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1

Virion Stability Is Important for the Circulative Transmission of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Sardinia Virus by Bemisia tabaci, but Virion Access to Salivary Glands Does Not Guarantee Transmissibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capsid protein (CP) of the monopartite begomovirus Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV), family Geminiviridae, is indispensable for plant infection and vector transmission. A region between amino acids 129 and 152 is critical for virion assembly and insect transmissibility. Two previously described mutants, one with a double Q129P Q134H mutation (PNHD) and another with a further D152E change

Piero Caciagli; Vicente Medina Piles; Daniele Marian; Manuela Vecchiati; Vera Masenga; Giovanna Mason; Tania Falcioni; Emanuela Noris

2009-01-01

2

RNA viruses and their silencing suppressors boost Abutilon mosaic virus, but not the Old World Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus.  

PubMed

Mixed viral infections can induce different changes in symptom development, genome accumulation and tissue tropism. These issues were investigated for two phloem-limited begomoviruses, Abutilon mosaic virus (AbMV) and Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) in Nicotiana benthamiana plants doubly infected by either the potyvirus Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) or the tombusvirus Artichoke mottled crinkle virus (AMCV). Both RNA viruses induced an increase of the amount of AbMV, led to its occasional egress from the phloem and induced symptom aggravation, while the amount and tissue tropism of TYLCSV were almost unaffected. In transgenic plants expressing the silencing suppressors of CABMV (HC-Pro) or AMCV (P19), AbMV was supported to a much lesser extent than in the mixed infections, with the effect of CABMV HC-Pro being superior to that of AMCV P19. Neither of the silencing suppressors influenced TYLCSV accumulation. These results demonstrate that begomoviruses differentially respond to the invasion of other viruses and to silencing suppression. PMID:21843560

Sardo, Luca; Wege, Christina; Kober, Sigrid; Kocher, Conny; Accotto, Gian Paolo; Noris, Emanuela

2011-11-01

3

Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Sardinia Virus Rep-Derived Resistance to Homologous and Heterologous Geminiviruses Occurs by Different Mechanisms and Is Overcome if Virus-Mediated Transgene Silencing Is Activated  

PubMed Central

The replication-associated protein (Rep) of geminiviruses is involved in several biological processes brought about by the presence of distinct functional domains. Recently, we have exploited the multifunctional character of the Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) Rep to develop a molecular interference strategy to impair TYLCSV infection. We showed that transgenic expression of its N-terminal 210 amino acids (Rep-210) confers resistance to the homologous virus by inhibiting viral transcription and replication. We have now used biochemical and transgenic approaches to carry out a fuller investigation of the molecular resistance mechanisms in transgenic plants expressing Rep-210. We show that Rep-210 confers resistance through two distinct molecular mechanisms, depending on the challenging virus. Resistance to the homologous virus is achieved by the ability of Rep-210 to tightly inhibit C1 gene transcription, while that to heterologous virus is due to the interacting property of the Rep-210 oligomerization domain. Furthermore, we present evidence that in Rep-210-expressing plants, the duration of resistance is related to the ability of the challenging virus to shut off transgene expression by a posttranscriptional homology-dependent gene silencing mechanism. A model of Rep-210-mediated geminivirus resistance that takes transgene- and virus-mediated mechanisms into account is proposed.

Lucioli, Alessandra; Noris, Emanuela; Brunetti, Angela; Tavazza, Raffaela; Ruzza, Valentino; Castillo, Araceli G.; Bejarano, Eduardo R.; Accotto, Gian Paolo; Tavazza, Mario

2003-01-01

4

An epidemiological survey of TYLCD in southern Sardinia (Italy).  

PubMed

Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) are among the most virulent pathogens of greenhouse tomatoes in Sardinia (Italy). To investigate the relationship between seasonal population trends of the vector Bemisia tabaci and the dynamics of TYLCD spread to susceptible crops, between May and October 2007 we carried out a survey in a tomato growing area located in the south of the island. On three farms specialized in the production of fresh market tomatoes we monitored, outside commercial greenhouses, the following parameters related to TYLCD epidemiology: mean weekly catches of the whiteflies B. tabaci and Trialeurodes voporariorum on yellow sticky traps, ratio between the two whitefly species and proportion of B. tabaci adults carrying TYLCSV/TYLCV in adult samples collected on hosts not susceptible to the disease, proportion of tomato plants infected by TYLCSV/TYLCV after a two-week exposure to open field conditions. Generally speaking, the flight activity of whiteflies increased during spring, reached a peak in May or June and gradually declined in summer. At the beginning of the survey, T. vaporariorum was found to be the prevalent species, but after a shift in composition of whitefly populations during July, B. tabaci became predominant. While the percentage of vector adults carrying the viral agents of the disease was relatively high up to July, with maximum values ranging between 14 and 25%, during the following months it decreased to less than 5%. The incidence of TYLCD in the plants exposed outside the greenhouses showed a similar trend in the sites surveyed, with two peaks roughly coinciding with the beginning and end of summer. Therefore, two distinct phases of TYLCD spread were observed: from spring to midsummer when the disease was transmitted by low 8. tabaci populations with relatively high proportions of virus carriers; from midsummer to autumn, when the disease was spread by larger vector populations with low percentages of individuals carrying the viruses. Further studies are necessary to gain a better understanding of the interactions among B. tabaci biotypes, TYLCSV/TYLCV and their hosts. PMID:20222569

Nannini, M; Foddi, F; Murgia, G; Pisci, R; Sanna, F; Testa, M; Accotto, G P

2009-01-01

5

West Nile Virus outbreak in Sardinia, Italy, in 2011.  

PubMed

West Nile Virus (WNV) is an enveloped, positive-sense RNA virus belonging to the genus Flavivirus, antigenically related to the Japanese encephalitis complex in the family Flaviviridae. The principal vectors are mosquitoes, in particular Culex spp, and virus amplification seems to occur in susceptible birds that are the principal vertebrate reservoir hosts, whereas humans, horses and other vertebrates are considered incidental or dead-end hosts. The first Italian equine outbreak was reported in late summer of 1998 in Tuscany, in the area surrounding the Fucecchio marshes, where 14 clinical cases of WND in housed equines were recorded. In 2011 WNV appeared for the first time in Sardinia, representing the first clinical cases in equines in Italy in 2011. The outbreak occurred both in humans and in equines. The serological survey performed on 253 equines living in the province of Oristano detected a total of 87 IgG-positive subjects. Among them, 46 horses showed neurological signs such as ataxia, paresis, paralysis, hyperesthesia, muscle fasciculations, seizures, or fever. Nine of them died or were euthanized. In forthcoming years, surveillance of wild birds and insects will be used to forecast the extension and spread of WNV. The information gathered will be used to direct or optimise strategies intended to prevent virus transmission. PMID:23324814

Spissu, Nicoletta; Panichi, Giovanni; Montisci, Antonio; Fiore, Filippo

2013-01-01

6

Tomato yellow leaf curl virus from Sardinia is a whitefly-transmitted monopartite geminivirus.  

PubMed Central

The genome of an isolate of tomato yellow leaf curl virus from Sardinia, Italy (TYLCV-S), a geminivirus transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, has been cloned and sequenced. The single circular DNA molecule comprises 2770 nucleotides. Genome organisation closely resembles that of the DNA A component of the whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses with a bipartite genome. A 1.8 mer of the TYLCV-S genome in a binary vector of Agrobacterium tumefaciens is infectious upon agroinoculation of tomato plants. Typical tomato yellow leaf curl disease symptoms developed about three weeks after inoculation. The disease was transmitted by the natural vector B.tabaci from agroinfected plants to test plants, reproducing in this way the full biological cycle and proving that the genome of TYLCV-S consists of only one circular single-stranded DNA molecule. Contrary to the other whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses described so far, there is no evidence for the existence nor the necessity of a second component (B DNA) in the TYLCV-S genome. Images

Kheyr-Pour, A; Bendahmane, M; Matzeit, V; Accotto, G P; Crespi, S; Gronenborn, B

1991-01-01

7

Bluetongue virus serotypes 1 and 4 in Sardinia during autumn 2012: new incursions or re-infection with old strains?  

PubMed

Since 2000 several bluetongue virus (BTV) incursions have occurred in Sardinia (Italy) involving serotypes 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16. In October 2012, new BT outbreaks caused by BTV-1 and BTV-4 were reported. Nearly 500 flocks were infected and 9238 sheep died because of the infection. When sequenced, Seg-10 of both strains shared 99% similarity at nucleotide level with BTV strains that have circulated in the Mediterranean basin in the last few years. Similarly, Seg-5 sequences of BTV-1 and BTV-4 newly isolated Sardinian strains are identical and cluster together with recent BTV-1 circulating in the Mediterranean Basin and the BTV-4 strains isolated in Tunisia in 2007 and 2009. These BTV-4 strains differ from the ones that circulated in Europe from 2003 to 2005 and appear to be reassortant strains. PMID:23838283

Lorusso, Alessio; Sghaier, Sufien; Carvelli, Andrea; Di Gennaro, Annapia; Leone, Alessandra; Marini, Valeria; Pelini, Sandro; Marcacci, Maurilia; Rocchigiani, Angela Maria; Puggioni, Giantonella; Savini, Giovanni

2013-10-01

8

Two new natural begomovirus recombinants associated with the tomato yellow leaf curl disease co-exist with parental viruses in tomato epidemics in Italy.  

PubMed

Two tomato geminivirus species co-exist in protected crops in Sicily, Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV, found in 1989) and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV, found in 2002), and mixed infections have been detected. In a field survey conducted in 2004, the viral intergenic region (IR) was amplified from infected plants, and molecules apparently hybrid between the two species were found, but only in plants where one or both parental species were also present. Two of these hybrids, named 2/2 and 2/5, were isolated and infectious clones were obtained. They were both readily whitefly-transmitted to tomato plants; clone 2/5 produced symptoms typical of TYLCSV and TYLCV, while clone 2/2 produced more severe symptoms, with leaves showing downward curling and rugosity. Sequence analysis showed that both 2/2 and 2/5 are newly generated hybrids, with two recombination sites each. One site, common to both hybrids, is in the stem-loop of the IR. The other is close to the 3'-end of the CP ORF in 2/5 and within the Rep ORF in 2/2. Thus, the 2/2 hybrid virus has a hybrid Rep protein, with the 202 amino-terminal aa from TYLCV and the remaining 155 aa from TYLCSV. Replication assays in leaf disc indicated a lower replicative capacity with respect to parental viruses, a fact that might help to explain why plants infected only by a recombinant have not been found so far. PMID:19463717

Davino, Salvatore; Napoli, Chiara; Dellacroce, Chiara; Miozzi, Laura; Noris, Emanuela; Davino, Mario; Accotto, Gian Paolo

2009-07-01

9

The Sardinia Radio Telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the status of the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) project, a new general purpose, fully steerable 64 m diameter parabolic radio telescope under construction in Sardinia. The instrument is funded by Italian Ministry of University and Research (MIUR), by the Sardinia Regional Government (RAS), and by the Italian Space Agency (ASI), and it is charge to three research structures

Nichi D’Amico

2011-01-01

10

The Sardinia Radio Telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT), a new general purpose, fully steerable antenna of the National Institute for Astrophysics. The radio telescope is under construction near Cagliari (Sardinia). With its large aperture (64m diameter) and its active surface, SRT is capable of operations up to ˜100GHz, it will contribute significantly to VLBI networks and will represent a powerful single-dish

G. Grueff; G. Alvito; R. Ambrosini; P. Bolli; N. D'Amico; A. Maccaferri; G. Maccaferri; M. Morsiani; L. Mureddu; V. Natale; L. Olmi; A. Orfei; C. Pernechele; A. Poma; I. Porceddu; L. Rossi; G. Zacchiroli

2004-01-01

11

The Sardinia Radio Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the status of the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) project, a new general purpose, fully steerable 64 m diameter parabolic radio telescope under construction in Sardinia. The instrument is funded by Italian Ministry of University and Research (MIUR), by the Sardinia Regional Government (RAS), and by the Italian Space Agency (ASI), and it is charge to three research structures of the National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF): the Institute of Radio Astronomy of Bologna, the Cagliari Astronomical Observatory (in Sardinia), and the Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory in Florence. The radio telescope has a shaped Gregorian optical configuration with a 8 m diameter secondary mirror and additional Beam-Wave Guide (BWG) mirrors. One of the most challenging feature of SRT is the active surface of the primary reflector which provides good efficiency up to about 100 GHz. This paper reports on the most recent advances of the construction.

D'Amico, Nichi

2011-08-01

12

The Sardinia Radio Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT), a new general purpose, fully steerable antenna of the National Institute for Astrophysics. The radio telescope is under construction near Cagliari (Sardinia). With its large aperture (64m diameter) and its active surface, SRT is capable of operations up to ˜100GHz, it will contribute significantly to VLBI networks and will represent a powerful single-dish radio telescope for many science fields. The radio telescope has a Gregorian optical configuration with a supplementary beam-waveguide (BWG), which provides additional focal points. The Gregorian surfaces are shaped to minimize the spill-over and standing wave. After the start of the contract for the radio telescope structural and mechanical fabrication in 2003, in the present year the foundation construction will be completed. The schedule foresees the radio telescope inauguration in late 2006.

Grueff, G.; Alvito, G.; Ambrosini, R.; Bolli, P.; D'Amico, N.; Maccaferri, A.; Maccaferri, G.; Morsiani, M.; Mureddu, L.; Natale, V.; Olmi, L.; Orfei, A.; Pernechele, C.; Poma, A.; Porceddu, I.; Rossi, L.; Zacchiroli, G.

13

Corsica and Sardinia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rich in antiquities and picturesque landscapes, the island provinces of Corsica, France, (top) and Sardinia, Italy, (bottom) have captured the imaginations of historians and poets alike for centuries. Corsica, crowned with snow-capped mountains, jeweled with shimmering lakes, and cloaked in misty emerald forests, is situated in the sapphire blue Mediterranean Sea southeast of mainland France. The island enjoys a relatively warm climate consisting of hot, dry summers full of sunshine, and mild winters that rarely dip below 0oC (32oF). In this scene, Corsica is the smaller island to the north. The island has almost 1,700 hills and mountains, ranging from 300 to over 2,700 meters in height. The tallest of these peaks is the snow-capped Monte Cinto toward the northern end of the island. Coursing throughout the island is an extensive network of rivers, carved into Corsica's granite face by snowmelt and rainwater runoff. The Corsican Cape sits on the island's northern finger; its eastern slope is somewhat hilly. There are quite a few agricultural fields and vineyards visible as the light green swath to the south all along the eastern shore. Along the southern shore are the dazzling cliffs of Bonifacio. Moving up the west coast in the state of Ajaccio we see a jagged, chiseled water front, reminiscent of the famous fjords of Norway. There are four large gulfs and many smaller rocky inlets sculpted into Corsica's west coast. Moving soutward, they are the Gulfs of Porto, Sagone, Ajaccio, and Valinco. The larger island to the south--across the Strait of Bonifacio--is Sardinia, Italy, one the earliest populated lands of Europe. Some ancient artifacts date human populations there as old as 6000 B.C. Around 1500 B.C., another group of settlers arrived on the island (historians don't know where they came from) and spread quickly across the island. Known as the Nuragic people, these settlers built almost 30,000 circular fortresses--called 'nuraghe'-- around the island; each strategically located so that they were within eyesight of their nearest neighbors. Today, about 7,000 nuraghe ruins still stand, unlike any other ruins in the world. Sardinia is the second largest island in the Mediterranean, situated due west of mainland Italy. Stretching across the central, eastern part of Sardinia is the rugged terrain of Gennargentu--mountainous and thickly vegetated. Mostly uninhabited by people, the 50,000-hectare wilderness of Monte Arcosu is home to a unique population of fallow deer as well as wild boar, hares, foxes, golden eagles, and the Sardinian wildcat. Founded in the ninth century by Phoenicians, the port city of Cagliari sits on the large bay on Sardinia's southeastern coast. To the north lies the old city of Sassari (originally an ancient settlement called Tathari), situated on a hillside overlooking the large Gulf of Asinara. This true-color image was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite, on December 7, 2001. Image courtesy Liam Gumley, Space Science and Engineering Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison

2002-01-01

14

Sardinia Radio Telescope: the new Italian project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contribution gives a description of the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT), a new general purpose, fully steerable antenna proposed by the Institute of Radio Astronomy (IRA) of the National Institute for Astrophysics. The radio telescope is under construction near Cagliari (Sardinia) and it will join the two existing antennas of Medicina (Bologna) and Noto (Siracusa) both operated by the IRA.

Gavril Grueff; Giovanni Alvito; Roberto Ambrosini; Pietro Bolli; Andrea Maccaferri; Giuseppe Maccaferri; Marco Morsiani; Leonardo Mureddu; Vincenzo Natale; Luca Olmi; Alessandro Orfei; Claudio Pernechele; Angelo Poma; Ignazio Porceddu; Lucio Rossi; Gianpaolo Zacchiroli

2004-01-01

15

Status of the Sardinia Radio Telescope project  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the status of the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) project, a new general purpose, fully steerable 64 m diameter parabolic radiotelescope capable to operate with high efficiency in the 0.3-116 GHz frequency range. The instrument is the result of a scientific and technical collaboration among three Structures of the Italian National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF): the Institute of Radio

Gianni Tofani; Gianni Alvito; Roberto Ambrosini; Pietro Bolli; Claudio Bortolotti; Loredana Bruca; Franco Buffa; Alessandro Cattani; Gianni Comoretto; Andrea Cremonini; Luca Cresci; Nichi D'Amico; Gian Luigi Deiana; Antonietta Fara; Luigina Feretti; Franco Fiocchi; Enrico Flamini; Flavio Fusi Pecci; Gavril Grueff; Giuseppe Maccaferri; Andrea Maccaferri; Franco Mantovani; Sergio Mariotti; Carlo Migoni; Filippo Messina; Jader Monari; Marco Morsiani; Matteo Murgia; José Musmeci; Mauro Nanni; Vincenzo Natale; Alessandro Navarrini; Monia Negusini; Renzo Nesti; Luca Olmi; Alessandro Orfei; Andrea Orlati; Francesco Palla; Dario Panella; Claudio Pernechele; Salvatore Pilloni; Tonino Pisanu; Antonio Poddighe; Marco Poloni; Angelo Poma; Sergio Poppi; Ignazio Porceddu; Isabella Prandoni; Juri Roda; Mauro Roma; Pierguido Sarti; Alessandro Scalambra; Francesco Schillirò; Andrea Tarchi; Gian Paolo Vargiu; Giampaolo Zacchiroli

2008-01-01

16

Status of the Sardinia Radio Telescope project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the status of the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) project, a new general purpose, fully steerable 64 m diameter parabolic radiotelescope capable to operate with high efficiency in the 0.3-116 GHz frequency range. The instrument is the result of a scientific and technical collaboration among three Structures of the Italian National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF): the Institute of Radio Astronomy of Bologna, the Cagliari Astronomy Observatory (in Sardinia,) and the Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory in Florence. Funding agencies are the Italian Ministry of Education and Scientific Research, the Sardinia Regional Government, and the Italian Space Agency (ASI,) that has recently rejoined the project. The telescope site is about 35 km North of Cagliari. The radio telescope has a shaped Gregorian optical configuration with a 7.9 m diameter secondary mirror and supplementary Beam-WaveGuide (BWG) mirrors. With four possible focal positions (primary, Gregorian, and two BWGs), SRT will be able to allocate up to 20 remotely controllable receivers. One of the most advanced technical features of the SRT is the active surface: the primary mirror will be composed by 1008 panels supported by electromechanical actuators digitally controlled to compensate for gravitational deformations. With the completion of the foundation on spring 2006 the SRT project entered its final construction phase. This paper reports on the latest advances on the SRT project.

Tofani, Gianni; Alvito, Gianni; Ambrosini, Roberto; Bolli, Pietro; Bortolotti, Claudio; Bruca, Loredana; Buffa, Franco; Cattani, Alessandro; Comoretto, Gianni; Cremonini, Andrea; Cresci, Luca; D'Amico, Nichi; Deiana, Gian Luigi; Fara, Antonietta; Feretti, Luigina; Fiocchi, Franco; Flamini, Enrico; Fusi Pecci, Flavio; Grueff, Gavril; Maccaferri, Giuseppe; Maccaferri, Andrea; Mantovani, Franco; Mariotti, Sergio; Migoni, Carlo; Messina, Filippo; Monari, Jader; Morsiani, Marco; Murgia, Matteo; Musmeci, José; Nanni, Mauro; Natale, Vincenzo; Navarrini, Alessandro; Negusini, Monia; Nesti, Renzo; Olmi, Luca; Orfei, Alessandro; Orlati, Andrea; Palla, Francesco; Panella, Dario; Pernechele, Claudio; Pilloni, Salvatore; Pisanu, Tonino; Poddighe, Antonio; Poloni, Marco; Poma, Angelo; Poppi, Sergio; Porceddu, Ignazio; Prandoni, Isabella; Roda, Juri; Roma, Mauro; Sarti, Pierguido; Scalambra, Alessandro; Schillirò, Francesco; Tarchi, Andrea; Vargiu, Gian Paolo; Zacchiroli, Giampaolo

2008-08-01

17

Identification of Host Genes Involved in Geminivirus Infection Using a Reverse Genetics Approach  

PubMed Central

Geminiviruses, like all viruses, rely on the host cell machinery to establish a successful infection, but the identity and function of these required host proteins remain largely unknown. Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV), a monopartite geminivirus, is one of the causal agents of the devastating Tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD). The transgenic 2IRGFP N. benthamiana plants, used in combination with Virus Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS), entail an important potential as a tool in reverse genetics studies to identify host factors involved in TYLCSV infection. Using these transgenic plants, we have made an accurate description of the evolution of TYLCSV replication in the host in both space and time. Moreover, we have determined that TYLCSV and Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) do not dramatically influence each other when co-infected in N. benthamiana, what makes the use of TRV-induced gene silencing in combination with TYLCSV for reverse genetic studies feasible. Finally, we have tested the effect of silencing candidate host genes on TYLCSV infection, identifying eighteen genes potentially involved in this process, fifteen of which had never been implicated in geminiviral infections before. Seven of the analyzed genes have a potential anti-viral effect, whereas the expression of the other eleven is required for a full infection. Interestingly, almost half of the genes altering TYLCSV infection play a role in postranslational modifications. Therefore, our results provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying geminivirus infections, and at the same time reveal the 2IRGFP/VIGS system as a powerful tool for functional reverse genetics studies.

Luna, Ana P.; Bejarano, Eduardo R.

2011-01-01

18

Analyzing wildfire exposure on Sardinia, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used simulation modeling based on the minimum travel time algorithm (MTT) to analyze wildfire exposure of key ecological, social and economic features on Sardinia, Italy. Sardinia is the second largest island of the Mediterranean Basin, and in the last fifty years experienced large and dramatic wildfires, which caused losses and threatened urban interfaces, forests and natural areas, and agricultural productions. Historical fires and environmental data for the period 1995-2009 were used as input to estimate fine scale burn probability, conditional flame length, and potential fire size in the study area. With this purpose, we simulated 100,000 wildfire events within the study area, randomly drawing from the observed frequency distribution of burn periods and wind directions for each fire. Estimates of burn probability, excluding non-burnable fuels, ranged from 0 to 1.92x10-3, with a mean value of 6.48x10-5. Overall, the outputs provided a quantitative assessment of wildfire exposure at the landscape scale and captured landscape properties of wildfire exposure. We then examined how the exposure profiles varied among and within selected features and assets located on the island. Spatial variation in modeled outputs resulted in a strong effect of fuel models, coupled with slope and weather. In particular, the combined effect of Mediterranean maquis, woodland areas and complex topography on flame length was relevant, mainly in north-east Sardinia, whereas areas with herbaceous fuels and flat areas were in general characterized by lower fire intensity but higher burn probability. The simulation modeling proposed in this work provides a quantitative approach to inform wildfire risk management activities, and represents one of the first applications of burn probability modeling to capture fire risk and exposure profiles in the Mediterranean basin.

Salis, Michele; Ager, Alan A.; Arca, Bachisio; Finney, Mark A.; Alcasena, Fermin; Bacciu, Valentina; Duce, Pierpaolo; Munoz Lozano, Olga; Spano, Donatella

2014-05-01

19

Lung cancer epidemiology in North Sardinia, Italy  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to analyze and describe the epidemiological characteristics and trends of lung cancer in North Sardinia, Italy, in the period 1992–2010. Methods Data were obtained from the tumor registry of Sassari province which is a part of a wider registry web, coordinated today by the Italian Association for Tumor Registries. Results The overall number of lung cancer cases registered was 4,325. The male-to-female ratio was 4.6:1 and the mean age 68.1 years for males and 67 years for females. The standardized incidence rates were 73.1/100,000 and 13.5/100,000 and the standardized mortality rates 55.7/100,000 and 9.9/100,000 for males and females, respectively. An increasing trend in incidence of lung cancer in women was evidenced. Conversely, incidence was found to decrease in males. Relative survival at 5 years from diagnosis was low (8.8% for males and 14.9% for females). Furthermore, an increase in mortality rates was observed in both sexes in the period under investigation. Conclusions Our data show an increasing trend of lung cancer incidence in women in North Sardinia in the last decades. Conversely, a reduction of incidence rates was observed in males. Furthermore, a slightly increasing trend in mortality rates was observed in both sexes, suggesting the need to enhance smoking control strategies, consider adoption of effective surveillance policies, and improve diagnosis and treatment methods.

2013-01-01

20

The Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) optical alignment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) is the largest radio telescope recently built in Europe - a 64m Radio Telescope designed to operate in a wavelength regime down to 1mm. The SRT is designed in a classical Gregorian configuration, allowing access to the primary mirror focus (F1), the Gregorian focus (F2) as well as a further translation to different F3 using a beam waveguide system and an automated change between different F3 receiver positions. The primary mirror M1, 64m in diameter, is composed by 1008 individual panels. The surface can be actively controlled. It’s surface, as well as the one of the 8 m Gregorian subreflector, needed to be adjusted after panel mounting at the Sardinia site. The measurement technique used is photogrammetry. In case of the large scale M1 a dedicated combination of a large scale and a small scale approach was developed to achieve extremely high accuracy on the large scale dimension. The measurement/ alignment efforts were carried out in 2010 and 2011, with a final completion in spring 2012. The results obtained are presented and discussed. The overall alignment approach also included the absolute adjustments of M2 to M1 and the alignments of M3, M4 and M5. M3 is a rotating mirror guiding the RF beam to M4 or M5, depending on the operational scenario. These adjustments are based on Lasertracker measurements and have been carried out in an integrated approach.

Süss, Martin; Koch, Dietmar; Paluszek, Heiko

2012-09-01

21

L-band orthomode transducer for the Sardinia Radio Telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the design, construction, and characterization results of a compact L-band (1.3-1.8 GHz) Orthomode Transducer (OMT) for the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT), a 64 m diameter telescope which is being built in the Sardinia island, Italy. The OMT consists of three distinct mechanical parts connected through ultra low loss coaxial cables: a turnstile junction and two identical 180° hybrid

Alessandro Navarrini; Tonino Pisanu

2008-01-01

22

Some examples of palaeokarst in Sardinia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lower Cambrian limestones and dolostones of Iglesiente (Southwest Sardinia, Italy) are known to host important active and fossil karst phenomena. Besides active and still accessible cave systems, often characterised by important speleothem formations and rare cave minerals (e.g. hydrozincite, hemimorphite etc.) palaeokarsts have been encountered in underground excavations or in quarries. Several of the important mineral deposits are in fact infillings of great karst cavities, such as at Barega or Mount San Giovanni. During various geological surveying campaigns several different palaeokarst deposits have been recognised and studied. Among these some deserve further attention and are here described in detail. On the top of Mount San Giovanni (Gonnesa), a short mine drift at 300 m a.s.l. has intercepted a decametre-sized cavity filled with pyroclastic sediments. Other similar but smaller cavities have been discovered on the western slope of the mountain. These are composed of rhyolitic ignimbrites and epiclastites of unknown age. These volcanoclastics may be related to the volcanism that characterised this part of the Island during Oligo-Miocene, or, in alternative, may be products of the Permian volcanic cycle. In any case, their preservation on the top of the mountain testifies the extremely low denudation rates of these carbonates at least in this part of Sardinia. Some 40 metres higher, in the same area, another sinkhole filled with red detritic sandy sediments has been exposed on a quarry face. Also these sediments may be of Oligocene or Permian-Triassic age and are probably genetically connected to the aforementioned palaeokarsts. Of completely different nature is the palaeokarst discovered in a limestone quarry at San Luigi (Buggerru), 15 km North of Mount San Giovanni. Here several pockets and fractures are filled with fine and laminated yellowish-brownish sands. The almost vertical layering of these sediments is concordant with the closeby contact between Lower Cambrian ceroid limestones and dolostones. This would indicate their sedimentation before their dislocation occurred in Middle Ordovician ("Sardinian Phase", Auct.). If this is true, these karst sediments are the among the oldest found in Iglesiente. Further detailed investigations on these palaeokarsts are under way and will give further insight into the karst evolution of this complicated area.

de Waele, Jo; Pasci, Sandro; Sanna, Laura

2010-05-01

23

Characterization of fire regime in Sardinia (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last decades, a number of Authors highlighted the crucial role of forest fires within Mediterranean ecosystems, with impacts both negative and positive on all biosphere components and with reverberations on different scales. Fire determines the landscape structure and plant composition, but it is also the cause of enormous economic and ecological damages, beside the loss of human life. In Sardinia (Italy), the second largest island of the Mediterranean Basin, forest fires are perceived as one of the main environmental and social problems, and data are showing that the situation is worsening especially within the rural-urban peripheries and the increasing number of very large forest fires. The need for information concerning forest fire regime has been pointed out by several Authors (e.g. Rollins et al., 2002), who also emphasized the importance of understanding the factors (such as weather/climate, socio-economic, and land use) that determine spatial and temporal fire patterns. These would be used not only as a baseline to predict the climate change effect on forest fires, but also as a fire management and mitigation strategy. The main aim of this paper is, thus, to analyze the temporal and spatial patterns of fire occurrence in Sardinia (Italy) during the last three decades (1980-2010). For the analyzed period, fire statistics were provided by the Sardinian Forest Service (CFVA - Corpo Forestale e di Vigilanza Ambientale), while weather data for eight weather stations were obtained from the web site www.tutiempo.it. For each station, daily series of precipitation, mean, maximum and minimum temperature, relative humidity and wind speed were available. The present study firstly analyzed fire statistics (burned area and number of fires) according to the main fire regime characteristics (seasonality, fire return interval, fire incidence, fire size distribution). Then, fire and weather daily values were averaged to obtain monthly, seasonal and annual values, and a set of parametric and not parametric statistical tests were used to analyze the fire-weather relationships. Results showed a high inter- and intra-annual variability, also considering the different type of affected vegetation. As for other Mediterranean areas, a smaller number of large fires caused a high proportion of burned area. Land cover greatly influenced fire occurrence and fire size distribution across the landscape. Furthermore, fire activity (number of fires and area burned) showed significant correlations with weather variables, especially summer precipitation and wind, which seemed to drive the fire seasons and the fire propagation, respectively.

Bacciu, V. M.; Salis, M.; Mastinu, S.; Masala, F.; Sirca, C.; Spano, D.

2012-12-01

24

Observing pulsars with the Sardinia Radio Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After nearly 40 years since the original discovery the pulsars - rapidly rotating highly magnetized neutron stars - keep on having many exciting scientific applications, in fields ranging from ultra-dense matter physics to relativistic gravity, cosmology and stellar evolution. A striking example has been the confirmation of the existence of gravitational radiation, as predicted by Einstein's general theory of relativity. For 10 years, the Italian Pulsar group has been carrying out a series of successful pulsar experiments using the Parkes 64-m dish in Australia. The most exciting result has been the discovery of the J0737-3039 system, i.e. the most relativistic binary pulsar ever and the first system in which both the neutron stars emit detectable radio pulsations. In this scientific scenario, the Sardinia Radio Telescope may be exploited with two initial aims: (i) using known millisecond pulsars as laboratories for understanding gravity and gravitational waves; (ii) searching for further millisecond pulsars in the Galaxy and in the globular cluster systems.

Possenti, A.

25

A Dynamical Analysis of Sea Breeze Hodograph Rotation on Sardinia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the dynamics of diurnal sea-breeze rotation over coastal Sardinia using realistic and idealized model runs and historical observations. Earlier research on sea-breezes in Sardinia shows that the onshore winds around various coasts of the island exhibit both the theoretically predicted clockwise rotation as well as seemingly anomalous anticlockwise rotation. A non-hydrostatic fully compressible numerical model (WRF) is used to simulate wind fields on and around the island on previously-studied sea-breeze days. WRF accurately captures the sea breeze circulation on all coasts, as depicted in station data. Diurnal rotation of wind is examined and patterns of clockwise and anti-clockwise rotation are identified. A dynamical analysis is performed by extracting individual forcing terms from the horizontal momentum equations. Analysis of several regions around the island shows that the direction of rotation is a result of a complex interaction between near-surface and synoptic pressure gradient, Coriolis and advection forcings. An idealized simulation is performed over an artificial island of similar dimensions and latitude to Sardinia, but with dramatically simplified topography. Dynamical analysis of the idealized runs reveals a rather different pattern of hodograph rotation to the real Sardinia, yet similar underlying dynamics. The research provides new insights into the dynamics underlying sea-breeze hodograph rotation, especially in coastal zones with complex topography and/or coastline.

Moisseeva, Nadya; Steyn, Douw

2014-05-01

26

Post collisional transpressive tectonics in northern Sardinia (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work is to review and synthetize the geological and structural analysis performed in the Variscan Basement of Northern Sardinian during the last ten years and to add new preliminary data on the Anglona-SW Gallura area. A transpressive crustal- scale deformation (D2), is documented in the Variscan Basement of northern Sardinia. A shear deformation parallel to the

R. Carosi; C. Frassi; D. Iacopini; C. Montomoli

2005-01-01

27

The Sardinia Radio Telescope and the local context  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the main development activities which are in progress in Sardinia, and which are taking place as a result of the prospects of hosting a major European facility as the SRT. The local scientific and academic context shows an interest in the project and various collaborations are in progress, suggesting that the SRT event might have a significant role

N. D'Amico

2006-01-01

28

High-precision pointing with the Sardinia Radio Telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present here the systems aimed to measure and minimize the pointing errors for the Sardinia Radio Telescope: they consist of an optical telescope to measure errors due to the mechanical structure deformations and a lasers system for the errors due to the subreflector displacement. We show here the results of the tests that we have done on the Medicina

Sergio Poppi; Claudio Pernechele; Tonino Pisanu; Marco Morsiani

2010-01-01

29

The 64 m Sardinia radio telescope optics design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sardinia radio telescope (SRT) is a project proposed by the Institute of Radio Astronomy (IRA, in Bologna, Italy). The SRT with a diameter of 64 m will be the third and largest Italian radio telescope. Designed to accommodate several instruments with a frequency coverage from 0.30 GHz to 100 GHz. In addition to the radio astronomy science applications, this

G. Cortes-Medellin

2002-01-01

30

New paleomagnetic data from Jurassic Sediments from Sardinia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamic history of the Corso-Sardinian microplate since Oligocene times is well defined based on numerous geologic, geophysical and paleomagnetic studies (e.g. Vigliotti and Langenheim 1995), especially the counter clockwise rotation and the associated opening of the Liguro-Provençal ocean (Gattacceca et al., 2007). In the early 80’s Horner and Lowrie (1981) published paleomagnetic results from Jurassic and Triassic carbonates from the Orosei region, eastern Sardinia. Although these data are of rather poor quality they nevertheless indicate a two step rotational history of the microplate. Horner and Lowrie concluded that a cw rotation of ~70° -90° is required in order to compensate the opening of the Liguro-Provençal ocean and to restore Sardinia into its pre-Oligocene position. However these results are of very limiting regional spread and do not allow to test the structural integrity of the island for post-Jurassic times. Data for the Permian basins and the Carboniferous dyke swarms indicate large rotations between Northern, Central and Southern Sardinia (Emmer et al., 2005). In order to better constrain the timing of these movements a detailed paleomagnetic study was undertaken covering all areas of Sardinia where Jurassic rocks have been identified. A total of 367 samples from 46 sites was subjected to stepwise thermal and AF demagnetization experiments, yielding well defined characteristic directions of magnetization. The primary character of this magnetization is supported by positive fold and reversal tests. The resulting mean direction, based on 31 sites (?_95=8.4°) is D = 273.6° and I=+43.0° (Sardinian coordinates) is in very good agreement with the older data published by Horner and Lowrie (1981). Furthermore it indicates that no internal rotation of post-Jurassic age affected the island. This result has important implications for the interpretation of the paleomagnetically identified rotations for Permian basins and Permo- Carboniferous dyke swarms of Sardinia.

Kirscher, U.; Bachtadse, V.; Muttoni, G.; Aubele, K.

2009-12-01

31

Paleomagnetism of Permian sediments and volcanic rocks from Sardinia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Late Carboniferous, large granitic bodies were emplaced on Sardinia related to a change of the tectonic setting from compressional to extensional. Simultaneously the newly formed fault-bounded basins were filled with continental clastic sediments, paleontologoically and radiometrically dated to be Late Carboniferous to Early Permian in age. These basins provide an ideal testing ground for tectonic models such as the controversial Pangea B to A transition, which should have occurred prior to the opening of the Atlantic Ocean in the Jurassic. The mega-shear zone required for this transition has been postulated to be situated in today's Mediterranean (Arthaud and Matte, 1977). If this is valid, Sardinia should have been caught within this shear zone and suffered massive internal deformation. Here we report paleomagnetic data from six Permian basins from different Sardinian regions: in the NW (Nurra), N (Gallura), SW (Iglesiente-Sulcis) and SE (Gerrei-Sarcidano). About 200 samples from 23 sites covering mostly continental redbeds and subordinate acidic volcanics were thermally demagnetised. The overwhelming majority of the specimens studied displayed rather simple directional behaviour. A positive intraformational conglomerate test (Gerrei-Sarcidano) as well as the general improvement of the between-site scatter after correcting for minor tilt supports the primary character of the magnetisation. The resulting mean direction for five sites from Nurra (Dec: 126°, Inc: -24°, ?95: 8°, k: 118) is in perfect agreement with data published earlier by Vigliotti et al. (1990). Three sites of the Gallura area farther to the east yield a mean site direction (Dec: 158°, Inc: -34°, ?95: 23°, k: 28) which is rotated clockwise with respect to the data of Vigliotti et al. (1990). Seven sites from southern Sardinia (SW and SE) yield a mean direction with a declination of 82° and inclination of 12° (?95: 12°, k: 25). These results imply crustal coherence of Nurra and southern Corsica. The mean direction for Gallura, however, indicates significant clockwise rotation with respect to Nurra. The new data from southern Sardinia indicate approximately 40° or more degrees of counterclockwise rotation with respect to Nurra. These results are essentially coherent with the paleomagnetic data for the Late Paleozoic dyke swarms (Emmer et al., 2005) from the island of Sardinia and support the interpretation that Sardinia cannot longer be considered as a coherent block, but suffered massive internal deformation of pre-Triassic age.

Moser, E.; Emmer, B.; Bachtadse, V.; Kent, D. V.; Muttoni, G.; Ronchi, A.

2005-12-01

32

Comparison of the invasive alien flora in continental islands: Sardinia (Italy) and Balearic Islands (Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a comparison of the invasive vascular flora of Sardinia and that of the Balearic Islands. The study\\u000a has recorded 53 invasive taxa in Sardinia (12% of the alien flora) while 48 (14%) in the Balearic Islands, 19 of them common for both territories. The\\u000a invasive flora of Sardinia is included in 18 families; Asteraceae is the richest

L. Podda; P. Fraga i Arguimbau; F. Mascia; O. Mayoral García-Berlanga; G. Bacchetta

2011-01-01

33

Aedes albopictus in Sardinia: reappearance or widespread colonization?  

PubMed

The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894) was first discovered in the South of Sardinia in October 1994, in a tyre depot not far from Cagliari-Elmas airport. Insecticide treatment was thought to have successfully eradicated the mosquito, but in 1996 and 1997 new breeding sites were discovered, a few at some distance from the first. More recently two sites have been reported in the heart of the city of Cagliari. It is not known whether the mosquito has spread from the first breeding place discovered, where treatment may not have been definitive, or whether they have been newly introduced. The recent sighting of Ae. albopictus in Olbia in the Northeast of the island tends to suggest the latter. Cagliari and Olbia are actually Sardinia's two largest sea ports of entry. PMID:18416003

Contini, C

2007-06-01

34

Rickettsia conorii israelensis in Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, Sardinia, Italy.  

PubMed

The presence of tick-borne Rickettsia spp. was examined by PCR using DNA samples extracted from 254 ticks collected from mammals originating from northern and eastern Sardinia, Italy. The spotted fever group rickettsial agent Rickettsia conorii israelensis was detected in 3 Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks from a dog for the first time in this geographical area. In addition, Ri. massiliae, Ri. slovaca, and Ri. aeschlimannii were detected in Rh. turanicus, Rh. sanguineus, Dermacentor marginatus, and Hyalomma marginatum marginatum ticks from dogs, goats, wild boar, and horse. Moreover, Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae was detected in 2 Rh. turanicus ticks from goats. The detection of Ri. conorii israelensis, an emergent agent which causes Israeli spotted fever, increases our knowledge on tick-borne rickettsioses in Sardinia. PMID:24852264

Chisu, Valentina; Masala, Giovanna; Foxi, Cipriano; Socolovschi, Cristina; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

2014-06-01

35

Results of Skylab investigation over Italy. [Sicily and Sardinia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Multispectral high resolution photography of S190A was successfully applied to the detection of paleoriverbeds in flat lands. Results of SL-3 mission were compared to those of LANDSAT for two regional geological surveys (linear structures) on the islands of Sicily and Sardinia. On Sicily, the seasonal conditions were unfavorable for Skylab while LANDSAT played a major role in discovering long, unknown lineaments of great interest for the geodynamics of the area. On Sardinia, owing to the vegetation type and to the geomorphic conditions, the Skylab imagery was successfully employed to describe the network of linears, both regional and local. Results can be used to study the relationship between linears, actual fracturing and the occurrence of mineral deposits.

Cassinis, R.; Lechi, G. M.; Tonelli, A. M. (principal investigators)

1975-01-01

36

The Sardinia Radio Telescope and the local context  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the main development activities which are in progress in Sardinia, and which are taking place as a result of the prospects of hosting a major European facility as the SRT. The local scientific and academic context shows an interest in the project and various collaborations are in progress, suggesting that the SRT event might have a significant role in the scientific and technological development of the island.

D'Amico, N.

37

Multiple sclerosis and multiple sclerosis-associated retrovirus in Sardinia  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The island of Sardinia has a high and increasing incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS). In a search for environmental factors\\u000a that may account for this anomalously high incidence, we looked for evidence of multiple sclerosis-associated retrovirus (MSRV)\\u000a that has previously been found in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of MS patients. We studied 25 MS patients and 25 matched

C. Serra; S. Sotgiu; G. Mameli; M. Pugliatti; G. Rosati; A. Dolei

2001-01-01

38

Surface circulation variability and upwelling phenomenology in the western Sardinia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mean and turbulent surface circulation of the Sardinan Sea (the shelf-slope region west of Sardinia, western Mediterranean sea) was studied by analyzing an interannual simulation performed with a hydrodinamic 3D numerical model. The model (an implementation of the Princeton Ocean Model) was forced with realistic atmospheric and oceanic fields (analyses) for the quadriennium 2008-2011. The model assimilates along track Sea Level Anomalies by means of a 3D-variational software. Velocities (meridional and zonal components) were decomposed in their mean and turbulent part to investigate the mean and fluctuating surface flow. EOF decomposition was used to get further insight on the simulated dataset and throw light on the variability of the main circulation features. At surface the mean circulation is characterized by a southward current field getting closer to the coast in the southern corner of the Island where if flows over the shelf edge. Eddy momentum flux field suggests that this southward stream is accelerated by a transfer of momentum from the eddy to the mean field. The accelerated stream contributes to precontidition the coastal upwelling in the southern area. The phenomenology of such a coastal upwelling along the SW Sardinia is described for the first time. The upwelling in the southern part of Sardinia constitutes the main surface temperature signal of the modeled SST anomalies, as evidenced by EOF decomposition. A significant correlation both with wind directions and current intensity was found. This, jointly with synoptic satellite observations before and during an upwelling event, suggests that both current and winds participate in creating the upwelling: alongshore current preconditions the upwelling that is finally triggered by favourable NW winds.

Olita, Antonio; Cucco, Andrea; Fazioli, Leopoldo; Perilli, Angelo; Ribotti, Alberto; Sorgente, Roberto

2013-04-01

39

An analysis on Wildland Urban Interface in North Sardinia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate variability and drought, typical of the Mediterranean climate, together with different anthropogenic disturbances (modifications of land use, deforestation, grazing, forest fires, etc.) makes the Mediterranean basin ecosystems extremely sensitive and vulnerable. In the last three decades, an increasing number of fires threatening the wildland urban interface (WUI) was observed. In Sardinia, this phenomenon is particularly evident in tourist and coastal areas where a large number of resorts is built within and surrounded by Mediterranean vegetation that is highly prone to events of wildfire. In these situations, the related risk of damage for villages, tourist resorts, other human activities and people is elevated especially in summer when the presence of human people is highest and meteorological conditions are extreme. In addition, fire can have significant effect on the hydrological response of the WUI causing the intensification of the erosive processes. Therefore, the development of planning policies is required in order to implement strategies to prevent and reduce wildfire and soil erosion risk in wildland urban interface areas. The main aims of this work are i) to assess presence and characteristics of wildland urban interface in a touristic areas of North Sardinia and ii) to evaluate fire danger and soil erosion risk in the studied area. The study was carried out in a coastal area located in North Sardinia, characterized by strong touristic development in the last thirty years. In that area, the characterization and mapping of the WUI were performed. In addition several simulation were carried out by the Farsite fire area simulator with the aim to study the spatial pattern of the fire danger factors in the vegetated areas closer to the WUI. Finally, maps of soil erosion were produced for the identification of the areas at high erosion risk in the WUI. This work is supported by MIIUR - Metodologie e indicatori per la valutazione del rischio di Incendio nelle aree di Interfaccia Urbano Rurale in ambiente mediterraneo. Legge Regionale 7 agosto 2007, n. 7.

Arca, B.; Pellizzaro, G.; Canu, A.; Pintus, G. V.; Ferrara, R.; Duce, P.

2012-04-01

40

Seasonal fluctuation of multiple sclerosis births in Sardinia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study results from different\\u000a geographical areas provide\\u000a some circumstantial evidence that,\\u000a when compared with the general\\u000a population, people who later in life\\u000a develop multiple sclerosis (MS)\\u000a have a pattern of birth excess numbers\\u000a in spring and late summer,\\u000a which may disclose an association\\u000a with MS–predisposing environmental\\u000a agents. To identify the presence\\u000a of season–related cluster of\\u000a MS birth in Sardinia we

Stefano Sotgiu; Maura Pugliatti; Maria A. Sotgiu; Maria L. Fois; Giannina Arru; Alessandra Sanna; Giulio Rosati

2006-01-01

41

The Sardinia Radio Telescope conversion, distribution, and receiver control system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent upgrade of the 32-m radio telescope located in Medicina (Bologna - Italy) has allowed us to gain a lot of know-how about ''frequency agility'' management. In this parabolic dish antenna the receiver change is now completely performed only using software controls and avoiding, in this way, human intervention. The acquired experience on this topic has been used to define the framework for the conversion/distribution system design for the SRT (Sardinia Radio Telescope), the new ''64-meter class'' Italian radio telescope. The suitably designed architectures for Local Oscillators (LOs), Intermediate Frequencies (IFs), Ground Unit (GU), Reference (REF) distribution systems and control system will be described in this paper.

Monari, J.; Orfei, A.; Scalambra, A.; Mariotti, S.; Poloni, M.; Fiocchi, F.; Cattani, A.; Maccaferri, A.; Perini, F.; Boschi, M.

42

Diving into the Sardinia Radio Telescope minor servo system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) is a new 64-metre, Gregorian-shaped antenna built in Sardinia (Italy). It is designed to carry out observations up to 100 GHz. The telescope is provided with six focal positions: primary, Gregorian and four beam-waveguide foci. This paper describes the project of the servo system which allows the focus and receiver selection during the instrument setup. This system also operates, at the observation stage, the compensation of some of the stucture deformations due to gravity, temperature variations and other environmental effects. We illustrate the system features following a bottom-up approach, analysing all the project layers ranging from low-level systems, as the hardware controls, to the design and implementation of high-level software, which is based on the distributed objects ACS (ALMA Common Software) framework. Particular focus will be put on the links among the hierarchical levels of the system, and on the solutions adopted in order to guarantee that the control of the servo system is abstracted from the underlying hardware.

Buttu, M.; Orlati, A.; Zacchiroli, G.; Morsiani, M.; Fiocchi, F.; Buffa, F.; Maccaferri, G.; Vargiu, G. P.; Migoni, C.; Poppi, S.; Righini, S.; Melis, A.

2012-09-01

43

Cercopithifilaria spp. in dogs in Sardinia Island (Italy).  

PubMed

A survey on Cercopithifilaria spp. was carried out on owned and kennelled dogs in Sardinia, Italy. A total of 180 dogs were sampled and tested by microscopic detection or PCR of dermal microfilariae in skin snip sediments. The overall prevalence for Cercopithifilaria spp. at both microscopy and molecular tests was 9.4 % (17/180), while 8.3 % (15/180) of dogs scored positive at microscopic detection of sediments only. Of the 225 microfilariae measured, 212 were identified as Cercopithifilaria bainae and the remaining as Cercopithifilaria sp. II. All samples were molecularly processed for specific amplification of cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and ribosomal 12S gene fragments. The Basic Local Alignment Search Tool analysis of the cox1 and 12S sequences here obtained showed a high nucleotide similarity (99 and 100 %, respectively) with those of C. bainae available in GenBank. In particular, cox1 haplotype I (HI; n=14), haplotype HXVIII (n=2), and a new haplotype, named HXIX (n=1), differing for a single polymorphism from HI, were detected. This study reports data on the occurrence, distribution, and genetic makeup of C. bainae and Cercopithifilaria sp. II infesting dogs in Sardinia, suggesting that these filarioids are spread in areas where Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato ticks occur. PMID:24271152

Solinas, C; Varcasia, A; Brianti, E; Giannetto, S; Pipia, A P; Columbano, N; Tosciri, G; Dantas-Torres, F; Garippa, G; Otranto, D; Scala, A

2014-02-01

44

A synchronous Alpine and Corsica-Sardinia rotation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the paleomagnetism of 34 sites from lower Oligocene-middle Miocene sediments exposed in the Tertiary Piedmont Basin (TPB, northern Italy). The TPB is formed by a thick (˜4000 m) and virtually undeformed sedimentary succession unconformably lying upon Alpine nappes decapitated by extensional exhumation, which in turn are tectonically stacked over the Adriatic foreland. Paleomagnetic directions from 23 (mostly Oligocene) sites were chronologically framed using new biostratigraphic evidence from calcareous nannoplankton. Our data, along with published paleomagnetic results, show that the TPB rotated ˜50° counterclockwise with respect to Africa in Aquitanian-Serravallian times. The rotation was likely driven by underneath nappe stacking and was synchronous with (further) bending of the Alpine chain. Both the rotation magnitude and its timing are similar to those documented for the Corsica-Sardinia microplate. Therefore the formation of the western Alpine arc (or at least part of its present-day curvature) occurred during the rollback of the Apenninic slab and related back-arc spreading of the Liguro-Provençal Basin and drift of the Corsica-Sardinia block. This suggests a common dynamics driving both the Alpine and the Apennine slab motions. Paleomagnetic data also document that the Adriatic plate has undergone no paleomagnetic rotation since mid-late Miocene times. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility data suggests that the TPB, an enigmatic basin arising from a controversial tectonic setting, formed in an extensional regime characterized by a stretching direction approximately orthogonal to the main trend of the underlying chain.

Maffione, Marco; Speranza, Fabio; Faccenna, Claudio; Cascella, Antonio; Vignaroli, Gianluca; Sagnotti, Leonardo

2008-03-01

45

L-band orthomode transducer for the Sardinia Radio Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the design, construction, and characterization results of a compact L-band (1.3-1.8 GHz) Orthomode Transducer (OMT) for the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT), a 64 m diameter telescope which is being built in the Sardinia island, Italy. The OMT consists of three distinct mechanical parts connected through ultra low loss coaxial cables: a turnstile junction and two identical 180° hybrid power combiners. The turnstile junction is based on a circular waveguide input (diameter of 190 mm,) and on four WR650 rectangular waveguide cavities from which the RF signals are extracted using coaxial probes. The OMT was optimized using a commercial 3D electromagnetic simulator. The main mechanical part of the turnstile junction was machined out of an Aluminum block whose final external shape is a cylinder with diameter 450 mm and height 98 mm. From 1.3 to 1.8 GHz the measured reflection coefficient was less than -22 dB, the isolation between the outputs was less than -45 dB, and the cross polarization was less than -50 dB for both polarization channels.

Navarrini, Alessandro; Pisanu, Tonino

2008-08-01

46

The control software for the Sardinia Radio Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) is a new 64-meter shaped antenna designed to carry out observations up to 100 GHz. This large instrument has been built in Sardinia, 35 km north of Cagliari, and is now facing the technical commissioning phase. This paper describes the architecture, the implementation solutions and the development status of NURAGHE, the SRT control software. Aim of the project was to produce a software which is reliable, easy to keep up to date and flexible against other telescopes. The most ambitious goal will be to install NURAGHE at all the three italian radio telescopes, allowing the astronomers to access these facilities through a common interface with very limited extra effort. We give a description of all the control software subsystems (servo systems, backends, receivers, etc.) focusing on the resulting design, which is based on the ACS (Alma Common Software) patterns and comes from linux-based, LGPL, Object-Oriented development technologies. We also illustrate how NURAGHE deals with higher level requirements, coming from the telescope management or from the system users.

Orlati, A.; Buttu, M.; Melis, A.; Migoni, C.; Poppi, S.; Righini, S.

2012-09-01

47

AKEntAnnos. The Sardinia Study of Extreme Longevity.  

PubMed

This paper describes an epidemiological study performed in all centenarians living in Sardinia, a large island located in the Mediterranean sea, 120 Km from the Italian coast. Due to its long-standing isolation, low immigration rate, high endogamy and rather uniform lifestyle, Sardinia offers an ideal setting in which to study the genetic traits associated with extreme longevity and successful aging. A total of 233 potentially eligible centenarians were traced in the entire territory. Of these, 66 died prior to being interviewed, 11 were not found and unknown, and 15 refused to be interviewed. A multidimensional home interview was administered to 141 centenarians, and an equivalent number of 60-year-old controls matched for gender and area of residence. Furthermore, 41 living siblings of the centenarians, and 41 age- and sex-matched controls for these siblings were also studied. The prevalence of centenarians was 13.56 per 100,000, and the female/male ratio was approximately 2. Prevalence and female/male ratio were consistent across the four Sardinian municipalities and are, respectively, higher and lower than those reported in other population-based surveys. A number of methodological problems confronted in doing the field work, and plans for future analysis of this rich dataset are discussed. PMID:10476308

Deiana, L; Ferrucci, L; Pes, G M; Carru, C; Delitala, G; Ganau, A; Mariotti, S; Nieddu, A; Pettinato, S; Putzu, P; Franceschi, C; Baggio, G

1999-06-01

48

Monitoring trace metals using moss bags in Sardinia, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As well known anthropic activities are producing an increase of trace metal concentration in the terrestrial ecosystems. Previous researches have shown that several species of cryptogams can be used as a low-cost bio-accumulator to detect metal deposition. In this study biomonitoring of airborne trace metals was made using moss bags technique. The moss Hypnum cupressiforme was used as a bio-accumulator for the estimation of atmospheric traces metal deposition in three sites characterized by different source of pollution around an industrialized area and two urban areas (north-west of Sardinia, Italy). Moss carpets were collected from trees in a forest of central Sardinia where air pollution is not present. In the laboratory, the moss plant samples were cleaned and moss bags were prepared by weighing out 2 g air-dried weight, and packing it loosely in nylon nets of 12 x 12 cm with mesh of 4 mm2. In each site the moss bags were exposed for six weeks during autumn, winter, spring and summer seasons from November 2007 to July 2008. Two moss bags, used as control, were not exposed. Following exposure the moss samples were analyzed for total concentration of As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry. Results obtained showed higher values of trace metal load factor for the following elements: Cu, Ni, Zn, and As. The most accumulation values were found in moss bags exposed in the industrial area for all period of experimentation.

Pellizzaro, Grazia; Canu, Annalisa; Ventura, Andrea; Arca, Angelo; Duce, Pierpaolo

2010-05-01

49

Quinto Tiberio Angelerio and New Measures for Controlling Plague in 16th-Century Alghero, Sardinia  

PubMed Central

Plague, a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, has been responsible for at least 3 pandemics. During 1582–1583, a plague outbreak devastated the seaport of Alghero in Sardinia. By analyzing contemporary medical texts and local documentation, we uncovered the pivotal role played by the Protomedicus of Alghero, Quinto Tiberio Angelerio (1532–1617), in controlling the epidemic. Angelerio imposed rules and antiepidemic measures new to the 16th-century sanitary system of Sardinia. Those measures undoubtedly spared the surrounding districts from the spread of the contagion. Angelerio seems to have been an extremely successful public health officer in the history of plague epidemics in Sardinia.

Benedictow, Ole J?rgen; Fornaciari, Gino; Giuffra, Valentina

2013-01-01

50

Deep Dipolar Soundings in Geothermal Areas of Sardinia: Logudoro and Campidano,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two geoelectrical surveys were carried out to get information on the deep structural arrangement of areas of geothermal interest in Sardinia. The method employed was the dipolar electrical sounding technique (DES), with fully digital data acquisition and ...

M. Marchisio

1986-01-01

51

The role of the Sardinia Radio Telescope in Very Long Baseline Interferometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of the Sardinia Radio Telescope in Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) and in particular its contribution to VLBI observations at high frequency will be examined. The planned Italian VLBI array will also be mentioned.

F. Mantovani

2006-01-01

52

The role of the Sardinia Radio Telescope in Very Long Baseline Interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of the Sardinia Radio Telescope in Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) and in particular its contribution to VLBI observations at high frequency will be examined. The planned Italian VLBI array will also be mentioned.

Mantovani, F.

53

The dual-band LP feed system for the Sardinia Radio Telescope prime focus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the design of the passive feed system of the dual-band receiver for the prime focus of the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT), a new 64 m diameter radio telescope which is being built in Sardinia, Italy. The feed system operates simultaneously in P-band (305-410 MHz) and L-band (1300-1800 MHz). The room temperature illuminators are arranged in coaxial configuration with

G. Valente; T. Pisanu; P. Bolli; S. Mariotti; P. Marongiu; A. Navarrini; R. Nesti; A. Orfei; J. Roda

2010-01-01

54

Occurrence of Clinoptilolite and Mordenite in Tertiary Calc-Alkaline Pyroclastites from Sardinia (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstrae~Clinopti lolite and mordenite occur as diagenetic products of medium-grained, moderately welded and poorly sorted pyroclastic flows belonging to the Tertiary calc-alkaline volcanism of Sardinia. Both clinoptilolite and mordenite occur within pyroclastic flows of the same stratigraphic unit. Mordenite frequently occurs in the late volcanic sequences from Anglona area (northern Sardinia). Textural features indicate that zeolites are products of glass

Maria R. Ghiara; CARMELA PETTI; ENRICO FRANCO; I ROBERTO LONIS; SANTINA LUXORO; LUCIO GNAZZO

1999-01-01

55

40Ar/39Ar dating and paleomagnetism of the Miocene volcanic succession of Monte Furru (Western Sardinia): Implications for the rotation history of the Corsica-Sardinia Microplate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although it is widely acknowledged that the Corsica-Sardinia microplate rotated counterclockwise with respect to Europe during Oligocene-Miocene time, the precise timing of this event has yet to be determined. We have measured the age and degree of rotation of a single ‘tie-point’ in the rotation history of the microplate. Biotite and sanidine 40Ar/39Ar age determinations of the 200m-thick Monte Furru volcanic succession indicates that most of the volcanic pile accumulated within less than 200 ky. The paleomagnetic pole obtained for the 12 volcanic flow units comprising this succession indicates that by 18.2 Ma Sardinia remained 13° shy of its final rotation angle. These results demonstrate that the movement of the Corsica-Sardinia block and the opening of the liguro-provençal basin terminated later than previously estimated based on paleomagnetic and geochronologic studies of Sardinian volcanic rocks, in agreement with paleomagnetic data from Sardinian sediments.

Deino, A.; Gattacceca, J.; Rizzo, R.; Montanari, A.

56

Modeling the Landscape Drivers of Fire Recurrence in Sardinia (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although recurrent fire events with very short return periods have the most dangerous effects on landscape degradation, only a few papers have explored the landscape ecological factors that drive the probability of fire recurrence. In this paper we apply a habitat suitability model for analyzing the spatial relationship between a selected set of landscape factors (mainly land use types) and fire recurrence in Sardinia (Italy) in the years 2005-2010. Our results point out that fire occurrence in already burned areas is lower than expected in natural and semi-natural land cover types, like forest and shrublands. To the contrary, like in all regions where human activity is the main source of fire ignitions, the probability of fire recurrence is higher at low altitudes and close to roads and to urban and agricultural land cover types, thus showing marked preference for those landscape factors denoting higher anthropogenic ignition risk.

Ricotta, Carlo; Di Vito, Stefania

2014-06-01

57

High-precision pointing with the Sardinia Radio Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present here the systems aimed to measure and minimize the pointing errors for the Sardinia Radio Telescope: they consist of an optical telescope to measure errors due to the mechanical structure deformations and a lasers system for the errors due to the subreflector displacement. We show here the results of the tests that we have done on the Medicina 32 meters VLBI radio telescope. The measurements demonstrate we can measure the pointing errors of the mechanical structure, with an accuracy of about ~1 arcsec. Moreover, we show the technique to measure the displacement of the subreflector, placed in the SRT at 22 meters from the main mirror, within +/-0.1 mm from its optimal position. These measurements show that we can obtain the needed accuracy to correct also the non repeatable pointing errors, which arise on time scale varying from seconds to minutes.

Poppi, Sergio; Pernechele, Claudio; Pisanu, Tonino; Morsiani, Marco

2010-07-01

58

Paleomagnetism of Late Paleozoic Dyke Swarms from Sardinia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the key elements of late Paleozoic tectonics in Europe is the continental dextral mega shear system postulated as early as 1977 by Arthaud and Matte, which is thought to control the structural evolution along the southern and eastern margins of Europe. It is rather obvious that this shear zone, which in the western Mediterranean realm is bordered by the Biscaye-North-Pyrenean Fault to the North and the Anti-Atlas-Fault to the South, is one of the most likely candidates along which the controversial Pangea B to Pangea A transition during Permian times might have taken place. Yet, no comprehensive paleomagnetic study has been carried out so far aiming at testing the Arthaud and Matte model and to quantify the amounts of crustal rotations within the shear zone. Here we report paleomagnetic data from Sardinia, which is positioned to the North of the Biscaye-North-Pyrenean Fault and should be directly affected by deformation within the mega shear zone. One of the most striking features of Sardinian geology is the occurrence of three major dyke swarms, which can be easily differentiated by their mean strike directions. The dykes cover a wide range of geochemical compositions but are clearly associated with different tectono-magmatic phases of late to post-Variscan age. Published age data for the three provinces range from 298 to 289 Ma in the south and central part of Sardinia and 282 to 268 Ma in the northern part. Thirty-one sites (182 samples) covering all three provinces were analysed. No tectonic correction was applied on the assumption that the dykes have not been disturbed from their original position after emplacement. Detailed paleomagnetic demagnetisation experiments yielded very well defined mean directions for almost all sites sampled. The resulting in situ mean directions (in Sardinian coordinates) of Permian age for the northern part of the island (Dec: 138°, Inc: -1°, ?95: 6°, k: 20, N: 12 sites) is in very good agreement with data published by Vigliotti et al. (1990) supporting the structural coherence of northern Sardinia and Corsica. However, the mean directions for the central and southern part of the island (Dec: 089°, Inc: -3°, ?95: 4°, k: 18, N: 14 sites, and Dec: 081°, Inc: -21°, ?95: 4°, k: 17, N: 6 sites) determined in dykes of latest Carboniferous and earliest Permian age differ significantly from the mean direction for the northern dykes and suggest that the coherence of Sardinia in the late Paleozoic cannot be maintained. Although the age of these rotational motions is not perfectly bracketed it can be argued that rotation happened before the early Jurassic, probably during Permian times. Surprisingly, however, the mean directions for the southern and central part of the island indicate counterclockwise rotation with respect to the mean for the northern swarm by up to 60° which is `counterintuitive' to the rotations expected in a simple dextral shear system but are possibly related to local or conjugated sinistral shears within a wide dextral shear zone.

Emmer, B.; Bachtadse, V.; Muttoni, G.; Ronchi, A.; Kent, D. V.

2005-12-01

59

Program to eradicate malaria in Sardinia, 1946-1950.  

PubMed

During 1946-1950, the Rockefeller Foundation conducted a large-scale experiment in Sardinia to test the feasibility of indigenous vector species eradication. The interruption of malaria transmission did not require vector eradication, but with a goal of developing a new strategy to fight malaria, the choice was made to wage a rapid attack with a powerful new chemical. Costing millions of dollars, 267 metric tons of DDT were spread over the island. Although malaria was eliminated, the main objective, complete eradication of the vector, was not achieved. Despite its being considered almost eradicated in the mid-1940s, malaria 60 years later is still a major public health problem throughout the world, and its eradication is back on the global health agenda. PMID:19788815

Tognotti, Eugenia

2009-09-01

60

Program to Eradicate Malaria in Sardinia, 1946-1950  

PubMed Central

During 1946–1950, the Rockefeller Foundation conducted a large-scale experiment in Sardinia to test the feasibility of indigenous vector species eradication. The interruption of malaria transmission did not require vector eradication, but with a goal of developing a new strategy to fight malaria, the choice was made to wage a rapid attack with a powerful new chemical. Costing millions of dollars, 267 metric tons of DDT were spread over the island. Although malaria was eliminated, the main objective, complete eradication of the vector, was not achieved. Despite its being considered almost eradicated in the mid-1940s, malaria 60 years later is still a major public health problem throughout the world, and its eradication is back on the global health agenda.

2009-01-01

61

Modeling the landscape drivers of fire recurrence in sardinia (Italy).  

PubMed

Although recurrent fire events with very short return periods have the most dangerous effects on landscape degradation, only a few papers have explored the landscape ecological factors that drive the probability of fire recurrence. In this paper we apply a habitat suitability model for analyzing the spatial relationship between a selected set of landscape factors (mainly land use types) and fire recurrence in Sardinia (Italy) in the years 2005-2010. Our results point out that fire occurrence in already burned areas is lower than expected in natural and semi-natural land cover types, like forest and shrublands. To the contrary, like in all regions where human activity is the main source of fire ignitions, the probability of fire recurrence is higher at low altitudes and close to roads and to urban and agricultural land cover types, thus showing marked preference for those landscape factors denoting higher anthropogenic ignition risk. PMID:24705728

Ricotta, Carlo; Di Vito, Stefania

2014-06-01

62

New insights on metastrongyloid lungworms infecting cats of Sardinia, Italy.  

PubMed

In addition to the well-known Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Strongylida: Angiostrongylidae), Troglostrongylus brevior (Strongylida: Crenosomatidae) has recently been diagnosed as a causative agent of bronco-pulmonary infections of cats in Spain and Italy. However, information concerning the impact of this species of lungworm on feline population is limited to a few case reports. From July 2011 to May 2013 an epidemiological survey was carried out on Sardinia island (Italy), where 107 individual faecal samples were examined by Baermann technique, and first-stage larvae were identified based on their morphology and characterization of molecular markers. The 29.9% (32/107) of cats examined were infested by broncho-pulmonary nematodes and, although A. abstrusus was the most frequently detected (n=27; 25.2%), larvae of T. brevior were also found (n=7; 6.5%). In addition, two cats (1.9%) were co-infested by both species. Overall metastrongyloid infection was higher in female cats (n=22; 38.6%) than in males (n=10; 20%) (?(2)=4.39; p=0.036). The mean age of positive animals was 21.1 (±29.8) months, being infected animals from 2 months to 10 years of age. Of the 32 animals that scored positive for lungworms only 6 (18.8%) displayed a respiratory condition associated with lungworm infestations. Biomolecular characterization confirmed the morphological diagnosis of A. abstrusus. Positive samples that were identified at genus level as Troglostrongylus spp. were molecularly characterized as T. brevior. This study represents the first epidemiological survey on metastrongyloid lungworms of domestic cats in Sardinia and the first report of T. brevior on this island. PMID:24780162

Tamponi, C; Varcasia, A; Brianti, E; Pipia, A P; Frau, V; Pinna Parpaglia, M L; Sanna, G; Garippa, G; Otranto, D; Scala, A

2014-06-16

63

High resolution simulations of extreme weather event in south Sardinia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last decade, like most region of Mediterranean Europe, Sardinia has experienced severe precipitation events generating flash floods resulting in loss of lives and large economic damage. A numerical meteorological operational set-up is applied in the local weather service with the aim to improve the operational short range weather forecast of the Service with particular attention to intense, mostly rare and potentially severe, events. On the early hours of 22 October 2008 an intense and almost stationary mesoscale convective system interested particularly the south of Sardinia, heavy precipitation caused a flash flood with fatalities and numerous property damages. The event was particularly intense: about 400 mm of rain in 12 hours (a peak of 150 mm in an hour) were misured by the regional network of weather stations and these values appear extremely meaningfulls since those are about seven times the climatological monthly rainfall for that area and nearly the climatological annual rainfall. With the aim to improve significantly quantitative precipitation forecasting, it was evaluated a different set-up of a high resolution convection resolving model (MM5) initialised with different initial and boundary conditions (ECMWF and NCAR). In this paper it is discussed the meteorological system related to the mentioned event by using different numerical weather models (GCM and LAM) combined with conventional data, radar Doppler and Meteosat images. Preliminary results say that a different set-up of a non hydrostatic model can forecast severe convection events in advance of about one day and produce more realistic rainfall than that current operational and also improve the weather forecasts to respect the ECMWF-GCM. So it could drive an operational alert system in order to limit the risks associated with heavy precipitation events.

Dessy, C.

2010-05-01

64

The microwave holography system for the Sardinia Radio Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microwave holography is a well-established technique for mapping surface errors of large reflector antennas, particularly those designed to operate at high frequencies. We present here a holography system based on the interferometric method for mapping the primary reflector surface of the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT). SRT is a new 64-m-diameter antenna located in Sardinia, Italy, equipped with an active surface and designed to operate up to 115 GHz. The system consists mainly of two radio frequency low-noise coherent channels, designed to receive Ku-band digital TV signals from geostationary satellites. Two commercial prime focus low-noise block converters are installed on the radio telescope under test and on a small reference antenna, respectively. Then the signals are amplified, filtered and downconverted to baseband. An innovative digital back-end based on FPGA technology has been implemented to digitize two 5 MHz-band signals and calculate their cross-correlation in real-time. This is carried out by using a 16-bit resolution ADCs and a FPGA reaching very large amplitude dynamic range and reducing post-processing time. The final holography data analysis is performed by CLIC data reduction software developed within the Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM, Grenoble, France). The system was successfully tested during several holography measurement campaigns, recently performed at the Medicina 32-m radio telescope. Two 65-by-65 maps, using an on-the-fly raster scan with on-source phase calibration, were performed pointing the radio telescope at 38 degrees elevation towards EUTELSAT 7A satellite. The high SNR (greater than 60 dB) and the good phase stability led to get an accuracy on the surface error maps better than 150 ?m RMS.

Serra, G.; Bolli, P.; Busonera, G.; Pisanu, T.; Poppi, S.; Gaudiomonte, F.; Zacchiroli, G.; Roda, J.; Morsiani, M.; López-Pérez, J. A.

2012-09-01

65

Plio-Pleistocenic igneous activity in Sardinia (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New geochemical and isotopic data are presented for five Plio-Pleistocene volcanic districts of Sardinia (Italy). From north to south they are: Logudoro (3.18-0.11 Ma), Montiferro (3.8-2.3 Ma), Capo Frasca (1.6 Ma), Mt. Arci (3.7-2.7 Ma) and Capo Ferrato (5.9-5.0 Ma). Most of the Logudoro rocks are mugearite with fewer hawaiite, benmoreite and phonotephrite; subordinate tholeiitic rocks (basaltic andesite) also occur. The Montiferro volcanics range from hawaiite to mugearite and trachyte; rarer tholeiitic rocks (basaltic andesites) occur as well. Capo Frasca samples are basaltic andesites with tholeiitic affinity. Mt. Arci is made up of tholeiitic (basaltic andesite, andesite, dacite and rhyolite), mildly alkaline (hawaiite, mugearite and trachyte) with rarer transitional types. Capo Ferrato is entirely made up of mildly alkaline mugearite and trachyte. Except few primitive samples from Logudoro and Montiferro (Mg#=65, Ni=210 ppm and Cr up to 360 ppm), most of the rocks are evolved, testifying fractional crystallization processes in all the volcanic districts. Primitive mantle-normalized diagrams show patterns with positive peak at Ba coupled with negative peaks at U and smooth or no peaks at Ta-Nb, a feature already observed for other Plio-Pleistocene volcanic rocks of Sardinia. LREE are over 150 x chondrite whereas HREE are mostly over 8 x chondrite suggesting a spinel-bearing source, with alkaline rocks showing REE patterns subparallel to tholeiitic products but with higher (La/Yb)N ratios (13.2-29.9 and 8.4-10.1 for alkaline and tholeiitic rocks, respectively). Although REE analyses point out a possible common source between tholeiitic and alkaline products, the different slopes (for both series of each volcanic district) observed in trends of some incompatible element ratios plots seem to suggest the existence of distinct parental magmas for the volcanics of each district, with the exception of Logudoro and Montiferro. Isotopic data show that the less evolved samples have 87Sr/86Sr around 0.70428 whilst the more differentiated reach 0.70913; eNd varies from -8.3 to +2.1. Geochemical and isotopic data share some features akin to an EM-I source, being shifted toward the left of the mantle array, with high and variable Ba/Nb ratios (from 18 to 42 for both tholeiitic and alkaline rocks; only Mt. Arci show values between 8 to 10, more similar to the other anorogenic Cenozoic European Volcanic Province products (Ba/Nb<20). An enriched lithospheric source, possibly modified by previous subduction events, could explain the geochemical features of the Sardinian rocks.

Petteruti Lieberknecht, A. M.; Fedele, L.; D Amelio, F.; Lustrino, M.; Melluso, L.; Morra, V.

2003-04-01

66

Identification of a founder BRCA2 mutation in Sardinia  

PubMed Central

Sardinian population can be instrumental in defining the molecular basis of cancer, using the identity-by-descent method. We selected seven Sardinian breast cancer families originating from the northern-central part of the island with multiple affected members in different generations. We genotyped 106 members of the seven families and 20 control nuclear families with markers flanking BRCA2 locus at 13q12–q13. The detection of a common haplotype shared by four out of seven families (60%) suggests the presence of a founder BRCA2 mutation. Direct sequencing of BRCA2 coding exons of patients carrying the shared haplotype, allowed the identification of a ‘frame-shift’ mutation at codon 2867 (8765delAG), causing a premature termination-codon. This mutation was found in breast cancer patients as well as one prostate and one bladder cancer patient with shared haplotype. We then investigated the frequency of 8765delAG in the Sardinian breast cancer population by analysing 270 paraffin-embedded normal tissue samples from breast cancer patients. Five patients (1.7%) were found to be positive for the 8765delAG mutation. Discovery of a founder mutation in Sardinia through the identity-by-descent method demonstrates that this approach can be applied successfully to find mutations either for breast cancer or for other types of tumours. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign

Pisano, M; Cossu, A; Persico, I; Palmieri, G; Angius, A; Casu, G; Palomba, G; Sarobba, M G; Rocca, P C Ossu; Dedola, M F; Olmeo, N; Pasca, A; Budroni, M; Marras, V; Pisano, A; Farris, A; Massarelli, G; Pirastu, M; Tanda, Francesco

2000-01-01

67

Observations of comets with the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of comets can give precious information on the conditions present in the solar nebula at the time of the formation of the solar system and on the first step of the formation of life on Earth. The goal of comet observations is to derive the original chemical composition of the cometary nucleus. Particularly important are the organic complex molecules present in comets that may have triggered the life on Earth. However all the complex molecules are destroyed by the solar UV radiation, producing less complex molecules, radicals and ions. These are concentrated close to the nucleus, where the scattering of solar radiation by dust makes it very difficult to detect their signatures in most spectral regions. The radio spectral domain is very suitable to detect them because here most of them have rotational transitions, while the emission of the dust is very low. In this paper we will discuss a possible use of the Sardinia Radio Telescope for studies of cometary physics.

Tozzi, G. P.; Capria, M. T.; Caselli, P.; Saba, L.

68

A control loop closure system for the Sardinia Radio Telescope active surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) is a 64 meters (diameter) single dish radioantenna which is in the building phase in Italy. One of the most challenging characteristics of SRT is its capability to observe up to a frequency of 100 GHz thanks to its main reflector active surface. The active surface is composed by 1008 panels and 1116 mechanical actuators

Claudio Pernechele; Carlo Barbieri; Pietro Bolli; Franco Buffa; Tonino Pisanu; Sergio Poppi; Giampaolo Serra; Marco Morsiani; Juri Roda; Giampaolo Zacchiroli; Carlo Nocita; Mario Paternò

2010-01-01

69

The new time and Frequency laboratory for the Sardinia Radio Telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

A time laboratory was established at the Astronomical Observatory of Cagliari more than one century ago, aimed for time-tagging scientific observations. At present, this laboratory is facing up a deep refurbishment in order to cope with the much tighter specifications on phase noise, time resolution, and frequency stability required by the new scientific applications planned for the Sardinia Radio Telescope.

Roberto Ambrosini; Pietro Bolli; Francesco Gaudiomonte; Filippo Messina; Mauro Roma

2011-01-01

70

The Planned Space Science Utilizations of the New Sardinia 64-m Radio Telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the technical excellence of the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) design, development status, and the scientific plans foreseen by the Italian Space Agency (ASI) for deep space tracking, radio science, and related scientific opportunities such as near-Earth objects (NEO) and space debris monitoring. SRT, when functioning as a ground tracking station, will eventually provide operational support to spacecraft

Roberto Ambrosini; Sami W. Asmar; Pietro Bolli; Enrico Flamini

2011-01-01

71

An overview of the Sardinia Radio Telescope geodetic potential at national and international levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) potentials in geodesy are mostly connected to VLBI techniques and they may have a remarkable impact on both national and international geodetic science. A development plan concerning geodetic technical instrumentation should be provided soon, so as to perform geodetic observations with the SRT in the near future. The SRT is being developed within a well-consolidated national

P. Sarti; M. Negusini; S. Montaguti; F. Mantovani; F. Buffa; G. L. Deiana; V. Gusai; A. Poma; M. Sorgente

2006-01-01

72

Malaria in prehistoric Sardinia (Italy): An examination of skeletal remains from the middle Bronze Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sardinia was an island with a history of a malarious environment until eradication efforts were conducted from 1946 to 1950. While historic documents suggest the disease was introduced from North Africa around 500 BC, no study has been conducted to test for the presence of malaria in prehistoric native populations, such as the Nuragic people of the Bronze Age. However,

Teddi J Setzer

2010-01-01

73

Soil moisture and vegetation controls on evapotranspiration in a heterogeneous Mediterranean ecosystem on Sardinia, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micrometeorological measurements of evapotranspiration (ET) can be difficult to interpret and use for validating model calculations in the presence of land cover heterogeneity. Land surface fluxes, soil moisture ($\\\\theta$), and surface temperatures (Ts) data were collected by an eddy correlation-based tower located at the Orroli (Sardinia) experimental field (covered by woody vegetation, grass, and bare soil) from April 2003 to

Matteo Detto; Nicola Montaldo; John D. Albertson; Marco Mancini; Gaby Katul

2006-01-01

74

Data-driven simulations of synoptic circulation and transports in the Tunisia-Sardinia-Sicily region  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1) Data from a hydrographic survey of the Tunisia-Sardinia-Sicily region are assimilated into a primitive equations ocean model. The model simulation is then averaged in time over the short duration of the data survey. The corresponding results, consistent with data and dynamics, are providing new insight into the circulation of Modified Atlantic Water (MAW) and Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW) in

Reiner Onken; Allan R. Robinson; Pierre F. J. Lermusiaux; Patrick J. Haley Jr.; Larry A. Anderson

2003-01-01

75

Miocene rotation of Sardinia: New paleomagnetic and geochronological constraints and geodynamic implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Miocene rotation of Sardinia (Western Mediterranean) remains poorly constrained despite a wealth of paleomagnetic data, primarily due to poor chronostratigraphic control. However, this rotation is contemporaneous with the opening of the Liguro-Provençal back-arc oceanic basin, and its history is key to understanding the kinematics of opening of the Western Mediterranean. We address this issue through paleomagnetic and 40Ar/ 39Ar geochronological investigations of Miocene volcanic sequences in Sardinia. Precise age control allows secular variation of the geomagnetic field to be evaluated. These data provide constraints on the rotational history of this continental microplate; Sardinia rotated 45° counterclockwise with respect to stable Europe after 20.5 Ma (Aquitanian), which is a marked increase over the estimate of 30° derived from prior paleomagnetic studies. Rotation was essentially complete by 15 Ma. About 30° of rotation occurred between 20.5 and 18 Ma (Burdigalian), corresponding to the period of maximum volcanic activity in Sardinia. The observed rotation validates palinspastic models derived from a morphological fit of basin margins, and indicates high rates of opening (up to 9 cm yr - 1 in the southern part of the basin) between 20.5 and 18 Ma.

Gattacceca, J.; Deino, A.; Rizzo, R.; Jones, D. S.; Henry, B.; Beaudoin, B.; Vadeboin, F.

2007-06-01

76

Pisolithic ferricretes around the Cretaceous-Palaeocene boundary in southern Sardinia (Italy) as palaeoenvironmental proxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some of the weathering deposits that formed during the emersive phase, which in Sardinia lasted from Late Cretaceous to Palaeocene-Early Eocene, consist today of ferruginous palaeosols (ferricretes), sometimes overlain by palustrine limestones. In this article, the two outcrops at Nuxis and Guardia Pisano, containing a ferricrete composed of subspherical goethitic-hematitic concretions, are studied in detail. The main components are Fe, Al, Si, along with Ba, which is very abundant in the Nuxis outcrop. With the exception of the barite, the pisolithic ferricretes of Sardinia can be compared, for their chemical and mineralogical composition, with the pisoplinthites that form in modern tropical soils. They are also comparable with the pisolithic ferricretes cropping out in southern France, that formed around the K/T boundary. The pisolithic ferricretes of southern France and Sardinia can be interpreted as the weathering product of identical warm and humid climatic conditions and, reasonably, of the same climatic event. Therefore, they provide further evidence that Sardinia and southern France formed part of the same palaeogeographic province. A tropical environment is, on the other hand, consistent with the barite leaching from the Palaeozoic substratum and with its reprecipitation into the iron pisoliths. Micro- and nanostructures, observed using SEM analysis within and between the concentric layers of the pisoliths, are consistent with biological processes involving bacteria during their deposition.

Murru, Marco; Ferrara, Concetta; Matteucci, Ruggero; Da Pelo, Stefania; Sarria, Edoardo; Vacca, Andrea

2011-01-01

77

Kaolinitic materials from Romana (north-west Sardinia, Italy) and their ceramic properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Romana kaolins represent the alteration products of rhyolite-rhyodacite Oligocene volcanics from SW Sardinia, Italy. In order to assess their potentiality in the ceramic industry, samples from four prospects were analyzed from a chemical (XRF), mineralogical (XRD) and technological viewpoint. These raw materials basically consist of kaolinite + cristobalite + quartz-tridymite-feldspars, with hematite and alunite restricted to certain zones or

Paola Ligas; Ivo Uras; Michele Dondi; Marco Marsigli

1997-01-01

78

Paleogeographic Reconstructions in the Mediterranean - A Paleomagnetic Study of Jurassic Sediments From Sardinia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paleogeography and tectonic history of the Corsica-Sardinia block and the opening of the Liguro-Provençal ocean since Oligocene times is based on a wealth of geologic, geophysical, and paleomagnetic studies and relatively well understood (Gattacceca et al. 2007, Vigliotti and Langenheim 1995). Conversely, the paleogeography of Sardinia and the surrounding regions during the Mesozoic is much less clear due to the absence of paleomagnetic data, except for a single study on Jurassic sediments from eastern Sardinia (Horner and Lowrie 1981). Consequently, pre-Oligocene deformations of Sardinia remain virtually undated. Recent paleomagnetic studies of dykes of Late Carboniferous and Permian age as well as Permian sediments have revealed significant counterclockwise rotations between Northern, Central and Southern Sardinia (Emmer et al., 2005). The geodynamic context these rotational movements are related to, however, is still far from being clear. In an attempt to contribute to better time constraints for tectonic motions within Sardinia, a total of 208 oriented core samples from 24 sites of predominantly Jurassic age have been collected from the Nurra region (1), the Gulf of Orosei (2) and the Tacchi region (3). Unfortunately, samples taken from the northwest of Sardinia (1) proved to be too weakly magnetized and did not yield any stable directions. Primary directions of magnetization, passing the reversal test, were recovered from regions (2) and (3), yielding overall mean directions of D=284.8°, I=46.6° (N=36, ?95=9.9, k=32.1) and D=267.0°, I=49.9° (N=68, ?95=12.3, k=13.5) for the Gulf of Orosei and the Tacchi region, respectively. Taking into account error limits, these directions are not significantly different from each other and confirm and expand the limited data set of Horner and Lowrie (1981). Based on these new results, we conclude that no post-Jurassic deformation has affected the region. This suggests that the counterclockwise rotations previously observed in Permian rocks by Emmer et al. must be pre-Jurassic in age and cannot be related to subduction rollback tectonics during the Oligocene to Miocene as suggested by Helbig et al. (2006).

Aubele, K.; Bachtadse, V.; Muttoni, G.

2009-05-01

79

Ranunculus latent virus: a strain of artichoke latent virus or a new macluravirus infecting artichoke?  

PubMed

An elongated virus was isolated from artichoke crops in Liguria, and a 700-bp fragment was amplified by RT-PCR using oligonucleotides to detect members of the family Potyviridae. Comparison of fragment sequences showed 98% identity at the nucleotide level with the ranunculus isolate of the macluravirus Ranunculus latent virus (RaLV). RaLV was then detected by DAS-ELISA in symptomatic and asymptomatic artichoke plants from Liguria, Sardinia and Latium. The sequence of a 5.5-kb region was assembled from a cDNA library, and a 500-bp NIa fragment showed 80% identity to Artichoke latent virus. PMID:21340739

Ciuffo, M; Testa, M; Lenzi, R; Turina, M

2011-06-01

80

Impact of network geometry, observation schemes and telescope structure deformations on local ties: simulations applied to Sardinia Radio Telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 64-m Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) is currently under construction in Sardinia (Italy). To ensure future surveying and\\u000a monitoring operations at an utmost level of accuracy, we aim at selecting the optimal design and the most cost-effective solution\\u000a for the establishment of the local ground control network (LGCN). We simulate and test 45 data sets corresponding to 5 different\\u000a network

Claudio Abbondanza; Pierguido Sarti

2011-01-01

81

Thermochronological response to rifting and subduction in the Corsica-Sardinia block  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The linkage between deep-seated tectonic processes and surface processes provides a key to investigate the geological evolution of complex plate boundaries starting from the analysis of low-temperature geochronological systems. Here, we integrate published thermochronological data from Corsica (Danišík et al., 2007) with a new multi-thermochronological dataset (i.e., zircon and apatite fission track (ZFT and AFT), and apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) data) from Sardinia, in order to tackle the Western Mediterranean tectonic issue and constrain the problematic transition in space and time between the opposite-dipping Alpine (European) and Apenninic (Adriatic) subductions. Mesozoic AFT ages (169-201 Ma) and AHe ages (133-204 Ma), found on mountain ridges of central Sardinia and on the eastern coast of the island, indicate that rocks now exposed at the surface have resided since Jurassic times at very shallow depth, i.e., above the partial annealing zone of the AFT system (~60-110°C) or even above the partial retention zone of the AHe system (~40-80°C). The observed age pattern and track length distributions are consistent with those predicted after rising of isothermal surfaces during rifting and subsequent thermal relaxation after continental break-up. We demonstrate that the crustal sections now exposed in central and eastern Sardinia were originally located closer to the Tethyan rift axis than crustal sections exposed in NW Sardinia and Corsica, pointing to a NNE trend for the continental crust isopachs of the northern Tethyan margin (ENE before Corsica-Sardinia rotation), with burial depth progressively increasing from SE to NW. In Alpine Corsica, the low-T geochronological evidence of Jurassic rifting was largely obliterated by Cenozoic metamorphism, but it is still recognized in high-T systems. AFT and AHe ages set after Tethyan rifting but not thermally affected by Neogene backarc extension, define a SE-NW trend of decreasing ages from southern Sardinia to northern Variscan Corsica (N-S in Paleogene coordinates). Modelled time-temperature paths show that this age trend is consistent with an erosional pulse migrating northward during the Paleogene, which led to the re-exposure of the Mesozoic planation surfaces previously buried by Paleogene detrital sequences. The northward migration of erosional pulses mirrors the coeval northward trajectory of Adria relative to Europe as inferred by magnetic anomalies. Preservation of the low-T fingerprint acquired during Tethyan rifting indicates that no European continental subduction took place south of Corsica since the Mesozoic, and suggests that the post-Jurassic Adria-Europe convergence along the Sardinia transect was possibly accommodated on the Adriatic side of the subduction system, consistent with the onset of Cenozoic orogenic magmatism. The inferred tectonic reconstruction for the Paleocene - early Eocene time frame thus includes a northwestward (Apenninic) subduction that was active along the Sardinia transect, and an eastward (Alpine) subduction that was still active along the Corsica transect and choked in middle-late Eocene times, when Adria started moving towards the NNE (Malusà et al., 2011). The northward translation of the Adriatic slab beneath Sardinia and Corsica is mirrored by the coeval migration of exhumation pulses at the surface, until the slab reached the remnants of the Alpine wedge of Corsica in Oligocene times shortly before the onset of slab rollback. Danišík, M., Kuhlemann, J., Dunkl, I., Székely, B., Frisch, W., 2007. Burial and exhumation of Corsica (France) in the light of fission track data. Tectonics 26(TC1001). Malusà, M.G., Faccenna, C., Garzanti, E., Polino, R., 2011. Divergence in subduction zones and exhumation of high-pressure rocks (Eocene Western Alps). Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 310, 21-32.

Malusà, Marco Giovanni; Danišík, Martin; Kuhlemann, Joachim

2014-05-01

82

The "Land Unit and Soil Capability Map of Sardinia" at a 1:50,000 scale, a new tool for land use planning in Sardinia (Italy) - The pilot area of Pula-Capoterra (southwestern Sardinia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Regional Landscape Plan (RLP) of Sardinia (Italy), approved in 2006, establishes the directions for any land use planning in Sardinia and requires that pre-existing plans have to be changed to comply with these directives. In the RLP, the soil is specifically considered one of the main landscape components and in the RLP guidelines a soil survey of the whole communal territory is required. Moreover, Land Unit and Land Capability maps are explicitly required, and the adoption of a single regional reference legend for these maps is strongly recommended. The Planning Department of the Regional Administration of Sardinia (RAS) has recently realized the need for specific knowledge and tools to support land use planning according to the RLP rules. Consequently, a new project for the creation of a "Land Unit and Soil Capability Map of Sardinia", at a scale of 1:50,000, was recently initiated in four pilot areas. Two Universities (Cagliari and Sassari) and two regional Agencies (AGRIS and LAORE) are involved in the project, each of them being responsible for one pilot area. In this work we present the map of the pilot area Pula-Capoterra (southwestern Sardinia, 46,040 ha). A GIS approach was used. We used the soil-landscape paradigm for the prediction of soil classes and their spatial distribution based on landscape features. The work was divided into two main phases. In the first phase, the available digital data on topography, geology and land cover were processed and classified according to their influence on weathering processes and soil properties. Digital thematic maps of soil-forming factors (landform, parent material, land cover) were produced to build the first draft of the Land Unit Map. The dataset was developed in a GIS environment, exploiting its potential to produce derived maps by intersections, reclassifications and summarizing themes using GIS functions. The existing soil data (areal and point data) were collected, reviewed, validated and standardized according to international and national guidelines. The data of 155 soil observations considered to be usable, 69 of which correspond to soil profiles with routine analytical data set, were input into a specific database created for the project. During the second phase, the first draft of the Land Unit Map was implemented with the existing soil data and verified in the field. During the field work, 603 new soil observations were carried out, 61 of which correspond to soil profiles with routine analyses. Considering that in the area 8,755 ha do not have soil cover (urban areas, industrial areas, and rock outcrops), the final survey density is equal to 1 soil observation per 50 ha. Finally, the Land Unit and Soil Capability Map was produced by classifying the land units using a reference matching table of land capability classes created for this project. The legend of this map is divided into three main sections: Land Unit, Soil and Soil Capability. Each section is divided into several parts containing detailed information. Acknowledgments This work has been supported by the RAS under the decree DGR n. 56/36 dated 29.12.2009.

Vacca, Andrea; Marrone, Vittorio Alessandro; Loddo, Stefano

2014-05-01

83

No evidence of increased fire risk due to agricultural land abandonment in Sardinia (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different land cover types are related to different levels of fire hazard through their vegetation structure and fuel load composition. Therefore, understanding the relationships between landscape changes and fire behavior is of crucial importance for developing adequate fire fighting and fire prevention strategies for a changing world. In the last decades the abandonment of agricultural lands and pastoral activities has been the major driver of landscape transformations in Mediterranean Europe. As agricultural land abandonment typically promotes an increase in plant biomass (fuel load), a number of authors argue that vegetation succession in abandoned fields and pastures is expected to increase fire hazard. In this short paper, based on 28 493 fires in Sardinia (Italy) in the period 2001-2010, we show that there is no evidence of increased probability of fire ignition in abandoned rural areas. To the contrary, in Sardinia the decreased human impact associated with agricultural land abandonment leads to a statistically significant decrease of fire ignition probability.

Ricotta, C.; Guglietta, D.; Migliozzi, A.

2012-05-01

84

C-band dual-polarization receiver for the Sardinia RadioTelescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the design and the measurement results of a dual-circular-polarization C-band antenna-feed system developed by the Applied Electromagnetics Group of the IEIIT-CNR. The antenna-feed system was delivered to the National Institute of Astrophysics in May 2007, and will be mounted in the C-band receiver of the Sardinia radio-telescope under construction in San Basilio (CA), Italy. Excellent figures-of-merit were

O. A. Peverini; R. Tascone; G. Virone; G. Addamo; A. Olivieri; R. Orta

2009-01-01

85

Geochemistry of metabasites from NE Sardinia, Italy: nature of the protoliths, magmatic trend, and geotectonic setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary   The metabasites of Montiggiu Nieddu occur as a lenticular body in the Hercynian migmatite complex of NE Sardinia and consist\\u000a of two major lithological associations: ultramafic amphibolites and plagioclase-banded amphibolites, which are genetically\\u000a related by processes of cumulate differentiation of an original tholeiitic magma.\\u000a \\u000a The ultramafic amphibolites consist of relics of igneous phases (anorthite, olivine, orthopyroxene, and clinopyroxene) and

G. Cruciani; M. Franceschelli; M. Marchi; M. Zucca

2002-01-01

86

Hydrological characteristics in the Tunisia–Sardinia–Sicily area during spring 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the framework of the Tunisian – EC SALTO\\/AVICENNE project, four hydrological sections were performed between Tunisia, Sardinia and Sicily with a 10–20km sampling interval in April–June 1995. To our knowledge, it is the first time that sections were repeated there at such a high frequency. These data significantly increase the number of observations available on the Tunisian side of

C. Sammari; C. Millot; I. Taupierletage; A. Stefani; M. Brahim

1999-01-01

87

The East Variscan Shear Zone: Geochronological constraints from the Capo Ferro area (NE Sardinia, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exhumation of the Variscan High Grade Metamorphic Complex of Sardinia was driven by large-scale asymmetric shear zones which reached middle crustal levels at 325 ± 1.3 (U–Pb, monazite) Ma. Exhumation was accompanied by heating and partial melting. The migmatization process was followed by the emplacement of syntectonic granites dated with U–Pb on zircon at 318 ± 3 Ma and 317 ± 2 Ma, which produced contact metamorphism at 315 ± 1.3 Ma (U–Pb, monazite) in mylonitic Silurian orthogneisses. The NW–SE dextral shear zone of the Capo Ferro area (NE Sardinia) is affected by partial melting, by granite emplacement and shows remarkable petrotectonic analogies to, and can thus be related to the East Variscan Shear Zone, a major intra-continental shear zone which was active in the southern European Variscides from 325 Ma to 315 Ma and that has been precisely dated with the U–Pb monazite system. The emplacement of migmatitic gneisses along large shear zones within this time interval is not restricted to Sardinia, but has also been observed in southern Corsica, in the French Massif Central, in the Western Alps and in central Spain. This pattern of shear zones is related to a complex geodynamic scenario, linked to the oblique convergence of the Gondwana and Laurussia plates during the Middle–Upper Carboniferous.

Padovano, Matteo; Dörr, Wolfgang; Elter, Franco Marco; Gerdes, Axel

2014-05-01

88

Complete Genome Sequence of Bluetongue Virus Serotype 1 Circulating in Italy, Obtained through a Fast Next-Generation Sequencing Protocol.  

PubMed

A field strain of the bluetongue virus serotype 1 (BTV-1) was isolated from infected sheep in Sardinia, Italy, in October 2013. The genome was sequenced using Ion Torrent technology. BTV-1 strain SAD2013 belongs to the Western topotype of BTV-1, clustering with BTV-1 strains isolated in Europe and northern Africa since 2006. PMID:24526649

Lorusso, Alessio; Marcacci, Maurilia; Ancora, Massimo; Mangone, Iolanda; Leone, Alessandra; Marini, Valeria; Cammà, Cesare; Savini, Giovanni

2014-01-01

89

Complete Genome Sequence of Bluetongue Virus Serotype 1 Circulating in Italy, Obtained through a Fast Next-Generation Sequencing Protocol  

PubMed Central

A field strain of the bluetongue virus serotype 1 (BTV-1) was isolated from infected sheep in Sardinia, Italy, in October 2013. The genome was sequenced using Ion Torrent technology. BTV-1 strain SAD2013 belongs to the Western topotype of BTV-1, clustering with BTV-1 strains isolated in Europe and northern Africa since 2006.

Marcacci, Maurilia; Ancora, Massimo; Mangone, Iolanda; Leone, Alessandra; Marini, Valeria; Camma, Cesare; Savini, Giovanni

2014-01-01

90

Paleomagnetism of Jurassic carbonate rocks from Sardinia: No indication of post-Jurassic internal block rotations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several paleomagnetic studies on Carboniferous and Permian sedimentary and volcanic rocks from Sardinia and Corsica have recently demonstrated (1) the tectonic coherence between southern Corsica and northern Sardinia and (2) significant rotations between individual crustal blocks within Sardinia itself. The geodynamic significance of these rotations, however, is not clearly understood mainly because of uncertainties in defining their timing and causes. In order to contribute to these issues, a pioneering paleomagnetic study on Jurassic carbonates from the Baronie-Supramonte region of eastern-central Sardinia has been extended regionally and stratigraphically. A total of 280 oriented drill cores were taken from 44 sites of Middle and Late Jurassic age in the Nurra, Baronie-Supramonte, Barbagia-Sarcidano, and Sulcis regions. Despite generally weak remanent magnetization intensities, on the order of less than 1 mA/m, thermal and alternating field demagnetizations were successfully applied to define a characteristic remanent magnetization component in about 60% of the samples. Site mean directions show rather good agreement after correction for bedding tilt and yield Middle and Late Jurassic overall mean directions of D = 269.7° and I = 45.0° (?95 = 8.0°, k = 14, and n = 25 sites) and D = 275.5° and I = 50.7° (?95 = 7.2°, k = 45.3, and n = 10 sites). Positive regional and local fold and reversal tests demonstrate the primary character of the natural magnetic remanence, which is carried by magnetite. These results indicate only insignificant amounts (±10°) of post-Jurassic rotations within the island of Sardinia. The resulting Middle and Late Jurassic paleopoles (latitude (Lat) = 16.5°, longitude (Long) = 299.1°, dp = 6.4°, and dm = 10.1° and Lat = 23.4°, Long = 301.2°, dp = 6.5°, and dm = 9.7°), corrected for the opening of (1) the Liguro-Provençal Basin and (2) the Bay of Biscay using rotation parameters from the literature, fall near the coeval segment of the European apparent polar wander path. These results constrain the timing of large differential block rotations found in Late Carboniferous-Permian rocks to a pre-Middle Jurassic age and lead us to exclude tectonics related to the Alpine orogeny for such rotations.

Kirscher, U.; Aubele, K.; Muttoni, G.; Ronchi, A.; Bachtadse, V.

2011-12-01

91

Conformation-Selective Methylation of Geminivirus DNA ?  

PubMed Central

Geminiviruses with small circular single-stranded DNA genomes replicate in plant cell nuclei by using various double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) intermediates: distinct open circular and covalently closed circular as well as heterogeneous linear DNA. Their DNA may be methylated partially at cytosine residues, as detected previously by bisulfite sequencing and subsequent PCR. In order to determine the methylation patterns of the circular molecules, the DNAs of tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) and Abutilon mosaic virus were investigated utilizing bisulfite treatment followed by rolling circle amplification. Shotgun sequencing of the products yielded a randomly distributed 50% rate of C maintenance after the bisulfite reaction for both viruses. However, controls with unmethylated single-stranded bacteriophage DNA resulted in the same level of C maintenance. Only one short DNA stretch within the C2/C3 promoter of TYLCSV showed hyperprotection of C, with the protection rate exceeding the threshold of the mean value plus 1 standard deviation. Similarly, the use of methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes suggested that geminiviruses escape silencing by methylation very efficiently, by either a rolling circle or recombination-dependent replication mode. In contrast, attempts to detect methylated bases positively by using methylcytosine-specific antibodies detected methylated DNA only in heterogeneous linear dsDNA, and methylation-dependent restriction enzymes revealed that the viral heterogeneous linear dsDNA was methylated preferentially.

Paprotka, T.; Deuschle, K.; Metzler, V.; Jeske, H.

2011-01-01

92

Conformation-selective methylation of geminivirus DNA.  

PubMed

Geminiviruses with small circular single-stranded DNA genomes replicate in plant cell nuclei by using various double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) intermediates: distinct open circular and covalently closed circular as well as heterogeneous linear DNA. Their DNA may be methylated partially at cytosine residues, as detected previously by bisulfite sequencing and subsequent PCR. In order to determine the methylation patterns of the circular molecules, the DNAs of tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) and Abutilon mosaic virus were investigated utilizing bisulfite treatment followed by rolling circle amplification. Shotgun sequencing of the products yielded a randomly distributed 50% rate of C maintenance after the bisulfite reaction for both viruses. However, controls with unmethylated single-stranded bacteriophage DNA resulted in the same level of C maintenance. Only one short DNA stretch within the C2/C3 promoter of TYLCSV showed hyperprotection of C, with the protection rate exceeding the threshold of the mean value plus 1 standard deviation. Similarly, the use of methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes suggested that geminiviruses escape silencing by methylation very efficiently, by either a rolling circle or recombination-dependent replication mode. In contrast, attempts to detect methylated bases positively by using methylcytosine-specific antibodies detected methylated DNA only in heterogeneous linear dsDNA, and methylation-dependent restriction enzymes revealed that the viral heterogeneous linear dsDNA was methylated preferentially. PMID:21835804

Paprotka, T; Deuschle, K; Metzler, V; Jeske, H

2011-11-01

93

Surface circulation and upwelling in the Sardinia Sea: A numerical study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surface circulation of the Sardinian Sea (the shelf-slope region west of Sardinia, western Mediterranean sea) and the coastal upwelling were studied through the analysis of a 4-years interannual simulation performed with a hydrodynamic 3D numerical model. The model (an implementation of the Princeton Ocean Model) was forced with realistic atmospheric and oceanic fields (analyses) for the quadrennium 2008-2011. The model assimilates sea level data using a 3D-variational assimilation software. Simulated velocities were decomposed in their mean and turbulent part. Eddy kinetic energy and eddy momentum flux, able to describe synthetically in terms of kinetics the fluctuating part of the flow, have been calculated. The EOF decomposition was used to get further insight on the simulated dataset and shed light on the variability of the main dynamical features, as well as to identify and separate the coastal upwelling signature. At surface the mean circulation is characterized by a southward current flow getting closer to the coast in correspondence of the southern corner of the Island where if flows over the shelf edge. Eddy momentum flux field suggests that this southward stream is accelerated by a transfer of momentum from the eddy to the mean field in the area where it reaches maximum velocity. The presence of such a stable stream, having also a consistent fluctuating part, is argued to precondition the coastal upwelling in the southern area. The phenomenology of such a coastal upwelling along the western coast of Sardinia is then described for the first time. The upwelling, especially evident in the southern part of Sardinia, constitutes the main surface temperature signal of the modeled SST anomalies. A significant correlation was found with both wind directions and current intensity, suggesting that both mechanisms (current and wind driven upwelling) participate to precondition and enhance (respectively) upwelling. SST satellite imagery support such a pattern found in the model results.

Olita, Antonio; Ribotti, Alberto; Fazioli, Leopoldo; Perilli, Angelo; Sorgente, Roberto

2013-12-01

94

Extensional tectonics on Sardinia (Italy): insights into the arc back-arc transitional regime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the tectonic features and stress regime typical for accretionary complexes and back-arc domains have been widely documented so far, few are known on the transitional zone separating these two systems. Here we report on structural analysis and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) results from Eocene-Pliocene sediments exposed in western Sardinia. From late Oligocene to middle Miocene, the studied area was located between the Alpine-Apennine wedge to the east, which was undergoing shortening and accretion, and the Liguro-Provençal basin, undergoing extension and spreading. We find that, prior to the formation of the Liguro-Provençal basin, the middle Eocene-lower Oligocene sediments cropping out at the southwesternmost edge of Sardinia were subjected to NE-SW shortening (in present-day coordinates), in agreement with recently reported geological information. Conversely, the upper Oligocene-Pliocene sedimentary sequences record a different evolutionary stage of extensional processes. Upper Oligocene-middle-upper Burdigalian sediments clearly show a N-S-oriented magnetic lineation that can be related to extensional direction along the prevalent E-W-oriented normal faults. On the other hand, no magnetic lineation has been detected in upper Burdigalian-Serravallian sediments, which mark the end of the first rifting process in Sardinia, which likely coincides with the rift-to-drift transition at the core of the Liguro-Provençal basin. Finally, a NE-SW extension is observed in two Tortonian-Pliocene sites at the northwestern margin of the NNW-SSE-oriented Campidano graben. Our study confirms that AMS may represent a valuable strain-trajectory proxy and significantly help to unravel the characters of temporally superimposed tectonic events.

Faccenna, Claudio; Speranza, Fabio; Caracciolo, Francesca D'Ajello; Mattei, Massimo; Oggiano, Giacomo

2002-10-01

95

High-Mg subduction-related Tertiary basalts in Sardinia, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Oligo-Miocene volcanics (32-15 Ma), which occur in the Oligo-Miocene Sardinian Rift, were interpreted in the literature as an intracontinental volcanic arc built upon continental crust about 30 km thick. They are characterized by a close field association of dominantly andesites and acid ignimbrites, with subordinate basalts. In this paper we deal with the origin and evolution of recently discovered high-magnesia basalts aged ca. 18 Ma occurring in the Montresta area, northern Sardinia, relevant to the petrogenesis of the Cenozoic volcanics of Sardinia. The igneous rocks of the Montresta area form a tholeiitic, subduction-related suite. Major-element variation from the high-magnesia basalts (HMB) to high-alumina basalts (HAB) are consistent with crystal/liquid fractionation dominated by olivine and clinopyroxene. Proportions of plagioclase and titanomagnetite increase from HAB to andesites. Initial {87Sr }/{86Sr } ratios increase with differentiation from 0.70398 for the HMB to 0.70592 for the andesites. This suggests concomitant crustal contamination. The geochemical characteristics of the high-magnesia basalts are typical of subduction-related magmas, with negative Nb, Zr and Ti spikes in mantle-normalized diagrams. It is proposed that these high-magnesia basalts were produced by partial melting of a mantle source characterized by large-ion lithophile elements (LILE) enrichment related principally to dehydration of subducted oceanic crust. Chondrite-normalized rare earth elements (REE) patterns indicate that the lavas are somewhat enriched in light rare earth elements (LREE), with flat heavy rare earth elements (HREE) patterns. This evidence is consistent with a spinel-bearing mantle source. The sub-parallel chondrite-normalized patterns show enrichment with differentiation, with a greater increase of LREE than HREE. The occurrence of high-magnesia basalts at 18 Ma in Sardinia appears to be correlated with and favoured by pronounced extensional tectonics at that time.

Morra, V.; Secchi, F. A. G.; Melluso, L.; Franciosi, L.

1997-03-01

96

Triple-negative breast cancer frequency and type of BRCA mutation: Clues from Sardinia  

PubMed Central

Germline mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes have been demonstrated to increase the risk of developing breast cancer. Among the prognostic factors currently used in clinical practice, the disease stage and the receptor status play a crucial role in the management of breast carcinoma. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has been classified as a disease subgroup that is negative for oestrogen, progesterone and HER2 receptor expression, and presents a poor prognosis. The present study investigated the correlation between BRCA1/2 mutations and TNBC status in a large series (n=726) of breast cancer patients from Sardinia. The BRCA mutation screening was performed on genomic DNA from peripheral blood samples by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography analysis and automated DNA sequencing. Overall, 21/726 (2.9%) patients carried a germline mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2. The TNBC phenotype was significantly associated with the BRCA1 mutations (P<0.001), whereas no association was found with the BRCA2 mutations (P=0.837). With respect to patient origin within Sardinia, a significant inverse distribution of mutations was found; BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations represented 86 and 93% of the mutated cases in Southern and Middle-Northern Sardinia, respectively (P<0.001). Patients from the geographical area with BRCA1 mutation prevalence presented a TNBC incidence much higher than that observed in cases from the area with BRCA2 mutation prevalence (12 vs. 4%, respectively; P=0.037). These findings further confirmed that the occurrence of TNBC is significantly associated with the BRCA1 mutation carrier status and that a different ‘genetic background’ may have a phenotypic impact in the onset of breast cancer.

PALOMBA, GRAZIA; BUDRONI, MARIO; OLMEO, NINA; ATZORI, FRANCESCO; IONTA, MARIA TERESA; PISANO, MARINA; TANDA, FRANCESCO; COSSU, ANTONIO; PALMIERI, GIUSEPPE

2014-01-01

97

Beach and dunal system monitoring at Su Giudeu beach, Sardinia (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Even if coastal floods are quite rare events in Sardinia (Italy) at present, they have had dramatic consequences for coastal communities, particularly in conjunction with river flooding. However, flood risk (defined as the product of event probability, vulnerability and value of assets) is expected to increase significantly in the future, due to climate change, defence degradation and sea level rise. Sardinia island has a costal length of approximately 1.900 km including minor neighbouring islands (25% of the entire Italian coasts) and the estimation of the potential exposure of coastal communities to flooding is therefore a critical task. To date methods for achieving this have been based on modelling of coastal inundation using hydrodynamic or GIS-based models of varying complexity. The Dept of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Architecture at the University of Cagliari is carrying out a comprehensive activity of coastal flooding risk mapping at the regional scale within the framework of a scientific collaboration with the Sardinian Regional Authority for the Hydrographic District, that includes monitoring and scientific activities along the entire Sardinian coast. Bathymetry and topographical surveys, sediment characterization, waves and currents measurements, hydrodynamic and morphodynamic modelling are planned, focusing on critical extended areas. In this paper we present an overview of the entire activity programme and give an in-depth account of the ongoing monitoring survey of the dunal system of the Su Giudeu beach (Southern Sardinia, 50 km far from the city of Cagliari). Su Giudeu is a sandy, bay-shaped beach, extending for about 1200 m between two headlands, evolving under waves with a predominant direction of 220-240°N (Scirocco wind). The survey is expected to provide evidence of the response of the remarkable dunal system to wave runup occurring during storm events, to be used in the verification of existing numerical models of dune erosion.

Balzano, Andrea; Sulis, Andrea

2014-05-01

98

Classical Kaposi's sarcoma in north-east Sardinia: an overview from 1977 to 1991.  

PubMed Central

The incidence of classical Kaposi's sarcoma in 1977-91 was studied in north-east Sardinia. In this period, 160 new cases were observed in a defined area, of which 124 were in males. This represented a standardised incidence of the disease of 1.58/100,000 inhabitants per year (2.43 for males and 0.77 for females). This is the highest incidence of classical Kaposi's sarcoma so far recorded. The incidence increased with age, particularly after the age of 70 in males.

Cottoni, F.; De Marco, R.; Montesu, M. A.

1996-01-01

99

Craniofacial morphometric variation and the biological history of the peopling of Sardinia.  

PubMed

The aim of this work is to explore the pattern of craniofacial morphometric variation and the relationships among five prehistoric Sardinian groups dated from Late Neolithic to the Nuragic Period (Middle and Late Bronze Age), in order to formulate hypotheses on the peopling history of Sardinia. Biological relationships with coeval populations of central peninsular Italy were also analysed to detect influences from and towards extra-Sardinian sources. Furthermore, comparison with samples of contemporary populations from Sardinia and from continental Italy provided an indication of the trend leading to the final part of the peopling history. Finally, Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic samples were included in the analyses to compare the prehistoric Sardinians with some of their potential continental ancestors. The analysis is based on multivariate techniques including Mahalanobis D(2) distance, non-parametric multidimensional scaling (MDS) and principal component analysis (PCA). The results showed the tendency to progressive differentiation between Sardinian groups and peninsular Italian groups, with the possible exception of a discontinuity showed by the Bonnànaro (Early Bronze Age) Sardinian sample. Several aspects of the morphological results were found to agree with the current genetic evidence available for the present-day Sardinian population and a Nuragic sample: (1) biological divergence between the Sardinian and peninsular Italian populations; (2) similarity/continuity among Neolithic, Bronze Age and recent Sardinians; (3) biological separation between the Nuragic and Etruscan populations; (4) contribution of a Palaeo-Mesolithic gene pool to the genetic structure of current Sardinians. PMID:20979998

D'Amore, G; Di Marco, S; Floris, G; Pacciani, E; Sanna, E

2010-12-01

100

Identification of mycobacterial infections in wild boars in Northern Sardinia, Italy.  

PubMed

During a six-month period a region of Northern Sardinia was monitored to check the presence of mycobacterial infections in wild boars. Forty-eight serum and 229 biopsy samples were collected from different animals and examined by both traditional diagnostic techniques (culture, bacterioscopic and molecular tests) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The latter was used to determine the antibody response against both methylated and nonmethylated Heparin-Binding Haemagglutinin (HBHA) protein. Nine mycobacterial strains were isolated: three M. avium ssp. paratuberculosis (Map), three M. avium, one M. interjectum and two M. scrofulaceum strains. By PCR, only one animal was positive for M. bovis, whereas 10 animals were positive for Map. Out of the 48 sera tested, 19 showed a good humoral response to methylated HBHA and 17 to nonmethylated HBHA. Our data provide new information on the prevalence of mycobacterial infection among wild boars in Northern Sardinia and suggest that a more effective program should be developed to monitor mycobacterial infections in the wild animal population. PMID:18669241

Zanetti, Stefania; Bua, Alessandra; Molicotti, Paola; Delogu, Giovanni; Mura, Antonio; Ortu, Silvia; Sechi, Leonardo Antonio

2008-06-01

101

Stream water chemistry in the arsenic-contaminated Baccu Locci mine watershed (Sardinia, Italy) after remediation.  

PubMed

The abandoned Pb-As Baccu Locci mine represents the first and only case of mine site remediation in Sardinia, Italy. Arsenic is the most relevant environmental concern in the Baccu Locci stream watershed, with concentrations in surface waters up to and sometimes over 1 mg/L. The main remediation action consisted in creation of a "storage site", for the collection of contaminated materials from different waste-rock dumps and most of tailings piles occurring along the Baccu Locci stream. This paper reports preliminary results on the level of contamination in the Baccu Locci stream after the completion of remediation measures. Post-remediation stream water chemistry has not substantially changed compared to the pre-remediation situation. In particular, dissolved As maintains an increasing trend along the Baccu Locci stream, with a concentration of about 400 ?g/L measured at a distance of 7 km from the storage site. Future monitoring will provide fundamental information on the effectiveness of remediation actions conducted and their applicability to other mine sites in Sardinia. At the stage of mine site characterisation of future remediation plans, it is recommended to pay more attention to the understanding of mineralogical and geochemical processes responsible for pollution. Moreover, mixing of materials with different composition and reactivity in a storage site should require careful consideration and long-term leaching tests. PMID:23666684

Ardau, Carla; Podda, Francesca; Da Pelo, Stefania; Frau, Franco

2013-11-01

102

Population Density and Distribution of Wheat Bugs Infesting Durum Wheat in Sardinia, Italy  

PubMed Central

Wheat is a very important crop in Italy, and is infested by wheat bugs belonging to the genera Eurygaster (Hemiptera: Scutellaridae) and Aelia (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Many wheat bug infestations have been reported in the north, south, and center of Italy, both in the past as well as recently. The present study was carried out in Sardinia, Italy, during two years (2007 and 2008). The objective of this study was to determine the species and distribution of wheat bugs in durum wheat fields in Sardinia, and to estimate their population density in order to know the incidence of the pest on the island. Sampling took place twice a year (May and June) in three zones, representative of durum wheat cropping in the island. Four species of wheat bugs were found; the predominant species was Eurygaster austriaca (Schrank), followed by Aelia germari (Kuster), Eurygaster maura L., and Aelia acuminata L. The average density of wheat bugs was low (1.1 individuals/m2), but in certain areas it was above the damage threshold (4 individuals/m2). For this reason, the conclusion of the study is that this pest should be monitored in order to control outbreaks and prevent their further spread.

Salis, Luigi; Goula, Marta; Izquierdo, Jordi; Gordun, Elena

2013-01-01

103

The panels for primary and secondary mirror reflectors and the Active Surface System for the new Sardinia Radio Telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we will describe the panels for the primary and secondary mirror reflectors and the active surface system that will be provided on the Sardinia Radio Telescope. The panels for the primary and secondary mirror have been designed to allow an operating frequency up to 100 GHz. The active surface system will be used to overcome the effect

G. Zacchiroli; F. Fiocchi; G. Maccaferri; M. Morsiani; A. Orfei; C. Pernechele; T. Pisanu; J. Roda; G. Vargiu

2006-01-01

104

Analysis of current and temperature data collected in the channel of Sardinia during the SALTO and MFSPP experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SALTO experiment was conducted from July 1999 to April 2000 to study the intermediate and deep circulation in the channel of Sardinia. Five moorings were aligned from southeast (M1) to northwest (M5) along one of the XBT lines monitored twice monthly during the MFSPP experiment. They were set about 10 miles apart over isobaths of 1000-2000 m, and they

G. Rougier; C. Millot; E. Chretien; T. Gervais; J.-L. Fuda; C. Sammari

2003-01-01

105

Indagine per l'utilizzazione di Risorse Geotermiche a Bassa Entalpia Nelle Regione Sardegna (Use of Low-Enthalpy Geothermic Resources in Sardinia).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study is a preliminary investigation on the potential thermal consumption in the Northern and South-Western part of Sardinia, especially in areas favorable for the exploitation of low enthalpy geothermal energy. The following types of consumption are...

1984-01-01

106

A Population Where Men Live As Long As Women: Villagrande Strisaili, Sardinia  

PubMed Central

Usually women live longer than men and female centenarians largely outnumber male centenarians. The findings of previous studies identifying a population with a femininity ratio close to 1.0 among centenarians in the mountainous region of Sardinia was the starting point of an in-depth investigation in order to compare mortality trajectories between men and women in that population. The exceptional survival of men compared to women emerges from the comparison with similar Italian data. Age exaggeration for men has been strictly excluded as a result of the age validation procedure. The discussion suggests that besides biological/genetic factors, the behavioral factors including life style, demographic behavior, family support, and community characteristics may play an important role. No single explanation is likely to account for such an exceptional situation and a fully integrated multidisciplinary approach is urgently needed.

Poulain, Michel; Pes, Gianni; Salaris, Luisa

2011-01-01

107

ESR dating of an ancient goat tooth from Nuoro, Sardinia, Italy.  

PubMed

The dating of fossil teeth of an ancient goat (Nesogoral melonii) using the electron spin resonance (ESR) technique is reported. This animal was found in the fossiliferous site at Orosei (Nuoro, Sardinia, Italy) and was endemic in the region. Molar teeth were cleaned and enamel was completely removed from dentine. Enamel was irradiated with a 60Co gamma source and measured with an ESR spectrometer (X-band) to obtain the signal vs. dose curve and fitted with an exponential function. The archeological dose obtained by the fitting was 211 +/- 34 Gy. Uranium and thorium concentrations were determined by neutron activation analysis. With the software ROSY the age estimates were 195 +/- 30 ky for early uptake, 247 +/- 40 ky for linear uptake and 243 +/- 40 ky for a combination of uptake processes. PMID:16597696

Baffa, O; Kinoshita, A; Figueiredo, A M G; Brunetti, A; Ginesu, S

2006-01-01

108

Zn biomineralization processes and microbial biofilm in a metal-rich stream (Naracauli, Sardinia).  

PubMed

Several decades after the closure of the Ingurtosu mine (SW Sardinia), a variety of seasonal Zn biomineralizations occurs. In this work, waters, microbial consortia, and seasonal precipitates from the Naracauli stream were sampled to investigate chemical composition of stream waters and biominerals, and microbial strain identity. Molecular and morphological analysis revealed that activity of dominant cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya frigida results in precipitation of Zn silicate. The activity of the cyanobacterium was associated to other bacteria and many kind of diatoms, such as Halamphora subsalina and Encyonopsis microcephala, which are trapped in the process of biomineral growth. In this work, the precipitation process is shown to be the result of many different parameters such as hydrologic regime, microbial community adaptation, and biological mediation. It results in a decrease of dissolved Zn in the stream water, and is a potential tool for Zn pollution abatement. PMID:23872900

Podda, F; Medas, D; De Giudici, G; Ryszka, P; Wolowski, K; Turnau, K

2014-06-01

109

The dual-band LP feed system for the Sardinia Radio Telescope prime focus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the design of the passive feed system of the dual-band receiver for the prime focus of the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT), a new 64 m diameter radio telescope which is being built in Sardinia, Italy. The feed system operates simultaneously in P-band (305-410 MHz) and L-band (1300-1800 MHz). The room temperature illuminators are arranged in coaxial configuration with an inner circular waveguide for L-band (diameter of 19 cm) and an outer coaxial waveguide for P-band (diameter of 65 cm). Choke flanges are used outside the coaxial section to improve the crosspolarization performance and the back scattering of the P-band feed. The geometry was optimized for compactness and high antenna efficiency in both bands using commercial electromagnetic simulators. Four probes arranged in symmetrical configuration are used in both the P and the L-band feeds to extract dual-linearly polarized signals and to combine them, through phased-matched coaxial cables, into 180 deg hybrid couplers. A vacuum vessel encloses the two P-band hybrids and the two L-band hybrids which are cooled, respectively at 15 K and 77 K. For the P-Band, four low loss coaxial feedthroughs are used to cross the vacuum vessel, while for the L-Band a very low loss large window is employed. The P-band hybrids are based on a microstrip rat-race design with fractal geometry. The L-band hybrids are based on an innovative double-ridged waveguide design that also integrates a band-pass filter for Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) mitigation.

Valente, G.; Pisanu, T.; Bolli, P.; Mariotti, S.; Marongiu, P.; Navarrini, A.; Nesti, R.; Orfei, A.; Roda, J.

2010-07-01

110

Front-end design at 22 GHz for the Gregorian focus of the new Sardinia Radio Telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this contribution the design of the front-end of the 22-GHz cooled receiver for the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) is presented. It comprises a corrugated horn feed, a directional coupler and a polarizer. A quite original design approach has been adopted since these devices have been optimized for high performance in the 19-26 GHz-band. Prototypes of the above components have

L. Cresci; L. Lucci; A. Orfei; V. Natale; R. Nesti; D. Panella; G. Pelosi; L. Rossi

2006-01-01

111

Concentration levels of total and methylmercury in mussel samples collected along the coasts of Sardinia Island (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the assessment of the total mercury (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) contamination of mussel samples collected by two sampling campaigns from along the coastline of Sardinia (Italy). T-Hg has been determined by a direct mercury analyser (DMA) whereas MeHg has been determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) after acid extraction, and employs a novel NaBPh4 derivatization method. The

I Ipolyi; P Massanisso; S Sposato; P Fodor; R Morabito

2004-01-01

112

Geomorphology, stratigraphy and facies analysis of some Late Pleistocene and Holocene key deposits along the coast of Sardinia (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two major synthems have been recognised along the coasts of Sardinia. The older one is composed of two sub-synthems, the oldest of which was formed in high-energy boulder beaches, and is a thin condensed transgressive sequence usually located at the foot of a marine cliff. The overlying sub-synthem was generated by aeolian, slope, interdunal ponds and alluvial depositional environments. It

Mauro Coltorti; Egidia Melis; Danila Patta

2010-01-01

113

Distribution of trace elements in filtered and non filtered aqueous fractions: Insights from rivers and streams of Sardinia (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of several trace elements in different aqueous fractions has been studied in running waters from Sardinia (Italy). Trace elements and major components were determined in water samples collected at high- and low-discharge from rivers (90 samples) and streams (70 samples). At selected sites, total (non filtered samples) and dissolved (0.4?m and 0.015?m pore-size filtered samples) amounts of trace

Rosa Cidu; Franco Frau

2009-01-01

114

High prevalence of Werner's syndrome in Sardinia. Description of six patients and estimate of the gene frequency.  

PubMed

Several patients with Werner's syndrome in a large family group in Sardinia were ascertained three years ago and reported briefly by Rabbiosi and Borroni (1979). Since then two sisters from a second family and a single case from a third family were ascertained. The three families originated from the Northern part Sardinia and no connection between them was found. We provide a detailed clinical description of six of these patients and attempt to estimate the prevalence and the gene frequency of Werner's syndrome in Sardinia. The prevalence was calculated as 1:94,914 for the two districts of Sassari and Nuoro and as 1:202,766 for the whole island. This is the highest prevalence thus far ascertained. Using Dahlberg's formula we obtained an estimate of the gene frequency q = 0.003288 and thus a frequency of Werner's syndrome of 1:92,515. A more rigorous estimate gave a gene frequency q = 0.001483 and thus a frequency of Werner's syndrome of 1:454,505, but because of the small sample size this estimate should be taken with caution. PMID:7152524

Cerimele, D; Cottoni, F; Scappaticci, S; Rabbiosi, G; Borroni, G; Sanna, E; Zei, G; Fraccaro, M

1982-01-01

115

Rheomorphic diapirs in densely welded ignimbrites: The Serra di Paringianu ignimbrite of Sardinia, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rheomorphic structures in welded ignimbrites are commonly associated with deposition from hot pyroclastic flows on inclined topography or by tractional shear on aggrading agglutinate by the pyroclastic density current. We describe a type of rheomorphic deformation involving the formation of diapirs in ignimbrite following the re-equilibration of internal gravitational instabilities within the deposit. We show that diapirs can develop in horizontal welded ignimbrites that have an inverted density stratification. The interpretation of these structures in terms of their dynamics and kinematics can help in defining the timing of the deformation history of ignimbrites. The rhyolitic Serra di Paringianu Ignimbrite is the uppermost, largest ignimbrite of Cenozoic volcanism in SW Sardinia. A detailed study at La Punta, north of San Pietro island (Sardinia; Italy), schematically characterized by a twin sequence of densely welded and partially welded ignimbrite flow units of the Serra di Paringianu Ignimbrite, revealed the presence of mushroom and pillow-shaped diapiric structures, constituted by material of an intermediate, partially welded, flow unit intruding into an upper, densely welded, unit. The diapirs are generally connected with their source region and show both vertical and lateral variations in the textural and physical features. The uppermost densely welded unit is deformed within a few meters of the diapiric structures, with the foliation pattern of the surrounding ignimbrite enveloping the cup region of diapirs. We used the existing numerical models of cooling-compaction of welded ignimbrites to constrain the time scale for the development of specific rheomorphic structures. We present a model in which the diapirism involves the buoyant rise of partially welded lithofacies into the densely welded cover in a time scale of a few months. The diapir model takes into account the rheology of the host and intruding layers and explains the textural and physical modifications both experienced by the partially welded lithofacies during rise and induced in the host layers. The model shows that the time scale of the diapiric rise well agrees with the time scale of the cooling process of the upper portion of the ignimbrite.

Mundula, F.; Cioni, R.; Mulas, M.

2013-05-01

116

Autoimmunity in gestational diabetes mellitus in Sardinia: a preliminary case-control report  

PubMed Central

Background We previously reported a high prevalence (22.3%) of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in a large group of Sardinian women, in contrast with the prevalence of Type 2 diabetes. Sardinia has an unusual distribution of haplotypes and genotypes, with the highest population frequency of HLA DR3 in the world, and after Finland, the highest prevalence of Type 1 diabetes and Autoimmune-related Diseases. In this study we preliminarily tested the prevalence of serological markers of Type 1 diabetes in a group of Sardinian GDM patients. Methods We determined glutamic decarboxylase antibodies (anti-GAD65), protein tyrosine phosphatase ICA 512 (IA2) antibodies (anti-IA2), and IAA in 62 GDM patients, and in 56 controls with matching age, gestational age and parity. Results We found a high prevalence and very unusual distribution of antibodies in GDM patients (38.8%), the anti-IA2 being the most frequent antibody. Out of all our GDM patients, 38.8% (24 of 62) were positive for at least one antibody. Anti-IA2 was present in 29.0 % (18 out of 62) vs. 7.1% (4 out of 56) in the controls (P < 0.001). IAA was present in 14.5% (9 out of 62) of our GDM patients, and absent in the control subjects (P < 0.001). Anti-GAD65 was also present in GDM patients, with a prevalence of 3.2% (2 out of 62) while it was absent in the control group (P = NS). Pre-gestational weight was significantly lower (57.78 ± 9.8 vs 65.9 ± 17.3 P = 0.04) in auto-antibodies- positive GDM patients. Conclusion These results are in contrast with the very low prevalence of all antibodies reported in Italy. If confirmed, they could indicate that a large proportion of GDM patients in Sardinia have an autoimmune origin, in accordance with the high prevalence of Type 1 diabetes.

Murgia, Cinzia; Orru, Marisa; Portoghese, Elaine; Garau, Nicoletta; Zedda, Pierina; Berria, Rachele; Motzo, Costantino; Sulis, Simonetta; Murenu, Michela; Paoletti, Anna Maria; Melis, Gian Benedetto

2008-01-01

117

An unusual Messinian succession in the Sinis Peninsula, western Sardinia, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently completed sedimentological and palaeontological analyses of the Messinian deposits of western Sardinia yielded dating, palaeoenvironmental and new sequence stratigraphic interpretations. The Basal Marls and the Capo San Marco Formation are referred to the Messinian. Both formations were deposited in a ramp setting, whereas the overlaying Sinis Limestone Formation is interpreted as a carbonate platform of wide extent, probably equivalent to part of the Terminal Carbonate Complex. All these deposits are considered to have formed under normal marine conditions. The three formations developed during one and a half cycles of progradation-retrogradation. Compared with other Messinian Mediterranean carbonate platforms, the Sinis Peninsula exhibits several unusual features: The notable absence of scleractinian coral reefs is related to dominantly cool seawater in this area. The Capo San Marco Formation contains widespread microbial-bryozoan-serpulid carbonate buildups, partially associated with upwelling currents. The breccias at the top of the Sinis Limestone Formation are regarded as resulting from a major seismic shock over the whole peninsula.

André, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Jean-Paul Saint; Moissette, Pierre; Garcia, Frédéric; Cornée, Jean-Jacques; Ferrandini, Michelle

2004-05-01

118

The amorphous Zn biomineralization at Naracauli stream, Sardinia: electron microscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy.  

PubMed

An amorphous Zn biomineralization ("white mud"), occurring at Naracauli stream, Sardinia, in association with cyanobacteria Leptolyngbya frigida and diatoms, was investigated by electron microscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Preliminary diffraction analysis shows that the precipitate sampled on Naracauli stream bed is mainly amorphous, with some peaks ascribable to quartz and phyllosilicates, plus few minor unattributed peaks. Scanning electron microscopy analysis shows that the white mud, precipitated in association with a seasonal biofilm, is made of sheaths rich in Zn, Si, and O, plus filaments likely made of organic matter. Transmission electron microscopy analysis shows that the sheaths are made of smaller units having a size in the range between 100 and 200 nm. X-ray absorption near-edge structure and extended X-ray absorption fine structure data collected at the Zn K-edge indicate that the biomineral has a local structure similar to hemimorphite, a zinc sorosilicate. The differences of this biomineral with respect to the hydrozincite biomineralization documented about 3 km upstream in the same Naracauli stream may be related to either variations in the physicochemical parameters and/or different metabolic behavior of the involved biota. PMID:23832800

Medas, D; Lattanzi, P; Podda, F; Meneghini, C; Trapananti, A; Sprocati, A; Casu, M A; Musu, E; De Giudici, G

2014-06-01

119

An overview of the Sardinia Radio Telescope geodetic potential at national and international levels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) potentials in geodesy are mostly connected to VLBI techniques and they may have a remarkable impact on both national and international geodetic science. A development plan concerning geodetic technical instrumentation should be provided soon, so as to perform geodetic observations with the SRT in the near future. The SRT is being developed within a well-consolidated national environment of geodetic VLBI activities: Medicina and Noto observatories have been continuously participating in geodetic VLBI observations for almost two decades. Matera observatory, whose 20-m VLBI telescope is entirely devoted to geodetic VLBI, is one of the few fundamental geodetic Earth's observatories and is running VLBI experiments since 1990. At a national level, the SRT has the capability to establish a self-consistent Italian VLBI network: it would represent a unique facility in Europe. At an international level, the SRT should be made part of the geodetic International VLBI Network whose operations are supported and coordinated by the IVS (International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry). IVS promotes research and technological development in geodesy and astrometry, with important outcomes for the astronomical VLBI community, too. In the following sections, the contribution of the SRT to space geodesy, geophysics and related research fields will be outlined.

Sarti, P.; Negusini, M.; Montaguti, S.; Mantovani, F.; Buffa, F.; Deiana, G. L.; Gusai, V.; Poma, A.; Sorgente, M.

120

Phenotypic and genotypic analysis of rhizobia isolated from pasture legumes native of Sardinia and Asinara Island.  

PubMed

Thirty-five rhizobial strains were isolated from nodules of Lotus edulis, L. ornithopodioides, L. cytisoides, Hedysarum coronarium, Ornithopus compressus and Scorpiurus muricatus growing in Sardinia and Asinara Island. Basic characteristics applied to identification of rhizobia such as symbiotic properties, antibiotic- and salt-resistance, temperate-sensitivities, utilization of different sources of carbon and nitrogen were studied. The results from the 74 metabolic tests were used for cluster analysis of the new rhizobial isolates and 28 reference strains, belonging to previously classified and unclassified fast-, intermediate- and slow-growing rhizobia. All strains examined were divided into two large groups at a linkage distance of 0.58. None of the reference strains clustered with the new rhizobial isolates, which formed five subgroups almost respective of their plant origin. RFLP analysis of PCR-amplified 16S-23S rDNA IGS showed that the levels of similarity between rhizobial isolates from Ornithopus, Hedysarum and Scorpiurus, and the type strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum, Mesorhizobium loti, M. ciceri, M. mediterraneum, Sinorhizobium meliloti and Bradyrhizobium japonicum were not more than 30%. Thus, it can be assumed that these groups of new rhizobial isolates are not closely related to the validly described rhizobial species. PMID:15031655

Safronova, V I; Piluzza, G; Belimov, A A; Bullitta, S

2004-02-01

121

A Roman bronze statuette with gilded silver mask from Sardinia: an EDXRF study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Roman bronze statuette from the 2nd Century BC was recovered from a nuragic sanctuary close to Florinas, in the north of Sardinia. The facial portion of the statuette is covered by a silver mask, partially gilded and attached to the bronze by tin-lead welding. The silver mask was carefully analyzed by portable energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), a non-destructive and non-invasive method. The aim of the analysis was to reconstruct the layered structure of the silver gilt mask, and to determine homogeneity and thickness of the gold, silver and lead-tin sheets. This is possible by using the internal ratio of the X-ray lines, i.e. starting from the surface, Au (L ?/L ?), Ag (K ?/K ?), Au-L ?/Ag-K ? and Pb (L ?/L ?).The results were compared with those obtained with simulated X-ray spectra, obtained both experimentally and by using the Monte Carlo simulation technique.

Cesareo, Roberto; Brunetti, Antonio; D'Oriano, Rubens; Canu, Alba; Demontis, Gonaria Mattia; Celauro, Angela

2013-12-01

122

[Human hydatidosis in Sardinia. Epidemiologic study of the cases operated on from 1974 to 1981].  

PubMed

A retrospective survey of surgical cases to obtain baseline data on hydatid disease in Sardinia from 1974 to 1981 revealed an annual mean rate of 11.1/100.000 population. However, real prevalence is obviously higher, since infection is not always synonymous with disease and surgical incidence should be regarded as the figure that counts. Information on sex, age, residence, occupation, cyst location, number of re-operations was collected to assess the public health impact to hydatidosis within the island. The obtained results indicate that not all population is at equal risk, being hydatid disease most prevalent in rural areas and particularly in the districts where sheep-breeding is highly diffused (annual mean rate greater than 20/100.000 population). The highest rate was observed in farmers and shepherds (34.2/100.000) respect to retired (14.1/100.000), housewives (10.9/100.000), employed in services (8.9/100.000) and students (8.3/100.000). Over 55% of the cysts were found in the liver, about 30% in the lung and 15% in other sites. A correlation between age and cyst location and between profession and cyst location was shown. Pulmonary cysts were prevalent in children and young people, hepatic in grown-up people, whereas nearly the same hepatic and pulmonary frequency was observed in shepherds. Comparisons between previous surveyed periods were done and results were discussed, suggesting the need of a continuous and well-planned control programme. PMID:3870642

Conchedda, M; Bortoletti, G; Capra, S; Palmas, C; Putzolu, F; Gabriele, F

1985-12-01

123

Mendelian breeding units versus standard sampling strategies: Mitochondrial DNA variation in southwest Sardinia.  

PubMed

We report a sampling strategy based on Mendelian Breeding Units (MBUs), representing an interbreeding group of individuals sharing a common gene pool. The identification of MBUs is crucial for case-control experimental design in association studies. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possible existence of bias in terms of genetic variability and haplogroup frequencies in the MBU sample, due to severe sample selection. In order to reach this goal, the MBU sampling strategy was compared to a standard selection of individuals according to their surname and place of birth. We analysed mitochondrial DNA variation (first hypervariable segment and coding region) in unrelated healthy subjects from two different areas of Sardinia: the area around the town of Cabras and the western Campidano area. No statistically significant differences were observed when the two sampling methods were compared, indicating that the stringent sample selection needed to establish a MBU does not alter original genetic variability and haplogroup distribution. Therefore, the MBU sampling strategy can be considered a useful tool in association studies of complex traits. PMID:21734814

Sanna, Daria; Pala, Maria; Cossu, Piero; Dedola, Gian Luca; Melis, Sonia; Fresu, Giovanni; Morelli, Laura; Obinu, Domenica; Tonolo, Giancarlo; Secchi, Giannina; Triunfo, Riccardo; Lorenz, Joseph G; Scheinfeldt, Laura; Torroni, Antonio; Robledo, Renato; Francalacci, Paolo

2011-04-01

124

Effect of fire on soil physical and chemical properties in a Mediterranean area of Sardinia.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires are one of the most widespread factors of ecosystem degradation around the world. The degree of change in both chemical and biological properties of soil inducted by forest fires is related to temperature and persistence of the fire as well as to moisture content of soil and of fuel. The present note reports the first experimental results of a wider-scale research project, whose aim is to develop methods for analysis and collection of field data by using a multidisciplinary approach in order to evaluate land erosion hazard. Specific objectives of this study are: i) to compare burned and unburned soil in order to evaluate the effect of fire on physical and chemical soil properties; ii) to measure soil erosion after fire in relation to different slopes. The experimental site is located in Mediterranean basin, on a steep slope in a hilly area of north-western Sardinia (Municipality of Ittiri, Italy), where a human caused fire occurred in august 2013. The area is mainly covered by the typical Mediterranean vegetation. Immediately after fire, several soil samples were collected from 0-10 cm depth, both in burned and in unburned plots. The soil organic matter, N, and P contents, pH, and soil texture were then determined in laboratory. Soil erosion rates from experimental plots were measured and estimated by silt fences technique taking into account different slopes and vegetation distribution.

Canu, Annalisa; Motroni, Andrea; Arca, Bachisio; Pellizzaro, Grazia; Ventura, Andrea; Secci, Romina; Robichaud, Peter

2014-05-01

125

Hydrogeology of the Nurra Region, Sardinia (Italy): basement-cover influences on groundwater occurrence and hydrogeochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nurra district in the Island of Sardinia (Italy) has a Palaeozoic basement and covers, consisting of Mesozoic carbonates, Cenozoic pyroclastic rocks and Quaternary, mainly clastic, sediments. The faulting and folding affecting the covers predominantly control the geomorphology. The morphology of the southern part is controlled by the Tertiary volcanic activity that generated a stack of pyroclastic flows. Geological structures and lithology exert the main control on recharge and groundwater circulation, as well as its availability and quality. The watershed divides do not fit the groundwater divide; the latter is conditioned by open folds and by faults. The Mesozoic folded carbonate sequences contain appreciable amounts of groundwater, particularly where structural lows are generated by synclines and normal faults. The regional groundwater flow has been defined. The investigated groundwater shows relatively high TDS and chloride concentrations which, along with other hydrogeochemical evidence, rules out sea-water intrusion as the cause of high salinity. The high chloride and sulphate concentrations can be related to deep hydrothermal circuits and to Triassic evaporites, respectively. The source water chemistry has been modified by various geochemical processes due to the groundwater-rock interaction, including ion exchange with hydrothermal minerals and clays, incongruent solution of dolomite, and sulphate reduction.

Ghiglieri, Giorgio; Oggiano, Giacomo; Fidelibus, Maria Dolores; Alemayehu, Tamiru; Barbieri, Giulio; Vernier, Antonio

2009-03-01

126

Analysis of salinization processes in the coastal carbonate aquifer of Porto Torres (NW Sardinia, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThe Porto Torres (NW Sardinia) coastal aquifer is hosted in the carbonate rocks of the Miocene succession, which fills a NNW oriented half-graben. This aquifer is an important contributor to the fresh water supply of the local area. It is increasingly being degraded by salinization processes, mainly associated with intense groundwater over-exploitation. A combined hydrochemical and hydrogeological study has been carried out to identify the origin of the salinity in the groundwater. The behavior of the major ions showed that the changes in the chemical composition of the groundwater have been mainly controlled by the encroachment of seawater, accompanied by cation exchange reactions. Since seawater intrusion is a dynamic process, an Hydrochemical Facies Evolution Diagram, HFE-D (Gimenez Forcada, 2010) approach was taken to establish whether the aquifer was in the seawater intrusion or in the freshening phase. The assessment model developed provides regional authorities with a basic tools for sustainable water management in the framework of multi-disciplinary research activities aiming to combat and/or mitigate desertification and land degradation processes.

Ghiglieri, Giorgio; Carletti, Alberto; Pittalis, Daniele

2012-04-01

127

Tracing the boundaries of Cenozoic volcanic edifices from Sardinia (Italy): a geomorphometric contribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unequivocal delimitation of landforms is an important issue for different purposes, from science-driven morphometric analysis to legal issues related to land conservation. This study is aimed at giving a new contribution to the morphometric approach for the delineation of the boundaries of volcanic edifices, applied to 13 monogenetic volcanoes (scoria cones) related to the Pliocene-Pleistocene volcanic cycle in Sardinia (Italy). External boundary delimitation of the edifices is discussed based on an integrated methodology using automatic elaboration of digital elevation models together with geomorphological and geological observations. Different elaborations of surface slope and profile curvature have been proposed and discussed; among them, two algorithms based on simple mathematical functions combining slope and profile curvature well fit the requirements of this study. One of theses algorithms is a modification of a function already discussed by Grosse et al. (2011), which better perform for recognizing and tracing the boundary between the volcanic scoria cone and its basement. Although the geological constraints still drive the final decision, the proposed method improves the existing tools for a semi-automatic tracing of the boundaries.

Melis, M. T.; Mundula, F.; Dessì, F.; Cioni, R.; Funedda, A.

2014-05-01

128

The panels for primary and secondary mirror reflectors and the Active Surface System for the new Sardinia Radio Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we will describe the panels for the primary and secondary mirror reflectors and the active surface system that will be provided on the Sardinia Radio Telescope. The panels for the primary and secondary mirror have been designed to allow an operating frequency up to 100 GHz. The active surface system will be used to overcome the effect of gravity deformation on the antenna gain and to re-shape the primary mirror in a parabolic form, in order to avoid large phase error contribution on the gain for the highest frequencies placed in the primary focus.

Zacchiroli, G.; Fiocchi, F.; Maccaferri, G.; Morsiani, M.; Orfei, A.; Pernechele, C.; Pisanu, T.; Roda, J.; Vargiu, G.

129

Front-end design at 22 GHz for the Gregorian focus of the new Sardinia Radio Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this contribution the design of the front-end of the 22-GHz cooled receiver for the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) is presented. It comprises a corrugated horn feed, a directional coupler and a polarizer. A quite original design approach has been adopted since these devices have been optimized for high performance in the 19-26 GHz-band. Prototypes of the above components have been produced and tested highlighting very good agreement with the expected electromagnetic behaviour. Furthermore, in this contribution the effects of the beam in the sky due to the above front-end feeding the Gregorian dual-mirror configuration of the SRT are analyzed.

Cresci, L.; Lucci, L.; Orfei, A.; Natale, V.; Nesti, R.; Panella, D.; Pelosi, G.; Rossi, L.

130

The new French 2010 Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus causes an RHD-like disease in the Sardinian Cape hare (Lepus capensis mediterraneus)  

PubMed Central

Lagovirus is an emerging genus of Caliciviridae, which includes the Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) of rabbits and the European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) of hares that cause lethal hepatitis. In 2010, a new RHDV related virus (RHDV2) with a unique genetic and antigenic profile and lower virulence was identified in France in rabbits. Here we report the identification of RHDV2 as the cause in Sardinia of several outbreaks of acute hepatitis in rabbits and Cape hare (Lepus capensis mediterraneus). This is the first account of a lagovirus that causes fatal hepatitis in both rabbits and hares.

2013-01-01

131

On the decrease of water resources during the last decades in the Flumendosa basin, Sardinia.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mediterranean climate is characterized by a cool and wet winter and a hot and dry summer. In these climate ecosystems during the winter months much of the precipitation recharges sub-surface and surface reservoirs. However, in the late winter and early spring, when vegetation growth conditions are favorable, much of the precipitation can be depleted by transpiration and, furthermore, runoff reduced directly by the increased vegetation cover. A common feature of the Mediterranean region is the evident effect of climate changes that it is causing several problems on the water resources availability. Brunetti et al. (2000) and Dunkeloh and Jacobeit (2003) have shown a strong decreasing trend in winter precipitation amounts over much of the Mediterranean for the past several decades. Additionally, there is evidence of shifts in how the precipitation is distributed across the winter and spring months. Considering that the most of the runoff to surface reservoirs occurs in the winter months and that spring hydrologic response is likely to be influenced strongly by vegetation (depending on overlap between rainy- and growing-seasons) these precipitation changes can be considered hydrologically important. Case study is the Flumendosa basin (Sardinia, basin area of about 1700 km2), which is characterized by a reservoir system that supplies water to the main city of Sardinia, Cagliari. Data are from 42 rain gauges stations (1922-2008 period) over the entire basin and data of runoff are available for the same period. Interestingly in the Flumendosa reservoir system the average annual input from stream discharge in the latter part of the 20th century was less than half the historic average rate, while the precipitation over the Flumendosa basin has decreased, but not at such a drastic rate as the discharge, suggesting a marked non-linear response of discharge to precipitation changes. Trends in precipitation series were examined using the Mann-Kendall non-parametric trend test, which shows a sequence of alternating decreasing and increasing trends in monthly precipitation, statistically significant. In autumn and winter months rains are decreasing, while an increase of monthly precipitation is estimated in the spring and summer months. The analysis of the mean seasonal precipitation climatology confirms the same behavior, highlighting a clear change of the rain regime after 1980. Hence, in late 30 years the rain decreased during the winter months (i.e., less recharges to the reservoirs), and increases during spring and summer months, when the evapotraspiration is higher (i.e., recharges to the reservoirs doesn't increase). Interestingly we found differences of rain between the mountain and the down plane area of the basin: in the mountain area of the Flumendosa basin there is a strong positive trend, i.e. an increase, of the number of wet days of the winter months only for the highest rain intensity (> 50 mm/d), in contrast with the other part of the basin and the lower rain intensities. Hence, the results highlight an increase of floods only for the mountain part of the basin during the winter months due to the increase of the frequency of the highest rain intensities; while at the whole basin scale the rainfall trend is negative for the winter months, so that runoff decreased in the most important period of the year for reservoir recharge.

Corona, Roberto; Montaldo, Nicola; Albertson, John D.

2014-05-01

132

Genesis of a Variscan batholith: Field, petrological and mineralogical evidence from the Corsica-Sardinia batholith  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The genesis of the Corsica-Sardinia batholith (CSB) can be explained in a continental collision setting. During the time of construction of the batholith, which is dated at about 70 Ma, three magmatic associations were emplaced: Mg-K calc-alkaline (U1), composite (mafic-silicic) calc-alkaline (U2) and post-collisional alkaline (U3). In addition, the level of intrusion became progressively shallower (from 5-6 kbar for U1 to less than Ikbar for U3) in a large-scale uplift. Associations U1 and U2 exhibit non-cogenetic mafic and felsic components. The processes and products of interaction between mantle- and crustal-derived melts are however different, and may be related to the thickness of the crust which controls both the parameters T, pCO 2, pH 2O andPtot, and the time of mingling of the products of anatexis and basaltic melts. Both U1 and U2 granitoids were formed by crystallization of a magma derived by fusion of a source of greywacke composition. The melting occurred successively under granulitic (U1) and amphibolite facies conditions (U2). In association U1, basaltic melts displaying potassic lamprophyre-like composition (up to 8% K 2O) are of uncertain affinity. Furthermore, crustal interaction with the basic magma precludes precise definition of the source. In the U2 composite association, the primary tholeiitic character of the mantle-derived basic rocks is constrained by both mineralogical and geochemical data. "Dry" and "hydrated" subunits are distinguished among the basic rocks associated with the granitoids. No hybridization processes have been identified in the core of the mafic complexes of the dry subunits, but they are recognized at the level of emplacement at the margins at the contact with the granitoids. Contamination in the mafic hydrated subunit is due to the increase in water content of crustal origin in the magma during the ascent and emplacement of the basic complexes, leading to the development of abundant green amphibole. Extensive hybridization is restricted to the base of the crust where it led to incomplete mixing, yielding granodiorites and enclaves. The genesis and emplacement of the composite calc-alkaline U2 association took place in an extensional setting in an uplifting basement postdating a collisional event. During the Devonian, an eastern Austro-Alpine block was thrust onto the western "Ebro-Balearic" continent. The U1 Mg-K granitoids resulted from anatexis under conditions of pCO 2 > pH 2O; this took place at the base of the Austro-Alpine crust which was undergoing fusion due to its adiabatic ascent. The U2 calc-alkaline granitoid rocks were derived, in a hydrated environment, by fusion of the same Austro-Alpine crust in Corsica and of the Ebro-Balearic crust on Sardinia and in the Pyrenees. The conditions of interaction between mafic and felsic magmas may serve as a geodynamic marker providing information on the thickness of the crust in time and space and on the genesis of continental crust. The persistence during the Palaeozoic of dominantly tholeiitic mafic magmatism suggests that hot spot activity occurred in this area of southwestern Europe during pre-Variscan and Variscan times up to the time of opening of the Liguro-Piedmontese ocean, birthplace of the Alpine orogen.

Rossi, Philippe; Cocherie, Alain

1991-09-01

133

Association between Protective and Deleterious HLA Alleles with Multiple Sclerosis in Central East Sardinia  

PubMed Central

The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex on chromosome 6p21 has been unambiguously associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). The complex features of the HLA region, especially its high genic content, extreme polymorphism, and extensive linkage disequilibrium, has prevented to resolve the nature of HLA association in MS. We performed a family based association study on the isolated population of the Nuoro province (Sardinia) to clarify the role of HLA genes in MS. The main stage of our study involved an analysis of the ancestral haplotypes A2Cw7B58DR2DQ1 and A30Cw5B18DR3DQ2. On the basis of a multiplicative model, the effect of the first haplotype is protective with an odds ratio (OR)?=?0.27 (95% confidence interval CI 0.13–0.57), while that of the second is deleterious, OR 1.78 (95% CI 1.26–2.50). We found both class I (A, Cw, B) and class II (DR, DQ) loci to have an effect on MS susceptibility, but we saw that they act independently from each other. We also performed an exploratory analysis on a set of 796 SNPs in the same HLA region. Our study supports the claim that Class I and Class II loci act independently on MS susceptibility and this has a biological explanation. Also, the analysis of SNPs suggests that there are other HLA genes involved in MS, but replication is needed. This opens up new perspective on the study of MS.

Pastorino, Roberta; Menni, Cristina; Barca, Monserrata; Foco, Luisa; Saddi, Valeria; Gazzaniga, Giovanna; Ferrai, Raffaela; Mascaretti, Luca; Dudbridge, Frank; Berzuini, Carlo; Murgia, Salvatore Bruno; Piras, Maria Luisa; Ticca, Anna; Bitti, Pier Paolo; Bernardinelli, Luisa

2009-01-01

134

A control loop closure system for the Sardinia Radio Telescope active surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) is a 64 meters (diameter) single dish radioantenna which is in the building phase in Italy. One of the most challenging characteristics of SRT is its capability to observe up to a frequency of 100 GHz thanks to its main reflector active surface. The active surface is composed by 1008 panels and 1116 mechanical actuators which may modify the segmented shape of the main reflector making possible the correction for wavefront distortions induced by the gravitational and thermal deformations. In order to observe at a frequency of 100 GHz the surface shape must be accurate below of a value of 150 ?m r.m.s.. This value may be reached during the initial alignement phase using the microwave holography but it cannot be maintained during the scientific operations because of the (dynamical) deformations. In order to permit the observations at any time, a system able to measure the surface deformations with the necessary accuracy and a time-response of few minutes (the time-scale of the deformations) must be operative. We propose here three simple and robust methods to measure the relative deformations of the segmented panels with respect to an initial aligned surface (reference surface). The ultimate choice on which one of the three systems will operate on SRT will be taken after final testing on all of them. Prototypes of each system have been realized and two of them have been also successfully tested on the active optics radiotelescope of Noto (Italy). The test on the third system will be done in the next few months.

Pernechele, Claudio; Barbieri, Carlo; Bolli, Pietro; Buffa, Franco; Pisanu, Tonino; Poppi, Sergio; Serra, Giampaolo; Morsiani, Marco; Roda, Juri; Zacchiroli, Giampaolo; Nocita, Carlo; Paternò, Mario

2010-07-01

135

Male-female differences in left-handedness in Sardinia, Italy.  

PubMed

Males were consistently found to be more likely than females to report left-hand preference in single-hand tasks, but the literature reports negative results too. Using data from a large sample in Sardinia, we aimed at testing the links of left-handedness with sex, age, residence, and seasonality of birth. A total of 4239 participants (males = 1589; females = 2650) were recruited in public places such as high schools, university classes, or gyms in one of the major islands of Italy. Hand preference was established with the question: Which hand do you normally use to write legibly? The monthly distribution of births was studied with the Rayleigh test. In the sample, 270 female participants reported left-hand preference in writing (10.2%) versus 161 male participants (10.1%). Left-hand preference in writing was negatively related to age, with increasing left-hand preference in the younger generations. Left-hand preference in writing was not more common in urban than in suburban or rural settings. The month of birth was found to have a seasonal effect on the left-handed (p=.031) but not on the right-handed (p=.80) participants, and this seasonal effect was more evident in males (p=.04) than in females (p =.26). In our sample males were not more likely to report left-hand preference in writing than females. On the other hand, left-hand preference does vary by age and, in all likelihood, this is an effect of the reduced cultural pressure to write with the right hand in the younger generations. PMID:21391105

Preti, Antonio; Sisti, Davide; Rocchi, Marco B; Busca, Monica; Vellante, Marcello; Camboni, Maria Valeria; Petretto, Donatella Rita; Masala, Carmelo

2011-11-01

136

Robust characterization of rainfall intermittency in Sardinia and identification of physical controls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of rainfall statistical variability is important for a wide range of water-related disciplines. Rainfall intermittency is often referred to two different aspects of variability: (i) the sudden variations of intensity, and (ii) the alternation of dry and wet periods, which can be analyzed through the construction of the binary series (BS). In this study, we characterize rainfall intermittency in time using a dataset collected by more than 200 tipping-bucket rain gages, covering the entire territory of Sardinia, Italy. For each gage, we sampled the rainfall signal at a resolution of 1 min and selected time sequences of ~45 days, thus focusing on a range of scales interesting for hydrological applications. On each sequence, we applied several techniques to investigate intermittency, including spectral and scale invariance analysis, and computation of clustering and intermittency exponents. The spectral analysis reveals the existence of two scaling regimes, typical of stratiform (from 3 days to 2.5 h) and convective (from 2.5 h to 2 min) systems, consistent with other studies. Investigation of scale invariance for higher moments shows the existence of an additional breaking point at 15-30 min. The change of statistical properties of the rainfall signals at these scales is also confirmed by the clustering and intermittency exponents. These metrics indicate that (i) the BS shows a behavior similar to the white noise at scales lower than 15-30 min, and (ii) rainfall intensity fluctuations tend to attenuate (amplify) the intermittency of the BS at scales smaller (larger) than 15-30 min. Finally, thanks to the availability of a large dataset, we show the presence of spatial patterns for the metrics characterizing rainfall intermittency, which can be explained by the geographical location and the topographic features of the gages, and by the interaction of these characteristics with the dominant weather conditions.

Mascaro, G.; Deidda, R.; Hellies, M.

2012-04-01

137

Zincian dolomite related to supergene alteration in the Iglesias mining district (SW Sardinia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the main effects of supergene alteration of ore-bearing hydrothermal dolomite in areas surrounding secondary zinc orebodies ( Calamine-type nonsulfides) in southwestern Sardinia (Italy) is the formation of a broad halo of Zn dolomite. The characteristics of supergene Zn dolomite have been investigated using scanning electron microscopy and qualitative energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, thermodifferential analysis, and stable isotope geochemistry. The supergene Zn dolomite is characterized by variable amounts of Zn, and low contents of Pb and Cd in the crystal lattice. It is generally depleted in Fe and Mn relative to precursor hydrothermal dolomite ( Dolomia Geodica), which occurs in two phases (stoichiometric dolomite followed by Fe-Mn-Zn-rich dolomite), well distinct in geochemistry. Mg-rich smithsonite is commonly associated to Zn dolomite. Characterization of Zn-bearing dolomite using differential thermal analysis shows a drop in temperature of the first endothermic reaction of dolomite decomposition with increasing Zn contents in dolomite. The supergene Zn dolomites have higher ?18O but lower ?13C values than hydrothermal dolomite. In comparison with smithsonite-hydrozincite, the supergene Zn dolomites have higher ?18O, but comparable ?13C values. Formation of Zn dolomite from meteoric waters is indicated by low ?13C values, suggesting the influence of soil-gas CO2 in near-surface environments. The replacement of the dolomite host by supergene Zn dolomite is interpreted as part of a multistep process, starting with a progressive "zincitization" of the dolomite crystals, followed by a patchy dedolomitization s.s. and potentially concluded by the complete replacement of dolomite by smithsonite.

Boni, M.; Mondillo, N.; Balassone, G.; Joachimski, M.; Colella, A.

2013-01-01

138

A GIS based method for soil mapping in Sardinia, Italy: A geomatic approach.  

PubMed

A new project was recently initiated for the realization of the "Land Unit and Soil Capability Map of Sardinia" at a scale of 1:50,000 to support land use planning. In this study, we outline the general structure of the project and the methods used in the activities that have been thus far conducted. A GIS approach was used. We used the soil-landscape paradigm for the prediction of soil classes and their spatial distribution or the prediction of soil properties based on landscape features. The work is divided into two main phases. In the first phase, the available digital data on land cover, geology and topography were processed and classified according to their influence on weathering processes and soil properties. The methods used in the interpretation are based on consolidated and generalized knowledge about the influence of geology, topography and land cover on soil properties. The existing soil data (areal and point data) were collected, reviewed, validated and standardized according to international and national guidelines. Point data considered to be usable were input into a specific database created for the project. Using expert interpretation, all digital data were merged to produce a first draft of the Land Unit Map. During the second phase, this map will be implemented with the existing soil data and verified in the field if also needed with new soil data collection, and the final Land Unit Map will be produced. The Land Unit and Soil Capability Map will be produced by classifying the land units using a reference matching table of land capability classes created for this project. PMID:24315681

Vacca, A; Loddo, S; Melis, M T; Funedda, A; Puddu, R; Verona, M; Fanni, S; Fantola, F; Madrau, S; Marrone, V A; Serra, G; Tore, C; Manca, D; Pasci, S; Puddu, M R; Schirru, P

2014-06-01

139

Submarine geo-hazards on the eastern Sardinia-Corsica continental margin based on preliminary pipeline route investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The understanding of the morphology and the shallow geo-hazards of the seafloor is a major focus for both academic and private industry research. On November and December 2009 a geophysical pipeline survey was carried out by Fugro Oceansismica S.p.A. (FOSPA) and FUGRO France (FFSA) for DORIS Engineering on behalf of GRTgaz (Engineering centre, Transmission Pipe Department; http://www.grtgaz.com) which are currently investigating the possibility of laying a pipeline between Sardinia and Corsica as a spur line from the planned GALSI Project. The Project, "Alimentation de la Corse en gaz naturel", consists of a corridor 100 km long and 1.0 km wide along the Corsica-Sardinia shelf. The integration of the multibeam, sidescan sonar and sparker data provided a high resolution seafloor mapping for geo-hazard assessment. In this article the data acquired along a break of slope section (approximately 20 km × 1.5 km), in the eastern sector of the Strait of Bonifacio are described. The area was abandoned during the survey, because of its unsuitability. Indeed, in this area the continental shelf, approximately 100 m deep and deepening gently eastward, is characterized by an uneven morphology, with different seabed features such as Beach- rocks mainly NNW-SSE oriented. Also, the continuity of the continental margin, identified around -110/-115 m, is interrupted by four canyon heads which incise the slope and are associated with glide deposits.

Cecchini, S.; Taliana, D.; Giacomini, L.; Herisson, C.; Bonnemaire, B.

2011-03-01

140

Utilizing New Tools to Define the Genetic Underpinnings of Risky Traits Associated with Coronary Artery Disease: The SardiNIA Study  

PubMed Central

Genome-wide association studies are increasingly being applied to search for novel genes that might underlie cardiovascular diseases. In this article, we briefly review the principles that underlie modern genetic analyses, and provide several illustrations from the SardiNIA Study of genome-wide association studies for cardiovascular risk factor traits.

Strait, James B; Uda, Manuela; Lakatta, Edward G.; Najjar, Samer S.

2009-01-01

141

A geostatistical approach for the stock assessment of the edible sea urchin, Paracentrotus lividus, in four coastal zones of Southern and West Sardinia (SW Italy, Mediterranean Sea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative surveys of the edible sea urchin, Paracentrotus lividus, were conducted in four fishing zones of Sardinia (Southern Italy, Mediterranean Sea), in Autumn 2007. A total of 120 stations were geo-located along a bathymetric gradient ranging from 0 to 10m. A geostatistical method was used to evaluate spatial patterns in density and to estimate harvestable stocks. Variographic analyses showed that

Piero Addis; Marco Secci; Andrea Manunza; Stefano Corrias; Alessio Niffoi; Angelo Cau

2009-01-01

142

A Comparative Study of Adult Facial Morphology and Its Ontogeny in the Fossil Macaque Macaca majori from Capo Figari, Sardinia, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the morphology of the face in the fossil macaque Macaca majori from Capo Figari (north‐eastern Sardinia, Italy) in a comparative ontogenetic context. Thus, a fairly complete face from an adult representative of this fossil species is compared with 3 extant macaque species: Macaca sylvanus (of which species it is questioned whether it is a subspecies, M. sylvanus

Lorenzo Rook; Paul OHiggins

2005-01-01

143

Paleomagnetic data from Late Paleozoic dykes of Sardinia: Evidence for block rotations and implications for the intra-Pangea megashear system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

studies of dyke swarms from the Variscan belt of Europe can be used to reconstruct internal postorogenic rotations within the fold belt. Here we present paleomagnetic data from 13 late Variscan dykes from Sardinia ranging in age from 298 ± 5 to 270 ± 10 Ma. The dykes can be grouped on the basis of their different directions in strike in a northern, a central-eastern and a south-eastern province. Paleomagnetic component directions have been obtained using thermal and alternating field demagnetization techniques, which give reproducible results. The paleomagnetic mean directions differ significantly between northern Sardinia and south-eastern and central-eastern Sardinia, the latter two regions yielding statistically similar paleomagnetic mean directions. These results indicate that Sardinia fragmented into two, arguably three, crustal blocks after emplacement of the dykes, which experienced differential relative rotations, as is also indicated by the differences in overall strike directions. The determination of timing, sense, and magnitude of these rotations has major implications for the reconstruction of the geodynamic evolution of the region in post-Carboniferous times. We argue that the observed block rotations occurred during the Permian as the result of post-Variscan intra-Pangea mobility possibly related to the transformation of an Early Permian Pangea B to a Late Permian Pangea A.

Aubele, K.; Bachtadse, V.; Muttoni, G.; Ronchi, A.

2014-05-01

144

Early rifting deposition: examples from carbonate sequences of Sardinia (Cambrian) and Tuscany (Triassic-Jurassic), Italy: an analogous tectono-sedimentary and climatic context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lower Cambrian Ceroide Limestone (Sardinia) and Lower Jurassic Massiccio Limestone (Tuscany) belong to sequences deposited in analogous tectono-sedimentary context: the former linked to the Caledonian Sardic Phase, the latter to the Alpine Orogeny. Both units consist of massive pure limestone characterized by marginal and lagoonal sequences repeatedly interfingering in the same geological structure. This distribution indicates a morphology of the

T. Cocozza; A. Gandin

1987-01-01

145

Petrogenesis of Al silicate-bearing trondhjemitic migmatites from NE Sardinia, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The migmatites from Punta Sirenella (NE Sardinia) are layered rocks containing 3-5 vol.% of centimeter-sized stromatic leucosomes which are mainly trondhjemitic and only rarely granitic in composition. They underwent three deformation phases, from D 1 to D 3. The D 1 deformation shows a top to the NW shear component followed by a top to the NE/SE component along the XZ plane of the S 2 schistosity. Migmatization started early, during the compressional and crustal thickening stage of Variscan orogeny and was still in progress during the following extensional stage of unroofing and exhumation. The trondhjemitic leucosomes, mainly consisting of quartz, plagioclase, biotite ± garnet ± kyanite ± fibrolite, retrograde muscovite and rare K-feldspar, are locally bordered by millimeter-sized biotite-rich melanosomes. The rare granitic leucosomes differ from trondhjemitic ones only in the increase in modal content of K-feldspar, up to 25%. Partial melting started in the kyanite field at about 700-720 °C and 0.8-0.9 GPa, and was followed by re-equilibration at 650-670 °C and 0.4-0.6 GPa, producing fibrolite-biotite intergrowth and coarse-grained muscovite. The leucosomes have higher SiO 2, CaO, Na 2O, Sr and lower Al 2O 3, Fe 2O 3, MgO, TiO 2, K 2O, P 2O 5, Rb, Ba, Cr, V, Zr, Nb, Zn and REE content with respect to proximal hosts and pelitic metagreywackes. Sporadic anomalous high content of calcium and ferromagnesian elements in some leucosomes is due to entrainment of significant amounts of restitic plagioclase, biotite and accessory phases. The rare granitic leucosomes reveal peritectic K-feldspar produced by muscovite-dehydration melting. Most leucosomes show low REE content, moderately fractionated REE patterns and marked positive Eu anomaly. Proximal hosts and pelitic metagraywackes are characterized by higher REE content, more fractionated REE patterns and slightly negative Eu anomaly. The trondhjemitic leucosomes were generated by H 2O-fluxed melting at 700 °C of a greywacke to pelitic-greywacke metasedimentary source-rock. The disequilibrium melting process is the most reliable melting model for Punta Sirenella leucosomes.

Cruciani, Gabriele; Franceschelli, Marcello; Elter, Franco Marco; Puxeddu, Mariano; Utzeri, Daniela

2008-05-01

146

Fuel type characterization and potential fire behavior estimation in Sardinia and Corsica islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildland fires represent a serious threat to forests and wooded areas of the Mediterranean Basin. As recorded by the European Commission (2009), during the last decade Southern Countries have experienced an annual average of about 50,000 forest fires and about 470,000 burned hectares. The factor that can be directly manipulated in order to minimize fire intensity and reduce other fire impacts, such as three mortality, smoke emission, and soil erosion, is wildland fuel. Fuel characteristics, such as vegetation cover, type, humidity status, and biomass and necromass loading are critical variables in affecting wildland fire occurrence, contributing to the spread, intensity, and severity of fires. Therefore, the availability of accurate fuel data at different spatial and temporal scales is needed for fire management applications, including fire behavior and danger prediction, fire fighting, fire effects simulation, and ecosystem simulation modeling. In this context, the main aims of our work are to describe the vegetation parameters involved in combustion processes and develop fire behavior fuel maps. The overall work plan is based firstly on the identification and description of the different fuel types mainly affected by fire occurrence in Sardinia (Italy) and Corsica (France) Islands, and secondly on the clusterization of the selected fuel types in relation to their potential fire behavior. In the first part of the work, the available time series of fire event perimeters and the land use map data were analyzed with the purpose of identifying the main land use types affected by fires. Thus, field sampling sites were randomly identified on the selected vegetation types and several fuel variables were collected (live and dead fuel load partitioned following Deeming et al., (1977), depth of fuel layer, plant cover, surface area-to-volume ratio, heat content). In the second part of the work, the potential fire behavior for every experimental site was simulated using BEHAVE fire behavior prediction system (Andrews, 1989) and experimental fuel data. Fire behavior was simulated by setting different weather scenarios representing the most frequent summer meteorological conditions. The simulation outputs (fireline intensity, rate of spread, flame length) were then analyzed for clustering the different fuel types in relation to their potential fire behavior. The results of this analysis can be used to produce fire behavior fuel maps that are important tools in evaluating fire hazard and risk for land management planning, locating and rating fuel treatments, and aiding in environmental assessments and fire danger programs modeling. This work is supported by FUME Project FP7-ENV-2009-1, Grant Agreement Number 243888 and Proterina-C Project, EU Italia-Francia Marittimo 2007-2013 Programme.

Bacciu, V.; Pellizzaro, G.; Santoni, P.; Arca, B.; Ventura, A.; Salis, M.; Barboni, T.; Leroy, V.; Cancellieri, D.; Leoni, E.; Ferrat, L.; Perez, Y.; Duce, P.; Spano, D.

2012-04-01

147

Hypogenic speleogenesis in quartzite: The case of Corona 'e Sa Craba Cave (SW Sardinia, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents a detailed study demonstrating the hypogenic origin of the Corona 'e Sa Craba quartzite cave in SW Sardinia (Italy). Although the quartzite host-rock of this cave derived from silicification of Cambrian dolostones and dissolution of carbonate remnants could have had a role in the speleogenesis, detailed morphologic and petrographic investigation revealed clear evidence of quartz dissolution without signs of mechanical erosion by running waters. Thin section microscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images show pervasive dissolution morphologies, such as pits and notches on quartz crystals causing the deep arenization of the cave walls, suggesting that the dissolution of quartz had a primary role in the formation of the void. The study of secondary cave minerals and the sulfur isotopic composition of sulfates and sulfides, coupled with data on fluid inclusions, allowed reconstruction of the peculiar speleogenetic history of this hypogenic hydrothermal quartzite cave. The cave formed by reduced hydrothermal fluids, probably under basic-neutral pH in phreatic conditions. The presence of abundant cations of Ba2 + in reduced Cl-rich fluids enhanced the quartz dissolution rate, allowing the formation of the voids in deep settings. During the Late Oligocene uplift of the area, the hydrothermal fluids in the cave reached oxygen-rich conditions, thus a minerogenetic phase started with the deposition of barite when the temperature of the fluid was ? 50 °C. The presence of cinnabar crusts in the lower part of the cave walls and on the boulders suggests a later volcanic phase with Hg-rich vapors ascending from below. Other minerals such as alunite, basaluminite, gypsum and halloysite (typical of an acid sulfate alteration environment), and phosphates were formed in a final, much more recent stage. The ?34S values of the cave sulfate minerals indicate that S is derived from the remobilization of original Precambrian Pb-Zn Mississippi Valley Type ores. These last two stages did not significantly affect the morphology of the cave. The Corona 'e Sa Craba appears to be the world's first example of a hypogenic cave in quartzite where the speleogenetic mechanisms have been studied and reconstructed in detail, using a variety of modern methods. This study confirms that dissolution of quartz by thermal alkaline fluids at depth can produce large dissolutional voids in the apparently poorly soluble quartzite rocks.

Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Onac, Bogdan P.; Galli, Ermanno; Dublyansky, Yuri; Baldoni, Eleonora; Sanna, Laura

2014-04-01

148

From northern Gondwana passive margin to arc dismantling: a geochemical discrimination of Ordovician volcanisms (Sardinia, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Sardinia, one of the southernmost remain of the European Variscan belt, a crustal section through northern Gondwanan paleodomains is largely preserved. It bears significant evidence of igneous activity, recently detailed in field relationships and radiometric dating (Oggiano et al., submitted). A Cambro - Ordovician (491.7 ± 3.5 Ma ÷ 479.9 ± 2.1 Ma, LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon age) bimodal volcanic suite occurs with continuity in external and inner Variscan nappes of Sardinia below the so-called Sardic unconformity. The igneous suite represents an intraplate volcanic activity developed through subsequent episodes: i) an intermediate explosive and effusive volcanism, i.e. pyroclastic fall deposits and lava flows, embedded into epicontinental clastic sediments, culminating in silicic ignimbrite eruptions, and ii) mafic effusives. Geochemical data document a transitional, within-plate signature, e.g. the average Th/Ta (4.5) and La/Nb (2.7) overlap the upper continental crust values. The volcanites are characterized by slight fractionation of LREEs, nearly flat HREE abundance. The negative Eu anomaly increases towards evolved compositions. Some prominent HREE depletion (GdCN/YbCN = 13.8), and the high Nb/Y suggest a garnet-bearing source. The high 87Sr radiogenic content (87Sr/86Sr 490 Ma = 0.71169) and the epsilon Nd 490 Ma value of -6.54 for one dacite sample, imply a time integrated LREE-enriched source with a high Rb/Sr, such as a metasedimentary source. The stratigraphy of the succession and the geochemical composition of igneous members suggest a volcanic passive margin along the northern Gondwana at the early Ordovician. The bimodal Mid-Ordovician arc volcanism (465.4 ± 1.4 Ma, U-Pb zircon age; Oggiano et al., submitted) is developed in the external nappes (e.g. in Sarrabus and Sarcidano) and in the foreland occurs as clasts at the base of the Hirnantian succession (Leone et al. 1991). The Mid Ordovician sub-alkalic volcanic suite has reliable stratigraphic and palaeontological constraints, as it post-dates the Sarrabese (i.e. Sardic) unconformity and pre-dates the Upper Ordovician transgression. It consists of basaltic - andesites and abundant andesites and rhyolites. The negative Ta-, Nb-, Sr-, P-, Yb- and Ti-anomalies in mantle-normalized spiderdiagrams and Th/Ta compare with volcanic rocks from active continental margins. Andesite and dacite samples reveal Sr and Nd isotopic compositions consistent with a less depleted mantle source than rhyolites (epsilon Nd 465 Ma = -3.03 to -5.75; 87Sr/86Sr 465 Ma = 0.70931-0.71071). The positive epsilon Nd 465 Ma values of rhyolites (+1.15 to +2.42) suggest that their precursors, with a crustal residence age of ~1 Ga (TDM), were derived from a long-term depleted mantle source. On the whole, the isotopic data for Mid Ordovician volcanites suggest partial melting of an isotopically heterogeneous mantle. The bimodal suite has been unanimously interpreted as a marker of the Rheic ocean subduction. An Upper Ordovician transitional to alkalic volcanic activity is documented both in the foreland, and in the external and internal nappes (Di Pisa et al. 1992). The Late Ordovician alkalic mafic suite (440 ± 1.7 Ma) i.e. the Ordovician-Silurian boundary, occurs as sills, epiclastites and lava flows within the post-Caradocian transgressive sequence. The volcanic rocks are characterized by fractionation of REEs (LaCN/YbCN ~ 4.4-13), variable LILE abundances and significant Ta, Nb and LREE enrichments. Th/Ta in the range 1-2 and La/Nb < 1 evidence an anorogenic intraplate setting. The epsilon Nd 440 Ma values are positive (+1.60 to +4.14), reflecting an origin in a depleted mantle source, while the 87Sr/86Sr vary from 0.70518 to 0.71321. Negative epsilon Nd 440 Ma values (-4.76 and -4.62) in trachy-andesites suggest a less depleted mantle source, while the 87Sr/86Sr 440 Ma (0.70511 to 0.70694) and the Sm/Nd up to 0.36 align along the mantle array. The Late Ordovician alkalic suite suggest a continental rift geodynamic setting, and likely represent an early phase of the major rifting e

Gaggero, L.; Oggiano, G.; Buzzi, L.; Funedda, A.

2009-04-01

149

Age of the Corsica Sardinia rotation and Liguro Provençal Basin spreading: new paleomagnetic and Ar/Ar evidence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The age of spreading of the Liguro-Provençal Basin is still poorly constrained due to the lack of boreholes penetrating the whole sedimentary sequence above the oceanic crust and the lack of a clear magnetic anomaly pattern. In the past, a consensus developed over a fast (20.5-19 Ma) spreading event, relying on old paleomagnetic data from Oligo-Miocene Sardinian volcanics showing a drift-related 30° counterclockwise (CCW) rotation. Here we report new paleomagnetic data from a 10-m-thick lower-middle Miocene marine sedimentary sequence from southwestern Sardinia. Ar/Ar dating of two volcanoclastic levels in the lower part of the sequence yields ages of 18.94±0.13 and 19.20±0.12 Ma (lower-mid Burdigalian). Sedimentary strata below the upper volcanic level document a 23.3±4.6° CCW rotation with respect to Europe, while younger strata rapidly evolve to null rotation values. A recent magnetic overprint can be excluded by several lines of evidence, particularly by the significant difference between the in situ paleomagnetic and geocentric axial dipole (GAD) field directions. In both the rotated and unrotated part of the section, only normal polarity directions were obtained. As the global magnetic polarity time scale (MPTS) documents several geomagnetic reversals in the Burdigalian, a continuous sedimentary record would imply that (unrealistically) the whole documented rotation occurred in few thousands years only. We conclude that the section contains one (or more) hiatus(es), and that the minimum age of the unrotated sediments above the volcanic levels is unconstrained. Typical back-arc basin spreading rates translate to a duration ?3 Ma for the opening of the Liguro-Provençal Basin. Thus, spreading and rotation of Corsica-Sardinia ended no earlier than 16 Ma (early Langhian). A 16-19 Ma, spreading is corroborated by other evidences, such as the age of the breakup unconformity in Sardinia, the age of igneous rocks dredged west of Corsica, the heat flow in the Liguro-Provençal Basin, and recent paleomagnetic data from Sardinian sediments and volcanics. Since Corsica was still rotating/drifting eastward at 16 Ma, it presumably induced significant shortening to the east, in the Apennine belt. Therefore, the lower Miocene extensional basins in the northern Tyrrhenian Sea and margins can be interpreted as synorogenic "intra-wedge" basins due to the thickening and collapse of the northern Apennine wedge.

Speranza, F.; Villa, I. M.; Sagnotti, L.; Florindo, F.; Cosentino, D.; Cipollari, P.; Mattei, M.

2002-04-01

150

Miocene shoshonite volcanism in Sardinia: Implications for magma sources and geodynamic evolution of the central-western Mediterranean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we document the existence of a Miocene shoshonite (SHO) volcanism in Northern Sardinia (Anglona). This occurrence completes the spectrum of orogenic magmas related to the subduction process which developed from the Eocene along the Palaeo-European continental margin, in concert with the opening of the Ligurian-Balearic back-arc basin and southeastward drift/rotation of the Sardinia-Corsica continental block. K-Ar ages show that the oldest volcanics of the area are calcalkaline (CA) basalts and andesites (~ 21 Ma), overlain by 19.7-18.4 Ma-old more potassic products such as high-potassium calcalkaline (HK-CA) and SHO lavas. CA, HK-CA and SHO suites include basalts and differentiated lavas of andesite and latite composition, respectively, that (according to the PELE software modelling) represent ~ 40-45% residual liquid fraction after shallow fractional crystallization. Application of the "Arc Magma Simulator" software suggests that the generation of primary melts of the distinct suites may occur at similar degrees of partial melting (5-8%) and melting pressures (2-2.2 GPa, ~ 60-70 km depth) in the mantle wedge. By contrast, the potassic character of parental melts of CA, HK-CA and SHO suites is controlled by 1) the amount of subducted continental components (possibly terrigenous sediments) and 2) the pressure (depth) at which these metasomatic agents are released from the slab. Results suggest that the slab depth beneath the volcanic district increased from ~ 80-100 to 100-120 km for CA and SHO magmas, respectively. Accordingly, the evolution from CA to SHO magmatism in the same plumbing system could be related to slab deepening and increase of the subduction angle of ~ 5-10° in the time span of 2-3 Ma. This tectono-magmatic scenario conforms to the major anticlockwise rotation (~ 30°) event of the Sardinia block (between 20.5 and 18 Ma). This geodynamic evolution preludes the development of the volcanism in the Apennine-Tyrrhenian domains, where the final collisional/post-collisional stages of subduction were characterized by accentuated slab retreat and roll back, inter-arc extension and eruption of highly potassic magmas in the frontal arc (Roman and Aeolian Provinces).

Beccaluva, Luigi; Bianchini, Gianluca; Mameli, Paola; Natali, Claudio

2013-11-01

151

A statistical approach to rank multiple priorities in environmental epidemiology: an example from high-risk areas in Sardinia, Italy.  

PubMed

In environmental epidemiology, long lists of relative risk estimates from exposed populations are compared to a reference to scrutinize the dataset for extremes. Here, inference on disease profiles for given areas, or for fixed disease population signatures, are of interest and summaries can be obtained averaging over areas or diseases. We have developed a multivariate hierarchical Bayesian approach to estimate posterior rank distributions and we show how to produce league tables of ranks with credibility intervals useful to address the above mentioned inferential problems. Applying the procedure to a real dataset from the report "Environment and Health in Sardinia (Italy)" we selected 18 areas characterized by high environmental pressure for industrial, mining or military activities investigated for 29 causes of deaths among male residents. Ranking diseases highlighted the increased burdens of neoplastic (cancerous), and non-neoplastic respiratory diseases in the heavily polluted area of Portoscuso. The averaged ranks by disease over areas showed lung cancer among the three highest positions. PMID:19021111

Catelan, Dolores; Biggeri, Annibale

2008-11-01

152

Using AQUACROP to model the impacts of future climates on crop production and possible adaptation strategies in Sardinia and Tunisia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A work package in the FP-7 funded CLIMB Project - Climate Induced Changes on the Hydrology of Mediterranean Basins Reducing Uncertainty and Quantifying Risk through an Integrated Monitoring and Modeling System had the goal of assessing socioeconomic vulnerability in two super-sites in future climates (2040-2070). The work package had deliverables to describe of agricultural adaptation measures appropriate to each site under future water availability scenarios and assess the risk of income losses due to water shortages in agriculture. The FAO model AQUACROP was used to estimate losses of agricultural productivity and indicate possible adaptation strategies. The presentation will focus on two interesting crops which show extreme vulnerability to expected changes in climate; irrigated lettuce in Sardinia and irrigated tomatoes in Tunisia. Modelling methodology, results and possible adaptation strategies will be presented.

Bird, Neil; Benabdallah, Sihem; Gouda, Nadine; Hummel, Franz; La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Meyer, Swen; Soddu, Antonino; Woess-Gallasch, Susanne

2014-05-01

153

Molecular and epidemiological data on Anisakis spp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in commercial fish caught off northern Sardinia (western Mediterranean Sea).  

PubMed

Anisakiasis is a fish-borne zoonosis caused by third stage larvae of the nematode Anisakis sp. present in fish or cephalopods. This is the first contribution to the molecular identification and epidemiology of Anisakis spp. in commercial fish from the Gulf of Asinara (Sardinia, western Mediterranean Sea). Between April 2006 to November 2011, 777 specimens of 10 fish species (Engraulis encrasicolus, Merluccius merluccius, Micromesistius poutassou, Phycis blennoides, Sardina pilchardus, Sardinella aurita, Scomber colias, Sphyraena viridensis, Trachurus mediterraneus, Trachurus trachurus) were examined for Anisakis sp. larvae. A total of 1286 larvae were found in 218 fish. The great majority of larvae were located in the body cavity, and only a small part (60, 4.7%) in the muscle. All the Type I larvae (1272) were identified as Anisakis pegreffii and all the Type II (14) as Anisakis physeteris, confirming that A. pegreffii is the dominant species and the most important agent of human anisakiasis in the western Mediterranean Sea. PMID:24630706

Piras, M C; Tedde, T; Garippa, G; Virgilio, S; Sanna, D; Farjallah, S; Merella, P

2014-06-16

154

ODP Leg 107 results from continental margin east of Sardinia (Mediterranean Sea): a transect across a very young passive margin  

SciTech Connect

A 200-km wide zone east of Sardinia, characterized by thin continental crust with tilted, listric(.)-fault-bounded blocks, has been interpreted as a passive continental margin formed during back-arc opening of the Tyrrhenian Sea. Leg 107 of the Ocean Drilling Project drilled a transect of four sites across this margin plus three sites in the basaltic basin. Site 654, closest to Sardinia, recovered a transgressive sequence attributed to basin subsidence: coarse-grained, iron-oxide rich, subaerial conglomerates underlie oyster-bearing sands followed upsection by open-water Tortonian marine marls. The synrift sequence, as inferred from seismic reflection profiles, correlates with sediments of Tortonian to Messinian age. Farther east the synrift sediments are younger: site 652, near the continental/oceanic transition, recovered an inferred synrift sequence of Messinian to early Pliocene age. The pan-Mediterranean Messinian desiccation event is represented at the western two sites (654 and 653) by a basinal facies including laminated gypsum, whereas at the eastern two sites the Messinian facies are terrestrial (lacustrine at 652 and subaerial at 656). They therefore infer that subsidence was more advanced at the western sites than at the eastern sites as of 5 Ma. Leg 107 results suggest that subsidence and stretching were diachronous across the passive margin, beginning and ending several million years earlier in the west than in the east. This asynchroneity may result from the inherent asymmetry of back-arc basin opening, or it may be a common characteristic of passive margins which has been revealed by the unusually precise time resolution of this data set.

Kastens, K.A.; Mascle, J.; Auroux, C.; Bonatti, E.; Broglia, C.; Channell, J.; Curzi, P.; Emeis, K.; Glacon, G.; Hasegawa, S.; Hieke, W.

1987-05-01

155

Impact of network geometry, observation schemes and telescope structure deformations on local ties: simulations applied to Sardinia Radio Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 64-m Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) is currently under construction in Sardinia (Italy). To ensure future surveying and monitoring operations at an utmost level of accuracy, we aim at selecting the optimal design and the most cost-effective solution for the establishment of the local ground control network (LGCN). We simulate and test 45 data sets corresponding to 5 different network configurations. We investigate the influence of 2 LGCN geometries (14 or 8 ground markers) and 3 terrestrial observation schemes (based on redundant forward intersections or side shots) on the precision and accuracy of the conventional reference point (CRP) of SRT and the simulated tie vector with a global navigation satellite system (GNSS) station. In addition, thermal and gravitational deformations of the radio telescope structure are simulated as systematic errors introduced into the observations and their effects on the CRP estimates are quantified. The state-of-the-art of CRP surveying and computation, based on terrestrial indirect methods, is applied. We show how terrestrial indirect methods can estimate the position of the radio telescope CRP to the millimeter precision level. With our simulations, we prove that limiting the LGCN to a 8-point configuration ensures the same precision on the CRP obtained with a 14-point network. Furthermore, we demonstrate that in the absence of telescope deformations, side shots, despite the lower redundancy, preserve a precision similar to that of redundant forward intersections. We show that the deformations due to gravitational flexure and thermal expansion of the radio telescope cannot be neglected in the tie vector computation, since they may bias the CRP estimate by several millimeters degrading its accuracy but not impacting on its formal precision. We highlight the dependency of the correlation matrices of the solutions on the geometry of the network and the observation schemes. Similarly, varying the extent of telescope deformations, we show that the CRP estimate again depends on the combination of the network geometry and the observation schemes.

Abbondanza, Claudio; Sarti, Pierguido

2012-03-01

156

Architecture and construction mechanisms of an incrementally built, vertically layered pluton (Punta Falcone, Sardinia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The granite-hosted mid-crustal mafic pluton of Punta Falcone, northern Sardinia, had been interpreted in the past as a one-shot magma chamber with in-situ differentiation. The (sub-) vertical fine-scale (~3cm) rhythmic magmatic layering prominent in the central part of the intrusion was attributed to the rotation of a initially horizontal layering formed by mineral segregation and accumulation due to gravity forces. Field investigations allowed us to identify a dozen of different gabbro cooling units with contrasting structures and grain-sizes. The intrusion is built symmetrically, with the external parts being emplaced first. Opx and/or cpx as well as ol (one unit) are found only in the central units, where they occur together with plg, amph and minor qtz and bt. An overall enrichment in CaO, Al2O3 and Mg-# coupled with a depletion in FeO and TiO2 is observable towards the central part of the intrusion. Part of this zonation is explained by the accumulation of plagioclase (up to 75 normative %) in the central part. The depletion in Fe and TiO2 could be linked to fractionation of Fe-Ti oxides (mag & ilm), in relation with higher fO2 values, which would also explain the presence of opx in these central units. Concerning the rhythmic magmatic layering, several parameters have been identified: - Layering occurs in a ~50m thick unit in the central part; it is thus located in a thermally preheated environment. - Layering is roughly parallel to most of the contacts between the different units and to the long axis of the elliptical intrusion, indicating a structural and/or a thermal control. - Intensity of layering decreases from the contact with the neighbouring unit inwards. - White bands consist of high-An plg rimmed by lower-An borders and minor interstitial qtz; dark bands consist of high-An plg without rims enclosed in big poikilitic amphiboles or pyroxenes. - Crystallization of up to 5mm big, poikilitic amphiboles with a patchy chemical zoning, occurs at the moment of development of layering in a water-saturated system. Crystallinity is expected to increase dramatically from ~40 to 70 vol-% over a small interval of temperature at this stage of evolution of the magma. - No preferred mineral orientation is visible in the white or dark layers. - AMS measurements yield oblate ellipsoids oriented parallel to the layering; this signature could reflect the concentration of magnetite in the dark layers. Given these parameters, we are currently considering a slowly migrating crystallization front acting together with element diffusion: amph crystallizes at the borders of the intruding unit, triggering the migration of amph-forming elements. This would lead to the development of a "depleted" white band once reached by the crystallization front. This process would be repeated sequentially until the thermal gradient gets too diffuse.

Hauser, Anne-Cécile; Bussy, François

2014-05-01

157

Detection by Sardinia Radio Telescope of radio pulses at 7 GHz from the Magnetar PSR J1745-2900 in the Galactic center region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) science verification phase, we observed PSR J1745-2900, firstly detected as an X-ray flare from Sgr A* by Swift and then identified as a 3.76 s X-ray magnetar with NuSTAR telescope (ATels #5006, #5020, #5027, #5032, #5033, #5035), at a central frequency of 7.30 GHz. We used a Beam Wave Guide focus cryogenically cooled receiver (system temperature ~25 K).

Buttu, Marco; D'Amico, Nichi; Egron, Elise; Iacolina, Maria Noemi; Marongiu, Pasqualino; Migoni, Carlo; Pellizzoni, Alberto; Poppi, Sergio; Possenti, Andrea; Trois, Alessio; Vargiu, Gian Paolo

2013-05-01

158

From ramp to platform: building a 3D model of depositional geometries and facies architectures in transitional carbonates in the Miocene, northern Sardinia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The depositional geometry and facies distribution of an Early Miocene (Burdigalian) carbonate system in the Perfugas Basin\\u000a (NW Sardinia) comprise a well-exposed example of a transition from a ramp to a steep-flanked platform. The carbonate succession\\u000a (Sedini Limestone Unit) is composed of two depositional sequences separated by a major erosional unconformity. The lower (sequence\\u000a 1) records a ramp dominated by

Sara Tomás; M. Zitzmann; M. Homann; M. Rumpf; F. Amour; M. Benisek; G. Marcano; M. Mutti; C. Betzler

2010-01-01

159

An afro-european and euro-african human pathway through Sardinia, with notes on humanity’s world-wide water traversals and proboscidean comparisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

In September 1999 the author first visited Sardinia in order to participate in a meeting of the federative International Committee\\u000a on Anatomical Terminology, organised by Professor Alessandro Riva. Our stay in Cagliari coincided with the 200th anniversary\\u000a of the appointment of Francesco Antonio Boi as the first Professor of Anatomy at the University of Cagliari. After a small\\u000a ceremony to

Phillip V. Tobias

2002-01-01

160

Soil Water Balance and Vegetation Dynamics in two Contrasting Water-limited Mediterranean Ecosystems on Sardinia, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water limited conditions strongly impacts soil and vegetation dynamics in Mediterranean regions, which are commonly heterogeneous ecosystems, characterized by inter-annual rainfall variability, topography variability and contrasting plant functional types (PFTs) competing for water use. Mediterranean regions are characterized by two main ecosystems, grassland and woodland, which for both natural and anthropogenic causes can grow in soils with different characteristics, highly impacting water resources. Water resources and forestal planning need a deep understanding of the dynamics between PFTs, soil and atmosphere and their impacts on water and CO2 distributions of these two main ecosystems. The first step is the monitoring of land surface fluxes, soil moisture, and vegetation dynamics of the two contrasting ecosystems. Moreover, due to the large percentage of soils with low depth (< 50 cm), and due to the quick hydrologic answer to atmospheric forcing in these soils, there is also the need to understand the impact of the soil depth in the vegetation dynamics, and make measurements in these types of soils. Sardinia island is a very interesting and representative region of Mediterranean ecosystems. It is low urbanized, and is not irrigated, except some plan areas close to the main cities where main agricultural activities are concentrated. The case study sites are within the Flumendosa river basin on Sardinia. Two sites, both in the Flumendosa river and with similar height a.s.l., are investigated. The distance between the sites is around 4 km but the first is a typically grass site located on an alluvial plan valley with a soil depth more than 2m, while the second site is a patchy mixture of Mediterranean vegetation types Oaks, creepers of the wild olive trees and C3 herbaceous species and the soil thickness varies from 15-40 cm, bounded from below by a rocky layer of basalt, partially fractured. In both sites land-surface fluxes and CO2 fluxes are estimated by eddy correlation technique based micrometeorological towers. Soil moisture profiles were also continuously estimated using water content reflectometers and gravimetric method, and periodically leaf area index PFTs are estimated during the Spring-Summer 2005. The following objectives are addressed:1) pointing out the dynamics of land surface fluxes, soil moisture, CO2 and vegetation cover for two contrasting water-limited ecosystems; 2) assess the impact of the soil depth and type on the CO2 and water balance dynamics. For reaching the objectives an ecohydrologic model is also successfully used and applied to the case studies. It couples a vegetation dynamic model, which computes the change in biomass over time for the PFTs, and a 3-component (bare soil, grass and woody vegetation) land surface model.

Montaldo, N.; Albertson, J. D.; Corona, R.

2011-12-01

161

Predicting the spatio-temporal distribution of Culicoides imicola in Sardinia using a discrete-time population model  

PubMed Central

Background Culicoides imicola KIEFFER, 1913 (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is the principal vector of Bluetongue disease in the Mediterranean basin, Africa and Asia. Previous studies have identified a range of eco-climatic variables associated with the distribution of C. imicola, and these relationships have been used to predict the large-scale distribution of the vector. However, these studies are not temporally-explicit and can not be used to predict the seasonality in C. imicola abundances. Between 2001 and 2006, longitudinal entomological surveillance was carried out throughout Italy, and provided a comprehensive spatio-temporal dataset of C. imicola catches in Onderstepoort-type black-light traps, in particular in Sardinia where the species is considered endemic. Methods We built a dynamic model that allows describing the effect of eco-climatic indicators on the monthly abundances of C. imicola in Sardinia. Model precision and accuracy were evaluated according to the influence of process and observation errors. Results A first-order autoregressive cofactor, a digital elevation model and MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST)/or temperatures acquired from weather stations explained ~77% of the variability encountered in the samplings carried out in 9 sites during 6?years. Incorporating Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) or rainfall did not increase the model's predictive capacity. On average, dynamics simulations showed good accuracy (predicted vs. observed r corr?=?0.9). Although the model did not always reproduce the absolute levels of monthly abundances peaks, it succeeded in reproducing the seasonality in population level and allowed identifying the periods of low abundances and with no apparent activity. On that basis, we mapped C. imicola monthly distribution over the entire Sardinian region. Conclusions This study demonstrated prospects for modelling data arising from Culicoides longitudinal entomological surveillance. The framework explicitly incorporates the influence of eco-climatic factors on population growth rates and accounts for observation and process errors. Upon validation, such a model could be used to predict monthly population abundances on the basis of environmental conditions, and hence can potentially reduce the amount of entomological surveillance.

2012-01-01

162

Onshore to offshore reconstruction of the Messinian erosion surface in Western Sardinia, Italy: Implications for the Messinian salinity crisis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New outcrops in the Sinis peninsula (Sardinia, Italy) allow a detailed description of the Messinian erosion surface. The correlation between outcrops, industrial seismic data and data collected offshore Oristano from a recent cruise permits reconstruction of the geometry of this surface from presently emerged interfluves to the deep canyons offshore, with: onshore: an eroded karstic plateau presently cropping out over a 20 km × 5 km area. Well-preserved karst structures occur locally and can form several metres high reliefs. The southernmost edge of the plateau is limited by a cliff. The karstic plateau and the cliff are sealed by transgressive deposits of Pliocene age; offshore, an interfluve zone with a mostly flat and low-angle dipping plateau, westward dissected by paleovalleys which were identified down to a depth of 2000 m. In the Oristano Gulf, Messinian paleovalleys were also identified. The Capo San Marco paleocliff was probably located on the edge of a canyon. Onshore, only one major erosion surface was identified, located at the top the Messinian sequence. Offshore, this surface extends down to the abyssal plain. The surface was emplaced above deposits related to the Terminal Carbonate Complex. This indicates that the marginal evaporites are older than the major drawdown of the Mediterranean sea-level. The major drawdown is related to the deposition of the deep evaporites.

Cornée, Jean-Jacques; Maillard, Agnès; Conesa, Gilles; Garcia, Frédéric; Saint Martin, Jean-Paul; Sage, Françoise; Münch, P.

2008-10-01

163

Development from a homoclinal ramp to an isolated, tectonically unstable carbonate platform: Lower Cambrian of southwest Sardinia  

SciTech Connect

In the Lower Cambrian of southwest Sardinia, a carbonate platform developed, showing clearly different stages of evolution: (1) a homoclinal ramp containing algal-archaeocyathan mounds (consisting mainly of Epiphyton and Renalcis boundstone) in the west, clastic tidal flats in the east; (2) an ooid-pellet barrier ramp with ooid-shoals, prograding toward the west. The back-shoal area contains some algal (girvanella)-archaeocyathan biostromes, but mainly peloidal mudstones and increasingly tidal deposits (clastic and carbonates) toward the east as well as at the top of the sequence; (3) an isolated platform, aggraded to sea level and rimmed by local slope deposits; (4) a drowned isolated platform, consisting of peloidal mudstones to wackestones in inner parts, remnants of elevated margins with higher energy facies in outer parts, and (5) breakdown of the platform in the Middle Cambrian, marked by the onset of nodular limestones covered by clastics. Deposition of stratabound lead, zinc, and barium deposits was favored either by the platform facies itself (some barite deposits) or by showing a distinct relation with the prominent tensional tectonics, i.e., they occur within matrix and cemented breccias (debris flows, internal breccias) or as massive sulfides, deposited in restricted, small-scale basins. The strong effects of tensional tectonics (slumping, debris flows, internal breccias, neptunian dykes) indicate a thinning of the continental crust, either within a passive continental margin setting or, alternatively, within a backarc setting, the volcanic arc being much farther to the west (possibly in Spain or southern France).

Bechstadt, T.; Boni, M.; Schledding, T.; Selg, M.

1987-05-01

164

GC-ITMS analysis of PAH contamination levels in the marine sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus in Sardinia.  

PubMed

This paper describes the results of a two-year monitoring study examining the pollution of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Sardinia. GC-ITMS analysis of sea urchin gonads showed the presence of 11 and 12 PAHs in the samples of Capo Pecora, and Capitana, respectively. Fluorene, naphthalene and its two degradation products, 1-methyl-naphthalene, and 2-methyl-naphthalene, were detected in all samples analyzed. The ?PAH residues showed a similar trend over the two-year sampling period. Furthermore, the residues in the first year were slightly higher than in the second year. The information obtained by the multivariate statistical analysis PLS-DA allowed for the determination of samples based on field site and varying habitat types (rocky reef, and Posidonia seabed). The results of this study showed that Posidonia sea urchins are contaminated by high molecular weight PAHs and that Capitana samples are more contaminated due to a higher level of human activity in the area. PMID:24703809

Angioni, Alberto; Cau, Alessandro; Secci, Marco; Addis, Piero

2014-05-15

165

Ancient silver extraction in the Montevecchio mine basin (Sardinia, Italy): micro-chemical study of pyrometallurgical materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different pyrometallurgical materials such as slags, refractory materials and thermally treated lead ores likely related to smelting and extractive processes and chronologically related to Punic and Roman periods (IV-III BC) have been found at Bocche di Sciria and Conca e Mosu in the Montevecchio mine basin (south western Sardinia, Italy), where archaeological findings and classical authors locate extractive metallurgy activities since pre-Roman times. By means of the combined use of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), selected-area X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and optical microscopy (OM), micro-chemical and micro-structural investigations have been carried out in order to identify the nature of the pyrometallurgical materials, to decipher the processes carried out there and their technological steps and to determine the technological level of competence reached by the ancient metallurgists. The results confirm that the findings can be associated with smelting and extractive processes carried out close to the metal ore deposits first for the argentiferous lead production and, then, for the silver recovery via a cupellation process. Finally, the results disclose the high level of technological competence of the ancient metallurgists able to carry out complex high-temperature processes to treat the argentiferous lead ores and to recover low amounts of silver via high-temperature lead-selective oxidation.

De Caro, Tilde; Riccucci, Cristina; Parisi, Erica I.; Faraldi, Federica; Caschera, D.

2013-12-01

166

Prevalence of KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA somatic mutations in patients with colorectal carcinoma may vary in the same population: clues from Sardinia  

PubMed Central

Background Role of KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA mutations in pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC) has been recently investigated worldwide. In this population-based study, we evaluated the incidence rates and distribution of such somatic mutations in genetically isolated population from Sardinia. Methods From April 2009 to July 2011, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues (N?=?478) were prospectively collected from Sardinian CRC patients at clinics across the entire island. Genomic DNA was isolated from tissue sections and screened for mutations in KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA genes by automated DNA sequencing. Results Overall, KRAS tumour mutation rate was 30% (145/478 positive cases). Distribution of mutation carriers was surprisingly different within the island: 87/204 (43%) in North Sardinia vs. 58/274 (21%) in Middle-South Sardinia (p<0.001). Among 384 CRC cases whose DNA was available, only one (0.3%) patient carried a mutation in BRAF gene; PIK3CA was found mutated in 67 (17%) patients. A significant inverse distribution of PIK3CA mutation rates was observed within Sardinian population: 19/183 (10%) cases from northern vs. 48/201 (24%) cases from central-southern island (p<0.001). This heterogeneity in frequencies of KRAS/PIK3CA somatic mutations is consistent with already-reported discrepancies in distribution of germline mutations for other malignancies within Sardinian population. Preliminary clinical evaluation of 118 KRAS wild-type patients undergoing anti-EGFR-based treatment indicated lack of role for PIK3CA in predicting response to therapy. Conclusions Our findings support the hypothesis that differences in patients’ origins and related genetic backgrounds may contribute to even determine the incidence rate of somatic mutations in candidate cancer genes.

2012-01-01

167

A 30-year epidemiologic survey (1974-2003) of haematological malignancies on the island of Sardinia: temporal changes in incidence and a geographic comparison of incidence rates.  

PubMed

In a previous survey of newly diagnosed haematological malignancies (HMs) in Sardinia from 1974 to 1993, we observed a marked increase in the incidence of many HMs that we chiefly attributed to improvements in case ascertainment. To better define the nature of this increase, we extended the survey by an additional decade (1994-2003), applying the same previously used methods. The incidence of HMs further increased from 1994 to 2003. The incidence rate of total HMs (THMs), standardised to the world population, was 30.15?×?10(5) person-years vs. 21.58 from 1984 to 1993 and 15.26 from 1974 to 1983. The temporal variations in the incidence differed in different HMs and were correlated with the diseases clinical characteristics and the increased availability of diagnostic tools and skills in Sardinia. These observations support the hypothesis that the temporal differences in the incidence rates observed for many HMs in Sardinia over the 30-year survey period were caused by temporal differences in diagnostic efficiency rather than by disease occurrence. An important exception was the increase in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, which represents a true increase in occurrence, similarly to most Western countries. The incidence rates of HMs already having or reaching stable values in the decade 1994-2003 were similar to those of most Western countries. No significant evidence emerged to suggest that Sardinian particularities influenced the occurrence of HMs. This study demonstrates the extent to which diagnostic efficiency can influence incidence evaluations and emphasises the importance of prolonged observation to determine the validity of incidence rates for both temporal and geographic comparisons. PMID:24464318

Broccia, G; Longinotti, M; Gabbas, A; Porcu, Caterina; Chessa, E; Giannico, Barbara

2014-06-01

168

Application of wildfire simulation methods to assess wildfire exposure in a Mediterranean fire-prone area (Sardinia, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial and temporal patterns of fire spread and behavior are dependent on interactions among climate, topography, vegetation and fire suppression efforts (Pyne et al. 1996; Viegas 2006; Falk et al. 2007). Humans also play a key role in determining frequency and spatial distribution of ignitions (Bar Massada et al, 2011), and thus influence fire regimes as well. The growing incidence of catastrophic wildfires has led to substantial losses for important ecological and human values within many areas of the Mediterranean basin (Moreno et al. 1998; Mouillot et al. 2005; Viegas et al. 2006a; Riaño et al. 2007). The growing fire risk issue has led to many new programs and policies of fuel management and risk mitigation by environmental and fire agencies. However, risk-based methodologies to help identify areas characterized by high potential losses and prioritize fuel management have been lacking for the region. Formal risk assessment requires the joint consideration of likelihood, intensity, and susceptibility, the product of which estimates the chance of a specific loss (Brillinger 2003; Society of Risk Analysis, 2006). Quantifying fire risk therefore requires estimates of a) the probability of a specific location burning at a specific intensity and location, and b) the resulting change in financial or ecological value (Finney 2005; Scott 2006). When large fires are the primary cause of damage, the application of this risk formulation requires modeling fire spread to capture landscape properties that affect burn probability. Recently, the incorporation of large fire spread into risk assessment systems has become feasible with the development of high performance fire simulation systems (Finney et al. 2011) that permit the simulation of hundreds of thousands of fires to generate fine scale maps of burn probability, flame length, and fire size, while considering the combined effects of weather, fuels, and topography (Finney 2002; Andrews et al. 2007; Ager and Finney 2009; Finney et al. 2009; Salis et al. 2012 accepted). In this work, we employed wildfire simulation methods to quantify wildfire exposure to human and ecological values for the island of Sardinia, Italy. The work was focused on the risk and exposure posed by large fires (e.g. 100 - 10,000 ha), and considers historical weather, ignition patterns and fuels. We simulated 100,000 fires using burn periods that replicated the historical size distribution on the Island, and an ignition probability grid derived from historic ignition data. We then examine spatial variation in three exposure components (burn probability, flame length, fire size) among important human and ecological values. The results allowed us to contract exposure among and within the various features examined, and highlighted the importance of human factors in shaping wildfire exposure in Sardinia. The work represents the first application of burn probability modeling in the Mediterranean region, and sets the stage for expanded work in the region to quantify risk from large fires

Salis, M.; Ager, A.; Arca, B.; Finney, M.; Bacciu, V. M.; Spano, D.; Duce, P.

2012-12-01

169

Epidemiology, chronobiology and taxonomic updates of Rhinoestrus spp. infestation in horses of Sardinia Isle, Western Mediterranean (Italy).  

PubMed

From January to December 2008, 265 horses slaughtered in Sardinia (Italy) were examined for the presence of Rhinoestrus spp. (Diptera: Oestridae) through the examination of the nasal cavities and pharynges. Larvae were detected in 49% of the horses, with a mean intensity of infestation of 16.09 and abundance of 7.95. A total of 2108 larvae were collected, 66% of which were classified in first instar (L1), 22% in second instar (L2) and 12% in third instar (L3). The most frequent localization of larvae was the ethmoid, while the less one the larynx. According to the dynamics of Rhinoestrus larval stages, three periods in the chronobiology can be considered, the diapause (September-February) characterized by an absolute prevalence of first larval stage; the active phase of the endogenous phase (February-September) with an increase in the percentages of L2 and L3, and the exit phase (May-September), pointed by a further increase of L1. Morphological examination of L3 larvae revealed the presence of the Rhinoestrus purpureus features in 8% of the examined larvae, of 8% of the Rhinoestrus usbekistanicus features, while in 84% of the larvae were evidenced intermediate features. Contrastingly biomolecular analysis of the COI gene of the larvae evidenced uniformity at genetic level, confirming the presence of a unique species in the Mediterranean area. The results of the present paper, reveal the wide diffusion of rhinoestrosis among Sardinian horses, and suggest the need for applying appropriate control measures. Chemotherapy should be very useful if administered during the diapause period, for reducing the presence of L1 stages and interrupting thus the life cycle of this myiasis. PMID:23182302

Mula, P; Pilo, C; Solinas, C; Pipia, A P; Varcasia, A; Francisco, I; Arias, M S; Paz Silva, A; Sánchez-Andrade, R; Morrondo, P; Díez-Baños, P; Scala, A

2013-02-18

170

Amphibole-bearing migmatites from the Variscan Belt of NE Sardinia, Italy: Partial melting of mid-Ordovician igneous sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amphibole-bearing migmatites from north-eastern Sardinia, Italy, are characterized by tonalitic to granodioritic leucosomes made up of quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspar, biotite, ± amphibole, and garnet. The leucosomes show higher SiO 2, Na 2O, Sr and lower TiO 2, Fe 2O 3tot, MgO, MnO, P 2O 5, K 2O and Rb content as compared to the mesosomes. The granodioritic leucosomes differ from the tonalitic leucosomes for significantly higher Ba and K 2O content. The mesosomes and the leucosomes show slightly fractionated REE patterns with moderate negative and positive Eu anomalies, respectively. The leucosomes show lower 87Rb/ 86Sr ratios (0.279-0.581) than the mesosomes (0.634-1.121), whereas the 147Sm/ 144Nd ratios are similar in leucosomes (0.12-0.14) and mesosomes (0.11-0.14). Mineralogical, geochemical and isotopic data suggest that the migmatites formed by in situ partial melting of a biotite + plagioclase + quartz-bearing protolith with 2-4 wt.% added water. Variable degrees of melt loss were responsible for the observed compositional variability in the leucosomes, whereas solid-state re-equilibration of the migmatites leads to a general re-equilibration of mineral compositions after partial melting. The amphibole-bearing migmatites record maximum P- T conditions of 700-750 °C and 1.0-1.2 GPa, probably lower than, but near to, the P- T conditions of peak metamorphism. Zircon morphology suggests an igneous origin for the migmatite protolith. Pb-Pb zircon dating yielded a mean value of 452 ± 3 Ma and an isochron age of 461 ± 12 Ma which is interpreted as the emplacement age of the migmatite protolith.

Cruciani, Gabriele; Franceschelli, Marcello; Jung, Stefan; Puxeddu, Mariano; Utzeri, Daniela

2008-10-01

171

Integrated stratigraphic reconstruction for the last 80 kyr in a deep sector of the Sardinia Channel (Western Mediterranean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A quantitative analysis of planktonic foraminifera, coupled with petrophysical and paleomagnetic measurements and 14C-AMS calibrations, was carried out on a deep core recovered in the Sardinia Channel (Western Mediterranean Sea), during the CIESM Sub2 survey, providing an integrated stratigraphic time-framework over the last 80 kyr. Significant changes in the quantitative distribution of planktonic foraminifera allowed the identification of several eco-bioevents useful to accurately mark the boundaries of the eco-biozones widely recognized in the Western Mediterranean records and used for large-scale correlations. Namely, 10 eco-biozones were identified based on the relative abundance of selected climate-sensitive planktonic foraminiferal species. Sixteen codified eco-bioevents were correlated with Alboran Sea planktonic foraminiferal data and several climatic global events (Sapropel S1, Younger Dryas, Greenland Isotope Interstadial 1, Greenland Isotope Stadial 2, Heinrich event H1-H6) were recognized. The eco-bioevents together with the 14C-AMS calibrations allowed us to define an accurate age model, spanning between 2 and 83 kyr. The reliability of the age model was confirmed by comparing the colour reflectance (550 nm%) data of the studied record with the astronomically tuned record from the Ionian Sea (ODP-Site 964). A mean sedimentation rate of about 7 cm/kyr included three turbidite event beds that were chronologically constrained within the relative low stand and regressive sea-level phases of MIS 4 and 3. The deep-sea sedimentary record includes a distinct tephra occurring at the base of the core that dates 78 ka cal. BP. The paleomagnetic data provide a well-defined record of the characteristic remanent magnetization that may be used to reconstruct the geomagnetic paleosecular variation for the Mediterranean back to 83 kyr.

Budillon, F.; Lirer, F.; Iorio, M.; Macrì, P.; Sagnotti, L.; Vallefuoco, M.; Ferraro, L.; Garziglia, S.; Innangi, S.; Sahabi, M.; Tonielli, R.

2009-05-01

172

Analysis of current and temperature data collected in the channel of Sardinia during the SALTO and MFSPP experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SALTO experiment was conducted from July 1999 to April 2000 to study the intermediate and deep circulation in the channel of Sardinia. Five moorings were aligned from southeast (M1) to northwest (M5) along one of the XBT lines monitored twice monthly during the MFSPP experiment. They were set about 10 miles apart over isobaths of 1000-2000 m, and they were equipped with 12 current meters at 500 and 900 m (M1, M5), 1000 and 1400 m (M2, M4), 500, 1000, 1400 and 1900 m (M3). The time series were first qualified according to the analysis of the tidal components, which have amplitudes ranging from a few mm/s to about 1 cm/s there (Albérola et al., 1995). Consistently with the current time series collected in 1993-1994 during the PRIMO-1 experiment (Bouzinac et al., 1999), the mean circulation on the Sardinian side (M4, M5) was a few cm/s alongslope from the Tyrrhenian subbasin. The mean circulation in the middle of the channel (M3), which was low and erratic close to the bottom in 1993-1994, was now significant (a few cm/s) and directed eastwards, roughly along the channel axis there. The mean circulation on the Tunisian side (M1, M2), which was never measured before, was low at M1 and significant (a few cm/s) at M2, but strangely south-southeastwards, i.e. perpendicular to the slope. The overall temperature distribution was consistent with that previously described by Bouzinac et al. (1999) and by Sammari et al. (1999). Since the sole significant circulation of water of Atlantic origin is eastwards along Tunisia, isotherms in a 200-300 m surface layer are sloping down southwards there. Since waters at intermediate and greater depths are relatively warm (resp. cool) on the Sardinian side (resp. Tunisian side), all isotherms below about 500 m are sloping up southwards. Mean differences of about 0.4 °C between one side of the channel and the other are permanently encountered at depths ranging from about 500 to 1500 m. However, the variability is much larger on the Tunisian side. None of the EOF analyses performed with either the original time series or the low-passed filtered ones allows defining an energetic mode significantly involving all time series; hence, there was no overall circulation at intermediate and greater depths. Mode 1 (about 30% of the total variance) involves M4 and M5 with similar phases at both moorings and rectilinear variations in the same direction; it corresponds to fluctuations of the flow from the Tyrrhenian subbasin along the Sardinian slope. Mode 2 (about 25%) involves M3 and M4 with specific phases at each mooring (different by less than about 40°) and marked changes in direction; it corresponds to fluctuations of the flow from the Algerian subbasin that sometimes concern the lower part of the Sardinian slope. Mode 4 (about 20%), which involves M2 alone, corresponds to fluctuations that are specific to the lower part of the Tunisian slope. Thanks are due to the crew of the R.V. Hannibal managed by INSTM. REFERENCES Albérola C., S. Rousseau, C. Millot, M. Astraldi, J. Font, J. Garcia-Lafuente, G.P. Gasparini, U. Send and A. Vangriesheim, 1995. Tidal currents in the interior of the Western Mediterranean Sea. Oceanol. Acta, 18, 2, 273-284. Bouzinac C., J. Font and C. Millot, 1999. Hydrology and currents observed in the channel of Sardinia during the PRIMO-1 experiment from November 1993 to October 1994. J. Mar. Systems, 20, 1-4, 333-355. Sammari C., C. Millot, I. Taupier-Letage, A. Stefani and M. Brahim, 1999. Hydrological characteristics in the Tunisia-Sicily-Sardinia area during spring 1995. Deep-Sea Res., I-46, 1671-1703.

Rougier, G.; Millot, C.; Chretien, E.; Gervais, T.; Fuda, J.-L.; Sammari, C.

2003-04-01

173

Differentials in the Regional Operational Program expenditure for public services and infrastructure in the coastal cities of Sardinia (Italy) analyzed in the ruling context of the Regional Landscape Plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The planning activity of the regional administration of Sardinia (Italy) is characterized by a deep change after the approval of the Regional Landscape Plan (RLP). The RLP, ruled by the National Code of Cultural Heritage and Landscape, establishes the directions for future Sardinian regional planning and requires that sectoral, province and city plans, and plans for protected areas, be changed

Corrado Zoppi; Sabrina Lai

2011-01-01

174

The Permian volcanism of Sardinia revisited: new geochronological and geochemical data as a key for geodynamic evolution of the western Peri-Tethian sector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies have confirmed the important role played by magmatism affecting Sardinian basins during the latest Carboniferous and Permian age (Cortesogno et al. 1998; Buzzi et al., 2008; Casini et al., 2012). To-date, most of the geochronological analysis performed on the Permian volcanic events in the island are methodologically overcome and frequently not in tune with the stratigraphy. In the north-western and central-southeastern Sardinian basins (Nurra, Perdasdefogu, Seui-Seulo and Escalaplano), the late-post Variscan tectonic collapse favored the emplacement of a calc-alkaline products not only in the form of generally shallow intrusions but also volcanism within intramontane strike-slip basins. This magmatism is expressed both as pyroclastic rocks-lava flows filling small half-graben basins and hypabyssal intrusions (lava-domes and dykes). These volcano-sedimentary troughs generally include both external and internal igneous eruptions as well as the detrital products eroded from the surrounding structural highs. Rhyolites, andesites and dacites are the main rock types while trachydacites and trachyandesites are less represented. Our goal is to couple the petrographic and geochemical features of 17 selected samples stratigraphically constrained and new U-Pb ages data on zircons from the post-Variscan effusive rocks in Sardinia. The whole-rock and REE geochemical features confirm a progressive evolution in the post-Variscan extensional, trans-tensile regime in with and fits an origin in a stacking of nappes associated with thermal re-equilibration of lithospheric mantle and telescopic partial melting of the thickened crust. The process is dominated by AFC. As far as the geochronological analysis is concerned, a preliminary cathodoluminescence study has been performed on all mounted crystals in order to select the precise location of the shot points. Each crystal has been analyzed for U, Th and Pb in the epoxy mount by laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA ICP-MS) at the Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources IGG-CNR of Pavia. The time lag of Permian ages recorded along the Sardinia cross section is significant in the modeling of the post- Variscan tectonic, sedimentary evolution and in the perspective of the geodynamic evolution of Southern Variscides. REFERENCES Casini L., Cuccuru S., Maino M., Oggiano G., Tiepolo M 2012. Emplacement of the Arzachena Pluton (Corsica-Sardinia Batholith) and the geodynamics of incoming Pangaea. Tectonophysics 544-545 (2012) 31-49. Buzzi L., Gaggero L., Oggiano G. 2008. The Santa Giusta ignimbrite (NW Sardinia): a clue for the magmatic, structural and sedimentary evolution of a Variscan segment between Early Permian and Triassic. Italian Journal of Geoscience 127(3), 683-695. Cortesogno L., Cassinis G., Dallagiovanna G., Gaggero L., Oggiano G., Ronchi A., Seno S., Vanossi M. 1998. The Variscan post-collisional volcanism in Late Carboniferous-Permian sequences of Ligurian Alps, Southern Alps and Sardinia (Italy): a synthesis. Lithos 45, 305-328.

Gaggero, Laura; Gretter, Nicola; Lago, Marceliano; Langone, Antonio; Oggiano, Giacomo; Ronchi, Ausonio

2014-05-01

175

A new eco-hydrological distributed model for the analysis of the climate change impact on water resources of Mediterranean ecosystems: the Flumendosa basin case study in Sardinia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last three decades, climate change and human activities increased desertification process in Mediterranean regions, with dramatic consequences for agriculture and water availability. For instance in the Flumendosa reservoir system in Sardinia the average annual runoff in the latter part of the 20th century was less than half the historic average rate, while the precipitation over the Flumendosa basin has decreased, but not at such a drastic rate as the discharge, suggesting a marked non-linear response of discharge to precipitation changes. With the objective of analyzing and looking for the reasons of the historical runoff decrease a new ecohydrological model is developed and tested for the main basin of the Sardinia island, the Flumendosa basin. The eco-hydrological model developed couples a distributed hydrological model and a vegetation dynamic model (VDM). The hydrological model estimates the soil water balance of each basin cell using the force-restore method and the Philips model for runoff estimate. Then it computes runoff propagation along the river network through a modified version of the Muskingum -Cunge method (Mancini et al., 2000; Montaldo et al., 2004). The VDM evaluates the changes in biomass over time from the difference between the rates of biomass production (photosynthesis) and loss (respiration and senescence), and provides LAI, which is then used by the hydrological model for evapotranspiration and rainfall interception estimates. Case study is the Flumendosa basin (Sardinia, basin area of about 1700 km2), which is characterized by a reservoir system that supplies water to the main city of Sardinia, Cagliari. Data are from 42 rain stations (1922-2008 period) over the entire basin and data of runoff are available for the same period. The model has been successfully calibrated for the 1922 - 2008 period for which rain, meteorological data and discharge data are available. We demonstrate that the hystorical strong decrease of runoff is due to a change of rainfall regime, with a decrease of rainfall during the winter months, and a little increase of rainfall during spring-summer months. Indeed, the higher Spring rainfall produced an increase of transpiration mainly, whithout any impact on runoff. Instead the decrease of rainfall in winter months produces a strong decrease of runoff. This trend impacts significantly on monthly runoff production, and, more important, on yearly runoff production, because most of the yearly runoff contribution comes from the winter months. Yearly runoff is more important in Sardinia water resources systems, because runoff is accumulated in dam reservoirs, and is the main water resources of the island. Hence, due to the change of rainfall regime in last decades we are observing a dramatic decrease of runoff, which is reaching to impact on the water availability of the Sardinian major city, Cagliari.

Sarigu, Alessio; Cortis, Clorinda; Montaldo, Nicola

2014-05-01

176

Foamy Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Foamy viruses share complex genome organization with lentiviruses and certain oncoviruses. The open reading frame 3’ of env encodes a transcriptional transactivator. Distinct responsive sequences were identified in the long terminal repeats (LTRs) of simian (SFV-1 and SFV-3) and human foamy viruses (HFV). Transactivation of heterologous LTRs was described including those of simian and human immunodeficiency viruses. Foamy viruses

D. Neumann-Haefelin; U. Fleps; R. Renne; M. Schweizer

1993-01-01

177

Oncolytic viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the cytotoxic effects of viruses are usually viewed in terms of pathogenicity, it is possible to harness this activity for therapeutic purposes. Viral genomes are highly versatile, and can be modified to direct their cytotoxicity towards cancer cells. These viruses are known as oncolytic viruses. How are viruses engineered to become tumour specific, and can they be used to

E. Antonio Chiocca

2002-01-01

178

On the estimate of the Vegetation effects on the surface runoff through a plot scale rainfall simulator in Sardinia, Italy.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In semi-arid regions with the Mediterranean climate of cool, wet winters and hot, dry summers, precipitation timing and amount, vegetation growth, and surface runoff are tightly intertwined. In the experimental site of Sardinia, the main source of water is surface reservoirs that are recharged by surface runoff in the rainy winter season. However, changes in climate are expected to bring both an overall decrease in winter precipitation and increased interannual variability of precipitation to this region. These changes may affect characteristics of the water-limited vegetation growth such as timing and production, and consequently change the amount of overland flow and reservoir recharge. Currently, there is little research on the combination of these effects; therefore, the goal of this research is to assess the runoff response of the land surface with varying vegetation states to ultimately predict how changes in the climate of Mediterranean watersheds may affect the needs of water resource management. A 4 m by 4 m rainfall simulator was designed, constructed, and tested as the first stage of this research. The rainfall simulator consisted of four independent lines of low-cost pressure washing nozzles operated at a pressure of 80 mbar, with the number of nozzles determining the rainfall intensity delivered to the plot. The rainfall intensity of the simulator varies from approximately 26 to 52 mm/h with a coefficient of uniformity ranging from 0.40 to 0.59. Measurements taken include surface runoff using a tipping bucket flow meter and soil moisture throughout the plot. Literature models for surface runoff predictions (Philips, Horton, Green Ampt, Soil conservation Service model, bucket model) are widely tested highlighting the typical hortonian behavior of this soil. The simulator was used to monitor changes in the surface runoff throughout the seasons (July 2010, August 2010, June 2011, July 2011, December 2011, January 2012) as the vegetation changes. Results shows the great impact of changes in vegetation cover on soil runoff processes: the increase of LAI from values of 0 to 1.5 produces a decrease of surface runoff of the 50%.

Corona, R.; Montaldo, N.; Cortis, C.; Albertson, J. D.

2012-04-01

179

Multi-GCM Climate Projection for the Mediterranean and Related Impact on the Forest Fire Risk (with a stress on Sardinia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PRASCE project (2008-2011) aimed at a development of the probabilistic projection of climate accounting for the uncertainties coming from various sources. The methodology was based on linking the stochastic weather generator (which may represent uncertainty due to natural climate variability) with the GCM-based climate change scenarios, which are determined by the pattern scaling method and account for uncertainties in emission scenario, climate sensitivity and between-GCM variability. The methodology is being used to create synthetic weather series representing present and future climates for various climate change impact experiments. One of the regions under focus in this project was the Mediterranean, especially Sardinia. The presentation will consist of two parts: (1) Multi-GCM climate change scenarios for the Mediterranean. (i) The maps will show the probabilistic (based on all GCMs included in IPCC-AR4 dataset) projection of temperature, precipitation and Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). In addition, the scenarios will include changes of climatic characteristics (also being the parameters of the weather generator), which affect high frequency variability, e.g. changes in probability of wet day occurrence and variability of daily values. (ii) Options for choosing a representative subset of GCMs from all available GCMs will be discussed. This part is motivated by the fact, that some climate change impact studies do not allow to employ all available GCMs, so the task arise to choose the subset of GCMs based on the quality of GCMs and ability of the subset to represent the between GCM uncertainty. To demonstrate the methodology, the procedure will be applied to Sardinia. (2) Assessment of possible impacts of climate change on wildland fire risk. The M&Rfi weather generator linked to climate change scenarios derived from a subset of available GCMs will be used to create synthetic weather series (air temperature and relative humidity, wind speed, precipitations) to assess impacts of the projected climate change in terms of changes in Fire Weather Index (FWI) in Sardinia. Acknowledgements: The underlying research was funded by the Grant Agency of ASCR (project IAA30042080 - "PRASCE"), CNR-ASCR bilateral project, Proterina C project (co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) under the Italy-France Maritime Programme).

Dubrovsky, M.; Duce, P.; Arca, B.; Pellizzaro, G.

2012-04-01

180

The impact of commercial and recreational harvesting for Paracentrotus lividus on shallow rocky reef sea urchin communities in North-western Sardinia, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fishery for the edible sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus is of great importance to many European regions, although in some of them this species has shown a wide scale decline in recent years. This paper reports on direct (on P. lividus) and indirect (on the co-occurring but not fished echinoid, Arbacia lixula) effects of sea urchin harvesting in shallow rocky reefs in North-western Sardinia (Italy, central-western Mediterranean Sea), where this activity is intensively practised. Density, size (test diameter), and biomass of both species were assessed in autumn 2004 at two locations impacted by P. lividus fishery, and at two controls within an adjacent Marine Protected Area. Density of P. lividus and A. lixula was significantly greater at the controls than at the exploited locations. The average test diameter of P. lividus was also significantly larger at the controls, where large-sized specimens (i.e. >5 cm) were notably more abundant. The average size of A. lixula did not significantly differ between the impacted locations and the controls. The average biomass of P. lividus was significantly greater at the controls than at the exploited locations, whereas no differences were detected for A. lixula. These results reveal the existence of a heavy fishing impact on P. lividus in North-western Sardinia and the need for regulation of its harvesting to prevent severe direct effects on its populations. Since no indirect effects on A. lixula have been detected, it could be hypothesized that this species did not benefit from P. lividus fishery due to an only moderate competition for habitat and resources between these two echinoids. Implications for management of edible sea urchin fishery are also discussed.

Pais, Antonio; Chessa, Lorenzo A.; Serra, Simone; Ruiu, Alberto; Meloni, Gianni; Donno, Yuri

2007-07-01

181

Paleomagnetic evidence for a post-Eocene 90° CCW rotation of internal Apennine units: A linkage with Corsica-Sardinia rotation?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

report on an extensive paleomagnetic study (36 sites) of the Tuscan Nappe succession from the Northern Apennines Arc, aimed to reconstruct the tectonic evolution of the internal sector of this chain. We analyzed Eocene pelagic foreland ramp deposits (Scaglia Toscana Formation) and Oligocene-lower Miocene siliciclastic turbidites (Macigno and Falterona Formations). Paleomagnetic results show that the internal sector of the Northern Apennines underwent large counterclockwise (CCW) rotations with respect to the Adria-Africa foreland. A decrease in the rotation magnitude was observed from the southern to the northern sector of the arc (from 91 to 36°). This trend is opposite to that observed in the more external units of Northern Apennines and demonstrates that the oroclinal bending model, which has been proposed for the external units of the chain, is not appropriate to explain the evolution of the internal sector of the arc. On the basis of the observed paleomagnetic pattern, we propose a new tectonic model in which the Tuscan and Falterona-Cervarola units in the southern area were first rotated CCW along with the Corsica-Sardinia block during its lower Miocene rotational drifting and were later involved in the main phases of rotational emplacement and translation toward the outermost sector (Umbria domain), thus yielding the final curved shape of the Northern Apennines chain. Data from this study represent the first paleomagnetic evidence of the influence of the Corsica-Sardinia CCW rotation in the Apennines orogenic wedge deformation, in the general framework of the geodynamic evolution of the Central Mediterranean subduction system.

Caricchi, Chiara; Cifelli, Francesca; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Sani, Federico; Speranza, Fabio; Mattei, Massimo

2014-04-01

182

Virus maturation.  

PubMed

The formation of infectious virus particles is a highly complex process involving a series of sophisticated molecular events. In most cases, the assembly of virus structural elements results in the formation of immature virus particles unable to initiate a productive infection. Accordingly, for most viruses the final stage of the assembly pathway entails a set of structural transitions and/or biochemical modifications that transform inert precursor particles into fully infectious agents. In this chapter, we review the most relevant maturation mechanisms involved in the generation of infectious virions for a wide variety of viruses. PMID:23737059

Delgui, Laura R; Rodríguez, José F

2013-01-01

183

Virus Maturation  

PubMed Central

We examined virus maturation of selected non-enveloped and enveloped ssRNA viruses; retroviruses; bacteriophages and herpes virus. Processes associated with maturation in the RNA viruses range from subtle (noda and picornaviruses) to dramatic (tetraviruses and togaviruses). The elaborate assembly and maturation pathway of HIV is discussed in contrast to the less sophisticated but highly efficient processes associated with togaviruses. Bacteriophage assembly and maturation are discussed in general terms with specific examples chosen for emphasis. Finally the herpes viruses are compared with bacteriophages. The data support divergent evolution of noda, picorna and tetraviruses from a common ancestor and divergent evolution of alpha and flaviviruses from a common ancestor. Likewise, bacteriophages and herpes viruses almost certainly share a common ancestor in their evolution. Comparing all the viruses, we conclude that maturation is a convergent process that is required to solve conflicting requirements in biological dynamics and function.

Veesler, David; Johnson, John E.

2013-01-01

184

CHLORELLA VIRUSES  

PubMed Central

Chlorella viruses or chloroviruses are large, icosahedral, plaque?forming, double?stranded?DNA—containing viruses that replicate in certain strains of the unicellular green alga Chlorella. DNA sequence analysis of the 330?kbp genome of Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV?1), the prototype of this virus family (Phycodnaviridae), predict ?366 protein?encoding genes and 11 tRNA genes. The predicted gene products of ?50% of these genes resemble proteins of known function, including many that are completely unexpected for a virus. In addition, the chlorella viruses have several features and encode many gene products that distinguish them from most viruses. These products include: (1) multiple DNA methyltransferases and DNA site?specific endonucleases, (2) the enzymes required to glycosylate their proteins and synthesize polysaccharides such as hyaluronan and chitin, (3) a virus?encoded K+ channel (called Kcv) located in the internal membrane of the virions, (4) a SET domain containing protein (referred to as vSET) that dimethylates Lys27 in histone 3, and (5) PBCV?1 has three types of introns; a self?splicing intron, a spliceosomal processed intron, and a small tRNA intron. Accumulating evidence indicates that the chlorella viruses have a very long evolutionary history. This review mainly deals with research on the virion structure, genome rearrangements, gene expression, cell wall degradation, polysaccharide synthesis, and evolution of PBCV?1 as well as other related viruses.

Yamada, Takashi; Onimatsu, Hideki; Van Etten, James L.

2007-01-01

185

Chlorella viruses.  

PubMed

Chlorella viruses or chloroviruses are large, icosahedral, plaque-forming, double-stranded-DNA-containing viruses that replicate in certain strains of the unicellular green alga Chlorella. DNA sequence analysis of the 330-kbp genome of Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV-1), the prototype of this virus family (Phycodnaviridae), predict approximately 366 protein-encoding genes and 11 tRNA genes. The predicted gene products of approximately 50% of these genes resemble proteins of known function, including many that are completely unexpected for a virus. In addition, the chlorella viruses have several features and encode many gene products that distinguish them from most viruses. These products include: (1) multiple DNA methyltransferases and DNA site-specific endonucleases, (2) the enzymes required to glycosylate their proteins and synthesize polysaccharides such as hyaluronan and chitin, (3) a virus-encoded K(+) channel (called Kcv) located in the internal membrane of the virions, (4) a SET domain containing protein (referred to as vSET) that dimethylates Lys27 in histone 3, and (5) PBCV-1 has three types of introns; a self-splicing intron, a spliceosomal processed intron, and a small tRNA intron. Accumulating evidence indicates that the chlorella viruses have a very long evolutionary history. This review mainly deals with research on the virion structure, genome rearrangements, gene expression, cell wall degradation, polysaccharide synthesis, and evolution of PBCV-1 as well as other related viruses. PMID:16877063

Yamada, Takashi; Onimatsu, Hideki; Van Etten, James L

2006-01-01

186

Phytophthora viruses.  

PubMed

Phytophthora sp. is a genus in the oomycetes, which are similar to filamentous fungi in morphology and habitat, but phylogenetically more closely related to brown algae and diatoms and fall in the kingdom Stramenopila. In the past few years, several viruses have been characterized in Phytophthora species, including four viruses from Phytophthora infestans, the late blight pathogen, and an endornavirus from an unnamed Phytophthora species from Douglas fir. Studies on Phytophthora viruses have revealed several interesting systems. Phytophthora infestans RNA virus 1 (PiRV-1) and PiRV-2 are likely the first members of two new virus families; studies on PiRV-3 support the establishment of a new virus genus that is not affiliated with established virus families; PiRV-4 is a member of Narnaviridae, most likely in the genus Narnavirus; and Phytophthora endornavirus 1 (PEV1) was the first nonplant endornavirus at the time of reporting. Viral capsids have not been found in any of the above-mentioned viruses. PiRV-1 demonstrated a unique genome organization that requires further examination, and PiRV-2 may have played a role in late blight resurgence in 1980s-1990s. PMID:23498912

Cai, Guohong; Hillman, Bradley I

2013-01-01

187

Levels and congener profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sheep milk from an industrialised area of Sardinia, Italy.  

PubMed

Concentrations of 7 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), 10 polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and 22 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including 12 dioxin like-PCBs (non- and mono-ortho PCBs) were measured in 80 sheep milk samples from farms located in an industrialized area of Sardinia, Italy. PCDDs and PCDFs mean concentrations were 2.45 and 3.69 pgg(-1) fat basis, respectively. The mean dl-PCB concentration was 2.01 ngg(-1) fat basis, while cumulative ndl-PCB levels ranged from 1.02 to 20.42, with a mean of 4.92 ngg(-1) fat. The results expressed in pg WHO-TEQ/g fat showed that contamination level of milk was below the limit values for human consumption established by EC legislation. In the same way, all the investigated milk exhibited PCDD/Fs concentrations below EU action levels, while dl-PCBs concentrations exceeded the action level of 2.0 pg WHO-TEQ/g fat. These findings point to the need to continue to conduct general monitoring programmes, including also milk samples from areas not close to the contaminant-emitting industries, in order to better evaluate the impact of industrial activities on surrounding environment. PMID:22293285

Storelli, M M; Scarano, C; Spanu, C; De Santis, E P L; Busco, V P; Storelli, A; Marcotrigiano, G O

2012-05-01

188

A comparative study of adult facial morphology and its ontogeny in the fossil macaque Macaca majori from Capo Figari, Sardinia, Italy.  

PubMed

This study examines the morphology of the face in the fossil macaque Macaca majori from Capo Figari (north-eastern Sardinia, Italy) in a comparative ontogenetic context. Thus, a fairly complete face from an adult representative of this fossil species is compared with 3 extant macaque species: Macaca sylvanus (of which species it is questioned whether it is a subspecies, M. sylvanus majori), Macaca mulatta and Macaca fascicularis. Additional incomplete subadult and adult specimens are also examined in order to compare their facial ontogeny with that of the same living species. The comparisons are based on facial landmark data and are undertaken using geometric morphometric methods. These studies indicate that the adult facial morphology and ontogeny of face size and shape in M. majori share much in common with extant macaque species. However, the adult M. majori face displays some unique morphological features, in particular with regard to lateral flaring and relative size of the zygomatic roots. From the study of a limited sample of fossils there is an indication that this flaring arises during postnatal growth, and in consequence the ontogeny of the face of this fossil species may be different from that of M. sylvanus and the other macaque species included in this analysis. From these studies, we conclude that M. majori shows differences in adult facial morphology and possibly in ontogeny from M. sylvanus compatible with a specific rather than subspecific distinction. PMID:15900103

Rook, Lorenzo; O'Higgins, Paul

2005-01-01

189

Evaluating the effects of protection on two benthic habitats at Tavolara-Punta Coda Cavallo MPA (North-East Sardinia, Italy).  

PubMed

In this paper, two benthic habitats have been investigated in a fully protected site and two control sites at the Tavolara-Punta Coda Cavallo marine protected area (MPA) (NE Sardinia). Overall, a protection effect on the benthic assemblages was highlighted in the shallow subtidal (5 m deep) rather than at intertidal algal turf habitat. Structure of assemblages at the shallow subtidal habitat is different in the fully protected site vs. controls, while this was not true for the intertidal habitat. At the subtidal, this finding is probably linked to indirect effects due to an increase of consumers in the protected site (e.g., sea urchins), while the lack of direct impacts in the intertidal at control sites is indicative of very similar assemblages. Cover of encrusting algae was significantly higher at the subtidal protected site suggesting a possible higher grazing pressure. Possible causes underlying the inconsistency of results obtained between habitats include the possibility that trophic cascade effects have a different influence at different heights on the shore. The need to estimate the interconnection among benthic habitats through trophic links is also highlighted to provide an estimate of the vulnerability to protection of various habitats. PMID:16271388

Ceccherelli, Giulia; Casu, Daniela; Pala, David; Pinna, Stefania; Sechi, Nicola

2006-03-01

190

Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) program: Study of geological structure of Sicily and other Italian areas. [Sardinia and the Gulf of Orosei  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The usefulness of thermal inertia mapping in discriminating geolithological units was investigated using Sardinia and the Gulf of Orosei as test sites. Software designed for LANDSAT data were modified and improved for HCMM tapes. A first attempt was made to compare the geological cross section, the topography, the IR radiance, and the thermal inertia along selected profiles of the test site. Thermal inertia profiles appear smoothed in comparison with the thermal radiance. The lowest apparent thermal inertia (ATI) was found on granitic and basaltic outcrops where their image is of sufficient extent, while ATI is higher on carbonatic and dolomitic or moist deposits. Almost every fault is marked by a jump of ATI, the interval being sometimes of the order of one pixel. This seems to demonstrate the ability of ATI to detect contacts or tectonically disturbed zones with a good resolution. It seems more difficult to measure the differences in ATI between homogeneous materials having different lithology. Ground surveys conducted and a simulation model of diurnal temperatures of rocks having different thermal inertia are discussed.

Cassinis, R.; Lechi, G. (principal investigators); Zilioli, E.; Marini, A.; Brivio, P. A.; Tosi, N.

1981-01-01

191

In vitro inhibitory effects of Limonium contortirameum and L. virgatum extracts from sardinia on alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase.  

PubMed

Pancreatic triacylglycerol lipase (PL), alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase are interesting pharmacological targets for the management of dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, and obesity-diabetes. Limonium spp (Plumbaginaceae) are endemic to Sardinia, Italy. Comparable with acarbose, aqueous extracts (AE) of L. contortirameum and L. virgatum, and their phytoconstituent gallic acid concentration gradients (mg/mL) were identified as in vitro potent (p<0.001, n=3) and efficacious dual inhibitors of alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase with respective IC50 (mg/mL) values of 0.6 +/- 0.1, 1.2 +/- 0.1 and 0.15 +/- 0.02. Equivalent to orlistat (PL IC50 of 0.114 +/- 0.004 microg/mL), L. contortirameum, L. virgatum AE and their phytoprinciple gallic acid inhibited PL substantially (p<0.001, n=3) in a dose-dependent manner in vitro with PL- IC50 (microg/mL) of 920.4 +/- 105.2, 593.1 +/- 56.8 and 8.4 +/- 0.9, respectively. LC-MS analysis of extracts revealed the presence of several phenolic compounds in their aglycon and glycoside forms. These are catechins, flavones, epigallocatechins and flavonols. Flavonoid- and polyphenol-rich L contortirameum and L. virgatum, modulating gastrointestinal carbohydrate and lipid digestion and absorption, may be advocated as candidates for obesity-diabetes prevention and phytotherapy. PMID:24689285

Foddai, Marzia; Kasabri, Violet; Petretto, Giacomo L; Azara, Emanuela; Sias, Angela; Afifi, Fatma U; Delogu, Giovanna; Chessa, Mario; Pintore, Giorgio

2014-02-01

192

Petrological, geochemical and isotopic characteristics of the lithospheric mantle beneath Sardinia (Italy) as indicated by ultramafic xenoliths enclosed in alkaline lavas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mantle xenoliths hosted in Miocene-Quaternary mafic alkaline volcanic rocks from Sardinia have been investigated with electron microprobe, laser ablation microprobe-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and thermal ionization mass spectrometry techniques. The xenoliths are anhydrous clinopyroxene-poor lherzolites and harzburgites, plus very rare websterites and olivine-websterites. Glassy pods having thin subhedral to euhedral microlites of olivine, clinopyroxene and spinel have been found in harzburgites and websterites. Clinopyroxene shows trace element variability, with values of (La/Yb)N ranging from sub-chondritic (0.01) to supra-chondritic (8.6). The Sr-Nd isotopic ratios of the clinopyroxenes fall mostly in the field of the European lithospheric mantle xenoliths (87Sr/86Sr from 0.70385 to 0.70568 and 143Nd/144Nd ranging from 0.512557 to 0.512953). The geochemical characteristics of the Sardinian xenoliths testify to the variable degrees of earlier partial melt extraction, followed by metasomatic modification by alkaline melts or fluids. Websterites are considered to represent small lenses or veins of cumulitic (i.e. magmatic) origin within the mantle peridotite.

Rocco, Ivana; Lustrino, Michele; Morra, Vincenzo; Melluso, Leone

2012-07-01

193

Recognition of Zinc Transporter 8 and MAP3865c Homologous Epitopes by Hashimoto's Thyroiditis Subjects from Sardinia: A Common Target with Type 1 Diabetes?  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) asymptomatic infection has been previously linked to Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and Multiple Sclerosis. An association between MAP infection and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) was also proposed only in a case report. This study aimed to investigate the robustness of the latter association, testing a large cohort of HT and healthy control (HCs) subjects, all from Sardinia. Prevalence of anti-MAP3865c Abs was assessed by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Moreover, given that human ZnT8 is specifically expressed in the pancreatic ?-cells, in the follicle epithelial cells and in the parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland, we also tested ZnT8 epitopes homologues to the MAP3865c immunodominant peptides previously identified. Indeed, Abs targeting MAP3865c and ZnT8 homologous regions display similar frequencies in patients and controls, thus suggesting that Abs recognizing these epitopes could be cross-reactive. A statistically significant difference was found between HT patients and HCs when analyzing the humoral response mounted against MAP3865c/ZnT8 homologues epitopes. To our knowledge, this is the first report, which provides statistically significant evidence sustaining the existence of an association between MAP sero-reactivity and HT. Further studies are required to investigate the relevance of MAP to HT, aimed at deciphering if this pathogen can be at play in triggering this autoimmune disease. Likewise, genetic polymorphism of the host, and other environmental factors need to be investigated.

Masala, Speranza; Cossu, Davide; Palermo, Mario; Sechi, Leonardo Antonio

2014-01-01

194

Origin and evolution of Cenozoic magmatism of Sardinia (Italy). A combined isotopic (Sr-Nd-Pb-O-Hf-Os) and petrological view  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cenozoic igneous activity of Sardinia is essentially concentrated in the 38-0.1 Myr time range. On the basis of volcanological, petrographic, mineralogical, geochemical and isotopic considerations, two main rock types can be defined. The first group, here defined SR (subduction-related) comprises Late Eocene-Middle Miocene (~ 38-15 Ma) igneous rocks, essentially developed along the Sardinian Trough, a N-S oriented graben developed during the Late Oligocene-Middle Miocene. The climax of magmatism is recorded during the Early Miocene (~ 23-18 Ma) with minor activity before and after this time range. Major and trace element indicators, as well as Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf-Os-O isotope systematic indicate complex petrogenetic processes including subduction-related metasomatism, variable degrees of crustal contamination at shallow depths, fractional crystallization and basic rock partial melting. Hybridization processes between mantle and crustal melts and between pure mantle and crustally contaminated mantle melts increased the isotopic and elemental variability of the composition of the evolved (intermediate to acid) melts. The earliest igneous activity, pre-dating the Early Miocene magmatic climax, is related to the pushing effects exerted by the Alpine Tethys over the Hercynian or older lower crust, rather than to dehydration processes of the oceanic plate itself.

Lustrino, Michele; Fedele, Lorenzo; Melluso, Leone; Morra, Vincenzo; Ronga, Fiorenzo; Geldmacher, Jörg; Duggen, Svend; Agostini, Samuele; Cucciniello, Ciro; Franciosi, Luigi; Meisel, Thomas

2013-11-01

195

Emerging Viruses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Emerging viruses are those "whose incidence in humans has increased in the past 2 decades or threatens to increase in the near future." This week's Topic in Depth focuses on sites related to viruses, particularly those that are considered "emerging."The first site (1) is an essay by Alison Jacobson of the University of Capetown that discusses some emerging and potentially emerging viruses, along with factors that contribute to the threat. From a US government interagency working group, the second report (2) focuses on the responses to infectious disease outbreaks, including drugs, vaccines, and government response. A World Health Organization site (3) highlights recent reports of infectious disease, archived by date and by disease. This ThinkQuest site (4) gives a basic introduction to viruses and how they cause infections. An online virology tutorial (5) by Ed Rybicki of the University of Cape Town serves as a lesson on the basics of virology for a more advanced student. The next two sites focus on the specifics of selected viruses. From the Institute for Molecular Virology (6) comes a resource on Marburg and Ebola viruses, and from the National Biological Information Infrastructure (7) is a site on West Nile Virus. The last resource (8) is a scholarly journal from the Centers for Disease Control that presents some of the latest scientific research on emerging diseases.

Lee, Amy.

2002-01-01

196

Computer viruses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The worm, Trojan horse, bacterium, and virus are destructive programs that attack information stored in a computer's memory. Virus programs, which propagate by incorporating copies of themselves into other programs, are a growing menace in the late-1980s world of unprotected, networked workstations and personal computers. Limited immunity is offered by memory protection hardware, digitally authenticated object programs,and antibody programs that kill specific viruses. Additional immunity can be gained from the practice of digital hygiene, primarily the refusal to use software from untrusted sources. Full immunity requires attention in a social dimension, the accountability of programmers.

Denning, Peter J.

1988-01-01

197

Operational setup of a diagnostic chain, implemented within the Proterina-C project, to include weather measures in the RISICO system for dynamic wildfire risk evaluation in Sardinia (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the Operational Project "PROTERINA-C" (a forecast and prevention system for climate change impacts on risk variability for wildlands and urban areas), co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) under the Italy-France Maritime Program, methods and strategies, already in use in the regions of Sardinia, Liguria and Corsica, for the predictions of wildlands fires have been developed and adapted; RISICO System, by CIMA Foundation which plays the role of technical and scientific support for the region of Liguria, used by the Italian National Civil Protection Department, is one of them. In such a prediction model of risk of wildlands fires it is arranged the integration, on a regional scale, of products related to the main meteorological, diagnostics and prognostics forcing measured by ground stations, weather radar and advanced limited area weather prediction models. With the aim to improve prediction of wildlands fires in Sardinia, an operational chain to insert in RISICO weather data provided in near-real time by the meteorological monitoring network has been designed and developed. In fact, the forecast errors can be reduced by conditioning the initial state of dynamic models of fuel moisture on the information obtained from sensors on land, at every time interval at which the fields of meteorological variables of interest are available. A dataset of wildlands fires occurred in Sardinia has been considered in order to valuate the system effectiveness; for these cases the developed setup has improved the fires risk assessment to respect a version of RISICO initialised only by a mesoscale numerical weather prediction model. In the present work the system setup, the configuration of the network of meteorological stations and some preliminary analysis results are argued.

Dessy, C.; Di Carlo, L.; Fois, G.; Fiorucci, P.; d'Andrea, M.; Trasforini, E.

2012-04-01

198

Preliminary estimation of the peak discharge at the Su Gologone spring (Central-East Sardinia) during the flood event of November 18th, 2013  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Last November 2013, an exceptional rainfall has occurred in Sardinia causing 18 casualties at Olbia and Bitti and severe economic damage to infrastructures and land in many areas (e.g. Torpè and Cedrino plains). From a meteorological point of view, this rainfall event was caused by south-western warm and humid air currents moving from Africa coming in contact with cold air masses located above the higher parts of the island, creating convective phenomena of a certain intensity. Estimating the peak discharge of the rivers related to these high intensity rainfall events is of fundamental importance to improve flood-risk management and to prevent and/or reduce the damages. In carbonate areas, quantifying the karst aquifer recharge is an even more difficult task due to the fact that the precipitation and resulting surface flow is rapidly transferred to the underground cave systems, and then suddenly released at karst outflows. We report the case of the Su Gologone spring, in Supramonte area (Central-East Sardinia, Italy), a karst resurgence located only twenty metres from the Cedrino river and one of the main water supplies to this river. The freshwater of this karst spring feeds the Preda 'e Othoni dam, located a few kilometres downstream of the resurgence, and originally built to regulate the flooding of Cedrino river but currently used for all sorts of purposes, as electricity supply, irrigation of farmlands, industrial uses and especially for drinking water, an important source that has to be quantified and preserved. With the purpose of evaluating the contribution of this karst spring to the river discharge, at the beginning of the hydrological year 2013-14, Su Gologone has been equipped with a multi-parametric probe for in-continuous monitoring, at regular intervals, of the values of pressure (and therefore the level of water), electrical conductivity and water temperature. During the entire monitoring period flow rate measurements have been performed three times at the spring, based on the speed of the water taken with a hydraulic reel specially dedicated for this type of survey. These data show that an increase in water level of just 60 cm, produces a flow rate ten times higher than that during low discharge. During the peak discharge at the spring the probe has recorded a rise in the water level of over 11 metres, between 18:00 and 21:00 on November 18th, 2013. Part of this increase, however, was due to the barrier function of the nearby Cedrino river, whose high water level has blocked the drainage of the water from the karst system. The water spring level curve shows a temporary lowering around noon, before the flood peak, probably due to the opening of the dam. On the basis of the comparison between the measured speed of water flow in the stages immediately preceding and succeeding the flood event and of the values of water level recorded by the multi-parametric probe, it has been possible to estimate the contribution of the karst spring to the peak discharge of the river in around 40 cubic metres per second, a value of two orders of magnitude greater than the average flow of the spring (around 200 L/s).

Cossu, Antonello; De Waele, Jo; Sanna, Francesco; Sanna, Laura

2014-05-01

199

A follow-up on patients with severe mental disorders in Sardinia after two changes in regional policies: poor resources still correlate with poor outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background This survey followed a cohort of patients with chronic psychosis recruited from five catchment areas (DSMs) of the Sardinian community mental health services. The objective was to examine whether the amount of resources in the different sites may be a determinant of the outcomes. Methods Naturalistic follow-up study on 309 consecutive users with diagnosis of schizophrenic disorder, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar affective disorder with psychotic symptoms (DSM-IV TR) of five Sardinian community mental health services. Mental state and clinical symptoms along with functioning were assessed using semi-structured clinical interviews (ANTAS), Clinical Global Impression Severity Scale (CGI-S), Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (GAF) and Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HONOS). Assessments were conducted at the beginning of the study and after one year. Results The proportion of professionals working in all DSMs participating in the study was found lower than the national Italian standard (0.7 vs 1.0 per 1,500 inhabitants). Follow-up revealed significant differences between DSMs in the improvement of the Honos scores (F?=?5.932, p?=?0.000). These differences correlate with the improvement of resources in terms of number of professionals during, and one year prior, to the trial. Conclusions The study shows that mental health services provided in the public sector in Sardinia are still very resource-poor, at least in terms of human resources. Our findings suggest that mental health service resources influence outcomes as regards the social functioning of users. We urge policy makers to take these observations into account when planning future services.

2013-01-01

200

Early rifting deposition: examples from carbonate sequences of Sardinia (Cambrian) and Tuscany (Triassic-Jurassic), Italy: an analogous tectono-sedimentary and climatic context  

SciTech Connect

Lower Cambrian Ceroide Limestone (Sardinia) and Lower Jurassic Massiccio Limestone (Tuscany) belong to sequences deposited in analogous tectono-sedimentary context: the former linked to the Caledonian Sardic Phase, the latter to the Alpine Orogeny. Both units consist of massive pure limestone characterized by marginal and lagoonal sequences repeatedly interfingering in the same geological structure. This distribution indicates a morphology of the platforms composed of banks (marginal facies) and shallow basins (lagoonal facies) comparable with a Bahamian complex. Dolomitization affects patchily the massive limestone bodies, and karstic features, breccias, and sedimentary dikes occur at their upper boundary. Both units overlie early dolomite and evaporites (sabkha facies) containing siliciclastic intercalations in their lower and/or upper part and are unconformably covered by open-shelf red (hematitic), nodular limestone Ammonitico Rosso facies). The sedimentary evolution of the two sequences appears to have been controlled by synsedimentary tectonics whose major effects are the end of the terrigenous input, the bank-and-basin morphology of the platform, the irregular distribution of the dolomitization, and the nodular fabric of the overlying facies. The end of the Bahamian-type system is marked by the karstification of the emerged blocks and is followed by their differential sinking and burial under red-nodular facies. From a geodynamic viewpoint, sequences composed of Bahamian-like platform carbonates followed by Ammonitico Rosso facies imply deposition along continental margins subjected to block-faulting during an extensional regime connected with the beginning of continental rifting. Moreover, the variation from sabkha to Bahamian conditions suggests the drifting of the continent from arid to humid, tropical areas.

Cocozza, T.; Gandin, A.

1987-05-01

201

Chemopreventive and antioxidant activity of the chamazulene-rich essential oil obtained from Artemisia arborescens L. growing on the Isle of La Maddalena, Sardinia, Italy.  

PubMed

The essential oils of Artemisia arborescens growing in Sardinia (Italy), collected during three plant growth stages, i.e., from the vegetative stage to post-blooming time, were characterized. Moreover, the in vitro antiproliferative and antioxidant activities of the oil isolated from aerial parts collected in February were evaluated. The essential oils belonged to the ?-thujone/chamazulene chemotype, notably with the highest amount of chamazulene (ca. 52%) ever detected up to now in the genus Artemisia and, in general, in essential oils. Quantitative variations in the oil composition were observed as the plant passes from the vegetative to the blooming stage. The oil was tested for its potential tumor cell growth-inhibitory effect on T98G, MDA-MB 435S, A375, and HCT116 human cell lines, using the MTT (=3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) assay. The highest activity was observed on A375 and HCT116 cell lines, with IC50 values of 14 ?g/ml. Moreover, the in vitro antioxidant and free radical-scavenging assays revealed the oil to be an effective scavenger of the ABTS radical cation, with an activity comparable to that of Trolox(®) . These results support the use of A. arborescens oil for the treatment of inflamed skin conditions. Finally, the composition of the polar fraction of the A. arborescens aerial parts was also examined, and the main component detected was 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, which was identified for the first time in this plant. PMID:23939794

Ornano, Luigi; Venditti, Alessandro; Ballero, Mauro; Sanna, Cinzia; Quassinti, Luana; Bramucci, Massimo; Lupidi, Giulio; Papa, Fabrizio; Vittori, Sauro; Maggi, Filippo; Bianco, Armanodoriano

2013-08-01

202

Studies on hemophilia A in Sardinia bearing on the problems of multiple allelism, carrier detection, and differential mutation rate in the two sexes.  

PubMed Central

A large survey of hemophilia A carried out with almost complete ascertainment on the island of Sardinia suggests that the variation of plasma levels of Factor VIII coagulant activity in normal individuals is largely controlled by a series of normal isoalleles or by closely linked modifiers. This variation is expected to affect the laboratory detection of the hemophilia A (HA) heterozygotes in addition to the X-inactivation-dependent mosaicism and the type of deficient mutant present in a given pedigree. The Sardinian pedigrees yielded 13 new cases of nonrecombinants between the loci for HA and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), as well as four nonrecombinants between HA and Deutan color blindness. These findings bring to a total of 58 the number of scorable sibs and nonrecombinants thus far known for the linkage HA-G6PD. From such a figure it has been possible to infer that the 90% upper limit of meiotic recombination between the two loci is below 4%, thus justifying the application of the "linkage diagnostic test" for the detection of HA heterozygotes and the prenatal diagnosis of the hemophilic fetuses in families that segregate at both loci. In three out of the five HA pedigrees of our series that segregate also for G6PD or Deutan color blindness, the observed segregation of the combined phenotypes can be best explained by assuming the occurrence of a fresh mutation in the maternal grandfathers. Such a finding points out the opportunity to reevaluate Haldane's hypothesis of a possible higher incidence of X-linked mutations in the human male. It is anticipated that each of the issues addressed by the present study will be amenable to experimental verification as soon as suitable molecular probes become available to screen for common multiallelic DNA polymorphisms in the subtelomeric region of the X-chromosome long arm.

Filippi, G; Mannucci, P M; Coppola, R; Farris, A; Rinaldi, A; Siniscalco, M

1984-01-01

203

Metabasite with eclogite facies relics from Variscan NE Sardinia: within plate OIB-like melt with extremely high Sr and extremely low Nd isotopic ratios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A retrogressed eclogite lens ( metabasite from Punta Orvili, PO, near Posada south of Olbia) from Variscan NE Sardinia has proved to be the first case of WP basalt among the neighbouring tholeiitic metabasites with eclogite facies relics. The composition is characterized by SiO2: 44.89-47.57 wt %; Al2O3: 7.53-9.59 wt%; MgO: 12.94-14.35 wt%; Fe2O3tot : 13.25-15.13 wt%; Na2O: 0.75-1.38 wt%; K2O : 0.54-0.88 wt%; Cr: 550-870 ppm; Ni: 273-420 ppm; Mg#: 68.1-70.4. A thorough examination of the geochemical data in the light of the chemical changes induced by alteration and/or metamorphic processes allow to exclude any modification of the protolith geochemistry. High normative contents of mafic minerals suggest a picritic nature for the protolith. The enrichment factor is 60-180 times for LREE, 30-60 times for MREE and 10-20 times for HREE. The remarkable fractionation (LaN/SmN : 3.0-3.9; GdN/YbN : 3.2-3.6 and LaN/YbN : 13.7-18.2) produces steep chondrite normalized abundance patterns strongly contrasting with the flat to LREE-depleted patterns of the other Sardinian eclogite-derived metabasites. The prevalent mantle source is OIB-like as suggested by La/Nb : 0.77-0.94, La-Ta : 12.90-15.04, Ce/Nb : 1.59-1.84, Th/Nb: 0.10-0.11, all values far from those of average and upper crust. Isotopic values, calculated at 460 Ma, mean age of eclogite-derived metabasites from Sardinia, are: (87Sr/86Sr)i : 0.708891-0.709050; ?Sr : + 70-72; (143Nd/144Nd)i : 0.511966-0.511970; ?Nd: - 1.54 to - 1.47. The tholeiitic eclogite-derived samples from Posada Valley and from Punta de li Tulchi at 460 Ma are: (87Sr/86Sr)i : 0.704328 - 0.704460; ?Sr : +5.15 to +7.02; (143Nd/144Nd)i : 0.512275 - 0.512418; ?Nd: +4.48 to +7.28. The strongly anomalous isotopic values, the very high Ba (1045-2530 ppm), Pb (9-12 ppm), Cs (1.92-4.38 ppm) contents and the chondrite normalized abundance patterns with negative peak for Rb, K and Sr seem to suggest a possible interaction of the main OIB component with an enriched subcontinental litospheric mantle similar in composition to kimberlites Group II. An alternative end member for the interaction with OIB-derived melts could be a mantle source resembling the mafic and ultramafic xenoliths from Streap Comlaidh, Scotland (Menzies and Halliday, 1988) and from Middle Ordovician (465 Ma) Fuxian kimberlites, China (Zhang et al., 2008). The strong horizontal shift of the 87Sr/86Sr towards the right side of the mantle array has been observed elsewhere, e.g. in peridotite xenoliths from Spitzbergen Islands (Ionov et al., 2002). According to Ionov et al.(2002), this 'Sr-Nd isotopic decoupling' is a signature of metasomatic processes within the mantle source and is generated by chromatographic effects of melt percolation through the peridotite matrix. The geodynamic model here proposed is in agreement with the widely accepted hypothesis that eclogite-derived metabasites from NE Sardinia are not related to a wide ocean basin but represent the witness of the incipient opening of a marginal basin within a thinned continental crust or of an intracratonic basin generated during an Early to Middle Ordovician rifting episode. REFERENCES Ionov, D., Samuel, B., Mukasa, S.B., Bodinier, J.L. (2002): Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions of peridotite xenoliths from Spitsbergen: Numerical modelling indicates Sr-Nd decoupling in the mantle by melt percolation metasomatism. J. Petrol., 43, 2261-2278. Menzies, M. A. & Halliday, A. N. (1988): Lithospheric mantle domains beneath the Archean and Proterozoic crust of Scotland. J. Petrol. Spec. Lithosphere Issue 275-302. Zhang, H.F., Goldstein, S.L., Zhou, X.H., Sum, M., Zheng, J.P., Cai, Y. (2008): Evolution of subcontinental lithospheric mantle beneath eastern China: Re-Os isotopic evidence from mantle xenoliths in Paleozoic kimberlites and Mesozoic basalts. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 155, 271-293.

Cruciani, Gabriele; Dini, Andrea; Franceschelli, Marcello; Puxeddu, Mariano; Utzeri, Daniela

2010-05-01

204

Passatempo Virus, a Vaccinia Virus Strain, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Passatempo virus was isolated during a zoonotic outbreak. Biologic features and molecular characterization of hemagglutinin, thymidine kinase, and vaccinia growth factor genes suggested a vaccinia virus infection, which strengthens the idea of the reemergence and circulation of vaccinia virus in Brazil. Molecular polymorphisms indicated that Passatempo virus is a different isolate.

Leite, Juliana A.; Drumond, Betania P.; Trindade, Giliane S.; Lobato, Zelia I.P.; da Fonseca, Flavio G.; dos Santos, Joao R.; Madureira, Marieta C.; Guedes, Maria I.M.C.; Ferreira, Jaqueline M.S.; Bonjardim, Claudio A.; Ferreira, Paulo C.P.

2005-01-01

205

The Geometry of Viruses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is an activity in which students make models of viruses, which allows them to visualize the shape of these microorganisms. Included are some background on viruses, the biology and geometry of viruses, directions for building viruses, a comparison of cells and viruses, and questions for students. (KR)

Case, Christine L.

1991-01-01

206

Constructing Computer Virus Phylogenies  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been much recent algorithmic work on the problem of reconstructing the evolutionary history of biological species. Computer virus specialists are interested in finding the evolutionary history of computer viruses—a virus is often written using code fragments from one or more other viruses, which are its immediate ancestors. A phylogeny for a collection of computer viruses is a directed

Leslie Ann Goldberg; Paul W. Goldberg; Cynthia A. Phillips; Gregory B. Sorkin

1998-01-01

207

Geographical and seasonal distribution of the bluetongue virus vector, Culicoides imicola, in central Italy.  

PubMed

Following the first incursion of bluetongue virus (BTV) into Italy, the geographical and seasonal distribution of the biting midge Culicoides imicola Kieffer (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), the main vector of BTV and African horse sickness virus, was investigated in two regions of central Italy (Lazio and Tuscany). Surveillance of Culicoides was carried out between July 2001 and December 2002 using light traps: 1917 collections were made in 381 trap sites, well distributed across both regions. During the survey, bluetongue outbreaks were recorded in both regions. Culicoides imicola was found in 89 (23%) trap sites, distributed fairly continuously along the whole western coastline, between 41.2697 degrees N and 44.05724 degrees N. It was found only occasionally inland and usually in low abundance, with catches of more than 1000 specimens per night found in only two sample sites and 74% of catches numbering fewer than 10 specimens. Adults were caught from March to mid December, with peaks ranging from the end of August to mid November. The coastal distribution and the presence of only few sites with year-round records of adult vectors suggests that colonization may have occurred recently, by passive wind-dispersal from external source areas (Sardinia and Corsica). Alternatively, the species may occur in established, previously undetected, autochthonous populations that are limited from extension inland and northern-ward within Lazio and Tuscany by cool winter temperatures. PMID:14651652

De Liberato, C; Purse, B V; Goffredo, M; Scholl, F; Scaramozzino, P

2003-12-01

208

Malondialdehyde-deoxyguanosine and bulky DNA adducts in schoolchildren resident in the proximity of the Sarroch industrial estate on Sardinia Island, Italy  

PubMed Central

Air quality is a primary environmental concern in highly industrialised areas, with potential health effects in children residing nearby. The Sarroch industrial estate in Cagliari province, Sardinia Island, Italy, hosts the world’s largest power plant and the second largest European oil refinery and petrochemical park. This industrial estate produces a complex mixture of air pollutants, including benzene, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Thus, we conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the prevalence of malondialdehyde–deoxyguanosine adducts in the nasal epithelium of 75 representative children, aged 6–14 years, attending primary and secondary schools in Sarroch in comparison with 73 rural controls. Additionally, the levels of bulky DNA adducts were analysed in a subset of 62 study children. DNA damage was measured by 32P-postlabelling methodologies. The air concentrations of benzene and ethyl benzene were measured in the school gardens of Sarroch and a rural village by diffusive samplers. Outdoor measurements were also performed in other Sarroch areas and in the proximity of the industrial estate. The outdoor levels of benzene and ethyl benzene were significantly higher in the school gardens of Sarroch than in the rural village. Higher concentrations were also found in other Sarroch areas and in the vicinity of the industrial park. The mean levels of malondialdehyde–deoxyguanosine adducts per 108 normal nucleotides ± standard error (SE) were 74.6±9.1 and 34.1±4.4 in the children from Sarroch and the rural village, respectively. The mean ratio was 2.53, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.71–2.89, P < 0.001, versus rural controls. Similarly, the levels of bulky DNA adducts per 108 normal nucleotides ± SE were 2.9±0.4 and 1.6±0.2 in the schoolchildren from Sarroch and the rural village, respectively. The means ratio was 1.90, 95% CI: 1.25–2.89, P = 0.003 versus rural controls. Our study indicates that children residing near the industrial estate have a significant increment of DNA damage.

Peluso, Marco

2013-01-01

209

Constructing computer virus phylogenies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There has been much recent algorithmic work on the problem of reconstructing the evolutionary history of biological species. Computer virus specialists are interested in finding the evolutionary history of computer viruses--a virus is often written using ...

L. A. Goldberg P. W. Goldberg C. A. Phillips G. B. Sorkin

1996-01-01

210

Computer Viruses: An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the early history and current proliferation of computer viruses that occur on Macintosh and DOS personal computers, mentions virus detection programs, and offers suggestions for how libraries can protect themselves and their users from damage by computer viruses. (LRW)

Marmion, Dan

1990-01-01

211

Virus Movement Maintains Local Virus Population Diversity  

SciTech Connect

Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material.

J. Snyder; B. Wiedenheft; M. Lavin; F. Roberto; J. Spuhler; A. Ortmann; T. Douglas; M. Young

2007-11-01

212

Virus movement maintains local virus population diversity  

PubMed Central

Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material.

Snyder, Jamie C.; Wiedenheft, Blake; Lavin, Matthew; Roberto, Francisco F.; Spuhler, Josh; Ortmann, Alice C.; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark

2007-01-01

213

Three-dimensional modeling in the study of subsidence in mining Acquaresi (Sardinia South - West) - Francesco Muntoni (1) Teresa Balvis (2) Paolo Bevilacqua (3) (1) Geological, Mining Park of Sardinia - Via Monteverdi, 16 09016 - Iglesias (2) freelance (3) Department of Engineering and Architecture - University of Trieste, Via Valerio 10 - Trieste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of subsidence and subsequent landslides in mining areas are very frequent, the study examines the proposed mining area of Acquaresi (Sardinia South - West), interested in the years between 1991 and 2003 by major subsidence phenomena and consequent events landslides. The valley of Acquaresi is particularly important, not only for its mines, but also for the aspect related to the geomorphological evolution morphotectonic in the context of Paleozoic lithologies, which have a rectangular structure parallel to the coastline. To make measurements and analysis of the evolution of human morphostructural and throughout the industry, it was considered appropriate to create a three-dimensional model that would allow a synoptic view with the different information available to the industry. E 'was created a model using the points listed extrapolated from the Regional Technical Map scale 1:10,000, the map at scale 1:2000 dell'IGEA and the values of a detailed survey of the study area, measured at a scale 1: 500. How MicroStation CAD software was used, with whom it is made of a TIN high detail taking into account then is, if possible, of quoted points, roads, major infrastructure, contour lines (lines-intermediate-auxiliary), buildings and lines coast. The model was supported and shaped (draping) image obtained by integrating the color orthophotos of the area in 1:10,000 scale of the Autonomous Region of Sardinia and photos to scale 1:2,000 made to run dall'IGEA spa at the last event of the landslide. The use of aerial photographs, a scale similar to that of cartography, has allowed us to achieve excellent results by superimposing the frames of the areas of interest on models made, with views that appear to be consistent with the technical papers, with a maximum error of less than that of the reference mapping. Moreover, to emphasize the tectonic lineations, morphological aspects and changes in landscape and environment, it was considered appropriate to use a three-dimensional model, thanks to software used in this trial, with a high detail 3D visualization. Starting from the Regional Technical Map has been possible to realize the DEM file, then perform an interpolation with a point layer containing elevation values recorded separately and then superimpose the orthophoto to 3D surface. It was also decided to use a terrain model DTM knitted irregular TIN compared to a regular grid pattern GRID, because the first best response to the need to have a shirt that exploited all possible points present and identifiable in the territory. With the use of a TIN was thus possible to insert also the points detected by the GPS in the country to verify the area of detachment of the landslide, thus being able to increase the detail in the area of observation. Getting a noticeable "jump" quality: moving from a two-dimensional to a three-dimensional display. The model thus obtained has allowed a very good point of the area: they are easy to locate the outcrops of the different lithological structures, facilitating the study and evaluation for interventions of recovery.

Muntoni, F.

2013-12-01

214

Salmonid viruses: Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Epizootics occurred among young trout in France, and the behavior and symptoms suggested infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) virus. Specimens preserved in glycerol were sent to the U.S.A. for virological examination. Virus was isolated from four of five lots, but neutralization with antiserum against ATCC VR299 strain IPN virus was incomplete. Electron microscopy, bioassay, histopathology, and serology were used to

Ken Wolf; M. C. Quimby

1971-01-01

215

The Tobacco Mosaic Virus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how the tobacco mosaic virus can be used to study virology. Presents facts about the virus, procedures to handle the virus in the laboratory, and four laboratory exercises involving the viruses' survival under inactivating conditions, dilution end point, filterability, and microscopy. (MDH)

Sulzinski, Michael A.

1992-01-01

216

Virus entry by macropinocytosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

As obligatory intracellular parasites, viruses rely on host-cell functions for most aspects of their replication cycle. This is born out during entry, when most viruses that infect vertebrate and insect cells exploit the endocytic activities of the host cell to move into the cytoplasm. Viruses belonging to vaccinia, adeno, picorna and other virus families have been reported to take advantage

Jason Mercer; Ari Helenius

2009-01-01

217

GHG emissions quantification at high spatial and temporal resolution at urban scale: the case of the town of Sassari (NW Sardinia - Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Union has set as priorities the fight against climate change related to greenhouse gas releases. The largest source of these emissions comes from human activities in urban areas that account for more than 70% of the world's emissions and several local governments intend to support the European strategic policies in understanding which crucial sectors drive GHG emissions in their city. Planning for mitigation actions at the community scale starts with the compilation of a GHG inventories that, among a wide range of measurement tools, provide information on the current status of GHG emissions across a specific jurisdiction. In the framework of a regional project for quantitative estimate of the net exchange of CO2 (emissions and sinks) at the municipal level in Sardinia, the town of Sassari represents a pilot site where a spatial and temporal high resolution GHG emissions inventory is built in line with European and international standard protocols to establish a baseline for tracking emission trends. The specific purpose of this accurate accounting is to obtain an appropriate allocation of CO2 and other GHG emissions at the fine building and hourly scale. The aim is to test the direct measurements needed to enable the construction of future scenarios of these emissions and for assessing possible strategies to reduce their impact. The key element of the methodologies used to construct this GHG emissions inventory is the Global Protocol for Community-Scale Greenhouse Gas Emissions (GPC) (March 2012) that identifies four main types of emission sources: (i) Stationary Units, (ii) Mobile Units, (iii) Waste, and (iv) Industrial Process and Product Use Emissions. The development of the GHG emissions account in Sassari consists in the collection of a range of alternative data sources (primary data, IPCC emission factors, national and local statistic, etc.) selected on the base on relevance and completeness criteria performed for 2010, as baseline year, using top-down, bottom-up or mixed approaches. GPC protocol also defines three standard scopes for downscaling emissions from the national to the community level, that allow to handle the attribution of releases that occur outside the community boundary as a result of activity or consumption within it. The procedures for data processing have simple and concise structure, applicable in different communities that led to the possibility to compare the results with other national contexts. An appropriate GHG emissions allocation over detailed spatial and temporal scales has been achieved on the basis of specific indicators (population, industrial employees, amount of product, etc.) and of geo-location and size of all buildings, using appropriate models, that enable to properly georeference them respect to their uses. The main advantage of neighborhood-level quantification consists in the identification of the main productive sources and emissive activities within the urban boundaries that mostly contribute to the current GHG emissions and then focus the efforts on possible mitigation.

Sanna, Laura; Ferrara, Roberto; Zara, Pierpaolo; Duce, Pierpaolo

2014-05-01

218

Genetic variation in prehistoric Sardinia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We sampled teeth from 53 ancient Sardinian {(Nuragic)} individuals who lived in the Late Bronze Age and Iron Age, between 3,430\\u000aand 2,700 years ago. After eliminating the samples that, in preliminary biochemical tests, did not show a high probability\\u000ato yield reproducible results, we obtained 23 sequences of the mitochondrial {DNA} control region, which were associated to\\u000ahaplogroups

David Caramelli; Cristiano Vernesi; Simona Sanna; María Lourdes Sampietro; Martina Lari; Loredana Castrì; Giuseppe Vona; Rosalba Floris; Paolo Francalacci; Robert Tykot; Antonella Casoli; Jaume Bertranpetit; Carles Lalueza-Fox; Giorgio Bertorelle; Guido Barbujani

2007-01-01

219

Viruses in the sea.  

PubMed

Viruses exist wherever life is found. They are a major cause of mortality, a driver of global geochemical cycles and a reservoir of the greatest genetic diversity on Earth. In the oceans, viruses probably infect all living things, from bacteria to whales. They affect the form of available nutrients and the termination of algal blooms. Viruses can move between marine and terrestrial reservoirs, raising the spectre of emerging pathogens. Our understanding of the effect of viruses on global systems and processes continues to unfold, overthrowing the idea that viruses and virus-mediated processes are sidebars to global processes. PMID:16163346

Suttle, Curtis A

2005-09-15

220

Future directions: oncolytic viruses.  

PubMed

Oncolytic viruses offer a promising new modality for cancer treatment. The strategy of this therapy is to develop viruses capable of selectively infecting and replicating in malignant tumor cells. Oncolytic viruses can spread and destroy malignant tumors without deleterious effects in normal tissues. These viruses are genetically engineered based on both the biology of replicating viruses and the major genetic defects in human cancer cells, so that they can replicate in cancer cells but not in normal cells. The key to the development of such viruses is the identification of viral genes, the deletion or modification of which enables tumor-specific cell destruction. Several clinical trials have demonstrated the safety of oncolytic viruses as cancer therapy and have also shown some encouraging results. Much evidence suggests that oncolytic viral therapy works in synergy with standard cancer therapies. In this review, we will focus on the oncolytic viruses that may be beneficial to patients with lung cancer in the near future. PMID:14967074

You, Liang; He, Biao; Xu, Zhidong; McCormick, Frank; Jablons, David M

2004-01-01

221

Virus Assembly and Maturation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use two techniques to look at three-dimensional virus structure: electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) and X-ray crystallography. Figure 1 is a gallery of virus particles whose structures Timothy Baker, one of my former colleagues at Purdue University, used cryoEM to determine. It illustrates the variety of sizes of icosahedral virus particles. The largest virus particle on this slide is the Herpes simplex virus, around 1200Å in diameter; the smallest we examined was around 250Å in diameter. Viruses bear their genomic information either as positive-sense DNA and RNA, double-strand DNA, double-strand RNA, or negative-strand RNA. Viruses utilize the various structure and function "tactics" seen throughout cell biology to replicate at high levels. Many of the biological principles that we consider general were in fact discovered in the context of viruses ...

Johnson, John E.

2004-03-01

222

Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine  

MedlinePLUS

... for Clinicians Brucella Lab Info Surveillance & Investigation Cholera Ebola virus E. coli Food safety threats Glanders Lassa fever Marburg virus Melioidosis Plague Case Definitions and Report Forms Diagnosis & Evaluation Infection Control Lab Testing Surveillance & Investigation Publications & ...

223

Cytotoxicity of Virus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cytotoxic effects through virus capable of propagation such as those of the pox group inactivated by ultraviolet exposure, were produced under high virus-cell ratios in various cell cultures. In the inoculated culture systems, these effects do not propaga...

H. Mahnel

1968-01-01

224

Viruses and Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix.

Lawson, James S.; Heng, Benjamin

2010-01-01

225

Viruses and human cancer  

SciTech Connect

This book contains papers on the following topics: Immunology and Epidemiology, Biology and Pathogenesis, Models of Pathogenesis and Treatment, Simian and Bovine Retroviruses, Human Papilloma Viruses, EBV and Herpesvirus, and Hepatitis B Virus.

Gallo, R.C.; Haseltine, W.; Klein, G.; Zur Hausen, H.

1987-01-01

226

[Viruses and mammary carcinogenesis].  

PubMed

Bittner virus has been extensively studied by recent electron microscopy and molecular biology techniques. The structure, the biochemical, physical and antigenic properties of the RNA tumor viruses - i.e. the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) - are well known. Recent observations in human tissues of particles similar to animal viruses that are known to be oncogenic have raised the hypothesis of the role of viruses in human cancer. In mice, breast cancer can be caused by a virus - the Bittner virus or MMTV - that is usually transmitted from mother to offspring in the milk. The discovery of such virus particles in human milks and breast cancer tissues could provide data about a viral aetiology of human breast cancer. PMID:172551

Vokaer, A

1975-01-01

227

Advances in virus research  

SciTech Connect

This book contains eight chapters. Some of the titles are: Initiation of viral DNA replication; Vaccinia: virus, vector, vaccine; The pre-S region of hepadnavirus envelope proteins; and Archaebacterial viruses.

Maramorosch, K. (Rutgers--the State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (USA)); Murphy, F.A. (Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA (USA)); Shatkin, A.J. (Rutgers-UMDNJ, Piscataway, NJ (US))

1988-01-01

228

[Mumps vaccine virus transmission].  

PubMed

In this work we report the mumps vaccine virus shedding based on the laboratory confirmed cases of the mumps virus (MuV) infection. The likely epidemiological sources of the transmitted mumps virus were children who were recently vaccinated with the mumps vaccine containing Leningrad-Zagreb or Leningrad-3 MuV. The etiology of the described cases of the horizontal transmission of both mumps vaccine viruses was confirmed by PCR with the sequential restriction analysis. PMID:24772647

Otrashevskaia, E V; Kulak, M V; Otrashevskaia, A V; Karpov, I A; Fisenko, E G; Ignat'ev, G M

2013-01-01

229

An Undetectable Computer Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the few solid theoretical results in the study of computer viruses is Cohen's 1987 demonstration that there is no algorithm that can perfectly detect all possible viruses [1]. This brief paper adds to the bad news, by pointing out that there are computer viruses which no algorithm can detect, even under a somewhat more liberal definition of detection.

David M. Chess; Steve R. White

2000-01-01

230

VIRUSES IN WASTEWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Viruses of animals, plants, and bacteria abound in sewage and receiving waters. Their ecological impact has, for the most part, gone unheeded except as it relates to viruses from human sources. Viruses present at levels infective to man have been recovered from waters used for re...

231

Constructing Computer Virus Phylogenies  

Microsoft Academic Search

. There has been much recent algorithmic work on the problemof reconstructing the evolutionary history of biological species. Computervirus specialists are interested in finding the evolutionary history of computerviruses --- a virus is often written using code fragments from one ormore other viruses, which are its immediate ancestors. A phylogeny fora collection of computer viruses is a directed acyclic graph

Leslie Ann Goldberg; Paul W. Goldberg; Cynthia A. Phillips; Gregory B. Sorkin

1996-01-01

232

Lipids of Archaeal Viruses  

PubMed Central

Archaeal viruses represent one of the least known territory of the viral universe and even less is known about their lipids. Based on the current knowledge, however, it seems that, as in other viruses, archaeal viral lipids are mostly incorporated into membranes that reside either as outer envelopes or membranes inside an icosahedral capsid. Mechanisms for the membrane acquisition seem to be similar to those of viruses infecting other host organisms. There are indications that also some proteins of archaeal viruses are lipid modified. Further studies on the characterization of lipids in archaeal viruses as well as on their role in virion assembly and infectivity require not only highly purified viral material but also, for example, constant evaluation of the adaptability of emerging technologies for their analysis. Biological membranes contain proteins and membranes of archaeal viruses are not an exception. Archaeal viruses as relatively simple systems can be used as excellent tools for studying the lipid protein interactions in archaeal membranes.

Roine, Elina; Bamford, Dennis H.

2012-01-01

233

Elastic Properties of Viruses  

PubMed Central

Viruses are compact biological nanoparticles whose elastic and dynamical properties are hardly known. Inelastic (Brillouin) light scattering was used to characterize these properties, from microcrystals of the Satellite Tobacco Mosaic Virus, a nearly spherical plant virus of 17-nm diameter. Longitudinal sound velocities in wet and dry Satellite Tobacco Mosaic Virus crystals were determined and compared to that of the well-known protein crystal, lysozyme. Localized vibrational modes of the viral particles (i.e., particle modes) were sought in the relevant frequency ranges, as derived assuming the viruses as full free nanospheres. Despite very favorable conditions, regarding virus concentration and expected low damping in dry microcrystals, no firm evidence of virus particle modes could be detected.

Stephanidis, B.; Adichtchev, S.; Gouet, P.; McPherson, A.; Mermet, A.

2007-01-01

234

Abacá mosaic virus: A distinct strain of Sugarcane mosaic virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abacá mosaic virus (AbaMV) is related to members of the sugarcane mosaic virus subgroup of the genus Potyvirus. The ?2 kb 3? terminal region of the viral genome was sequenced and, in all areas analysed, found to be most similar to Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) and distinct from Johnsongrass mosaic virus (JGMV), Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) and Sorghum mosaic

C. F. Gambley; J. E. Thomas; L. V. Magnaye; L. Herradura

2004-01-01

235

Internet computer virus protection policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organizations and individuals today need to have a comprehensive virus protection policy to face the growing threats of Internet computer viruses. The purpose of this paper is to introduce to the reader the threats that Internet computer viruses can cause and provide guidelines on how organizations or individuals can protect themselves against these viruses. Discusses the full set of virus

H. Joseph Wen

1998-01-01

236

Viruses of botrytis.  

PubMed

Botrytis cinerea (gray mold) is one of the most widespread and destructive fungal diseases of horticultural crops. Propagation and dispersal is usually by asexual conidia but the sexual stage (Botryotinia fuckeliana (de Bary) Whetzel) also occurs in nature. DsRNAs, indicative of virus infection, are common in B. cinerea, but only four viruses (Botrytis virus F (BVF), Botrytis virus X (BVX), Botrytis cinerea mitovirus 1 (BcMV1), and Botrytis porri RNA virus) have been sequenced. BVF and BVX are unusual mycoviruses being ssRNA flexous rods and have been designated the type species of the genera Mycoflexivirus and Botrexvirus (family Betaflexivirdae), respectively. The reported effects of viruses on Botrytis range from negligible to severe, with Botrytis cinerea mitovirus 1 causing hypovirulence. Little is currently known about the effects of viruses on Botrytis metabolism but recent complete sequencing of the B. cinerea genome now provides an opportunity to investigate the host-pathogen interactions at the molecular level. There is interest in the possible use of mycoviruses as biological controls for Botrytis because of the common problem of fungicide resistance. Unfortunately, hyphal anastomosis is the only known mechanism of horizontal virus transmission and the large number of vegetative incompatibility groups in Botrytis is a potential constraint on the spread of an introduced virus. Although some Botrytis viruses, such as BVF and BVX, are known to have international distribution, there is a distinct lack of epidemiological data and the means of spread are unknown. PMID:23498909

Pearson, Michael N; Bailey, Andrew M

2013-01-01

237

The Acute bee paralysis virus–Kashmir bee virus–Israeli acute paralysis virus complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV) and Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) are part of a complex of closely related viruses from the Family Dicistroviridae. These viruses have a widespread prevalence in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies and a predominantly sub-clinical etiology that contrasts sharply with the extremely virulent pathology encountered at elevated titres, either artificially induced

Joachim R. de Miranda; Guido Cordoni; Giles Budge

2010-01-01

238

Viruses in Antarctic lakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water samples collected from four perennially ice-covered Antarctic lakes during the austral summer of 1996-1997 contained high densities of extracellular viruses. Many of these viruses were found to be morphologically similar to double-stranded DNA viruses that are known to infect algae and protozoa. These constitute the first observations of viruses in perennially ice-covered polar lakes. The abundance of planktonic viruses and data suggesting substantial production potential (relative to bacteria] secondary and photosynthetic primary production) indicate that viral lysis may be a major factor in the regulation of microbial populations in these extreme environments. Furthermore, we suggest that Antarctic lakes may be a reservoir of previously undescribed viruses that possess novel biological and biochemical characteristics.

Kepner, R. L. Jr; Wharton, R. A. Jr; Suttle, C. A.; Wharton RA, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

1998-01-01

239

Water system virus detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of a waste water reclamation system is monitored by introducing a non-pathogenic marker virus, bacteriophage F2, into the waste-water prior to treatment and, thereafter, testing the reclaimed water for the presence of the marker virus. A test sample is first concentrated by absorbing any marker virus onto a cellulose acetate filter in the presence of a trivalent cation at low pH and then flushing the filter with a limited quantity of a glycine buffer solution to desorb any marker virus present on the filter. Photo-optical detection of indirect passive immune agglutination by polystyrene beads indicates the performance of the water reclamation system in removing the marker virus. A closed system provides for concentrating any marker virus, initiating and monitoring the passive immune agglutination reaction, and then flushing the system to prepare for another sample.

Fraser, A. S.; Wells, A. F.; Tenoso, H. J. (inventors)

1978-01-01

240

DNA Virus Replication Compartments  

PubMed Central

Viruses employ a variety of strategies to usurp and control cellular activities through the orchestrated recruitment of macromolecules to specific cytoplasmic or nuclear compartments. Formation of such specialized virus-induced cellular microenvironments, which have been termed viroplasms, virus factories, or virus replication centers, complexes, or compartments, depends on molecular interactions between viral and cellular factors that participate in viral genome expression and replication and are in some cases associated with sites of virion assembly. These virus-induced compartments function not only to recruit and concentrate factors required for essential steps of the viral replication cycle but also to control the cellular mechanisms of antiviral defense. In this review, we summarize characteristic features of viral replication compartments from different virus families and discuss similarities in the viral and cellular activities that are associated with their assembly and the functions they facilitate for viral replication.

Schmid, Melanie; Speiseder, Thomas; Dobner, Thomas

2014-01-01

241

Viruses, masters at downsizing.  

PubMed

Viruses are the smallest fruits on the tree of life. Dwarfed by their bacterial and cellular hosts, viruses and their close relatives have long been considered the smallest microbes. The genome of a virus may contain no more than three thousand nucleotides, compared to the three billion base pairs in human genomes. (Lest we feel superior, though, the genomes of some other organisms are much larger than our own.). PMID:22704616

DiMaio, Daniel

2012-06-14

242

Rabies virus receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is convincing in vitro evidence that the muscular form of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), the neuronal cell adhesion molecule (NCAM),\\u000a and the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) bind rabies virus and\\/or facilitate rabies virus entry into cells. Other components\\u000a of the cell membrane, such as gangliosides, may also participate in the entry of rabies virus. However, little is known

Monique Lafon

2005-01-01

243

Viruses for tumor therapy.  

PubMed

Oncolytic virotherapy exploits live viruses with selective tropism for cancerous cells and tissues to treat cancer. As discussed here, the field has progressed considerably as a result of both the successes and failures of previous and on-going clinical trials for various cancers. These studies indicate that oncolytic viruses are remarkably safe and more efficacious when virus replication stimulates sustained antitumor immune responses. In the future, virotherapy should be combined with immunomodulatory reagents that target immune tolerance to established cancers. PMID:24629333

Bell, John; McFadden, Grant

2014-03-12

244

Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans  

MedlinePLUS

... Google Bookmarks Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans On this Page Avian Influenza A Virus Infections ... A Viruses Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Although avian influenza A viruses usually do not ...

245

Tracking a Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students simulate the spread of a virus such as HIV through a population by "sharing" (but not drinking) the water in a plastic cup with several classmates. Although invisible, the water in a few of the cups has already be tainted with the "virus" (sodium carbonate). After all the students have shared their liquids, the contents of the cups are tested for the virus with phenolphthalein, a chemical that causes a striking color change in the presence of sodium carbonate. Students then set about trying to determine which of their classmates were the ones originally infected with the virus.

Engineering K-Phd Program

246

Water system virus detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A monitoring system developed to test the capability of a water recovery system to reject the passage of viruses into the recovered water is described. A nonpathogenic marker virus, bacteriophage F2, is fed into the process stream before the recovery unit and the reclaimed water is assayed for its presence. Detection of the marker virus consists of two major components, concentration and isolation of the marker virus, and detection of the marker virus. The concentration system involves adsorption of virus to cellulose acetate filters in the presence of trivalent cations and low pH with subsequent desorption of the virus using volumes of high pH buffer. The detection of the virus is performed by a passive immune agglutination test utilizing specially prepared polystyrene particles. An engineering preliminary design was performed as a parallel effort to the laboratory development of the marker virus test system. Engineering schematics and drawings of a fully functional laboratory prototype capable of zero-G operation are presented. The instrument consists of reagent pump/metering system, reagent storage containers, a filter concentrator, an incubation/detector system, and an electronic readout and control system.

Fraser, A. S.; Wells, A. F.; Tenoso, H. J.

1975-01-01

247

Viruses in artichoke.  

PubMed

Most of the 25 viruses found in globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) and cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) were recorded from Europe and the Mediterranean basin, where they decrease both the productivity and the quality of the crop. Although, sometimes, these viruses are agents of diseases of different severity, most often their infections are symptomless. These conditions have contributed to spread virus-infected material since farmers multiply traditional artichoke types vegetatively with no effective selection of virus-free plants. This review reports the main properties of these viruses and the techniques used for their detection and identification. ELISA kits are commercially available for most of the viruses addressed in this review but have seldom been used for their detection in artichoke. Conversely, nucleic acid-based diagnostic reagents, some of which are commercially available, have successfully been employed to identify some viruses in artichoke sap. Control measures mainly use virus-free stocks for new plantations. A combined procedure of meristem-tip culture and thermotherapy proved useful for producing virus-free regenerants of the reflowering southern Italian cultivar Brindisino, which kept earliness and typical heads shape. PMID:22682171

Gallitelli, Donato; Mascia, Tiziana; Martelli, Giovanni P

2012-01-01

248

Virus separation using membranes.  

PubMed

Industrial manufacturing of cell culture-derived viruses or virus-like particles for gene therapy or vaccine production are complex multistep processes. In addition to the bioreactor, such processes require a multitude of downstream unit operations for product separation, concentration, or purification. Similarly, before a biopharmaceutical product can enter the market, removal or inactivation of potential viral contamination has to be demonstrated. Given the complexity of biological solutions and the high standards on composition and purity of biopharmaceuticals, downstream processing is the bottleneck in many biotechnological production trains. Membrane-based filtration can be an economically attractive and efficient technology for virus separation. Viral clearance, for instance, of up to seven orders of magnitude has been reported for state of the art polymeric membranes under best conditions.This chapter summarizes the fundamentals of virus ultrafiltration, diafiltration, or purification with adsorptive membranes. In lieu of an impractical universally applicable protocol for virus filtration, application of these principles is demonstrated with two examples. The chapter provides detailed methods for production, concentration, purification, and removal of a rod-shaped baculovirus (Autographa californica M nucleopolyhedrovirus, about 40 × 300 nm in size, a potential vector for gene therapy, and an industrially important protein expression system) or a spherical parvovirus (minute virus of mice, 22-26 nm in size, a model virus for virus clearance validation studies). PMID:24297430

Grein, Tanja A; Michalsky, Ronald; Czermak, Peter

2014-01-01

249

Studies on Arbor Viruses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Brain antigens from Chikungunya, Semliki, St. Louis, West Nile, and Ntaya viruses as well as antigens from Sindbis virus prepared from the brain tissue of suckling mice and from culture fluid after inoculation of a trypsinized culture of chick embryo fibr...

V. D. Neustroev T. A. Salagova T. A. Rezepova K. S. Kulikov

1968-01-01

250

The hepatitis B virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA recombinant technology has radically changed hepatitis B virus (HBV) virology. The genetic organization, transcription and replication of the virus are basically understood, structures of integrated HBV sequences in hepatocellular carcinoma have been characterized, and new vaccines produced by recombinant DNA technique are being developed.

Pierre Tiollais; Christine Pourcel; Anne Dejean

1985-01-01

251

Recombination in AIDS viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombination contributes to the generation of genetic diversity in human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) but can only occur between viruses replicating within the same cell. Since individuals have not been found to be simultaneously coinfected with multiple divergent strains of HIV-1 or HIV-2, recombination events have been thought to be restricted to the rather closely related members of the quasispecies that

David L. Robertson; Beatrice H. Hahn; Paul M. Sharp

1995-01-01

252

Deformed wing virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deformed wing virus (DWV; Iflaviridae) is one of many viruses infecting honeybees and one of the most heavily investigated due to its close association with honeybee colony collapse induced by Varroadestructor. In the absence of V.destructor DWV infection does not result in visible symptoms or any apparent negative impact on host fitness. However, for reasons that are still not fully

Joachim R. de Miranda; Elke Genersch

2010-01-01

253

Computer Virus Propagation Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The availability of reliable models of computer virus propa- gation would prove useful in a number of ways, in order both to predict future threats, and to develop new containment measures. In this pa- per, we review the most popular models of virus propagation, analyzing the underlying assumptions of each of them, their strengths and their weaknesses. We also introduce

Giuseppe Serazzi; Stefano Zanero

2003-01-01

254

Introduction to computer viruses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report on computer viruses is based upon a thesis written for the Master of Science degree in Computer Science from the University of Tennessee in December 1989 by David R. Brown. This thesis is entitled An Analysis of Computer Virus Construction, Pr...

D. R. Brown

1992-01-01

255

Schmallenberg Virus as Possible Ancestor of Shamonda Virus  

PubMed Central

Schmallenberg virus (SBV), an orthobunyavirus of the Simbu serogroup, recently emerged in Europe and has been suggested to be a Shamonda/Sathuperi virus reassortant. Results of full-genome and serologic investigations indicate that SBV belongs to the species Sathuperi virus and is a possible ancestor of the reassortant Shamonda virus.

Goller, Katja V.; Hoper, Dirk; Schirrmeier, Horst; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.

2012-01-01

256

Tobacco Mosaic Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this four-part laboratory exercise, learners investigate properties of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) including (1) symptoms induced by the virus in susceptible plants at the macroscopic and microscopic levels, (2) its stability at high temperatures, and (3) its small size. Learners first propagate tomato and pinto bean plants, and then inoculate their dried leaves with TMV. Learners observe the TMV-infected leaves as well as use a heat treatment to inactivate the virus. Learners also filter the infected sap with a bacteria-proof filter to investigate size. This lesson guide includes background information, tips for educators, and discussion questions with answers. Adult supervision is recommended. Note: The Tobacco mosaic virus is available from biological suppliers, but approval for shipping of the virus across state lines must be obtained from the USDA prior to shipment.

Ford, Rosemary; Evans, Tom

2011-01-01

257

Hepatitis B Virus Biology  

PubMed Central

Hepadnaviruses (hepatitis B viruses) cause transient and chronic infections of the liver. Transient infections run a course of several months, and chronic infections are often lifelong. Chronic infections can lead to liver failure with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The replication strategy of these viruses has been described in great detail, but virus-host interactions leading to acute and chronic disease are still poorly understood. Studies on how the virus evades the immune response to cause prolonged transient infections with high-titer viremia and lifelong infections with an ongoing inflammation of the liver are still at an early stage, and the role of the virus in liver cancer is still elusive. The state of knowledge in this very active field is therefore reviewed with an emphasis on past accomplishments as well as goals for the future.

Seeger, Christoph; Mason, William S.

2000-01-01

258

Rapid Detection of Enveloped Viruses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

M-protein of influenza virus is a type-specific antigen and the most invariant protein of the virus. A rapid virus detection system based on M-protein detection would detect all type A influenza viruses and be independent of antigenic shift and drift. To ...

D. J. Bucher

1988-01-01

259

Evolution of avian influenza viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although influenza viruses can infect a wide variety of birds and mammals, the natural host of the virus is wild waterfowl, shorebirds, and gulls. When other species of animals, including chickens, turkeys, swine, horses, and humans, are infected with influenza viruses, they are considered aberrant hosts. The distinction between the normal and aberrant host is important when describing virus evolution

David L. Suarez

2000-01-01

260

Virus-PEDOT Biocomposite Films  

PubMed Central

Virus-poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (virus-PEDOT) biocomposite films are prepared by electropolymerizing 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) in aqueous electrolytes containing 12 mM LiClO4 and the bacteriophage M13. The concentration of virus in these solutions, [virus]soln, is varied from 3 nM to 15 nM. A quartz crystal microbalance is used to directly measure the total mass of the biocomposite film during its electrodeposition. In combination with a measurement of the electrodeposition charge, the mass of the virus incorporated into the film is calculated. These data show that concentration of the M13 within the electropolymerized film, [virus]film, increases linearly with [virus]soln. The incorporation of virus particles into the PEDOT film from solution is efficient, resulting in a concentration ratio: [virus]film:[virus]soln ?450. Virus incorporation into the PEDOT causes roughening of the film topography that is observed using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The electrical conductivity of the virus-PEDOT film, measured perpendicular to the plane of the film using conductive tip AFM, decreases linearly with virus loading, from 270 ?S/cm for pure PE-DOT films to 50 ?S/cm for films containing 100 ?M virus. The presence on the virus surface of displayed affinity peptides did not significantly influence the efficiency of incorporation into virus-PEDOT biocomposite films.

Donavan, Keith C.; Arter, Jessica A.

2012-01-01

261

A Virus in Turbo Pascal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses why the authors feel it is not inappropriate to teach about viruses in the how-to, hands-on fashion. Identifies the special features of Turbo Pascal that have to be used for the creation of an effective virus. Defines virus, derives its structure, and from this structure is derived the implemented virus. (PR)

Teleky, Heidi Ann; And Others

1993-01-01

262

Computer Viruses: Pathology and Detection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how computer viruses were originally created, how a computer can become infected by a virus, how viruses operate, symptoms that indicate a computer is infected, how to detect and remove viruses, and how to prevent a reinfection. A sidebar lists eight antivirus resources. (four references) (LRW)

Maxwell, John R.; Lamon, William E.

1992-01-01

263

Ocular Tropism of Respiratory Viruses  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Respiratory viruses (including adenovirus, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, and rhinovirus) cause a broad spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from mild influenza-like symptoms to acute respiratory failure. While species D adenoviruses and subtype H7 influenza viruses are known to possess an ocular tropism, documented human ocular disease has been reported following infection with all principal respiratory viruses. In this review, we describe the anatomical proximity and cellular receptor distribution between ocular and respiratory tissues. All major respiratory viruses and their association with human ocular disease are discussed. Research utilizing in vitro and in vivo models to study the ability of respiratory viruses to use the eye as a portal of entry as well as a primary site of virus replication is highlighted. Identification of shared receptor-binding preferences, host responses, and laboratory modeling protocols among these viruses provides a needed bridge between clinical and laboratory studies of virus tropism.

Rota, Paul A.; Tumpey, Terrence M.

2013-01-01

264

Enteric hepatitis viruses  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis viruses are infectious agents that can infect liver and cause inflammation. The infection triggers immune response against infected cells that leads to the destruction of hepatic cells. This destruction has two consequences: leaking ALT and AST liver enzymes which increases during the course of disease and accumulation of bilirubin- a red pigmented compound released from dead red cells- which causes the yellow coloration of eyes and skin. These viruses transmit through diverse routes i.e. blood transfusion, sexual contacts and consuming water or food contaminated by feces. Enteric hepatitis viruses use the latter route for transmission; hence their outbreaks are more common in underdeveloped countries. There are currently two distinguished enteric hepatitis viruses, hepatitis A and hepatitis E. These viruses belong to different family of viruses and their epidemiological characteristics are different. These infections can be diagnosed by an ELISA for IgM antibody. A vaccine has been developed in last decade of twentieth century for hepatitis A virus, which is administered mostly in the developed world i.e. U.S and Japan. Treatment for these infections is mostly supportive; however, in the case of fulminant hepatitis the liver transplantation might be necessary.

Tahaei, Seyed Mohammad Ebrahim; Zali, Mohammad Reza

2012-01-01

265

Cucumber mosaic virus.  

PubMed

Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is an important virus because of its agricultural impact in the Mediterranean Basin and worldwide, and also as a model for understanding plant-virus interactions. This review focuses on those areas where most progress has been made over the past decade in our understanding of CMV. Clearly, a deep understanding of the role of the recently described CMV 2b gene in suppression of host RNA silencing and viral virulence is the most important discovery. These findings have had an impact well beyond the virus itself, as the 2b gene is an important tool in the studies of eukaryotic gene regulation. Protein 2b was shown to be involved in most of the steps of the virus cycle and to interfere with several basal host defenses. Progress has also been made concerning the mechanisms of virus replication and movement. However, only a few host proteins that interact with viral proteins have been identified, making this an area of research where major efforts are still needed. Another area where major advances have been made is CMV population genetics, where contrasting results were obtained. On the one hand, CMV was shown to be prone to recombination and to show high genetic diversity based on sequence data of different isolates. On the other hand, populations did not exhibit high genetic variability either within plants, or even in a field and the nearby wild plants. The situation was partially clarified with the finding that severe bottlenecks occur during both virus movement within a plant and transmission between plants. Finally, novel studies were undertaken to elucidate mechanisms leading to selection in virus population, according to the host or its environment, opening a new research area in plant-virus coevolution. PMID:22682176

Jacquemond, Mireille

2012-01-01

266

Polyoma BK Virus: An Oncogenic Virus?  

PubMed Central

We report a case of a 65-year-old gentleman with a history of end stage renal disease who underwent a successful cadaveric donor kidney transplant four years ago. He subsequently developed BK virus nephropathy related to chronic immunosuppressant therapy. Three years later, misfortune struck again, and he developed adenocarcinoma of the bladder.

Hassan, Syed; Alirhayim, Zaid; Ahmed, Syed; Amer, Syed

2013-01-01

267

Genome of Horsepox Virus  

PubMed Central

Here we present the genomic sequence of horsepox virus (HSPV) isolate MNR-76, an orthopoxvirus (OPV) isolated in 1976 from diseased Mongolian horses. The 212-kbp genome contained 7.5-kbp inverted terminal repeats and lacked extensive terminal tandem repetition. HSPV contained 236 open reading frames (ORFs) with similarity to those in other OPVs, with those in the central 100-kbp region most conserved relative to other OPVs. Phylogenetic analysis of the conserved region indicated that HSPV is closely related to sequenced isolates of vaccinia virus (VACV) and rabbitpox virus, clearly grouping together these VACV-like viruses. Fifty-four HSPV ORFs likely represented fragments of 25 orthologous OPV genes, including in the central region the only known fragmented form of an OPV ribonucleotide reductase large subunit gene. In terminal genomic regions, HSPV lacked full-length homologues of genes variably fragmented in other VACV-like viruses but was unique in fragmentation of the homologue of VACV strain Copenhagen B6R, a gene intact in other known VACV-like viruses. Notably, HSPV contained in terminal genomic regions 17 kbp of OPV-like sequence absent in known VACV-like viruses, including fragments of genes intact in other OPVs and approximately 1.4 kb of sequence present only in cowpox virus (CPXV). HSPV also contained seven full-length genes fragmented or missing in other VACV-like viruses, including intact homologues of the CPXV strain GRI-90 D2L/I4R CrmB and D13L CD30-like tumor necrosis factor receptors, D3L/I3R and C1L ankyrin repeat proteins, B19R kelch-like protein, D7L BTB/POZ domain protein, and B22R variola virus B22R-like protein. These results indicated that HSPV contains unique genomic features likely contributing to a unique virulence/host range phenotype. They also indicated that while closely related to known VACV-like viruses, HSPV contains additional, potentially ancestral sequences absent in other VACV-like viruses.

Tulman, E. R.; Delhon, G.; Afonso, C. L.; Lu, Z.; Zsak, L.; Sandybaev, N. T.; Kerembekova, U. Z.; Zaitsev, V. L.; Kutish, G. F.; Rock, D. L.

2006-01-01

268

[Enigmatic archaeal viruses].  

PubMed

Viruses infecting microorganisms of the third domain of life, Archaea, are still poorly characterized: to date, only about fifty of these viruses have been isolated. Their hosts are hyperthermophilic, acidothermophilic, and extreme halophilic or methanogenic archaea. Their morphotypes are highly diverse and their gene content is very specific. Some of these viruses have developed extraordinary mechanisms to open the cell wall thanks to the formation of exceptional pyramidal nanostructures. The still limited knowledge about the biology of archaeoviruses should develop rapidly in the coming years. PMID:24330970

Bize, Ariane; Sezonov, Guennadi; Prangishvili, David

2013-01-01

269

Virus templated metallic nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Plant viruses are considered as nanobuilding blocks that can be used as synthons or templates for novel materials. Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) particles have been shown to template the fabrication of metallic nanoparticles by an electroless deposition metallization process. Palladium ions were electrostatically bound to the virus capsid and, when reduced, acted as nucleation sites for the subsequent metal deposition from solution. The method, although simple, produced highly monodisperse metallic nanoparticles with a diameter of ca. ?35 nm. CPMV-templated particles were prepared with cobalt, nickel, iron, platinum, cobalt-platinum and nickel-iron. PMID:20877898

Aljabali, Alaa A A; Barclay, J Elaine; Lomonossoff, George P; Evans, David J

2010-12-01

270

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)  

MedlinePLUS

... often spreads very rapidly in crowded households and day care centers. The virus can live for a half ... The following increase the risk for RSV: Attending day care Being near tobacco smoke Having school-aged brothers ...

271

Viruses causing gastroenteritis.  

PubMed

Acute gastroenteritis is one of the most common diseases in humans worldwide. Viruses are recognized as important causes of this disease, particularly in children. Since the Norwalk virus was identified as a cause of gastroenteritis, the number of viral agents associated with diarrheal disease in humans has steadily increased. Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhea in children under 5 years of age. Astrovirus, calicivirus and enteric adenovirus are also important etiologic agents of acute gastroenteritis. Other viruses, such as toroviruses, coronaviruses, picobirnaviruses and pestiviruses, are increasingly being identified as causative agents of diarrhea. In recent years, the availability of diagnostic tests, mainly immunoassays or molecular biology techniques, has increased our understanding of this group of viruses. The future development of a safe and highly effective vaccine against rotavirus could prevent, at least, cases of severe diarrhea and reduce mortality from this disease. PMID:12667234

Wilhelmi, I; Roman, E; Sánchez-Fauquier, A

2003-04-01

272

Hepatitis B virus (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Hepatitis B is also known as serum hepatitis and is spread through blood and sexual contact. It is ... population. This photograph is an electronmicroscopic image of hepatitis B virus particles. (Image courtesy of the Centers for ...

273

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)  

MedlinePLUS

... and between 12 and 15 months. What is hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is caused by the hepatitis B virus. It can lead to serious liver disease. Signs of hepatitis B infection include belly pain, joint pain, dark urine, ...

274

The influenza viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human epidemic influenza is caused by influenza type A and B viruses, which continually undergo antigenic change in their surface antigens, haemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N). • Influenza epidemics are the consequence of small, ongoing antigenic changes known as \\

Alan W Hampson; John S Mackenzie

2006-01-01

275

Virus Ultra Structure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Linda Stannard of the University of Capetown, South Africa, has composed a page which, although it was intended to serve as an introductory manual for students of virology, can be appreciated by a wide audience. A section on the principles of virus architecture uses text and outstanding graphics to provide an introduction to why viruses look the way they do. Other parts of the site emphasize how virus shapes and structures are "seen" and recorded with sections on negative staining and electron microscopy of DNA- and RNA-containing viruses. This site's success relies on the use of well-chosen graphics and the inclusion of interesting factoids such as the following: "The head of a dress-maker's pin can provide seating accommodation for five hundred million rhinoviruses (cause of the common cold)!".

276

Rapid Detection and Quantification of RNA of Ebola and Marburg Viruses, Lassa Virus, Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Rift Valley Fever Virus, Dengue Virus, and Yellow Fever Virus by Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are acute infections with high case fatality rates. Important VHF agents are Ebola and Marburg viruses (MBGV\\/EBOV), Lassa virus (LASV), Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), dengue virus (DENV), and yellow fever virus (YFV). VHFs are clinically difficult to diagnose and to distinguish; a rapid and reliable laboratory diagnosis is required in

Christian Drosten; Stephan Göttig; Stefan Schilling; Marcel Asper; Marcus Panning; Herbert Schmitz; Stephan Günther

2002-01-01

277

Smaller Fleas: Viruses of Microorganisms  

PubMed Central

Life forms can be roughly differentiated into those that are microscopic versus those that are not as well as those that are multicellular and those that, instead, are unicellular. Cellular organisms seem generally able to host viruses, and this propensity carries over to those that are both microscopic and less than truly multicellular. These viruses of microorganisms, or VoMs, in fact exist as the world's most abundant somewhat autonomous genetic entities and include the viruses of domain Bacteria (bacteriophages), the viruses of domain Archaea (archaeal viruses), the viruses of protists, the viruses of microscopic fungi such as yeasts (mycoviruses), and even the viruses of other viruses (satellite viruses). In this paper we provide an introduction to the concept of viruses of microorganisms, a.k.a., viruses of microbes. We provide broad discussion particularly of VoM diversity. VoM diversity currently spans, in total, at least three-dozen virus families. This is roughly ten families per category—bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and protist—with some virus families infecting more than one of these microorganism major taxa. Such estimations, however, will vary with further discovery and taxon assignment and also are dependent upon what forms of life one includes among microorganisms.

Hyman, Paul; Abedon, Stephen T.

2012-01-01

278

Virus templated metallic nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant viruses are considered as nanobuilding blocks that can be used as synthons or templates for novel materials. Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) particles have been shown to template the fabrication of metallic nanoparticles by an electroless deposition metallization process. Palladium ions were electrostatically bound to the virus capsid and, when reduced, acted as nucleation sites for the subsequent metal deposition from solution. The method, although simple, produced highly monodisperse metallic nanoparticles with a diameter of ca. <=35 nm. CPMV-templated particles were prepared with cobalt, nickel, iron, platinum, cobalt-platinum and nickel-iron.Plant viruses are considered as nanobuilding blocks that can be used as synthons or templates for novel materials. Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) particles have been shown to template the fabrication of metallic nanoparticles by an electroless deposition metallization process. Palladium ions were electrostatically bound to the virus capsid and, when reduced, acted as nucleation sites for the subsequent metal deposition from solution. The method, although simple, produced highly monodisperse metallic nanoparticles with a diameter of ca. <=35 nm. CPMV-templated particles were prepared with cobalt, nickel, iron, platinum, cobalt-platinum and nickel-iron. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional experimental detail, agarose gel electrophoresis results, energy dispersive X-ray spectra, ?-potential measurements, dynamic light scattering data, nanoparticle tracking analysis and an atomic force microscopy image of Ni-CPMV. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00525h

Aljabali, Alaa A. A.; Barclay, J. Elaine; Lomonossoff, George P.; Evans, David J.

2010-12-01

279

Oncogenic Viruses of Nonhuman Primates: A Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Oncogenic viruses of nonhuman primates were reviewed. Viruses of nonhuman primate origin oncogenic in other nonhuman primates includes Herpesvirus saimiri and ateles, simian sarcoma virus, Yaba poxvirus, and oral papilloma virus. SV-40 and simian adenovir...

C. P. Raflo

1975-01-01

280

Evolutionary history of Ebola virus.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Since Ebola virus was discovered in 1970s, the virus has persisted in Africa and sporadic fatal outbreaks in humans and non-human primates have been reported. However, the evolutionary history of Ebola virus remains unclear. In this study, 27 Ebola virus strains with complete glycoprotein genes, including five species (Zaire, Sudan, Reston, Tai Forest, Bundibugyo), were analysed. Here, we propose a hypothesis of the evolutionary history of Ebola virus which will be helpful to investigate the molecular evolution of these viruses. PMID:24040779

Li, Y H; Chen, S P

2014-06-01

281

Environmental control on concretion-forming processes: Examples from Paleozoic terrigenous sediments of the North Gondwana margin, Armorican Massif (Middle Ordovician and Middle Devonian) and SW Sardinia (Late Ordovician)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concretions of various compositions are common in the Paleozoic terrigenous successions of the north Gondwana margin. This study focuses on phosphatic (P) and siliceous (Si) concretions present in some successions of the Armorican Massif (NW France) and SW Sardinia (W Italy). It shows that they consist of mudstones, fine- to very fine-grained sandstones or shellbeds with a more or less abundant P-cement and form a continuum between a phosphatic end-member and a siliceous biogenic end-member. The P2O5 contents are ranging from 0.26% to 21.5% and are related to apatite. The SiO2 contents vary from 25% to 82% and are linked both to a terrigenous phase and to a biogenic silica phase. Concretions showing the lower P-contents (P2O5 < 1.5%) are often enriched in biogenic silica (SiO2/Al2O3 > 5). Comparison with the surrounding sediments shows that all the concretions are enriched in chlorite and in Middle Rare Earth Elements (Las/Gds: 0.12-0.72) and some of them in Y (up to 974 ppm), Rare Earth Elements (more than 300 ppm) and Sr (260-880 ppm). The concretions with highest biogenic silica concentrations are contained in the outer shelf sediments whereas the other concretions are present from the proximal part of the inner shelf to the outer shelf. A genetic model in two stages is proposed. During early diagenesis, the dissolution of shells and degradation of organic matter progressively enrich the pore water in dissolved Si, Ca and P. When the suboxic zone is reached, P-precipitation begins, leading to the formation of protoconcretions. In shallow environments, the relative permeability of sediments and the winnowing or reworking of the upper few centimetres by bottom currents allow for suboxic conditions to be maintained, leading to P-rich concretion formation. In deeper environments, the anoxic zone is reached more rapidly, thereby preventing extensive phosphogenesis. Nevertheless in the protoconcretions the early P-cement preserves pore spaces from compaction. In the presence of biogenic siliceous particles, the fluids are enriched in dissolved silica and diffuse towards the protoconcretions. Silica precipitation can thus occur later in the intergranular spaces.

Dabard, Marie-Pierre; Loi, Alfredo

2012-08-01

282

Recombinant Vaccinia Virus: Immunization against Multiple Pathogens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coding sequences for the hepatitis B virus surface antigen, the herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D, and the influenza virus hemagglutinin were inserted into a single vaccinia virus genome. Rabbits inoculated intravenously or intradermally with this polyvalent vaccinia virus recombinant produced antibodies reactive to all three authentic foreign antigens. In addition, the feasibility of multiple rounds of vaccination with recombinant vaccinia virus was demonstrated.

Perkus, Marion E.; Piccini, Antonia; Lipinskas, Bernard R.; Paoletti, Enzo

1985-09-01

283

Multiple virus infections in the honey bee and genome divergence of honey bee viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using uniplex RT-PCR we screened honey bee colonies for the presence of several bee viruses, including black queen cell virus (BQCV), deformed wing virus (DWV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV), and sacbrood virus (SBV), and described the detection of mixed virus infections in bees from these colonies. We report for the first time that individual bees can harbor four viruses simultaneously.

Yanping Chen; Yan Zhao; John Hammond; Hei-ti Hsu; Jay Evans; Mark Feldlaufer

2004-01-01

284

Characterization of K virus and its comparison with polyoma virus.  

PubMed Central

The antigenic relationship between the two murine papovaviruses, K virus and polyoma virus, was examined by serological techniques to determine whether they shared any antigenic components. No cross-reactivity was found associated with the viral (V) antigens by the indirect immunofluorescence, neutralization, or hemagglutination-inhibition tests. The tumor (T) antigens expressed in transformed cells or cells productively infected by either K or polyoma virus did not cross-react by indirect immunofluorescence. An antigenic relationship was detected, however, among the late proteins of K virus, polyoma virus, simian virus 40, and the human papovavirus BKV, when tested with either hyperimmune sera prepared against polyoma virus and simian virus 40 or sera prepared against disrupted virions. The nucleic acids of K and polyoma viruses were compared by agarose gel electrophoresis and restriction endonuclease analysis. No nucleotide sequence homology between the genomes of these two viruses was detectable by DNA-DNA hybridization techniques under stringent conditions. The genome of K virus was found to be slightly smaller than that of polyoma virus, and the cleavage patterns of the viral DNAs with six restriction endonucleases were different. These findings indicate that there is little relationship between these two murine papovaviruses. Images

Bond, S B; Howley, P M; Takemoto, K K

1978-01-01

285

Immunology of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 500 million people worldwide are persistently infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and\\/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) and are at risk of developing chronic liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite many common features in the pathogenesis of HBV- and HCV-related liver disease, these viruses markedly differ in their virological properties and in their immune escape and

Michelina Nascimbeni; Barbara Rehermann

2005-01-01

286

Production of virus resistant plants  

DOEpatents

A method of suppressing virus gene expression in plants using untranslatable plus sense RNA is disclosed. The method is useful for the production of plants that are resistant to virus infection. 9 figs.

Dougherty, W.G.; Lindbo, J.A.

1996-12-10

287

Chlorella viruses isolated in China  

SciTech Connect

Plaque-forming viruses of the unicellular, eukaryotic, exsymbiotic, Chlorella-like green algae strain NC64A, which are common in the United States, were also present in fresh water collected in the People's Republic of China. Seven of the Chinese viruses were examined in detail and compared with the Chlorella viruses previously isolated in the United States. Like the American viruses, the Chinese viruses were large polyhedra and sensitive to chloroform. They contained numerous structural proteins and large double-stranded DNA genomes of at least 300 kilobase pairs. Each of the DNAs from the Chinese viruses contained 5-methyldeoxycytosine, which varied from 12.6 to 46.7% of the deoxycytosine, and N{sup 6}-methyldeoxyadenosine, which varied from 2.2 to 28.3% of the deoxyadenosine. Four of the Chinese virus DNAs hybridized extensively with {sup 32}P-labeled DNA from the American virus PBCV-1, and three hybridized poorly.

Zhang, Y.; Burbank, D.E.; Van Etten, J.L. (Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln (USA))

1988-09-01

288

Viruses and Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disorder of unknown etiology, possibly caused by a virus or virus-triggered immunopathology. The virus might reactivate after years of latency and lyse oligodendrocytes, as in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, or initiate immunopathological demyelination, as in animals infected with Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus or coronaviruses. The argument for a viral cause of MS is supported by epidemiological analyses and studies of MS in identical twins, indicating that disease is acquired. However, the most important evidence is the presence of bands of oligoclonal IgG (OCBs) in MS brain and CSF that persist throughout the lifetime of the patient. OCBs are found almost exclusively in infectious CNS disorders, and antigenic targets of OCBs represent the agent that causes disease. Here, the authors review past attempts to identify an infectious agent in MS brain cells and discuss the promise of using recombinant antibodies generated from clonally expanded plasma cells in brain and CSF to identify disease-relevant antigens. They show how this strategy has been used successfully to analyze antigen specificity in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, a chronic encephalitis caused by measles virus, and in neuromyelitis optica, a chronic autoimmune demyelinating disease produced by antibodies directed against the aquaporin-4 water channel.

Owens, Gregory P.; Gilden, Don; Burgoon, Mark P.; Yu, Xiaoli; Bennett, Jeffrey L.

2012-01-01

289

Viruses and multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disorder of unknown etiology, possibly caused by a virus or virus-triggered immunopathology. The virus might reactivate after years of latency and lyse oligodendrocytes, as in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, or initiate immunopathological demyelination, as in animals infected with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus or coronaviruses. The argument for a viral cause of MS is supported by epidemiological analyses and studies of MS in identical twins, indicating that disease is acquired. However, the most important evidence is the presence of bands of oligoclonal IgG (OCBs) in MS brain and CSF that persist throughout the lifetime of the patient. OCBs are found almost exclusively in infectious CNS disorders, and antigenic targets of OCBs represent the agent that causes disease. Here, the authors review past attempts to identify an infectious agent in MS brain cells and discuss the promise of using recombinant antibodies generated from clonally expanded plasma cells in brain and CSF to identify disease-relevant antigens. They show how this strategy has been used successfully to analyze antigen specificity in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, a chronic encephalitis caused by measles virus, and in neuromyelitis optica, a chronic autoimmune demyelinating disease produced by antibodies directed against the aquaporin-4 water channel. PMID:22130640

Owens, Gregory P; Gilden, Don; Burgoon, Mark P; Yu, Xiaoli; Bennett, Jeffrey L

2011-12-01

290

Nongenital herpes simplex virus.  

PubMed

Nongenital herpes simplex virus type 1 is a common infection usually transmitted during childhood via nonsexual contact. Most of these infections involve the oral mucosa or lips (herpes labialis). The diagnosis of an infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 is usually made by the appearance of the lesions (grouped vesicles or ulcers on an erythematous base) and patient history. However, if uncertain, the diagnosis of herpes labialis can be made by viral culture, polymerase chain reaction, serology, direct fluorescent antibody testing, or Tzanck test. Other nonoral herpes simplex virus type 1 infections include herpetic keratitis, herpetic whitlow, herpes gladiatorum, and herpetic sycosis of the beard area. The differential diagnosis of nongenital herpes simplex virus infection includes aphthous ulcers, acute paronychia, varicella-zoster virus infection, herpangina, herpes gestationis (pemphigoid gestationis), pemphigus vulgaris, and Behçet syndrome. Oral acyclovir suspension is an effective treatment for children with primary herpetic gingivostomatitis. Oral acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir are effective in treating acute recurrence of herpes labialis (cold sores). Recurrences of herpes labialis may be diminished with daily oral acyclovir or valacyclovir. Topical acyclovir, penciclovir, and docosanol are optional treatments for recurrent herpes labialis, but they are less effective than oral treatment. PMID:21121552

Usatine, Richard P; Tinitigan, Rochelle

2010-11-01

291

Virus Evolution and Population Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is intuitive that the field of virology is a discipline integral to the medical sciences. The affiliation of virology with population and conservation biology may not be as apparent. However, viruses, and in particular, virus evolution, may both contribute to and be a significant tool to understand changes in host population structure. The impact of viruses is most notable

Mary Poss; Roman Biek; Allen Rodrigo

292

Rhabdomyolysis Associated with Parainfluenza Virus  

PubMed Central

Influenza virus is the most frequently reported viral cause of rhabdomyolysis. A 7-year-old child is presented with rhabdomyolysis associated with parainfluenza type 2 virus. Nine cases of rhabdomyolysis associated with parainfluenza virus have been reported. Complications may include electrolyte disturbances, acute renal failure, and compartment syndrome.

Kielbasa, Johanna M.; Chandrasekharan, Gopal M.; Holmes, Cynthia L.; Gomez, Michael R.

2013-01-01

293

Novel avian influenza virus vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Current vaccines against avian influenza (AI) virus infections are primarily based on classical inactivated whole-virus preparations. Although administration of these vaccines can protect poultry from clinical disease, sterile immunity is not achieved under field conditions, allowing for undetected virus spread and evolution under immune cover. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a robust and reliable system of differentiation

W. Fuchs; A. Römer-Oberdörfer; J. Veits; T. C. Mettenleiter

2009-01-01

294

Virus Necrosis of Tobacco Veins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Virus necrosis of tobacco veins (browning of tobacco veins) occurs all over Poland and causes major economic losses. Studies of a number of orders show that the necrosis of tobacco veins is caused by a virus, which belongs to the group of potato virus Y (...

J. Berbec

1964-01-01

295

An introduction to computer viruses  

SciTech Connect

This report on computer viruses is based upon a thesis written for the Master of Science degree in Computer Science from the University of Tennessee in December 1989 by David R. Brown. This thesis is entitled An Analysis of Computer Virus Construction, Proliferation, and Control and is available through the University of Tennessee Library. This paper contains an overview of the computer virus arena that can help the reader to evaluate the threat that computer viruses pose. The extent of this threat can only be determined by evaluating many different factors. These factors include the relative ease with which a computer virus can be written, the motivation involved in writing a computer virus, the damage and overhead incurred by infected systems, and the legal implications of computer viruses, among others. Based upon the research, the development of a computer virus seems to require more persistence than technical expertise. This is a frightening proclamation to the computing community. The education of computer professionals to the dangers that viruses pose to the welfare of the computing industry as a whole is stressed as a means of inhibiting the current proliferation of computer virus programs. Recommendations are made to assist computer users in preventing infection by computer viruses. These recommendations support solid general computer security practices as a means of combating computer viruses.

Brown, D.R.

1992-03-01

296

Deformed wing virus.  

PubMed

Deformed wing virus (DWV; Iflaviridae) is one of many viruses infecting honeybees and one of the most heavily investigated due to its close association with honeybee colony collapse induced by Varroadestructor. In the absence of V.destructor DWV infection does not result in visible symptoms or any apparent negative impact on host fitness. However, for reasons that are still not fully understood, the transmission of DWV by V.destructor to the developing pupae causes clinical symptoms, including pupal death and adult bees emerging with deformed wings, a bloated, shortened abdomen and discolouration. These bees are not viable and die soon after emergence. In this review we will summarize the historical and recent data on DWV and its relatives, covering the genetics, pathobiology, and transmission of this important viral honeybee pathogen, and discuss these within the wider theoretical concepts relating to the genetic variability and population structure of RNA viruses, the evolution of virulence and the development of disease symptoms. PMID:19909976

de Miranda, Joachim R; Genersch, Elke

2010-01-01

297

Neuroinvasion by Chandipura virus.  

PubMed

Chandipura virus (CHPV) is an arthropod borne rhabdovirus associated with acute encephalitis in children below the age of 15 years in the tropical states of India. Although the entry of the virus into the nervous system is among the crucial events in the pathogenesis of CHPV, the exact mechanism allowing CHPV to invade the central nervous system (CNS) is currently poorly understood. In the present review, based on the knowledge of host interactors previously predicted for CHPV, along with the support from experimental data available for other encephalitic viruses, the authors have speculated the various plausible modes by which CHPV could surpass the blood-brain barrier and invade the CNS to cause encephalitis whilst evading the host immune surveillance. Collectively, this review provides a conservative set of potential interactions that can be employed for future experimental validation with a view to better understand the neuropathogenesis of CHPV. PMID:24713200

Rajasekharan, Sreejith; Rana, Jyoti; Gulati, Sahil; Gupta, Vandana; Gupta, Sanjay

2014-07-01

298

Viruses in water  

PubMed Central

Attention is drawn in this paper to the increasing problem of viral contamination of water and shellfish, particularly since growing demands for available water resources by a rising world population and expanding industry will make the recycling of wastewater almost inevitable in the future. The problem of eliminating viruses pathogenic for man from water is considered in the light of present water treatment procedures, which are often inadequate for that purpose. Man may be exposed to waterborne viruses through the consumption of contaminated water, shellfish, or crops, as a result of recreational activities involving water, or from aerosols following the spraying of crops with liquid wastes. Physical and chemical methods of eliminating viruses from water are discussed.

Melnick, Joseph L.; Gerba, Charles P.; Wallis, Craig

1978-01-01

299

Bagaza virus and Israel turkey meningoencephalomyelitis virus are a single virus species.  

PubMed

Bagaza virus (BAGV) and Israel turkey meningoencephalomyelitis virus (ITV) are classified in the genus Flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae. Serologically, they are closely related, belonging to the Ntaya serocomplex. Nucleotide sequences available to date consist of several complete sequences of BAGV isolates, but only partial sequences of ITV isolates. Sequence comparisons of partial envelope (E) and NS5 regions reveal a close genetic relationship between these viruses. Despite this, BAGV and ITV are considered as separate virus species in the database of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. In this work, complete nucleotide sequences for five ITV isolates are provided, thereby permitting a phylogenetic comparison with other complete sequences of flaviviruses in the Ntaya serogroup. We conclude that BAGV and ITV are the same virus species and propose that both viruses be designated by a new unified name: Avian meningoencephalomyelitis virus. PMID:24457974

Fernández-Pinero, Jovita; Davidson, Irit; Elizalde, Maia; Perk, Shimon; Khinich, Yevgeny; Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Angel

2014-04-01

300

Bluetongue virus surveillance in a newly infected area.  

PubMed

The occurrence of bluetongue virus (BTV) in areas in which intensive animal production is practised and where there is extensive movement of animals may have a substantial impact on both animal trade and husbandry. This situation occurred in Italy after the detection of bluetongue (BT) in August 2000. In such situations, surveillance can be used to delineate with precision those areas in which the virus is circulating and, consequently, to enforce the appropriate animal movement restrictions. Furthermore, surveillance can provide the data required to assess the risk associated with animal movement and trade. A structured surveillance system for the detection of BTV has been in place in Italy since August 2001. The system is based on the periodical testing of unvaccinated sentinel cattle that are uniformly scattered throughout Italy in a grid of 400 km(2) cells. The initial number of sentinel sites and sentinel animals, together with the width of the restricted area generated by the finding of a single seroconversion in a sentinel animal, were based on conservative criteria. Animal movement was restricted in a 20 km radius buffer zone around any positive serological result. This buffer area extends about 1,257 km(2), equivalent to the area of three grid cells. After the commencement of the BT vaccination campaign in Italy, the sentinel surveillance system was the only way in which the effectiveness of vaccination and the incidence of infection in the non-immunised strata of ruminant animals could be estimated. Data collected over two years was used to assess the risks posed by the adoption of less conservative criteria for the delineation of infected areas and by the progressive relaxation of movement restrictions of vaccinated animals. In regard to the delineation of restricted areas, a new approach was tested and validated in the field, based on a Bayesian analysis of the positive and negative results obtained by the testing of sentinel animals from defined regions. For the risks related to animal movement, the surveillance data was used in risk assessment analyses to address the movement of slaughter and breeding animals from vaccinated/infected and surrounding areas to free areas. These risk assessments led to an amendment of the relevant European Union legislation. Finally, a Montecarlo simulation model was developed to simulate different sentinel system scenarios and to decrease the total number of sentinel animals and sites required by the surveillance system. The sentinel surveillance system was complemented by an entomological surveillance system based on the use of a number of permanent blacklight traps run weekly year-round and a number of mobile blacklight traps moved through the grid cells during the summer and autumn of each year. The aim of entomological surveillance was to define the maximum distribution of vectors and their seasonal population dynamics. Furthermore, the permanent trap system provides an early warning of the start of new epidemics. The data from the entomological surveillance system were also analysed to generate probability maps of the presence of the principal BTV vector (Culicoides imicola) and to define the geographical risk of BT on a nationwide basis, and to predict the geographical distribution and the short-term spread of C. imicola in Sardinia, using spatio-temporal data. The detection, since 2001, of BT outbreaks in the absence of C. imicola and the recent identification of BTV in midges of the Obsoletus Complex also stimulated investigations on other vector Culicoides, including C. obsoletus and C. pulicaris. PMID:20419661

Giovannini, A; Calistri, P; Conte, A; Savini, L; Nannini, D; Patta, C; Santucci, U; Caporale, V

2004-01-01

301

West Nile virus.  

PubMed

West Nile virus infection has quickly become a feared cause of neurologic disability and death, particularly when it presents with encephalitis. Recent epidemics in endemic regions of Eurasia and Africa, as well as its recent spread to North America, have highlighted the need for all physicians to be aware of its clinical presentation and course. In particular, because of the increased susceptibility of West Nile virus infection during outdoor activities, as well as during travel to the Middle East and Southeastern Europe, military physicians should be informed about case recognition, management, and prevention to maintain the health of soldiers and their families. PMID:15132225

Brandt, Antonio L; Martyak, Nicholas; Westhoff, John; Kang, Christopher

2004-04-01

302

Autophagy by hepatitis B virus and for hepatitis B virus.  

PubMed

Autophagy is a catabolic process by which cells remove unwanted proteins and damaged organelles. It is important for maintaining cellular homeostasis and can also be used by cells to remove intracellular microbial pathogens. As such, some viruses such as herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) have evolved mechanisms to suppress autophagy for their survival. In contrast, other viruses such as poliovirus, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and dengue viruses have instead evolved mechanisms to use this pathway to enhance their replication. Recently, we demonstrated that hepatitis B virus (HBV), a DNA virus that infects hepatocytes, could enhance and use autophagy for its DNA replication. This enhancement of autophagy is mediated by its X protein, which binds to and activates phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase class 3 (PI3KC3), an enzyme important for the initiation of autophagy. The persistent activation of autophagy in hepatocytes by HBV during chronic infection may play an important role in HBV pathogenesis. PMID:20305390

Sir, Donna; Ann, David K; Ou, Jing-Hsiung James

2010-05-01

303

A new unstable variant of the fetal hemoglobin HBG2 gene: Hb F-Turritana [(G) ?64(E8)Gly?Asp, HBG2:c.194G>A] found in cis to the Hb F-Sardinia gene [(A) ?(E19)Ile?Thr, HBG1:c.227T>C].  

PubMed

A new variant of the fetal hemoglobin (Hb) was observed in a newborn baby subjected to phototherapy due to jaundice, by means of electrophoretic and chromatographic techniques. The variant Hb resulted unstable by the isopropanol stability test. After HBG2 gene sequencing, the G to A transversion at codon 64, position eight of the E helix, was found, which corresponds to the Asp for Gly amino acid substitution. The new variant was called Hb F-Turritana [(G) ?64(E8)Gly?Asp, HBG2:c.194G>A]. Incoming aspartic acid residue, bulky and negatively charged, may be responsible for alteration of the heme pocket steric configuration and for instability. The new abnormal HBG2 gene was found to be associated in cis with the mutated HBG1 gene, which characterizes the Hb F-Sardinia [(A) ? (E19)Ile?Thr, HBG1:c.227T>C] variant. PMID:24483321

Pirastru, Monica; Mereu, Paolo; Trova, Sandro; Manca, Laura; Masala, Bruno

2014-06-01

304

Bat Flight and Zoonotic Viruses  

PubMed Central

Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host–virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts.

Cryan, Paul M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hayman, David T.S.; Luis, Angela D.; Peel, Alison J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Wood, James L.N.

2014-01-01

305

Bat flight and zoonotic viruses.  

PubMed

Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host-virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts. PMID:24750692

O'Shea, Thomas J; Cryan, Paul M; Cunningham, Andrew A; Fooks, Anthony R; Hayman, David T S; Luis, Angela D; Peel, Alison J; Plowright, Raina K; Wood, James L N

2014-05-01

306

Interaction of Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus with Neutralizing Antibody: II. The Persistent Virus Fraction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The persistent virus fraction that results from the interaction of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) virus with antiviral serum is an infectious virus-antibody complex (sensitized virus) that can be neutralized by anti-IgG serum. The quantities of...

N. Hahon

1969-01-01

307

Biology of parainfluenza viruses.  

PubMed Central

Parainfluenza virus types 1 to 4 (PIV1 to PIV4) are important human pathogens that cause upper and lower respiratory tract infections, especially in infants and children. PIV1, PIV2, and PIV3 are second only to respiratory syncytial virus as a cause of croup in young children. Although some clinical symptoms are typical of PIVs, etiologic diagnosis always requires detection of infectious virus, viral components, or an antibody response. PIVs are typical paramyxoviruses, causing a syncytial cytopathic effect in cell cultures; virus growth can be confirmed either by hemadsorption or by using immunological reagents. Currently, PIV is most often diagnosed by demonstrating viral antigens in clinical specimens by rapid and highly sensitive immunoassays. More recently, PCR has been used for the detection of PIVs. Serological diagnosis is made by detecting a rising titer of immunoglobulin G or by demonstrating immunoglobulin M antibodies. PIVs infect species other than humans, and animal models are used to study the pathogenesis of PIV infections and to test candidate vaccines. Accumulating knowledge on the molecular structure and mechanisms of replication of PIVs has accelerated research on prevention and treatment. Several strategies for vaccine development, such as the use of live attenuated, inactivated, recombinant, and subunit vaccines, have been investigated, and it may become possible to prevent PIV infections in the near future.

Vainionpaa, R; Hyypia, T

1994-01-01

308

From Shakespeare to Viruses  

SciTech Connect

Berkeley Lab scientists have created a unique new tool for analyzing and comparing long sets of data, be it the genomes of mammals or viruses, or the works of Shakespeare. The results of the Shakespeare analysis surprised scholars with their accuracy

Sung-Hou Kim

2009-02-09

309

Yellow Fever Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

A sequential and quantitative survey of brain and liver of suckling mice for infective virus and complement-fixing antigen, after infection with yellow fever virus, showed that while there was progressive increase of infective virus content in both organs, only the brain showed a corresponding rise in CF antigen. Histopathological examination revealed that the liver was not significantly involved. The target organ was the brain, where the progressive pathological changes culminated in an acute encephalitis by the 3rd day of experiment. Organ destruction began with the molecular layer of the grey matter. But by the 4th day after infection the entire cerebral cortex was involved. At the initial stages the hippocampus was particularly affected. Tissue damage did not appear to be entirely due to the differential quantitative localization of infective virus. It was hypothesized that the CF antigen acting singly or in conjunction with some hypothetical proteins may be principally involved in the pathological outcome of the disease. ImagesFigs. 7-9Figs. 3-6

David-West, Tam. S.; Smith, J. A.

1971-01-01

310

Virus Inactivation Kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the session of the Research Group of the Standing Technical Committee of the European Commission for the Control of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Gerzensee, Berne, Switzerland in September 2003 a review of methods for describing the effect of temperature and time upon virus survival in products was presented (Have, 2003). The Research Group recommended that \\

Soren Alexandersen

311

Cold Facts about Viruses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides ways for students to demonstrate their understanding of scientific concepts and skills. Describes a mini-unit around the cold in which students can relate humans to viruses. Includes activities and a modified simulation that provides questions to guide students. Discusses ways that allows students to apply prior knowledge, take ownership…

Pea, Celeste; Sterling, Donna R.

2002-01-01

312

Turnip Yellow Mosaic Virus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The bumpy exterior of the turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) protein coat, or capsid, was defined in detail by Dr. Alexander McPherson of the University of California, Irvin using proteins crystallized in space for analysis on Earth. TYMV is an icosahedral virus constructed from 180 copies of the same protein arranged into 12 clusters of five proteins (pentamers), and 20 clusters of six proteins (hexamers). The final TYMV structure led to the unexpected hypothesis that the virus releases its RNA by essentially chemical-mechanical means. Most viruses have fairly flat coats, but in TYNV, the fold in each protein, called the jellyroll, is clustered at the points where the protein pentamers and hexamers join. The jellyrolls are almost standing on end, producing a bumpy surface with knobs at all of the pentamers and hexamers. At the inside surface of the pentamers is a void that is not present at the hexamers. The coating had been seen in early stuties of TYMV, but McPherson's atomic structure shows much more detail. The inside surface is strikingly, and unexpectedly, different than the outside. While the pentamers contain a central void on the inside, the hexameric units contain peptides linked to each other, forming a ring or, more accurately, rings to fill the void. Credit: Dr. Alexander McPherson, University of California, Irvine

2000-01-01

313

West Nile Virus, Guadeloupe  

PubMed Central

To determine whether West Nile virus (WNV) had reached the archipelago of Guadeloupe, a serologic study in horses and birds was conducted in 2002. Immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgM, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and seroneutralization tests identified WNV infection in horses and chickens. Six months later, a high rate of seroconversion was observed in horses.

Quirin, Rene; Salas, Michel; Zientara, Stephan; Zeller, Herve; Labie, Jacques; Murri, Severine; Lefrancois, Thierry; Petitclerc, Martial

2004-01-01

314

Viruses and autophagy  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved intracellular process by which bulk cytoplasm is enveloped inside a double-membraned vesicle and shuttled to lysosomes for degradation. Within the last 15 years, the genes necessary for the execution of autophagy have been identified and the number of tools for studying this process has grown. Autophagy is essential for tissue homeostasis and development and defective autophagy is associated with a number of diseases. As intracellular parasites, during the course of an infection, viruses encounter autophagy and interact with the proteins that execute this process. Autophagy and/or autophagy genes likely play both anti-viral and proviral roles in the life cycles and pathogenesis of many different virus families. With respect to anti-viral roles, the autophagy proteins function in targeting viral components or virions for lysosomal degradation in a process termed xenophagy, and they also play a role in the initiation of innate and adaptive immune system responses to viral infections. Consistent with this anti-viral role of host autophagy, some viruses encode virulence factors that interact with the host autophagy machinery and block the execution of autophagy. In contrast, other viruses appear to utilise components of the autophagic machinery to foster their own intracellular growth or non-lytic cellular egress. As the details of the role(s) of autophagy in viral pathogenesis become clearer, new anti-viral therapies could be developed to inhibit the beneficial and enhance the destructive aspects of autophagy on the viral life cycle.

Kudchodkar, Sagar B.; Levine, Beth

2010-01-01

315

Viruses and bacteriophages.  

PubMed

Many of the enteric viruses which are transmitted from person to person by the fecal-oral route are found in raw and treated wastewater, and because of their persistence under adverse conditions may also be found in slightly polluted waters. There is no routine examination procedure of water and wastewater for enteroviruses, mainly because of the cumbersome isolation techniques, high cost and the need for highly skilled laboratory personnel. Phages are specific to single species of bacteria, are known for many enteric bacteria, and are very often used for final identification of enteric pathogenic bacteria. Coliphages are prevalent in raw and treated sewage as well as in polluted water, where enteric viruses may also be found. Coliphages were often mentioned as possible viral indicators in polluted water. To be a perfect indicator, they should comply with minimum criteria as follows: (a) they should be present wherever human enteric viruses are present; (b) the coliphage numbers recovered should be equal to or larger than those of enteric viruses recovered; (c) the coliphages should be at least as resistant as enteric viruses to adverse environmental conditions; (d) isolation and quantification of the coliphage should be faster and less expensive than isolation of the enteroviruses. Comparative studies show that the coliphage to enterovirus ratio in wastewater is about 10(3):1. Levels of poliovirus 1 (attenuated) to coliphage f2 remained stable for a few months in oxidation pond effluents. f2 coliphage exhibited higher resistance to chlorination than poliovirus 1 (attenuated). When the two strains were kept in water of different quality, f2 survived longer. In addition, all coliphage counts were completed within 24 h. while those of enteroviruses required about a week. Results indicate very strongly that coliphages can be used as viral indicators and this is already the practice in a few European and other countries. PMID:6262909

Kott, Y

1981-04-01

316

Recombinant Vaccinia Virus: Immunization against Multiple Pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coding sequences for the hepatitis B virus surface antigen, the herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D, and the influenza virus hemagglutinin were inserted into a single vaccinia virus genome. Rabbits inoculated intravenously or intradermally with this polyvalent vaccinia virus recombinant produced antibodies reactive to all three authentic foreign antigens. In addition, the feasibility of multiple rounds of vaccination with recombinant

Marion E. Perkus; Antonia Piccini; Bernard R. Lipinskas; Enzo Paoletti

1985-01-01

317

Neural networks for computer virus recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a neural network for generic detection of a particular class of computer viruses-the so called boot sector viruses that infect the boot sector of a floppy disk or a hard drive. This is an important and relatively tractable subproblem of generic virus detection. Only about 5% of all known viruses are boot sector viruses, yet they account

G. J. Tesauro; J. O. Kephart; G. B. Sorkin

1996-01-01

318

Measuring and modeling computer virus prevalence  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the current extent of the computer virus problem and predict its future course, the authors have conducted a statistical analysis of computer virus incidents in a large, stable sample population of PCs and developed new epidemiological models of computer virus spread. Only a small fraction of all known viruses have appeared in real incidents, partly because many viruses

Jeffrey O. Kephart; Steve R. White

1993-01-01

319

Virus entry mediated by hepatitis B virus envelope proteins  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis B virus (HBV), a major cause of human liver disease worldwide, encodes three envelope proteins needed for the attachment and entry of the virus into susceptible host cells. A second virus, hepatitis delta virus, which is known to enhance liver disease in HBV infected patients, diverts the same HBV envelope proteins to achieve its own assembly and infection. In the lab, lentiviral vectors based on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 can be assembled using the HBV envelope proteins, and will similarly infect susceptible cells. This article provides a partial review and some personal reflections of how these three viruses infect and of how recipient cells become susceptible, along with some consideration of questions that remain to be answered.

Taylor, John M

2013-01-01

320

Observing pulsars with the Sardinia Radio Telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

After nearly 40 years since the original discovery the pulsars - rapidly rotating highly magnetized neutron stars - keep on having many exciting scientific applications, in fields ranging from ultra-dense matter physics to relativistic gravity, cosmology and stellar evolution. A striking example has been the confirmation of the existence of gravitational radiation, as predicted by Einstein's general theory of relativity.

A. Possenti

2006-01-01

321

Active virus filter for enrichment and manipulation of virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed an active virus filter (AVF) that was able to virus enrichment and distribution for single virus manipulation by using the insulator based dielectrophoresis (iDEP). The design of constricted flow channel enabled the microfluidic chip to produce iDEP force. We utilized maskless photolithography to achieve the precise 3D gray-scale exposure for constricted flow channel. When we applied sinusoidal wave

T. Masuda; H. Maruyama; A. Honda; F. Arai

2011-01-01

322

Human herpes virus 8: a new virus discloses its face  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human herpes virus 8 (HHV8) or Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV) is present in all Kaposi’s sarcoma, and\\u000a the detection of the virus using polymerase chain reaction or in situ hybridization is a highly sensitive and specific diagnostic\\u000a test for the diagnosis of this neoplasm. HHV8 is furthermore invariably present in primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and has\\u000a also been

Gieri Cathomas

2000-01-01

323

Viruses from extreme thermal environments  

PubMed Central

Viruses of extreme thermophiles are of great interest because they serve as model systems for understanding the biochemistry and molecular biology required for life at high temperatures. In this work, we report the discovery, isolation, and preliminary characterization of viruses and virus-like particles from extreme thermal acidic environments (70–92°C, pH 1.0–4.5) found in Yellowstone National Park. Six unique particle morphologies were found in Sulfolobus enrichment cultures. Three of the particle morphologies are similar to viruses previously isolated from Sulfolobus species from Iceland and/or Japan. Sequence analysis of their viral genomes suggests that they are related to the Icelandic and Japanese isolates. In addition, three virus particle morphologies that had not been previously observed from thermal environments were found. These viruses appear to be completely novel in nature.

Rice, George; Stedman, Kenneth; Snyder, Jamie; Wiedenheft, Blake; Willits, Debbie; Brumfield, Susan; McDermott, Timothy; Young, Mark J.

2001-01-01

324

Proteorhodopsin genes in giant viruses.  

PubMed

Viruses with large genomes encode numerous proteins that do not directly participate in virus biogenesis but rather modify key functional systems of infected cells. We report that a distinct group of giant viruses infecting unicellular eukaryotes that includes Organic Lake Phycodnaviruses and Phaeocystis globosa virus encode predicted proteorhodopsins that have not been previously detected in viruses. Search of metagenomic sequence data shows that putative viral proteorhodopsins are extremely abundant in marine environments. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that giant viruses acquired proteorhodopsins via horizontal gene transfer from proteorhodopsin-encoding protists although the actual donor(s) could not be presently identified. The pattern of conservation of the predicted functionally important amino acid residues suggests that viral proteorhodopsin homologs function as sensory rhodopsins. We hypothesize that viral rhodopsins modulate light-dependent signaling, in particular phototaxis, in infected protists. PMID:23036091

Yutin, Natalya; Koonin, Eugene V

2012-01-01

325

Introducing Virological Concepts Using an Insect Virus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A technique is presented which utilizes wax moth larvae in a laboratory investigation of an insect virus. Describes how an insect virus can be used to introduce undergraduate biology students to laboratory work on viruses and several virological concepts. (SA)

Sheppard, Roger F.

1980-01-01

326

Studies of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies of Respiratory Syncytial virus vaccines included both biological and physical aspects with the principle objective being a study of the banding of RS virus in the density gradient ultracentrifuge. Various studies on virus propagation both in the B...

R. N. Hull C. B. Reimer L. F. Ellis

1966-01-01

327

NATIONAL RESPIRATORY AND ENTERIC VIRUS SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System is a lab based system which monitors temporal and geographic patterns associated with the detection of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV), respiratory and enteric adenoviruses, and r...

328

Tobacco mosaic virus virulence and avirulence.  

PubMed Central

In celebration of a century of research on tobacco mosaic virus that initiated the science of virology, I review recent progress relative to earlier contributions concerning how viruses cause diseases of plants and how plants defend themselves from viruses.

Dawson, W O

1999-01-01

329

NIAID's Role in Addressing West Nile Virus  

MedlinePLUS

... repellants and other ways to prevent mosquito bites. World Reference Center for Emerging Viruses and Arboviruses (WRCEVA) ... virus when it replicates. NIAID also supports the World Reference Center for Emerging Viruses and Arboviruses (WRCEVA) , ...

330

Virus-Related Antigens Associated with Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Virus-associated antigens and human breast cancer; Virus-associated antigens and experimental mammary cancer; Viral antigens associated with leukemias and lymphomas; Cell surface and other virus-induced antigens associated with leukemias and lym...

1977-01-01

331

Equine arteritis virus.  

PubMed

Equine arteritis virus (EAV) is the causative agent of equine viral arteritis (EVA), a respiratory and reproductive disease of equids. There has been significant recent progress in understanding the molecular biology of EAV and the pathogenesis of its infection in horses. In particular, the use of contemporary genomic techniques, along with the development and reverse genetic manipulation of infectious cDNA clones of several strains of EAV, has generated significant novel information regarding the basic molecular biology of the virus. Therefore, the objective of this review is to summarize current understanding of EAV virion architecture, replication, evolution, molecular epidemiology and genetic variation, pathogenesis including the influence of host genetics on disease susceptibility, host immune response, and potential vaccination and treatment strategies. PMID:23891306

Balasuriya, Udeni B R; Go, Yun Young; MacLachlan, N James

2013-11-29

332

West Nile Virus  

PubMed Central

Overview Since its isolation in Uganda in 1937, West Nile virus (WNV) has been responsible for thousands of cases of morbidity and mortality in birds, horses, and humans. Historically, epidemics were localized to Europe, Africa, the Middle East, and parts of Asia, and primarily caused a mild febrile illness in humans. However, in the late 1990’s, the virus became more virulent and expanded its geographical range to North America. In humans, the clinical presentation ranges from asymptomatic (approximately 80% of infections) to encephalitis/paralysis and death (less than 1% of infections). There is no FDA-licensed vaccine for human use, and the only recommended treatment is supportive care. Individuals that survive infection often have a long recovery period. This article will review the current literature summarizing the molecular virology, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, immunology, and protective measures against WNV and WNV infections in humans.

Rossi, Shannan L.; Ross, Ted M.; Evans, Jared D.

2010-01-01

333

The encephalomyocarditis virus  

PubMed Central

The encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) is a small non-enveloped single-strand RNA virus, the causative agent of not only myocarditis and encephalitis, but also neurological diseases, reproductive disorders and diabetes in many mammalian species. EMCV pathogenesis appears to be viral strain- and host-specific, and a better understanding of EMCV virulence factors is increasingly required. Indeed, EMCV is often used as a model for diabetes and viral myocarditis, and is also widely used in immunology as a double-stranded RNA stimulus in the study of Toll-like as well as cytosolic receptors. However, EMCV virulence and properties have often been neglected. Moreover, EMCV is able to infect humans albeit with a low morbidity. Progress on xenografts, such as pig heart transplantation in humans, has raised safety concerns that need to be explored. In this review we will highlight the biology of EMCV and all known and potential virulence factors.

Carocci, Margot; Bakkali-Kassimi, Labib

2012-01-01

334

Hetdex: Virus Instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Visible Integral-field-unit Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument is made up of 150+ individually compact and identical spectrographs, each fed by a fiber integral-field unit. The instrument provides integral field spectroscopy at wavelengths between 350nm and 550nm of over 33,600 spatial elements per observation, each 1.8 sq. arcsec on the sky, at R 700. The instrument will be fed by a new wide-field corrector (WFC) of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) with increased science field of view as large as 22arcmin diameter and telescope aperture of 10m. This will enable the HETDEX, a large area blind survey of Lyman-alpha emitting galaxies at redshift z < 3.5. The status of VIRUS instrument construction is summarized.

Lee, Hanshin; Hill, G. J.; DePoy, D. L.; Tuttle, S.; Marshall, J. L.; Vattiat, B. L.; Prochaska, T.; Chonis, T. S.; Allen, R.; HETDEX Collaboration

2012-01-01

335

Viruses from the Hypersaline Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Halophilic environments such as solar salterns and salt lakes are enriched in organisms belonging to the domain Archaea. The\\u000a number of virus-like particles has also been shown to be high. Although most of the described haloarchaeal viruses are head–tail\\u000a viruses, direct microscopic examination of environmental samples suggests more diversity. In this chapter, we shortly review\\u000a the existing knowledge of the

Elina Roine; Hanna M. Oksanen

336

Reverse Genetics with Animal Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

New strategies to genetically manipulate the genomes of several important animal pathogens have been established in recent\\u000a years. This article focuses on the reverse genetics techniques, which enables genetic manipulation of the genomes of non-segmented\\u000a negative-sense RNA viruses. Recovery of a negative-sense RNA virus entirely from cDNA was first achieved for rabies virus\\u000a in 1994. Since then, reverse genetic systems

Teshome Mebatsion

337

Tracking the West Nile Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How can viral sequences help us establish the origin of the virus that appeared in the US in 1999? Epidemiologists have adopted bioinformatics approaches using sequence data from strains of pathogens to track the movement of bacteria and viruses from continent to continent. * explore a data set of West Nile Virus sequences from all over the world that date from the mid-20th century to the present

Erica Suchmann (University of California - San Diego;Biology); Mark Gallo (Niagara University;Biology)

2006-05-20

338

Viruses in extreme environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tolerance limits of extremophiles in term of temperature, pH, salinity, desiccation, hydrostatic pressure, radiation,\\u000a anaerobiosis far exceed what can support non-extremophilic organisms. Like all other organisms, extremophiles serve as hosts\\u000a for viral replication. Many lines of evidence suggest that viruses could no more be regarded as simple infectious “fragments\\u000a of life” but on the contrary as one of the

Marc Le Romancer; Mélusine Gaillard; Claire Geslin; Daniel Prieur

339

Human Immunodeficiency Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral health is an integral component of overall health and well-being in all patients. However, for an immunocompromised patient,\\u000a many common oral conditions may have a significant impact on quality of life. Intraoral pain, which is a common complaint\\u000a among patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), will compromise patients’ ability to maintain adequate and appropriate\\u000a oral intake. Furthermore, the polypharmacopeia

Anita Patel; Michael Glick

340

Hepatitis delta virus.  

PubMed

Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a sub-viral agent that is dependent for its life cycle on hepatitis B virus (HBV). The help it obtains from HBV is limited to the sharing of envelope proteins. These proteins are needed to facilitate the assembly of the HDV genome into new virus particles, and in turn, to allow the attachment and entry of HDV into new host cells. In other respects, the replication of the small single-stranded circular RNA genome of HDV is independent of HBV. HDV genome replication produces two forms of a RNA-binding protein known as the long and small delta antigens (Ag). All other proteins needed for HDV genome replication, especially the RNA-directed RNA polymerase activity, are provided by the host cell. This mini-review article is a mixture of personal perspective and speculations about the future of HDV research. It starts with a brief overview of HDV and its replication, notes some of the major unresolved questions, and directs the interested reader to more detailed reviews. PMID:16364738

Taylor, John M

2006-01-01

341

STUDIES ON NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS  

PubMed Central

1. It is likely that certain tailed and filamentous particles seen on electron microscope examination of partially purified saline suspensions of Newcastle virus are the individual virus particles because: (a) They have a highly characteristic shape not seen in other virus preparations. (b) They are present whenever the virus is present in high concentration. (c) Their size agrees with the size of the virus as calculated from light scattering and centrifuge data. (d) They are agglutinated by specific antisera. (e) Infection may be produced in the embryo by relatively few of these particles. 2. It is possible that these filamentous forms have been derived from spherical forms without loss of activity because: (a) Such filamentous forms are not found in the original allantoic fluid when this contains a comparable amount of virus. (b) Filamentous forms appeared in the original allantoic fluid when it was dialyzed against saline solution. (c) Filamentous forms were produced at certain hydrogen ion concentrations but not at others, in solutions maintaining the same infectivity for the embryo. (d) Spherical forms were obtained by suspending the partially purified virus in water instead of saline. In this the virus remained moderately stable. (e) These round forms could apparently be converted into tailed and filamentous forms by the addition of saline, again without loss of activity. (f) This "conversion" could be inhibited by partial inactivation of the water suspension of virus.

Bang, F. B.

1948-01-01

342

Structure of Flexible Filamentous Plant Viruses  

SciTech Connect

Flexible filamentous viruses make up a large fraction of the known plant viruses, but in comparison with those of other viruses, very little is known about their structures. We have used fiber diffraction, cryo-electron microscopy, and scanning transmission electron microscopy to determine the symmetry of a potyvirus, soybean mosaic virus; to confirm the symmetry of a potexvirus, potato virus X; and to determine the low-resolution structures of both viruses. We conclude that these viruses and, by implication, most or all flexible filamentous plant viruses share a common coat protein fold and helical symmetry, with slightly less than 9 subunits per helical turn.

Kendall, Amy; McDonald, Michele; Bian, Wen; Bowles, Timothy; Baumgarten, Sarah C.; Shi, Jian; Stewart, Phoebe L.; Bullitt, Esther; Gore, David; Irving, Thomas C.; Havens, Wendy M.; Ghabrial, Said A.; Wall, Joseph S.; Stubbs, Gerald (IIT); (BU-M); (Vanderbilt); (Kentucky); (BNL)

2008-10-23

343

Computer virus information update CIAC-2301  

SciTech Connect

While CIAC periodically issues bulletins about specific computer viruses, these bulletins do not cover all the computer viruses that affect desktop computers. The purpose of this document is to identify most of the known viruses for the MS-DOS and Macintosh platforms and give an overview of the effects of each virus. The authors also include information on some windows, Atari, and Amiga viruses. This document is revised periodically as new virus information becomes available. This document replaces all earlier versions of the CIAC Computer virus Information Update. The date on the front cover indicates date on which the information in this document was extracted from CIAC`s Virus database.

Orvis, W.J.

1994-01-15

344

Evolutionary relationship of alfalfa mosaic virus with cucumber mosaic virus and brome mosaic virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amino acid sequences of the non-structural protein (molecular weight 35,000; 3a protein) from three plant viruses — cucumber\\u000a mosaic, brome mosaic and alfalfa mosaic have been systematically compared using the partial genomic sequences for these three\\u000a viruses already available. The 3a protein of cucumber mosaic virus has an amino acid sequence homology of 33.7% with the corresponding\\u000a protein of

H. S. Savithri; M. R. N. Murthy

1983-01-01

345

Cowpea mosaic virus: the plant virus-based biotechnology workhorse.  

PubMed

In the 50 years since it was first described, Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) has become one of the most intensely studied plant viruses. Research in the past 15 to 20 years has shifted from studying the underlying genetics and structure of the virus to focusing on ways in which it can be exploited in biotechnology. This work led first to the use of virus particles to present peptides, then to the creation of a variety of replicating virus vectors and finally to the development of a highly efficient protein expression system that does not require viral replication. The circle has been completed by the use of the latter system to create empty particles for peptide presentation and other novel uses. The history of CPMV in biotechnology can be likened to an Ouroborus, an ancient symbol depicting a snake or dragon swallowing its own tail, thus forming a circle. PMID:20455698

Sainsbury, Frank; Cañizares, M Carmen; Lomonossoff, George P

2010-01-01

346

Hepatitis C Virus and Cardiomyopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of hepatitis C virus infection has been recently noted in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or dilated cardiomyopathy. In a collaborative research project of the Committees for the Study of Idiopathic Cardiomyopathy, hepatitis C virus antibody was found in 74 of 697 patients (10.65) with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and in 42 of 663 patients (6.3%) with dilated cardiomyopathy; these prevalences

Akira Matsumori

2000-01-01

347

Influenza virus assembly and budding.  

PubMed

Influenza A virus causes seasonal epidemics, sporadic pandemics and is a significant global health burden. Influenza virus is an enveloped virus that contains a segmented negative strand RNA genome. Assembly and budding of progeny influenza virions is a complex, multi-step process that occurs in lipid raft domains on the apical membrane of infected cells. The viral proteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) are targeted to lipid rafts, causing the coalescence and enlargement of the raft domains. This clustering of HA and NA may cause a deformation of the membrane and the initiation of the virus budding event. M1 is then thought to bind to the cytoplasmic tails of HA and NA where it can then polymerize and form the interior structure of the emerging virion. M1, bound to the cytoplasmic tails of HA and NA, additionally serves as a docking site for the recruitment of the viral RNPs and may mediate the recruitment of M2 to the site of virus budding. M2 initially stabilizes the site of budding, possibly enabling the polymerization of the matrix protein and the formation of filamentous virions. Subsequently, M2 is able to alter membrane curvature at the neck of the budding virus, causing membrane scission and the release of the progeny virion. This review investigates the latest research on influenza virus budding in an attempt to provide a step-by-step analysis of the assembly and budding processes for influenza viruses. PMID:21237476

Rossman, Jeremy S; Lamb, Robert A

2011-03-15

348

Human viruses: discovery and emergence  

PubMed Central

There are 219 virus species that are known to be able to infect humans. The first of these to be discovered was yellow fever virus in 1901, and three to four new species are still being found every year. Extrapolation of the discovery curve suggests that there is still a substantial pool of undiscovered human virus species, although an apparent slow-down in the rate of discovery of species from different families may indicate bounds to the potential range of diversity. More than two-thirds of human viruses can also infect non-human hosts, mainly mammals, and sometimes birds. Many specialist human viruses also have mammalian or avian origins. Indeed, a substantial proportion of mammalian viruses may be capable of crossing the species barrier into humans, although only around half of these are capable of being transmitted by humans and around half again of transmitting well enough to cause major outbreaks. A few possible predictors of species jumps can be identified, including the use of phylogenetically conserved cell receptors. It seems almost inevitable that new human viruses will continue to emerge, mainly from other mammals and birds, for the foreseeable future. For this reason, an effective global surveillance system for novel viruses is needed.

Woolhouse, Mark; Scott, Fiona; Hudson, Zoe; Howey, Richard; Chase-Topping, Margo

2012-01-01

349

How Viruses Enter Animal Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viruses replicate within living cells and use the cellular machinery for the synthesis of their genome and other components. To gain access, they have evolved a variety of elegant mechanisms to deliver their genes and accessory proteins into the host cell. Many animal viruses take advantage of endocytic pathways and rely on the cell to guide them through a complex

Alicia E. Smith; Ari Helenius

2004-01-01

350

Virioplankton: Viruses in Aquatic Ecosystems†  

PubMed Central

The discovery that viruses may be the most abundant organisms in natural waters, surpassing the number of bacteria by an order of magnitude, has inspired a resurgence of interest in viruses in the aquatic environment. Surprisingly little was known of the interaction of viruses and their hosts in nature. In the decade since the reports of extraordinarily large virus populations were published, enumeration of viruses in aquatic environments has demonstrated that the virioplankton are dynamic components of the plankton, changing dramatically in number with geographical location and season. The evidence to date suggests that virioplankton communities are composed principally of bacteriophages and, to a lesser extent, eukaryotic algal viruses. The influence of viral infection and lysis on bacterial and phytoplankton host communities was measurable after new methods were developed and prior knowledge of bacteriophage biology was incorporated into concepts of parasite and host community interactions. The new methods have yielded data showing that viral infection can have a significant impact on bacteria and unicellular algae populations and supporting the hypothesis that viruses play a significant role in microbial food webs. Besides predation limiting bacteria and phytoplankton populations, the specific nature of virus-host interaction raises the intriguing possibility that viral infection influences the structure and diversity of aquatic microbial communities. Novel applications of molecular genetic techniques have provided good evidence that viral infection can significantly influence the composition and diversity of aquatic microbial communities.

Wommack, K. Eric; Colwell, Rita R.

2000-01-01

351

Virus Removal by Chemical Coagulation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Using bacterial viruses (Bacteriophages T4 and MS2 against Escherichia coli) as models and aluminum as the coagulant metal ion, it was shown that removal of viruses from water by chemical coagulation and flocculation with aluminum sulfate consists of a pr...

R. S. Engelbrecht M. Chaudhuri

1969-01-01

352

Sunshine virus in Australian pythons.  

PubMed

Sunshine virus is a recently discovered novel paramyxovirus that is associated with illness in snakes. It does not phylogenetically cluster within either of the two currently accepted paramyxoviral subfamilies. It is therefore only distantly related to the only other known genus of reptilian paramyxoviruses, Ferlavirus, which clusters within the Paramyxovirinae subfamily. Clinical and diagnostic aspects associated with Sunshine virus are as yet undescribed. The objective of this paper was to report the clinical presentation, virus isolation, PCR testing and pathology associated with Sunshine virus infection. Clinical records and samples from naturally occurring cases were obtained from two captive snake collections and the archives of a veterinary diagnostic laboratory. The clinical signs that are associated with Sunshine virus infection are localised to the neurorespiratory systems or are non-specific (e.g. lethargy, inappetence). Out of 15 snakes that were infected with Sunshine virus (detected in any organ by either virus isolation or PCR), the virus was isolated from four out of ten (4/10) sampled brains, 3/10 sampled lungs and 2/7 pooled samples of kidney and liver. In these same 15 snakes, PCR was able to successfully detect Sunshine virus in fresh-frozen brain (11/11), kidney (7/8), lung (8/11) and liver (5/8); and various formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues (7/8). During a natural outbreak of Sunshine virus in a collection of 32 snakes, the virus could be detected in five out of 39 combined oral-cloacal swabs that were collected from 23 of these snakes over a 105 day period. All snakes that were infected with Sunshine virus were negative for reovirus and ferlavirus by PCR. Snakes infected with Sunshine virus reliably exhibited hindbrain white matter spongiosis and gliosis with extension to the surrounding grey matter and neuronal necrosis evident in severe cases. Five out of eight infected snakes also exhibited mild bronchointerstitial pneumonia. Infection with Sunshine virus should be considered by veterinarians investigating disease outbreaks in snakes, particularly those that are associated with neurorespiratory disease. PMID:22883310

Hyndman, Timothy H; Shilton, Cathy M; Doneley, Robert J T; Nicholls, Philip K

2012-12-28

353

Marine Viruses: Truth or Dare  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past two decades, marine virology has progressed from a curiosity to an intensely studied topic of critical importance to oceanography. At concentrations of approximately 10 million viruses per milliliter of surface seawater, viruses are the most abundant biological entities in the oceans. The majority of these viruses are phages (viruses that infect bacteria). Through lysing their bacterial hosts, marine phages control bacterial abundance, affect community composition, and impact global biogeochemical cycles. In addition, phages influence their hosts through selection for resistance, horizontal gene transfer, and manipulation of bacterial metabolism. Recent work has also demonstrated that marine phages are extremely diverse and can carry a variety of auxiliary metabolic genes encoding critical ecological functions. This review is structured as a scientific "truth or dare," revealing several well-established "truths" about marine viruses and presenting a few "dares" for the research community to undertake in future studies.

Breitbart, Mya

2012-01-01

354

Virus assembly, allostery, and antivirals  

PubMed Central

Assembly of virus capsids and surface proteins must be regulated to ensure that the resulting complex is an infectious virion. Here we examine assembly of virus capsids, focusing on hepatitis B virus and bacteriophage MS2, and formation of glycoproteins in the alphaviruses. These systems are structurally and biochemically well-characterized and are simplest-case paradigms of self-assembly. Published data suggest that capsid and glycoprotein assembly is subject to allosteric regulation, that is, regulation at the level of conformational change. The hypothesis that allostery is a common theme in viruses suggests that deregulation of capsid and glycoprotein assembly by small molecule effectors will be an attractive antiviral strategy, as has been demonstrated with hepatitis B virus.

Zlotnick, Adam; Mukhopadhyay, Suchetana

2010-01-01

355

Do viruses require the cytoskeleton?  

PubMed Central

Background It is generally thought that viruses require the cytoskeleton during their replication cycle. However, recent experiments in our laboratory with rubella virus, a member of the family Togaviridae (genus rubivirus), revealed that replication proceeded in the presence of drugs that inhibit microtubules. This study was done to expand on this observation. Findings The replication of three diverse viruses, Sindbis virus (SINV; family Togaviridae family), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV; family Rhabdoviridae), and Herpes simplex virus (family Herpesviridae), was quantified by the titer (plaque forming units/ml; pfu/ml) produced in cells treated with one of three anti-microtubule drugs (colchicine, noscapine, or paclitaxel) or the anti-actin filament drug, cytochalasin D. None of these drugs affected the replication these viruses. Specific steps in the SINV infection cycle were examined during drug treatment to determine if alterations in specific steps in the virus replication cycle in the absence of a functional cytoskeletal system could be detected, i.e. redistribution of viral proteins and replication complexes or increases/decreases in their abundance. These investigations revealed that the observable impacts were a colchicine-mediated fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus and concomitant intracellular redistribution of the virion structural proteins, along with a reduction in viral genome and sub-genome RNA levels, but not double-stranded RNA or protein levels. Conclusions The failure of poisons affecting the cytoskeleton to inhibit the replication of a diverse set of viruses strongly suggests that viruses do not require a functional cytoskeletal system for replication, either because they do not utilize it or are able to utilize alternate pathways when it is not available.

2013-01-01

356

Infectious vaccinia virus recombinants that express hepatitis B virus surface antigen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Potential live vaccines against hepatitis B virus have been produced. The coding sequence for hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) has been inserted into the vaccinia virus genome under control of vaccinia virus early promoters. Cells infected with these vaccinia virus recombinants synthesize and excrete HBsAg and vaccinated rabbits rapidly produce antibodies to HBsAg.

Smith, Geoffrey L.; Mackett, Michael; Moss, Bernard

1983-04-01

357

The Acute bee paralysis virus-Kashmir bee virus-Israeli acute paralysis virus complex.  

PubMed

Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV) and Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) are part of a complex of closely related viruses from the Family Dicistroviridae. These viruses have a widespread prevalence in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies and a predominantly sub-clinical etiology that contrasts sharply with the extremely virulent pathology encountered at elevated titres, either artificially induced or encountered naturally. These viruses are frequently implicated in honey bee colony losses, especially when the colonies are infested with the parasitic mite Varroa destructor. Here we review the historical and recent literature of this virus complex, covering history and origins; the geographic, host and tissue distribution; pathology and transmission; genetics and variation; diagnostics, and discuss these within the context of the molecular and biological similarities and differences between the viruses. We also briefly discuss three recent developments relating specifically to IAPV, concerning its association with Colony Collapse Disorder, treatment of IAPV infection with siRNA and possible honey bee resistance to IAPV. PMID:19909972

de Miranda, Joachim R; Cordoni, Guido; Budge, Giles

2010-01-01

358

Influenza: a virus of our times  

PubMed Central

Viruses are successful and omnipresent. Influenza A is a particularly important virus of humans. The article reviews the 2009 emergence of the pandemic influenza A virus, focusing on the potential origin of the virus and the distinctive clinical and epidemiological impact of the 2009 pandemic.

McCaughey, Conall

2010-01-01

359

Immunogenicity of combination DNA vaccines for Rift Valley fever virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, Hantaan virus, and Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA vaccines for Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), and Hantaan virus (HTNV), were tested in mice alone or in various combinations. The bunyavirus vaccines (RVFV, CCHFV, and HTNV) expressed Gn and Gc genes, and the flavivirus vaccine (TBEV) expressed the preM and E genes. All vaccines were delivered by gene

Kristin Spik; Amy Shurtleff; Anita K. McElroy; Mary C. Guttieri; Jay W. Hooper; Connie Schmaljohn

2006-01-01

360

Biologically Inspired Defenses Against Computer Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's anti-virus technology, based largely on analysis of existing viruses by human experts, is just barely able to keep pace with the more than three new computer viruses that are writ­ ten daily. In a few years, intelligent agents nav­ igating through highly connected networks are likely to form an extremely fertile medium for a new breed of viruses. At

Jeffrey O. Kephart; Gregory B. Sorkin; William C. Arnold; David M. Chess; Gerald Tesauro; Steve R. White

1995-01-01

361

Safe Computing: An Overview of Viruses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computer virus is a program that replicates itself, in conjunction with an additional program that can harm a computer system. Common viruses include boot-sector, macro, companion, overwriting, and multipartite. Viruses can be fast, slow, stealthy, and polymorphic. Anti-virus products are described. (MLH)

Wodarz, Nan

2001-01-01

362

Smallpox vaccination and bioterrorism with pox viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioterrorist attacks occupy a special place amongst the innumerable potential types of terrorist attack, with the intentional release of pox viruses being especially feared in this connection. Apart from the variola virus, the agent responsible for smallpox in humans, the monkeypox virus and numerous other animal pox viruses pose potential risks for humans and animals. This risk scenario also includes

Anton Mayr

2003-01-01

363

Hepatitis E virus infection.  

PubMed

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a worldwide disease. An improved understanding of the natural history of HEV infection has been achieved within the last decade. Several reservoirs and transmission modes have been identified. Hepatitis E is an underdiagnosed disease, in part due to the use of serological assays with low sensitivity. However, diagnostic tools, including nucleic acid-based tests, have been improved. The epidemiology and clinical features of hepatitis E differ between developing and developed countries. HEV infection is usually an acute self-limiting disease, but in developed countries it causes chronic infection with rapidly progressive cirrhosis in organ transplant recipients, patients with hematological malignancy requiring chemotherapy, and individuals with HIV. HEV also causes extrahepatic manifestations, including a number of neurological syndromes and renal injury. Acute infection usually requires no treatment, but chronic infection should be treated by reducing immunosuppression in transplant patients and/or the use of antiviral therapy. In this comprehensive review, we summarize the current knowledge about the virus itself, as well as the epidemiology, diagnostics, natural history, and management of HEV infection in developing and developed countries. PMID:24396139

Kamar, Nassim; Dalton, Harry R; Abravanel, Florence; Izopet, Jacques

2014-01-01

364

Hepatitis E virus.  

PubMed

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is responsible for major outbreaks of acute hepatitis in developing countries where it was first described as a waterborne disease, transmitted by drinking water contaminated with feces. Attention was focused on HEV in developed countries and its associated diseases in recent years as a result of increasing reports of autochthonous infections. Hepatitis E is the zoonotic cause of these acute infections, and mainly in men over 50 years of age. The clinical manifestations and laboratory abnormalities of hepatitis E infections in immunocompetent patients cannot be distinguished from those caused by other hepatitis viruses. HEV is a major public health concern in immunocompromised patients because their infections can become chronic. The specific etiology of cases of hepatitis E infection can be diagnosed by serological testing and detecting viral RNA. Ribavirin is currently the reference treatment for HEV infections in immunocompromised patients. Several vaccines have proved safe and effective in clinical trials, but none have been approved for use in Europe yet. PMID:23608595

Abravanel, F; Lhomme, S; Dubois, M; Peron, J-M; Alric, L; Kamar, N; Izopet, J

2013-07-01

365

Virus interactions with human signal transduction pathways  

PubMed Central

Viruses depend on their hosts at every stage of their life cycles and must therefore communicate with them via Protein-Protein Interactions (PPIs). To investigate the mechanisms of communication by different viruses, we overlay reported pairwise human-virus PPIs on human signalling pathways. Of 671 pathways obtained from NCI and Reactome databases, 355 are potentially targeted by at least one virus. The majority of pathways are linked to more than one virus. We find evidence supporting the hypothesis that viruses often interact with different proteins depending on the targeted pathway. Pathway analysis indicates overrepresentation of some pathways targeted by viruses. The merged network of the most statistically significant pathways shows several centrally located proteins, which are also hub proteins. Generally, hub proteins are targeted more frequently by viruses. Numerous proteins in virus-targeted pathways are known drug targets, suggesting that these might be exploited as potential new approaches to treatments against multiple viruses.

Zhao, Zhongming; Xia, Junfeng; Tastan, Oznur; Singh, Irtisha; Kshirsagar, Meghana; Carbonell, Jaime; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith

2011-01-01

366

Transmitting Plant Viruses Using Whiteflies  

PubMed Central

Whiteflies, Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, Bemisia tabaci, a complex of morphologically indistinquishable species5, are vectors of many plant viruses. Several genera of these whitefly-transmitted plant viruses (Begomovirus, Carlavirus, Crinivirus, Ipomovirus, Torradovirus) include several hundred species of emerging and economically significant pathogens of important food and fiber crops (reviewed by9,10,16). These viruses do not replicate in their vector but nevertheless are moved readily from plant to plant by the adult whitefly by various means (reviewed by2,6,7,9,10,11,17). For most of these viruses whitefly feeding is required for acquisition and inoculation, while for others only probing is required. Many of these viruses are unable or cannot be easily transmitted by other means. Therefore maintenance of virus cultures, biological and molecular characterization (identification of host range and symptoms)3,13, ecology2,12, require that the viruses be transmitted to experimental hosts using the whitefly vector. In addition the development of new approaches to management, such as evaluation of new chemicals14 or compounds15, new cultural approaches1,4,19, or the selection and development of resistant cultivars7,8,18, requires the use of whiteflies for virus transmission. The use of whitefly transmission of plant viruses for the selection and development of resistant cultivars in breeding programs is particularly challenging7. Effective selection and screening for resistance employs large numbers of plants and there is a need for 100% of the plants to be inoculated in order to find the few genotypes which possess resistance genes. These studies use very large numbers of viruliferous whiteflies, often several times per year. Whitefly maintenance described here can generate hundreds or thousands of adult whiteflies on plants each week, year round, without the contamination of other plant viruses. Plants free of both whiteflies and virus must be produced to introduce into the whitefly colony each week. Whitefly cultures must be kept free of whitefly pathogens, parasites, and parasitoids that can reduce whitefly populations and/or reduce the transmission efficiency of the virus. Colonies produced in the manner described can be quickly scaled to increase or decrease population numbers as needed, and can be adjusted to accommodate the feeding preferences of the whitefly based on the plant host of the virus. There are two basic types of whitefly colonies that can be maintained: a nonviruliferous and a viruliferous whitefly colony. The nonviruliferous colony is composed of whiteflies reared on virus-free plants and allows the weekly availability of whiteflies which can be used to transmit viruses from different cultures. The viruliferous whitefly colony, composed of whiteflies reared on virus-infected plants, allows weekly availability of whiteflies which have acquired the virus thus omitting one step in the virus transmission process.

Polston, Jane E.; Capobianco, H.

2013-01-01

367

Viruses and Interactomes in Translation*  

PubMed Central

A decade of high-throughput screenings for intraviral and virus-host protein-protein interactions led to the accumulation of data and to the development of theories on laws governing interactome organization for many viruses. We present here a computational analysis of intraviral protein networks (EBV, FLUAV, HCV, HSV-1, KSHV, SARS-CoV, VACV, and VZV) and virus-host protein networks (DENV, EBV, FLUAV, HCV, and VACV) from up-to-date interaction data, using various mathematical approaches. If intraviral networks seem to behave similarly, they are clearly different from the human interactome. Viral proteins target highly central human proteins, which are precisely the Achilles' heel of the human interactome. The intrinsic structural disorder is a distinctive feature of viral hubs in virus-host interactomes. Overlaps between virus-host data sets identify a core of human proteins involved in the cellular response to viral infection and in the viral capacity to hijack the cell machinery for viral replication. Host proteins that are strongly targeted by a virus seem to be particularly attractive for other viruses. Such protein-protein interaction networks and their analysis represent a powerful resource from a therapeutic perspective.

Meyniel-Schicklin, Laurene; de Chassey, Benoit; Andre, Patrice; Lotteau, Vincent

2012-01-01

368

21 CFR 866.3360 - Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. 866.3360 Section...866.3360 Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents are devices...

2013-04-01

369

Influenza Viruses in Animal Wildlife Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influenza viruses belong to the family Orthomyxoviridae. Genus Influenza A viruses are true zoonotic agents with many animal reservoirs, whereas genus Influenza B viruses are generally\\u000a considered to be a virus of humans. The genome of influenza A viruses consists of eight unique segments of single-stranded\\u000a RNA of negative polarity; they are typed according to their surface proteins, hemagglutinin (HA)

R. J. Webby; R. G. Webster; Jürgen A. Richt

370

Fish Viruses: A Double-Stranded RNA Icosahedral Virus from a North American Cyprinid.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A previously unreported virus disease of cultured golden shiners (Notemigonus crysoleucas) is described. The condition is called golden shiner virus (GSV) disease. The virus is icosahedral, measures approximately 70 nm, is ether and heat resistant, stable...

J. A. Plumb P. R. Bowser J. M. Grizzle A. J. Mitchell

1978-01-01

371

78 FR 29755 - Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused Drug Development and Human Immunodeficiency Virus...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FDA-2013-N-0473] Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused Drug Development and Human Immunodeficiency Virus...for public comment on human immunodeficiency virus...Patient-Focused Drug Development and HIV Cure...

2013-05-21

372

78 FR 46969 - Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused Drug Development and Human Immunodeficiency Virus...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FDA-2013-N-0473] Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused Drug Development and Human Immunodeficiency Virus...meeting entitled ``Human Immunodeficiency Virus...Patient-Focused Drug Development and HIV Cure...

2013-08-02

373

9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.215 Section 113.215 Animals and...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS;...

2009-01-01

374

Virus infection and knee injury.  

PubMed Central

Serological evidence of virus infection was sought in 31 consecutive patients presenting with knee swelling and compared with age/sex-matched controls. In a normal age/sex-matched control group, 42% of patients had evidence of recent or past infection with Coxsackie B virus, emphasising the care required in the evaluation of the significance of Coxsackie B neutralization titres in individual patients. Of 12 patients presenting with knee swelling and a history of a twisting injury, eight had serological evidence of recent or past infection with Coxsackie B virus, and one had evidence of a current adenovirus infection.

Driscoll, P; Venner, R; Clements, G B

1987-01-01

375

Model for Vesicular Stomatitis Virus  

PubMed Central

Vesicular stomatitis virus contains single-stranded ribonucleic acid of molecular weight 3.6 × 106 and three major proteins with molecular weights of 75 × 103, 57 × 103, and 32.5 × 103. The proteins have been shown to be subunits of the surface projections, ribonucleoprotein, and matrix protein, respectively. From these values and from estimates of the proportions of the individual proteins, it has been calculated that the virus has approximately 500 surface projections, 1,100 protein units on the ribonucleoprotein strand, and 1,600 matrix protein units. Possible models of the virus are proposed in which the proteins are interrelated. Images

Cartwright, B.; Smale, C. J.; Brown, F.; Hull, R.

1972-01-01

376

Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-related Virus (XMRV) Backgrounder  

Cancer.gov

Researchers have not found evidence that XMRV causes any diseases in humans or in animals. The presence of an infectious agent, such as a virus, in diseased tissue does not mean that the agent causes the disease.

377

Evolution of Computer Virus Concealment and AntiVirus Techniques: A Short Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a general overview on evolution of concealment methods in computer viruses and defensive techniques employed by anti-virus products. In order to stay far from the anti-virus scanners, computer viruses gradually improve their codes to make them invisible. On the other hand, anti-virus technologies continually follow the virus tricks and methodologies to overcome their threats. In this process,

Babak Bashari Rad; Maslin Masrom; Suhaimi Ibrahim

2011-01-01

378

Antiviral Drugs for Viruses Other Than Human Immunodeficiency Virus  

PubMed Central

Most viral diseases, with the exception of those caused by human immunodeficiency virus, are self-limited illnesses that do not require specific antiviral therapy. The currently available antiviral drugs target 3 main groups of viruses: herpes, hepatitis, and influenza viruses. With the exception of the antisense molecule fomivirsen, all antiherpes drugs inhibit viral replication by serving as competitive substrates for viral DNA polymerase. Drugs for the treatment of influenza inhibit the ion channel M2 protein or the enzyme neuraminidase. Combination therapy with Interferon-? and ribavirin remains the backbone treatment for chronic hepatitis C; the addition of serine protease inhibitors improves the treatment outcome of patients infected with hepatitis C virus genotype 1. Chronic hepatitis B can be treated with interferon or a combination of nucleos(t)ide analogues. Notably, almost all the nucleos(t) ide analogues for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B possess anti–human immunodeficiency virus properties, and they inhibit replication of hepatitis B virus by serving as competitive substrates for its DNA polymerase. Some antiviral drugs possess multiple potential clinical applications, such as ribavirin for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C and respiratory syncytial virus and cidofovir for the treatment of cytomegalovirus and other DNA viruses. Drug resistance is an emerging threat to the clinical utility of antiviral drugs. The major mechanisms for drug resistance are mutations in the viral DNA polymerase gene or in genes that encode for the viral kinases required for the activation of certain drugs such as acyclovir and ganciclovir. Widespread antiviral resistance has limited the clinical utility of M2 inhibitors for the prevention and treatment of influenza infections. This article provides an overview of clinically available antiviral drugs for the primary care physician, with a special focus on pharmacology, clinical uses, and adverse effects.

Razonable, Raymund R.

2011-01-01

379

Antiviral drugs for viruses other than human immunodeficiency virus.  

PubMed

Most viral diseases, with the exception of those caused by human immunodeficiency virus, are self-limited illnesses that do not require specific antiviral therapy. The currently available antiviral drugs target 3 main groups of viruses: herpes, hepatitis, and influenza viruses. With the exception of the antisense molecule fomivirsen, all antiherpes drugs inhibit viral replication by serving as competitive substrates for viral DNA polymerase. Drugs for the treatment of influenza inhibit the ion channel M(2) protein or the enzyme neuraminidase. Combination therapy with Interferon-? and ribavirin remains the backbone treatment for chronic hepatitis C; the addition of serine protease inhibitors improves the treatment outcome of patients infected with hepatitis C virus genotype 1. Chronic hepatitis B can be treated with interferon or a combination of nucleos(t)ide analogues. Notably, almost all the nucleos(t) ide analogues for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B possess anti-human immunodeficiency virus properties, and they inhibit replication of hepatitis B virus by serving as competitive substrates for its DNA polymerase. Some antiviral drugs possess multiple potential clinical applications, such as ribavirin for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C and respiratory syncytial virus and cidofovir for the treatment of cytomegalovirus and other DNA viruses. Drug resistance is an emerging threat to the clinical utility of antiviral drugs. The major mechanisms for drug resistance are mutations in the viral DNA polymerase gene or in genes that encode for the viral kinases required for the activation of certain drugs such as acyclovir and ganciclovir. Widespread antiviral resistance has limited the clinical utility of M(2) inhibitors for the prevention and treatment of influenza infections. This article provides an overview of clinically available antiviral drugs for the primary care physician, with a special focus on pharmacology, clinical uses, and adverse effects. PMID:21964179

Razonable, Raymund R

2011-10-01

380

Adeno-associated virus: from defective virus to effective vector  

PubMed Central

The initial discovery of adeno-associated virus (AAV) mixed with adenovirus particles was not a fortuitous one but rather an expression of AAV biology. Indeed, as it came to be known, in addition to the unavoidable host cell, AAV typically needs a so-called helper virus such as adenovirus to replicate. Since the AAV life cycle revolves around another unrelated virus it was dubbed a satellite virus. However, the structural simplicity plus the defective and non-pathogenic character of this satellite virus caused recombinant forms to acquire centre-stage prominence in the current constellation of vectors for human gene therapy. In the present review, issues related to the development of recombinant AAV (rAAV) vectors, from the general principle to production methods, tropism modifications and other emerging technologies are discussed. In addition, the accumulating knowledge regarding the mechanisms of rAAV genome transduction and persistence is reviewed. The topics on rAAV vectorology are supplemented with information on the parental virus biology with an emphasis on aspects that directly impact on vector design and performance such as genome replication, genetic structure, and host cell entry.

Goncalves, Manuel AFV

2005-01-01

381

Adeno-associated virus: from defective virus to effective vector.  

PubMed

The initial discovery of adeno-associated virus (AAV) mixed with adenovirus particles was not a fortuitous one but rather an expression of AAV biology. Indeed, as it came to be known, in addition to the unavoidable host cell, AAV typically needs a so-called helper virus such as adenovirus to replicate. Since the AAV life cycle revolves around another unrelated virus it was dubbed a satellite virus. However, the structural simplicity plus the defective and non-pathogenic character of this satellite virus caused recombinant forms to acquire centre-stage prominence in the current constellation of vectors for human gene therapy. In the present review, issues related to the development of recombinant AAV (rAAV) vectors, from the general principle to production methods, tropism modifications and other emerging technologies are discussed. In addition, the accumulating knowledge regarding the mechanisms of rAAV genome transduction and persistence is reviewed. The topics on rAAV vectorology are supplemented with information on the parental virus biology with an emphasis on aspects that directly impact on vector design and performance such as genome replication, genetic structure, and host cell entry. PMID:15877812

Gonçalves, Manuel A F V

2005-01-01

382

Human immunodeficiency virus endocrinopathy  

PubMed Central

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) endocrinopathy encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders. Almost all the endocrine organs are virtually affected by HIV infection. HIV can directly alter glandular function. More commonly secondary endocrine dysfunction occurs due to opportunistic infections and neoplasms in immunocompromised state. The complex interaction between HIV infection and endocrine system may be manifested as subtle biochemical and hormonal perturbation to overt glandular failure. Antiretroviral therapy as well as other essential medications often result in adverse endocrinal consequences. Apart from adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadism, diabetes and bone loss, AIDS wasting syndrome and HIV lipodystrophy need special reference. Endocrinal evaluation should proceed as in other patients with suspected endocrine dysfunction. Available treatment options have been shown to improve quality of life and long-term mortality in AIDS patients.

Sinha, Uma; Sengupta, Nilanjan; Mukhopadhyay, Prasanta; Roy, Keshab Sinha

2011-01-01

383

Hepatitis C virus kinetics.  

PubMed

The balance of virus production and clearance for untreated patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) results in a decline of viraemia when initiating active antiviral treatment. During the first phase of interferon-alpha therapy, after a delay of about 8-9 h, the kinetics of the viral load is characterized by a rapid dose-dependent decline. This early response can be observed for almost all patients treated with interferon-alpha. After about 24-48 h, the viral decline enters a second phase of relatively slow exponential decay during the following weeks of therapy. Non-responding patients, however, show constant viraemia or even a rebound during this second phase. The rate of the exponential decline of the viral load in responding patients in this second phase is less sensitive to the dose of interferon-alpha and varies considerably among patients. Furthermore, combination therapy with interferon-alpha plus ribavirin does not significantly improve the initial viral decay, although it may prevent more patients from rebounding. Mathematical modelling of viral dynamics reveals high turnover rates of pre-treatment viral production and clearance, and permits the estimation of in vivo half-lives of a few hours for free HCV virions and of 1-70 days for productively infected cells. Infected cell death rate, which determines the second phase decline slope, is predictive of response to treatment. Current models indicate that the early biphasic viral decline is explained if interferon-alpha partially blocks virion production from infected cells, yet they do not rule out additional antiviral or immunological effects. Therapeutic implications are the advisability of use of frequent (daily) and comparatively high initial doses. In conclusion, kinetic analysis of the viral decay during the first weeks of treatment permits the prediction of response at the end-of-therapy and might help to evaluate new drugs and to optimize therapy. PMID:10971860

Herrmann, E; Neumann, A U; Schmidt, J M; Zeuzem, S

2000-06-01

384

[An update on Lassa virus].  

PubMed

Lassa virus, the etiologic agent of Lassa hemorrhagic fever, infects 100,000 to 300,000 people every year in West Africa with an overall mortality rate ranging from 1 to 2%. It was discovered in 1969 and remains a significant public health risk in endemic areas. Because airborne transmission is possible and mortality can be high under certain conditions, Lassa virus has been classified as a category A bioterrorism agent. Early diagnosis is difficult due to insidious non-specific onset and to the great genetic divergence of the virus that makes RT-PCR assays unreliable. The lack of proper diagnostic tools promotes nosocomial infection and diminishes the efficacy of treatment. Recently, numerous advances have been made in the development of both diagnostic and vaccination techniques. The purpose of this review is to present an update on that research as well as the current epidemiology of Lassa virus. PMID:22393616

Leparc-Goffart, I; Emonet, S F

2011-12-01

385

Virus Transport through Solid Beds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A theoretical model for predicting the breakthrough curve of viruses from solid beds is developed. This model includes the percolation of contaminated water through clean solid beds (saturation) and of uncontaminated water through contaminated beds (eluti...

S. Sundaram

1977-01-01

386

Novel vaccines against influenza viruses  

PubMed Central

Killed and live attenuated influenza virus vaccines are effective in preventing and curbing the spread of influenza epidemics when the strains present in the vaccines are closely matched with the predicted epidemic strains. These vaccines are primarily targeted to induce immunity to the variable major target antigen, hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza virus. However, current vaccines are not effective in preventing the emergence of new pandemic or highly virulent viruses. New approaches are being investigated to develop universal influenza virus vaccines as well as to apply more effective vaccine delivery methods. Conserved vaccine targets including the influenza M2 ion channel protein and HA stalk domains are being developed using recombinant technologies to improve the level of cross protection. In addition, recent studies provide evidence that vaccine supplements can provide avenues to further improve current vaccination.

Kang, Sang-Moo; Song, Jae-Min; Compans, Richard W.

2011-01-01

387

Viruses of eukaryotice green algae  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of our research was to develop the Chlorella-PBCV-1 virus system so that it can be used as a model system for studying gene expression in a photosynthetic eukaryote. We have made considerable progress and have learned much about PBCV-1 and its replication cycle. In addition, several significant discoveries were made in the last 3 to 4 years. These discoveries include: (i) the finding that morphologically similar, plaque forming, dsDNA containing viruses are common in nature and can be isolated readily from fresh water, (ii) the finding that all of these Chlorella viruses contain methylated bases which range in concentration from 0.1% to 47.5% m{sup 5}dC and 0 to 37% m{sup 6}dA and (iii) the discovery that infection with at least some of these viruses induces the appearance of DNA modification/restriction systems. 26 refs.

Van Etten, J.L.

1989-01-01

388

Coronavirus avian infectious bronchitis virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), the coronavirus of the chicken (Gallus gallus), is one of the foremost causes of economic loss within the poultry industry, affecting the performance of both meat-type and egg-laying birds. The virus replicates not only in the epithelium of upper and lower respiratory tract tissues, but also in many tissues along the alimentary tract and elsewhere e.g.

Dave Cavanagh

2007-01-01

389

Movement of Viruses between Biomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viruses are abundant in all known ecosystems. In the present study, we tested the possibility that viruses from one biome can successfully propagate in another. Viral concentrates were prepared from different near-shore marine sites, lake water, marine sediments, and soil. The concentrates were added to microcosms containing dissolved organic matter as a food source (after filtration to allow 100-kDa particles

Emiko Sano; Suzanne Carlson; Linda Wegley; Forest Rohwer

2004-01-01

390

Membrane Proteins in Plant Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is clear that MPs play an essential role in the pathogenesis and movement within the plant of many plant viruses. However,\\u000a studies of the structure and function of such proteins are still in their infancy. Substantial progress may be expected in\\u000a the next few years, particularly in the area of cell-to-cell movement where viruses are proving useful tools to

Michael J. Adams; John F. Antoniw

391

Determinants of virulence of influenza A virus  

PubMed Central

Influenza A viruses cause yearly seasonal epidemics and occasional global pandemics in humans. In the last century, four human influenza A virus pandemics have occured. Ocasionally, influenza A viruses that circulate in other species, cross the species barrier and infect humans. Virus re-assortment (i.e. mixing of gene segments of multiple viruses) and the accumulation of mutations contribute to the emergence of new influenza A virus variants. Fortunately, most of these variants do not have the ability to spread among humans and subsequently cause a pandemic. In this review we focus on the threat of animal influenza A viruses which have shown the ability to infect humans. In addition, genetic factors which could alter the virulence of influenza A viruses are discussed. Identification and characterization of these factors may provide insights into genetic traits which change virulence and help us to understand which genetic determinants are of importance for the pandemic potential of animal influenza A viruses.

Schrauwen, Eefje J.A.; de Graaf, Miranda; Herfst, Sander; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.; Osterhaus, Albert D.M.E.; Fouchier, Ron A.M.

2013-01-01

392

PC viruses: How do they do that  

SciTech Connect

The topic of PC Viruses has been an issue for a number of years now. They've been reported in every major newspaper, tabloids, television and radio. People from all fields get viruses: government, private sector businesses, home computers, schools, computer software suppliers. A definition is proposed to introduce the virus phenomenon. Virus authors come from a variety of communities. Motives and ideologies of authors are discussed, and examples of viruses are offered. Also mentioned is the growing number of viruses developed, isolated, and never distributed to the public at large, but kept within the antivirus research community. Virus examples are offered as well. Viruses are distributed not only through bulletin boards and shareware, but also from areas previously assumed to be safe, including the threat of receiving a virus through a standard in-house function, such as an in-house hardware maintenance shop. Three categories of viruses are presented: File Infecter viruses, Boot Sector Infecters, and the new category of Directory Entry Infecter virus. Also discussed are crossover viruses, that is, viruses which utilize a variety of techniques to ensure survival. An explanation of what is occurring within every stage of various viruses is given. Replication strategies common to all three types is noted, mainly the two different replication strategies of memory resident infecters and active selection infecters. A detailed definition, description and application of a stealth virus is presented. Detection strategies are discussed as each topic in this section is completed; a high level schemata of the operation of various virus detection programs ispresented. Since most eradication today is done using virus detection/eradication software, this paper attempts to reveal the techniques used by these packages.Included in the paper is the topic of manual eradication.

Pichnarczyk, K.

1992-07-01

393

PC viruses: How do they do that?  

SciTech Connect

The topic of PC Viruses has been an issue for a number of years now. They`ve been reported in every major newspaper, tabloids, television and radio. People from all fields get viruses: government, private sector businesses, home computers, schools, computer software suppliers. A definition is proposed to introduce the virus phenomenon. Virus authors come from a variety of communities. Motives and ideologies of authors are discussed, and examples of viruses are offered. Also mentioned is the growing number of viruses developed, isolated, and never distributed to the public at large, but kept within the antivirus research community. Virus examples are offered as well. Viruses are distributed not only through bulletin boards and shareware, but also from areas previously assumed to be safe, including the threat of receiving a virus through a standard in-house function, such as an in-house hardware maintenance shop. Three categories of viruses are presented: File Infecter viruses, Boot Sector Infecters, and the new category of Directory Entry Infecter virus. Also discussed are crossover viruses, that is, viruses which utilize a variety of techniques to ensure survival. An explanation of what is occurring within every stage of various viruses is given. Replication strategies common to all three types is noted, mainly the two different replication strategies of memory resident infecters and active selection infecters. A detailed definition, description and application of a stealth virus is presented. Detection strategies are discussed as each topic in this section is completed; a high level schemata of the operation of various virus detection programs ispresented. Since most eradication today is done using virus detection/eradication software, this paper attempts to reveal the techniques used by these packages.Included in the paper is the topic of manual eradication.

Pichnarczyk, K.

1992-07-01

394

Circulating avian influenza viruses closely related to the 1918 virus have pandemic potential.  

PubMed

Wild birds harbor a large gene pool of influenza A viruses that have the potential to cause influenza pandemics. Foreseeing and understanding this potential is important for effective surveillance. Our phylogenetic and geographic analyses revealed the global prevalence of avian influenza virus genes whose proteins differ only a few amino acids from the 1918 pandemic influenza virus, suggesting that 1918-like pandemic viruses may emerge in the future. To assess this risk, we generated and characterized a virus composed of avian influenza viral segments with high homology to the 1918 virus. This virus exhibited pathogenicity in mice and ferrets higher than that in an authentic avian influenza virus. Further, acquisition of seven amino acid substitutions in the viral polymerases and the hemagglutinin surface glycoprotein conferred respiratory droplet transmission to the 1918-like avian virus in ferrets, demonstrating that contemporary avian influenza viruses with 1918 virus-like proteins may have pandemic potential. PMID:24922572

Watanabe, Tokiko; Zhong, Gongxun; Russell, Colin A; Nakajima, Noriko; Hatta, Masato; Hanson, Anthony; McBride, Ryan; Burke, David F; Takahashi, Kenta; Fukuyama, Satoshi; Tomita, Yuriko; Maher, Eileen A; Watanabe, Shinji; Imai, Masaki; Neumann, Gabriele; Hasegawa, Hideki; Paulson, James C; Smith, Derek J; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

2014-06-11

395

Foodborne viruses: an emerging problem.  

PubMed

Several groups of viruses may infect persons after ingestion and then are shed via stool. Of these, the norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) are currently recognised as the most important human foodborne pathogens with regard to the number of outbreaks and people affected in the Western world. NoV and HAV are highly infectious and may lead to widespread outbreaks. The clinical manifestation of NoV infection, however, is relatively mild. Asymptomatic infections are common and may contribute to the spread of the infection. Introduction of NoV in a community or population (a seeding event) may be followed by additional spread because of the highly infectious nature of NoV, resulting in a great number of secondary infections (50% of contacts). Hepatitis A is an increasing problem because of the decrease in immunity of populations in countries with high standards of hygiene. Molecular-based methods can detect viruses in shellfish but are not yet available for other foods. The applicability of the methods currently available for monitoring foods for viral contamination is unknown. No consistent correlation has been found between the presence of indicator microorganisms (i.e. bacteriophages, E. coli) and viruses. NoV and HAV are highly infectious and exhibit variable levels of resistance to heat and disinfection agents. However, they are both inactivated at 100 degrees C. No validated model virus or model system is available for studies of inactivation of NoV, although investigations could make use of structurally similar viruses (i.e. canine and feline caliciviruses). In the absence of a model virus or model system, food safety guidelines need to be based on studies that have been performed with the most resistant enteric RNA viruses (i.e. HAV, for which a model system does exist) and also with bacteriophages (for water). Most documented foodborne viral outbreaks can be traced to food that has been manually handled by an infected foodhandler, rather than to industrially processed foods. The viral contamination of food can occur anywhere in the process from farm to fork, but most foodborne viral infections can be traced back to infected persons who handle food that is not heated or otherwise treated afterwards. Therefore, emphasis should be on stringent personal hygiene during preparation. If viruses are present in food preprocessing, residual viral infectivity may be present after some industrial processes. Therefore, it is key that sufficient attention be given to good agriculture practice (GAP) and good manufacturing practice (GMP) to avoid introduction of viruses onto the raw material and into the food-manufacturing environment, and to HACCP to assure adequate management of (control over) viruses present during the manufacturing process. If viruses are present in foods after processing, they remain infectious in most circumstances and in most foods for several days or weeks, especially if kept cooled (at 4 degrees C). Therefore, emphasis should be on stringent personal hygiene during preparation. For the control of foodborne viral infections, it is necessary to: Heighten awareness about the presence and spread of these viruses by foodhandlers; Optimise and standardise methods for the detection of foodborne viruses; Develop laboratory-based surveillance to detect large, common-source outbreaks at an early stage; and Emphasise consideration of viruses in setting up food safety quality control and management systems (GHP, GMP, HACCP). PMID:14672828

Koopmans, Marion; Duizer, Erwin

2004-01-01

396

40 CFR 174.514 - Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance...174.514 Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus;...

2013-07-01

397

Engineered resistance in potato against potato leafroll virus, potato virus A and potato virus Y.  

PubMed

Transgenic potato plants of Solanum tuberosum cultivar Vales Sovereign were generated that expressed fused, tandem, 200 bp segments derived from the capsid protein coding sequences of potato virus Y (PVY strain O) and potato leafroll virus (PLRV), as well as the cylindrical inclusion body coding sequences of potato virus A (PVA), as inverted repeat double-stranded RNAs, separated by an intron. The orientation of the expressed double-stranded RNAs was either sense-intron-antisense or antisense-intron-sense RNAs, and the double-stranded RNAs were processed into small RNAs. Four lines of such transgenic potato plants were assessed for resistance to infection by PVY-O, PLRV, or PVA, all transmitted by a natural vector, the green-peach aphid, Myzus persicae. Resistance was assessed by the absence of detectable virus accumulation in the foliage. All four transgenic potato lines tested showed 100% resistance to infection by either PVY-O or PVA, but variable resistance to infection by PLRV, ranging from 72 to 96% in different lines. This was regardless of the orientation of the viral inserts in the construct used to generate the transgenic plants and the gene copy number of the transgene. This demonstrates the potential for using tandem, fused viral segments and the inverted-repeat expression system to achieve multiple virus resistance to viruses transmitted by aphids in potato. PMID:23526159

Chung, Bong Nam; Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Palukaitis, Peter

2013-08-01

398

Immunological Memory after Exposure to Variola Virus, Monkeypox Virus, and Vaccinia Virus  

PubMed Central

We compared cellular and humoral immunity to vaccinia virus (VV) in individuals exposed to 3 different orthopoxviruses: 154 individuals previously vaccinated with VV, 7 individuals with a history of monkeypox virus infection, and 8 individuals with a history of variola virus infection. Among individuals vaccinated >20 years prior, 9 (14%) of 66 individuals demonstrated VV-specific interferon (IFN)-? enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay responses; 21 (50%) of 42 had lymphoproliferative (LP) responses, and 29 (97%) of 30 had VV-specific neutralizing antibodies. One year after monkeypox virus infection, 6 of 7 individuals had IFN-? ELISPOT responses, all had VV-specific LP responses, and 3 of 7 had VV-specific neutralizing antibodies. Of 8 individuals with a history of variola virus infection, 1 had a VV-specific IFN-? ELISPOT response, 4 had LP responses against whole VV, 7 had LP responses against heat-denatured vaccinia antigen, and 7 had VV-specific neutralizing antibodies. Survivors of variola virus infection demonstrated VV-specific CD4 memory cell responses and neutralizing antibodies >40 years after infection.

Sivapalasingam, Sumathi; Kennedy, Jeffrey S.; Borkowsky, William; Valentine, Fred; Zhan, Ming-Xia; Pazoles, Pamela; Paolino, Anna; Ennis, Francis A.; Steigbigel, Neal H.

2007-01-01

399

Comparison of cowpox-like viruses isolated from European zoos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Poxviruses isolated from captive carnivores in Russia (Moscow virus) and elephants in Germany (elephant virus) were very closely-related to cowpox virus. Immunological analysis with absorbed sera separated elephant virus but not cowpox and Moscow virus, whereas polypeptide analysis separated cowpox but not elephant and Moscow virus. A combination of biological tests separated all three. The epidemiological implications are briefly

D. Baxby; W. B. Shackleton; Jean Wheeler; A. Turner

1979-01-01

400

Performance of Virus Resistant Transgenic Yellow Summer Squash in Alabama  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of summer squash in Alabama and the southeastern United States is generally limited to spring and early summer due to the abundance of aphid transmitted viruses during the late summer and fall. Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV), Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), and Papaya ring spot virus (PRSV) are the most common viruses affecting Cucurbits in

Edward J. Sikora; John F. Murphy; Jason Burkett

2006-01-01

401

Viruses and viruslike particles of eukaryotic algae.  

PubMed Central

Until recently there was little interest or information on viruses and viruslike particles of eukaryotic algae. However, this situation is changing. In the past decade many large double-stranded DNA-containing viruses that infect two culturable, unicellular, eukaryotic green algae have been discovered. These viruses can be produced in large quantities, assayed by plaque formation, and analyzed by standard bacteriophage techniques. The viruses are structurally similar to animal iridoviruses, their genomes are similar to but larger (greater than 300 kbp) than that of poxviruses, and their infection process resembles that of bacteriophages. Some of the viruses have DNAs with low levels of methylated bases, whereas others have DNAs with high concentrations of 5-methylcytosine and N6-methyladenine. Virus-encoded DNA methyltransferases are associated with the methylation and are accompanied by virus-encoded DNA site-specific (restriction) endonucleases. Some of these enzymes have sequence specificities identical to those of known bacterial enzymes, and others have previously unrecognized specificities. A separate rod-shaped RNA-containing algal virus has structural and nucleotide sequence affinities to higher plant viruses. Quite recently, viruses have been associated with rapid changes in marine algal populations. In the next decade we envision the discovery of new algal viruses, clarification of their role in various ecosystems, discovery of commercially useful genes in these viruses, and exploitation of algal virus genetic elements in plant and algal biotechnology. Images

Van Etten, J L; Lane, L C; Meints, R H

1991-01-01

402

Adaptive Mutations in Sindbis Virus E2 and Ross River Virus E1 That Allow Efficient Budding of Chimeric Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alphavirus glycoproteins E2 and E1 form a heterodimer that is required for virus assembly. We have studied adaptive mutations in E2 of Sindbis virus (SIN) and E1 of Ross River virus (RR) that allow these two glycoproteins to interact more efficiently in a chimeric virus that has SIN E2 but RR E1. These mutations include K129E, K131E, and V237F in

KYONGMIN HWANG KIM; ELLEN G. STRAUSS; JAMES H. STRAUSS

2000-01-01

403

Recovery of Virus Samples from Various Surfaces with the Integrated Virus Detection System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Viruses are known to survive in environmental settings over various time periods. This study will show that certain viruses survive for a 24 h period, and certain viruses do not survive, depending on the substrate with which the viruses are in contact.

C. H. Wick P. E. McCubbin

2010-01-01

404

Avian-human reassortant influenza A viruses derived by mating avian and human influenza A viruses.  

PubMed

Reassortant influenza A viruses were produced by mating an avian virus (A/Mallard/NY/78, A/Mallard/Alberta/78, or A/Pintail/Alberta/79) with a wild-type human influenza A virus. From each mating a reassortant virus was obtained that contained the genes coding for the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase surface antigens of the human influenza A wild-type virus and the six other RNA segments ("internal genes") of the avian influenza A virus parent. The avian-human reassortant influenza viruses produced resembled their avian virus parent in that they produced plaques on MDCK monolayers at 42 C, a temperature restrictive for the human influenza viruses. In the trachea of squirrel monkeys, each avian-human reassortant influenza virus was as restricted in its replication as was its avian influenza virus parent. Thus, one or more of the six internal genes of each avian parent virus was responsible for restriction of the reassortant virus in monkeys. The A/Washington/80 X A/Mallard/NY/78 reassortant virus retained its phenotype of restricted replication in monkeys after five serial passages in vivo. It also failed to transmit to cagemates or induce resistance to wild-type virus challenge, and it did not initiate a systemic or enteric infection. These findings form the basis for evaluation of these attenuated avian-human reassortant influenza A viruses as live attenuated vaccines for humans. PMID:6501928

Murphy, B R; Buckler-White, A J; London, W T; Harper, J; Tierney, E L; Miller, N T; Reck, L J; Chanock, R M; Hinshaw, V S

1984-12-01

405

Genetic Diversity in RNA Virus Quasispecies Is Controlled by Host-Virus Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many RNA viruses have genetically diverse populations known as quasispecies. Important biological char- acteristics may be related to the levels of diversity in the quasispecies (quasispecies cloud size), including adaptability and host range. Previous work using Tobacco mosaic virus and Cucumber mosaic virus indicated that evolutionarily related viruses have very different levels of diversity in a common host. The quasispecies

WILLIAM L. SCHNEIDER; MARILYN J. ROOSSINCK

2001-01-01

406

Mouse Neuroinvasive Phenotype of West Nile Virus Strains Varies Depending upon Virus Genotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite recent advances in the genetics of West Nile (WN) virus, relatively little is known about the molecular basis of virulence of this virus. In particular, although the genotype of the WN virus strain that was recently introduced into North America has been determined, there have been few experimental studies on the virulence phenotype of the virus. We compared genetic

David W. C. Beasley; Li Li; Miguel T. Suderman; Alan D. T. Barrett

2002-01-01

407

Coping with Computer Viruses: General Discussion and Review of Symantec Anti-Virus for the Macintosh.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses computer viruses that attack the Macintosh and describes Symantec AntiVirus for Macintosh (SAM), a commercial program designed to detect and eliminate viruses; sample screen displays are included. SAM is recommended for use in library settings as well as two public domain virus protection programs. (four references) (MES)

Primich, Tracy

1992-01-01

408

Dengue viruses - an overview  

PubMed Central

Dengue viruses (DENVs) cause the most common arthropod-borne viral disease in man with 50–100 million infections per year. Because of the lack of a vaccine and antiviral drugs, the sole measure of control is limiting the Aedes mosquito vectors. DENV infection can be asymptomatic or a self-limited, acute febrile disease ranging in severity. The classical form of dengue fever (DF) is characterized by high fever, headache, stomach ache, rash, myalgia, and arthralgia. Severe dengue, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) are accompanied by thrombocytopenia, vascular leakage, and hypotension. DSS, which can be fatal, is characterized by systemic shock. Despite intensive research, the underlying mechanisms causing severe dengue is still not well understood partly due to the lack of appropriate animal models of infection and disease. However, even though it is clear that both viral and host factors play important roles in the course of infection, a fundamental knowledge gap still remains to be filled regarding host cell tropism, crucial host immune response mechanisms, and viral markers for virulence.

Back, Anne Tuiskunen; Lundkvist, Ake

2013-01-01

409

Hepatitis B virus morphogenesis  

PubMed Central

The hepatitis B virus (HBV) particle consists of an envelope containing three related surface proteins and probably lipid and an icosahedral nucleocapsid of approximately 30 nm diameter enclosing the viral DNA genome and DNA polymerase. The capsid is formed in the cytosol of the infected cell during packaging of an RNA pregenome replication complex by multiple copies of a 21-kDa C protein. The capsid gains the ability to bud during synthesis of the viral DNA genome by reverse transcription of the pregenome in the lumen of the particle. The three envelope proteins S, M, and L shape a complex transmembrane fold at the endoplasmic reticulum, and form disulfide-linked homo- and heterodimers. The transmembrane topology of a fraction of the large envelope protein L changes post-translationally, therefore, the N terminal domain of L (preS) finally appears on both sides of the membrane. During budding at an intracellular membrane, a short linear domain in the cytosolic preS region interacts with binding sites on the capsid surface. The virions are subsequently secreted into the blood. In addition, the surface proteins can bud in the absence of capsids and form subviral lipoprotein particles of 20 nm diameter which are also secreted.

Bruss, Volker

2007-01-01

410

Hepatitis B virus replication  

PubMed Central

Hepadnaviruses, including human hepatitis B virus (HBV), replicate through reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate, the pregenomic RNA (pgRNA). Despite this kinship to retroviruses, there are fundamental differences beyond the fact that hepadnavirions contain DNA instead of RNA. Most peculiar is the initiation of reverse transcription: it occurs by protein-priming, is strictly committed to using an RNA hairpin on the pgRNA, ?, as template, and depends on cellular chaperones; moreover, proper replication can apparently occur only in the specialized environment of intact nucleocapsids. This complexity has hampered an in-depth mechanistic understanding. The recent successful reconstitution in the test tube of active replication initiation complexes from purified components, for duck HBV (DHBV), now allows for the analysis of the biochemistry of hepadnaviral replication at the molecular level. Here we review the current state of knowledge at all steps of the hepadnaviral genome replication cycle, with emphasis on new insights that turned up by the use of such cell-free systems. At this time, they can, unfortunately, not be complemented by three-dimensional structural information on the involved components. However, at least for the ? RNA element such information is emerging, raising expectations that combining biophysics with biochemistry and genetics will soon provide a powerful integrated approach for solving the many outstanding questions. The ultimate, though most challenging goal, will be to visualize the hepadnaviral reverse transcriptase in the act of synthesizing DNA, which will also have strong implications for drug development.

Beck, Juergen; Nassal, Michael

2007-01-01

411

Induction of protective immunity in swine by recombinant bamboo mosaic virus expressing foot-and-mouth disease virus epitopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Plant viruses can be employed as versatile vectors for the production of vaccines by expressing immunogenic epitopes on the surface of chimeric viral particles. Although several viruses, including tobacco mosaic virus, potato virus X and cowpea mosaic virus, have been developed as vectors, we aimed to develop a new viral vaccine delivery system, a bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV), that

Chung-Da Yang; Jia-Teh Liao; Chen-Yen Lai; Ming-Hwa Jong; Chi-Ming Liang; Yeou-Liang Lin; Na-Sheng Lin; Yau-Heiu Hsu; Shu-Mei Liang

2007-01-01

412

Autophagic machinery activated by dengue virus enhances virus replication  

SciTech Connect

Autophagy is a cellular response against stresses which include the infection of viruses and bacteria. We unravel that Dengue virus-2 (DV2) can trigger autophagic process in various infected cell lines demonstrated by GFP-LC3 dot formation and increased LC3-II formation. Autophagosome formation was also observed under the transmission electron microscope. DV2-induced autophagy further enhances the titers of extracellular and intracellular viruses indicating that autophagy can promote viral replication in the infected cells. Moreover, our data show that ATG5 protein is required to execute DV2-induced autophagy. All together, we are the first to demonstrate that DV can activate autophagic machinery that is favorable for viral replication.

Lee, Y.-R. [Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lei, H.-Y. [Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Liu, M.-T. [Tainan Hospital, Department of Health, Executive Yuan, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Wang, J.-R. [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chen, S.-H. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Jiang-Shieh, Y.-F. [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, College of Medicine, National Cheng Ku