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1

Transgenic rice expressing Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL) exhibits high-level resistance against major sap-sucking pests  

PubMed Central

Background Rice (Oryza sativa) productivity is adversely impacted by numerous biotic and abiotic factors. An approximate 52% of the global production of rice is lost annually owing to the damage caused by biotic factors, of which ~21% is attributed to the attack of insect pests. In this paper we report the isolation, cloning and characterization of Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (asal) gene, and its expression in elite indica rice cultivars using Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation method. The stable transgenic lines, expressing ASAL, showed explicit resistance against major sap-sucking pests. Results Allium sativum leaf lectin gene (asal), coding for mannose binding homodimeric protein (ASAL) from garlic plants, has been isolated and introduced into elite indica rice cultivars susceptible to sap-sucking insects, viz., brown planthopper (BPH), green leafhopper (GLH) and whitebacked planthopper (WBPH). Embryogenic calli of rice were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium harbouring pSB111 super-binary vector comprising garlic lectin gene asal along with the herbicide resistance gene bar, both under the control of CaMV35S promoter. PCR and Southern blot analyses confirmed stable integration of transgenes into the genomes of rice plants. Northern and western blot analyses revealed expression of ASAL in different transgenic rice lines. In primary transformants, the level of ASAL protein, as estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, varied between 0.74% and 1.45% of the total soluble proteins. In planta insect bioassays on transgenic rice lines revealed potent entomotoxic effects of ASAL on BPH, GLH and WBPH insects, as evidenced by significant decreases in the survival, development and fecundity of the insects. Conclusion In planta insect bioassays were carried out on asal transgenic rice lines employing standard screening techniques followed in conventional breeding for selection of insect resistant plants. The ASAL expressing rice plants, bestowed with high entomotoxic effects, imparted appreciable resistance against three major sap-sucking insects. Our results amply demonstrate that transgenic indica rice harbouring asal exhibit surpassing resistance against BPH, GLH and WBPH insects. The prototypic asal transgenic rice lines appear promising for direct commercial cultivation besides serving as a potential genetic resource in recombination breeding. PMID:18854007

Yarasi, Bharathi; Sadumpati, Vijayakumar; Immanni, China Pasalu; Vudem, Dasavantha Reddy; Khareedu, Venkateswara Rao

2008-01-01

2

Resistance to sap-sucking insects in modern-day agriculture  

PubMed Central

Plants and herbivores have co-evolved in their natural habitats for about 350 million years, but since the domestication of crops, plant resistance against insects has taken a different turn. With the onset of monoculture-driven modern agriculture, selective pressure on insects to overcome resistances has dramatically increased. Therefore plant breeders have resorted to high-tech tools to continuously create new insect-resistant crops. Efforts in the past 30 years have resulted in elucidation of mechanisms of many effective plant defenses against insect herbivores. Here, we critically appraise these efforts and – with a focus on sap-sucking insects – discuss how these findings have contributed to herbivore-resistant crops. Moreover, in this review we try to assess where future challenges and opportunities lay ahead. Of particular importance will be a mandatory reduction in systemic pesticide usage and thus a greater reliance on alternative methods, such as improved plant genetics for plant resistance to insect herbivores. PMID:23818892

VanDoorn, Arjen; de Vos, Martin

2013-01-01

3

Development of Transgenic Cotton Lines Expressing Allium sativum Agglutinin (ASAL) for Enhanced Resistance against Major Sap-Sucking Pests  

PubMed Central

Mannose-specific Allium sativum leaf agglutinin encoding gene (ASAL) and herbicide tolerance gene (BAR) were introduced into an elite cotton inbred line (NC-601) employing Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Cotton transformants were produced from the phosphinothricin (PPT)-resistant shoots obtained after co-cultivation of mature embryos with the Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harbouring recombinant binary vector pCAMBIA3300-ASAL-BAR. PCR and Southern blot analysis confirmed the presence and stable integration of ASAL and BAR genes in various transformants of cotton. Basta leaf-dip assay, northern blot, western blot and ELISA analyses disclosed variable expression of BAR and ASAL transgenes in different transformants. Transgenes, ASAL and BAR, were stably inherited and showed co-segregation in T1 generation in a Mendelian fashion for both PPT tolerance and insect resistance. In planta insect bioassays on T2 and T3 homozygous ASAL-transgenic lines revealed potent entomotoxic effects of ASAL on jassid and whitefly insects, as evidenced by significant decreases in the survival, development and fecundity of the insects when compared to the untransformed controls. Furthermore, the transgenic cotton lines conferred higher levels of resistance (1–2 score) with minimal plant damage against these major sucking pests when bioassays were carried out employing standard screening techniques. The developed transgenics could serve as a potential genetic resource in recombination breeding aimed at improving the pest resistance of cotton. This study represents the first report of its kind dealing with the development of transgenic cotton resistant to two major sap-sucking insects. PMID:24023750

Nunna, Hariprasad Rao; Puligundla, Sateesh Kumar; Vudem, Dashavantha Reddy; Khareedu, Venkateswara Rao

2013-01-01

4

Heavy metal levels in two biennial pine insects with sap-sucking and gall-forming life-styles.  

PubMed

The concentrations of cadmium, copper, nickel and lead were studied in two biennial pine insects in relation to the deposition of heavy metals in the environment around the industrialised town of Harjavalta in southwestern Finland. Sap-sucking pine bark bugs, Aradus cinnamomeus (Heteroptera, Aradidae), and gall-forming pine resin gall moths, Petrova resinella (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) were collected on sample plots located at logarithmic distances along 9 km-long transects from the distinctive emission source. The responses of these insects representing different life-style were compared. Heavy metal concentrations in A. cinnamomeus were highest (Cd 17 microg g(-1), Cu 1900 microg g(-1), Ni 220 microg g(-1), Pb 32 microg g(-1)) in the vicinity of the factor complex, and lowest in the outermost zones. This trend followed a linear regression model. The pattern was less clear in P. resinella, the concentrations being only one-tenth of those recorded in A. cinnamomeus. Correlations between metal levels in A. cinnamomeus and previously examined Sphagnum moss bags proved to be highly significant in every case. The differences in the heavy metal concentrations of these two insect species, which occupy the same trophic position, would appear to be due to the differences in their feeding characteristics. Heavy metals accumulate in the posterior bulb of the midgut in the discontinuous alimentary system of A. cinnamomeus, while P. resinella is likely to secrete most of the metals into the walls of the galls. The almost total absence of these two insect species near the factory complex seems to be associated with the high concentrations of metals. PMID:15092695

Heliövaara, K; Väisänen, R; Braunschweiler, H; Lodenius, M

1987-01-01

5

Allergenicity Assessment of Allium sativum Leaf Agglutinin, a Potential Candidate Protein for Developing Sap Sucking Insect Resistant Food Crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundMannose-binding Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL) is highly antinutritional and toxic to various phloem-feeding hemipteran insects. ASAL has been expressed in a number of agriculturally important crops to develop resistance against those insects. Awareness of the safety aspect of ASAL is absolutely essential for developing ASAL transgenic plants.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsFollowing the guidelines framed by the Food and Agriculture Organization\\/World Health Organization,

Hossain Ali Mondal; Dipankar Chakraborti; Pralay Majumder; Pampa Roy; Amit Roy; Swati Gupta Bhattacharya; Sampa Das

2011-01-01

6

Retargeting of the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cyt2Aa against hemipteran insect pests  

PubMed Central

Although transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins have been used successfully for management of lepidopteran and coleopteran pest species, the sap-sucking insects (Hemiptera) are not particularly susceptible to Bt toxins. To overcome this limitation, we demonstrate that addition of a short peptide sequence selected for binding to the gut of the targeted pest species serves to increase toxicity against said pest. Insertion of a 12-aa pea aphid gut-binding peptide by adding to or replacing amino acids in one of three loops of the Bt cytolytic toxin, Cyt2Aa, resulted in enhanced binding and toxicity against both the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, and the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae. This strategy may allow for transgenic plant-mediated suppression of other hemipteran pests, which include some of the most important pests of global agriculture. PMID:23650347

Chougule, Nanasaheb P.; Li, Huarong; Liu, Sijun; Linz, Lucas B.; Narva, Kenneth E.; Meade, Thomas; Bonning, Bryony C.

2013-01-01

7

Toxins for Transgenic Resistance to Hemipteran Pests  

PubMed Central

The sap sucking insects (Hemiptera), which include aphids, whiteflies, plant bugs and stink bugs, have emerged as major agricultural pests. The Hemiptera cause direct damage by feeding on crops, and in some cases indirect damage by transmission of plant viruses. Current management relies almost exclusively on application of classical chemical insecticides. While the development of transgenic crops expressing toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has provided effective plant protection against some insect pests, Bt toxins exhibit little toxicity against sap sucking insects. Indeed, the pest status of some Hemiptera on Bt-transgenic plants has increased in the absence of pesticide application. The increased pest status of numerous hemipteran species, combined with increased prevalence of resistance to chemical insecticides, provides impetus for the development of biologically based, alternative management strategies. Here, we provide an overview of approaches toward transgenic resistance to hemipteran pests. PMID:22822455

Chougule, Nanasaheb P.; Bonning, Bryony C.

2012-01-01

8

Toxins for transgenic resistance to hemipteran pests.  

PubMed

The sap sucking insects (Hemiptera), which include aphids, whiteflies, plant bugs and stink bugs, have emerged as major agricultural pests. The Hemiptera cause direct damage by feeding on crops, and in some cases indirect damage by transmission of plant viruses. Current management relies almost exclusively on application of classical chemical insecticides. While the development of transgenic crops expressing toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has provided effective plant protection against some insect pests, Bt toxins exhibit little toxicity against sap sucking insects. Indeed, the pest status of some Hemiptera on Bt-transgenic plants has increased in the absence of pesticide application. The increased pest status of numerous hemipteran species, combined with increased prevalence of resistance to chemical insecticides, provides impetus for the development of biologically based, alternative management strategies. Here, we provide an overview of approaches toward transgenic resistance to hemipteran pests. PMID:22822455

Chougule, Nanasaheb P; Bonning, Bryony C

2012-06-01

9

Massively parallel pyrosequencing-based transcriptome analyses of small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus), a vector insect transmitting rice stripe virus (RSV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus) is an important agricultural pest that not only damages rice plants by sap-sucking, but also acts as a vector that transmits rice stripe virus (RSV), which can cause even more serious yield loss. Despite being a model organism for studying entomology, population biology, plant protection, molecular interactions among plants, viruses and insects, only

Fujie Zhang; Hongyan Guo; Huajun Zheng; Tong Zhou; Yijun Zhou; Shengyue Wang; Rongxiang Fang; Wei Qian; Xiaoying Chen

2010-01-01

10

Multiple host use by a sap-sucking membracid: population consequences of nymphal development on primary and secondary host plant species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aconophora compressa is a gregarious, sap-sucking insect that uses multiple host plant species. Nymphal host plant species (and variety) significantly\\u000a affected nymphal survival, nymphal development rate and the subsequent size and fecundity of adults, with fiddlewood (Citharexylum spinosum) being significantly best in all respects. Nymphs that developed on a relatively poor host (Duranta erecta var “geisha girl”) and which were

Andrew G. Manners; Gimme H. Walter

2009-01-01

11

INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Worldwide, current farm values of crop and animal production are estimated at more than $1.3 trillion. Various authors have suggested farm production losses by arthropod pests that appear to be in the range of 10% to 15% with additional losses of 10% to 40% occurring during post-harvest handling. Th...

12

Symbiont-mediated functions in insect hosts  

PubMed Central

The bacterial endosymbionts occur in a diverse array of insect species and are usually rely within the vertical transmission from mothers to offspring. In addition to primary symbionts, plant sap-sucking insects may also harbor several diverse secondary symbionts. Bacterial symbionts play a prominent role in insect nutritional ecology by aiding in digestion of food or supplementing nutrients that insect hosts can’t obtain sufficient amounts from a restricted diet of plant phloem. Currently, several other ecologically relevant traits mediated by endosymbionts are being investigated, including defense toward pathogens and parasites, adaption to environment, influences on insect-plant interactions, and impact of population dynamics. Here, we review recent theoretical predictions and experimental observations of these traits mediated by endosymbionts and suggest that clarifying the roles of symbiotic microbes may be important to offer insights for ameliorating pest invasiveness or impact. PMID:23710278

Su, Qi; Zhou, Xiaomao; Zhang, Youjun

2013-01-01

13

Nursery Crop Production Problems & Issues - Insect Pests  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What insects present problems in nursery crop production, how can they be identified, and how can they be best controlled? First, let's look at the following scenarios to gain an understanding of insect problems that can occur within nursery crop production. Nursery Crop Production Insect Pest Management Scenarios Now read Plant Farm Nursery Website to identify the insect described in the first scenario. Next, read Tree Shrub Damage to identify the insect issue described within the second scenario. Read Extension Service Website to gain a better understanding ...

Mr. Wells

2012-04-05

14

Chemical environment manipulation for pest insects control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical environment of pest species may be considered a habitat susceptible to management Management may be by means of manipulation of the environment of the pest for population suppression or for enhancement of natural enemies Examples of each are reviewed here Chemical stimuli influencing the behavior of phytophagous insects include host plant originated stimuli and pheromones The latter, especially sex pheromones, have proved most successful as tools for manipulation of pest population dynamics Factors influencing search behavior of natural enemies include habitat characteristics such as crop, associated plants and plant assemblages, host plant characteristics, influence of associated organisms, and characteristics of the searching entomophage Recent studies have shown potential for simultaneous management of a pest species and enhancement of natural enemies using pest pheromones

Greenblatt, J. A.; Lewis, W. J.

1983-01-01

15

Insect Pests of Ornamental Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tutorials on pests of ornamentals. Each tutorial has 50 questions; incorrect answers lead to additional information. Covers spider mites, broad mites, thrips, lace bugs, mealybugs, aphids and whiteflies. Requires Windows. $15. Tutorials are easy to use once loaded on the hard drive. Images are of high quality. Part number SW 162.

0000-00-00

16

Insect Pests Models and Insecticide Application  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the past, the dominant approach in theoretical pest management ecology has emphasized the use of simple analytical or mathematical models and the analysis of systems in equilibrium. Recent advancements in computer technology have provided the opportunity for ecological insect modelers to move aw...

17

Insect pest management in forest ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the role of insects in forest ecosystems is vital to the development of environmentally and economically sound pest management strategies in forestry Most of the research on forest insects has been confined to phytophagous species associated with economically important tree species The roles of most other insects in forest environments have generally been ignored, including the natural enemies and associates of phytophagous species identified as being important In the past few years several investigations have begun to reevaluate the role of phytophagous species responsible for perturbation in forest ecosystems, and it appears that these species may be playing an important role in the primary productivity of those ecosystems Also, there is an increasing awareness that forest pest managers have been treating the symptoms and not the causes of the problems in the forest Many insect problems are associated with poor sites or sites where trees are growing poorly because of crowding As a result, there is considerable emphasis on the hazard rating of stands of trees for their susceptibility to various phytophagous insects The next step is to manipulate forest stands to make them less susceptible to forest pest complexes A thinning study in California is used as an example and shows that tree mortality in ponderosa pine ( Pinus ponderosa) attributable to the western pine beetle ( Dendroctonus brevicomis) can be reduced by commercial thinning to reduce stocking

Dahlsten, Donald L.; Rowney, David L.

1983-01-01

18

[Insect pests dissemination by extruded starch packages].  

PubMed

We observed the viability of extruded starch products used as impact protector for fragile packing as a food source of the following stored grains pests: Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens), Lasioderma serricorne (Fabr.), Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.), Sitophilus oryzae (L.), Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera) and Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera). Cryptolestes ferrugineus, L. serricorne and T. castaneum were found in these products, which are used by them as shelter and food. Under experimentation, we observed the development of O. surinamensis, S. oryzae and P. interpunctella feeding on this food source. Thus, it is recorded the viability of such material to be a potential dispersal vehicle to spread insect pests. PMID:19768278

Fraga, Felipe B; Alencar, Isabel D C C; Tavares, Marcelo T

2009-01-01

19

Insect pests of tea and their management.  

PubMed

Globally, 1031 species of arthropods are associated with the intensively managed tea Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze monoculture. All parts of the plant, leaf, stem, root, flower, and seed, are fed upon by at least one pest species, resulting in an 11%-55% loss in yield if left unchecked. There has been heavy use of organosynthetic pesticides since the 1950s to defend the plant against these pests, leading to rapid conversion of innocuous species into pests, development of resistance, and undesirable pesticide residues in made tea. As a result of importer and consumer concerns, pesticide residues have become a major problem for the tea industry. Integrated pest management (IPM) may help to overcome the overuse of pesticides and subsequent residues. We review the advances made in our understanding of the biology and ecology of major insect and mite pests of tea, host plant resistance, cultural practices, biocontrol measures, and need-based application of botanicals and safer pesticides to understand the present status of IPM and to identify future challenges to improvement. PMID:19067632

Hazarika, Lakshmi K; Bhuyan, Mantu; Hazarika, Budhindra N

2009-01-01

20

INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT IN VIRGINIA COTTON, PEANUT, SOYBEAN, AND SORGHUM  

E-print Network

INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT IN VIRGINIA COTTON, PEANUT, SOYBEAN, AND SORGHUM 2013 D. Ames Herbert, Jr., Extension Entomologist, Virginia Tech Examining sorghum for lep larvae Technical Support: Mike Arrington

Liskiewicz, Maciej

21

Obligate symbiont involved in pest status of host insect.  

PubMed

The origin of specific insect genotypes that enable efficient use of agricultural plants is an important subject not only in applied fields like pest control and management but also in basic disciplines like evolutionary biology. Conventionally, it has been presupposed that such pest-related ecological traits are attributed to genes encoded in the insect genomes. Here, however, we report that pest status of an insect is principally determined by symbiont genotype rather than by insect genotype. A pest stinkbug species, Megacopta punctatissima, performed well on crop legumes, while a closely related non-pest species, Megacopta cribraria, suffered low egg hatch rate on the plants. When their obligate gut symbiotic bacteria were experimentally exchanged between the species, their performance on the crop legumes was, strikingly, completely reversed: the pest species suffered low egg hatch rate, whereas the non-pest species restored normal egg hatch rate and showed good performance. The low egg hatch rates were attributed to nymphal mortality before or upon hatching, which were associated with the symbiont from the non-pest stinkbug irrespective of the host insect species. Our finding sheds new light on the evolutionary origin of insect pests, potentially leading to novel approaches to pest control and management. PMID:17567556

Hosokawa, Takahiro; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Shimada, Masakazu; Fukatsu, Takema

2007-08-22

22

North Dakota Sunflower Insect Pest Survey, 2006-2008  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The major insect pest species that cause economic losses to sunflower producers in North Dakota are banded sunflower moth (Cochylis hospes Walsingham), red sunflower seed weevil (Smicronyx fulvus Le Conte), and sunflower midge (Contarinia schulzi Gagne). New emerging insect pests include lygus bugs ...

23

Current status and future perspectives on sunflower insect pests  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

While occasional insect pests of cultivated sunflowers may be managed by conventional or reduced-risk insecticides, the cumulative costs and risks of relying on insecticides to suppress perennial or severe pests (common in North America) call for exploration of broader pest management strategies. Re...

24

Supplemental Insert for "Managing Insect Pests of Texas Sunflower,"  

E-print Network

full grown (http://entowww.tamu.edu/images/insects/fieldguide/bimg178.html). Biology and Life CycleSupplemental Insert for "Managing Insect Pests of Texas Sunflower," Publication L-1488 (January February 2002 We are preparing this insert to update growers on additional sunflower insect concerns

Mukhtar, Saqib

25

Stored Grain Insect Area-wide Integrated Pest Management (IPM)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

When wheat is mixed with wheat from other locations as it moves through the grain-marketing system, insect infestation can be spread to larger quantities of wheat, which increases the overall cost of insect pest management. In Kansas and Oklahoma, insect infestations currently are managed primarily...

26

Coconut leaf bioactivity toward generalist maize insect pests  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tropical plants are often more resistant to insects than temperate plants due to evolution of robust defenses to cope with a more constant insect threat. Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) has very few chewing leaf feeding insect pests and was tested against two omnivorous leaf feeding caterpillar species,...

27

Automatic monitoring of insect pests in stored grain  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Manual sampling of insects in stored grain is a laborious and time consuming process. Automation of grain sampling should help to increase the adoption of stored-grain integrated pest management. To make accurate insect management decisions, managers need to know both the insect species and numbers ...

28

Enhanced Methanol Production in Plants Provides Broad Spectrum Insect Resistance  

PubMed Central

Plants naturally emit methanol as volatile organic compound. Methanol is toxic to insect pests; but the quantity produced by most of the plants is not enough to protect them against invading insect pests. In the present study, we demonstrated that the over-expression of pectin methylesterase, derived from Arabidopsis thaliana and Aspergillus niger, in transgenic tobacco plants enhances methanol production and resistance to polyphagous insect pests. Methanol content in the leaves of transgenic plants was measured using proton nuclear spectroscopy (1H NMR) and spectra showed up to 16 fold higher methanol as compared to control wild type (WT) plants. A maximum of 100 and 85% mortality in chewing insects Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura larvae was observed, respectively when fed on transgenic plants leaves. The surviving larvae showed less feeding, severe growth retardation and could not develop into pupae. In-planta bioassay on transgenic lines showed up to 99 and 75% reduction in the population multiplication of plant sap sucking pests Myzus persicae (aphid) and Bemisia tabaci (whitefly), respectively. Most of the phenotypic characters of transgenic plants were similar to WT plants. Confocal microscopy showed no deformities in cellular integrity, structure and density of stomata and trichomes of transgenic plants compared to WT. Pollen germination and tube formation was also not affected in transgenic plants. Cell wall enzyme transcript levels were comparable with WT. This study demonstrated for the first time that methanol emission can be utilized for imparting broad range insect resistance in plants. PMID:24223989

Dixit, Sameer; Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar; Singh, Harpal; Sidhu, Om Prakash; Verma, Praveen Chandra; K, Chandrashekar

2013-01-01

29

Insect pest management decisions in food processing facilities  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pest management decision making in food processing facilities such as flour mills, rice mills, human and pet food manufacturing facilities, distribution centers and warehouses, and retail stores is a challenging undertaking. Insect pest management programs require an understanding of the food facili...

30

2009 Sunflower Insect Pest Problems and Insecticide Update  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.) are native to North America and a number of insect pests cause economic losses to sunflower production. Head-infesting insects include the red sunflower seed weevil, Smicronyx fulvus LeConte, banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham, sunflower moth, Homoeos...

31

Spatial distribution of pest insects in oilseed rape: implications for integrated pest management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insect pests, plant growth and plant yield in a crop of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) were studied to assess the potential value of spatial information in integrated pest management for this crop. Ceutorhynchus assimilis Payk., Ceutorhynchus pallidactylus (Marsh.), Meligethes aeneus (Fab.) and Dasineura brassicae Winn. were sampled from the nodes of a rectangular grid across the crop. Their

Andrew W Ferguson; Zdis?aw Klukowski; Barbara Walczak; Suzanne J Clark; Moira A Mugglestone; Joe N Perry; Ingrid H Williams

2003-01-01

32

Applications of acoustics in insect pest management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Acoustic technology has been applied for many years in studies of insect communication and in the monitoring of calling-insect population levels, geographic distributions, and diversity, as well as in the detection of cryptic insects in soil, wood, container crops, and stored products. Acoustic devi...

33

Managing Insect Pests of Texas Sunflower.  

E-print Network

............ 11 INSECTICIDE APPLICATION ............... 12 POLICY FOR MAKING INSECT CONTROL SUGGESTIONS ................. 12 PROTECTING THE BEES AND OTHER POLLINATORS FROM INSECTICIDES ...... 13 INSECTICIDES USED ON SUNFLOWER GROUPED ACCORDING... TO THEIR RELATIVE HAZARDS TO HONEY BEES .... 14 PRECAUTIONS ............................ 15 ACKNOWLEDGMENT I wish to thank Dr. Charlie E. Rogers, USDA ARS research entomologist, whose research and review made this publication possible. MANAGING INSECT TEXAS...

Patrick, Carl D.

1983-01-01

34

Responses of Lettuce Cultivars to Insect Pests in Southern Florida  

E-print Network

, aphids SUMMARY. Banded cucumber beetle [BCB (Diabrotica balteata)], serpentine leaf- miner [SL (Liriomyza trifolii)], and aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) are among the major insect pests that cause significant significantly in their responses to infestations of BCB and aphids. Cultivar 70096 had the lowest percent (3

Florida, University of

35

Early-season flooding for insect pest control  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In Wisconsin, there is much interest in the spring flood as a means to not only reduce pest populations, but also to facilitate marsh sanitation and provide frost protection. A large-scale field study was undertaken in 2011 to examine how a 30-40 hour spring flood (late May) would affect key insect ...

36

50 CFR 35.7 - Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease. 35.7...Rules § 35.7 Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease. To the...prescribe measures to control wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease to...

2014-10-01

37

50 CFR 35.7 - Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease. 35.7...Rules § 35.7 Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease. To the...prescribe measures to control wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease to...

2011-10-01

38

Identification and Control of Common Insect Pests of Ornamental Shrubs and Trees.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University introduces the identification and control of common ornamental insect pests. For each of the insects or insect groups (i.e. aphids) identified in this publication, information on host plants, pest description, and damage caused by the pest is given. Also a calendar…

Gesell, Stanley G.

39

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 SOYBEAN INSECT CONTROL  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2013 233 SOYBEAN INSECT CONTROL Jeremy K the beans back, and then count and identify insects. Divide by three to get the number of pests per row foot. Greene, Research/Extension Entomologist The keys to managing insect pests in soybean are to: Scout fields

Stuart, Steven J.

40

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 COTTON INSECT MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2013 93 COTTON INSECT MANAGEMENT Jeremy treatments should only be applied when numbers of insect pests reach levels that correspond to the economic K. Greene, Research/Extension Entomologist Insect pests are major limiting factors in producing

Stuart, Steven J.

41

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2014 COTTON INSECT MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2014 100 COTTON INSECT MANAGEMENT Jeremy treatments should only be applied when numbers of insect pests reach levels that correspond to the economic K. Greene, Research/Extension Entomologist Insect pests are major limiting factors in producing

Duchowski, Andrew T.

42

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2014 SOYBEAN INSECT CONTROL  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2014 245 SOYBEAN INSECT CONTROL Jeremy K the beans back, and then count and identify insects. Divide by three to get the number of pests per row foot. Greene, Research/Extension Entomologist The keys to managing insect pests in soybean are to: 1. Scout

Duchowski, Andrew T.

43

Urban Warming Drives Insect Pest Abundance on Street Trees  

PubMed Central

Cities profoundly alter biological communities, favoring some species over others, though the mechanisms that govern these changes are largely unknown. Herbivorous arthropod pests are often more abundant in urban than in rural areas, and urban outbreaks have been attributed to reduced control by predators and parasitoids and to increased susceptibility of stressed urban plants. These hypotheses, however, leave many outbreaks unexplained and fail to predict variation in pest abundance within cities. Here we show that the abundance of a common insect pest is positively related to temperature even when controlling for other habitat characteristics. The scale insect Parthenolecanium quercifex was 13 times more abundant on willow oak trees in the hottest parts of Raleigh, NC, in the southeastern United States, than in cooler areas, though parasitism rates were similar. We further separated the effects of heat from those of natural enemies and plant quality in a greenhouse reciprocal transplant experiment. P. quercifex collected from hot urban trees became more abundant in hot greenhouses than in cool greenhouses, whereas the abundance of P. quercifex collected from cooler urban trees remained low in hot and cool greenhouses. Parthenolecanium quercifex living in urban hot spots succeed with warming, and they do so because some demes have either acclimatized or adapted to high temperatures. Our results provide the first evidence that heat can be a key driver of insect pest outbreaks on urban trees. Since urban warming is similar in magnitude to global warming predicted in the next 50 years, pest abundance on city trees may foreshadow widespread outbreaks as natural forests also grow warmer. PMID:23544087

Meineke, Emily K.; Dunn, Robert R.; Sexton, Joseph O.; Frank, Steven D.

2013-01-01

44

Insect-attracting and antimicrobial properties of antifreeze for monitoring insect pests and natural enemies in stored corn  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Insect infestations in stored grain cause extensive damage worldwide. Storage insect pests including the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), Sitophilus spp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and their natural enemies [e.g., Cephalonomia tarsalis (Ashmead) (Hymenopter...

45

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2014 CORN INSECT CONTROL  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2014 43 CORN INSECT CONTROL Francis to prevent or avoid injury, transgenic Bt corn, at-planting insecticides (including seed treatments in each field where corn is to be planted. Major insect pests of corn in South Carolina. Insect

Duchowski, Andrew T.

46

The design of the remote diagnosis system of the main tobacco diseases and insect pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remote diagnosis system is an effective way to forecast the trends of tobacco diseases and insect pests. The system is a B\\/S application. It includes User side, Server side and Data collection module. Tobacco farmer can find the prevention and cure methods of tobacco diseases and insect pests with the system and the application can diagnose tobacco diseases and insect

He Ketai; Li Li

2010-01-01

47

Qpais: A Web-Based Expert System for Assistedidentification of Quarantine Stored Insect Pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Stored insect pests can seriously depredate stored products causing worldwide economic losses. Pests enter countries traveling\\u000a with transported goods. Inspection and Quarantine activities are essential to prevent the invasion and spread of pests. Identification\\u000a of quarantine stored insect pests is an important component of the China's Inspection and Quarantine procedure, and it is\\u000a necessary not only to identify whether the

Han Huang; Edwin G. Rajotte; Zhihong Li; Ke Chen; Shengfang Zhang

2009-01-01

48

Sampling stored product insect pests: a comparison of four statistical sampling models for probability of pest detection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Statistically robust sampling strategies form an integral component of grain storage and handling activities throughout the world. Developing sampling strategies to target biological pests such as insects in stored grain is inherently difficult due to species biology and behavioral characteristics. ...

49

Manipulating feeding stimulation to protect crops against insect pests?  

PubMed

Enhancing natural mechanisms of plant defense against herbivores is one of the possible strategies to protect cultivated species against insect pests. Host plant feeding stimulation, which results from phagostimulant and phagodeterrent effects of both primary and secondary metabolites, could play a key role in levels of damage caused to crop plants. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the feeding intensity of the pollen beetle Meligethes aeneus on six oilseed rape (Brassica napus) genotypes in a feeding experiment, and by assessing the content of possible phagostimulant and phagodeterrent compounds in tissues targeted by the insect (flower buds). For this purpose, several dozens of primary and secondary metabolites were quantified by a set of chromatographic techniques. Intergenotypic variability was found both in the feeding experiment and in the metabolic profile of plant tissues. Biochemical composition of the perianth was in particular highly correlated with insect damage. Only a few compounds explained this correlation, among which was sucrose, known to be highly phagostimulating. Further testing is needed to validate the suggested impact of the specific compounds we have identified. Nevertheless, our results open the way for a crop protection strategy based on artificial selection of key determinants of insect feeding stimulation. PMID:25355636

Hervé, Maxime R; Delourme, Régine; Gravot, Antoine; Marnet, Nathalie; Berardocco, Solenne; Cortesero, Anne Marie

2014-12-01

50

Proteomic analysis of Metarhizium anisopliae secretion in the presence of the insect pest Callosobruchus maculatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop improvement in agriculture generally focuses on yield, seed quality and nutritional characteristics, as opposed to resistance to biotic stresses. Consequently, natural antifeedant toxins are often rare in seed material, with commercial crops being prone to insect pest predation. In the specific case of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), smallholder cropping is affected by insect pests that reproduce inside the stored seeds.

A. M. Murad; E. F. Noronha; R. N. G. Miller; F. T. Costa; C. D. Pereira; A. Mehta; R. A. Caldas; O. L. Franco

2008-01-01

51

RECENT TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES FOR MANAGING INSECT PESTS OF STORED-GRAIN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Automation of grain sampling for insect pests should help to increase the adoption of stored-grain integrated pest management programs. Currently, there are acoustic sensors and electronic grain probe traps that are available for monitoring insects in stored grain. Both the acoustic and electronic g...

52

Can Vetiver Grass be Used to Manage Insect Pests on Crops?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apart from its well known soil conservation properties, vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty; syn. Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash) is reported to be repellent to many insect species. However, infestation of vetiver by pests of other crops has been recorded and concerns raised about vetiver grass being a refuge for insects pests. This paper addresses the benefits that vetiver may

J. Van den Berg; C. Midega; L. J. Wadhams; Z. R. Khan

53

Weed manipulation for insect pest management in corn  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Populations of insect pests and associated predaceous arthropods were sampled by direct observation and other relative methods in simple and diversified corn habitats at two sites in north Florida during 1978 and 1979. Through various cultural manipulations, characteristic weed communities were established selectively in alternate rows within corn plots. Fall armyworm ( Spodoptera frugiperda J. E. Smith) incidence was consistently higher in the weed-free habitats than in the corn habitats containing natural weed complexes or selected weed associations. Corn earworm ( Heliothis zea Boddie) damage was similar in all weed-free and weedy treatments, suggesting that this insect is not affected greatly by weed diversity. Only the diversification of corn with a strip of soybean significantly reduced corn earworm damage. In one site, distance between plots was reduced. Because predators moved freely between habitats, it was difficult to identify between-treatment differences in the composition of predator communities. In the other site, increased distances between plots minimized such migrations, resulting in greater population densities and diversity of common foliage insect predators in the weed-manipulated corn systems than in the weed-free plots. Trophic relationships in the weedy habitats were more complex than food webs in monocultures. Predator diversity (measured as mean number of species per area) and predator density was higher in com plots surrounded by mature, complex vegetation than at those surrounded by annual crops. This suggests that diverse adjacent areas to crops provide refuge for predators, thus acting as colonization sources.

Altieri, M. A.; Whitcomb, W. H.

1980-11-01

54

G95-1251 Biological Control of Insect and Mite Pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advantages and disadvantages of the three forms of biological control of insect and mite pests -- classical, augmentation and conservation -- are discussed.\\u000aBiological control is the conscious use of living beneficial organisms, called natural enemies, to control pests. Biological control should be an important part of any integrated pest management program, an approach which combines a variety of

Robert J Wright

1995-01-01

55

Qpais: A Web-Based Expert System for Assistedidentification of Quarantine Stored Insect Pests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stored insect pests can seriously depredate stored products causing worldwide economic losses. Pests enter countries traveling with transported goods. Inspection and Quarantine activities are essential to prevent the invasion and spread of pests. Identification of quarantine stored insect pests is an important component of the China's Inspection and Quarantine procedure, and it is necessary not only to identify whether the species captured is an invasive species, but determine control procedures for stored insect pests. With the development of information technologies, many expert systems that aid in the identification of agricultural pests have been developed. Expert systems for the identification of quarantine stored insect pests are rare and are mainly developed for stand-alone PCs. This paper describes the development of a web-based expert system for identification of quarantine stored insect pests as part of the China 11th Five-Year National Scientific and Technological Support Project (115 Project). Based on user needs, textual knowledge and images were gathered from the literature and expert interviews. ASP.NET, C# and SQL language were used to program the system. Improvement of identification efficiency and flexibility was achieved using a new inference method called characteristic-select-based spatial distance method. The expert system can assist identifying 150 species of quarantine stored insect pests and provide detailed information for each species. The expert system has also been evaluated using two steps: system testing and identification testing. With a 85% rate of correct identification and high efficiency, the system evaluation shows that this expert system can be used in identification work of quarantine stored insect pests.

Huang, Han; Rajotte, Edwin G.; Li, Zhihong; Chen, Ke; Zhang, Shengfang

56

Influence of Herbicide Tolerant Soybean Production Systems on Insect Pest Populations and Pest-Induced Crop Damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional soybean weed management and transgenic herbicide-tolerant manage- ment were examined to assess their effects on soybean insect pest populations in south Georgia in 1997 and 1998.Soybean variety had very little impact on the insect species observed, except that maturity group effects were observed for stink bug, primarily Nezara viridula (L.), population densities on some sampling dates.Stink bugs were more

R. M. McPherson; W. C. Johnson; B. G. MULLINIX JR.; W. A. Mills; F. S. Peebles

2003-01-01

57

Multiscale approach to pest insect monitoring: Random walks, pattern formation, synchronization, and networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pest insects pose a significant threat to food production worldwide resulting in annual losses worth hundreds of billions of dollars. Pest control attempts to prevent pest outbreaks that could otherwise destroy a sward. It is good practice in integrated pest management to recommend control actions (usually pesticides application) only when the pest density exceeds a certain threshold. Accurate estimation of pest population density in ecosystems, especially in agro-ecosystems, is therefore very important, and this is the overall goal of the pest insect monitoring. However, this is a complex and challenging task; providing accurate information about pest abundance is hardly possible without taking into account the complexity of ecosystems' dynamics, in particular, the existence of multiple scales. In the case of pest insects, monitoring has three different spatial scales, each of them having their own scale-specific goal and their own approaches to data collection and interpretation. In this paper, we review recent progress in mathematical models and methods applied at each of these scales and show how it helps to improve the accuracy and robustness of pest population density estimation.

Petrovskii, Sergei; Petrovskaya, Natalia; Bearup, Daniel

2014-09-01

58

MONTANA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION Title: Developing Integrated Pest Management Programs for Insects in the Western  

E-print Network

1 MONTANA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION Title: Developing Integrated Pest Management Programs for Insects in the Western Triangle Agricultural Area of Montana Organizing Department: Department of Research and Superintendent, Western Triangle Ag Research Center (WTARC), Montana State University. Cooperating Departments

Maxwell, Bruce D.

59

SPATIALLY VARIABLE INSECTICIDE APPLICATIONS FOR EARLY SEASON CONTROL OF COTTON INSECT PESTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our research has shown that cotton insect pests, specifically tarnished plant bugs, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) (Heteroptera: Miridae), can be controlled early season in commercial cotton fields in Mississippi, USA, using spatially variable insecticide applications. Technology was develo...

60

Insect pests of sweetpotato in Uganda: farmers' perceptions of their importance and control practices.  

PubMed

Insect pests are among the most important constraints limiting sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) production in Africa. However, there is inadequate information about farmers' knowledge, perceptions and practices in the management of key insect pests. This has hindered development of effective pest management approaches for smallholder farmers. A standard questionnaire was used to interview individual sweetpotato farmers (n?=?192) about their perception and management practices regarding insect pests in six major sweetpotato producing districts of Uganda. The majority (93%) of farmers perceived insect pests to be a very serious problem. With the exception of Masindi and Wakiso districts where the sweetpotato butterfly (Acraea acerata) was the number one constraint, sweetpotato weevils (Cylas puncticollis and C. brunneus) were ranked as the most important insect pests. Insecticide use in sweetpotato fields was very low being highest (28-38% of households) in districts where A. acerata infestation is the biggest problem. On average, 65% and 87% of the farmers took no action to control A. acerata and Cylas spp., respectively. Farmers were more conversant with the presence of and damage by A. acerata than of Cylas spp. as they thought that Cylas spp. root damage was brought about by a prolonged dry season. Different levels of field resistance (ability of a variety to tolerate damage) of sweetpotato landraces to A. acerata (eight landraces) and Cylas spp. (six landraces) were reported by farmers in all the six districts. This perceived level of resistance to insect damage by landraces needs to be investigated. To improve farmers' capabilities for sweetpotato insect pest management, it is crucial to train them in the basic knowledge of insect pest biology and control. PMID:25279278

Okonya, Joshua Sikhu; Mwanga, Robert Om; Syndikus, Katja; Kroschel, Jürgen

2014-01-01

61

Field Guide to Common Insect Pests of Urban Trees in the Northeast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For each insect, the following information is presented: host plant, photographs, damage information, life cycle, and management recommendations. This is an excellent collection of tree pests, and the species accounts are accurate, well-laid out, informative, and well illustrated. However, in the table of contents, white pine aphid and white pine weevil are mis-placed under "sawflies," and the heading for "Honeylocust Insect Pests" and the link for "Honeylocust Plant Bug" are transposed.

0002-11-30

62

Research toward control of key pecan insect pests using biorational pesticides  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Key pecan insect pests include the pecan weevil, Curculio caryae, black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae, and stink bugs. Alternative control tactics are needed for management of these pests in organic and conventional systems. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of several alternativ...

63

Insect pest problems in tropical agroforestry systems: Contributory factors and strategies for management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry trees are attacked by a wide spectrum of insects at all stages of their growth just like other annual and perennial crops. Pest management in agroforestry has not received much attention so far, but recent emphasis on producing high value tree products in agroforestry and using improved germplasm in traditional systems, and emergence of serious pest problems in some

M. R. Rao; M. P. Singh; R. Day

2000-01-01

64

Grape Insect and mite pests-2012 field season Department of Entomology  

E-print Network

. And this makes sense for some indirect pests (feed on leaves or other non crop tissue) like Japanese beetle since percent cluster infested and increased number of infested berries in a cluster) under these low cropGrape Insect and mite pests-2012 field season Greg Loeb Department of Entomology Cornell University

Keinan, Alon

65

Influences of trees on abundance of natural enemies of insect pests: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we review the use of natural enemies in crop pest management and describe research needed to better meet information needs for practical applications. Endemic natural enemies (predators and parasites) offer a potential but understudied approach to controlling insect pests in agricultural systems. With the current high interest in environmental stewardship, such an approach has special appeal as

M. E. Dix; R. J. Johnson; M. O. Harrell; R. M. Case; R. J. Wright; L. Hodges; J. R. Brandle; M. M. Schoeneberger; N. J. Sunderman; R. L. Fitzmaurice; L. J. Young; K. G. Hubbard

1995-01-01

66

Automatic monitoring of pest insects traps by Zigbee-based wireless networking of image sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring pest insect population is currently a key issue in crop protection. At farm level it is routinely operated by repeated surveys by a human operator of adhesive traps, disseminated through the field, where insects remain stuck when attracted. This is a labor- and time-consuming activity, and it would be of great advantage for farmers to have an affordable system

P. Tirelli; N. A. Borghese; F. Pedersini; G. Galassi; R. Oberti

2011-01-01

67

INSECT PESTS OF POTATOES IN THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE AND THE POTENTIAL FOR THEIR CONTROL USING ENTOMOPATHOGENS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis, has been used extensively in crops, forests, and aquatic habitats for control of pest insects. Its safety and that of other insect specific bacteria for vertebrates and nontarget invertebrates have been reported in hundreds of studies. Short term effects on n...

68

Development of reference transcriptomes for the major insect pests of cowpea: a toolbox for insect pest management approaches in West Africa  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cowpea crops are widely cultivated and a major nutritional source of protein for indigenous human populations in West Africa. Annual yields and longevity of grain storage is greatly reduced by feeding damage caused by a complex of insect pests that include Anoplocnemis curvipes, Aphis craccivora, Cl...

69

Phylogeny of economically important insect pests that infesting several crops species in Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reported molecular data on insect pests of commercial crops in Peninsular Malaysia. Fifteen insect pests (Metisa plana, Calliteara horsefeldii, Cotesia vestalis, Bactrocera papayae, Bactrocera carambolae, Bactrocera latifrons, Conopomorpha cramella, Sesamia inferens, Chilo polychrysa, Rhynchophorus vulneratus, and Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) of nine crops were sampled (oil palm, coconut, paddy, cocoa, starfruit, angled loofah, guava, chili and mustard) and also four species that belong to the fern's pest (Herpetogramma platycapna) and storage and rice pests (Tribolium castaneum, Oryzaephilus surinamensis and Cadra cautella). The presented phylogeny summarized the initial phylogenetic hypothesis, which concerning by implementation of the economically important insect pests. In this paper, phylogenetic relationships among 39 individuals of 15 species that belonging to three orders under 12 genera were inferred from DNA sequences of mitochondrial marker, cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and nuclear marker, ribosomal DNA 28S D2 region. The phylogenies resulted from the phylogenetic analyses of both genes are relatively similar, but differ in the sequence of evolution. Interestingly, this most recent molecular data of COI sequences data by using Bayesian Inference analysis resulted a more-resolved phylogeny that corroborated with traditional hypotheses of holometabolan relationships based on traditional hypotheses of holometabolan relationships and most of recently molecular study compared to 28S sequences. This finding provides the information on relationships of pests species, which infested several crops in Malaysia and also estimation on Holometabola's order relationships. The identification of the larval stages of insect pests could be done accurately, without waiting the emergence of adults and supported by the phylogenetic tree.

Ghazali, Siti Zafirah; Zain, Badrul Munir Md.; Yaakop, Salmah

2014-09-01

70

Evaluation of pest vulnerability of 'Benning' soybean value added and insect resistant near isogenic lines.  

PubMed

Crop enhancement with value added traits may affect vulnerability to insects, and evaluating the susceptibility levels of the various value added traits in elite germplasm would aid in developing integrated pest management strategies. During 2007-2008, five 'Benning' soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr) lines with different value added nutritional traits and four insect resistant quantitative trait loci (QTL) lines were evaluated in an effort to determine their pest vulnerability under artificial and natural insect pest populations. The lines showed variable susceptibility to lepidopterous insect pests classified as defoliators and stem feeders in replicated greenhouse and field tests. The study was carried out in Athens and Midville, GA. The green cloverworm (Hypena scabra (F.)) was the most common lepidopteran defoliator occurring in the fields. Other caterpillar pests found included the soybean looper (Pseudoplusia includens (Walker)), the bollworm (Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)), and the velvetbean caterpillar (Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner)). Data indicated that there was no significantly increased pest susceptibility among the value added cultivars with improved nutritional qualities, with the insect resistant quantitative trait loci lines Benning M and Benning MGH consistently being less susceptible to lepidopterous (Noctuidae) leaf injury. PMID:23786071

Samuel-Foo, Michelle; All, John N; Boerma, H Roger

2013-04-01

71

Pest Insect Olfaction in an Insecticide-Contaminated Environment: Info-Disruption or Hormesis Effect  

PubMed Central

Most animals, including pest insects, live in an “odor world” and depend strongly on chemical stimuli to get information on their biotic and abiotic environment. Although integrated pest management strategies including the use of insect growth regulators (IGRs) are increasingly developed, most insect pest treatments rely on neurotoxic chemicals. These molecules are known to disrupt synaptic transmission, affecting therefore sensory systems. The wide-spread use of neurotoxic insecticides and the growing use of IGRs result in residual accumulation of low concentrations in the environment. These insecticide residues could act as an “info-disruptor” by modifying the chemical communication system, and therefore decrease chances of reproduction in target insects. However, residues can also induce a non-expected hormesis effect by enhancing reproduction abilities. Low insecticide doses might thus induce adaptive processes in the olfactory pathway of target insects, favoring the development of resistance. The effect of sublethal doses of insecticides has mainly been studied in beneficial insects such as honeybees. We review here what is known on the effects of sublethal doses of insecticides on the olfactory system of insect pests. PMID:22457653

Tricoire-Leignel, Hélène; Thany, Steeve Hervé; Gadenne, Christophe; Anton, Sylvia

2012-01-01

72

Monitoring insect pests in retail stores by trapping and spatial analysis.  

PubMed

Stored-product insects are a perennial problem in retail stores, where they damage and contaminate susceptible merchandise such as food products and animal feed. Historically, pest management in these stores has relied heavily on chemical insecticides, but environmental and health issues have dictated use of safer methods, and these require better monitoring. A monitoring procedure that employs an array of moth and beetle traps combined with spatial (contour) analysis of trap catch was tested in three department stores and two pet stores. The rate of capture increased with the level of infestation but was essentially constant over 4- to 5-d trapping periods. Contour analysis effectively located foci of infestation and reflected population changes produced by applications of the insect growth regulator (S)-hydroprene. The most abundant insects were Plodia interpunctella (Hiibner), Lasioderma serricorne (F.), Oryzaephilus mercator (Fauvel), Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), and Cryptolestes pusillus (Schönherr). The results indicate that contour analysis of trap counts provides a useful monitoring tool for management of storage pests in retail stores. It identifies trouble spots and permits selection, timing, and precision targeting of control measures to achieve maximum pest suppression with minimum pesticide risk. It permits managers and pest control operators to visualize pest problems over an entire store, to monitor changes over time, and to evaluate the effectiveness of control intervention. The contour maps themselves, along with records of control applications and stock rotation, provide permanent documentation of pest problems and the effectiveness of pest management procedures. PMID:11057728

Arbogast, R T; Kendra, P E; Mankin, R W; McGovern, J E

2000-10-01

73

HORTICULTURAL & FOREST CROPS 2014 Nursery Crops: Organic Controls for Insect Pests of Nursery Crops 4-17  

E-print Network

kill of workers. Insecticidal soap Works well on soft bodied insects in particular aphids, mites production. Rotenone Many insect pests, including aphids, leafhoppers, weevils Japanese bee- tles, flea Insects Controlled Remarks Lady beetles Feed on aphids and other soft bodied insects Lady beetles may

Liskiewicz, Maciej

74

Myco-Biocontrol of Insect Pests: Factors Involved, Mechanism, and Regulation  

PubMed Central

The growing demand for reducing chemical inputs in agriculture and increased resistance to insecticides have provided great impetus to the development of alternative forms of insect-pest control. Myco-biocontrol offers an attractive alternative to the use of chemical pesticides. Myco-biocontrol agents are naturally occurring organisms which are perceived as less damaging to the environment. Their mode of action appears little complex which makes it highly unlikely that resistance could be developed to a biopesticide. Past research has shown some promise of the use of fungi as a selective pesticide. The current paper updates us about the recent progress in the field of myco-biocontrol of insect pests and their possible mechanism of action to further enhance our understanding about the biological control of insect pests. PMID:22567344

Sandhu, Sardul Singh; Sharma, Anil K.; Beniwal, Vikas; Goel, Gunjan; Batra, Priya; Kumar, Anil; Jaglan, Sundeep; Sharma, A. K.; Malhotra, Sonal

2012-01-01

75

A handheld decision support system to facilitate improved insect pest management in Australian cotton systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decision support systems (DSS) are widely accepted in the Australian cotton industry for assisting with integrated pest management (IPM), crop nutrition and other aspects of information transfer. EntomoLOGIC, part of the CottonLOGIC software suite, is one example. To operate EntomoLOGIC, users select sample areas in their cotton fields and collect information on the types of beneficial and ‘pestinsects present,

M. P Bange; S. A Deutscher; D Larsen; D Linsley; S Whiteside

2004-01-01

76

A novel approach to evaluation of pest insect abundance in the presence of noise.  

PubMed

Evaluation of pest abundance is an important task of integrated pest management. It has recently been shown that evaluation of pest population size from discrete sampling data can be done by using the ideas of numerical integration. Numerical integration of the pest population density function is a computational technique that readily gives us an estimate of the pest population size, where the accuracy of the estimate depends on the number of traps installed in the agricultural field to collect the data. However, in a standard mathematical problem of numerical integration, it is assumed that the data are precise, so that the random error is zero when the data are collected. This assumption does not hold in ecological applications. An inherent random error is often present in field measurements, and therefore it may strongly affect the accuracy of evaluation. In our paper, we offer a novel approach to evaluate the pest insect population size under the assumption that the data about the pest population include a random error. The evaluation is not based on statistical methods but is done using a spatially discrete method of numerical integration where the data obtained by trapping as in pest insect monitoring are converted to values of the population density. It will be discussed in the paper how the accuracy of evaluation differs from the case where the same evaluation method is employed to handle precise data. We also consider how the accuracy of the pest insect abundance evaluation can be affected by noise when the data available from trapping are sparse. In particular, we show that, contrary to intuitive expectations, noise does not have any considerable impact on the accuracy of evaluation when the number of traps is small as is conventional in ecological applications. PMID:24619808

Embleton, Nina; Petrovskaya, Natalia

2014-03-01

77

PEST&CROP INDEX 2012 INSECTS, MITES & NEMATODES  

E-print Network

Wheat ­ 1 Will Winter Annual Weeds Be An Issue This Year? ­ 2 Timing of Post-emergence Corn Herbicide'am: Effects of a Mild Winter on Insect Populations ­ 1 VIDEO: Assessing Early Bean Leaf Beetle Feeding ­ 8 European Corn Borer Just the Facts Ma'am: Effects of a Mild Winter on Insect Populations - 1 Flea Beetle

Ginzel, Matthew

78

ADVANCES IN INTEGRATING INSECT GROWTH REGULATORS INTO STORAGE PEST MANAGEMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Insect growth regulators (IGRs) are insecticides that mimic insect-produced hormones that regulate the developmental process. They generally have little or no mammalian toxicity, and are considered reduced-risk insecticides that are often exempt from tolerance requirements of regulatory agencies. Al...

79

Entomopathogenic nematodes for control of insect pests above and below ground with comments on commercial production.  

PubMed

Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) have been utilized in classical, conservation, and augmentative biological control programs. The vast majority of applied research has focused on their potential as inundatively applied augmentative biological control agents. Extensive research over the past three decades has demonstrated both their successes and failures for control of insect pests of crops, ornamental plants, trees and lawn and turf. In this paper we present highlights of their development for control of insect pests above and below ground. The target insects include those from foliar, soil surface, cryptic and subterranean habitats. Advances in mass-production and formulation technology of EPNs, the discovery of numerous efficacious isolates/strains, and the desirability of reducing pesticide usage have resulted in a surge of commercial use and development of EPNs. Commercially produced EPNs are currently in use for control of scarab larvae in lawns and turf, fungus gnats in mushroom production, invasive mole crickets in lawn and turf, black vine weevil in nursery plants, and Diaprepes root weevil in citrus in addition to other pest insects. However, demonstrated successful control of several other insects, often has not lead to capture of a significant share of the pesticide market for these pests. PMID:23482993

Lacey, Lawrence A; Georgis, Ramon

2012-06-01

80

Entomopathogenic Nematodes for Control of Insect Pests Above and Below Ground with Comments on Commercial Production  

PubMed Central

Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) have been utilized in classical, conservation, and augmentative biological control programs. The vast majority of applied research has focused on their potential as inundatively applied augmentative biological control agents. Extensive research over the past three decades has demonstrated both their successes and failures for control of insect pests of crops, ornamental plants, trees and lawn and turf. In this paper we present highlights of their development for control of insect pests above and below ground. The target insects include those from foliar, soil surface, cryptic and subterranean habitats. Advances in mass-production and formulation technology of EPNs, the discovery of numerous efficacious isolates/strains, and the desirability of reducing pesticide usage have resulted in a surge of commercial use and development of EPNs. Commercially produced EPNs are currently in use for control of scarab larvae in lawns and turf, fungus gnats in mushroom production, invasive mole crickets in lawn and turf, black vine weevil in nursery plants, and Diaprepes root weevil in citrus in addition to other pest insects. However, demonstrated successful control of several other insects, often has not lead to capture of a significant share of the pesticide market for these pests. PMID:23482993

Lacey, Lawrence A.; Georgis, Ramon

2012-01-01

81

Development of Reference Transcriptomes for the Major Field Insect Pests of Cowpea: A Toolbox for Insect Pest Management Approaches in West Africa  

PubMed Central

Cowpea is a widely cultivated and major nutritional source of protein for many people that live in West Africa. Annual yields and longevity of grain storage is greatly reduced by feeding damage caused by a complex of insect pests that include the pod sucking bugs, Anoplocnemis curvipes Fabricius (Hemiptera: Coreidae) and Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stål (Hemiptera: Coreidae); as well as phloem-feeding cowpea aphids, Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and flower thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Efforts to control these pests remain a challenge and there is a need to understand the structure and movement of these pest populations in order to facilitate the development of integrated pest management strategies (IPM). Molecular tools have the potential to help facilitate a better understanding of pest populations. Towards this goal, we used 454 pyrosequencing technology to generate 319,126, 176,262, 320,722 and 227,882 raw reads from A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti, respectively. The reads were de novo assembled into 11,687, 7,647, 10,652 and 7,348 transcripts for A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti, respectively. Functional annotation of the resulting transcripts identified genes putatively involved in insecticide resistance, pathogen defense and immunity. Additionally, sequences that matched the primary aphid endosymbiont, Buchnera aphidicola, were identified among A. craccivora transcripts. Furthermore, 742, 97, 607 and 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were respectively predicted among A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti transcripts, and will likely be valuable tools for future molecular genetic marker development. These results demonstrate that Roche 454-based transcriptome sequencing could be useful for the development of genomic resources for cowpea pest insects in West Africa. PMID:24278221

Agunbiade, Tolulope A.; Sun, Weilin; Coates, Brad S.; Djouaka, Rousseau; Tamò, Manuele; Ba, Malick N.; Binso-Dabire, Clementine; Baoua, Ibrahim; Olds, Brett P.; Pittendrigh, Barry R.

2013-01-01

82

Influence of herbicide tolerant soybean production systems on insect pest populations and pest-induced crop damage.  

PubMed

Conventional soybean weed management and transgenic herbicide-tolerant management were examined to assess their effects on soybean insect pest populations in south Georgia in 1997 and 1998. Soybean variety had very little impact on the insect species observed, except that maturity group effects were observed for stink bug, primarily Nezara viridula (L.), population densities on some sampling dates. Stink bugs were more abundant on the early maturing varieties in mid-season. Velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris), and grasshoppers Melanoplus spp. were more numerous on either conventional or herbicide-tolerant varieties on certain dates, although these differences were not consistent throughout the season. Soybean looper, Pseudoplusia includens (Walker), threecornered alfalfa hopper, Spissistilus festinus (Say), and whitefringed beetles, Graphognathus spp , demonstrated no varietal preference in this study. Few weed treatment differences were observed, but if present on certain sampling dates, then pest numbers were higher in plots where weeds were reduced (either postemergence herbicides or preplant herbicide plus postemergence herbicide). The exception to this weed treatment effect was grasshoppers, which were more numerous in weedy plots when differences were present. In post emergence herbicide plots, there were no differences in insect pest densities between the conventional herbicides (e.g., Classic, Select, Cobra, and Storm) compared with specific gene-inserted herbicide-tolerant materials (i.e., Roundup and Liberty). Defoliation, primarily by velvetbean caterpillar, was different between soybean varieties at some test sites but not different between herbicide treatments. We did not observe differences in seasonal abundance of arthropod pests between conventional and transgenic herbicide-tolerant soybean. PMID:12852606

McPherson, R M; Johnson, W C; Mullinix, B G; Mills, W A; Peebles, F S

2003-06-01

83

Biological control of pests and insects. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of biological agents to control insects and pests. Radiation, genetic breeding, bacteria, fungi, viruses, and pheromones are discussed as alternatives to pesticidal management. Methods for monitoring the effectiveness and environmental impact of these agents are reviewed. Population control of fruit flies, spruce sawflies, flies, mosquitoes, cockroaches, gypsy moths, and other agriculturally-important insects is also discussed. (Contains a minimum of 190 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-02-01

84

Biological control of pests and insects. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of biological agents to control insects and pests. Radiation, genetic breeding, bacteria, fungi, viruses, and pheromones are discussed as alternatives to pesticidal management. Methods for monitoring the effectiveness and environmental impact of these agents are reviewed. Population control of fruit flies, spruce sawflies, flies, mosquitoes, cockroaches, gypsy moths, and other agriculturally-important insects is also discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-04-01

85

INSECT GROWTH REGULATORS (IGRS) IN PEST MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This presentation is part of the symposium "Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in Stored Product Entomology", presented at the 5th National IPM Conference. The use of IGRs as grain protectants, contact insecticides, and aerosols will be described and discussed using examples from current research proj...

86

Managing Insect and Mite Pests in Vegetable Gardens  

E-print Network

Growing your own vegetables is a pleasant and satisfying way to enjoy nature and save money. But managing garden pest populations in the vegetable garden isn't always easy. This publication discusses ways to accomplish that goal. 38 pages and 3...

Jackman, John A.

2008-02-19

87

PEST&CROP INDEX 2011 INSECTS, MITES & NEMATODES  

E-print Network

for Yellowing of Soybeans - 14 #12;Millipede Nematodes Nematode Updates ­ Needle Nematodes on Wheat ­ 2 Potato Stalk Borer Stink Bug Western Bean Cutworm Entomologist: Winter Not Likely to Slow Corn Pest's Advance/Wild Onion Control in Wheat ­ 2 Marestail Control Essential to Protect Soybean Yields ­ 3 Poison Hemlock

Ginzel, Matthew

88

Lantana and Verbena: How to Combat Insect and Mite Pests  

E-print Network

than you?d like. In the mean- time, the plants are damaged and become stressed. To manage the pest population more quickly, you may employ a mechanical control method such as a ?water wand? sprayer or chemical control methods such as an insecticide...

Mott, Dale; Merchant, Michael E.

2005-02-21

89

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 CORN INSECT CONTROL  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2013 42 CORN INSECT CONTROL Francis P. F PHI PGI COMMENTS Armyworm (fall armyworm) Bt-resistant corn AGRISURE CB AGRISURE GT 3000 AGRISURE VIPTERA 3111 AGRISURE VIPTERA 3110 HERCULEX I HERCULEX XTRA YIELDGARD CORN BORER YIELDGARD PLUS YIELDGARD

Stuart, Steven J.

90

OCCURRENCE OF DISEASES AND INSECT PESTS IN SELECT SOYBEAN (GLYCINE MAX (L.) MERR.) AND SORGHUM  

E-print Network

OCCURRENCE OF DISEASES AND INSECT PESTS IN SELECT SOYBEAN (GLYCINE MAX (L.) MERR.) AND SORGHUM (SORGHUM BICOLOR (L.) MOENCH) ROTATIONS IN MISSISSIPPI By Sergio Tomás Pichardo A Dissertation Submitted SOYBEAN (GLYCINE MAX (L.) MERR.) AND SORGHUM (SORGHUM BICOLOR (L.) MOENCH) ROTATIONS IN MISSISSIPPI

Ray, David

91

Microbial control of insect pests in temperate orchard systems: status and future prospects  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Due to their selectivity and safety, microbial control agents (MCAs) are ready made components of IPM systems that will not pose a threat to applicators or the environment. Control of several orchard pest insects using MCAs, including viruses, Bacillus thuringiensis, fungi and entomopathogenic nemat...

92

Insect Pest Management in Postharvest Ecosystems in the United States of America  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Postharvest entomology can involve grain and grain-based commodities, tree fruits and nuts, citrus fruits, pome fruits, and vegetables. The insect pests and associated control strategies can vary depending on the specific host commodity, and the quarantine aspects associated with export of fresh fru...

93

Microbial Control of Insect Pests in Temperate Orchard Systems: Potential for Incorporation into IPM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Due to their selectivity and safety, microbial control agents appear to be ready made components of IPM systems that will not pose a threat to applicators or the environment and will allow other natural enemies to function. Control of several orchard pest insects using microbial control agents, incl...

94

On the accuracy of estimating pest insect abundance from data with random error  

E-print Network

On the accuracy of estimating pest insect abundance from data with random error Nina Embleton of the estimate in order to have confidence about the management decision. Knowledge of the accuracy as the estimate becomes more accurate. Evaluation is based on the results of sampling and its accuracy depends

Petrovskaya, Natalia B.

95

Broad sprectrum potential of Isaria fumosorosea on insect pests of citrus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Use of entomopathogenic fungi, Isaria fumosorosea, Ifr, =Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, successfully increased insect pest mortality. Spraying the Ifr containing product, PFR97 TM, on citrus seedlings was used to screen efficacy for the management of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri; glassy-winge...

96

AN INSECT PEST FOR AGRICULTURAL, URBAN, AND WILDLIFE AREAS: THE RED IMPORTED FIRE ANT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Red Imported Fire Ant (RIFA), Solenopsis invicta (Buren), is an insect pest of particular importance in California due to its potential impact on public health, agriculture, and wildlife. In 1997, RIFAs hitchhiked to the Central Valley on honeybee hives brought in from Texas for pollination of a...

97

Maize planting time and arthropod abundance in southern Mindanao, Philippines. I. Population dynamics of insect pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monthly plantings conducted over 4 years in a rainfed triple maize cropping system in southern Mindanao, Philippines, revealed the Asian corn borer (ACB) Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée) as the most important insect pest. Of minor importance and being restricted to one crop stage were rice seedling maggot Atherigona oryzae Malloch, thrips Thrips palmi Karny and Megalurothrips usitatus (Bagnall), corn leafhopper Cicadulina

J. A. Litsinger; C. G. Dela Cruz; B. L. Canapi; A. T. Barrion

2007-01-01

98

New/Emerging Pests in Alaska: Will Climate Change Favor Insect Expansion Into Alaska  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Because of its geographical isolation and climatic constraints, Alaska agriculture is considered relatively free of diseases and insect pests. However, since 1973, the winter temperatures in Alaska have increased by 2-3 C'. It is logical to assume that continued global climate change could produce ...

99

Manipulating behaviour with substrate-borne vibrations--potential for insect pest control.  

PubMed

This review presents an overview of the potential use of substrate-borne vibrations for the purpose of achieving insect pest control in the context of integrated pest management. Although the importance of mechanical vibrations in the life of insects has been fairly well established, the effect of substrate-borne vibrations has historically been understudied, in contrast to sound sensu stricto. Consequently, the idea of using substrate-borne vibrations for pest control is still in its infancy. This review therefore focuses on the theoretical background, using it to highlight potential applications in a field environment, and lists the few preliminary studies that have been or are being performed. Conceptual similarities to the use of sound, as well as limitations inherent in this approach, are also noted. PMID:24962656

Polajnar, Jernej; Eriksson, Anna; Lucchi, Andrea; Anfora, Gianfranco; Virant-Doberlet, Meta; Mazzoni, Valerio

2015-01-01

100

DEVELOPMENT OF LIGHT-EMITTING DIODE (LED) EQUIPPED INSECT TRAPS FOR MONITORING PEST INSECTS IN GREENHOUSES AND FIELDS, 2001 – 2004  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We equipped yellow sticky card (YC) and CC traps with 530 nm lime green light-emitting diodes (LED-YC and LED-CC) and blue sticky card (BC) traps with 470 nm blue LEDs (LED-BC) to increase trap catches of several pest insects. The LED-YC traps caught 1.3, 1.4, 1.8, and 4.8 times more adult Trialeur...

101

The Insect Ecdysone Receptor is a Good Potential Target for RNAi-based Pest Control  

PubMed Central

RNA interference (RNAi) has great potential for use in insect pest control. However, some significant challenges must be overcome before RNAi-based pest control can become a reality. One challenge is the proper selection of a good target gene for RNAi. Here, we report that the insect ecdysone receptor (EcR) is a good potential target for RNAi-based pest control in the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens, a serious insect pest of rice plants. We demonstrated that the use of a 360 bp fragment (NlEcR-c) that is common between NlEcR-A and NlEcR-B for feeding RNAi experiments significantly decreased the relative mRNA expression levels of NlEcR compared with those in the dsGFP control. Feeding RNAi also resulted in a significant reduction in the number of offspring per pair of N. lugens. Consequently, a transgenic rice line expressing NlEcR dsRNA was constructed by Agrobacterium- mediated transformation. The results of qRT-PCR showed that the total copy number of the target gene in all transgenic rice lines was 2. Northern blot analysis showed that the small RNA of the hairpin dsNlEcR-c was successfully expressed in the transgenic rice lines. After newly hatched nymphs of N. lugens fed on the transgenic rice lines, effective RNAi was observed. The NlEcR expression levels in all lines examined were decreased significantly compared with the control. In all lines, the survival rate of the nymphs was nearly 90%, and the average number of offspring per pair in the treated groups was significantly less than that observed in the control, with a decrease of 44.18-66.27%. These findings support an RNAi-based pest control strategy and are also important for the management of rice insect pests. PMID:25516715

Yu, Rong; Xu, Xinping; Liang, Yongkang; Tian, Honggang; Pan, Zhanqing; Jin, Shouheng; Wang, Na; Zhang, Wenqing

2014-01-01

102

Transcriptome analysis in cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) and RNA interference in insect pests.  

PubMed

Cotton plants are subjected to the attack of several insect pests. In Brazil, the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, is the most important cotton pest. The use of insecticidal proteins and gene silencing by interference RNA (RNAi) as techniques for insect control are promising strategies, which has been applied in the last few years. For this insect, there are not much available molecular information on databases. Using 454-pyrosequencing methodology, the transcriptome of all developmental stages of the insect pest, A. grandis, was analyzed. The A. grandis transcriptome analysis resulted in more than 500.000 reads and a data set of high quality 20,841 contigs. After sequence assembly and annotation, around 10,600 contigs had at least one BLAST hit against NCBI non-redundant protein database and 65.7% was similar to Tribolium castaneum sequences. A comparison of A. grandis, Drosophila melanogaster and Bombyx mori protein families' data showed higher similarity to dipteran than to lepidopteran sequences. Several contigs of genes encoding proteins involved in RNAi mechanism were found. PAZ Domains sequences extracted from the transcriptome showed high similarity and conservation for the most important functional and structural motifs when compared to PAZ Domains from 5 species. Two SID-like contigs were phylogenetically analyzed and grouped with T. castaneum SID-like proteins. No RdRP gene was found. A contig matching chitin synthase 1 was mined from the transcriptome. dsRNA microinjection of a chitin synthase gene to A. grandis female adults resulted in normal oviposition of unviable eggs and malformed alive larvae that were unable to develop in artificial diet. This is the first study that characterizes the transcriptome of the coleopteran, A. grandis. A new and representative transcriptome database for this insect pest is now available. All data support the state of the art of RNAi mechanism in insects. PMID:24386449

Firmino, Alexandre Augusto Pereira; Fonseca, Fernando Campos de Assis; de Macedo, Leonardo Lima Pepino; Coelho, Roberta Ramos; Antonino de Souza, José Dijair; Togawa, Roberto Coiti; Silva-Junior, Orzenil Bonfim; Pappas-Jr, Georgios Joannis; da Silva, Maria Cristina Mattar; Engler, Gilbert; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

2013-01-01

103

IMPACT OF AERATION ON INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT IN STORED RICE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aeration is the introduction of low-volume ambient air to cool stored grain and manage temperature during storage. The optimal developmental range for most stored grain insects is between 24 and 32°C, and development stops at about 15°C. This temperature is often used as the target for initial aerat...

104

Managing Insect and Mite Pests of Texas Corn.  

E-print Network

.............................. 15 Western Bean Cutworm ............................... 15 Grasshoppers ........................................ 16 INSECTICIDE APPLICATION METHODS ....................................... 17 PROTECTING BEES FROM INSECTICIDES... will seriously reduce bee populations. 10 Flea Beetles Flea beetles are very tiny, shiny black or greenish black insects that will jump when disturbed. They nge in size from a little smaller than a pinhead to ;,everal times as large. They damage corn...

Stewart, J.W.; Patrick, Carl; Cronholm, Gregory B.

1982-01-01

105

Intercropping for management of insect pests of castor, Ricinus communis, in the semi-arid tropics of India.  

PubMed

Intercropping is one of the important cultural practices in pest management and is based on the principle of reducing insect pests by increasing the diversity of an ecosystem. On-farm experiments were conducted in villages of semi-arid tropical (SAT) India to identify the appropriate combination of castor (Ricinus communis L.) (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae) and intercropping in relation to pest incidence. The diversity created by introducing cluster bean, cowpea, black gram, or groundnut as intercrops in castor (1:2 ratio proportions) resulted in reduction of incidence of insect pests, namely semilooper (Achaea janata L.), leaf hopper (Empoasca flavescens Fabricius), and shoot and capsule borer (Conogethes punctiferalis Guenee). A buildup of natural enemies (Microplitis, coccinellids, and spiders) of the major pests of castor was also observed in these intercropping systems and resulted in the reduction of insect pests. Further, these systems were more efficient agronomically and economically, and were thus more profitable than a castor monocrop. PMID:22934569

Rao, M Srinivasa; Rama Rao, C A; Srinivas, K; Pratibha, G; Vidya Sekhar, S M; Sree Vani, G; Venkateswarlu, B

2012-01-01

106

Intercropping for Management of Insect Pests of Castor, Ricinus communis, in the Semi—Arid Tropics of India  

PubMed Central

Intercropping is one of the important cultural practices in pest management and is based on the principle of reducing insect pests by increasing the diversity of an ecosystem. On—farm experiments were conducted in villages of semi—arid tropical (SAT) India to identify the appropriate combination of castor (Ricinus communis L.) (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae) and intercropping in relation to pest incidence. The diversity created by introducing cluster bean, cowpea, black gram, or groundnut as intercrops in castor (1:2 ratio proportions) resulted in reduction of incidence of insect pests, namely semilooper (Achaea janata L.), leaf hopper (Empoasca flavescens Fabricius), and shoot and capsule borer (Conogethes punctiferalis Guenee). A buildup of natural enemies (Microplitis, coccinellids, and spiders) of the major pests of castor was also observed in these intercropping systems and resulted in the reduction of insect pests. Further, these systems were more efficient agronomically and economically, and were thus more profitable than a castor monocrop. PMID:22934569

Srinivasa Rao, M.; Venkateswarlu, B.

2012-01-01

107

Using Drosophila melanogaster to validate metabolism-based insecticide resistance from insect pests.  

PubMed

Identifying molecular mechanisms of insecticide resistance is important for preserving insecticide efficacy, developing new insecticides and implementing insect control. The metabolic detoxification of insecticides is a widespread resistance mechanism. Enzymes with the potential to detoxify insecticides are commonly encoded by members of the large cytochrome P450, glutathione S-transferase and carboxylesterase gene families, all rapidly evolving in insects. Here, we demonstrate that the model insect Drosophila melanogaster is useful for functionally validating the role of metabolic enzymes in conferring metabolism-based insecticide resistance. Alleles of three well-characterized genes from different pest insects were expressed in transgenic D. melanogaster : a carboxylesterase gene (?E7) from the Australian sheep blowfly Lucilia cuprina, a glutathione S-transferase gene (GstE2) from the mosquito Anopheles gambiae and a cytochrome P450 gene (Cyp6cm1) from the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. For all genes, expression in D. melanogaster resulted in insecticide resistance phenotypes mirroring those observed in resistant populations of the pest species. Using D. melanogaster to assess the potential for novel metabolic resistance mechanisms to evolve in pest species is discussed. PMID:23023059

Daborn, Phillip J; Lumb, Christopher; Harrop, Thomas W R; Blasetti, Alex; Pasricha, Shivani; Morin, Shai; Mitchell, Sara N; Donnelly, Martin J; Müller, Pie; Batterham, Philip

2012-12-01

108

Influence of Cover Crops on Insect Pests and Predators in Conservation Tillage Cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

In fall 2000, an on-farm sustainable agricultural research project was established for cotton, Gossypiumhirsutum L., in Tift County, Georgia. The objective of our 2-yr research project was to determine the impact of several cover crops on pest and predator insects in cotton.The Þve cover crop treatments included 1) cereal rye, Secalecereale L., a standard grass cover crop; 2) crimson clover,

Glynn Tillman; Harry Schomberg; Sharad Phatak; Benjamin Mullinix; Sharon Lachnicht; Patricia Timper; Dawn Olson

2004-01-01

109

Activity of an essential oil derived from Chenopodium ambrosioides on greenhouse insect pests.  

PubMed

This study involved both greenhouse and laboratory experiments evaluating the effect of an essential oil product (QRD 400) derived from Chenopodium ambrosioides variety nr. Ambrosioides L. (Chenopodiaceae) on greenhouse insect pests that feed on different plant parts: citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso); longtailed mealybug, Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti); western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), and fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.). Treatments were applied to coleus, Solenostemon scutellarioides plants; transvaal daisy, Gerbera jamesonii flowers; or growing medium, depending on the insect pest. The essential oil was most effective, based on adult emergence, on both the second and third instars of the fungus gnat Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila when applied as a drench to growing medium. In addition, there was a significant rate response for QRD 400 on fungus gnats. The QRD 400 treatment had the highest percentage of mortality on longtailed mealybug (55%) compared with the other treatments. However, the essential oil was less effective against citrus mealybug (3% mortality) and western flower thrips adults (18-34% mortality) compared with standard insecticides, such as acetamiprid (TriStar) and spinosad (Conserve), which are typically used by greenhouse producers. This lack of efficacy may be associated with volatility and short residual properties of the essential oil or with the essential oil taking longer to kill insect pests. Other insecticides and miticides evaluated, including sesame oil, garlic, paraffinic oil, and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis, provided minimal control of the designated insect pests. In addition, adult rove beetle Atheta coriaria Kraatz adults were not effective in controlling the larval instars of fungus gnats when applied at a rate of five adults per container. PMID:17461071

Cloyd, Raymond A; Chiasson, Helene

2007-04-01

110

Exploitation of Insect Vibrational Signals Reveals a New Method of Pest Management  

PubMed Central

Food production is considered to be the main source of human impact on the environment and the concerns about detrimental effects of pesticides on biodiversity and human health are likely to lead to an increasingly restricted use of chemicals in agriculture. Since the first successful field trial, pheromone based mating disruption enabled sustainable insect control, which resulted in reduced levels of pesticide use. Organic farming is one of the fastest growing segments of agriculture and with the continuously growing public concern about use of pesticides, the main remaining challenge in increasing the safety of the global food production is to identify appropriate alternative mating disruption approaches for the numerous insect pests that do not rely on chemical communication. In the present study, we show for the first time that effective mating disruption based on substrate-borne vibrational signals can be achieved in the field. When disruptive vibrational signals were applied to grapevine plants through a supporting wire, mating frequency of the leafhopper pest Scaphoideus titanus dropped to 9 % in semi-field conditions and to 4 % in a mature vineyard. The underlying mechanism of this environmentally friendly pest-control tactic is a masking of the vibrational signals used in mate recognition and location. Because vibrational communication is widespread in insects, mating disruption using substrate vibrations can transform many open field and greenhouse based farming systems. PMID:22457726

Eriksson, Anna; Anfora, Gianfranco; Lucchi, Andrea; Lanzo, Francesco; Virant-Doberlet, Meta; Mazzoni, Valerio

2012-01-01

111

Floricultural Insects and Related Pests - Biology and Control, Section I. Florogram - Specialty Manual Issue for Commercial Greenhouse Growers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed by the Massachusetts Cooperative Extension Service as a guide for the control of the most common insects and related pests of floricultural crops grown commercially in glass and plastic houses in Massachusetts. The publication consists of two sections. The first section presents a description of the major pests of…

Gentile, A. G.; Scanlon, D. T.

112

Changing patterns in insect pests on trees in The Netherlands since 1946 in relation to human induced habitat changes and climate factors—An analysis of historical data  

Microsoft Academic Search

In The Netherlands, insect pests on trees and shrubs are being monitored continuously since 1946. During these years, almost all insect pest populations showed marked changes, which may be the result of changes in forest management, shifts in forest composition, climate change and the arrival of new pests from the Mediterranean region or from other continents. In order to generate

Leen G. Moraal; Gerard A. J. M. Jagers op Akkerhuis

2011-01-01

113

Effect of volatile constituents from Securidaca longepedunculata on insect pests of stored grain.  

PubMed

Securidaca longepedunculata Fers (Polygalaceae) is commonly used as a traditional medicine in many parts of Africa as well as against a number of invertebrate pests, including insects infesting stored grain. The present study showed that S. longepedunculata root powder, its methanol extract, and the main volatile component, methyl salicylate, exhibit repellent and toxic properties to Sitophilus zeamais adults. Adult S. zeamais that were given a choice between untreated maize and maize treated with root powder, extract, or synthetic methyl salicylate in a four-way choice olfactometer significantly preferred the control maize. Methyl salicylate vapor also had a dose-dependant fumigant effect against S. zeamais, Rhyzopertha dominica, and Prostephanus truncates, with a LD100 achieved with a 60microl dose in a 1-l container against all three insect species after 24 hr of exposure. Probit analyses estimated LD50 values between 34 and 36 microl (95% CI) for all insect species. Furthermore, prolonged exposure for 6 days showed that lower amounts (30 microl) of methyl salicylate vapor were able to induce 100% adult mortality of the three insect species. The implications are discussed in the context of improving stored product pest control by small-scale subsistence farmers in Africa. PMID:15856785

Jayasekara, Thamara K; Stevenson, Philip C; Hall, David R; Belmain, Steven R

2005-02-01

114

Restoring a maize root signal that attracts insect-killing nematodes to control a major pest  

PubMed Central

When attacked by herbivorous insects, plants emit volatile compounds that attract natural enemies of the insects. It has been proposed that these volatile signals can be manipulated to improve crop protection. Here, we demonstrate the full potential of this strategy by restoring the emission of a specific belowground signal emitted by insect-damaged maize roots. The western corn rootworm induces the roots of many maize varieties to emit (E)-?-caryophyllene, which attracts entomopathogenic nematodes that infect and kill the voracious root pest. However, most North American maize varieties have lost the ability to emit (E)-?-caryophyllene and may therefore receive little protection from the nematodes. To restore the signal, a nonemitting maize line was transformed with a (E)-?-caryophyllene synthase gene from oregano, resulting in constitutive emissions of this sesquiterpene. In rootworm-infested field plots in which nematodes were released, the (E)-?-caryophyllene-emitting plants suffered significantly less root damage and had 60% fewer adult beetles emerge than untransformed, nonemitting lines. This demonstration that plant volatile emissions can be manipulated to enhance the effectiveness of biological control agents opens the way for novel and ecologically sound strategies to fight a variety of insect pests. PMID:19666594

Degenhardt, Jörg; Hiltpold, Ivan; Köllner, Tobias G.; Frey, Monika; Gierl, Alfons; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Hibbard, Bruce E.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Turlings, Ted C. J.

2009-01-01

115

Science and Management of Pest Insects, Plant Pathogens and Goal: Colorado State University will enhance its focus and depth in undergraduate education, graduate education, research,  

E-print Network

Science and Management of Pest Insects, Plant Pathogens and Weeds Goal: Colorado State University contributions of courses to undergraduate agricultural degrees and introductions to plants, insects in Colorado. Purpose: Management of weeds, insect pests and plant pathogens is one of the most costly inputs

116

Ancient pests: the season of the Santorini Minoan volcanic eruption and a date from insect chitin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attributing a season and a date to the volcanic eruption of Santorini in the Aegean has become possible by using preserved remains of the bean weevil, Bruchus rufipes, pests of pulses, from the storage jars of the West House, in the Bronze Age settlement at Akrotiri. We have applied an improved pre-treatment methodology for dating the charred insects, and this provides a date of 1744-1538 BC. This date is within the range of others obtained from pulses from the same context and confirms the utility of chitin as a dating material. Based on the nature of the insect material and the life cycle of the species involved, we argue for a summer eruption, which took place after harvest, shortly after this material was transported into the West House storeroom.

Panagiotakopulu, Eva; Higham, Thomas; Sarpaki, Anaya; Buckland, Paul; Doumas, Christos

2013-07-01

117

Ancient pests: the season of the Santorini Minoan volcanic eruption and a date from insect chitin.  

PubMed

Attributing a season and a date to the volcanic eruption of Santorini in the Aegean has become possible by using preserved remains of the bean weevil, Bruchus rufipes, pests of pulses, from the storage jars of the West House, in the Bronze Age settlement at Akrotiri. We have applied an improved pre-treatment methodology for dating the charred insects, and this provides a date of 1744-1538 BC. This date is within the range of others obtained from pulses from the same context and confirms the utility of chitin as a dating material. Based on the nature of the insect material and the life cycle of the species involved, we argue for a summer eruption, which took place after harvest, shortly after this material was transported into the West House storeroom. PMID:23793358

Panagiotakopulu, Eva; Higham, Thomas; Sarpaki, Anaya; Buckland, Paul; Doumas, Christos

2013-07-01

118

Efficacy of Piper (Piperaceae) extracts for control of common home and garden insect pests.  

PubMed

Extracts from three species of the plant family Piperaceae, Piper nigrum [L.], Piper guineense [Schum & Thonn, and Piper tuberculatum [Jacq.], were tested for efficacy against insects from five orders. All three species contain isobutyl amides, plant secondary compounds that act as neurotoxins in insects. These materials are considered safe to mammals because Piper spp. were used for centuries for spice and medicinal purposes. When 24-h P. nigrum LC50 values were compared between common insect pests from eastern Canada and the northeastern United States, the most sensitive species in order of increasing lethal concentration were eastern tent caterpillar, Malacosoma americanum (F.) < European pine sawfly larvae, Neodiprion sertifer (Geoffroy) < spindle ermine moth larvae, Yponomeuta cagnagella [Hübner] < viburnum leaf beetle larvae, Pyrrhalta viburni [Paykull] < stripped cucumber beetle adults, Acalymma vittatum (F.) < Colorado potato beetle adults, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) < Japanese beetle adults, Popillia japonica [Newman] < hairy chinch bug, Blissus leucopterus hirtis [Montandon]. The life stage tested was the point at which each species causes the greatest amount of damage to the host plant and the point at which most gardeners would likely choose to treat with a conventional synthetic insecticide. Greenhouse trials revealed that the pepper formulations also had a repellent activity, thus protecting plant leaves from 1) herbivory (lily leaf beetle, Lilioceris lilii [Scopoli], adults and larvae and stripped cucumber beetle adults) and 2) oviposition [European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner)]. Combinations with other botanical extracts were additive at best in toxicity and repellent trials. Nontarget toxicity to beneficial invertebrates is a possibility because the P. nigrum LC50 for beneficial ladybird beetles was 0.2%. P. nigrum extracts can provide a reasonable level of control against lepidopteran and European pine sawfly larvae and also will work as a short-term repellent and feeding deterrent. It is recommended that the use of Piper extracts be restricted to small-scale spot treatments in residential areas where insect pest outbreaks have occurred. PMID:15384353

Scott, I M; Jensen, H; Nicol, R; Lesage, L; Bradbury, R; Sánchez-Vindas, P; Poveda, L; Arnason, J T; Philogène, B J R

2004-08-01

119

Effects of plant genotype and insect dispersal rate on the population dynamics of a forest pest.  

PubMed

It has been shown that plant genotype can strongly affect not only individual herbivore performance, but also community composition and ecosystem function. Few studies, however, have addressed how plant genotype affects herbivore population dynamics. In this paper, we used a simulation modeling approach to ask how the genetic composition of a forest influences pest outbreak dynamics, using the example of aspen (Populus tremuloides) and forest tent caterpillars (FTC; Malacosoma disstria). Specifically, we examined how plant genotype, the relative size of genotypic patches, and the rate of insect dispersal between them, affect the frequency, amplitude, and duration of outbreaks. We found that coupling two different genotypes does not necessarily result in an averaging of insect dynamics. Instead, depending on the ratio of patch sizes, when dispersal rates are moderate, outbreaks in the two-genotype case may be more or less severe than in forests of either genotype alone. Thresholds for different dynamic behaviors were similar for all genotypic combinations. Thus, the qualitative behavior of a stand of two different genotypes can be predicted based on the response of the insect to each genotype, the relative sizes of the two patches, and the scale of insect dispersal. PMID:24597225

Moran, Emily V; Bewick, Sharon; Cobbold, Christina A

2013-12-01

120

Toxicity of seven foliar insecticides to four insect parasitoids attacking citrus and cotton pests.  

PubMed

Laboratory studies were carried out to compare the toxicity of seven foliar insecticides to four species of adult beneficial insects representing two families of Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae (Aphytis melinus Debach, Eretmocerus eremicus Rose & Zolnerowich, and Encarsiaformosa Gahan) and Mymaridae (Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault) that attack California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell); sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (both E. eremicus and E. formosa); and glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar), respectively. Insecticides from four pesticide classes were evaluated using a petri dish bioassay technique across a range of concentrations to develop dosage-mortality regressions. Insecticides tested included acetamiprid (neonicotinoid); chlorpyrifos (organophosphate); bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, and fenpropathrin (pyrethroids); and buprofezin and pyriproxyfen (insect growth regulators [IGRs]). Chlorpyrifos was consistently the most toxic pesticide to all four species of beneficial insects tested based on LC50 values recorded 24 h posttreatment compared with 48-h LC50 values with the neonicotinoid and pyrethroids or 96 h with the IGRs. Among the three pyrethroids, fenpropathrin was usually less toxic (except similar toxicity to A. melinus) than was cyfluthrin, and it was normally less toxic (except similar toxicity with E. formosa) than was bifenthrin. Acetamiprid was generally less toxic than bifenthrin (except similar toxicity with G. ashmeadi). The IGRs buprofezin and pyriproxyfen were usually less toxic than the contact pesticides, but we did not test for possible impacts on female fecundity. For all seven pesticides tested, A. melinus was the most susceptible parasitoid of the four test species. The data presented here will provide pest managers with specific information on the compatibility of select insecticides with natural enemies attacking citrus and cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., pests. PMID:17849851

Prabhaker, Nilima; Morse, J G; Castle, S J; Naranjo, S E; Henneberry, T J; Toscano, N C

2007-08-01

121

Numerical and Functional Responses of Forest Bats to a Major Insect Pest in Pine Plantations  

PubMed Central

Global change is expected to modify the frequency and magnitude of defoliating insect outbreaks in forest ecosystems. Bats are increasingly acknowledged as effective biocontrol agents for pest insect populations. However, a better understanding is required of whether and how bat communities contribute to the resilience of forests to man- and climate-driven biotic disturbances. We studied the responses of forest insectivorous bats to a major pine defoliator, the pine processionary moth pityocampa, which is currently expanding its range in response to global warming. We used pheromone traps and ultrasound bat recorders to estimate the abundance and activity of moths and predatory bats along the edge of infested pine stands. We used synthetic pheromone to evaluate the effects of experimentally increased moth availability on bat foraging activity. We also evaluated the top-down regulation of moth population by estimating T. pityocampa larval colonies abundance on the same edges the following winter. We observed a close spatio-temporal matching between emergent moths and foraging bats, with bat activity significantly increasing with moth abundance. The foraging activity of some bat species was significantly higher near pheromone lures, i.e. in areas of expected increased prey availability. Furthermore moth reproductive success significantly decreased with increasing bat activity during the flight period of adult moths. These findings suggest that bats, at least in condition of low prey density, exhibit numerical and functional responses to a specific and abundant prey, which may ultimately result in an effective top-down regulation of the population of the prey. These observations are consistent with bats being useful agents for the biocontrol of insect pest populations in plantation forests. PMID:25285523

Charbonnier, Yohan; Barbaro, Luc; Theillout, Amandine; Jactel, Hervé

2014-01-01

122

Unexpected Effects of Low Doses of a Neonicotinoid Insecticide on Behavioral Responses to Sex Pheromone in a Pest Insect  

PubMed Central

In moths, which include many agricultural pest species, males are attracted by female-emitted sex pheromones. Although integrated pest management strategies are increasingly developed, most insect pest treatments rely on widespread use of neurotoxic chemicals, including neonicotinoid insecticides. Residual accumulation of low concentrations of these insecticides in the environment is known to be harmful to beneficial insects such as honey bees. This environmental stress probably acts as an “info-disruptor” by modifying the chemical communication system, and therefore decreases chances of reproduction in target insects that largely rely on olfactory communication. However, low doses of pollutants could on the contrary induce adaptive processes in the olfactory pathway, thus enhancing reproduction. Here we tested the effects of acute oral treatments with different low doses of the neonicotinoid clothianidin on the behavioral responses to sex pheromone in the moth Agrotis ipsilon using wind tunnel experiments. We show that low doses of clothianidin induce a biphasic effect on pheromone-guided behavior. Surprisingly, we found a hormetic-like effect, improving orientation behavior at the LD20 dose corresponding to 10 ng clothianidin. On the contrary, a negative effect, disturbing orientation behavior, was elicited by a treatment with a dose below the LD0 dose corresponding to 0.25 ng clothianidin. No clothianidin effect was observed on behavioral responses to plant odor. Our results indicate that risk assessment has to include unexpected effects of residues on the life history traits of pest insects, which could then lead to their adaptation to environmental stress. PMID:25517118

Rabhi, Kaouther K.; Esancy, Kali; Voisin, Anouk; Crespin, Lucille; Le Corre, Julie; Tricoire-Leignel, Hélène; Anton, Sylvia; Gadenne, Christophe

2014-01-01

123

Estimation of the number of founders of an invasive pest insect population: the fire ant Solenopsis invicta in the USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determination of the number of founders responsible for the establishment of invasive populations is important for developing biologically based management practices, predicting the invasive potential of species, and making inferences about ecological and evolutionary processes. The fire ant Solenopsis invicta is a major invasive pest insect first introduced into the USA from its native South American range in the mid-1930s.

Kenneth G. Ross; D. DeWayne Shoemaker

2008-01-01

124

Evaluation of Insecticides and Application Methods Against Contarinia nasturtii (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a New Invasive Insect Pest in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The midge Contarinia nasturtii (Keiffer), a serious gall-forming insect pest of crucif- erous plants in Europe and southwestern Asia, was Þrst reported in the United States in summer 2004. It had not been recorded in North America until its discovery in Ontario, Canada, in 2000. EfÞcacy of 20 insecticides belonging to 12 different classes was evaluated by using a foliar

Qing-Jun Wu; Jian-Zhou Zhao; Alan G. Taylor; Anthony M. Shelton

2006-01-01

125

Horticultural & Forest crops 2014 Floral Crops: Organic Controls for Insect Pests of Floral Crops 5-35  

E-print Network

. Insecticidal soap Works well on soft bodied insects, in particular aphids, mites, lacebugs, mealybugs pests including aphids, leafhop- pers, weevils, Japanese beetles, flea beetles Usually sold as a dust Usually sold mixed with other botanical insecticides. Predators Lady beetles Feed on aphids and other soft

Liskiewicz, Maciej

126

Increasing organic cotton production in Benin West Africa with a supplementary food spray product to manage pests and beneficial insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic cotton is considered a high-value crop in Benin, West Africa, but problems of high costs and reduced yield arising from the lack of effective pest control have left cotton farmers with low profit margins. We have developed a novel supplementary food spray product (Benin Food Product, BFP) to attract and retain beneficial insects on these crops to improve the

R. K. Mensah; D. S. Vodouhe; D. Sanfillippo; G. Assogba; P. Monday

2012-01-01

127

Unexpected effects of low doses of a neonicotinoid insecticide on behavioral responses to sex pheromone in a pest insect.  

PubMed

In moths, which include many agricultural pest species, males are attracted by female-emitted sex pheromones. Although integrated pest management strategies are increasingly developed, most insect pest treatments rely on widespread use of neurotoxic chemicals, including neonicotinoid insecticides. Residual accumulation of low concentrations of these insecticides in the environment is known to be harmful to beneficial insects such as honey bees. This environmental stress probably acts as an "info-disruptor" by modifying the chemical communication system, and therefore decreases chances of reproduction in target insects that largely rely on olfactory communication. However, low doses of pollutants could on the contrary induce adaptive processes in the olfactory pathway, thus enhancing reproduction. Here we tested the effects of acute oral treatments with different low doses of the neonicotinoid clothianidin on the behavioral responses to sex pheromone in the moth Agrotis ipsilon using wind tunnel experiments. We show that low doses of clothianidin induce a biphasic effect on pheromone-guided behavior. Surprisingly, we found a hormetic-like effect, improving orientation behavior at the LD20 dose corresponding to 10 ng clothianidin. On the contrary, a negative effect, disturbing orientation behavior, was elicited by a treatment with a dose below the LD0 dose corresponding to 0.25 ng clothianidin. No clothianidin effect was observed on behavioral responses to plant odor. Our results indicate that risk assessment has to include unexpected effects of residues on the life history traits of pest insects, which could then lead to their adaptation to environmental stress. PMID:25517118

Rabhi, Kaouther K; Esancy, Kali; Voisin, Anouk; Crespin, Lucille; Le Corre, Julie; Tricoire-Leignel, Hélène; Anton, Sylvia; Gadenne, Christophe

2014-01-01

128

Rickettsia felis infection in a common household insect pest, Liposcelis bostrychophila (Psocoptera: Liposcelidae).  

PubMed

Many species of Rickettsia are well-known mammalian pathogens transmitted by blood-feeding arthropods. However, molecular surveys are continually uncovering novel Rickettsia species, often in unexpected hosts, including many arthropods that do not feed on blood. This study reports a systematic molecular characterization of a Rickettsia infecting the psocid Liposcelis bostrychophila (Psocoptera: Liposcelidae), a common and cosmopolitan household pest. Surprisingly, the psocid Rickettsia is shown to be Rickettsia felis, a human pathogen transmitted by fleas that causes serious morbidity and occasional mortality. The plasmid from the psocid R. felis was sequenced and was found to be virtually identical to the one in R. felis from fleas. As Liposcelis insects are often intimately associated with humans and other vertebrates, it is speculated that they acquired R. felis from fleas. Whether the R. felis in psocids causes disease in vertebrates is not known and warrants further study. PMID:20139311

Behar, Adi; McCormick, Laurie J; Perlman, Steve J

2010-04-01

129

Essential oil formulations useful as a new tool for insect pest control.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of some essential oils on Limantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantridae, gypsy moth) larvae, one of the most serious pests of cork oak forests. The essential oils were first formulated as oil in water (o/w) emulsions and used in laboratory bioassays to assess their lethal concentration (LC50). Microcapsules containing the most promising oils (Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus herba-barona) were then prepared by a phase separation process, followed by freeze-drying. The formulations thus obtained, characterized in terms of essential oil content and composition, morphology, storage stability, and release profile, were tested on gypsy moth larvae. The results showed that the tested oils possess interesting larvicidal effects that make them suitable for application in integrated control strategies. The microencapsulation process gave high encapsulation yields (over 98%) with both essential oils, which have different chemical compositions. The microcapsules had toxic effects at a concentration similar to that usually employed for localized treatments with microgranular synthetic pesticides. Toxicity appeared to be maximized when the microparticles adhered to the typical hair structures of several defoliator families. These formulations seem to be able to protect the core material against environmental agents and could be considered for use in controlled drug release systems. The natural active principles they contain could provide an alternative system in insect pest control. PMID:12916950

Moretti, Mario D L; Sanna-Passino, Giovanni; Demontis, Stefania; Bazzoni, Emanuela

2002-01-01

130

Insect pest management in African agriculture: Challenges in the current millenium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pest management on a global scale experienced a total revolution after World War II when synthetic organic compounds were in agriculture and public health. However, it soon became apparent that there were many limitations in the use of chemicals for pest management. In agriculture, problems of pest resurgence, secondary pest outbreaks, pest resistance and adverse effects of pesticides on the

O. O. Banwo; R. S. Adamu

2003-01-01

131

Role of two insect growth regulators in integrated pest management of citrus scales.  

PubMed

Portions of two commercial citrus orchards were treated for two consecutive years with buprofezin or three consecutive years with pyriproxyfen in a replicated plot design to determine the long-term impact of these insect growth regulators (IGRs) on the San Joaquin Valley California integrated pest management program. Pyriproxyfen reduced the target pest, California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii Maskell, to nondetectable levels on leaf samples approximately 4 mo after treatment. Pyriproxyfen treatments reduced the California red scale parasitoid Aphytis melinus DeBach to a greater extent than the parasitoid Comperiella bifasciata Howard collected on sticky cards. Treatments of lemons Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f. infested with scale parasitized by A. melinus showed only 33% direct mortality of the parasitoid, suggesting the population reduction observed on sticky cards was due to low host density. Three years of pyriproxyfen treatments did not maintain citricola scale, Coccus pseudomagnoliarum (Kuwana), below the treatment threshold and cottony cushion scale, Icerya purchasi Maskell, was slowly but incompletely controlled. Buprofezin reduced California red scale to very low but detectable levels approximately 5 mo after treatment. Buprofezin treatments resulted in similar levels of reduction of the two parasitoids A. melinus and C. bifasciata collected on sticky cards. Treatments of lemons infested with scale parasitized by A. melinus showed only 7% mortality of the parasitoids, suggesting the population reduction observed on sticky cards was due to low host density. Citricola scale was not present in this orchard, and cottony cushion scale was slowly and incompletely controlled by buprofezin. These field plots demonstrated that IGRs can act as organophosphate insecticide replacements for California red scale control; however, their narrower spectrum of activity and disruption of coccinellid beetles can allow other scale species to attain primary pest status. PMID:16813306

Grafton-Cardwell, E E; Lee, J E; Stewart, J R; Olsen, K D

2006-06-01

132

Modelling mortality of a stored grain insect pest with fumigation: probit, logistic or Cauchy model?  

PubMed

Computer simulation models can provide a relatively fast, safe and inexpensive means to judge and weigh the merits of various pest control management options. However, the usefulness of such simulation models relies on the accurate estimation of important model parameters, such as the pest mortality under different treatments and conditions. Recently, an individual-based simulation model of population dynamics and resistance evolution has been developed for the stored grain insect pest Rhyzopertha dominica, based on experimental results showing that alleles at two different loci are involved in resistance to the grain fumigant phosphine. In this paper, we describe how we used three generalized linear models, probit, logistic and Cauchy models, each employing two- and four-parameter sub-models, to fit experimental data sets for five genotypes for which detailed mortality data was already available. Instead of the usual statistical iterative maximum likelihood estimation, a direct algebraic approach, generalized inverse matrix technique, was used to estimate the mortality model parameters. As this technique needs to perturb the observed mortality proportions if the proportions include 0 or 1, a golden section search approach was used to find the optimal perturbation in terms of minimum least squares (L2) error. The results show that the estimates using the probit model were the most accurate in terms of L2 errors between observed and predicted mortality values. These errors with the probit model ranged from 0.049% to 5.3%, from 0.381% to 8.1% with the logistic model and from 8.3% to 48.2% with the Cauchy model. Meanwhile, the generalized inverse matrix technique achieved similar results to the maximum likelihood estimation ones, but is less time consuming and computationally demanding. We also describe how we constructed a two-parameter model to estimate the mortalities for each of the remaining four genotypes based on realistic genetic assumptions. PMID:23473941

Shi, Mingren; Renton, Michael

2013-06-01

133

New dispenser types for integrated pest management of agriculturally significant insect pests: an algorithm with specialized searching capacity in electronic data bases.  

PubMed

Pheromone effects discovered some 130 years, but scientifically defined just half a century ago, are a great bonus for basic and applied biology. Specifically, pest management efforts have been advanced in many insect orders, either for purposes or monitoring, mass trapping, or for mating disruption. Finding and applying a new search algorithm, nearly 20,000 entries in the pheromone literature have been counted, a number much higher than originally anticipated. This compilation contains identified and thus synthesizable structures for all major orders of insects. Among them are hundreds of agriculturally significant insect pests whose aggregated damages and costly control measures range in the multibillions of dollars annually. Unfortunately, and despite a lot of effort within the international entomological scene, the number of efficient and cheap engineering solutions for dispensing pheromones under variable field conditions is uncomfortably lagging behind. Some innovative approaches are cited from the relevant literature in an attempt to rectify this situation. Recently, specifically designed electrospun organic nanofibers offer a lot of promise. With their use, the mating communication of vineyard insects like Lobesia botrana (Lep.: Tortricidae) can be disrupted for periods of seven weeks. PMID:23885431

Hummel, H E; Eisinger, M T; Hein, D F; Breuer, M; Schmid, S; Leithold, G

2012-01-01

134

Effect of some Ghanaian plant components on control of two stored-product insect pests of cereals.  

PubMed

In an attempt to find natural and cheaper methods for the control of stored-product pests of cereals, some traditionally useful Ghanaian plant materials were evaluated. Hexane+isopropyl alcohol extract of leaves of Ocimum viride proved most effective in the control of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), followed by that of Chromolaena odorata. O. viride showed strong repellent activity and thus deterred the insects from feeding. It reduced survival of both insect pests to less than 25% after 10 days of treatment at concentrations of 0.1 mg ml(-1) and above. The results show the potential of O. viride and C. odorata in the control of stored-product insects. PMID:11124372

Owusu

2000-01-15

135

Tissue-Specific Transcriptomics of the Exotic Invasive Insect Pest Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)  

PubMed Central

Background The insect midgut and fat body represent major tissue interfaces that deal with several important physiological functions including digestion, detoxification and immune response. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), is an exotic invasive insect pest that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) primarily in the Midwestern United States and Ontario, Canada. However, despite its high impact status little knowledge exists for A. planipennis at the molecular level. Methodology and Principal Findings Newer-generation Roche-454 pyrosequencing was used to obtain 126,185 reads for the midgut and 240,848 reads for the fat body, which were assembled into 25,173 and 37,661 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for the midgut and the fat body of A. planipennis larvae, respectively. Among these ESTs, 36% of the midgut and 38% of the fat body sequences showed similarity to proteins in the GenBank nr database. A high number of the midgut sequences contained chitin-binding peritrophin (248)and trypsin (98) domains; while the fat body sequences showed high occurrence of cytochrome P450s (85) and protein kinase (123) domains. Further, the midgut transcriptome of A. planipennis revealed putative microbial transcripts encoding for cell-wall degrading enzymes such as polygalacturonases and endoglucanases. A significant number of SNPs (137 in midgut and 347 in fat body) and microsatellite loci (317 in midgut and 571 in fat body) were predicted in the A. planipennis transcripts. An initial assessment of cytochrome P450s belonging to various CYP clades revealed distinct expression patterns at the tissue level. Conclusions and Significance To our knowledge this study is one of the first to illuminate tissue-specific gene expression in an invasive insect of high ecological and economic consequence. These findings will lay the foundation for future gene expression and functional studies in A. planipennis. PMID:21060843

Mittapalli, Omprakash; Bai, Xiaodong; Bonello, Pierluigi; Herms, Daniel A.

2010-01-01

136

Adaptive mechanisms of insect pests against plant protease inhibitors and future prospects related to crop protection: a review.  

PubMed

The overwhelming demand for food requires the application of technology on field. An important issue that limits the productivity of crops is related to insect attacks. Hence, several studies have evaluated the application of different compounds to reduce the field losses, especially insecticide compounds from plant sources. Among them, plant protease inhibitors (PIs) have been studied in both basic and applied researches, displaying positive results in control of some insects. However, certain species are able to bypass the insecticide effects exerted by PIs. In this review, we disclosed the adaptive mechanisms showed by lepidopteran and coleopteran insects, the most expressive insect orders related to crop predation. The structural aspects involved in adaptation mechanisms are presented as well as the newest alternatives for pest control. The application of biotechnological tools in crop protection will be mandatory in agriculture, and it will be up to researchers to find the best candidates for effective control in long-term. PMID:25329404

Macedo, Maria L R; de Oliveira, Caio F R; Costa, Poliene M; Castelhano, Elaine C; Silva-Filho, Marcio C

2015-01-01

137

The Phorbol Ester Fraction from Jatropha curcas Seed Oil: Potential and Limits for Crop Protection against Insect Pests  

PubMed Central

The physic nut shrub, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae), has been considered as a “miracle tree”, particularly as a source of alternate fuel. Various extracts of the plant have been reported to have insecticidal/acaricidal or molluscicidal/anthelminthic activities on vectors of medical or veterinary interest or on agricultural or non-agricultural pests. Among those extracts, the phorbol ester fraction from seed oil has been reported as a promising candidate for use as a plant-derived protectant of a variety of crops, from a range of pre-harvest and post-harvest insect pests. However, such extracts have not been widely used, despite the “boom” in the development of the crop in the tropics during recent years, and societal concerns about overuse of systemic chemical pesticides. There are many potential explanations to such a lack of use of Jatropha insecticidal extracts. On the one hand, the application of extracts potentially harmful to human health on stored food grain, might not be relevant. The problem of decomposition of phorbol esters and other compounds toxic to crop pests in the field needing further evaluation before such extracts can be widely used, may also be a partial explanation. High variability of phorbol ester content and hence of insecticidal activity among physic nut cultivars/ecotypes may be another. Phytotoxicity to crops may be further limitation. Apparent obstacles to a wider application of such extracts are the costs and problems involved with registration and legal approval. On the other hand, more studies should be conducted on molluscicidal activity on slugs and land snails which are major pests of crops, particularly in conservation agriculture systems. Further evaluation of toxicity to natural enemies of insect pests and studies on other beneficial insects such as pollinators are also needed. PMID:23203190

Ratnadass, Alain; Wink, Michael

2012-01-01

138

Insect resistance management for stored product pests: a case study of cowpea weevil (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

The cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), can cause up to 100% yield loss of stored cowpea seeds in a few months in West Africa. Genes expressing toxins delaying insect maturation (MDTs) are available for genetic engineering. A simulation model was used to investigate the possible use of MDTs for managing C. maculatus. Specifically, we studied the effect of transgenic cowpea expressing an MDT, an insecticide, or both, on the evolution of resistance by C. maculatus at constant temperature. Transgenic cowpea expressing only a nonlethal MDT causing 50-100% maturation delay did not control C. maculatus well. Mortality caused by a maturation delay improved the efficacy of transgenic cowpea expressing only a lethal MDT, but significantly reduced the durability of transgenic cowpea Transgenic cowpea expressing only a lethal MDT causing 50% maturation delay and 90% mortality controlled C. maculatus better than one expressing only a nonlethal MDT, but its durability was only 2 yr. We concluded that transgenic cowpea expressing only an MDT has little value for managing C. maculatus. The resistance by C. maculatus to transgenic cowpea expressing only an insecticide rapidly evolved. Stacking a gene expressing a nonlethal MDT and a gene expressing an insecticide in transgenic cowpea did not significantly improve the durability of an insecticide, but stacking a gene expressing a lethal MDT and a gene expressing an insecticide in transgenic cowpea significantly improved the durability of an insecticide and an MDT. We also discussed this approach within the idea of using transgenic RNAi in pest control strategies. PMID:24498750

Kang, Jung Koo; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Onstad, David W

2013-12-01

139

Monitoring Pest Insect Traps by Means of Low-Power Image Sensor Technologies  

PubMed Central

Monitoring pest insect populations is currently a key issue in agriculture and forestry protection. At the farm level, human operators typically must perform periodical surveys of the traps disseminated through the field. This is a labor-, time- and cost-consuming activity, in particular for large plantations or large forestry areas, so it would be of great advantage to have an affordable system capable of doing this task automatically in an accurate and a more efficient way. This paper proposes an autonomous monitoring system based on a low-cost image sensor that it is able to capture and send images of the trap contents to a remote control station with the periodicity demanded by the trapping application. Our autonomous monitoring system will be able to cover large areas with very low energy consumption. This issue would be the main key point in our study; since the operational live of the overall monitoring system should be extended to months of continuous operation without any kind of maintenance (i.e., battery replacement). The images delivered by image sensors would be time-stamped and processed in the control station to get the number of individuals found at each trap. All the information would be conveniently stored at the control station, and accessible via Internet by means of available network services at control station (WiFi, WiMax, 3G/4G, etc.). PMID:23202232

López, Otoniel; Rach, Miguel Martinez; Migallon, Hector; Malumbres, Manuel P.; Bonastre, Alberto; Serrano, Juan J.

2012-01-01

140

Applying GIS and population genetics for managing livestock insect pests: case studies of tsetse and screwworm flies.  

PubMed

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have supported a Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Applying GIS and population genetics for managing livestock insect pests'. This six-year CRP (2008-2013) focused on research aimed at under-pinning the Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management (AW-IPM) of populations of tsetse and screwworm flies, and this introductory paper to the Special Issue integrates the findings of the CRP participants and discusses them in a broader context. The tools and techniques for mapping and modelling the distributions of genetically-characterised populations of tsetse and screwworm flies are increasingly used by researchers and managers for more effective decision-making in AW-IPM programmes, as illustrated by the reports in this Special Issue. Currently, the insect pests are often characterized only by neutral genetic markers suitable for recognizing spatially isolated populations that are sometimes associated with specific environments. Two challenges for those involved in AW-IPM are the standardization of best practice to permit the efficient application of GIS and genetic tools by regional teams, and the need to develop further the mapping and modelling of parasite and pest phenotypes that are epidemiologically important. PMID:24713196

Feldmann, U; Ready, P D

2014-10-01

141

Guidelines for the use of mathematics in operational area-wide integrated pest management programs using the sterile insect technique with a special focus on Tephritid Fruit Flies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pest control managers can benefit from using mathematical approaches, particularly models, when implementing area-wide pest control programs that include sterile insect technique (SIT), especially when these are used to calculate required rates of sterile releases to result in suppression or eradica...

142

1978 Insect Pest Management Guide: Field and Forage Crops. Circular 899.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This circular lists suggested uses of insecticides for the control of field crop pests. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of insecticides to control pests in field corn, alfalfa and clover, small grains, soybeans and grain sorghum. (CS)

Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

143

Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition by Biofumigant (Coumaran) from Leaves of Lantana camara in Stored Grain and Household Insect Pests  

PubMed Central

Recent studies proved that the biofumigants could be an alternative to chemical fumigants against stored grain insect pests. For this reason, it is necessary to understand the mode of action of biofumigants. In the present study the prospectus of utilising Lantana camara as a potent fumigant insecticide is being discussed. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by Coumaran, an active ingredient extracted from the plant L. camara, was studied. The biofumigant was used as an enzyme inhibitor and acetylthiocholine iodide as a substrate along with Ellman's reagent to carry out the reactions. The in vivo inhibition was observed in both dose dependent and time dependent in case of housefly, and the nervous tissue (ganglion) and the whole insect homogenate of stored grain insect exposed to Coumaran. The possible mode of action of Coumaran as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor is discussed. PMID:25025036

Raghavendra, Anjanappa; Bakthavatsalam, Nandagopal

2014-01-01

144

Efficacy of Steinernematid Nematodes Against Three Insect Pests of Crucifers in Quebec  

PubMed Central

Steinernematid nematodes were evaluated against the three major cruciferous insect pests: the imported cabbageworm Artogeia rapae, the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella, and the cabbage looper Trichoplusia ni. LC50 values of S. carpocapsae All, S. feltiae UK, S. feltiae 27, and S. riobrave 335 were 18.2, 3.6, 5.7, and 8.3 on A. rapae L2; 24.5, 2.3, 6.0, and 15.5 on P. xylostella L3; and 10.1, 4.7, 9.5, and 7.8 on T. ni L2, respectively. Insect mortality from the nematode species and isolates was modulated by temperature. Maximum mortality (100%) was recorded for A. rapae L2 from S. riobrave at 30 °C, 95.8% from S. feltiae, and 91.7% from S. feltiae 27 at 25 °C and 75.7% from S. carpocapsae at 30 °C. Mortality of A. rapae L2 increased with contact time to nematode. Mortality of 76% and 78% was achieved for S. carpocapsae and S. feltiae, respectively, after 12-hour exposure. Susceptibility of A. rapae, P. xylostella, and T. ni larvae to entomopathogenic nematodes increased with larval age development. The addition of adjuvants - Corn Oil (0.9%, 1.8%, 3.6%), Leafshield (3.0%, 6.0%, 12.0%), Seaweed (0.1%) and Agral (0.05%) - significantly increased the density and survival rate of S. carpocapsae on cabbage leaves compared to water only. At 20 °C and 70% relative humidity (RH), survival rates of S. carpocapsae All, S. feltiae UK, and S. riobrave 335 on cabbage leaves were 43%, 2%, and 0% after 4 hours following application. Under field conditions, foliar applications of S. carpocapsae provided 35.3% and 33.0% control of A. rapae (L3-L5) on Brussels sprouts and broccoli in 1996 and 24.9%, 19.4% and 14.9% on Brussels sprouts, broccoli, and cauliflower, respectively, in 1999. Based on our field results, foliar applications of S. carpocapsae do not provide an acceptable level of A. rapae control under Quebec's environmental conditions. PMID:19262759

Bélair, G.; Fournier, Y.; Dauphinais, N.

2003-01-01

145

Influence of cover crops on insect pests and predators in conservation tillage cotton.  

PubMed

In fall 2000, an on-farm sustainable agricultural research project was established for cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., in Tift County, Georgia. The objective of our 2-yr research project was to determine the impact of several cover crops on pest and predator insects in cotton. The five cover crop treatments included 1) cereal rye, Secale cereale L., a standard grass cover crop; 2) crimson clover, Trifolium incarnatum L., a standard legume cover crop; 3) a legume mixture of balansa clover, Trifolium michelianum Savi; crimson clover; and hairy vetch, Vicia villosa Roth; 4) a legume mixture + rye combination; and 5) no cover crop in conventionally tilled fields. Three main groups or species of pests were collected in cover crops and cotton: 1) the heliothines Heliothis virescens (F.) and Helicoverpa zea (Boddie); 2) the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois); and 3) stink bugs. The main stink bugs collected were the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.); the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say); and the green stink bug, Acrosternum hilare (Say). Cotton aphids, Aphis gossypii Glover, were collected only on cotton. For both years of the study, the heliothines were the only pests that exceeded their economic threshold in cotton, and the number of times this threshold was exceeded in cotton was higher in control cotton than in crimson clover and rye cotton. Heliothine predators and aphidophagous lady beetles occurred in cover crops and cotton during both years of the experiment. Geocoris punctipes (Say), Orius insidiosus (Say), and red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren were relatively the most abundant heliothine predators observed. Lady beetles included the convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville; the sevenspotted lady beetle, Coccinella septempunctata L.; spotted lady beetle, Coleomegilla maculata (DeGeer); and the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas). Density of G. punctipes was higher in cotton fields previously planted in crimson clover compared with control cotton fields for all combined sampling dates in 2001. Intercropping cotton in live strips of cover crop was probably responsible for the relay of G. punctipes onto cotton in these crimson clover fields. Density of O. insidiosus was not significantly different between cover crop and control cotton fields. Lady beetles seemed to relay from cover crops into cotton. Conservation of the habitat of fire ants during planting probably was responsible for the higher density of red imported fire ants observed in all conservation tillage cotton fields relative to control cotton fields. Reduction in the number of times in which economic thresholds for heliothines were exceeded in crimson clover and rye compared with control fields indicated that the buildup of predaceous fire ants and G. punctipes in these cover crops subsequently resulted in reduction in the level of heliothines in conservation tillage cotton with these cover crops compared with conventional tillage cotton without cover crops. PMID:15384330

Tillman, Glynn; Schomberg, Harry; Phatak, Sharad; Mullinix, Benjamin; Lachnicht, Sharon; Timper, Patricia; Olson, Dawn

2004-08-01

146

[Effect of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) as predators of insect pest in alfalfa crops (Medicago sativa) (Fabaceae) in Argentina].  

PubMed

Spiders are predators that reduce insect pest populations in agroecosystems. Trials were conducted to measure the selectivity against different insect preys, the daily consumption, effect of predators alone and together with a known number of preys, and the indirect effect of predators on vegetation. For this, experimental units (1 x 1m) were used covered with a fine plastic mesh. Misumenops pallidus, Oxyopes salticus and Araneus sp. were used as generalist predators, and aphids, weevils, locusts, chrysomelids and Lepidoptera larvae as their potential preys. Among the preys offered, the spiders preferred Lepidoptera larvae compared to the other two pests groups (weevils and aphids). The maximum consumption rate was of 93.33% for Lepidoptera larvae, 25.33% for aphids and 11.67% for weevils. The Q Index values for the three species of spiders showed a positive selectivity only for defoliating larvae. O. salticus showed the highest values of consumption rates while Rachiplusia nu was the most consumed. The maximum value of consumption in 24 hours was showed by O. salticus on R. nu (C) = 2.8. The association of several species of predatory spiders increased the total number of insects captured, and also showed that the addition of spiders caused a decrease in the number of leaves damaged by the effect of lepidopterous larvae. PMID:22208081

Armendano, Andrea; González, Alda

2011-12-01

147

1978 Insect Pest Management Guide: Commercial Vegetable Crops and Greenhouse Vegetables. Circular 897.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This circular lists suggested uses of insecticides for the control of pests by commercial vegetable farmers. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of insecticides to control pests of cabbage and related crops, beans, cucumbers and other vine crops, tomatoes, potatoes, peppers, corn, and onions. (CS)

Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

148

First results of the application of a new Neemazal powder formulation in hydroponics against different pest insects.  

PubMed

NeemAzal PC (0.5% Azadirachtin) is a new standardised powder formulation from the seed kernels of the tropical Neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) with an inert carrier. First experiments with beans--as a model-system for hydroponics--show that active ingredient is taken up by the plants through the roots and is transported efficiently with the plant sap to the leaves. After application of NeemAzal PC solution (0.01-1%) to the roots sucking (Aphis fabae Hom., Aphididae) and free feeding (Heliothis armigera Lep., Noctuidae) pest insects can be controlled efficiently. The effects are concentration and time dependent. PMID:12696431

Hummel, Edmund; Kleeberg, Hubertus

2002-01-01

149

Impact of Relative Humidity on Adult Weight and Size of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), sweetpotato whitefly, is a serious global sap-sucking insect pest that carries many infectious diseases when feeding on many types of crops. A study was conducted to determine the influence of relative humidity (RH) on body size and mass of B. tabaci. The B-biotype B. t...

150

INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT IN STORED PRODUCTS USING REDUCED-RISK INSECTICIDES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In recent years there has been increased interest throughout most developed countries in replacing older conventional neurotoxic insecticides used in pest management programs, including those used for stored products. Registrations for older compounds are being either withdrawn completely or altere...

151

Mechanisms for flowering plants to benefit arthropod natural enemies of insect pests: prospects for enhanced use in agriculture.  

PubMed

Reduction of noncrop habitats, intensive use of pesticides and high levels of disturbance associated with intensive crop production simplify the farming landscape and bring about a sharp decline of biodiversity. This, in turn, weakens the biological control ecosystem service provided by arthropod natural enemies. Strategic use of flowering plants to enhance plant biodiversity in a well-targeted manner can provide natural enemies with food sources and shelter to improve biological control and reduce dependence on chemical pesticides. This article reviews the nutritional value of various types of plant-derived food for natural enemies, possible adverse effects on pest management, and the practical application of flowering plants in orchards, vegetables and field crops, agricultural systems where most research has taken place. Prospects for more effective use of flowering plants to maximize biological control of insect pests in agroecosystem are good but depend up on selection of optimal plant species based on information on the ecological mechanisms by which natural enemies are selectively favored over pest species. PMID:23955976

Lu, Zhong-Xian; Zhu, Ping-Yang; Gurr, Geoff M; Zheng, Xu-Song; Read, Donna M Y; Heong, Kong-Luen; Yang, Ya-Jun; Xu, Hong-Xing

2014-02-01

152

[Pests at Baltic Sea coast. II. Summary of most important groups on insects besides Coleoptera and Diptera].  

PubMed

In the special holiday situations at the Baltic coast of GDR, species of very different insect groups may become annoying to man. Own experiences in this field are reported (excepting Coleoptera and Diptera). The earwig, Forficula auricularia, has many varying aspects of a health pest (also in the respect of social hygiene). This species, too, may pinch painfully with his pincers. The lice species Pediculus capitis and Pthirus pubis are met with sometimes. Limothrips cerealium may be annoying not only when swarming in mass, but also individual specimens (crawling on the skin or piercing it). Ants may be a pest in varying manners. A special example of this is if they invade sand castles [sun bathing places on the beaches surrounded by sand walls]. Wasps are attracted by different ways to childrens' holiday camps. In 1973, they were even aggressive on the beach of Hiddensee. Caterpillars of Thaumatopaea pinivora may become a serious health pest in individual cases. The real cause is not always detected by laymen. Fleas occur more or less regularly. Sometimes they are incorrectly diagnosed or reported. PMID:984495

Eichler, W

1976-05-01

153

Towards the development of novel pest management agents based upon insect kinin neuropeptide analogs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Insect kinin neuropeptides share a common C-terminal pentapeptide sequence Phe1-Xaa123-Xaa23-Trp4-Gly5-NH2 (Xaa12=His, Asn, Phe, Ser or Try; Xaa23=Pro, Ser, or Ala) and have been isolated from a number of insects. They have been associated with the regulation of such diverse processes as hindgut co...

154

Thermal biology, population fluctuations and implications of temperature extremes for the management of two globally significant insect pests.  

PubMed

The link between environmental temperature, physiological processes and population fluctuations is a significant aspect of insect pest management. Here, we explore how thermal biology affects the population abundance of two globally significant pest fruit fly species, Ceratitis capitata (medfly) and C. rosa (Natal fruit fly), including irradiated individuals and those expressing a temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutation that are used in the sterile insect technique. Results show that upper and lower lethal temperatures are seldom encountered at the field sites, while critical minimum temperatures for activity and lower developmental thresholds are crossed more frequently. Estimates of abundance revealed that C. capitata are active year-round, but abundance declines markedly during winter. Temporal autocorrelation of average fortnightly trap captures and of development time, estimated from an integrated model to calculate available degree days, show similar seasonal lags suggesting that population increases in early spring occur after sufficient degree-days have accumulated. By contrast, population collapses coincide tightly with increasing frequency of low temperature events that fall below critical minimum temperatures for activity. Individuals of C. capitata expressing the tsl mutation show greater critical thermal maxima and greater longevity under field conditions than reference individuals. Taken together, this evidence suggests that low temperatures limit populations in the Western Cape, South Africa and likely do so elsewhere. Increasing temperature extremes and warming climates generally may extend the season over which these species are active, and could increase abundance. The sterile insect technique may prove profitable as climates change given that laboratory-reared tsl flies have an advantage under warmer conditions. PMID:24080125

Nyamukondiwa, Casper; Weldon, Christopher W; Chown, Steven L; le Roux, Peter C; Terblanche, John S

2013-12-01

155

A simulation approach to assessing sampling strategies for insect pests: an example with the balsam gall midge.  

PubMed

Estimation of pest density is a basic requirement for integrated pest management in agriculture and forestry, and efficiency in density estimation is a common goal. Sequential sampling techniques promise efficient sampling, but their application can involve cumbersome mathematics and/or intensive warm-up sampling when pests have complex within- or between-site distributions. We provide tools for assessing the efficiency of sequential sampling and of alternative, simpler sampling plans, using computer simulation with "pre-sampling" data. We illustrate our approach using data for balsam gall midge (Paradiplosis tumifex) attack in Christmas tree farms. Paradiplosis tumifex proved recalcitrant to sequential sampling techniques. Midge distributions could not be fit by a common negative binomial distribution across sites. Local parameterization, using warm-up samples to estimate the clumping parameter k for each site, performed poorly: k estimates were unreliable even for samples of n ? 100 trees. These methods were further confounded by significant within-site spatial autocorrelation. Much simpler sampling schemes, involving random or belt-transect sampling to preset sample sizes, were effective and efficient for P. tumifex. Sampling via belt transects (through the longest dimension of a stand) was the most efficient, with sample means converging on true mean density for sample sizes of n ? 25-40 trees. Pre-sampling and simulation techniques provide a simple method for assessing sampling strategies for estimating insect infestation. We suspect that many pests will resemble P. tumifex in challenging the assumptions of sequential sampling methods. Our software will allow practitioners to optimize sampling strategies before they are brought to real-world applications, while potentially avoiding the need for the cumbersome calculations required for sequential sampling methods. PMID:24376556

Carleton, R Drew; Heard, Stephen B; Silk, Peter J

2013-01-01

156

A Simulation Approach to Assessing Sampling Strategies for Insect Pests: An Example with the Balsam Gall Midge  

PubMed Central

Estimation of pest density is a basic requirement for integrated pest management in agriculture and forestry, and efficiency in density estimation is a common goal. Sequential sampling techniques promise efficient sampling, but their application can involve cumbersome mathematics and/or intensive warm-up sampling when pests have complex within- or between-site distributions. We provide tools for assessing the efficiency of sequential sampling and of alternative, simpler sampling plans, using computer simulation with “pre-sampling” data. We illustrate our approach using data for balsam gall midge (Paradiplosis tumifex) attack in Christmas tree farms. Paradiplosis tumifex proved recalcitrant to sequential sampling techniques. Midge distributions could not be fit by a common negative binomial distribution across sites. Local parameterization, using warm-up samples to estimate the clumping parameter k for each site, performed poorly: k estimates were unreliable even for samples of n?100 trees. These methods were further confounded by significant within-site spatial autocorrelation. Much simpler sampling schemes, involving random or belt-transect sampling to preset sample sizes, were effective and efficient for P. tumifex. Sampling via belt transects (through the longest dimension of a stand) was the most efficient, with sample means converging on true mean density for sample sizes of n?25–40 trees. Pre-sampling and simulation techniques provide a simple method for assessing sampling strategies for estimating insect infestation. We suspect that many pests will resemble P. tumifex in challenging the assumptions of sequential sampling methods. Our software will allow practitioners to optimize sampling strategies before they are brought to real-world applications, while potentially avoiding the need for the cumbersome calculations required for sequential sampling methods. PMID:24376556

Carleton, R. Drew; Heard, Stephen B.; Silk, Peter J.

2013-01-01

157

Population-level effects of fitness costs associated with repressible female-lethal transgene insertions in two pest insects  

PubMed Central

Genetic control strategies offer great potential for the sustainable and effective control of insect pests. These strategies involve the field release of transgenic insects with the aim of introducing engineered alleles into wild populations, either permanently or transiently. Their efficacy can therefore be reduced if transgene-associated fitness costs reduce the relative performance of released insects. We describe a method of measuring the fitness costs associated with transgenes by analyzing their evolutionary trajectories when placed in competition with wild-type alleles in replicated cage populations. Using this method, we estimated lifetime fitness costs associated with two repressible female-lethal transgenes in the diamondback moth and olive fly as being acceptable for field suppression programs. Furthermore, using these estimates of genotype-level fitness costs, we were able to project longer-term evolutionary trajectories for the transgenes investigated. Results from these projections demonstrate that although transgene-associated fitness costs will ultimately cause these transgenes to become extinct, even when engineered lethality is repressed, they may persist for varying periods of time before doing so. This implies that tetracycline-mediated transgene field persistence in these strains is unlikely and suggests that realistic estimates of transgene-associated fitness costs may be useful in trialing ‘uncoupled’ gene drive system components in the field. PMID:24944572

Harvey-Samuel, Tim; Ant, Thomas; Gong, Hongfei; Morrison, Neil I; Alphey, Luke

2014-01-01

158

[Effect of organophosphorous insecticides on Chinese chive insect pests and their degradation by pesticide-degrading bacterium].  

PubMed

3.00 kg(a. i) x hm(-2) phoxin and 2.63 kg(a. i) x hm(-2) methyl parathion were respectively applied to control the Taeniothrips alliorum on Chinese chive. Compared to no pesticide treatment, the decline rate of the insect density was 98.28% and 98.39% at the 3rd day after spraying pesticides, and 89.94% and 94.04% at the 20th day after spraying pesticides, respectively. At the 3rd day after spraying 15.00, 18.00 and 21.00 kg(a. i) x hm(-2) phoxin, the insect density of Bradysia odoriphaga decreased 80.77%, 93.10% and 96.98%, and at the 35th day after spraying, it decreased 92.44%, 95.05% and 96.81%, respectively. The application of pesticide-degrading bacterium had not any effect on controlling insect pests, but could markedly degrade pesticide. At the 3rd day after spraying 45.00 L x hm(-2) pesticide-degrading bacterium to control Taeniothrips alliorum, the degradion rate of phoxin and methyl parathion was 99.52% and 98.83%, and at the 3rd after spraying 75.00 L x hm(-2) pesticide-degrading bacterium to control Bradysia odoriphaga, the degradation rate of three concentrations of phoxin was 100%, 100% and 99.69%, respectively. PMID:15574008

Jiang, Jiandong; Cao, Hui; Zhang, Ruifu; Zhang, Mingxing; Li, Shunpeng

2004-08-01

159

Insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene families: from genetic model organism to vector, pest and beneficial species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) mediate fast synaptic transmission in the insect nervous system and are targets\\u000a of a major group of insecticides, the neonicotinoids. Analyses of genome sequences have shown that nAChR gene families remain\\u000a compact in diverse insect species, when compared to their mammalian counterparts. Thus, Drosophila melanogaster and Anopheles gambiae each possess 10 nAChR genes while Apis mellifera has

Andrew K. Jones; Laurence A. Brown; David B. Sattelle

2007-01-01

160

HOUSEHOLD AND STRUCTURAL INSECTS Comparative Study of Integrated Pest Management and Baiting for  

E-print Network

for German Cockroach Management in Public Housing CHANGLU WANG AND GARY W. BENNETT Center for Urban-wide cockroach integrated pest management (IPM) program compared with bait alone treatment in public housing. In total, 12 buildings (66 apartments) were treated and monitored for cockroach infestations over 7 mo

Wang, Changlu

161

3-ALKYL-1-BUTANOL ATTRACTANTS FOR FRUGIVOROUS PEST INSECTS, PATENT NO. 6.224.890  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Compositions and lures are described which provide 3-alkyl-1-butanol vapors and vapor blends of 3-alkyl-1-butanol with one or more compounds selected from the group consisting of acetic acid, ammonia, putrescine and mixtures which function as highly effective attractants for frugivorous pest flies e...

162

Field screening of citrullus lanatus germplasm accessions for resistance to cucurbit insect pests  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Squash bug, cucumber beetles, and aphids are important pests of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) in most production areas of Oklahoma and Texas. In addition, squash bug has been identified as a vector of Cucurbit Yellow Vine (CYVD), a new and devastating disease of cucurbits in the South Central Regi...

163

Foliar insect pest management on cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata Walpers) in simulated varietal mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field experiments were established in which cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Walpers) was treated with a series of partial insecticide (carbofuran) application treatments to simulate (susceptible\\/resistant) varietal mixtures and a series of inter-crops with soybean (Glycine max). Treatments were sampled for damage by the foliage pests Ootheca mutabilis Sahlberg and Aphis craccivora Koch and for flower production. The soybean is likely to

A Ward; S Morse; I Denholm; R Thompson; N McNamara

2002-01-01

164

Semiochemicals to monitor insect pests – future opportunities for an effective host plant volatile blend to attract navel orangeworm in pistachio orchards  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The navel orangeworm (Amyelois transitella) has been a major insect pest of California tree nut orchards for the past five decades. In particular, almond and pistachio orchards suffer major annual economic damage due to both physical and associated fungal damage caused by navel orangeworm larvae. Un...

165

Perceived Consequences of Herbicide-Tolerant and Insect-Resistant Crops on Integrated Pest Management Strategies in the Western United States: Results of an Online Survey  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We conducted an online survey to assess the potential effects of herbicide-tolerant (HT) and insect-resistant (IR) crops on integrated pest management (IPM) practices in the Western United States. For HT crops, participants perceived a decrease in several IPM practices, including crop and herbicide ...

166

Management of insect pests of soybean: effects of sowing date and intercropping on damage and grain yield in the Nigerian Sudan savanna  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field trials were carried out during the 2001–2002 cropping seasons at Maiduguri, Nigeria, to determine the effects of defoliation and pod damage by insect pests on grain yield of soybean. The factorial experiments consisted of four sowing dates (31 July, 7, 14 and 21 August in 2001 and 21 and 28 July and 4 and 11 August in 2002), four

B. M. Sastawa; M. Lawan; Y. T. Maina

2004-01-01

167

Factors determining the use of botanical insect pest control methods by small-holder farmers in the Lake Victoria basin, Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

A farm survey was conducted in three representative administrative districts of the Lake Victoria Basin (LVB), Kenya to document farmers' indigenous knowledge and the factors that influence the use of botanicals instead of synthetic insecticides in insect pest management. A total of 65 farm households were randomly sampled using stratified sampling procedure. The maximum likelihood log model was used to

A. L. Deng; J. O. Ogendo; G. Owuor; P. K. Bett; E. O. Omolo; M. Mugisha-Kamatenesi; J. M. Mihale

168

Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov., a xylanolytic, ustilaginomycetous yeast species isolated from an insect pest of sugarcane roots.  

PubMed

A novel ustilaginomycetous yeast isolated from the intestinal tract of an insect pest of sugarcane roots in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil, represents a novel species of the genus Pseudozyma based on molecular analyses of the D1/D2 rDNA large subunit and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1+ITS2) regions. The name Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov. is proposed for this species, with GHG001(T) (?=?CBS 13268(T)?=?UFMG-CM-Y307(T)) as the type strain. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is a sister species of Pseudozyma vetiver, originally isolated from leaves of vetiver grass and sugarcane in Thailand. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is able to grow well with xylan as the sole carbon source and produces high levels of an endo-1,4-xylanase that has a higher specific activity in comparison with other eukaryotic xylanases. This enzyme has a variety of industrial applications, indicating the great biotechnological potential of P. brasiliensis. PMID:24682702

Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro; Borges, Thuanny A; Corrêa dos Santos, Renato Augusto; Freitas, Larissa F D; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Riaño-Pachón, Diego Mauricio

2014-06-01

169

A naturally occurring plant cysteine protease possesses remarkable toxicity against insect pests and synergizes Bacillus thuringiensis toxin.  

PubMed

When caterpillars feed on maize (Zea maize L.) lines with native resistance to several Lepidopteran pests, a defensive cysteine protease, Mir1-CP, rapidly accumulates at the wound site. Mir1-CP has been shown to inhibit caterpillar growth in vivo by attacking and permeabilizing the insect's peritrophic matrix (PM), a structure that surrounds the food bolus, assists in digestion and protects the midgut from microbes and toxins. PM permeabilization weakens the caterpillar defenses by facilitating the movement of other insecticidal proteins in the diet to the midgut microvilli and thereby enhancing their toxicity. To directly determine the toxicity of Mir1-CP, the purified recombinant enzyme was directly tested against four economically significant Lepidopteran pests in bioassays. Mir1-CP LC(50) values were 1.8, 3.6, 0.6, and 8.0 ppm for corn earworm, tobacco budworm, fall armyworm and southwestern corn borer, respectively. These values were the same order of magnitude as those determined for the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Bt-CryIIA. In addition to being directly toxic to the larvae, 60 ppb Mir1-CP synergized sublethal concentrations of Bt-CryIIA in all four species. Permeabilization of the PM by Mir1-CP probably provides ready access to Bt-binding sites on the midgut microvilli and increases its activity. Consequently, Mir1-CP could be used for controlling caterpillar pests in maize using non-transgenic approaches and potentially could be used in other crops either singly or in combination with Bt-toxins. PMID:18335057

Mohan, Srinidi; Ma, Peter W K; Williams, W Paul; Luthe, Dawn S

2008-01-01

170

A Naturally Occurring Plant Cysteine Protease Possesses Remarkable Toxicity against Insect Pests and Synergizes Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin  

PubMed Central

When caterpillars feed on maize (Zea maize L.) lines with native resistance to several Lepidopteran pests, a defensive cysteine protease, Mir1-CP, rapidly accumulates at the wound site. Mir1-CP has been shown to inhibit caterpillar growth in vivo by attacking and permeabilizing the insect's peritrophic matrix (PM), a structure that surrounds the food bolus, assists in digestion and protects the midgut from microbes and toxins. PM permeabilization weakens the caterpillar defenses by facilitating the movement of other insecticidal proteins in the diet to the midgut microvilli and thereby enhancing their toxicity. To directly determine the toxicity of Mir1-CP, the purified recombinant enzyme was directly tested against four economically significant Lepidopteran pests in bioassays. Mir1-CP LC50 values were 1.8, 3.6, 0.6, and 8.0 ppm for corn earworm, tobacco budworm, fall armyworm and southwestern corn borer, respectively. These values were the same order of magnitude as those determined for the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Bt-CryIIA. In addition to being directly toxic to the larvae, 60 ppb Mir1-CP synergized sublethal concentrations of Bt-CryIIA in all four species. Permeabilization of the PM by Mir1-CP probably provides ready access to Bt-binding sites on the midgut microvilli and increases its activity. Consequently, Mir1-CP could be used for controlling caterpillar pests in maize using non-transgenic approaches and potentially could be used in other crops either singly or in combination with Bt-toxins. PMID:18335057

Mohan, Srinidi; Ma, Peter W. K.; Williams, W. Paul; Luthe, Dawn S.

2008-01-01

171

Chemical Control of Insect Pests and Insecticide Resistance in Oilseed Rape  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Public concerns about environmental hazards and widespread resistance in pollen beetle populations on oilseed rape in Europe\\u000a are threatening the availability of a variety of insecticidal modes of action for pest control on the crop. For a sustainable\\u000a use of insecticides any overuse has to be avoided to minimize risk of resistance development. Pollen beetles are present in\\u000a the crop

Thomas Thieme; Udo Heimbach; Andreas Müller

172

In situ detection of small-size insect pests sampled on traps using multifractal analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a multifractal analysis for detecting the small-size pest (e.g., whitefly) images from a sticky trap in situ. An automatic attraction system is utilized for collecting pests from greenhouse plants. We applied multifractal analysis to segment action of whitefly images based on the local singularity and global image characteristics. According to the theory of multifractal dimension, the candidate blobs of whiteflies are initially defined from the sticky-trap image. Two schemes, fixed thresholding and regional minima obtainment, were utilized for feature extraction of candidate whitefly image areas. The experiment was conducted with the field images in a greenhouse. Detection results were compared with other adaptive segmentation algorithms. Values of F measuring precision and recall score were higher for the proposed multifractal analysis (96.5%) compared with conventional methods such as Watershed (92.2%) and Otsu (73.1%). The true positive rate of multifractal analysis was 94.3% and the false positive rate minimal level at 1.3%. Detection performance was further tested via human observation. The degree of scattering between manual and automatic counting was remarkably higher with multifractal analysis (R2=0.992) compared with Watershed (R2=0.895) and Otsu (R2=0.353), ensuring overall detection of the small-size pests is most feasible with multifractal analysis in field conditions.

Xia, Chunlei; Lee, Jang-Myung; Li, Yan; Chung, Bu-Keun; Chon, Tae-Soo

2012-02-01

173

Fine-scale geographical origin of an insect pest invading North America.  

PubMed

Invasive species may rapidly spread throughout new areas once introduced, which may potentially lead to serious damage to local fauna and flora. Information on geographical origins, introduction routes, and biology in native regions of such invasive species is of critical importance in identifying means of transport, preventing reintroduction, and establishing control/eradication methods. The plataspid stinkbug Megacopta cribraria, known as kudzu bug, recently invaded North America and now has become not only an agricultural pest of soybean but also a nuisance pest. Here we investigate the geographical origin of the invasive M. cribraria populations. Phylogeographical analyses based on 8.7 kb mitochondrial DNA sequences of the introduced and East Asian native Megacopta populations identified a well-supported clade consisting of the introduced populations and M. punctatissima populations in the Kyushu region of Japan, which strongly suggests that the invading M. cribraria populations are derived from a M. punctatissima population in the Kyushu region. Therefore, the region is proposed as a promising source of natural enemies for biological control of the invasive pest. Based on the phylogenetic information, relationship and treatment of the two Megacopta species are discussed. PMID:24551228

Hosokawa, Takahiro; Nikoh, Naruo; Fukatsu, Takema

2014-01-01

174

Fine-Scale Geographical Origin of an Insect Pest Invading North America  

PubMed Central

Invasive species may rapidly spread throughout new areas once introduced, which may potentially lead to serious damage to local fauna and flora. Information on geographical origins, introduction routes, and biology in native regions of such invasive species is of critical importance in identifying means of transport, preventing reintroduction, and establishing control/eradication methods. The plataspid stinkbug Megacopta cribraria, known as kudzu bug, recently invaded North America and now has become not only an agricultural pest of soybean but also a nuisance pest. Here we investigate the geographical origin of the invasive M. cribraria populations. Phylogeographical analyses based on 8.7 kb mitochondrial DNA sequences of the introduced and East Asian native Megacopta populations identified a well-supported clade consisting of the introduced populations and M. punctatissima populations in the Kyushu region of Japan, which strongly suggests that the invading M. cribraria populations are derived from a M. punctatissima population in the Kyushu region. Therefore, the region is proposed as a promising source of natural enemies for biological control of the invasive pest. Based on the phylogenetic information, relationship and treatment of the two Megacopta species are discussed. PMID:24551228

Hosokawa, Takahiro; Nikoh, Naruo; Fukatsu, Takema

2014-01-01

175

Desiccation increases the efficacy of Beauveria bassiana for stored grain pest insects  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effect of desiccation stress on the efficacy of Beauveria bassiana for stored-product insects was investigated in laboratory bioassays. The mortality of B. bassiana-treated Plodia interpunctella larvae was greater at a vapor pressure deficit (VPD) of 2.42 kPa or 1.87 kPa than at 1.06 kPa. Moist...

176

Exploitation of Insect Vibrational Signals Reveals a New Method of Pest Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food production is considered to be the main source of human impact on the environment and the concerns about detrimental effects of pesticides on biodiversity and human health are likely to lead to an increasingly restricted use of chemicals in agriculture. Since the first successful field trial, pheromone based mating disruption enabled sustainable insect control, which resulted in reduced levels

Anna Eriksson; Gianfranco Anfora; Andrea Lucchi; Francesco Lanzo; Meta Virant-Doberlet; Valerio Mazzoni

2012-01-01

177

Unraveling the mystery of compost teas used for organic disease and insect pest  

E-print Network

Unraveling the mystery of compost teas used for organic disease and insect GilleN #12;What are compost teas? · Watery extracts (teas) made from placing compost in a mesh bag and soaking in water · Plant vs. animal (manure

178

Managing Insect and Mite Pests of Legumes, Grasses and Forage Crops in Texas.  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 POLICY FOR MAKING INSECT CONTROL SUGGESTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 PROTECTING BEES AND OTHER POLLINATORS FROM INSECTICIDES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ca PRECAUTIONS... Avoidance of residues in excess of allowable tolerances Avoidance of adverse side effects upon benefi- cial predators, parasites, honey bees, fish and other wildlife, plants, animals and humans Relative toxicity to humans, animals and desir- able...

Neeb, Charles W.; Thomas, John G.

1982-01-01

179

Natural Isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis:Worldwide Distribution, Characterization, and Activity against Insect Pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus thuringiensiswas isolated from natural samples collected from 80 countries. The majority, 45% of the 5303 isolates, originated from stored products, with 25% originating from soil. The materials richest in isolates active in insects were mushroom compost and stored products. The proportion with bipyramidal-shaped crystals was 46%, while among the range of other shapes 14% were spherical and 4% rectangular.

K. Bernhard; P. Jarrett; M. Meadows; J. Butt; D. J. Ellis; G. M. Roberts; S. Pauli; P. Rodgers; H. D. Burges

1997-01-01

180

Contact Toxicity and Repellency of the Essential Oil of Liriope muscari (DECN.) Bailey against Three Insect Tobacco Storage Pests.  

PubMed

In order to find and develop new botanical pesticides against tobacco storage pests, bioactivity screening was performed. The essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of Liriope muscari was investigated by GC/MS and GC/FID. A total of 14 components representing 96.12% of the oil were identified and the main compounds in the oil were found to be methyl eugenol (42.15%) and safrole (17.15%), followed by myristicin (14.18%) and 3,5-dimethoxytoluene (10.60%). After screening, the essential oil exhibit potential insecticidal activity. In the progress of assay, it showed that the essential oil exhibited potent contact toxicity against Tribolium castaneum, Lasioderma serricorne and Liposcelis bostrychophila adults, with LD50 values of 13.36, 11.28 µg/adult and 21.37 µg/cm2, respectively. The essential oil also exhibited strong repellency against the three stored product insects. At the same concentrations, the essential oil was more repellent to T. castaneum than to L. serricorne adults. The results indicate that the essential oil of Liriope muscari has potential to be developed into a natural insecticide or repellent for controlling insects in stored tobacco and traditional Chinese medicinal materials. PMID:25608855

Wu, Yan; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Wang, Ping-Juan; Yang, Kai; Huang, Dong-Ye; Wei, Jian-Yu; Tian, Zhao-Fu; Bai, Jia-Feng; Du, Shu-Shan

2015-01-01

181

Safety and Advantages of Bacillus thuringiensis-Protected Plants to Control Insect Pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants modified to express insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (referred to as Bt-protected plants) provide a safe and highly effective method of insect control. Bt-protected corn, cotton, and potato were introduced into the United States in 1995\\/1996 and grown on a total of approximately 10 million acres in 1997, 20 million acres in 1998, and 29 million acres globally in

Fred S. Betz; Bruce G. Hammond; Roy L. Fuchs

2000-01-01

182

Prediction of global distribution of insect pest species in relation to climate by using an ecological informatics method.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to predict the worldwide distribution of two pest species-Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), the Mediterranean fruit fly, and Lymantria dispar (L.), the gypsy moth-based on climatic factors. The distribution patterns of insect pests have most often been investigated using classical statistical models or ecoclimatic assessment models such as CLIMEX. In this study, we used an artificial neural network, the multilayer perceptron, trained using the backpropagation algorithm, to model the distribution of each species. The data matrix used to model the distribution of each species was divided into three data sets to (1) develop and train the model, (2) validate the model and prevent over-fitting, and (3) test each model on novel data. The percentage of correct predictions of the global distribution of each species was high for Mediterranean fruit fly for the three data sets giving 95.8, 81.5, and 80.6% correct predictions, respectively, and 96.8, 84.3, and 81.5 for the gypsy moth. Kappa statistics used to test the level of significance of the results were highly significant (in all cases P < 0.0001). A sensitivity analysis applied to each model based on the calculation of the derivatives of each of a large number of input variables showed that the variables that contributed most to explaining the distribution of C. capitata were annual average temperature and annual potential evapotranspiration. For L. dispar, the average minimum temperature and minimum daylength range were the main explanatory variables. The ANN models and methods developed in this study offer powerful additional predictive approaches in invasive species research. PMID:16813340

Gevrey, Muriel; Worner, S P

2006-06-01

183

Effects of weed cover composition on insect pest and natural enemy abundance in a field of Dracaena marginata (Asparagales: Asparagaceae) in Costa Rica.  

PubMed

Weeds and their influence on pest and natural enemy populations were studied on a commercial ornamental farm during 2009 in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica. A baseline survey of the entire production plot was conducted in February, along a 5 by 5 m grid to characterize and map initial weed communities of plants, cicadellids, katydids, and armored scales. In total, 50 plant species from 21 families were found. Seven weed treatments were established to determine how weed manipulations would affect communities of our targeted pests and natural enemies. These treatments were selected based on reported effects of specific weed cover on herbivorous insects and natural enemies, or by their use by growers as a cover crop. Treatments ranged from weed-free to being completely covered with endemic species of weeds. Although some weed treatments changed pest abundances, responses differed among arthropod pests, with the strongest effects observed for Caldwelliola and Empoasca leafhoppers. Removal of all weeds increased the abundance of Empoasca, whereas leaving mostly cyperacaeous weeds increased the abundance of Caldwelliola. Weed manipulations had no effect on the abundance of katydid and scale populations. No weed treatment reduced the abundance of all three of the target pests. Differential responses of the two leafhopper species to the same weed treatments support hypotheses, suggesting that noncrop plants can alter the abundance of pests through their effects on arthropod host finding and acceptance, as well as their impacts on natural enemies. PMID:24517852

Sadof, Clifford S; Linkimer, Mildred; Hidalgo, Eduardo; Casanoves, Fernando; Gibson, Kevin; Benjamin, Tamara J

2014-04-01

184

Investigation on penetration of three conventional foodstuffs packaging polymers with two different thicknesses by larvae and adults of major species of stored-product pest insects.  

PubMed

Despite modern methods of packaging, stored agricultural products are still under attack by stored-insect pests. Therefore, determination of the best polymer and appropriate thickness inhibiting the penetration of the insects must be considered. In this study, we investigated the ability of penetration and the rates of contamination by nine important stored product pest insects for three conventional flexible polymers (polyethylene, cellophane and polypropylene) at two thicknesses (16.5 and 29 microm), which are used as pouches for packing of agricultural products. We used adults of T. castaneum (Coleoptera), S. granarius (Coleoptera), R. dominica (Coleoptera), C. maculates (Coleoptera), O. surinamensis (Coleoptera), and larvae of P. interpunctella (Lepidoptera), E. kuehniella (Lepidoptera), S. cerealella (Lepidoptera) and T. granarium (Coleoptera). Results showed that for most of the species penetration occurred between 4 days and 2 weeks, but there were significant differences (p < or = 0.05) in the penetration of three polymers (cellophane, polyethylene and polypropylene) by the insects. Among the polymers, polyethylene with a thickness of 16.5 microm showed the highest degree of penetration and was the most unsuitable polymer for packaging of foodstuffs. Application of this polymer led to a complete infestation of the product and a lot of punctures were created by the insects. In contrast, no penetration was observed in polypropylene polymer with a thickness of 29 microm. Furthermore, adults and larvae of all species showed a much lower penetration when there was no food present in the pouches and this was the case for all polymers tested. PMID:20222605

Allahvaisi, Somayeh; Purmirza, Ali Asghar; Safaralizade, Mohamad Hasan

2009-01-01

185

Scale Insects, edition 2, a tool for the identification of potential pest scales at U.S.A. ports-of-entry (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Coccoidea)  

PubMed Central

Abstract We provide a general overview of features and technical specifications of an online, interactive tool for the identification of scale insects of concern to the U.S.A. ports-of-entry. Full lists of terminal taxa included in the keys (of which there are four), a list of features used in them, and a discussion of the structure of the tool are provided. We also briefly discuss the advantages of interactive keys for the identification of potential scale insect pests. The interactive key is freely accessible on http://idtools.org/id/scales/index.php PMID:25152668

Miller, Douglass R.; Rung, Alessandra; Parikh, Grishma

2014-01-01

186

Insects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All insects have six jointed legs and a hard exoskeleton covering. The bodies of insects are divided into three parts- the head, the thorax, and the abdomen. Insects are the only animals to have wings and most insects have a pair of antennae.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)

2008-06-12

187

Transgenic Indica rice breeding line IR58 expressing a synthetic cryIA(b) gene from Bacillus thuringiensis provides effective insect pest control.  

PubMed

The Indica rice breeding line IR58 was transformed by particle bombardment with a truncated version of a synthetic cryIA(b) gene from Bacillus thuringiensis. This gene is expressed under control of the CaMV 35S promoter and allows efficient production of the lepidopteran specific delta-endotoxin. R0, R1 and R2 generation plants displayed a significant insecticidal effect on several lepidopterous insect pests. Feeding studies showed mortality rates of up to 100% for two of the most destructive insect pests of rice in Asia, the yellow stem borer (Scirpophaga incertulas) and the striped stem borer (Chilo suppressalis), and feeding inhibition of the two leaffolder species Cnaphalocrocis medinalis and Marasmia patnalis. Introduction of stem borer resistance into the germplasm of an Indica rice breeding line now makes this agronomically important trait available for conventional rice breeding programs. PMID:9636319

Wünn, J; Klöti, A; Burkhardt, P K; Biswas, G C; Launis, K; Iglesias, V A; Potrykus, I

1996-02-01

188

Identification of Immature Insects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A Virginia Tech. page devoted to identification of household insect pest immatures. Eight illustrated categories allow the user to match their pest to a likely species. This is just one of several pages devoted to insect identification.

0000-00-00

189

A novel synthetic Cry1Ab gene resists rice insect pests.  

PubMed

A few insect control genes of Bacillus thuringiensis have been modified successfully to increase the expression in plants by replacing rare codons, increasing GC content, and avoiding the DNA elements that could cause premature transcription termination, mRNA instability, and potential methylation. However, the modification process was intricate and often confused researchers. In this study, we adopted a simple method to modify Cry1Ab only by individually replacing its amino acid sequence with corresponding rice-preferred codons based on analysis of 92,188 coding DNA sequences. Unexpectedly, all elements of A+T richness, which terminate or destabilize transcription in plants, were avoided in the newly designed mCry1Ab. However, mCry1Ab had 2 notable features: less synonymous codons and high GC content. mCry1Ab only employed 22 of the 61 codons to encode protein and had an enhanced GC content of 65%. The increase in GC content caused abundant potential methylation signals to emerge in mCry1Ab. To test whether mCry1Ab could be expressed in rice, we transferred it into Oryza japonica variety Wanjing97. Insect bioassays revealed that transgenic plants harboring this gene driven by 2 promoters, CaMV35S and OsTSP I, were highly resistant to rice leaffolder (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis). Analysis of R0 to R2 generation plants indicated that the mCry1Ab was inherited stably by the progeny. Our study provided a simple modified method for expressing exogenous genes in rice and confirmed that less synonymous codons and high GC content do not affect transgene expression in rice. PMID:24781994

Song, F S; Ni, D H; Li, H; Duan, Y B; Yang, Y C; Ni, J L; Lu, X Z; Wei, P C; Li, L; Yang, J B

2014-01-01

190

Captures of pest fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and nontarget insects in BioLure and torula yeast traps in Hawaii.  

PubMed

MultiLure traps were deployed in a Hawaiian orchard to compare the attraction of economically important fruit flies and nontarget insects to the three-component BioLure and torula yeast food lures. Either water or a 20% propylene glycol solution was used to dissolve the torula yeast or as capture fluid in BioLure traps. Torula yeast in water was more attractive than BioLure for male and female Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) and Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and as attractive for Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), and the addition of propylene glycol significantly inhibited the attractiveness of torula yeast. The known synergistic effect of propylene glycol with BioLure, resulting in increased captures of Anastrepha flies, was not observed with Bactrocera. Nontarget Drosophilidae, Neriidae, Phoridae, Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, and Muscidae were more strongly attracted to BioLure, and both lures collected Chloropidae equally. As with fruit flies, propylene glycol in torula yeast significantly decreased nontarget captures. The results therefore suggest that torula yeast in water is a more effective attractant than BioLure for pest Bactrocera while minimizing nontarget captures. PMID:22546461

Leblanc, Luc; Vargas, Roger I; Rubinoff, Daniel

2010-10-01

191

Designing Insects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article reflects on how most transgenic research is still in early development, but issues surrounding the use of transgenic insects need to be addressed. Examples are their impact on the environment, the potential risks to human health, and their advantages and disadvantages in controlling crop pests. The article showcases some insects specifically engineered to control agricultural pests.

Thomas Miller (University of California- Riverside; )

2004-10-01

192

Identification and Structural Characterization of Novel Cyclotide with Activity against an Insect Pest of Sugar Cane*  

PubMed Central

Cyclotides are a family of plant-derived cyclic peptides comprising six conserved cysteine residues connected by three intermolecular disulfide bonds that form a knotted structure known as a cyclic cystine knot (CCK). This structural motif is responsible for the pronounced stability of cyclotides against chemical, thermal, or proteolytic degradation and has sparked growing interest in this family of peptides. Here, we isolated and characterized a novel cyclotide from Palicourea rigida (Rubiaceae), which was named parigidin-br1. The sequence indicated that this peptide is a member of the bracelet subfamily of cyclotides. Parigidin-br1 showed potent insecticidal activity against neonate larvae of Lepidoptera (Diatraea saccharalis), causing 60% mortality at a concentration of 1 ?m but had no detectable antibacterial effects. A decrease in the in vitro viability of the insect cell line from Spodoptera frugiperda (SF-9) was observed in the presence of parigidin-br1, consistent with in vivo insecticidal activity. Transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy of SF-9 cells after incubation with parigidin-br1 or parigidin-br1-fluorescein isothiocyanate, respectively, revealed extensive cell lysis and swelling of cells, consistent with an insecticidal mechanism involving membrane disruption. This hypothesis was supported by in silico analyses, which suggested that parigidin-br1 is able to complex with cell lipids. Overall, the results suggest promise for the development of parigidin-br1 as a novel biopesticide. PMID:22074926

Pinto, Michelle F. S.; Fensterseifer, Isabel C. M.; Migliolo, Ludovico; Sousa, Daniel A.; de Capdville, Guy; Arboleda-Valencia, Jorge W.; Colgrave, Michelle L.; Craik, David J.; Magalhães, Beatriz S.; Dias, Simoni C.; Franco, Octávio L.

2012-01-01

193

Identification and structural characterization of novel cyclotide with activity against an insect pest of sugar cane.  

PubMed

Cyclotides are a family of plant-derived cyclic peptides comprising six conserved cysteine residues connected by three intermolecular disulfide bonds that form a knotted structure known as a cyclic cystine knot (CCK). This structural motif is responsible for the pronounced stability of cyclotides against chemical, thermal, or proteolytic degradation and has sparked growing interest in this family of peptides. Here, we isolated and characterized a novel cyclotide from Palicourea rigida (Rubiaceae), which was named parigidin-br1. The sequence indicated that this peptide is a member of the bracelet subfamily of cyclotides. Parigidin-br1 showed potent insecticidal activity against neonate larvae of Lepidoptera (Diatraea saccharalis), causing 60% mortality at a concentration of 1 ?m but had no detectable antibacterial effects. A decrease in the in vitro viability of the insect cell line from Spodoptera frugiperda (SF-9) was observed in the presence of parigidin-br1, consistent with in vivo insecticidal activity. Transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy of SF-9 cells after incubation with parigidin-br1 or parigidin-br1-fluorescein isothiocyanate, respectively, revealed extensive cell lysis and swelling of cells, consistent with an insecticidal mechanism involving membrane disruption. This hypothesis was supported by in silico analyses, which suggested that parigidin-br1 is able to complex with cell lipids. Overall, the results suggest promise for the development of parigidin-br1 as a novel biopesticide. PMID:22074926

Pinto, Michelle F S; Fensterseifer, Isabel C M; Migliolo, Ludovico; Sousa, Daniel A; de Capdville, Guy; Arboleda-Valencia, Jorge W; Colgrave, Michelle L; Craik, David J; Magalhães, Beatriz S; Dias, Simoni C; Franco, Octávio L

2012-01-01

194

Improving the cost-effectiveness, trade and safety of biological control for agricultural insect pests using nuclear techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

If appropriately applied, biological control offers one of the most promising, environmentally sound, and sustainable control tactics for arthropod pests and weeds for application as part of an integrated pest management (IPM) approach. Public support for biological control as one of the preferred methods of managing non-indigenous and indigenous pests is increasing in many countries. An FAO\\/IAEA Coordinated Research Project

Jorge Hendrichs; Kenneth Bloem; Gernot Hoch; James E. Carpenter; Patrick Greany; Alan S. Robinson

2009-01-01

195

Efficacy of insect growth regulators as grain protectants against two stored-product pests in wheat and maize.  

PubMed

Insect growth regulators (IGRs) (two juvenile hormone analogues [fenoxycarb and pyriproxifen], four chitin synthesis inhibitors [diflubenzuron, flufenoxuron, lufenuron, and triflumuron], one ecdysteroid agonist [methoxyfenozide], and one combination of chitin synthesis inhibitors and juvenile hormone analogues [lufenuron plus fenoxycarb]) were tested in the laboratory against adults of Prostephanus truncatus in maize and against adults of Rhyzopertha dominica in wheat. The tested IGRs were applied in maize at three doses (1, 5, and 10 ppm) and assessed at three temperature levels (20, 25, and 30°C) in the case of P. truncatus, while in the case of R. dominica the above doses were assessed only at 25°C in wheat. In addition to progeny production, mortality of the treated adults after 14 days of exposure in the IGR-treated commodities was assessed. All IGRs were very effective (>88.5% suppression of progeny) against the tested species at doses of $ 5 ppm, while diflubenzuron at 25°C in the case of P. truncatus or lufenuron and pyriproxyfen in the case of R. dominica completely suppressed (100%) progeny production when they were applied at 1 ppm. At all tested doses, the highest values of R. dominica parental mortality were observed in wheat treated with lufenuron plus fenoxycarb. Temperature at the levels examined in the present study did not appear to affect the overall performance in a great extent of the tested IGRs in terms of adult mortality or suppression of progeny production against P. truncatus in treated maize. The tested IGRs may be considered viable grain protectants and therefore as potential components in stored-product integrated pest management. PMID:22564945

Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Athanassiou, Christos G; Vayias, Basileios J; Tomanovi?, Zeljko

2012-05-01

196

Insect-specific irreversible inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase in pests including the bed bug, the eastern yellowjacket, German and American cockroaches, and the confused flour beetle.  

PubMed

Insecticides directed against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) are facing increased resistance among target species as well as increasing concerns for human toxicity. The result has been a resurgence of disease vectors, insects destructive to agriculture, and residential pests. We previously reported a free cysteine (Cys) residue at the entrance to the AChE active site in some insects but not higher vertebrates. We also reported Cys-targeting methanethiosulfonate molecules (AMTSn), which, under conditions that spared human AChE, caused total irreversible inhibition of aphid AChE, 95% inhibition of AChE from the malaria vector mosquito (Anopheles gambia), and >80% inhibition of activity from the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) and northern house mosquito (Culex pipiens). We now find the same compounds inhibit AChE from cockroaches (Blattella germanica and Periplaneta americana), the flour beetle (Tribolium confusum), the multi-colored Asian ladybird beetle (Harmonia axyridis), the bed bug (Cimex lectularius), and a wasp (Vespula maculifrons), with IC(50) values of approximately 1-11muM. Our results support further study of Cys-targeting inhibitors as conceptually novel insecticides that may be free of resistance in a range of insect pests and disease vectors and, compared with current compounds, should demonstrate much lower toxicity to mammals, birds, and fish. PMID:20109441

Polsinelli, Gregory A; Singh, Sanjay K; Mishra, Rajesh K; Suranyi, Robert; Ragsdale, David W; Pang, Yuan-Ping; Brimijoin, Stephen

2010-09-01

197

A fungal insecticide engineered for fast per os killing of caterpillars has high field efficacy and safety in full-season control of cabbage insect pests.  

PubMed

Fungal insecticides developed from filamentous pathogens of insects are notorious for their slow killing action through cuticle penetration, depressing commercial interest and practical application. Genetic engineering may accelerate their killing action but cause ecological risk. Here we show that a Beauveria bassiana formulation, HV8 (BbHV8), engineered for fast per os killing of caterpillars by an insect midgut-acting toxin (Vip3Aa1) overexpressed in conidia has both high field efficacy and safety in full-season protection of cabbage from the damage of an insect pest complex dominated by Pieris rapae larvae, followed by Plutella xylostella larvae and aphids. In two fields repeatedly sprayed during summer, BbHV8 resulted in overall mean efficacies of killing of 71% and 75%, which were similar or close to the 70% and 83% efficacies achieved by commercially recommended emamectin benzoate but much higher than the 31% and 48% efficacies achieved by the same formulation of the parental wild-type strain (WT). Both BbHV8 and WT sprays exerted no adverse effect on a nontarget spider community during the trials, and the sprays did not influence saprophytic fungi in soil samples taken from the field plots during 4 months after the last spray. Strikingly, BbHV8 and the WT showed low fitness when they were released into the environment because both were decreasingly recovered from the field lacking native B. bassiana strains (undetectable 5 months after the spray), and the recovered isolates became much less tolerant to high temperature and UV-B irradiation. Our results highlight for the first time that a rationally engineered fungal insecticide can compete with a chemical counterpart to combat insect pests at an affordable cost and with low ecological risk. PMID:23956386

Liu, Yong-Jie; Liu, Jing; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Feng, Ming-Guang

2013-10-01

198

Differential peroxidase activities in three different crops upon insect feeding  

PubMed Central

Peroxidases are the ubiquitous enzyme and reported to be present in all living genera. They catalyses reduction of peroxide and generate reactive oxygen species. In the present study we demonstrated that insect infestation induces peroxidase activity in sap and total soluble protein (TSP) of plant leaves. Three important crop plants viz. tomato, cowpea and cotton were used for this study. After infestation of chewing insect, Peroxidase activity in the sap and TSP of all the studied plants were enhanced in the range of 1.6 to 3.14 fold. Similar observations were also obtained with feeding of sap sucking insects, in which increment in peroxidase activity of sap and TSP was in the range of 1.8 to 2.53 fold. Enhanced peroxidase activity was reconfirmed by in-gel peroxidase assay. Enzyme kinetic study showed turn over efficiency of peroxidase from cotton (~101.3 min-1) was almost similar to tomato (~100.8 min-1) but higher than cowpea (~98.21min-1). MS/MS analysis of observed band showed significant similarity with the reported peroxidases in database. PMID:23857346

Singh, Harpal; Dixit, Sameer; Verma, Praveen Chandra; Singh, Pradhyumna Kumar

2013-01-01

199

Expression of snowdrop lectin in transgenic tobacco plants results in added protection against aphids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The range of sap-sucking insect pests to which GNA, (the mannose specific lectin from snowdrops (Galanthus nivalis) has been shown to be insecticidal in artificial diets has been extended to include the peach potato aphid (Myzus persicae). A gene construct for constitutive expression of GNA from the CaMV35S gene promoter has been introduced into tobacco plants. A transgenic tobacco line

V. A. Hilder; K. S. Powell; A. M. R. Gatehouse; J. A. Gatehouse; L. N. Gatehouse; Y. Shi; W. D. O. Hamilton; A. Merryweather; C. A. Newell; J. C. Timans; W. J. Peumans; E. van Damme; D. Boulter

1995-01-01

200

Transcriptome and full-length cDNA resources for the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, a major insect pest of pine forests.  

PubMed

Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are major insect pests of many woody plants around the world. The mountain pine beetle (MPB), Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a significant historical pest of western North American pine forests. It is currently devastating pine forests in western North America--particularly in British Columbia, Canada--and is beginning to expand its host range eastward into the Canadian boreal forest, which extends to the Atlantic coast of North America. Limited genomic resources are available for this and other bark beetle pests, restricting the use of genomics-based information to help monitor, predict, and manage the spread of these insects. To overcome these limitations, we generated comprehensive transcriptome resources from fourteen full-length enriched cDNA libraries through paired-end Sanger sequencing of 100,000 cDNA clones, and single-end Roche 454 pyrosequencing of three of these cDNA libraries. Hybrid de novo assembly of the 3.4 million sequences resulted in 20,571 isotigs in 14,410 isogroups and 246,848 singletons. In addition, over 2300 non-redundant full-length cDNA clones putatively containing complete open reading frames, including 47 cytochrome P450s, were sequenced fully to high quality. This first large-scale genomics resource for bark beetles provides the relevant sequence information for gene discovery; functional and population genomics; comparative analyses; and for future efforts to annotate the MPB genome. These resources permit the study of this beetle at the molecular level and will inform research in other Dendroctonus spp. and more generally in the Curculionidae and other Coleoptera. PMID:22516182

Keeling, Christopher I; Henderson, Hannah; Li, Maria; Yuen, Mack; Clark, Erin L; Fraser, Jordie D; Huber, Dezene P W; Liao, Nancy Y; Docking, T Roderick; Birol, Inanc; Chan, Simon K; Taylor, Greg A; Palmquist, Diana; Jones, Steven J M; Bohlmann, Joerg

2012-08-01

201

Genetics and biology of Anastrepha fraterculus: research supporting the use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) to control this pest in Argentina.  

PubMed

Two species of true fruit flies (taxonomic family Tephritidae) are considered pests of fruit and vegetable production in Argentina: the cosmopolitan Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann) and the new world South American fruit fly (Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemann). The distribution of these two species in Argentina overlaps north of the capital, Buenos Aires. Regarding the control of these two pests, the varied geographical fruit producing regions in Argentina are in different fly control situations. One part is under a programme using the sterile insect technique (SIT) for the eradication of C. capitata, because A. fraterculus is not present in this area. The application of the SIT to control C. capitata north of the present line with the possibility of A. fraterculus occupying the niche left vacant by C. capitata becomes a cause of much concern. Only initial steps have been taken to investigate the genetics and biology of A. fraterculus. Consequently, only fragmentary information has been recorded in the literature regarding the use of SIT to control this species. For these reasons, the research to develop a SIT protocol to control A. fraterculus is greatly needed. In recent years, research groups have been building a network in Argentina in order to address particular aspects of the development of the SIT for Anastrepha fraterculus. The problems being addressed by these groups include improvement of artificial diets, facilitation of insect mass rearing, radiation doses and conditions for insect sterilisation, basic knowledge supporting the development of males-only strains, reduction of male maturation time to facilitate releases, identification and isolation of chemical communication signals, and a good deal of population genetic studies. This paper is the product of a concerted effort to gather all this knowledge scattered in numerous and often hard-to-access reports and papers and summarize their basic conclusions in a single publication. PMID:25471175

Cladera, Jorge L; Vilardi, Juan C; Juri, Marianela; Paulin, Laura E; Giardini, M; Gómez Cendra, Paula V; Segura, Diego F; Lanzavecchia, Silvia B

2014-12-01

202

Genetics and biology of Anastrepha fraterculus: research supporting the use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) to control this pest in Argentina  

PubMed Central

Two species of true fruit flies (taxonomic family Tephritidae) are considered pests of fruit and vegetable production in Argentina: the cosmopolitan Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann) and the new world South American fruit fly (Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemann). The distribution of these two species in Argentina overlaps north of the capital, Buenos Aires. Regarding the control of these two pests, the varied geographical fruit producing regions in Argentina are in different fly control situations. One part is under a programme using the sterile insect technique (SIT) for the eradication of C. capitata, because A. fraterculus is not present in this area. The application of the SIT to control C. capitata north of the present line with the possibility of A. fraterculus occupying the niche left vacant by C. capitata becomes a cause of much concern. Only initial steps have been taken to investigate the genetics and biology of A. fraterculus. Consequently, only fragmentary information has been recorded in the literature regarding the use of SIT to control this species. For these reasons, the research to develop a SIT protocol to control A. fraterculus is greatly needed. In recent years, research groups have been building a network in Argentina in order to address particular aspects of the development of the SIT for Anastrepha fraterculus. The problems being addressed by these groups include improvement of artificial diets, facilitation of insect mass rearing, radiation doses and conditions for insect sterilisation, basic knowledge supporting the development of males-only strains, reduction of male maturation time to facilitate releases, identification and isolation of chemical communication signals, and a good deal of population genetic studies. This paper is the product of a concerted effort to gather all this knowledge scattered in numerous and often hard-to-access reports and papers and summarize their basic conclusions in a single publication. PMID:25471175

2014-01-01

203

19 CFR 12.31 - Plant pests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.31 Plant pests. The importation in a live state of insects which are injurious to cultivated...the eggs, pupae, or larvae of such insects, except for scientific purposes...

2011-04-01

204

19 CFR 12.31 - Plant pests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.31 Plant pests. The importation in a live state of insects which are injurious to cultivated...the eggs, pupae, or larvae of such insects, except for scientific purposes...

2013-04-01

205

19 CFR 12.31 - Plant pests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.31 Plant pests. The importation in a live state of insects which are injurious to cultivated...the eggs, pupae, or larvae of such insects, except for scientific purposes...

2014-04-01

206

19 CFR 12.31 - Plant pests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.31 Plant pests. The importation in a live state of insects which are injurious to cultivated...the eggs, pupae, or larvae of such insects, except for scientific purposes...

2012-04-01

207

Insect Spotlight Articles  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This is a series of articles designed to highlight the unique aspects of insect biology, provide insight on the interactions between insects and humans, and to present information on pest management. Topic insects will include economically important pests, natural enemies, and commonly encountered i...

208

Evaluation of in vitro and in vivo effects of semipurified proteinase inhibitors from Theobroma seeds on midgut protease activity of Lepidopteran pest insects.  

PubMed

We have characterized in vitro and in vivo effects of trypsin inhibitors from Theobroma seeds on the activity of trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like proteins from Lepidopteran pest insects. The action of semipurified trypsin inhibitors from Theobroma was evaluated by the inhibition of bovine trypsin and chymotrypsin activities determined by the hydrolysis of N-Benzoyl-DL-Arginine-p-Nitroanilide (BAPA) and N-Succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pho-Phe p-Nitroanilide (S-(Ala)2ProPhe-pNA). Proteinase inhibitor activities from Theobroma cacao and T. obovatum seeds were the most effective in inhibiting trypsin-like proteins, whereas those from T. obovatum and T. sylvestre were the most efficient against chymotrypsin-like proteins. All larvae midgut extracts showed trypsin-like proteolytic activities, and the putative trypsin inhibitors from Theobroma seeds significantly inhibited purified bovine trypsin. With respect to the influence of Theobroma trypsin inhibitors on intact insects, the inclusion of T. cacao extracts in artificial diets of velvet bean caterpillars (Anticarsia gemmatalis) and sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis) produced a significant increase in the percentage of adult deformation, which is directly related to both the survival rate of the insects and oviposition. PMID:22806759

Paulillo, Luis Cesar Maffei Sartini; Sebbenn, Alexandre Magno; de Carvalho Derbyshire, Maria Tereza Vitral; Góes-Neto, Aristóteles; de Paula Brotto, Marco Aurélio; Figueira, Antonio

2012-09-01

209

PERSPECTIVES FOR BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF STORED-PRODUCT PESTS USING ENTOMOPATHOGENS, ALONE AND IN COMBINATION WITH BENEFICIAL INSECTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Among insect pathogens, Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (Btk) and Plodia interpunctella granulovirus have reached commercialization for control of stored product Lepidoptera, but have limited use. Coleoptera lack microbial insecticide products but have many natural microbial control agents, e...

210

Exotic insect pests and pathogens pose the most serious current threat to the forests of eastern North  

E-print Network

destructiva),and several that are threat- ening but not yet widespread, such as the emerald ash borer (Agrilus are senior scientists at the Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, NY 12545. Mary A. Arthur Pests and Pathogens in Eastern North America GARY M. LOVETT, CHARLES D. CANHAM, MARY A. ARTHUR, KATHLEEN

Berkowitz, Alan R.

211

Brown Planthopper Nudivirus DNA Integrated in Its Host Genome  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera:Delphacidae), is one of the most destructive insect pests of rice crops in Asia. Nudivirus-like sequences were identified during the whole-genome sequencing of BPH. PCR examination showed that the virus sequences were present in all of the 22 BPH populations collected from East, Southeast, and South Asia. Thirty-two of the 33 nudivirus core genes were identified, including 20 homologues of baculovirus core genes. In addition, several gene clusters that were arranged collinearly with those of other nudiviruses were found in the partial virus genome. In a phylogenetic tree constructed using the supermatrix method, the original virus was grouped with other nudiviruses and was closely related to polydnavirus. Taken together, these data indicated that the virus sequences belong to a new member of the family Nudiviridae. More specifically, the virus sequences were integrated into the chromosome of its insect host during coevolution. This study is the first report of a large double-stranded circular DNA virus genome in a sap-sucking hemipteran insect. IMPORTANCE This is the first report of a large double-stranded DNA virus integrated genome in the planthopper, a plant sap-sucking hemipteran insect. It is an exciting addition to the evolutionary story of bracoviruses (polydnaviruses), nudiviruses, and baculoviruses. The results on the virus sequences integrated in the chromosomes of its insect host also represent a story of successful coevolution of an invertebrate virus and a plant sap-sucking insect. PMID:24574410

Cheng, Ruo-Lin; Xi, Yu; Lou, Yi-Han; Wang, Zhuo; Xu, Ji-Yu; Xu, Hai-Jun

2014-01-01

212

Second-Generation Sequencing Supply an Effective Way to Screen RNAi Targets in Large Scale for Potential Application in Pest Insect Control  

PubMed Central

The key of RNAi approach success for potential insect pest control is mainly dependent on careful target selection and a convenient delivery system. We adopted second-generation sequencing technology to screen RNAi targets. Illumina's RNA-seq and digital gene expression tag profile (DGE-tag) technologies were used to screen optimal RNAi targets from Ostrinia furnalalis. Total 14690 stage specific genes were obtained which can be considered as potential targets, and 47 were confirmed by qRT-PCR. Ten larval stage specific expression genes were selected for RNAi test. When 50 ng/µl dsRNAs of the genes DS10 and DS28 were directly sprayed on the newly hatched larvae which placed on the filter paper, the larval mortalities were around 40?50%, while the dsRNAs of ten genes were sprayed on the larvae along with artificial diet, the mortalities reached 73% to 100% at 5 d after treatment. The qRT-PCR analysis verified the correlation between larval mortality and the down-regulation of the target gene expression. Topically applied fluorescent dsRNA confirmed that dsRNA did penetrate the body wall and circulate in the body cavity. It seems likely that the combination of DGE-tag with RNA-seq is a rapid, high-throughput, cost less and an easy way to select the candidate target genes for RNAi. More importantly, it demonstrated that dsRNAs are able to penetrate the integument and cause larval developmental stunt and/or death in a lepidopteron insect. This finding largely broadens the target selection for RNAi from just gut-specific genes to the targets in whole insects and may lead to new strategies for designing RNAi-based technology against insect damage. PMID:21494551

Li, Haichao; Miao, Xuexia

2011-01-01

213

The broad-leaf herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid turns rice into a living trap for a major insect pest and a parasitic wasp.  

PubMed

Synthetic chemical elicitors of plant defense have been touted as a powerful means for sustainable crop protection. Yet, they have never been successfully applied to control insect pests in the field. We developed a high-throughput chemical genetics screening system based on a herbivore-induced linalool synthase promoter fused to a ?-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter construct to test synthetic compounds for their potential to induce rice defenses. We identified 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), an auxin homolog and widely used herbicide in monocotyledonous crops, as a potent elicitor of rice defenses. Low doses of 2,4-D induced a strong defensive reaction upstream of the jasmonic acid and ethylene pathways, resulting in a marked increase in trypsin proteinase inhibitor activity and volatile production. Induced plants were more resistant to the striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis, but became highly attractive to the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens and its main egg parasitoid Anagrus nilaparvatae. In a field experiment, 2,4-D application turned rice plants into living traps for N. lugens by attracting parasitoids. Our findings demonstrate the potential of auxin homologs as defensive signals and show the potential of the herbicide to turn rice into a selective catch crop for an economically important pest. PMID:22313362

Xin, Zhaojun; Yu, Zhaonan; Erb, Matthias; Turlings, Ted C J; Wang, Baohui; Qi, Jinfeng; Liu, Shengning; Lou, Yonggen

2012-04-01

214

Post-Mating Interactions and Their Effects on Fitness of Female and Male Echinothrips americanus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a New Insect Pest in China  

PubMed Central

Post-mating, sexual interactions of opposite sexes differ considerably in different organisms. Post-mating interactions such as re-mating behavior and male harassment can affect the fitness of both sexes. Echinothrips americanus is a new insect pest in Mainland China, and little is known about its post-mating interactions. In this study, we observed re-mating frequency and male harassment frequency and their effects on fitness parameters and offspring sex ratios of E. americanus females. Furthermore, we tested the impact of mating and post-mating interactions on fitness parameters of males. Our results revealed that the re-mating frequency in female adults was extremely low during a 30-day period. However, post-mating interactions between females and males, consisting mainly of male harassment and female resistance, did occur and significantly reduced female longevity and fecundity. Interestingly, increased access to males did not affect the ratio of female offspring. For males, mating dramatically reduced their longevity. However, post-mating interactions with females had no effects on the longevity of mated males. These results enrich our basic knowledge about female and male mating and post-mating behaviors in this species and provide important information about factors that may influence population regulation of this important pest species. PMID:24489956

Li, Xiao-Wei; Jiang, Hong-Xue; Zhang, Xiao-Chen; Shelton, Anthony M.; Feng, Ji-Nian

2014-01-01

215

Vegetable Crop Pests. MEP 311.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland, this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests of vegetable crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of insects, weeds, and diseases.…

Kantzes, James G.; And Others

216

Insect repellent/antifeedant activity of 2,4-methanoproline and derivatives against a leaf- and seed-feeding pest insect.  

PubMed

2,4-methanoproline is a natural product isolated from the seeds of Ateleia herbert smithii Pittier that was formerly suggested to have insect repellent/antifeedant activity; however, this was not tested quantitatively. In this study the insect repellent/antifeedant potency of methanoproline was measured against larvae of the cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.), and adults of the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). In addition, several N-alkyl, amino, and nitrile derivatives of methanoproline with varying stereodemanding substituents were synthesized and also tested. It was shown that in S. littoralis methanoproline itself did not show any significant activity but that derivatives 5, 7, 8, and 10 did show a reasonable repulsive/antifeedant activity that was comparable to the commercial repellent DEET. A significant repellent activity was scored for methanoproline in adults of C. maculatus that was similar to DEET. PMID:15769118

Stevens, Christian V; Smagghe, Guy; Rammeloo, Thomas; De Kimpe, Norbert

2005-03-23

217

Fusion proteins containing insect-specific toxins as pest control agents: snowdrop lectin delivers fused insecticidal spider venom toxin to insect haemolymph following oral ingestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mannose-specific snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin: GNA), when fed to insects, binds to the gut epithelium and passes into the haemolymph. The ability of GNA to act as a carrier protein to deliver an insecticidal spider venom neurotoxin (Segestria florentina toxin 1: SFI1) to the haemolymph of lepidopteran larvae was investigated. Constructs encoding SFI1 and an SFI1\\/GNA fusion protein

Elaine Fitches; Martin G. Edwards; Christopher Mee; Eugene Grishin; Angharad M. R. Gatehouse; John P. Edwards; John A. Gatehouse

2004-01-01

218

Stress for invasion success? Temperature stress of preceding generations modifies the response to insecticide stress in an invasive pest insect  

PubMed Central

Adaptation to stressful environments is one important factor influencing species invasion success. Tolerance to one stress may be complicated by exposure to other stressors experienced by the preceding generations. We studied whether parental temperature stress affects tolerance to insecticide in the invasive Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata. Field-collected pyrethroid-resistant beetles were reared under either stressful (17°C) or favourable (23°C) insecticide-free environments for three generations. Then, larvae were exposed to pyrethroid insecticides in common garden conditions (23°C). Beetles were in general tolerant to stress. The parental temperature stress alone affected beetles positively (increased adult weight) but it impaired their tolerance to insecticide exposure. In contrast, offspring from the favourable temperature regime showed compensatory weight gain in response to insecticide exposure. Our study emphasizes the potential of cross-generational effects modifying species stress tolerance. When resistant pest populations invade benign environments, a re-application of insecticides may enhance their performance via hormetic effects. In turn, opposite effects may arise if parental generations have been exposed to temperature stress. Thus, the outcome of management practices of invasive pest species is difficult to predict unless we also incorporate knowledge of the evolutionary and recent (preceding generations) stress history of the given populations into pest management. PMID:23467574

Piiroinen, Saija; Lyytinen, Anne; Lindström, Leena

2013-01-01

219

Limited genetic exchanges between populations of an insect pest living on uncultivated and related cultivated host plants  

PubMed Central

Habitats in agroecosystems are ephemeral, and are characterized by frequent disturbances forcing pest species to successively colonize various hosts belonging either to the cultivated or to the uncultivated part of the agricultural landscape. The role of wild habitats as reservoirs or refuges for the aphid Sitobion avenae that colonize cultivated fields was assessed by investigating the genetic structure of populations collected on both cereal crops (wheat, barley and oat) and uncultivated hosts (Yorkshire fog, cocksfoot, bulbous oatgrass and tall oatgrass) in western France. Classical genetic analyses and Bayesian clustering algorithms indicate that genetic differentiation is high between populations collected on uncultivated hosts and on crops, revealing a relatively limited gene flow between the uncultivated margins and the cultivated part of the agroecosystem. A closer genetic relatedness was observed between populations living on plants belonging to the same tribe (Triticeae, Poeae and Aveneae tribes) where aphid genotypes appeared not to be specialized on a single host, but rather using a group of related plant species. Causes of this ecological differentiation and its implications for integrated pest management of S. avenae as cereals pest are discussed. PMID:16024367

Vialatte, Aude; Dedryver, Charles-Antoine; Simon, Jean-Christophe; Galman, Marina; Plantegenest, Manuel

2005-01-01

220

Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 7A: General and Household Pest Control. CS-19. Category 7B: Termite Control, CS-20. Category 7C: Food Industry Pest Control, CS-21. Category 7D: Community Insect Control, CS-22.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The first section discusses general and household pest control and is concerned with parasitic pests and man, stored product pests, and irritating vertebrates. Section two is devoted to identifying and controlling structural pests such…

Stockdale, Harold J., Ed.; And Others

221

Vegetable Pests I  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Photographic gallery containing 63 images of pest beetles that attack vegetables, including adults, pupae, larvae,eggs, and the insect damage. Many illustrate rarely photographed insects; most of are good quality, some are excdeptional. Photos are provided in 3 resolutions and formats; one includes text with photographer's information, etc. Requires a CD-ROM drive and a web browser.

0000-00-00

222

AT A GLANCE....INSECTS AND DISEASE PROBLEMS THAT SHOULD BE CONSIDERED THIS PEST/DISEASE/CULTURE  

E-print Network

Associate ­ Fruit Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD): SWD is now the main insect target for the remainder in multiple locations. As of Friday 6/14, 11 of our 21 trap sites were positive for SWD adults. Both males insecticides used for SWD. There will be 3 main factors in successful SWD management: 1) Frequency

Goodman, Robert M.

223

Fusion proteins containing insect-specific toxins as pest control agents: snowdrop lectin delivers fused insecticidal spider venom toxin to insect haemolymph following oral ingestion.  

PubMed

The mannose-specific snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin: GNA), when fed to insects, binds to the gut epithelium and passes into the haemolymph. The ability of GNA to act as a carrier protein to deliver an insecticidal spider venom neurotoxin (Segestria florentina toxin 1: SFI1) to the haemolymph of lepidopteran larvae was investigated. Constructs encoding SFI1 and an SFI1/GNA fusion protein were expressed in Pichia pastoris. The insecticidal activity of purified recombinant proteins on injection was found to be comparable to published values for SfI1 purified from spider venom [Toxicon 40 (2002) 125]. Whereas neither GNA nor SFI1 alone showed acute toxicity when fed to larvae of tomato moth (Lacanobia oleracea), feeding SFI1/GNA fusion at 2.5% of dietary proteins was insecticidal to first stadium larvae, causing 100% mortality after 6 days. The protein also showed a significant, dose dependent, toxicity towards fourth and fifth stadium larvae, with growth reduced by up to approximately 90% over a 4-day assay period compared to controls. Delivery of intact SFI1/GNA to the haemolymph in these insects was shown by western blotting; haemolymph samples from fusion-fed larvae contained a GNA-immunoreactive protein of the same molecular weight as the SFI1/GNA fusion. SFI1/GNA and similar fusion proteins offer a novel and effective approach for delivering haemolymph active toxins by oral administration, which could be used in crop protection by expression in transgenic plants. PMID:15037094

Fitches, Elaine; Edwards, Martin G; Mee, Christopher; Grishin, Eugene; Gatehouse, Angharad M R; Edwards, John P; Gatehouse, John A

2004-01-01

224

INSECT & MITE IDENTIFICATION  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

About fifty pest and beneficial insects and arthropods are pictured and described on these pages. Most of the images are full color with excellent behavior and control information. Insects are categorized into foliage feeders, root feeders, sucking insects, and beneficial insects.

0000-00-00

225

Insect Answers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage from Texas A&M University's Department of Entomology is a consolidated body of information on insects. Clicking on "Insect Help Publications" provides links to a number of extension service documents, with topics such as Home Gardens, Urban and Household, Medical and Veterinary, and Spanish. Other Insect Answers include information on managing pest problems, insect images and sounds, identification, and honey bees. On the right hand side of the page more information about the Entomology Department can be found as well as their bi-monthly podcast: Bug Bytes.

2007-11-28

226

Agriculture and the promotion of insect pests: rice cultivation in river floodplains and malaria vectors in The Gambia  

PubMed Central

Background Anthropogenic modification of natural habitats can create conditions in which pest species associated with humans can thrive. In order to mitigate for these changes, it is necessary to determine which aspects of human management are associated with the promotion of those pests. Anopheles gambiae, the main Africa malaria vector, often breeds in rice fields. Here the impact of the ancient practice of 'swamp rice' cultivation, on the floodplains of the Gambia River, on the production of anopheline mosquitoes was investigated. Methods Routine surveys were carried out along 500 m transects crossing rice fields from the landward edge of the floodplains to the river during the 2006 rainy season. Aquatic invertebrates were sampled using area samplers and emergence traps and fish sampled using nets. Semi-field experiments were used to investigate whether nutrients used for swamp rice cultivation affected mosquito larval abundance. Results At the beginning of the rainy season rice is grown on the landward edge of the floodplain; the first area to flood with fresh water and one rich in cattle dung. Later, rice plants are transplanted close to the river, the last area to dry out on the floodplain. Nearly all larval and adult stages of malaria vectors were collected 0–100 m from the landward edge of the floodplains, where immature rice plants were grown. These paddies contained stagnant freshwater with high quantities of cattle faeces. Semi-field studies demonstrated that cattle faeces nearly doubled the number of anopheline larvae compared with untreated water. Conclusion Swamp rice cultivation creates ideal breeding sites for malaria vectors. However, only those close to the landward edge harboured vectors. These sites were productive since they were large areas of standing freshwater, rich in nutrients, protected from fish, and situated close to human habitation, where egg-laying mosquitoes from the villages had short distances to fly. The traditional practice of 'swamp rice' cultivation uses different bodies of water on the floodplains to cultivate rice during the rainy season. A consequence of this cultivation is the provizion of ideal conditions for malaria vectors to thrive. As the demand for locally-produced rice grows, increased rice farming will generate great numbers of vectors; emphasizing the need to protect local communities against malaria. PMID:19635125

Jarju, Lamin BS; Fillinger, Ulrike; Green, Clare; Louca, Vasilis; Majambere, Silas; Lindsay, Steven W

2009-01-01

227

A Comparison of Growth and Development of Three Major Agricultural Insect Pests Infected with Heliothis virescens ascovirus 3h (HvAV-3h)  

PubMed Central

Ascoviruses are double-stranded DNA viruses that are pathogenic to lepidopteran hosts, particularly noctuid larvae. Infection of a larva is characterized by retarded growth, reduced feeding and yellowish body color. In this paper, we reported the growth and development of three major agricultural noctuid insect pests, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) and Spodoptera litura (Fabricius), infected with Heliothis virescens ascovirus 3h (HvAV-3h). Using 10-fold serial dilutions (0 to 7) of HvAV-3h-containing hemolymph to infect S. litura larvae, we found no significant difference in larval mortalities from 0 to 103-fold dilutions; however, significant differences were observed at 104-fold dilution and above. Using a 10-fold dilution of HvAV-3h-containing hemolymph to infect H. armigera, S. exigua and S. litura larvae, we found that the growth and development were significantly affected. All infected larvae could not pupate; the survival times of treated H. armigera, S. litura and S. exigua larvae were significantly longer than untreated control larvae. Body weight showed significant difference between treated and untreated control group from day 1 after inoculation in H. armigera and S. exigua, but day 2 in S. litura. Additionally, food intake also showed significant difference between treated and untreated control group from day 2 after inoculation in H. armigera and S. litura, but day 3 in S. exigua. PMID:24386488

Zhou, Zhong-Shi; Zhu, Jie; Hu, Jue; Zhao, Yi-Pei; Zhou, Gui-Wei; Huang, Guo-Hua

2013-01-01

228

Functional Interpretation of a Non-Gut Hemocoelic Tissue Aminopeptidase N (APN) in a Lepidopteran Insect Pest Achaea janata  

PubMed Central

Insect midgut membrane-anchored aminopeptidases N (APNs) are Zn++ dependent metalloproteases. Their primary role in dietary protein digestion and also as receptors in Cry toxin-induced pathogenesis is well documented. APN expression in few non-gut hemocoelic tissues of lepidopteran insects has also been reported but their functions are widely unknown. In the present study, we observed specific in vitro interaction of Cry1Aa toxin with a 113 kDa AjAPN1 membrane protein of larval fat body, Malpighian tubule and salivary gland of Achaea janata. Analyses of 3D molecular structure of AjAPN1, the predominantly expressed APN isoform in these non-gut hemocoelic tissues of A. janata showed high structural similarity to the Cry1Aa toxin binding midgut APN of Bombyx mori, especially in the toxin binding region. Structural similarity was further substantiated by in vitro binding of Cry1Aa toxin. RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in significant down-regulation of AjAPN1 transcript and protein expression in fat body and Malpighian tubule but not in salivary gland. Consequently, reduced AjAPN1 expression resulted in larval mortality, larval growth arrest, development of lethal larval-pupal intermediates, development of smaller pupae and emergence of viable defective adults. In vitro Cry1Aa toxin binding analysis of non-gut hemocoelic tissues of AjAPN1 knockdown larvae showed reduced interaction of Cry1Aa toxin with the 113 kDa AjAPN1 protein, correlating well with the significant silencing of AjAPN1 expression. Thus, our observations suggest AjAPN1 expression in non-gut hemocoelic tissues to play important physiological role(s) during post-embryonic development of A. janata. Though specific interaction of Cry1Aa toxin with AjAPN1 of non-gut hemocoelic tissues of A. janata was demonstrated, evidences to prove its functional role as a Cry1Aa toxin receptor will require more in-depth investigation. PMID:24244508

Ningshen, Thuirei Jacob; Aparoy, Polamarasetty; Ventaku, Venkat Rao; Dutta-Gupta, Aparna

2013-01-01

229

Acoustic indicators for targeted detection of stored product and urban insect pests by inexpensive infrared, acoustic, and virbrational detection of movement  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Crawling or running, scraping or shuffling, and wriggling activity of three stored-product pests, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), and Stegobium paniceum (L.) (Coleoptera: Anobiidae), and two urban pests, Blattella germanic...

230

Forest defoliator outbreaks under climate change: effects on the frequency and severity of outbreaks of five pine insect pests.  

PubMed

To identify general patterns in the effects of climate change on the outbreak dynamics of forest-defoliating insect species, we examined a 212-year record (1800-2011) of outbreaks of five pine-defoliating species (Bupalus piniarius, Panolis flammea, Lymantria monacha, Dendrolimus pini, and Diprion pini) in Bavaria, Germany for the evidence of climate-driven changes in the severity, cyclicity, and frequency of outbreaks. We also accounted for historical changes in forestry practices and examined effects of past insecticide use to suppress outbreaks. Analysis of relationships between severity or occurrence of outbreaks and detrended measures of temperature and precipitation revealed a mixture of positive and negative relationships between temperature and outbreak activity. Two moth species (P. flammea and Dendrolimus pini) exhibited lower outbreak activity following years or decades of unusually warm temperatures, whereas a sawfly (Diprion pini), for which voltinism is influenced by temperature, displayed increased outbreak occurrence in years of high summer temperatures. We detected only one apparent effect of precipitation, which showed Dendrolimus pini outbreaks tending to follow drought. Wavelet analysis of outbreak time series suggested climate change may be associated with collapse of L. monacha and Dendrolimus pini outbreak cycles (loss of cyclicity and discontinuation of outbreaks, respectively), but high-frequency cycles for B. piniarius and P. flammea in the late 1900s. Regional outbreak severity was generally not related to past suppression efforts (area treated with insecticides). Recent shifts in forestry practices affecting tree species composition roughly coincided with high-frequency outbreak cycles in B. piniarius and P. flammea but are unlikely to explain the detected relationships between climate and outbreak severity or collapses of outbreak cycles. Our results highlight both individualistic responses of different pine-defoliating species to climate changes and some patterns that are consistent across defoliator species in this and other forest systems, including collapsing of population cycles. PMID:24464875

Haynes, Kyle J; Allstadt, Andrew J; Klimetzek, Dietrich

2014-06-01

231

Biological control of an insect pest by gut-colonizing Enterobacter cloacae transformed with ice nucleation gene.  

PubMed

The ice nucleation (IN) gene inaA of epiphytic Erwinia (Pantoea) ananas IN10 was transformed into Enterobacter cloacae WBMH-3-CMr originated from the faeces of silkworms. The transformant designated as Ent. cloacae WBMH-3-CMr(pICE6S13) exhibited IN activity, unlike the parent strain. The transgenic strain was ingested by mulberry pyralid larvae, fed on detached mulberry leaves, and the supercooling capacity and cold hardiness of these larvae were examined. The mean supercooling point (SCP) of the larvae ingesting the transgenic strain was - 3.3 degrees C, 8 degrees C higher than that of larvae treated with distilled water (control) and 1.5 C higher than an ice nucleation active (INA) strain of Erw. ananas. The SCPs of the larvae were stably maintained over the 9 d after ingestion. The maintenance of these high SCPs was due to transgenic Ent. cloacae having a more stable and efficient gut colonization than Erw. ananas, which is identified by the distribution of a narrower range of SCPs (-2 to -5 degrees C) in larvae treated with the transgenic stain. Furthermore, most of the larvae ingesting the transgenic strain froze and died when they were exposed to cold conditions of -5 degrees C for 18 h, 3 or 7 d after ingestion. In contrast, most of the larvae ingesting no bacterium did not die under similar conditions. On the other hand, the growth ability of Ent. cloacae WBMH-3-CMr on mulberry leaves tended to be lower than that of epiphytic Erw. ananas, as assayed by pot tests. These findings would expand the possibility of biological control using INA bacteria since Ent. cloacae would harbour a broader host (insect) range for gut colonization and a smaller affinity to plants to benefit from prevention of plant frost injury. PMID:10735247

Watanabe, K; Abe, K; Sato, M

2000-01-01

232

Forest Pest Control. Manual 94.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in forest pest control. The text discusses disease problems, insects, and herbicide use in both established forests and nurseries. (CS)

Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

233

Vegetable Pests II  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Photographic gallery containing 96 images of pests that attack vegetables, including adults, pupae, larvae, and eggs; and what the insect damage looks like. Covers mites, true bugs, hoppers, whiteflies, aphids, grasshoppers, crickets, and thrips. Most of the images are of good quality; some are exceptional. Some images depict frequently photographed insects, but several are unique. Images are offered in 3 resolutions and file formats. Requires a CD-ROM drive and a web browser.

0000-00-00

234

Turfgrass Insects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tutorials on insects that are common pests of turfgrass. Each tutorial has 50 questions; incorrect answers lead to additional information. Covers chinch bug, fall armyworm, tropical sod webworm, mole crickets, ground pearls, white grubs, spittle bugs, banks grass mite, Burmudagrass mite and fire ants. Tutorials are easy to use once loaded on the hard drive. Requires Windows. $15. Part number SW 163.

0002-11-30

235

Agricultural Plant Pest Control. Bulletin 763.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual gives general information on plant pests and pesticides. First, the life-cycle and habits of some common insect pests are given. These include caterpillars, beetles and beetle larvae, and sucking insects. Next, plant diseases such as leaf diseases, wilts, root and crown rots, stem cankers, fruit rots, seed and seedling diseases, and…

French, John C.; And Others

236

Ornamental and Turf Pest Control. Bulletin 764.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual gives descriptions of and methods for control of diseases and insect pests of ornamental plants, weeds, and diseases and insect pests of turf plants. Included are diseases caused by fungi such as cankers, leaf galls, and rust; diseases caused by bacteria such as bacterial blight and crown gall; and diseases caused by nematodes and…

Bowyer, Timothy H.; And Others

237

Beneficial Insects and Insect Pollinators on Milkweed in South Georgia  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Insect pollinators are essential for the reproduction of more than two-thirds of the world’s crops, and beneficial insects play an important role in managing pest insects in agricultural farmscapes. These insects depend on nectar for their survival in these farmscapes. The flowers of tropical milkwe...

238

Forest Pest Control. Sale Publication 4072.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The forest pests discussed in this guide are weeds, insects, diseases, and vertebrates. The guide gives information about types of forests, characteristics of common forest pests, pest control methods, pesticides and application equipment used in forestry, and environmental and human hazards. (Author/BB)

Stimmann, M. W., Ed.

239

Ornamental, Turf and Nursery Pests. MEP 308.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland, this publication introduces the identification and control of common turf and plant pests that can be found in the urban environment. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests such as insects, weeds, and…

Morgan, Omar D.; And Others

240

Application and evaluation of entomopathogens for citrus pest control  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus is an important crop that harbors various insect pests. A number or these pests may be amenable to microbial control agents particularly nematodes, fungi and viruses. This chapter summarizes techniques used to evaluate field efficacy of microbial control agents in citrus. Insect pests that...

241

Bayesian analysis of the species-specific lengthening of the growing season in two European countries and the influence of an insect pest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent lengthening of the growing season in mid and higher latitudes of the northern hemisphere is reported as a clear indicator for climate change impacts. Using data from Germany (1951-2003) and Slovenia (1961-2004), we study whether changes in the start, end, and length of the growing season differ among four deciduous broad-leaved tree species and countries, how the changes are related to temperature changes, and what might be the confounding effects of an insect attack. The functional behaviour of the phenological and climatological time series and their trends are not analysed by linear regression, but by a new Bayesian approach taking into account different models for the functional description (one change-point, linear, constant models). We find advanced leaf unfolding in both countries with the same species order (oak > horse chestnut, beech, and birch). However, this advance is non linear over time and more apparent in Germany with clear change-points in the late 1970s, followed by marked advances (on average 3.67 days decade-1 in the 2000s). In Slovenia, we find a more gradual advance of onset dates (on average 0.8 days decade-1 in the 2000s). Leaf colouring of birch, beech, and oak has been slightly delayed in the last 3 decades, especially in Germany, however with no clear functional behaviour. Abrupt changes in leaf colouring dates of horse chestnut with recent advancing onset dates can be linked across countries to damage by a newly emerging pest, the horse chestnut leaf-miner ( Cameraria ohridella). The lengthening of the growing season, more distinct in Germany than in Slovenia (on average 4.2 and 1.0 days decade-1 in the 2000s, respectively), exhibits the same species order in both countries (oak > birch > beech). Damage by horse chestnut leaf-miner leads to reduced lengthening (Germany) and drastic shortening (Slovenia) of the horse chestnut growing season (-12 days decade-1 in the 2000s). Advanced spring leaf unfolding and lengthening of the growing season of oak, beech and birch are highly significantly related to increasing March temperatures in both countries. Only beech and oak leaf unfolding in Germany, which is generally observed later in the year than that of the other two species, is more closely correlated with April temperatures, which comparably exhibit marked change-points at the end of the 1970s.

Menzel, Annette; Estrella, Nicole; Heitland, Werner; Susnik, Andreja; Schleip, Christoph; Dose, Volker

2008-01-01

242

Insect Pest Management in Virginia  

E-print Network

, Virginia Tech Tidewater AREC David Owens, Agricultural Technician, Virginia Tech Tidewater AREC Jessica, Virginia Beach Edward Winslow, Belvidere, NC Gary Respass, Beaufort Co., NC Barry Bryant, Jackson, NC Kelly

Liskiewicz, Maciej

243

RNA Viruses Infecting Pest Insects  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

RNA viruses are viruses whose genetic material is ribonucleic acid (RNA). RNA viruses may be double or single-stranded based on the type of RNA they contain. Single-stranded RNA viruses can be further grouped into negative sense or positive-sense viruses according to the polarity of their RNA. Fur...

244

Insect Pest Management in Virginia  

E-print Network

Student, Virginia Tech Dept. of Entomology Jessica Samler, Graduate Student, Virginia Tech Dept. Ray Clarke, Dinwiddie Co. Donald Turner, Dinwiddie Co. Greg Jenkins, Gloucester Co. Kirby Farms Shepard, Orange Co. Steve Rosbicki, Prince George Co. David Wells, Prince George Co. Ray Davis

Liskiewicz, Maciej

245

Bridging conventional and molecular genetics of sorghum insect resistance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sustainable production of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, depends on effective control of insect pests as they continue to compete with humans for the sorghum crop. Insect pests are major constraint in sorghum production, and nearly 150 insect species are serious pests of this crop worldwide,...

246

NATIVE SUNFLOWERS IN THE CENTRAL AND NORTHERN PLAINS AS SOURCES FOR RESISTANCE AND NATURAL ENEMIES OF INSECT PESTS OF CULTIVATED SUNFLOWER: BANDED SUNFLOWER MOTH AND SUNFLOWER STEM WEEVIL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sunflowers are native to North America and thus the associated insects have coevolved with the plants. The objective of this project was to survey the insect fauna of native sunflowers in the central and northern Plains. We collected heads containing banded sunflower moth larvae and stalks containin...

247

Insects and Bugs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

They have been around for centuries. They sting, they bite. They cause intense itching or painful sores. They even cause allergic reactions and sometimes death. There are two types of insects that are pests to humans--those that sting and those that bite. The insects that bite do so with their mouths and include mosquitoes, chiggers, and ticks.…

Sutherland, Karen

2009-01-01

248

Effects of silicon-based fertilizer applications on the development and reproduction of insect pests associated with greenhouse-grown crops.  

E-print Network

?? The purpose of this comprehensive study was to investigate the effects of silicon-based fertilizer applications in promoting host-plant resistance to certain piercing-sucking insects feeding… (more)

Hogendorp, Brian K.

2009-01-01

249

Most Virginians are aware that the gypsy moth is a seri-ous pest of hardwoods in our state. Although this insect  

E-print Network

Most Virginians are aware that the gypsy moth is a seri- ous pest of hardwoods in our state in moth populations in 2000. This population increase serves as a reminder that, in areas where gypsy moth low to be noticed. Gypsy moth is a native of Europe, Asia, and northern Africa. It was accidentally

Liskiewicz, Maciej

250

AT A GLANCE. INSECT AND DISEASE PROBLEMS THAT SHOULD BE CONSIDERED THIS WEEK. PEST/DISEASE WEEK OF MAY 30 WEEK OF JUNE 6  

E-print Network

is very low and on Bluecrop it is moderate Aphids Lannate (low populations), Imidacloprid (e.g. Provado), Actara, or Assail Scout and treat if over 10% of terminals are infested with live aphids Scout and treat Rizio, IPM Program Associate ­ Fruit Aphids: About 71% of shoot samples have been positive for this pest

Goodman, Robert M.

251

Insect pests of pearl millet in Sahelian West Africa—II. Raghuva albipunctella De Joannis (Noctuidae, Lepidoptera): Distribution, population dynamics and assessment of crop damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pest surveys in farmers’ fields were conducted for Raghuva albipunctella infestations on pearl millet in Burkina Faso, Niger and northern Nigeria in 1980–1983. Field studies on the seasonal fluctuations of moths and diapausing pupae, assessment of crop damage and grain yield loss were conducted in Niger. The results indicated that R. albipunctella occurred between latitudes 11° N and 15 °

Kanayo F. Nwanze; M. V. K. Sivakumar

1990-01-01

252

Planthopper pests of grapevine (in French)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the French vineyards occur two main insect pests belonging to Fulgoromorpha, Hyalesthes obsoletus Signoret (Cixiidae) and Metcalfa pruinosa (Say) (Flatidae). Hyalesthes obsoletus is inducing economic losses by transmitting a phytoplasma, called Stolbur, from wild plants (bindweed, nettle, etc.) t...

253

Coccinellids and the Modern Pest Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the concept of integrated pest control combining chemical and biological methods. Describes many examples of the successful use of coccinellids beetles to control other insects. Cites ecological and physiological research studies related to predator prey relationships involving coccinellids. (EB)

Hodek, Ivo

1970-01-01

254

Evaluation of corn hybrids expressing Cry1F, cry1A.105, Cry2Ab2, Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1, and Cry3Bb1 against southern United States insect pests.  

PubMed

Studies were conducted across the southern United States to characterize the efficacy of multiple Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) events in a field corn, Zea mays L., hybrid for control of common lepidopteran and coleopteran pests. Cry1F protein in event TC1507 and Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 proteins in event MON 89034 were evaluated against pests infesting corn on above-ground plant tissue including foliage, stalks, and ears. Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 proteins in event DAS-59122-7 and Cry3Bb1 in event MON 88017 were evaluated against the larvae of Mexican corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera zeae Krysan and Smith, which occur below-ground. Field corn hybrids containing Cry1F, Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2, Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1, and Cry3Bb1 insecticidal proteins (SmartStax) consistently demonstrated reductions in plant injury and/or reduced larval survivorship as compared with a non-Bt field corn hybrid. Efficacy provided by a field corn hybrid with multiple Bt proteins was statistically equal to or significantly better than corn hybrids containing a single event active against target pests. Single event field corn hybrids provided very high levels of control of southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella (Dyar), lesser cornstalk borer, Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zeller), and fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), and were not significantly different than field corn hybrids with multiple events. Significant increases in efficacy were observed for a field corn hybrid with multiple Bt events for sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and Mexican corn rootworm. Utilization of field corn hybrids containing multiple Bt events provides a means for managing insect resistance to Bt proteins and reduces non-Bt corn refuge requirements. PMID:23156183

Siebert, M W; Nolting, S P; Hendrix, W; Dhavala, S; Craig, C; Leonard, B R; Stewart, S D; All, J; Musser, F R; Buntin, G D; Samuel, L

2012-10-01

255

Monitoring of stored tobacco insect pests by means of pheromones: the case of Ephestia elutella (Hübner) and Lasioderma serricorne Fabricius in South Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results obtained in the monitoring of stored tobacco pests by pheromones are reported.\\u000a \\u000a In GreeceEphestia elutella (Hübner) is likely to have at least 3 generations per year: the first one appears in early May, the second one during the\\u000a last week of June and the third one— the most populated and the longer lasting—in August. In the same environmentsPlodia interpunctella

C. Th. Buchelos; P. Trematerra

1998-01-01

256

Training for Certification: Forest Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial pesticide applicators. Focusing on forest pest control, this publication examines plant and animal pest control practices for southern tree species. Contents include: (1) identification of insects, diseases, and weed tree species;…

Parker, Robert C., Comp.

257

Training for Certification: Ornamental & Turf Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial pesticide applicators. Focusing on ornamental and turf plant pest control, this publication examines the control of plant diseases, insects, and weeds. The contents are divided into a section on ornamental pest control and one on…

Mississippi State Univ., State College. Cooperative Extension Service.

258

Thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): inferences of climate change impact on a tropical insect pest  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We determined the thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, and make inferences on the possible effects of climate change on the insect using climatic data from Colombia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. The extremes for coffee berry borer survival are 59 and 86 degrees F, but ...

259

COMPATIBILITY AND POTENTIAL SYNERGISM BETWEEN THE ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGUS BEAUVERIA BASSIANA AND THE INSECT GROWTH REGULATOR AZADIRACHTIN FOR CONTROL OF THE GREENHOUSE PESTS MYZUS PERSICAE AND APHIS GOSSYPII  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

One factor limiting the ability of entomopathogenic fungi to control rapidly developing insects such as aphids is the fact that frequent molting allows them to effectively remove fungal propagules before they can penetrate the cuticle, thus dramatically reducing their susceptibility to infection. O...

260

Visualizing a plant defense and insect counterploy: alkaloid distribution in Lobelia leaves trenched by a plusiine caterpillar.  

PubMed

Insects that feed on plants protected by latex canals often sever leaf veins or cut trenches across leaves before feeding distal to the cuts. The insects thereby depressurize the canals and reduce latex exudation at their prospective feeding site. How the cuts affect the distribution and concentration of latex chemicals was not known. We modified a microwave-assisted extraction technique to analyze the spatial distribution of alkaloids in leaves of Lobelia cardinalis (Campanulaceae) that have been trenched by a plusiine caterpillar, Enigmogramma basigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). We produced sharp two dimensional maps of alkaloid distribution by microwaving leaves to transfer alkaloids to TLC plates that were then sprayed with Dragendorff's reagent to visualize the alkaloids. The leaf prints were photographed and analyzed with image processing software for quantifying alkaloid levels. A comparison of control and trenched leaves documented that trenching reduces alkaloid levels by approximately 50% both distal and proximal to the trench. The trench becomes greatly enriched in alkaloids due to latex draining from surrounding areas. Measurements of exudation from trenched leaves demonstrate that latex pressures are rapidly restored proximal, but not distal to the trench. Thus, the trench serves not only to drain latex with alkaloids from the caterpillar's prospective feeding site, but also to isolate this section, thereby preventing an influx of latex from an extensive area that likely extends beyond the leaf. Microwave-assisted extraction of leaves has potential for diverse applications that include visualizing the impact of pathogens, leaf miners, sap-sucking insects, and other herbivores on the distribution and abundance of alkaloids and other important defensive compounds. PMID:19468794

Oppel, Craig B; Dussourd, David E; Garimella, Umadevi

2009-06-01

261

Forest Pest Control. Bulletin 759.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual describes the major forest types, the major species, seed orchards, and tree nurseries. Methods of identifying forest insect pests and diseases are given. The most common types of insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides are described. Both sprayer and granular applicator methods are discussed. Environmental considerations are…

Coleman, V. Rodney

262

Aquatic Pest Control. Manual 99.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the aquatic pest control category. The text discusses various water use situations; aquatic weed identification; herbicide use and effects; and aquatic insects and their control. (CS)

Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

263

A new approach to insect-pest control—combination of neurotoxins interacting with voltage sensitive sodium channels to increase selectivity and specificity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Voltage-sensitive sodium channels are responsible for the generation of electrical signals in most excitable tissues and serve\\u000a as specific targets for many neurotoxins. At least seven distinct classes of neurotoxins have been designated on the basis\\u000a of physiological activity and competitive binding studies. Although the characterization of the neurotoxin receptor sites\\u000a was predominantly performed using vertebrate excitable preparations, insect neuronal

Dalia Gordon

1997-01-01

264

Beauveria bassiana for the control of Sunn Pest (Eurygaster integriceps) (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae) and aspects of the insect's daily activity relevant to a mycoinsecticide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of investigations was carried out at ICARDA during April–June 2004 and May–June 2005 to investigate the use of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana to control Eurygaster integriceps and to determine aspects of the insect's biology that could be relevant to control with the fungus. Application in 2004 of an oil-based formulation of B. bassiana showed distribution of the

Steve Edgington; Dave Moore; Mustapha El Bouhssini; Ziad Sayyadi

2007-01-01

265

Genomics of Insect-Soybean Interactions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The dissection of plant-insect interactions has lagged behind that of interactions between plants and other types of pests. Insect pests interact with plants in a variety of ways, ranging from piercing and sucking of phloem to consumption of leaves and other tissues. Hence, a wide range of genetic m...

266

Beneficial Insects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tutorials on insect predators that feed on insect and mite pests. Each tutorial has 50 questions; incorrect answers lead to additional information. Covers brown lacewings, ambush bugs, dragonflies, damselflies, paper wasps, earwigs, long-legged flies, predaceous mites, damsel bugs, minute pirate bug, tiger beetles, tachnid flies, parasitic nematodes, entomopathogenic fungi and viruses. Requires Windows. SOme illustrations may be most apporopriate for the southern U.S. A couple of the questions have rather arbitrary answers; in general, the tutorials are well constructed and the information is accurate. Requires Windows operating system; program must be downloaded to the comptuer's hard drive, but once loaded is easy to launch and use. $15. Part number SW 154.

0000-00-00

267

Managing Turfgrass Insects of the Northeast  

E-print Network

management Sanitation Mechanical/physical control Biological control Conservation Introduction Augmentative is the considered and coordinated use of pest control tactics in turf management. The goal of IPM is to maintain making and management system. #12;Environment Turf management Pests Insect Pests Pathogens Weeds

Wang, Changlu

268

Using new technology and insect behavior in novel terrestrial and flying insect traps  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Insect traps are commonly used for both population sampling and insect control, the former as part of an integrated pest management (IPM) program. We developed traps for two insects, one as part of a pesticide based IPM system and the other for population control. Our IPM trap is for crawling insect...

269

KNN-Spectral Regression LDA for Insect Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insect recognition is the basis of crop pest and disease control. Traditional insect recognition methods are time-consuming and hard-labor. Automatic machine insect recognition can solve the problem. In this paper, spectral regression LDA is used to reduce high dimension spaces of insects images, and get insect feature subspace. Then coefficient vector in the subspace is taken as the input of

Li Xiao-Lin; Huang Shi-Guo; Zhou Ming-Quan; Geng Guo-Hua

2009-01-01

270

Insects Affecting Hardwood Tree Plantings Bradley D. Barnd  

E-print Network

Insects Affecting Hardwood Tree Plantings Bradley D. Barnd Department of Forestry and Natural of indigenous and invasive insect pests. This publication is intended to provide landowners with an overview of some of the more important insect pests affecting hardwoods in the CHR. It is by no means comprehensive

271

Biological aspects of Eriopis connexa (Germar) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) fed on different insect pests of maize (Zea mays L.) and sorghum [Sorghum bicolor L. (Moench.)].  

PubMed

Eriopis connexa (Germar) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) occurs in several countries of South America and its mass rearing is important for biological control programmes. This work evaluated biological aspects of E. connexa larva fed on eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) frozen for one day, fresh eggs of Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), S. frugiperda newly-hatched caterpillars, nymphs of Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Duration of larva, pupa and larva to adult stages differed among prey offered, whereas the prepupa stage was similar. Larva, pupa, prepupa and larva to adult viabilities were equal or major of 87.5% in all prey, except for larva fed on newly-hatched larvae of S. frugiperda. Eriopis connexa has good adaptation to different prey corroborating its polyphagous feeding habit, which evidences the potential of this natural enemy for controlling corn and sorghum pests. PMID:23917572

Silva, R B; Cruz, I; Zanuncio, J C; Figueiredo, M L C; Canevari, G C; Pereira, A G; Serrão, J E

2013-05-01

272

Differential Expression Patterns in Chemosensory and Non-Chemosensory Tissues of Putative Chemosensory Genes Identified by Transcriptome Analysis of Insect Pest the Purple Stem Borer Sesamia inferens (Walker)  

PubMed Central

Background A large number of insect chemosensory genes from different gene subfamilies have been identified and annotated, but their functional diversity and complexity are largely unknown. A systemic examination of expression patterns in chemosensory organs could provide important information. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified 92 putative chemosensory genes by analysing the transcriptome of the antennae and female sex pheromone gland of the purple stem borer Sesamia inferens, among them 87 are novel in this species, including 24 transcripts encoding for odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 24 for chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 2 for sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs), 39 for odorant receptors (ORs) and 3 for ionotropic receptors (IRs). The transcriptome analyses were validated and quantified with a detailed global expression profiling by Reverse Transcription-PCR for all 92 transcripts and by Quantitative Real Time RT-PCR for selected 16 ones. Among the chemosensory gene subfamilies, CSP transcripts are most widely and evenly expressed in different tissues and stages, OBP transcripts showed a clear antenna bias and most of OR transcripts are only detected in adult antennae. Our results also revealed that some OR transcripts, such as the transcripts of SNMP2 and 2 IRs were expressed in non-chemosensory tissues, and some CSP transcripts were antenna-biased expression. Furthermore, no chemosensory transcript is specific to female sex pheromone gland and very few are found in the heads. Conclusion Our study revealed that there are a large number of chemosensory genes expressed in S. inferens, and some of them displayed unusual expression profile in non-chemosensory tissues. The identification of a large set of putative chemosensory genes of each subfamily from a single insect species, together with their different expression profiles provide further information in understanding the functions of these chemosensory genes in S. inferens as well as other insects. PMID:23894529

Zhang, Ya-Nan; Jin, Jun-Yan; Jin, Rong; Xia, Yi-Han; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Deng, Jian-Yu; Dong, Shuang-Lin

2013-01-01

273

Integrating augmentative biocontrol and inherited sterility for management of lepidopteran pests  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Insect pest management can benefit from the integration of biological control agents and the release of sterile insect pests (hosts). Released sterile or semi-sterile insects and their sterile progeny may augment natural enemies by serving as hosts for build-up of the natural enemies prior to the t...

274

Insects: What are Insects?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project you will investigate insects. By the end of the project you will asnwer the essential quesetion " What are insects?" Today, you and your group members will begin by investigating what insects are in nature. Insects come in different shapes, sizes and colors. Before your groups begins the activity, take a look at some pictures by clicking the Insect Pictures link Insect Pictures. Next, your group will read the brief summary from ...

Mrs. Martin

2009-10-22

275

Biological pest control in Mexico.  

PubMed

Mexico is a megadiverse country that forms part of the Mesoamerican biological corridor that connects North and South America. Mexico's biogeographical situation places it at risk from invasive exotic insect pests that enter from the United States, Central America, or the Caribbean. In this review we analyze the factors that contributed to some highly successful past programs involving classical biological control and/or the sterile insect technique (SIT). The present situation is then examined with reference to biological control, including SIT programs, targeted at seven major pests, with varying degrees of success. Finally, we analyze the current threats facing Mexico's agriculture industry from invasive pests that have recently entered the country or are about to do so. We conclude that despite a number of shortcomings, Mexico is better set to develop biological control-based pest control programs, particularly on an area-wide basis, than many other Latin American countries are. Classical and augmentative biological control and SIT-based programs are likely to provide effective and sustainable options for control of native and exotic pests, particularly when integrated into technology packages that meet farmers' needs across the great diversity of production systems in Mexico. PMID:22974068

Williams, Trevor; Arredondo-Bernal, Hugo C; Rodríguez-del-Bosque, Luis A

2013-01-01

276

Airborne multispectral remote sensing with ground truth for areawide pest management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Scientists and engineers in areawide pest management programs have been developing, integrating, and evaluating multiple strategies and technologies into a systems approach for management of field crop insect pests. Remote sensing along with global positioning systems, geographic information system...

277

7 CFR 319.56-5 - Pest-free areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...non-pest-free area by being covered with insect-proof mesh screens or plastic tarpaulins...transit to a port, they must be packed in insect-proof cartons or containers or be covered by insect-proof mesh or plastic tarpaulins...

2013-01-01

278

7 CFR 319.56-5 - Pest-free areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...non-pest-free area by being covered with insect-proof mesh screens or plastic tarpaulins...transit to a port, they must be packed in insect-proof cartons or containers or be covered by insect-proof mesh or plastic tarpaulins...

2012-01-01

279

7 CFR 319.56-5 - Pest-free areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...non-pest-free area by being covered with insect-proof mesh screens or plastic tarpaulins...transit to a port, they must be packed in insect-proof cartons or containers or be covered by insect-proof mesh or plastic tarpaulins...

2014-01-01

280

7 CFR 319.56-5 - Pest-free areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...non-pest-free area by being covered with insect-proof mesh screens or plastic tarpaulins...transit to a port, they must be packed in insect-proof cartons or containers or be covered by insect-proof mesh or plastic tarpaulins...

2010-01-01

281

7 CFR 319.56-5 - Pest-free areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...non-pest-free area by being covered with insect-proof mesh screens or plastic tarpaulins...transit to a port, they must be packed in insect-proof cartons or containers or be covered by insect-proof mesh or plastic tarpaulins...

2011-01-01

282

Integrated Pest Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first Web site is an integrated pest management (IPM) resource from the University of Minnesota Extension Service (1) with a number of regional newsletters and crop specific fact sheets. The next resource from the University of California (2) is a comprehensive overview of IPM dealing with a wide range of topics including weather, weeds, and pesticides. Cornell University's Guide to Natural Enemies in North America (3) (last mentioned in the December 10, 1997 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) is a tutorial and guide to the beneficial insects that help control weeds, diseases, and pests. The home page for the Center for Integrated Pest Management (4) is a gateway to IPM research. Teachers wishing to incorporate the ecological concepts of IPM into their classrooms may be interested in this curriculum developed by Michigan State University (5) downloadable in Adobe Acrobat Reader format. Users looking to stay current on the subject of IPM may want to check out the IPMnet newsletters (6) from the Consortium for International Crop Protection. Brief reports of several IPM successes are posted on this New York State IPM Web site (7). Lastly, the home gardener may benefit from this (8) Texas A&M University site focusing on IPM for the home vegetable garden.

2002-01-01

283

Dispersal of forest insects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dispersal flights of selected species of forest insects which are associated with periodic outbreaks of pests that occur over large contiguous forested areas are discussed. Gypsy moths, spruce budworms, and forest tent caterpillars were studied for their massive migrations in forested areas. Results indicate that large dispersals into forested areas are due to the females, except in the case of the gypsy moth.

Mcmanus, M. L.

1979-01-01

284

Mechanisms by which pesticides affect insect immunity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The known effects of pesticides on insect immunity is reviewed here. A basic understanding of these interactions is needed for several reasons, including to improve methods for controlling pest insects in agricultural settings, for controlling insect vectors of human diseases, and for reducing morta...

285

IR thermography as a tool for the pest management professional  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For years the pest Management Professional has relied on visual and manual inspections to locate insect pest infestations. As building materials have improved, the ability to locate pest problems has become more difficult since building materials are often able to mask the existence of pest infestation. Additionally, these improved building materials have contributed to the pest problem by providing a convenient food and nesting source. Within the past five years, the Pest Management Industry has become aware that IR thermography can aid in the detection of pest infestation by detecting evidence of latent moisture within structures. This paper discusses the use of thermal imaging to detect thermal patterns associated with insect infestation, verification of data and special challenges associated with the inspection process.

Grossman, Jon L.

2005-03-01

286

Determining host suitability of pecan for stored-product insects  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A no-choice test was performed to determine survival and reproductive capacity of stored-product insect pests on pecan, Carya illinoensis (Wangenheim) Koch. Insects used were Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae); sawtoothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis...

287

The use and manipulation of insect reproductive molecules for controlling insect populations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The use and manipulation of insect reproductive molecules, and the genes that encode them, provides a variety of methods to control insect fertility and thus a means of population control for insect pests. Towards this end, we first studied the yolk polypeptide gene from the caribfly, Anastrepha su...

288

Homeowner's Guide to Pests of Peaches, Plums and Pecans  

E-print Network

To deal with insect and disease problems on peaches, plums and pecans, it is necessary to understand the life cycles of pests and diseases. Pesticide safety instructions and spray equipment also are discussed, and spray schedules are provided....

Knutson, Allen E.; Ree, Bill; Ong, Kevin; Mott, Dale; Kamas, Jim

2005-05-17

289

Lawn and Turf Pest Control: A Guide for Commercial Applicators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed for use in training commercial pesticide applicators. It gives identification and control information for common lawn and turf diseases, insects, nematodes, weeds, and vertebrate pests. It also discusses phytotoxicity, environmental concerns, and application methods. (BB)

Khan, M. S.

290

Study on Integrated Pest Management for Libraries and Archives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study addresses the problems caused by the major insect and rodent pests and molds and mildews in libraries and archives; the damage they do to collections; and techniques for their prevention and control. Guidelines are also provided for the development and initiation of an Integrated Pest Management program for facilities housing library…

Parker, Thomas A.

291

Impact of Entomopathogens on Pest Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Adaptation by pest insects to the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) can alter their susceptibility to other pathogens. As the number of acres planted in crops engineered to produce Bt toxin increases, many key agricultural pests undergo strong selection to evolve resistance to Bt. In conjuncti...

292

ARS RESEARCH ON NATURAL PRODUCTS FOR PEST MANAGEMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recent research of the Agricultural Research Service of USDA on the use of natural products to manage pests is summarized. Studies of the use of both phytochemicals and diatomaceous earth to manage insect pests are discussed. Chemically characterized compounds, such as a saponin from pepper (Caps...

293

Manipulation of arthropod pathogens for integrated pest management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A great diversity of pathogenic microorganisms and nematodes has been developed for microbial biological control of insect and other arthropod pests. These control agents have many characteristics that determine their capacities to provide reliable pest control, and these characteristics must be ta...

294

RNAi at work: Targeting invertebrate pests and beneficial organisms' diseases  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Invertebrates present two types of large scale RNAi application opportunities: pest control and beneficial insect health. The former involves the introduction of sustainable applications to keep pest populations low, and the latter represents the challenge of keeping beneficial organisms healthy. RN...

295

Behavior, biology and ecology of stored fruit and nut insects  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tree nuts and dried fruits vary widely in their quality as hosts for insect pests, but stored product pests can cause economic loss even in commodities that are generally poor hosts. Economic damage can be due to commodity consumed, but the very presence of insect body parts, frass, or webbing can c...

296

CPHST's Identification Technology Program is pleased to announce the release of the final Citrus Resource tool, Citrus Pests. Developed through collaboration among CPHST, University of Florida, and Southern Plant  

E-print Network

inexperienced users in the identifcation of insect pests of citrus, including a comprehensive image gallery filterable image gallery. You can choose to look only at im- ages of any of the insect orders included, and Southern Plant Diagnostic Network, Citrus Pests offers screening support for over 50 important insect pests

Watson, Craig A.

297

Towards integrated pest management in red clover seed production.  

PubMed

The development of integrated pest management is hampered by lack of information on how insect pest abundances relate to yield losses, and how pests are affected by control measures. In this study, we develop integrated pest management tactics for Apion spp. weevils (Coleoptera: Brentidae) in seed production of red clover, Trifolium pratense L. We tested a method to forecast pest damage, quantified the relationship between pest abundance and yield, and evaluated chemical and biological pest control in 29 Swedish red clover fields in 2008 and 2011. Pest inflorescence abundance, which had a highly negative effect on yield, could be predicted with pan trap catches of adult pests. In 2008, chemical control with typically one application of pyrethroids was ineffective both in decreasing pest abundances and in increasing yields. In 2011, when chemical control included applications of the neonicotinoid thiacloprid, pest abundances decreased and yields increased considerably in treated field zones. A post hoc analysis indicated that using pyrethroids in addition to thiacloprid was largely redundant. Infestation rates by parasitoids was higher and reached average levels of around 40% in insecticide treated field zones in 2011, which is a level of interest for biological pest control. Based on the data presented, an economic threshold for chemical control is developed, and guidelines are provided on minimum effective chemical pest control. PMID:23156158

Lundin, Ola; Rundlöf, Maj; Smith, Henrik G; Bommarco, Riccardo

2012-10-01

298

The applicability of remote sensing to Earth biological problems. Part 2: The potential of remote sensing in pest management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Five troublesome insect pest groups were chosen for study. These represent a broad spectrum of life cycles, ecological indicators, pest management strategies, and remote sensing requirements. Background data, and field study results for each of these subjects is discussed for each insect group. Specific groups studied include tsetse flies, locusts, western rangeland grasshoppers, range caterpillars, and mosquitoes. It is concluded that remote sensing methods are aplicable to the pest management of the insect groups studied.

Polhemus, J. T.

1980-01-01

299

1976 Commercial Vegetable Pest Control Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains pest control information for commercial vegetable production. It was prepared for agricultural supply dealers, extension agents, fieldmen, and growers. It gives general precautions, information on seed treatment, growing disease-free seedlings and transplants, general soil insect control, general weed control, and spraying…

MacNab, A. A.; And Others

300

Demonstrating Integrated Pest Management of Hot Peppers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We studied the effects of organic and synthetic chemical fertilizers on crop growth, yield and associated insect pests for two varieties of hot pepper, Capsicum chinense Jacquin (Solanaceae): “Scotch Bonnet” and “Caribbean Red” in north Florida. Hot peppers were grown under three treatments: poultr...

301

DEMONSTRATING INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT OF HOT PEPPERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We studied the effects of organic and synthetic chemical fertilizers on crop growth, yield and associated insect pests for two varieties of hot pepper, Capsicum chinense Jacquin (Solanaceae): “Scotch Bonnet” and “Caribbean Red” in north Florida. Hot peppers were grown under three treatments: poultr...

302

Natural compounds for pest and weed control.  

PubMed

The control of insect pests and invasive weeds has become more species-selective because of activity-guided isolation, structure elucidation, and total synthesis of naturally produced substances with important biological activities. Examples of isolated compounds include insect pheromones, antifeedants, and prostaglandins, as well as growth regulators for plants and insects. Synthetic analogues of natural substances have been prepared to explore the relationships between chemical structure and observed biological activity. Recent scientific advances have resulted from better methods for the chemical synthesis of target compounds and better analytical methods. The capability of analytical instrumentation continues to advance rapidly, enabling new insights. PMID:19719128

Petroski, Richard J; Stanley, David W

2009-09-23

303

Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Vegetable Pests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators in vegetable crops prepare for certification under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. The primary focus of this publication is on vegetable pest control. The three sections presented describe: (1) Insect pests of vegetable crops; (2) Weed pests of vegetable crops; and (3) Causes of…

Cress, D.; And Others

304

The importance of economic injury levels in the development of integrated pest control programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Although economic injury levels have long been considered of importance in determining the needs for pest control measures, they take on added significance in integrated pest control programs. The designation of damage tolerance levels defines the goals of the integrated control effort. These management goals should be defined in terms of damage not numbers of pests. Although insect numbers

Ray F. Smith

1969-01-01

305

Common Insect and Mite Pests of Humans  

E-print Network

and clothing in hot, soapy water and dry them using the high heat cycle. Bedbugs are not known to spread disease, but they can cause much discomfort. They are spread mainly through the clothing and luggage of travel- ers or by secondhand bedroom furniture...

Brown, Elizabeth; Troxclair, Noel N.

2008-09-25

306

The impact of Global Warming on global crop yields due to changes in pest pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A billion people currently lack reliable access to sufficient food and almost half of the calories feeding these people come from just three crops: rice, maize, wheat. Insect pests are among the largest factors affecting the yield of these three crops, but models assessing the effects of global warming on crops rarely consider changes in insect pest pressure on crop yields. We use well-established relationships between temperature and insect physiology to project climate-driven changes in pest pressure, defined as integrated population metabolism, for the three major crops. By the middle of this century, under most scenarios, insect pest pressure is projected to increase by more than 50% in temperate areas, while increases in tropical regions will be more modest. Yield relationships indicate that the largest increases in insect pest pressure are likely to occur in areas where yield is greatest, suggesting increased strain on global food markets.

Battisti, D. S.; Tewksbury, J. J.; Deutsch, C. A.

2011-12-01

307

Nuke 'Em! Library Pest Control Using a Microwave.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the threats to books and periodicals posed by such insects as book lice, termites, cockroaches, silverfish, firebrats, and beetles; reviews past methods of pest control; and describes a technique for insect control using microwaves. The results of tests of microwave effects on publications are reported, necessary precautions are…

Brezner, Jerome; Luner, Philip

1989-01-01

308

Plant essential oils for pest and disease management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain essential plant oils, widely used as fragrances and flavors in the perfume and food industries, have long been reputed to repel insects. Recent investigations in several countries confirm that some plant essential oils not only repel insects, but have contact and fumigant insecticidal actions against specific pests, and fungicidal actions against some important plant pathogens. As part of an

Murray B. Isman

2000-01-01

309

Sustainability of Transgenic Insecticidal Cultivars: Integrating Pest Genetics and Ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review examines potential impacts of transgenic cultivars on insect pop- ulation dynamics and evolution. Experience with classically bred, insecticidal cultivars has demonstrated that a solid understanding of both the target insect's ecology and the cultivar's performance under varied field conditions will be es- sential for predicting area-wide effects of transgenic cultivars on pest and natural enemy dynamics. This experience

Fred Gould

1998-01-01

310

Intercropping as cultural pest control: Prospects and limitations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculturalists have been intercropping (simultaneously growing several crops in the same field) for centuries, and the use of polycultures continues as an important form of agriculture among indigenous peoples in the New and Old World tropics and subtropics One demonstrated advantage of intercropping is a reduction in insect pest populations, explained by higher numbers of natural insect enemies in the

Stephen J. Risch

1983-01-01

311

Plant - Insect Relation in Buckwheat Agrocoenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

species of insects are registered at buckwheat field. About 50 species of them are pests. As a rule, their density is not high, so there are no specialized protective measures against them. The largest part (about 100 species) are insects, connected with buckwheat flowers, Among them the typical pollina­ tors are: honey bee (Apis mellifera), wild bees, and bumblebees. Flies

312

MONITORING FOR PEST ACTIVITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Integrated pest management programs for food processing and storage facilities depend on an effective pest-monitoring program. In turn, the foundation of a pest-monitoring program is an understanding of pest behavior and ecology. In this presentation, I will cover issues related to determining pes...

313

Incredible Insects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We are learning about insects in first grade! Insects are all around. Insects can be big or small. People who study insects are called Entomologists. There are 2 things ALL insects have. Do you know what they are? Use the links below to find out! Watch this! University of Illinois Extension-Schools Online: Let?s Talk About Insects What did you learn? How many BODY PARTS do insects have? Insect Body Parts How many body parts do YOU have? Who has more? How many LEGS does an insect have? Insect Legs How many legs to YOU have? Who has more? Fun Stuff... Listen to your favorite insect. The Songs of Insects Check out these beautiful butterflies! Butterflies Bugs in your backyard! Insect fun at home. We're going on a BUG HUNT! Bug Hunt ...

Mrs. Pentek

2009-09-11

314

Original article Impact of insects damaging seed cones of cypress,  

E-print Network

Original article Impact of insects damaging seed cones of cypress, Cupressus sempervirens of mainland Greece, Albania and Malta were sampled for comparison. The cone entomofauna (seven insect and one according to the stand. (© Inra/Elsevier, Paris.) Cupressus sempervirens / insect pests/ cone/ seed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

315

SUMMER 2010 1 All insect images: Dave Cappaert, MSU  

E-print Network

SUMMER 2010 1 All insect images: Dave Cappaert, MSU FROM THE CHAIR It's been a while since we, turfgrass and molecular entomology; insect toxicology; integrated pest management; ecology and ecosys- tems the Bug House (which had 7,000 visitors last year), Insect World Science Camp, InsectaPodCast, and a new

Isaacs, Rufus

316

Vegetational designs for insect-habitat management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Insect habitats in anthropocentric ecosystems consist of crop plants or forest trees and the coexisting non-crop vegetation. The manipulation of the spatial and temporal arrangement of these plant communities can trigger direct or indirect effects on insect pest populations and their associated natural enemy complexes. In this article habitat management is viewed as a technique to design plant associations that support populations of natural enemies or that exert deterrent effects on herbivorous insects.

Altieri, Miguel A.

1983-01-01

317

Acres of Insects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Arizona Center for Insect Science Education Outreach has developed this new resource for high school teachers. Using insects as model organisms, the Web site examines a range of complexities involved with the world's food supply. There are currently two lesson sequences: Great Gravidity, a population ecology lesson, and The Enforcers, a lesson on predator-prey relationships that focuses on biological control of insect pests. Both lessons include introductory activities that prepare students for a long-term (3-4 week) research project, as well as including data analyses and optional activities. These substantial lesson plans have an interactive and interdisciplinary focus, making them appealing to a wide range of high school students.

2002-01-01

318

Multiorganismal insects: diversity and function of resident microorganisms.  

PubMed

All insects are colonized by microorganisms on the insect exoskeleton, in the gut and hemocoel, and within insect cells. The insect microbiota is generally different from microorganisms in the external environment, including ingested food. Specifically, certain microbial taxa are favored by the conditions and resources in the insect habitat, by their tolerance of insect immunity, and by specific mechanisms for their transmission. The resident microorganisms can promote insect fitness by contributing to nutrition, especially by providing essential amino acids, B vitamins, and, for fungal partners, sterols. Some microorganisms protect their insect hosts against pathogens, parasitoids, and other parasites by synthesizing specific toxins or modifying the insect immune system. Priorities for future research include elucidation of microbial contributions to detoxification, especially of plant allelochemicals in phytophagous insects, and resistance to pathogens; as well as their role in among-insect communication; and the potential value of manipulation of the microbiota to control insect pests. PMID:25341109

Douglas, Angela E

2015-01-01

319

HOME GROUNDS & ANIMALS 2014 4-84 Home Ornamentals: Insects of Foliage and Houseplants  

E-print Network

. The major pests include: aphids, whiteflies, mealybugs, scale insects, and mites (spider mites, cyclamen soap, is effective in removing aphids, mealybugs, mites, thrips, and to some extent scale insects

Liskiewicz, Maciej

320

Y-Linked markers for improved population control of the tephritid fruit fly pest, Anastrepha suspensa  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Insect pest control programs incorporating the sterile insect technique (SIT) rely on the mass production and release of sterilized insects to reduce the wild-type population through infertile matings. Most effective programs release only males to avoid any crop damage caused by female fruit flies o...

321

Alternatives to neonicotinoid insecticides for pest control: case studies in agriculture and forestry.  

PubMed

Neonicotinoid insecticides are widely used for control of insect pests around the world and are especially pervasive in agricultural pest management. There is a growing body of evidence indicating that the broad-scale and prophylactic uses of neonicotinoids pose serious risks of harm to beneficial organisms and their ecological function. This provides the impetus for exploring alternatives to neonicotinoid insecticides for controlling insect pests. We draw from examples of alternative pest control options in Italian maize production and Canadian forestry to illustrate the principles of applying alternatives to neonicotinoids under an integrated pest management (IPM) strategy. An IPM approach considers all relevant and available information to make informed management decisions, providing pest control options based on actual need. We explore the benefits and challenges of several options for management of three insect pests in maize crops and an invasive insect pest in forests, including diversifying crop rotations, altering the timing of planting, tillage and irrigation, using less sensitive crops in infested areas, applying biological control agents, and turning to alternative reduced risk insecticides. Continued research into alternatives is warranted, but equally pressing is the need for information transfer and training for farmers and pest managers and the need for policies and regulations to encourage the adoption of IPM strategies and their alternative pest control options. PMID:25273517

Furlan, Lorenzo; Kreutzweiser, David

2014-10-01

322

Active Bacteria Decrease the Stored Grain Insects Cold-Hardiness of  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report provides further evidence that a fi'eeze-dried, concentrated form of Pseudomonas sgringae, an ice-nucleating active bacteria, reduces the cold tolerance of stored grain insect pests. Application of ice-nucleating bacteria to wheat or corn that contained insect pests decreased the insects' supercooling capacity: after treatment with 100 ppm of P. sqringae the mean supercooling points of five insect species increased

RICHARD E. LEE; JANET M. STRONG-GUNDERSON; MARCIA R. LEE; EVELYN C. DAVIDSON

323

Automated Motion Tracking of Insects Using Invariant Moments in Image Sequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insect behavioral studies are time consuming but essential in pest management. Tracking different kinds of insects is an integral part of these studies. In this paper, we present a new approach to track multiple insects especially the larva which is elastomeric in nature. This study demonstrates the use of image processing techniques for segmenting insects, a detailed procedure for separating

N. Ravi Kumar; T. N. Janakiraman; H. Thiagarajan; K. Subaharan

2007-01-01

324

Modelling cropping system effects on crop pest dynamics: How to compromise between process analysis and decision aid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managing crop pests (weeds, insects, pathogens, etc.) to limit both crop production loss and environmental impacts is a major challenge of agriculture. Because of the large number of factors and the complexity of interactions, models are invaluable tools to synthesize our knowledge on pests and to quantify the effects of cropping systems on pest dynamics. These models must be able

Nathalie Colbach

2010-01-01

325

Improving mycoinsecticides for insect biological control.  

PubMed

The desire for decreased reliance on chemical pesticides continues to fuel interest in alternative means for pest control including the use of naturally occurring microbial insect pathogens. Insects, as vectors of disease causing agents or as agricultural pests, are responsible for millions of deaths and significant economic losses worldwide, placing stresses on productivity (GDP) and human health and welfare. In addition, alterations in climate change are likely to affect insect ranges, expanding their access to previously constrained geographic areas, a potentially worrisome outcome. Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana, two cosmopolitan fungal pathogens of insects found in almost all ecosystems, are the most commonly applied mycoinsecticides for a variety of insect control purposes. The availability of the complete genomes for both organisms coupled to robust technologies for their transformation has led to several advances in engineering these fungi for greater efficacy and/or utility in pest control applications. Here, we will provide an overview of the fungal-insect and fungal-plant interactions that occur and highlight recent advances in the genetic engineering of these fungi. The latter work has resulted in the development of strains displaying (1) increased resistance to abiotic stress, (2) increased cuticular targeting and degradation, (3) increased virulence via expression of insecticidal protein/peptide toxins, (4) the ability to block transmission of disease causing agents, and (5) the ability to target specific insect hosts, decrease host fecundity, and/or alter insect behaviors. PMID:25503318

Ortiz-Urquiza, Almudena; Luo, Zhibing; Keyhani, Nemat O

2015-02-01

326

Insect Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners use several types of insect sampling and collection equipment to make an insect collection. Learners can collect insects from their schoolyard or yard at home. Insect collections are a good way to estimate the abundance and number of species in an area. This can be a longterm project over a period of days or weeks.

Hill, Ryan; Vandersal, Nicole; Purcell, Alison

2011-01-01

327

Pantry and Fabric Pests in the Home  

E-print Network

feed primarily on plant materials and are usually found in stored foods in kitchens and pantries. Other insects feed primarily on products con- taining animal proteins, such as hair, feathers, pow- dered milk, woolen fabrics, leather and hides... pest of nuts, cereals, oilseeds, and dried fruit. It also infests birdseed, dog food, powdered milk, and chocolate and other candies. The adult Indian meal moth has wings that are whitish gray at the base and deep pink or copper colored...

Merchant, Michael E.; Brown, Wizzie

2008-10-22

328

Short-range movement of major agricultural pests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Visual observations of population fluctuations which cannot be accounted for by either mortality or natality are presented. Lygus bugs in the westside of the San Joaquin Valley of California are used as an example. The dispersal of most agricultural pests in one of the less known facets of their biology is discussed. Results indicate a better understanding of insect movement is needed to develop a sound pest management program.

Vansteenwyk, R.

1979-01-01

329

Biology and Thermal Death Kinetics of Selected Insects  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Heat treatments have been suggested as alternatives to fumigation for a variety of postharvest applications. This paper describes the general biology of several economically important insect pests in the international trade of agricultural commodities and presents fundamental thermal death kinetics ...

330

Insect Threatens Viability of Cotton The boll weevil has historically been the most costly  

E-print Network

Insect Threatens Viability of Cotton The boll weevil has historically been the most costly insect pest of cotton in Texas. In the Southern High Plains region alone, boll weevil production losses from weevils, treatments applied to control boll weevils often resulted in increases in secondary pests

331

Automated pattern analysis: A newsilent partner in insect acoustic detection studies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This seminar reviews methods that have been developed for automated analysis of field-collected sounds used to estimate pest populations and guide insect pest management decisions. Several examples are presented of successful usage of acoustic technology to map insect distributions in field environ...

332

Area-wide control of insects with screwworm as an example  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), are devastating pests of warm blooded animals. They have been eradicated from continental North America using the sterile insect technique (SIT). Proper implementation of SIT is an example of the requirements of area-wide control of insect pests. Area-...

333

Resisting insects: shifting strategies in chemical control.  

PubMed

Throughout the 20th century, scientists developed a variety of chemical compounds to kill insects and other menaces of agriculture and public health. Yet, in many cases, the target insects outmaneuvered the scientists by developing resistance to insecticides--in much the same way as some bacteria can tolerate antibiotics. Insecticide resistance research has involved scientists from a range of disciplines and a variety of institutional contexts that have often guided research strategy. For example, entomologists working at agricultural stations and universities concentrated on insect physiology and evolutionary genetics, while industrial chemists continued the development of novel compounds capable of killing resistant pests. Collaboration between the two groups beginning in the 1940s did not provide a solution to the resistance, but did lead to a strategic shift from pest control to pest management that continues to the present. PMID:15036923

Ceccatti, John S

2004-03-01

334

Let's Talk About Insects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an excellent animated resource for introducing teachers and students to Entomology. The interactive Flash animation covers classification, basic anatomy, beneficial vs. pest insects, and life cycles. The dialogue is engaging, clear, and accurate at the elementary level. After completing the animation students have additional activities and exercises available to them. The links at the top of the page are particularly helpful. Users can access an index of the Flash animation slides, as well as a Teacher's Guide that includes example classroom activities and statewide learning standards for 3rd - 5th grades. Available in English and Spanish. Also available on CD.

0000-00-00

335

Science Nation: Social Insects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Yellow jackets are wasps, and though they seem eager to inflict pain, they do have some important redeeming qualities. They kill harmful garden pests and are among the most social insects on the planet, along with their stinging cousins, the ants and the social bees. In all three species, the queen lays all the eggs and the workers service the queen and help her raise the young. Georgia Institute of Technology biology professor Michael Goodisman is using National Science Foundation (NSF) support to try and understand these complex relationships and how they impact these intricate communities.

336

Insects of the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico. Forest Service general technical report  

SciTech Connect

In this review of the literature on forest entomology in Puerto Rico, emphasis is given to research conducted in the Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF). This review should serve as an introduction to the insects inhabiting the LEF for researchers and as a guide for the identification of possible insect pests. There are three sections to this review. The first deals with basic insect ecology; the second, forest insect pests; and the third, insect attacks on dry wood and during wood seasoning. The reference section and appendices contain information on the systematics and taxonomy of different insect orders found in Puerto Rico.

Torres, J.A.

1994-07-01

337

Pink Hibiscus Mealybug: A New Pest in Texas  

E-print Network

hirsutus) is an exotic pest. It first appeared in the U.S. in Florida in 2002, and has been recently found in Nueces County, Texas. This insect is a potentially serious pest in many or- namental and agricultural crops. It feeds by sucking plant sap.... ? The PHM has a reddish or pinkish body. When pierced, the PHM bleeds a reddish-brown fluid. Eggs are bright pink to red (Fig. 2). A New Pest in Texas Pink Hibiscus Mealybug Carlos E. Bogr?n and Scott Ludwig* Figure 2. Pink Hibiscus Mealybug infestation...

Bogran, Carlos E.; Ludwig, Scott

2007-09-14

338

Microbial control of arthropod pests of tropical tree fruits.  

PubMed

A multitude of insects and mites attack fruit crops throughout the tropics. The traditional method for controlling most of these pests is the application of chemical pesticides. Growing concern on the negative environmental effects has encouraged the development of alternatives. Inundatively and inoculatively applied microbial control agents (virus, bacteria, fungi, and entomopathogenic nematodes) have been developed as alternative control methods of a wide variety of arthropods including tropical fruit pests. The majority of the research and applications in tropical fruit agroecosystems has been conducted in citrus, banana, coconut, and mango. Successful microbial control initiatives of citrus pests and mites have been reported. Microbial control of arthropod pests of banana includes banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) (with EPNs and fungi) among others Oryctes rhinoceros (L.) is one of the most important pests of coconut and one of the most successful uses of non-occluded virus for classical biological control. Key pests of mango that have been controlled with microbial control agents include fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) (with EPNs and fungi), and other pests. Also successful is the microbial control of arthropod pests of guava, papaya and pineapple. The challenge towards a broader application of entomopathogens is the development of successful combinations of entomopathogens, predators, and parasitoids along with other interventions to produce effective and sustainable pest management. PMID:17607448

Dolinski, Claudia; Lacey, Lawrence A

2007-01-01

339

Cotton Insect Losses for 1995 Michael R. Williams, Extension Entomologist, Chairman  

E-print Network

/bud worm complex was still the number one pest in the U.S. with a yield reduction of 3.97%. Eighty. These pests infested about 62% of the country's cotton crop and required about 2.0 applications of insecticide pests in 1995. Total cost of management and loss to insects to the 1995 crop exceeded $1.6 8 billion. 9

Ray, David

340

40 CFR 180.1101 - Parasitic (parasitoid) and predatory insects; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...control practices to control insect pests of stored raw whole grains such as corn, small grains, rice, soybeans, peanuts...Xylocoris, Lyctocoris, and Dufouriellus, Anthocoridae. Whole insects, fragments, parts, and other residues of...

2010-07-01

341

CONTROL OF PESTS IN PECAN AND PEACH USING ENTOMOPATHOGENIC NEMATODES: CHALLENGES AND SUCCESSES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pecan and peach orchards may offer a suitable environment for using entomopathogenic nematodes to control key insect pests such as pecan weevil (Curculio caryae), plum curculio (Conotrachelus nenuphar), peachtree borer (Synanthedon exitiosa), and lesser peachtree borer (Synanthedon pictipes). For e...

342

SUSCEPTIBILITY OF PEST NEZARA VIRIDULA (HETEROPTERA: PENTATOMIDAE) AND PARASITOID TRICHOPODA PENNIPES (DIPTERA: TACHINIDAE) TO SELECTED INSECTICIDES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Susceptibility of a pest stink bug, the brown stink bug (BSB), Euschistus servus (Say) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), and the predatory stink bug, the spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris (Say) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), to cyfluthrin, dicrotophos, indoxacarb, oxamyl, and tralomethrin, insectic...

343

Airborne multi-spectral remote sensing with ground truth for areawide pest management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Scientists and researchers have been developing, integrating, and evaluating multiple strategies and technologies into a systems approach for management of field crop insect pests. Remote sensing along with Global Positioning Systems, Geographic Information Systems, and variable rate technology are...

344

Use of Airborne Multi-Spectral Imagery in Pest Management Systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Scientists and researchers have been developing, integrating, and evaluating multiple strategies and technologies into a systems approach for management of field crop insect pests. Remote sensing along with Global Positioning Systems, Geographic Information Systems, and variable rate technology are...

345

Ants are among the most prevalent pests in households. Ants also invade restau-  

E-print Network

Ants are among the most prevalent pests in households. Ants also invade restau- rants, hospitals indoor plants, ants protect and care for honeydew-producing insects such as aphids, soft scales, whiteflies, and mealy- bugs, increasing damage from these pests. Ants also perform many useful functions

Ishida, Yuko

346

Biology and Ecology of the Western Flower Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae): The Making of a Pest  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the past 30 years, the western flower thrips has become one of the most important agricultural pests worldwide. Certain biological attributes of this insect predispose it to be a direct pest across a wide range of crops. In addition to the direct damage it can cause, this species is an efficien...

347

Biology and ecology of the Western Flower Thrips. The making of a pest  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the past 30 years, the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) has become one of the most important agricultural pests worldwide. Certain biological attributes of this insect predispose it to be a direct pest across a wide range of crops. In additio...

348

Biology and Ecology of the Western Flower Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae): The Making of a Pest  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the past 30 years, the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) has become one of the most important agricultural pests worldwide. Certain biological attributes of this insect predispose it to be a direct pest across a wide range of crops. In additio...

349

Potential for microbial biological control of coleopteran and hemipteran pests of potato  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Numerous insects in the orders Coleoptera and Hemiptera are major pests of potato, Solanum tuberosum, worldwide. Although these pests are currently managed almost exclusively with chemical insecticides, there is continuing demand for alternative controls that pose lower environmental and health ris...

350

Development of an embryonic lethality system for transgenic sit in the fruit pest, ceratitis capitata  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ceratitis capitata, known as one of the world's most destructive insect pest, costs farmers billions of dollars annually. Improved biological strategies are needed to increase the efficacy of area-wide pest management. Transgenic methodology should enhance and widen the applicability of the sterile ...

351

SYNTHESIS REPORT: LABORATORY TEST METHODS FOR EXPOSURE OF BIRDS TO MICROBIAL PEST CONTROL AGENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Microbial pest control agents (MPCAs) are microorganisms that are applied to agricultural and silvacultural environments to control proliferation and dissemination of insect or plant pests. uring a field application, it is likely that nontarget plants and animals are exposed to M...

352

USDA RAMP PROJECT -New York 2003 REDUCED-RISK PEST MANAGEMENT IN APPLES USING PHEROMONE DISRUPTION  

E-print Network

USDA RAMP PROJECT - New York 2003 REDUCED-RISK PEST MANAGEMENT IN APPLES USING PHEROMONE DISRUPTION of a seasonal program to control insect and mite pests of apples using selective (non-OP, carbamate sites set up in 2002 in all major apple growing areas of New York: Western NY (Russell, Appleton; Lamont

Agnello, Arthur M.

353

USDA RAMP PROJECT -New York 2005 REDUCED-RISK PEST MANAGEMENT IN APPLES USING PHEROMONE DISRUPTION  

E-print Network

USDA RAMP PROJECT - New York 2005 REDUCED-RISK PEST MANAGEMENT IN APPLES USING PHEROMONE DISRUPTION of a seasonal program to control insect and mite pests of apples using selective (non-OP, carbamate sites set up in 2002 in all major apple growing areas of New York: Western NY (Russell, Appleton; Lamont

Agnello, Arthur M.

354

USDA RAMP PROJECT -New York 2004 REDUCED-RISK PEST MANAGEMENT IN APPLES USING PHEROMONE DISRUPTION  

E-print Network

USDA RAMP PROJECT - New York 2004 REDUCED-RISK PEST MANAGEMENT IN APPLES USING PHEROMONE DISRUPTION of a seasonal program to control insect and mite pests of apples using selective (non-OP, carbamate sites set up in 2002 in all major apple growing areas of New York: Western NY (Russell, Appleton; Lamont

Agnello, Arthur M.

355

Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Fruit Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators prepare for certification under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. The primary focus of this publication is on fruit pest control. Sections included are: (1) Causes of fruit diseases; (2) Fruit fungicides and bactericides; (3) Insect and mite pests; (4) Insecticides and miticides;…

Brunner, J.; And Others

356

Pesticide Applicator Certification Training, Manual No. 1a: Agricultural Pest Control. a. Plant.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides information needed to meet the minimum standards for certification as an applicator of pesticides in the agricultural plant pest control category. Adapted for the State of Virginia, the text discusses: (1) the basics of insecticides; (2) insect pests; (3) selection and calibration of applicator equipment; and (4) the proper…

Allen, W. A.; And Others

357

Towards the elements of successful insect RNAi  

PubMed Central

RNA interference (RNAi), the sequence-specific suppression of gene expression, offers great opportunities for insect science, especially to analyze gene function, manage pest populations, and reduce disease pathogens. The accumulating body of literature on insect RNAi has revealed that the efficiency of RNAi varies between different species, the mode of RNAi delivery, and the genes being targeted. There is also variation in the duration of transcript suppression. At present, we have a limited capacity to predict the ideal experimental strategy for RNAi of a particular gene/insect because of our incomplete understanding of whether and how the RNAi signal is amplified and spread among insect cells. Consequently, development of the optimal RNAi protocols is a highly empirical process. This limitation can be relieved by systematic analysis of the molecular physiological basis of RNAi mechanisms in insects. An enhanced conceptual understanding of RNAi function in insects will facilitate the application of RNAi for dissection of gene function, and to fast-track the application of RNAi to both control pests and develop effective methods to protect beneficial insects and non-insect arthropods, particularly the honey bee (Apis mellifera) and cultured Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) from viral and parasitic diseases. PMID:24041495

Scott, Jeffrey G.; Michel, Kristin; Bartholomay, Lyric; Siegfried, Blair D.; Hunter, Wayne B.; Smagghe, Guy; Zhu, Kun Yan; Douglas, Angela E.

2013-01-01

358

The genome of the model beetle and pest Tribolium castaneum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tribolium castaneum is a member of the most species-rich eukaryotic order, a powerful model organism for the study of generalized insect development, and an important pest of stored agricultural products. We describe its genome sequence here. This omnivorous beetle has evolved the ability to interact with a diverse chemical environment, as shown by large expansions in odorant and gustatory receptors,

Stephen Richards; Richard A. Gibbs; George M. Weinstock; Susan J. Brown; Robin Denell; Richard W. Beeman; G. Bucher; M. Friedrich; C. J. P. Grimmelikhuijzen; M. Klingler; M. D. Lorenzen; S. Roth; R. Schroder; D. Tautz; E. M. Zdobnov; D. Muzny; T. Attaway; S. Bell; C. J. Buhay; M. N. Chandrabose; D. Chavez; K. P. Clerk-Blankenburg; A. Cree; M. Dao; C. Davis; J. Chacko; H. Dinh; S. Dugan-Rocha; G. Fowler; T. T. Garner; J. Garnes; A. Gnirke; A. Hawes; J. Hernandez; S. Hines; M. Holder; J. Hume; S. N. Jhangiani; V. Joshi; Z. M. Khan; L. Jackson; C. Kovar; A. Kowis; S. Lee; L. R. Lewis; J. Margolis; M. Morgan; L. V. Nazareth; N. Nguyen; G. Okwuonu; D. Parker; S. J. Ruiz; J. Santibanez; J. Savard; S. E. Scherer; B. Schneider; E. Sodergren; S. Vattahil; D. Villasana; C. S. White; R. Wright; J. Lord; B. Oppert; S. Brown; L. J. Wang; Y. Liu; K. Worley; C. G. Elsik; J. T. Reese; E. Elhaik; G. Landan; D. Graur; P. Arensburger; P. Atkinson; J. Beidler; J. P. Demuth; D. W. Drury; Y. Z. Du; H. Fujiwara; V. Maselli; M. Osanai; H. M. Robertson; Z. Tu; J. J. Wang; S. Z. Wang; H. Song; L. Zhang; D. Werner; M. Stanke; B. Morgenstern; V. Solovyev; P. Kosarev; G. Brown; H. C. Chen; O. Ermolaeva; W. Hlavina; Y. Kapustin; B. Kiryutin

2008-01-01

359

The genome of the model beetle and pest Tribolium castaneum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tribolium castaneum is a representative of earth’s most numerous eukaryotic order, a powerful model organism for the study of generalized insect development, and also an important pest of stored agricultural products. We describe its genome sequence here. This omnivorous beetle has evolved an abil...

360

Pest management benefits of compost mulch in apple orchards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of compost application on weed, fungal, and insect pest management in apple orchards was investigated from 1999 to 2001. Composted poultry manure was applied in June 1999 to half of two small research orchards which had previously received little or no management. The compost provided weed control for 1 year after application. There was no effect of compost

M. W. Brown; Thomas Tworkoski

2004-01-01

361

Applicator Training Manual for: Agricultural Animal Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual discusses pesticide safety and environmental considerations, pesticide toxicity, residue potential, pesticide formulations, and application techniques. In addition, descriptions of, and methods for controlling insects and related pests that attack cattle, sheep and goats, swine, horses and other equines, and poultry are given. These…

Christensen, Christian M.

362

BIOLOGICALLY-BASED INSECTICIDES FOR PECAN PEST MANAGEMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Insects and mites can cause severe crop losses in pecan, Carya illinoensis Wang., K. Koch. Use of broad spectrum insecticides can be harmful to beneficial natural enemy populations (e.g., lady beetles and lacewings) and lead to outbreaks of non-targeted pests (e.g., aphids). Thus, due to lack of t...

363

Forest Pest Control and Timber Treatment Category Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. The document is a compilation of pamphlets and circulars which discuss forest management, control of undesirable woody plants, herbicides in forestry, diseases and insect pests, and equipment for pesticide application. (CS)

Bowman, James S.; Turmel, Jon P.

364

MICROBIAL COMBINATORICS: A NOVEL APPROACH FOR ISOLATING INSECT PATHOGENS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bacteria, such as Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner, can successfully control pest insects that damage food crops, vector diseases, and defoliate trees. Isolation of these bacteria has been conventionally from soil and sporadically from dead insects. These observations were combined to isolate insec...

365

Ecology and IPM of Insects at Grain Elevators  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cost-effectiveness of insect pest management depends upon its integration with other elevator operations. Successful integration may require consideration of insect ecology. Field infestation has not been observed for grain received at elevators. Grain may be infested during harvest by residual inse...

366

Suppressing Resistance to Bt Cotton with Sterile Insect Releases  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Transgenic plants producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are grown widely to control pests, but evolution of insect resistance can reduce their efficacy. The predominant strategy for delaying insect resistance to Bt crops requires refuges of non-Bt host plants to provide s...

367

Radio frequency treatments for insect disinfestation of dried legumes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dried pulses (chickpeas, green peas or lentils) are valuable export commodities in the US Pacific Northwest. A major problem in the marketing of these products is infestation by insect pests. Typically, chemical fumigants are used to disinfest product, but regulatory issues, insect resistance, envi...

368

New research with insect growth regulators and fogging  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Insect growth regulators (IGRs) are seen as reduced-risk insecticides to replace conventional neurotoxins for insect pest management in stored products. The use of IGRs will be discussed, with reference to different application methods and available commercial products. Similarly, aerosol insecticid...

369

Integrated Pest Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After a brief discussion of the problems of pesticide use and the status of current pest control practices, a definition of integrated pest management is given along with some examples of its successful application, and a description of some of the reasons why the concept has not been applied more widely. The major techniques which can be used as…

Council on Environmental Quality, Washington, DC.

370

Mutations and their use in insect control.  

PubMed

Traditional chemically based methods for insect control have been shown to have serious limitations, and many alternative approaches have been developed and evaluated, including those based on the use of different types of mutation. The mutagenic action of ionizing radiation was well known in the field of genetics long before it was realized by entomologists that it might be used to induce dominant lethal mutations in insects, which, when released, could sterilize wild female insects. The use of radiation to induce dominant lethal mutations in the sterile insect technique (SIT) is now a major component of many large and successful programs for pest suppression and eradication. Adult insects, and their different developmental stages, differ in their sensitivity to the induction of dominant lethal mutations, and care has to be taken to identify the appropriate dose of radiation that produces the required level of sterility without impairing the overall fitness of the released insect. Sterility can also be introduced into populations through genetic mechanisms, including translocations, hybrid incompatibility, and inherited sterility in Lepidoptera. The latter phenomenon is due to the fact that this group of insects has holokinetic chromosomes. Specific types of mutations can also be used to make improvements to the SIT, especially for the development of strains for the production of only male insects for sterilization and release. These strains utilize male translocations and a variety of selectable mutations, either conditional or visible, so that at some stage of development, the males can be separated from the females. In one major insect pest, Ceratitis capitata, these strains are used routinely in large operational programs. This review summarizes these developments, including the possible future use of transgenic technology in pest control. PMID:12052430

Robinson, Alan S

2002-06-01

371

Comparison of gene representation in midguts from two phytophagous insects, Bombyx mori and Ips pini, using expressed sequence tags  

Microsoft Academic Search

Midgut proteins may provide new molecular targets for insect control. This could be particularly important for some pests, such as pine bark beetles, which are difficult to control by conventional methods. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) provide information about the activity of a particular tissue, and, in the case of pest insects, may quickly identify potential targets. We present here an

Andrea L. Eigenheer; Christopher I. Keeling; Sharon Young; Claus Tittiger

2003-01-01

372

Acoustic Detection of Insects in Palm Trees  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Commercial-crop and ornamental palm trees serve important functions in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, and considerable precautions are taken each year to identify and control infestations of a variety of different insect pests. Large weevils, including the red palm weevil and the co...

373

Managing Turfgrass Insects of the Northeast  

E-print Network

(4-67) - Crane flies (68-78) #12;Turf Insect ID & Biology · White grubs · European crane fly · Mole crickets · Ground pearls · March flies Root-infesting pests #12;White grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) · Primary damage: feeding on roots near soil surface (severe in hot dry weather) · Secondary damage

Wang, Changlu

374

INSECT AND MITES NEW TO FLORIDA SUGARCANE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The number of insect and mite species attacking sugarcane in Florida has increased over time. Five new pest species were discovered during the 31-year period 1964 to 1995, one species indigenous to Florida with no previous association with sugarcane and four invasive species entirely new to the Ever...

375

Almond Production Manual Chapter: Insects and Mites  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker), is the most important insect pest of almond in California and can cost as much as $500 dollars per acre to control when the costs of insecticides and sanitation are included. It is a native of the southwestern United States and Mexico and was firs...

376

My Insect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use information gathered from a variety of sources to design and make their own insect. Learners design and create an insect using household and/or arts and crafts materials. This discovery activity also enables learners to investigate insect structure and reinforces classification points. There are also optional discover sheets on pages 2-4 that can help learners think about how to design their insect. No particular materials are required--items listed in the materials section are suggestions.

Trish Fenton

2012-06-26

377

Insect Management in the Home Garden1 Susan E. Webb and Freddie A. Johnson2  

E-print Network

ENY-476 Insect Management in the Home Garden1 Susan E. Webb and Freddie A. Johnson2 1 This publication provides information to aid homeowners in managing insect pests in a vegetable garden. Growing-round. Unfortunately, the same climate which is so ideal for gardening also provides conditions in which insects thrive

Jawitz, James W.

378

Research Paper Segmentation of touching insects based on optical flow and  

E-print Network

Research Paper Segmentation of touching insects based on optical flow and NCuts Qing Yao a in paddy fields. This paper focuses on developing a segmentation method for separating the touching insects in the rice light-trap insect image from our imaging system to automatically identify and count rice pests

379

Ecological Considerations in Producing and Formulating Fungal Entomopathogens for Use in Insect Biocontrol  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Insect pests persist in a wide variety of agricultural, arboreal, and urban environments. Effective control with fungal entomopathogens using inundation biocontrol requires an understanding of the ecology of the target insect, fungal pathogen, and the insect-pathogen interaction. Historically, the...

380

Host plant resistance for insect control in some important crop plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insect pests of cereal crop plants are among the most destructive and devastating factors limiting world food production. Insects often inflict losses of 15 to 50% of the yield of some crops in various parts of the world. Insects also provide infection courts for various pathogens that inflict even greater damage. The nature of these losses is especially tragic for

Vernon E. Gracen Jr; W. D. Guthrie

1986-01-01

381

SEASONAL AND SPATIAL CHANGES IN INSECT DENSITY IN COMMERCIAL ELEVATOR BINS: IMPLICATIONS FOR PHOSPHINE FUMIGATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Results of a 5-year, area-wide IPM program for managing insect pests in commercial grain elevators in Kansas and Oklahoma showed that insects generally invaded stored grain from the top of the grain mass. In stored wheat, the rusty grain beetle was the most common insect species from June-September,...

382

insects drawer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Insects are the dominant group of "hexapoda", arthropods with six legs. They were the first animals to develop flight. Although insects are the most common animals presently on Earth, the delicate structure of their exoskeleton limits the number of fossil representatives.

2001-03-01

383

Insect Keepers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Insects are fascinating creatures--especially when you and your students get up close and personal with them! To that end, the authors facilitated an inquiry-based investigation with an emphasis on identification of the different types of insects found in the school yard, their characteristics, their habitat, and what they eat, while engaging the…

Moore, Virginia J.; Chessin, Debby A.; Theobald, Becky

2010-01-01

384

Monthly forecasting of agricultural pests in Switzerland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given the repercussions of pests and diseases on agricultural production, detailed forecasting tools have been developed to simulate the degree of infestation depending on actual weather conditions. The life cycle of pests is most successfully predicted if the micro-climate of the immediate environment (habitat) of the causative organisms can be simulated. Sub-seasonal pest forecasts therefore require weather information for the relevant habitats and the appropriate time scale. The pest forecasting system SOPRA (www.sopra.info) currently in operation in Switzerland relies on such detailed weather information, using hourly weather observations up to the day the forecast is issued, but only a climatology for the forecasting period. Here, we aim at improving the skill of SOPRA forecasts by transforming the weekly information provided by ECMWF monthly forecasts (MOFCs) into hourly weather series as required for the prediction of upcoming life phases of the codling moth, the major insect pest in apple orchards worldwide. Due to the probabilistic nature of operational monthly forecasts and the limited spatial and temporal resolution, their information needs to be post-processed for use in a pest model. In this study, we developed a statistical downscaling approach for MOFCs that includes the following steps: (i) application of a stochastic weather generator to generate a large pool of daily weather series consistent with the climate at a specific location, (ii) a subsequent re-sampling of weather series from this pool to optimally represent the evolution of the weekly MOFC anomalies, and (iii) a final extension to hourly weather series suitable for the pest forecasting model. Results show a clear improvement in the forecast skill of occurrences of upcoming codling moth life phases when incorporating MOFCs as compared to the operational pest forecasting system. This is true both in terms of root mean squared errors and of the continuous rank probability scores of the probabilistic forecasts vs. the mean absolute errors of the deterministic system. Also, the application of the climate conserving recalibration (CCR, Weigel et al. 2009) technique allows for successful correction of the under-confidence in the forecasted occurrences of codling moth life phases. Reference: Weigel, A. P.; Liniger, M. A. & Appenzeller, C. (2009). Seasonal Ensemble Forecasts: Are Recalibrated Single Models Better than Multimodels? Mon. Wea. Rev., 137, 1460-1479.

Hirschi, M.; Dubrovsky, M.; Spirig, C.; Samietz, J.; Calanca, P.; Weigel, A. P.; Fischer, A. M.; Rotach, M. W.

2012-04-01

385

Towards the genetic control of insect vectors: An overview  

PubMed Central

Insects are responsible for the transmission of major infectious diseases. Recent advances in insect genomics and transformation technology provide new strategies for the control of insect borne pathogen transmission and insect pest management. One such strategy is the genetic modification of insects with genes that block pathogen development. Another is to suppress insect populations by releasing either sterile males or males carrying female-specific dominant lethal genes into the environment. Although significant progress has been made in the laboratory, further research is needed to extend these approaches to the field. These insect control strategies offer several advantages over conventional insecticide-based strategies. However, the release of genetically modified insects into the environment should proceed with great caution, after ensuring its safety, and acceptance by the target populations.

Abraham, Eappen G.; Cha, Sung-Jae; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

2014-01-01

386

Seasonal Integrated Pest Management  

E-print Network

of pesticides. IPM's systematic approach helps growers use information to make sound decisions about pest, fruit injury and note defects for each management unit (e.g., orchard block), recording percentage

387

Influence of modified atmosphere packaging on radiation tolerance in the phytosanitary pest melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera Tephritidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) producing a low oxygen environment to increase produce shelf life may increase the radiation tolerance of insect pests receiving phytosanitary irradiation treatment on traded agricultural commodities. Melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) is an i...

388

In vivo bioinsecticidal activity toward Ceratitis capitata (fruit fly) and Callosobruchus maculatus (cowpea weevil) and in vitro bioinsecticidal activity toward different orders of insect pests of a trypsin inhibitor purified from tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica) seeds.  

PubMed

A proteinaceous inhibitor with high activity against trypsin-like serine proteinases was purified from seeds of the tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica) by gel filtration on Shephacryl S-200 followed by a reverse-phase HPLC Vidac C18 TP. The inhibitor, called the tamarind trypsin inhibitor (TTI), showed a Mr of 21.42 kDa by mass spectrometry analysis. TTI was a noncompetitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 1.7 x 10(-9) M. In vitro bioinsecticidal activity against insect digestive enzymes from different orders showed that TTI had remarkable activity against enzymes from coleopteran, Anthonomus grandis (29.6%), Zabrotes subfasciatus (51.6%), Callosobruchus maculatus (86.7%), Rhyzopertha dominica(88.2%), and lepidopteron, Plodia interpuncptella (26.7%), Alabama argillacea (53.8%), and Spodoptera frugiperda (75.5%). Also, digestive enzymes from Diptera, Ceratitis capitata (fruit fly), were inhibited (52.9%). In vivo bioinsecticidal assays toward C. capitata and C. maculatus larvae were developed. The concentration of TTI (w/w) in the artificial seed necessary to cause 50% mortality (LD50) of larvae was 3.6%, and that to reduce mass larvae by 50.0% (ED50) was 3.2%. Furthermore, the mass C. capitata larvae were affected at 53.2% and produced approximately 34% mortality at a level of 4.0% (w/w) of TTI incorporated in artificial diets. PMID:15913299

Araújo, Carina L; Bezerra, Ingrid W L; Oliveira, Adeliana S; Moura, Fabiano T; Macedo, Leonardo L P; Gomes, Carlos E M; Barbosa, Aulus E A D; Macedo, Francisco P; Souza, Tánia M S; Franco, Octavio L; Bloch-J, Carlos; Sales, Mauricio P

2005-06-01

389

Intercropping as cultural pest control: Prospects and limitations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agriculturalists have been intercropping (simultaneously growing several crops in the same field) for centuries, and the use of polycultures continues as an important form of agriculture among indigenous peoples in the New and Old World tropics and subtropics One demonstrated advantage of intercropping is a reduction in insect pest populations, explained by higher numbers of natural insect enemies in the intercrop and/or reduced herbivore colonization and tenure time in the intercrop A review of 150 published field studies in which 198 herbivore species were studied shows that 53% of the pest species were less abundant in the intercrop, 18% were more abundant in the intercrop, 9% showed no difference, and 20% showed a variable response Two major problems of the published studies are 1) lack of experimental evidence demonstrating that reduced pest numbers in the intercrop resulted in higher yield, and 2) lack of experimental evidence demonstrating the ecological mechanisms responsible for the intercrop effect There is some theoretical and empirical work suggesting that herbivore movement patterns, rather than natural insect enemies, are often more important in accounting for reduced pest abundance in an intercrop Several examples from the author's work are presented that demonstrate ways of studying the ecological mechanisms underlying pest suppression in intercrops. The successful design of new intercropping systems to reduce pests will require a better theoretical understanding of such ecological mechanisms It is emphasized that intercropping has potential in both developed and developing countries and that many of the impediments to incorporating appropriate strategies of diversification are social rather than technological

Risch, Stephen J.

1983-01-01

390

Monitoring Stored-Product Pests in Food Processing Plants with Pheromone Trapping, Contour Mapping, and Mark-Recapture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distribution and movement patterns of severalspecies of stored-product pests in a food processing plant were investigated. The objectives of this study were to determine the temporal and spatialvariation in abundance of stored-product pests using pheromone traps; assess the effectiveness of trap type, location, and number on monitoring insect populations; and to evaluate the nature of pheromone trap capture hot spots

J. F. Campbell; M. A. Mullen; A. K. Dowdy

2002-01-01

391

Biocontrol potential of Steinernema thermophilum and its symbiont Xenorhabdus indica against lepidopteran pests: virulence to egg and larval stages  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Under laboratory conditions, the biocontrol potential of Steinernema thermophilum was tested against eggs and larval stages of two important lepidopteran insect pests, Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura (polyphagous pests), as well as Galleria mellonella (used as a model host) . In terms of ...

392

Insect Locomotion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A short and clever discussion comparing how insects walk to how people walk. Inverted pendulum motion, and dynamic stability as compared with static stability are discussed with excellent line drawings.

0000-00-00

393

Insect Defenses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A page from Dr. John Meyer's General Entomology course at NC State University detailing how insects defend themselves. Topics covered include speed, playing-dead, urticating hairs, chemical defenses, protective coloration and more.

0000-00-00

394

WoodyBug: Knowledgebase of Pest and Beneficial Arthropods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Knowledgebase of pest and beneficial arthropods of woody ornamentals of the southeastern United States. Pests include aphids, borers, chewing insects, galls, lace bugs, leafminers, scales, spider mites, thrips and whiteflies. Other topics include host plant resistance, biologically compatible pesticides, scouting, monitoring and beneficial organisms. Requires a CD-ROM drive and a web browser. $12. This resource is extremely informative and easy to navigate once launched; however, a more intuitive "gateway" would be desireable. The taxa covered by the resource are skewed towards those found in Florida and other parts of the south, but much of the information will be useful in other parts of North America.

0000-00-00

395

Forest Ecosystem Responses to Exotic Pests and Pathogens in Eastern North America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience investigates exotic pests and pathogens in eastern North America.The forests of eastern North America have been subjected to repeated introductions of exotic insect pests and pathogens over the last century, and several new pests are currently invading, or threatening to invade, the region. These pests and pathogens can have major short- and long-term impacts on forest ecosystem processes such as productivity, nutrient cycling, and support of consumer food webs. We identify six key features of the biology of exotic animal pests and the ecology of their hosts that are critical to predicting the general nature and severity of those impacts. Using three examples of introduced pests and pathogens in eastern forest ecosystems, we provide a conceptual framework for assessing potential ecosystem-scale effects.

GARY M. LOVETT, CHARLES D. CANHAM, MARY A. ARTHUR, KATHLEEN C. WEATHERS, and ROSS D. FITZHUGH (;)

2006-05-01

396

Dynamic models of pest propagation and pest control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a pest propagation model to investigate the evolution behaviours of pest aggregates. A pest aggregate grows by self-monomer birth, and it may fragment into two smaller ones. The kinetic evolution behaviours of pest aggregates are investigated by the rate equation approach based on the mean-field theory. For a system with a self-birth rate kernel I(k) = Ik and a fragmentation rate kernel L(i, j) = L, we find that the total number M0A(t) and the total mass of the pest aggregates M1A(t) both increase exponentially with time if L ? 0. Furthermore, we introduce two catalysis-driven monomer death mechanisms for the former pest propagation model to study the evolution behaviours of pest aggregates under pesticide and natural enemy controlled pest propagation. In the pesticide controlled model with a catalyzed monomer death rate kernel J1(k) = J1k, it is found that only when I < J1B0 (B0 is the concentration of catalyst aggregates) can the pests be killed off. Otherwise, the pest aggregates can survive. In the model of pest control with a natural enemy, a pest aggregate loses one of its individuals and the number of natural enemies increases by one. For this system, we find that no matter how many natural enemies there are at the beginning, pests will be eliminated by them eventually.

Yin, Ming; Lin, Zhen-Quan; Ke, Jian-Hong

2011-08-01

397

Insect pheromones.  

PubMed

The evidence for intraspecies chemical communication in insects is reviewed, with emphasis on those studies where known organic compounds have been implicated. These signal-carrying chemicals are known as pheromones. There are two distinct types of pheromones, releasers and primers. Releaser pheromones initiate immediate behavioral responses in insects upon reception, while primer pheromones cause physiological changes in an animal that ultimately result in a behavior response. Chemically identified releaser pheromones are of three basic types: those which cause sexual attraction, alarm behavior, and recruitment. Sex pheromones release the entire repertoire of sexual behavior. Thus a male insect may be attracted to and attempt to copulate with an inanimate object that has sex pheromone on it. It appears that most insects are rather sensitive and selective for the sex pheromone of their species. Insects show far less sensitivity and chemospecificity for alarm pheromones. Alarm selectivity is based more on volatility than on unique structural features. Recruiting pheromones are used primarily in marking trails to food sources. Terrestrial insects lay continuous odor trails, whereas bees and other airborne insects apply the substances at discrete intervals. It appears that a complex pheromone system is used by the queen bee in the control of worker behavior. One well-established component of this system is a fatty acid, 9-ketodecenoic acid, produced by the queen and distributed among the workers. This compound prevents the development of ovaries in the workers and inhibits their queen-rearing activities. In addition, the same compound is used by virgin queen bees as a sex attractant. PMID:4882034

Regnier, F E; Law, J H

1968-09-01

398

The importance of arthropod pests in Belgian pome fruit orchards.  

PubMed

Located in temperate, maritime climate with frequent rainfall, crop protection in Belgian orchards is dominated by fungicides. Though, the importance of arthropod pests should not be underestimated. Pcfruit, the former Research station of Gorsem, has been maintaining a warning system for fruit pests in Belgium since 1944. Therefore, various pests and beneficial's and their life cycle stages have been monitored in Gorsem and in different observation posts across Belgium, being part of a monitoring network. Although up to 3000 arthropod species are present in pome fruit orchards, about 25% can be considered as harmful and another 25% as beneficial. Out of those species, around 100 harmful and 50 beneficial organisms are omnipresent. The list of monitored species is extended yearly for upcoming or difficult to control organisms. Integrated pest management was introduced in the eighties, with the accent on using selective pesticides and saving beneficial organisms. A shift in pesticide use affected the importance of secondary pests, together with recent exceptional climatic conditions. Following many years of monitoring insects and mites and editing warning bulletins in our station, a ranking of the economical importance of different pest species is presented. PMID:19226798

Bangels, Eva; De Schaetzen, Charles; Hayen, Guy; Paternotte, Edouard; Gobin, Bruno

2008-01-01

399

Residual efficacy of pyriproxyfen and Hydroprene applied to wood, metal, and concrete for control of stored-product insects  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pyriproxyfen and hydroprene are insect growth regulators (IGRs) that have been evaluated to control insect pests of field crops, but there are limited reports of efficacy against stored-product insects. A laboratory study was conducted to determine residual efficacy of pyriproxyfen and hydroprene on...

400

Sample NRCS Integrated Pest Management  

E-print Network

: __________________________ Farm number: ___________________________ Tract number: ___________________________ Crop rotation are now in field crop production. Records describing general orchard maintenance and pest managementSample NRCS Integrated Pest Management Conservation Activity Plan Activity Code No. 114 Draft

Isaacs, Rufus

401

[Spectral features analysis of Pinus massoniana with pest of Dendrolimus punctatus Walker and levels detection].  

PubMed

Taking 51 field measured hyperspectral data with different pest levels in Yanping, Fujian Province as objects, the spectral reflectance and first derivative features of 4 levels of healthy, mild, moderate and severe insect pest were analyzed. On the basis of 7 detecting parameters construction, the pest level detecting models were built. The results showed that (1) the spectral reflectance of Pinus massoniana with pests were significantly lower than that of healthy state, and the higher the pest level, the lower the reflectance; (2) with the increase in pest level, the spectral reflectance curves' "green peak" and "red valley" of Pinus massoniana gradually disappeared, and the red edge was leveleds (3) the pest led to spectral "green peak" red shift, red edge position blue shift, but the changes in "red valley" and near-infrared position were complicated; (4) CARI, RES, REA and REDVI were highly relevant to pest levels, and the correlations between REP, RERVI, RENDVI and pest level were weak; (5) the multiple linear regression model with the variables of the 7 detection parameters could effectively detect the pest levels of Dendrolimus punctatus Walker, with both the estimation rate and accuracy above 0.85. PMID:23697126

Xu, Zhang-Hua; Liu, Jian; Yu, Kun-Yong; Gong, Cong-Hong; Xie, Wan-Jun; Tang, Meng-Ya; Lai, Ri-Wen; Li, Zeng-Lu

2013-02-01

402

PEST ALERT: Glycaspis brimblecombei  

E-print Network

PEST ALERT: Glycaspis brimblecombei Red Gum Lerp Psyllid The red gum lerp psyllid, Glycaspis on Eucalyptus. Native to Australia, the red gum lerp psyllid has been accidentally introduced into various. Females of the red gum lerp psyllid lay between 45 and 700 eggs. The eggs hatch in 10 to 20 days

403

The War Against Pests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Insecticides should not be the only weapons of war used against pests; in addition to them, a strategy aimed at winning the millenial warfare should combine the tactical use of natural plant enemies, reinforced plant genetic qualities, and the application of adequate ecological techniques. (BL)

Smith, Ray F.

1973-01-01

404

REDISCOVERY OF THE SOUTHERN CORNSTALK BORER: A POTENTIALLY SERIOUS PEST OF EASTERN GAMAGRASS AND STRATEGIES FOR MITIGATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Eastern gamagrass [Tripsacum dactyloides (L.) L] is considered relatively free of insect pests and plant pathogens. Plots of eastern gamagrass at the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center in Beltsville, MD were grown successfully for five years without noticeable damage from insects or plant path...

405

Activity of eight strains of entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae, Heterorhabditidae) against five stored product pests.  

PubMed

Stored product pests are responsible for losses that can amount 10% during cereal storage in the world. Aiming to find an alternative method to the chemicals used for the stored-product pests, eight strains of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) were tested against five species of stored product pests. The bioassays were conducted in microtubes containing paper, inoculated with EPNs and insect diet. All the insect species were susceptible to the EPNs strains. Anagasta kuehniella and Tenebrio molitor larvae and Acanthoscelides obtectus adults were highly sensitive to the higher doses with most species and/or strains of EPNs. Adults of Sitophilus oryzae and Sitophilus zeamais were relatively less sensitive to all EPNs. Therefore, EPNs show as potential control agents for stored products pests in prophylactic applications in warehouses. PMID:23567251

de Carvalho Barbosa Negrisoli, Carla Ruth; Negrisoli Júnior, Aldomario Santo; Bernardi, Daniel; Garcia, Mauro Silveira

2013-07-01

406

Insect Mouthparts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site contains a pictorial guide to insect mouthparts, a complicated topic served well by this simple yet effective tutorial. Created by University of Ottawa entomology professor Dr. Houseman -- using material adapted from Digital Zoology (on CD from McGraw-Hill) -- this site provides labeled diagrams and high quality photos of chewing, siphoning, piercing, sponging, and combination mouthparts. Users may view images by category or click through the entire set in sequence. The photographs are intirguing enough to invite a look from anyone interested in insects, especially those not opposed to the occasional decapitated grasshopper head.

407

The Molecular Biology Toolbox and Its Use in Basic and Applied Insect Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This overview examines recent progress in the application of molecular tools to the study of insect biology and the development of pest management strategies. The sequencing and annotation of insect genomes, coupled with analyses using comparative genomics, are providing new insights into the molecular underpinnings of insect-specific processes and shedding light on their evolutionary relationships. Researchers investigate the functions of insect genes using indirect approaches such as expression profiling, and direct methods such as insertional mutagenesis and RNA interference. Biotechnological applications to pest management include the development of resistant crops and trees that express insect-specific toxins, the design of microbial agents with enhanced insecticidal potency, and the engineering of insects that can transfer lethal genes to natural populations following their mass release in the field. Comparative genomics analyses also make it possible to identify insect-specific genes that can be targeted for rational insecticide design, using tools such as cell-based, high-throughput screening assays.

Michel Cusson (Canadian Forest Service and Université Laval - Quebec;)

2008-09-01

408

Integrated Pest Management for sweetpotato in Eastern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sweetpotato is an important crop in Eastern Africa. Sweetpotato weevils ( Cylas puncticollis Boheman and C. brunneus Fabricius; Coleoptera: Apionidae) cause damage to roots and vines<\\/TT>throughout the crop's production area. Other insect pests of sweetpotato are of regional importance. The aim of the research project was to gain insight in the biology and ecology of sweetpotato weevils and, based on

N. E. J. M. Smit

1997-01-01

409

Insect-resistant transgenic plants in a multi-trophic context  

Microsoft Academic Search

So far, genetic engineering of plants in the context of insect pest control has involved insertion of genes that code for toxins, and may be characterized as the incorporation of biopesticides into classical plant breeding. In the context of pesticide usage in pest control, natural enemies of herbivores have received increasing attention, because carnivorous arthropods are an important component of

Astrid T. Groot; Marcel Dicke

2002-01-01

410

Using Spray Oils For Insect Control Jim Johnson, Emeritus Professor, Entomology, MSU  

E-print Network

safe for tender leaves. Vegetable oils and mineral oils have not shown themselves to be effective pest1 Using Spray Oils For Insect Control Jim Johnson, Emeritus Professor, Entomology, MSU Edited again to consider applying spray oils to fruit trees. For pests that overwinter as eggs, it is one

411

THE BIOTECHNOLOGY OF PRODUCING AND STABILIZING LIVING, MICROBIAL BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENTS FOR INSECT AND WEED CONTROL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The "biopesticide" approach to the microbial biological control of insects and weeds requires the production and application of large quantities of infective propagules of the microbial agent. The selection of the appropriate biocontrol agent for a given pest is dependent on the biology of the pest...

412

Sterile-insect methods for control of mosquito-borne diseases: an analysis.  

PubMed

Effective vector control, and more specifically mosquito control, is a complex and difficult problem, as illustrated by the continuing prevalence (and spread) of mosquito-transmitted diseases. The sterile insect technique and similar methods control certain agricultural insect pest populations in a species-specific, environmentally sound, and effective manner; there is increased interest in applying this approach to vector control. Such an approach, like all others in use and development, is not a one-size-fits-all solution, and will be more appropriate in some situations than others. In addition, the proposed release of pest insects, and more so genetically modified pest insects, is bound to raise questions in the general public and the scientific community as to such a method's efficacy, safety, and sustainability. This article attempts to address these concerns and indicate where sterile-insect methods are likely to be useful for vector control. PMID:19725763

Alphey, Luke; Benedict, Mark; Bellini, Romeo; Clark, Gary G; Dame, David A; Service, Mike W; Dobson, Stephen L

2010-04-01

413

Control of a new turf pest, Dorcadion pseudopreissi (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), with the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of biological control in turf has increased to avoid possible negative effects on humans. Entomopathogenic nematodes\\u000a (EPNs) belonging to the families Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae have control potential against many economically important\\u000a insect pests. In the present study, the efficacy of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora against a new pest on turf, Dorcadion pseudopreissi, was examined in the field. Cages (1 × 1 × 1 m) with

I. Alper Susurluk; N. Alper Kumral; U?ur Bilgili; Esvet Aç?kgöz

414

Excited Insects  

E-print Network

but not killing them doesn't actually count as true celebration. Now, China. There's a country that knows how to make a bug feel good. Bugs have their very own holiday in the Chinese calendar. It's called the Feast of the Excited Insects and it falls on March 5th...

Hacker, Randi

2011-04-06

415

Cotton Insects.  

E-print Network

........................................................................ ................................................................................ Leafworms Cotton Leafworm ..................................................... Brown Cotton Leafworm .............................................. Cabbage Looper .............................................................. Hemipterous Insects (Plant... in this publication was obtnined from Federal and State Experiment Station publicntionc . The author is indebted to C . B . Spencer, Cotton Seed Crrrtlr- ers' Association. and J . A . Stillwell. Anderson. Clayton and Covzj~any. for certain illustrations . Thanks...

Gaines, J. C.

1965-01-01

416

Eastern Subterranean Termite and Wood-Destroying Insects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tutorials on wood-destroying pest insects. Each tutorial has 50 questions; incorrect answers lead to additional information. Covers identification, life cycle, biology, damage and colony structure of the Eastern subterranean termite as well as covering powderpost beetles, old house borer, termites, carpenter ants and carpenter bees. Requires Windows, and the tutorials must first be installed on the computer's hard drive. Once installed and launched, the tutorials are intuitive to use. These tutorials will be most valuable to those studying structural pest management in pest management professional prepratory classes and perhaps in general economic entomology classes. $15. Part number SW 158.

0002-11-30

417

Insects: A nutritional alternative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Insects are considered as potential food sources in space. Types of insects consumed are discussed. Hazards of insect ingestion are considered. Insect reproduction, requirements, and raw materials conversion are discussed. Nutrition properties and composition of insects are considered. Preparation of insects as human food is discussed.

Dufour, P. A.

1981-01-01

418

Endocrine disruption in aquatic insects: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is mounting evidence that a wide variety of compounds can have endocrine disrupting effects on humans and wildlife.\\u000a However, investigations so far have focused primarily on exposure to human and other vertebrates, with invertebrate findings\\u000a largely restricted to marine mollusks or to the ecdysteroid and juvenile hormone agonists as purposely synthesized endocrine\\u000a disrupters for the pest management of insects.

Thomas Soin; Guy Smagghe

2007-01-01

419

Boosting the sterile insect technique to control mosquitoes.  

PubMed

Mosquitoes are vectors of major diseases. Auto-dissemination recently proved very efficient to control Aedes species, using adult females contaminated with dissemination stations of juvenile hormone to treat breeding habitats, but cannot be used at large scales. Here we propose to combine it to the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) to create a new control concept, named 'boosted SIT' that might enable the area-wide eradication of mosquitoes and many other vectors and insect pests. PMID:24746400

Bouyer, Jérémy; Lefrançois, Thierry

2014-06-01

420

Stored Product Pest Images  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Photographic gallery containing 81 images of pests of stored products, including eggs, larvae and pupae and damage photos. Mites, beetles, moths, and psocids are included. A web browser and CD-ROM drive are required to view the images. Images are of high quality and the accompanying text is generally accurate and informative. The larval lesser mealworm is mis-captioned as an adult. Navigation of the images is easy.

0002-11-30

421

As any experienced grower knows only too well, nursery management is a con-tinuous process of solving problems. One recurring problem is pests. In the past,  

E-print Network

of solving problems. One recurring problem is pests. In the past, nursery managers waited for an insect damping-off (A), Phytophthora root canker (B), fungal rust on `hi`a leaves (C), and Botrytis blight (D

422

Insect habitat management in pasture systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two important habitat management strategies in pasture systems involve controlled burning and effective grazing manipulation schemes to maintain native climax grassland vegetation These climax grasslands have historically suffered less insect pest pressure than imported systems However, these types of grasslands are difficult to reestablish after relatively severe disruption by man Also, the proper diversity and stability is difficult to capture in developing imported systems. Imported pastures can exhibit substantial yields per land unit but are often composed of vegetation that rapidly mines nutrients stored by the native vegetation, and often need considerable inputs of fossil fuel, manufactured fertilizers and pesticides, because they are or become very susceptible to pestiferous insects. Habitat manipulation efforts can be effective in regulating forage pest populations below economic levels in imported pasture systems Such efforts include: 1) land use (coupled with plant diversity, grazing, and harvest manipulations), 2) sanitation (including controlled burning), 3) planting dates and harvest times (including grazing manipulations), 4) tillage methods, 5) fertilization, 6) trap crops, 7) water management, and 8) fire management for insect pest suppression and augmentation of natural enemies.

Martin, P. B.

1983-01-01

423

An Automated Flying-Insect-Detection System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automated flying-insect-detection system (AFIDS) was developed as a proof-of-concept instrument for real-time detection and identification of flying insects. This type of system has use in public health and homeland security decision support, agriculture and military pest management, and/or entomological research. Insects are first lured into the AFIDS integrated sphere by insect attractants. Once inside the sphere, the insect's wing beats cause alterations in light intensity that is detected by a photoelectric sensor. Following detection, the insects are encouraged (with the use of a small fan) to move out of the sphere and into a designated insect trap where they are held for taxonomic identification or serological testing. The acquired electronic wing beat signatures are preprocessed (Fourier transformed) in real-time to display a periodic signal. These signals are sent to the end user where they are graphically displayed. All AFIDS data are pre-processed in the field with the use of a laptop computer equipped with LABVIEW. The AFIDS software can be programmed to run continuously or at specific time intervals when insects are prevalent. A special DC-restored transimpedance amplifier reduces the contributions of low-frequency background light signals, and affords approximately two orders of magnitude greater AC gain than conventional amplifiers. This greatly increases the signal-to-noise ratio and enables the detection of small changes in light intensity. The AFIDS light source consists of high-intensity Al GaInP light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The AFIDS circuitry minimizes brightness fluctuations in the LEDs and when integrated with an integrating sphere, creates a diffuse uniform light field. The insect wing beats isotropically scatter the diffuse light in the sphere and create wing beat signatures that are detected by the sensor. This configuration minimizes variations in signal associated with insect flight orientation.

Vann, Timi; Andrews, Jane C.; Howell, Dane; Ryan, Robert

2005-01-01

424

insect Aerodynamics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page describes current research about insect flight dynamics. It focuses on the work of biologist R. McNeill Alexander of the University of Leeds, whose research team has built large-scale models of insects to test their flight aerodynamics in wind tunnels. At the bottom of the page is a small (160 x 120) QuickTime video of a Morpho butterfly (Order Lepidoptera, Family Nymphalidae) with detailed views of its wing scales. It is an excerpt from the Alien Empire miniseries of the Public Broadcasting Service's Nature series. The video requires QuickTime and may not be accessible to those with older or slow computers. The link to the "enhanced multimedia video clip" did not work at the time of this review.

0000-00-00

425

An alternative strategy for sustainable pest resistance in genetically enhanced crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystal protein genes encode insecticidal -endotoxins that are widely used for the development of insect-resistant crops. In this article, we describe an alternative transgenic strategy that has the potential to generate broader and more sustainable levels of resistance against insect pests. Our strategy involves engineering plants with a fusion protein combining the -endotoxin Cry1Ac with the galactose-binding

Luke Mehlo; Daphrose Gahakwa; Pham Trung Nghia; Nguyen Thi Loc; Teresa Capell; John A. Gatehouse; Angharad M. R. Gatehouse; Paul Christou

2005-01-01

426

OMIGA: Optimized Maker-Based Insect Genome Annotation.  

PubMed

Insects are one of the largest classes of animals on Earth and constitute more than half of all living species. The i5k initiative has begun sequencing of more than 5,000 insect genomes, which should greatly help in exploring insect resource and pest control. Insect genome annotation remains challenging because many insects have high levels of heterozygosity. To improve the quality of insect genome annotation, we developed a pipeline, named Optimized Maker-Based Insect Genome Annotation (OMIGA), to predict protein-coding genes from insect genomes. We first mapped RNA-Seq reads to genomic scaffolds to determine transcribed regions using Bowtie, and the putative transcripts were assembled using Cufflink. We then selected highly reliable transcripts with intact coding sequences to train de novo gene prediction software, including Augustus. The re-trained software was used to predict genes from insect genomes. Exonerate was used to refine gene structure and to determine near exact exon/intron boundary in the genome. Finally, we used the software Maker to integrate data from RNA-Seq, de novo gene prediction, and protein alignment to produce an official gene set. The OMIGA pipeline was used to annotate the draft genome of an important insect pest, Chilo suppressalis, yielding 12,548 genes. Different strategies were compared, which demonstrated that OMIGA had the best performance. In summary, we present a comprehensive pipeline for identifying genes in insect genomes that can be widely used to improve the annotation quality in insects. OMIGA is provided at http://ento.njau.edu.cn/omiga.html . PMID:24609470

Liu, Jinding; Xiao, Huamei; Huang, Shuiqing; Li, Fei

2014-08-01

427

Longevity of insect-killing nematodes in soil from a pecan orchard  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Entomopathogenic (insect-killing) nematodes are candidates for use as biological control agents for important pecan insect pests such as the pecan weevil, Curculio caryae. In deciding which kind of nematode (species or strain) is the best one to use, it is important to consider which one is likely t...

428

DIFFERENTIAL HEATING OF INSECTS IN DRIED NUTS AND FRUITS ASSOCIATED WITH RADIO FREQUENCY AND MICROWAVE TREATMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research was conducted to provide a theoretical basis and experimental evidence to support the hypothesis that insect larvae can be preferentially heated in dry nuts and fruits by radio frequency (RF) heating for pest control. We selected codling moth larvae as the target insect and in-shell walnuts as the host material for this study, and focused our attention on

S. Wang; J. Tang; R. P. Cavalieri; D. C. Davis

429

Insect abatement system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An insect abatement system prevents adhesion of insect debris to surfaces which must be kept substantially free of insect debris. An article is coated with an insect abatement coating comprising polyorganosiloxane with a Shore A hardness of less than 50 and a tensile strength of less than 4 MPa. A method for preventing the adhesion of insect debris to surfaces includes the step of applying an insect abatement coating to a surface which must be kept substantially free of insect debris.

Spiro, Clifford Lawrence (Inventor); Burnell, Timothy Brydon (Inventor); Wengrovius, Jeffrey Hayward (Inventor)

1997-01-01

430

Transgenic plants of rutabaga ( Brassica napobrassica ) tolerant to pest insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotyledons cut from axenic seedlings were immersed inAgrobacterium tumefaciens suspension which was treated with acetosyringone and nopaline at low pH overnight. The infected cotyledon explants were cultured on MSB medium (MS salts + B5 Vitamins) containing 6-BA 3mg\\/1 for 2–3 days, and transferred onto selective medium (MSB with kanamycin 50–100 mg\\/l). Kanamycin-resistant shoots were selected. More than 60 regenerated plants

Xue-bao Li; Hui-Zhu Mao; Yong-Yan Bai

1995-01-01

431

Insects and Related Pests Attacking Lawns and Ornamental Plants.  

E-print Network

Cabbage Loopers .......................................................................................... Corn Earworms ............................................................................................ Tiger Moths... or tomato fruitworm. TIGER MOTHS, Family Arctiidae Description. Tiger moths are the adult stage of several fuzzy or I hairy caterpillars called "wooly bears." The two most important species 1 In Texas are the salt-marsh caterpillar, Estigmene acrea...

Almand, Lyndon K.; Thomas, John G.

1968-01-01

432

Managing Insects and Mite Pests of Texas Sorghum  

E-print Network

Agrotis and Euxoa spp. Cutworms of several species can damage sor- ghum. Cutworms are im- mature stages of moths that are active at night. Cutworm moths prefer to lay eggs in grassy and weedy fields. Eggs are laid on stems or leaves of sorghum...

Cronholm, Gregory B.; Knutson, Allen E.; Parker, Roy D.; Pendleton, Bonnie

2007-06-20

433

Pest Control in Corn and Soybeans: Weeds - Insects - Diseases.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document gives the characteristics and application rates for herbicides used to control annual weeds in corn, annual and perennial broadleaf weeds in corn, quackgrass and yellow nutsedge in corn, and annual weeds in soybeans. It also gives insecticide use information for corn and soybeans. A brief discussion of disease control in corn and…

Doersch, R. E.; And Others

434

Insect Pests of Soyabean in Japan and their Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

From thirty species of economic importance, the biology, damage caused and control measures for three pod borers, one pod gallmidge and four stink bugs are reviewed. Some high correlations have been recognised between the percentage of injured seed at harvest time and the mean temperatures of January, July or August, and some equations have been obtained for forecasting the percentage

Y. Kobayashi

1976-01-01

435

Managing Insect and Mite Pests of Texas Corn  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Insecticide Application Methods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Protecting Bees and Other Pollinators from Insecticides . . . . . . . 22 Beneficial Arthropods...

Porter, Patrick; Cronholm, Gregory B.; Parker, Roy D.; Troxclair, Noel N.; Patrick, Carl D.; Biles, Stephen; Morrison, William P.

2006-05-24

436

Managing Insect and Mite Pests of Texas Forage Crops  

E-print Network

........................................................................................................................................................................2 Protection of Bees and Other Pollinators from Insecticides ..........................................................................................................2 Phytotoxicity Precautions... to Comply: What Employers Need to Know, or call Texas Department of Agriculture, Pesticide Worker Protection program, (512) 463- 7717. Protection of Bees and Other Pollinators from Insecticides Pollination is extremely important in the production of many...

Muegge, Mark A.; Robinson, James V.

2002-10-09

437

Insect and Mite Pests of Grain Sorghum -- Management Approaches.  

E-print Network

BEES AND OTHER POLLINATORS FROM INSECTICIDES ............. 22 POLICY STATEMENT FOR MAKING CHEMICAL CONTROL SUGGESTIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 24 This publication was prepared by entomologists of the Texas Ag ricultural... regarding possible phytotoxic effects. Where extensive phytotoxicity has occurred in re search programs, the chemicals involved have been eliminated from the recommendations in this publica tion. PROTECTING BEES AND OTHER POLLINATORS FROM INSECTICIDES...

Anonymous,

1979-01-01

438

Mid-Atlantic Guide to the Insect Pests and  

E-print Network

POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE AND STATE UNIVERSITY Second Edition #12;Authors: D. Ames Herbert, Jr., Extension Director Thea Glidden, Director, Communications and Marketing #12;Photo Credits: Michael Boone......................................................... 11 Krista Hamilton ......................................................... 6 D. Ames Herbert, Jr

Liskiewicz, Maciej

439

Bats track and exploit changes in insect pest populations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The role of bats or any generalist predator in suppressing prey populations depends on the predator’s ability to exploit available prey in space and time. Using a qPCR faecal DNA assay, we document significant association between numbers of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) consumin...

440

Managing Insect and Mite Pests of Texas Small Grains  

E-print Network

acre Harvest Grazing Imidacloprid See remarks 45 Gaucho ? 480 @ 1-3 oz per 100 lbs of seed - commercial seed treater only Lindane See remarks 30 C Flowable @ 1.4 oz per 100 lbs of wheat, rye or oats seed and 1.35 oz per 100 lbs of barley seed... Thiamethoxam See remarks Cruiser ? 5FS @ 0.75-1.33 oz per 100 lbs of seed - commer- cial seed treater only Remarks Surplus treated seed must not be used for feed or food. False wireworms, which are the immature stages of darkling beetles, are more common when...

Patrick, Carl D.; Knutson, Allen E.

2006-07-05

441

IAEA/FAO interregional training course on use of radiation in insect control and entomology with special emphasis on the sterile insect technique. Final report, May 4--June 15, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The principal focus of the course was the application of Radiation in Entomology to achieve Area Wide Pest Suppression or Eradication. To achieve this objective formal lectures, discussion groups, laboratory exercises and field trips were held covering the details of: (1) principles, programs and research of all aspects of the Sterile Insect Technique; (2) insect biology and control; (3) integrated pest management; (4) population dynamics and models related to the development of SIT and insect population suppression; (5) fundamentals of computers for helping in development of SIT; (6) the importance of economic considerations in formulating area wide pest management programs. The course included tours of local laboratories of the University, USDA, and the State Division of Plant Industry (DPI), and a site visit to a citrus production area in which the pest-free zone concept of pest management for fruit export is utilized.

NONE

1994-12-31

442

Vertebrate Pest Control. Sale Publication 4077.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide gives descriptions of common vertebrate pests and guidelines for using some common pesticides. The pests discussed are rats, mice, bats, moles, muskrats, ground squirrels, and gophers. Information is given for each pest on the type of damage the pest can do, the habitat and biology of the pest, and the most effective control methods.…

Stimmann, M. W.; Clark, Dell O.

443

Vegetable Pests III  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Photographic gallery containing 108 images of lepidopteran pests that attack vegetables, including adults, pupae, larvae, and eggs of most; pictures of damage also accompany many species. Covers caterpillars and moths/butterflies. Most of the photos are of good quality with some of excelletn quality; several species included are rarely photographed, while others are frequently documented and may be found in other sources. Images are offered in three resolutions and formats, including one with text acknowledging the phtographer. The depiction of the neonate tobacco hornworm may be a tomato hornwomr; it is difficult to tell from the picture. Requires a CD-ROM drive and a web browser.

0000-00-00

444

Pest Ants and Cockroaches  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tutorials on pest ants and cockroaches. Each tutorial has 50 questions; incorrect answers lead to additional information. Covers acrobat ant, Argentine ant, bigheaded ant, crazy ant, Florida carpenter ant, ghost ant, imported fire ant, little fire ant, native fire ant and Pharaoh ant, American cockroach, Australian cockroach, brown cockroach, brownbanded cockroach, Cuban cockroach, Florida woods cockroaches, German cockroach, oriental cockroach, smokybrown cockroach and Surinam cockroach. Requires Windows. program must be downloaded on to hardrive, but once installed is intuitive. many of the species depicted in these tutorials are restricted to Florida and the extreme southern U.S. $15. Part number SW 157.

0002-11-30

445

SIMPLE SYSTEM FOR THE PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF INFECTIVITY AND PATHOGENESIS OF INSECT VIRUS IN A NONTARGET ESTUARINE SHRIMP  

EPA Science Inventory

Biological control agents (biorationals) are increasingly important in pest control concepts. Certain insect viruses, particularly the baculoviruses (nuclear polyhedrosis viruses), are considered to have potential as biological pesticides, and could be used widely in the environm...

446

Considerations on the use of transgenic crops for insect control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adoption of agricultural technologies, whether developed through biotechnology or other methods, depends on social, political, regulatory and biological parameters. This article first presents an example of a low-input, non-biotechnological method of pest control that, while seemingly reasonable to researchers and extension agents, was not adopted by farmers. It then analyses a method for insect management developed through biotechnology that

Anthony M. Shelton

2007-01-01

447

Radio frequency treatments for insect disinfestation of dried pulses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dried pulses, such as chickpeas, green peas or lentils, are valuable export commodities in the US Pacific Northwest. A major problem in the marketing of these products is infestation by insect pests, which may cause importing countries to require phytosanitary treatments before shipment. Typically...

448

Pathogens for the Control of Insects: Where Next?: Discussion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insect populations succumb to a variety of infections caused by pathogenic microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, Protozoa) and viruses. The narrow host-range of many of these agents makes them natural candidates for use within integrated pest management systems. Some, such as Bacillus thuringiensis and several baculoviruses, may be applied to crops at regular intervals as microbial pesticides, achieving short-term control of a

C. C. Payne; K. Jones; I. Harpaz; A. E. Akingbohungbe; R. R. M. Paterson; S. M. K. Hag Ahmed

1988-01-01

449

Biocontroh The Potential of Entomophilic Nematodes in Insect Management1  

E-print Network

negligible." This is a quotation from Nathan Cobb (12) in the 1927 USDA Yearbook of Agri- culture. In recent of insect pests" published by the former Imperial Bureau of Agricultural Parasitology (39). Thereafter was the work of Glaser and his colleagues, of the New Jersey Department of Agriculture (United States

450

FOR MANY INSECTS, WINTER SURVIVAL IS IN THE GENES  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A discussion of the surprising number of heat-shock proteins active in hibernating insects that help aid their survival in extreme conditions. The possibility of removing genes responsible for coding these proteins may help in controlling some persistent pest species that overwinter.

0002-11-30

451

SOME INSECTS AND MITES NEW TO FLORIDA SUGARCANE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The number of insect and mite species attacking sugarcane in Florida has increased over time. Five new pest species were discovered during the 31-year period 1964 to 1995, one species indigenous to Florida with no previous association with sugarcane and four invasive species entirely new to the Ever...

452

CONTROL OF INDIANMEAL MOTH USING INSECT GROWTH REGULATORS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Indianmeal moth is an important economic pest in food storage facilities. Once the larva reaches the final stage, it will often wander in search of a pupation site. This stage is extremely difficult to kill with residual insecticides. Recent research with the insect growth regulators hydroprene...

453

Insect recognition based on integrated region matching and dual tree complex wavelet transform  

Microsoft Academic Search

To provide pest technicians with a convenient way to recognize insects, a novel method is proposed to classify insect images\\u000a by integrated region matching (IRM) and dual tree complex wavelet transform (DTCWT). The wing image of the lepidopteran insect\\u000a is preprocessed to obtain the region of interest (ROI) whose position is then calibrated. The ROI is first segmented with\\u000a the

Le-Qing Zhu; Zhen Zhang

2011-01-01

454

Insect?resistant rice generated by introduction of a modified ??endotoxin gene of Bacillus thuringiensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insect pests cause severe damage to rice production in many regions of the world. As a first step towards development of insect?resistant rice, we introduced into japonica rice a truncated ??endotoxin gene cryIA(b) of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt,), which has specific biological activity against lepidopteran insects. For high expression of the cryIA(b) gene in rice, the coding sequence was extensively modified,

A. Tanaka; H. Fujimoto; K. Itoh; M. Yamamoto; J. Kyozuka; K. Shimamoto

1994-01-01

455

Insect Invaders Capture Headlines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lately, a few insects not native to the North American continent have made headlines while making themselves at home. According to a recent study from the journal Science, a European fruit fly species, Drosophila subobscura, has replaced close to 95 percent of native North and South American fruit flies in the 20 years it has been in these climes. Even more striking is the fact that the non-native flies have evolved in the process. Over the last 10,000 years, European D. subobscura flies that lived in higher latitudes produced individuals with wing sizes that were four percent larger than their lower latitude counterparts. Strangely, in North America, it has taken less than two decades for the higher latitude fruit fly to grow to be four percent larger than those living south. In essence, the fruit fly population has transformed itself almost as fast as it has taken over its new environment. The findings point scientists to new questions regarding both the rapid evolution of an invader along with the ecological consequences of its arrival. Another recent report, from Reuters, describes the Asian long-horned beetle's devastation of trees in New York and Chicago. The beetle has been called the worst non-native pest since the gypsy moth, and the government is searching for solutions to this menace which bores holes into trees and damages their vascular systems. This week's In the News takes a closer look at these adaptable invaders and the problems of invasive species in general.

Ramanujan, Krishna.

456

Potential of mass trapping for long-term pest management and eradication of invasive species.  

PubMed

Semiochemical-based pest management programs comprise three major approaches that are being used to provide environmentally friendly control methods of insect pests: mass trapping, "lure and kill," and mating disruption. In this article, we review the potential of mass trapping in long-term pest management as well as in the eradication of invasive species. We discuss similarities and differences between mass trapping and other two main approaches of semiochemical-based pest management programs. We highlight several study cases where mass trapping has been used either in long-term pest management [e.g., codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.); pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders); bark beetles, palm weevils, corn rootworms (Diabrotica spp.); and fruit flies] or in eradication of invasive species [e.g., gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.); and boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman). We list the critical issues that affect the efficacy of mass trapping and compare these with previously published models developed to investigate mass trapping efficacy in pest control. We conclude that mass trapping has good potential to suppress or eradicate low-density, isolated pest populations; however, its full potential in pest management has not been adequately realized and therefore encourages further research and development of this technology. PMID:17066782

El-Sayed, A M; Suckling, D M; Wearing, C H; Byers, J A

2006-10-01

457

How varying pest and trap densities affect Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) capture in pheromone traps  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is an important insect pest in food processing facilities. Pheromone trapping is frequently used to monitor red flour beetle populations in structures; however, the optimal trap density and the relationship between trap ...

458

Population Dynamics of the Boll Weevil and Modified Cotton Types: Implications for Pest Management.  

E-print Network

to be based on the pomise of effecti~e an2 continuecl insecticidal pest control. There was litrk concern that the certain insects hacl developed rcdv. ance to DDT a few years after the insecticicle war fir.' used in the 1940's. By the mid-l95OPs, the...

Walker, J. K. Jr.; Niles, G. A.

1971-01-01

459

Field screening of sweet sorghum inbred lines for pest resistance and biomass production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is one of the favorable biofuel feedstocks for ethanol production. Fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)] is one of the most serious foliar-feeding insect pests in sorghum production in the southeastern US states. Sev...

460

Growth and yield response of pecan to three levels of pest management in Central Texas  

E-print Network

in the Southeastern United States. Insect pests added in 1940 to the USDA' spray recommendations included spittlebugs (~C1 sto ta a oht sa), p a t ca(as (Catocala spp. ), th s Ply (P ri 11 t ~a i ice(tie) a e paean phyllo e a (~ph llo era spp. ). The 1940 spray...

Cooper, John Norman

1984-01-01

461

BIOLOGY AND INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT OF THE SUNFLOWER STEM WEEVILS IN THE GREAT PLAINS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The sunflower stem weevil is an insect pest that has caused economic damage to sunflower in the northern and southern Great Plains of the United States and into Canada. It is native to North America and well adapted to wild and cultivated sunflowers, feeding on the plant tissues of the stem and leav...

462

Homology Model of Juvenile Hormone Esterase From the Crop Pest, Heliothis virescens  

E-print Network

Homology Model of Juvenile Hormone Esterase From the Crop Pest, Heliothis virescens Beth Ann Thomas. Vincent's Hospital, Sydney, Australia ABSTRACT Juvenile Hormone Esterase (JHE) plays an essential role in the development of insects since it is partially responsible for clearing juvenile hormone (JH), one

Hammock, Bruce D.

463

Compatibility of Two Systematic Neonicotinoids, Imidacloprid and Thiamethoxam with various Natural Enemies of Agricultural Pests.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two systemic neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, are widely used for residual control of a number of insect pests in cotton, vegetables, and citrus. We evaluated their impact on six species of beneficial arthropods including four parasitoid species, Aphytis melinus Gonatocerus ashmeadi, ...

464

Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Right-of-Way Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators who are engaged in right-of-way pest control to meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of Agriculture for certification. While the majority of material in this guide pertains to vegetation management, the guide also addresses right-of-way insect and fungus control. An introduction…

Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

465

Stinging Insect Matching Game  

MedlinePLUS

... Resources My Membership About the AAAAI Share | Stinging Insect Matching Game Stinging insects can ruin summer fun for those who are ... the difference between the different kinds of stinging insects in order to keep your summer safe and ...

466

Encyclopaedia Britannica: Insect Phylogeny  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Traditional evolution of the insects is presented in cladogram form with a neatly organized short article describing the primitive wingless insect radiation into modern insect orders mainly during the Carboniferous period.

0000-00-00

467

Is It an Insect?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is designed to further develop students' understanding of the characteristics of insects. Students will be sorting insects from non-insects that they themselves find in a sample of pond water.

468

Role of Dehydrodiferulates in Maize Resistance to Pests and Diseases  

PubMed Central

Phenolic esters have attracted considerable interest due to the potential they offer for peroxidase catalysed cross-linking of cell wall polysaccharides. Particularly, feruloyl residues undergo radical coupling reactions that result in cross-linking (intra-/intermolecular) between polysaccharides, between polysaccharides and lignin and, between polysaccharides and proteins. This review addresses for the first time different studies in which it is established that cross-linking by dehydrodiferulates contributes to maize’s defences to pests and diseases. Dehydrodiferulate cross-links are involved in maize defence mechanisms against insects such as the European, Mediterranean, and tropical corn borers and, storage pest as the maize weevil. In addition, cross-links are also discussed to be involved in genetic resistance of maize to fungus diseases as Gibberella ear and stalk rot. Resistance against insects and fungus attending dehydrodiferulates could go hand in hand. Quantitative trait loci mapping for these cell wall components could be a useful tool for enhancing resistance to pest and diseases in future breeding programs. PMID:20386661

Santiago, Rogelio; Malvar, Rosa A.

2010-01-01

469

Agricultural pest monitoring using fluorescence lidar techniques. Feasibility study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fluorescence of different types of planthopper ( Hemiptera) and moth ( Lepidoptera), which constitute important Chinese agricultural pests, was investigated both in situ in a laboratory setting and remotely using a fluorescence light detection and ranging (lidar) system operating at a range of about 50 m. The natural autofluorescence of different species, as well as the fluorescence from insects that had been dusted with fluorescent dye powder for identification were studied. Autofluorescence spectra of both moths and planthoppers show a maximum intensity peak around 450 nm. Bleaching upon long-time laser illumination was modest and did not affect the shape of the spectrum. A single dyed rice planthopper, a few mm in size, could be detected at 50 m distance by using the fluorescence lidar system. By employing various marking dyes, different types of agricultural pest could be determined. We suggest that lidar may be used in studies of migration and movement of pest insects, including studies of their behavior in the vicinity of pheromone traps and in pheromone-treated fields.

Mei, L.; Guan, Z. G.; Zhou, H. J.; Lv, J.; Zhu, Z. R.; Cheng, J. A.; Chen, F. J.; Löfstedt, C.; Svanberg, S.; Somesfalean, G.

2012-03-01

470

European Red Mite Pest Introduction  

E-print Network

important fruit pests in the U.S. and Canada. Undersized fruit, foliage loss and weakened fruit buds can generations each year in New Hampshire. Control Refer to the New England Apple Pest Management Guide buds, leaves Overwintering Stage: Egg Number of generations per year 4-9 Time of year when damage done

New Hampshire, University of

471

Molecular Analysis of a Novel Gene Cluster Encoding an Insect Toxin in Plant-Associated Strains of Pseudomonas  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The development of sustainable pest management practices that are safe and environmentally benign is a major agricultural goal worldwide. Microbial biological control agents of insect pests or pathogens have been employed successfully towards this goal, but these agents typically fall in two distinc...

472

When ecosystem services interact: crop pollination benefits depend on the level of pest control.  

PubMed

Pollination is a key ecosystem service which most often has been studied in isolation although effects of pollination on seed set might depend on, and interact with, other services important for crop production. We tested three competing hypotheses on how insect pollination and pest control might jointly affect seed set: independent, compensatory or synergistic effects. For this, we performed a cage experiment with two levels of insect pollination and simulated pest control in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) grown for seed. There was a synergistic interaction between the two services: the gain in seed set obtained when simultaneously increasing pollination and pest control outweighed the sum of seed set gains obtained when increasing each service separately. This study shows that interactions can alter the benefits obtained from service-providing organisms, and this needs to be considered to properly manage multiple ecosystem services. PMID:23269852

Lundin, Ola; Smith, Henrik G; Rundlöf, Maj; Bommarco, Riccardo

2013-02-22

473

When ecosystem services interact: crop pollination benefits depend on the level of pest control  

PubMed Central

Pollination is a key ecosystem service which most often has been studied in isolation although effects of pollination on seed set might depend on, and interact with, other services important for crop production. We tested three competing hypotheses on how insect pollination and pest control might jointly affect seed set: independent, compensatory or synergistic effects. For this, we performed a cage experiment with two levels of insect pollination and simulated pest control in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) grown for seed. There was a synergistic interaction between the two services: the gain in seed set obtained when simultaneously increasing pollination and pest control outweighed the sum of seed set gains obtained when increasing each service separately. This study shows that interactions can alter the benefits obtained from service-providing organisms, and this needs to be considered to properly manage multiple ecosystem services. PMID:23269852

Lundin, Ola; Smith, Henrik G.; Rundlöf, Maj; Bommarco, Riccardo

2013-01-01

474

Endosymbiotic bacteria in insects: guardians of the immune system?  

PubMed Central

Insects have evolved obligate, mutualistic interactions with bacteria without further transmission to other eukaryotic organisms. Such long-term obligate partnerships between insects and bacteria have a profound effect on various physiological functions of the host. Here we provide an overview of the effects of endosymbiotic bacteria on the insect immune system as well as on the immune response of insects to pathogenic infections. Potential mechanisms through which endosymbionts can affect the ability of their host to resist an infection are discussed in the light of recent findings. We finally point out unresolved questions for future research and speculate how the current knowledge can be employed to design and implement measures for the effective control of agricultural insect pests and vectors of diseases. PMID:23508299

Eleftherianos, Ioannis; Atri, Jaishri; Accetta, Julia; Castillo, Julio C.

2013-01-01

475

Functional agonism of insect odorant receptor ion channels.  

PubMed

In insects, odor cues are discriminated through a divergent family of odorant receptors (ORs). A functional OR complex consists of both a conventional odorant-binding OR and a nonconventional coreceptor (Orco) that is highly conserved across insect taxa. Recent reports have characterized insect ORs as ion channels, but the precise mechanism of signaling remains unclear. We report the identification and characterization of an Orco family agonist, VUAA1, using the Anopheles gambiae coreceptor (AgOrco) and other orthologues. These studies reveal that the Orco family can form functional ion channels in the absence of an odor-binding OR, and in addition, demonstrate a first-in-class agonist to further research in insect OR signaling. In light of the extraordinary conservation and widespread expression of the Orco family, VUAA1 represents a powerful new family of compounds that can be used to disrupt the destructive behaviors of nuisance insects, agricultural pests, and disease vectors alike. PMID:21555561

Jones, Patrick L; Pask, Gregory M; Rinker, David C; Zwiebel, Laurence J

2011-05-24

476

Understanding heliothine (Lepidoptera: Heliothinae) pests: what is a host plant?  

PubMed

Heliothine moths (Lepidoptera: Heliothinae) include some of the world's most devastating pest species. Whereas the majority of nonpest heliothinae specialize on a single plant family, genus, or species, pest species are highly polyphagous, with populations often escalating in size as they move from one crop species to another. Here, we examine the current literature on heliothine host-selection behavior with the aim of providing a knowledge base for research scientists and pest managers. We review the host relations of pest heliothines, with a particular focus on Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), the most economically damaging of all heliothine species. We then consider the important question of what constitutes a host plant in these moths, and some of the problems that arise when trying to determine host plant status from empirical studies on host use. The top six host plant families in the two main Australian pest species (H. armigera and Helicoverpa punctigera Wallengren) are the same and the top three (Asteraceae, Fabaceae, and Malvaceae) are ranked the same (in terms of the number of host species on which eggs or larvae have been identified), suggesting that these species may use similar cues to identify their hosts. In contrast, for the two key pest heliothines in the Americas, the Fabaceae contains approximately 1/3 of hosts for both. For Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), the remaining hosts are more evenly distributed, with Solanaceae next, followed by Poaceae, Asteraceae, Malvaceae, and Rosaceae. For Heliothis virescens (F.), the next highest five families are Malvaceae, Asteraceae, Solanaceae, Convolvulaceae, and Scrophulariaceae. Again there is considerable overlap in host use at generic and even species level. H. armigera is the most widely distributed and recorded from 68 plant families worldwide, but only 14 families are recorded as a containing a host in all geographic areas. A few crop hosts are used throughout the range as expected, but in some cases there are anomalies, perhaps because host plant relation studies are not comparable. Studies on the attraction of heliothines to plant odors are examined in the context of our current understanding of insect olfaction, with the aim of better understanding the connection between odor perception and host choice. Finally, we discuss research into sustainable management of pest heliothines using knowledge of heliothine behavior and ecology. A coordinated international research effort is needed to advance our knowledge on host relations in widely distributed polyphagous species instead of the localized, piecemeal approaches to understanding these insects that has been the norm to date. PMID:25026644

Cunningham, John Paul; Zalucki, Myron P

2014-06-01

477

Predation of the newly invasive pest Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) in soybean habitats adjacent to cotton by a complex of predators  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), is a newly-invasive exotic insect found primarily on kudzu, but also on soybean, in the southeastern United States. We used molecular gut-content analysis to document predation on this pest by insects and spiders in soybean; and to d...

478

Effects of material and extracts of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. against the stored product pests Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insecticidal activity of plant material (seeds and leaves) and extracts of Trigonella foenum-graecum from two sources against the stored product pests Tribolium castaneum and Acanthoscelides obtectus was investigated. Topical applications of extracts produced a high degree of mortality in both insects (at 6 and 30 ?g\\/insect). Powdered fenugreek seeds or extracts applied to Phaseolus vulgaris beans produced mortality and inhibited

Jerome Pemonge; Maria Jesus Pascual-Villalobos; Catherine Regnault-Roger

1997-01-01

479

The monoterpene limonene in orange peels attracts pests and microorganisms.  

PubMed

Plant volatiles include terpenoids, which are generally involved in plant defense, repelling pests and pathogens and attracting insects for herbivore control, pollination and seed dispersal. Orange fruits accumulate the monoterpene limonene at high levels in the oil glands of their fruit peels. When limonene production was downregulated in orange fruits by the transgenic expression of a limonene synthase (CitMTSE1) in the antisense configuration, these fruits were resistant to the fungus Penicillium digitatum (Pers.) Sacc. and the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri and were less attractive to the medfly pest Ceratitis capitata. These responses were reversed when the antisense transgenic orange fruits were treated with limonene. To gain more insight into the role of the limonene concentration in fruit responses to pests and pathogens, we attempted to overexpress CitMTSE1 in the sense configuration in transgenic orange fruits. Only slight increases in the amount of limonene were found in sense transgenic fruits, maybe due to the detrimental effect that excessive limonene accumulation would have on plant development. Collectively, these results suggest that when limonene reaches peak levels as the fruit develops, it becomes a signal for pest and pathogen attraction, which facilitate access to the fruit for pulp consumers and seed dispersers. PMID:22212123

Rodríguez, Ana; San Andrés, Victoria; Cervera, Magdalena; Redondo, Ana; Alquézar, Berta; Shimada, Takehiko; Gadea, José; Rodrigo, María; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Palou, Lluís; López, María M; Castañera, Pedro; Peña, Leandro

2011-11-01

480

Mechanisms of plant defense against insect herbivores  

PubMed Central

Plants respond to herbivory through various morphological, biochemicals, and molecular mechanisms to counter/offset the effects of herbivore attack. The biochemical mechanisms of defense against the herbivores are wide-ranging, highly dynamic, and are mediated both by direct and indirect defenses. The defensive compounds are either produced constitutively or in response to plant damage, and affect feeding, growth, and survival of herbivores. In addition, plants also release volatile organic compounds that attract the natural enemies of the herbivores. These strategies either act independently or in conjunction with each other. However, our understanding of these defensive mechanisms is still limited. Induced resistance could be exploited as an important tool for the pest management to minimize the amounts of insecticides used for pest control. Host plant resistance to insects, particularly, induced resistance, can also be manipulated with the use of chemical elicitors of secondary metabolites, which confer resistance to insects. By understanding the mechanisms of induced resistance, we can predict the herbivores that are likely to be affected by induced responses. The elicitors of induced responses can be sprayed on crop plants to build up the natural defense system against damage caused by herbivores. The induced responses can also be engineered genetically, so that the defensive compounds are constitutively produced in plants against are challenged by the herbivory. Induced resistance can be exploited for developing crop cultivars, which readily produce the inducible response upon mild infestation, and can act as one of components of integrated pest management for sustainable crop production. PMID:22895106

War, Abdul Rashid; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; Ahmad, Tariq; Buhroo, Abdul Ahad; Hussain, Barkat; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Sharma, Hari Chand

2012-01-01

481

A multi-scale, landscape approach to predicting insect populations in agroecosystems.  

PubMed

Landscape composition affects ecosystems services, including agricultural pest management. However, relationships between land use and agricultural insects are not well understood, and many complexities remain to be explored. Here we examine whether nonagricultural landscapes can directly suppress agricultural pests, how multiple spatial scales of land use concurrently affect insect populations, and the relationships between regional land use and insect populations. We tracked densities of three specialist corn (Zea mays) pests (Ostrinia nubilalis, European corn borer; Diabrotica virgifera, western corn rootworm; Diabrotica barberi, northern corn rootworm), and two generalist predator lady beetles (Coleomegilla maculata and Propylea quatuordecimpunctata) in field corn and determined their relationships to agricultural land use at three spatial scales (field perimeter, 1-km, and 20-km radius areas). Pest densities were either higher (D. virgifera and D. barberi) or unchanged (O. nubilalis) in landscapes with more corn, while natural enemy densities were either lower (C. maculata) or unchanged (P. quatuordecimpunctata). Results for D. virgifera and D. barberi indicate that decreasing the area of preferred crop in the landscape can directly suppress specialist insect pests. Multiple scales of land use affected populations of D. virgifera and C. maculata, and D. virgifera populations showed strong relationships with regional, 20-km-scale land use. These results suggest that farm planning and government policies aimed at diversifying local and regional agricultural landscapes show promise for increasing biological control and directly suppressing agricultural pests. PMID:21830718

O'Rourke, Megan E; Rienzo-Stack, Kaitlin; Power, Alison G

2011-07-01

482

An Automated Flying-Insect Detection System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automated flying-insect detection system (AFIDS) was developed as a proof-of-concept instrument for real-time detection and identification of flying insects. This type of system has use in public health and homeland-security decision support, agriculture and military pest management, and/or entomological research. Insects are first lured into the AFIDS integrated sphere by insect attractants. Once inside the sphere, the insect s wing beats cause alterations in light intensity that is detected by a photoelectric sensor. Following detection, the insects are encouraged (with the use of a small fan) to move out of the sphere and into a designated insect trap where they are held for taxonomic identification or serological testing. The acquired electronic wing-beat signatures are preprocessed (Fourier transformed) in real time to display a periodic signal. These signals are sent to the end user where they are graphically. All AFIDS data are preprocessed in the field with the use of a laptop computer equipped with LabVIEW. The AFIDS software can be programmed to run continuously or at specific time intervals when insects are prevalent. A special DC-restored transimpedance amplifier reduces the contributions of low-frequency background light signals, and affords approximately two orders of magnitude greater AC gain than conventional amplifiers. This greatly increases the signal-to-noise ratio and enables the detection of small changes in light intensity. The AFIDS light source consists of high-intensity Al-GaInP light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The AFIDS circuitry minimizes brightness fluctuations in the LEDs and when integrated with an integrating sphere, creates a diffuse uniform light field. The insect wing beats isotropically scatter the diffuse light in the sphere and create wing-beat signatures that are detected by the sensor. This configuration minimizes variations in signal associated with insect flight orientation. Preliminary data indicate that AFIDS has sufficient sensitivity and frequency measuring capability to differentiate between male and female mosquitoes (Figure 1, bottom panel) and fruit flies (data not shown). Similar studies show that AFIDS can be utilized to detect discrete differences between two mosquito species, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. When fully deployable, a wireless network of AFIDS monitors could be used in combination with other remotely sensed data and visually displayed in a geographic information system (GIS) to provide real-time surveillance (see Figure 2). More accurate and sensitive insect population forecasts and effective rapid response and mitigation of insect issues would then be possible.

Vann, Timi; Andrews, Jane C.; Howell, Dane; Ryan, Robert

2007-01-01

483

Analysis of sustainable pest control using a pesticide and a screened refuge  

PubMed Central

We describe and analyze a ‘screened refuge’ technique for indefinitely sustaining control of insect pests using transgenic pesticidal crops or an applied pesticide, even when resistance is not recessive. The screen is a physical barrier that restricts pest movement. In a deterministic discrete-time model of the use of this technique, we obtain asymptotic analytical formulas for the two important equilibria of the system in terms of the refuge size and the pest fitnesses, mutation rates, and mobility out of and into the refuge. One of the equilibria is stable and is the point at which the pest population is controlled. The other is a saddle whose stable manifold bounds the basin of attraction of the former: its location provides a measure of the tolerance of the control mechanism to perturbations in the resistant allele density. PMID:25567995

Ringland, John; George, Prasanth

2011-01-01

484

Pest Protection Conferred by a Beta vulgaris Serine Proteinase Inhibitor Gene  

PubMed Central

Proteinase inhibitors provide a means of engineering plant resistance to insect pests. A Beta vulgaris serine proteinase inhibitor gene (BvSTI) was fused to the constitutive CaMV35S promoter for over-expression in Nicotiana benthamiana plants to study its effect on lepidopteran insect pests. Independently derived BvSTI transgenic tobacco T2 homozygous progeny were shown to have relatively high BvSTI gene transcript levels. BvSTI-specific polyclonal antibodies cross-reacted with the expected 30 kDA recombinant BvSTI protein on Western blots. In gel trypsin inhibitor activity assays revealed a major clear zone that corresponded to the BvSTI proteinase inhibitor that was not detected in the untransformed control plants. BvSTI-transgenic plants were bioassayed for resistance to five lepidopteran insect pests. Spodoptera frugiperda, S. exigua and Manduca sexta larvae fed BvSTI leaves had significant reductions in larval weights as compared to larvae fed on untransformed leaves. In contrast, larval weights increased relative to the controls when Heliothis virescens and Agrotis ipsilon larvae were fed on BvSTI leaves. As the larvae entered the pupal stage, pupal sizes reflected the overall larval weights. Some developmental abnormalities of the pupae and emerging moths were noted. These findings suggest that the sugar beet BvSTI gene may prove useful for effective control of several different lepidopteran insect pests in genetically modified tobacco and other plants. The sugar beet serine proteinase inhibitor may be more effective for insect control because sugar beet is cropped in restricted geographical areas thus limiting the exposure of the insects to sugar beet proteinase inhibitors and build up of non-sensitive midgut proteases. PMID:23468963

Smigocki, Ann C.; Ivic-Haymes, Snezana; Li, Haiyan; Savi?, Jelena

2013-01-01

485

INSECT MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND  

E-print Network

#12;INSECT MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY #12;INSECT MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY Edited 13 14 15 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 #12;Preface vii Contributors ix 1 InsectGenomics 1 Subba R. Palli, Hua Bai, and John Wigginton 2 InsectMicroRNAs:FromMolecularMechanismstoBiologicalRoles 30 Xavier Belles

Piulachs, M. Dolors

486

Australian Museum Online: Insects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online exhibit provides information about insects and the scientists who study them. Topics include an introduction to the insect group (phylum Arthropoda), the process of metamorphosis, and biting and stinging insects. There are also discussions about keeping insects as pets, insect ectoparasites (fleas, lice, and others), a set of fact sheets on insect-related topics, and links to related websites. The collections page provides an overview of the Australian Museum's major insect collections, their history, and the museum's research programs and personnel.

487

Published September 2010 Integrated Pest Management  

E-print Network

Integrated Pest Management Practice standard. Growers enrolled in the Environmental Quality IncentivesPublished September 2010 Integrated Pest Management The PAMS Approach Specific Integrated Pest Management (IPM) tactics are selected to match crop/pest/environment scenarios. Each site should have

Isaacs, Rufus

488

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT CHECK LIST INTRODUCTION  

E-print Network

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT CHECK LIST INTRODUCTION Integrated Pest Management is a preventative advantages and disadvantages of an IPM program over traditional pest management. Traditional pest management. · The environmental improvements made to the facility to implement an IPM program will enhance the long-term stability

Mathis, Wayne N.

489

2012 South Carolina Pest Management Handbook  

E-print Network

crop pests based on pesticide labels, their own research or experience, and/or a number of other for Field Crops - 2012 2012 South Carolina Pest Management Handbook The Pest Management Handbook is a setAPT-1 2012 South Carolina Pest Management Handbook #12; Table of Measurements Standard

Duchowski, Andrew T.

490

2013 South Carolina Pest Management andbook  

E-print Network

crop pests based on pesticide labels, their own research or experience, and/or a number of other for Field Crops - 2013 2013 South Carolina Pest Management Handbook The Pest Management Handbook is a setAPT-1 2013 South Carolina Pest Management andbook #12; Table of Measurements and Conversions

Stuart, Steven J.

491

Large-Scale Management of Insect Resistance to Transgenic Cotton in Arizona: Can Transgenic Insecticidal Crops be Sustained?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major challenge for agriculture is management of insect resistance to toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produced by transgenic crops. Here we describe how a large-scale program is being developed in Arizona for management of resistance to Bt cotton in the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), and other insect pests of cotton. Financial support from growers makes this

Yves Carrière; Timothy J. Dennehy; Brent Pedersen; Shirley Haller; Christa Ellers-Kirk; Larry Antilla; Yong-Biao Liu; Elizabeth Willott; Bruce E. Tabashnik

2001-01-01

492

An amino acid substitution inhibits specialist herbivore production of an antagonist effector and recovers insect-induced plant defenses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plants respond to insect herbivory through the production of biochemicals that function as either direct defenses or indirect defenses via the attraction of natural enemies. Curiously, attack by even closely related insect pests can result in distinctive levels of induced plant defenses. Despite the...

493

Pest Management Recommendations for Sheep,  

E-print Network

Pest Management Recommendations for Sheep, Goats, and Swine A Cornell and Penn State Cooperative ..................................................................1 Sheep and Goats--General.........................................1 Sheep Keds (Ticks)................................................2 Lice..........................................................................2 Sheep Nose Bot

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

494

Hanford site integrated pest management plan  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site Integrated Pest Management Plan (HSIPMP) defines the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) decision process and subsequent strategies by which pest problems are to be solved at all Hanford Site properties per DOE-RL Site Infrastructure Division memo (WHC 9505090). The HSIPMP defines the roles that contractor organizations play in supporting the IPM process. In short the IPM process anticipates and prevents pest activity and infestation by combining several strategies to achieve long-term pest control solutions.

Giddings, R.F.

1996-04-09

495

Promise for plant pest control: root-associated pseudomonads with insecticidal activities  

PubMed Central

Insects are an important and probably the most challenging pest to control in agriculture, in particular when they feed on belowground parts of plants. The application of synthetic pesticides is problematic owing to side effects on the environment, concerns for public health and the rapid development of resistance. Entomopathogenic bacteria, notably Bacillus thuringiensis and Photorhabdus/Xenorhabdus species, are promising alternatives to chemical insecticides, for they are able to efficiently kill insects and are considered to be environmentally sound and harmless to mammals. However, they have the handicap of showing limited environmental persistence or of depending on a nematode vector for insect infection. Intriguingly, certain strains of plant root-colonizing Pseudomonas bacteria display insect pathogenicity and thus could be formulated to extend the present range of bioinsecticides for protection of plants against root-feeding insects. These entomopathogenic pseudomonads belong to a group of plant-beneficial rhizobacteria that have the remarkable ability to suppress soil-borne plant pathogens, promote plant growth, and induce systemic plant defenses. Here we review for the first time the current knowledge about the occurrence and the molecular basis of insecticidal activity in pseudomonads with an emphasis on plant-beneficial and prominent pathogenic species. We discuss how this fascinating Pseudomonas trait may be exploited for novel root-based approaches to insect control in an integrated pest management framework. PMID:23914197

Kupferschmied, Peter; Maurhofer, Monika; Keel, Christoph

2013-01-01

496

Plant volatile analogues strengthen attractiveness to insect.  

PubMed

Green leaf bug Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) is one of the major pests in agriculture. Management of A. lucorum was largely achieved by using pesticides. However, the increasing population of A. lucorum since growing Bt cotton widely and the increased awareness of ecoenvironment and agricultural product safety makes their population-control very challenging. Therefore this study was conducted to explore a novel ecological approach, synthetic plant volatile analogues, to manage the pest. Here, plant volatile analogues were first designed and synthesized by combining the bioactive components of ?-ionone and benzaldehyde. The stabilities of ?-ionone, benzaldehyde and analogue 3 g were tested. The electroantennogram (EAG) responses of A. lucorum adult antennae to the analogues were recorded. And the behavior assay and filed experiment were also conducted. In this study, thirteen analogues were acquired. The analogue 3 g was demonstrated to be more stable than ?-ionone and benzaldehyde in the environment. Many of the analogues elicited EAG responses, and the EAG response values to 3 g remained unchanged during seven-day period. 3 g was also demonstrated to be attractive to A. lucorum adults in the laboratory behavior experiment and in the field. Its attractiveness persisted longer than ?-ionone and benzaldehyde. This indicated that 3 g can strengthen attractiveness to insect and has potential as an attractant. Our results suggest that synthetic plant volatile analogues can strengthen attractiveness to insect. This is the first published study about synthetic plant volatile analogues that have the potential to be used in pest control. Our results will support a new ecological approach to pest control and it will be helpful to ecoenvironment and agricultural product safety. PMID:24911460

Sun, Yufeng; Yu, Hao; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Pickett, John A; Wu, Kongming

2014-01-01

497

Pre shipping dip treatments using soap, natural oils, and Isaria fumosorosea: potential biopesticides for mitigating the spread of whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) invasive insects on ornamental plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyodidae) is an invasive insect pest affecting different crops including vegetables, fruits, cereals, and ornamentals. The efficacy of some products such as commercial soap, natural oils and Preferal® (based on the entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosorosea ...

498

Odorant receptors of a primitive hymenopteran pest, the wheat stem sawfly.  

PubMed

The wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus, is an herbivorous hymenopteran that feeds exclusively on members of the Graminae family. Synanthropically, it has become one of the most important insect pests of wheat grown in the northern Great Plains region of the USA and Canada. Insecticides are generally ineffective because of the wheat stem sawfly's extended adult flight per