range of pre-harvest and post-harvest insect pests. However, such extracts have not been widely used, despite the "boom" in the development of the crop in the tropics during recent years, and societal concerns about overuse of systemic chemical pesticides. There are many potential explanations to such a lack of use of Jatropha insecticidal extracts. On the one hand, the application of extracts potentially harmful to human health on stored food grain, might not be relevant. The problem of decomposition of phorbol esters and other compounds toxic to crop pests in the field needing further evaluation before such extracts can be widely used, may also be a partial explanation. High variability of phorbol ester content and hence of insecticidal activity among physic nut cultivars/ecotypes may be another. Phytotoxicity to crops may be further limitation. Apparent obstacles to a wider application of such extracts are the costs and problems involved with registration and legal approval. On the other hand, more studies should be conducted on molluscicidal activity on slugs and land snails which are major pests of crops, particularly in conservation agriculture systems. Further evaluation of toxicity to natural enemies of insect pests and studies on other beneficial insects such as pollinators are also needed. PMID:23203190

Ratnadass, Alain; Wink, Michael

2012-01-01

118

Monitoring Pest Insect Traps by Means of Low-Power Image Sensor Technologies  

PubMed Central

Monitoring pest insect populations is currently a key issue in agriculture and forestry protection. At the farm level, human operators typically must perform periodical surveys of the traps disseminated through the field. This is a labor-, time- and cost-consuming activity, in particular for large plantations or large forestry areas, so it would be of great advantage to have an affordable system capable of doing this task automatically in an accurate and a more efficient way. This paper proposes an autonomous monitoring system based on a low-cost image sensor that it is able to capture and send images of the trap contents to a remote control station with the periodicity demanded by the trapping application. Our autonomous monitoring system will be able to cover large areas with very low energy consumption. This issue would be the main key point in our study; since the operational live of the overall monitoring system should be extended to months of continuous operation without any kind of maintenance (i.e., battery replacement). The images delivered by image sensors would be time-stamped and processed in the control station to get the number of individuals found at each trap. All the information would be conveniently stored at the control station, and accessible via Internet by means of available network services at control station (WiFi, WiMax, 3G/4G, etc.). PMID:23202232

Lopez, Otoniel; Rach, Miguel Martinez; Migallon, Hector; Malumbres, Manuel P.; Bonastre, Alberto; Serrano, Juan J.

2012-01-01

119

Enhancement of biological control agents for use against forest insect pests and diseases through biotechnology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research and development efforts in our research group are focused on the generation of more efficacious biological control agents through the techniques of biotechnology for use against forest insect pests and diseases. Effective biological controls for the gypsy moth and for tree fungal wilt pathogens are under development. The successful use of Gypchek, a formulation of the Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdNPV), in gypsy moth control programs has generated considerable interest in that agent. As a consequence of its specificity, LdPNV has negligible adverse ecological impacts compared to most gypsy moth control agents. However, LdNPV is not competitive with other control agents in terms of cost and efficacy. We are investigating several parameters of LdNPV replication and polyhedra production in order to enhance viral potency and efficacy thus mitigating the current disadvantages of LdNPV for gypsy moth control, and have identified LdNPV variants that will facilitate these efforts. Tree endophytic bacteria that synthesize antifungal compounds were identified and an antibiotic compound from one of these bacteria was characterized. The feasibility of developing tree endophytes as biological control agents for tree vascular fungal pathogens is being investigated.

Slavicek, James M.

1991-01-01

120

Applying GIS and population genetics for managing livestock insect pests: case studies of tsetse and screwworm flies.  

PubMed

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have supported a Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Applying GIS and population genetics for managing livestock insect pests'. This six-year CRP (2008-2013) focused on research aimed at under-pinning the Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management (AW-IPM) of populations of tsetse and screwworm flies, and this introductory paper to the Special Issue integrates the findings of the CRP participants and discusses them in a broader context. The tools and techniques for mapping and modelling the distributions of genetically-characterised populations of tsetse and screwworm flies are increasingly used by researchers and managers for more effective decision-making in AW-IPM programmes, as illustrated by the reports in this Special Issue. Currently, the insect pests are often characterized only by neutral genetic markers suitable for recognizing spatially isolated populations that are sometimes associated with specific environments. Two challenges for those involved in AW-IPM are the standardization of best practice to permit the efficient application of GIS and genetic tools by regional teams, and the need to develop further the mapping and modelling of parasite and pest phenotypes that are epidemiologically important. PMID:24713196

Feldmann, U; Ready, P D

2014-10-01

121

Tracking the global dispersal of a cosmopolitan insect pest, the peach potato aphid  

PubMed Central

Background Global commerce and human transportation are responsible for the range expansion of various insect pests such as the plant sucking aphids. High resolution DNA markers provide the opportunity to examine the genetic structure of aphid populations, identify aphid genotypes and infer their evolutionary history and routes of expansion which is of value in developing management strategies. One of the most widespread aphid species is the peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae, which is considered as a serious pest on various crops in many parts of the world. The present study examined the genetic variation of this aphid at a world scale and then related this to distribution patterns. In particular, 197 aphid parthenogenetic lineages from around the world were analysed with six microsatellite loci. Results Bayesian clustering and admixture analysis split the aphid genotypes into three genetic clusters: European M. persicae persicae, New Zealand M. persicae persicae and Global M. persicae nicotianae. This partition was supported by FST and genetic distance analyses. The results showed two further points, a possible connection between genotypes found in the UK and New Zealand and globalization of nicotianae associated with colonisation of regions where tobacco is not cultivated. In addition, we report the presence of geographically widespread clones and for the first time the presence of a nicotianae genotype in the Old and New World. Lastly, heterozygote deficiency was detected in some sexual and asexual populations. Conclusion The study revealed important genetic variation among the aphid populations we examined and this was partitioned according to region and host-plant. Clonal selection and gene flow between sexual and asexual lineages are important factors shaping the genetic structure of the aphid populations. In addition, the results reflected the globalization of two subspecies of M. persicae with successful clones being spread at various scales throughout the world. A subspecies appears to result from direct selection on tobacco plants. This information highlights the ultimate ability of a polyphagous aphid species to generate and maintain ecologically successful gene combinations through clonal propagation and the role of human transportation and global commerce for expanding their range. PMID:19432979

Margaritopoulos, John T; Kasprowicz, Louise; Malloch, Gaynor L; Fenton, Brian

2009-01-01

122

Influence of cover crops on insect pests and predators in conservation tillage cotton.  

PubMed

In fall 2000, an on-farm sustainable agricultural research project was established for cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., in Tift County, Georgia. The objective of our 2-yr research project was to determine the impact of several cover crops on pest and predator insects in cotton. The five cover crop treatments included 1) cereal rye, Secale cereale L., a standard grass cover crop; 2) crimson clover, Trifolium incarnatum L., a standard legume cover crop; 3) a legume mixture of balansa clover, Trifolium michelianum Savi; crimson clover; and hairy vetch, Vicia villosa Roth; 4) a legume mixture + rye combination; and 5) no cover crop in conventionally tilled fields. Three main groups or species of pests were collected in cover crops and cotton: 1) the heliothines Heliothis virescens (F.) and Helicoverpa zea (Boddie); 2) the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois); and 3) stink bugs. The main stink bugs collected were the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.); the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say); and the green stink bug, Acrosternum hilare (Say). Cotton aphids, Aphis gossypii Glover, were collected only on cotton. For both years of the study, the heliothines were the only pests that exceeded their economic threshold in cotton, and the number of times this threshold was exceeded in cotton was higher in control cotton than in crimson clover and rye cotton. Heliothine predators and aphidophagous lady beetles occurred in cover crops and cotton during both years of the experiment. Geocoris punctipes (Say), Orius insidiosus (Say), and red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren were relatively the most abundant heliothine predators observed. Lady beetles included the convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville; the sevenspotted lady beetle, Coccinella septempunctata L.; spotted lady beetle, Coleomegilla maculata (DeGeer); and the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas). Density of G. punctipes was higher in cotton fields previously planted in crimson clover compared with control cotton fields for all combined sampling dates in 2001. Intercropping cotton in live strips of cover crop was probably responsible for the relay of G. punctipes onto cotton in these crimson clover fields. Density of O. insidiosus was not significantly different between cover crop and control cotton fields. Lady beetles seemed to relay from cover crops into cotton. Conservation of the habitat of fire ants during planting probably was responsible for the higher density of red imported fire ants observed in all conservation tillage cotton fields relative to control cotton fields. Reduction in the number of times in which economic thresholds for heliothines were exceeded in crimson clover and rye compared with control fields indicated that the buildup of predaceous fire ants and G. punctipes in these cover crops subsequently resulted in reduction in the level of heliothines in conservation tillage cotton with these cover crops compared with conventional tillage cotton without cover crops. PMID:15384330

Tillman, Glynn; Schomberg, Harry; Phatak, Sharad; Mullinix, Benjamin; Lachnicht, Sharon; Timper, Patricia; Olson, Dawn

2004-08-01

123

Insect herbivores associated with an evergreen tree Goniorrhachis marginata Taub. (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) in a tropical dry forest.  

PubMed

Goniorrhachis marginata Taub. (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) is a tree species found in Brazilian tropical dry forests that retain their leaves during the dry season. That being, we addressed the following question: i) How do insect diversity (sap-sucking and chewing), leaf herbivory and defensive traits (tannin and leaf sclerophylly) vary on the evergreen tree species G. marginata between seasons? The abundance of sap-sucking insects was higher in the dry season than in the rainy season. However, we did not verify any difference in the species richness and abundance of chewing insects between seasons. Leaf herbivory was higher in the rainy season, whereas leaf sclerophylly was higher in the dry season. However, herbivory was not related to sclerophylly. Insect herbivores likely decrease their folivory activity during the dry season due to life history patterns or changes in behaviour, possibly entering diapause or inactivity during this period. Therefore, G. marginata acts as a likely keystone species, serving as a moist refuge for the insect fauna during the dry season in tropical dry forest, and the presence of this evergreen species is crucial to conservation strategies of this threatened ecosystem. PMID:25296211

Silva, Jo; Neves, Fs

2014-08-01

124

Managing Insect and Mite Pests of Legumes, Grasses and Forage Crops in Texas.  

E-print Network

&M University System College Station, Texas TABLE OF CONTENTS INSECTICIDE APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 POLICY STATEMENT FOR MAKING PEST MANAGEMENT SUGGESTIONS... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 PROTECTING BEES AND OTHER POLLINATORS FROM INSECTICIDES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3...

Allen, C.T.; Hoelscher, Clifford E.

1988-01-01

125

Landscape context and management effects on an important insect pest and its natural enemies in almond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pest control mediated by organisms such as parasitoids is a valuable ecosystem service, particularly with regard to high costs, low effectiveness, and detrimental effects of some agrochemicals. This study examined infestation rates and abundance of pests and their natural enemies in organic and conventional almond orchards in California, differing in landscape context, understory plant cover, and plant species richness. Parasitoids

Elisabeth Johanna Eilers; Alexandra-Maria Klein

2009-01-01

126

Incorporating Carbon Storage into the Optimal Management of Forest Insect Pests: A Case Study of the Southern Pine Beetle ( Dendroctonus Frontalis Zimmerman) in the New Jersey Pinelands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest insect pest disturbance is increasing in certain areas of North America as many insect species, such as the southern pine beetle, expand their range due to a warming climate. Because insect pests are beginning to occupy forests that are managed for multiple uses and have not been managed for pests before, it is becoming increasingly important to determine how forests should be managed for pests when non-timber ecosystem services are considered in addition to traditional costs and revenues. One example of a service that is increasingly considered in forest management and that may affect forest pest management is carbon sequestration. This manuscript seeks to understand whether the incorporation of forest carbon sequestration into cost-benefit analysis of different forest pest management strategies affects the financially optimal strategy. We examine this question through a case study of the southern pine beetle (SPB) in a new area of SPB expansion, the New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve (NJPR). We utilize a forest ecology and economics model and include field data from the NJPR as well as outbreak probability statistics from previous years. We find under the majority of scenarios, incorporating forest carbon sequestration shifts the financially optimal SPB management strategy from preventative thinning toward no management or reactionary management in forest stands in New Jersey. These results contradict the current recommended treatment strategy for SPB and signify that the inclusion of multiple ecosystem services into a cost-benefit analysis may drastically alter which pest management strategy is economically optimal.

Niemiec, Rebecca M.; Lutz, David A.; Howarth, Richard B.

2014-10-01

127

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2014 SUNFLOWER INSECT CONTROL  

E-print Network

bees are foraging. The label is the law. Always read and follow all pesticide label restrictions. #12; and follow all pesticide label restrictions. #12;South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops

Duchowski, Andrew T.

128

Role of behavioural studies in the development of management strategies for forest insect pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under forestry conditions, management techniques aimed at maintenance of pest populations at moderate levels have greater\\u000a chance of success than conventional methods of pest control. Simple behavioural observations can sometimes be used to great\\u000a advantage in the development of such methods, some examples of which are given. Although there has been considerable excitement\\u000a over the past two decades on the

K S S Nair

1985-01-01

129

[Techniques of diseases, insect pests and weeds control and their efficacy in bio-rational rice production].  

PubMed

Studies on the efficacy of bio-rational pesticides and agricultural methods against the chief diseases, insect pests and weeds of rice showed that the efficacy of the mixtures of jingangmycin and bacillus-cereus, and jingangmycin and polyoxin against rice sheath blight were 75.16%-94.27% after sprayed once at the tiller and boot end stages of rice, respectively, and better than that of chemical fungicide triadimefon. The efficacy of kasugamycin and blasticidin was 50.54%-72.67% on rice leaf blast and 76.66%-87.42% on rice head blast, and equal to the chemical fungicide tricyclazole after sprayed once at the initial stage of rice leaf blast occurrence and the initial and end stages of earing, respectively. The efficacy of bacillus thuringiensis on Chilo suppressalis and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis was better than that of chemical insecticide bisultap, and the efficacy of saponin-nicotine and matrine was equal to that of chemical insecticide bisultap when the three biorational insecticides were sprayed at 1-2 instar larvae of pests. The efficacy of saponin-nicotine and matrine was above 70%, and lower than that of chemical insecticide imidacloprid 3-30 d after sprayed at 1-2 instar larvae of Nilaparvata lugens. The occurrence of weeds could be controlled, and the rice yield could be raised when the suitable non-thorough decomposed organism was applied or weeding was carried after the field had been ploughed twice before rice transplant. The rice yield could be raised by using biorational pesticides and agricultural methods against the chief diseases, insect pests and weeds of rice. The residue of pesticides in rice was lower in the bio-control area than in the chemical control area, according with the demands of health target of green food. PMID:15139200

Li, Baotong; Shi, Qinghua; Fang, Jiahai; Pan, Xiaohua

2004-01-01

130

MANAGING INSECT PESTS OF COMMERCIALLY GROWN CRUCIFERS Ricky E. Foster, Extension Entomologist  

E-print Network

sprouts, turnips, radishes, kale, rutabaga, mustard, collards, horseradish, and other crucifers. All of the crucifers are subject to attack by insects. Some, such as radishes, can usually be grown without insect of turnips and radishes. The palestriped flea beetle is about 1/8 inch long, but ranges in color from shiny

Ginzel, Matthew

131

Thermal biology, population fluctuations and implications of temperature extremes for the management of two globally significant insect pests.  

PubMed

The link between environmental temperature, physiological processes and population fluctuations is a significant aspect of insect pest management. Here, we explore how thermal biology affects the population abundance of two globally significant pest fruit fly species, Ceratitis capitata (medfly) and C. rosa (Natal fruit fly), including irradiated individuals and those expressing a temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutation that are used in the sterile insect technique. Results show that upper and lower lethal temperatures are seldom encountered at the field sites, while critical minimum temperatures for activity and lower developmental thresholds are crossed more frequently. Estimates of abundance revealed that C. capitata are active year-round, but abundance declines markedly during winter. Temporal autocorrelation of average fortnightly trap captures and of development time, estimated from an integrated model to calculate available degree days, show similar seasonal lags suggesting that population increases in early spring occur after sufficient degree-days have accumulated. By contrast, population collapses coincide tightly with increasing frequency of low temperature events that fall below critical minimum temperatures for activity. Individuals of C. capitata expressing the tsl mutation show greater critical thermal maxima and greater longevity under field conditions than reference individuals. Taken together, this evidence suggests that low temperatures limit populations in the Western Cape, South Africa and likely do so elsewhere. Increasing temperature extremes and warming climates generally may extend the season over which these species are active, and could increase abundance. The sterile insect technique may prove profitable as climates change given that laboratory-reared tsl flies have an advantage under warmer conditions. PMID:24080125

Nyamukondiwa, Casper; Weldon, Christopher W; Chown, Steven L; le Roux, Peter C; Terblanche, John S

2013-12-01

132

Improvement of Pest Resistance in Transgenic Tobacco Plants Expressing dsRNA of an Insect-Associated Gene EcR  

PubMed Central

The adoption of pest-resistant transgenic plants to reduce yield loss and pesticide utilization has been successful in the past three decades. Recently, transgenic plant expressing double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) targeting pest genes emerges as a promising strategy for improving pest resistance in crops. The steroid hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), predominately controls insect molting via its nuclear receptor complex, EcR-USP. Here we report that pest resistance is improved in transgenic tobacco plants expressing dsRNA of EcR from the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, a serious lepidopteran pest for a variety of crops. When H. armigera larvae were fed with the whole transgenic tobacco plants expressing EcR dsRNA, resistance to H. armigera was significantly improved in transgenic plants. Meanwhile, when H. armigera larvae were fed with leaves of transgenic tobacco plants expressing EcR dsRNA, its EcR mRNA level was dramatically decreased causing molting defects and larval lethality. In addition, the transgenic tobacco plants expressing H. armigera EcR dsRNA were also resistant to another lepidopteran pest, the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, due to the high similarity in the nucleotide sequences of their EcR genes. This study provides additional evidence that transgenic plant expressing dsRNA targeting insect-associated genes is able to improve pest resistance. PMID:22685585

Ma, Yao; Zhang, Jia-Qi; Qi, Hai-Sheng; Wei, Zhao-Jun; Yao, Qiong; Zhang, Wen-Qing; Li, Sheng

2012-01-01

133

Population-level effects of fitness costs associated with repressible female-lethal transgene insertions in two pest insects  

PubMed Central

Genetic control strategies offer great potential for the sustainable and effective control of insect pests. These strategies involve the field release of transgenic insects with the aim of introducing engineered alleles into wild populations, either permanently or transiently. Their efficacy can therefore be reduced if transgene-associated fitness costs reduce the relative performance of released insects. We describe a method of measuring the fitness costs associated with transgenes by analyzing their evolutionary trajectories when placed in competition with wild-type alleles in replicated cage populations. Using this method, we estimated lifetime fitness costs associated with two repressible female-lethal transgenes in the diamondback moth and olive fly as being acceptable for field suppression programs. Furthermore, using these estimates of genotype-level fitness costs, we were able to project longer-term evolutionary trajectories for the transgenes investigated. Results from these projections demonstrate that although transgene-associated fitness costs will ultimately cause these transgenes to become extinct, even when engineered lethality is repressed, they may persist for varying periods of time before doing so. This implies that tetracycline-mediated transgene field persistence in these strains is unlikely and suggests that realistic estimates of transgene-associated fitness costs may be useful in trialing ‘uncoupled’ gene drive system components in the field. PMID:24944572

Harvey-Samuel, Tim; Ant, Thomas; Gong, Hongfei; Morrison, Neil I; Alphey, Luke

2014-01-01

134

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 SMALL GRAIN INSECT CONTROL  

E-print Network

and oat production under SC conditions. Either seed treatment or foliar pyrethroid application are both on early- planted high-yield-potential wheat (60+ bu/ac). The key pest is the oat-bird cherry aphid which is recommended if you find 8 oat-bird cherry aphids per row foot prior to jointing. Oats are more susceptible

Stuart, Steven J.

135

Protein markers of genetic systems in group resistance to pest insects in winter wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been developed the method of expertize for evaluation of group resistance of the winter wheat to following pests: Oulema melanopus L., Sitobion avenae F., Mayeltiola destructor Say. In so doing, it has been used electrophoretic spectra of gliadine and special program for a computer that allows to conduct the evaluation in an authomatic regime. An analysis of results

Michael Lesovoi; Vladimir Smelyanets; Aziz Aifaoui; Alexander Bratus

1995-01-01

136

Feeding bioassay for stored-product insect pests using an encapsulated food source  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure that was developed to encapsulate liquid and semiliquid diets was used to encapsulate dry diet for use in a feeding bioassay for beetles that are pests of stored products. Vacuum was used to form Parafilm® into numerous 6mm diameter wells. The wells were filled with clean sand (control) or ground dry dog food (test), and the Parafilm® sealed

Nancy D. Epsky

2002-01-01

137

Biology and management of insect pests in North American intensively managed hardwood forest systems.  

SciTech Connect

Annu. Rev. Entomol. 50:1-29. Abstract Increasing demand for wood and wood products is putting stress on traditional forest production areas, leading to long-term economic and environmental concerns. Intensively managed hardwood forest systems (IMHFS), grown using conventional agricultural as well as forestry methods, can help alleviate potential problems in natural forest production areas. Although IMHFS can produce more biomass per hectare per year than natural forests, the ecologically simplified, monocultural systems may greatly increase the crops susceptibility to pests. Species in the genera Populus and Salix comprise the greatest acreage in IMHFS in North America, but other species, including Liquidambar styracifua and Platanus occidentalis, are also important. We discuss life histories, realized and potential damage, and management options for the most economically infuential pests that affect these hardwood species. The substantial inherent challenges associated with pest management in the monocultural environments created by IMHFS are reviewed. Finally, we discuss ways to design IMHFS that may reduce their susceptibility to pests, increase their growth and productivity potential, and create a more sustainable environment.

Coyle, David R.; Nebeker, T., E.; Hart, E., R.; Mattson, W., J.

2005-01-01

138

Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov., a xylanolytic, ustilaginomycetous yeast species isolated from an insect pest of sugarcane roots.  

PubMed

A novel ustilaginomycetous yeast isolated from the intestinal tract of an insect pest of sugarcane roots in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil, represents a novel species of the genus Pseudozyma based on molecular analyses of the D1/D2 rDNA large subunit and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1+ITS2) regions. The name Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov. is proposed for this species, with GHG001(T) (?=?CBS 13268(T)?=?UFMG-CM-Y307(T)) as the type strain. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is a sister species of Pseudozyma vetiver, originally isolated from leaves of vetiver grass and sugarcane in Thailand. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is able to grow well with xylan as the sole carbon source and produces high levels of an endo-1,4-xylanase that has a higher specific activity in comparison with other eukaryotic xylanases. This enzyme has a variety of industrial applications, indicating the great biotechnological potential of P. brasiliensis. PMID:24682702

Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro; Borges, Thuanny A; Corrêa dos Santos, Renato Augusto; Freitas, Larissa F D; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Riaño-Pachón, Diego Mauricio

2014-06-01

139

Responses of insect pests, pathogens, and invasive plant species to climate change in the forests of northeastern North America: What can we predict?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate models project that by 2100, the northeastern US and eastern Canada will warm by approximately 3–5 °C, with increased winter precipitation. These changes will affect trees directly and also indirectly through effects on “nuisance” species, such as insect pests, pathogens, and invasive plants. We review how basic ecological principles can be used to predict nuisance species’ responses to climate

Vikki L Rodgers; Jennifer Pontius; David Orwig; Jeffrey R. Garnas; Nicholas Brazee; Barry Cooke; Kathleen A. Theoharides; Erik E. Stange; Robin Harrington; Joan Ehrenfeld; Jessica Gurevitch; Manuel Lerdau; Kristina Stinson; Robert Wick; Matthew Ayres

2009-01-01

140

Chemical Control of Insect Pests and Insecticide Resistance in Oilseed Rape  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Public concerns about environmental hazards and widespread resistance in pollen beetle populations on oilseed rape in Europe\\u000a are threatening the availability of a variety of insecticidal modes of action for pest control on the crop. For a sustainable\\u000a use of insecticides any overuse has to be avoided to minimize risk of resistance development. Pollen beetles are present in\\u000a the crop

Thomas Thieme; Udo Heimbach; Andreas Müller

141

Essential oil formulations useful as a new tool for insect pest control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of some essential oils onLimantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantridae, gypsy moth) larvae, one of the most serious pests of cork oak forests. The essential oils were\\u000a first formulated as oil in water (o\\/w) emulsions and used in laboratory bioassays to assess their lethal concentration (LC50).\\u000a Microcapsules containing the most promising, oils (Rosmarinus officinalis andThymus herba-barona) were

Mario D. L. Moretti; Giovanni Sanna-Passino; Stefania Demontis; Emanuela Bazzoni

2002-01-01

142

In situ detection of small-size insect pests sampled on traps using multifractal analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a multifractal analysis for detecting the small-size pest (e.g., whitefly) images from a sticky trap in situ. An automatic attraction system is utilized for collecting pests from greenhouse plants. We applied multifractal analysis to segment action of whitefly images based on the local singularity and global image characteristics. According to the theory of multifractal dimension, the candidate blobs of whiteflies are initially defined from the sticky-trap image. Two schemes, fixed thresholding and regional minima obtainment, were utilized for feature extraction of candidate whitefly image areas. The experiment was conducted with the field images in a greenhouse. Detection results were compared with other adaptive segmentation algorithms. Values of F measuring precision and recall score were higher for the proposed multifractal analysis (96.5%) compared with conventional methods such as Watershed (92.2%) and Otsu (73.1%). The true positive rate of multifractal analysis was 94.3% and the false positive rate minimal level at 1.3%. Detection performance was further tested via human observation. The degree of scattering between manual and automatic counting was remarkably higher with multifractal analysis (R2=0.992) compared with Watershed (R2=0.895) and Otsu (R2=0.353), ensuring overall detection of the small-size pests is most feasible with multifractal analysis in field conditions.

Xia, Chunlei; Lee, Jang-Myung; Li, Yan; Chung, Bu-Keun; Chon, Tae-Soo

2012-02-01

143

Fine-Scale Geographical Origin of an Insect Pest Invading North America  

PubMed Central

Invasive species may rapidly spread throughout new areas once introduced, which may potentially lead to serious damage to local fauna and flora. Information on geographical origins, introduction routes, and biology in native regions of such invasive species is of critical importance in identifying means of transport, preventing reintroduction, and establishing control/eradication methods. The plataspid stinkbug Megacopta cribraria, known as kudzu bug, recently invaded North America and now has become not only an agricultural pest of soybean but also a nuisance pest. Here we investigate the geographical origin of the invasive M. cribraria populations. Phylogeographical analyses based on 8.7 kb mitochondrial DNA sequences of the introduced and East Asian native Megacopta populations identified a well-supported clade consisting of the introduced populations and M. punctatissima populations in the Kyushu region of Japan, which strongly suggests that the invading M. cribraria populations are derived from a M. punctatissima population in the Kyushu region. Therefore, the region is proposed as a promising source of natural enemies for biological control of the invasive pest. Based on the phylogenetic information, relationship and treatment of the two Megacopta species are discussed. PMID:24551228

Hosokawa, Takahiro; Nikoh, Naruo; Fukatsu, Takema

2014-01-01

144

Fine-scale geographical origin of an insect pest invading North America.  

PubMed

Invasive species may rapidly spread throughout new areas once introduced, which may potentially lead to serious damage to local fauna and flora. Information on geographical origins, introduction routes, and biology in native regions of such invasive species is of critical importance in identifying means of transport, preventing reintroduction, and establishing control/eradication methods. The plataspid stinkbug Megacopta cribraria, known as kudzu bug, recently invaded North America and now has become not only an agricultural pest of soybean but also a nuisance pest. Here we investigate the geographical origin of the invasive M. cribraria populations. Phylogeographical analyses based on 8.7 kb mitochondrial DNA sequences of the introduced and East Asian native Megacopta populations identified a well-supported clade consisting of the introduced populations and M. punctatissima populations in the Kyushu region of Japan, which strongly suggests that the invading M. cribraria populations are derived from a M. punctatissima population in the Kyushu region. Therefore, the region is proposed as a promising source of natural enemies for biological control of the invasive pest. Based on the phylogenetic information, relationship and treatment of the two Megacopta species are discussed. PMID:24551228

Hosokawa, Takahiro; Nikoh, Naruo; Fukatsu, Takema

2014-01-01

145

A naturally occurring plant cysteine protease possesses remarkable toxicity against insect pests and synergizes Bacillus thuringiensis toxin.  

PubMed

When caterpillars feed on maize (Zea maize L.) lines with native resistance to several Lepidopteran pests, a defensive cysteine protease, Mir1-CP, rapidly accumulates at the wound site. Mir1-CP has been shown to inhibit caterpillar growth in vivo by attacking and permeabilizing the insect's peritrophic matrix (PM), a structure that surrounds the food bolus, assists in digestion and protects the midgut from microbes and toxins. PM permeabilization weakens the caterpillar defenses by facilitating the movement of other insecticidal proteins in the diet to the midgut microvilli and thereby enhancing their toxicity. To directly determine the toxicity of Mir1-CP, the purified recombinant enzyme was directly tested against four economically significant Lepidopteran pests in bioassays. Mir1-CP LC(50) values were 1.8, 3.6, 0.6, and 8.0 ppm for corn earworm, tobacco budworm, fall armyworm and southwestern corn borer, respectively. These values were the same order of magnitude as those determined for the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Bt-CryIIA. In addition to being directly toxic to the larvae, 60 ppb Mir1-CP synergized sublethal concentrations of Bt-CryIIA in all four species. Permeabilization of the PM by Mir1-CP probably provides ready access to Bt-binding sites on the midgut microvilli and increases its activity. Consequently, Mir1-CP could be used for controlling caterpillar pests in maize using non-transgenic approaches and potentially could be used in other crops either singly or in combination with Bt-toxins. PMID:18335057

Mohan, Srinidi; Ma, Peter W K; Williams, W Paul; Luthe, Dawn S

2008-01-01

146

Performance of the Microsprayer, with Application for Pheromone-Mediated Control of Insect Pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electronically controlled device has been designed to provide reliable, precise, season-long release of insect pheromones without the need for maintenance, refilling, or component replacement. The operational performance of this dispenser technology was evaluated under laboratory and field conditions throughout the summer of 1998 in orchards of Michigan apple (Malus spp.). A simple electronic circuit controlled the opening of an

RUFUS ISAACS; MICHAEL ULCZYNSKI; BRIAN WRIGHT; LARRY J. GUT; JAMES R. MILLER

1999-01-01

147

Unraveling the mystery of compost teas used for organic disease and insect pest  

E-print Network

GilleN #12;What are compost teas? · Watery extracts (teas) made from placingUnraveling the mystery of compost teas used for organic disease and insect compost teas? · Teas are microbial and nutrient rich · Can be brewed on farm

148

Recent developments and future prospects in insect pest control in transgenic crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adoption of insect-resistant transgenic crops has been increasing annually at double-digit rates since the commercial release of first-generation maize and cotton expressing a single modified Bacillus thuringiensis toxin (Bt) nine years ago. Studies have shown that these Bt crops can be successfully deployed in agriculture, which has led to a decrease in pesticide usage, and that they are environmentally

Paul Christou; Teresa Capell; Ajay Kohli; John A. Gatehouse; Angharad M. R. Gatehouse

2006-01-01

149

Safety and Advantages of Bacillus thuringiensis-Protected Plants to Control Insect Pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants modified to express insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (referred to as Bt-protected plants) provide a safe and highly effective method of insect control. Bt-protected corn, cotton, and potato were introduced into the United States in 1995\\/1996 and grown on a total of approximately 10 million acres in 1997, 20 million acres in 1998, and 29 million acres globally in

Fred S. Betz; Bruce G. Hammond; Roy L. Fuchs

2000-01-01

150

Effects of weed cover composition on insect pest and natural enemy abundance in a field of Dracaena marginata (Asparagales: Asparagaceae) in Costa Rica.  

PubMed

Weeds and their influence on pest and natural enemy populations were studied on a commercial ornamental farm during 2009 in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica. A baseline survey of the entire production plot was conducted in February, along a 5 by 5 m grid to characterize and map initial weed communities of plants, cicadellids, katydids, and armored scales. In total, 50 plant species from 21 families were found. Seven weed treatments were established to determine how weed manipulations would affect communities of our targeted pests and natural enemies. These treatments were selected based on reported effects of specific weed cover on herbivorous insects and natural enemies, or by their use by growers as a cover crop. Treatments ranged from weed-free to being completely covered with endemic species of weeds. Although some weed treatments changed pest abundances, responses differed among arthropod pests, with the strongest effects observed for Caldwelliola and Empoasca leafhoppers. Removal of all weeds increased the abundance of Empoasca, whereas leaving mostly cyperacaeous weeds increased the abundance of Caldwelliola. Weed manipulations had no effect on the abundance of katydid and scale populations. No weed treatment reduced the abundance of all three of the target pests. Differential responses of the two leafhopper species to the same weed treatments support hypotheses, suggesting that noncrop plants can alter the abundance of pests through their effects on arthropod host finding and acceptance, as well as their impacts on natural enemies. PMID:24517852

Sadof, Clifford S; Linkimer, Mildred; Hidalgo, Eduardo; Casanoves, Fernando; Gibson, Kevin; Benjamin, Tamara J

2014-04-01

151

Effect of a plant growth regulator prohexadione-calcium on insect pests of apple and pear.  

PubMed

The effect of prohexadione-calcium, a plant growth regulator that inhibits gibberellin metabolism, on Cacopsylla pyricoloa (Foerster) in pear trees, and Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) and Aphis spireacola Patch, in apple trees was studied. C. pyricoloa and A. spireacola populations were significantly reduced in prohexadione-calcium-treated pear and apple, respectively. Insecticide control of both pests with imidacloprid was synergized in treatments with prohexadione-calcium. In apples treated with prohexadione-calcium, there was a significant reduction in the number of C. rosaceana shelters per tree and amount of fruit injury at harvest attributable to the C. rosaceana. There was an additive effect when tebufenozide was used to control C. rosaceana in trees treated with prohexadione-calcium. Prohexadione-calcium significantly reduced vegetative growth in both pears and apples. Synergistic and additive treatment effects of prohexadione-calcium and pesticides used in this study may be due to better penetration and coverage of pesticides due to reduced foliar growth or to changes in the nutritional quality of the host plants. PMID:15889734

Paulson, G S; Hull, L A; Biddinger, D J

2005-04-01

152

Scale Insects, edition 2, a tool for the identification of potential pest scales at U.S.A. ports-of-entry (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Coccoidea)  

PubMed Central

Abstract We provide a general overview of features and technical specifications of an online, interactive tool for the identification of scale insects of concern to the U.S.A. ports-of-entry. Full lists of terminal taxa included in the keys (of which there are four), a list of features used in them, and a discussion of the structure of the tool are provided. We also briefly discuss the advantages of interactive keys for the identification of potential scale insect pests. The interactive key is freely accessible on http://idtools.org/id/scales/index.php PMID:25152668

Miller, Douglass R.; Rung, Alessandra; Parikh, Grishma

2014-01-01

153

Scale Insects, edition 2, a tool for the identification of potential pest scales at U.S.A. ports-of-entry (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Coccoidea).  

PubMed

We provide a general overview of features and technical specifications of an online, interactive tool for the identification of scale insects of concern to the U.S.A. ports-of-entry. Full lists of terminal taxa included in the keys (of which there are four), a list of features used in them, and a discussion of the structure of the tool are provided. We also briefly discuss the advantages of interactive keys for the identification of potential scale insect pests. The interactive key is freely accessible on http://idtools.org/id/scales/index.php. PMID:25152668

Miller, Douglass R; Rung, Alessandra; Parikh, Grishma

2014-01-01

154

Estimation of the number of founders of an invasive pest insect population: the fire ant Solenopsis invicta in the USA  

PubMed Central

Determination of the number of founders responsible for the establishment of invasive populations is important for developing biologically based management practices, predicting the invasive potential of species, and making inferences about ecological and evolutionary processes. The fire ant Solenopsis invicta is a major invasive pest insect first introduced into the USA from its native South American range in the mid-1930s. We use data from diverse genetic markers surveyed in the source population and the USA to estimate the number of founders of this introduced population. Data from different classes of nuclear markers (microsatellites, allozymes, sex-determination locus) and mitochondrial DNA are largely congruent in suggesting that 9–20 unrelated mated queens comprised the initial founder group to colonize the USA at Mobile, Alabama. Estimates of founder group size based on expanded samples from throughout the southern USA were marginally higher than this, consistent with the hypothesis of one or more secondary introductions of the ant into the USA. The rapid spread and massive population build-up of introduced S. invicta occurred despite the loss of substantial genetic variation associated with the relatively small invasive propagule size, a pattern especially surprising in light of the substantial genetic load imposed by the loss of variation at the sex-determination locus. PMID:18577505

Ross, Kenneth G; Shoemaker, D. DeWayne

2008-01-01

155

Second-Generation Sequencing Supply an Effective Way to Screen RNAi Targets in Large Scale for Potential Application in Pest Insect Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key of RNAi approach success for potential insect pest control is mainly dependent on careful target selection and a convenient delivery system. We adopted second-generation sequencing technology to screen RNAi targets. Illumina's RNA-seq and digital gene expression tag profile (DGE-tag) technologies were used to screen optimal RNAi targets from Ostrinia furnalalis. Total 14690 stage specific genes were obtained which

Yubing Wang; Hao Zhang; Haichao Li; Xuexia Miao; Frederic Marion-Poll

2011-01-01

156

Identification and Structural Characterization of Novel Cyclotide with Activity against an Insect Pest of Sugar Cane*  

PubMed Central

Cyclotides are a family of plant-derived cyclic peptides comprising six conserved cysteine residues connected by three intermolecular disulfide bonds that form a knotted structure known as a cyclic cystine knot (CCK). This structural motif is responsible for the pronounced stability of cyclotides against chemical, thermal, or proteolytic degradation and has sparked growing interest in this family of peptides. Here, we isolated and characterized a novel cyclotide from Palicourea rigida (Rubiaceae), which was named parigidin-br1. The sequence indicated that this peptide is a member of the bracelet subfamily of cyclotides. Parigidin-br1 showed potent insecticidal activity against neonate larvae of Lepidoptera (Diatraea saccharalis), causing 60% mortality at a concentration of 1 ?m but had no detectable antibacterial effects. A decrease in the in vitro viability of the insect cell line from Spodoptera frugiperda (SF-9) was observed in the presence of parigidin-br1, consistent with in vivo insecticidal activity. Transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy of SF-9 cells after incubation with parigidin-br1 or parigidin-br1-fluorescein isothiocyanate, respectively, revealed extensive cell lysis and swelling of cells, consistent with an insecticidal mechanism involving membrane disruption. This hypothesis was supported by in silico analyses, which suggested that parigidin-br1 is able to complex with cell lipids. Overall, the results suggest promise for the development of parigidin-br1 as a novel biopesticide. PMID:22074926

Pinto, Michelle F. S.; Fensterseifer, Isabel C. M.; Migliolo, Ludovico; Sousa, Daniel A.; de Capdville, Guy; Arboleda-Valencia, Jorge W.; Colgrave, Michelle L.; Craik, David J.; Magalhaes, Beatriz S.; Dias, Simoni C.; Franco, Octavio L.

2012-01-01

157

Microbial control of cotton pests. Part I: Use of the naturally occurring entomopathogenic fungus Aspergillus sp. (BC 639) in the management of Creontiades dilutus (Stal) (Hemiptera: Miridae) and beneficial insects on transgenic cotton crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and adoption of transgenic (Bt) crops that express the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin has reduced the use of synthetic insecticide on transgenic crops to target Helicoverpa spp., the major insect pest of cotton in Australia. However, it has also increased the threat posed by sucking pests, particularly Creontiades dilutus (green mirid), which are unaffected by the Bt toxins

Robert K. Mensah; Leah Austin

2012-01-01

158

Efficacy of insect growth regulators as grain protectants against two stored-product pests in wheat and maize.  

PubMed

Insect growth regulators (IGRs) (two juvenile hormone analogues [fenoxycarb and pyriproxifen], four chitin synthesis inhibitors [diflubenzuron, flufenoxuron, lufenuron, and triflumuron], one ecdysteroid agonist [methoxyfenozide], and one combination of chitin synthesis inhibitors and juvenile hormone analogues [lufenuron plus fenoxycarb]) were tested in the laboratory against adults of Prostephanus truncatus in maize and against adults of Rhyzopertha dominica in wheat. The tested IGRs were applied in maize at three doses (1, 5, and 10 ppm) and assessed at three temperature levels (20, 25, and 30°C) in the case of P. truncatus, while in the case of R. dominica the above doses were assessed only at 25°C in wheat. In addition to progeny production, mortality of the treated adults after 14 days of exposure in the IGR-treated commodities was assessed. All IGRs were very effective (>88.5% suppression of progeny) against the tested species at doses of $ 5 ppm, while diflubenzuron at 25°C in the case of P. truncatus or lufenuron and pyriproxyfen in the case of R. dominica completely suppressed (100%) progeny production when they were applied at 1 ppm. At all tested doses, the highest values of R. dominica parental mortality were observed in wheat treated with lufenuron plus fenoxycarb. Temperature at the levels examined in the present study did not appear to affect the overall performance in a great extent of the tested IGRs in terms of adult mortality or suppression of progeny production against P. truncatus in treated maize. The tested IGRs may be considered viable grain protectants and therefore as potential components in stored-product integrated pest management. PMID:22564945

Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Athanassiou, Christos G; Vayias, Basileios J; Tomanovi?, Zeljko

2012-05-01

159

Costs and benefits of thermal acclimation for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): implications for pest control and the sterile insect release programme  

PubMed Central

Sterile insect release (SIR) is used to suppress insect pest populations in agro-ecosystems, but its success hinges on the performance of the released insects and prevailing environmental conditions. For example, low temperatures dramatically reduce SIR efficacy in cooler conditions. Here, we report on the costs and benefits of thermal acclimation for laboratory and field responses of codling moth, Cydia pomonella. Using a component of field fitness, we demonstrate that low temperature acclimated laboratory-reared moths are recaptured significantly more (?2–4×) under cooler conditions in the wild relative to warm-acclimated or control moths. However, improvements in low temperature performance in cold-acclimated moths came at a cost to performance under warmer conditions. At high ambient temperatures, warm-acclimation improved field performance relative to control or cold-acclimated moths. Laboratory assessments of thermal activity and their limits matched the field results, indicating that these laboratory assays may be transferable to field performance. This study demonstrates clear costs and benefits of thermal acclimation on laboratory and field performance and the potential utility of thermal pretreatments for offsetting negative efficacy in SIR programmes under adverse thermal conditions. Consequently, the present work shows that evolutionary principles of phenotypic plasticity can be used to improve field performance and thus possibly enhance pest control programmes seeking increased efficacy.

Chidawanyika, Frank; Terblanche, John S

2011-01-01

160

Natural Enemies and the Evolution of Resistance to Transgenic Insecticidal Crops by Pest Insects: The Role of Egg Mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore the inßuence of egg mortality dynamics on the rate at which target pests evolve resistance to high-dose transgenic insecticidal crops. We develop a two-patch deterministic population genetic model in which pests can develop in either toxic or nontoxic (refuge) Þelds, and their eggs are subject to varying levels and forms of egg mortality. The three standard forms of

George E. Heimpel; Claudia Neuhauser; D. A. Andow

2005-01-01

161

A fungal insecticide engineered for fast per os killing of caterpillars has high field efficacy and safety in full-season control of cabbage insect pests.  

PubMed

Fungal insecticides developed from filamentous pathogens of insects are notorious for their slow killing action through cuticle penetration, depressing commercial interest and practical application. Genetic engineering may accelerate their killing action but cause ecological risk. Here we show that a Beauveria bassiana formulation, HV8 (BbHV8), engineered for fast per os killing of caterpillars by an insect midgut-acting toxin (Vip3Aa1) overexpressed in conidia has both high field efficacy and safety in full-season protection of cabbage from the damage of an insect pest complex dominated by Pieris rapae larvae, followed by Plutella xylostella larvae and aphids. In two fields repeatedly sprayed during summer, BbHV8 resulted in overall mean efficacies of killing of 71% and 75%, which were similar or close to the 70% and 83% efficacies achieved by commercially recommended emamectin benzoate but much higher than the 31% and 48% efficacies achieved by the same formulation of the parental wild-type strain (WT). Both BbHV8 and WT sprays exerted no adverse effect on a nontarget spider community during the trials, and the sprays did not influence saprophytic fungi in soil samples taken from the field plots during 4 months after the last spray. Strikingly, BbHV8 and the WT showed low fitness when they were released into the environment because both were decreasingly recovered from the field lacking native B. bassiana strains (undetectable 5 months after the spray), and the recovered isolates became much less tolerant to high temperature and UV-B irradiation. Our results highlight for the first time that a rationally engineered fungal insecticide can compete with a chemical counterpart to combat insect pests at an affordable cost and with low ecological risk. PMID:23956386

Liu, Yong-Jie; Liu, Jing; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Feng, Ming-Guang

2013-10-01

162

Pests in and Around the Home  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Knowledgebase of urban, structure, lawn and landscape pests. Includes sections on pest management theory; biting and stinging insects; pests of food, fabric and wood; occasional invaders; lawn pests; landscape pests, and some vertebrate pests. Includes pest identification keys. This is an excellent resource, although much of the material is specific to Florida. Vertebrate pest management sections are also of high quality and interesting. Requires a CD-ROM drive and a web browser. $25.

0002-11-30

163

Phloem-specific expression of the lectin gene from Allium sativum confers resistance to the sap-sucker Nilaparvata lugens.  

PubMed

Rice production is severely hampered by insect pests. Garlic lectin gene (ASAL) holds great promise in conferring protection against chewing (lepidopteran) and sap-sucking (homopteran) insect pests. We have developed transgenic rice lines resistant to sap-sucking brown hopper (Nilaparvata lugens) by ectopic expression of ASAL in their phloem tissues. Molecular analyses of T0 lines confirmed stable integration of transgene. T1 lines (NP 1-2, 4-3, 11-6 & 17-7) showed active transcription and translation of ASAL transgene. ELISA revealed ASAL expression was as high as 0.95% of total soluble protein. Insect bioassays on T2 homozygous lines (NP 18 & 32) revealed significant reduction (~74-83%) in survival rate, development and fecundity of brown hoppers in comparison to wild type. Transgenics exhibited enhanced resistance (1-2 score) against brown hoppers, minimal plant damage and no growth penalty or phenotypic abnormalities. PMID:24563293

Chandrasekhar, Kottakota; Vijayalakshmi, Muvva; Vani, Kalasamudramu; Kaul, Tanushri; Reddy, Malireddy K

2014-05-01

164

Thermal Tolerance of the Coffee Berry Borer Hypothenemus hampei: Predictions of Climate Change Impact on a Tropical Insect Pest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coffee is predicted to be severely affected by climate change. We determined the thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer , Hypothenemus hampei, the most devastating pest of coffee worldwide, and make inferences on the possible effects of climate change using climatic data from Colombia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. For this, the effect of eight temperature regimes (15, 20, 23,

Juliana Jaramillo; Adenirin Chabi-Olaye; Charles Kamonjo; Alvaro Jaramillo; Fernando E. Vega; Hans-Michael Poehling; Christian Borgemeister; Sean Rands

2009-01-01

165

Effect of some Ghanaian plant components on control of two stored-product insect pests of cereals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to find natural and cheaper methods for the control of stored-product pests of cereals, some traditionally useful Ghanaian plant materials were evaluated. Hexane+isopropyl alcohol extract of leaves of Ocimum viride proved most effective in the control of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), followed by that of Chromolaena odorata. O. viride showed strong repellent

Ebenezer O Owusu

2000-01-01

166

Limited genetic exchanges between populations of an insect pest living on uncultivated and related cultivated host plants  

PubMed Central

Habitats in agroecosystems are ephemeral, and are characterized by frequent disturbances forcing pest species to successively colonize various hosts belonging either to the cultivated or to the uncultivated part of the agricultural landscape. The role of wild habitats as reservoirs or refuges for the aphid Sitobion avenae that colonize cultivated fields was assessed by investigating the genetic structure of populations collected on both cereal crops (wheat, barley and oat) and uncultivated hosts (Yorkshire fog, cocksfoot, bulbous oatgrass and tall oatgrass) in western France. Classical genetic analyses and Bayesian clustering algorithms indicate that genetic differentiation is high between populations collected on uncultivated hosts and on crops, revealing a relatively limited gene flow between the uncultivated margins and the cultivated part of the agroecosystem. A closer genetic relatedness was observed between populations living on plants belonging to the same tribe (Triticeae, Poeae and Aveneae tribes) where aphid genotypes appeared not to be specialized on a single host, but rather using a group of related plant species. Causes of this ecological differentiation and its implications for integrated pest management of S. avenae as cereals pest are discussed. PMID:16024367

Vialatte, Aude; Dedryver, Charles-Antoine; Simon, Jean-Christophe; Galman, Marina; Plantegenest, Manuel

2005-01-01

167

Stress for invasion success? Temperature stress of preceding generations modifies the response to insecticide stress in an invasive pest insect  

PubMed Central

Adaptation to stressful environments is one important factor influencing species invasion success. Tolerance to one stress may be complicated by exposure to other stressors experienced by the preceding generations. We studied whether parental temperature stress affects tolerance to insecticide in the invasive Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata. Field-collected pyrethroid-resistant beetles were reared under either stressful (17°C) or favourable (23°C) insecticide-free environments for three generations. Then, larvae were exposed to pyrethroid insecticides in common garden conditions (23°C). Beetles were in general tolerant to stress. The parental temperature stress alone affected beetles positively (increased adult weight) but it impaired their tolerance to insecticide exposure. In contrast, offspring from the favourable temperature regime showed compensatory weight gain in response to insecticide exposure. Our study emphasizes the potential of cross-generational effects modifying species stress tolerance. When resistant pest populations invade benign environments, a re-application of insecticides may enhance their performance via hormetic effects. In turn, opposite effects may arise if parental generations have been exposed to temperature stress. Thus, the outcome of management practices of invasive pest species is difficult to predict unless we also incorporate knowledge of the evolutionary and recent (preceding generations) stress history of the given populations into pest management. PMID:23467574

Piiroinen, Saija; Lyytinen, Anne; Lindstrom, Leena

2013-01-01

168

Post-mating interactions and their effects on fitness of female and male Echinothrips americanus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a new insect pest in China.  

PubMed

Post-mating, sexual interactions of opposite sexes differ considerably in different organisms. Post-mating interactions such as re-mating behavior and male harassment can affect the fitness of both sexes. Echinothrips americanus is a new insect pest in Mainland China, and little is known about its post-mating interactions. In this study, we observed re-mating frequency and male harassment frequency and their effects on fitness parameters and offspring sex ratios of E. americanus females. Furthermore, we tested the impact of mating and post-mating interactions on fitness parameters of males. Our results revealed that the re-mating frequency in female adults was extremely low during a 30-day period. However, post-mating interactions between females and males, consisting mainly of male harassment and female resistance, did occur and significantly reduced female longevity and fecundity. Interestingly, increased access to males did not affect the ratio of female offspring. For males, mating dramatically reduced their longevity. However, post-mating interactions with females had no effects on the longevity of mated males. These results enrich our basic knowledge about female and male mating and post-mating behaviors in this species and provide important information about factors that may influence population regulation of this important pest species. PMID:24489956

Li, Xiao-Wei; Jiang, Hong-Xue; Zhang, Xiao-Chen; Shelton, Anthony M; Feng, Ji-Nian

2014-01-01

169

EFFICACY OF AZADIRACHTA INDICA L. OIL ON BAGGING MATERIAL AGAINST SOME INSECT PESTS OF WHEAT STORED IN WAREHOUSES AT FAISALABAD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neem oil, a known insect repellent, was tried with 5%, 10%, 15% & 20% concentrations at intervals of 30, 60 & 90 days on packaging materials of two different density used for storage of wheat in warehouse under natural conditions. The warehouse had Rhizopertha dominica, Sitophilus granarius, Tribolium castaneum and Trogoderma granarium in abundance. As per statistical analysis, 10% oil

Muhammad Anwar; Muhammad Ashfaq; Faqir Muhammad Anjum

170

Examination of the biological effects of high anionic peroxidase production in tobacco plants grown under field conditions. I. Insect pest damage.  

PubMed

At least 25 wild type and high peroxidase tobacco Nicotiana tabacum L. plants were examined semiweekly over several weeks for pest insect distribution and damage in a 2 year field study. Incidence and/or severity of naturally occurring caterpillar damage (dingy cutworm (Feltia ducens Walker), black cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel), tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta L.), and false tobacco budworm (= corn earworm Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)) was significantly reduced at several sample dates for high peroxidase vs. wild type plants. These results parallel those of prior laboratory studies with caterpillars. The number of adult whiteflies (Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) per plant was significantly reduced on high peroxidase compared to wild type plants on most sample dates in both years. The number of plants with leaves containing >100 aphids (primarily Myzus persicae Sulzer) per leaf on high peroxidase plants was significantly lower that on wild type plants after an equivalent invasion period in both years. A significantly higher proportion of aphids were found dead on leaf five of high peroxidase compared to wild type plants at most sample dates in both years. These results indicate that high peroxidase plants have resistance to a wide range of insects, implicating this enzyme as a broad range resistance mechanism. PMID:16604460

Dowd, Patrick F; Lagrimini, L Mark

2006-04-01

171

Maintenance of primary cell cultures of immunocytes from Cacopsylla spp. psyllids: a new in vitro tool for the study of crop pest insects.  

PubMed

Primary cell cultures of immunocytes have been developed from the three psyllid species Cacopsylla melanoneura, Cacopsylla pyri (vectors of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma mali' and 'Candidatus Phytoplasma pyri', respectively) and Cacopsylla crataegi. The medium most suitable of those evaluated was Hert-Hunter 70 (HH70) psyllid medium. In fact, good survival and proliferation of the Cacopsylla immunocytes for over 60 d were observed, with mitosis activities starting at 15-d post culture. Moreover, adhesion and phagocytosis activities were confirmed for all the psyllid cell cultures by functionality tests. Morphological examination of cultured immunocytes revealed the presence of different cell types in all the three psyllid species in accordance to published data about insect immunocytes. The in vitro maintenance of psyllid immunocytes represents a powerful tool for a wide range of applications, especially for psyllid cell biology. In particular, in-depth studies on the biology of psyllids as vector insects as well as analyses to understand the mechanisms behind the interactions with pathogens and symbionts are now possible. These cultures can be used as an in vitro model to study psyllid humoral immune responses, which also will allow in-depth investigations on the abilities of psyllids as vectors of phytoplasmas. All these applications provide new opportunities to develop more focused and specific pest control strategies. PMID:24934235

Monti, M; Mandrioli, M; Bextine, B; Hunter, W B; Alma, A; Tedeschi, R

2014-10-01

172

HOME GROUNDS & ANIMALS 2014 Lawn: Insects 5-3  

E-print Network

HOME GROUNDS & ANIMALS 2014 Lawn: Insects 5-3 Overview The best way to minimize insect pests is to maintain a healthy, dense, stress-free lawn. The occurrence of insect pests usually is sporadic. The damage to turfgrass caused by insect pests is affected in two ways by weather conditions. First, the species of pests

Liskiewicz, Maciej

173

Vegetable Crop Pests. MEP 311.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland, this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests of vegetable crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of insects, weeds, and diseases.…

Kantzes, James G.; And Others

174

Vegetable Pests I  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Photographic gallery containing 63 images of pest beetles that attack vegetables, including adults, pupae, larvae,eggs, and the insect damage. Many illustrate rarely photographed insects; most of are good quality, some are excdeptional. Photos are provided in 3 resolutions and formats; one includes text with photographer's information, etc. Requires a CD-ROM drive and a web browser.

0002-11-30

175

Expression of snowdrop lectin in transgenic tobacco plants results in added protection against aphids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The range of sap-sucking insect pests to which GNA, (the mannose specific lectin from snowdrops (Galanthus nivalis) has been shown to be insecticidal in artificial diets has been extended to include the peach potato aphid (Myzus persicae). A gene construct for constitutive expression of GNA from the CaMV35S gene promoter has been introduced into tobacco plants. A transgenic tobacco line

V. A. Hilder; K. S. Powell; A. M. R. Gatehouse; J. A. Gatehouse; L. N. Gatehouse; Y. Shi; W. D. O. Hamilton; A. Merryweather; C. A. Newell; J. C. Timans; W. J. Peumans; E. van Damme; D. Boulter

1995-01-01

176

INSECT & MITE IDENTIFICATION  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

About fifty pest and beneficial insects and arthropods are pictured and described on these pages. Most of the images are full color with excellent behavior and control information. Insects are categorized into foliage feeders, root feeders, sucking insects, and beneficial insects.

0002-11-30

177

Sequencing and structural homology modeling of the ecdysone receptor in two chrysopids used in biological control of pest insects.  

PubMed

In insects, the process of molting and metamorphosis are mainly regulated by a steroidal hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and its analogs (ecdysteroids) that specifically bind to the ecdysone receptor ligand-binding domain (EcR-LBD). Currently, several synthetic non-steroidal ecdysone agonists, including tebufenozide, are commercially available as insecticides. Tebufenozide exerts its activity by binding to the 20E-binding site and thus activating EcR permanently. It appears that subtle differences in the architecture among LBDs may underpin the differential binding affinity of tebufenozide across taxonomic orders. In brief, first we demonstrated the harmlessness of tebufenozide towards Chrysoperla externa (Ce). Then, a molecular analysis of EcR-LBD of two neuropteran insects Chrysoperla carnea and Ce was presented. Finally, we constructed a chrysopid in silico homology model docked ponasterone A (PonA) and tebufenozide into the binding pocket and analyzed the amino acids indentified as critical for binding to PonA and tebufenozide. Due to a restrict extent in the cavity at the bottom of the ecdysone-binding pocket a steric clash occurred upon docking of tebufenozide. The absence of harm biological effect and the docking results suggest that tebufenozide is prevented of any deleterious effects on chrysopids. PMID:22270356

Zotti, Moises João; Christiaens, Olivier; Rougé, Pierre; Grutzmacher, Anderson Dionei; Zimmer, Paulo Dejalma; Smagghe, Guy

2012-04-01

178

Insect Answers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage from Texas A&M University's Department of Entomology is a consolidated body of information on insects. Clicking on "Insect Help Publications" provides links to a number of extension service documents, with topics such as Home Gardens, Urban and Household, Medical and Veterinary, and Spanish. Other Insect Answers include information on managing pest problems, insect images and sounds, identification, and honey bees. On the right hand side of the page more information about the Entomology Department can be found as well as their bi-monthly podcast: Bug Bytes.

2007-11-28

179

Agriculture and the promotion of insect pests: rice cultivation in river floodplains and malaria vectors in The Gambia  

PubMed Central

Background Anthropogenic modification of natural habitats can create conditions in which pest species associated with humans can thrive. In order to mitigate for these changes, it is necessary to determine which aspects of human management are associated with the promotion of those pests. Anopheles gambiae, the main Africa malaria vector, often breeds in rice fields. Here the impact of the ancient practice of 'swamp rice' cultivation, on the floodplains of the Gambia River, on the production of anopheline mosquitoes was investigated. Methods Routine surveys were carried out along 500 m transects crossing rice fields from the landward edge of the floodplains to the river during the 2006 rainy season. Aquatic invertebrates were sampled using area samplers and emergence traps and fish sampled using nets. Semi-field experiments were used to investigate whether nutrients used for swamp rice cultivation affected mosquito larval abundance. Results At the beginning of the rainy season rice is grown on the landward edge of the floodplain; the first area to flood with fresh water and one rich in cattle dung. Later, rice plants are transplanted close to the river, the last area to dry out on the floodplain. Nearly all larval and adult stages of malaria vectors were collected 0–100 m from the landward edge of the floodplains, where immature rice plants were grown. These paddies contained stagnant freshwater with high quantities of cattle faeces. Semi-field studies demonstrated that cattle faeces nearly doubled the number of anopheline larvae compared with untreated water. Conclusion Swamp rice cultivation creates ideal breeding sites for malaria vectors. However, only those close to the landward edge harboured vectors. These sites were productive since they were large areas of standing freshwater, rich in nutrients, protected from fish, and situated close to human habitation, where egg-laying mosquitoes from the villages had short distances to fly. The traditional practice of 'swamp rice' cultivation uses different bodies of water on the floodplains to cultivate rice during the rainy season. A consequence of this cultivation is the provizion of ideal conditions for malaria vectors to thrive. As the demand for locally-produced rice grows, increased rice farming will generate great numbers of vectors; emphasizing the need to protect local communities against malaria. PMID:19635125

Jarju, Lamin BS; Fillinger, Ulrike; Green, Clare; Louca, Vasilis; Majambere, Silas; Lindsay, Steven W

2009-01-01

180

Brown Planthopper Nudivirus DNA Integrated in Its Host Genome  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera:Delphacidae), is one of the most destructive insect pests of rice crops in Asia. Nudivirus-like sequences were identified during the whole-genome sequencing of BPH. PCR examination showed that the virus sequences were present in all of the 22 BPH populations collected from East, Southeast, and South Asia. Thirty-two of the 33 nudivirus core genes were identified, including 20 homologues of baculovirus core genes. In addition, several gene clusters that were arranged collinearly with those of other nudiviruses were found in the partial virus genome. In a phylogenetic tree constructed using the supermatrix method, the original virus was grouped with other nudiviruses and was closely related to polydnavirus. Taken together, these data indicated that the virus sequences belong to a new member of the family Nudiviridae. More specifically, the virus sequences were integrated into the chromosome of its insect host during coevolution. This study is the first report of a large double-stranded circular DNA virus genome in a sap-sucking hemipteran insect. IMPORTANCE This is the first report of a large double-stranded DNA virus integrated genome in the planthopper, a plant sap-sucking hemipteran insect. It is an exciting addition to the evolutionary story of bracoviruses (polydnaviruses), nudiviruses, and baculoviruses. The results on the virus sequences integrated in the chromosomes of its insect host also represent a story of successful coevolution of an invertebrate virus and a plant sap-sucking insect. PMID:24574410

Cheng, Ruo-Lin; Xi, Yu; Lou, Yi-Han; Wang, Zhuo; Xu, Ji-Yu; Xu, Hai-Jun

2014-01-01

181

Action and Inaction Levels in Pest Management.  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Simultaneous Damage by a Complex of Pests . 9 Action Levels for Cotton Pests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Soils and Fertility. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Insecticide Resistance ......................... 10 Yield Losses... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Models .................................. 12 Economics ................................ . Insecticides ............................ . Cost/Benefit Ratios ..................... .. Production Costs ........................ . Insect Losses...

Sterling, Winfield

1984-01-01

182

Future Fitness of Female Insect Pests in Temporally Stable and Unstable Habitats and Its Impact on Habitat Utility as Refuges for Insect Resistance Management  

PubMed Central

The long-term fitness of individuals is examined in complex and temporally dynamic ecosystems. We call this multigeneration fitness measure “future fitness”. Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a polyphagous insect that feeds on many wild and cultivated hosts. While four generations of H. zea occur during the cropping season in the U.S. Mid Southern agroecosysem, the latter two generations were of most interest, as corn (which has been largely nontransgenic in the Mid-South) dominates the first two generations in the cropping system. In simulations of the evolution of resistance to Bt-transgenic crops, cotton refuge areas were found to be significantly more effective than similar soybean acreages at delaying the evolution of resistance. Cotton is a suitable host for H. zea during two late summer generations, while a soybean field is suitable for only one of these generations, therefore soybean fields of other maturity groups were simulated as being attractive during the alternative generation. A hypothetical soybean variety was tested in which a single field would be attractive over both generations and it was found to be significantly more effective at delaying resistance than simulated conventional soybean varieties. Finally, the placement of individuals emerging at the start of the 3rd (first without corn) generation was simulated in either refuge cotton, conventional soybean and the hypothetical long attractive soybean and the mean number of offspring produced was measured at the end of the season. Although females in conventional and long soybean crops had the same expected fecundity, because of differences in temporal stability of the two crops, the long soybean simulations had significantly more H. zea individuals at the end of the season than the conventional soybean simulations. These simulations demonstrate that the long-term fecundity associated with an individual is dependent not only on the fecundity of that individual in its current habitat, but also the temporal stability of habitats, the ecosystem at large and the likelihood that the individual's offspring will move into different habitats. PMID:19619032

Caprio, Michael A.; Parker, C. D.; Schneider, John C.

2009-01-01

183

Forest Pest Control. Manual 94.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in forest pest control. The text discusses disease problems, insects, and herbicide use in both established forests and nurseries. (CS)

Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

184

Vegetable Pests II  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Photographic gallery containing 96 images of pests that attack vegetables, including adults, pupae, larvae, and eggs; and what the insect damage looks like. Covers mites, true bugs, hoppers, whiteflies, aphids, grasshoppers, crickets, and thrips. Most of the images are of good quality; some are exceptional. Some images depict frequently photographed insects, but several are unique. Images are offered in 3 resolutions and file formats. Requires a CD-ROM drive and a web browser.

0002-11-30

185

Agricultural Plant Pest Control. Manual 93.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides for the agricultural plant pest control category. The text discusses the insect pests including caterpillars, beetles, and soil inhabiting insects; diseases and nematodes; and weeds. Consideration is given…

Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

186

Agricultural Plant Pest Control. Bulletin 763.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual gives general information on plant pests and pesticides. First, the life-cycle and habits of some common insect pests are given. These include caterpillars, beetles and beetle larvae, and sucking insects. Next, plant diseases such as leaf diseases, wilts, root and crown rots, stem cankers, fruit rots, seed and seedling diseases, and…

French, John C.; And Others

187

Ornamental and Turf Pest Control. Bulletin 764.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual gives descriptions of and methods for control of diseases and insect pests of ornamental plants, weeds, and diseases and insect pests of turf plants. Included are diseases caused by fungi such as cankers, leaf galls, and rust; diseases caused by bacteria such as bacterial blight and crown gall; and diseases caused by nematodes and…

Bowyer, Timothy H.; And Others

188

Redbanded Leafroller Pest Introduction  

E-print Network

insects, such as leafminers, plum curculio, and apple maggot. Consult your county Extension Educator (see an important apple pest after the introduction of DDT for codling moth control in the late 1940's. Scientists will be on the trunk and scaffold limbs of the apple tree. Egg laying starts soon after emergence and continues

New Hampshire, University of

189

Ornamental, Turf and Nursery Pests. MEP 308.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland, this publication introduces the identification and control of common turf and plant pests that can be found in the urban environment. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests such as insects, weeds, and…

Morgan, Omar D.; And Others

190

A comparison of alternative plant mixes for conservation bio-control by native beneficial arthropods in vegetable cropping systems in Queensland Australia.  

PubMed

Cucurbit crops host a range of serious sap-sucking insect pests, including silverleaf whitefly (SLW) and aphids, which potentially represent considerable risk to the Australian horticulture industry. These pests are extremely polyphagous with a wide host range. Chemical control is made difficult due to resistance and pollution, and other side-effects are associated with insecticide use. Consequently, there is much interest in maximising the role of biological control in the management of these sap-sucking insect pests. This study aimed to evaluate companion cropping alongside cucurbit crops in a tropical setting as a means to increase the populations of beneficial insects and spiders so as to control the major sap-sucking insect pests. The population of beneficial and harmful insects, with a focus on SLW and aphids, and other invertebrates were sampled weekly on four different crops which could be used for habitat manipulation: Goodbug Mix (GBM; a proprietary seed mixture including self-sowing annual and perennial herbaceous flower species); lablab (Lablab purpureus L. Sweet); lucerne (Medicago sativa L.); and niger (Guizotia abyssinica (L.f.) Cass.). Lablab hosted the highest numbers of beneficial insects (larvae and adults of lacewing (Mallada signata (Schneider)), ladybird beetles (Coccinella transversalis Fabricius) and spiders) while GBM hosted the highest numbers of European bees (Apis mellifera Linnaeus) and spiders. Lucerne and niger showed little promise in hosting beneficial insects, but lucerne hosted significantly more spiders (double the numbers) than niger. Lucerne hosted sig-nificantly more of the harmful insect species of aphids (Aphis gossypii (Glover)) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer)) and heliothis (Heliothis armigera Hübner). Niger hosted significantly more vegetable weevils (Listroderes difficillis (Germar)) than the other three species. Therefore, lablab and GBM appear to be viable options to grow within cucurbits or as field boundary crops to attract and increase beneficial insects and spiders for the control of sap-sucking insect pests. Use of these bio-control strategies affords the opportunity to minimise pesticide usage and the risks associated with pollution. PMID:19323854

Qureshi, S A; Midmore, D J; Syeda, S S; Reid, D J

2010-02-01

191

Insects and Bugs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

They have been around for centuries. They sting, they bite. They cause intense itching or painful sores. They even cause allergic reactions and sometimes death. There are two types of insects that are pests to humans--those that sting and those that bite. The insects that bite do so with their mouths and include mosquitoes, chiggers, and ticks.…

Sutherland, Karen

2009-01-01

192

Monitoring Bacillus thuringiensis-susceptibility in insect pests that occur in large geographies: How to get the best information when two countries are involved  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adoption of cotton producing insecticidal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis, commonly referred to as Bt cotton, around the world has proven to be beneficial for growers and the environment. The effectiveness of this important genetically-modified crop can be jeopardized by the development of resistance to Bt cotton by pests it is meant to control, with the possibility that this phenomenon

Carlos A. Blanco; Omaththage P. Perera; Debbie Boykin; Craig Abel; Jeff Gore; Sharlene R. Matten; Juan C. Ramírez-Sagahon; Antonio P. Terán-Vargas

2007-01-01

193

Evaluation of corn hybrids expressing Cry1F, cry1A.105, Cry2Ab2, Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1, and Cry3Bb1 against southern United States insect pests.  

PubMed

Studies were conducted across the southern United States to characterize the efficacy of multiple Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) events in a field corn, Zea mays L., hybrid for control of common lepidopteran and coleopteran pests. Cry1F protein in event TC1507 and Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 proteins in event MON 89034 were evaluated against pests infesting corn on above-ground plant tissue including foliage, stalks, and ears. Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 proteins in event DAS-59122-7 and Cry3Bb1 in event MON 88017 were evaluated against the larvae of Mexican corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera zeae Krysan and Smith, which occur below-ground. Field corn hybrids containing Cry1F, Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2, Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1, and Cry3Bb1 insecticidal proteins (SmartStax) consistently demonstrated reductions in plant injury and/or reduced larval survivorship as compared with a non-Bt field corn hybrid. Efficacy provided by a field corn hybrid with multiple Bt proteins was statistically equal to or significantly better than corn hybrids containing a single event active against target pests. Single event field corn hybrids provided very high levels of control of southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella (Dyar), lesser cornstalk borer, Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zeller), and fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), and were not significantly different than field corn hybrids with multiple events. Significant increases in efficacy were observed for a field corn hybrid with multiple Bt events for sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and Mexican corn rootworm. Utilization of field corn hybrids containing multiple Bt events provides a means for managing insect resistance to Bt proteins and reduces non-Bt corn refuge requirements. PMID:23156183

Siebert, M W; Nolting, S P; Hendrix, W; Dhavala, S; Craig, C; Leonard, B R; Stewart, S D; All, J; Musser, F R; Buntin, G D; Samuel, L

2012-10-01

194

Coccinellids and the Modern Pest Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the concept of integrated pest control combining chemical and biological methods. Describes many examples of the successful use of coccinellids beetles to control other insects. Cites ecological and physiological research studies related to predator prey relationships involving coccinellids. (EB)

Hodek, Ivo

1970-01-01

195

Mutualism between a phytopathogenic fungus ( Botrytis cinerea) and a vineyard pest ( Lobesia botrana). Positive effects on insect development and oviposition behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vineyards, larvae of the grape berry moth (Lobesia botrana) favour the development of the grey mould fungus Botrytis cinerea. To study the possibility of a mutualistic relationship between these organisms, we investigated the effects of the fungus on the development and oviposition behaviour of the insect. Larvae were reared on whole plants infected or uninfected with the fungus, or

Nathalie Mondy; Blandine Charrier; Marc Fermaud; Pascale Pracros; Marie-France Corio-Costet

1998-01-01

196

Pantry and Fabric Pests in the Home  

E-print Network

stores. Sometimes sold as roach ?hotels,? sticky traps contain glue that captures crawling insects. When placed on the closet floor or on closet shelves, they trap dermestid beetles and other crawling pests. Acknowledgment Kim Schofield, Molly Keck... stores. Sometimes sold as roach ?hotels,? sticky traps contain glue that captures crawling insects. When placed on the closet floor or on closet shelves, they trap dermestid beetles and other crawling pests. Acknowledgment Kim Schofield, Molly Keck...

Merchant, Michael E.; Brown, Wizzie

2008-10-22

197

Training for Certification: Forest Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial pesticide applicators. Focusing on forest pest control, this publication examines plant and animal pest control practices for southern tree species. Contents include: (1) identification of insects, diseases, and weed tree species;…

Parker, Robert C., Comp.

198

Training for Certification: Ornamental & Turf Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial pesticide applicators. Focusing on ornamental and turf plant pest control, this publication examines the control of plant diseases, insects, and weeds. The contents are divided into a section on ornamental pest control and one on…

Mississippi State Univ., State College. Cooperative Extension Service.

199

Constitutive expression of a cowpea trypsin inhibitor gene, CpTi , in transgenic rice plants confers resistance to two major rice insect pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gene encoding a cowpea trypsin inhibitor (CpTI), which confers insect resistance in trangenic tobacco, was introduced into rice. Expression of the CpTi gene driven by the constitutively active promoter of the rice actin 1 gene (Act1) leads to high-level accumulation of the CpTI protein in transgenic rice plants. Protein extracts from transgenic rice plants exhibit a strong inhibitory activity

Deping Xu; Qingzhong Xue; David McElroy; Yogesh Mawal; Vaughan A. Hilder; Ray Wu

1996-01-01

200

PEST Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

PEST is an acronym for four sources of change: political, economic, social and technological. PEST analysis is a powerful and widely used tool for understanding strategic risk. It identifies the changes and the effects of the external macro environment on a firm's competitive position. Strategists seek to understand external factors and evaluate how business models will have to evolve, in

T. Sammut-Bonnici; D. Galea

2014-01-01

201

Self-Assembly and Release of Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus-Like Particles in an Insect Cell-Baculovirus System and Their Immunogenicity in Mice and Goats  

PubMed Central

Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an acute, febrile, viral disease of small ruminants that has a significant economic impact. For many viral diseases, vaccination with virus-like particles (VLPs) has shown considerable promise as a prophylactic approach; however, the processes of assembly and release of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) VLPs are not well characterized, and their immunogenicity in the host is unknown. In this study, VLPs of PPRV were generated in a baculovirus system through simultaneous expression of PPRV matrix (M) protein and hemaglutin in (H) or fusion (F) protein. The released VLPs showed morphology similar to that of the native virus particles. Subcutaneous injection of these VLPs (PPRV-H, PPRV-F) into mice and goats elicited PPRV-specific IgG production, increased the levels of virus neutralizing antibodies, and promoted lymphocyte proliferation. Without adjuvants, the immune response induced by the PPRV-H VLPs was comparable to that obtained using equivalent amounts of PPRV vaccine. Thus, our results demonstrated that VLPs containing PPRV M protein and H or F protein are potential “differentiating infected from vaccinated animals” (DIVA) vaccine candidates for the surveillance and eradication of PPR. PMID:25117931

Li, Wenchao; Jin, Hongyan; Sui, Xiukun; Zhao, Zhanzhong; Yang, Chenghuai; Wang, Wenquan; Li, Junping; Li, Gang

2014-01-01

202

Forest Pest Control. Bulletin 759.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual describes the major forest types, the major species, seed orchards, and tree nurseries. Methods of identifying forest insect pests and diseases are given. The most common types of insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides are described. Both sprayer and granular applicator methods are discussed. Environmental considerations are…

Coleman, V. Rodney

203

Aquatic Pest Control. Manual 99.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the aquatic pest control category. The text discusses various water use situations; aquatic weed identification; herbicide use and effects; and aquatic insects and their control. (CS)

Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

204

Potential Use of a Serpin from Arabidopsis for Pest Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although genetically modified (GM) plants expressing toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protect agricultural crops against lepidopteran and coleopteran pests, field-evolved resistance to Bt toxins has been reported for populations of several lepidopteran species. Moreover, some important agricultural pests, like phloem-feeding insects, are not susceptible to Bt crops. Complementary pest control strategies are therefore necessary to assure that the benefits provided

Fernando Alvarez-Alfageme; Jafar Maharramov; Laura Carrillo; Steven Vandenabeele; Dominique Vercammen; Frank van Breusegem; Guy Smagghe; Miguel A. Blazquez

2011-01-01

205

Biological aspects of Eriopis connexa (Germar) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) fed on different insect pests of maize (Zea mays L.) and sorghum [Sorghum bicolor L. (Moench.)].  

PubMed

Eriopis connexa (Germar) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) occurs in several countries of South America and its mass rearing is important for biological control programmes. This work evaluated biological aspects of E. connexa larva fed on eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) frozen for one day, fresh eggs of Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), S. frugiperda newly-hatched caterpillars, nymphs of Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Duration of larva, pupa and larva to adult stages differed among prey offered, whereas the prepupa stage was similar. Larva, pupa, prepupa and larva to adult viabilities were equal or major of 87.5% in all prey, except for larva fed on newly-hatched larvae of S. frugiperda. Eriopis connexa has good adaptation to different prey corroborating its polyphagous feeding habit, which evidences the potential of this natural enemy for controlling corn and sorghum pests. PMID:23917572

Silva, R B; Cruz, I; Zanuncio, J C; Figueiredo, M L C; Canevari, G C; Pereira, A G; Serrão, J E

2013-05-01

206

Differential Expression Patterns in Chemosensory and Non-Chemosensory Tissues of Putative Chemosensory Genes Identified by Transcriptome Analysis of Insect Pest the Purple Stem Borer Sesamia inferens (Walker)  

PubMed Central

Background A large number of insect chemosensory genes from different gene subfamilies have been identified and annotated, but their functional diversity and complexity are largely unknown. A systemic examination of expression patterns in chemosensory organs could provide important information. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified 92 putative chemosensory genes by analysing the transcriptome of the antennae and female sex pheromone gland of the purple stem borer Sesamia inferens, among them 87 are novel in this species, including 24 transcripts encoding for odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 24 for chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 2 for sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs), 39 for odorant receptors (ORs) and 3 for ionotropic receptors (IRs). The transcriptome analyses were validated and quantified with a detailed global expression profiling by Reverse Transcription-PCR for all 92 transcripts and by Quantitative Real Time RT-PCR for selected 16 ones. Among the chemosensory gene subfamilies, CSP transcripts are most widely and evenly expressed in different tissues and stages, OBP transcripts showed a clear antenna bias and most of OR transcripts are only detected in adult antennae. Our results also revealed that some OR transcripts, such as the transcripts of SNMP2 and 2 IRs were expressed in non-chemosensory tissues, and some CSP transcripts were antenna-biased expression. Furthermore, no chemosensory transcript is specific to female sex pheromone gland and very few are found in the heads. Conclusion Our study revealed that there are a large number of chemosensory genes expressed in S. inferens, and some of them displayed unusual expression profile in non-chemosensory tissues. The identification of a large set of putative chemosensory genes of each subfamily from a single insect species, together with their different expression profiles provide further information in understanding the functions of these chemosensory genes in S. inferens as well as other insects. PMID:23894529

Zhang, Ya-Nan; Jin, Jun-Yan; Jin, Rong; Xia, Yi-Han; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Deng, Jian-Yu; Dong, Shuang-Lin

2013-01-01

207

Bacillus thuringiensis and control of plant pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility ofB. thuringiensis as an economic insect control agent is dependent upon various factors. Consideration of three situations. whereB. thuringiensis could be used illustrates the interaction of these factors, and their contribution to determining the success or failure of the organism as an insecticide. Apple crops suffer from attack by a complex of insect pests, many of which are

Geraldine A. Hardy; R. Quinlan

1986-01-01

208

Efficacy of pyramided Bt proteins Cry1F, Cry1A.105, and cry2Ab2 expressed in Smartstax corn hybrids against lepidopteran insect pests in the northern United States.  

PubMed

Commercial field corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids transformed to express some or all of the lepidopteran insect-resistant traits present in SmartStax corn hybrids were evaluated for insecticidal efficacy against a wide range oflepidopteran corn pests common to the northern United States, during 2008 to 2011 at locations in 15 states. SmartStax hybrids contain a pyramid of two Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) derived events for lepidopteran control: event TC1507 expressing Cry1F protein and MON 89034 expressing CrylA.105 + Cry2Ab2. These studies focused on characterization of the relative efficacy of each event when expressed alone or in combination, and compared with non-Bt hybrid. Corn hybrids containing pyramided insecticidal proteins Cry1F + Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 (SmartStax) consistently showed reduced plant feeding damage by a wide range of lepidopteran larvae compared with single event and non-Bt hybrids. Corn hybrids expressing TC1507 or MON 89034 as single or pyramided events were consistently efficacious against Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner). SmartStax hybrids had less injury from Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel) and Striacosta albicosta (Smith) than corn hybrids containing only event MON 89034 but were not more efficacious than single event TC1507 hybrids. Corn hybrids with event MON 89034 provided better control of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), than event TC1507 alone. Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) efficacy was higher for hybrids with pyramid events and single events compared with the non-Bt hybrids. The spectra of activity of events TC1507 and MON 89034 differed. The combination of TC1507 + MON 89034 provided redundant control of some pests where the spectra overlapped and thereby are expected to confer a resistance management benefit. PMID:24665726

Rule, D M; Nolting, S P; Prasifka, P L; Storer, N P; Hopkins, B W; Scherder, E F; Siebert, M W; Hendrix, W H

2014-02-01

209

Insects: What are Insects?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project you will investigate insects. By the end of the project you will asnwer the essential quesetion " What are insects?" Today, you and your group members will begin by investigating what insects are in nature. Insects come in different shapes, sizes and colors. Before your groups begins the activity, take a look at some pictures by clicking the Insect Pictures link Insect Pictures. Next, your group will read the brief summary from ...

Martin, Mrs.

2009-10-22

210

cDNA cloning and heterologous expression of a wheat proteinase inhibitor of subtilisin and chymotrypsin (WSCI) that interferes with digestive enzymes of insect pests.  

PubMed

A cDNA encoding the proteinase inhibitor WSCI (wheat subtilisin/chymotrypsin inhibitor) was isolated by RT-PCR. Degenerate oligonucleotide primers were designed based on the amino acid sequence of WSCI and on the nucleotide sequence of the two homologous inhibitors (CI-2A and CI-2B) isolated from barley. For large-scale production, wsci cDNA was cloned into the E. coli vector pGEX-2T. The fusion protein GST-WSCI was efficiently produced in the bacterial expression system and, as the native inhibitor, was capable of inhibiting bacterial subtilisin, mammalian chymotrypsins and chymotrypsin-like activities present in crude extracts of a number of insect larvae ( Helicoverpa armigera , Plodia interpunctella and Tenebrio molitor ). The recombinant protein produced was also able to interfere with chymotrypsin-like activity isolated from immature wheat caryopses. These findings support a physiological role for this inhibitor during grain maturation. PMID:15899701

Di Gennaro, Simone; Ficca, Anna G; Panichi, Daniela; Poerio, Elia

2005-04-01

211

Dispensing synthetic green leaf volatiles in maize fields increases the release of sesquiterpenes by the plants, but has little effect on the attraction of pest and beneficial insects.  

PubMed

Maize plants respond to feeding by arthropod herbivores by producing a number of secondary plant compounds, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs). These herbivore-induced VOCs are not only known to attract natural enemies of the herbivores, but they may also prime inducible defences in neighbouring plants, resulting in stronger and faster defence responses in these VOC-exposed plants. Among the compounds that cause this priming effect, green leaf volatiles (GLVs) have received particular attention, as they are ubiquitous and rapidly emitted upon damage. In this study, we investigated their effects under realistic conditions by applying specially devised dispensers to release four synthetic GLVs at physiologically relevant concentrations in a series of experiments in maize fields. We compared the VOC emission of GLV-exposed maize plants to non-exposed plants and monitored the attraction of herbivores and predators, as well as parasitism of the caterpillar Spodoptera frugiperda, the most common herbivore in the experimental maize fields. We found that maize plants that were exposed to GLVs emitted increased quantities of sesquiterpenes compared to non-exposed plants. In several replicates, herbivorous insects, such as adult Diabrotica beetles and S. frugiperda larvae, were observed more frequently in GLV-treated plots and caused more damage to GLV-exposed plants than to non-exposed plants. Parasitism of S. frugiperda was only weakly affected by GLVs and overall parasitism rates of S. frugiperda were similar in GLV-exposed and non-exposed plots. The effects on insect presence depended on the distance from the GLV-dispensers at which the plants were located. The results are discussed in the context of strategies to improve biological control by enhancing plant-mediated attraction of natural enemies. PMID:21658734

von Mérey, Georg; Veyrat, Nathalie; Mahuku, George; Valdez, Raymundo Lopez; Turlings, Ted C J; D'Alessandro, Marco

2011-10-01

212

Mesoamerican Origin and Pre- and Post-Columbian Expansions of the Ranges of Acanthoscelides obtectus Say, a Cosmopolitan Insect Pest of the Common Bean  

PubMed Central

An unprecedented global transfer of agricultural resources followed the discovery of the New World; one consequence of this process was that staple food plants of Neotropical origin, such as the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), soon expanded their ranges overseas. Yet many pests and diseases were also transported. Acanthoscelides obtectus is a cosmopolitan seed predator associated with P. vulgaris. Codispersal within the host seed seems to be an important determinant of the ability of A. obtectus to expand its range over long distances. We examined the phylogeographic structure of A. obtectus by (a) sampling three mitochondrial gene sequences (12s rRNA, 16s rRNA, and the gene that encodes cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI)) throughout most of the species’ range and (b) exploring its late evolutionary history. Our findings indicate a Mesoamerican origin for the current genealogical lineages of A. obtectus. Each of the two major centers of genetic diversity of P. vulgaris (the Andes and Mesoamerica) contains a highly differentiated lineage of the bean beetle. Brazil has two additional, closely related lineages, both of which predate the Andean lineage and have the Mesoamerican lineage as their ancestor. The cosmopolitan distribution of A. obtectus has resulted from recent expansions of the two Brazilian lineages. We present additional evidence for both pre-Columbian and post-Columbian range expansions as likely events that shaped the current distribution of A. obtectus worldwide. PMID:23936139

Oliveira, Marcia Rodrigues Carvalho; Correa, Alberto Soares; de Souza, Giselle Anselmo; Guedes, Raul Narciso Carvalho; de Oliveira, Luiz Orlando

2013-01-01

213

Strategic and tactical use of movement information in pest management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several insect movement problems are discussed. Much more information is needed to make a better appraisal of the practical significance of the insect dispersal problem. Data on the time, rate, and extent of movement of insects are provided. Better techniques for measuring insect movement are developed. A better understanding of the importance of insect movement in the development and implementation of more effective and ecologically acceptable pest management strategies and tactics was proved.

Knipling, E. F.

1979-01-01

214

Visualizing a plant defense and insect counterploy: alkaloid distribution in Lobelia leaves trenched by a plusiine caterpillar.  

PubMed

Insects that feed on plants protected by latex canals often sever leaf veins or cut trenches across leaves before feeding distal to the cuts. The insects thereby depressurize the canals and reduce latex exudation at their prospective feeding site. How the cuts affect the distribution and concentration of latex chemicals was not known. We modified a microwave-assisted extraction technique to analyze the spatial distribution of alkaloids in leaves of Lobelia cardinalis (Campanulaceae) that have been trenched by a plusiine caterpillar, Enigmogramma basigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). We produced sharp two dimensional maps of alkaloid distribution by microwaving leaves to transfer alkaloids to TLC plates that were then sprayed with Dragendorff's reagent to visualize the alkaloids. The leaf prints were photographed and analyzed with image processing software for quantifying alkaloid levels. A comparison of control and trenched leaves documented that trenching reduces alkaloid levels by approximately 50% both distal and proximal to the trench. The trench becomes greatly enriched in alkaloids due to latex draining from surrounding areas. Measurements of exudation from trenched leaves demonstrate that latex pressures are rapidly restored proximal, but not distal to the trench. Thus, the trench serves not only to drain latex with alkaloids from the caterpillar's prospective feeding site, but also to isolate this section, thereby preventing an influx of latex from an extensive area that likely extends beyond the leaf. Microwave-assisted extraction of leaves has potential for diverse applications that include visualizing the impact of pathogens, leaf miners, sap-sucking insects, and other herbivores on the distribution and abundance of alkaloids and other important defensive compounds. PMID:19468794

Oppel, Craig B; Dussourd, David E; Garimella, Umadevi

2009-06-01

215

7 CFR 318.13-5 - Pest-free areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...non-pest-free area by being covered with insect-proof mesh screens or plastic tarpaulins...transit to a port, they must be packed in insect-proof cartons or containers or be covered by insect-proof mesh or plastic tarpaulins...

2012-01-01

216

Soybean Insect Control Suggestions.  

E-print Network

............................ 7 Soybean Stem Borer ....................... 8 Occasional Pests ...................... ..... . 8 Beneficial Arthropods ....................... 8 Insecticide Application Methods ............. 9 Biological Insecticides ....................... 9... Protecting Bees and Other Pollinators from Insecticides .............................. 10 Policy Statement for Making Chemical Control Recommendations ....................... 11 Soybean Insect Control Suggestions (chart) ... 12 Conversion Table...

Drees, B.M.

1985-01-01

217

76 FR 37770 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk Assessment, and Environmental Assessment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...resistance, stating that this soybean is unlikely to pose a plant pest...lepidopteran insect pests such as soybean looper, corn earworm/bollworm, fall...and yellow stripe armyworm. Soybean event MON 87701 is currently...

2011-06-28

218

Integrated Pest Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first Web site is an integrated pest management (IPM) resource from the University of Minnesota Extension Service (1) with a number of regional newsletters and crop specific fact sheets. The next resource from the University of California (2) is a comprehensive overview of IPM dealing with a wide range of topics including weather, weeds, and pesticides. Cornell University's Guide to Natural Enemies in North America (3) (last mentioned in the December 10, 1997 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) is a tutorial and guide to the beneficial insects that help control weeds, diseases, and pests. The home page for the Center for Integrated Pest Management (4) is a gateway to IPM research. Teachers wishing to incorporate the ecological concepts of IPM into their classrooms may be interested in this curriculum developed by Michigan State University (5) downloadable in Adobe Acrobat Reader format. Users looking to stay current on the subject of IPM may want to check out the IPMnet newsletters (6) from the Consortium for International Crop Protection. Brief reports of several IPM successes are posted on this New York State IPM Web site (7). Lastly, the home gardener may benefit from this (8) Texas A&M University site focusing on IPM for the home vegetable garden.

2002-01-01

219

Insect resistant cotton plants.  

PubMed

We have expressed truncated forms of the insect control protein genes of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki HD-1(cryIA(b) and HD-73 (cryIA(c) in cotton plants at levels that provided effective control of agronomically important lepidopteran insect pests. Total protection from insect damage of leaf tissue from these plants was observed in laboratory assays when tested with two lepidopteran insects, an insect relatively sensitive to the B.t.k. insect control protein, Trichoplusia ni (cabbage looper) and an insect that is 100 fold less sensitive, Spodoptera exigua (beet armyworm). Whole plants, assayed under conditions of high insect pressure with Heliothis zea (cotton bollworm) showed effective square and boll protection. Immunological analysis of the cotton plants indicated that the insect control protein represented 0.05% to 0.1% of the total soluble protein. We view these results as a major step towards the agricultural use of genetically modified plants with insect resistance in this valuable, high acreage crop. PMID:1366777

Perlak, F J; Deaton, R W; Armstrong, T A; Fuchs, R L; Sims, S R; Greenplate, J T; Fischhoff, D A

1990-10-01

220

Homeowner's Guide to Pests of Peaches, Plums and Pecans  

E-print Network

To deal with insect and disease problems on peaches, plums and pecans, it is necessary to understand the life cycles of pests and diseases. Pesticide safety instructions and spray equipment also are discussed, and spray schedules are provided....

Knutson, Allen E.; Ree, Bill; Ong, Kevin; Mott, Dale; Kamas, Jim

2005-05-17

221

Lawn and Turf Pest Control: A Guide for Commercial Applicators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed for use in training commercial pesticide applicators. It gives identification and control information for common lawn and turf diseases, insects, nematodes, weeds, and vertebrate pests. It also discusses phytotoxicity, environmental concerns, and application methods. (BB)

Khan, M. S.

222

Native and non-native pathogens, insects and animals continue to have serious negative impacts on forest ecosystems and planted forests worldwide. Climate change will alter host-pest relationships and may  

E-print Network

to combat the adverse impacts of pests. Resistance research programs, including resistance breeding international gathering of researchers and technical specialists on this topic in the past 30 years impacts on forest ecosystems and planted forests worldwide. Climate change will alter host-pest

Standiford, Richard B.

223

Common Insect and Mite Pests of Humans  

E-print Network

sources, such as detergents, cosmetics, soaps, medications, or cleaning agents. Environmental factors may also cause itching. This may be from irritants such as small fibers of paper, fabric, or insulation. Fibers can cause a crawling sensation when... sources, such as detergents, cosmetics, soaps, medications, or cleaning agents. Environmental factors may also cause itching. This may be from irritants such as small fibers of paper, fabric, or insulation. Fibers can cause a crawling sensation when...

Brown, Elizabeth; Troxclair, Noel N.

2008-09-25

224

Managing Insect Pests of Texas Sunflower  

E-print Network

is considered to be one moth per two plants during the late bud to early bloom stage. Headclipper weevil Sunflower plants that are girdled about 1 to 2 inches below the head are likely to be infested with the headclipper weevil. The adult weevil is metallic... black and about 1 /4 inch long with a long ?snout.? It is usually in the field as an adult from mid-July to early August. As females prepare to oviposit, they girdle just below the head and lay eggs in the girdled head. The girdled head then falls...

Patrick, Carl D.

1999-02-15

225

Managing Insects and Related Pests of Roses  

E-print Network

.?predator of larval and adult thrips, mites, aphids and whitefly pupae. n MITES: Metaseiulus occidentalis, Phytoseiulus persimilis, Mesoseiulus longipes (=Phytoseiulus longipes) and Neoseiulus californicus (Amblyseius californicus)?predatory mites of spider mites...; Amblyseius cucumeris, Neoseiulus cucumeris and Neoseiulus barkeri ?predatory mites of thrips; Galendromus occidentalis (=Metaseiulus occidentalis)? predatory mite of spider mites; and Hypoaspis miles?predaceous mite of shore- fly larvae and thrips pupae...

Drees, Bastiaan M.; Pemberton, Brent; Cole, Charles L.

1999-07-12

226

Digestive Proteolytic Activity in the Sunn Pest, Eurygaster integriceps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Puton (Heteroptera: Scutelleridae), is one of the most important pests of wheat and causes considerable damage to this valuable crop annually. Digestive proteinase activity of adult insects was investigated using general and specific substrates and inhibitors. Proteolytic activity was low when the common conventional substrates, azoalbumin, azocasein and hemoglobin were used to assay salivary glands

Vahid Hosseininaveh; Alireza Bandani; Fatemeh Hosseininaveh

2009-01-01

227

Global warming presents new challenges for maize pest management  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been conjectured that global warming will increase the prevalence of insect pests in many agro-ecosystems. In this paper, we quantitatively assess four of the key pests of maize, one of the most important systems in North American grain production. Using empirically generated estimates of pest overwintering thresholds and degree-day requirements, along with climate change projections from a high-resolution

Noah S Diffenbaugh; Christian H Krupke; Michael A White; Corinne E Alexander

2008-01-01

228

1976 Commercial Vegetable Pest Control Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains pest control information for commercial vegetable production. It was prepared for agricultural supply dealers, extension agents, fieldmen, and growers. It gives general precautions, information on seed treatment, growing disease-free seedlings and transplants, general soil insect control, general weed control, and spraying…

MacNab, A. A.; And Others

229

Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Home, Institutional, and Structural Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed to assist pest control operators to prepare for certification under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. The primary focus of this publication is on home, institutional, and structural pest control. The ten sections included describe: (1) Insect control; (2) Rodent control; (3) Special situation pest control; (4)…

Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

230

HISTORY, USE AND FUTURE OF MICROBIAL INSECTICIDES IN URBAN PEST CONTROL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial (bio) insecticides are products based on living micro-organisms which are pathogenic to insects. These micro-organisms have a long history of study and are considered to have great potential as pest control agents. However. in the past research has concentrated on pests of agriculture and, to a lesser extent, on medical and veterinary arthropods. Pests of the urban environment have

C. PRIOR

231

USDA RAMP PROJECT -New York 2004 REDUCED-RISK PEST MANAGEMENT IN APPLES USING PHEROMONE DISRUPTION  

E-print Network

- petal fall pests such as plum curculio, internal Lepidoptera and apple maggot, plus Intrepid and SpinUSDA RAMP PROJECT - New York 2004 REDUCED-RISK PEST MANAGEMENT IN APPLES USING PHEROMONE DISRUPTION of a seasonal program to control insect and mite pests of apples using selective (non-OP, carbamate

Agnello, Arthur M.

232

The impact of Global Warming on global crop yields due to changes in pest pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A billion people currently lack reliable access to sufficient food and almost half of the calories feeding these people come from just three crops: rice, maize, wheat. Insect pests are among the largest factors affecting the yield of these three crops, but models assessing the effects of global warming on crops rarely consider changes in insect pest pressure on crop yields. We use well-established relationships between temperature and insect physiology to project climate-driven changes in pest pressure, defined as integrated population metabolism, for the three major crops. By the middle of this century, under most scenarios, insect pest pressure is projected to increase by more than 50% in temperate areas, while increases in tropical regions will be more modest. Yield relationships indicate that the largest increases in insect pest pressure are likely to occur in areas where yield is greatest, suggesting increased strain on global food markets.

Battisti, D. S.; Tewksbury, J. J.; Deutsch, C. A.

2011-12-01

233

Plant essential oils for pest and disease management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain essential plant oils, widely used as fragrances and flavors in the perfume and food industries, have long been reputed to repel insects. Recent investigations in several countries confirm that some plant essential oils not only repel insects, but have contact and fumigant insecticidal actions against specific pests, and fungicidal actions against some important plant pathogens. As part of an

Murray B. Isman

2000-01-01

234

History of the Sterile Insect Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1930s and 1940s the idea of releasing insects of pest species to introduce sterility (sterile insect technique or SIT) into wild populations, and thus control them, was independently conceived in three extremely diverse intellectual environments. The key researchers were A. S. Serebrovskii at Moscow State University, F. L. Vanderplank at a tsetse field research station in rural Tanganyika

W. Klassen; C. F. CURTIS

235

The role of allelopathy in agricultural pest management.  

PubMed

Allelopathy is a naturally occurring ecological phenomenon of interference among organisms that may be employed for managing weeds, insect pests and diseases in field crops. In field crops, allelopathy can be used following rotation, using cover crops, mulching and plant extracts for natural pest management. Application of allelopathic plant extracts can effectively control weeds and insect pests. However, mixtures of allelopathic water extracts are more effective than the application of single-plant extract in this regard. Combined application of allelopathic extract and reduced herbicide dose (up to half the standard dose) give as much weed control as the standard herbicide dose in several field crops. Lower doses of herbicides may help to reduce the development of herbicide resistance in weed ecotypes. Allelopathy thus offers an attractive environmentally friendly alternative to pesticides in agricultural pest management. In this review, application of allelopathy for natural pest management, particularly in small-farm intensive agricultural systems, is discussed. PMID:21254327

Farooq, Muhammad; Jabran, Khawar; Cheema, Zahid A; Wahid, Abdul; Siddique, Kadambot H M

2011-05-01

236

InsectControl INSECTS ONTOBACCO  

E-print Network

43 InsectControl INSECTS ONTOBACCO Paul J. Semtner, Extension Entomologist Management ofTobacco Insects Several species of insects pose serious threats to tobacco in the field, the greenhouse, and the curing barn. Insects damage the roots, destroy the leaves and buds, reduce leaf quality, and transmit

Liskiewicz, Maciej

237

Original article Impact of insects damaging seed cones of cypress,  

E-print Network

Original article Impact of insects damaging seed cones of cypress, Cupressus sempervirens of mainland Greece, Albania and Malta were sampled for comparison. The cone entomofauna (seven insect and one according to the stand. (© Inra/Elsevier, Paris.) Cupressus sempervirens / insect pests/ cone/ seed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

238

Insect Identification Service 1 Lyle J. Buss2  

E-print Network

RFSR010 Insect Identification Service 1 Lyle J. Buss2 1. This document is RFSR010, one of a series There are thousands of insect species in Florida. Most are harmless or even beneficial, but some are pests. It is very important to correctly identify the insect before deciding which control measures to take, or deciding

Jawitz, James W.

239

Binding of garlic ( Allium sativum) leaf lectin to the gut receptors of homopteran pests is correlated to its insecticidal activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The homopteran insect pests sometimes cause serious damage to many crop plants. Unfortunately this particular class of insects can not be controlled by Bacillus thuringiensis insect control protein or any other established insect control agent. However, purified garlic leaf lectin (ASAL), a 12 kDa dimeric mannose binding protein has been found to have detrimental effect on growth and survival of

Santanu Bandyopadhyay; Anita Roy; Sampa Das

2001-01-01

240

`Metarchon' : a New Term for a Class of Non-toxic Pest Control Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

CONCERN over the contamination of the environment by pesticide residues is directing attention to the possibility of combating insect pests by means of chemical or other influences which, without being toxic, are able to affect an organism adversely by inducing deviations from the normal behaviour. Insect repellents and insect attractants (both chemical and optical) are familiar examples, but they do

R. H. Wright

1964-01-01

241

Insect Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners use several types of insect sampling and collection equipment to make an insect collection. Learners can collect insects from their schoolyard or yard at home. Insect collections are a good way to estimate the abundance and number of species in an area. This can be a longterm project over a period of days or weeks.

Hill, Ryan; Vandersal, Nicole; Purcell, Alison

2011-01-01

242

Invasion of pests resistant to Bt toxins can lead to inherent non-uniqueness in genetically modified Bt-plant dynamics: Mathematical modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified crops are effective pest management tools for worldwide growers. However, there is a concern that pests may develop resistance to Bt-toxins produced by genetically modified Bt-plants. We study the impact of the Bt-resistant pests on Bt-crops. Furthermore, the dynamics of the Bt-plant–Bt-susceptible insects–Bt-resistant insects system is analysed and it is shown that throughout the insect reproduction period the

Alexander B. Medvinsky; Maria M. Gonik; Bai-Lian Li; Vassili V. Velkov; Horst Malchow

2006-01-01

243

HOME GROUNDS & ANIMALS 2014 4-84 Home Ornamentals: Insects of Foliage and Houseplants  

E-print Network

HOME GROUNDS & ANIMALS 2014 4-84 Home Ornamentals: Insects of Foliage and Houseplants Insects of Foliage and Houseplants Eric R. Day, Extension Entomologist, Virginia Tech Relatively few kinds of insects. The major pests include: aphids, whiteflies, mealybugs, scale insects, and mites (spider mites, cyclamen

Liskiewicz, Maciej

244

Transgenic tobacco expressing Pinellia ternata agglutinin confers enhanced resistance to aphids.  

PubMed

Tobacco leaf discs were transformed with a plasmid, pBIPTA, containing the selectable marker neomycin phosphotransferase gene (nptII) and Pinellia ternata agglutinin gene (pta) via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Thirty-two independent transgenic tobacco plants were regenerated. PCR and Southern blot analyses confirmed that the pta gene had integrated into the plant genome and northern blot analysis revealed transgene expression at various levels in transgenic plants. Genetic analysis confirmed Mendelian segregation of the transgene in T1 progeny. Insect bioassays showed that transgenic plants expressing PTA inhibited significantly the growth of peach potato aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer). This is the first report that transgenic plants expressing pta confer enhanced resistance to aphids. Our study indicates that the pta gene can be used as a supplement to the snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis) lectin gene (gna) in the control of aphids, a sap-sucking insect pest causing significant yield losses of crops. PMID:14713200

Yao, Jianhong; Pang, Yongzhen; Qi, Huaxiong; Wan, Bingliang; Zhao, Xiuyun; Kong, Weiwen; Sun, Xiaofen; Tang, Kexuan

2003-12-01

245

Science Nation: Social Insects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Yellow jackets are wasps, and though they seem eager to inflict pain, they do have some important redeeming qualities. They kill harmful garden pests and are among the most social insects on the planet, along with their stinging cousins, the ants and the social bees. In all three species, the queen lays all the eggs and the workers service the queen and help her raise the young. Georgia Institute of Technology biology professor Michael Goodisman is using National Science Foundation (NSF) support to try and understand these complex relationships and how they impact these intricate communities.

246

The use of Bacillus thuringiensis on Forest Integrated Pest Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus thuringiensis is a major microbial insecticide and a source of genes encoding several proteins toxic to insects. In this paper the authors\\u000a give a brief summary ofBacillus thuringiensis used on the integrated pest management in forestry. The derivatives of Bt strain HD1 subspkurstaki have been widely used to control the forest pests such as the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar),

Li Gui-ming; Zhang Xiang-yue; Wang Lu-quan

2001-01-01

247

Short-range movement of major agricultural pests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Visual observations of population fluctuations which cannot be accounted for by either mortality or natality are presented. Lygus bugs in the westside of the San Joaquin Valley of California are used as an example. The dispersal of most agricultural pests in one of the less known facets of their biology is discussed. Results indicate a better understanding of insect movement is needed to develop a sound pest management program.

Vansteenwyk, R.

1979-01-01

248

Biocontroh The Potential of Entomophilic Nematodes in Insect Management1  

E-print Network

in the United States, Filipjev in Russia, Steiner in Germany, and Bovien in Denmark made significant of insect pests" published by the former Imperial Bureau of Agricultural Parasitology (39). Thereafter

249

Insects of the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico. Forest Service general technical report  

SciTech Connect

In this review of the literature on forest entomology in Puerto Rico, emphasis is given to research conducted in the Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF). This review should serve as an introduction to the insects inhabiting the LEF for researchers and as a guide for the identification of possible insect pests. There are three sections to this review. The first deals with basic insect ecology; the second, forest insect pests; and the third, insect attacks on dry wood and during wood seasoning. The reference section and appendices contain information on the systematics and taxonomy of different insect orders found in Puerto Rico.

Torres, J.A.

1994-07-01

250

Insect Controls for Organic Gardeners.  

E-print Network

LDso = 1,375 mg/kg; Dermal LDso = 4,444 mg/kg This organophosphate insecticide controls aphids, spider mites and many other sucking and chewing insect pests of vegetables, fruit and ornamental plants. Malathion is one of the least toxic... LDso = 350 mg/kg; Dermal LDso = 2,000 mg/kg Rotenone is extracted from the roots of Derris plants in Asia and cube plants in South America. This general garden insecticide is harmless to plants, highly toxic to fish and many insects, moderately...

Lewis, Kenneth R.; Turney, H.A.

1979-01-01

251

Behavioral mechanisms of parasitic wasps for searching concealed insect hosts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wood borers are important forest insect pests and difficult to be controlled owing to their concealed behavior. However, parasitic wasps can effectively ascertain and parasitize wood borers as well as other concealed pests by using special searching, finding and attacking mechanisms, which have been developed during the course of long-term coevolution with their hosts. The present paper summarizes the behavioral

Wang Xiaoyi; Yang Zhongqi

2008-01-01

252

Spatial variability in ecosystem services: simple rules for predator-mediated pest suppression.  

PubMed

Agricultural pest control often relies on the ecosystem services provided by the predators of pests. Appropriate landscape and habitat management for pest control services requires an understanding of insect dispersal abilities and the spatial arrangement of source habitats for pests and their predators. Here we explore how dispersal and habitat configuration determine the locations where management actions are likely to have the biggest impact on natural pest control. The study focuses on the early colonization phase before predator reproduction takes place and when pest populations in crops are still relatively low. We developed a spatially explicit simulation model in which pest populations grow exponentially in pest patches and predators disperse across the landscape from predator patches. We generated 1000 computer-simulated landscapes in which the performance of four typical but different predator groups as biological control agents was evaluated. Predator groups represented trait combinations of poor and good dispersal ability and density-independent and density-dependent aggregation responses toward pests. Case studies from the literature were used to inform the parameterization of predator groups. Landscapes with a small nearest-neighbor distance between pest and predator patches had the lowest mean pest density at the landscape scale for all predator groups, but there can be high variation in pest density between the patches within these landscapes. Mobile and strongly aggregating predators provide the best pest suppression in the majority of landscape types. Ironically, this result is true except in landscapes with small nearest-neighbor distances between pest and predator patches. The pest control potential of mobile predators can best be explained by the mean distance between a pest patch and all predator patches in the landscape, whereas for poorly dispersing predators the distance between a pest patch and the nearest predator patch is the best explanatory variable. In conclusion, the spatial arrangement of source habitats for natural enemies of agricultural pest species can have profound effects on their potential to colonize crops and suppress pest populations. PMID:21265461

Bianchi, F J J A; Schellhorn, N A; Buckley, Y M; Possingham, H P

2010-12-01

253

Status of pesticide resistance in arthropod pests in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A complex of events and factors, pertinent to a specific insect and insecticide, governs the development of resistance to\\u000a insecticides. In Israel, resistance to conventional and novel insecticides occurred in insect pests such asBemisia tabaci andSpodoptera littoralis (that damage agricultural crops),Tribolium castaneum and other flour beetles (that contaminate stored products), andPediculus humanus spp., house flies and mosquitoes (that threaten public

A. R. Horowitz; Phyllis G. Weintraub; I. Ishaaya

1998-01-01

254

Transgenic Bt Corn Hybrids and Pest Management in the USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Corn, Zea mays L., grown in many areas of the United States suffers from a variety of insect species that attack virtually all parts of\\u000a the growing plant. Many conventional pest management programs have been developed to combat these insects with varying degrees\\u000a of success. In the mid-1990s, the commercial introduction and subsequent widespread adoption of Bt transgenic hybrids has

Siddharth Tiwari; Roger R. Youngman

255

Integrated Pest Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Australian Academy of Science's NOVA Online (discussed in the March 3, 1999 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) has added a report on integrated pest management. After 25 years, Western Australia's Ord River valley is making a comeback in cotton cultivation. This area was once abandoned because of "an uncontrollable infestation" of two native caterpillars. The article discusses integrated pest management and how it can be used to control persistent pests.

256

Insect Tolerant Cotton in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

India is one of the 13 “biotech mega-countries” in the world, growing Bt cotton commercially since 2002 (http:\\/\\/www.isaaa.org\\/). Bollgard® hybrids were approved for commercial release in 2002, followed by Bollgard II® hybrids in 2006; these were followed\\u000a by Bt cotton hybrids with two other events. In this chapter, we discuss insect pests in cotton and insecticide resistance\\u000a in major cotton

S. Parimi; B. R. Char; R. K. Goravale; C. B. Chaporkar

257

Chilled versus ambient aeration and fumigation of stored popcorn part 2: Pest management  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the summer of 1994, a prototype grain chiller was tested to determine its efficacy as a pest management tool and its economic competitiveness with conventional pest management techniques. Four popcorn bins (121.5 tonnes) at a commercial facility were utilized. Two bins were managed using traditional ambient aeration and fumigation. The remaining two bins were managed with chilled aeration. Insect

L. J. Mason; R. A. Rulon; D. E. Maier

1997-01-01

258

USDA RAMP PROJECT -New York 2003 REDUCED-RISK PEST MANAGEMENT IN APPLES USING PHEROMONE DISRUPTION  

E-print Network

, internal Lepidoptera and apple maggot, plus Confirm and SpinTor for leafrollers. All sprays were appliedUSDA RAMP PROJECT - New York 2003 REDUCED-RISK PEST MANAGEMENT IN APPLES USING PHEROMONE DISRUPTION of a seasonal program to control insect and mite pests of apples using selective (non-OP, carbamate

Agnello, Arthur M.

259

Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Fruit Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators prepare for certification under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. The primary focus of this publication is on fruit pest control. Sections included are: (1) Causes of fruit diseases; (2) Fruit fungicides and bactericides; (3) Insect and mite pests; (4) Insecticides and miticides;…

Brunner, J.; And Others

260

Pesticide Applicator Certification Training, Manual No. 1a: Agricultural Pest Control. a. Plant.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides information needed to meet the minimum standards for certification as an applicator of pesticides in the agricultural plant pest control category. Adapted for the State of Virginia, the text discusses: (1) the basics of insecticides; (2) insect pests; (3) selection and calibration of applicator equipment; and (4) the proper…

Allen, W. A.; And Others

261

Evaluation of Pest Management Tactics for Organic Apple Production A. Agnello, H. Reissig, and D. Combs  

E-print Network

Evaluation of Pest Management Tactics for Organic Apple Production A. Agnello, H. Reissig, and D number of both native and introduced insect and mite species attack apples grown in commercial apple orchards. Control of this pest complex is particularly challenging, because unlike the more arid apple

Agnello, Arthur M.

262

Historical Perspectives on Apple Production: Fruit Tree Pest Management, Regulation and  

E-print Network

2 Historical Perspectives on Apple Production: Fruit Tree Pest Management, Regulation and New. Historical Use of Pesticides in Apple Production Overview of Apple Production and Pest Management Prior in Apple Production Chemical Residues in Early Insect Management Historical Chemical Regulation Recent

Jentsch, Peter J.

263

THE OPENING OF A WORLD CLASS BIOCONTROL CENTRE FOR FOREST PESTS AT FABI  

E-print Network

that will run the facility, and specialised equipment that will allow controlled fungal and insect handling of these pests biological control is the best, if not the only, option for control. However, biological control the industry with support for the biological control of forest pests, including developing human capacity

264

Integrated Pest Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After a brief discussion of the problems of pesticide use and the status of current pest control practices, a definition of integrated pest management is given along with some examples of its successful application, and a description of some of the reasons why the concept has not been applied more widely. The major techniques which can be used as…

Council on Environmental Quality, Washington, DC.

265

Toxin delivery by the coat protein of an aphid-vectored plant virus provides plant resistance to aphids.  

PubMed

The sap-sucking insects (order Hemiptera), including aphids, planthoppers, whiteflies and stink bugs, present one of the greatest challenges for pest management in global agriculture. Insect neurotoxins offer an alternative to chemical insecticides for controlling these pests, but require delivery into the insect hemocoel. Here we use the coat protein of a luteovirus, an aphid-vectored plant virus, to deliver a spider-derived, insect-specific toxin that acts within the hemocoel. The luteovirid coat protein is sufficient for delivery of fused proteins into the hemocoel of pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum, without virion assembly. We show that when four aphid pest species-A. pisum, Rhopalosiphum padi, Aphis glycines and Myzus persicae-feed on a recombinant coat protein-toxin fusion, either in an experimental membrane sachet or in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, they experience significant mortality. Aphids fed on these fusion proteins showed signs of neurotoxin-induced paralysis. Luteovirid coat protein-insect neurotoxin fusions represent a promising strategy for transgenic control of aphids and potentially other hemipteran pests. PMID:24316580

Bonning, Bryony C; Pal, Narinder; Liu, Sijun; Wang, Zhaohui; Sivakumar, S; Dixon, Philip M; King, Glenn F; Miller, W Allen

2014-01-01

266

Potential use of a serpin from Arabidopsis for pest control.  

PubMed

Although genetically modified (GM) plants expressing toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protect agricultural crops against lepidopteran and coleopteran pests, field-evolved resistance to Bt toxins has been reported for populations of several lepidopteran species. Moreover, some important agricultural pests, like phloem-feeding insects, are not susceptible to Bt crops. Complementary pest control strategies are therefore necessary to assure that the benefits provided by those insect-resistant transgenic plants are not compromised and to target those pests that are not susceptible. Experimental GM plants producing plant protease inhibitors have been shown to confer resistance against a wide range of agricultural pests. In this study we assessed the potential of AtSerpin1, a serpin from Arabidopsis thaliana (L). Heynh., for pest control. In vitro assays were conducted with a wide range of pests that rely mainly on either serine or cysteine proteases for digestion and also with three non-target organisms occurring in agricultural crops. AtSerpin1 inhibited proteases from all pest and non-target species assayed. Subsequently, the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis Boisduval and the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) were fed on artificial diets containing AtSerpin1, and S. littoralis was also fed on transgenic Arabidopsis plants overproducing AtSerpin1. AtSerpin1 supplied in the artificial diet or by transgenic plants reduced the growth of S. littoralis larvae by 65% and 38%, respectively, relative to controls. Nymphs of A. pisum exposed to diets containing AtSerpin1 suffered high mortality levels (LC(50)?=?637 µg ml(-1)). The results indicate that AtSerpin1 is a good candidate for exploitation in pest control. PMID:21655276

Alvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; Maharramov, Jafar; Carrillo, Laura; Vandenabeele, Steven; Vercammen, Dominique; Van Breusegem, Frank; Smagghe, Guy

2011-01-01

267

OTHER PESTS AND CONDITIONS Leafy mistletoe (mostly oaks)  

E-print Network

(examples: mushroom, bread mold). Gall -- A swelling of plant tissue caused by attack of insects or diseaseOTHER PESTS AND CONDITIONS Leafy mistletoe (mostly oaks) ___ parasitic plant in tree crowns spattering on leaves Herbicide ___ leaf deformation ___ defoliation Plant parasites of tree roots ___ squaw

Liskiewicz, Maciej

268

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF COTTON INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to combat problems of insect resist- wasp Trichogramma prediosum, an egg parasite, to ance and the increasing cost of new insecticides, in- control the Heliothis complex-the cotton bollworm tegrated pest management (IPM) systems have been and the tobacco budworm-on cotton. The test was lo- developed for many crops, including cotton. Cotton cated in Portland, Arkansas, where reports

Peter S. Liapis; L. Joe Moffitt

1983-01-01

269

INSECTICIDE CONCENTRATIONS IN AIR AFTER APPLICATION OF PEST CONTROL STRIPS  

EPA Science Inventory

Contamination of air in homes due to spraying of pesticides is of concern to the public. A pest control strip which kills creeping and crawling insects by contact is one method of reducing the amount of insecticide in the air. Several different insecticides are now available in t...

270

Forest Pest Control and Timber Treatment Category Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. The document is a compilation of pamphlets and circulars which discuss forest management, control of undesirable woody plants, herbicides in forestry, diseases and insect pests, and equipment for pesticide application. (CS)

Bowman, James S.; Turmel, Jon P.

271

PROSPECfS AND APPROACHESFOR TRANSGENIC PEST RESISTANCE IN ENERGYTREES  

Microsoft Academic Search

POTENTIAL FOR IMPROVED YIELD OF BIOMASS TREES One of the limiting factors in biomass production is yield loss to pests. The reasons for increased insect and fungal reproduction in energy farms are identical to those in other agricultural systems: single species crops, even aged plantings, and narrow genetic diversity. The short rotation time of energy trees also magnifies the economic

K. F. Raffa; B. McCown; D. Ellis; R. Ramachandran; D. Robison; E. Zeldin

272

ADVANCES IN DEVELOPING INSECT RESISTANT MAIZE VARIETIES FOR KENYA WITHIN THE INSECT RESISTANT MAIZE FOR AFRICA (IRMA) PROJECT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lepidopteran stem borers are economically important pests of maize, a major staple in Kenya. The Insect Resistant Maize for Africa (IRMA) Project aims at increasing maize production and food security through the development and deployment of insect resistant maize. Bt maize utilizes genes that encode delta-endotoxins; proteins derived from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Suitable genes have been acquired

S. Mugo; H. DeGroote; J. Songa; M. Mulaa; B. Odhiambo; C. Taracha; D. Bergvinson; D. Hoisington; M. Gethi

273

Intervention of Phytohormone Pathways by Pathogen Effectors[OPEN  

PubMed Central

The constant struggle between plants and microbes has driven the evolution of multiple defense strategies in the host as well as offense strategies in the pathogen. To defend themselves from pathogen attack, plants often rely on elaborate signaling networks regulated by phytohormones. In turn, pathogens have adopted innovative strategies to manipulate phytohormone-regulated defenses. Tactics frequently employed by plant pathogens involve hijacking, evading, or disrupting hormone signaling pathways and/or crosstalk. As reviewed here, this is achieved mechanistically via pathogen-derived molecules known as effectors, which target phytohormone receptors, transcriptional activators and repressors, and other components of phytohormone signaling in the host plant. Herbivores and sap-sucking insects employ obligate pathogens such as viruses, phytoplasma, or symbiotic bacteria to intervene with phytohormone-regulated defenses. Overall, an improved understanding of phytohormone intervention strategies employed by pests and pathogens during their interactions with plants will ultimately lead to the development of new crop protection strategies. PMID:24920334

Kazan, Kemal; Lyons, Rebecca

2014-01-01

274

insects drawer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Insects are the dominant group of "hexapoda", arthropods with six legs. They were the first animals to develop flight. Although insects are the most common animals presently on Earth, the delicate structure of their exoskeleton limits the number of fossil representatives.

2001-03-01

275

Insecticidal Genetically Modified Crops and Insect Resistance Management (IRM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economically important crops, such as maize and cotton, have been transformed with genes encoding insecticidal proteins from\\u000a Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) to confer them protection against the most important insect pests. Of the 114 million hectares globally planted with GM\\u000a crops in 2007, over one third are insect-resistant Bt crops, and the area keeps increasing every year. The potential for insects

Juan Ferré; Jeroen Van Rie; Susan C. Macintosh

276

Progress and prospects of research on insect pathogenic viruses in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on insect pathogenic viruses in India is reviewed. So far, 22 nuclear polyhedrosis viruses, eight granulosis viruses, one cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus and one entomopox virus have been reported from insect pests, but very few systematic surveys of insect pathogens have been made. Pathology, morphology, bioassay, stability, transmission, safety, field trials, compatability studies and future prospects are among the topics

V. M. Pawar; S. L. Dhawan

1983-01-01

277

Research Paper Segmentation of touching insects based on optical flow and  

E-print Network

Research Paper Segmentation of touching insects based on optical flow and NCuts Qing Yao a in paddy fields. This paper focuses on developing a segmentation method for separating the touching insects in the rice light-trap insect image from our imaging system to automatically identify and count rice pests

278

Insect Management in the Home Garden1 Susan E. Webb and Freddie A. Johnson2  

E-print Network

ENY-476 Insect Management in the Home Garden1 Susan E. Webb and Freddie A. Johnson2 1 This publication provides information to aid homeowners in managing insect pests in a vegetable garden. Growing-round. Unfortunately, the same climate which is so ideal for gardening also provides conditions in which insects thrive

Jawitz, James W.

279

Comparison of gene representation in midguts from two phytophagous insects, Bombyx mori and Ips pini, using expressed sequence tags  

Microsoft Academic Search

Midgut proteins may provide new molecular targets for insect control. This could be particularly important for some pests, such as pine bark beetles, which are difficult to control by conventional methods. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) provide information about the activity of a particular tissue, and, in the case of pest insects, may quickly identify potential targets. We present here an

Andrea L. Eigenheer; Christopher I. Keeling; Sharon Young; Claus Tittiger

2003-01-01

280

Preventing Insect Adaptation to Insect-Resistant Crops: Are Seed Mixtures or Refugia the Best Strategy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic crops expressing insecticidal toxins could soon provide safe, clean and effective means of pest control, but their usefulness will be short-lived if insects adapt to the toxins. Two planting strategies are among those that have been recommended to delay crop failure: susceptible insects could be conserved by planting either `refugia', i.e. separate fields of toxic and toxin-free crop, or

James Mallet; Patrick Porter

1992-01-01

281

Poultry Pest Management  

E-print Network

External parasites can transmit diseases, decrease egg production, increase feed costs and reduce weight gains in poultry. This bulletin focuses on control measures, as well as the characteristics, hosts, life cycle and habits of poultry pests....

Tomberlin, Jeffery K.; Drees, Bastiaan M.

2007-05-18

282

Pest Management Specialist (AFSC 56650).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This eight-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for pest management specialists. Covered in the individual volumes are civil engineering; pest management (entomology, pest management planning and coordination, and safety and protective equipment); pest management chemicals and…

Air Univ., Gunter AFS, Ala. Extension Course Inst.

283

Biological Control of Pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Modern era is witnessing versatile application and utilization of prophecies, processes, and products of sustainable agriculture\\u000a that pose minimum or negligible negative impacts on environment. Use of microorganisms for curbing the attack of plant pathogenic\\u000a organisms\\/pests forms the foremost limb of integrated pest management and is responsible for either imparting induced systemic\\u000a resistance or improving the general health of the

Anu Kalia; Rajinder K. Mudhar

284

Nonrandom extinction patterns can modulate pest control service decline.  

PubMed

Changes in biodiversity will mediate the consequences of agricultural intensification and expansion for ecosystem services. Regulating services, like pollination and pest control, generally decline with species loss. In nature, however, relationships between service provision and species richness are not always strong, partially because anthropogenic disturbances purge species from communities in nonrandom orders. The same traits that make for effective service providers may also confer resistance or sensitivity to anthropogenic disturbances, which may either temper or accelerate declines in service provision with species loss. We modeled a community of predators interacting with insect pest prey, and identified the contexts in which pest control provision was most sensitive to species loss. We found pest populations increased rapidly when functionally unique and dietary-generalist predators were lost first, with up to 20% lower pest control provision than random loss. In general, pest abundance increased most in the scenarios that freed more pest species from predation. Species loss also decreased the likelihood that the most effective service providers were present. In communities composed of species with identical traits, predators were equally effective service providers and, when competing predators went extinct, remaining community members assumed their functional roles. In more realistic trait-diverse communities, predators differed in pest control efficacy, and remaining predators could not fully compensate for the loss of their competitors, causing steeper declines in pest control provision with predator species loss. These results highlight diet breadth in particular as a key predictor of service provision, as it affects both the way species respond to and alter their environments. More generally, our model provides testable hypotheses for predicting how nonrandom species loss alters relationships between biodiversity and pest control provision. PMID:23865234

Karp, Daniel S; Moeller, Holly V; Frishkoff, Luke O

2013-06-01

285

Insect Locomotion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A short and clever discussion comparing how insects walk to how people walk. Inverted pendulum motion, and dynamic stability as compared with static stability are discussed with excellent line drawings.

0002-11-30

286

Insect Images  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

More than 31,000 photographs of insects of most orders, as well as mites, ticks, spiders, and scorpions, are available at this site, a joint project of the University of Georgia and the USDA Forest Service. The site boasts more than 800 photographers. Many light-microscope images of smaller insects are provided. Some natural history information is provided for many of the images.

0002-11-30

287

HOME GROUNDS & ANIMALS 2014 Regulations and Basic Information: How to Use this Pest Management Guide 1-1  

E-print Network

incorporating beneficial insects, animals, and other organisms into a pest management plan to fight off harmful chapters of this guide cover external parasites of dogs and cats, outline Virginia regulations in dealing

Liskiewicz, Maciej

288

Intercropping as cultural pest control: Prospects and limitations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agriculturalists have been intercropping (simultaneously growing several crops in the same field) for centuries, and the use of polycultures continues as an important form of agriculture among indigenous peoples in the New and Old World tropics and subtropics One demonstrated advantage of intercropping is a reduction in insect pest populations, explained by higher numbers of natural insect enemies in the intercrop and/or reduced herbivore colonization and tenure time in the intercrop A review of 150 published field studies in which 198 herbivore species were studied shows that 53% of the pest species were less abundant in the intercrop, 18% were more abundant in the intercrop, 9% showed no difference, and 20% showed a variable response Two major problems of the published studies are 1) lack of experimental evidence demonstrating that reduced pest numbers in the intercrop resulted in higher yield, and 2) lack of experimental evidence demonstrating the ecological mechanisms responsible for the intercrop effect There is some theoretical and empirical work suggesting that herbivore movement patterns, rather than natural insect enemies, are often more important in accounting for reduced pest abundance in an intercrop Several examples from the author's work are presented that demonstrate ways of studying the ecological mechanisms underlying pest suppression in intercrops. The successful design of new intercropping systems to reduce pests will require a better theoretical understanding of such ecological mechanisms It is emphasized that intercropping has potential in both developed and developing countries and that many of the impediments to incorporating appropriate strategies of diversification are social rather than technological

Risch, Stephen J.

1983-01-01

289

Monitoring Stored-Product Pests in Food Processing Plants with Pheromone Trapping, Contour Mapping, and Mark-Recapture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distribution and movement patterns of severalspecies of stored-product pests in a food processing plant were investigated. The objectives of this study were to determine the temporal and spatialvariation in abundance of stored-product pests using pheromone traps; assess the effectiveness of trap type, location, and number on monitoring insect populations; and to evaluate the nature of pheromone trap capture hot spots

J. F. Campbell; M. A. Mullen; A. K. Dowdy

2002-01-01

290

Compatibility of garlic (Allium sativum L.) leaf agglutinin and Cry1Ac ?-endotoxin for gene pyramiding.  

PubMed

?-Endotoxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been used as bio-pesticides for the control of lepidopteran insect pests. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) leaf agglutinin (ASAL), being toxic to several sap-sucking pests and some lepidopteran pests, may be a good candidate for pyramiding with ?-endotoxins in transgenic plants for enhancing the range of resistance to insect pests. Since ASAL shares the midgut receptors with Cry1Ac in Helicoverpa armigera, there is possibility of antagonism in their toxicity. Our study demonstrated that ASAL increased the toxicity of Cry1Ac against H. armigera while Cry1Ac did not alter the toxicity of ASAL against cotton aphids. The two toxins interacted and increased binding of each other to brush border membrane vesicle (BBMV) proteins and to the two important receptors, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aminopeptidase N (APN). The results indicated that the toxins had different binding sites on the ALP and APN but influenced mutual binding. We conclude that ASAL can be safely employed with Cry1Ac for developing transgenic crops for wider insect resistance. PMID:21870043

Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar; Singh, Seema; Chandrashekar, Krishnappa; Tuli, Rakesh; Singh, Pradhyumna Kumar

2012-03-01

291

Forest Ecosystem Responses to Exotic Pests and Pathogens in Eastern North America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience investigates exotic pests and pathogens in eastern North America.The forests of eastern North America have been subjected to repeated introductions of exotic insect pests and pathogens over the last century, and several new pests are currently invading, or threatening to invade, the region. These pests and pathogens can have major short- and long-term impacts on forest ecosystem processes such as productivity, nutrient cycling, and support of consumer food webs. We identify six key features of the biology of exotic animal pests and the ecology of their hosts that are critical to predicting the general nature and severity of those impacts. Using three examples of introduced pests and pathogens in eastern forest ecosystems, we provide a conceptual framework for assessing potential ecosystem-scale effects.

GARY M. LOVETT, CHARLES D. CANHAM, MARY A. ARTHUR, KATHLEEN C. WEATHERS, and ROSS D. FITZHUGH (;)

2006-05-01

292

Physiological Studies and Pest Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the light of new knowledge about insecticides, future research should be conducted by plant and insect physiologists together. Plant physiologists should explain what characteristics in plants attract insects and insect physiologists should study adaptive patterns of insects and combine their knowledge to control insects. (PS)

Philogene, Bernard J. R.

1972-01-01

293

Insect Illustrations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides a set of about 20 insect illustrations, originally drawn on canvas as a WPA project during the Depression and made available by the Department of Entomology at the University of Illinois. The illustrations are primarily overviews of some of the more common insect orders. The size of the original illustrations was ca. 1.0 x 1.5 m, and some of the scanned versions on this site are small and, therefore, lacking in details. Each illustration also has a link to the Tree of Life to provide taxonomic information. The site is of particular value from a historical perspective. Of even more historical value and interest is the associated link to the Department's wonderful lantern slide collection, showing entomologists in profile and in action, along with old pictures of insects and entomological situations in field and laboratory. Those interested in teaching the history of entomology would benefit from the link to the lantern slides.

0002-11-30

294

Comparing conventional and biotechnology-based pest management.  

PubMed

Pest management has changed dramatically during the past 15 years by the introduction of transgenes into crops for the purpose of pest management. Transgenes for herbicide resistance or for production of one or more Bt toxins are the predominant pest management traits currently available. These two traits have been rapidly adopted where available because of their superior efficacy and simplification of pest management for the farmer. Furthermore, they have substantially reduced the use of environmentally and toxicologically suspect pesticides while reducing the carbon footprint of pest management as reduced tillage became more common, along with fewer trips across the field to spray pesticides. The most successful of these products have been glyphosate-resistant crops, which cover approximately 85% of all land occupied by transgenic crops. Over-reliance on glyphosate with continual use of these crops has resulted in the evolution of highly problematic glyphosate-resistant weeds. This situation has resulted in some farmers using weed management methods similar to those used with conventional crops. Evolution of resistance has not been a significant problem with Bt crops, perhaps because of a mandated resistance management strategy. Transgenic crops with multiple genes for resistance to different herbicides and resistance to additional insects will be available in the next few years. These products will offer opportunities for the kind of pest management diversity that is more sustainable than that provided by the first generation of transgenic crops. PMID:21528864

Duke, Stephen O

2011-06-01

295

The Present and Future Role of Insect-Resistant Genetically Modified Potato Cultivars in IPM  

E-print Network

potato leafroll virus and potato virus Y. Management of insect pests of potato relies almost entirely to L. decemlineata, potato virus Y, and potato leaf roll virus were registered and marketed in the USA

Douches, David S.

296

Seasonal Integrated Pest Management  

E-print Network

) helps growers use pesticides wisely in combination with other approaches to minimize economic, health, fruit injury and note defects for each management unit (e.g., orchard block), recording percentage this checklist. List key pests, monitoring techniques to be used, monitoring schedule and person responsible

297

Public Health Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual supplies information helpful to individuals wishing to become certified in public health pest control. It is designed as a technical reference for vector control workers and as preparatory material for structural applicators of restricted use pesticides to meet the General Standards of Competency required of commercial applicators. The…

Arizona Univ., Tucson. Cooperative Extension Service.

298

Insect Venoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insect venoms applied by stings of social Hymenoptera, like honey bees, vespids or ants are –together with foods and drugs – the most frequent elicitors of anaphylaxis in humans. Besides taxonomy, the biology of the responsible social Hymenoptera is important: guidelines based upon its knowledge allow to reduce the risk of further stings in patients with a history of venom

Ulrich R. Müller

2010-01-01

299

Excited Insects  

E-print Network

but not killing them doesn't actually count as true celebration. Now, China. There's a country that knows how to make a bug feel good. Bugs have their very own holiday in the Chinese calendar. It's called the Feast of the Excited Insects and it falls on March 5th...

Hacker, Randi

2011-04-06

300

Management of Cotton Insects in the Texas Blacklands.  

E-print Network

, resurgence of primary pests and increased numbers of secondary pests following insecticide p -'cations, environmental contamination with pesticides 1. .,hcreasing restrictions on pesticide use. Therefore insec tiCrdes should be applied only when necessary... the first 3 weeks of squaring. Carefully evaluate the decision to apply insecticides because treat ments may create conditions favorable for outbreaks of bollworm-tobacco budworm by destroying beneficial insects. Tarnished plant bugs can damage larger...

Anonymous,

1979-01-01

301

Dispersal strategies of phytophagous insects at a local scale: adaptive potential of aphids in an agricultural environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The spread of agriculture greatly modified the selective pressures exerted by plants on phytophagous insects, by providing these insects with a high-level resource, structured in time and space. The life history, behavioural and physiological traits of some insect species may have evolved in response to these changes, allowing them to crowd on crops and to become agricultural pests. Dispersal,

Eric Lombaert; Roger Boll; Laurent Lapchin

2006-01-01

302

The use of dyes to mark populations of beneficial insects in the field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dyes and dusts have been used to mark insects internally and externally for decades, the majority of examples coming from laboratory-reared pest species used in mark-release-recapture studies. Using dyes or dusts to mark populations of pests and beneficial insects simultaneously in the field has received less attention. We evaluated a water-soluble fluorescent dye and a resin-based fluorescent pigment sprayed on

Nancy Schellhorn; Gitta Siekmann; Catherine Paull; Geoff Furness; Greg Baker

2004-01-01

303

Insects: A nutritional alternative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Insects are considered as potential food sources in space. Types of insects consumed are discussed. Hazards of insect ingestion are considered. Insect reproduction, requirements, and raw materials conversion are discussed. Nutrition properties and composition of insects are considered. Preparation of insects as human food is discussed.

Dufour, P. A.

1981-01-01

304

Integrated Pest Management for sweetpotato in Eastern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sweetpotato is an important crop in Eastern Africa. Sweetpotato weevils ( Cylas puncticollis Boheman and C. brunneus Fabricius; Coleoptera: Apionidae) cause damage to roots and vines<\\/TT>throughout the crop's production area. Other insect pests of sweetpotato are of regional importance. The aim of the research project was to gain insight in the biology and ecology of sweetpotato weevils and, based on

N. E. J. M. Smit

1997-01-01

305

Cotton Insect Losses for 1993 Michael R. Williams; Extension Entomologist; Chairman  

E-print Network

Cotton Insect Losses for 1993 Michael R. Williams; Extension Entomologist; Chairman Cooperative-----Dr. Ronald H. Smith Arkansas-----Dr. Don Johnson Arizona-----Dr. Peter Ellsworth California-----Dr. Peter the leading pests of cotton. Lygus and Thrips at 0.88% were tied for third most damaging pest. Beet armyworms

Ray, David

306

Incorporation of the insect growth regulator Novaluron into Michigan Apple Production for Apple Maggot Fly Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apple Maggot Fly (AMF), Rhagoletis pomonella, is a serious pest affecting pome and stone fruits in North America. A wide variety of insecticides ranging from broad spectrum insecticides to more selective in insecticides, such as Insect Growth Regulators (IGRs), have been used to control AMF. Several cases of sub lethal activities of activities of IGRs, Novaluron, in key pests have

Peter Nelson; Soo-Hoon Samuel Kim; John C. Wise; Mark E. Whalon

307

Insect-resistant transgenic plants in a multi-trophic context  

Microsoft Academic Search

So far, genetic engineering of plants in the context of insect pest control has involved insertion of genes that code for toxins, and may be characterized as the incorporation of biopesticides into classical plant breeding. In the context of pesticide usage in pest control, natural enemies of herbivores have received increasing attention, because carnivorous arthropods are an important component of

Astrid T. Groot; Marcel Dicke

2002-01-01

308

Modeling evolution of behavioral resistance by an insect to crop rotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop rotation has traditionally been a valuable method for managing pests, but now a serious insect pest of maize (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)) has developed behavioral resistance to rotation. A simple model of adult behavior and population genetics can explain how this resistance may have developed. This general model indicates that evolution may be caused by selection on

D. W. Onstad; J. L. Spencer; C. A. Guse; E. Levine; S. A. Isard

2001-01-01

309

Sterile-Insect Methods for Control of Mosquito-Borne Diseases: An Analysis  

PubMed Central

Abstract Effective vector control, and more specifically mosquito control, is a complex and difficult problem, as illustrated by the continuing prevalence (and spread) of mosquito-transmitted diseases. The sterile insect technique and similar methods control certain agricultural insect pest populations in a species-specific, environmentally sound, and effective manner; there is increased interest in applying this approach to vector control. Such an approach, like all others in use and development, is not a one-size-fits-all solution, and will be more appropriate in some situations than others. In addition, the proposed release of pest insects, and more so genetically modified pest insects, is bound to raise questions in the general public and the scientific community as to such a method's efficacy, safety, and sustainability. This article attempts to address these concerns and indicate where sterile-insect methods are likely to be useful for vector control. PMID:19725763

Benedict, Mark; Bellini, Romeo; Clark, Gary G.; Dame, David A.; Service, Mike W.; Dobson, Stephen L.

2010-01-01

310

Natural enemy interactions constrain pest control in complex agricultural landscapes.  

PubMed

Biological control of pests by natural enemies is a major ecosystem service delivered to agriculture worldwide. Quantifying and predicting its effectiveness at large spatial scales is critical for increased sustainability of agricultural production. Landscape complexity is known to benefit natural enemies, but its effects on interactions between natural enemies and the consequences for crop damage and yield are unclear. Here, we show that pest control at the landscape scale is driven by differences in natural enemy interactions across landscapes, rather than by the effectiveness of individual natural enemy guilds. In a field exclusion experiment, pest control by flying insect enemies increased with landscape complexity. However, so did antagonistic interactions between flying insects and birds, which were neutral in simple landscapes and increasingly negative in complex landscapes. Negative natural enemy interactions thus constrained pest control in complex landscapes. These results show that, by altering natural enemy interactions, landscape complexity can provide ecosystem services as well as disservices. Careful handling of the tradeoffs among multiple ecosystem services, biodiversity, and societal concerns is thus crucial and depends on our ability to predict the functional consequences of landscape-scale changes in trophic interactions. PMID:23513216

Martin, Emily A; Reineking, Björn; Seo, Bumsuk; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

2013-04-01

311

Designing agricultural landscapes for natural pest control: a transdisciplinary approach in the Hoeksche Waard (The Netherlands)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The green–blue network of semi-natural non-crop landscape elements in agricultural landscapes has the potential to enhance\\u000a natural pest control by providing various resources for the survival of beneficial insects that suppress crop pests. A study\\u000a was done in the Hoeksche Waard to explore how generic scientific knowledge about the relationship between the spatial structure\\u000a of the green–blue network and enhancement

Eveliene G. Steingröver; Willemien Geertsema; Walter K. R. E. van Wingerden

2010-01-01

312

Stored Product Pest Images  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Photographic gallery containing 81 images of pests of stored products, including eggs, larvae and pupae and damage photos. Mites, beetles, moths, and psocids are included. A web browser and CD-ROM drive are required to view the images. Images are of high quality and the accompanying text is generally accurate and informative. The larval lesser mealworm is mis-captioned as an adult. Navigation of the images is easy.

0002-11-30

313

Boosting the sterile insect technique to control mosquitoes.  

PubMed

Mosquitoes are vectors of major diseases. Auto-dissemination recently proved very efficient to control Aedes species, using adult females contaminated with dissemination stations of juvenile hormone to treat breeding habitats, but cannot be used at large scales. Here we propose to combine it to the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) to create a new control concept, named 'boosted SIT' that might enable the area-wide eradication of mosquitoes and many other vectors and insect pests. PMID:24746400

Bouyer, Jérémy; Lefrançois, Thierry

2014-06-01

314

Managing Insect and Mite Pests of Texas Corn.  

E-print Network

............................... " ......... 5 Pre-Plant Insecticide Application ....................... 5 At Plant Insecticide Application ........................ 5 White Grubs and Cutworms ............................ 6 Wireworms, Seedcorn Maggot and Seecicorn Beetle ........ 7 Corn... .............................. 15 Western Bean Cutworm ............................... 15 Grasshoppers ........................................ 16 INSECTICIDE APPLICATION METHODS ....................................... 17 PROTECTING BEES FROM INSECTICIDES...

Stewart, J.W.; Patrick, Carl; Cronholm, Gregory B.

1982-01-01

315

Managing Insects and Mite Pests of Texas Sorghum  

E-print Network

CHEMICAL MANAGEMENT METHODS .............................................7 Seed insecticide treatments ............................................7 Soil insecticide treatments ............................................ 7 Foliar and grain head... insecticide treatments ................8 Endangered Species Act ..................................................8 Bees and other pollinators ..............................................8 Inbred lines for hybrid seed production...

Cronholm, Gregory B.; Knutson, Allen E.; Parker, Roy D.; Pendleton, Bonnie

2007-06-20

316

Lantana and Verbena: How to Combat Insect and Mite Pests  

E-print Network

usually have fine, silken webbing spun across them. Among the live mites, there may be cast skins, which leave a grayish residue on the leaf?s underside. Damage from light infestations appears as yellow or gray stippled patterns on the leaves. Heavy infes... plants.? It is important to become familiar with a pesticide before using it. Always read and follow the pesticide label instructions. Be sure to use proper equipment and the rates of the product that are specified on the label. Other protective measures...

Mott, Dale; Merchant, Michael E.

2005-02-21

317

PEST&CROP INDEX 2006 INSECTS, MITES & NEMATODES  

E-print Network

and Soil Testing Available for Soybean Cyst Nematode - 1 Nematode Updates: What Should We Expect From: Latest on Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN) - 22 Nematode Updates ­ Winter Annuals and Management of Soybean Nematodes This Spring? - 8 Nematode Updates: Following the Corn and Soybean Nematodes - 16 Nematode Updates

Ginzel, Matthew

318

Pest&Crop INDEX 2005 INSECTS, MITES & NEMATODES  

E-print Network

Trip Observations of Soybean Aphid and Soybean Cyst Nematode - 20 Asian Lady Beetle: Beneficial This Spring - 5 Nematode Updates - 12, 18, 22 Road Trip Observations of Soybean Aphid and Soybean Cyst Nematode - 20 Changes in SCN Soil Testing Policy - 22 Winter Annual Weed and Management of Soybean Cyst

Ginzel, Matthew

319

PEST&CROP INDEX 2009 INSECTS, MITES & NEMATODES  

E-print Network

- 5 The Who's Who of Clovers - 8 Control of Marestail in No-till Soybeans - 25 Herbicides Spray Drift Injury - 11 Time to Think About Parking the Herbicide Sprayer - 20 Other Sugar Maple in No-Till Fields

Ginzel, Matthew

320

INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT IN VIRGINIA COTTON, PEANUT, SOYBEAN, AND SORGHUM  

E-print Network

, Surry Co. Bob Rogers, Sussex Co. Thanks to the producers who assisted Virginia Cooperative Extension, Prince George Co. Steve Rosbicki, Prince George Co. James Hanzlik & Son, Sussex Co. UNIVERSITY FACULTY

Liskiewicz, Maciej

321

PEST&CROP INDEX 2011 INSECTS, MITES & NEMATODES  

E-print Network

Harvest Aids in a Not So Cooperative Year ­ 23 Adjuvant Used With Herbicides: Factors to Consider - 25 into Soybean ­ 16 YouTube Video: Effective Control of Big Lambsquarter ­ 21 Corn and Soybean Herbicides and Fall Cover Crop Establishment - 21 Herbicides The Benefits of Using a Preemergence Herbicide ­ 2 VIDEO

Ginzel, Matthew

322

Responses of Lettuce Cultivars to Insect Pests in Southern Florida  

E-print Network

.7%) of BCB feeding damage among the romaine cultivars. Romaine cultivar Manatee also had significantly lower.1%). The lowest level of infestation of aphids was observed on `Manatee', followed by `70096', whereas `Okeechobee

Florida, University of

323

Managing insecticide resistance by mass release of engineered insects.  

PubMed

Transgenic crops producing insecticidal toxins are now widely used to control insect pests. The benefits of this method would be lost if resistance to the toxins spread to a significant proportion of the pest population. The primary resistance management method, mandatory in the United States, is the high-dose/ refuge strategy, requiring toxin-free crops as refuges near the insecticidal crops, and the use of toxin doses sufficiently high to kill insects heterozygous for a resistance allele, thereby rendering resistance functionally recessive. We propose that mass-release of harmless susceptible (toxin-sensitive) insects could substantially delay or even reverse the spread of resistance. Mass-release of such insects is an integral part of release of insects carrying a dominant lethal (RIDL), a method of pest control related to the sterile insect technique. We show by mathematical modeling that specific RIDL strategies could form an effective component of a resistance management strategy for plant-incorporated protectants and other toxins. PMID:17972643

Alphey, Nina; Coleman, Paul G; Donnelly, Christl A; Alphey, Luke

2007-10-01

324

Transmission and retention of Salmonella enterica by phytophagous hemipteran insects.  

PubMed

Several pest insects of human and livestock habitations are known as vectors of Salmonella enterica; however, the role of plant-feeding insects as vectors of S. enterica to agricultural crops remains unexamined. Using a hemipteran insect pest-lettuce system, we investigated the potential for transmission and retention of S. enterica. Specifically, Macrosteles quadrilineatus and Myzus persicae insects were fed S. enterica-inoculated lettuce leaf discs or artificial liquid diets confined in Parafilm sachets to allow physical contact or exclusively oral ingestion of the pathogen, respectively. After a 24-h acquisition access period, insects were moved onto two consecutive noninoculated leaf discs or liquid diets and allowed a 24-h inoculation access period on each of the two discs or sachets. Similar proportions of individuals from both species ingested S. enterica after a 24-h acquisition access period from inoculated leaf discs, but a significantly higher proportion of M. quadrilineatus retained the pathogen internally after a 48-h inoculation access period. S. enterica was also recovered from the honeydew of both species. After a 48-h inoculation access period, bacteria were recovered from a significantly higher proportion of honeydew samples from M. quadrilineatus than from M. persicae insects. The recovery of S. enterica from leaf discs and liquid diets postfeeding demonstrated that both species of insects were capable of transmitting the bacteria in ways that are not limited to mechanical transmission. Overall, these results suggest that phytophagous insects may serve as potential vectors of S. enterica in association with plants. PMID:24973069

Soto-Arias, José Pablo; Groves, Russell L; Barak, Jeri D

2014-09-01

325

Effect of plant a-amylase inhibitors on sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Puton (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae), alpha-amylase activity.  

PubMed

Plant-insect interaction is a dynamic system, subjected to continual variation and change. In order to reduce insect attack, plants developed different defence mechanisms including chemical and physical barriers such as the induction of defensive proteins, volatiles that attract predators of the insect herbivores and secondary metabolites. Proteinaceous inhibitors of alpha-amylase and proteases are widely distributed in cereals, legumes and some other plants. Because of the possible importance of these inhibitors in plant physiology and animal nutrition, extensive research has been conducted on their properties and biological effects. Sunn pest like other insect pests of wheat lives on a polysaccharide-rich diet and depends to a large extent on effectiveness of their alpha-amylases for survival, a-amylase (1-4-alpha-D-glucan glucanohydrolase) hydrolyses starch, and related polysaccharides by randomly cleaving internal alpha-1,4-glucosidic linkages and has a major role in the utilization of polysaccharides. The enzyme inhibitors act on key insect gut digestive hydrolyses, alpha-amylase. Several kinds of a-amylase inhibitors present in seeds and vegetative organs of plant, act to regulate number of phytophagous insects. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to study cereal proteinaceous inhibitors of insect digestive enzymes and their potential use as resistance factors against Sunn pest. The proteinaceous inhibitors from different cereal species including barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were extracted and tested in in vitro condition against Sunn pest alpha-amylase. Extraction was made with NaCl (0.15 M) at room temperature and further purification was done by ammonium sulphate precipitation. It was found that fractions obtained from barley had more inhibitory effect on amylase activity of Sunn pest than fractions obtained from wheat. Knowledge gained through these studies can be used to select resistant plant against insect pest. PMID:16628930

Bandani, A R

2005-01-01

326

Oviposition Behavior of Insects Used in the Biological Control of Weeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insect herbivores that irrupt to levels at which they severely damage their host plant tend to lay their eggs in clusters. Egg clumping is common among both forest pest insects and numerically dominant herbivores of goldenrod. Non-outbreak species tend to lay their eggs singly. I hypothesized that successful weed control agents, inasmuch as they can be considered outbreak species on

NAOMI CAPPUCCINO

327

Journal of Theoretical Biology 231 (2004) 121127 Modeling the invasion of recessive Bt-resistant insects  

E-print Network

and evolutionary consequence of the use of genetically modified organisms. We study the impact of Bt-resistant pests on genetically modified Bt crops. We develop and analyse a conceptual reaction�diffusion model of the Bt crop�Bt-susceptible insects�Bt-resistant insects to simulate the invasion of Bt-resistant insects

328

Managing Insect Pests ofTexas Insect pests are often a major limiting factor in Texas sunflower  

E-print Network

in the season. The adult is a small, slender, silver-to-buff gray moth about 1 /2 inch long. It is most often-green to cream colored longitudinal stripes. For the first 5 to 6 days after hatching, young larvae are rela development period. Full-grown larvae are about 3 /4 inch long. If larval feeding destroys florets before

Mukhtar, Saqib

329

Vegetable Pests III  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Photographic gallery containing 108 images of lepidopteran pests that attack vegetables, including adults, pupae, larvae, and eggs of most; pictures of damage also accompany many species. Covers caterpillars and moths/butterflies. Most of the photos are of good quality with some of excelletn quality; several species included are rarely photographed, while others are frequently documented and may be found in other sources. Images are offered in three resolutions and formats, including one with text acknowledging the phtographer. The depiction of the neonate tobacco hornworm may be a tomato hornwomr; it is difficult to tell from the picture. Requires a CD-ROM drive and a web browser.

0002-11-30

330

Vertebrate Pest Control. Sale Publication 4077.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide gives descriptions of common vertebrate pests and guidelines for using some common pesticides. The pests discussed are rats, mice, bats, moles, muskrats, ground squirrels, and gophers. Information is given for each pest on the type of damage the pest can do, the habitat and biology of the pest, and the most effective control methods.…

Stimmann, M. W.; Clark, Dell O.

331

Origin of grain storage and insect species consuming desiccated food  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dwellers of ancient Egypt (km't*) have left in their tombs, paintings and papyri an immeasurable legacy of information concerning their religion, writing, language, agriculture, food storage and pest control. Several insect species (belonging to the families Anobiidae, Braconidae, Cleridae, Curculionidae, Cyclorrhapha, Dermestidae, Phycitidae, Ptinidae and Tenebrionidae) were found in the corpses (kha't) as well as the food offerings (pert

Hermann Levinson; Anna Levinson

1994-01-01

332

TOBACCO INSECT MANAGEMENT Paul J. Semtner, Retired Extension Entomologist  

E-print Network

for hornworms and aphids after topping. 3. Adjustments in transplanting date. This reduces tobacco susceptibility to insect pests. Early-planted tobacco is often less favorable for aphids and hornworms, and more and may have reduced yield and quality. Aphid infestations are usually most serious on tobacco

Buehrer, R. Michael

333

Horticultural & Forest crops 2014 Turf: Insects 6-5  

E-print Network

and monitoring techniques, and cultural and biological control recommendations to aid turfgrass professionals by some ento- mopathogenic nematodes. Not all nematode species (named on the product label under effective. entomopathogenic (insect killing) nematode products should be applied only when the pest

Liskiewicz, Maciej

334

Cotton Insect Losses 1991 Compiled for National Cotton Council  

E-print Network

Cotton Insect Losses 1991 Compiled for National Cotton Council Robert B. Head, Chairman Cooperative. Ronald H. Smith Arkansas-- Dr. Don Johnson Arizona-- Dr. Leon Moore California-- Dr. Peter B. Goodell to have produced the greatest pest related losses in U. S. cotton in 1991. Aphid losses reported at 2

Ray, David

335

Reduction of Insect Damage in Radish with Floating Row Covers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is a short season direct seeded crop with multiple seedlings starting as soon as the ground has thawed to ensure continuous supply. Floating row covers can be used to protect crops from low temperature to stimulate germination and to exclude insect pests. There is a need to optimize the use of floating row covers for early

Djamila Rekika; Katrine A. Stewart; Guy Boivin; Sylvie Jenni

2008-01-01

336

Considerations on the use of transgenic crops for insect control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adoption of agricultural technologies, whether developed through biotechnology or other methods, depends on social, political, regulatory and biological parameters. This article first presents an example of a low-input, non-biotechnological method of pest control that, while seemingly reasonable to researchers and extension agents, was not adopted by farmers. It then analyses a method for insect management developed through biotechnology that

Anthony M. Shelton

2007-01-01

337

Encyclopaedia Britannica: Insect Phylogeny  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Traditional evolution of the insects is presented in cladogram form with a neatly organized short article describing the primitive wingless insect radiation into modern insect orders mainly during the Carboniferous period.

0002-11-30

338

Mechanisms by which pesticides affect insect immunity.  

PubMed

The current state of knowledge regarding the effect of pesticides on insect immunity is reviewed here. A basic understanding of these interactions is needed for several reasons, including to improve methods for controlling pest insects in agricultural settings, for controlling insect vectors of human diseases, and for reducing mortality in beneficial insects. Bees are particularly vulnerable to sublethal pesticide exposures because they gather nectar and pollen, concentrating environmental toxins in their nests in the process. Pesticides do have effects on immunity. Organophosphates and some botanicals have been found to impact hemocyte number, differentiation, and thus affect phagocytosis. The phenoloxidase cascade and malanization have also been shown to be affected by several insecticides. Many synthetic insecticides increase oxidative stress, and this could have severe impacts on the production of some antimicrobial peptides in insects, but research is needed to determine the actual effects. Pesticides can also affect grooming behaviors, rendering insects more susceptible to disease. Despite laboratory data documenting pesticide/pathogen interactions, little field data is available at the population level. PMID:22206912

James, R R; Xu, J

2012-02-01

339

Toxicity of fenitrothion, an organophosphorus pesticide, against summer population of sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Put. (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae).  

PubMed

The sunn pest are a group of insect representing several genera of the shield bug (Scutelleridae) and stink bug (Pentatomidae) families, with the species Eurygaster integriceps being the most economically important. The sunn pest is a major pest of wheat and barley in central and western Asia and it accounts for annual losses of 20-30% for barley and up to 100% for wheat. In the recent decades problems have intensified largely due to change in farming practices. Thus this pest threatens food security and reduces the stability of traditionally wheat-based agricultural systems. In order to control pest, the major organophosphorus insecticide used is fenitrothion. So, the aim of the current study was to determine toxicity of fenitrothion against summer population of adult sunn pest. Insecticide toxicity was measured using a topical bioassay. To do so, the toxin was dissolved in acetone and six concentrations of toxin including 25, 50, 100, 150, 175 and 200 ppm were prepared. Insects were treated on the pronotum with one micro litre aliquots of insecticide in acetone (for treatments) or acetone alone (for control). The dose-mortality relationship was assessed from above mentioned doses with 30 insects treated per dose. After treatment, insects were maintained at laboratory conditions and mortality was recorded after 48 hours. Results were corrected for control mortality with Abbott's formula and then analyzed and toxicity determined. The obtained results showed that LD10, LD50, and LD90 were 34.7, 90.43, and 235.5, respectively. PMID:16628916

Bandani, A R; Alizadeh, M; Talebi, K

2005-01-01

340

SIMPLE SYSTEM FOR THE PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF INFECTIVITY AND PATHOGENESIS OF INSECT VIRUS IN A NONTARGET ESTUARINE SHRIMP  

EPA Science Inventory

Biological control agents (biorationals) are increasingly important in pest control concepts. Certain insect viruses, particularly the baculoviruses (nuclear polyhedrosis viruses), are considered to have potential as biological pesticides, and could be used widely in the environm...

341

Modeling the invasion of recessive Bt-resistant insects: An impact on transgenic plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing public concern on ecological and evolutionary consequence of the use of genetically modified organisms. We study the impact of Bt-resistant pests on genetically modified Bt crops. We develop and analyse a conceptual reaction–diffusion model of the Bt crop–Bt-susceptible insects–Bt-resistant insects to simulate the invasion of Bt-resistant insects. We show by means of computer simulations that there

Alexander B. Medvinsky; Andrew Y. Morozov; Vassili V. Velkov; Bai-Lian Li; Mikhail S. Sokolov; Horst Malchow

2004-01-01

342

At the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU) in Alnarp, knowledge of how scents govern the behaviour of insects has created  

E-print Network

scents govern the behaviour of insects has created one of the strongest research environments in Sweden in the field of chemical ecology. The research includes controlling the attack of insect pests of agriculture, gardens and forestry and to better understand insect communication systems. The role played by nature

343

Ecological Research (2004) 19: 197207 Blackwell Science, LtdOxford, UKEREEcological Research1440-17032004 Ecological Society of Japan2004192197207Original ArticleInsect community in stored-maize facilityC. Nansen  

E-print Network

Ecological Research (2004) 19: 197­207 Blackwell Science, LtdOxford, UKEREEcological Research1440 sampling events, four topics were addressed: (i) the seasonal fluctuation in the insect community; (ii how integrated pest management strategies are implemented to control insect pest populations. Key

Palmer, Michael W.

344

Arthropod Pest Management in Greenhouses and Interiorscapes  

E-print Network

Arthropod Pest Management in Greenhouses and Interiorscapes E-1011 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Oklahoma State University Arthropod Pest of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Oklahoma State University #12;#12;Arthropod Pest Management

Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

345

PEST MANAGEMENT Comparison of Perimeter Trap Crop Varieties: Effects on Herbivory,  

E-print Network

, but this effect was not statistically signiÃ?cant. Native bees accounted for 87% of pollinator visits that reduce pesticide use, effectively manage pests, and do not disturb mutualist interactions is planted to encircle the main crop, often limiting pesticide use to the border where insects

Adler, Lynn

346

Using SkipRows for Soybean Pest Management Increases Profit Drs. Beuerlein, Hammond, Dorrance, & Dennis Mills  

E-print Network

Using SkipRows for Soybean Pest Management Increases Profit Drs. Beuerlein, Hammond, Dorrance, & Dennis Mills The Ohio State University There are several late season soybean insect and disease in late July or in August, well after the soybean canopy has closed which will cause a yield loss due

Jones, Michelle

347

Desert locust outbreaks in the Sahel: resource competition, predation and ecological effects of pest control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. The desert locust Schistocerca gregaria has been considered a major pest since ancient times, as locust swarms holding millions of insects move throughout the Sahel, northern Africa, Middle East and southern Mediterranean countries. Most research has focused on the biology of the species and the development of strategies in locust control, but little is known about the place

JOSÉ A. SÁNCHEZ-ZAPATA; JOSÉ A. DONÁZAR; ANTONIO DELGADO; MANUELA G. FORERO; OLGA CEBALLOS; FERNANDO HIRALDO

348

1 PM 3023 March 2012 The soybean aphid is an economically damaging pest  

E-print Network

when choosing a variety, including other insects, nem- atodes, diseases, and weeds. The soybean cyst1 PM 3023 March 2012 The soybean aphid is an economically damaging pest throughout much of the North Central United States. Soybean aphids are capable of reaching densities of over 1,000 per plant

Jurenka, Russell A.

349

Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Right-of-Way Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators who are engaged in right-of-way pest control to meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of Agriculture for certification. While the majority of material in this guide pertains to vegetation management, the guide also addresses right-of-way insect and fungus control. An introduction…

Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

350

Landscape-scale patterns of forest pest and pathogen damage in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem  

E-print Network

Available online xxxx Keywords: Blister rust Mountain pine beetle Whitebark pine Remote sensing Ripley's K rust, a fungal pathogen, and mountain pine beetle, an insect pest, are two dominant sources of stress populations infested with blister rust or mountain pine beetle, the shift from green to red needles

Moorcroft, Paul R.

351

Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Public Health Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed to assist public health pest control officials in meeting the certification required under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. The four sections included describe: (1) Insects of public health significance in Michigan; (2) Other arthropods that affect man; (3) Swimmers' itch parasite and snail host; and (4)…

Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

352

THE CONCEPT OF KEY PLANTS IN INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT FOR LANDSCAPES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five integrated pest management (IPM) programs for landscape plants were conducted by extension specialists at the University of Maryland between 1980 and 1982. An analysis of the insect, disease, and cultural problems of more than 30,000 plants revealed certain genera to be far more pro- blem prone than others. Genera such as Malus, Pyracantha, Cornus, Prunus, and Rosa tended to

Michael J. Raupp; John A. Davidson; John J. Homes; J. Lee Hellman

1985-01-01

353

When ecosystem services interact: crop pollination benefits depend on the level of pest control  

PubMed Central

Pollination is a key ecosystem service which most often has been studied in isolation although effects of pollination on seed set might depend on, and interact with, other services important for crop production. We tested three competing hypotheses on how insect pollination and pest control might jointly affect seed set: independent, compensatory or synergistic effects. For this, we performed a cage experiment with two levels of insect pollination and simulated pest control in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) grown for seed. There was a synergistic interaction between the two services: the gain in seed set obtained when simultaneously increasing pollination and pest control outweighed the sum of seed set gains obtained when increasing each service separately. This study shows that interactions can alter the benefits obtained from service-providing organisms, and this needs to be considered to properly manage multiple ecosystem services. PMID:23269852

Lundin, Ola; Smith, Henrik G.; Rundlof, Maj; Bommarco, Riccardo

2013-01-01

354

The de novo Transcriptome and Its Analysis in the Worldwide Vegetable Pest, Delia antiqua (Diptera: Anthomyiidae)  

PubMed Central

The onion maggot Delia antiqua is a major insect pest of cultivated vegetables, especially the onion, and a good model to investigate the molecular mechanisms of diapause. To better understand the biology and diapause mechanism of the insect pest species, D. antiqua, the transcriptome was sequenced using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. Approximately 54 million reads were obtained, trimmed, and assembled into 29,659 unigenes, with an average length of 607 bp and an N50 of 818 bp. Among these unigenes, 21,605 (72.8%) were annotated in the public databases. All unigenes were then compared against Drosophila melanogaster and Anopheles gambiae. Codon usage bias was analyzed and 332 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were detected in this organism. These data represent the most comprehensive transcriptomic resource currently available for D. antiqua and will facilitate the study of genetics, genomics, diapause, and further pest control of D. antiqua. PMID:24615268

Zhang, Yu-Juan; Hao, Youjin; Si, Fengling; Ren, Shuang; Hu, Ganyu; Shen, Li; Chen, Bin

2014-01-01

355

The de novo transcriptome and its analysis in the worldwide vegetable pest, Delia antiqua (Diptera: Anthomyiidae).  

PubMed

The onion maggot Delia antiqua is a major insect pest of cultivated vegetables, especially the onion, and a good model to investigate the molecular mechanisms of diapause. To better understand the biology and diapause mechanism of the insect pest species, D. antiqua, the transcriptome was sequenced using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. Approximately 54 million reads were obtained, trimmed, and assembled into 29,659 unigenes, with an average length of 607 bp and an N50 of 818 bp. Among these unigenes, 21,605 (72.8%) were annotated in the public databases. All unigenes were then compared against Drosophila melanogaster and Anopheles gambiae. Codon usage bias was analyzed and 332 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were detected in this organism. These data represent the most comprehensive transcriptomic resource currently available for D. antiqua and will facilitate the study of genetics, genomics, diapause, and further pest control of D. antiqua. PMID:24615268

Zhang, Yu-Juan; Hao, Youjin; Si, Fengling; Ren, Shuang; Hu, Ganyu; Shen, Li; Chen, Bin

2014-05-01

356

Understanding heliothine (Lepidoptera: Heliothinae) pests: what is a host plant?  

PubMed

Heliothine moths (Lepidoptera: Heliothinae) include some of the world's most devastating pest species. Whereas the majority of nonpest heliothinae specialize on a single plant family, genus, or species, pest species are highly polyphagous, with populations often escalating in size as they move from one crop species to another. Here, we examine the current literature on heliothine host-selection behavior with the aim of providing a knowledge base for research scientists and pest managers. We review the host relations of pest heliothines, with a particular focus on Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), the most economically damaging of all heliothine species. We then consider the important question of what constitutes a host plant in these moths, and some of the problems that arise when trying to determine host plant status from empirical studies on host use. The top six host plant families in the two main Australian pest species (H. armigera and Helicoverpa punctigera Wallengren) are the same and the top three (Asteraceae, Fabaceae, and Malvaceae) are ranked the same (in terms of the number of host species on which eggs or larvae have been identified), suggesting that these species may use similar cues to identify their hosts. In contrast, for the two key pest heliothines in the Americas, the Fabaceae contains approximately 1/3 of hosts for both. For Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), the remaining hosts are more evenly distributed, with Solanaceae next, followed by Poaceae, Asteraceae, Malvaceae, and Rosaceae. For Heliothis virescens (F.), the next highest five families are Malvaceae, Asteraceae, Solanaceae, Convolvulaceae, and Scrophulariaceae. Again there is considerable overlap in host use at generic and even species level. H. armigera is the most widely distributed and recorded from 68 plant families worldwide, but only 14 families are recorded as a containing a host in all geographic areas. A few crop hosts are used throughout the range as expected, but in some cases there are anomalies, perhaps because host plant relation studies are not comparable. Studies on the attraction of heliothines to plant odors are examined in the context of our current understanding of insect olfaction, with the aim of better understanding the connection between odor perception and host choice. Finally, we discuss research into sustainable management of pest heliothines using knowledge of heliothine behavior and ecology. A coordinated international research effort is needed to advance our knowledge on host relations in widely distributed polyphagous species instead of the localized, piecemeal approaches to understanding these insects that has been the norm to date. PMID:25026644

Cunningham, John Paul; Zalucki, Myron P

2014-06-01

357

Making Insect Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests making insect models to learn more about the world of insects. List of materials needed and recommended procedures are provided. Also suggests other interdisciplinary activities for investigating insects in the classroom, including the preparation of an insect zoo using the student-constructed models. (BC)

Sutherland, Betsy

1984-01-01

358

INSECT MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND  

E-print Network

#12;INSECT MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY #12;INSECT MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY Edited 13 14 15 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 #12;Preface vii Contributors ix 1 InsectGenomics 1 Subba R. Palli, Hua Bai, and John Wigginton 2 InsectMicroRNAs:FromMolecularMechanismstoBiologicalRoles 30 Xavier Belles

Piulachs, M. Dolors

359

The monoterpene limonene in orange peels attracts pests and microorganisms.  

PubMed

Plant volatiles include terpenoids, which are generally involved in plant defense, repelling pests and pathogens and attracting insects for herbivore control, pollination and seed dispersal. Orange fruits accumulate the monoterpene limonene at high levels in the oil glands of their fruit peels. When limonene production was downregulated in orange fruits by the transgenic expression of a limonene synthase (CitMTSE1) in the antisense configuration, these fruits were resistant to the fungus Penicillium digitatum (Pers.) Sacc. and the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri and were less attractive to the medfly pest Ceratitis capitata. These responses were reversed when the antisense transgenic orange fruits were treated with limonene. To gain more insight into the role of the limonene concentration in fruit responses to pests and pathogens, we attempted to overexpress CitMTSE1 in the sense configuration in transgenic orange fruits. Only slight increases in the amount of limonene were found in sense transgenic fruits, maybe due to the detrimental effect that excessive limonene accumulation would have on plant development. Collectively, these results suggest that when limonene reaches peak levels as the fruit develops, it becomes a signal for pest and pathogen attraction, which facilitate access to the fruit for pulp consumers and seed dispersers. PMID:22212123

Rodríguez, Ana; San Andrés, Victoria; Cervera, Magdalena; Redondo, Ana; Alquézar, Berta; Shimada, Takehiko; Gadea, José; Rodrigo, María; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Palou, Lluís; López, María M; Castañera, Pedro; Peña, Leandro

2011-11-01

360

Australian Museum Online: Insects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online exhibit provides information about insects and the scientists who study them. Topics include an introduction to the insect group (phylum Arthropoda), the process of metamorphosis, and biting and stinging insects. There are also discussions about keeping insects as pets, insect ectoparasites (fleas, lice, and others), a set of fact sheets on insect-related topics, and links to related websites. The collections page provides an overview of the Australian Museum's major insect collections, their history, and the museum's research programs and personnel.

361

Effects of material and extracts of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. against the stored product pests Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insecticidal activity of plant material (seeds and leaves) and extracts of Trigonella foenum-graecum from two sources against the stored product pests Tribolium castaneum and Acanthoscelides obtectus was investigated. Topical applications of extracts produced a high degree of mortality in both insects (at 6 and 30 ?g\\/insect). Powdered fenugreek seeds or extracts applied to Phaseolus vulgaris beans produced mortality and inhibited

Jerome Pemonge; Maria Jesus Pascual-Villalobos; Catherine Regnault-Roger

1997-01-01

362

A multi-scale, landscape approach to predicting insect populations in agroecosystems.  

PubMed

Landscape composition affects ecosystems services, including agricultural pest management. However, relationships between land use and agricultural insects are not well understood, and many complexities remain to be explored. Here we examine whether nonagricultural landscapes can directly suppress agricultural pests, how multiple spatial scales of land use concurrently affect insect populations, and the relationships between regional land use and insect populations. We tracked densities of three specialist corn (Zea mays) pests (Ostrinia nubilalis, European corn borer; Diabrotica virgifera, western corn rootworm; Diabrotica barberi, northern corn rootworm), and two generalist predator lady beetles (Coleomegilla maculata and Propylea quatuordecimpunctata) in field corn and determined their relationships to agricultural land use at three spatial scales (field perimeter, 1-km, and 20-km radius areas). Pest densities were either higher (D. virgifera and D. barberi) or unchanged (O. nubilalis) in landscapes with more corn, while natural enemy densities were either lower (C. maculata) or unchanged (P. quatuordecimpunctata). Results for D. virgifera and D. barberi indicate that decreasing the area of preferred crop in the landscape can directly suppress specialist insect pests. Multiple scales of land use affected populations of D. virgifera and C. maculata, and D. virgifera populations showed strong relationships with regional, 20-km-scale land use. These results suggest that farm planning and government policies aimed at diversifying local and regional agricultural landscapes show promise for increasing biological control and directly suppressing agricultural pests. PMID:21830718

O'Rourke, Megan E; Rienzo-Stack, Kaitlin; Power, Alison G

2011-07-01

363

Pest Risk Analysis for Hymenoscyphus  

E-print Network

and widespread in Europe (Kowalski and Holdenrieder 2009a). Because of the disparity between the emergence including the recent findings in the UK and Ireland. 2. What is the pest's status in the EC Plant Health

364

Chironomus calligraphus (Diptera: Chironomidae), a new pest species in Georgia.  

PubMed

Chironomid midges are ubiquitous and ecologically important aquatic insects. However, some species can become pests when they occur in extremely high numbers, particularly those that colonize man-made habitats. Chironomus calligraphus is a Neotropical, pan-American species that has recently been found in the Nearctic region. This paper represents the 1st reported occurrence of C. calligraphus in Georgia. Extensive larval populations were found in the leaf sheaths and root masses of cattails and in the firm sandy substrates of a wastewater lake at an industrial site in coastal Georgia. Chironomus calligraphus was causing a significant economic impact at this site. PMID:23833908

Gray, Elmer W; Royals, Candace; Epler, John H; Wyatt, Roger D; Brewer, Ben; Noblet, Ray

2012-09-01

365

Large-Scale Management of Insect Resistance to Transgenic Cotton in Arizona: Can Transgenic Insecticidal Crops be Sustained?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major challenge for agriculture is management of insect resistance to toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produced by transgenic crops. Here we describe how a large-scale program is being developed in Arizona for management of resistance to Bt cotton in the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), and other insect pests of cotton. Financial support from growers makes this

Yves Carrière; Timothy J. Dennehy; Brent Pedersen; Shirley Haller; Christa Ellers-Kirk; Larry Antilla; Yong-Biao Liu; Elizabeth Willott; Bruce E. Tabashnik

2001-01-01

366

Plant Volatile Analogues Strengthen Attractiveness to Insect  

PubMed Central

Green leaf bug Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) is one of the major pests in agriculture. Management of A. lucorum was largely achieved by using pesticides. However, the increasing population of A. lucorum since growing Bt cotton widely and the increased awareness of ecoenvironment and agricultural product safety makes their population-control very challenging. Therefore this study was conducted to explore a novel ecological approach, synthetic plant volatile analogues, to manage the pest. Here, plant volatile analogues were first designed and synthesized by combining the bioactive components of ?-ionone and benzaldehyde. The stabilities of ?-ionone, benzaldehyde and analogue 3 g were tested. The electroantennogram (EAG) responses of A. lucorum adult antennae to the analogues were recorded. And the behavior assay and filed experiment were also conducted. In this study, thirteen analogues were acquired. The analogue 3 g was demonstrated to be more stable than ?-ionone and benzaldehyde in the environment. Many of the analogues elicited EAG responses, and the EAG response values to 3 g remained unchanged during seven-day period. 3 g was also demonstrated to be attractive to A. lucorum adults in the laboratory behavior experiment and in the field. Its attractiveness persisted longer than ?-ionone and benzaldehyde. This indicated that 3 g can strengthen attractiveness to insect and has potential as an attractant. Our results suggest that synthetic plant volatile analogues can strengthen attractiveness to insect. This is the first published study about synthetic plant volatile analogues that have the potential to be used in pest control. Our results will support a new ecological approach to pest control and it will be helpful to ecoenvironment and agricultural product safety. PMID:24911460

Sun, Yufeng; Yu, Hao; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Pickett, John A.; Wu, Kongming

2014-01-01

367

Hanford site integrated pest management plan  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site Integrated Pest Management Plan (HSIPMP) defines the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) decision process and subsequent strategies by which pest problems are to be solved at all Hanford Site properties per DOE-RL Site Infrastructure Division memo (WHC 9505090). The HSIPMP defines the roles that contractor organizations play in supporting the IPM process. In short the IPM process anticipates and prevents pest activity and infestation by combining several strategies to achieve long-term pest control solutions.

Giddings, R.F.

1996-04-09

368

Wood-boring Insects of Trees and Shrubs  

E-print Network

the purchaser to have a Texas Department of Agriculture pesticide applicator?s license. Application timing and method also may be spec- ified on the label. Some products are preventive only; others are to be used during the target pest?s adult flight periods... to prevent borer entry. Otherwise they should be disposed of using direc- tions provided by city, county or state pesticide authorities. Only a few products for controlling wood-boring insects are available at retail stores. Occasionally these products...

Drees, Bastiaan M.; Jackman, John A.; Merchant, Michael E.

2008-06-17

369

Promise for plant pest control: root-associated pseudomonads with insecticidal activities  

PubMed Central

Insects are an important and probably the most challenging pest to control in agriculture, in particular when they feed on belowground parts of plants. The application of synthetic pesticides is problematic owing to side effects on the environment, concerns for public health and the rapid development of resistance. Entomopathogenic bacteria, notably Bacillus thuringiensis and Photorhabdus/Xenorhabdus species, are promising alternatives to chemical insecticides, for they are able to efficiently kill insects and are considered to be environmentally sound and harmless to mammals. However, they have the handicap of showing limited environmental persistence or of depending on a nematode vector for insect infection. Intriguingly, certain strains of plant root-colonizing Pseudomonas bacteria display insect pathogenicity and thus could be formulated to extend the present range of bioinsecticides for protection of plants against root-feeding insects. These entomopathogenic pseudomonads belong to a group of plant-beneficial rhizobacteria that have the remarkable ability to suppress soil-borne plant pathogens, promote plant growth, and induce systemic plant defenses. Here we review for the first time the current knowledge about the occurrence and the molecular basis of insecticidal activity in pseudomonads with an emphasis on plant-beneficial and prominent pathogenic species. We discuss how this fascinating Pseudomonas trait may be exploited for novel root-based approaches to insect control in an integrated pest management framework. PMID:23914197

Kupferschmied, Peter; Maurhofer, Monika; Keel, Christoph

2013-01-01

370

Respiration in Aquatic Insects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article: (1) explains the respiratory patterns of several freshwater insects; (2) describes the differences and mechanisms of spiracular cutaneous, and gill respiration; and (3) discusses behavioral aspects of selected aquatic insects. (ML)

MacFarland, John

1985-01-01

371

Plant/Insect Interactions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This list of 12 investigative questions is designed to help students observe how insects interact with plants in their habitat. The one-page printable PDF list includes questions about the insect behavior and the plant characteristics.

372

Ecophysiology and insect herbivory  

SciTech Connect

The relationship of insect herbivory to conifer physiology is examined. Aspects of nutrient assimilation, nutrient distribution, water stress, and climatic change are correlated to defoliation by insects. Other factors examined include plant age, density, structure, soils, and plant genotype.

Clancy, K.M.; Wagner, M.R.; Reich, P.B.

1995-07-01

373

Oil formulation of entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassian, against Sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps puton (Heteroptera: Scutelleridae).  

PubMed

Entomopathogenic fungi with approximately 1000 known species are key regulatory factors in insect pest population. Also, these agents infect insects by direct penetration of the cuticle and thus provide the only practical means of microbial control of insects that feed on plant or animal juices as well as for the many coleopterans and orthopteran pest which have very few known viral or bacterial diseases. Beauveria bassiana is a widespread entomopathogenic fungi that infect many insect species. The aim of the current study was to determine the effect of different composition of oil in pathogenicity of the fungus. So, the fungus was grown on Potato dextrose agar (PDA) at 25 degrees C. Conidia were harvested from 14-day sporulating cultures by scraping the surface with a spatula and suspending the conidia in sterile 0.03% aqueous Tween 80. The number of conidia was determined using an improved Neubauer haemocytometer and spore concentrations of 10(4), 10(5), 10(6), 10(7), 108 and control were prepared. Two controls were done one was different concentrations of spore without oil and the other only oil. The insects were collected from the wheat farm in and maintained on wheat plants in the laboratory at 27+/-2 degrees C under a 14 h light: 10 h dark (LD 14:10) photoperiod. Assays were done with dipping methods. The results showed that there are significant differences in mortality of insects in two spore emulsions, one oil formulated and the other spores in sterile water without oil usage. Oil formulation enhances fungal virulence toward insect. Since insect cuticle especially epicuticle (lipid layer) is the primary site of establishment of mycosis, oil formulation increase the adhesion of spore to the insect cuticle through hydrophobic interaction between the spore and cuticle surface. PMID:17385512

Bandani, A R; Esmailpour, N

2006-01-01

374

Genetic engineering of crop plants for insect resistance – a critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically engineering inherent crop resistance to insect pests offers the potential of a user-friendly, environment-friendly and consumer-friendly method of crop protection to meet the demands of sustainable agriculture in the 21st century. Work to date has concentrated on the introduction of genes for expression of modified Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins. Impressive results on the control of Bt-susceptible pests have been

Vaughan A. Hilder; Donald Boulter

1999-01-01

375

Field-Evolved Insect Resistance to Bt Crops: Definition, Theory, and Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins for insect pest control have been successful, but their efÞcacy is reduced when pests evolve resistance. Here we review the deÞnition of Þeld-evolved resistance, the relationship between resistance and Þeld control problems, the theory underlying strategies for delaying resistance, and resistance monitoring methods. We also analyze resistance monitoring data from Þve continents reported

Bruce E. Tabashnik; J. B. J. Van Rensburg; Yves Carrière

2009-01-01

376

Cis-12-oxo-phytodienoic Acid stimulates rice defense response to a piercing-sucking insect.  

PubMed

The brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens) is a destructive, monophagous, piercing-sucking insect pest of rice. Previous studies indicated that jasmonic acid (JA) positively regulates rice defense against chewing insect pests but negatively regulates it against the piercing-sucking insect of BPH. We here demonstrated that overexpression of allene oxide cyclase (AOC) but not OPR3 (cis-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) reductase 3, an enzyme adjacent to AOC in the JA synthetic pathway) significantly increased rice resistance to BPH, mainly by reducing the feeding activity and survival rate. Further analysis revealed that plant response to BPH under AOC overexpression was independent of the JA pathway and that significantly higher OPDA levels stimulated rice resistance to BPH. Microarray analysis identified multiple candidate resistance-related genes under AOC overexpression. OPDA treatment stimulated the resistance of radish seedlings to green peach aphid Myzus persicae, another piercing-sucking insect. These results imply that rice resistance to chewing insects and to sucking insects can be enhanced simultaneously through AOC-mediated increases of JA and OPDA and provide direct evidence of the potential application of OPDA in stimulating plant defense responses to piercing-sucking insect pests in agriculture. PMID:25239066

Guo, Hui-Min; Li, Hai-Chao; Zhou, Shi-Rong; Xue, Hong-Wei; Miao, Xue-Xia

2014-11-01

377

Brisbane Insects and Spiders  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Follow the adventures of the Chew family as they go to the Australian bush to study insects and spiders. While their English is not always perfect, there is a vast amount of information on Australian insects including many photographs. Clicking on "More about Insects" leads to examples of behavior, mimicry, reproduction, and evolution. The site is arranged well and the phtographs load quickly.

0002-11-30

378

Mrnussbaum.com: Insects!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An interactive site devoted to general entomology and specific information on 12 charismatic insects species including, Monarch butterflies, Morpho butterflies, mandids, Luna moths, and crickets. The site includes insect descriptions, morphology, behavior, as well as games and other interactive insect oriented entertainment. Includes the often sited formula for calculating the temperature from chirping crickets.

0002-11-30

379

Insects and Spiders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This set of teaching aids consists of nine Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing teachers and students with informational reading on insects and spiders. The bulletins have these titles: What Good Are Insects, How Insects Benefit Man, Life of the Honey Bee, Ants and Their Fascinating Ways, Mosquitoes and Other Flies, Caterpillars, Spiders and Silk,…

National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

380

Comparative genomics of insect juvenile hormone biosynthesis?  

PubMed Central

The biosynthesis of insect juvenile hormone (JH) and its neuroendocrine control are attractive targets for chemical control of insect pests and vectors of disease. To facilitate the molecular study of JH biosynthesis, we analyzed ESTs from the glands producing JH, the corpora allata (CA) in the cockroach Diploptera punctata, an insect long used as a physiological model species and compared them with ESTs from the CA of the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Anopheles albimanus. The predicted genes were analyzed according to their probable functions with the Gene Ontology classification, and compared to Drosophila and Anopheles gambiae genes. A large number of reciprocal matches in the cDNA libraries of cockroach and mosquito CA were found. These matches defined known and suspected enzymes of the JH biosynthetic pathway, but also several proteins associated with signal transduction that might play a role in the modulation of JH synthesis by neuropeptides. The identification in both cockroach and mosquito CA of homologs of the small ligand binding proteins from insects, Takeout/JH binding protein and retinol-binding protein highlights a hitherto unsuspected complexity of metabolite trafficking, perhaps JH precursor trafficking, in these endocrine glands. Furthermore, many reciprocal matches for genes of unknown function may provide a fertile ground for an in-depth study of allatal-specific cell physiology. PMID:16551550

Noriega, F.G.; Ribeiro, J.M.C.; Koener, J.F.; Valenzuela, J.G.; Hernandez-Martinez, S.; Pham, V.M.; Feyereisen, R.

2009-01-01

381

Role of phermones and kairmones for insect suppression systems and their possible health and environmental impacts.  

PubMed

Insects produce pheromones as a chemical communication system to facilitate reproduction. These highly active chemical attractants have been synthesized for some of the most important insect pests, including the boll weevil, gypsy moth, codling moth, tobacco budworm, European corn borer, and several bark beetles. While none of the synthetic sex attractants have yet been developed for use in insect control, they offer opportunities for the future both as control agents and to greatly improved insect detection. Investigations are underway on insect trapping systems employing the phermones and on air permeation techniques to disrupt insect reproduction. The pheromones are generally highly species-specific and are not likely to pose hazards to nontarget organisms in the environment. Toxicological studies indicate that they are low in toxicity to mammals, birds, and fish, but adequate toxicological data are necessary before they can be registered for use in insect control. Another new class of compounds called kaironomes has been discovered. These chemicals are involved in the detection of hosts or prey by insect parasites and predators. Kairomones may prove useful in manipulating natural or released biological agents for more effective biological control of insect pests. No information is yet available on the toxicology of these chemicals. PMID:789061

Knipling, E F

1976-04-01

382

Outbreaks of forest defoliating insects in Japan, 1950-2000.  

PubMed

In Japan, several forest-defoliating insects reach outbreak levels and cause serious defoliation. Stand mortality sometimes occurs after severe defoliation. However, in general, tree mortality caused by insect defoliation is low because of the prevailing moist climate in Japan. Evergreen conifers are more susceptible to tree mortality as a result of insect defoliation whereas deciduous broad-leaved trees are seldom killed. Insect defoliation occurs more frequently in man-made environments such as among shade trees, orchards, and plantations than in natural habitats. Outbreaks of some defoliators tend to occur in stands of a particular age: e.g. outbreaks of the pine caterpillar, Dendrolimus spectabilis Butler (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) occur more frequently in young pine plantations. In contrast, defoliation caused by outbreaks of lepidopterous and hymenopterous pests in larch plantations is more frequent with stand maturation. There is a relationship between outbreaks of some defoliators and altitude above sea level. Most outbreaks of forest defoliators were terminated by insect pathogens that operated in a density-dependent fashion. Since the 1970s, Japan has been prosperous and can afford to buy timber from abroad. More recently, there has been an increasing demand for timber in Japan, that coincides with a huge demand internationally, so that the country will need to produce more timber locally in the future. The increasing pressure on the forestry industry to meet this demand will require more sophisticated methods of pest control coupled with more sustainable methods of silviculture. PMID:12020368

Kamata, N; Kamata, N

2002-04-01

383

Evolutionary history predicts plant defense against an invasive pest  

PubMed Central

It has long been hypothesized that invasive pests may be facilitated by the evolutionary naïveté of their new hosts, but this prediction has never been examined in a phylogenetic framework. To address the hypothesis, we have been studying the invasive viburnum leaf beetle (Pyrrhalta viburni), which is decimating North American native species of Viburnum, a clade of worldwide importance as understory shrubs and ornamentals. In a phylogenetic field experiment using 16 species of Viburnum, we show that old-world Viburnum species that evolved in the presence of Pyrrhalta beetles mount a massive defensive wound response that crushes eggs of the pest insect; in contrast, naïve North American species that share no evolutionary history with Pyrrhalta beetles show a markedly lower response. This convergent continental difference in the defensive response of Viburnum spp. against insect oviposition contrasts with little difference in the quality of leaves for beetle larvae. Females show strong oviposition preferences that correspond with larval performance regardless of continental origin, which has facilitated colonization of susceptible North American species. Thus, although much attention has been paid to escape from enemies as a factor in the establishment and spread of nonnative organisms, the colonization of undefended resources seems to play a major role in the success of invasive species such as the viburnum leaf beetle. PMID:21482779

Desurmont, Gaylord A.; Donoghue, Michael J.; Clement, Wendy L.; Agrawal, Anurag A.

2011-01-01

384

New and selective ryanodine receptor activators for insect control.  

PubMed

Diamide insecticides have emerged as one of the most promising new classes of insecticide chemistry owing to their excellent insecticidal efficacy and high margins of mammalian safety. Chlorantraniliprole and flubendiamide, the first two insecticides from this class, demonstrate exceptional activity across a broad range of pests in the order Lepidoptera. This chemistry has been confirmed to control insects via activation of ryanodine receptors which leads to uncontrolled calcium release in muscle. The high levels of mammalian safety are attributed to a strong selectivity for insect over mammalian receptors. PMID:19186058

Lahm, George P; Cordova, Daniel; Barry, James D

2009-06-15

385

Phylogeographic insights into an irruptive pest outbreak  

PubMed Central

Irruptive forest insect pests cause considerable ecological and economic damage, and their outbreaks have been increasing in frequency and severity. We use a phylogeographic approach to understand the location and progression of an outbreak by the MPB (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins), an irruptive bark beetle that has caused unprecedented damage to lodgepole pine forests in western North America and is poised to expand its range across the boreal forest. We sampled MPB populations across British Columbia and Alberta and used phylogeographic methods to describe lineage diversification, characterize population structure, investigate expansion dynamics, and identify source populations of the outbreak. Using 1181 bp of mitochondrial DNA sequence from 267 individuals, we found high haplotype diversity, low nucleotide diversity, and limited lineage diversification. The overall pattern was consistent with isolation by distance at a continental scale, and with reduced diversity and population structure in the northerly, outbreak regions. Post-Pleistocene expansion was detected, however more recent expansion signals were not detected, potentially due to the size and rapid rate of range expansion. Based on the limited genetic structure, there were likely multiple source populations in southern British Columbia, although the magnitude of the demographic expansion and rate of spread have obscured the signature of these source populations. Our data highlight the need for caution in interpreting phylogeographic results for species with similar demographics. PMID:22837836

Cullingham, Catherine I; Roe, Amanda D; Sperling, Felix A H; Coltman, David W

2012-01-01

386

Discovery and characterization of sulfoxaflor, a novel insecticide targeting sap-feeding pests.  

PubMed

The discovery of sulfoxaflor [N-[methyloxido[1-[6-(trifluoromethyl)-3-pyridinyl]ethyl]-?(4)-sulfanylidene] cyanamide] resulted from an investigation of the sulfoximine functional group as a novel bioactive scaffold for insecticidal activity and a subsequent extensive structure-activity relationship study. Sulfoxaflor, the first product from this new class (the sulfoximines) of insect control agents, exhibits broad-spectrum efficacy against many sap-feeding insect pests, including aphids, whiteflies, hoppers, and Lygus, with levels of activity that are comparable to those of other classes of insecticides targeting sap-feeding insects, including the neonicotinoids. However, no cross-resistance has been observed between sulfoxaflor and neonicotinoids such as imidacloprid, apparently the result of differences in susceptibility to oxidative metabolism. Available data are consistent with sulfoxaflor acting via the insect nicotinic receptor in a complex manner. These observations reflect the unique structure of the sulfoximines compared with neonicotinoids. PMID:21105655

Zhu, Yuanming; Loso, Michael R; Watson, Gerald B; Sparks, Thomas C; Rogers, Richard B; Huang, Jim X; Gerwick, B Clifford; Babcock, Jonathan M; Kelley, Donald; Hegde, Vidyadhar B; Nugent, Benjamin M; Renga, James M; Denholm, Ian; Gorman, Kevin; DeBoer, Gerrit J; Hasler, James; Meade, Thomas; Thomas, James D

2011-04-13

387

Response of insect parasitism to elevation depends on host and parasitoid life-history strategies  

PubMed Central

How global warming will affect insect parasitoids and their role as natural enemies of insect pests is difficult to assess within a short period of time. Considering that elevation gradients can be used as analogues for global warming, we carried out meta-analyses of 27 correlations between parasitoid richness and elevation and 140 correlations between parasitism rate and elevation in natural and semi-natural environments. We also explored various covariates that may explain the observed responses. Both parasitism rates and parasitoid species richness significantly decreased with increasing elevation. The decrease was greater for ectoparasitoids and parasitoids of ectophagous insects than for endoparasitoids and parasitoids of endophagous hosts, possibly because these latter are better protected from adverse and extreme climatic conditions occurring at higher elevations. Although our results suggest an increase of parasitism with increasing temperature, other factors regulating herbivorous insects have to be considered before concluding that climate warming will lead to a decrease in pest density. PMID:23760164

Pere, Christelle; Jactel, Herve; Kenis, Marc

2013-01-01

388

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT FOR NORTH CAROLINA SCHOOLS  

E-print Network

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT FOR NORTH CAROLINA SCHOOLS Department of Crop Science #12;Distributed, Extension Associate, Urban IPM Michael Linker, IPM Coordinator, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences ............................................................................................................. 3 Part One. What Is Integrated Pest Management?...........................................4 Part Two

389

Fumigation toxicity of monoterpenoids to several stored product insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty naturally occurring monoterpenoids were evaluated in a preliminary fumigation screening test on some important stored-product pest insects, including the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae, the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, the sawtoothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis, the house fly, Musca domestica, and the German cockroach, Blattella germanica. Cineole, l-fenchone, and pulegone at 50?g\\/ml air caused 100% mortality in all five

S. Lee; C. J. Peterson; J. R. Coats

2003-01-01

390

On automatic bioacoustic detection of pests: the cases of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus and Sitophilus oryzae.  

PubMed

The present work reports research efforts toward development and evaluation of a unified framework for automatic bioacoustic recognition of specific insect pests. Our approach is based on capturing and automatically recognizing the acoustic emission resulting from typical behaviors, e.g., locomotion and feeding, of the target pests. After acquisition the signals are amplified, filtered, parameterized, and classified by advanced machine learning methods on a portable computer. Specifically, we investigate an advanced signal parameterization scheme that relies on variable size signal segmentation. The feature vector computed for each segment of the signal is composed of the dominant harmonic, which carry information about the periodicity of the signal, and the cepstral coefficients, which carry information about the relative distribution of energy among the different spectral sub-bands. This parameterization offers a reliable representation of both the acoustic emissions of the pests of interest and the interferences from the environment. We illustrate the practical significance of our methodology on two specific cases: 1) a devastating pest for palm plantations, namely, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier and 2) a pest that attacks warehouse stored rice (Oryza sativa L.), the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (both Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Dryophorinae). These pests are known in many countries around the world and contribute for significant economical loss. The proposed approach led to detection results in real field trials, reaching 99.1% on real-field recordings of R. ferrugineus and 100% for S. oryzae. PMID:19736784

Potamitis, Ilyas; Ganchev, Todor; Kontodimas, Dimitris

2009-08-01

391

Insect Mating - How Insects Attract a Mate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A short popular article detailing three major methods of insect mate seeking; visual cues, auditory cues, and pheromones. Embedded links take you to further about.com articles about cicadas, pheromones, and other topics.

0002-11-30

392

?-Amylase inhibitor-1 gene from Phaseolus vulgaris expressed in Coffea arabica plants inhibits ?-amylases from the coffee berry borer pest  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Coffee is an important crop and is crucial to the economy of many developing countries, generating around US$70 billion per year. There are 115 species in the Coffea genus, but only two, C. arabica and C. canephora, are commercially cultivated. Coffee plants are attacked by many pathogens and insect-pests, which affect not only the production of coffee but also

Aulus EAD Barbosa; Érika VS Albuquerque; Maria CM Silva; Djair SL Souza; Osmundo B Oliveira-Neto; Arnubio Valencia; Thales L Rocha; Maria F Grossi-de-Sa

2010-01-01

393

44 2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 INVASIVE FOREST PESTS: TRENDS AND IMPACTS  

E-print Network

44 2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 INVASIVE FOREST PESTS: TRENDS Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 45 economic impacts of non-native forest insects exceed AND IMPACTS Deborah G. McCullough Michigan State University, Departments of Entomology and Forestry, East

394

Invasive Whitefly Pests of Florida  

E-print Network

Invasive Whitefly Pests of Florida #12;· General Whitefly Introduction · Other Problems Whiteflies · Managing Whiteflies Outline #12;· 1500 species worldwide, at least 60 have been reported from, Michigan State University, www.bugwood.org, #5351016 ­ 2 pairs of wings which are covered by a white dust

Watson, Craig A.

395

An alternative strategy for sustainable pest resistance in genetically enhanced crops.  

PubMed

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystal protein genes encode insecticidal delta-endotoxins that are widely used for the development of insect-resistant crops. In this article, we describe an alternative transgenic strategy that has the potential to generate broader and more sustainable levels of resistance against insect pests. Our strategy involves engineering plants with a fusion protein combining the delta-endotoxin Cry1Ac with the galactose-binding domain of the nontoxic ricin B-chain (RB). This fusion, designated BtRB, provides the toxin with additional, binding domains, thus increasing the potential number of interactions at the molecular level in target insects. Transgenic rice and maize plants engineered to express the fusion protein were significantly more toxic in insect bioassays than those containing the Bt gene alone. They were also resistant to a wider range of insects, including important pests that are not normally susceptible to Bt toxins. The potential impact of fusion genes such as BtRB in terms of crop improvement, resistance sustainability, and biosafety is discussed. PMID:15908504

Mehlo, Luke; Gahakwa, Daphrose; Nghia, Pham Trung; Loc, Nguyen Thi; Capell, Teresa; Gatehouse, John A; Gatehouse, Angharad M R; Christou, Paul

2005-05-31

396

General Pest Control - Industrial. Manual 95.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the general pest control category. The text discusses general, parasitic and miscellaneous pests such as ants, ticks, and spiders; fabric, wood-destroying, and grain pests such as beetles, termites, and…

Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

397

Poultry Integrated Pest Management: Status and Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern commercial poultry production under large companies is expanding worldwide with similar methods and housing, and the accompanying arthropod and rodent pest problems. The pests increase the cost of production and are factors in the spread of avian diseases. The biology, behavior and control of ectoparasites and premise pests are described in relation to the different housing and production practices

Richard C. Axtell

1999-01-01

398

Field and Forage Crop Pests. MEP 310.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland, this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests that can be found in field and forage crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of…

Morgan, Omar, D.; And Others

399

Solutions Network Formulation Report. Using NASA Sensors to Perform Crop Type Assessment for Monitoring Insect Resistance in Corn  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) is tasked to monitor for insect pest resistance to transgenic crops. Several models have been developed to understand the resistance properties of insects. The Population Genetics Simulator model is used in the EPA PIRDSS (Pest Infestation and Resistance Decision Support System). The EPA Office of Pesticide Programs uses the DSS to help understand the potential for insect pest resistance development and the likelihood that insect pest resistance will negatively affect transgenic corn. Once the DSS identifies areas of concern, crews are deployed to collect insect pest samples, which are tested to identify whether they have developed resistance to the toxins in transgenic corn pesticides. In this candidate solution, VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) vegetation index products will be used to build hypertemporal layerstacks for crop type and phenology assessment. The current phenology attribute is determined by using the current time of year to index the expected growth stage of the crop. VIIRS might provide more accurate crop type assessment and also might give a better estimate on the crop growth stage.

Lewis, David; Copenhaver, Ken; Anderson, Daniel; Hilbert, Kent

2007-01-01

400

Host Behavior Manipulation by Parasitic Insects and Insect Parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insects and parasites are ubiquitous. In any environment, there are numerous insects and parasites. Independent evolutionary selection has occurred and parasites and insects are taxonomically diverse (Roy et al, 2006). However, many insect-parasite interacts have evolved between insects and parasites due to the number and habitat overlap of the groups (Roy et al, 2006). In addition, to the separation of

Rustie Robison

401

A suite of models to support the quantitative assessment of spread in pest risk analysis.  

PubMed

Pest Risk Analyses (PRAs) are conducted worldwide to decide whether and how exotic plant pests should be regulated to prevent invasion. There is an increasing demand for science-based risk mapping in PRA. Spread plays a key role in determining the potential distribution of pests, but there is no suitable spread modelling tool available for pest risk analysts. Existing models are species specific, biologically and technically complex, and data hungry. Here we present a set of four simple and generic spread models that can be parameterised with limited data. Simulations with these models generate maps of the potential expansion of an invasive species at continental scale. The models have one to three biological parameters. They differ in whether they treat spatial processes implicitly or explicitly, and in whether they consider pest density or pest presence/absence only. The four models represent four complementary perspectives on the process of invasion and, because they have different initial conditions, they can be considered as alternative scenarios. All models take into account habitat distribution and climate. We present an application of each of the four models to the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, using historic data on its spread in Europe. Further tests as proof of concept were conducted with a broad range of taxa (insects, nematodes, plants, and plant pathogens). Pest risk analysts, the intended model users, found the model outputs to be generally credible and useful. The estimation of parameters from data requires insights into population dynamics theory, and this requires guidance. If used appropriately, these generic spread models provide a transparent and objective tool for evaluating the potential spread of pests in PRAs. Further work is needed to validate models, build familiarity in the user community and create a database of species parameters to help realize their potential in PRA practice. PMID:23056174

Robinet, Christelle; Kehlenbeck, Hella; Kriticos, Darren J; Baker, Richard H A; Battisti, Andrea; Brunel, Sarah; Dupin, Maxime; Eyre, Dominic; Faccoli, Massimo; Ilieva, Zhenya; Kenis, Marc; Knight, Jon; Reynaud, Philippe; Yart, Annie; van der Werf, Wopke

2012-01-01

402

A Suite of Models to Support the Quantitative Assessment of Spread in Pest Risk Analysis  

PubMed Central

Pest Risk Analyses (PRAs) are conducted worldwide to decide whether and how exotic plant pests should be regulated to prevent invasion. There is an increasing demand for science-based risk mapping in PRA. Spread plays a key role in determining the potential distribution of pests, but there is no suitable spread modelling tool available for pest risk analysts. Existing models are species specific, biologically and technically complex, and data hungry. Here we present a set of four simple and generic spread models that can be parameterised with limited data. Simulations with these models generate maps of the potential expansion of an invasive species at continental scale. The models have one to three biological parameters. They differ in whether they treat spatial processes implicitly or explicitly, and in whether they consider pest density or pest presence/absence only. The four models represent four complementary perspectives on the process of invasion and, because they have different initial conditions, they can be considered as alternative scenarios. All models take into account habitat distribution and climate. We present an application of each of the four models to the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, using historic data on its spread in Europe. Further tests as proof of concept were conducted with a broad range of taxa (insects, nematodes, plants, and plant pathogens). Pest risk analysts, the intended model users, found the model outputs to be generally credible and useful. The estimation of parameters from data requires insights into population dynamics theory, and this requires guidance. If used appropriately, these generic spread models provide a transparent and objective tool for evaluating the potential spread of pests in PRAs. Further work is needed to validate models, build familiarity in the user community and create a database of species parameters to help realize their potential in PRA practice. PMID:23056174

Robinet, Christelle; Kehlenbeck, Hella; Kriticos, Darren J.; Baker, Richard H. A.; Battisti, Andrea; Brunel, Sarah; Dupin, Maxime; Eyre, Dominic; Faccoli, Massimo; Ilieva, Zhenya; Kenis, Marc; Knight, Jon; Reynaud, Philippe; Yart, Annie; van der Werf, Wopke

2012-01-01

403

Studies on the extent of loss and economics of pest management in Okra  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent of insect damage to okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) and the economics of pest management in this crop have been studied over three seasons in Bangalore, India. The results of insecticide trials show that disulfoton applied at the rate of 1 kg a.i.\\/ha at the time of sowing, followed by an application of 0.1% carbaryl 40, 50 and

K. Srinivasan; N. K. Krishnakumar

1983-01-01

404

Insect PopCulture Description  

E-print Network

Insect PopCulture ® Reagent Description Insect PopCulture Reagent 50 ml 71187-3 250 ml 71187-4 Insect PopCulture Reagent is a buffered mixture of concentrated detergents formulated to extract proteins from insect cells directly in their culture medium. During a 15 minute incubation, Insect PopCulture

Lebendiker, Mario

405

Transgenic tobacco expressing Zephyranthes grandiflora agglutinin confers enhanced resistance to aphids.  

PubMed

Plant lectins have been reported as transgenic resistance factors against a variety of insect pests. Herein, homologous analysis demonstrated that Zephyranthes grandiflora agglutinin (ZGA) exhibited high similarity with other monocot mannose-binding lectins (MBLs). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that it had taxonomical relationships with insecticidal MBLs. Subsequently, a plasmid expression vector pBI121 containing zga gene (pBIZGA) was constructed using the zga sequence, under the control of CaMV35S promoter and nos terminator. pBIZGA was then integrated into the genome of Nicotiana tabacum L. Polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot analysis demonstrated that this zga gene was integrated into the plant genome. Western blotting and agglutinating activity analysis also showed that transgenic tobacco plants expressed different levels of ZGA. Carbohydrate inhibition analysis indicated that recombinant ZGA and the native shared the same carbohydrate-binding specificity. Moreover, genetic analysis confirmed Mendelian segregation (3:1) of the transgenic in T1 progenies. In planta bioassays on T0 plants and their progenies indicated that expressed ZGA had an effect on reducing the survivability and fecundity of tobacco aphids (Myzus nicotianae). These findings demonstrate that the novel zga gene of ZGA can be expressed in crop plants susceptible to various sap-sucking insects. PMID:19067248

Ye, Song-hua; Chen, Sheng; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Wei; Tian, Qin; Liu, Jin-zhi; Chen, Fang; Bao, Jin-ku

2009-09-01

406

Molecular and Insecticidal Characterization of a Novel Cry-Related Protein from Bacillus Thuringiensis Toxic against Myzus persicae  

PubMed Central

This study describes the insecticidal activity of a novel Bacillus thuringiensis Cry-related protein with a deduced 799 amino acid sequence (~89 kDa) and ~19% pairwise identity to the 95-kDa-aphidicidal protein (sequence number 204) from patent US 8318900 and ~40% pairwise identity to the cancer cell killing Cry proteins (parasporins Cry41Ab1 and Cry41Aa1), respectively. This novel Cry-related protein contained the five conserved amino acid blocks and the three conserved domains commonly found in 3-domain Cry proteins. The protein exhibited toxic activity against the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Homoptera: Aphididae) with the lowest mean lethal concentration (LC50 = 32.7 ?g/mL) reported to date for a given Cry protein and this insect species, whereas it had no lethal toxicity against the Lepidoptera of the family Noctuidae Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), Mamestra brassicae (L.), Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), S. frugiperda (J.E. Smith) and S. littoralis (Boisduval), at concentrations as high as ~3.5 ?g/cm2. This novel Cry-related protein may become a promising environmentally friendly tool for the biological control of M. persicae and possibly also for other sap sucking insect pests. PMID:25384108

Palma, Leopoldo; Muñoz, Delia; Berry, Colin; Murillo, Jesús; Ruiz de Escudero, Iñigo; Caballero, Primitivo

2014-01-01

407

Molecular and Insecticidal Characterization of a Novel Cry-Related Protein from Bacillus Thuringiensis Toxic against Myzus persicae.  

PubMed

This study describes the insecticidal activity of a novel Bacillus thuringiensis Cry-related protein with a deduced 799 amino acid sequence (~89 kDa) and ~19% pairwise identity to the 95-kDa-aphidicidal protein (sequence number 204) from patent US 8318900 and ~40% pairwise identity to the cancer cell killing Cry proteins (parasporins Cry41Ab1 and Cry41Aa1), respectively. This novel Cry-related protein contained the five conserved amino acid blocks and the three conserved domains commonly found in 3-domain Cry proteins. The protein exhibited toxic activity against the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Homoptera: Aphididae) with the lowest mean lethal concentration (LC50 = 32.7 ?g/mL) reported to date for a given Cry protein and this insect species, whereas it had no lethal toxicity against the Lepidoptera of the family Noctuidae Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), Mamestra brassicae (L.), Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), S. frugiperda (J.E. Smith) and S. littoralis (Boisduval), at concentrations as high as ~3.5 ?g/cm2. This novel Cry-related protein may become a promising environmentally friendly tool for the biological control of M. persicae and possibly also for other sap sucking insect pests. PMID:25384108

Palma, Leopoldo; Muñoz, Delia; Berry, Colin; Murillo, Jesús; de Escudero, Iñigo Ruiz; Caballero, Primitivo

2014-01-01

408

Monitoring the agricultural landscape for insect resistance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Farmers in 25 countries on six continents are using plant biotechnology to solve difficult crop production challenges and conserve the environment. In fact, 13.3 million farmers, which include 90 percent of the farming in developing countries, choose to plant biotech crops. Over the past decade, farmers increased area planted in genetically modified (GM) crops by more than 10 percent each year, thus increasing their farm income by more than 44 billion US dollars (1996-2007), and achieved economic, environmental and social benefits in crops such as soybeans, canola, corn and cotton. To date, total acres of biotech crops harvested exceed more than 2 billion with a proven 13-year history of safe use. Over the next decade, expanded adoption combined with current research on 57 crops in 63 countries will broaden the advantages of genetically modified foods for growers, consumers and the environment. Genetically modified (GM) crops with the ability to produce toxins lethal to specific insect pests are covering a larger percentage of the agricultural landscape every year. The United States department of Agriculture (USDA) estimated that 63 percent of corn and 65 percent of cotton contained these specific genetic traits in 2009. The toxins could protect billions of dollars of loss from insect damage for crops valued at greater than 165 billion US dollars in 2008. The stable and efficient production of these crops has taken on even more importance in recent years with their use, not only as a food source, but now also a source of fuel. It is in the best interest of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to ensure the continued efficacy of toxin producing GM crops as their use reduces pesticides harmful to humans and animals. However, population genetics models have indicated the risk of insect pests developing resistance to these toxins if a high percentage of acreage is grown in these crops. The USEPA is developing methods to monitor the agricultural landscape to ensure resistance is not developing. USEPA is teaming with NASA to perform this monitoring using models and NASA earth observation imagery from airborne and satellite platforms. Using multiple spatial, temporal and spectral resolutions, the project is monitoring the entire Midwestern "Corn Belt". By applying these methods, the project has successfully delineated insect infestations in genetically modified corn fields. Insect resistance development is expected to present itself as infestations thus indicating potential identification of resistance if it develops in genetically modified crops. The USEPA and NASA are currently considering the development of plans to potentially extend this aircraft research to other crops and develop a micro-satellite application.

Casas, Joseph; Glaser, J. A.; Copenhaver, Ken

409

Wildlife and integrated pest management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of options are available to those professionals interested in pest management through an integrated approach. The components of this approach are manipulation of vegetation; manipulation of population structure, dynamics, and interaction; and manipulation of the values associated with animal and plant crop production. Each component has numerous methods, which when used alone or in combination, offer a nearly infinite number of alternatives to the successful use of pesticides.

Giles, Robert H.

1980-09-01

410

Texas Poultry Pest Control Practices  

E-print Network

respondents mentioned using other means of nonchemical pest control: cats, bullets, composting, disinfecting/cleaning flat, and water control. The survey asked respondents to check the most extensive clean-out and disinfection their poultry houses receive... at least once a year (see Table 6). More than half reported that they clean out, wash and disinfect all poultry houses at least once a year. Respondents also were asked to list disinfectants used in their poultry sanitation program (see Table 7). Iodine...

Hall, Kent D.; Holloway, Rodney L.; Carey, John B.; Hoelscher, Clifford E.

1999-06-01

411

Symbioses: A Key Driver of Insect Physiological Processes, Ecological Interactions, Evolutionary Diversification, and Impacts on Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbiosis is receiving increased attention among all aspects of biology because of the unifying themes it helps construct across ecological, evolutionary, developmental, semiochemical, and pest management theory. Insects show a vast array of symbiotic relationships with a wide diversity of microorganisms. These relationships may confer a variety of beneÞts to the host (macrosymbiont), such as direct or indirect nutrition, ability

K. D. Klepzig; A. S. Adams; J. Handelsman; K. F. Raffa

2009-01-01

412

Alternatives to the Use of Organochlorine Compounds for Insect Control1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural crops and livestock must be protected from insects and other pests to continue to provide an adequate supply of high quality food, feed, and fiber. High level national studies made beginning in 1963 into ways to curtail the use of per- sistent insecticides have included sugges- tions for using alternative materials and undertaking research into alternative ap- proaches. Several

C. H. Hoffmann

1971-01-01

413

Effects of sustainable and conventional fertilizers on plant growth and insect life history traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the effects on plant growth and pest abundance as sustainable fertilizers are becoming more common in greenhouse production. I conducted two studies to test the effects of sustainable production practices on plant growth and insect life history traits.^ In the first study, five species of bedding plants were produced under conventional or sustainable growing practices to

Kathryn McNabb England

2009-01-01

414

Cotton Insect Losses for 1995 Michael R. Williams, Extension Entomologist, Chairman  

E-print Network

-two percent (82%) of the U.S. cotton acreage was infested with boll/bud worm in 1995, requiring 2Cotton Insect Losses for 1995 Michael R. Williams, Extension Entomologist, Chairman Cooperative fall below 0.1 for a state's total acreage, it is not listed. Highlights Arhtropod pests reduced

Ray, David

415

The effects of spinosad, a naturally derived insect control agent to the honeybee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinosad is a novel insect control agent derived by fermentation of the Actinomycete bacterium, Saccharopolyspora spinosa. Spinosad controls many caterpillar pests in vines, pome fruit and vegetables (including tomatoes and peppers), thrips in tomatoes, peppers and ornamental cultivation and dipterous leafminers in vegetables and ornamentals. The effects of spinosad to honeybees have been extensively researched. Testing has been performed under

Mark MILES

416

Delaying evolution of insect resistance to transgenic crops by decreasing dominance and heritability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The refuge strategy is used widely for delaying evolution of insect resistance to transgenic crops that produce Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins. Farmers grow refuges of host plants that do not produce Bt toxins to promote survival of susceptible pests. Many modelling studies predict that refuges will delay resistance longest if alleles conferring resistance are rare, most resistant adults mate with

B. E. Tabashnik; F. Gould; Y. Carriere

2004-01-01

417

Structural basis of the resistance of an insect carboxypeptidase to plant protease inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corn earworm (Helicoverpa zea), also called tomato fruitworm, is a common pest of many Solanaceous plants. This insect is known to adapt to the ingestion of plant serine protease inhibitors by using digestive proteases that are insensitive to inhibition. We have now identified a B-type carboxypeptidase of H. zea (CPBHz) insensitive to potato carboxypeptidase inhibitor (PCI) in corn earworm. To

Alex Bayés; Mireia Comellas-Bigler; Monica Rodríguez de La Vega; Klaus Maskos; Wolfram Bode; Francesc X. Aviles; Maarten A. Jongsma; Jules Beekwilder; Josep Vendrell

2005-01-01

418

Genetic Engineering with Bacillus thuringiensis and Conventional Approaches for Insect Resistance in Crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of resistance management is to slow and ideally reverse the development of resistance in the pest population. Since 1996, million of acres of crops have been planted that are genetically engineered with Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) for insect resistance. The novelty for resistance management is that with Bt technology it is possible to control the principal force in an

Hugo Cerda; Maurizio G. Paoletti

2004-01-01

419

Insect resistance in potatoes: sources, evolutionary relationships, morphological and chemical defenses, and ecogeographical associations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The past 25 years, 1686 potato accessions, representing 100 species in the genus Solanum L., subgenus Potatoe, section Petota, were evaluated for field resistance to one or more of the following insect pests: green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer); potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas); Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say); potato flea beetle, Epitrix cucumeris (Harris); and potato leafhopper, Empoasca

Kathy L. Flanders; John G. Hawkes; Edward B. Radcliffe; Florian I. Lauer

1992-01-01

420

Transgenic plants expressing two Bacillus thuringiensis toxins delay insect resistance evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preventing insect pests from developing resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins produced by transgenic crops is a major challenge for agriculture. Theoretical models suggest that plants containing two dissimilar Bt toxin genes ('pyramided' plants) have the potential to delay resistance more effectively than single-toxin plants used sequentially or in mosaics. To test these predictions, we developed a unique model system

Jian-Zhou Zhao; Jun Cao; Yaxin Li; Hilda L Collins; Richard T Roush; Elizabeth D Earle; Anthony M Shelton

2003-01-01

421

I Spy, Describing Insects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners observe and describe the physical and behavioral characteristics of insects, including crickets. Learners build a cricket house, hear the book "I'm as Quick as a Cricket," and discuss how the insects they observe are the same and different.

Huff, Paula R.; Hahn, Roseanne

2005-01-01

422

Insects: Bugged Out!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Insects really need no introduction. They have lived on earth much longer than humans and vastly outnumber people and all other animal species combined. People encounter them daily in their houses and yards. Yet, when children want to investigate insects, books can help them start their explorations. "Paleo Bugs" carries readers back to the time…

Piehl, Kathy

2011-01-01

423

Choosing and Using Insect Repellents  

E-print Network

Mosquitoes and other insects can be a problem after a storm. Mosquitoes breed in flooded areas where there is standing water. This publication offers tips on using insect repellents to help protect you from biting insects....

Schoessow, Courtney

2005-09-20

424

Biological mechanisms determining the success of RNA interference in insects.  

PubMed

Insects constitute the largest group of animals on this planet, having a huge impact on our environment, as well as on our quality of life. RNA interference (RNAi) is a posttranscriptional gene silencing mechanism triggered by double-stranded (ds)RNA fragments. This process not only forms the basis of a widely used reverse genetics research method in many different eukaryotes but also holds great promise to contribute to the species-specific control of agricultural pests and to combat viral infections in beneficial and disease vectoring insects. However, in many economically important insect species, such as flies, mosquitoes, and caterpillars, systemic delivery of naked dsRNA does not trigger effective gene silencing. Although many components of the RNAi pathway have initially been deciphered in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, it will be of major importance to investigate this process in a wider variety of species, including dsRNA-sensitive insects such as locusts and beetles, to elucidate the factors responsible for the remarkable variability in RNAi efficiency, as observed in different insects. In this chapter, we review the current knowledge on the RNAi pathway, as well as the most recent insights into the mechanisms that might determine successful RNAi in insects. PMID:25262241

Wynant, Niels; Santos, Dulce; Vanden Broeck, Jozef

2014-01-01

425

Acute illness associated with use of pest strips - seven U.S. States and Canada, 2000-2013.  

PubMed

Dichlorvos-impregnated resin strips (DDVP pest strips) are among the few organophosphate products still available for indoor residential use. The residential uses for most other organophosphate products, including most DDVP products, were canceled because they posed unreasonable risks to children. DDVP pest strips act by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase activity in the brain and nerves of insect pests and are designed to gradually release DDVP vapor for up to 4 months. Acute illnesses in humans associated with nonlethal acute exposures usually resolve completely, but recovery is not always rapid. To assess the frequency of acute illnesses associated with DDVP pest strips, cases from 2000 through June 2013 were sought from the 12 states that participate in the Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risks (SENSOR)-Pesticides Program, the National Pesticide Information Center (NPIC), and Health Canada.* A total of 31 acute DDVP pest strip-related illness cases were identified in seven U.S. states and Canada. The majority of these illnesses resulted from use of the product in commonly occupied living areas (e.g., kitchens and bedrooms), in violation of label directions. Although 26 of the 31 cases involved mild health effects of short duration, five persons had moderate health effects. Illnesses caused by excess exposure to DDVP pest strips can be reduced by educating the public about the proper usage of DDVP pest strips and with improvements in label directions. PMID:24430101

Tsai, Rebecca J; Sievert, Jennifer; Prado, Joanne; Buhl, Kaci; Stone, Dave L; Forrester, Mathias; Higgins, Shelia; Mitchell, Yvette; Schwartz, Abby; Calvert, Geoffrey M

2014-01-17

426

Scale Insects on Ornamental Plants  

E-print Network

removing, destroying and replacing heavily infested ornamental shrubs and trees. Insecticides labeled for control of scale insects may harm benefi- cial insects. Pesticides for scale control Many pesticides are available to consumers want- ing to control...- rupt molting. Poisons: The most common group of poisons is the nerve poisons. These insecticides disrupt an insect?s nervous system. They are absorbed through the insect?s exoskeleton ?skin? and are considered ?contact insecticides.? Common contact...

Muegge, Mark A.; Merchant, Michael E.

2000-08-21

427

Pest Status and Distribution of the Stem Borer, Dectes texanus, in Kansas  

PubMed Central

The Dectes stem borer, Dectes texanus LeConte (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is currently receiving increased attention as a pest of soybeans in the Great Plains of North America. Field surveys were conducted in 1999 and in 2008 to record the distribution of this pest in Kansas. These surveys documented an increase in the abundance of the pest and an expansion in the range of this insect westward and eastward. The percentage of fields with more than 50% of plants infested also increased from 4% in 1999 to 11% in 2008. The far eastern counties still had surprisingly few infested fields even though much of the Kansas soybean acreage is located in these counties. It is not clear if D. texanus simply haven't expanded into eastern Kansas yet or if there is an ecological barrier that keeps them from doing so. Field crop entomologists from across eastern North America were sent an email questionnaire and their responses indicate that this pest is now well established as a pest of soybeans in at least 14 states across eastern North America. PMID:21268702

Buschman, Lawrent L.; Sloderbeck, Phillip E.

2010-01-01

428

Cone and seed pests of Pinus pinea: assessment and characterization of damage.  

PubMed

Cone and seed insects have played a key role in the decline of stone pine nut production in Italy. To evaluate the impact caused by native Palearctic and exotic insects, a greater knowledge of pest symptoms is required. During 2008-2009, first and second-year stone pine cones, as well as the seeds produced, were examined in Tuscany (Italy) to assess viability. Insect damage was characterized based on external signs on the cones and seed endosperms, and the impact of recorded insect species on nut production was evaluated. In the current study, cones attacked by anobiid beetles and Dioryctria spp. were observed, as well as asymptomatic dead cones and cones with resin drops and patches, that could not easily be related to a damaging agent. As regards the anobiid beetles, adults of Ernobius parens (Mulsant and Rey) and E. impressithorax Pic emerged from cones in laboratory rearing. A low number of cones damaged by Dioryctria spp. was recorded whereas high percentages of cones showed resin exudates. The presence of resin cannot be definitely related to a damaging agent, although the feeding activity of Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann could be one of the reasons. Damage by L. occidentalis was assessed by seed observation. Most of the seeds displayed tissues that had been damaged by this pest. PMID:23448036

Bracalini, Matteo; Benedettelli, Stefano; Croci, Francesco; Terreni, Perla; Tiberi, Riziero; Panzavolta, Tiziana

2013-02-01

429

Optimized scorpion polypeptide LMX: a pest control protein effective against rice leaf folder.  

PubMed

Lepidopteran insect pests are the main class of pests causing significant damage to crop plant yields. Insecticidal scorpion peptides exhibit toxicity specific for insects. Here, we report that a peptide LMX, optimized from the insect-specific scorpion neurotoxin LqhIT2, showed high levels of activity against rice leaf folder in vitro and in planta. Oral ingestion of LMX protein led to a significant decrease in feeding on rice leaves, repression of larval growth and development, delay in molting, and increase in larval lethality. Compared with LqhIT2 protein, the stability and insecticidal efficacy of LMX was better. Meanwhile, biochemical analysis showed that LMX protein ingestion dramatically decreased ecdysone content in rice leaf folder larvae, and down-regulated enzymatic activities of the detoxification system (?-naphthyl acetate esterase and glutathione S-transferase), the digestive system (tryptase and chymotrypsin), and the antioxidant system (catalase). These changes were tightly correlated with the dosage of LMX protein. Transgene analysis showed that the rate of leaf damage, and the number of damaged tillers and leaves in the transgenic line were greatly reduced relative to wild type plants and empty vector plants. Based on these observations, we propose that the insect-specific scorpion neurotoxin peptide LMX is an attractive and effective alternative molecule for the protection of rice from rice leaf folder. PMID:24964088

Tianpei, Xiuzi; Zhu, Yingguo; Li, Shaoqing

2014-01-01

430

A amylase activity of nymphal stages of sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Puton (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae).  

PubMed

Wheat production in Iran has changed substantially over the past one or two decades with development of higher-yielding cultivars and improved methods of planting. Sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), is the most important cereal pest in Iran. Sunn pest like other insect pests of wheat lives on a polysaccharide-rich diet and depends to a large extent on effectiveness of their alpha-amylases for survival. alpha-amylase (1-4-alpha-D-glucan glucanohydrolase) hydrolyses starch, and related polysaccharides by randomly cleaving internal alpha-1,4-glucosidic linkages and has a major role in the utilization of polysaccharides. The recent increase in study of insect digestive enzymes seems to make sense in the realization that the gut is the major interface between the insect and its environment. Hence, an understanding of digestive enzyme function is essential when developing methods of insect control such as the use of enzyme inhibitor's and transgenic plants to control phytophagous insects. The aim of the current study is to identify and characterize alpha-amylase activity in order to gain a better understanding of its digestive physiology, which hopefully will lead to new strategies of the insect control. In order to analyze a-amylase activity adult and different nymphal stages were collected from wheat field from Karaj area and midgut complex from these individuals were dissected under a light microscope in ice-cold saline buffer (0.006M NaCl). After homogenization in buffer, homogenate was centrifuged at 15000 g for 20 min at 4 degrees C. The supernatant was pooled and stored at -20 degrees C for subsequent analysis. alpha-amylase activity was assayed by the dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) procedure using soluble starch as substrate (starch 1%). Our result showed that enzyme activities in different nymphal stages (first, second, third, fourth and fifth stadium) were 0.19, 0.78, 1.21, 1.23, 1.25 units/mg protein, respectively. PMID:16628929

Kazzazi, M; Bandani, A R; Ashuri, A; Hosseinkhani, S

2005-01-01

431

Population genomics of a symbiont in the early stages of a pest invasion.  

PubMed

Invasive species often depend on microbial symbionts, but few studies have examined the evolutionary dynamics of symbionts during the early stages of an invasion. The insect Megacopta cribraria and its bacterial nutritional symbiont Candidatus Ishikawaella capsulata invaded the southeastern US in 2009. While M. cribraria was initially discovered on wild kudzu plants, it was found as a pest on soybeans within 1 year of infestation. Because prior research suggests Ishikawaella confers the pest status--that is, the ability to thrive on soybeans--in some Megacopta species, we performed a genomic study on Ishikawaella from US. Megacopta cribraria populations to understand the role of the symbiont in driving host plant preferences. We included Ishikawaella samples collected in the first days of the invasion in 2009 and from 23 locations across the insect's 2011 US range. The 0.75 Mb symbiont genome revealed only 47 fixed differences from the pest-conferring Ishikawaella in Japan, with only one amino acid change in a nutrition-provisioning gene. This similarity, along with a lack of fixed substitutions in the US symbiont population, indicates that Ishikawella likely arrived in the US capable of being a soybean pest. Analyses of allele frequency changes between 2009 and 2011 uncover signatures of both positive and negative selection and suggest that symbionts on soybeans and kudzu experience differential selection for genes related to nutrient provisioning. Our data reveal the evolutionary trajectory of an important insect-bacteria symbiosis in the early stages of an invasion, highlighting the role microbial symbionts may play in the spread of invasive species. PMID:23841878

Brown, Amanda M V; Huynh, Lynn Y; Bolender, Caitlin M; Nelson, Kelly G; McCutcheon, John P

2014-03-01

432

Role of soil microbial processes in integrated pest management  

SciTech Connect

Soil microorganisms play a significant role in the carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur cycles in nature and are critical to the functioning of ecosystems. Microorganisms affect plant growth directly by regulating the availability of plant nutrients in soil, or indirectly by affecting the population dynamics of plant pathogens in soil. Any adverse effect on soil microorganisms or on the microbial processes will affect the soil fertility, availability of plant nutrients and the overall biogeochemical cycling of elements in nature. Soil microorganisms are responsible for the degradation and detoxification of pesticides; they control many insect pests, nematodes, and other plant pathogenic microorganisms by parasitism, competition, production of antibiotics and other toxic substances. Also, they regulate the availability of major and minor nutrients as well as essential elements. The long-term effects of continuous and, in some instances, excessive application of pesticides on soil fertility is not fully understood. Although much information is available on the integrated pest management (IPM) system, we have very little understanding of the extent of soil microbial processes which modulate the overall effectiveness of various strategies employed in IPM. The purpose of this paper is to review briefly the key microbial processes and their relationship to the IPM system.

Francis, A.J.

1987-01-01

433

PEST ERADICATION TECHNOLOGY - THE CRITICAL PARTNER TO PEST EXCLUSION TECHNOLOGY: THE MAUNGATAUTARI EXPERIENCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive pest eradication is an increasingly viab le management option for conservation and wildlife managers all over the world. The list of successfu l rodent eradications from isolated islands continu es to grow globally. Now, with the development of effect ive pest exclusion technologies, the opportunities for eradicating multiple species of vertebrate pests fr om progressively larger fragments of habitat

CAM SPEEDY; JOHN INNES

434

Integrated Pest Management of Pest Mole Crickets with Emphasis on the Southeastern USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are at least 70 species of mole crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae). Some are rare, others are innocuous, and a few are important pests. These soil-dwelling pests damage underground parts of a long list of cultivated plants. Although tillage and flooding are used successfully in some situations to bring these pests to the soil surface and expose them to vertebrate and

J. H. Frank; J. P. Parkman

1999-01-01

435

Allergies to Insect Venom  

MedlinePLUS

... based upon their timing. Reactions can also be toxic , or allergic . A toxic reaction is due to ... occur in individuals who are not insect allergic. Toxic Reactions In the event of a sting from ...

436

Marine Insects Home Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website centers around the popular, age-old question of why so few insects live in the oceans; only about 250-350 species are routinely exposed to seawater. Marine insects and their special adaptations are discussed and the life histories of several species are treated in detail. The authors formulate and discuss six hypotheses as to why there are so few insects in the ocean. They then weigh in on their choice of the most likely explanation. Teaching notes are included that discuss the utility of marine insects in formulating and evaluating scientific questions and in exploring evolutionary aspects of life. The site is easy to navigate, requires only about 30 minutes to view, and is full of solid information that is presented in a light-hearted manner. No special requirements are needed to use this resource.

0002-11-30

437

Stinging Insect Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

... shrubbery, on gables or in tree hollows. Fire ants build nests of dirt in the ground that ... colored clothing and perfume when outdoors. Because the smell of food attracts insects, be careful outdoors when ...

438

Insect bites and stings  

MedlinePLUS

... insects, bees, and spiders; Black widow spider bite; Brown recluse bite; Flea bite; Honey bee or hornet sting; ... spider bites, such as the black widow or brown recluse, can be serious and life-threatening. Most spider ...

439

Evolution of the Insects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This book chronicles the complete evolutionary history of insects--their living diversity and relationships as well as 400 million years of fossils. Introductory sections cover the living species diversity of insects, methods of reconstructing evolutionary relationships, basic insect structure, and the diverse modes of insect fossilization and major fossil deposits. Major sections then explore the relationships and evolution of each order of hexapods. The volume also chronicles major episodes in the evolutionary history of insects from their modest beginnings in the Devonian and the origin of wings hundreds of millions of years before pterosaurs and birds to the impact of mass extinctions and the explosive radiation of angiosperms on insects, and how they evolved into the most complex societies in nature. Whereas other volumes focus on either living species or fossils, this is the first comprehensive synthesis of all aspects of insect evolution. Illustrated with 955 photo- and electron- micrographs, drawings, diagrams, and field photos, many in full color and virtually all of them original, this reference will appeal to anyone engaged with insect diversity--professional entomologists and students, insect and fossil collectors, and naturalists. David Grimaldi and Michael S. Engel have collectively published over 200 scientific articles and monographs on the relationships and fossil record of insects, including 10 articles in the journals Science, Nature, and Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. David Grimaldi is curator in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History and adjunct professor at Cornell University, Columbia University, and the City University of New York. David Grimaldi has traveled in 40 countries on 6 continents, collecting and studying recent species of insects and conducting fossil excavations. He is the author of Amber: Window to the Past (Abrams, 2003). Michael S. Engel is an assistant professor in the Division of Entomology at the University of Kansas; assistant curator at the Natural History Museum, University of Kansas; research associate of the American Museum of Natural History; and fellow of the Linnean Society of London. Engel has visited numerous countries for entomological and paleontological studies, doing most of his fieldwork in Central Asia, Asia Minor, and the Western Hemisphere.

Grimaldi, David; Engel, Michael S.

2005-05-01

440

19 CFR 12.31 - Plant pests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... The importation in a live state of insects which are injurious to cultivated crops, including vegetables, field crops, bush fruits, and orchard, forest or shade trees, and of the eggs, pupae, or larvae of such insects, except for...

2012-04-01

441

19 CFR 12.31 - Plant pests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... The importation in a live state of insects which are injurious to cultivated crops, including vegetables, field crops, bush fruits, and orchard, forest or shade trees, and of the eggs, pupae, or larvae of such insects, except for...

2013-04-01

442

19 CFR 12.31 - Plant pests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... The importation in a live state of insects which are injurious to cultivated crops, including vegetables, field crops, bush fruits, and orchard, forest or shade trees, and of the eggs, pupae, or larvae of such insects, except for...

2011-04-01

443

19 CFR 12.31 - Plant pests.  

... The importation in a live state of insects which are injurious to cultivated crops, including vegetables, field crops, bush fruits, and orchard, forest or shade trees, and of the eggs, pupae, or larvae of such insects, except for...

2014-04-01

444

19 CFR 12.31 - Plant pests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... The importation in a live state of insects which are injurious to cultivated crops, including vegetables, field crops, bush fruits, and orchard, forest or shade trees, and of the eggs, pupae, or larvae of such insects, except for...

2010-04-01

445

Department of Entomology Stored Product Pests  

E-print Network

accumulations of old contaminated grain, livestock feeds, bags, litter, or any other cereal products. Insect,sweepoutand/orvacuumthecombine,truckbeds, transport wagons, grain dumps, augers, and elevator buckets to remove insect-infested grain and debris. 2

Ginzel, Matthew

446

Lessons from studying insect symbioses.  

PubMed

As in mammals, insect health is strongly influenced by the composition and activities of resident microorganisms. However, the microbiota of insects is generally less diverse than that of mammals, allowing microbial function in insects to be coupled to individual, identified microbial species. This trait of insect symbioses facilitates our understanding of the mechanisms that promote insect-microbial coexistence and the processes by which the microbiota affect insect well-being. As a result, insects are potentially ideal models to study various aspects of interactions between the host and its resident microorganisms that would be impractical or unfeasible in mammals and to generate hypotheses for subsequent testing in mammalian models. PMID:22018236

Douglas, Angela E

2011-10-20

447

Lessons from Studying Insect Symbioses  

PubMed Central

As for mammals, insect health is strongly influenced by the composition and activities of resident microorganisms. However, the microbiota of insects is generally less diverse than that of mammals, allowing microbial function in insects to be coupled to individual, identified microbial species. This trait of insect symbioses facilitates our understanding of the mechanisms that promote insect-microbial coexistence and the processes by which the microbiota affect insect wellbeing. As a result, insects are potentially ideal models to study various aspects of interactions between the host and its resident microorganisms that are impractical or unfeasible in mammals and to generate hypotheses for subsequent testing in mammalian models. PMID:22018236

Douglas, Angela E.

2011-01-01

448

Potential shortfall of pyramided transgenic cotton for insect resistance management  

PubMed Central

To delay evolution of pest resistance to transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), the “pyramid” strategy uses plants that produce two or more toxins that kill the same pest. In the United States, this strategy has been adopted widely, with two-toxin Bt cotton replacing one-toxin Bt cotton. Although two-toxin plants are likely to be more durable than one-toxin plants, the extent of this advantage depends on several conditions. One key assumption favoring success of two-toxin plants is that they kill insects selected for resistance to one toxin, which is called “redundant killing.” Here we tested this assumption for a major pest, Helicoverpa zea, on transgenic cotton producing Bt toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab. Selection with Cry1Ac increased survival on two-toxin cotton, which contradicts the assumption. The concentration of Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab declined during the growing season, which would tend to exacerbate this problem. Furthermore, analysis of results from 21 selection experiments with eight species of lepidopteran pests indicates that some cross-resistance typically occurs between Cry1A and Cry2A toxins. Incorporation of empirical data into simulation models shows that the observed deviations from ideal conditions could greatly reduce the benefits of the pyramid strategy for pests like H. zea, which have inherently low susceptibility to Bt toxins and have been exposed extensively to one of the toxins in the pyramid before two-toxin plants are adopted. For such pests, the pyramid strategy could be improved by incorporating empirical data on deviations from ideal assumptions about redundant killing and cross-resistance. PMID:23530245

Brevault, Thierry; Heuberger, Shannon; Zhang, Min; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Ni, Xinzhi; Masson, Luke; Li, Xianchiun; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Carriere, Yves

2013-01-01

449

Potential shortfall of pyramided transgenic cotton for insect resistance management.  

PubMed

To delay evolution of pest resistance to transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), the "pyramid" strategy uses plants that produce two or more toxins that kill the same pest. In the United States, this strategy has been adopted widely, with two-toxin Bt cotton replacing one-toxin Bt cotton. Although two-toxin plants are likely to be more durable than one-toxin plants, the extent of this advantage depends on several conditions. One key assumption favoring success of two-toxin plants is that they kill insects selected for resistance to one toxin, which is called "redundant killing." Here we tested this assumption for a major pest, Helicoverpa zea, on transgenic cotton producing Bt toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab. Selection with Cry1Ac increased survival on two-toxin cotton, which contradicts the assumption. The concentration of Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab declined during the growing season, which would tend to exacerbate this problem. Furthermore, analysis of results from 21 selection experiments with eight species of lepidopteran pests indicates that some cross-resistance typically occurs between Cry1A and Cry2A toxins. Incorporation of empirical data into simulation models shows that the observed deviations from ideal conditions could greatly reduce the benefits of the pyramid strategy for pests like H. zea, which have inherently low susceptibility to Bt toxins and have been exposed extensively to one of the toxins in the pyramid before two-toxin plants are adopted. For such pests, the pyramid strategy could be improved by incorporating empirical data on deviations from ideal assumptions about redundant killing and cross-resistance. PMID:23530245

Brévault, Thierry; Heuberger, Shannon; Zhang, Min; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Ni, Xinzhi; Masson, Luke; Li, Xianchiun; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Carrière, Yves

2013-04-01

450

Evolution and the microbial control of insects  

PubMed Central

Insect pathogens can be utilized in a variety of pest management approaches, from inundative release to augmentation and classical biological control, and microevolution and the consideration of evolutionary principles can potentially influence the success of all these strategies. Considerable diversity exists in natural entomopathogen populations and this diversity can be either beneficial or detrimental for pest suppression, depending on the pathogen and its mode of competition, and this should be considered in the selection of isolates for biological control. Target hosts can exhibit considerable variation in their susceptibility to entomopathogens, and cases of field-evolved resistance have been documented for Bacillus thuringiensis and baculoviruses. Strong selection, limited pathogen diversity, reduced gene flow, and host plant chemistry are linked to cases of resistance and should be considered when developing resistance management strategies. Pre- and post-release monitoring of microbial control programs have received little attention; however, to date there have been no reports of host-range evolution or long-term negative effects on nontarget hosts. Comparative analyses of pathogen population structure, virulence, and host resistance over time are required to elucidate the evolutionary dynamics of microbial control systems. PMID:22949921

Cory, Jenny S; Franklin, Michelle T

2012-01-01

451

Non-protein amino acids in plant defense against insect herbivores: Representative cases and opportunities for further functional analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical defense against herbivores is of utmost importance for plants. Primary and secondary metabolites, including non-protein amino acids, have been implicated in plant defense against insect pests. High levels of non-protein amino acids have been identified in certain plant families, including legumes and grasses, where they have been associated with resistance to insect herbivory. Non-protein amino acids can have direct

Tengfang Huang; Georg Jander; Martin de Vos

2011-01-01

452

Insect growth regulatory effects of some extracts and sterols from Myrtillocactus geometrizans (Cactaceae) against Spodoptera frugiperda and Tenebrio molitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methanol extract from the roots and aerial parts of Myrtillocactus geometrizans (Cactaceae) yielded peniocerol 1, macdougallin 2, and chichipegenin 3. The natural products 1, 2 their mixtures, MeOH and CH2Cl2 extracts showed insecticidal and insect growth regulatory activity against fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)], an important insect pest of corn, and [Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera)], a

Carlos L. Céspedes; J. Rodrigo Salazar; Mariano Martínez; Eduardo Aranda

2005-01-01

453

Insects Help to Solve Crimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Insects are found in almost any ecosystem. Even a corpse is a habitat with a typical succession of more or less specialized\\u000a insect species, providing a resource for about 300–400 insect species. In addition to their ecological importance in decomposition\\u000a of organic matter, those insects may represent important tools in criminal investigations. Forensic entomology, defined as\\u000a the use of insects

Jens Amendt

454

Training for Certification: Demonstration & Research Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial pesticide applicators. Focusing on agricultural pest control, this publication includes a full range of topics from uses of pesticides for agricultural animal pest control to the toxicity of common pesticides to fish and bees.…

Mississippi State Univ., State College. Cooperative Extension Service.

455

Agricultural Animal Pest Control. Bulletin 767.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Included in this training manual are descriptions and pictures of the following agricultural animal pests: mosquitoes, stable flies, horse flies and deer or yellow flies, house flies, horn flies, wound-infesting larvae, lice, mites, ticks, and bots and grubs. Information is given on the life-cycle and breeding habits of the pests. Methods of…

Nolan, Maxcy P., Jr.

456

Termite Pest Control - Industrial. Manual 96.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the termite pest control category. The text discusses general pests, especially ants, and wood-destroying organisms such as termites, beetles, and fungi. (CS)

Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

457

DAIRY PEST MANAGEMENT (ARTHROPODS) Phillip E. Kaufman  

E-print Network

DAIRY PEST MANAGEMENT (ARTHROPODS) Phillip E. Kaufman Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, U.S.A. INTRODUCTION There are 10 major arthropod pest species affecting dairy cattle including six fly and four louse as the costs attributed to arthropod in- festations on dairy cattle is not available. The monetary figures

Kaufman, Phillip E.

458

The Bad Guys: Landscape Pest ID Cards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Thirty common landscape pests are presented on summary cards containing identification, host range, life cycle, related species, and other information. Information is sound. Emphasis on biological control and tolerance of pests causing only cosmetic damage is good. Physical cards with the same information on them as this electronic version can be purchased.

0002-11-30

459

Transcriptomic dissection of sexual differences in Bemisia tabaci, an invasive agricultural pest worldwide.  

PubMed

Sex difference involving chromosomes and gene expression has been extensively documented. In this study, the gender difference in the sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci was investigated using Illumina-based transcriptomic analysis. Gender-based RNAseq data produced 27 Gb reads, and subsequent de novo assembly generated 93,948 transcripts with a N50 of 1,853 bp. A total of 1,351 differentially expressed genes were identified between male and female B. tabaci, and majority of them were female-biased. Pathway and GO enrichment experiments exhibited a gender-specific expression, including enriched translation in females, and enhanced structural constituent of cuticle in male whiteflies. In addition, a putative transformer2 gene (tra2) was cloned, and the structural feature and expression profile of tra2 were investigated. Sexually dimorphic transcriptome is an uncharted territory for the agricultural insect pests. Molecular understanding of sex determination in B. tabaci, an emerging invasive insect pest worldwide, will provide potential molecular target(s) for genetic pest control alternatives. PMID:24526031

Xie, Wen; Guo, Litao; Jiao, Xiaoguo; Yang, Nina; Yang, Xin; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Zhou, Xuguo; Zhang, Youjun

2014-01-01

460

Characterization of a Newly Discovered Symbiont of the Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)  

PubMed Central

Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a species complex containing >28 cryptic species, some of which are important crop pests worldwide. Like many other sap-sucking insects, whiteflies harbor an obligatory symbiont, “Candidatus Portiera aleyrodidarum,” and a number of secondary symbionts. So far, six genera of secondary symbionts have been identified in B. tabaci. In this study, we report and describe the finding of an additional bacterium in the indigenous B. tabaci cryptic species China 1 (formerly known as B. tabaci biotype ZHJ3). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA and gltA genes showed that the bacterium belongs to the Alphaproteobacteria subdivision of the Proteobacteria and has a close relationship with human pathogens of the genus Orientia. Consequently, we temporarily named it Orientia-like organism (OLO). OLO was found in six of eight wild populations of B. tabaci China 1, with the infection rate ranging from 46.2% to 76.8%. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of B. tabaci China 1 in nymphs and adults revealed that OLOs are confined to the bacteriome and co-occur with “Ca. Portiera aleyrodidarum.” The vertical transmission of OLO was demonstrated by detection of OLO at the anterior pole end of the oocytes through FISH. Quantitative PCR analysis of population dynamics suggested a complex interaction between “Ca. Portiera aleyrodidarum” and OLO. Based on these results, we propose “Candidatus Hemipteriphilus asiaticus” for the classification of this symbiont from B. tabaci. PMID:23144129

Bing, Xiao-Li; Yang, Jiao; Zchori-Fein, Einat; Wang, Xiao-Wei

2013-01-01

461

Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 1D: Fruit and Vegetable Pest Control and Supplement. CS-12 and CS-12a.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The major weed and insect pests of fruits and vegetables are pictured and discussed. Suggested methods for control by utilizing herbicides and pesticides are presented with attention given to safety considerations for both humans and the…

Epstein, Abraham H.; And Others

462

For many of these pests biological control is the best,if not the only,option for control.However,biological control  

E-print Network

,and specialised equipment that will allow controlled fungal and insect handling,chemical ecology and physiologicalFor many of these pests biological control is the best,if not the only,option for control.However,biological control needs extensive and specialist research to develop and typically takes years.The rate of arrival

463

Retail firewood can transport live tree pests.  

PubMed

Untreated firewood can harbor destructive insects and pathogens and transport them to uninfested areas. In a national survey of retail locations selling firewood in 18 states, over half (52%) of the firewood was from sources out of the purchase state and 50% showed evidence of insect infestation. In a three state survey of southern Rocky Mountain retailers, the most common retailer types carrying firewood were grocery stores and department or big box stores followed by gas stations or convenience stores. In 2007-2009, we purchased 419 firewood bundles from retailers in Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming and caged the firewood to quantify insect emergence. Live insects emerged from 47% of firewood bundles over 18 mo of rearing time. Approximately 11 insects emerged on average from each infested bundle (1-520 per bundle). Pine, fir, and mixed-conifer bundles yielded the greatest number of insects. Beetles (Coleoptera) were prominent and made up the majority of individuals (3-60 individuals in each of 24 families). Most Coleoptera were bark and ambrosia beetles (subfamily Scolytinae) while wood borers (Buprestidae, Cerambycidae, Siricidae) occurred in lower numbers. Firewood with evidence of previous or current insect infestation was more likely to have insects emerge than firewood without such evidence. The risk of moving live native or nonindigenous insects in untreated firewood is high because insects emerged up to 558 d from purchase date. Retail firewood should be heat treated in a manner to eliminate insects that is uniformly accepted across North America. PMID:23156161

Jacobi, W R; Hardin, J G; Goodrich, B A; Cleaver, C M

2012-10-01

464

A screening of five Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3A proteins for their activity against lepidopteran pests.  

PubMed

Five Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3A proteins (Vip3Aa, Vip3Ab, Vip3Ad, Vip3Ae and Vip3Af) and their corresponding trypsin-activated toxins were tested for their toxicity against eight lepidopteran pests: Agrotis ipsilon, Helicoverpa armigera, Mamestra brassicae, Spodoptera exigua, Spodoptera frugiperda, Spodoptera littoralis, Ostrinia nubilalis and Lobesia botrana. Toxicity was first tested at a high dose at 7 and 10 days. No major differences were found when comparing protoxins vs. trypsin-activated toxins. The proteins that were active against most of the insect species were Vip3Aa, Vip3Ae and Vip3Af, followed by Vip3Ab. Vip3Ad was non-toxic to any of the species tested. Considering the results by insect species, A. ipsilon, S. frugiperda and S. littoralis were susceptible to Vip3Aa, Vip3Ab, Vip3Ae and Vip3Af; S. exigua was susceptible to Vip3Aa and Vip3Ae, and moderately susceptible to Vip3Ab; M. brassicae and L. botrana were susceptible to Vip3Aa, Vip3Ae and Vip3Af; H. armigera was moderately susceptible to Vip3Aa, Vip3Ae and Vip3Af, and O. nubilalis was tolerant to all Vip3 proteins tested, although it showed some susceptibility to Vip3Af. The results obtained will help to design new combinations of insecticidal protein genes in transgenic crops or in recombinant bacteria for the control of insect pests. PMID:24508583

Ruiz de Escudero, Iñigo; Banyuls, Núria; Bel, Yolanda; Maeztu, Mireya; Escriche, Baltasar; Muñoz, Delia; Caballero, Primitivo; Ferré, Juan

2014-03-01

465

Pennsylvania Aquatic Insects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site from Penn State University is a vast resource of information on aquatic insects. Users can search or browse the database for an insect species and view maps of the selected species distribution within Pennsylvania, or all of North America. The site has recently added some radar images of a Mayfly emergence, complete with a detailed description to help interpret the images. Those visitors interested in trout fishing may appreciate the two pages on tying flies that can be found by navigating through the section entitled How to Use Site.

Hagenbuch, Isaac

2007-11-27

466

Rice Insect Management.  

E-print Network

more severe during cold, wet springs. Grasshoppers Several grasshopper species attack rice. The most common and abundant is a meadow grasshopper, ConocephalllS fasciatus (DeGeer). This green insect, 7/ 8- to I 1/ 8-inches long, feeds on leaves... more severe during cold, wet springs. Grasshoppers Several grasshopper species attack rice. The most common and abundant is a meadow grasshopper, ConocephalllS fasciatus (DeGeer). This green insect, 7/ 8- to I 1/ 8-inches long, feeds on leaves...

Drees, Bastiaan M.

1983-01-01

467

Cognition in insects  

PubMed Central

A traditional view of cognition is that it involves an internal process that represents, tracks or predicts an external process. This is not a general characteristic of all complex neural processing or feedback control, but rather implies specific forms of processing giving rise to specific behavioural capabilities. In this paper, I will review the evidence for such capabilities in insect navigation and learning. Do insects know where they are, or do they only know what to do? Do they learn what stimuli mean, or do they only learn how to behave? PMID:22927570

Webb, Barbara

2012-01-01

468

?-Amylase inhibitor-1 gene from Phaseolus vulgaris expressed in Coffea arabica plants inhibits ?-amylases from the coffee berry borer pest  

PubMed Central

Background Coffee is an important crop and is crucial to the economy of many developing countries, generating around US$70 billion per year. There are 115 species in the Coffea genus, but only two, C. arabica and C. canephora, are commercially cultivated. Coffee plants are attacked by many pathogens and insect-pests, which affect not only the production of coffee but also its grain quality, reducing the commercial value of the product. The main insect-pest, the coffee berry borer (Hypotheneumus hampei), is responsible for worldwide annual losses of around US$500 million. The coffee berry borer exclusively damages the coffee berries, and it is mainly controlled by organochlorine insecticides that are both toxic and carcinogenic. Unfortunately, natural resistance in the genus Coffea to H. hampei has not been documented. To overcome these problems, biotechnological strategies can be used to introduce an ?-amylase inhibitor gene (?-AI1), which confers resistance against the coffee berry borer insect-pest, into C. arabica plants. Results We transformed C. arabica with the ?-amylase inhibitor-1 gene (?-AI1) from the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, under control of the seed-specific phytohemagglutinin promoter (PHA-L). The presence of the ?-AI1 gene in six regenerated transgenic T1 coffee plants was identified by PCR and Southern blotting. Immunoblotting and ELISA experiments using antibodies against ?-AI1 inhibitor showed a maximum ?-AI1 concentration of 0.29% in crude seed extracts. Inhibitory in vitro assays of the ?-AI1 protein against H. hampei ?-amylases in transgenic seed extracts showed up to 88% inhibition of enzyme activity. Conclusions This is the first report showing the production of transgenic coffee plants with the biotechnological potential to control the coffee berry borer, the most important insect-pest of crop coffee. PMID:20565807

2010-01-01

469

Peptides 23 (2002) 18851894 Occurrence of insect kinins in the flesh fly, stable fly and horn fly--mass  

E-print Network

Knipling-Bushland U.S. Livestock Entomology Research Center, USDA, Kerrville, TX 78028, USA e Saxon Academy and their functions in the stable fly and horn fly, both livestock pests. © 2002 Published by Elsevier Science Inc involved in the regulation of fluid and ion transport in insects. The immedi- ate cellular response

Meagher, Mary

470

[Controlling effects of multiple species coexistence on rice diseases, pests and weeds in paddy field ecosystem].  

PubMed

Establishing a species-diversified cropping system to control crop diseases, insect pests and weeds is an important approach to sustainable agricultural development. This paper reviewed the researches on paddy field species-diversified cropping systems at home and abroad, and discussed the controlling effects and mechanisms of multiple species coexistence on rice diseases, pests and weeds control. The multiple species coexistence models such as rice-fish, rice-duck, rice-azolla-fish