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Sample records for sardinia virus tylcsv

  1. The C2 protein of tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus acts as a pathogenicity determinant and a 16-amino acid domain is responsible for inducing a hypersensitive response in plants.

    PubMed

    Matić, Slavica; Pegoraro, Mattia; Noris, Emanuela

    2016-04-01

    The role of the C2 protein in the pathogenicity of tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) was investigated. Here we report that Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression of TYLCSV C2 resulted in a strong hypersensitive response (HR) in Nicotiana benthamiana, N. tabacum, and Arabidopsis thaliana, with induction of plant cell death and production of H2O2. Since HR is not evident in plants infected by TYLCSV, it is expected that TYLCSV encodes a gene (or genes) that counters this response. HR was partially counteracted by co-agroinfiltration of TYLCSV V2 and Rep, leading to chlorotic reaction, with no HR development. Considering that the corresponding C2 protein of the closely related tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) did not induce HR, alignment of the C2 proteins of TYLCSV and TYLCV were carried out and a hypervariable region of 16 amino acids was identified. Its role in the induction of HR was demonstrated using TYLCSV-TYLCV C2 chimeric genes, encoding two TYLCSV C2 variants with a complete (16 aa) or a partial (10 aa only) swap of the corresponding sequence of TYLCV C2. Furthermore, using NahG transgenic N. benthamiana lines compromised in the accumulation of salicylic acid (SA), a key regulator of HR, only a chlorotic response occurred in TYLCSV C2-infiltrated tissue, indicating that SA participates in such plant defense process. These findings demonstrate that TYLCSV C2 acts as a pathogenicity determinant and induces host defense responses controlled by the SA pathway. PMID:26826600

  2. Tête à Tête of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus and Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Sardinia Virus in Single Nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Morilla, Gabriel; Krenz, Björn; Jeske, Holger; Bejarano, Eduardo R.; Wege, Christina

    2004-01-01

    Since 1997 two distinct geminivirus species, Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), have caused a similar yellow leaf curl disease in tomato, coexisted in the fields of southern Spain, and very frequently doubly infected single plants. Tomatoes as well as experimental test plants (e.g., Nicotiana benthamiana) showed enhanced symptoms upon mixed infections under greenhouse conditions. Viral DNA accumulated to a similar extent in singly and doubly infected plants. In situ tissue hybridization showed TYLCSV and TYLCV DNAs to be confined to the phloem in both hosts, irrespective of whether they were inoculated individually or in combination. The number of infected nuclei in singly or doubly infected plants was determined by in situ hybridization of purified nuclei. The percentage of nuclei containing viral DNA (i.e., 1.4% in tomato or 6% in N. benthamiana) was the same in plants infected with either TYLCSV, TYLCV, or both. In situ hybridization of doubly infected plants, with probes that discriminate between both DNAs, revealed that at least one-fifth of infected nuclei harbored DNAs from both virus species. Such a high number of coinfected nuclei may explain why recombination between different geminivirus DNAs occurs frequently. The impact of these findings for epidemiology and for resistance breeding concerning tomato yellow leaf curl diseases is discussed. PMID:15367638

  3. Transcriptomics of tomato plants infected with TYLCSV or expressing the central TYLCSV Rep protein domain uncover changes impacting pathogen response and senescence.

    PubMed

    Lucioli, Alessandra; Perla, Carlo; Berardi, Alessandra; Gatti, Francesca; Spanò, Laura; Tavazza, Mario

    2016-06-01

    To establish a successful infection viruses need to overcome plant innate immune responses and redirect host gene expression for their multiplication and diffusion. Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) is a geminivirus, which causes significant economic losses in tomato. The multifunctional replication associated geminivirus protein (Rep) has an important role during viral infection. In particular, the Rep central domain spanning from aa 120 to 180 is known to interact with viral and host factors. In this study, we used long serial analysis of gene expression to analyse the transcriptional profiles of transgenic tomato plants expressing the first 210 amino acids of TYLCSV Rep (Rep210) and TYLCSV-infected wild-type tomato plants (Wt-Ty). Also, we compared these profiles with those of transgenic Rep130 tomatoes. Comparison of Wt-Ty and Rep210 libraries with the wild-type one identified 118 and 203 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), respectively. Importantly, 55% of Wt-Ty DEGs were in common with Rep210, and no ones showed opposite expression. Conversely, a negligible overlap was found between Rep130 DEGs and Wt-Ty and Rep210 ones. TYLCSV- and Rep210-repressed genes, but not induced ones, overlapped with the leaf senescence process. Interestingly, TYLCSV upregulates expression of genes involved in the negative regulation of programmed cell death (PCD), several of which were also regulated by the abscisic acid. Rep210 upregulated genes related to defence response, immune system processes and negative regulation of PCD. Collectively, our results support a model in which the Rep central domain has a pivotal role in redirecting host plant gene expression. PMID:26966899

  4. Transcriptomics of the Interaction between the Monopartite Phloem-Limited Geminivirus Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Sardinia Virus and Solanum lycopersicum Highlights a Role for Plant Hormones, Autophagy and Plant Immune System Fine Tuning during Infection

    PubMed Central

    Miozzi, Laura; Napoli, Chiara; Sardo, Luca; Accotto, Gian Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV), a DNA virus belonging to the genus Begomovirus, causes severe losses in tomato crops. It infects only a limited number of cells in the vascular tissues, making difficult to detect changes in host gene expression linked to its presence. Here we present the first microarray study of transcriptional changes induced by the phloem-limited geminivirus TYLCSV infecting tomato, its natural host. The analysis was performed on the midrib of mature leaves, a material naturally enriched in vascular tissues. A total of 2206 genes were up-regulated and 1398 were down-regulated in infected plants, with an overrepresentation of genes involved in hormone metabolism and responses, nucleic acid metabolism, regulation of transcription, ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and autophagy among those up-regulated, and in primary and secondary metabolism, phosphorylation, transcription and methylation-dependent chromatin silencing among those down-regulated. Our analysis showed a series of responses, such as the induction of GA- and ABA-responsive genes, the activation of the autophagic process and the fine tuning of the plant immune system, observed only in TYLCSV-tomato compatible interaction so far. On the other hand, comparisons with transcriptional changes observed in other geminivirus-plant interactions highlighted common host responses consisting in the deregulation of biotic stress responsive genes, key enzymes in the ethylene biosynthesis and methylation cycle, components of the ubiquitin proteasome system and DNA polymerases II. The involvement of conserved miRNAs and of solanaceous- and tomato-specific miRNAs in geminivirus infection, investigated by integrating differential gene expression data with miRNA targeting data, is discussed. PMID:24587146

  5. Virion Stability Is Important for the Circulative Transmission of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Sardinia Virus by Bemisia tabaci, but Virion Access to Salivary Glands Does Not Guarantee Transmissibility▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Caciagli, Piero; Medina Piles, Vicente; Marian, Daniele; Vecchiati, Manuela; Masenga, Vera; Mason, Giovanna; Falcioni, Tania; Noris, Emanuela

    2009-01-01

    The capsid protein (CP) of the monopartite begomovirus Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV), family Geminiviridae, is indispensable for plant infection and vector transmission. A region between amino acids 129 and 152 is critical for virion assembly and insect transmissibility. Two previously described mutants, one with a double Q129P Q134H mutation (PNHD) and another with a further D152E change (PNHE), were found nontransmissible (NT). Another NT mutant with a single N130D change (QDQD) was retrieved from a new mutational analysis. In this study, these three NT mutants and the wild-type (wt) virus were compared in their relationships with the whitefly vector Bemisia tabaci and the nonvector Trialeurodes vaporariorum. Retention kinetics of NT mutants were analyzed by quantitative dot blot hybridization in whiteflies fed on infected plants. The QDQD mutant, whose virions appeared nongeminate following purification, was hardly detectable in either whitefly species at any sampling time. The PNHD mutant was acquired and circulated in both whitefly species for up to 10 days, like the wt virus, while PNHE circulated in B. tabaci only. Using immunogold labeling, both PNHD and PNHE CPs were detected in B. tabaci salivary glands (SGs) like the wt virus, while no labeling was found in any whitefly tissue with the QDQD mutant. Significant inhibition of transmission of the wt virus was observed after prior feeding of the insects on plants infected with the PNHE mutant, but not on plants infected with the other mutants. Virion stability and ability to cross the SG barrier are necessary for TYLCSV transmission, but interactions with molecular components inside the SGs are also critical for transmissibility. PMID:19321611

  6. West Nile Virus outbreak in Sardinia, Italy, in 2011.

    PubMed

    Spissu, Nicoletta; Panichi, Giovanni; Montisci, Antonio; Fiore, Filippo

    2013-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) is an enveloped, positive-sense RNA virus belonging to the genus Flavivirus, antigenically related to the Japanese encephalitis complex in the family Flaviviridae. The principal vectors are mosquitoes, in particular Culex spp, and virus amplification seems to occur in susceptible birds that are the principal vertebrate reservoir hosts, whereas humans, horses and other vertebrates are considered incidental or dead-end hosts. The first Italian equine outbreak was reported in late summer of 1998 in Tuscany, in the area surrounding the Fucecchio marshes, where 14 clinical cases of WND in housed equines were recorded. In 2011 WNV appeared for the first time in Sardinia, representing the first clinical cases in equines in Italy in 2011. The outbreak occurred both in humans and in equines. The serological survey performed on 253 equines living in the province of Oristano detected a total of 87 IgG-positive subjects. Among them, 46 horses showed neurological signs such as ataxia, paresis, paralysis, hyperesthesia, muscle fasciculations, seizures, or fever. Nine of them died or were euthanized. In forthcoming years, surveillance of wild birds and insects will be used to forecast the extension and spread of WNV. The information gathered will be used to direct or optimise strategies intended to prevent virus transmission. PMID:23324814

  7. Functional analysis of gene-silencing suppressors from tomato yellow leaf curl disease viruses.

    PubMed

    Luna, Ana P; Morilla, Gabriel; Voinnet, Olivier; Bejarano, Eduardo R

    2012-10-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD) is caused by a complex of phylogenetically related Begomovirus spp. that produce similar symptoms when they infect tomato plants but have different host ranges. In this work, we have evaluated the gene-silencing-suppression activity of C2, C4, and V2 viral proteins isolated from the four main TYLCD-causing strains in Spain in Nicotiana benthamiana. We observed varying degrees of local silencing suppression for each viral protein tested, with V2 proteins from all four viruses exhibiting the strongest suppression activity. None of the suppressors were able to avoid the spread of the systemic silencing, although most produced a delay. In order to test the silencing-suppression activity of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) proteins in a shared (tomato) and nonshared (bean) host, we established novel patch assays. Using these tools, we found that viral proteins from TYLCV were able to suppress silencing in both hosts, whereas TYLCSV proteins were only effective in tomato. This is the first time that viral suppressors from a complex of disease-causing geminiviruses have been subject to a comprehensive analysis using two economically important crop hosts, as well as the established N. benthamiana plant model. PMID:22712505

  8. C2 from Beet curly top virus promotes a cell environment suitable for efficient replication of geminiviruses, providing a novel mechanism of viral synergism.

    PubMed

    Caracuel, Zaira; Lozano-Durán, Rosa; Huguet, Stéphanie; Arroyo-Mateos, Manuel; Rodríguez-Negrete, Edgar A; Bejarano, Eduardo R

    2012-05-01

    • Geminiviruses are plant viruses with circular, single-stranded (ss) DNA genomes that infect a wide range of species and cause important losses in agriculture. Geminiviruses do not encode their own DNA polymerase, and rely on the host cell machinery for their replication. • Here, we identify a positive effect of the curtovirus Beet curly top virus (BCTV) on the begomovirus Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) infection in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. • Our results show that this positive effect is caused by the promotion of TYLCSV replication by BCTV C2. Transcriptomic analyses of plants expressing C2 unveil an up-regulation of cell cycle-related genes induced on cell cycle re-entry; experiments with two mutated versions of C2 indicate that this function resides in the N-terminal part of C2, which is also sufficient to enhance geminiviral replication. Moreover, C2 expression promotes the replication of other geminiviral species, but not of RNA viruses. • We conclude that BCTV C2 has a novel function in the promotion of viral replication, probably by restoring the DNA replication competency of the infected cells and thus creating a favourable cell environment for viral spread. Because C2 seems to have a broad impact on the replication of geminiviruses, this mechanism might have important epidemiological implications. PMID:22404507

  9. Pepper (Capsicum annuum) Is a Dead-End Host for Tomato yellow leaf curl virus.

    PubMed

    Morilla, G; Janssen, D; García-Andrés, S; Moriones, E; Cuadrado, I M; Bejarano, E R

    2005-09-01

    ABSTRACT Tomato yellow leaf curl (TYLC) is one of the most devastating pathogens affecting tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) worldwide. The disease is caused by a complex of begomovirus species, two of which, Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), are responsible for epidemics in Southern Spain. TYLCV also has been reported to cause severe damage to common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) crops. Pepper (Capsicum annuum) plants collected from commercial crops were found to be infected by isolates of two TYLCV strains: TYLCV-Mld[ES01/99], an isolate of the mild strain similar to other TYLCVs isolated from tomato crops in Spain, and TYLCV-[Alm], an isolate of the more virulent TYLCV type strain, not previously reported in the Iberian Peninsula. In this work, pepper, Nicotiana benthamiana, common bean, and tomato were tested for susceptibility to TYLCV-Mld[ES01/99]and TYLCV-[Alm] by Agrobacterium tumefaciens infiltration, biolistic bombardment, or Bemisia tabaci inoculation. Results indicate that both strains are able to infect plants of these species, including pepper. This is the first time that infection of pepper plants with TYLCV clones has been shown. Implications of pepper infection for the epidemiology of TYLCV are discussed. PMID:18943307

  10. Ebola virus disease: Case management in the Institute of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital of Sassari, Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Bertoli, Giulia; Mannazzu, Marco; Madeddu, Giordano; Are, Riccardo; Muredda, Alberto; Babudieri, Sergio; Calia, Giovanna; Lovigu, Carla; Maida, Ivana; Contini, Luciana; Miscali, Anna; Rubino, Salvatore; Delogu, Fiorenzo; Mura, Maria Stella

    2016-01-01

    Since the onset of the worst epidemic of Ebola virus disease in December 2013, 28,637 cases were reported as confirmed, probable, or suspected. Since the week of 3 January 2016, no more cases have been reported. The total number of deaths have amounted to 11,315 (39.5%). In developed countries, seven cases have been diagnosed: four in the United States, one in Spain, one in the United Kingdom, and one in Italy. On 20 July 2015, Italy was declared Ebola-free. On 9 May 2015, an Italian health worker came back to Italy after a long stay in Sierra Leone working for a non-governmental organization. Forty-eight hours after his arrival, he noticed headache, weakness, muscle pains, and slight fever. The following day, he was safely transported to the Infectious Diseases Unit of University Hospital of Sassari. The patient was hospitalized for 19 hours until an Italian Air Force medical division transferred him to Rome, to the Lazzaro Spallanzani Institute. Nineteen people who had contacts with the patient were monitored daily for 21 days by the Public Health Office of Sassari and none presented any symptoms. So far, neither vaccine nor treatment is available to be proposed on an international scale. Ebola is considered a re-emerging infectious disease which, unlike in the past, has been a worldwide emergency. This case study aimed to establish a discussion about the operative and logistic difficulties to be faced and about the discrepancy arising when protocols clash with the reality of facts. PMID:27249532

  11. Corsica and Sardinia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Rich in antiquities and picturesque landscapes, the island provinces of Corsica, France, (top) and Sardinia, Italy, (bottom) have captured the imaginations of historians and poets alike for centuries. Corsica, crowned with snow-capped mountains, jeweled with shimmering lakes, and cloaked in misty emerald forests, is situated in the sapphire blue Mediterranean Sea southeast of mainland France. The island enjoys a relatively warm climate consisting of hot, dry summers full of sunshine, and mild winters that rarely dip below 0oC (32oF). In this scene, Corsica is the smaller island to the north. The island has almost 1,700 hills and mountains, ranging from 300 to over 2,700 meters in height. The tallest of these peaks is the snow-capped Monte Cinto toward the northern end of the island. Coursing throughout the island is an extensive network of rivers, carved into Corsica's granite face by snowmelt and rainwater runoff. The Corsican Cape sits on the island's northern finger; its eastern slope is somewhat hilly. There are quite a few agricultural fields and vineyards visible as the light green swath to the south all along the eastern shore. Along the southern shore are the dazzling cliffs of Bonifacio. Moving up the west coast in the state of Ajaccio we see a jagged, chiseled water front, reminiscent of the famous fjords of Norway. There are four large gulfs and many smaller rocky inlets sculpted into Corsica's west coast. Moving soutward, they are the Gulfs of Porto, Sagone, Ajaccio, and Valinco. The larger island to the south--across the Strait of Bonifacio--is Sardinia, Italy, one the earliest populated lands of Europe. Some ancient artifacts date human populations there as old as 6000 B.C. Around 1500 B.C., another group of settlers arrived on the island (historians don't know where they came from) and spread quickly across the island. Known as the Nuragic people, these settlers built almost 30,000 circular fortresses--called 'nuraghe'-- around the island; each

  12. Solution Structure of the Endonuclease Domain from the Master Replication Initiator Protein of the Nanovirus Faba Bean Necrotic Yellows Virus and Comparison with the corresponding Geminivirus and Circovirus Structures†‡

    PubMed Central

    Vega-Rocha, Susana; Gronenborn, Bruno; Gronenborn, Angela M.; Campos-Olivas, Ramón

    2008-01-01

    Nanoviruses are a family of plant viruses that posses a genome of multiple circular single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) components and are strikingly similar in their replication mode to the plant geminiviruses and to the circoviruses that infect birds or mammals. These viruses multiply by rolling circle replication using virus-encoded multifunctional replication initiator proteins (Rep proteins) that catalyze the initiation of replication on a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) intermediate and the resolution of the ssDNA into circles. Here we report the solution NMR three-dimensional structure of the endonuclease domain from the Master Rep (M-Rep) protein of faba bean necrotic yellows virus (FBNYV), a representative of the nanoviruses. The domain comprises amino acids 2-95 (M-Rep2-95) and its global fold is similar to those previously described for the gemini- and circovirus Rep endonuclease domain, consisting of a central 5-stranded antiparallel β-sheet covered on one side by an α-helix and irregular loops and on the other, more open side of the domain, by an α-helix containing the catalytic tyrosine residue (the catalytic helix). Longer domain constructs extending to amino acids 117 and 124, were also characterized. They contain an additional α-helix, are monomeric and exhibit catalytic activity indistinguishable from that of M-Rep2-95. The binding site for the catalytic metal was identified by paramagnetic broadening and maps to residues on the exposed face of the central β-sheet. A comparison with the previously determined Rep endonuclease domain structures of tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV), a geminivirus, and that of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) Rep allows the identification of a positively charged surface that is most likely involved dsDNA binding, and reveals common features shared by all endonuclease domains of nanovirus, geminivirus, and circovirus Rep proteins. PMID:17472345

  13. The C2 Protein from the Geminivirus Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Sardinia Virus Decreases Sensitivity to Jasmonates and Suppresses Jasmonate-Mediated Defences

    PubMed Central

    Rosas-Díaz, Tábata; Macho, Alberto P.; Beuzón, Carmen R.; Lozano-Durán, Rosa; Bejarano, Eduardo R.

    2016-01-01

    An increasing body of evidence points at a role of the plant hormones jasmonates (JAs) in determining the outcome of plant-virus interactions. Geminiviruses, small DNA viruses infecting a wide range of plant species worldwide, encode a multifunctional protein, C2, which is essential for full pathogenicity. The C2 protein has been shown to suppress the JA response, although the current view on the extent of this effect and the underlying molecular mechanisms is incomplete. In this work, we use a combination of exogenous hormone treatments, microarray analysis, and pathogen infections to analyze, in detail, the suppression of the JA response exerted by C2. Our results indicate that C2 specifically affects certain JA-induced responses, namely defence and secondary metabolism, and show that plants expressing C2 are more susceptible to pathogen attack. We propose a model in which C2 might interfere with the JA response at several levels. PMID:27135228

  14. Trichinella britovi from domestic to wild animals of Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Bandino, E; Goddi, L; Mulas, M; Murgia, M C; Soddu, M; Marucci, G; Pezzotti, P; Cabras, P A; Pozio, E

    2015-09-15

    The zoonotic nematode Trichinella britovi has been documented in animals and/or humans of the Mediterranean islands of Corsica and Sardinia since 2004. From 2005 to 2007 in the Sardinia island, several surveys had shown that T. britovi was circulating among backyard and free-ranging pigs reared in the Orgosolo municipality but all attempts had failed to detect this parasite in wild susceptible animals. The aim of the present work was to investigate the circulation of T. britovi in pigs and wildlife of the Orgosolo municipality, and of surrounding municipalities and provinces in the 2010-2014 slaughtering/hunting seasons. The results show that the T. britovi circulation was still restricted to the Orgosolo municipality with a prevalence of 2.6% in free-ranging pigs and 0.2% in backyard pigs but, for the first time, this parasite was detected also in 0.4% of wild boar, and 27.6% of red foxes. No infection was detected in backyard pigs, wild boar, and red foxes of the other municipalities and provinces. Since 1978, African swine fever is endemic in Sardinia and foci of this virus are still active in the investigated areas favoring cannibalism and, consequently, the T. britovi transmission, due to the high mortality rate caused by this virus. This is the first documented report on the transmission of T. britovi between the domestic and the sylvatic cycle. The health authority of the island must provide a service to dispose animal carcasses and offal, stamping out illegal free-ranging pigs, and train hunters and pig owners to manage waste and by-products according to the EU regulations. PMID:26264251

  15. Identification of Host Genes Involved in Geminivirus Infection Using a Reverse Genetics Approach

    PubMed Central

    Luna, Ana P.; Bejarano, Eduardo R.

    2011-01-01

    Geminiviruses, like all viruses, rely on the host cell machinery to establish a successful infection, but the identity and function of these required host proteins remain largely unknown. Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV), a monopartite geminivirus, is one of the causal agents of the devastating Tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD). The transgenic 2IRGFP N. benthamiana plants, used in combination with Virus Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS), entail an important potential as a tool in reverse genetics studies to identify host factors involved in TYLCSV infection. Using these transgenic plants, we have made an accurate description of the evolution of TYLCSV replication in the host in both space and time. Moreover, we have determined that TYLCSV and Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) do not dramatically influence each other when co-infected in N. benthamiana, what makes the use of TRV-induced gene silencing in combination with TYLCSV for reverse genetic studies feasible. Finally, we have tested the effect of silencing candidate host genes on TYLCSV infection, identifying eighteen genes potentially involved in this process, fifteen of which had never been implicated in geminiviral infections before. Seven of the analyzed genes have a potential anti-viral effect, whereas the expression of the other eleven is required for a full infection. Interestingly, almost half of the genes altering TYLCSV infection play a role in postranslational modifications. Therefore, our results provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying geminivirus infections, and at the same time reveal the 2IRGFP/VIGS system as a powerful tool for functional reverse genetics studies. PMID:21818318

  16. Evaluation of the risk factors contributing to the African swine fever occurrence in Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Martínez-López, Beatriz; Perez, Andres M; Feliziani, Francesco; Rolesu, Sandro; Mur, Lina; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José M

    2015-01-01

    This study assesses the relation between hypothesized risk factors and African swine fever virus (ASFV) distribution in Sardinia (Italy) after the beginning of the eradication program in 1993, using a Bayesian multivariable logistic regression mixed model. Results indicate that the probability of ASFV occurrence in Sardinia was associated to particular socio-cultural, productive and economical factors found in the region, particularly to large number of confined (i.e., closed) farms (most of them backyard), high road density, high mean altitude, large number of open fattening farms, and large number of pigs per commune. Conversely, large proportion of open farms with at least one census and large proportion of open farms per commune, were found to be protective factors for ASFV. Results suggest that basic preventive and control strategies, such as yearly census or registration of the pigs per farm and better control of the public lands where pigs are usually raised, together with endanced effords of outreach and communication with pig producers should help in the success of the eradication program for ASF in the Island. Methods and results presented here will inform decision making to better control and eradicate ASF in Sardinia and in all those areas with similar management and epidemiological conditions. PMID:25926829

  17. Evaluation of the risk factors contributing to the African swine fever occurrence in Sardinia, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-López, Beatriz; Perez, Andres M.; Feliziani, Francesco; Rolesu, Sandro; Mur, Lina; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José M.

    2015-01-01

    This study assesses the relation between hypothesized risk factors and African swine fever virus (ASFV) distribution in Sardinia (Italy) after the beginning of the eradication program in 1993, using a Bayesian multivariable logistic regression mixed model. Results indicate that the probability of ASFV occurrence in Sardinia was associated to particular socio-cultural, productive and economical factors found in the region, particularly to large number of confined (i.e., closed) farms (most of them backyard), high road density, high mean altitude, large number of open fattening farms, and large number of pigs per commune. Conversely, large proportion of open farms with at least one census and large proportion of open farms per commune, were found to be protective factors for ASFV. Results suggest that basic preventive and control strategies, such as yearly census or registration of the pigs per farm and better control of the public lands where pigs are usually raised, together with endanced effords of outreach and communication with pig producers should help in the success of the eradication program for ASF in the Island. Methods and results presented here will inform decision making to better control and eradicate ASF in Sardinia and in all those areas with similar management and epidemiological conditions. PMID:25926829

  18. Analyzing wildfire exposure on Sardinia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salis, Michele; Ager, Alan A.; Arca, Bachisio; Finney, Mark A.; Alcasena, Fermin; Bacciu, Valentina; Duce, Pierpaolo; Munoz Lozano, Olga; Spano, Donatella

    2014-05-01

    We used simulation modeling based on the minimum travel time algorithm (MTT) to analyze wildfire exposure of key ecological, social and economic features on Sardinia, Italy. Sardinia is the second largest island of the Mediterranean Basin, and in the last fifty years experienced large and dramatic wildfires, which caused losses and threatened urban interfaces, forests and natural areas, and agricultural productions. Historical fires and environmental data for the period 1995-2009 were used as input to estimate fine scale burn probability, conditional flame length, and potential fire size in the study area. With this purpose, we simulated 100,000 wildfire events within the study area, randomly drawing from the observed frequency distribution of burn periods and wind directions for each fire. Estimates of burn probability, excluding non-burnable fuels, ranged from 0 to 1.92x10-3, with a mean value of 6.48x10-5. Overall, the outputs provided a quantitative assessment of wildfire exposure at the landscape scale and captured landscape properties of wildfire exposure. We then examined how the exposure profiles varied among and within selected features and assets located on the island. Spatial variation in modeled outputs resulted in a strong effect of fuel models, coupled with slope and weather. In particular, the combined effect of Mediterranean maquis, woodland areas and complex topography on flame length was relevant, mainly in north-east Sardinia, whereas areas with herbaceous fuels and flat areas were in general characterized by lower fire intensity but higher burn probability. The simulation modeling proposed in this work provides a quantitative approach to inform wildfire risk management activities, and represents one of the first applications of burn probability modeling to capture fire risk and exposure profiles in the Mediterranean basin.

  19. Alkaloids from Glaucium flavum from Sardinia.

    PubMed

    Petitto, Valentina; Serafini, Mauro; Gallo, Francesca Romana; Multari, Giuseppina; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2010-07-01

    Glaucium flavum collected in Sardinia was studied using a phytochemical approach in order to evaluate its alkaloid composition and obtain a comparison with the alkaloid contents of the same species in populations of other geographic proveniences. In fact, different chemoecotypes of G. flavum have been identified, on the basis of their particular content and composition in alkaloids, in accordance with the different distribution areas. The analysis showed that Sardinian G. flavum contains a homogeneous alkaloid pattern of aporphyne type, significantly different from those reported for populations from other parts of Europe. PMID:20552526

  20. Thirty-Five-Year Presence of African Swine Fever in Sardinia: History, Evolution and Risk Factors for Disease Maintenance.

    PubMed

    Mur, L; Atzeni, M; Martínez-López, B; Feliziani, F; Rolesu, S; Sanchez-Vizcaino, J M

    2016-04-01

    Despite the implementation of control efforts and funds to fight against the disease, African swine fever (ASF) has been present in Sardinia since 1978. It has caused serious problems for both the industrial pig sector and the regional authorities in Sardinia, as well as the economy of Italy and the European Union, which annually supports the costly eradication programme. During this time, ASF has persisted, especially in the central-east part of Sardinia where almost 75% of the total outbreaks are concentrated. The Sardinian pig sector is clearly divided into two categories based on the specialization and industrialization of production: industrial farms, which represents only 1.8% of the farms in the island and non-professional holdings, which are comprised of small producers (90% of pig holdings have <15 pigs) and apply little to no biosecurity measures. Additionally, illegally raised pigs are still bred in free-ranging systems in certain isolated parts of the island, despite strict regulations. The illegal raising of pigs, along with other high-risk management practices (e.g., use of communal areas) are likely the primary reasons for endemic persistence of the virus in this area. The compensation provided to the farmers, and other aspects of the eradication programme have also negatively influenced eradication efforts, indicating that socio-cultural and economic factors play an important role in the epidemiology of ASF on the island. The aim of this study was to comprehensively review the evolution of the 35-year presence of ASF in Sardinia, including control measures, and the environmental and socio-economic factors that may have contributed to disease endemicity on the island. The present review highlights the need for a coordinated programme that considers these socio-economic and environmental factors and includes an assessment of new cost-effective control strategies and diagnostic tools for effectively controlling ASF in Sardinia. PMID:25212957

  1. DNA Helicase Activity Is Associated with the Replication Initiator Protein Rep of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Geminivirus▿

    PubMed Central

    Clérot, Danielle; Bernardi, Françoise

    2006-01-01

    The Rep protein of tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV), a single-stranded DNA virus of plants, is the replication initiator essential for virus replication. TYLCSV Rep has been classified among ATPases associated with various cellular activities (AAA+ ATPases), in superfamily 3 of small DNA and RNA virus replication initiators whose paradigmatic member is simian virus 40 large T antigen. Members of this family are DNA- or RNA-dependent ATPases with helicase activity necessary for viral replication. Another distinctive feature of AAA+ ATPases is their quaternary structure, often composed of hexameric rings. TYLCSV Rep has ATPase activity, but the helicase activity, which is instrumental in further characterization of the mechanism of rolling-circle replication used by geminiviruses, has been a longstanding question. We present results showing that TYLCSV Rep lacking the 121 N-terminal amino acids has helicase activity comparable to that of the other helicases: requirements for a 3′ overhang and 3′-to-5′ polarity of unwinding, with some distinct features and with a minimal AAA+ ATPase domain. We also show that the helicase activity is dependent on the oligomeric state of the protein. PMID:16943286

  2. A versatile transreplication-based system to identify cellular proteins involved in geminivirus replication.

    PubMed

    Morilla, Gabriel; Castillo, Araceli G; Preiss, Werner; Jeske, Holger; Bejarano, Eduardo R

    2006-04-01

    A versatile green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression cassette containing the replication origins of the monopartite begomovirus Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) is described. Transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants containing one copy of the cassette stably integrated into their genome were superinfected with TYLCSV, which mobilized and replicated the cassette as an episomal replicon. The expression of the reporter gene (the GFP gene) was thereby modified. Whereas GFP fluorescence was dimmed in the intercostal areas, an increase of green fluorescence in veins of all leaves placed above the inoculation site, as well as in transport tissues of roots and stems, was observed. The release of episomal trans replicons from the transgene and the increase in GFP expression were dependent on the cognate geminiviral replication-associated protein (Rep) and required interaction between Rep and the intergenic region of TYLCSV. This expression system is able to monitor the replication status of TYLCSV in plants, as induction of GFP expression is only produced in those tissues where Rep is present. To further confirm this notion, the expression of a host factor required for geminivirus replication, the proliferating cellular nuclear antigen (PCNA) was transiently silenced. Inhibition of PCNA prevented GFP induction in veins and reduced viral DNA. We propose that these plants could be widely used to easily identify host factors required for geminivirus replication by virus-induced gene silencing. PMID:16537630

  3. A Versatile Transreplication-Based System To Identify Cellular Proteins Involved in Geminivirus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Morilla, Gabriel; Castillo, Araceli G.; Preiss, Werner; Jeske, Holger; Bejarano, Eduardo R.

    2006-01-01

    A versatile green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression cassette containing the replication origins of the monopartite begomovirus Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) is described. Transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants containing one copy of the cassette stably integrated into their genome were superinfected with TYLCSV, which mobilized and replicated the cassette as an episomal replicon. The expression of the reporter gene (the GFP gene) was thereby modified. Whereas GFP fluorescence was dimmed in the intercostal areas, an increase of green fluorescence in veins of all leaves placed above the inoculation site, as well as in transport tissues of roots and stems, was observed. The release of episomal trans replicons from the transgene and the increase in GFP expression were dependent on the cognate geminiviral replication-associated protein (Rep) and required interaction between Rep and the intergenic region of TYLCSV. This expression system is able to monitor the replication status of TYLCSV in plants, as induction of GFP expression is only produced in those tissues where Rep is present. To further confirm this notion, the expression of a host factor required for geminivirus replication, the proliferating cellular nuclear antigen (PCNA) was transiently silenced. Inhibition of PCNA prevented GFP induction in veins and reduced viral DNA. We propose that these plants could be widely used to easily identify host factors required for geminivirus replication by virus-induced gene silencing. PMID:16537630

  4. Results of Skylab investigation over Italy. [Sicily and Sardinia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassinis, R.; Lechi, G. M.; Tonelli, A. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Multispectral high resolution photography of S190A was successfully applied to the detection of paleoriverbeds in flat lands. Results of SL-3 mission were compared to those of LANDSAT for two regional geological surveys (linear structures) on the islands of Sicily and Sardinia. On Sicily, the seasonal conditions were unfavorable for Skylab while LANDSAT played a major role in discovering long, unknown lineaments of great interest for the geodynamics of the area. On Sardinia, owing to the vegetation type and to the geomorphic conditions, the Skylab imagery was successfully employed to describe the network of linears, both regional and local. Results can be used to study the relationship between linears, actual fracturing and the occurrence of mineral deposits.

  5. Dynamical analysis of sea-breeze hodograph rotation in Sardinia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moisseeva, N.; Steyn, D. G.

    2014-09-01

    This study investigates the diurnal evolution of sea-breeze rotation over an island in the mid-latitudes. Earlier research on sea-breezes in Sardinia shows that the onshore winds around various coasts of the island exhibit both the theoretically predicted clockwise rotation as well as seemingly anomalous anti-clockwise rotation. A non-hydrostatic fully compressible numerical model (WRF) is used to simulate wind fields on and around the island on previously-studied sea-breeze days and is shown to accurately capture the circulation on all coasts. Diurnal rotation of wind is examined and patterns of clockwise and anti-clockwise rotation are identified. A dynamical analysis is performed by extracting individual forcing terms from the horizontal momentum equations. Analysis of several regions around the island shows that the direction of rotation is a result of a complex interaction between near-surface and synoptic pressure gradient, Coriolis and advection forcings. An idealized simulation is performed over an artificial island with dramatically simplified topography, yet similar dimensions and latitude to Sardinia. Dynamical analysis of the idealized case reveals a rather different pattern of hodograph rotation to the real Sardinia, yet similar underlying dynamics. The research provides new insights into the dynamics underlying sea-breeze hodograph rotation, especially in coastal zones with complex topography and/or coastline.

  6. Dynamical analysis of sea-breeze hodograph rotation in Sardinia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moisseeva, N.; Steyn, D. G.

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates the diurnal evolution of sea-breeze (SB) rotation over an island at the middle latitudes. Earlier research on sea breezes in Sardinia shows that the onshore winds around various coasts of the island exhibit both the theoretically predicted clockwise rotation as well as seemingly anomalous anticlockwise rotation. A non-hydrostatic fully compressible numerical model (WRF) is used to simulate wind fields on and around the island on previously studied sea-breeze days, and is shown to capture the circulation on all coasts accurately. Diurnal rotation of wind is examined, and patterns of clockwise and anticlockwise rotation are identified. A dynamical analysis is performed by extracting individual forcing terms from the horizontal momentum equations. Analysis of several regions around the island shows that the direction of rotation is a result of a complex interaction between near-surface and synoptic pressure gradient, Coriolis and advection forcings. An idealized simulation is performed over an artificial island with dramatically simplified topography yet similar dimensions and latitude to Sardinia. Dynamical analysis of the idealized case reveals a rather different pattern of hodograph rotation to the real Sardinia, yet similar underlying dynamics. The research provides new insights into the dynamics underlying sea-breeze hodograph rotation, especially in coastal zones with a complex topography and/or coastline.

  7. An overview on Sardinia's soft ticks (Ixodida: Argasidae).

    PubMed

    Fois, Francesco; Culurgioni, Jacopo; Cappai, Stefano; Mereu Piras, Pierpaola; Toma, Luciano; Rolesu, Sandro; Liciardi, Manuele

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge about soft ticks (Ixodida: Argasidae) in Sardinia is incomplete and distribution data need to be updated. This work studies soft ticks on the island focusing on two species, Argas reflexus and Ornithodoros maritimus, both recently recorded. A total number of 12 specimens of these species of interest were collected between 2004 and 2015. This study reports for the first time the presence of O. maritimus in a coastal area in Italy, and more generally in a coastal area rather than small islands near the coastline, confirming the presence of this species on the island 20 years after its last recording. Moreover we confirm the presence of A. reflexus on the island, in the town of Cagliari and, for the first time, in the town of Quartu Sant'Elena. At the present state of knowledge, in Sardinia, Ornithodoros erraticus, which was actively looked for within the surveillance for African swine fever, an endemic disease since 1978 on the island, is not present. The presence of another species reported only once in Sardinia, Argas vespertilionis, needs further confirmation. PMID:26940844

  8. a GIS of SARDINIA'S Coastal Defense System (xvi - XVIII Century)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deidda, M.; Musa, C.; Vacca, G.

    2015-06-01

    The use of GIS as a tool for archival, analysis and representation of geographic information has become significantly popular in many scientific fields that are directly concerned with the "territory" as their object of study. The field of application of GIS, however, has expanded also in other areas, such as those related to humanities and architecture, in which the territory is studied in an "indirect" mode because it constitutes a kind of substrate on which to develop a specific spatial analysis for particular purposes. Among these areas are to be included certainly archeology and restoration, fields in which the GIS has become a useful tool for historical studies. In this work we present a GIS developed for the study of the historical and territorial coastal defense system of Sardinia (16th - 18th century), in order to respond to the need to store, analyze and efficiently manage the information regarding cultural heritage and landscape heritage such as that consisting of the coastal defensive towers of Sardinia. This defensive system, in fact, was composed by over 100 towers positioned around the entire coastal perimeter of Sardinia, of which more than 90 still exist today. Their position was planned on the basis of the following criteria: - Warning the neighboring towers about the sighting of enemy ships - Protecting coasts located near the towns - Monitoring the water sources near the coast - Allowing for the full visibility of the coasts of any morphology With this study we also verified, through the use of high resolution and high accuracy DTM (LiDAR) and the topographic databases, whether the positioning criteria specified in the design of the system were respected and effective.

  9. Nuraghic Well of Santa Cristina, Paulilatino, Oristano, Sardinia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebeuf, Arnold

    The Nuraghic well of Santa Cristina, Sardinia, has been regarded as a ritual monument built to receive moonlight on its water mirror at the time of the meridian passage of the moon when it reaches its highest point in the sky around the time of a major standstill. In this chapter, we investigate the precision that could have been achieved and conclude that the well could indeed have served as an instrument for measuring the lunar declination during half of the draconic cycle of 18.61 years.

  10. Isoflavone Content in Subterranean Clover Germplasm from Sardinia.

    PubMed

    Tava, Aldo; Stochmal, Anna; Pecetti, Luciano

    2016-08-01

    Subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum) is an important pasture legume, and Sardinia is known as a major centre of diversification of this species. As other legumes, this clover produces biologically active flavonoids including the subclass of isoflavones that are natural phytoestrogens with positive health effects. Present sources of isoflavones for medical/nutraceutical treatments are red clover (Trifolium pratense) and soybean (Glycine max). This study assessed the content and composition of flavonoids in 14 subterranean clover genotypes from Sardinia, grown ex-situ in comparison with two red clover ecotypes, to acquire information on the potential of the species as an alternative source of isoflavones for possible exploitation. Twenty compounds were tentatively identified across the two clovers after HPLC and LC/ESI-MS analyses, including clovamide, four flavonols, and 15 isoflavones. Most compounds were present as glucosides or glucosyl malonates. Subterranean clover extracts mainly comprised of derivatives of the isoflavones genistein, biochanin A, and formononetin. Compared to red clover, subterranean clover had higher content of total isoflavones and lower concentration of total flavonols. The isoflavone concentration in subterranean clover was higher than literature data for soybean or red clover. The existing genotypic variation warrants the possibility of selecting varieties with high isoflavone concentration for nutraceutical or pharmaceutical purposes. PMID:27415852

  11. Low Entalpy Geothermal suitability of north Sardinia (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuccuru, Stefano; Oggiano, Giacomo

    2015-04-01

    This note focus on geothermal potentialities of north Sardinia, where several positive thermal anomalies occur along with geolithological and climatic conditions, which make the area specifically suitable for geoexchange. Sardinia consists of a Variscan basement metamorphosed at different grade and further intruded by a late orogenic batholith. Above this basement, since Mesozoic time, a composite sedimentary and volcanic succession occurs, with maximum thickness of 2-3 Km in correspondence of some extensional and strike-slip Cenozoic basins. The volcanic activity consists of a calcalkaline cycle with crustal component, which started in the late Eocene and ended in the Serravallian; another, mantle derived, alkaline-transitional cycle took place during Pliocene and ended in the middle Pleistocene. Several evidences of geothermal circuits occur in northwestern Sardinia, where some springs characterized by anomalous water temperatures and/or chemical-physical features (e.g., high salinity and carbon dioxide content) were known. In addiction those already exploited (e.g., S. Lucia, S. Martino), new springs and boreholes characterized by positive anomalous water temperatures (in the range of 24 and 35 °C) have been highlighted during our recent surveys. These waters are warmer than the homoeothermic level temperature (where no seasonal variations are recorded), which in the area is 15-16 °C. Considering the absence of active volcanism, the anomalous temperatures must be generated by the uprising of deep meteoric water along a plumbing network of crustal faults that bound the extensional as well as the strike slip basins. Rainwater heated for geothermal gradient can upwell rapidly interacting with surface aquifers that, hence, experience heating at different degree. The physical characteristics (i.e., thermal conductivity, open porosity, permeability etc) of the rocks cropping in north Sardinia, regardless the positive thermal anomalies, are profitably suitable for

  12. Quinto Tiberio Angelerio and New Measures for Controlling Plague in 16th-Century Alghero, Sardinia

    PubMed Central

    Benedictow, Ole Jørgen; Fornaciari, Gino; Giuffra, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Plague, a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, has been responsible for at least 3 pandemics. During 1582–1583, a plague outbreak devastated the seaport of Alghero in Sardinia. By analyzing contemporary medical texts and local documentation, we uncovered the pivotal role played by the Protomedicus of Alghero, Quinto Tiberio Angelerio (1532–1617), in controlling the epidemic. Angelerio imposed rules and antiepidemic measures new to the 16th-century sanitary system of Sardinia. Those measures undoubtedly spared the surrounding districts from the spread of the contagion. Angelerio seems to have been an extremely successful public health officer in the history of plague epidemics in Sardinia. PMID:23968598

  13. Quinto Tiberio Angelerio and new measures for controlling plague in 16th-century Alghero, Sardinia.

    PubMed

    Bianucci, Raffaella; Benedictow, Ole Jørgen; Fornaciari, Gino; Giuffra, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Plague, a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, has been responsible for at least 3 pandemics. During 1582-1583, a plague outbreak devastated the seaport of Alghero in Sardinia. By analyzing contemporary medical texts and local documentation, we uncovered the pivotal role played by the Protomedicus of Alghero, Quinto Tiberio Angelerio (1532-1617), in controlling the epidemic. Angelerio imposed rules and antiepidemic measures new to the 16th-century sanitary system of Sardinia. Those measures undoubtedly spared the surrounding districts from the spread of the contagion. Angelerio seems to have been an extremely successful public health officer in the history of plague epidemics in Sardinia. PMID:23968598

  14. First results from the SARDINIA deep seismic cruise on the Western Sardinia and Gulf of Lions conjugate margin pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gailler, A.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Beslier, M.; Olivet, J.; Aslanian, D.; Bache, F.; Moulin, M.; Matias, L.; Afilhado, A.; Nouze, H.

    2008-12-01

    The deep North-Western Mediterranean (or Provencal) basin was formed by thinning and rotation of the Corsica-Sardinia block which started 30-20 Ma ago. It is bounded by the Gulf of Lions to the north, the Catalan margin to the west, the Ligurian Sea to the east, and the Valencia Trough to the south-west, in which rifting started at roughly the same time as in the Provencal basin. The basin has a depth of up to 2.8 km and a sedimentary layer thickness of up to 8 km. The central part of the basin is presumed to be underlain by a crust of oceanic nature, while the neighboring Valencia Trough is situated on thinned continental crust. During the SARDINIA cruise of the R/V Atalante in December 2006, three wide-angle seismic profiles were acquired in the Gulf of Lions area and three profiles on the conjugate margin offshore Sardinia. The main goals of the SARDINIA project were to image the deep structure of the conjugate margin pair, to characterize the nature of the crust, detect any exhumed upper mantle materiel and to define the geometry of the basins to better constrain the opening history of the basin. During the cruise, a total of 57 ocean bottom seismometers/hydrophones (OBS/OBH) from Ifremer, the University of Brest and Geomar, Kiel were deployed in the Gulf of Lions region and 47 OBS and OBH offshore Sardinia. The lines perpendicular to the margins were recorded by landstations onshore, thus prolonging the profiles. Tomographic and forward wide-angle seismic models of the deep seismic data from the margin perpendicular profile located in the Gulf of Lions image a sedimentary layer up to 8 km thickness, which is locally strongly disturbed by salt tectonics. They indicate, that crustal thinning in the Gulf of Lions area occurs within a 100 km wide zone. East of this zone of crustal thinning is a zone characterized by high velocities in the lower crust (7.2-7.4 km/s) atypical for either thinned continental or normal oceanic crust. The boundary of this layer

  15. Geochemistry of sedimentary-derived migmatite from NE Sardinia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruciani, Gabriele; Fancello, Dario; Franceschelli, Marcello; Scodina, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    In NE Sardinia at Porto Ottiolu, about 30 km south of Olbia (NE Sardinia), crops out a sequence of migmatized ortho and paragneiss, belonging to the Variscan basement's axial zone. Sedimentary-derived migmatite, which have a layered appearance in the field, were affected by three major variscan folding phase. D2, which is characterized by tight folds, is the most widespread deformation in the field. Leucosomes consists of discontinuous centimetre-thick, coarse-grained layers, that follow the S2 schistosity and are folded by D2 deformation phase. The contact with mesosome is sharp and sometimes marked by melanosome trails. They consist of quartz, plagioclase, very rare K-feldspar, muscovite, biotite, fibrolite, and rare kyanite. Plagioclase is unzoned oligoclase, though in some cases a thin albite rim is observed. Muscovite occurs as: i) single small- to medium-grained flakes enclosed in feldspar; ii) coarse grained crystals associated to biotite, fibrolite, and opaques, iii) in intergrowth with biotite to form thin elongated, slightly oriented trails, marking the faint foliation. Mesosomes are medium-grained, well foliated rocks, consisting of quartz, plagioclase muscovite, , biotite, fibrolite ± K-feldspar ± garnet. Fibrolite, muscovite and biotite are associated, to form strongly oriented, thick levels. Muscovite also occurs as unoriented crystals, showing quartz exsolutions and thin rims. A few mm-thick melanosome is usually present at the boundary between the leucosomes and mesosomes. Leucosomes are characterized by: SiO2: 75.4-77.9; Al2O3: 13.2-14.5; Fe2O3tot: 0.3-0.5; MgO: 0.1-0.2; CaO: 2.7- 3.7; Na2O: 3.9-4.6; K2O: 0.4-0.6 wt.%. An interesting feature is the relative high calcium content already described in other sedimentary-derived migmatite from Sardinia (Cruciani et al., 2008). In the normative Ab-An-Or diagram (Barker, 1979) the leucosomes plot at the boundary between trondhjemite/tonalite fields. All leucosomes are corundum normative and peraluminous

  16. Geological impact of some tailings dams in Sardinia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Gregorio, Felice; Massoli-Novelli, Raniero

    1992-05-01

    This article deals with the results of a survey carried out in Sardinia on both active and abandoned tailings dams, and we also discuss the geological impact of tailings dams of two mines: the Masua mine, a large syngenetic Pb-Zn deposit located in Cambrian limestones, and the Montevecchio mine, a Pb-Zn vein deposit near a Hercynian granite intrusion. The characteristics and metal content of material in the dams were analyzed. A high contamination of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu) was found both in the soils and water of Rio Montevecchio, a stream draining the tailings dams and other mining operations in the area. The study indicates that a control plan to minimize heavy metal pollution must be drawn up for all mines of the area, whether active or abandoned.

  17. High-precision pointing with the Sardinia Radio Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppi, Sergio; Pernechele, Claudio; Pisanu, Tonino; Morsiani, Marco

    2010-07-01

    We present here the systems aimed to measure and minimize the pointing errors for the Sardinia Radio Telescope: they consist of an optical telescope to measure errors due to the mechanical structure deformations and a lasers system for the errors due to the subreflector displacement. We show here the results of the tests that we have done on the Medicina 32 meters VLBI radio telescope. The measurements demonstrate we can measure the pointing errors of the mechanical structure, with an accuracy of about ~1 arcsec. Moreover, we show the technique to measure the displacement of the subreflector, placed in the SRT at 22 meters from the main mirror, within +/-0.1 mm from its optimal position. These measurements show that we can obtain the needed accuracy to correct also the non repeatable pointing errors, which arise on time scale varying from seconds to minutes.

  18. The microwave holography system for the Sardinia Radio Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra, G.; Bolli, P.; Busonera, G.; Pisanu, T.; Poppi, S.; Gaudiomonte, F.; Zacchiroli, G.; Roda, J.; Morsiani, M.; López-Pérez, J. A.

    2012-09-01

    Microwave holography is a well-established technique for mapping surface errors of large reflector antennas, particularly those designed to operate at high frequencies. We present here a holography system based on the interferometric method for mapping the primary reflector surface of the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT). SRT is a new 64-m-diameter antenna located in Sardinia, Italy, equipped with an active surface and designed to operate up to 115 GHz. The system consists mainly of two radio frequency low-noise coherent channels, designed to receive Ku-band digital TV signals from geostationary satellites. Two commercial prime focus low-noise block converters are installed on the radio telescope under test and on a small reference antenna, respectively. Then the signals are amplified, filtered and downconverted to baseband. An innovative digital back-end based on FPGA technology has been implemented to digitize two 5 MHz-band signals and calculate their cross-correlation in real-time. This is carried out by using a 16-bit resolution ADCs and a FPGA reaching very large amplitude dynamic range and reducing post-processing time. The final holography data analysis is performed by CLIC data reduction software developed within the Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM, Grenoble, France). The system was successfully tested during several holography measurement campaigns, recently performed at the Medicina 32-m radio telescope. Two 65-by-65 maps, using an on-the-fly raster scan with on-source phase calibration, were performed pointing the radio telescope at 38 degrees elevation towards EUTELSAT 7A satellite. The high SNR (greater than 60 dB) and the good phase stability led to get an accuracy on the surface error maps better than 150 μm RMS.

  19. Analyzing seasonal patterns of wildfire exposure factors in Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Salis, Michele; Ager, Alan A; Alcasena, Fermin J; Arca, Bachisio; Finney, Mark A; Pellizzaro, Grazia; Spano, Donatella

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we applied landscape scale wildfire simulation modeling to explore the spatiotemporal patterns of wildfire likelihood and intensity in the island of Sardinia (Italy). We also performed wildfire exposure analysis for selected highly valued resources on the island to identify areas characterized by high risk. We observed substantial variation in burn probability, fire size, and flame length among time periods within the fire season, which starts in early June and ends in late September. Peak burn probability and flame length were observed in late July. We found that patterns of wildfire likelihood and intensity were mainly related to spatiotemporal variation in ignition locations, fuel moisture, and wind vectors. Our modeling approach allowed consideration of historical patterns of winds, ignition locations, and live and dead fuel moisture on fire exposure factors. The methodology proposed can be useful for analyzing potential wildfire risk and effects at landscape scale, evaluating historical changes and future trends in wildfire exposure, as well as for addressing and informing fuel management and risk mitigation issues. PMID:25471625

  20. Analysis of UV Satellite and Ground Observed data for Sardinia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervone, Guido; Manca, Germana; Johnson, Kathleen

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation in the 280 to 400 nanometers range has been found to be one of the primary cause for skin cancer. The correlation between UV radiation and skin cancer prevention is of global concern. Satellite observations from Nimbus7 (1978-1993), EarthProbe (1996-2004) and OMI/AURA (2004-present) provide long term UV time-series that can be used to study and compute the risk associated with exposure to harmful radiation. Additionally, several ground installations exist to acquire UV radiation data that can be paired with satellite observations. The current work presents the data mining analysis of UV time series from 1978 to present for the Italian region of Sardinia. Satellite observations are paired with ground measurements to provide historical averages of UV radiation, and daily maps of current exposure. A Geographical Information System (GIS) is used to fuse UV data with ground characteristics. The use of GIS is fundamental to calculate the real value of UV on the ground. It is known that the incidence of solar radiation, and consequently of UV, is modified by topography and surface features. Topography plays a important rule, because it is a major factor that determines the spatial variability of insulation and UV being a part of direct insulation. variation in elevation orientation (slope and aspect), and shadow cast by topographical features, determine the UV insulation in a given area or point.

  1. Multidisciplinary studies on ancient sandstone quarries of Western Sardinia (Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grillo, Silvana Maria; Del Vais, Carla; Naitza, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    The ancient coastal quarries of Mediterranean are increasingly considered geosites of multidisciplinary relevance. They are sites of historical-archaeological interest that show ancient techniques of stone extraction; they are significant for cultural heritage conservation and restoration, as sources of the stones used in ancient buildings and monuments; they are sites of geological relevance, as often retain important stratigraphic sections; they are also useful markers of secular changes in the sea level. A multisciplinary study is in progress on the ancient quarries of the Sinis region (western Sardinia island), integrating archaeological, geological, minero-petrographical data. In Sardinia, coastal quarries have been established from Punic and Roman times. Many of them exploited Quaternary sediments along the southern and western coasts of the island. They consist of middle-late Pleistocene marine conglomerates and carbonate sandstones, and of coastal (aeolian) carbonate sandstones. Sandstone blocks of different sizes have been widely used in ancient cities for buildings, defensive works, harbours, etc. Three main areas of stone extraction (San Giovanni di Sinis, Punta Maimoni, Is Arutas) have been so far recognized in the Sinis. GIS-supported mapping and documentation of the sites includes their geology and stratigraphy, the extension and layout of the quarries, and an evaluation of volumes of extracted rocks. Documented archaeological evidences include ancient extraction fronts, spoil heaps, working areas, working traces in the old fronts, transport routes of blocks, and traces of loading facilities. The study is aimed at reconstructing the relationships of the quarries with the urban areas of Sinis, as the ancient Punic-Roman city of Tharros. Consequently, a minero-petrographical characterization (optical microscopy, XRD) is performed on sandstones sampled in each quarry, and in historical buildings in Tharros and other centres of the region (Cabras

  2. Viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lytic bacteriophages, viruses which infect and lyse bacterial cells, can provide a natural method to reduce bacterial pathogens on produce commodities. The use of multi-phage cocktails is most likely to be effective against bacterial pathogens on produce commodities, and minimize the development of...

  3. Variations and trends of Fagaceae pollen in Northern Sardinia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canu, Annalisa; Pellizzaro, Grazia; Arca, Bachisio; Vargiu, Arnoldo

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze variations in the start and the end dates of pollen season, date of maximum concentration peak, pollen season duration, pollen concentration value and Seasonal Pollen Index of airborne Fagaceae pollen series recorded in Sassari, Northern Italy, and to evaluate their relation to meteorological data. Daily pollen concentration data were measured from 1986 to 2008 in a urban area of northern Sardinia (Italy) using a Burkard seven-day recording volumetric spore trap. The date of the peak occurrence was defined as the day when the cumulated daily pollen values reached the 50 % of the total annual pollen concentration. Meteorological data were recorded during the same period by an automatic weather station. Cumulative Degree days were calculated, for each year, from different starting dates using the daily averaging method. The correlation between meteorological variables and the different characteristics of pollen seasons was analyzed using Spearman's correlation tests. In the city of Sassari the Fagaceae airborne pollen content was mainly due to Quercus. The main pollen season took place from April to June. The longest pollen season appeared in the year 2002. The cumulative counts varied over the years, with a mean value of 5,336 pollen grains, a lowest total of 550 in 1986 and a highest total of 8,678 in 2001. Daily pollen concentrations presented positive correlation with temperature, and negative with relative humidity (p<0,0001) and with rainfall. In addition, Cumulative Degree days were significantly correlated with the dates of maximum concentration peak (p<0,0001).

  4. Hazards in the coastal karst of Balai (NW Sardinia, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanna, Laura; Uda, Michele; Pascucci, Vincenzo

    2016-04-01

    The coastal karst area of Balai headland is located in the central part of the Gulf of Asinara (North-West Sardinia, Italy) near the city of Porto Torres, comprised between the homonymous harbour and Platamona beach. This karst plateau has a monocline geometry truncated by the coastal escarpment, up to 40 m-high, that in the last decades has been affected by slope instability related to human activities and/or climate change. The area is characterised by a flat morphology constituted of Miocene limestone gently dipping towards the North-West. Its altitude ranges from 0 to 50 m asl. The 3 km-long cliff is locally interrupted by some small gravelly coves. Along the longitudinal profile of the headland, three main morphological steps have been identified at 15, 8 and 6.5 m asl. They represent past wave cut platforms. The shoreline is well marked and the coves cut into the land up to 50 m in length, perpendicularly to the coast. They follow the direction of a series of parallel NE-facing fractures. The modern tidal notch is well exposed along the carbonate cliff at the present sea level. Along the limestone cliff, notch development is amplified by mixing of sea and fresh water coming from submerged springs. Moreover, this marine erosion feature is a good sea level marker in microtidal conditions, such as Mediterranean Sea, and an indicator of tectonic stability, of the Sardinian microplate. In some coves, two generations of fossil notches have been observed at 6.5 m asl and -1 m bsl, respectively, along with lithophaga boreholes up to 8 m asl. Both indicate the past eustatic conditions. All these geomorphic features make Balai promontory an interesting geological spot for studying past sea level fluctuations and present slope movements, trying to distinguish hazards due to climate change from those directly related to anthropogenic forces such as wave-induced damage due to waterborne navigation.

  5. Isotopic constraints on the genesis of base-metal ores in southern and central Sardinia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludwig, K. R.; Vollmer, R.; Turi, B.; Simmons, K.R.; Perna, G.

    1989-01-01

    The Pb-Zn-Ag deposits of southwestern and central Sardinia occur within a restricted region, but comprise a variety of mineralization ages and styles. New Pb-isotope data, together with published data provide a reasonably coherent picture of possible sources for the various types of deposits. -from Authors

  6. Height-reducing variants and selection for short stature in Sardinia.

    PubMed

    Zoledziewska, Magdalena; Sidore, Carlo; Chiang, Charleston W K; Sanna, Serena; Mulas, Antonella; Steri, Maristella; Busonero, Fabio; Marcus, Joseph H; Marongiu, Michele; Maschio, Andrea; Del Vecchyo, Diego Ortega; Floris, Matteo; Meloni, Antonella; Delitala, Alessandro; Concas, Maria Pina; Murgia, Federico; Biino, Ginevra; Vaccargiu, Simona; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Lohmueller, Kirk E; Timpson, Nicholas J; Soranzo, Nicole; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Dedoussis, George; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Uzzau, Sergio; Jones, Chris; Lyons, Robert; Angius, Andrea; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Novembre, John; Schlessinger, David; Cucca, Francesco

    2015-11-01

    We report sequencing-based whole-genome association analyses to evaluate the impact of rare and founder variants on stature in 6,307 individuals on the island of Sardinia. We identify two variants with large effects. One variant, which introduces a stop codon in the GHR gene, is relatively frequent in Sardinia (0.87% versus <0.01% elsewhere) and in the homozygous state causes Laron syndrome involving short stature. We find that this variant reduces height in heterozygotes by an average of 4.2 cm (-0.64 s.d.). The other variant, in the imprinted KCNQ1 gene (minor allele frequency (MAF) = 7.7% in Sardinia versus <1% elsewhere) reduces height by an average of 1.83 cm (-0.31 s.d.) when maternally inherited. Additionally, polygenic scores indicate that known height-decreasing alleles are at systematically higher frequencies in Sardinians than would be expected by genetic drift. The findings are consistent with selection for shorter stature in Sardinia and a suggestive human example of the proposed 'island effect' reducing the size of large mammals. PMID:26366551

  7. Extensive Nosocomial Transmission of Measles Originating in Cruise Ship Passenger, Sardinia, Italy, 2014.

    PubMed

    Filia, Antonietta; Bella, Antonino; Cadeddu, Giovanna; Milia, Maria Rafaela; Del Manso, Martina; Rota, Maria Cristina; Magurano, Fabio; Nicoletti, Loredana; Declich, Silvia

    2015-08-01

    We report a measles outbreak in Sardinia, Italy, that originated in a cruise ship passenger. The outbreak showed extensive nosocomial transmission (44 of 80 cases). To minimize nosocomial transmission, health care facilities should ensure that susceptible health care workers are vaccinated against measles and should implement effective infection control procedures. PMID:26196266

  8. Extensive Nosocomial Transmission of Measles Originating in Cruise Ship Passenger, Sardinia, Italy, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Bella, Antonino; Cadeddu, Giovanna; Milia, Maria Rafaela; Del Manso, Martina; Rota, Maria Cristina; Magurano, Fabio; Nicoletti, Loredana; Declich, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    We report a measles outbreak in Sardinia, Italy, that originated in a cruise ship passenger. The outbreak showed extensive nosocomial transmission (44 of 80 cases). To minimize nosocomial transmission, health care facilities should ensure that susceptible health care workers are vaccinated against measles and should implement effective infection control procedures. PMID:26196266

  9. Oligo-Miocene rift of Sardinia and the early history of the Western Mediterranean Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherchi, A.

    1982-08-01

    The geodynamic evolution of the Western Mediterranean Basin, in spite of many studies, is still uncertain. There is some consensus for interpreting this basin as a kind of small oceanic marginal basin. Its opening has generally been related to a subduction process which was active during the Oligocene-Miocene somewhere east of Sardinia-Corsica1-7. As the margins of the basin are deeply buried below Miocene-to-present sediments, direct lithological and stratigraphical data which could explain the events responsible for its formation are rare8-10 or missing altogether. To obtain such data, detailed field studies have been undertaken in Sardinia (Fig. 1), and the first results are presented here. This approach is justified by the fact that in that island, Oligocene and Miocene sediments were deposited in a rift (fossa tettonica sarda of Verdabasso11), which is the easternmost arm of the complex rift system that affected the European plate during Oligocene and Miocene times. One of these arms evolved towards a small oceanic basin-the Western Mediterranean or Algero-Provençal Basin-while others such as the Gulf of Valencia and the Sardinia rift aborted and remained at the rift stage. Its exceptional exposures make it possible to examine the Sardinia rift to clarify the sequence of events which created it, and to establish a sedimentological model which we believe is directly applicable to the Western Mediterranean Basin.

  10. Thermochronological response to rifting and subduction in the Corsica-Sardinia block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malusà, Marco Giovanni; Danišík, Martin; Kuhlemann, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    The linkage between deep-seated tectonic processes and surface processes provides a key to investigate the geological evolution of complex plate boundaries starting from the analysis of low-temperature geochronological systems. Here, we integrate published thermochronological data from Corsica (Danišík et al., 2007) with a new multi-thermochronological dataset (i.e., zircon and apatite fission track (ZFT and AFT), and apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) data) from Sardinia, in order to tackle the Western Mediterranean tectonic issue and constrain the problematic transition in space and time between the opposite-dipping Alpine (European) and Apenninic (Adriatic) subductions. Mesozoic AFT ages (169-201 Ma) and AHe ages (133-204 Ma), found on mountain ridges of central Sardinia and on the eastern coast of the island, indicate that rocks now exposed at the surface have resided since Jurassic times at very shallow depth, i.e., above the partial annealing zone of the AFT system (~60-110°C) or even above the partial retention zone of the AHe system (~40-80°C). The observed age pattern and track length distributions are consistent with those predicted after rising of isothermal surfaces during rifting and subsequent thermal relaxation after continental break-up. We demonstrate that the crustal sections now exposed in central and eastern Sardinia were originally located closer to the Tethyan rift axis than crustal sections exposed in NW Sardinia and Corsica, pointing to a NNE trend for the continental crust isopachs of the northern Tethyan margin (ENE before Corsica-Sardinia rotation), with burial depth progressively increasing from SE to NW. In Alpine Corsica, the low-T geochronological evidence of Jurassic rifting was largely obliterated by Cenozoic metamorphism, but it is still recognized in high-T systems. AFT and AHe ages set after Tethyan rifting but not thermally affected by Neogene backarc extension, define a SE-NW trend of decreasing ages from southern Sardinia to northern

  11. Synoptic conditions favouring the occurrence of dust transport from Africa toward Sardinia Island.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canu, Annalisa; Pellizzaro, Grazia; Pintus, Gabriella; Duce, Pierpaolo

    2016-04-01

    Dust events that reach Italy have usually origin in the Sahara and Sahel regions (north-western part of Africa), which represent the dust sources nearest to Italy. In those regions the dust-lifting activity occurs in a remarkable way. Every dust event is different from the others; in fact dust transport and dust concentration in the air can vary remarkably depending on the synoptic situation. In Sardinia, dust events are more frequent in the May-November period, but they can also take place in the December-April period. The main aim of this work was to describe dust outbreaks in Sardinia and to identify the main meteorological scenarios that originate the transport of dust towards the central and western Mediterranean Basin. The evaluation of the geographical dispersion of Saharan dust was performed by using MODIS satellite data and Meteosat imagery combined with SKIRON forecasting model. The origin and the trajectory of the dust carried by winds towards Italy were inferred by the NOAA HYSPLIT model (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model). In addition, PM10 (particulate matter with a diameter of less than 10 μm) and meteorological data registered by the ARPAS (Regional Environmental Protection Agency of Sardinia) monitoring stations were used to highlight the arrival of African air masses in Sardinia. The study was carried out during the 2014. A total of five events occurred during the year (two in spring and three in autumn) were analyzed. The origin of air masses loaded with dust from North Africa was confirmed by satellite imagery and 3-days air mass backward trajectories calculated by the NOAA HYSPLIT model. The analysis of the PM10 daily pattern registered at northern and southern Sardinia sites showed a rising of values during the dust event. The arrival of air masses from Africa caused the daily mean air temperature to rise whereas relative humidity values decreased. Finally, the results showed that all the event analyzed were

  12. The "Land Unit and Soil Capability Map of Sardinia" at a 1:50,000 scale, a new tool for land use planning in Sardinia (Italy) - The pilot area of Pula-Capoterra (southwestern Sardinia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacca, Andrea; Marrone, Vittorio Alessandro; Loddo, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    The Regional Landscape Plan (RLP) of Sardinia (Italy), approved in 2006, establishes the directions for any land use planning in Sardinia and requires that pre-existing plans have to be changed to comply with these directives. In the RLP, the soil is specifically considered one of the main landscape components and in the RLP guidelines a soil survey of the whole communal territory is required. Moreover, Land Unit and Land Capability maps are explicitly required, and the adoption of a single regional reference legend for these maps is strongly recommended. The Planning Department of the Regional Administration of Sardinia (RAS) has recently realized the need for specific knowledge and tools to support land use planning according to the RLP rules. Consequently, a new project for the creation of a "Land Unit and Soil Capability Map of Sardinia", at a scale of 1:50,000, was recently initiated in four pilot areas. Two Universities (Cagliari and Sassari) and two regional Agencies (AGRIS and LAORE) are involved in the project, each of them being responsible for one pilot area. In this work we present the map of the pilot area Pula-Capoterra (southwestern Sardinia, 46,040 ha). A GIS approach was used. We used the soil-landscape paradigm for the prediction of soil classes and their spatial distribution based on landscape features. The work was divided into two main phases. In the first phase, the available digital data on topography, geology and land cover were processed and classified according to their influence on weathering processes and soil properties. Digital thematic maps of soil-forming factors (landform, parent material, land cover) were produced to build the first draft of the Land Unit Map. The dataset was developed in a GIS environment, exploiting its potential to produce derived maps by intersections, reclassifications and summarizing themes using GIS functions. The existing soil data (areal and point data) were collected, reviewed, validated and standardized

  13. Epidemiology and clinical aspects of Werner's syndrome in North Sardinia: description of a cluster.

    PubMed

    Masala, Maria Vittoria; Scapaticci, S; Olivieri, Carla; Pirodda, Cesare; Montesu, Maria Antonietta; Cuccuru, Maria Antonietta; Pruneddu, Sara; Danesino, Cesare; Cerimele, Decio

    2007-01-01

    Werner syndrome (WS, MIM#277700) is a very rare autosomal recessive disorder. WS clinical signs include altered distribution of subcutaneous fat, juvenile bilateral cataracts, a mask-like face and bird-like nose, trophic ulcers of the feet, diabetes mellitus, and premature atherosclerosis. The habitus is characteristic, with short stature, stocky trunk and slender extremities. WS frequency has been roughly estimated to be 1: 100,000 in Japan and 1: 1,000,000-1: 10,000,000 outside of Japan. The only exception to the latter data can be seen in the clustering of WS in Sardinia. Since 2001, 5 new cases have been observed: 4 members of the same family and 1 sporadic case. Therefore, since 1982 the total number of cases described in North Sardinia amounts to 18: 15 are familial (11 members of the same family group) and 3 sporadic. A short clinical description of the 5 new cases is reported. PMID:17478382

  14. No evidence of increased fire risk due to agricultural land abandonment in Sardinia (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricotta, C.; Guglietta, D.; Migliozzi, A.

    2012-05-01

    Different land cover types are related to different levels of fire hazard through their vegetation structure and fuel load composition. Therefore, understanding the relationships between landscape changes and fire behavior is of crucial importance for developing adequate fire fighting and fire prevention strategies for a changing world. In the last decades the abandonment of agricultural lands and pastoral activities has been the major driver of landscape transformations in Mediterranean Europe. As agricultural land abandonment typically promotes an increase in plant biomass (fuel load), a number of authors argue that vegetation succession in abandoned fields and pastures is expected to increase fire hazard. In this short paper, based on 28 493 fires in Sardinia (Italy) in the period 2001-2010, we show that there is no evidence of increased probability of fire ignition in abandoned rural areas. To the contrary, in Sardinia the decreased human impact associated with agricultural land abandonment leads to a statistically significant decrease of fire ignition probability.

  15. Human outbreak of trichinellosis in the Mediterranean island of Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Pozio, Edoardo; Mesina, Pietro; Sechi, Franco; Pira, Michele; Liciardi, Manuele; Cossu, Pasquale; Marucci, Gianluca; Garippa, Giovanni; Firinu, Antonio

    2006-08-31

    Trichinella sp. infection has been documented in both humans and animals in most Mediterranean countries, yet in the past 60 years no infections have been reported on the Mediterranean islands. We describe the first outbreak of Trichinella sp. infection to have been reported on the island of Sardinia. The outbreak occurred in two villages in 2005 and involved 11 persons who had eaten raw sausages made from the same free-ranging sow. All 11 persons developed signs and symptoms of trichinellosis and seroconverted within 48 days of consuming the infected meat. The etiological agent was Trichinella britovi. Sardinia, like all Mediterranean islands, had been considered to be Trichinella-free. The present report, together with a recent report of T. britovi infection in animals on the nearby island of Corsica (France), raises questions as to the validity of the concept of Trichinella-free areas or regions. PMID:16621284

  16. Height-reducing variants and selection for short stature in Sardinia

    PubMed Central

    Mulas, Antonella; Steri, Maristella; Busonero, Fabio; Marcus, Joseph H.; Marongiu, Michele; Maschio, Andrea; Ortega Del Vecchyo, Diego; Floris, Matteo; Meloni, Antonella; Delitala, Alessandro; Concas, Maria Pina; Murgia, Federico; Biino, Ginevra; Vaccargiu, Simona; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Lohmueller, Kirk E.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Soranzo, Nicole; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Dedoussis, George; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Uzzau, Sergio; Jones, Chris; Lyons, Robert; Angius, Andrea; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Novembre, John; Schlessinger, David; Cucca, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    We report sequencing-based whole-genome association analyses to evaluate the impact of rare and founder variants on stature in 6,307 individuals on the island of Sardinia. We identified two variants with large effects. One is a stop codon in the GHR gene, relatively frequent in Sardinia (0.87% vs <0.01% elsewhere), which in homozygosity causes the short stature Laron syndrome. We find that it reduces height in heterozygotes by an average of 4.2 cm (−0.64 s.d). The other variant, in the imprinted KCNQ1 gene (MAF = 7.7% vs <1% elsewhere) reduces height by an average of 1.83 cm (−0.31 s.d.) when maternally inherited. Additionally, polygenic scores indicate that known height-decreasing alleles are at systematically higher frequency in Sardinians than would be expected by genetic drift. The findings are consistent with selection toward shorter stature in Sardinia and a suggestive human example of the proposed “island effect” reducing the size of large mammals. PMID:26366551

  17. Conformation-Selective Methylation of Geminivirus DNA ▿

    PubMed Central

    Paprotka, T.; Deuschle, K.; Metzler, V.; Jeske, H.

    2011-01-01

    Geminiviruses with small circular single-stranded DNA genomes replicate in plant cell nuclei by using various double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) intermediates: distinct open circular and covalently closed circular as well as heterogeneous linear DNA. Their DNA may be methylated partially at cytosine residues, as detected previously by bisulfite sequencing and subsequent PCR. In order to determine the methylation patterns of the circular molecules, the DNAs of tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) and Abutilon mosaic virus were investigated utilizing bisulfite treatment followed by rolling circle amplification. Shotgun sequencing of the products yielded a randomly distributed 50% rate of C maintenance after the bisulfite reaction for both viruses. However, controls with unmethylated single-stranded bacteriophage DNA resulted in the same level of C maintenance. Only one short DNA stretch within the C2/C3 promoter of TYLCSV showed hyperprotection of C, with the protection rate exceeding the threshold of the mean value plus 1 standard deviation. Similarly, the use of methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes suggested that geminiviruses escape silencing by methylation very efficiently, by either a rolling circle or recombination-dependent replication mode. In contrast, attempts to detect methylated bases positively by using methylcytosine-specific antibodies detected methylated DNA only in heterogeneous linear dsDNA, and methylation-dependent restriction enzymes revealed that the viral heterogeneous linear dsDNA was methylated preferentially. PMID:21835804

  18. Conformation-selective methylation of geminivirus DNA.

    PubMed

    Paprotka, T; Deuschle, K; Metzler, V; Jeske, H

    2011-11-01

    Geminiviruses with small circular single-stranded DNA genomes replicate in plant cell nuclei by using various double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) intermediates: distinct open circular and covalently closed circular as well as heterogeneous linear DNA. Their DNA may be methylated partially at cytosine residues, as detected previously by bisulfite sequencing and subsequent PCR. In order to determine the methylation patterns of the circular molecules, the DNAs of tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) and Abutilon mosaic virus were investigated utilizing bisulfite treatment followed by rolling circle amplification. Shotgun sequencing of the products yielded a randomly distributed 50% rate of C maintenance after the bisulfite reaction for both viruses. However, controls with unmethylated single-stranded bacteriophage DNA resulted in the same level of C maintenance. Only one short DNA stretch within the C2/C3 promoter of TYLCSV showed hyperprotection of C, with the protection rate exceeding the threshold of the mean value plus 1 standard deviation. Similarly, the use of methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes suggested that geminiviruses escape silencing by methylation very efficiently, by either a rolling circle or recombination-dependent replication mode. In contrast, attempts to detect methylated bases positively by using methylcytosine-specific antibodies detected methylated DNA only in heterogeneous linear dsDNA, and methylation-dependent restriction enzymes revealed that the viral heterogeneous linear dsDNA was methylated preferentially. PMID:21835804

  19. Malaria, miseria, and underpopulation in Sardinia: the "malaria blocks development" cultural model.

    PubMed

    Brown, P J

    1997-05-01

    Until the late Nineteenth century, endemic malaria was a serious public health problem in Sardinia, as in much of Southern Italy. As the poorest region of the new Italian nation, Sardinia was characterized by poor health, very low population densities, low agricultural productivity, and weak state authority associated with banditry. In this context, however, malaria was singled out as a key underlying problem for the situation of "internal underdevelopment." This paper describes the Italian scholarly literature about the relationship of malaria and economic productivity as a cultural model that can be labeled as "malaria blocks development" (MBD). Anti-malaria programs, including the state control of the distribution of quinine as well as land reclamation projects, played a major role in the decrease of malaria mortality in the first part of this century. Based on the logic of the MBD model, the decrease in malaria was expected to decrease an obstacle to "natural processes" of economic development. During the Fascist era, scientifically based antimalaria efforts formed a key element in centralized attempts for agricultural intensification and encouragement of immigration from over-populated parts of the country. Immediately after W.W.II, Sardinia was the site of a successful American-sponsored eradication project that represented one of the first uses of DDT against an indigenous anopheles vector. Hypotheses based on the MBD model about the nature of economic change after the removal of malaria are not supported. Nevertheless, variations of the MBD cultural model continue to be used in the field of International Health to the present day. PMID:9311225

  20. A newly discovered Pliocene volcanic field on the western Sardinia continental margin (western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conforti, Alessandro; Budillon, Francesca; Tonielli, Renato; De Falco, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    A previously unknown submerged volcanic field offshore western Sardinia (western Mediterranean Sea), has been identified based on swath bathymetric data collected in 2009, 2010 and 2013, and high-resolution seismic profiles collected in 2011 and 2013. About 40 conical-shaped volcanic edifices (maximum width of about 1600 m and maximum height of about 180 m) and several lava outcrops (up to 1,200 m wide) were recognized at 20 to 150 m water depth over an area of 800 km2. The volcanic edifices are mainly eruptive monogenic vents, mostly isolated with a rather distinct shape, or grouped to form a coalescent volcanic body in which single elements are often still recognizable. High-resolution seismics enabled identifying relationships between the volcanic bodies and continental margin successions. The edifices overlie a major erosional surface related to the margin exposure following the Messinian salinity crisis, and are overlain by or interbedded with an early Pliocene marine unit. This seismo-stratigraphic pattern dates the volcanic activity to the early Pliocene, in agreement with the radiometric age of the Catalano island lavas (4.7 Ma) reported in earlier studies. The morphometry of the volcanic bodies suggests that cone erosion was higher at shallow water depths. Indeed, most of the shallow edifices are strongly eroded and flattened at 125 to 130 m water depth, plausibly explained by recurrent sub-aerial exposure during Pleistocene sea-level lowstands, whereas cones in deeper water are much better preserved. Volcanic vents and lava deposits, hereafter named the Catalano volcanic field (CVF), are emplaced along lineaments corresponding to the main directions of the normal fault system, which lowered the Sinis Basin and the western Sardinia continental margin. The CVF represents a volumetrically relevant phase of the late Miocene - Quaternary anorogenic volcanic cycle of Sardinia, which is related to the first stage of the extensional tectonics affecting the island

  1. Beach and dunal system monitoring at Su Giudeu beach, Sardinia (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balzano, Andrea; Sulis, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Even if coastal floods are quite rare events in Sardinia (Italy) at present, they have had dramatic consequences for coastal communities, particularly in conjunction with river flooding. However, flood risk (defined as the product of event probability, vulnerability and value of assets) is expected to increase significantly in the future, due to climate change, defence degradation and sea level rise. Sardinia island has a costal length of approximately 1.900 km including minor neighbouring islands (25% of the entire Italian coasts) and the estimation of the potential exposure of coastal communities to flooding is therefore a critical task. To date methods for achieving this have been based on modelling of coastal inundation using hydrodynamic or GIS-based models of varying complexity. The Dept of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Architecture at the University of Cagliari is carrying out a comprehensive activity of coastal flooding risk mapping at the regional scale within the framework of a scientific collaboration with the Sardinian Regional Authority for the Hydrographic District, that includes monitoring and scientific activities along the entire Sardinian coast. Bathymetry and topographical surveys, sediment characterization, waves and currents measurements, hydrodynamic and morphodynamic modelling are planned, focusing on critical extended areas. In this paper we present an overview of the entire activity programme and give an in-depth account of the ongoing monitoring survey of the dunal system of the Su Giudeu beach (Southern Sardinia, 50 km far from the city of Cagliari). Su Giudeu is a sandy, bay-shaped beach, extending for about 1200 m between two headlands, evolving under waves with a predominant direction of 220-240°N (Scirocco wind). The survey is expected to provide evidence of the response of the remarkable dunal system to wave runup occurring during storm events, to be used in the verification of existing numerical models of dune erosion.

  2. Analysis of 31 STR loci in the genetic isolate of Carloforte (Sardinia, Italy)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The genotypes of 31 autosomal short tandem repeat loci in the population of Carloforte were analyzed, these representing a linguistic and genetic isolate located on the island of Sardinia (Italy). The markers span the entire length of chromosomes 19, 20, 21 and 22. Allele frequencies and statistical parameters were presented for all loci. Observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.279 to 0.884, and polymorphism information content from 0.552 to 0.886. All but two loci showed Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after Bonferroni correction. The 31 short tandem repeat loci examined in the present work provide additional data on the genetic structure of the Carloforte population. PMID:21637506

  3. A Serosurvey for Brucellosis in Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) in Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Pilo, Cristian; Addis, Giuseppe; Deidda, Manuela; Tedde, Maria Tania; Liciardi, Manuele

    2015-10-01

    Porcine brucellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Brucella suis and hosted by pigs (Sus scrofa). Both domestic pigs and wild boars are affected. We measured the prevalence of antibody to Brucella spp. in wild boars in Sardinia, Italy. During 1 November 2009 to 31 January 2010, we collected 570 serum samples from legally hunted wild boars and tested them using a commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Sex and age class of the sampled wild boars were also recorded. Thirty-five samples were positive for an apparent antibody prevalence of 6.1%. Antibody prevalences did not differ between sexes or among age classes. PMID:26267463

  4. Topographical and astronomical analysis on the Neolithic "Altar" Of Monte D'accoddi In Sardinia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pili, P.; Realini, E.; Sampietro, D.; Zedda, M. P.; Franzoni, E.; Magli, G.

    The pre-historic 'altar' of Monte d'Accoddi - near Sassari, Sardinia - is a unique monument in the whole Mediterranean area. It is indeed a huge 'pyramid' constructed out of cyclopean masonry, but it exhibits a monumental access ramp similar to the Mesopotamian Ziggurats. The monument is extremely ancient since its first phases of construction date back to 3200 BC; it is usually interpreted as a sacred center perhaps devoted to the 'Mother Earth'. Although pretty little is known about pre-nuragic religion, astronomical alignments have been documented in contemporary sites in Sardinia. Therefore, with the aim of contributing to the interpretation of such a unique construction, we have carried out a new complete archaeoastronomical survey of this monument and its annexes, which is presented here. It turns out that, the presence of astronomical references at the site becomes apparent if the alignments defined by the menhirs located in the fields nearby are analyzed. Indeed, there exists convincing evidence that, from the summit of the platform, lines of sight at the eastern horizon guided by a white limestone menhir and by a reddish stone menhir located at some two hundreds meters from the monument framed the rising of the Sun at winter solstice, pointing to the rising of Sirius and to the southern extreme declination of Venus respectively, while the same menhirs were likely used as backsights for the standstills of the Moon as observed from the eastern corners of the monument.

  5. [Mollusc vectors of schistosomiasis in Sardinia and in the Mediterranean area: taxonomy and epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Biocca, E

    1980-12-01

    The present classification of molluscs, intermediate hosts of Schistosoma in the Mediterranean area (subfamily Bulininae), based on morphological characters of shell, radula teeth and soft anatomy is unsatisfactory. The electrophoretical study of gene-enzyme systems of many strains of different species of genus Bulinus has enabled us in 1979 to split this genus in three well differentiated genera: Bulinus, Physopsis and Isidora (syn. Mandahlbarthia). All the populations of I. truncata at our disposal (from Sardinia, Egypt, Lybia Morocco, etc.) have been genetically studied comparing gene-enzyme systems of each one of them with those of an egyptian reference strain, collected in Giza near Cairo (Egypt). The presence of many genetically well differentiated biotypes has been observed, confirming that Isidora truncata must be regarded as a complex; only in Sardinia have been found 6 genetically differentiated biotypes. The names of the subspecies of Isidora truncata (for instance Isidora truncata, rivularis, etc) have, in our opinion, no taxonomical significance, because it is not possible to identify them morphologically, biologically, serologically, etc. To the contrary the locality of origin of every population of I. truncata complex, followed by the discriminating gene-enzyme systems gives a genetical identification of obvious epidemiological interest. PMID:7267152

  6. Toxic Emissions from a Military Test Site in the Territory of Sardinia, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Cristaldi, Mauro; Foschi, Cristiano; Szpunar, Germana; Brini, Carlo; Marinelli, Fiorenzo; Triolo, Lucio

    2013-01-01

    This work assesses the environmental impact from chemical emissions due to military tests and routine activities in the area occupied by the Italian Inter-force Test Range (PISQ), located at Salto di Quirra, Sardinia, Italy. After reviewing the military activities carried out at PISQ, such as rocket launching, blasting and armament destruction, projectile and mortar fire impact, the associated pollution is evaluated. Chemical analyses were performed by means of Scanning Electronic Microscopy and Energy Dispersion Spectrometry on biotic and abiotic matrices. Residues of Rb, Tl, W, Ti and Al were found in matrices collected in the PISQ areas and environs. A review of experimental data on air, water, soil, milk, forage and animal tissues obtained by various Public Agencies of Sardinia proved that toxic element residues often exceeded the legal limits. PM10 and PM2.5 air concentrations also exceeded the legal limits after military blasting. Cd and Pb contents in the liver and kidneys of sheep living in farms at PISQ and in control farms that were located more than 20 km away from PISQ were higher than the legal limits. This work was performed to investigate concentration of xenobiotics in ecosystems emitted from PISQ activities. This assessment could be useful to focus future epidemiological studies carried out in PISQ and its neighbouring areas. PMID:23603867

  7. SEA effectiveness for landscape and master planning: An investigation in Sardinia

    SciTech Connect

    De Montis, Andrea; Ledda, Antonio; Caschili, Simone; Ganciu, Amedeo; Barra, Mario

    2014-07-01

    The Italian administrative bodies and planning agencies have embraced with mixed feedbacks the introduction of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) through the European Directive 2001/42/EC. Concurrently, regional and local spatial planning practice have been characterized by a new approach inspired by landscape planning. The Italian region of Sardinia has been one of the pioneering administrative bodies in the Italian and European arena that has adopted landscape principles for the construction of its regional master plan (PPR, Piano Paesaggistico Regionale). Municipalities are now carrying out the review of their master plans to the PPR's prescriptions and indications. Against this background, the aim of this paper is to assess the level of SEA implementation in the municipal master plans of Sardinia, six years after the approval of the PPR. Rooted in the SEA international literature we construct a modular and adaptable on-line survey for officers involved in the review of municipal master plans. The results show that many Sardinian municipalities have not reviewed their master plans to the PPR's regulations yet and only a few municipalities have started this review process according to the SEA procedure. - Highlights: • We study strategic environmental assessment (SEA) effectiveness on land use plans • Four SEA implementation key issues are drawn from international literature • Data collection has included an on-line survey with close and open questions • Results indicate that SEA has been poorly implemented in landscape and master plans • Weak aspects include planning alternatives, financial resources, and monitoring.

  8. Stream water chemistry in the arsenic-contaminated Baccu Locci mine watershed (Sardinia, Italy) after remediation.

    PubMed

    Ardau, Carla; Podda, Francesca; Da Pelo, Stefania; Frau, Franco

    2013-11-01

    The abandoned Pb-As Baccu Locci mine represents the first and only case of mine site remediation in Sardinia, Italy. Arsenic is the most relevant environmental concern in the Baccu Locci stream watershed, with concentrations in surface waters up to and sometimes over 1 mg/L. The main remediation action consisted in creation of a "storage site", for the collection of contaminated materials from different waste-rock dumps and most of tailings piles occurring along the Baccu Locci stream. This paper reports preliminary results on the level of contamination in the Baccu Locci stream after the completion of remediation measures. Post-remediation stream water chemistry has not substantially changed compared to the pre-remediation situation. In particular, dissolved As maintains an increasing trend along the Baccu Locci stream, with a concentration of about 400 μg/L measured at a distance of 7 km from the storage site. Future monitoring will provide fundamental information on the effectiveness of remediation actions conducted and their applicability to other mine sites in Sardinia. At the stage of mine site characterisation of future remediation plans, it is recommended to pay more attention to the understanding of mineralogical and geochemical processes responsible for pollution. Moreover, mixing of materials with different composition and reactivity in a storage site should require careful consideration and long-term leaching tests. PMID:23666684

  9. Detection of a bright radio flare of Cygnus X-1 at 7.2 GHz with the Sardinia Radio Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egron, E.; Pellizzoni, A.; Bachetti, M.; Navarrini, A.; Trois, A.; Pilia, M.; Iacolina, M. N.; Melis, A.; Concu, R.; Loru, S.; Sessini, A.; Grinberg, V.; Nowak, M.; Markoff, S.; Pottschmidt, K.; Rodriguez, J.; Wilms, J.; Ballhausen, R.; Corbel, S.; Eikmann, W.; Fuerst, F.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Marongiu, M.; Possenti, A.

    2016-05-01

    In the framework of radio monitoring of NS/BH Galactic Binaries with Sardinia Radio Telescope (www.srt.inaf.it) during SRT Early Science Program S0013 (PI Egron), we detected Cyg X-1 in C-band through on-the-fly mapping centered on the source position (see also Atels #8921, #8849, #8821).

  10. Evaluation of vector competence for West Nile virus in Italian Stegomyia albopicta (=Aedes albopictus) mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Fortuna, C; Remoli, M E; Severini, F; Di Luca, M; Toma, L; Fois, F; Bucci, P; Boccolini, D; Romi, R; Ciufolini, M G

    2015-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a zoonotic arboviral pathogen transmitted by mosquitoes in a cycle that involves wild birds as reservoir hosts. The virus is responsible for outbreaks of viral encephalitis in humans and horses. In Europe, Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) is considered to be the main vector of WNV, but other species such as Stegomyia albopicta (=Aedes albopictus) (Diptera: Culicidae) may also act as competent vectors of this virus. Since 2008 human cases of WNV disease have been reported in northeast Italy. In 2011, new areas of southern Italy became involved and a first outbreak of WNV lineage 1 occurred on the island of Sardinia. On the assumption that a potential involvement of St. albopicta in WNV transmission cannot be excluded, and in order to evaluate the competence of this species for the virus, an experimental infection of an St. albopicta laboratory colony, established from mosquitoes collected in Sardinia, was carried out. The results were compared with those obtained in a colony of the main vector Cx. pipiens. The study showed St. albopicta collected on Sardinia to be susceptible to WNV infection, which suggests this Italian mosquito species is able to act as a possible secondary vector, particularly in urban areas where the species reaches high levels of seasonal abundance. PMID:26382099

  11. Lack of detection of West Nile virus in an islander population of chelonians during a West Nile virus outbreak.

    PubMed

    Di Girolamo, Nicola; Selleri, Paolo; Di Gennaro, Annapia; Maldera, Marco; Nardini, Giordano; Morandi, Benedetto; Muzzeddu, Marco; Origgi, Francesco; Savini, Giovanni

    2016-06-30

    In 2011, several outbreaks of West Nile disease occurred in Sardinia (Italy). The region hosts several chelonian species. Because of the increasing concern on the potential role that ectotherms may play in the ecology of West Nile virus (WNV), in October 2011 blood samples were collected from 41 endemic Sardinian chelonians and tested for the presence of active WNV infection or neutralizing antibodies by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and serumneutralisation, respectively. Neither WNV neutralising antibodies (0%; 95% CI: 0‑8.4%) nor WNV RNA (0%; 95% CI: 0‑6.8%) were found in the tested samples. According to the results of this screening survey, it is unlikely that chelonians are involved in the epidemiology of the 2011 WNV outbreaks in Sardinia. PMID:27393879

  12. Hydrologic climate change: are the existing dams still safe? The Flumendosa case study in Sardinia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccioni, G.; Montaldo, N.; Saba, A.

    2009-04-01

    The problem of the hydraulic safety of existing dams is becoming crucial due to the recent increase of floods. In Sardinia dams were built for both electric production and water supply for irrigation and civil uses during the 1920-1960 period. Recent floods showed a significant increase in magnitude and frequency, supporting the hypothesis of a hydrologic climate change. Are the existing dams still safe? For answering the question 1) a method for estimating the flood hydrograph with return period of 2000 years also accounting for possible climate change is developed, 2) an hydrologic model is implemented, and 3) the hydraulic safety of existing dams is tested. The case study is the Flumendosa river basin (area of about 1300 km2) located in central-eastern Sardinia (Italy), whose reservoir system (3 dams) is the main water supply of southern Sardinia, including its largest city, Cagliari. The smallest dam is located in the upper part of the basin with a drainage area of about 50 km2. At this dam, during the December 2004 flood an extremely high peak discharge of around 2000 m3/s was observed (total daily rain was of 600 mm). In the basin the soils are generally of modest thickness, the vegetation throughout the basin has been in part altered by human activities, with many areas (before covered by scrubs) converted to pasture. Urbanized areas are a minor component. Rainfall and discharge data of historical floods (from 1940) were acquired so that a fully evaluation of the hydrologic model has been performed. The distributed hydrologic model is an event model (FEST) which assesses runoff through a simplified approach based on Soil Conservation Service equations and runoff propagation through the Muskingum-Cunge approach. The FEST model well simulates historical and recent floods. The results demonstrated that the dams are not safe for the estimated flood with return period of 2000 year, but also demonstrated the extreme uncertainty in the estimate of floods with

  13. Cephalocteinae Mulsant et Rey, 1866 (Hemiptera, Heteroptera), a subfamily of Cydnidae new for the Italian fauna: first record of Cephalocteus scarabaeoides (Fabricius, 1807) from Sardinia.

    PubMed

    Fancello, Luca; Cillo, Davide; Bazzato, Erika

    2016-01-01

    Cephalocteus scarabaeoides is recorded from the south-western coast of Sardinia, in sandy habitat (marine dunes near the beach), for the first time. The species and the subfamily are new for the Italian fauna. PMID:27395887

  14. Coastal water quality from remote sensing and GIS. A case study on South West Sardinia (Italy)

    SciTech Connect

    Poli, U.; Ippoliti, M.; Venturini, C.; Falcone, P.; Marino, A.

    1997-08-01

    In this paper the application of remote sensing image processing and GIS techniques in monitoring and managing coastal areas is proposed. The methodology has been applied to South-West Sardinia Coast where the environment is endangered by industrial plants and other human activities. The area is characterized by the presence of many submarine springs aligned along coastal cliffs. Water quality parameters (chlorophyll, suspended sediments and temperature) spatial and temporal variations, have been studied using Landsat TM images. Particularly, in this paper are reported the results referred to sea surface thermal gradients, considered as one of the main water quality index. Thermal gradients have been mapped in order to outline water circulation, thermal pollution and presence and distribution of submarine springs. Furthermore, a GIS approach of relating mono and multitemporal TM data with ground referenced information on industrial plants characteristics and distribution has been applied.

  15. A Population Where Men Live As Long As Women: Villagrande Strisaili, Sardinia

    PubMed Central

    Poulain, Michel; Pes, Gianni; Salaris, Luisa

    2011-01-01

    Usually women live longer than men and female centenarians largely outnumber male centenarians. The findings of previous studies identifying a population with a femininity ratio close to 1.0 among centenarians in the mountainous region of Sardinia was the starting point of an in-depth investigation in order to compare mortality trajectories between men and women in that population. The exceptional survival of men compared to women emerges from the comparison with similar Italian data. Age exaggeration for men has been strictly excluded as a result of the age validation procedure. The discussion suggests that besides biological/genetic factors, the behavioral factors including life style, demographic behavior, family support, and community characteristics may play an important role. No single explanation is likely to account for such an exceptional situation and a fully integrated multidisciplinary approach is urgently needed. PMID:22132327

  16. Y-chromosome STR loci in Sardinia and continental Italy reveal islander-specific haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Caglià, A; Novelletto, A; Dobosz, M; Malaspina, P; Ciminelli, B M; Pascali, V L

    1997-01-01

    Six Y-linked tetranucleotide microsatellites were typed in a sample of continental Italians and Sardinians. Significant differences in allele distributions were found between peninsular Italy and the island. Patterns of distinct allelic associations were evident in Sardinia and in the mainland. STR haplotypes in a subset of Sardinian chromosomes were monophyletically related and indicated that additions/deletions of a single tetranucleotide unit had to sequentially occur within a historical time-scale (about 9,000 years). Assumptions on both the time elapsed since the peopling of the island and the number of mutational events led us to estimate (by three different methods) a rate of 2.7-11 x 10(-4) mutations per generation per locus--at the upper end of the range of values reported in the literature. PMID:9412785

  17. A Late Variscan Sn province: the Arburese region (SW Sardinia, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naitza, Stefano; Secchi, Francesco; Oggiano, Giacomo; Cuccuru, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    Late Variscan Sn - rich European provinces (e. g. Erzgebirge, Cornwall) are of particular relevance as they offer key insights into crustal evolution, intrusive processes and ore genesis. In Sardinia (Italy), small Sn deposits are only known in the Arburese historical mining region (SW Sardinia), hosted in low-grade metamorphics close to the contacts with intrusives. This region is characterised by two late variscan intrusions, which differ in age and composition: the Arbus and the Monte Linas pluton, aging 304 ± 1 Ma, and 289 ± 1 Ma respectively. They emplaced at shallow crustal levels and crosscut the basal thrust between the alloctonous prism and the foreland of the Variscan belt of Sardinia. The Arbus Pluton (AP) is a composite intrusion of piroxene- and amphibole- granodiorites hosting minor amounts of monzogabbroic rocks and cordierite-bearing granites with a wide core of leuco-monzogranites. Tourmaline greisens and pegmatites garnish the contact between the border facies and the host metamorphic rocks. The Monte Linas Pluton (MLP) has biotite monzogranite composition. The pluton is internally zoned, from medium grained monzogranite in the core to hololeucocratic fine-grained rock-types at the top, where often F-greisen, fayalite-pegmatite pods and sill are common. In both plutons the igneous associations are high-K ilmenite series, suggesting derivation from low- fO2 magmas possibly linked to a common crustal contribution; however, in the Linas Pluton magnetite in the fine-grained facies may indicate an increase in oxygen fugacity. The AP-related Sn ores consist of high-temperature As-Sn quartz veins. They are vertically zoned, from quartz-chlorite-cassiterite to large quartz-arsenopyrite veins. Ore microscopy and SEM-EDS analyses evidenced a vein texture made of thick idiomorphic and frequently twinned cassiterite crystals, alternated with several generations of banded/geodic quartz. Chlinoclore aggregates are included into the quartz. The arsenopyrite

  18. Outbreak of mastitis in sheep caused by multi-drug resistant Enterococcus faecalis in Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Sanciu, G; Marogna, G; Paglietti, B; Cappuccinelli, P; Leori, G; Rappelli, P

    2013-03-01

    An outbreak of infective mastitis due to Enterococcus faecalis occurred in an intensive sheep farm in north Sardinia (Italy). E. faecalis, which is only rarely isolated from sheep milk, was unexpectedly found in 22·3% of positive samples at microbiological examination. Forty-five out of the 48 E. faecalis isolates showed the same multi-drug resistance pattern (cloxacillin, streptomycin, kanamycin, clindamycin, oxytetracycline). E. faecalis isolates were analysed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and all 45 multi-drug resistant strains showed an indistinguishable macrorestiction profile, indicating their clonal origin. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an outbreak of mastitis in sheep caused by E. faecalis. PMID:22595402

  19. Homozygous beta zero-39 mutation with thalassemia intermedia in northern Sardinia: clinical, hematological and molecular analysis.

    PubMed

    Oggiano, L; Dore, F; Pistidda, P; Guiso, L; Manca, L; Masala, B; Pirastu, M; Rosatelli, C; Cao, A; Longinotti, M

    1988-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the clinical and hematological features and carried out alpha- and beta-globin gene analyses in 11 Sardinian adult beta zero-thalassemia homozygotes from Northern Sardinia who were not transfusion-dependent. Oligonucleotide analysis revealed in nine out of 11 patients the nonsense mutation at codon 39, which was associated either with haplotype II or IX (14/16 and 2/16 chromosomes, respectively). Haplotype II was linked to the A gamma T mutation. The G gamma globin level ranged from 50 to 70%. Four out of nine patients (44%) were heterozygous and 3/9 (33%) homozygous for the rightward deletional type of alpha-thalassemia; two (22%) had the normal alpha-gene complement. Patients who were alpha-thalassemia homozygotes (-alpha/-alpha) showed a more balanced globin chain synthesis ratio. This study confirms that alpha-thalassemia may ameliorate the clinical picture of homozygous beta zero-thalassemia. PMID:2905346

  20. Epidemiological updates and economic losses due to Taenia hydatigena in sheep from Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Scala, A; Pipia, A P; Dore, F; Sanna, G; Tamponi, C; Marrosu, R; Bandino, E; Carmona, C; Boufana, B; Varcasia, A

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology and transmission of Taenia hydatigena in sheep and dogs from Sardinia and the economic estimation of losses due to this metacestodosis in lambs. A total of 7781 Sarda breed lambs were examined at abattoirs for the detection of Cysticercus tenuicollis or necrotic-haemorrhagic tracks of their migration. Morphological and molecular identification of parasites was carried out. Individual faecal samples from 300 dogs were examined for copromicroscopic investigations and coproELISA assay. An overall prevalence of 14.6% for T. hydatigena cysticercosis was found in the examined lambs. In total, 10,807 parasitary tracks were found, with an abundance of 1.39 and an average intensity of 9.52. The molecular analysis of the isolates showed an overall pairwise nucleotide divergence for the CO1 and ND1 was of 0-3.1 and 0-3.3%, respectively. Low intra- and interspecific variation was recorded for C. tenuicollis isolates used in this study which suggested the absence of differentiation. Microscopic examination of dog faeces showed a total prevalence of 31.3% for endoparasites in the examined samples (94/300). Taeniid eggs were found in 8.3% of the dogs. The results of the monoclonal antibody ATH4 ELISA test showed a prevalence of 11% (33/300) for T. hydatigena coproantigens. The total economic costs related to cysticercosis amounted to almost € 330,000. The prevalence of C. tenuicollis in 14.6% of 30-40-day-old lambs highlights the high parasitic pressure by T. hydatigena in the territory of Sardinia, Italy. PMID:25968992

  1. Monitoring water masses properties by Glider in Sardinia Channel during summer 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gana, Slim; Iudicone, Daniele; Ghenim, Leila; Mortier, Laurent; Testor, Pierre; Tintoré, Joaquin; Olita, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    1. Summary In the framework of the EC funded project, PERSEUS (WP3, Subtask 3.3.1: Repeated glider sections in key channels and sub-basin) and with the support of JERICO TNA (EU-FP7), a deep water glider (up to 1000m) was deployed from the R/V Tethys in the Sardinia Channel and has carried out 3 return trips during the period spanning from the 16th of August 2014 to the 19th of September 2014. The Gilder was equipped with CTD, O2 sensors, Fluorometers (ChlA), back scattering from 470 to 880 nm and was programmed to follow a path close to SARAL satellite track #887. During this experiment, a significant dataset, as never obtained before for this area, has been collected. The innovation stands in the high spatial resolution, in the temporal repetitivity and in the number of parameters sampled simultaneously. The first step of the work will focuses on the analysis of the hydrological properties of the existing water masses in the area. 2. Frame and aim of the experiment The Sardinia Channel is a zonally oriented passage connecting the Algerian and the Tyrrhenian basins, with a sill depth of about 1900 m. In spite of the considerable amount of work achieved and accurate results obtained about the circulation in the Western Mediterranean Sea, during the last 20 years, the Sardinia Channel is still one of the region where the dynamical processes and water exchanges are not clearly identified. Previous studies (Garzoli S. and C. Maillard, 1979, and Ozturgut Erdogan, 1975) pointed out the complexity of the processes in the region and the role of the bottom topography in sustaining them, and provided a first estimation of the involved fluxes. The main knowledge about the water masses crossing this region mostly concerns the AW (Atlantic Water) and the LIW (Levantine Intermediate Water). Along the Algerian coast, the AW is transported mainly by the Algerian current (AC Millot, 1985) from which the anticyclonic Algerian eddies (AEs, Puillat et al., 2002; Taupier-Letage et al

  2. Pressure-temperature and deformational evolution of high-pressure metapelites from Variscan NE Sardinia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruciani, Gabriele; Franceschelli, Marcello; Massonne, Hans-Joachim; Carosi, Rodolfo; Montomoli, Chiara

    2013-08-01

    Chloritoid schists crop out north of the village of Lula in the Inner Zone of the Variscan chain of Sardinia consisting of a variety of metamorphic rocks. The S1 and S2 foliations in these schists are defined by the orientation of muscovite, paragonite, and chloritoid. Chlorite is an additional mineral oriented along S2. Late margarite grew at the expense of chloritoid included in garnet. Garnet porphyroblasts, enclosing quartz, chloritoid, rutile, Fe-oxide, apatite and paragonite, show a progressive decrease of spessartine component from 17 to 7 mol% and an increase of pyrope component from 4 to 6 mol% from core to rim. The grossular content firstly increases from the inner (Grs~ 21) to the outer core (Grs~ 27) and then decreases towards the outermost rim (Grs~ 15). Compositional mapping of white mica also revealed zoning and a wide range in Si content (from 6.0 to 6.6 pfu). The highest Si content is related to the highest Fe and Mg contents and the lowest Na content. P-T pseudosections were calculated in the system Na2O-K2O-CaO-FeO-MnO-MgO-Al2O3-TiO2-SiO2-H2O for compositions of chloritoid schists. The highest Si contents of K-white mica and the garnet core composition suggest pressures close to 1.8 GPa and temperatures of 460-500 °C. The garnet rim composition and low Si contents in K-white mica are compatible with re-equilibration at 540-570 °C and 0.7-1.0 GPa. These results suggest an HP-metamorphic imprint during the D1 deformation phase which occurred before the Barrovian amphibolite-facies metamorphism of NE Sardinia. D2 folding and shearing occurred at decreasing P-T conditions during the exhumation of the metamorphic complex.

  3. Effects of The NAO/ao Fluctuations Upon Precipitation Over Sardinia In The 20th Century.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delitala, A.

    The effects at regional scale of decadal fluctuation of the NAO/AO on the 20th cen- tury precipitation over Sardinia will be analyzed. Decadal variations of precipitation will initially be described, by use of the Standardized Anomaly Index (Katz &Glantz, 1986) based on two indicators: the cumulated precipitation (the classical approach) and the number of rainy days. A clear decreasing trend in the last two deacdes, statis- tically significant at the 1% level, will be highlighted. A short survey of connections with MSLP and 500hPA Geopotential Height fields will be used to give an overview of dependence of Sardinia (regional) precipitation on synoptic-scale and planetary scale features. In the following part, three different paradigms of the NAO/AO will be used: the classical two point obscillation, the PCA analysis of MSLP (Thompson &Wallace, 1998) and the centers of action approach (Machel et al., 1998). The results of the anal- ysis of the effects of NAO/AO (described in the former three ways) on precipitation will enable to discuss how such a teleconnection influences regional precipitation on this part of the Mediterranean. Statistical significance of each result will be provided during the presentation. Katz, R., Glantz, M., 1986. "Anatomy of a Rainfall Index". Mon. Wea. Rev., 114, 764-771. Mächel, M., Kapala, A., Flohn, H., 1998. "Behaviour of the Centers of Action above the Atlantic since 1881. Part I: Characteristics of seasonal and interannual Variability". Int. Jou. of Climatol., 18, 1-22. Thopson, D. W. J., Wallace, J. M., 1998. "The Arctic Oscillation signature in the wintertime geopotential height and temperature fields". Geoph. Res. Let., 25, 1297- 1300.

  4. Determinants of land take at the regional scale: a study concerning Sardinia (Italy)

    SciTech Connect

    Zoppi, Corrado Lai, Sabrina

    2015-11-15

    In its “Roadmap to a Resource Efficient Europe” (Communication COM(2011) 571 of 20 September 2011), the European Commission (EC) established an ambitious goal for the European Union (EU), that of achieving no land take by 2050; towards this aim, a key milestone for the year 2020 was set, by stating that European policies in the programming period 2014–2020 ought to consider both their direct and their indirect impacts on land use in the EU. Within this framework, this paper builds upon the findings of a previous paper (Zoppi and Lai, 2014), in which we estimated the magnitude of land take over a short period of time (2003–2008) in Sardinia, an Italian NUTS2 region, and we assessed whether and how land take is related to a set of variables that are regarded as important determinants in the literature, such as parcel size, accessibility, and proximity to main cities and towns, to the coastline, or to protected areas. In this paper we study the land-taking process taking Sardinia as a case study, in two larger time periods, 1960–1990 and 1990–2008. We assess if, and to what extent, these factors reveal similar, or different, effects in the two periods, and try to identify consistencies concerning the determinants of land take. - Highlights: • Population density and parcel size significantly affect the magnitude of land take. • The presence of nature conservation areas hinders land taking processes. • Extensive urbanization might effectively preserve non-artificial land. • Balanced accessibility of settlements and nature conservation regional policies can effectively contrast land take. • Size of non-artificial land parcels that become artificial is negatively and significantly connected to land take.

  5. Operational resilience of reservoirs to climate change, agricultural demand, and tourism: A case study from Sardinia.

    PubMed

    Mereu, Simone; Sušnik, Janez; Trabucco, Antonio; Daccache, Andre; Vamvakeridou-Lyroudia, Lydia; Renoldi, Stefano; Virdis, Andrea; Savić, Dragan; Assimacopoulos, Dionysis

    2016-02-01

    Many (semi-) arid locations globally, and particularly islands, rely heavily on reservoirs for water supply. Some reservoirs are particularly vulnerable to climate and development changes (e.g. population change, tourist growth, hydropower demands). Irregularities and uncertainties in the fluvial regime associated with climate change and the continuous increase in water demand by different sectors will add new challenges to the management and to the resilience of these reservoirs. The resilience of vulnerable reservoirs must be studied in detail to prepare for and mitigate potential impacts of these changes. In this paper, a reservoir balance model is developed and presented for the Pedra e' Othoni reservoir in Sardinia, Italy, to assess resilience to climate and development changes. The model was first calibrated and validated, then forced with extensive ensemble climate data for representative concentration pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5, agricultural data, and with four socio-economic development scenarios. Future projections show a reduction in annual reservoir inflow and an increase in demand, mainly in the agricultural sector. Under no scenario is reservoir resilience significantly affected, the reservoir always achieves refill. However, this occurs at the partial expenses of hydropower production with implications for the production of renewable energy. There is also the possibility of conflict between the agricultural sector and hydropower sector for diminishing water supply. Pedra e' Othoni reservoir shows good resilience to future change mostly because of the disproportionately large basin feeding it. However this is not the case of other Sardinian reservoirs and hence a detailed resilience assessment of all reservoirs is needed, where development plans should carefully account for the trade-offs and potential conflicts among sectors. For Sardinia, the option of physical connection between reservoirs is available, as are alternative water supply measures

  6. Redescription of Cercopithifilaria bainae Almeida & Vicente, 1984 (Spirurida, Onchocercidae) from a dog in Sardinia, Italy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Three species of the genus Cercopithifilaria have been morphologically and molecularly characterized in dog populations in southern Europe: Cercopithifilaria grassii (Noè, 1907), Cercopithifilaria sp. sensu Otranto et al., 2011 (reported as Cercopithifilaria sp. I), and Cercopithifilaria sp. II sensu Otranto et al., 2012. The adults of Cercopithifilaria sp. I have remained unknown until the present study. Methods The material originated from a dog from Sardinia (Italy) diagnosed with dermal microfilariae of Cercopithifilaria sp. I. The holotype and three paratypes of Cercopithifilaria bainae Almeida & Vicente, 1984, described from dogs in Brazil, were studied as comparative material. A cox1 (~689 bp) and 12S (~330 bp) gene fragments were amplified and phylogenetic analysis carried out. Results The highest numbers of adult nematodes (82%) were collected in the sediment of the subcutaneous tissues of the trunk (n = 37) and forelimbs (n = 36). The morphology of the adult nematodes and microfilariae collected from the dog in Sardinia corresponded to those of C. bainae. All cox1 and 12S gene sequences showed a high homology (99-100%) with sequences from microfilariae of Cercopithifilaria sp. I. Conclusions The morphological and molecular identity of the microfilariae of C. bainae overlap those described previously as Cercopithifilaria sp. sensu Otranto et al., 2011 (=Cercopithifilaria sp. I). Therefore, the present study reports the occurrence of C. bainae in Europe, for the first time after its description and the single record in Brazil. C. bainae appears to be highly diffused in dog populations in southern Europe. The phylogenetic analyses based on cox1 and 12S do not reveal the three species of Cercopithifilaria parasitizing dogs as a monophyletic group, which suggests that they have derived independently by host switching. PMID:23642161

  7. Metabasites with eclogite facies relics from Variscides in Sardinia, Italy: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franceschelli, M.; Puxeddu, M.; Cruciani, G.; Utzeri, D.

    2007-10-01

    Metabasites with eclogite facies relics occur in northern Sardinia as massive to strongly foliated lenses or boudins embedded within low- to medium-grade rocks (Anglona) and migmatites (NE Sardinia). U-Pb zircon dating yielded 453 ± 14, 457 ± 2 and 460 ± 5 Ma as the protolith ages; 400 ± 10 and 403 ± 4 Ma have been interpreted as the ages of the HP event and 352 ± 3 and 327 ± 7 Ma as the ages of the main Variscan retrograde events. A pre-eclogite stage is documented by the occurrence of tschermakite, zoisite relics within garnet porphyroblasts (Punta de li Tulchi) and an edenite-andesine inclusion within a relict kyanite porphyroblast (Golfo Aranci). Four main metamorphic stages have been distinguished in the eclogite evolution: (1) eclogite stage, revealed by the occurrence of armoured omphacite relics within garnet porphyroblasts. The Golfo Aranci eclogites also include kyanite, Mg-rich garnet and pargasite; (2) granulite stage, producing orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene-plagioclase symplectites replacing omphacite. At Golfo Aranci, the symplectitic rims around relict kyanite consist of sapphirine, anorthite, corundum and spinel; (3) amphibolite stage, leading to the formation of amphibole-plagioclase kelyphites between garnet porphyroblasts and pyroxene-plagioclase symplectites and to the growth of cummingtonite on orthopyroxene. Tschermakite to Mg-hornblende, plagioclase, cummingtonite, ilmenite, titanite and biotite are coexisting phases; (4) greenschist to sub-greenschist stage, defined by the appearance of actinolite, chlorite, epidote ss, titanite, sericite and prehnite. The following P- T ranges have been estimated for the different stages. Eclogite stage 550-700°C; 1.3-1.7 GPa; granulite stage 650-900°C; 0.8-1.2 GPa, clustering in the range 1.0-1.2 GPa; amphibolite stage 550-740°C; 0.3-0.7 GPa; greenschist stage 300-400°C; 0.2-0.3 GPa. Comparable ranges characterise the other Variscan massifs in Europe; eclogite stage: T = 530-800°C; P from 0

  8. Spatial genetic structure of Aquilegia taxa endemic to the island of Sardinia

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, J. L.; Fenu, G.; Mattana, E.; Bacchetta, G.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The Mediterranean Basin is one of the most important regions for the Earth's plant biodiversity; however, the scarcity of studies on fine scale patterns of genetic variation in this region is striking. Here, an assessment is made of the spatial genetic structure of all known locations of the three Sardinian endemic species of Aquilegia in order to determine the relative roles of gene flow and genetic drift as underlying evolutionary forces canalizing the divergence of Sardinian Aquilegia taxa, and to see if the spatial genetic structure found fits the current taxonomic differentiation of these taxa. Methods DNA from 89 individuals from all known locations of Aquilegia across Sardinia was analysed by means of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Both principal co-ordinates analysis (PCoA) and Bayesian clustering analyses were used to determine the spatial genetic structure irrespective of any taxonomic affiliation. Historical effects of gene flow and genetic drift were assessed by checking for the existence of isolation-by-distance patterns. Key Results STRUCTURE and PCoA analyses revealed a pattern of genetic variation geographically structured into four spatial genetic groups. No migration–drift equilibrium was detected for Aquilegia in Sardinia, when analysed either as a whole or in individual groups. The scenario approached a Case III pattern sensu Hutchinson and Templeton, which is associated with extreme isolation conditions where genetic drift has historically played a dominant role over gene flow. Conclusions The pattern of genetic variation of Sardinian taxa of Aquilegia indicates that genetic drift has been historically more influential than gene flow on population structure of Sardinian species of Aquilegia. Limited seed dispersal and divergent selection imposed by habitat conditions have been probably the main causes reinforcing post-Pleistocene geographical isolation of Aquilegia populations. The spatial genetic

  9. Plants and traditional knowledge: An ethnobotanical investigation on Monte Ortobene (Nuoro, Sardinia)

    PubMed Central

    Signorini, Maria Adele; Piredda, Maddalena; Bruschi, Piero

    2009-01-01

    Background Most of the traditional knowledge about plants and their uses is fast disappearing as a consequence of socio-economic and land use changes. This trend is also occurring in areas that are historically exposed to very few external influences, such as Sardinia (Italy). From 2004 to 2005, an ethnobotanical investigation was carried out in the area of Monte Ortobene, a mountain located near Nuoro, in central Sardinia. Methods Data were collected by means of semi-structured interviews. All the records – defined as 'citations', i.e. a single use reported for a single botanical species by a single informant – were filed in a data base ('analytical table'), together with additional information: i.e. local names of plants, parts used, local frequencies, and habitats of plants, etc. In processing the data, plants and uses were grouped into general ('categories') and detailed ('secondary categories') typologies of use. Some synthetic indexes have also been used, such as Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC), Cultural Importance Index (CI), the Shannon-Wiener Index (H'), and Evenness Index (J). Results Seventy-two plants were cited by the informants as being traditionally used in the area. These 72 'ethnospecies' correspond to 99 botanical taxa (species or subspecies) belonging to 34 families. Three-hundred and one citations, 50 secondary categories of use, and 191 different uses were recorded, most of them concerning alimentary and medicinal plants. For the alimentary plants, 126 citations, 44 species, and 13 different uses were recorded, while for the medicinal plants, there were 106 citations, 40 species, and 12 uses. Few plants and uses were recorded for the remaining categories. Plants and uses for each category of use are discussed. Analyses of results include the relative abundance of botanical families, wild vs. cultivated species, habitats, frequency, parts of plant used, types of use, knowledge distribution, and the different cultural importance of the

  10. On the estimation of the design flood of the Rio Mogoro dam in Sardinia (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortis, C.; Montaldo, N.; Saba, A.; Albertson, J. D.

    2011-12-01

    The problem of the hydraulic safety of existing dams is becoming crucial due to the recent increase of floods. In Sardinia dams were built for both electric production and water supply for irrigation and civil uses during the 1920-1960 period. Recent floods showed a significant increase in magnitude and frequency, supporting the hypothesis of a hydrologic climate change. Are the existing dams still safe? For answering the question 1) an hydrologic model is implemented and widely tested with hystorical floods, 2) a method for estimating the flood hydrograph with return period of 1000 years and 3) the hydraulic safety of existing dams is tested. The case study is the Rio Mogoro river basin (area of about 255 km2) located in central-western Sardinia (Italy). The gravity dam was built in 1934 with a volume of 11.31 million of cubic meter. In the first part of this work the rainfall and discharge data of historical floods were acquired to performe a fully evaluation of the hydrologic model. The distributed hydrologic model is an event model (FEST) which assesses runoff through a simplified approach based on Soil Conservation Service equations and runoff propagation through the Muskingum-Cunge approach. In the second part of this work the design flood of return period of 1000 years is estimated using a synthetic design hyetograph and the FEST. For estimating and checking hydrograph characteristic statistics on observed flood hydrographs (i.e., local statistics) were evaluated: the peak flow, the time and duration of the peak and the volume of the flood. Local statistics are further compared with regionalized statistical methods for flood predictions. In this way synthetic hyetograph and hydrograph are estimated for the design flood of return period of 1000 years. The results show that the flood increases with the position of the peak of the hydrograph due to the soil saturation; the time peaks of the hydrograph and of the flood hydrograph are different: it depends on the

  11. GHG emissions inventory for on-road transportation in the town of Sassari (Sardinia, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanna, Laura; Ferrara, Roberto; Zara, Pierpaolo; Duce, Pierpaolo

    2016-04-01

    The IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) accounts an increase of the total annual anthropogenic GHG emissions between 2000 and 2010 that directly came from the transport sector. In 2010, 14% of GHG emissions were released by transport and fossil-fuel-related CO2 emissions reached about 32 GtCO2 per year. The report also considers adaptation and mitigation as complementary strategies for reducing the risks of climate change for sustainable development of urban areas. This paper describes the on-road traffic emission estimated in the framework of a Sardinian regional project [1] for the town of Sassari (Sardinia, Italy), one of the Sardinian areas where the fuel consumption for on-road transportation purposes is higher [2]. The GHG emissions have been accounted (a) by a calculation-based methodology founded on a linear relationship between source activity and emission, and (b) by the COPERT IV methodology through the EMITRA (EMIssions from road TRAnsport) software tool [3]. Inventory data for annual fossil fuel consumption associated with on-road transportation (diesel, gasoline, gas) have been collected through the Dogane service, the ATP and ARST public transport services and vehicle fleet data are available from the Public Vehicle Database (PRA), using 2010 as baseline year. During this period, the estimated CO2 emissions accounts for more than 180,000 tCO2. The calculation of emissions due to on-road transport quantitatively estimates CO2 and other GHG emissions and represents a useful baseline to identify possible adaptation and mitigation strategies to face the climate change risks at municipal level. Acknowledgements This research was funded by the Sardinian Regional Project "Development, functional checking and setup of an integrated system for the quantification of CO2 net exchange and for the evaluation of mitigation strategies at urban and territorial scale", (Legge Regionale 7 agosto 2007, No. 7). References [1] Sanna L., Ferrara R., Zara P. & Duce P. (2014

  12. Cystic echinococcosis in Sardinia: farmers' knowledge and dog infection in sheep farms.

    PubMed

    Varcasia, A; Tanda, B; Giobbe, M; Solinas, C; Pipia, A P; Malgor, R; Carmona, C; Garippa, G; Scala, A

    2011-09-27

    Cystic Echinococcosis (CE) is one of the most widespread parasitic diseases in Sardinia, the second largest Mediterranean island where almost 3,558,000 milk sheep were raised extensively. The aim of this survey was to evaluate the level of farmers' knowledge on CE transmission, focusing on the role of human to facilitate the persistence of this zoonosis in Sardinia after 14 years after the last campaign against CE. The other goal of the survey is to update on presence of Echinococcus granulosus in its definitive hosts through three ELISA coproantigen tests. An interview was carried out with 172 farmers. The questionnaire was designed to include possible factors associated with the transmission of Echinococcosis: ownership and number of dogs, the use of anthelmintic drugs against dog cestode, frequency of anthelmintic treatment in dogs, home slaughtering and offal disposal. Individual faecal samples were retrieved from 300 dogs, and after a preliminary macroscopic examination to discover adult worms and/or proglottids, was submitted to copromicroscopic examination. Coproantigens were then extracted according to the protocol described by Allan et al. (1992), and subsequently stored at -20°C until use. Faecal soluble antigens from E. granulosus were detected using three different ELISA coproantigen assays: (a) the commercially produced Chekit Echinotest (Bommeli, Bern, CH) based on polyclonal antibodies against adult excretory/secretory (E/S) antigens; (b) a sandwich ELISA that uses rabbit polyclonal antibodies against adult E/S antigens and biotinylated monoclonal antibody EmA9 produced against adult Echinococcus multilocularis somatic extract (Malgor et al., 1997); and (c) a sandwich assay that uses monoclonal antibody EgC3 produced by immunization with adult E. granulosus E/S products (Casaravilla et al., 2005). Questionnaire results reveal that on all farms home-slaughtering was done, and offal was used as dog meal raw (17%) or after boiling (37%), discarded in

  13. Tracing the boundaries of Cenozoic volcanic edifices from Sardinia (Italy): a geomorphometric contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melis, M. T.; Mundula, F.; Dessì, F.; Cioni, R.; Funedda, A.

    2014-05-01

    Unequivocal delimitation of landforms is an important issue for different purposes, from science-driven morphometric analysis to legal issues related to land conservation. This study is aimed at giving a new contribution to the morphometric approach for the delineation of the boundaries of volcanic edifices, applied to 13 monogenetic volcanoes (scoria cones) related to the Pliocene-Pleistocene volcanic cycle in Sardinia (Italy). External boundary delimitation of the edifices is discussed based on an integrated methodology using automatic elaboration of digital elevation models together with geomorphological and geological observations. Different elaborations of surface slope and profile curvature have been proposed and discussed; among them, two algorithms based on simple mathematical functions combining slope and profile curvature well fit the requirements of this study. One of theses algorithms is a modification of a function already discussed by Grosse et al. (2011), which better perform for recognizing and tracing the boundary between the volcanic scoria cone and its basement. Although the geological constraints still drive the final decision, the proposed method improves the existing tools for a semi-automatic tracing of the boundaries.

  14. Tracing the boundaries of Cenozoic volcanic edifices from Sardinia (Italy): a geomorphometric contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melis, M. T.; Mundula, F.; DessÌ, F.; Cioni, R.; Funedda, A.

    2014-09-01

    Unequivocal delimitation of landforms is an important issue for different purposes, from science-driven morphometric analysis to legal issues related to land conservation. This study is aimed at giving a new contribution to the morphometric approach for the delineation of the boundaries of volcanic edifices, applied to 13 monogenetic volcanoes (scoria cones) related to the Pliocene-Pleistocene volcanic cycle in Sardinia (Italy). External boundary delimitation of the edifices is discussed based on an integrated methodology using automatic elaboration of digital elevation models together with geomorphological and geological observations. Different elaborations of surface slope and profile curvature have been proposed and discussed; among them, two algorithms based on simple mathematical functions combining slope and profile curvature well fit the requirements of this study. One of theses algorithms is a modification of a function introduced by Grosse et al. (2011), which better performs for recognizing and tracing the boundary between the volcanic scoria cone and its basement. Although the geological constraints still drive the final decision, the proposed method improves the existing tools for a semi-automatic tracing of the boundaries.

  15. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and Monte Carlo characterization of a unique nuragic artifact (Sardinia, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunetti, Antonio; Depalmas, Anna; di Gennaro, Francesco; Serges, Alessandra; Schiavon, Nicola

    2016-07-01

    The chemical composition of a unique bronze artifact known as the "Cesta" ("Basket") belonging to the ancient Nuragic civilization of the Island of Sardinia, Italy has been analyzed by combining X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (XRF) with Monte Carlo simulations using the XRMC code. The "Cesta" had been discovered probably in the XVIII century with the first graphic representation reported around 1761. In a later draft (dated 1764), the basket has been depicted as being carried upside-down on the shoulder of a large bronze warrior Barthélemy (1761), Pinza (1901), Winckelmann (1776) . The two pictorial representations differed only by the presence of handles in the most recent one. XRF measurements revealed that the handles of the object are composed by brass while the other parts are composed by bronze suggesting the handles as being a later addition to the original object. The artifact is covered at its surface by a fairly thick corrosion patina. In order to determine the bronze bulk composition without the need for removing the outer patina, the artifact has been modeled as a two layer object in Monte Carlo simulations.

  16. Conservation genetics of two island endemic Ribes spp. (Grossulariaceae) of Sardinia: survival or extinction?

    PubMed

    Gentili, R; Fenu, G; Mattana, E; Citterio, S; De Mattia, F; Bacchetta, G

    2015-09-01

    Measuring levels of population genetic diversity is an important step for assessing the conservation status of rare or endangered plant species and implementing appropriate conservation strategies. Populations of Ribes multiflorum subsp. sandalioticum and R. sardoum, two endangered endemic species from Sardinia, representing the whole genus on the island, were investigated using ISSR and SSR markers to determine levels and structure of genetic variability in their natural populations. Results indicated medium to low genetic diversity at the population level: Nei's gene diversity for ISSR markers ranged from 0.0840 to 0.1316; the expected heterozygosity (HE ) for SSR ranged from 0.4281 to 0.7012. In addition, only one remnant population of R. sardoum showed a high level of inbreeding, in accordance with its very small size. Regarding the structure of the six R. sandalioticum populations, both principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) and STRUCTURE analysis of ISSR and SSR data highlighted low population structure, although two populations appeared to be clearly distinct from the others. The genetic pattern of the two taxa associated with their different ecological positions indicated resilience of R. sandalioticum populations in fresh and humid habitats and uncertain future resistance for the residual R. sardoum population in xeric calcareous stands. Hence, this study highlights the importance of an integrated conservation approach (genetic plus in situ and ex situ conservation studies/measures) for activating management programmes in these endemic and threatened taxa that can be considered as crop wild relatives of cultivated Ribes species. PMID:25765550

  17. A Roman bronze statuette with gilded silver mask from Sardinia: an EDXRF study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesareo, Roberto; Brunetti, Antonio; D'Oriano, Rubens; Canu, Alba; Demontis, Gonaria Mattia; Celauro, Angela

    2013-12-01

    A Roman bronze statuette from the 2nd Century BC was recovered from a nuragic sanctuary close to Florinas, in the north of Sardinia. The facial portion of the statuette is covered by a silver mask, partially gilded and attached to the bronze by tin-lead welding. The silver mask was carefully analyzed by portable energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), a non-destructive and non-invasive method. The aim of the analysis was to reconstruct the layered structure of the silver gilt mask, and to determine homogeneity and thickness of the gold, silver and lead-tin sheets. This is possible by using the internal ratio of the X-ray lines, i.e. starting from the surface, Au (L α/L β), Ag (K α/K β), Au-L α/Ag-K α and Pb (L α/L β).The results were compared with those obtained with simulated X-ray spectra, obtained both experimentally and by using the Monte Carlo simulation technique.

  18. The new 64m Sardinia Radio Telescope and VLBI facilities in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannini, Gabriele; Feretti, Luigina; Prandoni, Isabella; Giroletti, Marcello

    2015-08-01

    The Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) is a new major radio astronomical facility available in Italy for single dish and interferometric observations. It represents a flexible instrument for Radio Astronomy, Geodynamical studies and Space Science, either in single dish or VLBI mode. The SRT combines a 64m steerable collecting area, one of the largest all over the World with state-of-the-art technology (including an active surface) to enable high efficiency observations up to the 3-mm band.This new radio telescope together with the two 32m antennas in Noto and Medicina can be used for VLBI observations on a national basis (VLBIT). Data can be correlated in a short time (in real time soon) thanks to fiber-optics connection among the radio telescopes and the software correlator installed at the Radio Astronomy Institute in Bologna (IRA/INAF). In the poster I will present capabilities of the SRT telescope as well as the VLBIT project and I will shortly discuss the scientific prospects of the VLBIT.

  19. Complexity of the alpha-globin genotypes identified with thalassemia screening in Sardinia.

    PubMed

    Origa, Raffaella; Paglietti, Maria E; Sollaino, Maria C; Desogus, Maria F; Barella, Susanna; Loi, Daniela; Galanello, Renzo

    2014-01-01

    α-Thalassemia commonly results from deletions or point mutations in one or both α-globin genes located on chromosome 16p13.3 giving rise to complex and variable genotypes and phenotypes. Rarely, unusual non-deletion defects or atypical deletions down-regulate the expression of the α-globin gene. In the last decade of the program for β-thalassemia carrier screening and genetic counseling in Sardinia, the association of new techniques of molecular biology such as gene sequencing and Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) to conventional methods has allowed to better define several thalassemic genotypes and the complex variability of the α-cluster with its flanking regions, with a high frequency of different genotypes and compound heterozygosity for two α mutations even in the same family. The exact molecular definition of the genotypes resulting from the interactions among the large number of α-thalassemia determinants and with β-thalassemia, is important for a correct correlation of genotype-phenotype and to prevent underdiagnosis of carrier status which could hamper the effectiveness of a screening program particularly in those regions where a high frequency of hemoglobinopathies is present. PMID:23896219

  20. Flash flood hydrology in karstic terrain: Flumineddu Canyon, central-east Sardinia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Waele, Jo; Martina, Mario L. V.; Sanna, Laura; Cabras, Salvatore; Cossu, Q. Antonio

    2010-08-01

    In the last five winters (2004-2008) several exceptional meteorological events producing flash floods have been registered in central-east Sardinia. The first of these (December 2004) was the most severe and caused important geomorphic changes in the Riu Flumineddu watershed where the influence of human activity is limited. The hydrological characterisation of this flood is extremely difficult because of the lack of streamflow gauges and the relative paucity of meteorological stations in the region. Peak discharge of the fluviokarstic Riu Flumineddu Canyon has been estimated based on a distributed hydrological model (TOPKAPI) and on empirical methods based on geomorphic and sedimentological observations. The comparison between the results derived from these independent methods allows us to obtain the best possible estimate of peak discharge. Differences between modelled and measured peak flows can be attributed to water losses and/or gains along the river channel from interactions with the underground karst drainage network. The December 2004 flood, with an estimated recurrence interval of at least 65 years, generated overbank flow and destroyed several bridges in upstream reaches, caused important changes in channel morphology and sediment distribution and was able to move boulders up to 1 m in diameter in downstream reaches.

  1. Observed and modeled mixed-layer variability on the continental shelf of Sardinia (Western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onken, Reiner

    2016-04-01

    An important task of Military Oceanography is the prediction of mixed-layer properties and their spatial and temporal variability. In the mainframe of the REP14-MED sea trial which was conducted under the lead of CMRE in June 2014 in the waters west of Sardinia, an oceanographic mooring was deployed on the continental shelf which recorded the seawater temperature between the surface and 40-m depth with high resolution for about twelve days; meteorological parameters were collected at the same time on top of the mooring by a meteorological buoy. A series of ROMS model runs was conducted and validated against the observations. Those runs applied different setups for the forcing at the lateral open boundaries and at the surface, different arrangements of the vertical coordinates, and different strategies for the assimilation of data from CTD casts and gliders. The goal was to test the sensitivity of the forecast skill to the different setups and to find a "cheap" setup which predicts the observed temperature and the mixed-layer depth and their temporal variabilities to a satisfactory degree. That setup is supposed to provide also reliable forecasts for the other areas of the model domain.

  2. A preliminary investigation into the genetic variation and population structure of Taenia hydatigena from Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Boufana, Belgees; Scala, Antonio; Lahmar, Samia; Pointing, Steve; Craig, Philip S; Dessì, Giorgia; Zidda, Antonella; Pipia, Anna Paola; Varcasia, Antonio

    2015-11-30

    Cysticercosis caused by the metacestode stage of Taenia hydatigena is endemic in Sardinia. Information on the genetic variation of this parasite is important for epidemiological studies and implementation of control programs. Using two mitochondrial genes, the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1) we investigated the genetic variation and population structure of Cysticercus tenuicollis from Sardinian intermediate hosts and compared it to that from other hosts from various geographical regions. The parsimony cox1 network analysis indicated the existence of a common lineage for T. hydatigena and the overall diversity and neutrality indices indicated demographic expansion. Using the cox1 sequences, low pairwise fixation index (Fst) values were recorded for Sardinian, Iranian and Palestinian sheep C. tenuicollis which suggested the absence of genetic differentiation. Using the ND1 sequences, C. tenuicollis from Sardinian sheep appeared to be differentiated from those of goat and pig origin. In addition, goat C. tenuicollis were genetically different from adult T. hydatigena as indicated by the statistically significant Fst value. Our results are consistent with biochemical and morphological studies that suggest the existence of variants of T. hydatigena. PMID:26296591

  3. Emergence of Bluetongue Virus Serotype 1 in French Corsica Island in September 2013.

    PubMed

    Sailleau, C; Viarouge, C; Bréard, E; Perrin, J B; Doceul, V; Vitour, D; Zientara, S

    2015-10-01

    Since 2000, French Corsica Island has been exposed to the emergence of three different BT virus (BTV) serotypes: serotype 2 in 2000 and 2001, serotype 4 in 2003 and serotype 16 in 2004. Between 2005 and August 2013, no outbreaks have been reported in the French Island. At the beginning of September 2013, sheep located in the south of the island showed clinical signs suggestive of BTV infection. Laboratory analyses identified the virus as BTV serotype 1. Phylogenetic studies showed that the sequences of this strain are closely related to the BTV-1 strain that was circulating in the Mediterranean basin and in Sardinia in 2012. PMID:24456375

  4. GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ANALYSES BASED ON WHOLE-GENOME SEQUENCING IN SARDINIA PROVIDE INSIGHTS INTO REGULATION OF HEMOGLOBIN LEVELS

    PubMed Central

    Danjou, Fabrice; Zoledziewska, Magdalena; Sidore, Carlo; Steri, Maristella; Busonero, Fabio; Maschio, Andrea; Mulas, Antonella; Perseu, Lucia; Barella, Susanna; Porcu, Eleonora; Pistis, Giorgio; Pitzalis, Maristella; Pala, Mauro; Menzel, Stephan; Metrustry, Sarah; Spector, Timothy D.; Leoni, Lidia; Angius, Andrea; Uda, Manuela; Moi, Paolo; Thein, Swee Lay; Galanello, Renzo; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Schlessinger, David; Sanna, Serena; Cucca, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    We report GWAS results for the levels of A1, A2 and fetal hemoglobins, analyzed for the first time concurrently. Integrating high-density array genotyping and whole-genome sequencing in a large general population cohort from Sardinia, we detected 23 associations at 10 loci. Five are due to variants at previously undetected loci: MPHOSPH9, PLTP-PCIF1, FOG1, NFIX, and CCND3. Among those at known loci, 10 are new lead variants and 4 are novel independent signals. Half of all variants also showed pleiotropic associations with different hemoglobins, which further corroborated some of the detected associations and revealed features of coordinated hemoglobin species production. PMID:26366553

  5. Geochemistry of Giuncana eclogite, North Sardinia (Italy) and comparison with coeval Sardinian eclogites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franceschelli, Marcello; Cruciani, Gabriele; Langone, Antonio; Scodina, Massimo; Puxeddu, Mariano

    2015-04-01

    The Giuncana eclogites are massive to poorly foliated, medium-to fine-grained rocks. The eclogites are embedded within Grt + St + Ky-bearing micaschist and paragneisses. Based on microstructural relationships and mineral assemblages, four stages of mineralogical re-equilibration have been distinguished in the Giuncana retrogressed eclogites. The stage I is characterized by the occurrence of omphacite enclosed in garnet porphyroblasts along with rutile, epidote, quartz, pargasitic amphibole and plagioclase. The stage II is defined by the breakdown of omphacite and formation of two types of symplectitic microstructures: (i) amphibole + quartz symplectite, and (ii) clinopyroxene + plagioclase ± amphibole symplectite. The stage III is documented by the widespread formation of amphibole as zoned porphyroblasts in the matrix, or as corona-type microstructure around garnet. The stage IV is characterized by the growth of actinolite at the rim of matrix amphibole, and by the growth of albite, chlorite, and epidote in the matrix. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon data on retrogressed eclogites sampled in the Giuncana locality from the Sardinian Medium Grade Metamorphic Complex yielded a weighted average age of 454 ± 6 Ma, in agreement with U-Pb zircon ages of 453-460 Ma obtained on eclogites from the High Grade Metamorphic Complex. The Giuncana eclogites are very similar to the other well known Sardinian eclogites. Taken as a whole the Ordovician eclogites from N Sardinia mostly plot in the fields of back-arc basins and continental flood basalts and near the boundary between basaltic andesites and subalkaline basalts. All the Sardinian eclogites show positive anomalies of K, Rb, Ba, U and Pb and negative anomalies of Nb, La, Ce and Sr. Th is depleted in the Giuncana eclogites and enriched in the Punta de li Tulchi and Punta Tittinosu eclogites. All these data reveal a clear crustal contamination of the Sardinian Ordovician mantle. Downgrading LREE and flat HREE patterns typical of N

  6. On the estimation of the design flood of different dams in Sardinia (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortis, C.; Barrui, M.; Montaldo, N.; Saba, A.; Albertson, J. D.

    2012-04-01

    The problem of the hydraulic safety of existing dams is becoming crucial due to the recent increase of floods. In Sardinia dams were built for both electric production and water supply for irrigation and civil uses during the 1920-1960 period. Recent floods showed a significant increase in magnitude and frequency, supporting the hypothesis of a hydrologic climate change. Are the existing dams still safe? For answering the question 1) an hydrologic model is implemented and widely tested with hystorical floods, 2) a method for estimating the flood hydrograph with return period of 1000 years and 3) the hydraulic safety of existing dams is tested. The case study are the Rio Mogoro river basin (area of about 255 km2) located in central-western Sardinia (Italy), the Tirso river basin (area of about 3100 km2) and the Flumendosa river basin (area of about 1017 km2). In the Rio Mogoro there is a gravity dam built in 1934 with a volume of 11.31 million of cubic meter; in the Tirso there are three important dams with a total volume of about 800 million of cubic meter that cover a big part of the region, while in the Flumendosa basin are present two dams with a total volume of about 360 million of cubic meter. In the first part of this work the rainfall and discharge data of historical floods were acquired so that a fully evaluation of the hydrologic model has been performed. The distributed hydrologic model is an event model (FEST) which assesses runoff through a simplified approach based on Soil Conservation Service equations and runoff propagation through the Muskingum-Cunge approach. Then the design flood of return period of 1000 years is estimated using a synthetic design hyetograph and FEST. For estimating and checking hydrograph characteristics statistics on observed flood hydrographs (i.e., local statistics) were evaluated: the peak flow, the time and duration of the peak and the volume of the flood. Local statistics are further compared with regionalized statistical

  7. Zinc isotope and transition-element dynamics accompanying hydrozincite biomineralization in the Rio Naracauli, Sardinia, Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wanty, Richard B.; Podda, F.; De Giudici, Giovanni; Cidu, R.; Lattanzi, Pierfranco

    2013-01-01

    The Rio Naracauli in SW Sardinia drains part of the Ingurtosu Zn–Pb mining district, and contains extreme concentrations of dissolved Zn at near-neutral pH. In the upper reaches of the stream, pH, alkalinity and Zn concentrations are such that hydrozincite [Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6] precipitates in a biologically mediated process facilitated by a microalga (Chlorella sp.) and a cyanobacterium (Scytonema sp.). Values of δ66Zn in water and solid samples ranged from − 0.35‰ to + 0.5‰ relative to the JMC 3-0749-Lyon standard, and closely follow a mass-dependent fractionation line. Two composite samples of sphalerite, the primary ore mineral in the Ingurtosu deposits, had an average δ66Zn of + 0.15‰, similar to sphalerite measured elsewhere in hydrothermal mineral deposits. Zinc isotope measurements of the stream water and the hydrozincite forming in the stream show a consistent preference for the heavy isotope, 66Zn, in the hydrozincite relative to 64Zn. Synthetic hydrozincites produced without added bacteria have δ66Zn identical to the dissolved Zn, thus suggesting a biologically mediated mineralization process in Rio Naracauli. The average fractionation, Δhdz-water, is 0.35‰, the magnitude of which is consistent with other studies, and suggests an extracellular mechanism of the biomineralization process. Zinc concentration and dissolved δ66Zn steadily decrease in the reach of the stream where the biomineralization occurs. The biomineralization process also leads to the sequestration of Pb, Cu and Ni in the hydrozincite lattice, and the coeval precipitation of an amorphous CdCO3 solid, prompting the suggestion that if optimized, the biomineralization process might represent a feasible passive remediation strategy for streams with high Zn and other metals, and with near-neutral pH.

  8. A GIS based method for soil mapping in Sardinia, Italy: a geomatic approach.

    PubMed

    Vacca, A; Loddo, S; Melis, M T; Funedda, A; Puddu, R; Verona, M; Fanni, S; Fantola, F; Madrau, S; Marrone, V A; Serra, G; Tore, C; Manca, D; Pasci, S; Puddu, M R; Schirru, P

    2014-06-01

    A new project was recently initiated for the realization of the "Land Unit and Soil Capability Map of Sardinia" at a scale of 1:50,000 to support land use planning. In this study, we outline the general structure of the project and the methods used in the activities that have been thus far conducted. A GIS approach was used. We used the soil-landscape paradigm for the prediction of soil classes and their spatial distribution or the prediction of soil properties based on landscape features. The work is divided into two main phases. In the first phase, the available digital data on land cover, geology and topography were processed and classified according to their influence on weathering processes and soil properties. The methods used in the interpretation are based on consolidated and generalized knowledge about the influence of geology, topography and land cover on soil properties. The existing soil data (areal and point data) were collected, reviewed, validated and standardized according to international and national guidelines. Point data considered to be usable were input into a specific database created for the project. Using expert interpretation, all digital data were merged to produce a first draft of the Land Unit Map. During the second phase, this map will be implemented with the existing soil data and verified in the field if also needed with new soil data collection, and the final Land Unit Map will be produced. The Land Unit and Soil Capability Map will be produced by classifying the land units using a reference matching table of land capability classes created for this project. PMID:24315681

  9. Evaluating disturbance on mediterranean karst areas: the example of Sardinia (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Waele, Jo

    2009-07-01

    Evaluating the human disturbance on karst areas is a difficult task because of the complexity of these peculiar and unique environments. The human impact on karstic geo-ecosystems is increasingly important and there is an increasing need for multidisciplinary tools to assess the environmental changes in karst areas. Many disciplines, such as biology, geomorphology, hydrology and social-economical sciences are to be considered to sufficiently evaluate the impact on these intrinsically vulnerable areas. This article gives an overview of the evolution of environmental impact on karst areas of the island Sardinia (Italy). For this particular case, the most important impacts in the past 50 years are derived from the following activities, in decreasing importance: (1) mining and quarrying; (2) deforestation, agriculture and grazing; (3) building (widespread urbanisation, isolated homes, etc.) and related infrastructures (roads, sewer systems, aqueducts, waste dumps, etc.); (4) tourism; (5) military activities. To evaluate the present environmental state of these areas the Disturbance Index for Karst environments [Van Beynen and Townsend (Environ Manage 36:101-116)] is applied in a slightly modified version. Instead of considering the indicators of environmental disturbances used in the original method, this slightly modified index evaluates the disturbances causing the deterioration of the environmental attributes. In the Sardinian case study, 27 disturbances have been evaluated, giving rise to the definition of a Disturbance Index ranging between 0 (Pristine) and 1 (highly disturbed). This Disturbance Index simplifies the original KDI method, appears to adequately measure disturbance on Mediterranean karst areas and could be applied with success to other similar regions.

  10. A study of morphological aspects of cystic echinococcosis in sheep in Sardinia.

    PubMed

    Conchedda, Margherita; Seu, Valter; Capra, Salvatore; Caredda, Alessia; Pani, Sergio Pino; Lochi, Pier Giorgio; Bortoletti, Gianfranco

    2016-07-01

    We have investigated the morphological and structural aspects of hydatid cysts recovered from sheep raised in southern Sardinia during two surveys conducted over the 20 years since the last control attempt at the end of the 1980s. In the first study carried out during 1995-1997, a few years after the last control attempt, a total of 10,334 cysts were examined, recovered from 1029 infected sheep out of a total of 1375 inspected (prevalence 74.84%). In the second survey, conducted ten years later during the period 2005-2010 in the absence of specific control measures, a total of 6249 cysts were recovered from 916 parasitized sheep out of the 1414 examined (prevalence 64.78%). Cysts were grouped into 5 different types: "Unilocular", "Multisepted", "Calcified", "Caseous", "Hyperlaminated". Unilocular: fertile, consist of a single fluid-filled cavity; multisepted: generally sterile, fluid filled, with cavity divided into spheroidal chambers (3-dozen); calcified: sterile, small, with internal chambers almost virtual due to the thickening of internal septa; caseous: sterile, the cavity filled with a thick yellowish matrix; hyperlaminated: sterile, with a virtual cavity filled with extensively folded and overlapping sheets of hyperproduced laminated tissue. A thorough knowledge and the precise characterization of each type of lesion, making it possible to establish detailed parameters for cyst classification, appears very useful for the harmonization of data collection. From a surveillance and control perspective it is proposed that, in addition to other relevant epidemiological information, data from meat inspection be further improved, including morpho-functional indications about cyst type. PMID:27060775

  11. Prevalence of silent celiac disease in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis from Northern Sardinia.

    PubMed

    Meloni, G F; Tomasi, P A; Bertoncelli, A; Fanciulli, G; Delitala, G; Meloni, T

    2001-05-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is frequently associated with other autoimmune diseases such as Type 1 diabetes mellitus, autoimmune thyroiditis (AT), and Addison's disease. The frequency of these associations varies with the populations studied. We conducted this study to ascertain the prevalence of CD in patients with AT from Sardinia, an area with a very high prevalence of CD. To this aim, 297 consecutive patients with AT (as defined by elevated antithyroid antibody levels and a positive ultrasound scan) were studied. Immunoglobulin A and G-class antigliadin antibodies were assayed in serum; if either or both were positive, antiendomysium antibodies were determined. If two markers were positive, serum ferritin, folate, and vitamin B12 levels were measured and jejunal biopsy was suggested. Thirteen out of the 14 patients who showed at least two positive markers consented to jejunal biopsy and all of them showed histological features of CD. The prevalence of CD in AT patients was 4-fold greater than that observed in the general population (4.37 vs 1.06%, p<0.0001). Ferritin was low in 6 and vitamin B12 in 2 out of 13 patients; serum folates were normal in all patients. Molecular typing of HLA class II alleles showed an increased frequency of the extended haplotype DRB1*0301/DQA1*0501/DQB1*0201. None of our patients had a history of gastrointestinal symptoms. We confirm the increased prevalence of silent CD in patients with AT. Patients with AT ought to be regarded as a high-risk group for CD and should be screened routinely for it; if negative, screening tests should be repeated at regular intervals. PMID:11407647

  12. Chemical, molecular, and proteomic analyses of moss bag biomonitoring in a petrochemical area of Sardinia (Italy).

    PubMed

    Cortis, Pierluigi; Vannini, Candida; Cogoni, Annalena; De Mattia, Fabrizio; Bracale, Marcella; Mezzasalma, Valerio; Labra, Massimo

    2016-02-01

    In this study, Hypnum cupressiforme moss bags were used to examine the atmospheric deposition of trace elements in the oil refinery region of Sardinia (Italy) compared with surrounding natural zones. The concentrations of 13 elements [arsenic (As), calcium (Ca), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn)] were determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. A significant accumulation of pollutants was detected using active biomonitoring with moss bags compared with a control site. The most relevant contaminants for all of the tested sites were Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn. Moreover, the accumulation of Cr and Zn in the refinery industrial areas, IA1 and IA2, was more than five times greater than that detected at the control site. Levels of Cd, Mg, and Pb were also higher at all of the monitored sites compared with the control site. Both genomic and proteomic methods were used to study the response of H. cupressiforme to air pollution. No DNA damage or mutations were detected using the amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) method. At the protein level, 15 gel spots exhibited differential expression profiles between the moss samples collected at the IA1 site and the control site. Furthermore, among the 14 spots that showed a decrease in protein expression, nine were associated with ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) and proteins of the light-harvesting complexes of photosystem (PS) II, three were associated with protein synthesis, and three were stress-related proteins. Thus, some of these proteins may represent good moss biosensors which could be used as pre-alert markers of environmental pollution. PMID:26408120

  13. a High Temperature Superconductor Microwave Filter Working in C-Band for the Sardinia Radio Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolli, P.; Cresci, L.; Huang, F.; Mariotti, S.; Panella, D.

    A planar band-pass filter based on High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) has been designed for possible implementation in the cryogenic front-end of the C-band receiver for the Sardinia Radio Telescope. The band-pass filter is designed to operate at relatively high frequencies: center frequency 6.7 GHz with 30% bandwidth. Seven nominally identical filters have been fabricated to test different carrier materials and connector types aimed to keep the fabrication of the HTS filter simpler and more cost competitive. In addition to the conventional approach, silver plating, copper carriers and SMA connectors have been used. Cryogenic scattering parameter measurements show a good agreement with numerical results: the average of the transmission losses turns out to be in the range 0.15-0.25 dB depending on the prototypes, whereas the reflection coefficient is below -16 dB. The insertion loss has been also measured by using a radiometric approach based on the cold attenuator method showing consistent results with those given by the Vector Network Analyzer. Multiple cool-down measurements have been performed successfully proving the data repeatability both in short- and medium-term. Concerning alternative technical solutions, the SMA connectors and silver plating appear to be valid options whereas the copper carriers are inclined to destroy the circuit. Finally, numerical simulations and experimental measurements on a traditional copper filter operating at 20 K show that the HTS filter improves the losses of about 0.2 dB with respect to the copper one.

  14. Population Based Study of 12 Autoimmune Diseases in Sardinia, Italy: Prevalence and Comorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Sardu, Claudia; Cocco, Eleonora; Mereu, Alessandra; Massa, Roberta; Cuccu, Alessandro; Marrosu, Maria Giovanna; Contu, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Background The limited availability of prevalence data based on a representative sample of the general population, and the limited number of diseases considered in studies about co-morbidity are the critical factors in study of autoimmune diseases. This paper describes the prevalence of 12 autoimmune diseases in a representative sample of the general population in the South of Sardinia, Italy, and tests the hypothesis of an overall association among these diseases. Methods Data were obtained from 21 GPs. The sample included 25,885 people. Prevalence data were expressed with 95% Poisson C.I. The hypothesis of an overall association between autoimmune diseases was tested by evaluating the co-occurrence within individuals. Results Prevalence per 100,000 are: 552 rheumatoid arthritis, 124 ulcerative colitis, 15 Crohn's disease, 464 type 1 diabetes, 81 systemic lupus erythematosus, 124 celiac disease, 35 myasthenia gravis, 939 psoriasis/psoriatic arthritis, 35 systemic sclerosis, 224 multiple sclerosis, 31 Sjogren's syndrome, and 2,619 autoimmune thyroiditis . An overall association between autoimmune disorders was highlighted. Conclusions The comparisons with prevalence reported in current literature do not show outlier values, except possibly for a few diseases like celiac disease and myasthenia gravis. People already affected by a first autoimmune disease have a higher probability of being affected by a second autoimmune disorder. In the present study, the sample size, together with the low overall prevalence of autoimmune diseases in the population, did not allow us to examine which diseases are most frequently associated with other autoimmune diseases. However, this paper makes available an adequate control population for future clinical studies aimed at exploring the co-morbidity of specific pairs of autoimmune diseases. PMID:22396771

  15. Persistence of Pristine Deep-Sea Coral Gardens in the Mediterranean Sea (SW Sardinia)

    PubMed Central

    Bo, Marzia; Bavestrello, Giorgio; Angiolillo, Michela; Calcagnile, Lucio; Canese, Simonepietro; Cannas, Rita; Cau, Alessandro; D’Elia, Marisa; D’Oriano, Filippo; Follesa, Maria Cristina; Quarta, Gianluca; Cau, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Leiopathes glaberrima is a tall arborescent black coral species structuring important facies of the deep-sea rocky bottoms of the Mediterranean Sea that are severely stifled by fishing activities. At present, however, no morphological in vivo description, ecological characterization, age dating and evaluation of the possible conservation actions have ever been made for any population of this species in the basin. A dense coral population was reported during two Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) surveys conducted on a rocky bank off the SW coasts of Sardinia (Western Mediterranean Sea). L. glaberrima forms up to 2 m-tall colonies with a maximal observed basal diameter of nearly 7 cm. The radiocarbon dating carried out on a colony from this site with a 4 cm basal diameter revealed an approximately age of 2000 years. Considering the size-frequency distribution of the colonies in the area it is possible to hypothesize the existence of other millennial specimens occupying a supposedly very stable ecosystem. The persistence of this ecosystem is likely guaranteed by the heterogeneous rocky substrate hosting the black coral population that represents a physical barrier against the mechanical impacts acted on the surrounding muddy areas, heavily exploited as trawling fishing grounds. This favorable condition, together with the existence of a nursery area for catsharks within the coral ramifications and the occurrence of a meadow of the now rare soft bottom alcyonacean Isidella elongata in small surviving muddy enclaves, indicates that this ecosystem have to be considered a pristine Mediterranean deep-sea coral sanctuary that would deserve special protection. PMID:25790333

  16. Male longevity in Sardinia, a review of historical sources supporting a causal link with dietary factors.

    PubMed

    Pes, G M; Tolu, F; Dore, M P; Sechi, G P; Errigo, A; Canelada, A; Poulain, M

    2015-04-01

    The identification of a hot spot of exceptional longevity, the Longevity Blue Zone (LBZ), in the mountain population of Sardinia has aroused considerable interest toward its traditional food as one of the potential causal factors. This preliminary study on the traditional Sardinian diet has been supported by the literature available, which has been carefully reviewed and compared. Up to a short time ago, the LBZ population depended mostly upon livestock rearing, and consumption of animal-derived foods was relatively higher than in the rest of the island. The nutrition transition (NT) in urbanized and lowland areas began in the mid-1950s, fueled by economic development, whereas in the LBZ it started later owing to prolonged resistance to change by a society organized around a rather efficient pastoral economy. Even nowadays a large proportion of the population in this area still follows the traditional diet based on cereal-derived foods and dairy products. The LBZ cohorts comprising individuals who were of a mature age when NT began may have benefited both from the high-quality, albeit rather monotonous, traditional diet to which they had been exposed most of their life and from the transitional diet, which introduced positive changes such as more variety, increased consumption of fruits and vegetables and moderate meat intake. It could be speculated that these changes may have brought substantial health benefits to this particular aging group, which was in need of nutrient-rich food at this specific time in life, thereby resulting in a decreased mortality risk and, in turn, life-span extension. PMID:25369832

  17. Persistence of pristine deep-sea coral gardens in the Mediterranean Sea (SW Sardinia).

    PubMed

    Bo, Marzia; Bavestrello, Giorgio; Angiolillo, Michela; Calcagnile, Lucio; Canese, Simonepietro; Cannas, Rita; Cau, Alessandro; D'Elia, Marisa; D'Oriano, Filippo; Follesa, Maria Cristina; Quarta, Gianluca; Cau, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Leiopathes glaberrima is a tall arborescent black coral species structuring important facies of the deep-sea rocky bottoms of the Mediterranean Sea that are severely stifled by fishing activities. At present, however, no morphological in vivo description, ecological characterization, age dating and evaluation of the possible conservation actions have ever been made for any population of this species in the basin. A dense coral population was reported during two Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) surveys conducted on a rocky bank off the SW coasts of Sardinia (Western Mediterranean Sea). L. glaberrima forms up to 2 m-tall colonies with a maximal observed basal diameter of nearly 7 cm. The radiocarbon dating carried out on a colony from this site with a 4 cm basal diameter revealed an approximately age of 2000 years. Considering the size-frequency distribution of the colonies in the area it is possible to hypothesize the existence of other millennial specimens occupying a supposedly very stable ecosystem. The persistence of this ecosystem is likely guaranteed by the heterogeneous rocky substrate hosting the black coral population that represents a physical barrier against the mechanical impacts acted on the surrounding muddy areas, heavily exploited as trawling fishing grounds. This favorable condition, together with the existence of a nursery area for catsharks within the coral ramifications and the occurrence of a meadow of the now rare soft bottom alcyonacean Isidella elongata in small surviving muddy enclaves, indicates that this ecosystem have to be considered a pristine Mediterranean deep-sea coral sanctuary that would deserve special protection. PMID:25790333

  18. Morphological and Phenological characterization of Mediterranean species in Northern Sardinia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piga, Alessandra; Duce, Pierpaolo; Cesaraccio, Carla

    2016-04-01

    Monitoring of vegetation, in particular methodologies for phenological and biometrical monitoring, are widely implied for climate change studies and their importance for understanding the consequences of global environmental change on vegetation is highlighted in the most recent IPCC reports. It is very likely that, during the next decades, the Mediterranean Regions will cope to the very negative effects of climatic changes. Consequently, due to the climate change impacts and the effects of anthropogenic pressures upon natural resources, these regions are among the most vulnerable ecosystems to the effects of climate change. Therefore, appears to be of crucial importance to better understand the physiological strategies for cope to climate change adaptation for the Mediterranean maquis shrub species which are key information for developing adaptation strategies guidelines. In this work, the biological and reproductive cycle of some Mediterranean species growing in an experimental area located within a nature reserve in the peninsula of Capo Caccia, north-west Sardinia, Italy, was investigated for a period of two years. In particular, the research was focused on: (1) the study of the development processes and the description of phenological phases, and (2) the analysis of the growth processes performed through biometric and floristic composition measurements. Specific BBCH scales for each species were developed. Shoot growth and floristic composition analysis did not show a clear trend in the response of the different species to climatic manipulations but a downward trend in the number of species. The results obtained in this study add useful information on the phenological cycle and growth of the Mediterranean species, improving the knowledge on the mechanisms of adaptation to adverse environmental conditions of these species

  19. Helminth parasites of fish and shellfish from the Santa Gilla Lagoon in southern Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Culurgioni, J; Sabatini, A; De Murtas, R; Mattiucci, S; Figus, V

    2014-12-01

    An extensive survey of helminth parasites in fish and shellfish species from Santa Gilla, a brackish water lagoon in southern Sardinia (western Mediterranean), resulted in the identification of 69 helminth parasite taxa and/or species from 13 fish species (n= 515) and seven bivalve species (n= 2322) examined between September 2001 and July 2011. The list summarizes information on the helminth parasites harboured by fish and molluscs contained in the available literature. Digenea species (37), both adults and larvae, dominated the parasite fauna, whereas Cestoda were the least represented class (three species). Monogenea, Nematoda and Acanthocephala were present with 17, 6 and 6 species, respectively, which were mainly adults. The most widespread parasite species was the generalist Contracaecum rudolphii A (Nematoda). Other species, such as the Haploporidae and Ascocotyle (Phagicola) spp. 1 and 2 (Digenea), showed a high family specificity in Mugilidae. Importantly, the study recorded the occurrence of potential zoonotic agents, such as Heterophyes heterophyes, Ascocotyle (Phagicola) spp. and C. rudolphii A, the latter two reaching the highest indices of infection in the highly marketed fish grey mullet and sea bass, respectively. The highest parasite richness was detected in Dicentrarchus labrax, which harboured 17 helminth species, whereas the lowest value was observed in Atherina boyeri, infected by only three species. The list includes the first geographical record in Italian coastal waters of Robinia aurata and Stictodora sawakinensis, and 30 reports of new host-parasite complexes, including the larval stages of Ascocotyle (Ascocotyle) sp. and Southwellina hispida in D. labrax. PMID:23790066

  20. Zinc and Other Metals Deficiencies and Risk of Type 1 Diabetes: An Ecological Study in the High Risk Sardinia Island

    PubMed Central

    Sanna, Alessandro; Pretti, Salvatore; Marcello, Alberto; Mannu, Carla; Targhetta, Clara; Bruno, Graziella; Songini, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Background Type 1 diabetes incidence presents a decreasing gradient in Europe from the Nordic countries to the Mediterranean ones. Exception to this gradient is represented by Sardinia, the second largest Mediterranean island whose population shows the highest incidence in Europe, after Finland. The genetic features of this population have created a fertile ground for the epidemic of the disease, however, as well as being strikingly high, the incidence rate has suddenly presented a continuous increase from the ‘50s, not explainable by accumulation of new genetic variants. Several environmental factors have been taken into account, possibly interacting with the genetic/epigenetic scenario, but there are no strong evidences to date. Methods The present study investigated the hypothesis that geochemical elements could create permissive environmental conditions for autoimmune diabetes. An ecological analysis was performed to test possible correlations between the values of eight elements in stream sediments and type 1 diabetes incidence rate in Sardinia. Results Analyses revealed negative associations between elements, such as Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Zn, and type 1 diabetes incidence. Conclusions The results suggest a possible protective role of some elements against the onset of the disease. PMID:26559814

  1. Modelling climate change impacts on tourism demand: A comparative study from Sardinia (Italy) and Cap Bon (Tunisia).

    PubMed

    Köberl, Judith; Prettenthaler, Franz; Bird, David Neil

    2016-02-01

    Tourism represents an important source of income and employment in many Mediterranean regions, including the island of Sardinia (Italy) and the Cap Bon peninsula (Tunisia). Climate change may however impact tourism in both regions, for example, by altering the regions' climatic suitability for common tourism types or affecting water availability. This paper assesses the potential impacts of climate change on tourism in the case study regions of Sardinia and Cap Bon. Direct impacts are studied in a quantitative way by applying a range of climate scenario data on the empirically estimated relationship between climatic conditions and tourism demand, using two different approaches. Results indicate a potential for climate-induced tourism revenue gains especially in the shoulder seasons during spring and autumn, but also a threat of climate-induced revenue losses in the summer months due to increased heat stress. Annual direct net impacts are nevertheless suggested to be (slightly) positive in both case study regions. Significant climate-induced reductions in total available water may however somewhat counteract the positive direct impacts of climate change by putting additional water costs on the tourism industry. PMID:25891683

  2. Detection of GRS 1915+105 and SS 433 at 7.2 GHz and 21.4 GHz with the Sardinia Radio Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egron, E.; Pellizzoni, A.; Bachetti, M.; Navarrini, A.; Trois, A.; Pilia, M.; Iacolina, M. N.; Melis, A.; Concu, R.; Loru, S.; Ballhausen, R.; Corbel, S.; Eikmann, W.; Fuerst, F.; Grinberg, V.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Marongiu, M.; Nowak, M.; Possenti, A.; Pottschmidt, K.; Rodriguez, J.; Wilms, J.

    2016-04-01

    In the frame of radio monitoring of Galactic NS/BH X-ray binaries with the Sardinia Radio Telescope (www.srt.inaf.it), we detected GRS 1915+105 and SS 433 in the C- and K-bands through single-dish on-the-fly mapping centered on the sources.

  3. Fuel type characterization and potential fire behavior estimation in Sardinia and Corsica islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacciu, V.; Pellizzaro, G.; Santoni, P.; Arca, B.; Ventura, A.; Salis, M.; Barboni, T.; Leroy, V.; Cancellieri, D.; Leoni, E.; Ferrat, L.; Perez, Y.; Duce, P.; Spano, D.

    2012-04-01

    Wildland fires represent a serious threat to forests and wooded areas of the Mediterranean Basin. As recorded by the European Commission (2009), during the last decade Southern Countries have experienced an annual average of about 50,000 forest fires and about 470,000 burned hectares. The factor that can be directly manipulated in order to minimize fire intensity and reduce other fire impacts, such as three mortality, smoke emission, and soil erosion, is wildland fuel. Fuel characteristics, such as vegetation cover, type, humidity status, and biomass and necromass loading are critical variables in affecting wildland fire occurrence, contributing to the spread, intensity, and severity of fires. Therefore, the availability of accurate fuel data at different spatial and temporal scales is needed for fire management applications, including fire behavior and danger prediction, fire fighting, fire effects simulation, and ecosystem simulation modeling. In this context, the main aims of our work are to describe the vegetation parameters involved in combustion processes and develop fire behavior fuel maps. The overall work plan is based firstly on the identification and description of the different fuel types mainly affected by fire occurrence in Sardinia (Italy) and Corsica (France) Islands, and secondly on the clusterization of the selected fuel types in relation to their potential fire behavior. In the first part of the work, the available time series of fire event perimeters and the land use map data were analyzed with the purpose of identifying the main land use types affected by fires. Thus, field sampling sites were randomly identified on the selected vegetation types and several fuel variables were collected (live and dead fuel load partitioned following Deeming et al., (1977), depth of fuel layer, plant cover, surface area-to-volume ratio, heat content). In the second part of the work, the potential fire behavior for every experimental site was simulated using

  4. Hypogenic speleogenesis in quartzite: The case of Corona 'e Sa Craba Cave (SW Sardinia, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Onac, Bogdan P.; Galli, Ermanno; Dublyansky, Yuri; Baldoni, Eleonora; Sanna, Laura

    2014-04-01

    The paper presents a detailed study demonstrating the hypogenic origin of the Corona 'e Sa Craba quartzite cave in SW Sardinia (Italy). Although the quartzite host-rock of this cave derived from silicification of Cambrian dolostones and dissolution of carbonate remnants could have had a role in the speleogenesis, detailed morphologic and petrographic investigation revealed clear evidence of quartz dissolution without signs of mechanical erosion by running waters. Thin section microscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images show pervasive dissolution morphologies, such as pits and notches on quartz crystals causing the deep arenization of the cave walls, suggesting that the dissolution of quartz had a primary role in the formation of the void. The study of secondary cave minerals and the sulfur isotopic composition of sulfates and sulfides, coupled with data on fluid inclusions, allowed reconstruction of the peculiar speleogenetic history of this hypogenic hydrothermal quartzite cave. The cave formed by reduced hydrothermal fluids, probably under basic-neutral pH in phreatic conditions. The presence of abundant cations of Ba2 + in reduced Cl-rich fluids enhanced the quartz dissolution rate, allowing the formation of the voids in deep settings. During the Late Oligocene uplift of the area, the hydrothermal fluids in the cave reached oxygen-rich conditions, thus a minerogenetic phase started with the deposition of barite when the temperature of the fluid was ≤ 50 °C. The presence of cinnabar crusts in the lower part of the cave walls and on the boulders suggests a later volcanic phase with Hg-rich vapors ascending from below. Other minerals such as alunite, basaluminite, gypsum and halloysite (typical of an acid sulfate alteration environment), and phosphates were formed in a final, much more recent stage. The δ34S values of the cave sulfate minerals indicate that S is derived from the remobilization of original Precambrian Pb-Zn Mississippi Valley Type

  5. Geological contribution to the GHG budget of the Capo Caccia karst ecosystem (NW Sardinia, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanna, Laura; Arca, Angelo; Casula, Marcello; Ventura, Andrea; Zara, Pierpaolo; Duce, Pierpaolo

    2016-04-01

    Capo Caccia karst area (North-West Sardinia, Italy) is one of the monitoring points of the Italian ICOS infrastructure. The carbon flux in this region is continuously performed by direct measurement of gas exchanges across canopy-atmosphere interface using an eddy covariance tower placed over a Mediterranean maquis, constituted by sclerophyl species. As the net ecosystem carbon balance in this terrestrial ecosystem does not only respond to physiological features of its vegetation, the geological contribution to the GHG budget has been investigated through the relationships among atmosphere-biosphere-geosphere gas exchanges. Since carbon dioxide is involved in the geochemical cycle of the karst processes, the environmental monitoring programme has been extended to the underground atmosphere using micrometeorological stations installed within caves. The preliminary data show a static cave air CO2 concentration ranging from 500 ppm to 1600 ppm, with periodic gas plumes that reach up to 18,000 ppm. Correlation analysis point out that subsurface-atmosphere gas exchange reflects environmental forcing related to atmospheric variables. In fact the degassing mainly occurs by barometric pressure changes and via density driven flow. Subsurface air ventilation can be also induced by water table oscillations, so future step of the study will take into account the relationship between the unsatured zone and the near marine ecosystem. Even though underground air mass is reasonably small respect to the outside atmosphere, when considering the high density of karst features of Capo Caccia karst ecosystem, its temporal CO2 pattern provides evidence that the amounts of carbon that might be released from subsurface could be noticeable at both local and regional scale. Integrated monitoring of atmosphere dynamic can give clues for understanding carbon cycle model and multidisciplinary approaches contribute for filling the gap in global carbon budget. Acknowledgements This research was

  6. Evaporation in a Mediterranean environment by energy budget and Penman methods, Lake Baratz, Sardinia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giadrossich, F.; Niedda, M.; Cohen, D.; Pirastru, M.

    2015-05-01

    In Mediterranean environments, evaporation is a key component of lake water budgets. This applies to Lake Baratz in Sardinia, Italy, a closed lake that almost dried up in 2008 after a succession of years with low seasonal rainfall. We used the energy budget method and Penman's equation to estimate evaporation over Lake Baratz. We measured, using a raft station, water temperature at the surface, at 1, 2, 4, 6 m depth and at the bottom of the lake, as well as air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and net radiation over a period of 3 years. We also compared Penman's equation and the energy budget method in two other climatic zones using published data. Our results indicate that mean yearly evaporation over Lake Baratz was 950 mm. On an annual scale, evaporation estimated by Penman's method omitting heat storage as is usually done was 18% higher than by the energy budget method that included heat storage, with monthly differences ranging between -38 and +60%. Including the heat storage term in Penman's equation changed the monthly values but did not change the yearly value significantly. Solar radiation and heat storage were found to be the most important energy fluxes to and from the lake and had the greatest effect on evaporation rates for the energy budget method. The bias between the two methods has a seasonal cycle due to the storage and release of energy from the lake. Energy advected to and from the lake by precipitation, surface water and ground water had minor effect on evaporation rates. Lake Baratz, like other lakes in a Mediterranean environment, is particularly sensitive to the summer hot and dry climate. In contrast, we found that rates of evaporation estimated from Penman and the energy budget methods over tropical African lakes were nearly constant over the entire year and the difference between the two methods smaller. Difference between the two methods for North American lakes is also smaller probably owing to the ice-cover season and to

  7. From northern Gondwana passive margin to arc dismantling: a geochemical discrimination of Ordovician volcanisms (Sardinia, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaggero, L.; Oggiano, G.; Buzzi, L.; Funedda, A.

    2009-04-01

    In Sardinia, one of the southernmost remain of the European Variscan belt, a crustal section through northern Gondwanan paleodomains is largely preserved. It bears significant evidence of igneous activity, recently detailed in field relationships and radiometric dating (Oggiano et al., submitted). A Cambro - Ordovician (491.7 ± 3.5 Ma ÷ 479.9 ± 2.1 Ma, LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon age) bimodal volcanic suite occurs with continuity in external and inner Variscan nappes of Sardinia below the so-called Sardic unconformity. The igneous suite represents an intraplate volcanic activity developed through subsequent episodes: i) an intermediate explosive and effusive volcanism, i.e. pyroclastic fall deposits and lava flows, embedded into epicontinental clastic sediments, culminating in silicic ignimbrite eruptions, and ii) mafic effusives. Geochemical data document a transitional, within-plate signature, e.g. the average Th/Ta (4.5) and La/Nb (2.7) overlap the upper continental crust values. The volcanites are characterized by slight fractionation of LREEs, nearly flat HREE abundance. The negative Eu anomaly increases towards evolved compositions. Some prominent HREE depletion (GdCN/YbCN = 13.8), and the high Nb/Y suggest a garnet-bearing source. The high 87Sr radiogenic content (87Sr/86Sr 490 Ma = 0.71169) and the epsilon Nd 490 Ma value of -6.54 for one dacite sample, imply a time integrated LREE-enriched source with a high Rb/Sr, such as a metasedimentary source. The stratigraphy of the succession and the geochemical composition of igneous members suggest a volcanic passive margin along the northern Gondwana at the early Ordovician. The bimodal Mid-Ordovician arc volcanism (465.4 ± 1.4 Ma, U-Pb zircon age; Oggiano et al., submitted) is developed in the external nappes (e.g. in Sarrabus and Sarcidano) and in the foreland occurs as clasts at the base of the Hirnantian succession (Leone et al. 1991). The Mid Ordovician sub-alkalic volcanic suite has reliable stratigraphic and

  8. Stratigraphy of two conjugate margins (Gulf of Lion and West Sardinia): modeling of vertical movements and sediment budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroux, Estelle; Gorini, Christian; Aslanian, Daniel; Rabineau, Marina; Blanpied, Christian; Rubino, Jean-Loup; Robin, Cécile; Granjeon, Didier; Taillepierre, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    The post-rift (~20-0 Ma) vertical movements of the Provence Basin (West Mediterranean) are quantified on its both conjugate (the Gulf of Lion and the West Sardinia) margins. This work is based on the stratigraphic study of sedimentary markers using a large 3D grid of seismic data, correlations with existing drillings and refraction data. The post-rift subsidence is measured by the direct use of sedimentary geometries analysed in 3D [Gorini et al., 2015; Rabineau et al., 2014] and validated by numerical stratigraphic modelling. Three domains were found: on the platform (1) and slope (2), the subsidence takes the form of a seaward tilting with different amplitudes, whereas the deep basin (3) subsides purely vertically [Leroux et al., 2015a]. These domains correspond to the deeper crustal domains respectively highlighted by wide angle seismic data. The continental crust (1) and the thinned continental crust (2) are tilted, whereas the intermediate crust, identified as lower continental exhumed crust [Moulin et al., 2015, Afhilado et al., 2015] (3) sagged. The post-break-up subsidence re-uses the initial hinge lines of the rifting phase. This striking correlation between surface geologic processes and deep earth dynamic processes emphasizes that the sedimentary record and sedimentary markers is a window into deep geodynamic processes and dynamic topography. Pliocene-Pleistocene seismic markers enabled high resolution quantification of sediment budgets over the past 6 Myr [Leroux et al., in press]. Sediment budget history is here completed on the Miocene interval. Thus, the controlling factors (climate, tectonics and eustasy) are discussed. Afilhado, A., Moulin, M., Aslanian, D., Schnürle, P., Klingelhoefer, F., Nouzé, H., Rabineau, M., Leroux, E. & Beslier, M.-O. (2015). Deep crustal structure across a young 1 passive margin from wide-angle and reflection seismic data (The SARDINIA Experiment) - II. Sardinia's margin. Bull. Soc. géol. France, 186, ILP Spec. issue, 4

  9. Using AQUACROP to model the impacts of future climates on crop production and possible adaptation strategies in Sardinia and Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, Neil; Benabdallah, Sihem; Gouda, Nadine; Hummel, Franz; La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Meyer, Swen; Soddu, Antonino; Woess-Gallasch, Susanne

    2014-05-01

    A work package in the FP-7 funded CLIMB Project - Climate Induced Changes on the Hydrology of Mediterranean Basins Reducing Uncertainty and Quantifying Risk through an Integrated Monitoring and Modeling System had the goal of assessing socioeconomic vulnerability in two super-sites in future climates (2040-2070). The work package had deliverables to describe of agricultural adaptation measures appropriate to each site under future water availability scenarios and assess the risk of income losses due to water shortages in agriculture. The FAO model AQUACROP was used to estimate losses of agricultural productivity and indicate possible adaptation strategies. The presentation will focus on two interesting crops which show extreme vulnerability to expected changes in climate; irrigated lettuce in Sardinia and irrigated tomatoes in Tunisia. Modelling methodology, results and possible adaptation strategies will be presented.

  10. Interpretation of coastal sediment quality based on trace metal and PAH analysis, benthic foraminifera, and toxicity tests (Sardinia, Western Mediterranean).

    PubMed

    Schintu, Marco; Buosi, Carla; Galgani, François; Marrucci, Alessandro; Marras, Barbara; Ibba, Angelo; Cherchi, Antonietta

    2015-05-15

    An integrated approach for the assessment of coastal sediment quality was utilised in three areas of Sardinia (Western Mediterranean, Italy). Sediments were analysed for trace metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), while benthic foraminifera were used as bioindicators. Furthermore, the embryo-toxicity test was used to provide ecologically relevant information using rapid and cost-effective screening tools. The aim was to evaluate the usefulness of coupling different analytical tools. The results revealed the presence of polluted sediments in areas exposed to petrochemical industries, smelters or military settlements. However, while foraminifera have presented similar indications for chemical analysis of contamination levels in the different areas, the toxicity test exhibited a poor relationship with the contaminants measured individually. The results raise questions concerning the bioavailability of contaminants released by sediments in the water column. Overall, the toxicity rate was significant in many samples in comparison with other sites studied in other Mediterranean regions. PMID:25795553

  11. A case of semi-combusted pregnant female in the Phoenician-Punic necropolis of Monte Sirai (Carbonia, Sardinia, Italy).

    PubMed

    Piga, G; Guirguis, M; Thompson, T J U; Isidro, A; Enzo, S; Malgosa, A

    2016-02-01

    We present a case of a pregnant woman with the fetus skeletal remains in situ, belonging to the Phoenician-Punic necropolis of Monte Sirai (Sardinia, Italy). The burial dates back to the late 6th to early 5th century BCE. Of the unborn fetal cases documented in the literature this is amongst the oldest four and it represents the first documented case of a pregnant woman in the Phoenician and Punic necropolis literature. A physico-chemical investigation of bones combining X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy suggests that the female skeleton and fetus were subjected to an incomplete heat treatment according to a funerary practice, perhaps limited to the period of early 5th century BCE, that appears to be peculiar to this site. PMID:26421607

  12. Moss (Bryum radiculosum) as a bioindicator of trace metal deposition around an industrialised area in Sardinia (Italy).

    PubMed

    Schintu, M; Cogoni, A; Durante, L; Cantaluppi, C; Contu, A

    2005-07-01

    The moss Bryum radiculosum (Brid.), a species typical of dry and coastal environments, was used as a bioindicator for the estimation of atmospheric trace metal deposition around the industrial site of Portoscuso (Sardinia, Italy), which includes a lead-zinc smelter, two power plants, and aluminium production factories. For Cd, Pb, Zn, and V the results showed very similar patterns with extremely high values in the immediate surroundings of the industrial area. Copper and Cr showed somewhat different patterns, but still pointing to local pollution sources. The levels of metals at distance of about 13 km from the industrial site were still higher than in background samples. In order to evaluate the suitability of B. radiculosum for monitoring studies, trace metal concentrations in moss were compared with bulk deposition measurements in the same area. Correlation was significant only for Pb, Cd, and Zn. For Cr, Cu, and V the results showed high variability, mainly to be ascribed to soil factors. PMID:15963799

  13. Genome-wide association analyses based on whole-genome sequencing in Sardinia provide insights into regulation of hemoglobin levels.

    PubMed

    Danjou, Fabrice; Zoledziewska, Magdalena; Sidore, Carlo; Steri, Maristella; Busonero, Fabio; Maschio, Andrea; Mulas, Antonella; Perseu, Lucia; Barella, Susanna; Porcu, Eleonora; Pistis, Giorgio; Pitzalis, Maristella; Pala, Mauro; Menzel, Stephan; Metrustry, Sarah; Spector, Timothy D; Leoni, Lidia; Angius, Andrea; Uda, Manuela; Moi, Paolo; Thein, Swee Lay; Galanello, Renzo; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Schlessinger, David; Sanna, Serena; Cucca, Francesco

    2015-11-01

    We report genome-wide association study results for the levels of A1, A2 and fetal hemoglobins, analyzed for the first time concurrently. Integrating high-density array genotyping and whole-genome sequencing in a large general population cohort from Sardinia, we detected 23 associations at 10 loci. Five signals are due to variants at previously undetected loci: MPHOSPH9, PLTP-PCIF1, ZFPM1 (FOG1), NFIX and CCND3. Among the signals at known loci, ten are new lead variants and four are new independent signals. Half of all variants also showed pleiotropic associations with different hemoglobins, which further corroborated some of the detected associations and identified features of coordinated hemoglobin species production. PMID:26366553

  14. Metals and metalloids in hair samples of children living near the abandoned mine sites of Sulcis-Inglesiente (Sardinia, Italy).

    PubMed

    Varrica, D; Tamburo, E; Milia, N; Vallascas, E; Cortimiglia, V; De Giudici, G; Dongarrà, G; Sanna, E; Monna, F; Losno, R

    2014-10-01

    The Sulcis-Iglesiente district (SW Sardinia, Italy) is one of the oldest and most important polymetallic mining areas in Italy. Large outcrops of sulfide and oxide ores, as well as the products of the long-lasting mining activity, are present throughout the district releasing significant quantities of metals and metalloids into the surrounding environment. Here are reported concentrations of 21 elements determined in scalp hair samples from children (aged 11-13 years) living in different geochemical environments of southwestern Sardinia: Iglesias, hosting several abandoned mines, and the island of Sant׳Antioco, not affected by significant base metal mineralization events. Trace element determinations were performed by ICP-MS. Statistically significant differences (p<0.01) in elemental concentration levels between the two study sites were found. Hair of children from Iglesias exhibited higher concentration values for Ag, Ba, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb, U, V, and Zn. Rubidium, V and U resulted more abundant at Sant׳Antioco. Hair samples from Iglesias showed gender-related differences for a larger number of elements (Ag, Ba, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Sr, U and Zn) than at Sant׳Antioco, where only U was significantly different. The above elemental concentrations in females were always higher than in male donors. Robust Principal Component Analysis operated on log-transformed elemental concentrations showed components indicative of a) sulfides ore minerals (PC1) reflecting the influence of the diffuse mineralization covering the entire study area, b) the presence of some bioavailable As sources (PC2) as As-rich pyrite and Fe-containing sphalerite and c) other sources of metals overlapping the diffuse mineralizations, as carbonate rocks and coal deposits (PC3). The results provided evidence of a potential risk of adverse effects on the health of the exposed population, with children living at Iglesias being greatly exposed to several metals and metalloids originated in mining

  15. ODP Leg 107 results from continental margin east of Sardinia (Mediterranean Sea): a transect across a very young passive margin

    SciTech Connect

    Kastens, K.A.; Mascle, J.; Auroux, C.; Bonatti, E.; Broglia, C.; Channell, J.; Curzi, P.; Emeis, K.; Glacon, G.; Hasegawa, S.; Hieke, W.

    1987-05-01

    A 200-km wide zone east of Sardinia, characterized by thin continental crust with tilted, listric(.)-fault-bounded blocks, has been interpreted as a passive continental margin formed during back-arc opening of the Tyrrhenian Sea. Leg 107 of the Ocean Drilling Project drilled a transect of four sites across this margin plus three sites in the basaltic basin. Site 654, closest to Sardinia, recovered a transgressive sequence attributed to basin subsidence: coarse-grained, iron-oxide rich, subaerial conglomerates underlie oyster-bearing sands followed upsection by open-water Tortonian marine marls. The synrift sequence, as inferred from seismic reflection profiles, correlates with sediments of Tortonian to Messinian age. Farther east the synrift sediments are younger: site 652, near the continental/oceanic transition, recovered an inferred synrift sequence of Messinian to early Pliocene age. The pan-Mediterranean Messinian desiccation event is represented at the western two sites (654 and 653) by a basinal facies including laminated gypsum, whereas at the eastern two sites the Messinian facies are terrestrial (lacustrine at 652 and subaerial at 656). They therefore infer that subsidence was more advanced at the western sites than at the eastern sites as of 5 Ma. Leg 107 results suggest that subsidence and stretching were diachronous across the passive margin, beginning and ending several million years earlier in the west than in the east. This asynchroneity may result from the inherent asymmetry of back-arc basin opening, or it may be a common characteristic of passive margins which has been revealed by the unusually precise time resolution of this data set.

  16. Impact of network geometry, observation schemes and telescope structure deformations on local ties: simulations applied to Sardinia Radio Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbondanza, Claudio; Sarti, Pierguido

    2012-03-01

    The 64-m Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) is currently under construction in Sardinia (Italy). To ensure future surveying and monitoring operations at an utmost level of accuracy, we aim at selecting the optimal design and the most cost-effective solution for the establishment of the local ground control network (LGCN). We simulate and test 45 data sets corresponding to 5 different network configurations. We investigate the influence of 2 LGCN geometries (14 or 8 ground markers) and 3 terrestrial observation schemes (based on redundant forward intersections or side shots) on the precision and accuracy of the conventional reference point (CRP) of SRT and the simulated tie vector with a global navigation satellite system (GNSS) station. In addition, thermal and gravitational deformations of the radio telescope structure are simulated as systematic errors introduced into the observations and their effects on the CRP estimates are quantified. The state-of-the-art of CRP surveying and computation, based on terrestrial indirect methods, is applied. We show how terrestrial indirect methods can estimate the position of the radio telescope CRP to the millimeter precision level. With our simulations, we prove that limiting the LGCN to a 8-point configuration ensures the same precision on the CRP obtained with a 14-point network. Furthermore, we demonstrate that in the absence of telescope deformations, side shots, despite the lower redundancy, preserve a precision similar to that of redundant forward intersections. We show that the deformations due to gravitational flexure and thermal expansion of the radio telescope cannot be neglected in the tie vector computation, since they may bias the CRP estimate by several millimeters degrading its accuracy but not impacting on its formal precision. We highlight the dependency of the correlation matrices of the solutions on the geometry of the network and the observation schemes. Similarly, varying the extent of telescope deformations

  17. Carbon loss and greenhouse gas emission from extreme fire events occurred in Sardinia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacciu, V. M.; Salis, M.; Pellizzaro, G.; Arca, B.; Duce, P.; Spano, D.

    2011-12-01

    It is widely recognized that biomass burning is a significant driver of CO2 cycling and a source of greenhouse gases, aerosol particles, and other chemically reactive atmospheric gases. The large amounts of carbon that fires release into the atmosphere could approach levels of anthropogenic carbon emissions, especially in years of extreme fire activity. CO2 emissions from 2007 forest fires in Greece were in the range of 4.5 Mt, representing about the 4% of the total annual CO2 emissions of that country (http://effis.jrc.it/). Barbosa et al. (2006) reported a similar percentage of fire emissions to total emissions of CO2 in Portugal during the extreme fire seasons of 2003 and 2005. Currently, inventory methods for biomass burning emission use the equation first proposed by Seiler and Crutzen (1980), taking into account the area burned, the amount of biomass burned, and the emission factors associated with each specific chemical species. However, several errors and uncertainties can affect the emission assessment, due to the estimate consistency of the various parameters involved in the equation, including flaming and smoldering combustion periods, appropriate fuel load evaluations and gaseous emission factors for different fuel fractions and fire types. In this context, model approaching can contribute to better appraise fuel consumption and the resultant emissions. In addition, more comprehensive and accurate data inputs would be of valuable help for predicting and quantifying the source and the composition of fire emissions. The purpose of this work is to explore the impacts of extreme fire events occurred in Sardinia Island (Italy) using an integrated approach combining modelling fire emissions, field observations and remotely-sensed data. In order to achieve realistic fire emission estimates, we used the FOFEM model, due to the necessity to use a consistent modeling methodology across source categories, the input required, and its ability to estimate flaming and

  18. Exploring fire dynamics with BFAST approach: case studies in Sardinia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quarfeld, Jamie; di Mauro, Biagio; Colombo, Roberto; Verbesselt, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The synergistic effect of wildfire and extreme post-fire climatic events, (e.g. droughts or torrential rainfall), may result in long windows of disturbance - challenging the overall resilience of Mediterranean ecosystems and communities. The notion that increased fire frequency and severity may reduce ecosystem resilience has received much attention in Mediterranean regions in recent decades. Careful evaluation of vegetation recovery and landscape regeneration after a fire event provides vital information useful in land management. In this study, an extension of Breaks For Additive Seasonal and Trend (BFAST) is proposed as an ideal approach to monitor change and assess fire dynamics at the landscape level based on analysis of the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, TERRA) time series. To this end, satellite images of three vegetation indices (VIs), the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR), the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) were used. The analysis was conducted on areas affected by wildfires in the Sardinia region (Italy) between 2007 and 2010. Some land surface (LS) descriptors (i.e. mean and maximum VI) and fire characteristics (e.g. pre-fire trend & VI, change magnitude, current VI) were extracted to characterize the post-fire evolution of each site within a fifteen-year period (2000-2015). Resilience was estimated using a classic linear function, whereby recovery rates were compared to regional climate data (e.g. water balance) and local landscape components (e.g.topography, land use and land cover). The methodology was applied according to land cover type (e.g. mixed forest, maquis, shrubland, pasture) within each fire site and highlighted the challenge of isolating effects and quantifying the role of fire regime characteristics on resilience in a dynamic way when considering large, heterogeneous areas. Preliminary findings can be outlined as follows: I. NBR showed it was most effective at

  19. The Cenozoic fold-and-thrust belt of Eastern Sardinia: Evidences from the integration of field data with numerically balanced geological cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arragoni, S.; Maggi, M.; Cianfarra, P.; Salvini, F.

    2016-06-01

    Newly collected structural data in Eastern Sardinia (Italy) integrated with numerical techniques led to the reconstruction of a 2-D admissible and balanced model revealing the presence of a widespread Cenozoic fold-and-thrust belt. The model was achieved with the FORC software, obtaining a 3-D (2-D + time) numerical reconstruction of the continuous evolution of the structure through time. The Mesozoic carbonate units of Eastern Sardinia and their basement present a fold-and-thrust tectonic setting, with a westward direction of tectonic transport (referred to the present-day coordinates). The tectonic style of the upper levels is thin skinned, with flat sectors prevailing over ramps and younger-on-older thrusts. Three regional tectonic units are present, bounded by two regional thrusts. Strike-slip faults overprint the fold-and-thrust belt and developed during the Sardinia-Corsica Block rotation along the strike of the preexisting fault ramps, not affecting the numerical section balancing. This fold-and-thrust belt represents the southward prosecution of the Alpine Corsica collisional chain and the missing link between the Alpine Chain and the Calabria-Peloritani Block. Relative ages relate its evolution to the meso-Alpine event (Eocene-Oligocene times), prior to the opening of the Tyrrhenian Sea (Tortonian). Results fill a gap of information about the geodynamic evolution of the European margin in Central Mediterranean, between Corsica and the Calabria-Peloritani Block, and imply the presence of remnants of this double-verging belt, missing in the Southern Tyrrhenian basin, within the Southern Apennine chain. The used methodology proved effective for constraining balanced cross sections also for areas lacking exposures of the large-scale structures, as the case of Eastern Sardinia.

  20. A Comparative Study on Essential Oil Intraspecific and Seasonal Variations: Melissa romana Mill. and Melissa officinalis L. from Sardinia.

    PubMed

    Usai, Marianna; Atzei, Aldo Domenico; Marchetti, Mauro

    2016-08-01

    Two species of Melissa are currently present in Sardinia: Melissa officinalis L. and Melissa romana Mill. Our research can only count on a few supported evidences (as reported in Flora Italiana and Moris) and some notes on new stations in Sardinia that give us some information about morphology, distribution, bioecological, and ethnobotanical characteristics of both species. In this paper, we present the results of the research about morphological aspects of M. romana vs. M. officinalis, and their essential oils in different stations at different phenological periods. Moreover, we compared the essential oil of M. romana with the one obtained from M. officinalis growing in the few naturalized stations still present in Sardinia. The most evident morphological differences between the two entities are the long-stalked capitate glandular trichomes, shorts and inclined capitate trichomes, and peltate hairs. The chemical composition of essential oil presents several significant differences between the species. In fact, oils show that in none of the phenological stages, M. romana recalls in its composition M. officinalis. Major distinctions are also evident between dry and fresh plants, and among essential oils distilled in different seasons. PMID:27449960

  1. The fold-and-thrust tectonic setting of the Mesozoic carbonate units of Eastern Sardinia: insights from 3D (2D + t) modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arragoni, Simone; Cianfarra, Paola; Maggi, Matteo; Salvini, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    Present-day Eastern Sardinia structural setting was mainly determined by Cenozoic strike-slip-to-oblique faulting in the Tacchi and Golfo di Orosei regions, where Mesozoic shallow water carbonates crop out (Costamagna and Barca, 2004 and references therein). These structures are interpreted as the effects of the rotation of the Sardinia-Corsica block during Oligocene and the successive opening of the Tyrrhenian sea starting from lower Miocene (Oggiano et al., 2009 and references therein). New structural data indicate the presence of dip-slip compressive tectonics and thrusting affecting the Mesozoic carbonates and involving the underlying Paleozoic basement. This event shows a westward vergence (top-to-the-W) and is cut by later strike-slip faults. The age of this tectonics is constrained between Eocene (Lutetian rocks involved) and Oligo-Miocene (post-dated by the strike-slip tectonic event). The integration between these new structural observations and the available geological and geophysical datasets allowed to construct a balanced and admissible geological cross section in order to study the tectonic evolution of eastern Sardinia before the opening of the Tyrrhenian basin. The orientation of the section is parallel to the direction of the tectonic transport, that is WSW-ENE. The balanced cross-section has been modelled with the "Forctre" software in order to get a 3D (2D + t) evolutionary model and check its admissibility through time. The final section shows a thin-skin geometry (flats sectors prevailing over ramps) and is composed of two main tectonic slices deeply involving the Paleozoic basement and secondary thrusting affecting the Mesozoic carbonate units. These are characterized by "younger-on-older" flat-over-flat tectonics evidenced by Cretaceous-over-Jurassic thrusting. Similar geometries have been described also in the Latium-Abruzzi sector of the Southern Apennines. Costamagna L.G. & Barca S. 2004. Stratigrafia, analisi di facies, paleogeografia ed

  2. Soil Water Balance and Vegetation Dynamics in two Contrasting Water-limited Mediterranean Ecosystems on Sardinia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montaldo, N.; Albertson, J. D.; Corona, R.

    2011-12-01

    Water limited conditions strongly impacts soil and vegetation dynamics in Mediterranean regions, which are commonly heterogeneous ecosystems, characterized by inter-annual rainfall variability, topography variability and contrasting plant functional types (PFTs) competing for water use. Mediterranean regions are characterized by two main ecosystems, grassland and woodland, which for both natural and anthropogenic causes can grow in soils with different characteristics, highly impacting water resources. Water resources and forestal planning need a deep understanding of the dynamics between PFTs, soil and atmosphere and their impacts on water and CO2 distributions of these two main ecosystems. The first step is the monitoring of land surface fluxes, soil moisture, and vegetation dynamics of the two contrasting ecosystems. Moreover, due to the large percentage of soils with low depth (< 50 cm), and due to the quick hydrologic answer to atmospheric forcing in these soils, there is also the need to understand the impact of the soil depth in the vegetation dynamics, and make measurements in these types of soils. Sardinia island is a very interesting and representative region of Mediterranean ecosystems. It is low urbanized, and is not irrigated, except some plan areas close to the main cities where main agricultural activities are concentrated. The case study sites are within the Flumendosa river basin on Sardinia. Two sites, both in the Flumendosa river and with similar height a.s.l., are investigated. The distance between the sites is around 4 km but the first is a typically grass site located on an alluvial plan valley with a soil depth more than 2m, while the second site is a patchy mixture of Mediterranean vegetation types Oaks, creepers of the wild olive trees and C3 herbaceous species and the soil thickness varies from 15-40 cm, bounded from below by a rocky layer of basalt, partially fractured. In both sites land-surface fluxes and CO2 fluxes are estimated by

  3. ECHO virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001340.htm ECHO virus To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses that lead to ...

  4. Quantifying biomineralization of zinc in the Rio Naracauli (Sardinia, Italy), using a tracer injection and synoptic sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    De Giudici, Giovanni; Wanty, Richard B.; Podda, F.; Kimball, Briant A.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Lattanzi, P.; Cidu, R.; Medas, D.

    2014-01-01

    Streams draining mined areas throughout the world commonly have high concentrations of Zn. Because Zn is not easily removed from stream water and because it can be toxic to aquatic organisms, its presence is a persistent problem. The discovery of biomineralization of Zn-bearing solids in the mine drainage of Rio Naracauli, in Sardinia, Italy, provides insights into strategies for removing Zn and improving water quality in streams affected by mine drainage. Until now, the transport and attenuation of Zn has not been quantified in this stream setting. A continuous tracer injection experiment was conducted to quantify the biomineralization process and to identify the loading of constituents that causes a change from precipitation of hydrozincite [Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6] in the upstream reach to precipitation of a Zn-silicate phase downstream. Based on the mass-load calculations derived from the tracer experiment, about 1.2 kg/day of Zn is sequestered in hydrozincite. This biomineralization represents nearly 90% removal of Zn. Other elements such as Pb and Cd also are sequestered, either in the hydrozincite, or in a separate phase that forms simultaneously. In the lower 600 m of the stream, where the Zn-silicate forms, as much as 0.7 kg/day Zn are sequestered in this solid, but additions of Zn to the stream from groundwater discharge lead to an overall increase in load in that portion of the Rio Naracauli.

  5. Heavy metal bioaccumulation in lamb and sheep bred in smelting and mining areas of S. W. Sardinia (Italy)

    SciTech Connect

    Leita, L.; Nobili, M. de ); Enne, G. ); Baldini, M. ); Sequi, P. )

    1991-06-01

    It is widely known that anthropogenic activities strongly contributed to heavy metals contamination of the environment. For this reason, distribution of heavy metals in soils and plants around urban and industrial point sources have been the object of extensive studies. Lesser attention has been given to accumulation of heavy metals in animals bred in these polluted environments, and relatively few works are concerned with the accumulation of heavy metals through the food chain. The aim of this work is to examine the distribution of heavy metals in two contaminated environments, a smelter-refinery and a mine area situated in S.W. Sardinia. The first sampling area is located near one of the most important Pb and Zn smelting-refineries of Europe, and the second near abandoned and working mines. In this study, target organs of sheep and lamb were considered for their heavy metals accumulation. Samples of vegetation were collected throughout the vegetative period and analyzed for their Pb, Zn and Cd content. Winter forage and soil were also sampled.

  6. Sedimentation and reservoir distribution related to a tilted block system in the Sardinia Oligocene-Miocene rift (Italy)

    SciTech Connect

    Tremolieres, P.; Cherchi, A.; Eschard, R.; De Graciansky, P.C.; Montadert, L.

    1988-08-01

    In the western Mediterranean basin lies a rift system about 250 km long and 50 km wide and its infilling outcrop (central Sardinia). Seismic reflection surveys show its offshore extension. Block tilting started during the late Oligocene and lasted during Aquitanian-early Burdigalian time. Two main fault trends, with synthetic and antithetic throws, define the more-or-less collapsed blocks. This morphology guided the transit and trapping of sediments. The sedimentation started in a continental environment then, since the Chattian, in marine conditions. In the central part, the series can reach a thickness of 2,000 m. The basement composition and the volcanics products related to the main fault motion controlled the nature of the synrift deposits. According to their location in the rift context, the tilted blocks trap either continental deposits or marine siliciclastic or carbonate deposits. In the deeper part of the graben, sands were redeposited by gravity flows into the basinal marls. The younger prerift deposits are from Eocene to early Oligocene age and locally comprise thick coal layers. Postrift deposits, mainly marls, sealed the blocks and synrift sedimentary bodies. In middle and late Miocene time some faults were reactivated during compressional events. Then, a quaternary extensional phase created the Campidano graben, filled with about 1,000 m of sediments superimposed on the Oligocene-Miocene rift.

  7. Prospecting for clay minerals within volcanic successions: Application of electrical resistivity tomography to characterise bentonite deposits in northern Sardinia (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, V.; Testone, V.; Oggiano, G.; Testa, A.

    2014-12-01

    Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is applied to prospect for and characterise a bentonitic clay deposit in northern Sardinia. Sardinian bentonites derived from the hydrothermal alteration of thick successions of pyroclastic flows and epiclastites are associated with the Oligo-Miocene calc-alkaline volcanic cycle. The alteration of these rocks is generally controlled by faults that control the local circulation of hydrothermal fluids. Two-dimensional ERT investigations were performed close to a faulted area to define the location, thickness and lateral continuity of the clayey body, and determine how it relates to faulting and stratigraphy. A line-based three-dimensional ERT data acquisition was carried out in a selected area to estimate the available clay reserves. The reliability of these resistivity models was assessed by comparison with local borehole data. Finally, the interpretation of the ERT results was optimised through synthetic modelling of the electrical resistivity imaging technique. The results define the extent and geometry of the bentonitic deposit with good accuracy and outline the scenarios where the ERT method may provide optimal results when prospecting for clay deposits.

  8. a Simulation Tool Assisting the Design of a Close Range Photogrammetry System for the Sardinia Radio Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buffa, F.; Pinna, A.; Sanna, G.

    2016-06-01

    The Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) is a 64 m diameter antenna, whose primary mirror is equipped with an active surface capable to correct its deformations by means of a thick network of actuators. Close range photogrammetry (CRP) was used to measure the self-load deformations of the SRT primary reflector from its optimal shape, which are requested to be minimized for the radio telescope to operate at full efficiency. In the attempt to achieve such performance, we conceived a near real-time CRP system which requires the cameras to be installed in fixed positions and at the same time to avoid any interference with the antenna operativeness. The design of such system is not a trivial task, and to assist our decision we therefore developed a simulation pipeline to realistically reproduce and evaluate photogrammetric surveys of large structures. The described simulation environment consists of (i) a detailed description of the SRT model, included the measurement points and the camera parameters, (ii) a tool capable of generating realistic images accordingly to the above model, and (iii) a self-calibrating bundle adjustment to evaluate the performance in terms of RMSE of the camera configurations.

  9. Archaeo-metallurgical studies of tuyeres and smelting slags found at Tharros (north-western Sardinia, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Caro, T.; Riccucci, C.; Parisi, E. I.; Renzulli, A.; Del Moro, S.; Santi, P.; Faraldi, F.

    2013-12-01

    A large number of pyrometallurgical materials such as tuyeres, slags and refractory tools likely associated with metal extraction processes have been found at Tharros (north-western Sardinia, Italy) during archaeological excavations stratigraphically related to the Phoenician-Punic period (VI-III centuries BC). Micro-chemical, micro-structural and mineralogical studies have been carried out by means of the combined use of X-ray diffraction (XRD), selected-area X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) in order to identify pyrometallurgical processes and main relevant technological parameters. The results reveal that tuyeres, slags and refractory tools can be associated with an iron ore smelting process to extract the metal by slagging the unwanted by-products. Moreover, temperature and duration of the smelting process have been estimated through mineralogical studies and by a comparative analysis between the micro-chemical and structural features of thermally treated refractory materials and tuyeres. The results disclose the high level of technological competence of the ancient metallurgists able to carry out complex high-temperature processes to extract iron from ores by separating the metal from unwanted siliceous species.

  10. Ancient silver extraction in the Montevecchio mine basin (Sardinia, Italy): micro-chemical study of pyrometallurgical materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Caro, Tilde; Riccucci, Cristina; Parisi, Erica I.; Faraldi, Federica; Caschera, D.

    2013-12-01

    Different pyrometallurgical materials such as slags, refractory materials and thermally treated lead ores likely related to smelting and extractive processes and chronologically related to Punic and Roman periods (IV-III BC) have been found at Bocche di Sciria and Conca e Mosu in the Montevecchio mine basin (south western Sardinia, Italy), where archaeological findings and classical authors locate extractive metallurgy activities since pre-Roman times. By means of the combined use of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), selected-area X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and optical microscopy (OM), micro-chemical and micro-structural investigations have been carried out in order to identify the nature of the pyrometallurgical materials, to decipher the processes carried out there and their technological steps and to determine the technological level of competence reached by the ancient metallurgists. The results confirm that the findings can be associated with smelting and extractive processes carried out close to the metal ore deposits first for the argentiferous lead production and, then, for the silver recovery via a cupellation process. Finally, the results disclose the high level of technological competence of the ancient metallurgists able to carry out complex high-temperature processes to treat the argentiferous lead ores and to recover low amounts of silver via high-temperature lead-selective oxidation.

  11. Uptake of heavy metals by native species growing in a mining area in Sardinia, Italy: discovering native flora for phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Barbafieri, M; Dadea, C; Tassi, E; Bretzel, F; Fanfani, L

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the distribution and availability of plant uptake of Zn, Pb, and Cd present in an abandoned mine at Ingurtosu, Sardinia (Italy). Geological matrix samples (sediments, tailings, and soil from a nearby pasture site) and samples of the predominant plant species growing on sediments and tailings were collected. Mean values of total Zn, Pb and Cd were respectively (mg kg(-1)) 7400, 1800, and 56 in tailings, 31000, 2900, and 100 in sediments, and 400, 200, and 8 in the pasture soil. The metal concentration values were high even in the mobile fractions evaluated by simplified sequential extraction (Zn 7485-103, Pb 1015-101, Cd 47-4 mg kg(-1)). Predominant native species were identified and analyzed for heavy metal content in various tissues. Among the plant species investigated Inula viscosa, Euphorbia dendroides, and Poa annua showed the highest metal concentration in aboveground biomass (mean average of Zn: 1680, 1020, 1400; Pb: 420, 240, 80; Cd: 28, 7, 19 mg kg(-1), respectively). The above mentioned species and A. donax could be good candidates for a phytoextraction procedure. Cistus salvifolius and Helichrysum italicus generally showed behavior more suitable for a phytostabilizer. PMID:21972566

  12. Foodborne viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Testing for human pathogenic viruses in foods represents a formidable task requiring the extraction, concentration, and assay of a host of viruses from a wide range of food matrices. The enteric viruses, particularly genogroup I and II (GI and GII) noroviruses and hepatitis A virus, are the princip...

  13. Inventing Viruses.

    PubMed

    Summers, William C

    2014-11-01

    In the nineteenth century, "virus" commonly meant an agent (usually unknown) that caused disease in inoculation experiments. By the 1890s, however, some disease-causing agents were found to pass through filters that retained the common bacteria. Such an agent was called "filterable virus," the best known being the virus that caused tobacco mosaic disease. By the 1920s there were many examples of filterable viruses, but no clear understanding of their nature. However, by the 1930s, the term "filterable virus" was being abandoned in favor of simply "virus," meaning an agent other than bacteria. Visualization of viruses by the electron microscope in the late 1930s finally settled their particulate nature. This article describes the ever-changing concept of "virus" and how virologists talked about viruses. These changes reflected their invention and reinvention of the concept of a virus as it was revised in light of new knowledge, new scientific values and interests, and new hegemonic technologies. PMID:26958713

  14. Modelling climate change impacts on and adaptation strategies for agriculture in Sardinia and Tunisia using AquaCrop and value-at-risk.

    PubMed

    Bird, David Neil; Benabdallah, Sihem; Gouda, Nadine; Hummel, Franz; Koeberl, Judith; La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Meyer, Swen; Prettenthaler, Franz; Soddu, Antonino; Woess-Gallasch, Susanne

    2016-02-01

    In Europe, there is concern that climate change will cause significant impacts around the Mediterranean. The goals of this study are to quantify the economic risk to crop production, to demonstrate the variability of yield by soil texture and climate model and to investigate possible adaptation strategies. In the Rio Mannu di San Sperate watershed, located in Sardinia (Italy) we investigate production of wheat, a rainfed crop. In the Chiba watershed located in Cap Bon (Tunisia), we analyze irrigated tomato production. We find, using the FAO model AquaCrop that crop production will decrease significantly in a future climate (2040-2070) as compared to the present without adaptation measures. Using "value-at-risk", we show that production should be viewed in a statistical manner. Wheat yields in Sardinia are modelled to decrease by 64% on clay loams, and to increase by 8% and 26% respectively on sandy loams and sandy clay loams. Assuming constant irrigation, tomatoes sown in August in Cap Bon are modelled to have a 45% chance of crop failure on loamy sands; a 39% decrease in yields on sandy clay loams; and a 12% increase in yields on sandy loams. For tomatoes sown in March; sandy clay loams will fail 81% of the time; on loamy sands the crop yields will be 63% less while on sandy loams, the yield will increase by 12%. However, if one assume 10% less water available for irrigation then tomatoes sown in March are not viable. Some adaptation strategies will be able to counteract the modelled crop losses. Increasing the amount of irrigation one strategy however this may not be sustainable. Changes in agricultural management such as changing the planting date of wheat to coincide with changing rainfall patterns in Sardinia or mulching of tomatoes in Tunisia can be effective at reducing crop losses. PMID:26187862

  15. A distributed hydrologic model for the estimation of the design flood and for the hydraulic safety of existing dams in Sardinia (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortis, Clorinda; Sarigu, Alessio; Montaldo, Nicola; Saba, Andrea

    2013-04-01

    The recent floods observed in 2004 and 2008 in Sardinia (Italy) showed a significant flood increase in magnitude and frequency and put the attention on the problem of the hydraulic safety of existing dams. Thirty dams built for both electric production and water supply for irrigation and civil uses during the 1920-1960 are present in Sardinia (Italy). The distributed hydrologic model is an event model (FEST) which assesses runoff through a simplified approach based on Soil Conservation Service equations and runoff propagation through the Muskingum-Cunge approach. The FEST needs the calibration of different parameters: 1) the critical support area that defines the minimum drainage area required to initiate a channel, 2) the ratio between cross-section width and flood flow depth for hillslope, 3) the hillslope values of the Gaulckler-Stickler roughness coefficient, and 4) the Curve Number obtained/extracted from the landscape characteristics of each basin. The data collection of numerous historical flood observations of the Sardinian basins allow for the first time to accurately calibrate an hydrologic model for the Sardinian basins, characterized by hortonian runoff mechanisms typically, steep hillslopes and thin soils. Areas of the catchments are between 4 and 3147 Km2 and the basins are characterized by an high variability of the landscape characteristics such as geology, topography, soil, land use and vegetation. Using the calibrated hydrologic model and the synthetic design hyetograph the design floods of the dams are estimated. The comparison between peak flows of the generated design floods and those estimated using typical regionalized statistical methods (based for Sardinian studies on two components extreme value (TCEV) and logarithmic probabilistic distributions) shows contradiction and interesting results. For large scale basin (> 200 km2) the two contrasting methods agree, while for small basins the proposed method underestimates the peak respect to the

  16. Persistence of bone collagen cross-links in skeletons of the Nuraghi population living in Sardinia 1500-1200 B.C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojtowicz, A.; Yamauchi, M.; Montella, A.; Bandiera, P.; Sotowski, R.; Ostrowski, K.

    1999-01-01

    Bone collagen has a specific molecular ultrastructure which can be proved by birefringence. This protein, forming the main organic component of bone tissue, is known to survive millennia in paleontological bones and teeth. Birefringence of bone collagen obtained from the skeletons of the Nuraghi population living in Sardinia c-ca 1500 years B.C. was found previously by the use of polarizing microscopy [1]. In this paper, using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques, we show the existence of bone collagen cross-links preserved in Nuraghi skeletons after more than 3000 years.

  17. Genetic and pathological characteristics of Cryptococcus gattii and Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans from meningoencephalitis in autochthonous goats and mouflons, Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Maestrale, Caterina; Masia, Mariangela; Pintus, Davide; Lollai, Stefano; Kozel, Thomas R; Gates-Hollingsworth, Marcellene A; Cancedda, Maria Giovanna; Cabras, Pierangela; Pirino, Salvatore; D'Ascenzo, Vittoria; Ligios, Ciriaco

    2015-06-12

    In this study, we examined in Sardinia the brain of 555 autochthonous sheep, 50 goats, and 4 mouflons which were found affected by neurological signs. We found 6 goats and one mouflon with meningoencephalitis caused by Cryptococcus sp. There was no evidence of cryptococcal infections in any of the examined sheep. MLST genotyping on Cryptococcus sp. isolates identified Cryptococcus gatti genotype AFLP4/VGI and Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans genotype AFLP2/VNIV. Phylogenetically, all Cryptococcus gattii isolates fell within the autochthonous animal, human and environmental Mediterranean isolate cluster, forming a distinct branch along with environmental strains from Alicante, in the southern Mediterranean coast of Spain. PMID:25840469

  18. Linkage disequilibrium for two X-linked genes in Sardinia and its bearing on the statistical mapping of the human X chromosome.

    PubMed

    Filippi, G; Rinaldi, A; Palmarino, R; Seravalli, E; Siniscalco, M

    1977-05-01

    The distribution of four X-linked mutants (G6PD, Deutan, Protan and Xg) among lowland and once highly malarial populations of Sardinia discloses a clear-cut example of linkage disequiligrium between two of them (G6PD and Protan). In the same populations the distribution of G6PD-deficiency versus colorblindness of the Deutan type and the Xg blood-group is not significantly different from that expected at equilibrium. These data suggest indirectly that the loci for G6PD and Protan may be nearer to one another than those for G6PD and Deutan. PMID:301840

  19. Linkage Disequilibrium for Two X-Linked Genes in Sardinia and Its Bearing on the Statistical Mapping of the Human X Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Filippi, G.; Rinaldi, A.; Palmarino, R.; Seravalli, E.; Siniscalco, M.

    1977-01-01

    The distribution of four X-linked mutants (G6PD, Deutan, Protan and Xg) among lowland and once highly malarial populations of Sardinia discloses a clear-cut example of linkage disequilibrium between two of them (G6PD and Protan). In the same populations the distribution of G6PD-deficiency versus colorblindness of the Deutan type and the Xg blood-group is not significantly different from that expected at equilibrium. These data suggest indirectly that the loci for G6PD and Protan may be nearer to one another than those for G6PD and Deutan. PMID:301840

  20. The Climate change impact on the water balance and use efficiency of two contrasting water limited Mediterranean ecosystems in Sardinia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montaldo, Nicola; Corona, Roberto; Albertson, John

    2016-04-01

    Mediterranean ecosystems are commonly heterogeneous savanna-like ecosystems, with contrasting plant functional types (PFT) competing for the water use. Often deforestation activities have been more intensive along the plan and alluvial river valleys, where deep soils are well suited for agricultural and grass became the primary PFT, while more natural woody vegetation (trees and shrubs) survived in the steep hillslopes and mountain areas, where soil thickness is low, i.e. less attractive for agricultural. Hence, Mediterranean regions are characterized by two main ecosystems, grassland and woodland, which for both natural and anthropogenic causes can grow in soils with also different characteristics (texture, hydraulic properties, depth), highly impacting water resources. Mediterranean regions suffer water scarcity produced in part by natural (e.g., climate variations) influences. For instance, in the Flumendosa basin water reservoir system, which plays a primary role in the water supply for much of southern Sardinia, the average annual input from stream discharge in the latter part of the 20th century was less than half the historic average rate. The precipitation over the Flumendosa basin has decreased, but not at such a drastic rate as the discharge, suggesting a marked non-linear response of discharge to precipitation changes. Indeed, precipitation decreased in winter months, which are crucial for reservoirs recharge through runoff. At the same time air temperature increased during the spring-summer season, when the precipitation slightly increased. The IPCC models predicts a further increase of drought in the Mediterranean region during winter, increasing the uncertainty on the future of the water resources system of these regions. Hence, there is the need to investigate the role of the PFT vegetation dynamics on the soil water budget of these ecosystems in the context of the climate change, and predict hydrologic variables for climate change scenarios

  1. Joint Use of Sentinel-1 and Landsat-8 data for Burned Areas Mapping: the Case of the Sardinia Island, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepe, Antonio; Azar, Ramin; Calò, Fabiana; Stroppiana, Daniela; Brivio, Pietro Alessandro; Imperatore, Pasquale

    2016-04-01

    Fires widely affect Mediterranean regions, causing severe threats to human lives and damages to natural environments. The socio-economic impacts of fires on the affected local communities are significant, indeed, the activation of prevention measures and the extinguishment of fires and reclamation of the pre-fire conditions are very expensive. Moreover, fires have also global impacts: they affect global warming and climate changes due to gas and aerosol emissions to atmosphere. In such a context, fire scars mapping and monitoring are fundamental tasks for a sustainable management of natural resources and for the prevention/mitigation of fire risk. With this respect, remotely sensed data offer the opportunity for a regional-up-to-global scale monitoring of areas prone to fires, on a cost-effective and regular basis. In this work, the potential of a joint use of Sentinel-1A (C-band) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) data for detecting burned areas is investigated. The experimental analyses are conducted by focusing on Sardinia Island, which is one of the Italian regions most affected by fire events during summer. Our analysis shows that the capability of monitoring burned areas in the Mediterranean environment can be improved by exploiting information embedded in OLI multispectral bands in conjunction with multi-temporal dual-polarized SAR data. Indeed, limitations experienced in analyses based on the use of only optical data (e.g., cloud cover, spectral overlap/confusion of burned areas with dark soils, water surfaces and shaded regions) may be overcome by using SAR data, owing to the insensitiveness to sunlight-illumination conditions and the cloud-penetrating capability of microwave radiation. Results prove the effectiveness of an integrated approach based on the combination of optical and microwave imagery for the monitoring and mapping of burned areas in vegetated regions.

  2. Potential risks of nitrate pollution in aquifers from agricultural practices in the Nurra region, northwestern Sardinia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghiglieri, Giorgio; Barbieri, Giulio; Vernier, Antonio; Carletti, Alberto; Demurtas, Nicola; Pinna, Rosanna; Pittalis, Daniele

    2009-12-01

    SummaryThe paper describes the methodological and innovative approach, which aims to evaluate the potential risk of nitrate pollution in aquifers from agricultural practices by combining intrinsic aquifer vulnerability to contamination, according to the SINTACS R5 method, with agricultural nitrates hazard assessment, according to the IPNOA index. The proposed parametric model adopts a geographically based integrated evaluation system, comprising qualitative and semi-quantitative indicators. In some cases, the authors have modified this model, revising and adjusting scores and weights of the parameter to account for the different environmental conditions, and calibrating accordingly. The method has been successfully implemented and validated in the pilot area of the Alghero coastal plain (northwestern Sardinia, Italy) where aquifers with high productivity are present. The classes with a major score (high potential risk) are in the central part of the plain, in correspondence with the most productive aquifers, where most actual or potential pollution sources are concentrated. These are mainly represented by intensive agricultural activities, by industrial agglomerate and diffused urbanisation. For calibrating the model and optimizing and/or weighting the examined factors, the modelling results were validated by comparison with groundwater quality data, in particular nitrate content, and with the potential pollution sources census data. The parametric method is a popular approach to groundwater vulnerability assessment, in contrast to groundwater flow model and statistical method ones: it is, indeed, relatively inexpensive and straightforward, and use data commonly available or that can be estimated. The zoning of nitrate vulnerable areas provides regional authorities with a useful decision support tool for planning land-use properly managing groundwater and combating and/or mitigating desertification processes. However, a careful validation of the results is

  3. Quantification of hydrologic impacts of climate change in a Mediterranean basin in Sardinia, Italy, through high-resolution simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piras, M.; Mascaro, G.; Deidda, R.; Vivoni, E. R.

    2014-12-01

    Future climate projections robustly indicate that the Mediterranean region will experience a significant decrease of mean annual precipitation and an increase in temperature. These changes are expected to seriously affect the hydrologic regime, with a limitation of water availability and an intensification of hydrologic extremes, and to negatively impact local economies. In this study, we quantify the hydrologic impacts of climate change in the Rio Mannu basin (RMB), an agricultural watershed of 472.5 km2 in Sardinia, Italy. To simulate the wide range of runoff generation mechanisms typical of Mediterranean basins, we adopted a physically based, distributed hydrologic model. The high-resolution forcings in reference and future conditions (30-year records for each period) were provided by four combinations of global and regional climate models, bias-corrected and downscaled in space and time (from ~25 km, 24 h to 5 km, 1 h) through statistical tools. The analysis of the hydrologic model outputs indicates that the RMB is expected to be severely impacted by future climate change. The range of simulations consistently predict (i) a significant diminution of mean annual runoff at the basin outlet, mainly due to a decreasing contribution of the runoff generation mechanisms depending on water available in the soil; (ii) modest variations in mean annual runoff and intensification of mean annual discharge maxima in flatter sub-basins with clay and loamy soils, likely due to a higher occurrence of infiltration excess runoff; (iii) reduction of soil water content and actual evapotranspiration in most areas of the basin; and (iv) a drop in the groundwater table. Results of this study are useful to support the adoption of adaptive strategies for management and planning of agricultural activities and water resources in the region.

  4. Quantification of hydrologic impacts of climate change in a Mediterranean basin in Sardinia, Italy, through high-resolution simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piras, M.; Mascaro, G.; Deidda, R.; Vivoni, E. R.

    2014-07-01

    Future climate projections robustly indicate that the Mediterranean region will experience a significant decrease of mean annual precipitation and an increase in temperature. These changes are expected to seriously affect the hydrologic regime, with a limitation of water availability and an intensification of hydrologic extremes, and to negatively impact local economies. In this study, we quantify the hydrologic impacts of climate change in the Rio Mannu basin (RMB), an agricultural watershed of 472.5 km2 in Sardinia, Italy. To simulate the wide range of runoff generation mechanisms typical of Mediterranean basins, we adopted a physically-based, distributed hydrologic model. The high-resolution forcings in reference and future conditions (30-year records for each period) were provided by four combinations of global and regional climate models, bias-corrected and downscaled in space and time (from ~25 km, 24 h to 5 km, 1 h) through statistical tools. The analysis of the hydrologic model outputs indicates that the RMB is expected to be severely impacted by future climate change. The range of simulations consistently predict: (i) a significant diminution of mean annual runoff at the basin outlet, mainly due to a decreasing contribution of the runoff generation mechanisms depending on water available in the soil; (ii) modest variations in mean annual runoff and intensification of mean annual discharge maxima in flatter sub-basins with clay and loamy soils, likely due to a higher occurrence of infiltration excess runoff; (iii) reduction of soil water content and real evapotranspiration in most areas of the basin; and (iv) a drop in the groundwater table. Results of this study are useful to support the adoption of adaptive strategies for management and planning of agricultural activities and water resources in the region.

  5. The effect of hydrodynamics on shell orientation and population density of Pinna nobilis in the Gulf of Oristano (Sardinia, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppa, Stefania; de Lucia, Giuseppe Andrea; Magni, Paolo; Domenici, Paolo; Antognarelli, Fabio; Satta, Andrea; Cucco, Andrea

    2013-02-01

    Pinna nobilis is the largest endemic bivalve of the Mediterranean Sea, declared protected since 1992. Although hydrodynamic stress induced by waves is known to influence density, size and orientation of P. nobilis, the effect of other hydrological features is unknown. This paper considers a P. nobilis population living within a Posidonia oceanica meadow in the Gulf of Oristano (Sardinia, Italy). We hypothesize that spatial differences in density and orientation of P. nobilis may be related to significant wave height (HS), wave direction (DW), bottom current direction (DBC) and bottom current speed (SBC). A population of P. nobilis was investigated at different sites and its distribution was correlated to hydrodynamics by means of a numerical modeling approach. The spatial distribution was patchy, with a density of 0.06-6.7 ind. 100 m- 2. A non-uniform distribution of shell orientations (OS) was demonstrated in 4 sites out of 6. DBC and SBC were the main factors affecting OS, while waves had little influence. A SBC of 0.07 m s- 1 appears to be the threshold for inducing specimen directionality with shells aligned to the current and the ventral side exposed to the flow. This suggests that feeding strategy is a key factor in determining OS, in addition to drag minimization. We also highlighted the role of adjacent lagoons in supporting high densities as a result of high food availability. These findings demonstrate the usefulness of modeling techniques in explaining the spatial distribution pattern of P. nobilis and in contributing to our knowledge of its ecological traits.

  6. Detecting the impact of bank and channel modification on invertebrate communities in Mediterranean temporary streams (Sardinia, SW Italy).

    PubMed

    Buffagni, Andrea; Tenchini, Roberta; Cazzola, Marcello; Erba, Stefania; Balestrini, Raffaella; Belfiore, Carlo; Pagnotta, Romano

    2016-09-15

    We hypothesized that reach-scale, bank and channel modification would impact benthic communities in temporary rivers of Sardinia, when pollution and water abstraction are not relevant. A range of variables were considered, which include both artificial structures/alterations and natural features observed in a stream reach. Multivariate regression trees (MRT) were used to assess the effects of the explanatory variables on invertebrate assemblages and five groups, characterized by different habitat modification and/or features, were recognized. Four node variables determined the splits in the MRT analysis: channel reinforcement, tree-related bank and channel habitats, channel modification and bank modification. Continuity of trees in the river corridor diverged among MRT groups and significant differences among groups include presence of alders, extent of channel shading and substrate diversity. Also, the percentage of in-stream organic substrates, in particular CPOM/Xylal, showed highly significant differences among groups. For practical applications, thresholds for the extent of channel reinforcement (40%) and modification (10%) and for bank alteration (≈30%) were provided, that can be used to guide the implementation of restoration measures. In moderately altered river reaches, a significant extent of tree-related habitats (≈5%) can noticeably mitigate the effects of morphological alteration on aquatic invertebrates. The outcomes highlight the importance of riparian zone management as an opportune, achievable prospect in the restoration of Mediterranean temporary streams. The impact of bank and channel modification on ecological status (sensu WFD) was investigated and the tested benthic metrics, especially those based on abundance data, showed legible differences among MRT groups. Finally, bank and channel modification appears to be a potential threat for the conservation of a few Sardo-Corsican endemic species. The introduction of management criteria that

  7. Analysis of current and temperature data collected in the channel of Sardinia during the SALTO and MFSPP experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rougier, G.; Millot, C.; Chretien, E.; Gervais, T.; Fuda, J.-L.; Sammari, C.

    2003-04-01

    The SALTO experiment was conducted from July 1999 to April 2000 to study the intermediate and deep circulation in the channel of Sardinia. Five moorings were aligned from southeast (M1) to northwest (M5) along one of the XBT lines monitored twice monthly during the MFSPP experiment. They were set about 10 miles apart over isobaths of 1000-2000 m, and they were equipped with 12 current meters at 500 and 900 m (M1, M5), 1000 and 1400 m (M2, M4), 500, 1000, 1400 and 1900 m (M3). The time series were first qualified according to the analysis of the tidal components, which have amplitudes ranging from a few mm/s to about 1 cm/s there (Albérola et al., 1995). Consistently with the current time series collected in 1993-1994 during the PRIMO-1 experiment (Bouzinac et al., 1999), the mean circulation on the Sardinian side (M4, M5) was a few cm/s alongslope from the Tyrrhenian subbasin. The mean circulation in the middle of the channel (M3), which was low and erratic close to the bottom in 1993-1994, was now significant (a few cm/s) and directed eastwards, roughly along the channel axis there. The mean circulation on the Tunisian side (M1, M2), which was never measured before, was low at M1 and significant (a few cm/s) at M2, but strangely south-southeastwards, i.e. perpendicular to the slope. The overall temperature distribution was consistent with that previously described by Bouzinac et al. (1999) and by Sammari et al. (1999). Since the sole significant circulation of water of Atlantic origin is eastwards along Tunisia, isotherms in a 200-300 m surface layer are sloping down southwards there. Since waters at intermediate and greater depths are relatively warm (resp. cool) on the Sardinian side (resp. Tunisian side), all isotherms below about 500 m are sloping up southwards. Mean differences of about 0.4 °C between one side of the channel and the other are permanently encountered at depths ranging from about 500 to 1500 m. However, the variability is much larger on the

  8. Infectivity, effects on helper viruses and whitefly transmission of the deltasatellites associated with sweepoviruses (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae)

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Ishtiaq; Orílio, Anelise F.; Fiallo-Olivé, Elvira; Briddon, Rob W.; Navas-Castillo, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Begomoviruses (family Geminiviridae) are whitefly-transmitted viruses with single-stranded DNA genomes that are frequently associated with DNA satellites. These satellites include non-coding satellites, for which the name deltasatellites has been proposed. Although the first deltasatellite was identified in the late 1990s, little is known about the effects they have on infections of their helper begomoviruses. Recently a group of deltasatellites were identified associated with sweepoviruses, a group of phylogenetically distinct begomoviruses that infect plants of the family Convolvulaceae including sweet potato. In this work, the deltasatellites associated with sweepoviruses are shown to be transreplicated and maintained in plants by the virus with which they were identified, sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV). These deltasatellites were shown generally to reduce symptom severity of the virus infection by reducing virus DNA levels. Additionally they were shown to be maintained in plants, and reduce the symptoms induced by two Old World monopartite begomoviruses, tomato yellow leaf curl virus and tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus. Finally one of the satellites was shown to be transmitted plant-to-plant in the presence of SPLCV by the whitefly vector of the virus, Bemisia tabaci, being the first time a deltasatellite has been shown to be insect transmitted. PMID:27453359

  9. Infectivity, effects on helper viruses and whitefly transmission of the deltasatellites associated with sweepoviruses (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae).

    PubMed

    Hassan, Ishtiaq; Orílio, Anelise F; Fiallo-Olivé, Elvira; Briddon, Rob W; Navas-Castillo, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Begomoviruses (family Geminiviridae) are whitefly-transmitted viruses with single-stranded DNA genomes that are frequently associated with DNA satellites. These satellites include non-coding satellites, for which the name deltasatellites has been proposed. Although the first deltasatellite was identified in the late 1990s, little is known about the effects they have on infections of their helper begomoviruses. Recently a group of deltasatellites were identified associated with sweepoviruses, a group of phylogenetically distinct begomoviruses that infect plants of the family Convolvulaceae including sweet potato. In this work, the deltasatellites associated with sweepoviruses are shown to be transreplicated and maintained in plants by the virus with which they were identified, sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV). These deltasatellites were shown generally to reduce symptom severity of the virus infection by reducing virus DNA levels. Additionally they were shown to be maintained in plants, and reduce the symptoms induced by two Old World monopartite begomoviruses, tomato yellow leaf curl virus and tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus. Finally one of the satellites was shown to be transmitted plant-to-plant in the presence of SPLCV by the whitefly vector of the virus, Bemisia tabaci, being the first time a deltasatellite has been shown to be insect transmitted. PMID:27453359

  10. Population data for Y-chromosome haplotypes defined by AmpFlSTR YFiler PCR amplification kit in North Sardinia (Italy).

    PubMed

    Ghiani, Maria Elena; Mameli, Alessandro; Piras, Gavino; Berti, Andrea; Calo, Carla Maria; Vona, Giuseppe

    2009-06-01

    The 17 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) included in the AmpFlSTR YFiler Amplification Kit (AB Applied Biosystems) (DYS19, DYS3891, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635 and GATA H4.1) were typed in 100 samples from North Sardinia (Italy). A total of 91 different haplotypes were found, where 9 haplotypes were shared by two individuals. The overall haplotype diversity (HD) was 0.9982. DYS458 non-consensus alleles were found in one samples, and one in the DYS438. We found a double peak in one sample for the DYS19 with alleles 15/16. Population comparisons with available 10 YSTR loci data in Mediterranean Basin samples were undertaken, significant differences were observed between our sample and all the compared populations, except for a entire sample from Sardinia. Prediction of haplogroups showed I2al was found to be the most frequent haplogroup (33%) in our sample. Testing high-resolution Y-chromosome data sets it is useful in autochthonous population and micro-population studies to highlight the most informative loci for evolutionary aims. PMID:19662792

  11. Zika Virus

    MedlinePlus

    Zika is a virus that is spread mostly by mosquitoes. A pregnant mother can pass it to ... through blood transfusions. There have been outbreaks of Zika virus in the United States, Africa, Southeast Asia, ...

  12. Zika Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Zika Virus Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Areas with Zika Countries and territories with active Zika virus transmission... Mosquito Control Prevent mosquito bites, integrated mosquito ...

  13. Zika Virus

    MedlinePlus

    Zika is a virus that is spread by mosquitoes. A pregnant mother can pass it to her ... through blood transfusions. There have been outbreaks of Zika virus in Africa, Southeast Asia, the Pacific Islands, ...

  14. Chikungunya Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... traveling to countries with chikungunya virus, use insect repellent, wear long sleeves and pants, and stay in ... Chikungunya Prevention is key! Prevent Infection. Use mosquito repellent. Chikungunya Virus Distribution Chikungunya in the U.S. What's ...

  15. A new eco-hydrological distributed model for the analysis of the climate change impact on water resources of Mediterranean ecosystems: the Flumendosa basin case study in Sardinia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarigu, Alessio; Cortis, Clorinda; Montaldo, Nicola

    2014-05-01

    In the last three decades, climate change and human activities increased desertification process in Mediterranean regions, with dramatic consequences for agriculture and water availability. For instance in the Flumendosa reservoir system in Sardinia the average annual runoff in the latter part of the 20th century was less than half the historic average rate, while the precipitation over the Flumendosa basin has decreased, but not at such a drastic rate as the discharge, suggesting a marked non-linear response of discharge to precipitation changes. With the objective of analyzing and looking for the reasons of the historical runoff decrease a new ecohydrological model is developed and tested for the main basin of the Sardinia island, the Flumendosa basin. The eco-hydrological model developed couples a distributed hydrological model and a vegetation dynamic model (VDM). The hydrological model estimates the soil water balance of each basin cell using the force-restore method and the Philips model for runoff estimate. Then it computes runoff propagation along the river network through a modified version of the Muskingum -Cunge method (Mancini et al., 2000; Montaldo et al., 2004). The VDM evaluates the changes in biomass over time from the difference between the rates of biomass production (photosynthesis) and loss (respiration and senescence), and provides LAI, which is then used by the hydrological model for evapotranspiration and rainfall interception estimates. Case study is the Flumendosa basin (Sardinia, basin area of about 1700 km2), which is characterized by a reservoir system that supplies water to the main city of Sardinia, Cagliari. Data are from 42 rain stations (1922-2008 period) over the entire basin and data of runoff are available for the same period. The model has been successfully calibrated for the 1922 - 2008 period for which rain, meteorological data and discharge data are available. We demonstrate that the hystorical strong decrease of runoff is

  16. Hepadna viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, W.; Koike, K.; Will, H.

    1987-01-01

    This book examines the molecular biology, disease pathogenesis, epidemiology, and clinical features of hepadna and other viruses with hepatic tropism and outlines future directions and approaches for their management. The volume's six sections provide a review of the various features, mechanisms, and functions of these viruses, ranging from hepadna virus replication and regulation of gene expression to the structure and function of hepadna-virus gene products.

  17. ECHO virus

    MedlinePlus

    Enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses that lead to gastrointestinal infection and skin rashes. ... Echovirus is one of several families of viruses that affect the ... are common. In the United States, they are most common in ...

  18. Integrated modelling and GIS: A new approach to assess desertification vulnerability and risk in Sardinia Island (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santini, M.; Caccamo, G.; Noce, S.; Valentini, R.

    2007-12-01

    Land degradation assessment is a prior goal in decision support system for environmental protection, mainly in the Mediterranean area. Among various approaches, a model based methodology seems the most effective to monitor degradation processes and to plan mitigation actions, as it combines synergically many indicators categories of DPSIR (Driving Forces, Pressure, State, Impact, Response) framework. The presented approach is applied for desertification risk evaluation in Sardinia (Italy). Assuming desertification as the interaction among both predisposing (i.e. geographic location), triggering (i.e. extraordinary climatic events) and quickening (i.e. as human activities) factors, a new methodology was developed combining together, in the structure of an integrated model framework, a wide range of desertification indicators already developed by various projects focusing on Mediterranean area. A large multi-thematic dataset has been acquired consisting of about eighty geographic information layers. This data have been processed and re-arranged in a GIS environment in order to supply the input to several models regarding the typical degradation processes occurring in the Mediterranean area. In this study five processes were taken into account: soil erosion, soil biological degradation, loss of vegetation productivity, coastal aquifer salinization and overgrazing. The modelling procedure has been applied for two different periods according to the largest availability of data: the early nineties and the present. The outcomes from the model simulations were spatialized into separated vulnerability maps, one for each degradation process. Model results were normalized as indices varying from 0 (no degradation) to 1 (irreversible degradation); then, these degradation indices are integrated into a final one, with the same range of values, combining together different aspects of desertification, their magnitude and their development rate, giving different weights according

  19. Climbing walls as multitasking sites of geo(morpho)logical interests: Italian examples from the Western Alps and Sardinia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollati, Irene; Fossati, Maria; Panizza, Valeria; Pelfini, Manuela; Zanoletti, Enrico; Zucali, Michele

    2015-04-01

    physical elements necessary for vertical progression ii) elaborate an educational proposal; 3) Risk assessment and education has been approached through the analysis of site hazard on climbing routes, linked with both geomorphological processes, and to the variable meteorological conditions, at Monteleone Rocca Doria (Sardinia, Italy), a site sensitive to both the needs of the climbers and the environment. Here a particular attention was given to potential geomorphologically-related risks for climbers, the impacts linked to human presence and the specific features of the geomorphosite. In order to assess the possible risk situations related to the active geomorphological processes in a specific climbing site, a method for collecting data and information has been also proposed.

  20. Rheomorphic structures in a high-grade ignimbrite: the Nuraxi tuff, Sulcis volcanic district (SW Sardinia, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pioli, Laura; Rosi, Mauro

    2005-04-01

    Deposits of the 15.8 Ma Nuraxi explosive eruption crop out in the Sulcis volcanic district, southwestern Sardinia. They consist of a decimeter-thick pumice fallout layer overlain, with no apparent temporal break, by several tens of meters thick, high-grade ignimbrite. The eruption was from a vent probably located ˜20-30 km north of S. Pietro island, and it tapped a compositionally uniform, rhyolite magma reservoir (SiO 2 70-72 wt.%) bearing about 20 vol.% crystals. The ignimbrite consists of: (a) a Lower Ignimbrite (LI), <2-m-thick, fine-grained and glassy grading upward into a partly devitrified lapilli-tuff, and (b) an Upper Ignimbrite (UI) that is an intensely welded to lava-like lapilli-tuff. The deposit has an inferred maximum runout of about 80 km and overall dispersal/thickness characteristic of a low aspect-ratio ignimbrite. Over most of its outcrop the tuff rests on a flat, horizontal paleosurface and forms an ignimbrite plateau with uniform thickness and structural characteristics. However, in some areas it shows extensive folding and over-thickening as a result of rheomorphic flow into topographic depressions. Structural analysis of the ignimbrite reveals the presence of a pervasive foliation and lineation as well as macroscopic and microscopic flow structures. Occurrence of abundant, widely distributed stretched cavities in the tuff indicates that a substantial amount of gas was trapped in the tuff during aggradation. The observed pattern of structures of the ignimbrite plateau accords well with a conceptual model in which syn-depositional structures are formed during non-particulate, basal laminar flow due to agglutination of juvenile particles within the lower part of the pyroclastic density current. The flow was controlled by the substantial transfer of momentum from the high-speed, particulate upper part of the current to the top of the non-particulate part of the current and the onset of a complex relationship between welding, flow and

  1. Soil carbon changes after plantation of autochthonous species in a semi-arid Mediterranean old-field in Sardinia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Dato, Giovanbattista; de Angelis, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    Forested areas are important in arid and semi-arid regions primarily to combat desertification, but also to increase carbon sinks. According to the last Italian National Inventory of Forest and Carbon INFC dated 2005, Mediterranean maquis and shrublands cover about 690,100 ha, in Italy. Considering their vast diffusion, efforts should be done to evaluate the potential of these ecosystems in sequestering C in order to achieve the Kyoto Protocol commitments and dampen desertification processes. The aim of this work was to present preliminary observations on soil C accumulation and release in a planted Mediterranean semi-arid shrubland. During the first three years particular effort was done to quantify the plant growth and soil CO2 emission, to test if species-specific responses could be detectable and relevant for the C-budget. The experimental area is located in North West Sardinia, and is characterized by a Mediterranean climate. The revegetation was set up in February 2006, in an old-field, planting local species (Juniperus phoenicea, Pistacia lentiscus and Rosmarinus officinalis) in mono-specific or mixed plots. Soil total organic carbon and nitrogen was measured at the same time of plantation and after 3 years, collecting soil cores (144 samples) at two depths (0-20 cm and 20-40 cm). Moreover, in order to measure soil CO2 emissions, 4 collars are inserted into the soil at 30-60-90-120 cm from 3 plants per each species. Measurements have being made monthly since July 2006 by a portable IRGA. Presently, soil C in the studied area is about 0.7 - 0.8 t ha-1. Based on soil CO2 emissions measurements (≈7 t C ha-1 yr-1) and on the low biomass accumulation (0.25-0.60 t ha-1 yr-1), the plantation is at the present a net C source. This is an effect of the low plant growth, very little input from litter, and the contemporary mineralization of old C deriving from the preceding agricultural phase (priming effect).

  2. Multi-GCM Climate Projection for the Mediterranean and Related Impact on the Forest Fire Risk (with a stress on Sardinia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovsky, M.; Duce, P.; Arca, B.; Pellizzaro, G.

    2012-04-01

    PRASCE project (2008-2011) aimed at a development of the probabilistic projection of climate accounting for the uncertainties coming from various sources. The methodology was based on linking the stochastic weather generator (which may represent uncertainty due to natural climate variability) with the GCM-based climate change scenarios, which are determined by the pattern scaling method and account for uncertainties in emission scenario, climate sensitivity and between-GCM variability. The methodology is being used to create synthetic weather series representing present and future climates for various climate change impact experiments. One of the regions under focus in this project was the Mediterranean, especially Sardinia. The presentation will consist of two parts: (1) Multi-GCM climate change scenarios for the Mediterranean. (i) The maps will show the probabilistic (based on all GCMs included in IPCC-AR4 dataset) projection of temperature, precipitation and Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). In addition, the scenarios will include changes of climatic characteristics (also being the parameters of the weather generator), which affect high frequency variability, e.g. changes in probability of wet day occurrence and variability of daily values. (ii) Options for choosing a representative subset of GCMs from all available GCMs will be discussed. This part is motivated by the fact, that some climate change impact studies do not allow to employ all available GCMs, so the task arise to choose the subset of GCMs based on the quality of GCMs and ability of the subset to represent the between GCM uncertainty. To demonstrate the methodology, the procedure will be applied to Sardinia. (2) Assessment of possible impacts of climate change on wildland fire risk. The M&Rfi weather generator linked to climate change scenarios derived from a subset of available GCMs will be used to create synthetic weather series (air temperature and relative humidity, wind speed

  3. Monitoring Ground Deformation Using Persistent Scatters Interferometry (PSI) and Small Baselines (SBAS) Techniques Integrated in the ESA RSS Service: The Case Study of Valencia, Rome and South Sardinia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Manuel J.; Cuccu, Roberto; Rivolta, Giancarlo

    2015-05-01

    This work is focused on the infrastructure monitoring of areas which had experienced significant urbanization and therefore, also an increase of the exploitation of natural resources. Persistent Scatters Interferometry (PS-InSAR) and Small Baselines (SBAS) approaches are applied to three study areas for which large datasets of SAR images are available in ascending and descending modes to finally deploy deformation maps of different buildings and infrastructures. Valencia, Rome and South Sardinia areas have been selected for this study, having experienced an increase of the exploitation of natural resources in parallel with their urban expansion. Moreover, Rome is a very special case, where Cultural Heritage permeating the city and its surroundings would suggest the necessity of a tool for monitoring the stability of the different sites. This work wants to analyse the potential deformation that had occurred in these areas during the period 1992 to 2010, by applying Persistent Scatters Interferometry to ESA ERS SAR and Envisat ASAR data.

  4. Phytochemical analysis of non-volatile fraction of Artemisia caerulescens subsp. densiflora (Viv.) (Asteraceae), an endemic species of La Maddalena Archipelago (Sardinia - Italy).

    PubMed

    Ornano, Luigi; Venditti, Alessandro; Donno, Yuri; Sanna, Cinzia; Ballero, Mauro; Bianco, Armandodoriano

    2016-04-01

    Artemisia caerulescens subsp. densiflora Viv. is a rare endemic species from Corsica and Sardinia. We studied a sample collected from Razzoli, an island of the La Maddalena Archipelago. The polar secondary metabolites content of this species was investigated for the first time in this study showing the presence of sesquiterpenoids, flavonoids, caffeoylquinic acids and a coumarin, with the presence of several compounds already recognised in this genus. The metabolites composition was analysed in two different phenological stages, post blooming and flowering. During the blooming stage, the plant showed a molecular pattern mainly represented by sesquiterpenes and sterols with a minor amount of phenolics, while in flowering stage the molecular pattern was more rich in flavonoids and phenylpropanoids. PMID:26327252

  5. A multi-disciplinary study of deformation of the basaltic cover over fine-grained valley fills: a case study from Eastern Sardinia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deiana, Rita; Dieni, Iginio; Massari, Francesco; Perri, Maria Teresa; Rossi, Matteo; Brovelli, Alessandro

    2016-06-01

    The Pliocene to Early Pleistocene volcanic activity which generated the basaltic plateau of the Orosei-Dorgali area in Eastern Sardinia led to the disruption of the local hydrographic network by damming some tracts of the fluvial valleys incised in the granite basement. This resulted in the formation of lacustrine basins, whose fine-grained fills were partly interfingered and eventually covered by younger lava flows. In the SW part of the plateau, close to the Galtellì village, a number of unknown depressions, locally named "Paules," were formed. In order to reconstruct their subsurface structure, two electrical resistivity tomography surveys were carried out across these depressions. The geophysical results, which demonstrate the existence of a disrupted layered system, were used to build a numerical geomechanical model that suggest the depressions originated by local collapses of the basaltic cover due to the compaction of the underlying fine-grained valley fills.

  6. Zika virus.

    PubMed

    2016-02-10

    Essential facts Zika virus disease is caused by a virus that is transmitted by the Aedes mosquito. While it generally causes a mild illness, there is increasing concern that it is harmful in pregnancy and can cause congenital abnormalities in infants born to women infected with the virus. There is no antiviral treatment or vaccine currently available. The best form of prevention is protection against mosquito bites. PMID:26860150

  7. A Comparison of Y-Chromosome Variation in Sardinia and Anatolia Is More Consistent with Cultural Rather than Demic Diffusion of Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Santoni, Federico; Whalen, Michael B.; Francalacci, Paolo; Cucca, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Two alternative models have been proposed to explain the spread of agriculture in Europe during the Neolithic period. The demic diffusion model postulates the spreading of farmers from the Middle East along a Southeast to Northeast axis. Conversely, the cultural diffusion model assumes transmission of agricultural techniques without substantial movements of people. Support for the demic model derives largely from the observation of frequency gradients among some genetic variants, in particular haplogroups defined by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Y-chromosome. A recent network analysis of the R-M269 Y chromosome lineage has purportedly corroborated Neolithic expansion from Anatolia, the site of diffusion of agriculture. However, the data are still controversial and the analyses so far performed are prone to a number of biases. In the present study we show that the addition of a single marker, DYSA7.2, dramatically changes the shape of the R-M269 network into a topology showing a clear Western-Eastern dichotomy not consistent with a radial diffusion of people from the Middle East. We have also assessed other Y-chromosome haplogroups proposed to be markers of the Neolithic diffusion of farmers and compared their intra-lineage variation—defined by short tandem repeats (STRs)—in Anatolia and in Sardinia, the only Western population where these lineages are present at appreciable frequencies and where there is substantial archaeological and genetic evidence of pre-Neolithic human occupation. The data indicate that Sardinia does not contain a subset of the variability present in Anatolia and that the shared variability between these populations is best explained by an earlier, pre-Neolithic dispersal of haplogroups from a common ancestral gene pool. Overall, these results are consistent with the cultural diffusion and do not support the demic model of agriculture diffusion. PMID:20454687

  8. Remote sensing for mapping soil moisture and drainage potential in semi-arid regions: Applications to the Campidano plain of Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Filion, Rébecca; Bernier, Monique; Paniconi, Claudio; Chokmani, Karem; Melis, Massimo; Soddu, Antonino; Talazac, Manon; Lafortune, Francois-Xavier

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the potential of radar (ENVISAT ASAR and RADARSAT-2) and LANDSAT data to generate reliable soil moisture maps to support water management and agricultural practice in Mediterranean regions, particularly during dry seasons. The study is based on extensive field surveys conducted from 2005 to 2009 in the Campidano plain of Sardinia, Italy. A total of 12 small bare soil fields were sampled for moisture, surface roughness, and texture values. From field scale analysis with ENVISAT ASAR (C-band, VV polarized, descending mode, incidence angle from 15.0° to 31.4°), an empirical model for estimating bare soil moisture was established, with a coefficient of determination (R(2)) of 0.85. LANDSAT TM5 images were also used for soil moisture estimation using the TVX slope (temperature/vegetation index), and in this case the best linear relationship had an R(2) of 0.81. A cross-validation on the two empirical models demonstrated the potential of C-band SAR data for estimation of surface moisture, with and R(2) of 0.76 (bias +0.3% and RMSE 7%) for ENVISAT ASAR and 0.54 (bias +1.3% and RMSE 5%) for LANDSAT TM5. The two models developed at plot level were then applied over the Campidano plain and assessed via multitemporal and spatial analyses, in the latter case against soil permeability data from a pedological map of Sardinia. Encouraging estimated soil moisture (ESM) maps were obtained for the SAR-based model, whereas the LANDSAT-based model would require a better field data set for validation, including ground data collected on vegetated fields. ESM maps showed sensitivity to soil drainage qualities or drainage potential, which could be useful in irrigation management and other agricultural applications. PMID:26254021

  9. Efficacy of chemical treatment of the Pietra cantone limestone in the restoration of historic buildings of Cagliari (southern Sardinia, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Columbu, Stefano; Lisci, Carla; Sitzia, Fabio; Buccellato, Giampaolo

    2015-04-01

    The present work aims to evaluate the efficacy of some chemical products in the restoration works of the "Pietra cantone" limestone, a calcarenitic rock belonging to the carbonatic miocenic series (lower Tortonian) of Cagliari (southern Sardinia, Italy), widely used in historic buildings. Such stone, once used in the masonry, if is not protected by plaster or in the presence of aqueous solutions circulating, frequently shows problems of chemical-physical decay, due to their petrophysical characteristics. In fact, being characterized by a highly porous (on average 35-42% vol.) carbonate matrix low-medium cemented, are easily alterable by weathering processes (i.e., dissolution, sulfation, etc.) and by cyclic mechanism of crystallization/solubilisation of salts and hydration/dehydration of hygroscopic phases belonging to the clay component of these calcarenites. These processes induce negative effects on physical-mechanical properties of stone, producing various macroscopic forms of alteration such as decohesion, disintegration, exfoliation, alveolation, etc. Where the decay of the walls is in an advanced stage, there was a strong retreat of the vertical profile of the facade of the building, resulting in critical static-structural. As a case study was taken the historic building of a tobacco manufacture, one of the first industrial establishments in Cagliari, then owned by the Italian State Monopoly. The factory dates back to the early decades of the XVIII century, the walls of which, however, belonged to the convent of the "Frati Minori" built towards the end of the XIV century along the wall that closed the east the historic district of "Marina" in front of the port of Cagliari. In addressing the structural restoration of this building, before selecting chemical products for dealing adequately of limestone, we proceeded at the outset to a thorough analysis of the structures built in "Pietra Cantone", and their physical-mechanical decay. Only thereafter the stone

  10. New observations on the Ni-Co ores of the southern Arburese Variscan district (SW Sardinia, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naitza, Stefano; Secchi, Francesco; Oggiano, Giacomo; Cuccuru, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    Among the European Variscan regions, the Arburese district, located in the Paleozoic basement of SW Sardinia (Italy) is remarkable for its metallogenic complexity, and offers good opportunities to investigate time/space and genetic links between post-collisional Variscan intrusive magmatism and mineral deposits. The district hosts a large variety of mineral deposits and occurrences, which include the Pb-Zn (Cu, Ag) mesothermal veins of the Montevecchio Lode System, one of the largest and richest Variscan hydrothermal ore deposit of Europe, now exhausted. Ore deposits are genetically related to the emplacement of the Late Variscan (304±1 Ma) Arbus Pluton, a granitoid composite intrusion ranging from monzogabbroic to granodioritic and to peraluminous leucogranitic rock-types. After more than a century of geological studies in the area, several metallogenic issues are still unresolved; among them, the occurrence in the southern sectors of little known polymetallic Ni-Co-(Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag-Bi) veins, a kind of mineralization quite unusual for the Sardinian basement. These hydrothermal deposits are hosted by very low-grade metamorphic rocks at short distance from the intrusion, where contact effect generate also hornfels. Spatial, structural and textural characters of the hydrothermal system are coherent and in apparent continuity with those of the Montevecchio Lode System. Ni-Co ores are hosted by a system of parallel, 1-2 m thick high-angle veins that discontinuously follow the southwestern and southern contacts of the Arbus Pluton for about 7 km. They constantly dip SSW, sideways with respect to the pluton contact, and show a prevalence of fracture infilling (banded and brecciated) textures, with alternating quartz and siderite bands, cockades and frequent inclusions of wallrock fragments. Wallrocks are usually silicified, bleached and/or sericitized. Systematic studies of ore textures and parageneses from different veins along the system have been performed by standard

  11. CHLORELLA VIRUSES

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Takashi; Onimatsu, Hideki; Van Etten, James L.

    2007-01-01

    Chlorella viruses or chloroviruses are large, icosahedral, plaque‐forming, double‐stranded‐DNA—containing viruses that replicate in certain strains of the unicellular green alga Chlorella. DNA sequence analysis of the 330‐kbp genome of Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV‐1), the prototype of this virus family (Phycodnaviridae), predict ∼366 protein‐encoding genes and 11 tRNA genes. The predicted gene products of ∼50% of these genes resemble proteins of known function, including many that are completely unexpected for a virus. In addition, the chlorella viruses have several features and encode many gene products that distinguish them from most viruses. These products include: (1) multiple DNA methyltransferases and DNA site‐specific endonucleases, (2) the enzymes required to glycosylate their proteins and synthesize polysaccharides such as hyaluronan and chitin, (3) a virus‐encoded K+ channel (called Kcv) located in the internal membrane of the virions, (4) a SET domain containing protein (referred to as vSET) that dimethylates Lys27 in histone 3, and (5) PBCV‐1 has three types of introns; a self‐splicing intron, a spliceosomal processed intron, and a small tRNA intron. Accumulating evidence indicates that the chlorella viruses have a very long evolutionary history. This review mainly deals with research on the virion structure, genome rearrangements, gene expression, cell wall degradation, polysaccharide synthesis, and evolution of PBCV‐1 as well as other related viruses. PMID:16877063

  12. Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index SMALLPOX FACT SHEET The Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine The vaccinia virus is the "live virus" used ... cannot cause smallpox. What is a "live virus" vaccine? A "live virus" vaccine is a vaccine that ...

  13. Diseases Caused by Viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The symptoms, causal agents, epidemiology and management of important virus diseases in chickpea and lentil crops were reviewed in depth. The virus diseases include.Alflafa mosaic virus, Cucumber mosaiv virus, Faba bean necrotic yellows virus, Pea enation mosaic virus, Pea seed-borne mosaci virus,...

  14. Hendra virus.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Deborah

    2014-12-01

    Hendra virus infection of horses occurred sporadically between 1994 and 2010 as a result of spill-over from the viral reservoir in Australian mainland flying-foxes, and occasional onward transmission to people also followed from exposure to affected horses. An unprecedented number of outbreaks were recorded in 2011 leading to heightened community concern. Release of an inactivated subunit vaccine for horses against Hendra virus represents the first commercially available product that is focused on mitigating the impact of a Biosafety Level 4 pathogen. Through preventing the development of acute Hendra virus disease in horses, vaccine use is also expected to reduce the risk of transmission of infection to people. PMID:25281398

  15. Computer viruses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    The worm, Trojan horse, bacterium, and virus are destructive programs that attack information stored in a computer's memory. Virus programs, which propagate by incorporating copies of themselves into other programs, are a growing menace in the late-1980s world of unprotected, networked workstations and personal computers. Limited immunity is offered by memory protection hardware, digitally authenticated object programs,and antibody programs that kill specific viruses. Additional immunity can be gained from the practice of digital hygiene, primarily the refusal to use software from untrusted sources. Full immunity requires attention in a social dimension, the accountability of programmers.

  16. Antimony in the soil-water-plant system at the Su Suergiu abandoned mine (Sardinia, Italy): strategies to mitigate contamination.

    PubMed

    Cidu, Rosa; Biddau, Riccardo; Dore, Elisabetta; Vacca, Andrea; Marini, Luigi

    2014-11-01

    This study was aimed to implement the understanding of the Sb behavior in near-surface environments, as a contribution to address appropriate mitigation actions at contaminated sites. For this purpose, geochemical data of soil (8 sites), water (29 sites), and plant (12 sites) samples were collected. The study area is located at Su Suergiu and surroundings in Sardinia (Italy), an abandoned mine area heavily contaminated with Sb, with relevant impact on water bodies that supply water for agriculture and domestic uses. Antimony in the soil horizons ranged from 19 to 4400 mg kg(-1), with highest concentrations in soils located close to the mining-related wastes, and concentrations in the topsoil much higher than in the bedrock. The Sb readily available fraction was about 2% of the total Sb in the soil. Antimony in the pore water ranged from 23 to 1700 μg L(-1), with highest values in the Sb-rich soils. The waters showed neutral to slightly alkaline pH, redox potential values indicating oxidizing conditions, electrical conductivity in the range of 0.2 to 3.7 mS cm(-1), and dissolved organic carbon ≤2 mg L(-1). The waters collected upstream of the mine have Ca-bicarbonate dominant composition, and median concentration of Sb(tot) of 1.7 μg L(-1) (that is total antimony determined in waters filtered through 0.45 μm), a value relatively high as compared with the background value (≤0.5 μg L(-1) Sb) estimated for Sardinian waters, but below the limits established by the European Union and the World Health Organization for drinking water (5 μg L(-1) Sb and 20 μg L(-1) Sb, respectively). The waters flowing in the mine area are characterized by Ca-sulfate dominant composition, and median concentrations of 7000 μg L(-1) Sb(tot). Extreme concentrations, up to 30,000 μg L(-1) Sb(tot), were observed in waters flowing out of the slag materials derived from the processing of Sb-ore. The Sb(III) was in the range of 0.8 to 760 μg L(-1) and represented up to 6% of Sb

  17. Geochemical characterization of migmatized orthogneiss from Porto Ottiolu (NE Sardinia, Italy) and its inferences on partial melting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruciani, Gabriele; Fancello, Dario; Franceschelli, Marcello; Columbu, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    Migmatites are very common in the northern part of the axial zone of the Sardinia Variscan chain. At Porto Ottiolu, about 30 km south of Olbia, a wide sequence of igneous- and sedimentary-derived migmatites crops out. Migmatized orthogneiss have a complex structural evolution characterized by three folding phases (D1, D2, D3) followed by a shear deformation. The oldest structure observed in the migmatites is a gneissose layering (D1). The second deformation (D2) is the most pervasive in the field and produces tight folds. D3 deformation caused symmetric folds with sub-horizontal axes. The leucosomes are coarse-grained, centimetre-thick, deformed leucocratic layers and/or patches following or cutting the D2 foliation. Other leucosomes are emplaced along shear zones (S4). The mesosomes are medium-grained foliated rocks in which the foliation is identified by biotite oriented along the S2 schistosity. The contact between mesosome and leucosome is frequently marked by thin biotite-rich selvedge. Leucosomes mainly consist of quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspar, minor biotite, muscovite and rare garnet. Mesosomes consist of the same mineral assemblage but they are rich in biotite and muscovite. Muscovite is found as submillimetre-sized crystals with variable phengitic component (Si: 6.1, Fe: 0.14, Mg: 0.13 a.p.f.u., XMg: 0.48 in less phengitic crystals, Si: 6.2, Fe: 0.18, Mg: 0.20 a.p.f.u., XMg: 0.53 in more phengitic ones). Biotite is titanium rich (Ti 0.3 a.p.f.u.) and has XMg 0.4. Very rare garnet occurs as submillimetric unzoned almandine with high manganese and low calcium content (Alm: 79mol.%; Prp: 5; Sps: 11-13; Grs: 3). Plagioclase is an unzoned oligoclase (XAb: 0.7), sometimes surrounded by a thin rim of pure albite. K-feldspar often shows perthitic exsolutions. The modal amount of feldspars varies significantly within the same leucosome and between different leucosomes. In particular, leucosomes along shear zones are feldspar rich. Evidences of melting are given

  18. Zika Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... be at risk for developing fetal complications. Blood, organ and tissue donor screening tests are also needed to assure the safety of transfusion and transplantation in areas of active mosquito-borne virus transmission. ...

  19. Zika Virus.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Jennan A; Neyland, Anavernyel

    2016-08-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infections are the latest global public health emergency. Occupational health nurses can protect society by educating workers, women of childbearing age, and others traveling in ZIKV-infected areas about prevention strategies. PMID:27411846

  20. Geomaterials and architecture of the medieval monuments of Sardinia (Italy): petrophysical investigations on their construction materials and documentation on the architectonic aspects using digital technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Columbu, Stefano; Verdiani, Giorgio

    2015-04-01

    The Sardinia Island is in the core area of the Mediterranean Sea. Its position has made it the crossing point of many cultural and political events, but at the same time its isolation has favoured the manifestation of specific and unique Cultural Heritage phenomena. The network of several medieval monuments (i.e., Romanesque churches) disseminated all around the island clearly shows how an architectural language can be declined according to site specific materials and specific artistical and practical choices, always preserving its original logic and grammar. On the bases of different architectural characteristics and petrophysical features of their lithology, a significant number of churches have been chosen from the different medieval geographical-political areas of the Sardinia named (at that time) "Giudicati". Each of these churches were surveyed using the following methods: photography, 3D Laser Scanner for the whole interior and exterior parts (using a Leica HDS 6000 and a Cam/2 Faro Photon units), photogrammetry (using high resolution Nikon D700 and D800e) of a selected set of the extern surface of significant altered samples (aimed to the production of high quality and highly detailed 3D digital models), direct sampling of representative rocks and ancient mortars for geochemical and minero-petrographic analysis using optical polarized microscope, electronic microscopy (SEM), X-Ray fluorescence (XRF), X-Ray diffractometry (XRD). The physical-mechanical properties (real and bulk densities, open and closed porosity, water absorption and saturation, vapour permeability, flexion and compression strengths, etc.) of various geomaterials are determined with helium picnometry, microscopic image analysis, gas-permeability thermostatic chamber, oil-hydraulic press machine, Point Load Test (PLT), abrasimeter. For each church, when there was the occasion, some specific case study has been developed, matching the information about the materials and the specific events

  1. Geomorphic response to an extreme flood in two mountain rivers (northeastern Sardinia, Italy): the role of geomorphic and hydraulic controlling factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righini, Margherita; Surian, Nicola; Wohl, Ellen; Amponsah, William; Marchi, Lorenzo; Borga, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Geomorphic response to an extreme flood in two mountain rivers (northeastern Sardinia, Italy): the role of geomorphic and hydraulic controlling factors Margherita Righini (1), Nicola Surian (1), Ellen Wohl (2), William Amponsah (3, 4), Lorenzo Marchi (3), Marco Borga (4) (1) Department of Geosciences, University of Padova, Italy, (2) Department of Geosciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA, (3) CNR IRPI, Padova, Italy, (4) Department of Land, Environment, Agriculture and Forestry, University of Padova, Italy. The investigation of geomorphic effectiveness of extreme floods is crucial to improve tools for assessing channel dynamics and our capability of forecasting geomorphological hazard. This work deals with geomorphic response of two mountain rivers in the Posada catchment (northeastern Sardinia, Italy), considering a range of morphological (i.e., lateral channel confinement, channel gradient, channel sinuosity, sediment sources, and vegetation) and hydraulic variables (i.e., cross-sectional stream power, unit stream power, flow duration and total energy expenditure) as possible controlling factors. On November 18th 2013, northeastern Sardinia was affected by an extreme meteorological event with hourly rainfall intensities up to 100 mm/h and a peak in rain accumulation up to 450 mm in 24 hours, with 18 casualties and damages to infrastructure and buildings. In the Posada and Mannu di Bitti Rivers, the geomorphic response (i.e., bank erosion, channel aggradation and incision, vegetation and wood dynamics, hillslope failure) was analyzed at different spatial scales. The observed dominant geomorphic change was channel widening. Therefore, channel width changes have been analyzed in detail by remote sensing and GIS tools integrated by field surveys. The study focuses on reaches (i.e., 22.5 km in the Posada River, upstream of Maccheronis dam; 18.2 km in the Mannu di Bitti River) affected by evident and significant geomorphic responses in terms

  2. On the tectonic evolution of the Tyrrhenian basin: new data from detrital zircons sampled in the Sardinia-Corsica Block and in the Calabria-Peloritain Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavanetto, Pamela; Funedda, Antonio; Matteini, Massimo; Loi, Alfredo

    2013-04-01

    Geodynamic models and palinspastic reconstructions of pery-Thyrrenian terranes in the Western Mediterranean area are still extremely complex and speculative (Stampfly & Borel 2002, Trombetta et al., 2004; Alvarez & Shimabukuro, 2009; Carminati et al., 2012).A contribute can be done by considering the relationships between Sardinia-Corsica Block (SCB) and Calabria-Peloritain Arc (CPA). They shared a similar Variscan evolution and were the western part of the Briançonnais plate until the opening of the Algero-Provençal Basin during Burdigalian and then were separated in Late Tertiary during the spreading of South-Tyrrhenian Basin. During this period the CPA moved southeastward, with respect to the SCB, driven by a progressive roll-back of the subducted slab. However, is still ambiguous if the CPA was a single terrane during the Middle and Late Tertiary (Amodio Morelli et alii, 1976) or formed by the amalgamation of two or more continental "terranes" that collided during the Tertiary (Bonardi et al., 1980; Scandone, 1982; Alvarez & Shimabukuro, 2009). The data about the paleo-tectonic linkages, the terranes derivations, and the tectonic setting of the SCB and CPA as peri-Tyrrhenian blocks during Tertiary are still poor. Some evidence of their early evolution could be found in coeval Tertiary deposits cropping out both in the SCB and CPA. These deposits represent the early stage of the estensional event developed in the Tyrrhenian region during late Oligocene-Lower Miocene in a broader regional context dominated by the opening of Atlantic Ocean and the resulting convergence of Europe and Apulia microplate (Oggiano et al., 2009). To improve the knowledge on this topic, combined U-Pb and Lu-Hf analyses on zircons from Tertiary detrital sediments from Sardinia, Corsica, and both North and South Calabria have been performed using a Thermo-Fisher Neptune MC-ICP-MS coupled with a Nd:YAG UP213 New Wave laser ablation system, at the Laboratory of Geochronology of the

  3. Trace and rare earth elements fractionation in volcanic- and sediment-hosted Mn ores: a study case of Sardinia (western Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinisi, Rosa

    2015-04-01

    It is widely accepted that, regardless of the geological environment (continental, marine or hydrothermal), the occurrences of clay minerals and/or mineral phases with clay-type crystal structure (as zeolites and Mn-oxides), play a key role in the trace elements and REEs uptake processes. The REE resources are produced mostly from ion-adsorption type REE deposits of southern China that are formed by weathering of granitic rocks and subsequent chemical adsorption of REE on clay minerals. A significant group of minerals with a high metal uptake capacity is represented by Mn oxides. Their "tunnel" structure, in fact, allows both the absorption (inside the minerals) and adsorption (outside the minerals) of cations and anions producing metal accumulations with economic and environmental significance. However, the ores, mainly that forming within sedimentary environment, often have impurities due to presence of minerals unrelated to mineralization. These minerals can significantly alter the compositional features of the ores and suggest misleading conclusions. In Sardinia (Italy, western Mediterranean), Mn-oxide mineralizations occur and recently their origin has been discussed and identified (Sinisi et al. 2012). In this study the mineralogical and chemical compositions of the Sardinian sediment-hosted and volcanic-hosted Mn-ore are exhibit exploring the possibility that they can represent exploitable trace and REE mineralizations. High contents of metals characterize these Mn deposits. Besides some trace elements (Ni, Cr, Zn, Cu, As, Pb, and U) that commonly typify the Mn oxi-hydroxide ores, all rare earth elements showed high concentrations in the Sardinian deposits, comparable to those of the main actually exploited REE sinks. For this reason, a simple statistical data treatment (R-mode Factor Analysis) was performed on fifteen and nineteen samples of sediment-hosted and volcanic-hosted Mn ore respectively, in order to identify both the mineral phases trapping trace

  4. Computer Viruses. Technology Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponder, Tim, Comp.; Ropog, Marty, Comp.; Keating, Joseph, Comp.

    This document provides general information on computer viruses, how to help protect a computer network from them, measures to take if a computer becomes infected. Highlights include the origins of computer viruses; virus contraction; a description of some common virus types (File Virus, Boot Sector/Partition Table Viruses, Trojan Horses, and…

  5. Parainfluenza Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Henrickson, Kelly J.

    2003-01-01

    Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV) were first discovered in the late 1950s. Over the last decade, considerable knowledge about their molecular structure and function has been accumulated. This has led to significant changes in both the nomenclature and taxonomic relationships of these viruses. HPIV is genetically and antigenically divided into types 1 to 4. Further major subtypes of HPIV-4 (A and B) and subgroups/genotypes of HPIV-1 and HPIV-3 have been described. HPIV-1 to HPIV-3 are major causes of lower respiratory infections in infants, young children, the immunocompromised, the chronically ill, and the elderly. Each subtype can cause somewhat unique clinical diseases in different hosts. HPIV are enveloped and of medium size (150 to 250 nm), and their RNA genome is in the negative sense. These viruses belong to the Paramyxoviridae family, one of the largest and most rapidly growing groups of viruses causing significant human and veterinary disease. HPIV are closely related to recently discovered megamyxoviruses (Hendra and Nipah viruses) and metapneumovirus. PMID:12692097

  6. Description of a new species of Wormaldia from Sardinia and a new Drusus species from the Western Balkans (Trichoptera, Philopotamidae, Limnephilidae)

    PubMed Central

    Vitecek, Simon; Previšić, Ana; Kučinić, Mladen; Bálint, Miklós; Keresztes, Lujza; Waringer, Johann; Pauls, Steffen U.; Malicky, Hans; Graf, Wolfram

    2015-01-01

    Abstract New species are described in the genera Wormaldia (Trichoptera, Philopotamidae) and Drusus (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae, Drusinae). Additionally, the larva of the new species Drusus crenophylax sp. n. is described, and a key provided to larval Drusus species of the bosnicus-group, in which the new species belongs. Observations on the threats to regional freshwater biodiversity and caddisfly endemism are discussed. The new species Wormaldia sarda sp. n. is an endemic of the Tyrrhenian island of Sardinia and differs most conspicuously from its congeners in the shape of segment X, which is trilobate in lateral view. The new species Drusus crenophylax sp. n. is a micro-endemic of the Western Balkans, and increases the endemism rate of Balkan Drusinae to 79% of 39 species. Compared to other Western Balkan Drusus, males of the new species are morphologically most similar to Drusus discophorus Radovanovic and Drusus vernonensis Malicky, but differ in the shape of superior and intermediate appendages. The females of Drusus crenophylax sp. n. are most similar to those of Drusus vernonensis, but differ distinctly in the outline of segment X. Larvae of Drusus crenophylax sp. n. exhibit toothless mandibles, indicating a scraping grazing-feeding ecology. PMID:25931956

  7. Evaluating the effects of protection on two benthic habitats at Tavolara-Punta Coda Cavallo MPA (North-East Sardinia, Italy).

    PubMed

    Ceccherelli, Giulia; Casu, Daniela; Pala, David; Pinna, Stefania; Sechi, Nicola

    2006-03-01

    In this paper, two benthic habitats have been investigated in a fully protected site and two control sites at the Tavolara-Punta Coda Cavallo marine protected area (MPA) (NE Sardinia). Overall, a protection effect on the benthic assemblages was highlighted in the shallow subtidal (5 m deep) rather than at intertidal algal turf habitat. Structure of assemblages at the shallow subtidal habitat is different in the fully protected site vs. controls, while this was not true for the intertidal habitat. At the subtidal, this finding is probably linked to indirect effects due to an increase of consumers in the protected site (e.g., sea urchins), while the lack of direct impacts in the intertidal at control sites is indicative of very similar assemblages. Cover of encrusting algae was significantly higher at the subtidal protected site suggesting a possible higher grazing pressure. Possible causes underlying the inconsistency of results obtained between habitats include the possibility that trophic cascade effects have a different influence at different heights on the shore. The need to estimate the interconnection among benthic habitats through trophic links is also highlighted to provide an estimate of the vulnerability to protection of various habitats. PMID:16271388

  8. Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) program: Study of geological structure of Sicily and other Italian areas. [Sardinia and the Gulf of Orosei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassinis, R.; Lechi, G. (Principal Investigator); Zilioli, E.; Marini, A.; Brivio, P. A.; Tosi, N.

    1981-01-01

    The usefulness of thermal inertia mapping in discriminating geolithological units was investigated using Sardinia and the Gulf of Orosei as test sites. Software designed for LANDSAT data were modified and improved for HCMM tapes. A first attempt was made to compare the geological cross section, the topography, the IR radiance, and the thermal inertia along selected profiles of the test site. Thermal inertia profiles appear smoothed in comparison with the thermal radiance. The lowest apparent thermal inertia (ATI) was found on granitic and basaltic outcrops where their image is of sufficient extent, while ATI is higher on carbonatic and dolomitic or moist deposits. Almost every fault is marked by a jump of ATI, the interval being sometimes of the order of one pixel. This seems to demonstrate the ability of ATI to detect contacts or tectonically disturbed zones with a good resolution. It seems more difficult to measure the differences in ATI between homogeneous materials having different lithology. Ground surveys conducted and a simulation model of diurnal temperatures of rocks having different thermal inertia are discussed.

  9. Assessing differences in phenology patterns between burned and non burned areas using MODIS and Landsat time series satellite images. A case study in Peloponnisos (Greece) and Sardinia (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutsias, Nikos; Bajocco, Sofia

    2016-04-01

    Vegetation phenology is an important element of vegetation characteristics that can be useful in vegetation monitoring especially when satellite remote sensing observations are used. In that sense temporal profiles extracted from spectral signal of time series satellite images can be used to characterize vegetation phenology and thus can be helpful for assessing, for example, phenology patterns between burned and non-burned areas. The aim of this study is to define phenological patterns for the fire ignition points in two Mediterranean study areas located in Italy (Sardinia) and Greece (Peloponnisos) and compare them with control points created after random sampling techniques restricted to certain buffer zones. Remotely sensed data from MODIS (2000-2015) and LANDSAT (1984-2015) satellites were acquired and processed to extract the temporal profiles of the spectral signal of fire ignition points and of control points. Apart of the use of the original spectral data, we used vegetation indices commonly found in vegetation studies as well as in burned area mapping studies. Different metrics linked to key phenological events have been derived and used to assess vegetation phenology in the fire-affected areas.

  10. Inaccuracy of Labeling and Visual Inspection for Microsporidian Parasites in Anglerfish Lophius litulon (Jordan, 1902) Collected from Chinese Retail Markets in Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Meloni, Domenico; Arca, Costantino; Piras, Pierluigi

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy of labeling and the efficacy of visual inspection to detect the lesions by visible parasites in anglerfish Lophius litulon. One hundred samples were collected over a 2-year period (2011 to 2012) from Chinese retail markets in Sardinia, Italy. To assess the conformity of the items with the trade name, a preliminary visual inspection of the samples by a simple morphological analysis was performed. According to the Council Regulations (EC) 104/2000, 1224/2009, and 2074/2005, the Italian labels were examined to verify the appropriate indication of relevant information on traceability (trade name, scientific name, geographical area, and production method), and the samples of L. litulon were subjected to visual inspection to detect "visible parasites." Altogether, a high percentage of mismatching (70%) between the scientific name and trade name was pointed out. Moreover, 60% of the samples were visibly infected by Spraguea lophii, a microsporidian parasite of the nervous tissue that forms typical lesions (xenomas) in the fish flesh near the vertebral column. Although S. lophii is not pathogenic to humans, the presence of xenomas can decompose the fish flesh and render it unfit for human consumption. The high percentage of mislabeling, together with the inaccuracy in the visual inspection by Chinese food business operators highlighted the need to improve the European Union control system of fishery products imported from China and marketed in Europe. PMID:26038919

  11. Diversity and taphonomic gradients from shoreface to deep water: Case studies based on sea urchin assemblages from the Miocene of Sardinia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nebelsick, James; Mancosu, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Echinoid faunas from Miocene sediments from Sardinia allow diversity to be correlated to variations in depositional environments as well as taphonomic pathways. Taxonomic richness and preservation potentials vary among both carbonate and siliciclastic dominated shelf environments. Studies include detailed investigation of stratigraphy, sedimentology, palaeontology and taphonomy in both the field and in the laboratory. Environmental Interpretations are based on composition and diversity of taxa, functional morphological interpretation of life habits as well as taphonomic signatures. These investigations have revealed: 1) various mass accumulations of clypeasteroid echinoids ranging from autochthonous assemblages to multiple in situ reworked accumulations in shore face environments, 2) the distribution of morphotypes of the common genus Clypeaster, 3) echinoid assemblages dominated by both irregular and regular echinoids in siliciclastic and carbonate shelf environments, 4) spatangoid assemblages in heavily bioturbated coarse sands, and 5) monotypic shell beds of well-preserved regular echinoids and spatangoid from deeper siliciclastic environments. Variations in the diversity of echinoid taxa are correlated to biotic and abiotic ecological factors in specific depositional environments. Preservation potentials vary highly as determined by ambient environmental conditions and skeletal architectures. A synthesis of faunal diversities and preservation potentials along shelf gradient ranging from shoreface to deep water is presented.

  12. Zn-Al-rich chlorite in interleaved phyllosilicate grains from the low-temperature metamorphic Ordovician terrane of Iglesiente, south-west Sardinia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruciani, Gabriele; Franceschelli, Marcello; Battaglia, Stefano; Pasci, Sandro; Puxeddu, Mariano

    2015-12-01

    Zn-Al chlorite with a ZnO content of 2-3 wt% has been found in the Monte Argentu Formation that belongs to the external zone of the Variscan Sardinian Belt in SW Sardinia. This chlorite occurs in metasiltite rocks characterized by the alternation of dark-coloured layers rich in Fe- and Ti-oxides and light-coloured layers rich in quartz and phyllosilicates. The Zn-Al chlorite is associated with K-white mica, pyrophyllite, and quartz. The most common interleavings consist of K-white mica + Zn-Al chlorite, K-white mica + pyrophyllite, K-white mica + Zn-Al chlorite + pyrophyllite, and Zn-Al chlorite + pyrophyllite. The X-ray patterns of the <2 μm fraction of the investigated samples are characterized by peaks for illite, pyrophyllite, chlorite and quartz. Metamorphic temperatures of 300°-400°C have been estimated on the basis of the pyrophyllite occurrence. Pressure estimated on the basis of K-white mica composition is in the 0.3-0.6 GPa range.

  13. Hendra virus

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Hendra virus infection of horses occurred sporadically between 1994 and 2010 as a result of spill-over from the viral reservoir in Australian mainland flying-foxes, and occasional onward transmission to people also followed from exposure to affected horses. For reasons that are not well understood an unprecedented number of outbreaks were recorded in 2011, including the first recorded field infection of a dog, leading to heightened community concern. Increasingly, pressure mounted to instigate measures for control of flying-fox numbers, and equine health care workers started to leave the industry on account of risk and liability concerns. Release of an inactivated subunit vaccine for horses against Hendra virus represents the first commercially available product that is focused on mitigating the impact of a Biosafety Level 4 pathogen. Through preventing the development of acute Hendra virus disease in horses, vaccine use is also expected to reduce the risk of transmission of infection to people. This approach to emerging infectious disease management focuses on the role of horses as the proximal cause of human Hendra virus disease, and may assist in redirecting community concerns away from the flying-fox reservoirs, keystone species for the ongoing health of Australia’s native forests. PMID:25281398

  14. [Influenza virus].

    PubMed

    Juozapaitis, Mindaugas; Antoniukas, Linas

    2007-01-01

    Every year, especially during the cold season, many people catch an acute respiratory disease, namely flu. It is easy to catch this disease; therefore, it spreads very rapidly and often becomes an epidemic or a global pandemic. Airway inflammation and other body ailments, which form in a very short period, torment the patient several weeks. After that, the symptoms of the disease usually disappear as quickly as they emerged. The great epidemics of flu have rather unique characteristics; therefore, it is possible to identify descriptions of such epidemics in historic sources. Already in the 4th century bc, Hippocrates himself wrote about one of them. It is known now that flu epidemics emerge rather frequently, but there are no regular intervals between those events. The epidemics can differ in their consequences, but usually they cause an increased mortality of elderly people. The great flu epidemics of the last century took millions of human lives. In 1918-19, during "The Spanish" pandemic of flu, there were around 40-50 millions of deaths all over the world; "Pandemic of Asia" in 1957 took up to one million lives, etc. Influenza virus can cause various disorders of the respiratory system: from mild inflammations of upper airways to acute pneumonia that finally results in the patient's death. Scientist Richard E. Shope, who investigated swine flu in 1920, had a suspicion that the cause of this disease might be a virus. Already in 1933, scientists from the National Institute for Medical Research in London - Wilson Smith, Sir Christopher Andrewes, and Sir Patrick Laidlaw - for the first time isolated the virus, which caused human flu. Then scientific community started the exhaustive research of influenza virus, and the great interest in this virus and its unique features is still active even today. PMID:18182834

  15. Immunity to tomato yellow leaf curl virus in transgenic tomato is associated with accumulation of transgene small RNA.

    PubMed

    Leibman, Diana; Prakash, Shanmugam; Wolf, Dalia; Zelcer, Aaron; Anfoka, Ghandi; Haviv, Sabrina; Brumin, Marina; Gaba, Victor; Arazi, Tzahi; Lapidot, Moshe; Gal-On, Amit

    2015-11-01

    Gene silencing is a natural defense response of plants against invading RNA and DNA viruses. The RNA post-transcriptional silencing system has been commonly utilized to generate transgenic crop plants that are "immune" to plant virus infection. Here, we applied this approach against the devastating DNA virus tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) in its host tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). To generate broad resistance to a number of different TYLCV viruses, three conserved sequences (the intergenic region [NCR], V1-V2 and C1-C2 genes) from the genome of the severe virus (TYLCV) were synthesized as a single insert and cloned into a hairpin configuration in a binary vector, which was used to transform TYLCV-susceptible tomato plants. Eight of 28 independent transgenic tomato lines exhibited immunity to TYLCV-Is and to TYLCV-Mld, but not to tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus, which shares relatively low sequence homology with the transgene. In addition, a marker-free (nptII-deleted) transgenic tomato line was generated for the first time by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation without antibiotic selection, followed by screening of 1180 regenerated shoots by whitefly-mediated TYLCV inoculation. Resistant lines showed a high level of transgene-siRNA (t-siRNA) accumulation (22% of total small RNA) with dominant sizes of 21 nt (73%) and 22 nt (22%). The t-siRNA displayed hot-spot distribution ("peaks") along the transgene, with different distribution patterns than the viral-siRNA peaks observed in TYLCV-infected tomato. A grafting experiment demonstrated the mobility of 0.04% of the t-siRNA from transgenic rootstock to non-transformed scion, even though scion resistance against TYLCV was not achieved. PMID:26255053

  16. Live attenuated African swine fever viruses as ideal tools to dissect the mechanisms involved in viral pathogenesis and immune protection.

    PubMed

    Lacasta, Anna; Monteagudo, Paula L; Jiménez-Marín, Ángeles; Accensi, Francesc; Ballester, María; Argilaguet, Jordi; Galindo-Cardiel, Iván; Segalés, Joaquim; Salas, María L; Domínguez, Javier; Moreno, Ángela; Garrido, Juan J; Rodríguez, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the causal agent of African swine fever, a hemorrhagic and often lethal porcine disease causing enormous economical losses in affected countries. Endemic for decades in most of the sub-Saharan countries and Sardinia, the risk of ASFV-endemicity in Europe has increased since its last introduction into Europe in 2007. Live attenuated viruses have been demonstrated to induce very efficient protective immune responses, albeit most of the time protection was circumscribed to homologous ASFV challenges. However, their use in the field is still far from a reality, mainly due to safety concerns. In this study we compared the course of the in vivo infection caused by two homologous ASFV strains: the virulent E75 and the cell cultured adapted strain E75CV1, obtained from adapting E75 to grow in the CV1 cell-line. Interestingly, the kinetics of both viruses not only differed on the clinical signs that they caused and in the virus loads found, but also in the immunological pathways activated throughout the infections. Furthermore, E75CV1 confirmed its protective potential against the homologous E75 virus challenge and allowed the demonstration of poor cross-protection against BA71, thus defining it as heterologous. The in vitro specificity of the CD8(+) T-cells present at the time of lethal challenge showed a clear activation against the homologous virus (E75) but not against BA71. These findings will be of utility for a better understanding of ASFV pathogenesis and for the rational designing of safe and efficient vaccines against this virus. PMID:26589145

  17. The Geometry of Viruses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Christine L.

    1991-01-01

    Presented is an activity in which students make models of viruses, which allows them to visualize the shape of these microorganisms. Included are some background on viruses, the biology and geometry of viruses, directions for building viruses, a comparison of cells and viruses, and questions for students. (KR)

  18. Preliminary estimation of the peak discharge at the Su Gologone spring (Central-East Sardinia) during the flood event of November 18th, 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cossu, Antonello; De Waele, Jo; Sanna, Francesco; Sanna, Laura

    2014-05-01

    Last November 2013, an exceptional rainfall has occurred in Sardinia causing 18 casualties at Olbia and Bitti and severe economic damage to infrastructures and land in many areas (e.g. Torpè and Cedrino plains). From a meteorological point of view, this rainfall event was caused by south-western warm and humid air currents moving from Africa coming in contact with cold air masses located above the higher parts of the island, creating convective phenomena of a certain intensity. Estimating the peak discharge of the rivers related to these high intensity rainfall events is of fundamental importance to improve flood-risk management and to prevent and/or reduce the damages. In carbonate areas, quantifying the karst aquifer recharge is an even more difficult task due to the fact that the precipitation and resulting surface flow is rapidly transferred to the underground cave systems, and then suddenly released at karst outflows. We report the case of the Su Gologone spring, in Supramonte area (Central-East Sardinia, Italy), a karst resurgence located only twenty metres from the Cedrino river and one of the main water supplies to this river. The freshwater of this karst spring feeds the Preda 'e Othoni dam, located a few kilometres downstream of the resurgence, and originally built to regulate the flooding of Cedrino river but currently used for all sorts of purposes, as electricity supply, irrigation of farmlands, industrial uses and especially for drinking water, an important source that has to be quantified and preserved. With the purpose of evaluating the contribution of this karst spring to the river discharge, at the beginning of the hydrological year 2013-14, Su Gologone has been equipped with a multi-parametric probe for in-continuous monitoring, at regular intervals, of the values of pressure (and therefore the level of water), electrical conductivity and water temperature. During the entire monitoring period flow rate measurements have been performed three

  19. A MATLAB-derived software (geothermMOD1.2) for one-dimensional thermal modeling, and its application to the Corsica-Sardinia batholith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casini, Leonardo

    2012-08-01

    Determination of the thermal state of the crust is of fundamental importance to understand the feedbacks between tectonics, rheology and metamorphism. The most important parameters controlling the variation of temperature with depth in the crust are the heat flow across the Moho, the thermal conductivity and the vertical distribution of heat-producing elements 238,235U, 232Th and 40K. The Corsica-Sardinia batholith formed during a regional high-temperature metamorphic event by extensive partial melting of the Variscan crust. Petrologic observations indicate that most granites and migmatites formed between 0.6-0.2 GPa, requiring the geotherms to flatten substantially relative to the stage of crustal thickening. The adjustment of geotherms may be interpreted in terms of enrichment in heat-producing elements or, alternatively, in terms of increased mantle contribution. The validity of these two end-member hypothesis has been tested by performing numerical experiments with a software package appositely developed in Matlab. The software allows to set up crustal model composed of up to five different layers, and to plot the calculated geotherm along with the stability field of the haplogranite system and other thermo-barometric constraints. The steady-state thermal structure of the Sardinian Variscan crust has been computed at four different time steps (320, 310, 300, and 280 Ma), which cover the batholith evolution. The geometry and composition of each of these crustal models has been constrained based on geophysical observations, geochronology and petrology. In a first experiment, the heat conduction equation has been solved for all of the four time-steps, assuming constant (15 mW/m2) heat flow across the Moho in order to simulate a ‘fully crustal' evolution of the thermal structure. The alternative has been simulated in a second experiment, by rising the basal heat flow up to 40 mW/m2 during the last two time steps.

  20. Uplifted flank margin caves in telogenetic limestones in the Gulf of Orosei (Central-East Sardinia-Italy) and their palaeogeographic significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Angeli, Ilenia Maria; Sanna, Laura; Calzoni, Claudio; De Waele, Jo

    2015-02-01

    This work reports the results of geomorphological observations carried out in the coastal Fico Cave and surrounding areas (Baunei, Central East Sardinia) in the Gulf of Orosei. A tidal notch, generally believed to be of Eemian (MIS 5e) age, is barely visible at 8.5 above present sea level (asl), some metres below the main entrance of the cave. Old cave passages, now partially opened by cliff retreat and parallel to the coastline, are clearly visible at around 14 m asl and correspond to the main level of Fico Cave. Two more notches are located higher, at 22 and 50 m asl. Fico Cave itself is composed of at least 6 clearly distinguished more or less horizontal levels (- 10 m below present sea level (bsl), and + 14, + 22, + 40, + 50, and + 63 m asl), independent of the stratal dip, arguing for a sea-level, and hence, fresh-water lens control. Cave passages develop along main fractures more or less parallel to the coastline and never extend landward for more than 150 m, mostly ending blindly, or diminishing in their dimensions progressively landward. Most passages only contain clay deposits, lacking fluvial or marine sediments or typical fluvial erosion morphologies (i.e. scallops). It is suggested from this body of evidence that Fico Cave was formed in the coastal mixing zone along major discontinuities during several Quaternary interglacial periods, when sea level was high and relatively stable for enough time to develop large dissolutional voids. The geomorphological observations indicate the main + 14 m asl level of the cave to have formed during MIS 9, and was heavily reworked during MIS 5, while the higher levels are relative to older interglacial highstands that occurred between 1 Ma and 325 ka. The small active branch developed below present sea level has formed during MIS 7 (225 ka). These observations shed new light on the position of the MIS 5e highstand markers in this area of the coast, much higher than previously thought.

  1. Studies on hemophilia A in Sardinia bearing on the problems of multiple allelism, carrier detection, and differential mutation rate in the two sexes.

    PubMed Central

    Filippi, G; Mannucci, P M; Coppola, R; Farris, A; Rinaldi, A; Siniscalco, M

    1984-01-01

    A large survey of hemophilia A carried out with almost complete ascertainment on the island of Sardinia suggests that the variation of plasma levels of Factor VIII coagulant activity in normal individuals is largely controlled by a series of normal isoalleles or by closely linked modifiers. This variation is expected to affect the laboratory detection of the hemophilia A (HA) heterozygotes in addition to the X-inactivation-dependent mosaicism and the type of deficient mutant present in a given pedigree. The Sardinian pedigrees yielded 13 new cases of nonrecombinants between the loci for HA and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), as well as four nonrecombinants between HA and Deutan color blindness. These findings bring to a total of 58 the number of scorable sibs and nonrecombinants thus far known for the linkage HA-G6PD. From such a figure it has been possible to infer that the 90% upper limit of meiotic recombination between the two loci is below 4%, thus justifying the application of the "linkage diagnostic test" for the detection of HA heterozygotes and the prenatal diagnosis of the hemophilic fetuses in families that segregate at both loci. In three out of the five HA pedigrees of our series that segregate also for G6PD or Deutan color blindness, the observed segregation of the combined phenotypes can be best explained by assuming the occurrence of a fresh mutation in the maternal grandfathers. Such a finding points out the opportunity to reevaluate Haldane's hypothesis of a possible higher incidence of X-linked mutations in the human male. It is anticipated that each of the issues addressed by the present study will be amenable to experimental verification as soon as suitable molecular probes become available to screen for common multiallelic DNA polymorphisms in the subtelomeric region of the X-chromosome long arm. PMID:6421151

  2. Recognition of Zinc Transporter 8 and MAP3865c Homologous Epitopes by Hashimoto's Thyroiditis Subjects from Sardinia: A Common Target with Type 1 Diabetes?

    PubMed Central

    Masala, Speranza; Cossu, Davide; Palermo, Mario; Sechi, Leonardo Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) asymptomatic infection has been previously linked to Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and Multiple Sclerosis. An association between MAP infection and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) was also proposed only in a case report. This study aimed to investigate the robustness of the latter association, testing a large cohort of HT and healthy control (HCs) subjects, all from Sardinia. Prevalence of anti-MAP3865c Abs was assessed by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Moreover, given that human ZnT8 is specifically expressed in the pancreatic β-cells, in the follicle epithelial cells and in the parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland, we also tested ZnT8 epitopes homologues to the MAP3865c immunodominant peptides previously identified. Indeed, Abs targeting MAP3865c and ZnT8 homologous regions display similar frequencies in patients and controls, thus suggesting that Abs recognizing these epitopes could be cross-reactive. A statistically significant difference was found between HT patients and HCs when analyzing the humoral response mounted against MAP3865c/ZnT8 homologues epitopes. To our knowledge, this is the first report, which provides statistically significant evidence sustaining the existence of an association between MAP sero-reactivity and HT. Further studies are required to investigate the relevance of MAP to HT, aimed at deciphering if this pathogen can be at play in triggering this autoimmune disease. Likewise, genetic polymorphism of the host, and other environmental factors need to be investigated. PMID:24830306

  3. Sediment-palaeosol successions in Calabria and Sardinia suggest spatially differentiated palaeo-vegetation patterns in southern Italy during the Last Glacial period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Daniela; Zucca, Claudio; Al-Sharif, Riyad; Zwanzig, Lisa; Madrau, Salvatore; Andreucci, Stefano; Pascucci, Vincenzo; Kadereit, Annette; Scarciglia, Fabio; Brückner, Helmut

    2016-04-01

    Several lakes on the southern Italian peninsula provide valuable palaeoenvironmental archives of the Last Glacial period. These archives include, e.g., the long high-resolution record from varved lake sediments of Lago Grande di Monticchio, the bigger one of two maar lakes situated on top of Mt. Vulture. Its pollen record indicates (1) temperate deciduous forest during MIS5.2-MIS5.1 (St. Germain 2); (2) frequent vegetation fluctuations, then Artemisia steppe during MIS5.1-MIS4; (3) alternations between open steppe (stadials) and wooded steppe (interstadials) during MIS3; and (4) open steppe during MIS2 (Last Glacial Maximum). However, only few palaeosol records of this period have been reported from southern Italy in the literature so far. Such records would allow for gaining insight also into spatial patterns of the vegetation cover during this period that should have formed, e.g., according to relief, elevation, and continentality gradient (related to the much lower coastline during the last glacial period). So far, we have studied three sediment-palaeosol successions in southern Italy, two in the Calabria region, and one in north-western Sardinia. All of them have developed in alluvial fan deposits resting on littoral sediments of the Last Interglacial period (MIS 5). The southernmost succession studied is located near Lazzaro (south of Reggio di Calabria). It is exposed in an alluvial fan overlying the MIS5.5 terrace. Due to strong tectonic uplift (1.3 m ka-1) the alluvial fan has been dissected by the same creek which previously had built it up. Therefore, its internal structure is exposed, exhibiting a detailed sediment-palaeosol sequence. The palaeosols are mainly characterized by accumulation of soil organic matter (SOM), bioturbation and secondary carbonates. They represent Chernozem- and Phaeozem-like soils that most likely formed under steppe to forest steppe. SOM of the two uppermost Lazzaro palaeosols was 14C-dated to 26.8-28.8 ka cal BP and 28

  4. Plant Virus Metagenomics: Advances in Virus Discovery.

    PubMed

    Roossinck, Marilyn J; Martin, Darren P; Roumagnac, Philippe

    2015-06-01

    In recent years plant viruses have been detected from many environments, including domestic and wild plants and interfaces between these systems-aquatic sources, feces of various animals, and insects. A variety of methods have been employed to study plant virus biodiversity, including enrichment for virus-like particles or virus-specific RNA or DNA, or the extraction of total nucleic acids, followed by next-generation deep sequencing and bioinformatic analyses. All of the methods have some shortcomings, but taken together these studies reveal our surprising lack of knowledge about plant viruses and point to the need for more comprehensive studies. In addition, many new viruses have been discovered, with most virus infections in wild plants appearing asymptomatic, suggesting that virus disease may be a byproduct of domestication. For plant pathologists these studies are providing useful tools to detect viruses, and perhaps to predict future problems that could threaten cultivated plants. PMID:26056847

  5. Measles virus

    PubMed Central

    Naim, Hussein Y

    2014-01-01

    Measles was an inevitable infection during the human development with substantial degree of morbidity and mortality. The severity of measles virus (MV) infection was largely contained by the development of a live attenuated vaccine that was introduced into the vaccination programs. However, all efforts to eradicate the disease failed and continued to annually result in significant deaths. The development of molecular biology techniques allowed the rescue of MV from cDNA that enabled important insights into a variety of aspects of the biology of the virus and its pathogenesis. Subsequently these technologies facilitated the development of novel vaccine candidates that induce immunity against measles and other pathogens. Based on the promising prospective, the use of MV as a recombinant vaccine and a therapeutic vector is addressed. PMID:25483511

  6. Zika Virus.

    PubMed

    Musso, Didier; Gubler, Duane J

    2016-07-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) in the genus Flavivirus and the family Flaviviridae. ZIKV was first isolated from a nonhuman primate in 1947 and from mosquitoes in 1948 in Africa, and ZIKV infections in humans were sporadic for half a century before emerging in the Pacific and the Americas. ZIKV is usually transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes. The clinical presentation of Zika fever is nonspecific and can be misdiagnosed as other infectious diseases, especially those due to arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya. ZIKV infection was associated with only mild illness prior to the large French Polynesian outbreak in 2013 and 2014, when severe neurological complications were reported, and the emergence in Brazil of a dramatic increase in severe congenital malformations (microcephaly) suspected to be associated with ZIKV. Laboratory diagnosis of Zika fever relies on virus isolation or detection of ZIKV-specific RNA. Serological diagnosis is complicated by cross-reactivity among members of the Flavivirus genus. The adaptation of ZIKV to an urban cycle involving humans and domestic mosquito vectors in tropical areas where dengue is endemic suggests that the incidence of ZIKV infections may be underestimated. There is a high potential for ZIKV emergence in urban centers in the tropics that are infested with competent mosquito vectors such as Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. PMID:27029595

  7. Ebola Virus Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2014 Fact sheets Features Commentaries 2014 Multimedia Contacts Ebola virus disease Fact sheet Updated January 2016 Key ... for survivors of Ebola virus disease Symptoms of Ebola virus disease The incubation period, that is, the ...

  8. Computer Viruses: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmion, Dan

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the early history and current proliferation of computer viruses that occur on Macintosh and DOS personal computers, mentions virus detection programs, and offers suggestions for how libraries can protect themselves and their users from damage by computer viruses. (LRW)

  9. Hanta virus (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Hanta virus is a distant cousin of Ebola virus, but is found worldwide. The virus is spread by human contact with rodent waste. Dangerous respiratory illness develops. Effective treatment is not yet ...

  10. SAMPLING VIRUSES FROM SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter describes in detail methods for detecting viruses of bacteria and humans in soil. Methods also are presented for the assay of these viruses. Reference sources are provided for information on viruses of plants.

  11. Virus Movement Maintains Local Virus Population Diversity

    SciTech Connect

    J. Snyder; B. Wiedenheft; M. Lavin; F. Roberto; J. Spuhler; A. Ortmann; T. Douglas; M. Young

    2007-11-01

    Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material.

  12. Virus movement maintains local virus population diversity.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Jamie C; Wiedenheft, Blake; Lavin, Matthew; Roberto, Francisco F; Spuhler, Josh; Ortmann, Alice C; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark

    2007-11-27

    Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material. PMID:18025457

  13. [On the situation of African swine fever and the biological characterization of recent virus isolates].

    PubMed

    Tauscher, Kerstin; Pietschmann, Jana; Wernike, Kerstin; Teifke, Jens P; Beer, Martin; Blome, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    African swine fever (ASF), a disease notifiable to the World Organization of Animal Health (OIE), is characterized by severe, unspecific clinical signs and high mortality rates. Hosts for ASF virus (ASFV) are only members of the family Suidae and soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros. Currently, no vaccine is available and therefore, the control is primarily based on strict sanitary measures. The most important part is the early detection of the disease within affected animal holdings and the fast and reliable confirmation by laboratory diagnosis. Infections of domestic pigs and European wild boar with recent Armenian, Sardinian, Lithuanian or Kenyan ASFV isolates lead to severe, acute disease courses with the predominant symptom of high fever (> 41 degrees C) accompanied by further unspecific clinical signs such as lethargy, loss of appetite, diarrhoea, respiratory symptoms, and an increased bleeding tendency. In experimental infection studies the mortality rate reached 100%. The most prominent pathomorphological findings included ebony-colored gastrohepatic lymph nodes, lung oedema, petechiae in the renal cortex, and oedema of the gallbladder wall. In the light of the current epidemiological situation with endemic ASFV infections on Sardinia, outbreaks in Russia and several Eastern EU Member States there is a risk for an introduction in further, previously unaffected EU countries including Germany. Hence, appropriate sample materials (serum, blood, spleen) of domestic pigs with unspecific clinical symptoms or pathomorphological findings should be examined for both ASFV and classical swine fever virus. PMID:26054220

  14. Viruses and Virus Diseases of Rubus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rubus species are propagated vegetatively and are subject to infection by viruses during development, propagation and fruit production stages. Reports of initial detection and symptoms of more than 30 viruses, virus-like diseases and phytoplasmas affecting Rubus spp. have been reviewed more than 20 ...

  15. Offshore and onshore stratigraphic constraints to rebuild the evolution of the two conjugate margins (Gulf of Lion and West Sardinia) over the last 30 Myr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroux, Estelle; Gorini, Christian; Rubino, Jean-Loup; Rabineau, Marina; Aslanian, Daniel; Blanpied, Christian; Taillepierre, Rachel; Haq, Bilal

    2016-04-01

    Principles of seismic and sequential stratigraphy [Vail et al., 1977] are applied onto an extensive set of seismic reflection and drilling data in the Provençal Basin to correlate post-rift Miocene and Plio-Quaternary chronostratigraphic markers at the basin-wide scale. Stratigraphic, sedimentological and micropaleontological studies [Cravatte et al., 1974] for some of the boreholes provide additional information on the depositional environments and the chronostratigraphy of the drilled series. Synthesis of previous onshore studies on the both conjugate margins (Gulf of Lion and West Sardinia), and new fieldwork [Rueda, 2014] enable us to establish the stratigraphical link between onshore and offshore syn-rift and post-rift sequences. Miocene peri-Alpine foreland basin is particularly connected toward the south with the Gulf of Lion passive margin and is predominantly filled by marine shallow water siliciclastic deposits ranging from lower Miocene to Pliocene in age. Nine to ten depositional onshore sequences are identified [Besson et al., 2005, Rubino et al., 2015] and can be traced into the post rift part of the Gulf of Lion. The recognition of these sequences on the distal part of the shelf from the Burdigalian to the Messinian with a good well calibration is fully consistent and integrated in a chronostratigraphic history of the Provençal Basin over the last 30 Myr. We quantify, model and discuss the evolution of vertical movements and sediment budgets since the rifting. This study also allows us to construct a complete sea-level change curve for the western Mediterranean Neogene. Besson, D. (2005). Architecture du bassin rhodano-provençal miocène (Alpes, SE France). Relations entre déformation, physiographie et sédimentation dans un bassin molassique d'avant-pays (Doctoral dissertation, Paris, ENMP). Rueda, T. (2014). Analyse sédimentologique et stratigraphique du remplissage Oligo-Aquitanien du fossé du Campidano - Comparaison avec le remplissage

  16. Displaced/re-worked rhodolith deposits infilling parts of a complex Miocene multistorey submarine channel: A case history from the Sassari area (Sardinia, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murru, Marco; Bassi, Davide; Simone, Lucia

    2015-08-01

    In the Sassari area (north-western Sardinia, Italy), the Miocene Porto Torres sub-basin sequences represent the complex multistorey mixed carbonate-siliciclastic submarine feature called the Sassari Channel. During the late Burdigalian-early Serravallian, repeated terrigenous supplies from uplifted Paleozoic crystalline substrata fed the Sassari Channel system by means of turbidity and locally hyper-concentrated turbidity flows. Shelfal areas were the source of terrigenous clasts, but open shelf rhodalgal/foramol carbonate areas were very productive and largely also contributed to the channel infilling. Re-worked sands and skeletal debris were discontinuously re-sedimented offshore as pure terrigenous, mixed and/or carbonate deposits. Major sediment supply was introduced between the latest Burdigalian and the start of the middle Langhian, during which a large amount of carbonate, mixed and siliciclastic sediments reached the Porto Torres Basin (Sassari Channel I). Contributions from shallow proximal source areas typify the lower intervals (Unit A) in marginal sectors of the channel. Upward, these evolve into autochthonous rhodolith deposits, winnowed by strong currents in relatively shallow well lit settings within a complex network of narrow tidally-controlled channels (Unit D) locally bearing coral assemblages. Conversely, re-sedimented rhodoliths from the Units B and C accumulated under conditions of higher turbidity. In deeper parts of the channel taxonomically diversified rhodoliths point to the mixing of re-deposited skeletal components from different relatively deep bathmetric settings. In the latest early Langhian, major re-sedimentation episodes, resulting in large prograding bodies (Unit D), triggered by repeated regression pulses in a frame of persistent still stand. During these episodes photophile assemblages dwelled in the elevated margin sectors of the channel. A significant latest early Langhian drop in relative sea-level resulted in impressive mass

  17. Malondialdehyde–deoxyguanosine and bulky DNA adducts in schoolchildren resident in the proximity of the Sarroch industrial estate on Sardinia Island, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Peluso, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Air quality is a primary environmental concern in highly industrialised areas, with potential health effects in children residing nearby. The Sarroch industrial estate in Cagliari province, Sardinia Island, Italy, hosts the world’s largest power plant and the second largest European oil refinery and petrochemical park. This industrial estate produces a complex mixture of air pollutants, including benzene, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Thus, we conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the prevalence of malondialdehyde–deoxyguanosine adducts in the nasal epithelium of 75 representative children, aged 6–14 years, attending primary and secondary schools in Sarroch in comparison with 73 rural controls. Additionally, the levels of bulky DNA adducts were analysed in a subset of 62 study children. DNA damage was measured by 32P-postlabelling methodologies. The air concentrations of benzene and ethyl benzene were measured in the school gardens of Sarroch and a rural village by diffusive samplers. Outdoor measurements were also performed in other Sarroch areas and in the proximity of the industrial estate. The outdoor levels of benzene and ethyl benzene were significantly higher in the school gardens of Sarroch than in the rural village. Higher concentrations were also found in other Sarroch areas and in the vicinity of the industrial park. The mean levels of malondialdehyde–deoxyguanosine adducts per 108 normal nucleotides ± standard error (SE) were 74.6±9.1 and 34.1±4.4 in the children from Sarroch and the rural village, respectively. The mean ratio was 2.53, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.71–2.89, P < 0.001, versus rural controls. Similarly, the levels of bulky DNA adducts per 108 normal nucleotides ± SE were 2.9±0.4 and 1.6±0.2 in the schoolchildren from Sarroch and the rural village, respectively. The means ratio was 1.90, 95% CI: 1.25–2.89, P = 0.003 versus rural controls. Our study indicates that children residing near the

  18. Virophages or satellite viruses?

    PubMed

    Krupovic, Mart; Cvirkaite-Krupovic, Virginija

    2011-11-01

    It has been argued that the smaller viruses associated with giant DNA viruses are a new biological entity. However, Mart Krupovic and Virginija Cvirkaite-Krupovic argue here that these smaller viruses should be classified with the satellite viruses. PMID:22016897

  19. The Tobacco Mosaic Virus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulzinski, Michael A.

    1992-01-01

    Explains how the tobacco mosaic virus can be used to study virology. Presents facts about the virus, procedures to handle the virus in the laboratory, and four laboratory exercises involving the viruses' survival under inactivating conditions, dilution end point, filterability, and microscopy. (MDH)

  20. Virus-Vectored Influenza Virus Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Tripp, Ralph A.; Tompkins, S. Mark

    2014-01-01

    Despite the availability of an inactivated vaccine that has been licensed for >50 years, the influenza virus continues to cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. Constant evolution of circulating influenza virus strains and the emergence of new strains diminishes the effectiveness of annual vaccines that rely on a match with circulating influenza strains. Thus, there is a continued need for new, efficacious vaccines conferring cross-clade protection to avoid the need for biannual reformulation of seasonal influenza vaccines. Recombinant virus-vectored vaccines are an appealing alternative to classical inactivated vaccines because virus vectors enable native expression of influenza antigens, even from virulent influenza viruses, while expressed in the context of the vector that can improve immunogenicity. In addition, a vectored vaccine often enables delivery of the vaccine to sites of inductive immunity such as the respiratory tract enabling protection from influenza virus infection. Moreover, the ability to readily manipulate virus vectors to produce novel influenza vaccines may provide the quickest path toward a universal vaccine protecting against all influenza viruses. This review will discuss experimental virus-vectored vaccines for use in humans, comparing them to licensed vaccines and the hurdles faced for licensure of these next-generation influenza virus vaccines. PMID:25105278

  1. Three-dimensional modeling in the study of subsidence in mining Acquaresi (Sardinia South - West) - Francesco Muntoni (1) Teresa Balvis (2) Paolo Bevilacqua (3) (1) Geological, Mining Park of Sardinia - Via Monteverdi, 16 09016 - Iglesias (2) freelance (3) Department of Engineering and Architecture - University of Trieste, Via Valerio 10 - Trieste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muntoni, F.

    2013-12-01

    The effects of subsidence and subsequent landslides in mining areas are very frequent, the study examines the proposed mining area of Acquaresi (Sardinia South - West), interested in the years between 1991 and 2003 by major subsidence phenomena and consequent events landslides. The valley of Acquaresi is particularly important, not only for its mines, but also for the aspect related to the geomorphological evolution morphotectonic in the context of Paleozoic lithologies, which have a rectangular structure parallel to the coastline. To make measurements and analysis of the evolution of human morphostructural and throughout the industry, it was considered appropriate to create a three-dimensional model that would allow a synoptic view with the different information available to the industry. E 'was created a model using the points listed extrapolated from the Regional Technical Map scale 1:10,000, the map at scale 1:2000 dell'IGEA and the values of a detailed survey of the study area, measured at a scale 1: 500. How MicroStation CAD software was used, with whom it is made of a TIN high detail taking into account then is, if possible, of quoted points, roads, major infrastructure, contour lines (lines-intermediate-auxiliary), buildings and lines coast. The model was supported and shaped (draping) image obtained by integrating the color orthophotos of the area in 1:10,000 scale of the Autonomous Region of Sardinia and photos to scale 1:2,000 made to run dall'IGEA spa at the last event of the landslide. The use of aerial photographs, a scale similar to that of cartography, has allowed us to achieve excellent results by superimposing the frames of the areas of interest on models made, with views that appear to be consistent with the technical papers, with a maximum error of less than that of the reference mapping. Moreover, to emphasize the tectonic lineations, morphological aspects and changes in landscape and environment, it was considered appropriate to use a three

  2. Viruses Infecting Reptiles

    PubMed Central

    Marschang, Rachel E.

    2011-01-01

    A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch’s postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions. PMID:22163336

  3. Detailed petrophysical and geophysical characterization of core samples from the potential caprock-reservoir system in the Sulcis Coal Basin (South-Western Sardinia - Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fais, Silvana; Ligas, Paola; Cuccuru, Francesco; Maggio, Enrico; Plaisant, Alberto; Pettinau, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    The evaluation of the CO2 geologic storage site requires a robust experimental database especially with respect to spatial petrophysical heterogeneities. The integrated analysis of minero-petrographical, physical and geophysical parameters (e.g. longitudinal and transversal propagation velocity, VpVs ratio, dynamic elastic moduli, etc.) of the rocks that make up a caprock-reservoir system can substantially reduce the geologic uncertainity in the storage site characterization and in the geological and numerical modelling for the evaluation of the CO2 storage capacity. In this study the Middle Eocene - Lower Oligocene Cixerri Formation made up of siliciclastic rocks and the Upper Thanetian - Lower Ypresian Miliolitico Carbonate Complex in the Sulcis coal basin (South-Western Sardinia - Italy) have been identified respectively as potential caprock and reservoir for the CO2 storage. The petrographical, physical and geophysical parameters of the above mentioned geological Formations (Cixerri and Milolitico) were investigated to improve the geological model aimed at verifying the geological CO2 storage capacity within the carbonate reservoir rocks, in order to guarantee an efficient use of the reservoir, and to improve the numerical simulation of CO2 behaviour in the short, medium and long term after its injection in single or multiple wells. . The petrographical characteristics of the caprock-reservoir rocks were determined by optical and SEM analyses of core samples representing the different facies of the Cixerri Formation and of the Miliolitico Carbonate Complex, provided by Carbosulcis S.p.A.. Porosity analysis was completed by mercury porosimeter determinations which also provided quantitative information on the permeability of the study rocks and on the tortuosity of their pore system. Further physical properties, such as dry and saturated density and porosity, and water absorption were determined on the cylindrical core samples of intact rocks (ISRM, 1979) from

  4. Geochemical, petrographic and physical characterizations and associated alterations of the volcanic rocks of the Romanesque San Nicola Church (Ottana, central Sardinia, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Columbu, Stefano; Palomba, Marcella; Sitzia, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    In this research, the volcanic rocks belonging to the Sardinia Oligo-Miocene volcanic cycle (32 - 11 Ma) and building up the structure of the San Nicola church, one of the most representative churches of the Romanesque architecture, were studied. These stones were widely used in medieval architecture for the excellent workability, but they present some disadvantages, since they are greatly affected by alteration phenomena. The main objectives of this research are i) to focus the mineral, chemical and petrographic compositions of the San Nicola stones, ii) the chemical and physical alteration processes affecting these materials, and iii) to establish the exactly provenance of the volcanic rocks. Furthermore, a comparative study between the rocks from the ancient quarries and those forming the structure of the church was performed. In the ancient quarries, where presumably a more advanced alteration occurs due to the vertical alteration gradient, different facies of the same volcanic lithology, characterized by macroscopical evidences of chemical-physical degradation degree, were sampled. Petrographic, geochemical (both major elements that the traces) and physical-mechanical features of the collected samples were determined to highlight the compositional differences (density, porosity, water-absorption kinetics, mechanical resistance) as a function of the different alteration degree. Moreover, chemical-mineralogical analysis of the sample surfaces from the church, was performed, to highlight possible presence and nature of secondary newly-formed phases (e.g., salt efflorescence). Several methodologies were applied to carry out physical-chemical and petrographic analysis: X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) and Inductively Coupled Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), X-Ray Diffractometry (XRD) for chemical and mineral composition; Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) for textures, mineral assemblages and microstructures studies; He-picnometry, water-absorption and mechanical

  5. Human impact, geomorphological and bio-environmental indicators for mapping and monitoring of a Mediterranean urban-beach with Posidonia oceanica (Gulf of Cagliari-Sardinia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Muro, Sandro; Pusceddu, Nicola; Frongia, Paolo; Buosi, Carla; Passarella, Marinella; Ibba, Angelo

    2016-04-01

    This work describes the human conditioned evolution (medium term) and the short term dynamics (mainly sediment transport) in southern Sardinia beach (between Giorgino and Cala d'Orri, about 11km), composed of fine to coarse quartz sand, backed by dune ridges and lagoons. The study was founded by NEPTUNE Project, Tender6 (L n. 7/2007). Geomorphological and bio-environmental indicators as: urbanization and coastal defence expansion, dune and beach changes, biotic indices (benthic foraminifera and Posidonia meadow) have been used. Medium-term evolution, over a period of 60 years, was carried out by ortho-images (1954-2015) for reconstructing coastline changes at this temporal scale. The main modifications were the building of the canal harbor, the consequent loss of 2.5km of beach, and the construction of several coastal defense structures, which caused asymmetric accumulations (lee zones) and erosion areas. Short-term variations have been periodically monitored (2014-2015) during 5 different field surveys (DGPS and Echo-sounder data) obtaining topo-bathymetric digital models. Sedimentary and hydrodynamic characteristics have been studied. Wave propagation, coastal currents and sediment transport, have been simulated through numerical models within Delft3D software. The results obtained allowed to visualize the response of the beach to wave stress, forced from SW, S, SE (Cagliari buoy and weather data). The comparison between data collected, thematic maps and models allowed to identify the main controlling factors and distribution mechanisms of the sedimentary paths on the shoreface. Those human modifications (e.g. building of the canal harbour and jetties, lagoon mouths stabilization, the consequent modified hydrodynamics and bottom trawling) have direct influence on the Posidonia oceanica and on its upper limit. In 2002, the Italian Environment Office reported a wide area (between -4m and -20m) of degraded Posidonia and dead matte in front of the study beach

  6. GHG emissions quantification at high spatial and temporal resolution at urban scale: the case of the town of Sassari (NW Sardinia - Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanna, Laura; Ferrara, Roberto; Zara, Pierpaolo; Duce, Pierpaolo

    2014-05-01

    The European Union has set as priorities the fight against climate change related to greenhouse gas releases. The largest source of these emissions comes from human activities in urban areas that account for more than 70% of the world's emissions and several local governments intend to support the European strategic policies in understanding which crucial sectors drive GHG emissions in their city. Planning for mitigation actions at the community scale starts with the compilation of a GHG inventories that, among a wide range of measurement tools, provide information on the current status of GHG emissions across a specific jurisdiction. In the framework of a regional project for quantitative estimate of the net exchange of CO2 (emissions and sinks) at the municipal level in Sardinia, the town of Sassari represents a pilot site where a spatial and temporal high resolution GHG emissions inventory is built in line with European and international standard protocols to establish a baseline for tracking emission trends. The specific purpose of this accurate accounting is to obtain an appropriate allocation of CO2 and other GHG emissions at the fine building and hourly scale. The aim is to test the direct measurements needed to enable the construction of future scenarios of these emissions and for assessing possible strategies to reduce their impact. The key element of the methodologies used to construct this GHG emissions inventory is the Global Protocol for Community-Scale Greenhouse Gas Emissions (GPC) (March 2012) that identifies four main types of emission sources: (i) Stationary Units, (ii) Mobile Units, (iii) Waste, and (iv) Industrial Process and Product Use Emissions. The development of the GHG emissions account in Sassari consists in the collection of a range of alternative data sources (primary data, IPCC emission factors, national and local statistic, etc.) selected on the base on relevance and completeness criteria performed for 2010, as baseline year, using

  7. Tracing groundwater salinization processes in coastal aquifers: a hydrogeochemical and isotopic approach in the Na-Cl brackish waters of northwestern Sardinia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mongelli, G.; Monni, S.; Oggiano, G.; Paternoster, M.; Sinisi, R.

    2013-07-01

    Throughout the Mediterranean, salinization threatens water quality, especially in coastal areas. This salinization is the result of concomitant processes related to both seawater intrusion and water-rock interaction, which in some cases are virtually indistinguishable. In the Nurra region of northwestern Sardinia, recent salinization related to marine water intrusion has been caused by aquifer exploitation. However, the geology of this region records a long history from the Palaeozoic to the Quaternary, and is structurally complex and comprises a wide variety of lithologies, including Triassic evaporites. Determining the origin of the saline component of the Jurassic and Triassic aquifers in the Nurra region may provide a useful and more general model for salinization processes in the Mediterranean area, where the occurrence of evaporitic rocks in coastal aquifers is a common feature. In addition, due to intensive human activity and recent climatic change, the Nurra has become vulnerable to desertification and, in common with other Mediterranean islands, surface water resources periodically suffer from severe shortages. With this in mind, we report new data regarding brackish and surface waters (outcrop and lake samples) of the Na-Cl type from the Nurra region, including major ions and selected trace elements (B, Br, I, and Sr), in addition to isotopic data including δ18O, δD in water, and δ34S and δ18O in dissolved SO4. To identify the origin of the salinity more precisely, we also analysed the mineralogical and isotopic composition of Triassic evaporites. The brackish waters have Cl contents of up to 2025 mg L-1 , and the ratios between dissolved ions and Cl, with the exception of the Br / Cl ratio, are not those expected on the basis of simple mixing between rainwater and seawater. The δ18O and δD data indicate that most of the waters fall between the regional meteoric water line and the global meteoric water line, supporting the conclusion that they are

  8. Tracing groundwater salinization processes in coastal aquifers: a hydrogeochemical and isotopic approach in Na-Cl brackish waters of north-western Sardinia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mongelli, G.; Monni, S.; Oggiano, G.; Paternoster, M.; Sinisi, R.

    2013-01-01

    In the Mediterranean area the demand of good quality water is often threatened by salinization, especially in coastal areas. The salinization is the result of concomitant processes due to both marine water intrusion and rock-water interaction, which in some cases are hardly distinguishable. In northwestern Sardinia, in the Nurra area, salinization due to marine water intrusion has been recently evidenced as consequence of bore hole exploitation. However, the geology of the Nurra records a long history from Paleozoic to Quaternary, resulting in relative structural complexity and in a wide variety of lithologies, including Triassic evaporites. To elucidate the origin of the saline component in the Nurra aquifer, may furnish a useful and more general model for the salinization processes in the Mediterranean area, where the occurrence of evaporitic rocks in coastal aquifers is a common feature. In addition, due to intensive human activities and recent climatic changes, the Nurra has become vulnerable to desertification and, similarly to other Mediterranean islands, surface-water resources can periodically suffer from drastic shortage. With this in mind we report new data, regarding brackish waters of Na-Cl type of the Nurra, including major ions and selected trace elements (B, Br, I and Sr) and isotopic data, including δ18O, δD in water, and δ34S and δ18O in dissolved sulphate. To better depict the origin of the salinity we also analyzed a set of Nurra Triassic evaporites for mineralogical and isotopic composition. The brackish waters have Cl contents up to 2025 mg L-1 and the ratios between dissolved ions and chlorine, with the exception of the Br/Cl ratio, are not those expected on the basis of a simple mixing between rain water and seawater. The δ18O and δD data indicate that most of the waters are within the Regional Meteoric Water Line and the Global Meteoric Water Line supporting the idea that they are meteoric in origin. A relevant consequence of the

  9. Morphogenesis of Bittner Virus

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Frederick W.; Clarke, John K.; Dermott, Evelyn

    1970-01-01

    The morphogenesis of Bittner virus (mouse mammary tumor virus) was studied in sectioned mammary tumor cells. Internal components of the virus (type A particles) were seen being assembled in virus factories close to the nucleus and were also seen forming at the plasma membrane. The particles in virus factories became enveloped by budding through the membrane of cytoplasmic vacuoles which were derived from dilated endoplasmic reticulum. Complete virus particles were liberated from these vacuoles by cell lysis. Particles budding at the plasma membrane were released into intercellular spaces. Maturation of enveloped virus occurred after release, but mature internal components were rarely seen in the cytoplasm before envelopment. Direct cell-to-cell transfer of virus by pinocytosis of budding particles by an adjacent cell was observed, and unusual forms of budding virus which participated in this process are illustrated and described. There was evidence that some virus particles contained cytoplasmic constituents, including ribosomes. Certain features of the structure of internal components are discussed in relation to a recently proposed model for the internal component of the mouse leukemia virus. Intracisternal virus-like particles were occasionally seen in tumor cells, but there was no evidence that these structures were developmentally related to Bittner virus. Images PMID:4193837

  10. Raspberry (Rubus spp.)-Viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are several important virus diseases of raspberry and black raspberry in the Pacific Northwest. Pollen-borne viruses include Raspberry bushy dwarf virus and Strawberry necrotic shock virus (aka Tobacco streak virus –Rubus isolate or Black raspberry latent virus). Strawberry necrotic shock viru...