We have previously shown that transgenic expression of a truncated C1 gene of Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV), expressing the first 210 amino acids of the replication-associated protein (T-Rep) and potentially coexpressing the C4 protein, confers resistance to the homologous virus in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. In the present study we have investigated the role of T-Rep and C4 proteins in the resistance mechanism, analyzing changes in virus transcription and replication. Transgenic plants and protoplasts were challenged with TYLCSV and the related TYLCSV Murcia strain (TYLCSV-ES). TYLCSV-resistant plants were susceptible to TYLCSV-ES; moreover, TYLCSV but not TYLCSV-ES replication was strongly inhibited in transgenic protoplasts as well as in wild-type (wt) protoplasts transiently expressing T-Rep but not the C4 protein. Viral circular single-stranded DNA (cssDNA) was usually undetectable in transgenically and transiently T-Rep-expressing protoplasts, while viral DNAs migrating more slowly than the cssDNA were observed. Biochemical studies showed that these DNAs were partial duplexes with the minus strand incomplete. Interestingly, similar viral DNA forms were also found at early stages of TYLCSV replication in wt N. benthamiana protoplasts. Transgenically expressed T-Rep repressed the transcription of the GUS reporter gene up to 300-fold when fused to the homologous (TYLCSV) but not to the heterologous (TYLCSV-ES) C1 promoter. Similarly, transiently expressed T-Rep but not C4 protein strongly repressed GUS transcription when fused to the C1 promoter of TYLCSV. A model of T-Rep interference with TYLCSV transcription-replication is proposed.
Brunetti, Angela; Tavazza, Raffaela; Noris, Emanuela; Lucioli, Alessandra; Accotto, Gian Paolo; Tavazza, Mario
The capsid protein (CP) of the monopartite begomovirus Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV), family Geminiviridae, is indispensable for plant infection and vector transmission. A region between amino acids 129 and 152 is critical for virion assembly and insect transmissibility. Two previously described mutants, one with a double Q129P Q134H mutation (PNHD) and another with a further D152E change (PNHE), were found nontransmissible (NT). Another NT mutant with a single N130D change (QDQD) was retrieved from a new mutational analysis. In this study, these three NT mutants and the wild-type (wt) virus were compared in their relationships with the whitefly vector Bemisia tabaci and the nonvector Trialeurodes vaporariorum. Retention kinetics of NT mutants were analyzed by quantitative dot blot hybridization in whiteflies fed on infected plants. The QDQD mutant, whose virions appeared nongeminate following purification, was hardly detectable in either whitefly species at any sampling time. The PNHD mutant was acquired and circulated in both whitefly species for up to 10 days, like the wt virus, while PNHE circulated in B. tabaci only. Using immunogold labeling, both PNHD and PNHE CPs were detected in B. tabaci salivary glands (SGs) like the wt virus, while no labeling was found in any whitefly tissue with the QDQD mutant. Significant inhibition of transmission of the wt virus was observed after prior feeding of the insects on plants infected with the PNHE mutant, but not on plants infected with the other mutants. Virion stability and ability to cross the SG barrier are necessary for TYLCSV transmission, but interactions with molecular components inside the SGs are also critical for transmissibility.
Caciagli, Piero; Medina Piles, Vicente; Marian, Daniele; Vecchiati, Manuela; Masenga, Vera; Mason, Giovanna; Falcioni, Tania; Noris, Emanuela
The capsid protein (CP) of the monopartite begomovirus Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV), family Geminiviridae, is indispensable for plant infection and vector transmission. A region between amino acids 129 and 152 is critical for virion assembly and insect transmissibility. Two previously described mutants, one with a double Q129P Q134H mutation (PNHD) and another with a further D152E change (PNHE), were found nontransmissible (NT). Another NT mutant with a single N130D change (QDQD) was retrieved from a new mutational analysis. In this study, these three NT mutants and the wild-type (wt) virus were compared in their relationships with the whitefly vector Bemisia tabaci and the nonvector Trialeurodes vaporariorum. Retention kinetics of NT mutants were analyzed by quantitative dot blot hybridization in whiteflies fed on infected plants. The QDQD mutant, whose virions appeared nongeminate following purification, was hardly detectable in either whitefly species at any sampling time. The PNHD mutant was acquired and circulated in both whitefly species for up to 10 days, like the wt virus, while PNHE circulated in B. tabaci only. Using immunogold labeling, both PNHD and PNHE CPs were detected in B. tabaci salivary glands (SGs) like the wt virus, while no labeling was found in any whitefly tissue with the QDQD mutant. Significant inhibition of transmission of the wt virus was observed after prior feeding of the insects on plants infected with the PNHE mutant, but not on plants infected with the other mutants. Virion stability and ability to cross the SG barrier are necessary for TYLCSV transmission, but interactions with molecular components inside the SGs are also critical for transmissibility. PMID:19321611
Caciagli, Piero; Medina Piles, Vicente; Marian, Daniele; Vecchiati, Manuela; Masenga, Vera; Mason, Giovanna; Falcioni, Tania; Noris, Emanuela
During summer and autumn 2008 a severe outbreak of pepper leaf curl disease (PLCD) was observed in pepper crops under plastic tunnels in the ionic coast of Basilicata region. Its incidence reached, in some cases, values close to 50%. The beginning of infections was recorded along the perimeter of the tunnels, where it reached a percentage of almost 100%. The infection then progressively spread towards the central areas of the greenhouses. Large populations of whiteflies, identificated as Bemisia tabaci, were observed on the infected crops. Detection assays for TYLCSV and TYLCV were performed in order to ascertain the etiologic agent: 190 symptomatic samples were collected from different fields and assayed in DAS-ELISA using a broad-spectrum reagent combination (distributed by Bioreba AG) detecting TYLCV, TYLCSV and other Begamoviruses: of these, 176 samples resulted positive. In order to discriminate between TYLCSV, TYLCV or any other Begamovirus, 15 positive samples were analyzed by PCR using a couple of synthetic oligonucleotides allowing the amplification of the whole coat protein (CP) gene. RFLP analysis performed on the PCR product, 1008 bp long, showed the presence of only TYLCSV in all assayed samples. The molecular characterization performed by phylogenetic analysis of the sequenced coat protein gene revealed that the isolate shares a similarity of about 97% with the corresponding sequence of a tomato TYLCSV isolate from Sicily (Z28390) and is almost identical with the pepper isolate CAB-It recovered in the same area in 2007 (TYLCSV was first recorded on pepper in Italy in 2007 in Policoro-MT, Fanigliulo et al., 2008. Comm. Appl. Biol. Sci, Ghent University, 73/2, 2008), indicating that there is a very low variability in TYLCSV population in the surveyed area. The further diffusion of PLCD and its hazard has to be connected with the presence of wide tomato cultivations, of weed hosts alternative to pepper (Solanum nigrum, Datura stramonium, Sonchus asper, Cardaria draba and Abutilon theophrasti) and with the strong presence of the vector B. tabaci of the B biotype, more efficient than Q biotype in the virus transmission, and able to feed and reproduce on peppers as well as on tomatoes. PMID:20222578
Comes, Soccorsa; Fanigliulo, Angela; Pacella, Rosa; Crescenzi, Aniello
Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) are among the most virulent pathogens of greenhouse tomatoes in Sardinia (Italy). To investigate the relationship between seasonal population trends of the vector Bemisia tabaci and the dynamics of TYLCD spread to susceptible crops, between May and October 2007 we carried out a survey in a tomato growing area located in the south of the island. On three farms specialized in the production of fresh market tomatoes we monitored, outside commercial greenhouses, the following parameters related to TYLCD epidemiology: mean weekly catches of the whiteflies B. tabaci and Trialeurodes voporariorum on yellow sticky traps, ratio between the two whitefly species and proportion of B. tabaci adults carrying TYLCSV/TYLCV in adult samples collected on hosts not susceptible to the disease, proportion of tomato plants infected by TYLCSV/TYLCV after a two-week exposure to open field conditions. Generally speaking, the flight activity of whiteflies increased during spring, reached a peak in May or June and gradually declined in summer. At the beginning of the survey, T. vaporariorum was found to be the prevalent species, but after a shift in composition of whitefly populations during July, B. tabaci became predominant. While the percentage of vector adults carrying the viral agents of the disease was relatively high up to July, with maximum values ranging between 14 and 25%, during the following months it decreased to less than 5%. The incidence of TYLCD in the plants exposed outside the greenhouses showed a similar trend in the sites surveyed, with two peaks roughly coinciding with the beginning and end of summer. Therefore, two distinct phases of TYLCD spread were observed: from spring to midsummer when the disease was transmitted by low 8. tabaci populations with relatively high proportions of virus carriers; from midsummer to autumn, when the disease was spread by larger vector populations with low percentages of individuals carrying the viruses. Further studies are necessary to gain a better understanding of the interactions among B. tabaci biotypes, TYLCSV/TYLCV and their hosts. PMID:20222569
Nannini, M; Foddi, F; Murgia, G; Pisci, R; Sanna, F; Testa, M; Accotto, G P
The genome of an isolate of tomato yellow leaf curl virus from Sardinia, Italy (TYLCV-S), a geminivirus transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, has been cloned and sequenced. The single circular DNA molecule comprises 2770 nucleotides. Genome organisation closely resembles that of the DNA A component of the whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses with a bipartite genome. A 1.8 mer of the TYLCV-S genome in a binary vector of Agrobacterium tumefaciens is infectious upon agroinoculation of tomato plants. Typical tomato yellow leaf curl disease symptoms developed about three weeks after inoculation. The disease was transmitted by the natural vector B.tabaci from agroinfected plants to test plants, reproducing in this way the full biological cycle and proving that the genome of TYLCV-S consists of only one circular single-stranded DNA molecule. Contrary to the other whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses described so far, there is no evidence for the existence nor the necessity of a second component (B DNA) in the TYLCV-S genome. Images
Kheyr-Pour, A; Bendahmane, M; Matzeit, V; Accotto, G P; Crespi, S; Gronenborn, B
Since 2000 several bluetongue virus (BTV) incursions have occurred in Sardinia (Italy) involving serotypes 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16. In October 2012, new BT outbreaks caused by BTV-1 and BTV-4 were reported. Nearly 500 flocks were infected and 9238 sheep died because of the infection. When sequenced, Seg-10 of both strains shared 99% similarity at nucleotide level with BTV strains that have circulated in the Mediterranean basin in the last few years. Similarly, Seg-5 sequences of BTV-1 and BTV-4 newly isolated Sardinian strains are identical and cluster together with recent BTV-1 circulating in the Mediterranean Basin and the BTV-4 strains isolated in Tunisia in 2007 and 2009. These BTV-4 strains differ from the ones that circulated in Europe from 2003 to 2005 and appear to be reassortant strains. PMID:23838283
Lorusso, Alessio; Sghaier, Sufien; Carvelli, Andrea; Di Gennaro, Annapia; Leone, Alessandra; Marini, Valeria; Pelini, Sandro; Marcacci, Maurilia; Rocchigiani, Angela Maria; Puggioni, Giantonella; Savini, Giovanni
This paper analyses the supply of an important form of rural tourism, agrotourism, at a level of each of the four provinces on the island of Sardinia (Italy). Importantly, an analysis is undertaken on the impact that legislation has had on the life cycle. The analysis is framed into three main sectionsfirstly, the main legislative interventions introduced in Sardinia by
Manuela Pulina; Domenica Giovanna Dettori; Antonello Paba
Solution Structure of the Endonuclease Domain from the Master Replication Initiator Protein of the Nanovirus Faba Bean Necrotic Yellows Virus and Comparison with the corresponding Geminivirus and Circovirus Structures
Nanoviruses are a family of plant viruses that posses a genome of multiple circular single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) components and are strikingly similar in their replication mode to the plant geminiviruses and to the circoviruses that infect birds or mammals. These viruses multiply by rolling circle replication using virus-encoded multifunctional replication initiator proteins (Rep proteins) that catalyze the initiation of replication on a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) intermediate and the resolution of the ssDNA into circles. Here we report the solution NMR three-dimensional structure of the endonuclease domain from the Master Rep (M-Rep) protein of faba bean necrotic yellows virus (FBNYV), a representative of the nanoviruses. The domain comprises amino acids 2-95 (M-Rep2-95) and its global fold is similar to those previously described for the gemini- and circovirus Rep endonuclease domain, consisting of a central 5-stranded antiparallel ?-sheet covered on one side by an ?-helix and irregular loops and on the other, more open side of the domain, by an ?-helix containing the catalytic tyrosine residue (the catalytic helix). Longer domain constructs extending to amino acids 117 and 124, were also characterized. They contain an additional ?-helix, are monomeric and exhibit catalytic activity indistinguishable from that of M-Rep2-95. The binding site for the catalytic metal was identified by paramagnetic broadening and maps to residues on the exposed face of the central ?-sheet. A comparison with the previously determined Rep endonuclease domain structures of tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV), a geminivirus, and that of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) Rep allows the identification of a positively charged surface that is most likely involved dsDNA binding, and reveals common features shared by all endonuclease domains of nanovirus, geminivirus, and circovirus Rep proteins.
Vega-Rocha, Susana; Gronenborn, Bruno; Gronenborn, Angela M.; Campos-Olivas, Ramon
Sardinia is a Mediterranean island with a long geological history, leading to a separation process from continental Europe during the Miocene. As a consequence, in this insular habitat some wild bird species developed endemic forms, some of which are currently threatened. The aim of this study is to evaluate the possible animal health risk associated with a potential avian influenza virus (AIV) circulation in Sardinian wild bird populations. Overall, 147 cloacal swabs were sampled in the Sardinia region from June 2009 to September 2011. Samples were obtained from 12 taxonomic orders, including 16 families and 40 species of birds. Based on the endangered host status or on the ecology of the host-virus interaction, samples were categorized into three groups of species: 1) endemic, endangered, or both (17 species); 2) potential reservoir (21 species); and 3) potential spillover (two species). Cloacal swabs were tested by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR for influenza A virus matrix gene amplification. Forty-one serum samples were tested by nucleoprotein-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (NP-ELISA) for antibodies against influenza A virus nucleoprotein and by hemagglutination inhibition assay for detection of seropositivity against H5 and H7 AIV subtypes. No cloacal swabs tested RT-PCR positive for AIV, whereas two weak seropositive results were detected by NP-ELISA in a mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and in a yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis). The low or absent AIV circulation detected in Sardinia's wild birds during the study suggests a naïve status in these avian populations. These data provide new information on AIV circulation in Sardinia's wild birds that could be applied to implement conservation strategies for threatened species. PMID:23402132
Delogu, Mauro; Piredda, Isabella; Pintore, Antonio; Cabras, Pierangela; Cotti, Claudia; Ghetti, Giulia; Raffini, Elisabetta; De Marco, Maria A
In June 2009 we organized a botanical student excursion to the eastern part of Sardinia, Italy. On this occasion we were able to collect and identify over 80 species of microfungi growing on higher plants. The collecting sites were spread over a large area, among them were La Caletta, Capo Comino, Monte Albo, Cala Gonone, Monte Maccione, San Teodoro, Capo Testa. The collected microfungi were parasitic or saprophytic; Basidiomycotina (Uredinales), Ascomycotina and Deuteromycotina (Hyphomycetes, Coelomycetes) were predominant. Examples are Pezicula corticola (Jörg.) NANNF. (new for Sardinia), on Pyrus communis. Puccinia chamaecyparissi TROTT. (new for Sardinia), on Santolina insularis. Sphaceloma oleae CICC. and GRANITI (new for Sardinia) and Phlyctema vagabunda DESM. (new for Sardinia), on Olea europaea and Arbutus unedo. Puccinia pseudosphaeria MONT. (new for Sardinia), on Sonchus oleraceus. Discula umbrinella (BERK. and BR.) SUTTON (new for Sardinia)(D. quercina WEST. and BARK), on Quercus coccifera. Zaghouania phillyreae PAT. (new for Sardinia), on Phillyrea angustifolia. Phymatotrichum omnivorum (DUGGAR) HENNEBERT, new on Verbascum thapsus for Sardinia. Guignardia punctoidea (COOKE) SCHROTER (new for Sardinia), on Quercus ilex. Many of the collected species are rare or unknown for the area of investigation until now. All specimens are located in the Herbarium ESS, Mycotheca Parva collection G.B. Feige and N. Ale-Agha. PMID:21534478
Jensen, M; Nerat, N; Ale-Agha, N
Four new species of terrestrial isopods from Sardinia are described: Alpioniscus thanit sp. nov. (Trichoniscidae), Halophiloscia cristagalli sp. nov. (Halophilosciidae), Alloschizidium maymon sp. nov. and Alloschizidium magrinii sp. nov. (Armadillidiidae). Alpioniscus thanit and Alloschizidium magrinii were collected in endogean environments, Halophiloscia cristagalli on granitic beaches of small islands in the northern and western part of Sardinia, and Alloschizidium maymon from
STEFANO TAITI; ROBERTO ARGANO
Human fossils found in a Pre-Neolithic cave deposit (Corbeddu cave, Sardinia) represent the first human remains associated with an endemic impoverished island fauna. Radiocarbon dating by AMS in Utrecht provided the chronological framework of the cave sediments for better understanding of the time-related human activities. The aberrant morphology of the human fossils and the unique character of worked deer bones discovered, suggest the development of an endemic Pleistocene human culture, adapted to the restricted island conditions and the hunting of ochotonids and deer.
Hofmeijer, G. Klein; Sondaar, P. Y.; Alderliesten, C.; van der Borg, K.; de Jong, A. F. M.
The Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) is the largest radio telescope recently built in Europe - a 64m Radio Telescope designed to operate in a wavelength regime down to 1mm. The SRT is designed in a classical Gregorian configuration, allowing access to the primary mirror focus (F1), the Gregorian focus (F2) as well as a further translation to different F3 using a beam waveguide system and an automated change between different F3 receiver positions. The primary mirror M1, 64m in diameter, is composed by 1008 individual panels. The surface can be actively controlled. Its surface, as well as the one of the 8 m Gregorian subreflector, needed to be adjusted after panel mounting at the Sardinia site. The measurement technique used is photogrammetry. In case of the large scale M1 a dedicated combination of a large scale and a small scale approach was developed to achieve extremely high accuracy on the large scale dimension. The measurement/ alignment efforts were carried out in 2010 and 2011, with a final completion in spring 2012. The results obtained are presented and discussed. The overall alignment approach also included the absolute adjustments of M2 to M1 and the alignments of M3, M4 and M5. M3 is a rotating mirror guiding the RF beam to M4 or M5, depending on the operational scenario. These adjustments are based on Lasertracker measurements and have been carried out in an integrated approach.
Süss, Martin; Koch, Dietmar; Paluszek, Heiko
Background The aim of this study was to analyze and describe the epidemiological characteristics and trends of lung cancer in North Sardinia, Italy, in the period 19922010. Methods Data were obtained from the tumor registry of Sassari province which is a part of a wider registry web, coordinated today by the Italian Association for Tumor Registries. Results The overall number of lung cancer cases registered was 4,325. The male-to-female ratio was 4.6:1 and the mean age 68.1 years for males and 67 years for females. The standardized incidence rates were 73.1/100,000 and 13.5/100,000 and the standardized mortality rates 55.7/100,000 and 9.9/100,000 for males and females, respectively. An increasing trend in incidence of lung cancer in women was evidenced. Conversely, incidence was found to decrease in males. Relative survival at 5 years from diagnosis was low (8.8% for males and 14.9% for females). Furthermore, an increase in mortality rates was observed in both sexes in the period under investigation. Conclusions Our data show an increasing trend of lung cancer incidence in women in North Sardinia in the last decades. Conversely, a reduction of incidence rates was observed in males. Furthermore, a slightly increasing trend in mortality rates was observed in both sexes, suggesting the need to enhance smoking control strategies, consider adoption of effective surveillance policies, and improve diagnosis and treatment methods.
Nineteen ticks belonging to the species Dermacentor marginatus, Rhipicephalus bursa, and Haemaphysalis sulcata were collected from wild animals (wild boar, deer, and mouflon) in south-western Sardinia, Italy. Five D. marginatus ticks from wild boar were PCR-positive when analyzed using gltA-specific and ompA-specific primers, leading to the identification and first isolation in cell culture of Rickettsia slovaca, the causative agent of tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA), on the island of Sardinia. This study confirms the detection of a new tick-borne rickettsia that can be added to the others already known to be present in Sardinia (Rickettsia aeschlimannii, R. massiliae, and Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae). These data increase our knowledge of tick-borne rickettsioses in Sardinia and, more generally, in the Mediterranean basin. PMID:23140897
Masala, Giovanna; Chisu, Valentina; Satta, Giuseppe; Socolovschi, Christina; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe
Geminiviruses, like all viruses, rely on the host cell machinery to establish a successful infection, but the identity and function of these required host proteins remain largely unknown. Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV), a monopartite geminivirus, is one of the causal agents of the devastating Tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD). The transgenic 2IRGFP N. benthamiana plants, used in combination with Virus Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS), entail an important potential as a tool in reverse genetics studies to identify host factors involved in TYLCSV infection. Using these transgenic plants, we have made an accurate description of the evolution of TYLCSV replication in the host in both space and time. Moreover, we have determined that TYLCSV and Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) do not dramatically influence each other when co-infected in N. benthamiana, what makes the use of TRV-induced gene silencing in combination with TYLCSV for reverse genetic studies feasible. Finally, we have tested the effect of silencing candidate host genes on TYLCSV infection, identifying eighteen genes potentially involved in this process, fifteen of which had never been implicated in geminiviral infections before. Seven of the analyzed genes have a potential anti-viral effect, whereas the expression of the other eleven is required for a full infection. Interestingly, almost half of the genes altering TYLCSV infection play a role in postranslational modifications. Therefore, our results provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying geminivirus infections, and at the same time reveal the 2IRGFP/VIGS system as a powerful tool for functional reverse genetics studies.
Luna, Ana P.; Bejarano, Eduardo R.
This article deals with the results of a survey carried out in Sardinia on both active and abandoned tailings dams, and we also discuss the geological impact of tailings dams of two mines: the Masua mine, a large syngenetic Pb-Zn deposit located in Cambrian limestones, and the Montevecchio mine, a Pb-Zn vein deposit near a Hercynian granite intrusion. The characteristics
Felice Di Gregorio; Raniero Massoli-Novelli
Three techniques for the estimate of rain rate from infrared satellite images have been examined and modified to be used over the western Mediterranean Sea. An attempt to optimize these techniques has been made by comparing the remotely-sensed precipitation with in situ data, obtained from the rain gauge network over Sardinia, for three different seasons of 1988.The results obtained so
M. Marrocu; A. Pompei; G. Dalu; G. L. Liberti; A. Negri
The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894) was first discovered in the South of Sardinia in October 1994, in a tyre depot not far from Cagliari-Elmas airport. Insecticide treatment was thought to have successfully eradicated the mosquito, but in 1996 and 1997 new breeding sites were discovered, a few at some distance from the first. More recently two sites have been reported in the heart of the city of Cagliari. It is not known whether the mosquito has spread from the first breeding place discovered, where treatment may not have been definitive, or whether they have been newly introduced. The recent sighting of Ae. albopictus in Olbia in the Northeast of the island tends to suggest the latter. Cagliari and Olbia are actually Sardinia's two largest sea ports of entry. PMID:18416003
Climate variability and drought, typical of the Mediterranean climate, together with different anthropogenic disturbances (modifications of land use, deforestation, grazing, forest fires, etc.) makes the Mediterranean basin ecosystems extremely sensitive and vulnerable. In the last three decades, an increasing number of fires threatening the wildland urban interface (WUI) was observed. In Sardinia, this phenomenon is particularly evident in tourist and coastal areas where a large number of resorts is built within and surrounded by Mediterranean vegetation that is highly prone to events of wildfire. In these situations, the related risk of damage for villages, tourist resorts, other human activities and people is elevated especially in summer when the presence of human people is highest and meteorological conditions are extreme. In addition, fire can have significant effect on the hydrological response of the WUI causing the intensification of the erosive processes. Therefore, the development of planning policies is required in order to implement strategies to prevent and reduce wildfire and soil erosion risk in wildland urban interface areas. The main aims of this work are i) to assess presence and characteristics of wildland urban interface in a touristic areas of North Sardinia and ii) to evaluate fire danger and soil erosion risk in the studied area. The study was carried out in a coastal area located in North Sardinia, characterized by strong touristic development in the last thirty years. In that area, the characterization and mapping of the WUI were performed. In addition several simulation were carried out by the Farsite fire area simulator with the aim to study the spatial pattern of the fire danger factors in the vegetated areas closer to the WUI. Finally, maps of soil erosion were produced for the identification of the areas at high erosion risk in the WUI. This work is supported by MIIUR - Metodologie e indicatori per la valutazione del rischio di Incendio nelle aree di Interfaccia Urbano Rurale in ambiente mediterraneo. Legge Regionale 7 agosto 2007, n. 7.
Arca, B.; Pellizzaro, G.; Canu, A.; Pintus, G. V.; Ferrara, R.; Duce, P.
Zircon U Pb isotope dating of the Capo Spartivento Orthogneiss, proposed as a possible Precambrian basement of southern Sardinia, shows that this rock is Caledonian in age. Conventional multi-grain analyses yield an imprecise age of roughly 480 Ma, and ion-microprobe analyses of cores of single grains yield a consistent age of 449 Ma. Though some inherited grains of Proterozoic age are present in the zircon population, they are neither abundant nor consistent with Caledonian growth of new zircons within an older protolith. ?? 1989.
Ludwig, K. R.; Turi, B.
The Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) is a new 64-meter shaped antenna designed to carry out observations up to 100 GHz. This large instrument has been built in Sardinia, 35 km north of Cagliari, and is now facing the technical commissioning phase. This paper describes the architecture, the implementation solutions and the development status of NURAGHE, the SRT control software. Aim of the project was to produce a software which is reliable, easy to keep up to date and flexible against other telescopes. The most ambitious goal will be to install NURAGHE at all the three italian radio telescopes, allowing the astronomers to access these facilities through a common interface with very limited extra effort. We give a description of all the control software subsystems (servo systems, backends, receivers, etc.) focusing on the resulting design, which is based on the ACS (Alma Common Software) patterns and comes from linux-based, LGPL, Object-Oriented development technologies. We also illustrate how NURAGHE deals with higher level requirements, coming from the telescope management or from the system users.
Orlati, A.; Buttu, M.; Melis, A.; Migoni, C.; Poppi, S.; Righini, S.
Leishmaniasis is an endemic protozoan infection in Sardinia, one of the major islands of the Mediterranean Basin. We report two cases of endonasal primary Leishmaniasis, which is a very rare event in adult men who are immunocompetent, born in, and residents of Sardinia. The diagnosis was confirmed by the presence of intra and extracellular Leishmania amastigotes in the histological smear. Isoenzymatic characterization identified Leishmania infantum zymodeme MON-111 in both cases. Laboratory and instrumental investigations excluded visceral involvement. Treatment with meglumine antimoniate (Glucantim) intralesional administration, 1 ml weekly for 4-5 weeks, led to complete resolution. The unusual location is likely a reflection an uncommon site of inoculation of the protozoa, transmitted by flying vectors. The patients were a shepherd and a farmer, respectively, both professions at high risk of infection because of their habits of sleeping outdoors under trees or in country cottages during spring and summer and exposed to sand fly bites. Although mucosal involvement and infection by Leishmania infantum, a potential cause of visceral leishmaniasis, the Sardinian patients experienced a benign disease course considering muco-cutaneous forms described in the New World. Differential diagnosis and early detection are necessary in order to start effective treatment and prevent more serious complications. PMID:19723479
Pau, Monica; Atzori, Laura; Aste, Natalia; Aste, Nicola
We describe the design, construction, and characterization results of a compact L-band (1.3-1.8 GHz) Orthomode Transducer (OMT) for the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT), a 64 m diameter telescope which is being built in the Sardinia island, Italy. The OMT consists of three distinct mechanical parts connected through ultra low loss coaxial cables: a turnstile junction and two identical 180° hybrid power combiners. The turnstile junction is based on a circular waveguide input (diameter of 190 mm,) and on four WR650 rectangular waveguide cavities from which the RF signals are extracted using coaxial probes. The OMT was optimized using a commercial 3D electromagnetic simulator. The main mechanical part of the turnstile junction was machined out of an Aluminum block whose final external shape is a cylinder with diameter 450 mm and height 98 mm. From 1.3 to 1.8 GHz the measured reflection coefficient was less than -22 dB, the isolation between the outputs was less than -45 dB, and the cross polarization was less than -50 dB for both polarization channels.
Navarrini, Alessandro; Pisanu, Tonino
The monoterpenoid composition of Verbascum conocarpum and Scrophularia trifoliata, both endemic plants of Sardinia, was examined. The main chemotaxonomic markers of Scrophulariaceae, the iridoids aucubin, verbascoside and catalpol, were isolated. PMID:16644551
Ramunno, Alessia; Serrilli, Anna Maria; Piccioni, Francesco; Serafini, Mauro; Ballero, Mauro
We present the design of the passive feed system of the dual-band receiver for the prime focus of the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT), a new 64 m diameter radio telescope which is being built in Sardinia, Italy. The feed system operates simultaneously in P-band (305-410 MHz) and L-band (1300-1800 MHz). The room temperature illuminators are arranged in coaxial configuration with
G. Valente; T. Pisanu; P. Bolli; S. Mariotti; P. Marongiu; A. Navarrini; R. Nesti; A. Orfei; J. Roda
Conventional K-Ar dating was carried out on mineral separates, mostly plagioclases, from Middle Tertiary volcanics of Sardinia along with paleomagnetic studies. the close agreement of dates from the two methods establishes the rotation age of Sardinia relative to Europe within a rather short time span of 1.5 Ma between 20.5 and 19 Ma. From correlation of our results with the
R. Montigny; J. B. Edel; R. Thuizat
During 19461950, the Rockefeller Foundation conducted a large-scale experiment in Sardinia to test the feasibility of indigenous vector species eradication. The interruption of malaria transmission did not require vector eradication, but with a goal of developing a new strategy to fight malaria, the choice was made to wage a rapid attack with a powerful new chemical. Costing millions of dollars, 267 metric tons of DDT were spread over the island. Although malaria was eliminated, the main objective, complete eradication of the vector, was not achieved. Despite its being considered almost eradicated in the mid-1940s, malaria 60 years later is still a major public health problem throughout the world, and its eradication is back on the global health agenda.
This article deals with the results of a survey carried out in Sardinia on both active and abandoned tailings dams, and we also discuss the geological impact of tailings dams of two mines: the Masua mine, a large syngenetic Pb-Zn deposit located in Cambrian limestones, and the Montevecchio mine, a Pb-Zn vein deposit near a Hercynian granite intrusion. The characteristics and metal content of material in the dams were analyzed. A high contamination of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu) was found both in the soils and water of Rio Montevecchio, a stream draining the tailings dams and other mining operations in the area. The study indicates that a control plan to minimize heavy metal pollution must be drawn up for all mines of the area, whether active or abandoned.
di Gregorio, Felice; Massoli-Novelli, Raniero
Microwave holography is a well-established technique for mapping surface errors of large reflector antennas, particularly those designed to operate at high frequencies. We present here a holography system based on the interferometric method for mapping the primary reflector surface of the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT). SRT is a new 64-m-diameter antenna located in Sardinia, Italy, equipped with an active surface and designed to operate up to 115 GHz. The system consists mainly of two radio frequency low-noise coherent channels, designed to receive Ku-band digital TV signals from geostationary satellites. Two commercial prime focus low-noise block converters are installed on the radio telescope under test and on a small reference antenna, respectively. Then the signals are amplified, filtered and downconverted to baseband. An innovative digital back-end based on FPGA technology has been implemented to digitize two 5 MHz-band signals and calculate their cross-correlation in real-time. This is carried out by using a 16-bit resolution ADCs and a FPGA reaching very large amplitude dynamic range and reducing post-processing time. The final holography data analysis is performed by CLIC data reduction software developed within the Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM, Grenoble, France). The system was successfully tested during several holography measurement campaigns, recently performed at the Medicina 32-m radio telescope. Two 65-by-65 maps, using an on-the-fly raster scan with on-source phase calibration, were performed pointing the radio telescope at 38 degrees elevation towards EUTELSAT 7A satellite. The high SNR (greater than 60 dB) and the good phase stability led to get an accuracy on the surface error maps better than 150 ?m RMS.
Serra, G.; Bolli, P.; Busonera, G.; Pisanu, T.; Poppi, S.; Gaudiomonte, F.; Zacchiroli, G.; Roda, J.; Morsiani, M.; López-Pérez, J. A.
J.E. Bogner traveled to Sardinia to participate in the Fourth International Landfill Symposium (Sardinia '93) organized by CISA, the Environmental Sanitary Engineering Center of the University of Cagliari, under the auspices of ISWA, the International Sol...
J. E. Bogner
The Sardinia Channel dataset was collected as part of the European Geotraverse (EGT)a 4000 km seismic refraction line running from Northern Norway to the Sahara, designed to investigate the structure of the lithosphere beneath Europe. Wideangle seismic data recorded by ocean bottom seismometers deployed in the Sardinia Channel as part of the Southern Segment of the EGT, together with gravity
C. Peirce; P. J. Barton
The ancient coastal quarries of Mediterranean are increasingly considered geosites of multidisciplinary relevance. They are sites of historical-archaeological interest that show ancient techniques of stone extraction; they are significant for cultural heritage conservation and restoration, as sources of the stones used in ancient buildings and monuments; they are sites of geological relevance, as often retain important stratigraphic sections; they are also useful markers of secular changes in the sea level. A multisciplinary study is in progress on the ancient quarries of the Sinis region (western Sardinia island), integrating archaeological, geological, minero-petrographical data. In Sardinia, coastal quarries have been established from Punic and Roman times. Many of them exploited Quaternary sediments along the southern and western coasts of the island. They consist of middle-late Pleistocene marine conglomerates and carbonate sandstones, and of coastal (aeolian) carbonate sandstones. Sandstone blocks of different sizes have been widely used in ancient cities for buildings, defensive works, harbours, etc. Three main areas of stone extraction (San Giovanni di Sinis, Punta Maimoni, Is Arutas) have been so far recognized in the Sinis. GIS-supported mapping and documentation of the sites includes their geology and stratigraphy, the extension and layout of the quarries, and an evaluation of volumes of extracted rocks. Documented archaeological evidences include ancient extraction fronts, spoil heaps, working areas, working traces in the old fronts, transport routes of blocks, and traces of loading facilities. The study is aimed at reconstructing the relationships of the quarries with the urban areas of Sinis, as the ancient Punic-Roman city of Tharros. Consequently, a minero-petrographical characterization (optical microscopy, XRD) is performed on sandstones sampled in each quarry, and in historical buildings in Tharros and other centres of the region (Cabras, Oristano, Santa Giusta). They are prevailing fine-medium grained carbonate sandstones, and subordinate coarse sandstones and micro-conglomerates, variably cemented. In the studied areas, stratigraphic sequences grade from coarser facies of marine environment to fine-grained aeolian deposits, marked by cross-stratification. The Quaternary sedimentary sequence rests on Miocene limestones and clays, and on Plio-Pleistocene basalts. On optical microscopy, sandstones show grain-supported texture, with abundant carbonate bioclasts, intraclasts and algal nodules, with quartz, feldspars and fragments of granitoids, quartzites, volcanics. Grainsize in sandstone sequences progressively decreases towards the top, corresponding to an increase of fine bioclastic components. Terrigenous components change from the northernmost outcrops (Is Arutas quarries), where clasts of granitoid origin are dominant, to the southern outcrops (San Giovanni di Sinis quarries), which show a more marked compositional heterogeneity, with frequent volcanic feldspars and lithoclasts. The calcitic cement also shows distinct variations, both along the stratigraphic sequence and at areal scale, between the sparitic type and the micro/cryptocrystalline type. First evidences on samples from Tharros city walls indicate that sandstone blocks may come, almost in part, from the quarries of San Giovanni di Sinis that, consequently, could have started to work during the Punic age. Other evidences in the area, however, indicate that quarrying activities in Sinis continued well over the Ancient times, presumably including all the Middle Ages.
Grillo, Silvana Maria; Del Vais, Carla; Naitza, Stefano
Males were consistently found to be more likely than females to report left-hand preference in single-hand tasks, but the literature reports negative results too. Using data from a large sample in Sardinia, we aimed at testing the links of left-handedness with sex, age, residence, and seasonality of birth. A total of 4239 participants (males = 1589; females = 2650) were
Antonio Preti; Davide Sisti; Marco B. Rocchi; Monica Busca; Marcello Vellante; Maria Valeria Camboni; Donatella Rita Petretto; Carmelo Masala
Sprays of commercial insecticidal preparations of the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (Btk), usually a mixture of cells, spores and parasporal crystals, have been used for the last 10 yr in Sardinia (Italy) to protect cork oak forests against the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.). Until now, the protective antilepidopteran efficacies of each of the various spray treatments rather than
C. Vettori; D. Paffetti; D. Saxena; G. Stotzky; R. Giannini
In two recent papers by De Vivo and co-workers, multielement geochemical maps of the island of Sardinia have been compiled using 16,890 stream sediment samples collected from 1972 to 1975 by the Ente Minerario Sardo (EMS). For the compilation of the geochemical maps reported here, these EMS samples have been integrated with an additional 9260 stream sediment samples from 7
B. De Vivo; M. Boni; S. Costabile
The hydrogeological, conceptual, and mathematical models have been defined to study saltwater intrusion phenomena in the coastal aquifer system of the alluvial plai n of Capoterra (southern Sardinia, Italy). Pumping tests and artificial recharge experi ments are carried out in the plain so as to verify the efficiency of a hydrodynamic barrier aimed at contr olling saltwater encroachment and its
Giovanni Barrocu; M. Grazia Sciabica; Gabriele Uras; Andrea Cortis; Elisabetta Vernier
The geodynamic evolution of the Western Mediterranean Basin, in spite of many studies, is still uncertain. There is some consensus for interpreting this basin as a kind of small oceanic marginal basin. Its opening has generally been related to a subduction process which was active during the Oligocene-Miocene somewhere east of Sardinia-Corsica1-7. As the margins of the basin are deeply buried below Miocene-to-present sediments, direct lithological and stratigraphical data which could explain the events responsible for its formation are rare8-10 or missing altogether. To obtain such data, detailed field studies have been undertaken in Sardinia (Fig. 1), and the first results are presented here. This approach is justified by the fact that in that island, Oligocene and Miocene sediments were deposited in a rift (fossa tettonica sarda of Verdabasso11), which is the easternmost arm of the complex rift system that affected the European plate during Oligocene and Miocene times. One of these arms evolved towards a small oceanic basin-the Western Mediterranean or Algero-Provençal Basin-while others such as the Gulf of Valencia and the Sardinia rift aborted and remained at the rift stage. Its exceptional exposures make it possible to examine the Sardinia rift to clarify the sequence of events which created it, and to establish a sedimentological model which we believe is directly applicable to the Western Mediterranean Basin.
A framework of numerical models has been developed and applied to the coastal lagoon of Cabras in Sardinia, Italy. These models consist of a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model, a radiational transfer module of heat at the water surface and a transport diffusion model.In the first part of the research the hydrodynamic circulation of the lagoon has been simulated taking in account
Christian Ferrarin; Georg Umgiesser
BACKGROUND: Germline mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes have been demonstrated to increase the risk of developing breast cancer. Conversely, the impact of BRCA mutations on prognosis and survival of breast cancer patients is still debated. In this study, we investigated the role of such mutations on breast cancer-specific survival among patients from North Sardinia. METHODS: Among incident cases during
Mario Budroni; Rosaria Cesaraccio; Vincenzo Coviello; Ornelia Sechi; Daniela Pirino; Antonio Cossu; Francesco Tanda; Marina Pisano; Grazia Palomba; Giuseppe Palmieri
Micrometeorological measurements of evapotranspiration (ET) can be difficult to interpret and use for validating model calculations in the presence of land cover heterogeneity. Land surface fluxes, soil moisture ($\\\\theta$), and surface temperatures (Ts) data were collected by an eddy correlation-based tower located at the Orroli (Sardinia) experimental field (covered by woody vegetation, grass, and bare soil) from April 2003 to
Matteo Detto; Nicola Montaldo; John D. Albertson; Marco Mancini; Gaby Katul
Combined experiments on the aerosol properties were carried out with a solar aureolemeter, a Sun photometer, three aerosol cascade impactors, and the satellite advanced very high resolution radiometer data, in Cagliari and Carloforte, southern Sardinia, in May and June 1994. The experimental data of the aureolemeter, which operates in the wavelength range from the UV to the near-IR, are analyzed
Giuseppe Dalu; Ruizhong Rao; Alberto Pompei; Paolo Boi; Glauco Tonna; Bruno Olivieri
In the last 30 years the origin of the Northern Apennines curvature and the amount and timing of CCW rotation of the Corsica-Sardinia block have been the focus of a large number of paleomagnetic investigations. In the Northern Apennines most of the paleomagnetic data were used to reconstruct the curved shape of the chain and most of the scientific debate was focused on the primary or secondary origin of the arc. Only in few cases, the CCW rotations observed in the northern part of the arc have been explained hypothesizing that the Northern Apennines belt was also involved in the CCW rotation of the Corsica-Sardinia block. This is mostly due to the fact that most of the paleomagnetic data from the Northern Apennines come from the external portion of the chain, which was deformed after the ending of the Corsica-Sardinia CCW rotations and were not involved in this process. Conversely, only few data were collected in the internal sector of the chain, which experienced and recorded a continuous deformation history since the beginning of convergence in the Late Cretaceous, and which were already incorporated in the orogenic wedge during the Corsica-Sardinia rotation. In order to provide new data for the internal sector of the belt and to verify a possible influence of the Corsica-Sardinia rotation in the tectonic evolution of Northern Apennines, an extensive paleomagnetic sampling was carried out in the Tuscan Nappe succession. The Paleomagnetic results show that the internal sector of the Northern Apennines underwent huge counterclockwise (CCW) rotations. A different amount of CCW rotation was observed in the southern and northern arms of the arc, suggesting that a simple oroclinal bending model is not appropriate to explain the evolution of this sector of the arc, as was the case for the external part of the arc. On the basis of the observed paleomagnetic pattern, we propose a new tectonic model in which the Tuscan Nappe units in the southern area, were first rotated CCW during the Lower Miocene Corsica-Sardinia drifting and were later involved in the main phases of emplacement and translation of the Tuscan Nappe toward the outermost sector (Umbria domain) that concurred to the final curved shape of the Northern Apennines chain. Data from this study represent new evidences of the influence of the Corsica-Sardinia CCW rotation in the Apennines orogenic wedge deformation, in the general framework of the geodynamic evolution of the central Mediterranean subduction system.
Caricchi, Chiara; Cifelli, Francesca; Mattei, Massimo; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Sani, Federico; Speranza, Fabio
Sardinia is a major Island in the Mediterranean with a high incidence of multiple sclerosis, a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. Disease susceptibility in Sardinian population has been associated with five alleles of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DRB1 gene. We performed 120 ns of molecular dynamics simulation on one predisposing and one protective alleles, unbound and in complex with the two relevant peptides: Myelin Basic Protein and Epstein Barr Virus derived peptide. In particular we focused on the MHC peptide binding groove dynamics. The predisposing allele was found to form a stable complex with both the peptides, while the protective allele displayed stability only when bound with myelin peptide. The local flexibility of the MHC was probed dividing the binding groove into four compartments covering the well known peptide anchoring pockets. The predisposing allele in the first half cleft exhibits a narrower and more rigid groove conformation in the presence of myelin peptide. The protective allele shows a similar behavior, while in the second half cleft it displays a narrower and more flexible groove conformation in the presence of viral peptide. We further characterized these dynamical differences by evaluating H-bonds, hydrophobic and stacking interaction networks, finding striking similarities with super-type patterns emerging in other autoimmune diseases. The protective allele shows a defined preferential binding to myelin peptide, as confirmed by binding free energy calculations. All together, we believe the presented molecular analysis could help to design experimental assays, supports the molecular mimicry hypothesis and suggests that propensity to multiple sclerosis in Sardinia could be partly linked to distinct peptide-MHC interaction and binding characteristics of the antigen presentation mechanism. PMID:23555757
Kumar, Amit; Cocco, Eleonora; Atzori, Luigi; Marrosu, Maria Giovanna; Pieroni, Enrico
Several precious metal-bearing, low sulfidation epithermal veins occur in the rolling topography of the Osilo area, northern\\u000a Sardinia. The Sa Pala de Sa Fae and the Sa Pedra Bianca veins were subject to intense diamond drilling exploration in the\\u000a mid 1990?s. The veins extend for 13 km, dip steeply, and range from 1 to 10?m in width. High K-calc-alkaline volcanic
R. Simeone; S. F. Simmons
The distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the sediments of Porto Torres Harbor (north Sardinia, Italy) was investigated by gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (GCMS). PAHs concentrations in the sediment (?PAHs) ranged from 0.07 to 1.21 ?g g?1, indicating low to moderate PAHs pollution. Principal component analysis (PCA), the comparative evaluation of PAHs low\\/high molecular weight and isomeric ratios, suggests that
Giuseppe De Luca; Antonio Furesi; Riccardo Leardi; Giovanni Micera; Angelo Panzanelli; Paola Costantina Piu; Gavino Sanna
The geodynamic evolution of the Western Mediterranean Basin, in spite of many studies, is still uncertain. There is some consensus for interpreting this basin as a kind of small oceanic marginal basin. Its opening has generally been related to a subduction process which was active during the Oligocene-Miocene somewhere east of Sardinia-Corsica1-7. As the margins of the basin are deeply
A. Cherchi; L. Montadert
Potential founder population effects on personality trait means and variances were examined in a large, genetically homogeneous\\u000a sample (N = 5,669) from the Ogliastra, an isolated region within Sardinia, Italy. The Italian version of the Revised NEO Personality\\u000a Inventory showed good psychometric properties: Internal consistency reliabilities ranged from 0.80 to 0.87; the factor structure\\u000a replicated the American normative structure; and associations with
Paul T. Costa Jr; Antonio Terracciano; Manuela Uda; Loredana Vacca; Cinzia Mameli; Giuseppe Pilia; Alan B. Zonderman; Edward Lakatta; David Schlessinger; Robert R. McCrae
A new species of Infundibulicybe (viz. I. mediterranea sp. nov.) is described from Sardinia based both on morphological and molecular ITS data. The species, a close ally of I. gibba, differs from the latter in the darker tinges of the basidiomata, the stipe, which is nearly concolorous with the pileus, and smaller basidiospores. Drawings of the main micro-morphological features as well as a color photograph of fresh basidiomata in situ are provided. PMID:20943527
Vizzini, Alfredo; Contu, Marco; Musumeci, Enzo; Ercole, Enrico
The Upper Pleistocene succession of coastal deposits outcropping at San Giovanni di Sinis (west Sardinia) has been studied since the 1960s. However, the absence of consistent radiometric ages has allowed the production of competing stratigraphic subdivisions of these deposits with different Isotopic Stage (OIS\\/MIS) attributions. The succession is composed of sandy to gravelly shallow-marine, coastal aeolian and alluvial fan\\/plain deposits.
Stefano Andreucci; Vincenzo Pascucci; Andrew S. Murray; Lars B. Clemmensen
The shallow-marine to coastal deposits of Alghero have been dated using the Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) method, and studied to define the palaeoenvironmental evolution of coastal areas in northwest Sardinia. Dating, coupled with sedimentological and stratigraphical analyses, allowed the subdivision of the succession in four unconformity-bounded units (U2, U3a, U3b, U4). Unit U2 of penultimate glacial stage (MIS 6; ca.
Stefano Andreucci; Lars B. Clemmensen; Andrew S. Murray; Vincenzo Pascucci
For 60 years, the islands of the Mediterranean basin were considered to be Trichinella-free. In April 2005, an outbreak of human trichinellosis due to the consumption of infected pork involved 11 persons in the villages of Orgosolo and Lanusei (Nuoro province) on the island of Sardinia (Italy). We conducted an investigation to identify free-range and backyard pigs and other humans with Trichinella infection in the area of the 2005 outbreak. We also tested wild animals from various parts of Sardinia. In December 2005, eight persons were found to have been infected, and in May 2007 there was a single case of infection. The sources of all infections were domestic pigs. Artificial digestion of muscle samples from 681 pigs (325 free-range and 356 backyard pigs) revealed Trichinella sp. larvae in four sows (1.2%). All larvae, including those from the consumed pork products, were identified as Trichinella britovi. All infected pigs originated from the Orgosolo municipality. None of the 6188 wild boars (Sus scrofa) or 13 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) examined were positive for Trichinella sp., suggesting that this parasite is restricted to free-range pigs. The origin of infected animals on Sardinia remains to be determined, although it could be related to the presence of T. britovi-infected animals on the island of Corsica (France). PMID:19041178
Pozio, Edoardo; Cossu, Pasquale; Marucci, Gianluca; Amati, Marco; Ludovisi, Alessandra; Morales, Maria Angeles Gomez; La Rosa, Giuseppe; Firinu, Tonino
An elongated virus was isolated from artichoke crops in Liguria, and a 700-bp fragment was amplified by RT-PCR using oligonucleotides to detect members of the family Potyviridae. Comparison of fragment sequences showed 98% identity at the nucleotide level with the ranunculus isolate of the macluravirus Ranunculus latent virus (RaLV). RaLV was then detected by DAS-ELISA in symptomatic and asymptomatic artichoke plants from Liguria, Sardinia and Latium. The sequence of a 5.5-kb region was assembled from a cDNA library, and a 500-bp NIa fragment showed 80% identity to Artichoke latent virus. PMID:21340739
Ciuffo, M; Testa, M; Lenzi, R; Turina, M
Needles from a series of wild yews (Taxus baccata L.) from Sardinia were investigated for their contents of 10-deacetyl baccatin III (DAB-III, 1), paclitaxel (Taxol) (2) and taxine (3). Despite a common geographical origin, ample variation of the taxoid profile was discovered, and several samples were surprisingly devoid of all terpenoid markers above. This finding is unprecedented within the European yew, while the general lack of taxine might rationalize the observation that most plants investigated are actively and impunently browsed by goats. PMID:12628392
Ballero, M; Loi, M C; van Rozendaal, E L M; van Beek, T A; van de Haar, Cees; Poli, F; Appendino, G
The abandoned Pb-As Baccu Locci mine represents the first and only case of mine site remediation in Sardinia, Italy. Arsenic is the most relevant environmental concern in the Baccu Locci stream watershed, with concentrations in surface waters up to and sometimes over 1 mg/L. The main remediation action consisted in creation of a "storage site", for the collection of contaminated materials from different waste-rock dumps and most of tailings piles occurring along the Baccu Locci stream. This paper reports preliminary results on the level of contamination in the Baccu Locci stream after the completion of remediation measures. Post-remediation stream water chemistry has not substantially changed compared to the pre-remediation situation. In particular, dissolved As maintains an increasing trend along the Baccu Locci stream, with a concentration of about 400 ?g/L measured at a distance of 7 km from the storage site. Future monitoring will provide fundamental information on the effectiveness of remediation actions conducted and their applicability to other mine sites in Sardinia. At the stage of mine site characterisation of future remediation plans, it is recommended to pay more attention to the understanding of mineralogical and geochemical processes responsible for pollution. Moreover, mixing of materials with different composition and reactivity in a storage site should require careful consideration and long-term leaching tests. PMID:23666684
Ardau, Carla; Podda, Francesca; Da Pelo, Stefania; Frau, Franco
The aim of this work is to explore the pattern of craniofacial morphometric variation and the relationships among five prehistoric Sardinian groups dated from Late Neolithic to the Nuragic Period (Middle and Late Bronze Age), in order to formulate hypotheses on the peopling history of Sardinia. Biological relationships with coeval populations of central peninsular Italy were also analysed to detect influences from and towards extra-Sardinian sources. Furthermore, comparison with samples of contemporary populations from Sardinia and from continental Italy provided an indication of the trend leading to the final part of the peopling history. Finally, Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic samples were included in the analyses to compare the prehistoric Sardinians with some of their potential continental ancestors. The analysis is based on multivariate techniques including Mahalanobis D(2) distance, non-parametric multidimensional scaling (MDS) and principal component analysis (PCA). The results showed the tendency to progressive differentiation between Sardinian groups and peninsular Italian groups, with the possible exception of a discontinuity showed by the Bonnànaro (Early Bronze Age) Sardinian sample. Several aspects of the morphological results were found to agree with the current genetic evidence available for the present-day Sardinian population and a Nuragic sample: (1) biological divergence between the Sardinian and peninsular Italian populations; (2) similarity/continuity among Neolithic, Bronze Age and recent Sardinians; (3) biological separation between the Nuragic and Etruscan populations; (4) contribution of a Palaeo-Mesolithic gene pool to the genetic structure of current Sardinians. PMID:20979998
D'Amore, G; Di Marco, S; Floris, G; Pacciani, E; Sanna, E
This work assesses the environmental impact from chemical emissions due to military tests and routine activities in the area occupied by the Italian Inter-force Test Range (PISQ), located at Salto di Quirra, Sardinia, Italy. After reviewing the military activities carried out at PISQ, such as rocket launching, blasting and armament destruction, projectile and mortar fire impact, the associated pollution is evaluated. Chemical analyses were performed by means of Scanning Electronic Microscopy and Energy Dispersion Spectrometry on biotic and abiotic matrices. Residues of Rb, Tl, W, Ti and Al were found in matrices collected in the PISQ areas and environs. A review of experimental data on air, water, soil, milk, forage and animal tissues obtained by various Public Agencies of Sardinia proved that toxic element residues often exceeded the legal limits. PM10 and PM2.5 air concentrations also exceeded the legal limits after military blasting. Cd and Pb contents in the liver and kidneys of sheep living in farms at PISQ and in control farms that were located more than 20 km away from PISQ were higher than the legal limits. This work was performed to investigate concentration of xenobiotics in ecosystems emitted from PISQ activities. This assessment could be useful to focus future epidemiological studies carried out in PISQ and its neighbouring areas. PMID:23603867
Cristaldi, Mauro; Foschi, Cristiano; Szpunar, Germana; Brini, Carlo; Marinelli, Fiorenzo; Triolo, Lucio
The pre-historic 'altar' of Monte d'Accoddi - near Sassari, Sardinia - is a unique monument in the whole Mediterranean area. It is indeed a huge 'pyramid' constructed out of cyclopean masonry, but it exhibits a monumental access ramp similar to the Mesopotamian Ziggurats. The monument is extremely ancient since its first phases of construction date back to 3200 BC; it is usually interpreted as a sacred center perhaps devoted to the 'Mother Earth'. Although pretty little is known about pre-nuragic religion, astronomical alignments have been documented in contemporary sites in Sardinia. Therefore, with the aim of contributing to the interpretation of such a unique construction, we have carried out a new complete archaeoastronomical survey of this monument and its annexes, which is presented here. It turns out that, the presence of astronomical references at the site becomes apparent if the alignments defined by the menhirs located in the fields nearby are analyzed. Indeed, there exists convincing evidence that, from the summit of the platform, lines of sight at the eastern horizon guided by a white limestone menhir and by a reddish stone menhir located at some two hundreds meters from the monument framed the rising of the Sun at winter solstice, pointing to the rising of Sirius and to the southern extreme declination of Venus respectively, while the same menhirs were likely used as backsights for the standstills of the Moon as observed from the eastern corners of the monument.
Pili, P.; Realini, E.; Sampietro, D.; Zedda, M. P.; Franzoni, E.; Magli, G.
The Sardinians are an ethnically homogeneous population, having a genetic structure quite different from that of all other Italian and European populations. All epidemiological studies carried out in Sardinia since 1975 indicate that this Mediterranean island shows twice the prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) compared to continental Italy, but the size of the Sardinian communities so far surveyed has been
G. Rosati; I. Aiello; M. I. Pirastru; L. Mannu; G Sanna; G. F. Sau; S. Sotgiu
This study assessed the distribution and availability of plant uptake of Zn, Pb and Cd present in an abandoned mine at Ingurtosu, Sardinia (Italy). Geological matrix samples (sediments, tailings and soil from a nearby pasture site) and samples of the predominant plant species growing on sediments and tailings were collected. Mean values of total Zn, Pb and Cd were respectively
M. Barbafieri; C. Dadea; E. Tassi; F. Bretzel; L. Fanfani
The problem of the hydraulic safety of existing dams is becoming crucial due to the recent increase of floods. In Sardinia dams were built for both electric production and water supply for irrigation and civil uses during the 1920-1960 period. Recent floods showed a significant increase in magnitude and frequency, supporting the hypothesis of a hydrologic climate change. Are the existing dams still safe? For answering the question 1) a method for estimating the flood hydrograph with return period of 2000 years also accounting for possible climate change is developed, 2) an hydrologic model is implemented, and 3) the hydraulic safety of existing dams is tested. The case study is the Flumendosa river basin (area of about 1300 km2) located in central-eastern Sardinia (Italy), whose reservoir system (3 dams) is the main water supply of southern Sardinia, including its largest city, Cagliari. The smallest dam is located in the upper part of the basin with a drainage area of about 50 km2. At this dam, during the December 2004 flood an extremely high peak discharge of around 2000 m3/s was observed (total daily rain was of 600 mm). In the basin the soils are generally of modest thickness, the vegetation throughout the basin has been in part altered by human activities, with many areas (before covered by scrubs) converted to pasture. Urbanized areas are a minor component. Rainfall and discharge data of historical floods (from 1940) were acquired so that a fully evaluation of the hydrologic model has been performed. The distributed hydrologic model is an event model (FEST) which assesses runoff through a simplified approach based on Soil Conservation Service equations and runoff propagation through the Muskingum-Cunge approach. The FEST model well simulates historical and recent floods. The results demonstrated that the dams are not safe for the estimated flood with return period of 2000 year, but also demonstrated the extreme uncertainty in the estimate of floods with extremely high return period. The proposed method is able to include this uncertainty.
Maccioni, G.; Montaldo, N.; Saba, A.
To evaluate the palaeo-environmental parameters of a portion of the SardiniaCorsica microplate during the Messinian drop in sea level, we examined the chemistry and mineralogy of upper Tortonianlower Messinian (late Miocene) clayey continental deposits from NW Sardinia. Differences exist between the uppermost part of the succession, which is devoid of carbonate phases, and the lower part, reflecting changes in provenance
Giovanni Mongelli; Paola Mameli; Giacomo Oggiano; Rosa Sinisi
To evaluate the palaeo-environmental parameters of a portion of the SardiniaCorsica microplate during the Messinian drop in sea level, we examined the chemistry and mineralogy of upper Tortonianlower Messinian (late Miocene) clayey continental deposits from NW Sardinia. Differences exist between the uppermost part of the succession, which is devoid of carbonate phases, and the lower part, reflecting changes in provenance
Giovanni Mongelli; Paola Mameli; Giacomo Oggiano; Rosa Sinisi
Background Three species of the genus Cercopithifilaria have been morphologically and molecularly characterized in dog populations in southern Europe: Cercopithifilaria grassii (Noè, 1907), Cercopithifilaria sp. sensu Otranto et al., 2011 (reported as Cercopithifilaria sp. I), and Cercopithifilaria sp. II sensu Otranto et al., 2012. The adults of Cercopithifilaria sp. I have remained unknown until the present study. Methods The material originated from a dog from Sardinia (Italy) diagnosed with dermal microfilariae of Cercopithifilaria sp. I. The holotype and three paratypes of Cercopithifilaria bainae Almeida & Vicente, 1984, described from dogs in Brazil, were studied as comparative material. A cox1 (~689 bp) and 12S (~330 bp) gene fragments were amplified and phylogenetic analysis carried out. Results The highest numbers of adult nematodes (82%) were collected in the sediment of the subcutaneous tissues of the trunk (n = 37) and forelimbs (n = 36). The morphology of the adult nematodes and microfilariae collected from the dog in Sardinia corresponded to those of C. bainae. All cox1 and 12S gene sequences showed a high homology (99-100%) with sequences from microfilariae of Cercopithifilaria sp. I. Conclusions The morphological and molecular identity of the microfilariae of C. bainae overlap those described previously as Cercopithifilaria sp. sensu Otranto et al., 2011 (=Cercopithifilaria sp. I). Therefore, the present study reports the occurrence of C. bainae in Europe, for the first time after its description and the single record in Brazil. C. bainae appears to be highly diffused in dog populations in southern Europe. The phylogenetic analyses based on cox1 and 12S do not reveal the three species of Cercopithifilaria parasitizing dogs as a monophyletic group, which suggests that they have derived independently by host switching.
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) in cattle was found in 246 out of all 377 municipalities in Sardinia, Italy. Out of 32,685 bovines slaughtered in Sardinia in 2009, 1,360 were found to be positive for CE with a registered average prevalence of 4.2%. Of these animals, 896 (66%) had lived on the same farm from birth to slaughter, thus linking the infection to the farm with certainty, while 413 (30%) had lived on two different farms (one transfer) and 51 (4%) on three (two transfers). As it was not possible to assess in which farm the animals acquired the infection, all farms having kept infected cattle were considered as suspected sources of CE infection. Based on this classification, 534 farms were listed as definitely infected with a further 495 suspected to also be infected. Scan statistics was used with the Bernoulli model to detect and evaluate clusters of infected farms and also clusters of "non-cases". For the spatial analysis, 1,029 farms (534 + 495) were considered as positive with the number of non-infected farms from which negative results were available (8,457) as controls. A most likely cluster was detected at latitude 39.47861 N and longitude 8.58216 E in a centroid of 97.92 km radius and a secondary cluster was detected at latitude 40.58890 N and longitude 8.98400 E in a centroid of 15.44 km radius. To address the issue of sensitivity and consistency of the results, we ran multiple scans with various max-sizes as this allowed us to achieve more valid, consistent results and to highlight the core clusters. PMID:22639130
Brundu, Diego; Aloi, Daniela; Rolesu, Sandro; Piseddu, Toni; Masala, Giovanna
Several studies have indicated that multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated and linked to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC)/human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region of chromosome 6p21.3, but the exact location and nature of the primarily associated locus within the HLA complex is still controversial and largely presumptive. By linkage disequilibrium mapping, we have systematically investigated this chromosome region in the founder population of Sardinia to determine the relative associations of the various loci with MS. An overall 11.4 Mb region, which encompasses the whole HLA complex, was scanned with 19 microsatellite markers and with single nucleotide polymorphisms within 12 functional candidate genes and assessed for MS association using the extended transmission disequilibrium test (ETDT). A peak of association represented by the three adjacent DRB1, -DQA1 and -DQB1 loci was detected in the class II region. Two additional less significant areas of association were detected, respectively, in the centromeric side of the class II region at the DPB1 locus and, telomeric of the classically defined class I loci, at the D6S1683 microsatellite. Conditional ETDT analysis indicated that these regions of association could be independent of each other. Within the main peak of association, DRB1 and DQB1 contribute to the disease association independently of each other whereas DQA1 had no detectable primary genetic effects. We evaluated the haplotype distribution at the region showing the strongest association and found five DQB1-DRB1 haplotypes positively associated with MS in Sardinia. These consistently included all the haplotypes previously found associated with MS in the various human populations, thus supporting a primary effect of the products of these loci in MS. Overall these results are consistent with a multilocus model of the MHC encoded susceptibility to MS. PMID:11741834
Marrosu, M G; Murru, R; Murru, M R; Costa, G; Zavattari, P; Whalen, M; Cocco, E; Mancosu, C; Schirru, L; Solla, E; Fadda, E; Melis, C; Porru, I; Rolesu, M; Cucca, F
The assembly of the Corsica-Sardinia Batholith (C-SB) coincides with final shaping of the Variscan belt and represents a key structure to unravel the feedbacks between partial melting, rheology and the evolution of collisional orogens. This paper presents a model for the genesis of the Arzachena pluton (AZN), one of the major calc-alkaline massifs of the C-SB, based on U-Pb zircon dating, thermobarometry and structural analysis. Major and trace element compositions indicate that AZN has hybrid characteristics between that of typical S- and I-type granites, that could be explained in terms of incremental melting of a heterogeneous crustal source made of metatexites and Ordovician calc-alkaline granitoids. Growth of the pluton started around 320-315 Ma with the emplacement at middle crustal level (0.37-0.4 GPa) of granodioritic melts within narrow, conjugate, NW-SE sinistral and E-W dextral shear zones. The main growth stage (311 + 6/- 4 Ma) is marked by emplacement of large volumes of monzogranitic melts that induced a local decrease of the crustal strength expressed by horizontal channel flow driven by the gravity. Finally (307.6 ± 3.5 Ma), leucogranites emplaced within radial and peripheral dilatant fractures developed during the cooling of the main body. The transition from magmatic to sub-magmatic and HT-solid state fabric observed throughout AZN indicates that deformation plays a non-trivial role during the growth of the magmatic system. Restoring the position of the Corsica-Sardinia block to early Permian coordinates allow to recast the birth of the C-SB in a consistent geodynamic framework that conciliates the development of conjugates strike-slip structures, the oroclinal bending of the chain and the thermal relaxation. This study indicates that the C-SB had an active role during post-orogenic extension rather than being just a consequence of it.
Casini, Leonardo; Cuccuru, Stefano; Maino, Matteo; Oggiano, Giacomo; Tiepolo, Massimo
Geochemical fingerprinting of obsidian sources was first applied in the Mediterranean region nearly four decades ago. Since then, a number of analytical methods (e.g. INAA, XRF, SEM\\/Microprobe, ICP-MS) have proven successful in distinguishing the Mediterranean island sources of Giali, Lipari, Melos, Palmarola, Pantelleria, and Sardinia. Moreover, recent geoarchaeological surveys of the central Mediterranean sources have resulted in the more precise
Robert H. Tykot
The present study evaluated the molecular detection and identification of Rickettsia species in 83 ticks collected in Sardinia, Italy. Fifteen ticks were PCR-positive using gltA-specific and ompA-specific primers, leading to the identification of Rickettsia aeschlimannii in Hyalomma marginatum marginatum, R. massiliae in Rhipicephalus turanicus and in Rhipicephalus sanguineus, and a new rickettsia, previously referred to as PoTiRb169 in Portugal, in four Rhipicephalus turanicus. This new species was further characterized by amplification and sequencing of three additional genes (ompB, sca4 and rrs). Using the current criteria to name a rickettsia, this uncultivated rickettsia can be given a Candidatus status, and we propose to call it 'Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae'. The detection of three tick-borne rickettsiae in Sardinia raises the possibility that many cases of spotted fever considered by clinicians and health authorities as Mediterranean spotted fever due to R. conorii could, in fact, be due to other rickettsiae, including those found in this study. Analysing skin biopsies of inoculation eschars in patients with spotted fever would be, together with continuing entomological surveys, the best way to increase our knowledge of tick-borne rickettsioses in Sardinia and more generally in the Mediterranean basin. PMID:19040474
Mura, A; Masala, G; Tola, S; Satta, G; Fois, F; Piras, P; Rolain, J-M; Raoult, D; Parola, P
The problem of the hydraulic safety of existing dams is becoming crucial due to the recent increase of floods. In Sardinia dams were built for both electric production and water supply for irrigation and civil uses during the 1920-1960 period. Recent floods showed a significant increase in magnitude and frequency, supporting the hypothesis of a hydrologic climate change. Are the existing dams still safe? For answering the question 1) an hydrologic model is implemented and widely tested with hystorical floods, 2) a method for estimating the flood hydrograph with return period of 1000 years and 3) the hydraulic safety of existing dams is tested. The case study is the Rio Mogoro river basin (area of about 255 km2) located in central-western Sardinia (Italy). The gravity dam was built in 1934 with a volume of 11.31 million of cubic meter. In the first part of this work the rainfall and discharge data of historical floods were acquired to performe a fully evaluation of the hydrologic model. The distributed hydrologic model is an event model (FEST) which assesses runoff through a simplified approach based on Soil Conservation Service equations and runoff propagation through the Muskingum-Cunge approach. In the second part of this work the design flood of return period of 1000 years is estimated using a synthetic design hyetograph and the FEST. For estimating and checking hydrograph characteristic statistics on observed flood hydrographs (i.e., local statistics) were evaluated: the peak flow, the time and duration of the peak and the volume of the flood. Local statistics are further compared with regionalized statistical methods for flood predictions. In this way synthetic hyetograph and hydrograph are estimated for the design flood of return period of 1000 years. The results show that the flood increases with the position of the peak of the hydrograph due to the soil saturation; the time peaks of the hydrograph and of the flood hydrograph are different: it depends on the propagation in the channel and on the soil permeability. In the last part of the work we use the hydrograph flood of the project calibrated to verify the safety of the dam for a return period of 1000 years. From these analysis the dam of Mogoro will be overflowed by a rain with a return period of 30 years.
Cortis, C.; Montaldo, N.; Saba, A.; Albertson, J. D.
In 2011, from 26 September to 16 October, a small outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) disease occurred on the island of Sardinia (Italy). According to the national case definition, six cases with acute neurological disease were confirmed in hospitalized patients, and four of them died; one of these was only 34 years old. In two case, WNV RNA was detected in urine, suggesting renal involvement. Sequence analysis showed lineage 1 and 2 circulation. PMID:23020657
Magurano, F; Remoli, M E; Baggieri, M; Fortuna, C; Marchi, A; Fiorentini, C; Bucci, P; Benedetti, E; Ciufolini, M G; Rizzo, C; Piga, S; Salcuni, P; Rezza, G; Nicoletti, L
Essential oil (EO) from aerial parts of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh., growing wild in different localities of Sardinia (Italy), was extracted by steam distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) FID and GC-ion trap mass spectrometry (ITMS). The yields of EO (v/dry wt) ranged between 0.2-0.5%. Samples were harvested between April and December to study the seasonal chemical variability of the EO. The chemical composition varied depending on the different origins and showed strong fluctuation during the vegetative stage. Thirty-seven compounds, accounting for at least 97.7% of the total EOs were identified, the major components being p-cymene (27.8-42.7%), 1,8-cineole (4.1-39.5%), beta-phellandrene (3.9-23.8%), spathulenol (2.1-15.5%) and cryptone (3.2-10.2%). The oils possessed moderate amounts (1.4-4.7%) of two uncommon aldehydes, cuminal and phellandral. The essential oils were screened for their antifungal activities against common phytopathogenic fungi using the paper disk diffusion method and they showed activity at low doses against the fungi tested. The antioxidant activity, assessed by DPPH-test and expressed as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, showed values ranging between 0.5 and 5.8 mmol/L. PMID:20334153
Barra, Andrea; Coroneo, Valentina; Dessi, Sandro; Cabras, Paolo; Angioni, Alberto
We report a sampling strategy based on Mendelian Breeding Units (MBUs), representing an interbreeding group of individuals sharing a common gene pool. The identification of MBUs is crucial for case-control experimental design in association studies. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possible existence of bias in terms of genetic variability and haplogroup frequencies in the MBU sample, due to severe sample selection. In order to reach this goal, the MBU sampling strategy was compared to a standard selection of individuals according to their surname and place of birth. We analysed mitochondrial DNA variation (first hypervariable segment and coding region) in unrelated healthy subjects from two different areas of Sardinia: the area around the town of Cabras and the western Campidano area. No statistically significant differences were observed when the two sampling methods were compared, indicating that the stringent sample selection needed to establish a MBU does not alter original genetic variability and haplogroup distribution. Therefore, the MBU sampling strategy can be considered a useful tool in association studies of complex traits. PMID:21734814
Sanna, Daria; Pala, Maria; Cossu, Piero; Dedola, Gian Luca; Melis, Sonia; Fresu, Giovanni; Morelli, Laura; Obinu, Domenica; Tonolo, Giancarlo; Secchi, Giannina; Triunfo, Riccardo; Lorenz, Joseph G; Scheinfeldt, Laura; Torroni, Antonio; Robledo, Renato; Francalacci, Paolo
The ancient inhabitants of a region are often regarded as ancestral, and hence genetically related, to the modern dwellers (for instance, in studies of admixture), but so far, this assumption has not been tested empirically using ancient DNA data. We studied mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in Sardinia, across a time span of 2,500 years, comparing 23 Bronze-Age (nuragic) mtDNA sequences with those of 254 modern individuals from two regions, Ogliastra (a likely genetic isolate) and Gallura, and considering the possible impact of gene flow from mainland Italy. To understand the genealogical relationships between past and present populations, we developed seven explicit demographic models; we tested whether these models can account for the levels and patterns of genetic diversity in the data and which one does it best. Extensive simulation based on a serial coalescent algorithm allowed us to compare the posterior probability of each model and estimate the relevant evolutionary (mutation and migration rates) and demographic (effective population sizes, times since population splits) parameters, by approximate Bayesian computations. We then validated the analyses by investigating how well parameters estimated from the simulated data can reproduce the observed data set. We show that a direct genealogical continuity between Bronze-Age Sardinians and the current people of Ogliastra, but not Gallura, has a much higher probability than any alternative scenarios and that genetic diversity in Gallura evolved largely independently, owing in part to gene flow from the mainland. PMID:19955482
Ghirotto, Silvia; Mona, Stefano; Benazzo, Andrea; Paparazzo, Francesco; Caramelli, David; Barbujani, Guido
The standard mortality rates (SMRs) were calculated for 1148 workers of a primary aluminium plant in Portovesme, Sardinia, hired between 1971, when production started, and 1980. Status (living or decreased) was ascertained as at 31 December 1990 and the relationship between observed and expected deaths with respective 95% confidence limits were calculated on the basis of age-specific regional rates for each calendar year of the follow-up. The SMR for all causes was 81 with confidence limits between 61 and 108 based on a total of 48 deaths. Mortality due to malignant neoplasms did not differ from the expected rate. The observed deaths due to lung cancer were decidedly less than the expected number (3 observed versus 4.7 expected). A significant excess of cancer of the pancreas was observed with special reference to anode production, based, however, on only 3 observed cases against 0.8 expected. In the absence of a more precise definition of the causes of death, of the environmental exposure levels and of the non-occupational confounding factors, and considering the young age of the cohort under study, it is at present doubtful whether the excess of cancer of the pancreas can be associated with work in the primary aluminium industry. The results should therefore be taken as preliminary, indicating that further studies are required. PMID:1297068
Carta, P; Cocco, P L; Flore, C; Pau, M; Grussu, M; Cherchi, P
Micrometeorological measurements of evapotranspiration (ET) can be difficult to interpret and use for validating model calculations in the presence of land cover heterogeneity. Land surface fluxes, soil moisture (?), and surface temperatures (Ts) data were collected by an eddy correlation-based tower located at the Orroli (Sardinia) experimental field (covered by woody vegetation, grass, and bare soil) from April 2003 to July 2004. Two Quickbird high-resolution images (summer 2003 and spring 2004) were acquired for depicting the contrasting land cover components. A procedure is presented for estimating ET in heterogeneous ecosystems as the residual term of the energy balance using Ts observations, a two-dimensional footprint model, and the Quickbird images. Two variations on the procedure are successfully implemented: a proposed two-source random model (2SR), which treats the heat sources of each land cover component separately but computes the bulk heat transfer coefficient as spatially homogeneous, and a common two-source tile model. For 2SR, new relationships between the interfacial transfer coefficient and the roughness Reynolds number are estimated for the two bare soil-woody vegetation and grass-woody vegetation composite surfaces. The ET versus ? relationships for each land cover component were also estimated, showing that that the woody vegetation has a strong tolerance to long droughts, transpiring at rates close to potential for even the driest conditions. Instead, the grass is much less tolerant to ? deficits, and the switch from grass to bare soil following the rainy season had a significant impact on ET.
Detto, Matteo; Montaldo, Nicola; Albertson, John D.; Mancini, Marco; Katul, Gaby
Being overweight or obese increases the risk of elevated blood pressure. However differences of their effects on blood pressure in different age groups are not clear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate differences of the effects of adiposity on the odds of having hypertension in different age groups. 3056 subjects (1532 women and 1524 men) which consist of the drug naïve subjects from the SardiNIA study. Logistic regression models with backward elimination were used to determine and compare the association between categories of obesity on hypertension within young (?39), middle aged (4059), and older (60+) subjects. Additional terms controlled for in the model were smoking and alcohol intake status. The relationship of body mass index on hypertension differed by age, as indicated by the significant interaction term of age with body mass index (p <0.01). Older subjects had higher odds of having hypertension than younger subjects but these odds were lower for obese than for lean subjects (OR 10.45, 95% CIs 4.5823.85 in obese versus OR 33.89, 95% CIs 17.9464.02 in lean subjects). A similar trend was also observed in middle aged subjects. This study shows that among men and women, older age was associated with a lesser effect of body mass index on the odds of having hypertension.
Pikilidou, M.I.; Scuteri, A.; Morrell, C.; Lakatta, E.G.
Semi-arid regions, such as around the Mediterranean, suffer from broad desertification processes produced by both natural and human influences. Mediterranean ecosystems are commonly heterogeneous savanna-like ecosystems, with contrasting plant functional types (PFTs, e.g., grass and woody vegetation) competing for the water use. At the same time the structure and function of the vegetation regulates the exchange of mass, energy and momentum across the biosphere-atmosphere interface, influencing strongly the soil water budget. With the objective to investigate vegetation dynamics, soil water budget and land-surface fluxes interactions in a water-limited ecosystem, an extensive field campaign in a Mediterranean water-limited field is performed, and a parsimonious and robust vegetation dynamic model (VDM) is coupled to a 3-component (bare soil, grass and woody vegetation) LSM. The case study is in Orroli, situated in the mid-west of Sardegna within the Flumendosa river watershed. Sardinia is a region that suffers from water scarcity, and the Flumendosa basin plays a primary role in the water supply for much of southern Sardinia, including the island's biggest city, Cagliari. The site landscape is a mixture of Mediterranean patchy vegetation types: trees, including wild olives and cork oaks, different shrubs and herbaceous species. An extensive field campaign started in April 2003. More than three years of data are available. Interestingly, hydrometeorological conditions of the monitored years strongly differ, with dry and wet years in turn, and a wide range of hydrometeorological conditions can be analyzed. Land-surface fluxes and CO2 fluxes are estimated by an eddy correlation technique based micrometeorological tower. Soil moisture profiles were also continuously estimated using water content reflectometers and gravimetric method, and periodically leaf area index (LAI) estimates of both plant types are made using the Accupar LP-80 by Decagon Devices Inc. Furthermore, two high spatial resolution (2.8 m) Quickbird satellite images were acquired in August of 2003 and March 2004 for defining the spatial organization of the main land cover types around the tower for two contrasting seasons of the year (Summer and Spring). A parsimonious ecohydrologic model is developed. The VDM computes the change in biomass over time as difference between the rate of production (e.g., photosynthesis) and the rate of destruction (e.g., respiration and senescence). VDM incorporates two PFTs using basic rules regarding competition for a limiting resource. The VDM is then coupled to a 3-component LSM, with the VDM providing the green biomass and the LAI evolution through time, and the LSM using this information in the computation of the land surface fluxes and updating the soil water content in the root-zone. The coupled VDM-LSM model is successfully tested for the case study, demonstrating high model performance for the wide range of eco-hydrologic conditions. The inclusion of the VDM in the LSM is demonstrated to be essential when studying the climate-soil-vegetation interactions of these water-limited ecosystems. Results demonstrate also that vegetation dynamics are strongly influenced by the inter-annual variability of atmospheric forcing, with grass leaf area index changing significantly each spring season according to seasonal rainfall amount.
Montaldo, N.; Albertson, J. D.; Mancini, M.
The problem of the hydraulic safety of existing dams is becoming crucial due to the recent increase of floods. In Sardinia dams were built for both electric production and water supply for irrigation and civil uses during the 1920-1960 period. Recent floods showed a significant increase in magnitude and frequency, supporting the hypothesis of a hydrologic climate change. Are the existing dams still safe? For answering the question 1) an hydrologic model is implemented and widely tested with hystorical floods, 2) a method for estimating the flood hydrograph with return period of 1000 years and 3) the hydraulic safety of existing dams is tested. The case study are the Rio Mogoro river basin (area of about 255 km2) located in central-western Sardinia (Italy), the Tirso river basin (area of about 3100 km2) and the Flumendosa river basin (area of about 1017 km2). In the Rio Mogoro there is a gravity dam built in 1934 with a volume of 11.31 million of cubic meter; in the Tirso there are three important dams with a total volume of about 800 million of cubic meter that cover a big part of the region, while in the Flumendosa basin are present two dams with a total volume of about 360 million of cubic meter. In the first part of this work the rainfall and discharge data of historical floods were acquired so that a fully evaluation of the hydrologic model has been performed. The distributed hydrologic model is an event model (FEST) which assesses runoff through a simplified approach based on Soil Conservation Service equations and runoff propagation through the Muskingum-Cunge approach. Then the design flood of return period of 1000 years is estimated using a synthetic design hyetograph and FEST. For estimating and checking hydrograph characteristics statistics on observed flood hydrographs (i.e., local statistics) were evaluated: the peak flow, the time and duration of the peak and the volume of the flood. Local statistics are further compared with regionalized statistical methods for flood predictions. Furthermore local statistic of the rainfall IDF curve are analyzed, highlighting an interesting increase of rainfall extreme in the mountain East Sardinian rain stations (daily rainfall of almost 600 mm in December 2004). In this way synthetic hyetograph and hydrograph are estimated for the design flood of return period of 1000 years. The results show that the flood increases with the position of the peak of the hydrograph due to the soil saturation; the time peaks of the hydrograph and of the flood hydrograph are different: it depends on the propagation in the channel and on the soil permeability. In the last part of the work we use the hydrograph flood of the project calibrated to verify the safety of the dam for a return period of 1000 years. From these analysis the dams of the considered basins will be overflowed by a rain with a return period of less than 100 years.
Cortis, C.; Barrui, M.; Montaldo, N.; Saba, A.; Albertson, J. D.
Evaluating the human disturbance on karst areas is a difficult task because of the complexity of these peculiar and unique environments. The human impact on karstic geo-ecosystems is increasingly important and there is an increasing need for multidisciplinary tools to assess the environmental changes in karst areas. Many disciplines, such as biology, geomorphology, hydrology and social-economical sciences are to be considered to sufficiently evaluate the impact on these intrinsically vulnerable areas. This article gives an overview of the evolution of environmental impact on karst areas of the island Sardinia (Italy). For this particular case, the most important impacts in the past 50 years are derived from the following activities, in decreasing importance: (1) mining and quarrying; (2) deforestation, agriculture and grazing; (3) building (widespread urbanisation, isolated homes, etc.) and related infrastructures (roads, sewer systems, aqueducts, waste dumps, etc.); (4) tourism; (5) military activities. To evaluate the present environmental state of these areas the Disturbance Index for Karst environments [Van Beynen and Townsend (Environ Manage 36:101-116)] is applied in a slightly modified version. Instead of considering the indicators of environmental disturbances used in the original method, this slightly modified index evaluates the disturbances causing the deterioration of the environmental attributes. In the Sardinian case study, 27 disturbances have been evaluated, giving rise to the definition of a Disturbance Index ranging between 0 (Pristine) and 1 (highly disturbed). This Disturbance Index simplifies the original KDI method, appears to adequately measure disturbance on Mediterranean karst areas and could be applied with success to other similar regions.
de Waele, Jo
In this study, the antibiotic resistance pattern and the presence of genes encoding several virulence factors in 91 Enterococcus faecalis strains isolated from different human clinical sources in Sardinia were investigated. Genotypic determination of virulence genes (gelE, esp, agg, ace, cylA,B,M,L(L),L(S), efaA, fsrB) was carried out by PCR. The production of gelatinase and haemolytic activity were also determined. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed by an automated microdilution test (Vitek). The strains examined in this study contained at least one and up to as many as all virulence genes investigated. Examining the distribution of these factors in the different groups of clinical strains, we found that all but one virulence determinant were detected more frequently among urinary isolates. The detection of some factors by PCR did not always correlate with its phenotypic expression. Antibiotic susceptibilities among the Enterococcus faecalis strains investigated in our study were typical for the species, with expected levels of acquired resistance. Faecal isolates had the highest percentage of resistance, especially to high level-gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin. In summary, a wide variety of genes encoding virulence factors have been detected among our clinical Enterococcus faecalis strains, and those isolated from UTI were characterized by a higher virulence potency compared with strains from other clinical sources. Silent virulence genes (cyl or gelE) were frequently detected, therefore both the genotypic and phenotypic assays seem necessary for a better characterization of the strains. Our results may serve as a basis for additional surveillance studies of infections caused by this microorganism. PMID:20853674
Cosentino, S; Podda, G S; Corda, A; Fadda, M E; Deplano, M; Pisano, M B
The Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) is a 64 meters (diameter) single dish radioantenna which is in the building phase in Italy. One of the most challenging characteristics of SRT is its capability to observe up to a frequency of 100 GHz thanks to its main reflector active surface. The active surface is composed by 1008 panels and 1116 mechanical actuators which may modify the segmented shape of the main reflector making possible the correction for wavefront distortions induced by the gravitational and thermal deformations. In order to observe at a frequency of 100 GHz the surface shape must be accurate below of a value of 150 ?m r.m.s.. This value may be reached during the initial alignement phase using the microwave holography but it cannot be maintained during the scientific operations because of the (dynamical) deformations. In order to permit the observations at any time, a system able to measure the surface deformations with the necessary accuracy and a time-response of few minutes (the time-scale of the deformations) must be operative. We propose here three simple and robust methods to measure the relative deformations of the segmented panels with respect to an initial aligned surface (reference surface). The ultimate choice on which one of the three systems will operate on SRT will be taken after final testing on all of them. Prototypes of each system have been realized and two of them have been also successfully tested on the active optics radiotelescope of Noto (Italy). The test on the third system will be done in the next few months.
Pernechele, Claudio; Barbieri, Carlo; Bolli, Pietro; Buffa, Franco; Pisanu, Tonino; Poppi, Sergio; Serra, Giampaolo; Morsiani, Marco; Roda, Juri; Zacchiroli, Giampaolo; Nocita, Carlo; Paternò, Mario
One of the main effects of supergene alteration of ore-bearing hydrothermal dolomite in areas surrounding secondary zinc orebodies ( Calamine-type nonsulfides) in southwestern Sardinia (Italy) is the formation of a broad halo of Zn dolomite. The characteristics of supergene Zn dolomite have been investigated using scanning electron microscopy and qualitative energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, thermodifferential analysis, and stable isotope geochemistry. The supergene Zn dolomite is characterized by variable amounts of Zn, and low contents of Pb and Cd in the crystal lattice. It is generally depleted in Fe and Mn relative to precursor hydrothermal dolomite ( Dolomia Geodica), which occurs in two phases (stoichiometric dolomite followed by Fe-Mn-Zn-rich dolomite), well distinct in geochemistry. Mg-rich smithsonite is commonly associated to Zn dolomite. Characterization of Zn-bearing dolomite using differential thermal analysis shows a drop in temperature of the first endothermic reaction of dolomite decomposition with increasing Zn contents in dolomite. The supergene Zn dolomites have higher ?18O but lower ?13C values than hydrothermal dolomite. In comparison with smithsonite-hydrozincite, the supergene Zn dolomites have higher ?18O, but comparable ?13C values. Formation of Zn dolomite from meteoric waters is indicated by low ?13C values, suggesting the influence of soil-gas CO2 in near-surface environments. The replacement of the dolomite host by supergene Zn dolomite is interpreted as part of a multistep process, starting with a progressive "zincitization" of the dolomite crystals, followed by a patchy dedolomitization s.s. and potentially concluded by the complete replacement of dolomite by smithsonite.
Boni, M.; Mondillo, N.; Balassone, G.; Joachimski, M.; Colella, A.
The study of rainfall statistical variability is important for a wide range of water-related disciplines. Rainfall intermittency is often referred to two different aspects of variability: (i) the sudden variations of intensity, and (ii) the alternation of dry and wet periods, which can be analyzed through the construction of the binary series (BS). In this study, we characterize rainfall intermittency in time using a dataset collected by more than 200 tipping-bucket rain gages, covering the entire territory of Sardinia, Italy. For each gage, we sampled the rainfall signal at a resolution of 1 min and selected time sequences of ~45 days, thus focusing on a range of scales interesting for hydrological applications. On each sequence, we applied several techniques to investigate intermittency, including spectral and scale invariance analysis, and computation of clustering and intermittency exponents. The spectral analysis reveals the existence of two scaling regimes, typical of stratiform (from 3 days to 2.5 h) and convective (from 2.5 h to 2 min) systems, consistent with other studies. Investigation of scale invariance for higher moments shows the existence of an additional breaking point at 15-30 min. The change of statistical properties of the rainfall signals at these scales is also confirmed by the clustering and intermittency exponents. These metrics indicate that (i) the BS shows a behavior similar to the white noise at scales lower than 15-30 min, and (ii) rainfall intensity fluctuations tend to attenuate (amplify) the intermittency of the BS at scales smaller (larger) than 15-30 min. Finally, thanks to the availability of a large dataset, we show the presence of spatial patterns for the metrics characterizing rainfall intermittency, which can be explained by the geographical location and the topographic features of the gages, and by the interaction of these characteristics with the dominant weather conditions.
Mascaro, G.; Deidda, R.; Hellies, M.
Quantitative surveys of the edible sea urchin, Paracentrotus lividus, were conducted in four fishing zones of Sardinia (Southern Italy, Mediterranean Sea), in Autumn 2007. A total of 120 stations were geo-located along a bathymetric gradient ranging from 0 to 10m. A geostatistical method was used to evaluate spatial patterns in density and to estimate harvestable stocks. Variographic analyses showed that
Piero Addis; Marco Secci; Andrea Manunza; Stefano Corrias; Alessio Niffoi; Angelo Cau
Seventy phytosociological relevés were performed in 1 m × 1 m plots at 14 study sites spread along sandy shores in northern and southern Sardinia (Italy). The plots were selected in different habitat types (open dunes, native Juniperus woodlands, maquis, and plantations with Acacia, Eucalyptus and Pinus) according to a stratified sampling method in order to investigate impacts deriving from
L. Zedda; A. Cogoni; F. Flore; G. Brundu
SUMMARY Objective: To estimate the prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis in an Italian general population. Methods: The study was conducted in the years 2002-2003 in Tempio Pausania's health district located on the North Sardinia and involved 30264 subjects aged 18 years or more treated by 29 general practices (GP). The GP was con- tact first by phone and letter and secondly
D. Marotto; M. E. Nieddu; A. Cossu; A. Carcassi
Background The Mediterranean island of Sardinia has a strikingly high incidence of the autoimmune disorders Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) and Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Furthermore, the two diseases tend to be co-inherited in the same individuals and in the same families. These observations suggest that some unknown autoimmunity variant with relevant effect size could be fairly common in this founder population and could be detected using linkage analysis. Methods To search for T1D and MS loci as well as any that predispose to both diseases, we performed a whole genome linkage scan, sequentially genotyping 593 microsatellite marker loci in 954 individuals distributed in 175 Sardinian families. In total, 413 patients were studied; 285 with T1D, 116 with MS and 12 with both disorders. Model-free linkage analysis was performed on the genotyped samples using the Kong and Cox logarithm of odds (LOD) score statistic. Results In T1D, aside from the HLA locus, we found four regions showing a lod-score ?1; 1p31.1, 6q26, 10q21.2 and 22q11.22. In MS we found three regions showing a lod-score ?1; 1q42.2, 18p11.21 and 20p12.3. In the combined T1D-MS scan for shared autoimmunity loci, four regions showed a LOD >1, including 6q26, 10q21.2, 20p12.3 and 22q11.22. When we typed more markers in these intervals we obtained suggestive evidence of linkage in the T1D scan at 10q21.2 (LOD = 2.1), in the MS scan at 1q42.2 (LOD = 2.5) and at 18p11.22 (LOD = 2.6). When all T1D and MS families were analysed jointly we obtained suggestive evidence in two regions: at 10q21.1 (LOD score = 2.3) and at 20p12.3 (LOD score = 2.5). Conclusion This suggestive evidence of linkage with T1D, MS and both diseases indicates critical chromosome intervals to be followed up in downstream association studies.
Pitzalis, Maristella; Zavattari, Patrizia; Murru, Raffaele; Deidda, Elisabetta; Zoledziewska, Magdalena; Murru, Daniela; Moi, Loredana; Motzo, Costantino; Orru, Valeria; Costa, Gianna; Solla, Elisabetta; Fadda, Elisabetta; Schirru, Lucia; Melis, Maria Cristina; Lai, Marina; Mancosu, Cristina; Tranquilli, Stefania; Cuccu, Stefania; Rolesu, Marcella; Secci, Maria Antonietta; Corongiu, Daniela; Contu, Daniela; Lampis, Rosanna; Nucaro, Annalisa; Pala, Gavino; Pacifico, Adolfo; Maioli, Mario; Frongia, Paola; Chessa, Margherita; Ricciardi, Rossella; Lostia, Stanislao; Marinaro, Anna Maria; Milia, Anna Franca; Landis, Novella; Zedda, Maria Antonietta; Whalen, Michael B; Santoni, Federico; Marrosu, Maria Giovanna; Devoto, Marcella; Cucca, Francesco
In Sardinia, one of the southernmost remain of the European Variscan belt, a crustal section through northern Gondwanan paleodomains is largely preserved. It bears significant evidence of igneous activity, recently detailed in field relationships and radiometric dating (Oggiano et al., submitted). A Cambro - Ordovician (491.7 ± 3.5 Ma ÷ 479.9 ± 2.1 Ma, LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon age) bimodal volcanic suite occurs with continuity in external and inner Variscan nappes of Sardinia below the so-called Sardic unconformity. The igneous suite represents an intraplate volcanic activity developed through subsequent episodes: i) an intermediate explosive and effusive volcanism, i.e. pyroclastic fall deposits and lava flows, embedded into epicontinental clastic sediments, culminating in silicic ignimbrite eruptions, and ii) mafic effusives. Geochemical data document a transitional, within-plate signature, e.g. the average Th/Ta (4.5) and La/Nb (2.7) overlap the upper continental crust values. The volcanites are characterized by slight fractionation of LREEs, nearly flat HREE abundance. The negative Eu anomaly increases towards evolved compositions. Some prominent HREE depletion (GdCN/YbCN = 13.8), and the high Nb/Y suggest a garnet-bearing source. The high 87Sr radiogenic content (87Sr/86Sr 490 Ma = 0.71169) and the epsilon Nd 490 Ma value of -6.54 for one dacite sample, imply a time integrated LREE-enriched source with a high Rb/Sr, such as a metasedimentary source. The stratigraphy of the succession and the geochemical composition of igneous members suggest a volcanic passive margin along the northern Gondwana at the early Ordovician. The bimodal Mid-Ordovician arc volcanism (465.4 ± 1.4 Ma, U-Pb zircon age; Oggiano et al., submitted) is developed in the external nappes (e.g. in Sarrabus and Sarcidano) and in the foreland occurs as clasts at the base of the Hirnantian succession (Leone et al. 1991). The Mid Ordovician sub-alkalic volcanic suite has reliable stratigraphic and palaeontological constraints, as it post-dates the Sarrabese (i.e. Sardic) unconformity and pre-dates the Upper Ordovician transgression. It consists of basaltic - andesites and abundant andesites and rhyolites. The negative Ta-, Nb-, Sr-, P-, Yb- and Ti-anomalies in mantle-normalized spiderdiagrams and Th/Ta compare with volcanic rocks from active continental margins. Andesite and dacite samples reveal Sr and Nd isotopic compositions consistent with a less depleted mantle source than rhyolites (epsilon Nd 465 Ma = -3.03 to -5.75; 87Sr/86Sr 465 Ma = 0.70931-0.71071). The positive epsilon Nd 465 Ma values of rhyolites (+1.15 to +2.42) suggest that their precursors, with a crustal residence age of ~1 Ga (TDM), were derived from a long-term depleted mantle source. On the whole, the isotopic data for Mid Ordovician volcanites suggest partial melting of an isotopically heterogeneous mantle. The bimodal suite has been unanimously interpreted as a marker of the Rheic ocean subduction. An Upper Ordovician transitional to alkalic volcanic activity is documented both in the foreland, and in the external and internal nappes (Di Pisa et al. 1992). The Late Ordovician alkalic mafic suite (440 ± 1.7 Ma) i.e. the Ordovician-Silurian boundary, occurs as sills, epiclastites and lava flows within the post-Caradocian transgressive sequence. The volcanic rocks are characterized by fractionation of REEs (LaCN/YbCN ~ 4.4-13), variable LILE abundances and significant Ta, Nb and LREE enrichments. Th/Ta in the range 1-2 and La/Nb < 1 evidence an anorogenic intraplate setting. The epsilon Nd 440 Ma values are positive (+1.60 to +4.14), reflecting an origin in a depleted mantle source, while the 87Sr/86Sr vary from 0.70518 to 0.71321. Negative epsilon Nd 440 Ma values (-4.76 and -4.62) in trachy-andesites suggest a less depleted mantle source, while the 87Sr/86Sr 440 Ma (0.70511 to 0.70694) and the Sm/Nd up to 0.36 align along the mantle array. The Late Ordovician alkalic suite suggest a continental rift geodynamic setting, and likely represent an early phase of the major rifting e
Gaggero, L.; Oggiano, G.; Buzzi, L.; Funedda, A.
In environmental epidemiology, long lists of relative risk estimates from exposed populations are compared to a reference to scrutinize the dataset for extremes. Here, inference on disease profiles for given areas, or for fixed disease population signatures, are of interest and summaries can be obtained averaging over areas or diseases. We have developed a multivariate hierarchical Bayesian approach to estimate posterior rank distributions and we show how to produce league tables of ranks with credibility intervals useful to address the above mentioned inferential problems. Applying the procedure to a real dataset from the report "Environment and Health in Sardinia (Italy)" we selected 18 areas characterized by high environmental pressure for industrial, mining or military activities investigated for 29 causes of deaths among male residents. Ranking diseases highlighted the increased burdens of neoplastic (cancerous), and non-neoplastic respiratory diseases in the heavily polluted area of Portoscuso. The averaged ranks by disease over areas showed lung cancer among the three highest positions. PMID:19021111
Catelan, Dolores; Biggeri, Annibale
The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of malignant breast tumors in the Province of Sassari, Sardinia (Italy) in the period 1992-2002 and to report the variations in comparison to the 1974-1985 period. The analysis of our data showed that the overall number of malignant breast tumors was more than doubled from 1,139 cases in the period 1974-1985 to the 2,735 cases in the period 1992-2002, and the mean rate/100,000 changed from 43.4 to 106.0. The incidence in the age classes 45-64 years, which were at enhanced risk for breast cancer, was globally increased, changing from 143.6/100,000 to 198.7/100,000. On the other hand, the incidence in the youngest age classes (30-34 yrs) was reduced from 59.5% to 27.0%. The analysis of the histotypes showed a relative reduction of ductal carcinoma in the period 1992-2002 in comparison to the previous period 1974-1985 (65.2% vs 82.0%) whereas the incidence of anaplastic forms increased in advanced ages of life. We reported an important reduction of T0 tumors from 3.4% to 0.1%. These data could be due to the low diffusion of screening programs in Sardinia. Tumor metastases were more frequent in advanced age classes. In conclusion, the worrying data of the strong reduction of T0 cases, the increased age of first diagnosis and the advanced forms with positive nodal metastases showed that the prevention program has not been yet well organized. PMID:16285566
Cossu, A; Budroni, M; Capobianco, G; Pirino, D; Palmieri, G; Dessole, S; Tanda, F; Cesaraccio, R; Cherchi, P L
The first comprehensive chemical and SrNdPb isotopic data set of PlioPleistocene tholeiitic and alkaline volcanic rocks cropping out in Sardinia (Italy) is presented here. These rocks are alkali basalts, hawaiites, basanites, tholeiitic basalts and basaltic andesites, and were divided into two groups with distinct isotopic compositions. The vast majority of lavas have relatively high 87Sr\\/86Sr (0.70430.7051), low 143Nd\\/144Nd (0.51240.5126), and
Michele Lustrino; Leone Melluso; Vincenzo Morra
During the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) science verification phase, we observed PSR J1745-2900, firstly detected as an X-ray flare from Sgr A* by Swift and then identified as a 3.76 s X-ray magnetar with NuSTAR telescope (ATels #5006,Â #5020, #5027, #5032, #5033, #5035), at a central frequency of 7.30 GHz. We used a Beam Wave Guide focus cryogenically cooled receiver (system temperature ~25 K).
Buttu, Marco; D'Amico, Nichi; Egron, Elise; Iacolina, Maria Noemi; Marongiu, Pasqualino; Migoni, Carlo; Pellizzoni, Alberto; Poppi, Sergio; Possenti, Andrea; Trois, Alessio; Vargiu, Gian Paolo
Since the reduced genetic diversity found in isolates should simplify the study of complex traits, analyses of patterns of homogeneity within populations are of particular interest. We analysed the mtDNA haplogroups and hypervariable segment I (HVS-I) sequences of 475 individuals from a geographically restricted and isolated area (Ogliastra) within Sardinia, comprehending 175 random samples from 20 out of 23 villages. The
Cristina Fraumene; Enrico Petretto; Andrea Angius; Mario Pirastu
Background Culicoides imicola KIEFFER, 1913 (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is the principal vector of Bluetongue disease in the Mediterranean basin, Africa and Asia. Previous studies have identified a range of eco-climatic variables associated with the distribution of C. imicola, and these relationships have been used to predict the large-scale distribution of the vector. However, these studies are not temporally-explicit and can not be used to predict the seasonality in C. imicola abundances. Between 2001 and 2006, longitudinal entomological surveillance was carried out throughout Italy, and provided a comprehensive spatio-temporal dataset of C. imicola catches in Onderstepoort-type black-light traps, in particular in Sardinia where the species is considered endemic. Methods We built a dynamic model that allows describing the effect of eco-climatic indicators on the monthly abundances of C. imicola in Sardinia. Model precision and accuracy were evaluated according to the influence of process and observation errors. Results A first-order autoregressive cofactor, a digital elevation model and MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST)/or temperatures acquired from weather stations explained ~77% of the variability encountered in the samplings carried out in 9 sites during 6?years. Incorporating Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) or rainfall did not increase the model's predictive capacity. On average, dynamics simulations showed good accuracy (predicted vs. observed r corr?=?0.9). Although the model did not always reproduce the absolute levels of monthly abundances peaks, it succeeded in reproducing the seasonality in population level and allowed identifying the periods of low abundances and with no apparent activity. On that basis, we mapped C. imicola monthly distribution over the entire Sardinian region. Conclusions This study demonstrated prospects for modelling data arising from Culicoides longitudinal entomological surveillance. The framework explicitly incorporates the influence of eco-climatic factors on population growth rates and accounts for observation and process errors. Upon validation, such a model could be used to predict monthly population abundances on the basis of environmental conditions, and hence can potentially reduce the amount of entomological surveillance.
This study assessed the distribution and availability of plant uptake of Zn, Pb, and Cd present in an abandoned mine at Ingurtosu, Sardinia (Italy). Geological matrix samples (sediments, tailings, and soil from a nearby pasture site) and samples of the predominant plant species growing on sediments and tailings were collected. Mean values of total Zn, Pb and Cd were respectively (mg kg(-1)) 7400, 1800, and 56 in tailings, 31000, 2900, and 100 in sediments, and 400, 200, and 8 in the pasture soil. The metal concentration values were high even in the mobile fractions evaluated by simplified sequential extraction (Zn 7485-103, Pb 1015-101, Cd 47-4 mg kg(-1)). Predominant native species were identified and analyzed for heavy metal content in various tissues. Among the plant species investigated Inula viscosa, Euphorbia dendroides, and Poa annua showed the highest metal concentration in aboveground biomass (mean average of Zn: 1680, 1020, 1400; Pb: 420, 240, 80; Cd: 28, 7, 19 mg kg(-1), respectively). The above mentioned species and A. donax could be good candidates for a phytoextraction procedure. Cistus salvifolius and Helichrysum italicus generally showed behavior more suitable for a phytostabilizer. PMID:21972566
Barbafieri, M; Dadea, C; Tassi, E; Bretzel, F; Fanfani, L
In the Lower Cambrian of southwest Sardinia, a carbonate platform developed, showing clearly different stages of evolution: (1) a homoclinal ramp containing algal-archaeocyathan mounds (consisting mainly of Epiphyton and Renalcis boundstone) in the west, clastic tidal flats in the east; (2) an ooid-pellet barrier ramp with ooid-shoals, prograding toward the west. The back-shoal area contains some algal (girvanella)-archaeocyathan biostromes, but mainly peloidal mudstones and increasingly tidal deposits (clastic and carbonates) toward the east as well as at the top of the sequence; (3) an isolated platform, aggraded to sea level and rimmed by local slope deposits; (4) a drowned isolated platform, consisting of peloidal mudstones to wackestones in inner parts, remnants of elevated margins with higher energy facies in outer parts, and (5) breakdown of the platform in the Middle Cambrian, marked by the onset of nodular limestones covered by clastics. Deposition of stratabound lead, zinc, and barium deposits was favored either by the platform facies itself (some barite deposits) or by showing a distinct relation with the prominent tensional tectonics, i.e., they occur within matrix and cemented breccias (debris flows, internal breccias) or as massive sulfides, deposited in restricted, small-scale basins. The strong effects of tensional tectonics (slumping, debris flows, internal breccias, neptunian dykes) indicate a thinning of the continental crust, either within a passive continental margin setting or, alternatively, within a backarc setting, the volcanic arc being much farther to the west (possibly in Spain or southern France).
Bechstadt, T.; Boni, M.; Schledding, T.; Selg, M.
In the Variscan foreland of SW-Sardinia (Western Mediterranean sea), close to the leading edge of the nappe zone, nappe emplacement caused folding and repetition of stratigraphic successions, km-scale offset of stratigraphic boundaries and an extensive brittle-ductile shear zone. Thrusts assumed a significant role, accommodating a progressive change of shortening direction and forming complicated thrust triangle zones. During thrust emplacement of the nappes, strong penetrative deformation affected rocks beneath the basal thrust of the nappe stack and produced coeval structures with both foreland-directed and hinterland-directed (backthrusting) shear sense. Cross-cutting and overprinting relationships clearly show that the shortening direction changed progressively from N-S to E-W, producing in sequence: (1) E-W trending open folds contemporaneous with early nappe emplacement in the nearby nappe zone; (2) recumbent, quasi-isoclinal folds with axial plane foliation and widespread, top-towards-the-SW, penetrative shearing; (3) N-S trending folds with axial plane foliation, contemporaneous with late nappe emplacement; (4) backthrusts and related asymmetrical folds developed during the final stages of shortening, postdating foreland-verging structures. Structures at (3) and (4) occurred during the same tectonic transport top-towards-the-E of the nappe zone over the foreland. The several generations of folds, thrusts, and foliations with different orientations developed, result in a complex finite structural architecture, not completely explicable by the theoretical model proposed up to date.
The recent floods observed in 2004 and 2008 in Sardinia (Italy) showed a significant flood increase in magnitude and frequency and put the attention on the problem of the hydraulic safety of existing dams. Thirty dams built for both electric production and water supply for irrigation and civil uses during the 1920-1960 are present in Sardinia (Italy). The distributed hydrologic model is an event model (FEST) which assesses runoff through a simplified approach based on Soil Conservation Service equations and runoff propagation through the Muskingum-Cunge approach. The FEST needs the calibration of different parameters: 1) the critical support area that defines the minimum drainage area required to initiate a channel, 2) the ratio between cross-section width and flood flow depth for hillslope, 3) the hillslope values of the Gaulckler-Stickler roughness coefficient, and 4) the Curve Number obtained/extracted from the landscape characteristics of each basin. The data collection of numerous historical flood observations of the Sardinian basins allow for the first time to accurately calibrate an hydrologic model for the Sardinian basins, characterized by hortonian runoff mechanisms typically, steep hillslopes and thin soils. Areas of the catchments are between 4 and 3147 Km2 and the basins are characterized by an high variability of the landscape characteristics such as geology, topography, soil, land use and vegetation. Using the calibrated hydrologic model and the synthetic design hyetograph the design floods of the dams are estimated. The comparison between peak flows of the generated design floods and those estimated using typical regionalized statistical methods (based for Sardinian studies on two components extreme value (TCEV) and logarithmic probabilistic distributions) shows contradiction and interesting results. For large scale basin (> 200 km2) the two contrasting methods agree, while for small basins the proposed method underestimates the peak respect to the values estimated by the regionalized statistical methods, suggesting a strong revision of the regionalized statistical methods now available over Sardinia.
Cortis, Clorinda; Sarigu, Alessio; Montaldo, Nicola; Saba, Andrea
Proportions of hybridization and introgression between the swallowtails Papilio hospiton, endemic to Sardinia and Corsica, and the holarctic Papilio machaon, were characterized using nine fully diagnostic and two differentiated allozyme loci and a mitochondrial DNA marker. Very low frequencies of F1 hybrids were detected in both Sardinia (0-4%, average 1.4%) and Corsica (0-3%, average 0.5%), as well as of first generation backcrosses (B1). No F2 were observed, in agreement with the hybrid breakdown detected in laboratory crosses. In spite of this minimal current gene exchange, specimens carrying introgressed alleles were found in high proportions in P. machaon but in lower proportions in P. hospiton. Introgression apparently occurred through past hybridization and repeated backcrossing, as evidenced by hybrid index scores and Bayesian assignment tests. Levels of introgression were low (0-1%) at two sex-linked loci and mitochondrial DNA, limited (0.4-2%) at three autosomal loci coding for dimeric enzymes, and high (up to 43%) at four autosomal loci coding for monomeric enzymes. Accordingly, selective filters are acting against foreign alleles, with differential effectiveness depending on the loci involved. The low levels of introgression at sex-linked loci and mitochondrial DNA are in agreement with Haldane's rule and suggest that introgression in P. machaon proceeds mainly through males, owing to a lower fitness of hybrid females. Papilio machaon populations showed higher levels of introgression in Sardinia than in Corsica. The role of reinforcement in the present reproductive isolation between P. machaon and P. hospiton is examined, as well as the evolutionary effects of introgressive hybridization between the two species. PMID:12755875
Cianchi, R; Ungaro, A; Marini, M; Bullini, L
Pinna nobilis is the largest endemic bivalve of the Mediterranean Sea, declared protected since 1992. Although hydrodynamic stress induced by waves is known to influence density, size and orientation of P. nobilis, the effect of other hydrological features is unknown. This paper considers a P. nobilis population living within a Posidonia oceanica meadow in the Gulf of Oristano (Sardinia, Italy). We hypothesize that spatial differences in density and orientation of P. nobilis may be related to significant wave height (HS), wave direction (DW), bottom current direction (DBC) and bottom current speed (SBC). A population of P. nobilis was investigated at different sites and its distribution was correlated to hydrodynamics by means of a numerical modeling approach. The spatial distribution was patchy, with a density of 0.06-6.7 ind. 100 m- 2. A non-uniform distribution of shell orientations (OS) was demonstrated in 4 sites out of 6. DBC and SBC were the main factors affecting OS, while waves had little influence. A SBC of 0.07 m s- 1 appears to be the threshold for inducing specimen directionality with shells aligned to the current and the ventral side exposed to the flow. This suggests that feeding strategy is a key factor in determining OS, in addition to drag minimization. We also highlighted the role of adjacent lagoons in supporting high densities as a result of high food availability. These findings demonstrate the usefulness of modeling techniques in explaining the spatial distribution pattern of P. nobilis and in contributing to our knowledge of its ecological traits.
Coppa, Stefania; de Lucia, Giuseppe Andrea; Magni, Paolo; Domenici, Paolo; Antognarelli, Fabio; Satta, Andrea; Cucco, Andrea
African swine fever virus used to occur primarily in Africa. There had been occasional incursions into Europe or America which apart from the endemic situation on the island of Sardinia always had been successfully controlled. But following an introduction of the virus in 2007, it now has expanded its geographical distribution into Caucasus and Eastern Europe where it has not been controlled, to date. African swine fever affects domestic and wild pig species, and can involve tick vectors. The ability of the virus to survive within a particular ecosystem is defined by the ecology of its wild host populations and the characteristics of livestock production systems, which influence host and vector species densities and interrelationships. African swine fever has high morbidity in naïve pig populations and can result in very high mortality. There is no vaccine or treatment available. Apart from stamping out and movement control, there are no control measures, thereby potentially resulting in extreme losses for producers. Prevention and control of the infection requires good understanding of its epidemiology, so that targeted measures can be instigated. PMID:23123296
Costard, S; Mur, L; Lubroth, J; Sanchez-Vizcaino, J M; Pfeiffer, D U
A total of 1485 adult ticks were collected from mammalian hosts in south-eastern Sardinia, Italy, during the years 2007-2008. Ticks were identified and tested by PCR analysis for presence of Rickettsia species of the spotted fever group, Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Coxiella burnetii, Bartonella species and Leishmania species. Among all tick species examined (Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus turanicus, Rhipicephalus bursa, Rhipicephalus pusillus, Hyalomma marginatum marginatum, Haemaphysalis sulcata and Dermacentor marginatus), only Hyalomma marginatum marginatum produced negative results. A total of 22 pools belonging to the three tick species Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.9?%), Rhipicephalus turanicus (4.5?%) and Rhipicephalus pusillus (100?%) were positive for Rickettsia species, while a total of five pools belonging to Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.09?%), Haemaphysalis sulcata (16.7?%) and D. marginatus (7.8?%) were positive for E. canis. Five pools of Rhipicephalus turanicus (1.8?%) were positive for A. phagocytophilum. Positivity for C. burnetii was found in seven pools belonging to three tick species: Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.5?%), Rhipicephalus turanicus (0.3?%) and Haemaphysalis sulcata (4.4?%). Finally, four pools belonging to Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.09?%), Rhipicephalus turanicus (0.7?%) and Rhipicephalus bursa (1.1?%) were positive for Bartonella species. Leishmania species DNA was not detected in any of the tick pools examined. Data presented here increase our knowledge on tick-borne diseases in Sardinia, and provide a useful contribution to understanding their epidemiology. PMID:20884769
Satta, Giuseppe; Chisu, Valentina; Cabras, Pierangela; Fois, Francesco; Masala, Giovanna
The "IDDM-Sardinia project" started in the beginning '90s and this main objective was, and still is, to clarify the epidemiological aspects of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in Sardinia, an island with a high incidence of the disease. Initially, the project included three main aims: 1) to continue monitoring the incidence of the disease and to design maps of geographical distribution of it in the island; 2) to study the pre-diabetes period, by assaying islet-related autoantibodies (ICA, GADA and IA-2icA), and to design models of prediction in a general population from a large cohort of 10,000 schoolchildren, and 3) to investigate the natural history of the disease by monitoring the appearance of islet-related autoantibodies in a cohort of 19,000 newborn. Most recently, new research lines branched from these main topics, and now the project is also investigating other autoimmune diseases, in particular coeliac disease and autoimmune thyroiditis. In this paper we still summarise and discuss the state-of-the-art of the whole project. PMID:10645659
Locatelli, M; Songini, M; Bottazzo, G F
Geminiviruses are small DNA viruses that replicate in nuclei of infected plant cells after accumulation of host replication machinery. Tomato golden mosaic virus (TGMV) and Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) encode a protein, RepAC1 (or Rep), that is essential for viral replication. Rep/RepAC1 is an oligomeric protein that binds to double-stranded DNA, catalyzes cleavage and ligation of single-stranded DNA, and is sufficient for host induction. It also interacts with several host proteins, including the cell cycle regulator, retinoblastoma, and essential components of the cell DNA replication machinery, like proliferating nuclear cell antigen (PCNA) and RFC-1. To identify other cellular proteins that interact with Rep/RepAC1 protein, a Nicotiana benthamiana cDNA library was screened with a yeast two-hybrid assay. The host cell sumoylation enzyme, NbSCE1 (N. benthamiana SUMO-conjugating enzyme, homolog to Saccharomyces cerevisiae UBC9), was found to interact specifically with RepAC1. Mapping studies localized the interaction to the N-terminal half of RepAC1. Effects on geminivirus replication were observed in transgenic plants with altered levels of SUMO, the substrate for UBC9.
Castillo, A. G.; Kong, L. J.; Hanley-Bowdoin, L.; Bejarano, E. R.
Geminiviruses are small DNA viruses that replicate in nuclei of infected plant cells after accumulation of host replication machinery. Tomato golden mosaic virus (TGMV) and Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) encode a protein, RepAC1 (or Rep), that is essential for viral replication. Rep/RepAC1 is an oligomeric protein that binds to double-stranded DNA, catalyzes cleavage and ligation of single-stranded DNA, and is sufficient for host induction. It also interacts with several host proteins, including the cell cycle regulator, retinoblastoma, and essential components of the cell DNA replication machinery, like proliferating nuclear cell antigen (PCNA) and RFC-1. To identify other cellular proteins that interact with Rep/RepAC1 protein, a Nicotiana benthamiana cDNA library was screened with a yeast two-hybrid assay. The host cell sumoylation enzyme, NbSCE1 (N. benthamiana SUMO-conjugating enzyme, homolog to Saccharomyces cerevisiae UBC9), was found to interact specifically with RepAC1. Mapping studies localized the interaction to the N-terminal half of RepAC1. Effects on geminivirus replication were observed in transgenic plants with altered levels of SUMO, the substrate for UBC9. PMID:14990696
Castillo, A G; Kong, L J; Hanley-Bowdoin, L; Bejarano, E R
We studied the spatial variability and within-year temporal changes in hydrological features, grain size composition and chemical characteristics of sediments, as well as macrofaunal assemblages, along a heavily modified inlet in the Gulf of Oristano (western Sardinia, Italy). The inlet connects the Cabras lagoon to the gulf through a series of convoluted creeks and man-made structures, including a dam and fish barriers built in the last three decades. Sediments were muddy and mainly composed of the "non-sortable" fraction (i.e., <8 microm particle size) in all four areas investigated: Lagoon, Creeks, Channel and Seaward. Along the inlet, however, the ratio between the <8 microm and the 8-64 microm fractions was highest in Creeks and Channel, between the fish barriers and the dam, suggesting impaired hydrodynamics. Consistently, steep gradients in water salinity, temperature and dissolved oxygen concentrations were found in proximity to the fish barriers. The whole inlet was characterized by a major organic enrichment of sediments, with up to an annual mean of 33.6% of organic matter and 11.7% of total organic carbon in Seaward due to the presence of seagrass leaf litter. Acid-volatile sulphide and chromium-reduced sulphur concentrations were highest throughout the year in Seaward and Lagoon, respectively, with a peak in summer. Consistently, the whole inlet supported low structured macrofaunal assemblages dominated by few opportunist species, with a relatively lower diversity in Lagoon throughout the year and the highest abundances in Seaward in summer. We infer that the presence of artificial structures along the inlet, such as fish barriers and the dam, impair the lagoon-gulf hydrodynamics, sediment exchange and animal recruitment and colonization. We suggest that the removal of these structures would favour water renewal in the Cabras lagoon, but would also increase the outflow of organic C-bonding fine particles into the gulf with serious consequences for Posidonia oceanica and Cymodocea nodosa seagrass meadows. We conclude that all possible consequences of such initiatives should be carefully considered before any action is taken. PMID:17335856
Como, S; Magni, P; Casu, D; Floris, A; Giordani, G; Natale, S; Fenzi, G A; Signa, G; De Falco, G
Mediterranean ecosystems are commonly heterogeneous savanna-like ecosystems, with contrasting plant functional types (PFT) competing for the water use. At the same time the structure and function of the vegetation regulates the exchange of mass, energy and momentum across the biosphere-atmosphere interface, influencing strongly the soil water budget. Mediterranean regions suffer water scarcity produced in part by natural (e.g., climate variations) influences. For instance, in the Flumendosa basin water reservoir system, which plays a primary role in the water supply for much of southern Sardinia, the average annual input from stream discharge in the latter part of the 20th century was less than half the historic average rate. The precipitation over the Flumendosa basin has decreased, but not at such a drastic rate as the discharge, suggesting a marked non-linear response of discharge to precipitation changes. Indeed, precipitation decreased in winter months, which are crucial for reservoirs recharge through runoff. The IPCC models predicts a further increase of drought in the Mediterranean region, increasing the uncertainty on the future of the water resources system of these regions. Hence, there is the need to investigate the role of the PFT vegetation dynamics on the soil water budget of these ecosystems in the context of the climate change, and predict hydrologic variables for climate change scenarios. The case study is in the Flumendosa basin. The site landscape is a mixture of Mediterranean patchy vegetation types: trees, including wild olives and cork oaks, different shrubs and herbaceous species. An extensive field campaign started in May 2003. Six years of data are available now. Land-surface fluxes and CO2 fluxes are estimated by an eddy correlation technique based micrometeorological tower. Soil moisture profiles were also continuously estimated using water content reflectometers and gravimetric method, and periodically leaf area index (LAI) PFTs are estimated. An ecohydrologic model is successfully tested to the case study. It couples a vegetation dynamic model (VDM), which computes the change in biomass over time for the PFTs, and a 3-component (bare soil, grass and woody vegetation) land surface model (LSM). Hydrometeorological change scenarios are then generated using a stochastic weather generator. It simulates hydrometeorological variables from historical time series (available from 1922 for this basin) altered by IPCC meteorological change predictions. The calibrated VDM-LSM predicts soil water balance and vegetation dynamics for the generated hydrometeorological scenarios. Results demonstrate that vegetation dynamics are strongly influenced by the variability of atmospheric forcing, with vegetation density changing significantly according to seasonal rainfall amount. At the same time the vegetation dynamics affect the soil water balance, and the runoff. Water resources predictions are worrying, with further decrease of runoff.
Montaldo, N.; Albertson, J. D.
Mediterranean ecosystems are commonly heterogeneous savanna-like ecosystems, with contrasting plant functional types (PFT) competing for the water use. At the same time the structure and function of the vegetation regulates the exchange of mass, energy and momentum across the biosphere-atmosphere interface, influencing strongly the soil water budget. Mediterranean regions suffer water scarcity produced in part by natural (e.g., climate variations) influences. For instance, in the Flumendosa basin water reservoir system, which plays a primary role in the water supply for much of southern Sardinia, the average annual input from stream discharge in the latter part of the 20th century was less than half the historic average rate. The precipitation over the Flumendosa basin has decreased, but not at such a drastic rate as the discharge, suggesting a marked non-linear response of discharge to precipitation changes. Indeed, precipitation decreased in winter months, which are crucial for reservoirs recharge through runoff. The IPCC models predicts a further increase of drought in the Mediterranean region, increasing the uncertainty on the future of the water resources system of these regions. Hence, there is the need to investigate the role of the PFT vegetation dynamics on the soil water budget of these ecosystems in the context of the climate change, and predict hydrologic variables for climate change scenarios. The case study is in the Flumendosa basin. The site landscape is a mixture of Mediterranean patchy vegetation types: trees, including wild olives and cork oaks, different shrubs and herbaceous species. An extensive field campaign started in May 2003. More than six years of data of a micrometeorological tower are available now. Land-surface fluxes and CO2 fluxes are estimated by the eddy correlation technique based micrometeorological tower. Soil moisture profiles were also continuously estimated using water content reflectometers and gravimetric method, and periodically leaf area index (LAI) PFTs are estimated. An ecohydrologic model is successfully tested to the case study. It couples a vegetation dynamic model (VDM), which computes the change in biomass over time for the PFTs, and a 3-component (bare soil, grass and woody vegetation) land surface model (LSM). Hydrometeorological change scenarios are then generated using a stochastic weather generator. It simulates hydrometeorological variables from historical time series (available from 1922 for this basin) altered by IPCC meteorological change predictions. The calibrated VDM-LSM predicts soil water balance and vegetation dynamics for the generated hydrometeorological scenarios. Results demonstrate that vegetation dynamics are strongly influenced by the variability of atmospheric forcing, with vegetation density changing significantly according to seasonal rainfall amount. At the same time the vegetation dynamics affect the soil water balance, and the runoff. Water resources predictions are worrying, with further decrease of runoff.
Montaldo, Nicola; Cortis, Clorinda; Albertson, John D.
Land degradation assessment is a prior goal in decision support system for environmental protection, mainly in the Mediterranean area. Among various approaches, a model based methodology seems the most effective to monitor degradation processes and to plan mitigation actions, as it combines synergically many indicators categories of DPSIR (Driving Forces, Pressure, State, Impact, Response) framework. The presented approach is applied for desertification risk evaluation in Sardinia (Italy). Assuming desertification as the interaction among both predisposing (i.e. geographic location), triggering (i.e. extraordinary climatic events) and quickening (i.e. as human activities) factors, a new methodology was developed combining together, in the structure of an integrated model framework, a wide range of desertification indicators already developed by various projects focusing on Mediterranean area. A large multi-thematic dataset has been acquired consisting of about eighty geographic information layers. This data have been processed and re-arranged in a GIS environment in order to supply the input to several models regarding the typical degradation processes occurring in the Mediterranean area. In this study five processes were taken into account: soil erosion, soil biological degradation, loss of vegetation productivity, coastal aquifer salinization and overgrazing. The modelling procedure has been applied for two different periods according to the largest availability of data: the early nineties and the present. The outcomes from the model simulations were spatialized into separated vulnerability maps, one for each degradation process. Model results were normalized as indices varying from 0 (no degradation) to 1 (irreversible degradation); then, these degradation indices are integrated into a final one, with the same range of values, combining together different aspects of desertification, their magnitude and their development rate, giving different weights according to the importance of a single process and the quality of input data. This approach allows to highlight both spatial and temporal variability of desertification phenomenon, as well as to estimate land vulnerability as respects each single degradation process. The temporal variability is driven by both past trends and future simulations of land use and climate changes. The results have been then validated by applying the same methodology on a larger scale for an area resulting as hotspot of desertification from the first application on a smaller scale, in order to detect and verify the real situation. The risk is considered the final product between vulnerability and value of "at risk" elements. Moreover, from environmental vulnerability assessment and jointly with more strictly socio-economic aspects of land use change directions and scenarios, it will be possible to detect areas at different risk for the future, again in a GIS-oriented approach, supplying an useful tool in predisposing prevention, adaptation or mitigation countermeasures to desertification.
Santini, M.; Caccamo, G.; Noce, S.; Valentini, R.
Identification, characterization and deployment of virus resistant maize are complex tasks requiring multidisciplinary approaches. Insect transmission of viruses in nature and the potential presence of biologically distinct virus strains complicate screening for virus resistance. At least ten maize...
PRASCE project (2008-2011) aimed at a development of the probabilistic projection of climate accounting for the uncertainties coming from various sources. The methodology was based on linking the stochastic weather generator (which may represent uncertainty due to natural climate variability) with the GCM-based climate change scenarios, which are determined by the pattern scaling method and account for uncertainties in emission scenario, climate sensitivity and between-GCM variability. The methodology is being used to create synthetic weather series representing present and future climates for various climate change impact experiments. One of the regions under focus in this project was the Mediterranean, especially Sardinia. The presentation will consist of two parts: (1) Multi-GCM climate change scenarios for the Mediterranean. (i) The maps will show the probabilistic (based on all GCMs included in IPCC-AR4 dataset) projection of temperature, precipitation and Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). In addition, the scenarios will include changes of climatic characteristics (also being the parameters of the weather generator), which affect high frequency variability, e.g. changes in probability of wet day occurrence and variability of daily values. (ii) Options for choosing a representative subset of GCMs from all available GCMs will be discussed. This part is motivated by the fact, that some climate change impact studies do not allow to employ all available GCMs, so the task arise to choose the subset of GCMs based on the quality of GCMs and ability of the subset to represent the between GCM uncertainty. To demonstrate the methodology, the procedure will be applied to Sardinia. (2) Assessment of possible impacts of climate change on wildland fire risk. The M&Rfi weather generator linked to climate change scenarios derived from a subset of available GCMs will be used to create synthetic weather series (air temperature and relative humidity, wind speed, precipitations) to assess impacts of the projected climate change in terms of changes in Fire Weather Index (FWI) in Sardinia. Acknowledgements: The underlying research was funded by the Grant Agency of ASCR (project IAA30042080 - "PRASCE"), CNR-ASCR bilateral project, Proterina C project (co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) under the Italy-France Maritime Programme).
Dubrovsky, M.; Duce, P.; Arca, B.; Pellizzaro, G.
The fishery for the edible sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus is of great importance to many European regions, although in some of them this species has shown a wide scale decline in recent years. This paper reports on direct (on P. lividus) and indirect (on the co-occurring but not fished echinoid, Arbacia lixula) effects of sea urchin harvesting in shallow rocky reefs in North-western Sardinia (Italy, central-western Mediterranean Sea), where this activity is intensively practised. Density, size (test diameter), and biomass of both species were assessed in autumn 2004 at two locations impacted by P. lividus fishery, and at two controls within an adjacent Marine Protected Area. Density of P. lividus and A. lixula was significantly greater at the controls than at the exploited locations. The average test diameter of P. lividus was also significantly larger at the controls, where large-sized specimens (i.e. >5 cm) were notably more abundant. The average size of A. lixula did not significantly differ between the impacted locations and the controls. The average biomass of P. lividus was significantly greater at the controls than at the exploited locations, whereas no differences were detected for A. lixula. These results reveal the existence of a heavy fishing impact on P. lividus in North-western Sardinia and the need for regulation of its harvesting to prevent severe direct effects on its populations. Since no indirect effects on A. lixula have been detected, it could be hypothesized that this species did not benefit from P. lividus fishery due to an only moderate competition for habitat and resources between these two echinoids. Implications for management of edible sea urchin fishery are also discussed.
Pais, Antonio; Chessa, Lorenzo A.; Serra, Simone; Ruiu, Alberto; Meloni, Gianni; Donno, Yuri
We have used a Mediterranean hot spot of biodiversity (the Island of Sardinia) to investigate the impact of abiotic factors on the distribution of species of the common soil fungus Trichoderma. To this end, we isolated 482 strains of Hypocrea/Trichoderma from 15 soils comprising undisturbed and disturbed environments (forest, shrub lands and undisturbed or extensively grazed grass steppes respectively). Isolates were identified at the species level by the oligonucleotide BarCode for Hypocrea/Trichoderma (TrichOKEY), sequence similarity analysis (Trichoblast) and phylogenetic inferences. The majority of the isolates were positively identified as pan-European and/or pan-global Hypocrea/Trichoderma species from sections Trichoderma and Pachybasium, comprising H. lixii/T. harzianum, T. gamsii, T. spirale, T. velutinum, T. hamatum, H. koningii/T. koningii, H. virens/T. virens, T. tomentosum, H. semiorbis, H. viridescens/T. viridescens, H. atroviridis/T. atroviride, T. asperellum, H. koningiopsis/T. koningiopsis and Trichoderma sp. Vd2. Only one isolate represented a new, undescribed species belonging to the Harzianum-Catoptron Clade. Internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis revealed only one potentially endemic internal transcribed spacer 1 allele of T. hamatum. All other species exhibited genotypes that were already found in Eurasia or in other continents. Only few cases of correlation of species occurrence with abiotic factors were recorded. The data suggest a strong reduction of native Hypocrea/Trichoderma diversity, which was replaced by extensive invasion of species from Eurasia, Africa and the Pacific Basin. PMID:18764873
Migheli, Quirico; Balmas, Virgilio; Komoñ-Zelazowska, Monika; Scherm, Barbara; Fiori, Stefano; Kopchinskiy, Alexey G; Kubicek, Christian P; Druzhinina, Irina S
Previous studies performed on Sardinian patients affected by cystic fibrosis (CF) have led to the identification of molecular defects in 87 of 88 patients. Two mutations, the F508del and T338I, were quite prevalent and accounted for 50% and 20% of the molecular defects, respectively. T338I has been detected rarely in other populations, most likely because of the genetic isolation of Sardinians. In the present study, we have performed a molecular analysis of the CF gene in eight Sardinian patients in whom only a single mutation has been defined. Using DNA analyses (Southern blot, single nucleotide polymorphisms, microsatellite analyses, and Extra-Long polymerase chain reaction) selected to detect gross gene rearrangement and by using mRNA studies, we detected a novel mutation c.54-5811_164 + 2186del8108ins182 in six of the eight patients investigated. This mutation consists of a gross deletion of 8108 bp spanning exon 2 with an insertion of 182 bp at the deletion junction, between nucleotide 54-5811 of intron 1 (IVS1 nt16864) and nucleotide 164 + 2186 of intron 2 (IVS2 nt 2186). By including the novel mutation in our mutation panel we are now able to reach a 95% detection rate, thereby improving the process of carrier detection and genetic counseling in Sardinia.
Faa, Valeria; Bettoli, Pietro Pellegrini; Demurtas, Maria; Zanda, Maurizio; Ferri, Vincenzina; Cao, Antonio; Rosatelli, Maria Cristina
Within the Operational Project "PROTERINA-C" (a forecast and prevention system for climate change impacts on risk variability for wildlands and urban areas), co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) under the Italy-France Maritime Program, methods and strategies, already in use in the regions of Sardinia, Liguria and Corsica, for the predictions of wildlands fires have been developed and adapted; RISICO System, by CIMA Foundation which plays the role of technical and scientific support for the region of Liguria, used by the Italian National Civil Protection Department, is one of them. In such a prediction model of risk of wildlands fires it is arranged the integration, on a regional scale, of products related to the main meteorological, diagnostics and prognostics forcing measured by ground stations, weather radar and advanced limited area weather prediction models. With the aim to improve prediction of wildlands fires in Sardinia, an operational chain to insert in RISICO weather data provided in near-real time by the meteorological monitoring network has been designed and developed. In fact, the forecast errors can be reduced by conditioning the initial state of dynamic models of fuel moisture on the information obtained from sensors on land, at every time interval at which the fields of meteorological variables of interest are available. A dataset of wildlands fires occurred in Sardinia has been considered in order to valuate the system effectiveness; for these cases the developed setup has improved the fires risk assessment to respect a version of RISICO initialised only by a mesoscale numerical weather prediction model. In the present work the system setup, the configuration of the network of meteorological stations and some preliminary analysis results are argued.
Dessy, C.; Di Carlo, L.; Fois, G.; Fiorucci, P.; d'Andrea, M.; Trasforini, E.
This book examines the molecular biology, disease pathogenesis, epidemiology, and clinical features of hepadna and other viruses with hepatic tropism and outlines future directions and approaches for their management. The volume's six sections provide a review of the various features, mechanisms, and functions of these viruses, ranging from hepadna virus replication and regulation of gene expression to the structure and function of hepadna-virus gene products.
Robinson, W.; Koike, K.; Will, H.
Camelpox virus (CMLV) causes a smallpox-like illness in a unique host, the camel. The disease is enzootic in almost all regions where camel husbandry is practiced, and is responsible for severe economic losses. Although it is genetically the closest known virus to variola virus, the etiologic agent of smallpox, CMLV remains poorly studied. It is characterized by a narrow host
Sophie Duraffour; Hermann Meyer; Graciela Andrei; Robert Snoeck
The essential oils of Artemisia arborescens growing in Sardinia (Italy), collected during three plant growth stages, i.e., from the vegetative stage to post-blooming time, were characterized. Moreover, the in vitro antiproliferative and antioxidant activities of the oil isolated from aerial parts collected in February were evaluated. The essential oils belonged to the ?-thujone/chamazulene chemotype, notably with the highest amount of chamazulene (ca. 52%) ever detected up to now in the genus Artemisia and, in general, in essential oils. Quantitative variations in the oil composition were observed as the plant passes from the vegetative to the blooming stage. The oil was tested for its potential tumor cell growth-inhibitory effect on T98G, MDA-MB 435S, A375, and HCT116 human cell lines, using the MTT (=3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) assay. The highest activity was observed on A375 and HCT116 cell lines, with IC50 values of 14 ?g/ml. Moreover, the in vitro antioxidant and free radical-scavenging assays revealed the oil to be an effective scavenger of the ABTS radical cation, with an activity comparable to that of Trolox(®) . These results support the use of A. arborescens oil for the treatment of inflamed skin conditions. Finally, the composition of the polar fraction of the A. arborescens aerial parts was also examined, and the main component detected was 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, which was identified for the first time in this plant. PMID:23939794
Ornano, Luigi; Venditti, Alessandro; Ballero, Mauro; Sanna, Cinzia; Quassinti, Luana; Bramucci, Massimo; Lupidi, Giulio; Papa, Fabrizio; Vittori, Sauro; Maggi, Filippo; Bianco, Armanodoriano
Unusual orange ochre crusts were recently discovered in Crovassa Ricchi in Argento Cave (San Giovanni Mine, SW Sardinia). These speleothems appear covering the cave walls on hydrothermal calcite spars as well as filling widened spaces between calcite crystals. Planar crusts display geometrical forms following the boundaries between the calcite spars. EDXSEM microanalyses reveal that these deposits comprise substances of Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn and O that occur as solid inclusions in pits on the surface of altered calcite microcrystals. Micro-Raman spectroscopy analyses suggest the presence of calcite and ferromanganese oxides with a low degree of crystallinity. The genetic mechanism proposed for these speleothems describes an initial stage of precipitation of euhedral calcite crystals from warm water under subaqueous conditions. The crystal surfaces were eroded and corroded by colder aggressive water that smoothed the surfaces of the crystals and slightly widened the spaces between calcite spars. Metal-rich mud coming from alteration of bedrock and ore bodies filled the cave, also penetrating along the spaces between the calcite spars. When the water table fell below the cave level, part of the sediments was eroded but the cave walls remained covered with metal-rich clayey sediments. Under aerobic conditions, metals which were reduced in previous stages oxidized to oxides, lowering the pH and thus the crystal surface and the calcite planes between the spars were corroded. Subsequently, the polymetallic crusts became harder through evaporation within the cave, "fossilizing" the products of this process within the planes between spars. Finally, the exposed calcite surfaces continued to be altered due to CO2 diffusion into condensation water, while the boundaries between crystals were preserved against corrosion thanks to the crust coating. As a result, the external crystal edges protrude by several centimeters from the current cave wall, while the crystal surfaces are depressed, giving rise to calcite "ghosts".
Gázquez, Fernando; Calaforra, José-María; Forti, Paolo; De Waele, Jo; Sanna, Laura; Rull, Fernando; Sanz, Aurelio
A retrogressed eclogite lens ( metabasite from Punta Orvili, PO, near Posada south of Olbia) from Variscan NE Sardinia has proved to be the first case of WP basalt among the neighbouring tholeiitic metabasites with eclogite facies relics. The composition is characterized by SiO2: 44.89-47.57 wt %; Al2O3: 7.53-9.59 wt%; MgO: 12.94-14.35 wt%; Fe2O3tot : 13.25-15.13 wt%; Na2O: 0.75-1.38 wt%; K2O : 0.54-0.88 wt%; Cr: 550-870 ppm; Ni: 273-420 ppm; Mg#: 68.1-70.4. A thorough examination of the geochemical data in the light of the chemical changes induced by alteration and/or metamorphic processes allow to exclude any modification of the protolith geochemistry. High normative contents of mafic minerals suggest a picritic nature for the protolith. The enrichment factor is 60-180 times for LREE, 30-60 times for MREE and 10-20 times for HREE. The remarkable fractionation (LaN/SmN : 3.0-3.9; GdN/YbN : 3.2-3.6 and LaN/YbN : 13.7-18.2) produces steep chondrite normalized abundance patterns strongly contrasting with the flat to LREE-depleted patterns of the other Sardinian eclogite-derived metabasites. The prevalent mantle source is OIB-like as suggested by La/Nb : 0.77-0.94, La-Ta : 12.90-15.04, Ce/Nb : 1.59-1.84, Th/Nb: 0.10-0.11, all values far from those of average and upper crust. Isotopic values, calculated at 460 Ma, mean age of eclogite-derived metabasites from Sardinia, are: (87Sr/86Sr)i : 0.708891-0.709050; ?Sr : + 70-72; (143Nd/144Nd)i : 0.511966-0.511970; ?Nd: - 1.54 to - 1.47. The tholeiitic eclogite-derived samples from Posada Valley and from Punta de li Tulchi at 460 Ma are: (87Sr/86Sr)i : 0.704328 - 0.704460; ?Sr : +5.15 to +7.02; (143Nd/144Nd)i : 0.512275 - 0.512418; ?Nd: +4.48 to +7.28. The strongly anomalous isotopic values, the very high Ba (1045-2530 ppm), Pb (9-12 ppm), Cs (1.92-4.38 ppm) contents and the chondrite normalized abundance patterns with negative peak for Rb, K and Sr seem to suggest a possible interaction of the main OIB component with an enriched subcontinental litospheric mantle similar in composition to kimberlites Group II. An alternative end member for the interaction with OIB-derived melts could be a mantle source resembling the mafic and ultramafic xenoliths from Streap Comlaidh, Scotland (Menzies and Halliday, 1988) and from Middle Ordovician (465 Ma) Fuxian kimberlites, China (Zhang et al., 2008). The strong horizontal shift of the 87Sr/86Sr towards the right side of the mantle array has been observed elsewhere, e.g. in peridotite xenoliths from Spitzbergen Islands (Ionov et al., 2002). According to Ionov et al.(2002), this 'Sr-Nd isotopic decoupling' is a signature of metasomatic processes within the mantle source and is generated by chromatographic effects of melt percolation through the peridotite matrix. The geodynamic model here proposed is in agreement with the widely accepted hypothesis that eclogite-derived metabasites from NE Sardinia are not related to a wide ocean basin but represent the witness of the incipient opening of a marginal basin within a thinned continental crust or of an intracratonic basin generated during an Early to Middle Ordovician rifting episode. REFERENCES Ionov, D., Samuel, B., Mukasa, S.B., Bodinier, J.L. (2002): Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions of peridotite xenoliths from Spitsbergen: Numerical modelling indicates Sr-Nd decoupling in the mantle by melt percolation metasomatism. J. Petrol., 43, 2261-2278. Menzies, M. A. & Halliday, A. N. (1988): Lithospheric mantle domains beneath the Archean and Proterozoic crust of Scotland. J. Petrol. Spec. Lithosphere Issue 275-302. Zhang, H.F., Goldstein, S.L., Zhou, X.H., Sum, M., Zheng, J.P., Cai, Y. (2008): Evolution of subcontinental lithospheric mantle beneath eastern China: Re-Os isotopic evidence from mantle xenoliths in Paleozoic kimberlites and Mesozoic basalts. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 155, 271-293.
Cruciani, Gabriele; Dini, Andrea; Franceschelli, Marcello; Puxeddu, Mariano; Utzeri, Daniela
Air quality is a primary environmental concern in highly industrialised areas, with potential health effects in children residing nearby. The Sarroch industrial estate in Cagliari province, Sardinia Island, Italy, hosts the world's largest power plant and the second largest European oil refinery and petrochemical park. This industrial estate produces a complex mixture of air pollutants, including benzene, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Thus, we conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the prevalence of malondialdehyde-deoxyguanosine adducts in the nasal epithelium of 75 representative children, aged 6-14 years, attending primary and secondary schools in Sarroch in comparison with 73 rural controls. Additionally, the levels of bulky DNA adducts were analysed in a subset of 62 study children. DNA damage was measured by (32)P-postlabelling methodologies. The air concentrations of benzene and ethyl benzene were measured in the school gardens of Sarroch and a rural village by diffusive samplers. Outdoor measurements were also performed in other Sarroch areas and in the proximity of the industrial estate. The outdoor levels of benzene and ethyl benzene were significantly higher in the school gardens of Sarroch than in the rural village. Higher concentrations were also found in other Sarroch areas and in the vicinity of the industrial park. The mean levels of malondialdehyde-deoxyguanosine adducts per 10(8) normal nucleotides ± standard error (SE) were 74.6±9.1 and 34.1±4.4 in the children from Sarroch and the rural village, respectively. The mean ratio was 2.53, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.71-2.89, P < 0.001, versus rural controls. Similarly, the levels of bulky DNA adducts per 10(8) normal nucleotides ± SE were 2.9±0.4 and 1.6±0.2 in the schoolchildren from Sarroch and the rural village, respectively. The means ratio was 1.90, 95% CI: 1.25-2.89, P = 0.003 versus rural controls. Our study indicates that children residing near the industrial estate have a significant increment of DNA damage. PMID:23446175
Peluso, Marco; Munnia, Armelle; Ceppi, Marcello; Giese, Roger W; Catelan, Dolores; Rusconi, Franca; Godschalk, Roger W L; Biggeri, Annibale
Phytophthora sp. is a genus in the oomycetes, which are similar to filamentous fungi in morphology and habitat, but phylogenetically more closely related to brown algae and diatoms and fall in the kingdom Stramenopila. In the past few years, several viruses have been characterized in Phytophthora species, including four viruses from Phytophthora infestans, the late blight pathogen, and an endornavirus from an unnamed Phytophthora species from Douglas fir. Studies on Phytophthora viruses have revealed several interesting systems. Phytophthora infestans RNA virus 1 (PiRV-1) and PiRV-2 are likely the first members of two new virus families; studies on PiRV-3 support the establishment of a new virus genus that is not affiliated with established virus families; PiRV-4 is a member of Narnaviridae, most likely in the genus Narnavirus; and Phytophthora endornavirus 1 (PEV1) was the first nonplant endornavirus at the time of reporting. Viral capsids have not been found in any of the above-mentioned viruses. PiRV-1 demonstrated a unique genome organization that requires further examination, and PiRV-2 may have played a role in late blight resurgence in 1980s-1990s. PMID:23498912
Cai, Guohong; Hillman, Bradley I
Throughout the Mediterranean, salinization threatens water quality, especially in coastal areas. This salinization is the result of concomitant processes related to both seawater intrusion and water-rock interaction, which in some cases are virtually indistinguishable. In the Nurra region of northwestern Sardinia, recent salinization related to marine water intrusion has been caused by aquifer exploitation. However, the geology of this region records a long history from the Palaeozoic to the Quaternary, and is structurally complex and comprises a wide variety of lithologies, including Triassic evaporites. Determining the origin of the saline component of the Jurassic and Triassic aquifers in the Nurra region may provide a useful and more general model for salinization processes in the Mediterranean area, where the occurrence of evaporitic rocks in coastal aquifers is a common feature. In addition, due to intensive human activity and recent climatic change, the Nurra has become vulnerable to desertification and, in common with other Mediterranean islands, surface water resources periodically suffer from severe shortages. With this in mind, we report new data regarding brackish and surface waters (outcrop and lake samples) of the Na-Cl type from the Nurra region, including major ions and selected trace elements (B, Br, I, and Sr), in addition to isotopic data including ?18O, ?D in water, and ?34S and ?18O in dissolved SO4. To identify the origin of the salinity more precisely, we also analysed the mineralogical and isotopic composition of Triassic evaporites. The brackish waters have Cl contents of up to 2025 mg L-1 , and the ratios between dissolved ions and Cl, with the exception of the Br / Cl ratio, are not those expected on the basis of simple mixing between rainwater and seawater. The ?18O and ?D data indicate that most of the waters fall between the regional meteoric water line and the global meteoric water line, supporting the conclusion that they are meteoric in origin. A significant consequence of the meteoric origin of the Na-Cl-type water studied here is that the Br / Cl ratio, extensively used to assess the origin of salinity in fresh water, should be used with care in carbonate aquifers that are near the coast. Overall, ?34S and ?18O levels in dissolved SO4 suggest that water-rock interaction is responsible for the Na-Cl brackish composition of the water hosted by the Jurassic and Triassic aquifers of the Nurra, and this is consistent with the geology and lithological features of the study area. Evaporite dissolution may also explain the high Cl content, as halite was detected within the gypsum deposits. Finally, these Na-Cl brackish waters are undersaturated with respect to the more soluble salts, implying that in a climate evolving toward semi-arid conditions, the salinization process could intensify dramatically in the near future.
Mongelli, G.; Monni, S.; Oggiano, G.; Paternoster, M.; Sinisi, R.
Ganjam virus (GANV), a member of genus Nairovirus of family Bunyavirdae is of considerable veterinary importance in India. Though, predominantly tick borne, GANV was also isolated from mosquitoes, man and sheep. Neutralizing and complement fixing antibodies to GANV have been detected in animal and human sera collected from different parts of the country. Thirty three strains of GANV have been isolated from India, mainly from Haemaphysalis ticks. The virus replicated in certain vertebrate and mosquito cell lines and found pathogenic to laboratory animals. One natural infection and five laboratory-acquired infections in men were also reported. GANV is antigenically related to Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) of Africa, which is highly pathogenic for sheep and goats causing 70-90 per cent mortality among the susceptible population. Recent molecular studies have demonstrated that GANV is an Asian variant of NSDV and both these viruses are related to the dreaded Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) group viruses. The versatility of the virus to replicate in different arthropod species, its ability to infect sheep, goat and man makes it an important zoonotic agent. PMID:20090098
Sudeep, A B; Jadi, R S; Mishra, A C
Following the first incursion of bluetongue virus (BTV) into Italy, the geographical and seasonal distribution of the biting midge Culicoides imicola Kieffer (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), the main vector of BTV and African horse sickness virus, was investigated in two regions of central Italy (Lazio and Tuscany). Surveillance of Culicoides was carried out between July 2001 and December 2002 using light traps: 1917 collections were made in 381 trap sites, well distributed across both regions. During the survey, bluetongue outbreaks were recorded in both regions. Culicoides imicola was found in 89 (23%) trap sites, distributed fairly continuously along the whole western coastline, between 41.2697 degrees N and 44.05724 degrees N. It was found only occasionally inland and usually in low abundance, with catches of more than 1000 specimens per night found in only two sample sites and 74% of catches numbering fewer than 10 specimens. Adults were caught from March to mid December, with peaks ranging from the end of August to mid November. The coastal distribution and the presence of only few sites with year-round records of adult vectors suggests that colonization may have occurred recently, by passive wind-dispersal from external source areas (Sardinia and Corsica). Alternatively, the species may occur in established, previously undetected, autochthonous populations that are limited from extension inland and northern-ward within Lazio and Tuscany by cool winter temperatures. PMID:14651652
De Liberato, C; Purse, B V; Goffredo, M; Scholl, F; Scaramozzino, P
Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV) were first discovered in the late 1950s. Over the last decade, considerable knowledge about their molecular structure and function has been accumulated. This has led to significant changes in both the nomenclature and taxonomic relationships of these viruses. HPIV is genetically and antigenically divided into types 1 to 4. Further major subtypes of HPIV-4 (A and B) and subgroups/genotypes of HPIV-1 and HPIV-3 have been described. HPIV-1 to HPIV-3 are major causes of lower respiratory infections in infants, young children, the immunocompromised, the chronically ill, and the elderly. Each subtype can cause somewhat unique clinical diseases in different hosts. HPIV are enveloped and of medium size (150 to 250 nm), and their RNA genome is in the negative sense. These viruses belong to the Paramyxoviridae family, one of the largest and most rapidly growing groups of viruses causing significant human and veterinary disease. HPIV are closely related to recently discovered megamyxoviruses (Hendra and Nipah viruses) and metapneumovirus.
Henrickson, Kelly J.
Camelpox virus (CMLV) causes a smallpox-like illness in a unique host, the camel. The disease is enzootic in almost all regions where camel husbandry is practiced, and is responsible for severe economic losses. Although it is genetically the closest known virus to variola virus, the etiologic agent of smallpox, CMLV remains poorly studied. It is characterized by a narrow host range, the capacity to induce giant cells in culture and to counteract host immune defenses; however, the genetic bases associated with these features are not understood. Also, it still needs to be demonstrated whether CMLV strains of variable virulence circulate and how arthropod vectors might be involved in virus transmission. Current evidence indicates that, under certain circumstances, CMLV can be mildly pathogenic in humans. A reservoir host other than camels is unlikely to exist. We review here current knowledge of CMLV, including clinical and laboratory aspects of the disease. We also discuss prevention and therapy by use of vaccines and antiviral treatments, as well as the possibility of camelpox eradication. PMID:21945248
Duraffour, Sophie; Meyer, Hermann; Andrei, Graciela; Snoeck, Robert
Images of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Disease. Vesicular stomatitis viruses (VSV) are in the family Rhabdoviridae and the genus Vesiculovirus and are enveloped viruses with bullet-shaped capsids.
American Society For Microbiology;
An attenuated influenza virus of a first strain is described together with a method for preparing the attenuated influenza virus. The attenuated influenza virus of the first strain comprises a sufficient number of single strand RNA segments of negative po...
P. Palese T. Muster B. R. Murphy M. Enami M. Bergmann
There has been much recent algorithmic work on the problem of reconstructing the evolutionary history of biological species. Computer virus specialists are interested in finding the evolutionary history of computer viruses--a virus is often written using ...
L. A. Goldberg P. W. Goldberg C. A. Phillips G. B. Sorkin
Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material.
J. Snyder; B. Wiedenheft; M. Lavin; F. Roberto; J. Spuhler; A. Ortmann; T. Douglas; M. Young
Soon after the discovery that viruses cause human disease, started the idea of using viruses to treat cancer. After the initial indiscriminate use, crude preparations of each novel virus in the early twentieth century, a second wave of virotherapy blossomed in the 60s with purified and selected viruses. Responses were rare and short-lived. Immune rejection of the oncolytic viruses was identified as the major problem and virotherapy was abandoned. During the past two decades virotherapy has re-emerged with engineered viruses, with a trend towards using them as tumor-debulking immunostimulatory agents combined with radio or chemotherapy. Currently, oncolytic Reovirus, Herpes, and Vaccinia virus are in late phase clinical trials. Despite the renewed hope, efficacy will require improving systemic tumor targeting, overcoming stroma barriers for virus spread, and selectively stimulating immune responses against tumor antigens but not against the virus. Virotherapy history, viruses, considerations for clinical trials, and hurdles are briefly overviewed. PMID:23143950
The West Nile virus (WNV) belongs to the genus Flavivirus (family Flaviviridae) and was previously classified as a group B\\u000a arbovirus. These disease-causing pathogens are spread to humans by insects, usually mosquitoes. Other flaviviruses include\\u000a the Yellow fever virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, dengue virus, and the Saint Louis encephalitis virus (see sections on\\u000a flaviviruses in Chapters 19 and 23). The
Vassil St. Georgiev
Influenza viruses and pneumotropic animal viruses are characterized. The morphology, pathology and immunology of these viruses are discussed. A classification of species and types is given for the pneumotropic animal viruses. The epidemiology and mode of ...
V. M. Zhadanov
Sediment features, macrozoobenthic assemblages and trophic relationships (delta13C and delta15N analysis) following a dystrophic event with anoxia and sulphide development in the Santa Giusta lagoon (western Sardinia, Italy).
Macrozoobenthic assemblages and stable carbon (delta(13)C) and nitrogen (delta(15)N) isotope values of various primary producers (macroalgae and angiosperms) and consumers (macroinvertebrate filter/suspension feeders, deposit feeders, detritivores/omnivores and carnivores and fishes) were studied in the Santa Giusta lagoon (Sardinia, Italy) before (spring) and after (autumn) a dystrophic event which occurred in the summer of 2004. A few days after the dystrophy, the physico-chemical characteristics of sediments and macrozoobenthic assemblages were also investigated. In the latter occasion, high total organic carbon (3.9%) and organic matter (15.9%) contents of surface sediments went together with peaks in acid-volatile sulphide concentrations. Certain immediate effects were quite extreme, such as the drastic reduction in macrozoobenthos and the massive fish kill in August 2004. Among the macrozoobenthos, there were few individuals of chironomid larvae and Capitella cf. capitata left. However, by October, chironomid larvae were numerous, indicating a lack of predators (e.g. fish) and competitors. In addition, some bivalve species and polychaetes which were absent, or present in small numbers before the event, became relatively numerous. The results are discussed based on a knowledge of the sulphide tolerance of these species. Stable isotope analysis clearly showed that the basal level of the food web for most consumers consisted mainly of macroalgae and sedimentary organic matter, and that the values before and after the dystrophic event were not significantly different from one another. This indicates that the relations among different trophic levels were quickly restored following the dystrophic event. PMID:18093619
Magni, P; Rajagopal, S; van der Velde, G; Fenzi, G; Kassenberg, J; Vizzini, S; Mazzola, A; Giordani, G
Viruses exist wherever life is found. They are a major cause of mortality, a driver of global geochemical cycles and a reservoir of the greatest genetic diversity on Earth. In the oceans, viruses probably infect all living things, from bacteria to whales. They affect the form of available nutrients and the termination of algal blooms. Viruses can move between marine and terrestrial reservoirs, raising the spectre of emerging pathogens. Our understanding of the effect of viruses on global systems and processes continues to unfold, overthrowing the idea that viruses and virus-mediated processes are sidebars to global processes. PMID:16163346
Suttle, Curtis A
Viruses exist wherever life is found. They are a major cause of mortality, a driver of global geochemical cycles and a reservoir of the greatest genetic diversity on Earth. In the oceans, viruses probably infect all living things, from bacteria to whales. They affect the form of available nutrients and the termination of algal blooms. Viruses can move between marine and terrestrial reservoirs, raising the spectre of emerging pathogens. Our understanding of the effect of viruses on global systems and processes continues to unfold, overthrowing the idea that viruses and virus-mediated processes are sidebars to global processes.
Suttle, Curtis A.
The invention relates, in general, to chimeric dengue viruses. In particular, the invention relates to chimeric dengue viruses and vaccines comprising same. Further, the invention relates to segments of dengue viral DNA.
C. J. Lai M. Bray
This book contains eight chapters. Some of the titles are: Initiation of viral DNA replication; Vaccinia: virus, vector, vaccine; The pre-S region of hepadnavirus envelope proteins; and Archaebacterial viruses.
Maramorosch, K. (Rutgers--the State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (USA)); Murphy, F.A. (Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA (USA)); Shatkin, A.J. (Rutgers-UMDNJ, Piscataway, NJ (US))
The invention is related generally to the isolation and characterization of a new virus. More particularly, it is related to providing a biologically pure, isolated human B lymphotropic virus, molecular clones, nucleic acid, distinctive antigenic proteins...
This book contains papers on the following topics: Immunology and Epidemiology, Biology and Pathogenesis, Models of Pathogenesis and Treatment, Simian and Bovine Retroviruses, Human Papilloma Viruses, EBV and Herpesvirus, and Hepatitis B Virus.
Gallo, R.C.; Haseltine, W.; Klein, G.; Zur Hausen, H.
This book contains 14 selections. Some of the titles are: Immortalising gene(s) encoded by Epstein-Barr Virus; Adenovirus genes involved in transformation. What determines the oncogenic phenotype.; Oncogenesis by mouse mammary tumour virus; and Transforming ras genes.
Rigby, P.W.J.; Wilkie, N.M.
Good introduction and synopsis of West Nile Virus. Briefly reporting on such topics as geographic distribution, symptoms and treatment, transmission and prevention. The article includes a list of references for further investigation into the West Nile Virus.
One of the few solid theoretical results in the study of computer viruses is Cohen's 1987 demonstration that there is no algorithm that can perfectly detect all possible viruses . This brief paper adds to the bad news, by pointing out that there are computer viruses which no algorithm can detect, even under a somewhat more liberal definition of detection.
David M. Chess; Steve R. White
The destruction made by nuclear, biological and chemical weapons used by governments and terrorist groups in the near history is posing anxiety and fear for human being. Rumour about the possible use of these agents leads to the development of serious negative effects on populations. Since there are no vaccine and therapy for most viral agents and cost of production as biological weapons is low, interest rate is rising for viruses. In this review, general characteristics, diagnosis, therapy and protective measures for viral agents such as variola virus, hemorrhagic fever viruses, encephalitis viruses, Hantaviruses and Nipah viruses, those can be used as biological weapon, have been summarized. PMID:16358499
Bananas and other Musa spp. are affected by fi ve known, relatively well-characterized viruses: these are Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) genus Nanavirus; Banana streak virus (BSV) genus Badnavirus, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) genus Cucumovi- rus, Banana bract mosaic virus (BBrMV) genus Potyvirus, and Abaca mosaic virus (AbaMV) genus Potyvirus. Recently, new fi lamentous virus particles have been noted in
G. Pietersen; J. E. Thomas
Archaeal viruses represent one of the least known territory of the viral universe and even less is known about their lipids. Based on the current knowledge, however, it seems that, as in other viruses, archaeal viral lipids are mostly incorporated into membranes that reside either as outer envelopes or membranes inside an icosahedral capsid. Mechanisms for the membrane acquisition seem to be similar to those of viruses infecting other host organisms. There are indications that also some proteins of archaeal viruses are lipid modified. Further studies on the characterization of lipids in archaeal viruses as well as on their role in virion assembly and infectivity require not only highly purified viral material but also, for example, constant evaluation of the adaptability of emerging technologies for their analysis. Biological membranes contain proteins and membranes of archaeal viruses are not an exception. Archaeal viruses as relatively simple systems can be used as excellent tools for studying the lipid protein interactions in archaeal membranes.
Roine, Elina; Bamford, Dennis H.
Viruses are compact biological nanoparticles whose elastic and dynamical properties are hardly known. Inelastic (Brillouin) light scattering was used to characterize these properties, from microcrystals of the Satellite Tobacco Mosaic Virus, a nearly spherical plant virus of 17-nm diameter. Longitudinal sound velocities in wet and dry Satellite Tobacco Mosaic Virus crystals were determined and compared to that of the well-known protein crystal, lysozyme. Localized vibrational modes of the viral particles (i.e., particle modes) were sought in the relevant frequency ranges, as derived assuming the viruses as full free nanospheres. Despite very favorable conditions, regarding virus concentration and expected low damping in dry microcrystals, no firm evidence of virus particle modes could be detected.
Stephanidis, B.; Adichtchev, S.; Gouet, P.; McPherson, A.; Mermet, A.
Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV) and Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) are part of a complex of closely related viruses from the Family Dicistroviridae. These viruses have a widespread prevalence in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies and a predominantly sub-clinical etiology that contrasts sharply with the extremely virulent pathology encountered at elevated titres, either artificially induced
Joachim R. de Miranda; Guido Cordoni; Giles Budge
Water samples collected from four perennially ice-covered Antarctic lakes during the austral summer of 1996-1997 contained high densities of extracellular viruses. Many of these viruses were found to be morphologically similar to double-stranded DNA viruses that are known to infect algae and protozoa. These constitute the first observations of viruses in perennially ice-covered polar lakes. The abundance of planktonic viruses and data suggesting substantial production potential (relative to bacteria] secondary and photosynthetic primary production) indicate that viral lysis may be a major factor in the regulation of microbial populations in these extreme environments. Furthermore, we suggest that Antarctic lakes may be a reservoir of previously undescribed viruses that possess novel biological and biochemical characteristics. PMID:11543124
Kepner, R L; Wharton, R A; Suttle, C A
There has been much recent algorithmic work on the problem of reconstructing the evolutionary history of biological species. Computer virus specialists are interested in finding the evolutionary history of computer viruses--a virus is often written using code fragments from one or more other viruses, which are its immediate ancestors. A phylogeny for a collection of computer viruses is a directed acyclic graph whose nodes are the viruses and whose edges map ancestors to descendants and satisfy the property that each code fragment is ``invented`` only once. To provide a simple explanation for the data, we consider the problem of constructing such a phylogeny with a minimal number of edges. In general, this optimization problem cannot be solved in quasi-polynomial time unless NQP=QP; we present positive and negative results for associated approximated problems. When tree solutions exist, they can be constructed and randomly sampled in polynomial time.
Goldberg, L.A. [Warwick Univ., Coventry (United Kingdom) Dept. of Computer Science; Goldberg, P.W. [Aston Univ., Birmingham (United Kingdom) Dept. of Applied Mathematics; Phillips, C.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sorkin, G.B. [International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (United States). Thomas J. Watson Research Center
The technologies of recombinant gene expression have greatly enhanced the structural and functional analyses of genetic elements\\u000a and proteins. Vaccinia virus, a large double-stranded DNA virus and the prototypic and best characterized member of the poxvirus\\u000a family, has been an instrumental tool among these technologies and the recombinant vaccinia virus system has been widely employed\\u000a to express genes from eukaryotic,
Christopher C. Broder; Patricia L. Earl
This page contains lecture notes on the origins and evolution of viruses. The primary topics covered are the diversity of extant viruses, the probability of multiple origins, and host-virus co-evolution. There are links to definitions and further explanations by the author, as well as to articles or discussions in Scientific American, MicrobiologyBytes, and Viroblogy. This page originates from an undergraduate course, but most information would be accessible to high school students.
Rybicki, Ed; Town, University O.
Most of the 25 viruses found in globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) and cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) were recorded from Europe and the Mediterranean basin, where they decrease both the productivity and the quality of the crop. Although, sometimes, these viruses are agents of diseases of different severity, most often their infections are symptomless. These conditions have contributed to spread virus-infected material since farmers multiply traditional artichoke types vegetatively with no effective selection of virus-free plants. This review reports the main properties of these viruses and the techniques used for their detection and identification. ELISA kits are commercially available for most of the viruses addressed in this review but have seldom been used for their detection in artichoke. Conversely, nucleic acid-based diagnostic reagents, some of which are commercially available, have successfully been employed to identify some viruses in artichoke sap. Control measures mainly use virus-free stocks for new plantations. A combined procedure of meristem-tip culture and thermotherapy proved useful for producing virus-free regenerants of the reflowering southern Italian cultivar Brindisino, which kept earliness and typical heads shape. PMID:22682171
Gallitelli, Donato; Mascia, Tiziana; Martelli, Giovanni P
This Web site contains the most recent West Nile virus data from the Centers for Disease Control. The main features include a 2003 Human Case Count and updated maps representing the spread of the virus. A downloadable document outlines the CDC's West Nile virus surveillance and control program, which involves weekly data collection for wild birds, sentinel chicken flocks, human cases, veterinary cases, and mosquito surveillance. The site also provides links to general information about the virus, from the ecology and virology of West Nile to epidemiological and laboratory issues.
The term papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) was coined by Jensen in 1949, to describe a papaya disease in Hawaii. Later work showed that diseases such as papaya mosaic and watermelon mosaic virus-1 were caused by PRSV. The primary host range of PRSV is papaya and cucurbits, with Chenopium amaranticolor ...
Papaya ringspot virus, a member of the family Potyviridae, is single stranded RNA plant virus with a monocistronic genome of about 10,326 nucleotides that is expressed via a large polyprotein subsequently cleaved into functional proteins. It causes severe damage on cucurbit crops such as squash and...
The availability of reliable models of computer virus propa- gation would prove useful in a number of ways, in order both to predict future threats, and to develop new containment measures. In this pa- per, we review the most popular models of virus propagation, analyzing the underlying assumptions of each of them, their strengths and their weaknesses. We also introduce
Giuseppe Serazzi; Stefano Zanero
Infections with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) result in significant economic losses for beef and dairy producers worldwide. BVDV is actually an umbrella term for two species of viruses, BVDV1 and BVDV2, within the Pestivirus genus of the Flavivirus family. While denoted as a bovine pathogen...
Recombination contributes to the generation of genetic diversity in human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) but can only occur between viruses replicating within the same cell. Since individuals have not been found to be simultaneously coinfected with multiple divergent strains of HIV-1 or HIV-2, recombination events have been thought to be restricted to the rather closely related members of the quasispecies that
David L. Robertson; Beatrice H. Hahn; Paul M. Sharp
Deformed wing virus (DWV; Iflaviridae) is one of many viruses infecting honeybees and one of the most heavily investigated due to its close association with honeybee colony collapse induced by Varroadestructor. In the absence of V.destructor DWV infection does not result in visible symptoms or any apparent negative impact on host fitness. However, for reasons that are still not fully
Joachim R. de Miranda; Elke Genersch
This page is part of a web site that was created as a tutorial for an introductory virology class for college level microbiology students. It includes links to definitions of virus, virions, other virus-like-agents, and organisms, as well as the "definition of life".
DNA recombinant technology has radically changed hepatitis B virus (HBV) virology. The genetic organization, transcription and replication of the virus are basically understood, structures of integrated HBV sequences in hepatocellular carcinoma have been characterized, and new vaccines produced by recombinant DNA technique are being developed.
Pierre Tiollais; Christine Pourcel; Anne Dejean
Genital warts are believed to be caused by human papilloma viruses and to be sexually transmitted. The viruses are classified by DNA types, which appear to cause different types of disease. The choice of treatment, and usually its success rate, vary according to the type of disease and its location.
Wright, V. Cecil
More than 50% of the outbreaks of waterborne disease in the United States are due to the consumption of contaminated groundwater. An estimated 65% of the cases in these outbreaks are caused by enteric viruses. Little, however, is known about the persistence of viruses in groundwater. The purpose of this study was to determine whether measurable chemical and physical factors correlate with virus survival in groundwater. Groundwater samples were obtained from 11 sites throughout the United States. Water temperature was measured at the time of collection. Several physical and chemical characteristics, including pH, nitrates, turbidity, and hardness, were determined for each sample. Separate water samples were inoculated with each of three viruses (poliovirus 1, echovirus 1, and MS-2 coliphage) and incubated at the in situ groundwater temperature; selected samples were also incubated at other temperatures. Assays were performed at predetermined intervals over a 30-day period to determine the number of infective viruses remaining. Multiple regression analysis revealed that temperature was the only variable significantly correlated with the decay rates of all three viruses. No significant differences were found among the decay rates of the three viruses, an indication that MS-2 coliphage might be used as a model of animal virus survival in groundwater.
Yates, M V; Gerba, C P; Kelley, L M
The current paradigm on the nature of viruses is based on early work of the phage group (the pro-phage concept) and molecular biologists working on tumour viruses (the proto-oncogene concept). It posits that viruses evolved from either prokaryotic or eukaryotic cellular genes that became infectious via their association with capsid genes. In this view, after their emergence viruses continued to
Schmallenberg virus (SBV), an orthobunyavirus of the Simbu serogroup, recently emerged in Europe and has been suggested to be a Shamonda/Sathuperi virus reassortant. Results of full-genome and serologic investigations indicate that SBV belongs to the species Sathuperi virus and is a possible ancestor of the reassortant Shamonda virus.
Goller, Katja V.; Hoper, Dirk; Schirrmeier, Horst; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.
Objective: Based on a small sample of cases with schizophrenia and control individuals from an isolated population, a genome-wide association study was undertaken to find variants conferring susceptibility to this disease. Methods: Standard association tests were employed, followed by newer multilocus association methods (genotype patterns). Results: Individually, no variant produced a significant result. However, the best two variants (rs1360382 on
Jurg Ott; Fabio Macciardi; Yuanyuan Shen; Mauro G. Carta; Andrea Murru; Riccardo Triunfo; Renato Robledo; Antoniettina Rinaldi; Licinio Contu; Marcello Siniscalco
In this paper we argue that the strength of intergenerational relationships in Italy is one important element in understanding low fertility in this country, but that the role that family plays in a couples fertility decisions needs to be understood in light of the wider context of normative influences on life-course transitions. While choices about childbearing rest with the couple,
Laura Bernardi; Anna Oppo
Cells are equipped with mechanisms that allow them to rapidly detect and respond to viruses. These defense mechanisms rely partly on receptors that monitor the cytosol for the presence of atypical nucleic acids associated with virus infection. RIG-I-like receptors detect RNA molecules that are absent from the uninfected host. DNA receptors alert the cell to the abnormal presence of that nucleic acid in the cytosol. Signaling by RNA and DNA receptors results in the induction of restriction factors that prevent virus replication and establish cell-intrinsic antiviral immunity. In light of these formidable obstacles, viruses have evolved mechanisms of evasion, masking nucleic acid structures recognized by the host, sequestering themselves away from the cytosol or targeting host sensors, and signaling adaptors for deactivation or degradation. Here, we detail recent advances in the molecular understanding of cytosolic nucleic acid detection and its evasion by viruses. PMID:23706667
Goubau, Delphine; Deddouche, Safia; Reis E Sousa, Caetano
Recent studies on virus discovery have focused mainly on mammalian and avian viruses. Arbovirology with its long tradition of ecologically oriented investigation is now catching up, with important novel insights into the diversity of arthropod-associated viruses. Recent discoveries include taxonomically outlying viruses within the families Flaviviridae, Togaviridae, and Bunyaviridae, and even novel virus families within the order Nidovirales. However, the current focusing of studies on blood-feeding arthropods has restricted the range of arthropod hosts analyzed for viruses so far. Future investigations should include species from other arthropod taxa than Ixodita, Culicidae and Phlebotominae in order to shed light on the true diversity of arthropod viruses. PMID:23850098
Junglen, Sandra; Drosten, Christian
|Viruses have evolved strategies for infecting all taxa, but most viruses are highly specific about their cellular host. In humans, viruses cause diverse diseases, from chronic but benign warts, to acute and deadly hemorrhagic fever. Viruses have entertaining names like Zucchini Yellow Mosaic, Semliki Forest, Coxsackie, and the original
What is hepatitis B virus? Hepatitis B virus is one of a number of hepatitis viruses that attack and damage the liver. Other types include hepatitis A, ... upper-right side of your abdomen. How is hepatitis B transmitted? Hepatitis B virus is passed from ...
Oncolytic virotherapy is a promising form of gene therapy for cancer, employing nature's own agents to find and destroy malignant cells. The purpose of this review is to provide an introduction to this very topical field of research and to point out some of the current observations, insights and ideas circulating in the literature. We have strived to acknowledge as many different oncolytic viruses as possible to give a broader picture of targeting cancer using viruses. Some of the newest additions to the panel of oncolytic viruses include the avian adenovirus, foamy virus, myxoma virus, yaba-like disease virus, echovirus type 1, bovine herpesvirus 4, Saimiri virus, feline panleukopenia virus, Sendai virus and the non-human coronaviruses. Although promising, virotherapy still faces many obstacles that need to be addressed, including the emergence of virus-resistant tumor cells. PMID:17383089
Vähä-Koskela, Markus J V; Heikkilä, Jari E; Hinkkanen, Ari E
Students simulate the spread of a virus such as HIV through a population by âsharingâ (but not drinking) the water in a plastic cup with several classmates. Although invisible, the water in a few of the cups will already be tainted with the âvirusâ (sodium carbonate). After all the students have shared their liquids, the contents of the cups will be tested for the virus with phenolphthalein, a chemical that causes a striking color change in the presence of sodium carbonate. Students will then set about trying to determine which of their classmates were the ones originally infected with the virus.
Engineering K-Ph.d. Program
...Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine...this paragraph. (i) Eight bovine virus diarrhea susceptible...after the last vaccination, blood samples shall be drawn and the...samples inactivated and tested for bovine virus diarrhea virus...
...Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine...this paragraph. (i) Eight bovine virus diarrhea susceptible...after the last vaccination, blood samples shall be drawn and the...samples inactivated and tested for bovine virus diarrhea virus...
Dengue, a major public health problem throughout subtropical and tropical regions, is an acute infectious disease characterized by biphasic fever, headache, pain in various parts of the body, prostration, rash, lymphadenopathy, and leukopenia. In more severe or complicated dengue, patients present with a severe febrile illness characterized by abnormalities of hemostasis and increased vascular permeability, which in some instances results in a hypovolemic shock. Four distinct serotypes of the dengue virus (dengue-1, dengue-2, dengue-3, and dengue-4) exist, with numerous virus strains found worldwide. Molecular cloning methods have led to a greater understanding of the structure of the RNA genome and definition of virus-specific structural and nonstructural proteins. Progress towards producing safe, effective dengue virus vaccines, a goal for over 45 years, has been made. Images
Henchal, E A; Putnak, J R
Linda Stannard of the University of Capetown, South Africa, has composed a page which, although it was intended to serve as an introductory manual for students of virology, can be appreciated by a wide audience. A section on the principles of virus architecture uses text and outstanding graphics to provide an introduction to why viruses look the way they do. Other parts of the site emphasize how virus shapes and structures are "seen" and recorded with sections on negative staining and electron microscopy of DNA- and RNA-containing viruses. This site's success relies on the use of well-chosen graphics and the inclusion of interesting factoids such as the following: "The head of a dress-maker's pin can provide seating accommodation for five hundred million rhinoviruses (cause of the common cold)!".
... Approval of new bulk manufacturing facility for production of Influenza Virus Vaccine. -. Key Resources. ... Key Links. Flu.gov. -. Contact FDA. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/safetyavailability/vaccinesafety
... Rubella Virus Vaccine Live. -. Product. MERUVAX II Merck & Co, Inc. -. Contact FDA. (800) 835-4709. (301) 827-1800. ocod ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/vaccines/approvedproducts
This book chapter describes the taxonomic classification of Simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV). Included are: host, genome, classification, morphology, physicochemical and physical properties, nucleic acid, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, geographic range, phylogenetic properties, biological pro...
The invention provides new methods for purifying and concentrating viruses. The inventors have discovered that high molecular weight proteoglycans present in retroviral stocks are co-concentrated with the retroviruses, and can inhibit retroviral transduct...
J. M. LeDoux M. L. Yarmush J. R. Morgan
Those who wish for an antivirus program that is both versatile and reliable should definitely consider this latest iteration of the AVG Anti-Virus program. With this program, visitors can be assured that AVG will look for new virus definitions on a daily basis and that it will also create an effective rescue disk in case a dire situation emerges. This website features a number of archived versions of the AVG software for users to choose from.
West Nile virus (WNV) is a small RNA virus. It was first isolated in the blood of a febrile woman in the West Nile district\\u000a of Uganda in 1937. Although WNV has caused human disease in Africa and Europe since its identification, the first documented\\u000a human infections occurred in the United States in 1999. Wild birds are the reservoir for
James L. Dean; Brandon J. Palermo
The association between human enteric viruses and disease is well established. However, determining the presence of all of\\u000a the many types of viruses that are pathogenic to humans in food and water is not practical at this time. Because enteric bacteria\\u000a are usual inhabitants of the human intestinal tract, they have been used as indicators of fecal pollution and the
Samuel R. Farrah
Oncogenic viruses of nonhuman primates were reviewed. Viruses of nonhuman primate origin oncogenic in other nonhuman primates includes Herpesvirus saimiri and ateles, simian sarcoma virus, Yaba poxvirus, and oral papilloma virus. SV-40 and simian adenovir...
C. P. Raflo
Pyrosequencing data and phylogenetic analysis for the full genome of Ilesha virus, Ngari virus and Calovo virus are described clarifying their much discussed relationship within the species Bunyamwera virus of the genus Orthobunyavirus of the Bunyaviridae. PMID:23686694
Dilcher, Meik; Sall, Amadou A; Hufert, Frank T; Weidmann, Manfred
Over the past several years a wide variety of molecular assays for the detection of respiratory viruses has reached the market. The tests described herein range from kits containing primers and probes detecting specific groups of viruses, to self-contained systems requiring specialized instruments that extract nucleic acids and perform the polymerase chain reaction with little operator input. Some of the tests target just the viruses involved in large yearly epidemics such as influenza, or specific groups of viruses such as the adenoviruses or parainfluenza viruses; others can detect most of the known respiratory viruses and some bacterial agents. PMID:23931834
Buller, Richard S
The coding sequences for the hepatitis B virus surface antigen, the herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D, and the influenza virus hemagglutinin were inserted into a single vaccinia virus genome. Rabbits inoculated intravenously or intradermally with this polyvalent vaccinia virus recombinant produced antibodies reactive to all three authentic foreign antigens. In addition, the feasibility of multiple rounds of vaccination with recombinant vaccinia virus was demonstrated.
Perkus, Marion E.; Piccini, Antonia; Lipinskas, Bernard R.; Paoletti, Enzo
Short-term cultures of bovine leukemic lymphocytes release virus particles with biochemical properties of RNA oncogenic viruses. These particles, tentatively called bovine leukemia virus (BLV), have a high molecular weight RNA-reverse transcriptase complex and a density of 1.155 g\\/ml in sucrose solutions. Molecular hybridizations between BLV [3H]cDNA and several viral RNAs show that BLV is not related to Mason-Pfizer monkey virus,
R. Kettmann; D. Portetelle; M. Mammerickx; Y. Cleuter; D. Dekegel; M. Galoux; J. Ghysdael; A. Burny; H. Chantrenne
Background: Pestiviruses are the veterinary viruses with genome homology to human hepatitis C virus (HCV). This group includes classical swine fever virus (CSFV), border disease virus of sheep (BDV) and bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV). There are some similarities in the pathology of all three virus infections; in utero transmission to the foetus can cause early embryonic losses, severe congenital
J Brownlie; L. B Hooper; I Thompson; M. E Collins
SUMMARY Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) grown in mouse embryo cells pre-infected with murine sarcoma virus or in chicken cells pre-infected with avian myeloblastosis virus contains, in contrast to virus grown in corresponding control cells, a proportion of virus resistant to antiserum against VSV. Infectivity of this virus fraction can specifically be neutralized with antiserum against murine leukaemia virus (MLV) and
More than 500 million people worldwide are persistently infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and\\/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) and are at risk of developing chronic liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite many common features in the pathogenesis of HBV- and HCV-related liver disease, these viruses markedly differ in their virological properties and in their immune escape and
Michelina Nascimbeni; Barbara Rehermann
Screening investigations in antiviral action of plant extracts have revealed that a component of Glycyrrhiza glabra roots, found to be glycyrrhizic acid, is active against viruses. We report here that this drug inhibits growth and cytopathology of several unrelated DNA and RNA viruses, while not affecting cell activity and ability to replicate. In addition, glycyrrhizic acid inactivates herpes simplex virus
Raffaello Pompei; Ornella Flore; Maria Antonietta Marccialis; Alessandra Pani; Bernardo Loddo
Viruses occupy a unique position in biology. Although they possess some of the properties of living systems such as having a genome, they are actually nonliving infectious entities and should not be considered microorganisms. A clear distinction should be drawn between the terms virus, virion, and virus species. Species is the most fundamental taxonomic category used in all biological classification. In 1991, the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) decided that the category of virus species should be used in virus classification together with the categories of genus and family. More than 50 ICTV study groups were given the task of demarcating the 1,550 viral species that were recognized in the 7th ICTV report, which was published in 2000. We briefly describe the changes in virus classification that were introduced in that report. We also discuss recent proposals to introduce a nonlatinized binomial nomenclature for virus species. PMID:15078590
van Regenmortel, Marc H V; Mahy, Brian W J
Contents: Fifty years' effort to control virus infections in the USSR; Thirtieth anniversary of the discovery of the causative agent of tick-borne encephalitis; Relationship between the effect of ionizing radiation on the course of virus infections and th...
O. V. Baroyan E. N. Levkovich A. G. Moroz
Gene expression in the flavivirus Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) was studied by three different approaches. Virus-specific RNA in infected cells was radiolabeled in the presence of actinomycin D, and analyzed by sucrose gradient sedimentation and agaro...
C. D. Blair
Respiratory syncytial virus, the most common cause of bronchiolitis, is the leading cause of infant hospitalization in developed countries and accounts for substantial mortality and morbidity in developing countries. Children at increased risk of developing severe bronchiolitis are those <6 weeks of age, those born prematurely and those with an underlying cardiopulmonary disorder or immunodeficiency. Approximately 80% of cases occur in the first year of life. By two years of age, virtually all children have been infected by at least one strain of the virus. Classically, respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis manifests as cough, wheezing and respiratory distress. The mainstay of treatment is supportive care, consisting of adequate fluid intake, antipyretics to control fever and use of supplemental oxygen if necessary. Frequent and meticulous hand-washing is the best measure to prevent secondary spread. Treatment of respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis beyond supportive care should be individualized. Palivizumab has been shown to be effective in preventing severe respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in high-risk children when given prophylactically. In the majority of cases, the disease is usually self-limited. The mortality rate is <1% and occurs predominantly in children at high risk for severe disease.
Leung, Alexander K. C.; Kellner, James D.; Davies, H. Dele
The laboratory diagnosis of influenza uses a wide range of techniques including rapid immunoassays, immunofluorescence techniques, virus culture methods, and increasingly sophisticated molecular assays. The potential utility of each of these methods has changed over the years, most dramatically perhaps with the emergence of the pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus. While rapid immunoassays had previously been widely used in clinics and emergency departments, their poor detection sensitivity for the 2009 subtype brought their application into question. Concerns were also raised about the detection sensitivities of antibody reagents used in immunofluorescence methods, and the safety of virus culture was initially questioned with regard to the newly emerged subtype. Early molecular detection techniques had been labor intensive, and required separate facilities in order to prevent contamination. Those techniques have largely been supplanted by more modern methods, most notably real-time reverse transcription PCR assays, which are currently the method of choice in many laboratories for the detection and subtyping of influenza viruses. Suspension and low-density array assays are also increasingly used, in an effort to detect larger numbers of viruses in a single assay, and microarrays have proven valuable for outbreak analysis and pathogen discovery. Each laboratory must assess the optimal methods for its situation and the best application of each technique, taking into account numerous factors including its budget, equipment, staff expertise, the patient population that it serves, the needs of its submitting clinicians, and its surveillance and public health responsibilities. PMID:22528153
George, Kirsten St
Molluscum contagiosum virus is an important human skin pathogen: it can cause disfigurement and suffering in children, in adults it is less common and often sexually transmitted. Extensive and persistent skin infection with the virus can indicate underlying immunodeficiency. Traditional ablative therapies have not been compared directly with newer immune-modulating and specific antiviral therapies. Advances in research raise the prospect of new approaches to treatment informed by the biology of the virus; in human skin, the infection is localised in the epidermal layers, where it induces a typical, complex hyperproliferative lesion with an abundance of virus particles but a conspicuous absence of immune effectors. Functional studies of the viral genome have revealed effects on cellular pathways involved in the cell cycle, innate immunity, inflammation, and cell death. Extensive lesions caused by molluscum contagiosum can occur in patients with DOCK8 deficiency-a genetic disorder affecting migration of dendritic and specialised T cells in skin. Sudden disappearance of lesions is the consequence of a vigorous immune response in healthy people. Further study of the unique features of infection with molluscum contagiosum virus could give fundamental insight into the nature of skin immunity. PMID:23972567
Chen, Xiaoying; Anstey, Alex V; Bugert, Joachim J
Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) is a commercially important orthomyxovirus causing disease in farmed Atlantic salmon. The cumulative mortality in a net pen during an outbreak may vary from insignificant to more than 90%. The infection is spread by management activity such as well-boat traffic, but possibly also through contact with wild fish. In many of its aspects, including the structure of the virus particle and replication strategy, the ISAV is similar to the influenza viruses. Variations between ISAV and the influenza viruses can mostly be related to differences in the temperature at which replication occurs and the immune response of their respective host animals. ISAV shows both haemagglutinating and receptor-destroying activity. The variability of the ISAV haemagglutinin molecule is concentrated around a small domain close to the transmembrane region. The function of this variable region is unknown, but it may be related to a recent or ongoing crossing of a species barrier. Alignment studies based on genetic data indicate that the phylogenetic relationship to the influenza viruses is distant, and that ISAV therefore could possibly warrant a new genus within Orthomyxoviridae. PMID:12076262
Rimstad, Espen; Mjaaland, Siri
Numerous virus families utilize endocytosis to infect host cells, mediating virus internalization as well as trafficking to the site of replication. Recent research has demonstrated that viruses employ the full endocytic capabilities of the cell. The endocytic pathways utilized include clathrin-mediated endocytosis, caveolae, macropinocytosis and novel non-clathrin, non-caveolae pathways. The tools to study endocytosis and, consequently, virus entry are becoming
Sara B. Sieczkarski; Gary R. Whittaker
In this paper, we analyse mathematical models for the interaction between virus replication and immune responses. We show\\u000a that the immune system can provide selection pressure for or against viral diversity. The paper provides new insights into\\u000a the relationship between virus load (=the abundance of virus in an infected individual) and antigenic diversity. Antigenic\\u000a variation can increase virus load during
Barbara Bittner; Sebastian Bonhoeffer; Martin A. Nowak
Measles virus offers an ideal platform from which to build a new generation of safe, effective oncolytic viruses. Occasional\\u000a so-called spontaneous tumor regressions have occurred during natural measles infections, but common tumors do not express\\u000a SLAM, the wild-type MV receptor, and are therefore not susceptible to the virus. Serendipitously, attenuated vaccine strains\\u000a of measles virus have adapted to use CD46,
S. J. Russell; K. W. Peng
Nipah virus, a novel paramyxovirus, closely related to Hendra virus emerged in northern part of Peninsular Malaysia in 1998. The virus caused an outbreak of severe febrile encephalitis in humans with a high mortality rate, whereas, in pigs, encephalitis and respiratory diseases but with a relatively low mortality rate. The outbreak subsequently spread to various regions of the country and
Kaw Bing Chua
It is intuitive that the field of virology is a discipline integral to the medical sciences. The affiliation of virology with population and conservation biology may not be as apparent. However, viruses, and in particular, virus evolution, may both contribute to and be a significant tool to understand changes in host population structure. The impact of viruses is most notable
Mary Poss; Roman Biek; Allen Rodrigo
This report on computer viruses is based upon a thesis written for the Master of Science degree in Computer Science from the University of Tennessee in December 1989 by David R. Brown. This thesis is entitled An Analysis of Computer Virus Construction, Proliferation, and Control and is available through the University of Tennessee Library. This paper contains an overview of the computer virus arena that can help the reader to evaluate the threat that computer viruses pose. The extent of this threat can only be determined by evaluating many different factors. These factors include the relative ease with which a computer virus can be written, the motivation involved in writing a computer virus, the damage and overhead incurred by infected systems, and the legal implications of computer viruses, among others. Based upon the research, the development of a computer virus seems to require more persistence than technical expertise. This is a frightening proclamation to the computing community. The education of computer professionals to the dangers that viruses pose to the welfare of the computing industry as a whole is stressed as a means of inhibiting the current proliferation of computer virus programs. Recommendations are made to assist computer users in preventing infection by computer viruses. These recommendations support solid general computer security practices as a means of combating computer viruses.
Isoflavones and their related flavonoid compounds exert antiviral properties in vitro and in vivo against a wide range of viruses. Genistein is, by far, the most studied soy isoflavone in this regard, and it has been shown to inhibit the infectivity of enveloped or nonenveloped viruses, as well as single-stranded or double-stranded RNA or DNA viruses. At concentrations ranging from
Aline Andres; Sharon M. Donovan; Mark S. Kuhlenschmidt
Raspberry latent virus (RpLV) is a recently characterized virus reported from the Pacific Northwest, including Oregon and Washington in the United States and British Columbia in Canada. The virus appears to spread rapidly in the Fraser River Valley (northwest Washington and southwest British Columb...
A new virus, named Amapari virus, was isolated from forest rodents and their mites caught in Amapa, Brazil. Through August 1970, more than 350 isolations of MAPARI VIRUS HAVE BEEN MADE, FROM 204/1896 RODENTS OF ONLY 2 SPECIES I.E., Oryzomys capito goeldii...
Viruses that infect vertebrates (i.e. humans and higher animals) exhibit great diversity. They also create a variety of diseases that arise from interaction with their vertebrate hosts. This review presents the diversity of the biological and molecular properties of vertebrate viruses that aid their transmission and survival using the currently accepted taxonomic system. The Universal System of Virus Taxonomy has
Craig R. Pringle
Retroviruses are enveloped viruses that are generally assumed to bud at the plasma membrane of infected cells. Recently it has become apparent that some of these viruses use the endocytic pathway to coordinate their assembly and release. In addition, these and some other enveloped viruses exploit the machinery that generates the internal membranes of multivesicular bodies (MVB). These observations and
Annegret Pelchen-Matthews; Graça Raposo; Mark Marsh
Summary Viruses are obligate intracellular symbionts. Plant viruses are often discovered and studied as pathogenic parasites that cause diseases in agricultural plants. However, here it is shown that viruses can extend survival of their hosts under conditions of abiotic stress that could benefit hosts if they subsequently recover and reproduce. Various plant species were inoculated with four different
Ping Xu; Fang Chen; Jonathan P. Mannas; Tracy Feldman; Lloyd W. Sumner; Marilyn J. Roossinck
Deformed wing virus (DWV; Iflaviridae) is one of many viruses infecting honeybees and one of the most heavily investigated due to its close association with honeybee colony collapse induced by Varroadestructor. In the absence of V.destructor DWV infection does not result in visible symptoms or any apparent negative impact on host fitness. However, for reasons that are still not fully understood, the transmission of DWV by V.destructor to the developing pupae causes clinical symptoms, including pupal death and adult bees emerging with deformed wings, a bloated, shortened abdomen and discolouration. These bees are not viable and die soon after emergence. In this review we will summarize the historical and recent data on DWV and its relatives, covering the genetics, pathobiology, and transmission of this important viral honeybee pathogen, and discuss these within the wider theoretical concepts relating to the genetic variability and population structure of RNA viruses, the evolution of virulence and the development of disease symptoms. PMID:19909976
de Miranda, Joachim R; Genersch, Elke
The finding that total viral abundance is higher than total prokaryotic abundance and that a significant fraction of the prokaryotic community is infected with phages in aquatic systems has stimulated research on the ecology of prokaryotic viruses and their role in ecosystems. This review treats the ecology of prokaryotic viruses ('phages') in marine, freshwater and soil systems from a 'virus point of view'. The abundance of viruses varies strongly in different environments and is related to bacterial abundance or activity suggesting that the majority of the viruses found in the environment are typically phages. Data on phage diversity are sparse but indicate that phages are extremely diverse in natural systems. Lytic phages are predators of prokaryotes, whereas lysogenic and chronic infections represent a parasitic interaction. Some forms of lysogeny might be described best as mutualism. The little existing ecological data on phage populations indicate a large variety of environmental niches and survival strategies. The host cell is the main resource for phages and the resource quality, i.e., the metabolic state of the host cell, is a critical factor in all steps of the phage life cycle. Virus-induced mortality of prokaryotes varies strongly on a temporal and spatial scale and shows that phages can be important predators of bacterioplankton. This mortality and the release of cell lysis products into the environment can strongly influence microbial food web processes and biogeochemical cycles. Phages can also affect host diversity, e.g., by 'killing the winner' and keeping in check competitively dominant species or populations. Moreover, they mediate gene transfer between prokaryotes, but this remains largely unknown in the environment. Genomics or proteomics are providing us now with powerful tools in phage ecology, but final testing will have to be performed in the environment. PMID:15109783
Weinbauer, Markus G
Since its emergence onto the gene therapy scene nearly 25 years ago, the replication-defective Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1 (HSV-1) amplicon has gained significance as a versatile gene transfer platform due to its extensive transgene capacity, widespread cellular tropism, minimal immunogenicity, and its amenability to genetic manipulation. Herein, we detail the recent advances made with respect to the design of the HSV amplicon, its numerous in vitro and in vivo applications, and the current impediments this virus-based gene transfer platform faces as it navigates a challenging path towards future clinical testing.
de Silva, Suresh; Bowers, William J.
The rate of evolution of an RNA plant virus has never been estimated using temporally spaced sequence data, by contrast to the information available on an increasing range of animal viruses. Accordingly, the evolution rate of Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) was calculated from sequences of the coat protein gene of isolates collected from rice over a 40-year period in
D. Fargette; A. Pinel; M. Rakotomalala; E. Sangu; O. Traore ´; D. Sereme ´; F. Sorho; S. Issaka; E. Hebrard; Y. Sere; Z. Kanyeka; G. Konate
Varying components of the syndrome of human immunodeficiency virus nephropathy (HIVN) have been described, the most pertinent including proteinuria\\/nephrotic syndrome, progressive azotemia, normal blood pressure, enlarged and hyperechoic kidneys, rapid progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and no response to treatment regimens. The diagnosis of HIVN requires identification of excessive proteinuria or albuminuria, determined by a total protein excretion on
Jose Strauss; Gaston Zilleruelo; Carolyn Abitbol; Brenda Montane; Victoriano Pardo
Wineberry latent virus (WLV) was discovered in a single symptomless plant of wineberry, Rubus phoenicolasius, which was growing in an experimental planting in Scotland. The plant originated in the United States, where wineberry is established in the wild in the Northeast. Experimentally, WLV can be ...
The salient features of the Yaba tumor are that a DNA virus, probably a member of the pox group, produces characteristic subcutaneous growths on the face and distal portions of the limbs in some, but not all, species of nonhuman primates and in man. Tumor...
E. E. McConnell
Blueberry shock disease first observed in Washington state in 1987 and initially confused with blueberry scorch caused by Blueberry scorch virus (BlScV). However, shock affected plants produced a second flush of leaves after flowering and the plants appeared normal by late summer except for the lac...
SUMMARY Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved intracellular process by which bulk cytoplasm is enveloped inside a double-membraned vesicle and shuttled to lysosomes for degradation. Within the last 15 years, the genes necessary for the execution of autophagy have been identified and the number of tools for studying this process has grown. Autophagy is essential for tissue homeostasis and development and defective autophagy is associated with a number of diseases. As intracellular parasites, during the course of an infection, viruses encounter autophagy and interact with the proteins that execute this process. Autophagy and/or autophagy genes likely play both anti-viral and proviral roles in the life cycles and pathogenesis of many different virus families. With respect to anti-viral roles, the autophagy proteins function in targeting viral components or virions for lysosomal degradation in a process termed xenophagy, and they also play a role in the initiation of innate and adaptive immune system responses to viral infections. Consistent with this anti-viral role of host autophagy, some viruses encode virulence factors that interact with the host autophagy machinery and block the execution of autophagy. In contrast, other viruses appear to utilise components of the autophagic machinery to foster their own intracellular growth or non-lytic cellular egress. As the details of the role(s) of autophagy in viral pathogenesis become clearer, new anti-viral therapies could be developed to inhibit the beneficial and enhance the destructive aspects of autophagy on the viral life cycle.
Kudchodkar, Sagar B.; Levine, Beth
Freshwater blue-green algae of the genera Lyngbya, Plectonema, and Phormidium are susceptible to a virus recently isolated from a waste-stabilization pond. Electron micrographs of a partially purified preparation show that the viral particle has an icosahedral structure about 66 mmu in diameter.
Robert S. Safferman; Mary-Ellen Morris
The purpose of the study was to determine whether measurable chemical and physical factors correlate with virus survival in groundwater. Groundwater samples were obtained from 11 sites throughout the United States. Water temperature was measured at the time of collection. Several...
Infectious salmon anaemia virus, ISA virus (genus Isavirus, family Orthomyxoviridae), emerged in Norwegian salmon culture in the mid-80s. The genome consists of eight segments coding for at least 10 proteins. ISA viruses show many of similarities to influenza A viruses but differ in many important aspects such as the number of hosts, the host population structure and the route of transmission. The only known hosts and reservoirs for ISA viruses are salmonids found in countries surrounding the North Atlantic. In this study, four different segments of the genome of about 100 ISA viruses have been sequenced in an attempt to understand the evolution of ISA viruses and how these viruses are maintained in and transmitted between populations of farmed Atlantic salmon. The four gene segments code for the nucleoprotein (NP), the putative acid polymerase (PA), the fusion protein (F) and the haemagglutinin-esterase (HE). Analysis of these four genes showed that the substitution rates of the internal proteins (NP and PA) are lower than those of the two surface proteins (F and HE). All four segments are evolving at a lower rate than similar genes in influenza A viruses. The ISA virus populations consist of avirulent viruses and pathogenic strains with variable virulence in Atlantic salmon. Recombination resulting in inserts close to the proteolytic-cleavage site of the precursor F0 protein and deletions in the stalk region of the HE protein seem to be responsible for the transition from avirulent ISA viruses to pathogenic strains. It is also shown that reassortment is a frequent event among the dominating ISA viruses in farmed Atlantic salmon. The pattern that is obtained after phylogenetic analysis of the four gene segments from ISA viruses suggests that the variation is limited to a few distinct clades and that no major changes have occurred in the ISA virus population in Norway since the first viruses were isolated. Calculation of the time of most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) suggests that the Norwegian ISA viruses separated from the European subtype found in North America between 1932 and 1959. The TMRCA data also suggest that the ISA viruses in Chile were transmitted from Norway in the period from 1995 to 2007, depending on which of the four genes were used in the analysis. PMID:22886279
Plarre, Heidrun; Nylund, Are; Karlsen, Marius; Brevik, Øyvind; Sæther, Per Anton; Vike, Siri
Acute respiratory illness (ARI) due to various viruses is not only the most common cause of upper respiratory infection in humans but is also a major cause of morbidity and mortality, leading to diseases such as bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Previous studies have shown that respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human rhinovirus (HRV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), human parainfluenza virus (HPIV), and human enterovirus infections may be associated with virus-induced asthma. For example, it has been suggested that HRV infection is detected in the acute exacerbation of asthma and infection is prolonged. Thus it is believed that the main etiological cause of asthma is ARI viruses. Furthermore, the number of asthma patients in most industrial countries has greatly increased, resulting in a morbidity rate of around 10-15% of the population. However, the relationships between viral infections, host immune response, and host factors in the pathophysiology of asthma remain unclear. To gain a better understanding of the epidemiology of virus-induced asthma, it is important to assess both the characteristics of the viruses and the host defense mechanisms. Molecular epidemiology enables us to understand the pathogenesis of microorganisms by identifying specific pathways, molecules, and genes that influence the risk of developing a disease. However, the epidemiology of various respiratory viruses associated with virus-induced asthma is not fully understood. Therefore, in this article, we review molecular epidemiological studies of RSV, HRV, HPIV, and HMPV infection associated with virus-induced asthma.
Ishioka, Taisei; Noda, Masahiro; Kozawa, Kunihisa; Kimura, Hirokazu
Random insertion mutagenesis has been used to construct infectious Sindbis virus structural protein chimeras containing a neutralization epitope from a heterologous virus, Rift Valley fever virus. Insertion sites, permissive for recovery of chimeric viruses with growth properties similar to the parental virus, were found in the virion E2 glycoprotein and the secreted E3 glycoprotein. For the E2 chimeras, the epitope
Steven D. London; Alan L. Schmaljohn; Joel M. Dalrymple; Charles M. Rice
Dengue virus type 2 and Yellow fever virus are arthropod-borne flaviviruses causing hemorrhagic fever in humans. Identification of virus receptors is important in understanding flavivirus pathogenesis. The aim of this work was to study the role of cellular heparan sulfate in the adsorption of infectious Yellow fever and Dengue type 2 viruses. Virus attachment was assessed by adsorbing virus to
Raphaële Germi; Jean-Marc Crance; Daniel Garin; Josette Guimet; Hugues Lortat-Jacob; Rob W. H. Ruigrok; Jean-Pierre Zarski; Emmanuel Drouet
Endocytosis of the Flaviviridae viruses, hepatitis C virus, GB virus C\\/hepatitis G virus, and bovine viral diarrheal virus (BVDV) was shown to be mediated by low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors on cultured cells by several lines of evidence: by the demonstration that endocytosis of these virus correlated with LDL receptor activity, by complete inhibition of detectable endocytosis by anti-LDL receptor
Vincent Agnello; Gyorgy Abel; Mutasim Elfahal; Glenn B. Knight; Qing-Xiu Zhang
Whole genome amplification and sequencing of single microbial cells has significantly influenced genomics and microbial ecology by facilitating direct recovery of reference genome data. However, viral genomics continues to suffer due to difficulties related to the isolation and characterization of uncultivated viruses. We report here on a new approach called 'Single Virus Genomics', which enabled the isolation and complete genome sequencing of the first single virus particle. A mixed assemblage comprised of two known viruses; E. coli bacteriophages lambda and T4, were sorted using flow cytometric methods and subsequently immobilized in an agarose matrix. Genome amplification was then achieved in situ via multiple displacement amplification (MDA). The complete lambda phage genome was recovered with an average depth of coverage of approximately 437X. The isolation and genome sequencing of uncultivated viruses using Single Virus Genomics approaches will enable researchers to address questions about viral diversity, evolution, adaptation and ecology that were previously unattainable. PMID:21436882
Allen, Lisa Zeigler; Ishoey, Thomas; Novotny, Mark A; McLean, Jeffrey S; Lasken, Roger S; Williamson, Shannon J
Hepatitis B virus (HBV), a major cause of human liver disease worldwide, encodes three envelope proteins needed for the attachment and entry of the virus into susceptible host cells. A second virus, hepatitis delta virus, which is known to enhance liver disease in HBV infected patients, diverts the same HBV envelope proteins to achieve its own assembly and infection. In the lab, lentiviral vectors based on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 can be assembled using the HBV envelope proteins, and will similarly infect susceptible cells. This article provides a partial review and some personal reflections of how these three viruses infect and of how recipient cells become susceptible, along with some consideration of questions that remain to be answered.
Taylor, John M
The human herpes virus 8 (HHV8) or Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV) is present in all Kaposis sarcoma, and\\u000a the detection of the virus using polymerase chain reaction or in situ hybridization is a highly sensitive and specific diagnostic\\u000a test for the diagnosis of this neoplasm. HHV8 is furthermore invariably present in primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and has\\u000a also been
The methods used by computer viruses to reproduce themselves in IBM PC-compatibles operating under MS-DOS are studied. The results can be of use for classification of viruses and the creation of anti-virus tools. Viruses are examined under the following headings: irritating viruses, viruses that damage files, viruses that damage the file system and viruses that injure the hardware
S. I. Shoutkov; A. V. Spesivtsev
A new, reliable and secure virus assay method, named the competitive virus assay (CVA) method, has been established for the titration of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDVs) that either show the exaltation of Newcastle disease virus (END) phenomenon or heterologous interference phenomenon (but not the END phenomenon). This method is based on the principle of (1) homologous interference between BVDVs, by using BVDV RK13/E(-) or BVDV RK13/E(+) strains as competitor virus, and (2) END phenomenon and heterologous interference, by using attenuated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) TCND strain as challenge virus. In titration of BVDV END(+) and BVDV END(-) viruses, no significant difference in estimated virus titer was observed between CVA and conventional methods. CVA method demonstrated comparable levels of sensitivity and accuracy as conventional END and interference methods, which require the use of a velogenic Miyadera strain of NDV and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), both of which are agents of high-risk diseases. As such, the CVA method is a safer alternative, with increased bio-safety and bio-containment, through avoidance of virulent strains that are commonly employed with conventional methods. PMID:23219806
Muhsen, Mahmod; Ohi, Kota; Aoki, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Hidetoshi; Fukusho, Akio
Killed and live influenza virus vaccines are effective in preventing and curbing the spread of disease, but new technologies such as reverse genetics could be used to improve them and to shorten the lengthy process of preparing vaccine seed viruses. By taking advantage of these new technologies, we could develop live vaccines that would be safe, cross-protective against variant strains, and require less virus per dose than conventional vaccines. Furthermore, pandemic vaccines against highly virulent strains such as the H5N1 virus can only be generated by reverse genetics techniques. Other technologic breakthroughs should result in effective adjuvants for use with killed and live vaccines, increasing the number of available doses. Finally, universal influenza virus vaccines seem to be within reach. These new strategies will be successful if they are supported by regulatory agencies and if a robust market for influenza virus vaccines against interpandemic and pandemic threats is made and sustained.
Viruses, the molecular nanomachines infecting hosts ranging from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, come in different sizes, shapes and symmetries. Questions such as what principles govern their structural organization, what factors guide their assembly, how these viruses integrate multifarious functions into one unique structure have enamored researchers for years. In the last five decades, following Caspar and Klug's elegant conceptualization of how viruses are constructed, high resolution structural studies using X-ray crystallography and more recently cryo-EM techniques have provided a wealth of information on structures of variety of viruses. These studies have significantly furthered our understanding of the principles that underlie structural organization in viruses. Such an understanding has practical impact in providing a rational basis for the design and development of antiviral strategies. In this chapter, we review principles underlying capsid formation in a variety of viruses, emphasizing the recent developments along with some historical perspective.
Prasad, B.V. Venkataram; Schmid, Michael F
Viruses with large genomes encode numerous proteins that do not directly participate in virus biogenesis but rather modify key functional systems of infected cells. We report that a distinct group of giant viruses infecting unicellular eukaryotes that includes Organic Lake Phycodnaviruses and Phaeocystis globosa virus encode predicted proteorhodopsins that have not been previously detected in viruses. Search of metagenomic sequence data shows that putative viral proteorhodopsins are extremely abundant in marine environments. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that giant viruses acquired proteorhodopsins via horizontal gene transfer from proteorhodopsin-encoding protists although the actual donor(s) could not be presently identified. The pattern of conservation of the predicted functionally important amino acid residues suggests that viral proteorhodopsin homologs function as sensory rhodopsins. We hypothesize that viral rhodopsins modulate light-dependent signaling, in particular phototaxis, in infected protists. PMID:23036091
Yutin, Natalya; Koonin, Eugene V
Viruses with large genomes encode numerous proteins that do not directly participate in virus biogenesis but rather modify key functional systems of infected cells. We report that a distinct group of giant viruses infecting unicellular eukaryotes that includes Organic Lake Phycodnaviruses and Phaeocystis globosa virus encode predicted proteorhodopsins that have not been previously detected in viruses. Search of metagenomic sequence data shows that putative viral proteorhodopsins are extremely abundant in marine environments. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that giant viruses acquired proteorhodopsins via horizontal gene transfer from proteorhodopsin-encoding protists although the actual donor(s) could not be presently identified. The pattern of conservation of the predicted functionally important amino acid residues suggests that viral proteorhodopsin homologs function as sensory rhodopsins. We hypothesize that viral rhodopsins modulate light-dependent signaling, in particular phototaxis, in infected protists. This article was reviewed by Igor B. Zhulin and Laksminarayan M. Iyer. For the full reviews, see the Reviewers reports section.
Influenza virus hemagglutinin was shown to be acid resistant if precipitates which form during acidification are first removed. Adsorption of virus to precipitates formed during acidification may cause a virus to be described incorrectly as acid sensitive.
Henderson, Marilyn; Wallis, Craig; Melnick, Joseph L.
This book contains nine chapters. Some of the titles are: Molecular Biology of Wound Tumor Virus; The Application of Monoclonal Antibodies in the Study of Viruses; Prions: Novel Infectious Pathogens; and Monoclonal Antibodies Against Plant Viruses.
Lauffer, M.A.; Maramorosch, K.
The encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) is a small non-enveloped single-strand RNA virus, the causative agent of not only myocarditis and encephalitis, but also neurological diseases, reproductive disorders and diabetes in many mammalian species. EMCV pathogenesis appears to be viral strain- and host-specific, and a better understanding of EMCV virulence factors is increasingly required. Indeed, EMCV is often used as a model for diabetes and viral myocarditis, and is also widely used in immunology as a double-stranded RNA stimulus in the study of Toll-like as well as cytosolic receptors. However, EMCV virulence and properties have often been neglected. Moreover, EMCV is able to infect humans albeit with a low morbidity. Progress on xenografts, such as pig heart transplantation in humans, has raised safety concerns that need to be explored. In this review we will highlight the biology of EMCV and all known and potential virulence factors.
Carocci, Margot; Bakkali-Kassimi, Labib
Superantigens are microbial agents that have a strong effect on the immune response of the host. Their initial target is the T lymphocyte, but a whole cascade of immunological reactions ensues. It is thought that the microbe engages the immune system of the host to its own advantage, to facilitate persistent infection and/or transmission. In this review, we discuss in detail the structure and function of the superantigen encoded by the murine mammary tumor virus, a B-type retrovirus which is the causative agent of mammary carcinoma. We will also outline what has more recently become known about superantigen activity associated with two human herpesviruses, cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus. It is likely that we have only uncovered the tip of the iceberg in our discovery of microbial superantigens, and we predict a flood of new information on this topic shortly.
Huber, B T; Hsu, P N; Sutkowski, N
Dengue virus infection causes dengue fever (DF), dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), and dengue shock syndrome (DSS), whose pathogeneses are not clearly understood. Current hypotheses of antibody-dependent enhancement, virus virulence, and IFN-?\\/TNF?-mediated immunopathogenesis are insufficient to explain clinical manifestations of DHF\\/DSS such as thrombocytopenia and hemoconcentration. Dengue virus infection induces transient immune aberrant activation of CD4\\/CD8 ratio inversion and cytokine overproduction,
Huan-Yao Lei; Trai-Ming Yeh; Hsiao-Sheng Liu; Yee-Shin Lin; Shun-Hua Chen; Ching-Chuan Liu
Little is known about the viruses infecting most species. Even in groups as well-studied as Drosophila, only a handful of viruses have been well-characterized. A viral metagenomic approach was used to explore viral diversity in 83 wild-caught Drosophila innubila, a mushroom feeding member of the quinaria group. A single fly that was injected with, and died from, Drosophila C Virus
Robert L. Unckless
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human herpesvirus. Infection with EBV is common, worldwide in distribution, and largely\\u000a subclinical in early childhood. EBV has been established as the causative agent of heterophile-positive mononucleosis, which\\u000a occurs most frequently in late adolescence or early adulthood. In addition, seroepidemologic data have suggested that EBV\\u000a also plays an etiological role in African Burkitts lymphoma
Suresh B. Boppana
\\u000a Cowpox virus (CPXV) is distinguished from other orthopoxvirus (OPV) species by producing cytoplasmic A-type inclusion bodies and flattened\\u000a pocks with a hemorrhagic center on the chorioallantoic membrane. CPXV is endemic to Western Eurasia and naturally infects\\u000a a broad range of host species including domestic animals, and zoo animals, as well as humans. Infections in humans seem to\\u000a increase in importance
Sandra Essbauer; Hermann Meyer
Oral health is an integral component of overall health and well-being in all patients. However, for an immunocompromised patient,\\u000a many common oral conditions may have a significant impact on quality of life. Intraoral pain, which is a common complaint\\u000a among patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), will compromise patients ability to maintain adequate and appropriate\\u000a oral intake. Furthermore, the polypharmacopeia
Anita Patel; Michael Glick
Variola major virus caused the human disease smallpox; interpretations of the historic record indicate that the initial introduction\\u000a of disease in a naïve population had profound effects on its demographics. Smallpox was declared eradicated by the World Health\\u000a Organization (WHO) in 1980. This chapter reviews epidemiological, clinical and pathophysiological observations of disease,\\u000a and review some of the more recent observations
Inger K. Damon
Measles virus (MV) has two envelope glycoproteins, the hemagglutinin (H) and fusion protein, which are responsible for attachment\\u000a and membrane fusion, respectively. Signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM, also called CD150), a membrane glycoprotein\\u000a expressed on immune cells, acts as the principal cellular receptor for MV, accounting for its lymphotropism and immunosuppressive\\u000a nature. MV also infects polarized epithelial cells via an
Y. Yanagi; M. Takeda; S. Ohno; T. Hashiguchi
...Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine...follows: (1) Twenty-five bovine virus diarrhea susceptible...vaccinates and five controls). Blood samples shall be drawn from...be considered susceptible to bovine virus diarrhea virus...
...Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine...follows: (1) Twenty-five bovine virus diarrhea susceptible...vaccinates and five controls). Blood samples shall be drawn from...be considered susceptible to bovine virus diarrhea virus...
Marek's disease virus (MDV) is a highly contagious virus that induces T-lymphoma in chicken. This viral infection still circulates in poultry flocks despite the use of vaccines. With the emergence of new virulent strains in the field over time, MDV remains a serious threat to the poultry industry. More than 40 yr after MDV identification as a herpesvirus, the visualization and purification of fully enveloped infectious particles remain a challenge for biologists. The various strategies used to detect such hidden particles by electron microscopy are reviewed herein. It is now generally accepted that the production of cell-free virions only occurs in the feather follicle epithelium and is associated with viral, cellular, or both molecular determinants expressed in this tissue. This tissue is considered the only source of efficient virus shedding into the environment and therefore the origin of successful transmission in birds. In other avian tissues or permissive cell cultures, MDV replication only leads to a very low number of intracellular enveloped virions. In the absence of detectable extracellular enveloped virions in cell culture, the nature of the transmitted infectious material and its mechanisms of spread from cell to cell remain to be deciphered. An attempt is made to bring together the current knowledge on MDV morphogenesis and spread, and new approaches that could help understand MDV morphogenesis are discussed. PMID:23901745
One of the potential effects of global climate change is the spread of disease to new areas, as the vectors of those diseases (e.g., mosquitoes, birds) expand into new locations in response to shifting climate conditions. Although the direct cause of West Nile Virus (WNV) in the United States is not known, the National Atlas of the US Geological Survey (reviewed in the June 26, 1998 Scout Report) has recently launched this new resource on WNV distribution. First documented in the US during the summer of 1999 and previously limited to Africa, Eastern Europe, West Asia, and the Middle East, the West Nile Virus is of danger to humans as it interferes with "normal central nervous system functioning" and can cause encephalitis. This site describes WNV Surveillance Activity for the year 2000 and offers a series of maps highlighting the US distribution of WNV cases found in humans, wild birds, chickens, mosquitoes, and veterinary clinics. A series of links point to further information on the virus.
In 1998, an outbreak of acute encephalitis with high mortality rates among pig handlers in Malaysia led to the discovery of a novel paramyxovirus named Nipah virus. A multidisciplinary investigation that included epidemiology, microbiology, molecular biology, and pathology was pivotal in the discovery of this new human infection. Clinical and autopsy findings were derived from a series of 32 fatal human cases of Nipah virus infection. Diagnosis was established in all cases by a combination of immunohistochemistry (IHC) and serology. Routine histological stains, IHC, and electron microscopy were used to examine autopsy tissues. The main histopathological findings included a systemic vasculitis with extensive thrombosis and parenchymal necrosis, particularly in the central nervous system. Endothelial cell damage, necrosis, and syncytial giant cell formation were seen in affected vessels. Characteristic viral inclusions were seen by light and electron microscopy. IHC analysis showed widespread presence of Nipah virus antigens in endothelial and smooth muscle cells of blood vessels. Abundant viral antigens were also seen in various parenchymal cells, particularly in neurons. Infection of endothelial cells and neurons as well as vasculitis and thrombosis seem to be critical to the pathogenesis of this new human disease.
Wong, Kum Thong; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Kumar, Shalini; Norain, Karim; Abdullah, Wahidah; Guarner, Jeannette; Goldsmith, Cynthia S.; Chua, Kaw Bing; Lam, Sai Kit; Tan, Chong Tin; Goh, Khean Jin; Chong, Heng Thay; Jusoh, Rani; Rollin, Pierre E.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Zaki, Sherif R.
Flexible filamentous viruses make up a large fraction of the known plant viruses, but in comparison with those of other viruses, very little is known about their structures. We have used fiber diffraction, cryo-electron microscopy, and scanning transmission electron microscopy to determine the symmetry of a potyvirus, soybean mosaic virus; to confirm the symmetry of a potexvirus, potato virus X; and to determine the low-resolution structures of both viruses. We conclude that these viruses and, by implication, most or all flexible filamentous plant viruses share a common coat protein fold and helical symmetry, with slightly less than 9 subunits per helical turn.
Kendall, Amy; McDonald, Michele; Bian, Wen; Bowles, Timothy; Baumgarten, Sarah C.; Shi, Jian; Stewart, Phoebe L.; Bullitt, Esther; Gore, David; Irving, Thomas C.; Havens, Wendy M.; Ghabrial, Said A.; Wall, Joseph S.; Stubbs, Gerald (IIT); (BU-M); (Vanderbilt); (Kentucky); (BNL)
While CIAC periodically issues bulletins about specific computer viruses, these bulletins do not cover all the computer viruses that affect desktop computers. The purpose of this document is to identify most of the known viruses for the MS-DOS and Macintosh platforms and give an overview of the effects of each virus. The authors also include information on some windows, Atari, and Amiga viruses. This document is revised periodically as new virus information becomes available. This document replaces all earlier versions of the CIAC Computer virus Information Update. The date on the front cover indicates date on which the information in this document was extracted from CIAC`s Virus database.
Flexible filamentous viruses make up a large fraction of the known plant viruses, but in comparison with those of other viruses, very little is known about their structures. We have used fiber diffraction, cryo-electron microscopy, and scanning transmission electron microscopy to determine the symmetry of a potyvirus, soybean mosaic virus; to confirm the symmetry of a potexvirus, potato virus X; and to determine the low-resolution structures of both viruses. We conclude that these viruses and, by implication, most or all flexible filamentous plant viruses share a common coat protein fold and helical symmetry, with slightly less than 9 subunits per helical turn.
Kendall, Amy; McDonald, Michele; Bian, Wen; Bowles, Timothy; Baumgarten, Sarah C.; Shi, Jian; Stewart, Phoebe L.; Bullitt, Esther; Gore, David; Irving, Thomas C.; Havens, Wendy M.; Ghabrial, Said A.; Wall, Joseph S.; Stubbs, Gerald
The molecular weight of Tipula iridescent virus, based on sedimentation and diffusion coefficients, was 5.51 × 108, with hydration of 0.57 g of water per g of virus. Deoxyribonucleic acid content, based on total inorganic phosphorus liberated, was 19 ± 0.2%. At 260 m?, the virus gave an uncorrected absorbance of 18.2 cm2/mg of virus and a light-scattering corrected absorbance of 9.8 cm2/mg of virus. Amino acid analyses of the virus protein revealed a remarkable similarity to Sericesthis iridescent virus. The possibility is discussed that the four iridescent insect viruses reported to date bear a strain relationship. Images
Kalmakoff, J.; Tremaine, J. H.
Here, we present the genome sequence, with analysis, of a poxvirus infecting Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) (crocodilepox virus; CRV). The genome is 190,054 bp (62% G+C) and predicted to contain 173 genes encoding proteins of 53 to 1,941 amino acids. The central genomic region contains genes conserved and generally colinear with those of other chordopoxviruses (ChPVs). CRV is distinct, as the terminal 33-kbp (left) and 13-kbp (right) genomic regions are largely CRV specific, containing 48 unique genes which lack similarity to other poxvirus genes. Notably, CRV also contains 14 unique genes which disrupt ChPV gene colinearity within the central genomic region, including 7 genes encoding GyrB-like ATPase domains similar to those in cellular type IIA DNA topoisomerases, suggestive of novel ATP-dependent functions. The presence of 10 CRV proteins with similarity to components of cellular multisubunit E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes, including 9 proteins containing F-box motifs and F-box-associated regions and a homologue of cellular anaphase-promoting complex subunit 11 (Apc11), suggests that modification of host ubiquitination pathways may be significant for CRV-host cell interaction. CRV encodes a novel complement of proteins potentially involved in DNA replication, including a NAD(+)-dependent DNA ligase and a protein with similarity to both vaccinia virus F16L and prokaryotic serine site-specific resolvase-invertases. CRV lacks genes encoding proteins for nucleotide metabolism. CRV shares notable genomic similarities with molluscum contagiosum virus, including genes found only in these two viruses. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that CRV is quite distinct from other ChPVs, representing a new genus within the subfamily Chordopoxvirinae, and it lacks recognizable homologues of most ChPV genes involved in virulence and host range, including those involving interferon response, intracellular signaling, and host immune response modulation. These data reveal the unique nature of CRV and suggest mechanisms of virus-reptile host interaction. PMID:16641289
Afonso, C L; Tulman, E R; Delhon, G; Lu, Z; Viljoen, G J; Wallace, D B; Kutish, G F; Rock, D L
A new detection format for multiplexed analysis based on the use of magnetic fluorescent composite nanoparticles was presented\\u000a in this paper. Two different antigens, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) antigen and Avian virus arthritis virus (AVAV) antigen,\\u000a were conjugated to two kinds of magnetic fluorescent composite nanoparticles of different luminescent colors, while red-emitting\\u000a CdTe QDs were attached to the antibody of
Guannan Wang; Ping Xie; Chengrui Xiao; Pingfan Yuan; Xingguang Su
Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) is an avian oncornavirus that is structurally and antigenically unrelated to the leukosis-sarcoma group of viruses. All REV isolates are antigenically related to each other. However, using monoclonal antibodies, REV isolates can be classed into three different subty...
Viral fusion proteins mediate cell entry by undergoing a series of conformational changes that result in virion-target cell membrane fusion. Class I viral fusion proteins, such as those encoded by influenza virus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), contain two prominent alpha helices. Peptides that mimic portions of these alpha helices inhibit structural rearrangements of the fusion proteins and prevent viral
Yancey M Hrobowski; Robert F Garry; Scott F Michael
Electron microscopy is a powerful tool to visualize viruses in diagnostic as well as in research settings for investigating viral structure and virus-cell interactions. Here, a simple but efficient method is described for demonstrating viruses by negative staining, and its limit is discussed. A prerequisite to obtain reliable information on virus-cell interactions is excellent preservation of cellular and viral ultrastructure. The crux is that during fixation and embedding, by applying conventional protocols about 50% of the lipids are lost, which results in loss of integrity of cell membranes. To achieve good preservation of cellular architectures, good contrast, and both high spatial and temporal resolution, methods for freezing, freeze-substitution, and freeze-etching are described and their applicability discussed mostly taking complicated built herpes viruses as examples. PMID:18617049
Transmission mechanisms of six honeybee viruses, including acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV), deformed wing virus (DWV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV), and sacbrood bee virus (SBV), in honey bee colonies were investigated by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) methods. The virus status of individual queens was evaluated by examining the presence of viruses in the queens' feces and tissues, including hemolymph, gut, ovaries, spermatheca, head, and eviscerated body. Except for head tissue, all five tissues as well as queen feces were found to be positive for virus infections. When queens in bee colonies were identified as positive for BQCV, DWV, CBPV, KBV, and SBV, the same viruses were detected in their offspring, including eggs, larvae, and adult workers. On the other hand, when queens were found positive for only two viruses, BQCV and DWV, only these two viruses were detected in their offspring. The presence of viruses in the tissue of ovaries and the detection of the same viruses in queens' eggs and young larvae suggest vertical transmission of viruses from queens to offspring. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of vertical transmission of viruses in honeybee colonies. PMID:16391097
Chen, Y P; Pettis, J S; Collins, A; Feldlaufer, M F
The Norwalk virus and related viruses (caliciviruses) have been identified as a common cause of waterborne disease. Moreover, there are many outbreaks of waterborne disease every year where the causative agent was never identified, and it is thought that many of these are due to ...
In large areas of the world there exist extremely high hazard viruses for which there are no vaccines for prophylaxis and no effective drugs for therapy. Examples of such viruses are Ebola, Argentine, Bolivian, Crimean-Congo, and Korean hemorrhagic fevers...
P. G. Canonico
Influenza A virus causes seasonal epidemics, sporadic pandemics and is a significant global heath burden. Influenza virus is an enveloped virus that contains a segmented negative strand RNA genome. Assembly and budding of progeny influenza virions is a complex, multistep process that occurs in lipid raft domains on the apical membrane of infected cells. The viral proteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) are targeted to lipid rafts, causing the coalescence and enlargement of the raft domains. This clustering of HA and NA may cause a deformation of the membrane and the initiation of the virus budding event. M1 is then thought to bind to the cytoplasmic tails of HA and NA where it can then polymerize and form the interior structure of the emerging virion. M1, bound to the cytoplasmic tails of HA and NA, additionally serves as a docking site for the recruitment of the viral RNPs and may mediate the recruitment of M2 to the site of virus budding. M2 initially stabilizes the site of budding, possibly enabling the polymerization of the matrix protein and the formation of filamentous virions. Subsequently, M2 is able to alter membrane curvature at the neck of the budding virus, causing membrane scission and the release of the progeny virion. This review investigates the latest research on influenza virus budding in an attempt to provide a step-by-step analysis of the assembly and budding processes for influenza viruses.
Rossman, Jeremy S.; Lamb, Robert A.
We evaluated 49 swine industry workers and 79 nonexposed controls for antibodies to swine influenza viruses. Multivariate modeling showed that workers who seldom used gloves (odds ratio [OR] 30.3) or who smoked (OR 18.7) most frequently had evidence of previous H1N1 swine virus. These findings may be valuable in planning for pandemic influenza. PMID:16707061
Ramirez, Alejandro; Capuano, Ana W; Wellman, Debbie A; Lesher, Kelly A; Setterquist, Sharon F; Gray, Gregory C
The importance of virus transport in the subsurface is highlighted by implications to human health as well as drinking water regulations. The structure of virus particles is defined along with their colloidal physiochemical properties and a discussion of their more prominent sou...
Introduction: In March-April 2009, a novel pandemic H1N1 emerged in the human population in North America . The gene constellation of the emerging virus was demonstrated to be a combination of genes from swine influenza A viruses (SIV) of North American and Eurasian lineages that had never before...
West Nile virus (WNV) has spread rapidly across North America, resulting in human deaths and in the deaths of untold numbers of birds, mammals, and reptiles. The virus has reached Central America and the Caribbean and may spread to Hawaii and South America. Although tens of thousands of birds have died, and studies of some bird species show local declines,
Peter P. Marra; Sean Griffing; Carolee Caffrey; A. Marm Kilpatrick; Robert McLean; Christopher Brand; Emi Saito; Alan P. Dupuis; Laura Kramer; Robert Novak
Cassava plays a key role in the food security of sub-Saharan Africa, but as a vegetatively propagated crop, it is particularly vulnerable to the effects of virus diseases and these therefore represent a major threat to the livelihoods of millions of Africans. Nine viruses have been isolated from African cassava, but only cassava mosaic geminiviruses (CMGs) and Cassava brown streak
J. M. Threshb
Abstract Cassava plays a key role in the food security of sub-Saharan Africa, but as a vegetatively propagated crop, it is particularly vulnerable to the effects of virus diseases and these therefore represent a major,threat to the livelihoods of millions of Africans. Nine viruses have been isolated from African cassava, but only cassava mosaic geminiviruses (CMGs) and Cassava brown streak
J. p. Legg; J. m. Thresh
There are 219 virus species that are known to be able to infect humans. The first of these to be discovered was yellow fever virus in 1901, and three to four new species are still being found every year. Extrapolation of the discovery curve suggests that there is still a substantial pool of undiscovered human virus species, although an apparent slow-down in the rate of discovery of species from different families may indicate bounds to the potential range of diversity. More than two-thirds of human viruses can also infect non-human hosts, mainly mammals, and sometimes birds. Many specialist human viruses also have mammalian or avian origins. Indeed, a substantial proportion of mammalian viruses may be capable of crossing the species barrier into humans, although only around half of these are capable of being transmitted by humans and around half again of transmitting well enough to cause major outbreaks. A few possible predictors of species jumps can be identified, including the use of phylogenetically conserved cell receptors. It seems almost inevitable that new human viruses will continue to emerge, mainly from other mammals and birds, for the foreseeable future. For this reason, an effective global surveillance system for novel viruses is needed.
Woolhouse, Mark; Scott, Fiona; Hudson, Zoe; Howey, Richard; Chase-Topping, Margo
Distribution of Toscana virus (TOSV) is evolving with climate change, and pathogenicity may be higher in nonexposed populations outside areas of current prevalence (Mediterranean Basin). To characterize genetic diversity of TOSV, we determined the coding sequences of isolates from Spain and France. TOSV is more diverse than other well-studied phleboviruses (e.g.,Rift Valley fever virus).
Collao, Ximena; Palacios, Gustavo; Sanbonmatsu-Gamez, Sara; Perez-Ruiz, Mercedes; Negredo, Ana I.; Navarro-Mari, Jose-Maria; Grandadam, Marc; Aransay, Ana Maria; Lipkin, W. Ian; Tenorio, Antonio
BACKGROUND: An effective method for obtaining resistant transgenic plants is to induce RNA silencing by expressing virus-derived dsRNA in plants and this method has been successfully implemented for the generation of different plant lines resistant to many plant viruses. RESULTS: Inverted repeats of the partial Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) movement protein (MP) gene and the partial Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV)
Qiong Hu; Yanbing Niu; Kai Zhang; Yong Liu; Xueping Zhou
Influenza virus infections continue to cause substantial morbidity and mortality with a worldwide social and economic impact. The past five years have seen dramatic advances in our understanding of viral replication, evolution, and antigenic variation. Genetic analyses have clarified relationships between human and animal influenza virus strains, demonstrating the potential for the appearance of new pandemic reassortants as hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes are exchanged in an intermediate host. Clinical trials of candidate live attenuated influenza virus vaccines have shown the cold-adapted reassortants to be a promising alternative to the currently available inactivated virus preparations. Modern molecular techniques have allowed serious consideration of new approaches to the development of antiviral agents and vaccines as the functions of the viral genes and proteins are further elucidated. The development of techniques whereby the genes of influenza viruses can be specifically altered to investigate those functions will undoubtedly accelerate the pace at which our knowledge expands.
Shaw, M W; Arden, N H; Maassab, H F
Over the past two decades, marine virology has progressed from a curiosity to an intensely studied topic of critical importance to oceanography. At concentrations of approximately 10 million viruses per milliliter of surface seawater, viruses are the most abundant biological entities in the oceans. The majority of these viruses are phages (viruses that infect bacteria). Through lysing their bacterial hosts, marine phages control bacterial abundance, affect community composition, and impact global biogeochemical cycles. In addition, phages influence their hosts through selection for resistance, horizontal gene transfer, and manipulation of bacterial metabolism. Recent work has also demonstrated that marine phages are extremely diverse and can carry a variety of auxiliary metabolic genes encoding critical ecological functions. This review is structured as a scientific "truth or dare," revealing several well-established "truths" about marine viruses and presenting a few "dares" for the research community to undertake in future studies.
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed autologous lymphoblasts were repeatedly inoculated into three squirrel monkeys. Each animal developed the heterophile antibodies of infectious mononucleosis and EBV-specific antibodies. After serologic responses had disappeared or markedly declined, the animals were challenged with either whole cells, cell filtrate, or cell ghosts. Animals challenged with living cells and cell ghosts developed agglutinin responses; the recipient of filtrate did not. The results suggest that EBV induces the appearance of the infectious mononucleosis heterophile antigen on the transformed cell membrane.
Shope, Thomas; Miller, George
Immunohistochemistry and virus isolation were performed on 1,057 birds. Immunohistochemistry, virus isolation, or both found 325 birds to be West Nile virus positive. Of these, 271 were positive by both methods. These results indicate that virus isolation and immunohistochemistry are approximately equal in their ability to detect West Nile virus.
Ellis, Angela E.; Mead, Daniel G.; Allison, Andrew B.; Gibbs, Samantha E. J.; Gottdenker, Nicole L.; Stallknecht, David E.; Howerth, Elizabeth W.
The 1918 influenza A H1N1 virus caused the worst pandemic of influenza ever recorded. To better understand the pathogenesis and immunity to the 1918 pandemic virus, we generated recombinant influenza viruses possessing two to five genes of the 1918 influenza virus. Recombinant influenza viruses possessing the hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), matrix (M), nonstructural (NS), and nucleoprotein (NP) genes or any
Terrence M. Tumpey; Adolfo García-Sastre; Jeffery K. Taubenberger; Peter Palese; David E. Swayne; Christopher F. Basler
Influenza viruses are classified into three types: A, B, and C. The genomes of A- and B-type influenza viruses consist of eight RNA segments, whereas influenza C viruses only have seven RNAs. Both A and B influenza viruses contain two major surface glycoproteins: the hemagglutinin (HA) and the neuraminidase (NA). Influenza C viruses have only one major surface glycoprotein, HEF
Qinshan Gao; Edward W. A. Brydon; Peter Palese
Potential live vaccines against hepatitis B virus have been produced. The coding sequence for hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) has been inserted into the vaccinia virus genome under control of vaccinia virus early promoters. Cells infected with these vaccinia virus recombinants synthesize and excrete HBsAg and vaccinated rabbits rapidly produce antibodies to HBsAg.
Smith, Geoffrey L.; Mackett, Michael; Moss, Bernard
Tobacco streak virus (TSV) has a wide host range that exceeds 80 species (Fulton, 1948). Most of the efforts carried out previously comparing TSV isolates was based on immunological relations between them. The isolates of the virus from Fragaria and Rubus have been considered very closely related, ...
Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV) and Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) are part of a complex of closely related viruses from the Family Dicistroviridae. These viruses have a widespread prevalence in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies and a predominantly sub-clinical etiology that contrasts sharply with the extremely virulent pathology encountered at elevated titres, either artificially induced or encountered naturally. These viruses are frequently implicated in honey bee colony losses, especially when the colonies are infested with the parasitic mite Varroa destructor. Here we review the historical and recent literature of this virus complex, covering history and origins; the geographic, host and tissue distribution; pathology and transmission; genetics and variation; diagnostics, and discuss these within the context of the molecular and biological similarities and differences between the viruses. We also briefly discuss three recent developments relating specifically to IAPV, concerning its association with Colony Collapse Disorder, treatment of IAPV infection with siRNA and possible honey bee resistance to IAPV. PMID:19909972
de Miranda, Joachim R; Cordoni, Guido; Budge, Giles
DNA vaccines for Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), and Hantaan virus (HTNV), were tested in mice alone or in various combinations. The bunyavirus vaccines (RVFV, CCHFV, and HTNV) expressed Gn and Gc genes, and the flavivirus vaccine (TBEV) expressed the preM and E genes. All vaccines were delivered by gene
Kristin Spik; Amy Shurtleff; Anita K. McElroy; Mary C. Guttieri; Jay W. Hooper; Connie Schmaljohn
Cocultivation of cells derived from embryos of golden pheasants or Amherst pheasants with chicken embryo cells infected with Bryan strain of Rous sarcoma virus resulted in the detection of viruses which appear to be endogenous in these pheasant cells. The pheasant viruses (PV) were similar to avian leukosis-sarcoma viruses (ALSV) in their gross morphology, in the size of their RNA,
T. Hanafusa; H. Hanafusa; C. E. Metroka; W. S. Hayward; C. W. Rettenmier; R. C. Sawyer; R. M. Dougherty; H. S. Distefano
Today's anti-virus technology, based largely on analysis of existing viruses by human experts, is just barely able to keep pace with the more than three new computer viruses that are writ ten daily. In a few years, intelligent agents nav igating through highly connected networks are likely to form an extremely fertile medium for a new breed of viruses. At
Jeffrey O. Kephart; Gregory B. Sorkin; William C. Arnold; David M. Chess; Gerald Tesauro; Steve R. White
To determine geographic range for Ebola virus, we tested 276 bats in Bangladesh. Five (3.5%) bats were positive for antibodies against Ebola Zaire and Reston viruses; no virus was detected by PCR. These bats might be a reservoir for Ebola or Ebola-like viruses, and extend the range of filoviruses to mainland Asia.
Islam, Ariful; Yu, Meng; Anthony, Simon J.; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Khan, Salah Uddin; Crameri, Gary; Wang, Lin-Fa; Lipkin, W. Ian; Luby, Stephen P.; Daszak, Peter
Particles of complete polyoma virus are produced in competent Bacillus subtilis incubated with DNA isolated from purified, conventionally grown polyoma virus. The virus grown in B. subtilis is biologically identical to polyoma virus produced by animal cells. Quantitative parameters of the system have been established, and fluctuation tests indicate that viral replication occurs within the infected bacteria.
K. E. Bayreuther; W. R. Romig
Summary Sufficient data have accumulated to permit the ICTV Study Group on the Nomenclature of Hepatitis Viruses to recognize human hepatitis B virus as a member of a unique group of viruses and to classify it, together with a number of related animal viruses, into a new family called the Hepadnaviridae. Over the past decade, the International Committee on Taxonomy
Ian D. Gust; Christopher J. Burrell; Anthony G. Coulepis; William S. Robinson; Arie J. Zuckerman
Puumala virus causes nephropathia epidemica, a rodent-borne zoonosis that is endemic to Europe. We sequenced the complete Puumala virus genome that was directly recovered from a person who died and compared it with those of viruses from local bank voles. The virus strain involved was neither a unique nor rare genetic variant.
Plyusnina, Angelina; Razzauti, Maria; Sironen, Tarja; Niemimaa, Jukka; Vapalahti, Olli; Vaheri, Antti; Henttonen, Heikki
Puumala virus causes nephropathia epidemica, a rodent-borne zoonosis that is endemic to Europe. We sequenced the complete Puumala virus genome that was directly recovered from a person who died and compared it with those of viruses from local bank voles. The virus strain involved was neither a unique nor rare genetic variant. PMID:23171600
Plyusnina, Angelina; Razzauti, Maria; Sironen, Tarja; Niemimaa, Jukka; Vapalahti, Olli; Vaheri, Antti; Henttonen, Heikki; Plyusnin, Alexander
An interference between the vaccinal virus and the virus of rabies has been demonstrated using the rabbit. The method of inoculation for the vaccinal virus as well as for the rabies virus was the intradermal method and this method allowed the demonstratio...
J. Vieuchange M. A. Chabaud C. Vialat
This review summarizes recent structural and molecular biology studies related to the morphogenesis of African swine fever virus (ASFV). ASFV possesses icosahedral morphology and is constituted by four concentric layers: the central nucleoid, the core shell, the inner envelope and the icosahedral capsid. The extracellular virus acquires an external envelope by budding through the plasma membrane. The genes coding for 19 of the 54 structural proteins of the ASFV particle are known and the localization within the virion of 18 of these components has been identified. ASFV morphogenesis occurs in specialized areas in the cytoplasm, named viral factories, which are proximal to the microtubule organization center near the nucleus. Investigations of the different steps of morphogenesis by immunocytochemical and electron microscopy techniques, as well as molecular biology and biochemical studies, have shed light on the formation of the different domains of the virus particle, including the recognition of endoplasmic reticulum membranes as the precursors of the virus inner envelope, the progressive formation of the capsid on the convex face of the inner envelope and the simultaneous assembly of the core shell on the concave side of the envelope, with the pivotal contribution of the virus polyproteins and their proteolytic processing by the virus protease for the development of this latter domain. The use of ASFV inducible recombinants as a tool for the study of the individual function of structural and nonstructural proteins has been determinant to understand their role in virus assembly and has provided new insights into the morphogenetic process. PMID:23059353
Salas, María L; Andrés, Germán
A decade of high-throughput screenings for intraviral and virus-host protein-protein interactions led to the accumulation of data and to the development of theories on laws governing interactome organization for many viruses. We present here a computational analysis of intraviral protein networks (EBV, FLUAV, HCV, HSV-1, KSHV, SARS-CoV, VACV, and VZV) and virus-host protein networks (DENV, EBV, FLUAV, HCV, and VACV) from up-to-date interaction data, using various mathematical approaches. If intraviral networks seem to behave similarly, they are clearly different from the human interactome. Viral proteins target highly central human proteins, which are precisely the Achilles' heel of the human interactome. The intrinsic structural disorder is a distinctive feature of viral hubs in virus-host interactomes. Overlaps between virus-host data sets identify a core of human proteins involved in the cellular response to viral infection and in the viral capacity to hijack the cell machinery for viral replication. Host proteins that are strongly targeted by a virus seem to be particularly attractive for other viruses. Such protein-protein interaction networks and their analysis represent a powerful resource from a therapeutic perspective.
Meyniel-Schicklin, Laurene; de Chassey, Benoit; Andre, Patrice; Lotteau, Vincent
... false Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. 866.3360 Section...866.3360 Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents are devices...
...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.215 Section 113.215 Animals and...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS;...
The conditions under which Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) virus attached to host cells markedly influenced the assay of virus by the fluorescent cell-counting technique. When virus inoculum was centrifuged onto McCoy cell monolayers, approximat...
N. Hahon K. O. Cooke
Summary Morphology and morphogenesis of Soldado virus were studied in the brain of infected suckling mice. The results suggest this virus and other viruses of Hughes group may be classified as members of Bunyaviridae family.
C. Chastel; G. Rogues; J.-C. Beaucournu
Recombination occurs in many RNA viruses and can be of major evolutionary significance. However, rates of recombination vary dramatically among RNA viruses, which can range from clonal to highly recombinogenic. Here, we review the factors that might explain this variation in recombination frequency and show that there is little evidence that recombination is favoured by natural selection to create advantageous genotypes or purge deleterious mutations, as predicted if recombination functions as a form of sexual reproduction. Rather, recombination rates seemingly reflect larger-scale patterns of viral genome organization, such that recombination may be a mechanistic by-product of the evolutionary pressures acting on other aspects of virus biology.
Simon-Loriere, Etienne; Holmes, Edward C.
A linear relationship exists between the logarithm of the quantity of epidemic influenza virus neutralized and the logarithm of the quantity of antiserum which is capable of achieving this result. This relationship is the same for the serum of a ferret convalescent from experimental influenza as for the serum of a rabbit immunized with the virus. By means of the linear relationship between virus and antiserum it is possible to determine a fixed, rather than a relative, value for the neutralizing capacity of a serum.
Horsfall, Frank L.
This paper presents a general overview on evolution of concealment methods in computer viruses and defensive techniques employed by anti-virus products. In order to stay far from the anti-virus scanners, computer viruses gradually improve their codes to make them invisible. On the other hand, anti-virus technologies continually follow the virus tricks and methodologies to overcome their threats. In this process,
Babak Bashari Rad; Maslin Masrom; Suhaimi Ibrahim
Viruses were distinguished as a separate group of plant pathogens in the 1890s, as a consequence of pioneering studies in\\u000a Russia and the Netherlands (Bos, 2000). They have since received much attention from plant pathologists and more recently\\u000a from molecular biologists. Nevertheless, the information available on the distribution, prevalence, and importance of plant\\u000a viruses and the diseases they cause is
J. M. Thresh
The ability of RNA viruses to efficiently reproduce in transformed cells was first recognized nearly 100 yr ago. However,\\u000a it wasnt until the late 1990s that a resurrection of the interest in the ability of certain viruses to preferentially replicate\\u000a in malignant cells and less so in normal cells occurred, the curiosity being to evaluate whether these agents could be
Glen N. Barber
Most viral diseases, with the exception of those caused by human immunodeficiency virus, are self-limited illnesses that do not require specific antiviral therapy. The currently available antiviral drugs target 3 main groups of viruses: herpes, hepatitis, and influenza viruses. With the exception of the antisense molecule fomivirsen, all antiherpes drugs inhibit viral replication by serving as competitive substrates for viral DNA polymerase. Drugs for the treatment of influenza inhibit the ion channel M2 protein or the enzyme neuraminidase. Combination therapy with Interferon-? and ribavirin remains the backbone treatment for chronic hepatitis C; the addition of serine protease inhibitors improves the treatment outcome of patients infected with hepatitis C virus genotype 1. Chronic hepatitis B can be treated with interferon or a combination of nucleos(t)ide analogues. Notably, almost all the nucleos(t) ide analogues for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B possess antihuman immunodeficiency virus properties, and they inhibit replication of hepatitis B virus by serving as competitive substrates for its DNA polymerase. Some antiviral drugs possess multiple potential clinical applications, such as ribavirin for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C and respiratory syncytial virus and cidofovir for the treatment of cytomegalovirus and other DNA viruses. Drug resistance is an emerging threat to the clinical utility of antiviral drugs. The major mechanisms for drug resistance are mutations in the viral DNA polymerase gene or in genes that encode for the viral kinases required for the activation of certain drugs such as acyclovir and ganciclovir. Widespread antiviral resistance has limited the clinical utility of M2 inhibitors for the prevention and treatment of influenza infections. This article provides an overview of clinically available antiviral drugs for the primary care physician, with a special focus on pharmacology, clinical uses, and adverse effects.
Razonable, Raymund R.
The simultaneous detection is described of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), potato virus Y (PVY) and tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) by flow cytometry. Extracts from leaves of healthy and CMV or PVY infected plants were incubated with latex particles, each with a diameter of 3 microm. Extracts from ToMV infected or uninfected plants, however, were incubated with particles, each with a diameter of 6 microm. Beads were washed and incubated in succession with primary and secondary antibodies, the latter labeled with phycoerythrin (PE) or fluorescein (FITC). CMV and PVY were distinguished on the basis of the fluorescence emitted by FITC and PE; ToMV was distinguished from CMV and PVY on the basis of the different diameter (6 microm) of the particles on which it was adsorbed. The three viruses were detected also by another approach. Latex particles with a diameter of 3, 6 and 10 microm were separately sensitized with antibodies specific for CMV, PVY and ToMV. An equal number of sensitized particles was mixed and incubated with the plant extracts containing the three viruses and then with anti-CMV, anti-PVY and anti-ToMV antibodies labeled with FITC. The study describes also a virus purification method based on the use of antibody coated latex particles. The method is simple technically and applicable to the purification of large as well as minute amounts of different viruses (CMV, PVY and ToMV). PMID:9504759
Iannelli, D; D'Apice, L; Cottone, C; Viscardi, M; Scala, F; Zoina, A; Del Sorbo, G; Spigno, P; Capparelli, R
Toscana virus (TOSV, Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae) infection is one of the most prevalent arboviruses in Spain. Within the objectives of a multidisciplinary network, a study on the epidemiology of TOSV was conducted in Granada, in southern Spain. The overall seroprevalence rate was 24.9%, significantly increasing with age. TOSV was detected in 3 of 103 sandfly pools by viral culture or reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction from a region of the L gene. Nucleotide sequence homology was 99%100% in TOSV from vectors and patients and 80%81% compared to the Italian strain ISS Phl.3. Sequencing of the N gene of TOSV isolates from patients and vectors indicated 87%88% and 100% homology at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively, compared to the Italian strain. These findings demonstrate the circulation of at least 2 different lineages of TOSV in the Mediterranean basin, the Italian lineage and the Spanish lineage.
Sanbonmatsu-Gamez, Sara; Perez-Ruiz, Mercedes; Collao, Ximena; Sanchez-Seco, Maria Paz; Morillas-Marquez, Francisco; de la Rosa-Fraile, Manuel; Navarro-Mari, Jose Maria; Tenorio, Antonio
Despite highly effective anti-retroviral therapy, HIV is thought to persist in patients within long-lived cellular reservoirs in the form of a transcriptionally inactive (latent) integrated provirus. Lentiviral latency has therefore come to the forefront of the discussion on the possibility of a cure for HIV infection in humans. Animal models of lentiviral latency provide an essential tool to study mechanisms of latency and therapeutic manipulation. Of the three animal models that have been described, the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infected cat is the most recent and least characterized. However, several aspects of this model make it attractive for latency research, and it may be complementary to other model systems. This article reviews what is known about FIV latency and chronic FIV infection and how it compares with that of other lentiviruses. It thereby offers a framework for the usefulness of this model in future research aimed at lentiviral eradication.
Despite highly effective anti-retroviral therapy, HIV is thought to persist in patients within long-lived cellular reservoirs in the form of a transcriptionally inactive (latent) integrated provirus. Lentiviral latency has therefore come to the forefront of the discussion on the possibility of a cure for HIV infection in humans. Animal models of lentiviral latency provide an essential tool to study mechanisms of latency and therapeutic manipulation. Of the three animal models that have been described, the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infected cat is the most recent and least characterized. However, several aspects of this model make it attractive for latency research, and it may be complementary to other model systems. This article reviews what is known about FIV latency and chronic FIV infection and how it compares with that of other lentiviruses. It thereby offers a framework for the usefulness of this model in future research aimed at lentiviral eradication. PMID:23829177
McDonnel, Samantha J; Sparger, Ellen E; Murphy, Brian G
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) endocrinopathy encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders. Almost all the endocrine organs are virtually affected by HIV infection. HIV can directly alter glandular function. More commonly secondary endocrine dysfunction occurs due to opportunistic infections and neoplasms in immunocompromised state. The complex interaction between HIV infection and endocrine system may be manifested as subtle biochemical and hormonal perturbation to overt glandular failure. Antiretroviral therapy as well as other essential medications often result in adverse endocrinal consequences. Apart from adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadism, diabetes and bone loss, AIDS wasting syndrome and HIV lipodystrophy need special reference. Endocrinal evaluation should proceed as in other patients with suspected endocrine dysfunction. Available treatment options have been shown to improve quality of life and long-term mortality in AIDS patients.
Sinha, Uma; Sengupta, Nilanjan; Mukhopadhyay, Prasanta; Roy, Keshab Sinha
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a ubiquitous human alphaherpesvirus that causes varicella (chicken pox) and herpes zoster (shingles). Varicella is a common childhood illness, characterized by fever, viremia, and scattered vesicular lesions of the skin. As is characteristic of the alphaherpesviruses, VZV establishes latency in cells of the dorsal root ganglia. Herpes zoster, caused by VZV reactivation, is a localized, painful, vesicular rash involving one or adjacent dermatomes. The incidence of herpes zoster increases with age or immunosuppression. The VZV virion consists of a nucleocapsid surrounding a core that contains the linear, double-stranded DNA genome; a protein tegument separates the capsid from the lipid envelope, which incorporates the major viral glycoproteins. VZV is found in a worldwide geographic distribution but is more prevalent in temperate climates. Primary VZV infection elicits immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA antibodies, which bind to many classes of viral proteins. Virus-specific cellular immunity is critical for controlling viral replication in healthy and immunocompromised patients with primary or recurrent VZV infections. Rapid laboratory confirmation of the diagnosis of varicella or herpes zoster, which can be accomplished by detecting viral proteins or DNA, is important to determine the need for antiviral therapy. Acyclovir is licensed for treatment of varicella and herpes zoster, and acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir are approved for herpes zoster. Passive antibody prophylaxis with varicella-zoster immune globulin is indicated for susceptible high-risk patients exposed to varicella. A live attenuated varicella vaccine (Oka/Merck strain) is now recommended for routine childhood immunization.
Arvin, A M
Objective: Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is an under-recognized yet treatable cause of stroke. No animal model exists for stroke caused by VZV infection of cerebral arteries. Thus, we analyzed cerebral and temporal arteries from 3 patients with VZV vasculopathy to identify features that will help in diagnosis and lead to a better understanding of VZV-induced vascular remodeling. Methods: Normal and VZV-infected cerebral and temporal arteries were examined histologically and by immunohistochemistry using antibodies directed against VZV, endothelium, and smooth muscle actin and myosin. Results: All VZV-infected arteries contained 1) a disrupted internal elastic lamina; 2) a hyperplastic intima composed of cells expressing ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SM-myosin) but not endothelial cells expressing CD31; and 3) decreased medial smooth muscle cells. The location of VZV antigen, degree of neointimal thickening, and disruption of the media were related to the duration of disease. Conclusions: The presence of VZV primarily in the adventitia early in infection and in the media and intima later supports the notion that after reactivation from ganglia, VZV spreads transaxonally to the arterial adventitia followed by transmural spread of virus. Disruption of the internal elastic lamina, progressive intimal thickening with cells expressing ?-SMA and SM-MHC, and decreased smooth muscle cells in the media are characteristic features of VZV vasculopathy. Stroke in VZV vasculopathy may result from changes in arterial caliber and contractility produced in part by abnormal accumulation of smooth muscle cells and myofibroblasts in thickened neointima and disruption of the media.
Nagel, M.A.; Traktinskiy, I.; Azarkh, Y.; Kleinschmidt- DeMasters, B.; Hedley-Whyte, T.; Russman, A.; VanEgmond, E.M.; Stenmark, K.; Frid, M.; Mahalingam, R.; Wellish, M.; Choe, A.; Cordery-Cotter, R.; Cohrs, R.J.
... Complete List of Vaccines Licensed for Immunization and Distribution in the US. -. Japanese Encephalitis Virus Vaccine Inactivated. -. JE-Vax. -. -. -. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/vaccines/approvedproducts
Human viruses usually gain access to soil systems through intentional or unintentional discharges of domestic wastewater. Intentional land treatment/disposal systems represent an attractive alternative to surface water discharges, providing both economic ...
J. M. Vaughn E. F. Landry
Killed and live attenuated influenza virus vaccines are effective in preventing and curbing the spread of influenza epidemics when the strains present in the vaccines are closely matched with the predicted epidemic strains. These vaccines are primarily targeted to induce immunity to the variable major target antigen, hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza virus. However, current vaccines are not effective in preventing the emergence of new pandemic or highly virulent viruses. New approaches are being investigated to develop universal influenza virus vaccines as well as to apply more effective vaccine delivery methods. Conserved vaccine targets including the influenza M2 ion channel protein and HA stalk domains are being developed using recombinant technologies to improve the level of cross protection. In addition, recent studies provide evidence that vaccine supplements can provide avenues to further improve current vaccination.
Kang, Sang-Moo; Song, Jae-Min; Compans, Richard W.
The attenuated strain of rubella virus, was serially passed 14 times in AGMK cells and the markers of attenuation were verified. Rubella hemagglutinin and complement fixing antigen were produced in good titers in BHK-21 cells in sufficient quantities for ...
R. G. Brackett
The illustrated handbook was compiled by international authorities on virus and viruslike diseases of small fruits. Crops covered are in the plant genera Fragaria (strawberry), Vaccinium (blueberry and cranberry), Ribes (currant and gooseberry), and Rubus...
R. H. Converse
Text Version... Measles is a common childhood disease, caused by measles virus (paramyxovirus), that may be associated with serious complications and/or ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/vaccines
This report discusses the continuing effort to enhance the sensitivity of type A influenza virus detection systems utilizing the monoclonal antibodies to M-protein. Combinations of purified monoclonal antibodies to M-protein used as capture antibodies for...
D. J. Bucher
The chapter contains a description of the Winter wheat (Russian) mosaic disease symptoms, transmission and occurrence. Characteristics of the disease agent, Winter wheat (Russian) mosaic virus are outlined, as are control measures....
There is a subviral world, whose most prominent representatives are viroids. Despite being solely composed by a circular, highly structured RNA of ~250 to 400 nucleotides without protein-coding ability (all viruses code for one or more proteins), viroids can infect and incite specific diseases in higher plants. The RNA of human hepatitis delta virus (HDV), the smallest genome of an animal virus, displays striking similarities with viroids: It is circular, folds into a rodlike secondary structure, and replicates through a rolling-circle mechanism catalyzed by host enzymes and cis-acting ribozymes. However, HDV RNA is larger (~1700 nucleotides), encodes a protein in its antigenomic polarity (the ? antigen), and depends for transmission on hepatitis B virus. The presence of ribozymes in some viroids and in HDV RNA, along with their structural simplicity, makes them candidates for being molecular fossils of the RNA world that presumably preceded our extant world based on DNA and proteins. PMID:22932968
Flores, Ricardo; Ruiz-Ruiz, Susana; Serra, Pedro
The recently characterized small RNAs provide a new paradigm for physiological studies. These molecules have been shown to be integral players in processes as diverse as development and innate immunity against bacteria and viruses in eukaryotes. Several of the well-characterized small RNAs including small interfering RNAs, microRNAs and PIWI-interacting RNAs are emerging as important players in mediating arthropod host-virus interactions. Understanding the role of small RNAs in arthropod host-virus molecular interactions will facilitate manipulation of these pathways for both management of arthropod pests of agricultural and medical importance, and for protection of beneficial arthropods such as honey bees and shrimp. This review highlights recent research on the role of small RNAs in arthropod host-virus interactions with reference to other host-pathogen systems. PMID:23932976
Vijayendran, Diveena; Airs, Paul M; Dolezal, Kelly; Bonning, Bryony C
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an enterically transmitted virus usually presenting as an acute self-limiting disease. However,\\u000a mortality increases dramatically from around 1% to 20% in pregnant women. HEV has been the cause of very large outbreaks of\\u000a hepatitis in developing countries and is also responsible for a significant number of sporadic cases. It is clear that cases\\u000a occur outside
In a retrospective study of 42 cases with a histopathologic diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) or similar panencephalitic processes, measles virus antigen was traced by means of indirect immunofluorescence (IF) and peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) techniques on protease-pretreated histological sections from formol-fixed, paraffin-embedded brain biopsy or autopsy tissue, stored for up to 32 years. Measles virus antigen was detected in 28
H. Budka; H. Lassmann; Th. Popow-Kraupp
Simian virus 40 (SV40) is a monkey virus that was administered to human populations by contaminated vaccines which were produced in SV40 naturally infected monkey cells. Recent molecular biology and epidemiological studies suggest that SV40 may be contagiously transmitted in humans by horizontal infection, independently from the earlier administration of SV40-contaminated vaccines. SV40 footprints in humans have been found associated
Fernanda Martini; Alfredo Corallini; Veronica Balatti; Silvia Sabbioni; Cecilia Pancaldi; Mauro Tognon
One-hundred and fourteen virus species are transmitted by whiteflies (family Aleyrodidae). Bemisia tabaci transmits 111 of these species while Trialeurodes vaporariorum and T. abutilonia transmit three species each. B. tabaci and T. vaporariorum are present in the EuropeanMediterranean region, though the former is restricted in its distribution. Of the whitefly-transmitted virus species, 90% belong to the Begomovirus genus, 6% to
David R. Jones
The mechanism of the transient inhibition of polyoma virus synthesis by betapropiolactone-inactivated Sendai virus was studied. Polyoma virus early functions did not appear to be affected, although deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and structural protein synthesis were inhibited 60 and 35% respectively. The inhibition of macromolecular synthesis was not sufficient to account for the 90% inhibition of infectious progeny formation. Encapsidation of polyoma DNA into mature virions appears to be completely inhibited after superinfection by beta-propiolactone-inactivated Sendai virus. Ultraviolet irradiation of live or beta-propiolactone-inactivated Sendai virus preparations abolishes the interfering capacity, indicating that a functional Sendai virus ribonucleic acid molecule is the interfering component. PMID:4345489
Smith, G L; Consigli, R A
The mechanism of the transient inhibition of polyoma virus synthesis by betapropiolactone-inactivated Sendai virus was studied. Polyoma virus early functions did not appear to be affected, although deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and structural protein synthesis were inhibited 60 and 35% respectively. The inhibition of macromolecular synthesis was not sufficient to account for the 90% inhibition of infectious progeny formation. Encapsidation of polyoma DNA into mature virions appears to be completely inhibited after superinfection by beta-propiolactone-inactivated Sendai virus. Ultraviolet irradiation of live or beta-propiolactone-inactivated Sendai virus preparations abolishes the interfering capacity, indicating that a functional Sendai virus ribonucleic acid molecule is the interfering component.
Smith, Gary L.; Consigli, Richard A.
We have used a resonating mechanical cantilever to detect immunospecific binding of viruses, captured from liquid. As a model virus, we used a nonpathogenic insect baculovirus to test the ability to specifically bind and detect small numbers of virus particles. Arrays of surface micromachined, antibody-coated polycrystalline silicon nanomechanical cantilever beams were used to detect binding from various concentrations of baculoviruses in a buffer solution. Because of their small mass, the 0.5 ?m×6 ?m cantilevers have mass sensitivities on the order of 10-19 g/Hz, enabling the detection of an immobilized AcV1 antibody monolayer corresponding to a mass of about 3×10-15 g. With these devices, we can detect the mass of single-virus particles bound to the cantilever. Resonant frequency shift resulting from the adsorbed mass of the virus particles distinguished solutions of virus concentrations varying between 105 and 107 pfu/ml. Control experiments using buffer solutions without baculovirus showed small amounts (<50 attograms) of nonspecific adsorption to the antibody layer.
Ilic, B.; Yang, Y.; Craighead, H. G.
Briefly described, virus-like particles, methods of preparing virus-like particles, immunogenic compositions that include virus-like particles, and methods of liciting an immune response using immunogenic compositions that include virus-like particles are...
C. Yang Q. Yao R. W. Compans S. M. Kang
...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.203...Killed Virus Vaccines Â§ 113.203 Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus,...
...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.203...Killed Virus Vaccines Â§ 113.203 Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus,...
The conversion of simian virus 40 (SV40) component II deoxyribonucleic acid to component I has been used to assay polynucleotide ligase in extracts of tissue culture cells. All cell types examined, including chicken, hamster, mouse, monkey, and human cells, contained adenosine triphosphate-dependent ligase. After infection of mouse embryo, monkey kidney, and HeLa cells with polyoma virus, SV40, and vaccinia virus, respectively, the enzyme activity increased, but its cofactor requirement was unchanged. In vaccinia virus-infected cells, the increased activity was localized in the cytoplasm. Ligase induction occurred in the presence of cytosine arabinoside but was prevented by puromycin. Rifampicin blocked the production of infectious vaccinia particles but had little effect on the induction of ligase.
Sambrook, J.; Shatkin, A. J.
This review is a partially personal account of the discovery of virus structure and its implication for virus function. Although I have endeavored to cover all aspects of structural virology and to acknowledge relevant individuals, I know that I have favored taking examples from my own experience in telling this story. I am anxious to apologize to all those who I might have unintentionally offended by omitting their work. The first knowledge of virus structure was a result of Stanley's studies of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and the subsequent X-ray fiber diffraction analysis by Bernal and Fankuchen in the 1930s. At about the same time it became apparent that crystals of small RNA plant and animal viruses could diffract X-rays, demonstrating that viruses must have distinct and unique structures. More advances were made in the 1950s with the realization by Watson and Crick that viruses might have icosahedral symmetry. With the improvement of experimental and computational techniques in the 1970s, it became possible to determine the three-dimensional, near-atomic resolution structures of some small icosahedral plant and animal RNA viruses. It was a great surprise that the protecting capsids of the first virus structures to be determined had the same architecture. The capsid proteins of these viruses all had a 'jelly-roll' fold and, furthermore, the organization of the capsid protein in the virus were similar, suggesting a common ancestral virus from which many of today's viruses have evolved. By this time a more detailed structure of TMV had also been established, but both the architecture and capsid protein fold were quite different to that of the icosahedral viruses. The small icosahedral RNA virus structures were also informative of how and where cellular receptors, anti-viral compounds, and neutralizing antibodies bound to these viruses. However, larger lipid membrane enveloped viruses did not form sufficiently ordered crystals to obtain good X-ray diffraction. Starting in the 1990s, these enveloped viruses were studied by combining cryo-electron microscopy of the whole virus with X-ray crystallography of their protein components. These structures gave information on virus assembly, virus neutralization by antibodies, and virus fusion with and entry into the host cell. The same techniques were also employed in the study of complex bacteriophages that were too large to crystallize. Nevertheless, there still remained many pleomorphic, highly pathogenic viruses that lacked the icosahedral symmetry and homogeneity that had made the earlier structural investigations possible. Currently some of these viruses are starting to be studied by combining X-ray crystallography with cryo-electron tomography. PMID:23889891
Rossmann, Michael G
...2013-07-01 false Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance...174.514 Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus;...
The occurrence, prevalence, and distribution patterns of acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV), deformed wing virus (DWV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV), and sacbrood virus (SBV) were investigated in 90 Austrian honeybee colonies suffering from symptoms of depop- ulation, sudden collapse, paralysis, or dark coloring by employing reverse transcription-PCR. Infestation with parasites
Olga Berenyi; Tamas Bakonyi; Irmgard Derakhshifar; Hemma Koglberger; Norbert Nowotny
A large-scale model of virus transport in aquifers is derived using spectral perturbation analysis. The effects of spatial variability in aquifer hydraulic conductivity and virus transport (attachment, detachment, and inactivation) parameters on large-scale virus transport are evaluated. A stochastic mean model of virus transport is developed by linking a simple system of local-scale free-virus transport and attached-virus conservation equations from the current literature with a random-field representation of aquifer and virus transport properties. The resultant mean equations for free and attached viruses are found to differ considerably from the local-scale equations on which they are based and include effects such as a free-virus effective velocity that is a function of aquifer heterogeneity as well as virus transport parameters. Stochastic mean free-virus breakthrough curves are compared with local model output in order to observe the effects of spatial variability on mean one-dimensional virus transport in three-dimensionally heterogeneous porous media. Significant findings from this theoretical analysis include the following: (1) Stochastic model breakthrough occurs earlier than local model breakthrough, and this effect is most pronounced for the least conductive aquifers studied. (2) A high degree of aquifer heterogeneity can lead to virus breakthrough actually preceding that of a conservative tracer. (3) As the mean hydraulic conductivity is increased, the mean model shows less sensitivity to the variance of the natural-logarithm hydraulic conductivity and mean virus diameter. (4) Incorporation of a heterogeneous colloid filtration term results in higher predicted concentrations than a simple first-order adsorption term for a given mean attachment rate. (5) Incorporation of aquifer heterogeneity leads to a greater range of virus diameters for which significant breakthrough occurs. (6) The mean model is more sensitive to the inactivation rate of viruses associated with solid surfaces than to the inactivation rate of viruses in solution.
Campbell, Rehmann, L. L.; Welty, C.; Harvey, R. W.
The delivery of foreign epitopes by a replicating nonpathogenic avian infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) was explored. The aim of the study was to identify regions in the IBDV genome that are amenable to the introduction of a sequence encoding a foreign peptide. By using a cDNA-based reverse genetics system, insertions or substitutions of sequences encoding epitope tags (FLAG, c-Myc, or hepatitis C virus epitopes) were engineered in the open reading frames of a nonstructural protein (VP5) and the capsid protein (VP2). Attempts were also made to generate recombinant IBDV that displayed foreign epitopes in the exposed loops (P(BC) and P(HI)) of the VP2 trimer. We successfully recovered recombinant IBDVs expressing c-Myc and two different virus-neutralizing epitopes of human hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope glycoprotein E in the VP5 region. Western blot analyses with anti-c-Myc and anti-HCV antibodies provided positive identification of both the c-Myc and HCV epitopes that were fused to the N terminus of VP5. Genetic analysis showed that the recombinants carrying the c-Myc/HCV epitopes maintained the foreign gene sequences and were stable after several passages in Vero and 293T cells. This is the first report describing efficient expression of foreign peptides from a replication-competent IBDV and demonstrates the potential of this virus as a vector. PMID:21106739
Upadhyay, Chitra; Ammayappan, Arun; Patel, Deendayal; Kovesdi, Imre; Vakharia, Vikram N
In the past two decades or so, a number of viruses have emerged in the global swine population. Some, such as porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), cause economically important diseases in pigs, whereas others such as porcine torque teno virus (TTV), now known as Torque teno sus virus (TTSuV), porcine bocavirus (PBoV) and related novel parvoviruses, porcine kobuvirus, porcine toroviruses (PToV) and porcine lymphotropic herpesviruses (PLHV), are mostly subclinical in swine herds. Although some emerging swine viruses such as swine hepatitis E virus (swine HEV), porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) and porcine sapovirus (porcine SaV) may have a limited clinical implication in swine health, they do pose a potential public health concern in humans due to zoonotic (swine HEV) or potential zoonotic (porcine SaV) and xenozoonotic (PERV, PLHV) risks. Other emerging viruses such as Nipah virus, Bungowannah virus and Menangle virus not only cause diseases in pigs but some also pose important zoonotic threat to humans. This article focuses on emerging and re-emerging swine viruses that have a limited or uncertain clinical and economic impact on pig health. The transmission, epidemiology and pathogenic potential of these viruses are discussed. In addition, the two economically important emerging viruses, PRRSV and PCV2, are also briefly discussed to identify important knowledge gaps. PMID:22225855
Meng, X J
Until recently there was little interest or information on viruses and viruslike particles of eukaryotic algae. However, this situation is changing. In the past decade many large double-stranded DNA-containing viruses that infect two culturable, unicellular, eukaryotic green algae have been discovered. These viruses can be produced in large quantities, assayed by plaque formation, and analyzed by standard bacteriophage techniques. The viruses are structurally similar to animal iridoviruses, their genomes are similar to but larger (greater than 300 kbp) than that of poxviruses, and their infection process resembles that of bacteriophages. Some of the viruses have DNAs with low levels of methylated bases, whereas others have DNAs with high concentrations of 5-methylcytosine and N6-methyladenine. Virus-encoded DNA methyltransferases are associated with the methylation and are accompanied by virus-encoded DNA site-specific (restriction) endonucleases. Some of these enzymes have sequence specificities identical to those of known bacterial enzymes, and others have previously unrecognized specificities. A separate rod-shaped RNA-containing algal virus has structural and nucleotide sequence affinities to higher plant viruses. Quite recently, viruses have been associated with rapid changes in marine algal populations. In the next decade we envision the discovery of new algal viruses, clarification of their role in various ecosystems, discovery of commercially useful genes in these viruses, and exploitation of algal virus genetic elements in plant and algal biotechnology. Images
Van Etten, J L; Lane, L C; Meints, R H
A new word, phylodynamics, was coined to emphasize the interconnection between phylogenetic properties, as observed for instance in a phylogenetic tree, and the epidemic dynamics of viruses, where selection, mediated by the host immune response, and transmission play a crucial role. The challenges faced when investigating the evolution of RNA viruses call for a virtuous loop of data collection, data analysis and modeling. This already resulted both in the collection of massive sequences databases and in the formulation of hypotheses on the main mechanisms driving qualitative differences observed in the (reconstructed) evolutionary patterns of different RNA viruses. Qualitatively, it has been observed that selection driven by the host immune response induces an uneven survival ability among co-existing strains. As a consequence, the imbalance level of the phylogenetic tree is manifestly more pronounced if compared to the case when the interaction with the host immune system does not play a central role in the evolutive dynamics. While many imbalance metrics have been introduced, reliable methods to discriminate in a quantitative way different level of imbalance are still lacking. In our work, we reconstruct and analyze the phylogenetic trees of six RNA viruses, with a special emphasis on the human Influenza A virus, due to its relevance for vaccine preparation as well as for the theoretical challenges it poses due to its peculiar evolutionary dynamics. We focus in particular on topological properties. We point out the limitation featured by standard imbalance metrics, and we introduce a new methodology with which we assign the correct imbalance level of the phylogenetic trees, in agreement with the phylodynamics of the viruses. Our thorough quantitative analysis allows for a deeper understanding of the evolutionary dynamics of the considered RNA viruses, which is crucial in order to provide a valuable framework for a quantitative assessment of theoretical predictions.
Pompei, Simone; Loreto, Vittorio; Tria, Francesca
Alphavirus glycoproteins E2 and E1 form a heterodimer that is required for virus assembly. We have studied adaptive mutations in E2 of Sindbis virus (SIN) and E1 of Ross River virus (RR) that allow these two glycoproteins to interact more efficiently in a chimeric virus that has SIN E2 but RR E1. These mutations include K129E, K131E, and V237F in
KYONGMIN HWANG KIM; ELLEN G. STRAUSS; JAMES H. STRAUSS
Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have evolved over the past decade as a particularly useful gene -vector for in vivo applications. In contrast to oncoretro- and lentiviral vectors, this vector stays essentially episomal after gene transfer, making it safer because of the absence of insertional mutagenesis. AAV's non-pathogenicity is a further advantage. For decades, this vector could only be produced at a small scale for research purposes and, eventually, used at very small doses for clinical studies, because only transfection methods were available, which have limited scalability. However, since the development of scalable production methods, this bottleneck is resolved and, from a technical point of view, large quantities of AAV vectors can be produced, opening the possibility of using AAV vectors for whole body treatments in gene therapy trials. This chapter presents the basic principles of small- and large-scale production procedures as well as detailed procedure of small-scale production, purification, and analytical protocols for AAV vectors. In Chapter 10, the reader will find a large-scale production method based on the use of the insect cell/baculovirus system. PMID:21590399
Mezzina, Mauro; Merten, Otto-Wilhelm
Latent infections with periodic reactivation are a common outcome after acute infection with many viruses. The latency-associated transcript (LAT) gene is required for wild-type reactivation of herpes simplex virus (HSV). However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In rabbit trigeminal ganglia, extensive apoptosis occurred with LAT- virus but not with LAT+ viruses. In addition, a plasmid expressing LAT blocked apoptosis in
Guey-Chuen Perng; Clinton Jones; Janice Ciacci-Zanella; Melissa Stone; Gail Henderson; Ada Yukht; Susan M. Slanina; Florence M. Hofman; Homayon Ghiasi; Anthony B. Nesburn; Steven L. Wechsler
The use of polyacrylamide jells has facilitated the investigation of virus-specific proteins both in the form of virions and in cells infected by the virus. This method has made possible the separation of virus-specific proteins of the polio-virus and the...
F. I. Ershov L. V. Uryvaev V. M. Zhdanov
Many enveloped viruses complete their replication cycle by forming vesicles that bud from the plasma membrane. Some viruses encode late (L) domain motifs that are able to hijack host proteins involved in the vacuolar protein sorting (VPS) pathway, a cellular budding process that gives rise to multivesicular bodies and that is topologically equivalent to virus budding. Although many enveloped viruses
Benjamin J. Chen; Robert A. Lamb
Howard, C. J., Clarke, M. C. and Brownlie, J., 1989. Protection against respiratory infection with bovine virus diarrhoea virus by passively acquired antibody. Vet. Microbiol., 19: 195-203. Susceptibility to infection with bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) was compared for calves with varying amounts of specific antibody in their sera passively acquired from the ingestion of colostrum. Challenge consisted of intranasal
C. J. HOWARD; M. C. CLARKE; J. BROWNLIE
Recent reports suggest that several viruses, besides human immunodeficiency virus, induce apoptosis in infected cells. We report here that Sendai virus or Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), two potent inducers of interferon-?, caused cell death in a consistent number of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. A careful analysis of infected cells by different techniques, such as optical and electron
Franco Tropea; Leonarda Troiano; Daniela Monti; Elena Lovato; Walter Malorni; Gabriella Rainaldi; Paolo Mattana; Giuseppe Viscomi; Maria Cristina Ingletti; Marinella Portolani; Claudio Cermelli; Andrea Cossarizza; Claudio Franceschi
We have previously described isolation and preliminary identification of a virus related to Dugbe virus (DUGV), family Bunyaviridae, genus Nairovirus. Six isolates of the virus were obtained from pools of Amblyomma gemma and Rhipicephalus pulchellus ticks collected from hides of cattle in Nairobi, Kenya, in October 1999. We report results of further characterization of this virus, including growth kinetics in
Mary B. Crabtree; Rosemary Sang; Barry R. Miller
Despite recent advances in the genetics of West Nile (WN) virus, relatively little is known about the molecular basis of virulence of this virus. In particular, although the genotype of the WN virus strain that was recently introduced into North America has been determined, there have been few experimental studies on the virulence phenotype of the virus. We compared genetic
David W. C. Beasley; Li Li; Miguel T. Suderman; Alan D. T. Barrett
Here, we report the sequencing and classification of Nyamanini virus (NYMV) and Midway virus (MIDWV), two antigenically related viruses that were first isolated in 1957 and 1966, respectively. Although these viruses have been cultured multiple times from cattle egrets, seabirds, and their ticks, efforts to classify them taxonomically using conventional serological and electron microscopic approaches have failed completely. We used
Kathie A. Mihindukulasuriya; Nang L. Nguyen; Guang Wu; Henry V. Huang; Vsevolod L. Popov; Robert B. Tesh; David Wang
Powassan (POW) virus is responsible for central nervous system infection in humans in North America and the eastern parts of Russia. Recently, a new flavivirus, deer tick (DT) virus, related to POW virus was isolated in the United States, but neither its pathogenic potential in human nor the taxonomic relationship with POW virus has been elucidated. In this study, we
G. KUNO; H. ARTSOB; N. KARABATSOS; K. R. TSUCHIYA; G. J. J. CHANG
A novel flavivirus, GB virus C (GBV-C)\\/hepatitis G virus (HGV), has been detected in chronic liver disease patients. It is known that the viral RNA can be detected in C 5% of American blood donors. However, the implications for liver disease and the sites of virus replication remain unknown. Possible sites of virus replication were studied by using cell lines
Atsushi Handa; Kevin E. Brown
Many RNA viruses have genetically diverse populations known as quasispecies. Important biological char- acteristics may be related to the levels of diversity in the quasispecies (quasispecies cloud size), including adaptability and host range. Previous work using Tobacco mosaic virus and Cucumber mosaic virus indicated that evolutionarily related viruses have very different levels of diversity in a common host. The quasispecies
WILLIAM L. SCHNEIDER; MARILYN J. ROOSSINCK
BACKGROUND: Plant viruses can be employed as versatile vectors for the production of vaccines by expressing immunogenic epitopes on the surface of chimeric viral particles. Although several viruses, including tobacco mosaic virus, potato virus X and cowpea mosaic virus, have been developed as vectors, we aimed to develop a new viral vaccine delivery system, a bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV), that
Chung-Da Yang; Jia-Teh Liao; Chen-Yen Lai; Ming-Hwa Jong; Chi-Ming Liang; Yeou-Liang Lin; Na-Sheng Lin; Yau-Heiu Hsu; Shu-Mei Liang
Prompted by Professor Lwoff's article ``Principles of Classification and Nomenclature of Viruses'' (Nature, 215, 13; 1967), Drs Gibbs and Harrison defend the idea of the cryptogram, and explain its advantage over a binomial system of nomenclature for viruses.
A. J. Gibbs
Repeated transmission of animal influenza viruses to humans has prompted investigation of the viral, host, and environmental factors responsible for transmission via aerosols or respiratory droplets. How do we determine out of thousands of influenza virus isolates collected in animal surveillance studies each year which viruses have the potential to become airborne, and hence pose a pandemic threat? Here, using knowledge from pandemic, zoonotic and epidemic viruses, we postulate that the minimal requirements for efficient transmission of an animal influenza virus between humans are: efficient virus attachment to (upper) respiratory tissues, replication to high titers in these tissues, and release and aerosolization of single virus particles. Investigating airborne transmission of influenza viruses is key to understand and predict influenza pandemics.
Sorrell, E.M.; Schrauwen, E.J.A.; Linster, M.; De Graaf, M.; Herfst, S.; Fouchier, R.A.M.
Transmission of influenza virus infection in mice can be correlated with demonstrable airborne virus in the vicinity of infector mice during the period of their infectiousness; the critical difference that distinguishes transmissible and non-transmissible...
E. D. Kilbourne
Repeated transmission of animal influenza viruses to humans has prompted investigation of the viral, host, and environmental factors responsible for transmission via aerosols or respiratory droplets. How do we determine-out of thousands of influenza virus isolates collected in animal surveillance studies each year-which viruses have the potential to become 'airborne', and hence pose a pandemic threat? Here, using knowledge from pandemic, zoonotic and epidemic viruses, we postulate that the minimal requirements for efficient transmission of an animal influenza virus between humans are: efficient virus attachment to (upper) respiratory tissues, replication to high titers in these tissues, and release and aerosolization of single virus particles. Investigating 'airborne' transmission of influenza viruses is key to understand-and predict-influenza pandemics. PMID:22440921
Sorrell, E M; Schrauwen, E J A; Linster, M; De Graaf, M; Herfst, S; Fouchier, R A M
Strain 'T' of the Newcastle virus was adapted to guinea pigs and other mammals. Following the intracerebral inoculation, the adapted virus caused an infection, clinically expressed by signs of central nervous system disease (irritability, anorexia, locomo...
V. N. Syurin
The bacterially expressed nucleocapsid (N) protein of porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV) was used as immunogen to generate a rabbit-derived polyclonal antibody. The immunoreactivity of the protein to the antibody was confirmed by Western blot analysis. Using PRRSV, transmissible gastroenteritis virus, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, pseudorabies virus, and avian infectious bronchitis virus as coating antigens, a virus-based ELISA was established. The polyclonal antibody against PRRSV N protein used as a diagnostic agent was capable of differentiating PRRSV from the other viruses. PMID:21529294
Li, Guangxing; Ren, Xiaofeng
The dsRNA viruses represent a large, diverse group of pathogens (affecting a very wide range of host species), several of which are of medical, veterinary or agricultural importance. Many of the icosahedral dsRNA viruses show striking structural and functional similarities that reflect the similar problems that they face replicating their dsRNA genomes while avoiding the dsRNA activated defence mechanisms of their host species. These similarities appear to indicate a common if distant ancestry that is not always evident simply by comparison of nucleotide or amino acid sequences. To facilitate the identification and comparisons of cognate proteins from different species, genera and families of dsRNA viruses, a series of tables were originally constructed for the 7th International Symposium of dsRNA viruses held in Aruba in 2000. These have now been updated and extended (for the 8th Symposium, held in Tuscany 2003) and are available from the dsRNA virus website at. PMID:15010213
The genomes of most virus species have overlapping genestwo or more proteins coded for by the same nucleotide sequence. Several explanations have been proposed for the evolution of this phenomenon, and we test these by comparing the amount of gene overlap in all known virus species. We conclude that gene overlap is unlikely to have evolved as a way of compressing the genome in response to the harmful effect of mutation because RNA viruses, despite having generally higher mutation rates, have less gene overlap on average than DNA viruses of comparable genome length. However, we do find a negative relationship between overlap proportion and genome length among viruses with icosahedral capsids, but not among those with other capsid types that we consider easier to enlarge in size. Our interpretation is that a physical constraint on genome length by the capsid has led to gene overlap evolving as a mechanism for producing more proteins from the same genome length. We consider that these patterns cannot be explained by other factors, namely the possible roles of overlap in transcription regulation, generating more divergent proteins and the relationship between gene length and genome length.
Chirico, Nicola; Vianelli, Alberto; Belshaw, Robert
Thirty soilborne viruses or virus-like agents are transmitted by five species of fungal vectors. Ten polyhedral viruses, of which nine are in the family Tombusviridae, are acquired in the in vitro manner and do not occur within the resting spores of their vectors, Olpidium brassicae and O. bornovanus. Fungal vectors for other viruses in the family should be sought even though tombusviruses are reputed to be soil transmitted without a vector. Eighteen rod-shaped viruses belonging to the furo- and bymovirus groups and to an unclassified group are acquired in the in vivo manner and survive within the resting spores of their vector, O. brassicae, Polymyxa graminis, P. betae, and Spongospora subterranea. The viral coat protein has an essential role in in vitro transmission. With in vivo transmission a site in the coat protein-read through protein (CP-RT) of beet necrotic yellow vein furovirus determines vector transmissibility as does a site in a similar 98-kDa polyprotein of barley mild mosaic bymovirus. The mechanisms by which virions move (or are moved) into and out of the protoplasm of zoospores or of thalli needs study. PMID:15012536
Campbell, R N
The ability to detect, isolate, and characterize an infectious agent is important for diagnosing and curing infectious diseases. Detecting new viral diseases is a challenge because the number of virus particles is often low and/or localized to a small subset of cells. Even if a new virus is detected, it is difficult to isolate it from clinical or environmental samples where multiple viruses are present each with very different properties. Isolation is crucial for whole genome sequencing because reconstructing a genome from fragments of many different genomes is practically impossible. We present a Droplet Microfluidics platform that can detect, isolate and sequence single viral genomes from complex samples containing mixtures of many viruses. We use metagenomic information about the sample of mixed viruses to select a short genomic sequence whose genome we are interested in characterizing. We then encapsulate single virions from the same sample in picoliter volume droplets and screen for successful PCR amplification of the sequence of interest. The selected drops are pooled and their contents sequenced to reconstruct the genome of interest. This method provides a general tool for detecting, isolating and sequencing genetic elements in clinical and environmental samples.
Rotem, Assaf; Cockrell, Shelley; Guo, Mira; Pipas, James; Weitz, David
Viral infections are frequently cited as a major environmental factor involved in subacute thyroiditis and autoimmune thyroid diseases This review examines the data related to the role of viruses in the development of thyroiditis. Our research has been focused on human data. We have reviewed virological data for each type of thyroiditis at different levels of evidence; epidemiological data, serological data or research on circulating viruses, direct evidence of thyroid tissue infection. Interpretation of epidemiological and serological data must be cautious as they don't prove that this pathogen is responsible for the disease. However, direct evidence of the presence of viruses or their components in the organ are available for retroviruses (HFV) and mumps in subacute thyroiditis, for retroviruses (HTLV-1, HFV, HIV and SV40) in Graves's disease and for HTLV-1, enterovirus, rubella, mumps virus, HSV, EBV and parvovirus in Hashimoto's thyroiditis. However, it remains to determine whether they are responsible for thyroid diseases or whether they are just innocent bystanders. Further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between viruses and thyroid diseases, in order to develop new strategies for prevention and/or treatment.
Desailloud, Rachel; Hober, Didier
By means of the indirect fluorescent-antibody test, cross serological reactivity was demonstrated between lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM) virus and the viruses of the Tacaribe complex. Antisera to all members of the Tacaribe complex reacted with LCM virus; LCM antisera gave significant staining of Amapari virus, but minimal or inconsistent reactions with Tacaribe virus, and no reaction with two other viruses of the Tacaribe complex. A low level cross-reaction was observed in complement fixation tests of Machupo and Pichinde antisera against LCM antigen. Immunization with Tacaribe and Amapari viruses did not protect mice against challenge with LCM virus. Because of the identical appearance of the virions, the sharing of antigens, and the many biological similarities between LCM and the Tacaribe complex viruses, it is proposed that they be considered as constituting a new taxonomic group of viruses. PMID:4985595
Rowe, W P; Pugh, W E; Webb, P A; Peters, C J
By means of the indirect fluorescent-antibody test, cross serological reactivity was demonstrated between lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM) virus and the viruses of the Tacaribe complex. Antisera to all members of the Tacaribe complex reacted with LCM virus; LCM antisera gave significant staining of Amapari virus, but minimal or inconsistent reactions with Tacaribe virus, and no reaction with two other viruses of the Tacaribe complex. A low level cross-reaction was observed in complement fixation tests of Machupo and Pichinde antisera against LCM antigen. Immunization with Tacaribe and Amapari viruses did not protect mice against challenge with LCM virus. Because of the identical appearance of the virions, the sharing of antigens, and the many biological similarities between LCM and the Tacaribe complex viruses, it is proposed that they be considered as constituting a new taxonomic group of viruses.
Rowe, Wallace P.; Pugh, Wendell E.; Webb, Patricia A.; Peters, Clarence J.
The first congress on Viruses of Microbes took place at the Institut Pasteur in Paris, France, on 2125 June 2010. The advances in genomics and metagenomics reported at this meeting reveal striking and unexpected complexity of the virus world. Viruses, in particular viruses that infect prokaryotes and unicellular eukaryotes, are emerging as the most abundant class of biological entities on earth and a major evolutionary and geochemical force.
Koonin, Eugene V
SUMMARY Reassortment is an important factor in the evolution of segmented genome viruses. For arthropod-borne viruses it is important to determine whether the vertebrate host acts as a site of reassortant virus formation since vertebrates often act as amplifying hosts. Mutants of Thogoto virus, a tick-borne orthomyxo-like virus, were shown to produce wild-type progeny in a dually infected permissive host
LINDA D. JONES; CLIVE R. DAVIES; BERNADETTE M. GREEN; PATRICIA A. NUTTALL
An overview is given on the development of technologies to allow reverse genetics of RNA viruses, i.e., the rescue of viruses\\u000a from cDNA, with emphasis on nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses ( Mononegavirales ), as exemplified for measles virus\\u000a (MV). Primarily, these technologies allowed site-directed mutagenesis, enabling important insights into a variety of aspects\\u000a of the biology of these viruses. Concomitantly,
M. A. Billeter; H. Y. Naim; S. A. Udem
Over the last 15 years, interest in plant virus evolution has re-emerged, as shown by the increasing number of papers published on this subject. In recent times, research in plant virus evolution has been viewed from a molecular, rather than populational, standpoint, and there is a need for work aimed at understanding the processes involved in plant virus evolution. However, accumulated
Fernando García-Arenal; Aurora Fraile; José M. Malpica
Summary The stability of cultured rinderpest virus, in maintenance medium containing 5% normal ox serum, was studied at 4°, 37°, and 56° C. The half-life at these temperatures was calculated and the results compared with figures available for other strains of rinderpest virus in cattle tissues and for measles virus in tissue culture fluids.
W. Plowright; R. D. Ferris
Measles virus (MV) and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) are both members of the Mononegavirales but are only distantly related. We generated two genetically stable chimeric viruses. In MGV, the reading frames of the MV envelope glycoproteins H and F were substituted by a single reading frame encoding the VSV G glyco- protein; MG\\/FV is similar but encodes a G\\/F hybrid
PIUS SPIELHOFER; THOMAS BACHI; THOMAS FEHR; GUDRUN CHRISTIANSEN; ROBERTO CATTANEO; KARIN KAELIN; MARTIN A. BILLETER; HUSSEIN Y. NAIM
Salicylic acid is part of a signal transduction pathway that induces resistance to viruses, bacteria and fungi. In tobacco and Arabidopsis the defensive signal transduction pathway branches downstream of salicylic acid. One branch induces PR-1 proteins and resistance to bacteria and fungi, while the other triggers induction of resistance to RNA and DNA viruses. This virus-specific branch can be activated
Alex M. Murphy; Androulla Gilliland; Chui Eng Wong; Joanne West; Davinder P. Singh; John P. Carr
A single i.m. dose of formalin-inactivated murine mammary tumor virus greatly reduces viral expression and mammary tumorigenesis in Af (tumor incidence, 39%) and RIIIf (tumor incidence, 11%) mice, which carry only endogenous, gamete-transmitted virus. In C57BL mice, 1 mug of vaccine in Freund's complete adjuvant protects against later challenge with RIII virus. PMID:175938
Charney, J; Holben, J A; Cody, C M; Moore, D H
Overview:<\\/strong>The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to obtain a thorough understanding of the main factors determining the spread of a potyvirus in a high plant density crop. The factors studied included the relationships between virus, host and vector, the spread of the virus around an initial virus source consisting of one or more infected plants, the
A. N. Dusi
This book describes advances in the field of virus research. Topics covered include: Retroid virus genome replication; viral oncogenes, v-yes and kerbB, and their cellular counterparts; hepatitis A; and molecular studies of brome Mosaic virus using infectious transcripts from cloned cDNA.
Maramorosch, K.; Murphy, F.A.; Shatkin, A.J.
This book presents topics in virus research and advances made in this field. Topics covered include: ambisense RNA genomes of arenaviruses and phleboviruses; the molecular basis of antigenic variation in influenza virus; epitope mapping of flavivirus glycoproteins; regulation of adenovirus mRNA formation; regulation of protein synthesis in virus infected animal cells; and antibody-dependent enhancement of vira infectivity.
Maramorosch, K.; Murphy, F.A.; Shatkin, A.J.
Summary Classification of viruses is regulated by the International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). This organisation provides not only the rules to be applied but has to approve all new names for virus species, genera or higher taxa. Anybody may make a taxonomic proposal but most frequently they are generated by specialist study groups that exist for most
M. J. ADAMS
The dengue-2 vaccine virus (S-1) and its parent virus (PR-159) were compared for their ability to infect orally, to replicate in, and subsequently to be transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The vaccine virus was markedly less efficient in its ability ...
B. J. Beaty T. H. G. Aitken
Influenza A virus is a negative stranded RNA virus, composed of eight segmented RNA molecules, including polymerases (PB2, PB1, PA), haemaglutin (HA), nucleoprotein (NP), neuraminidase (NA), matrix protein (MP), and nonstructure gene (NS). The influenza A viruses are notorious for rapid mutations, frequent genomic reassortments, and possible recombinations. Among these evolutionary events, genetic reassortments refer to exchanges of internal fragments
Xiu-feng Wan; Mufit Ozden; Guohui Lin
Arctic/Arctic-like rabies virus group 2 spread into Bangladesh ?32 years ago. Because rabies is endemic to and a major public health problem in this country, we characterized this virus group. Its glycoprotein has 3 potential N-glycosylation sites that affect viral pathogenesis. Diversity of rabies virus might have public health implications in Bangladesh. PMID:23171512
Jamil, Khondoker Mahbuba; Ahmed, Kamruddin; Hossain, Moazzem; Matsumoto, Takashi; Ali, Mohammad Azmat; Hossain, Sohrab; Hossain, Shakhawat; Islam, Aminul; Nasiruddin, Mohammad; Nishizono, Akira
The study of viral molecular genetics has produced a considerable body of research into the se- quences and phylogenetic relationships of human and an- imal viruses. A review of this literature suggests that humans have been afflicted by viruses throughout their evolutionary history, although the number and types have changed. Some viruses show evidence of long-standing inti- mate relationship and
Linda M. Van Blerkom
RNA silencing or RNAi interference (RNAi) serves as an innate antiviral mechanism in plants, fungi and animals. Human viruses, like plant viruses, encode suppressor proteins or RNAs that block or modulate the RNAi pathway. This review summarizes the mechanisms by which pathogenic human viruses affect the RNAi pathway. Furthermore, some applications of the viral RNAi suppressor functions and the consequences
Walter de Vries; Ben Berkhout
Maize chlorotic dwarf virus (MCDV) (genus Waikavirus; family Sequiviridae) is a picorna-like virus transmitted by the black-faced leafhopper, Graminella nigrifrons, in a semi-persistent manner using a virus-encoded helper protein. The MCDV genome contains one large open reading frame encoding a poly...
|This discussion of computer viruses explains how these viruses may be transmitted, describes their effects on data and/or computer application programs, and identifies three groups that propagate them. Ten major viruses are listed and described, and measures to deal with them are discussed. Nineteen antiviral programs are also listed and
Summary Feline panleukopenia virus was isolated from a peracute, fatal disease in a 3-month-old Burmese kitten by inoculation of a 1 per cent spleen suspension onto freshly seeded cultures of a feline embryo (FEmb) cell line. The virus was assayed by the detection of intranuclear inclusion bodies in stained coverslips of FEmb cells. The virus was not inactivated by ether,
M. J. Studdert; J. E. Peterson
We study computer virology from an abstract point of view. Viruses and worms are self-replicating programs, whose constructions are essen- tially based on Kleene's second recursion theorem. We show that we can classify viruses as solutions of fixed point equations which are obtained from dierent versions of Kleene's second recursion theorem. This lead us to consider four classes of viruses
Guillaume Bonfante; Matthieu Kaczmarek; Jean-yves Marion
Viruses have evolved to enter cells from all three domains of life Bacteria, Archaea and Eukaryotes. Of more than 3,600 known viruses, hundreds can infect human cells and most of those are associated with disease. To gain access to the cell interior, animal viruses attach to host-cell receptors. Advances in our understanding of how viral entry proteins interact with
Dimiter S. Dimitrov
Summary Several strains of rubella virus were able to establish a persistent or carrier-type infection in adult hamsters and suckling rabbits. No evidence of rubella virus persistence for prolonged periods was detected in suckling and adult ferrets or in adult rabbits, although serological studies suggested that these animals had been infected with rubella virus.
J. S. Oxford; C. W. Potter
Ectromelia virus (EV) is an orthopoxvirus (OPV) that causes mousepox, a severe disease of laboratory mice. Mousepox is a useful model of OPV infection because EV is likely to be a natural mouse pathogen, unlike its close relatives vaccinia virus (VV) and variola virus. Several studies have highlighted the importance of mouse interferons (IFNs) in resistance to and recovery from
Vincent P. Smith; Antonio Alcami
The communal nature of the Internet exposes organizations and home computer users to a multitude of worms, viruses, and other malicious software (malware) threats such as spyware and Trojan horses. Viruses are program fragments attached to normal programs or files that hijack the execution control of the host program to reproduce copies of the virus. Worms are automated self-replicating programs
Thomas M. Chen
The glassy-winged sharpshooter, GWSS, has been shown to be susceptible to insect virus infections. A new virus was isolated from field caught GWSS and partially sequenced. Sequence identity showed that this was a new sharpshooter virus separate from those already reported by Hunter et. al. 2004, and...
Many studies have shown that hepatitis B virus infection may also occur in hepatitis B surface antigen-negative patients. This occult infection has been identified both in patients with cryptogenic liver disease and in patients with hepatitis C virus-related chronic hepatitis, and much evidence suggests that it may be a risk factor of hepatocellular carcinoma development. However several aspects of this occult infection remain unclear such as its prevalence and the factor(s) involved in the lack of circulating hepatitis B surface antigen. Moreover, it is uncertain whether the occult hepatitis B virus infection may contribute to chronic liver damage, considering that it is usually associated with a suppressed viral replication. Evidence and hypotheses concerning this fascinating field of bio-medical research are reviewed. PMID:11215565
Raimondo, G; Balsano, C; Craxì, A; Farinati, F; Levrero, M; Mondelli, M; Pollicino, T; Squadrito, G; Tiribelli, C
Most viruses use the mRNA-cap dependent cellular translation machinery to translate their mRNAs into proteins. The addition of a cap structure at the 5' end of mRNA is therefore an essential step for the replication of many virus families. Additionally, the cap protects the viral RNA from degradation by cellular nucleases and prevents viral RNA recognition by innate immunity mechanisms. Viral RNAs acquire their cap structure either by using cellular capping enzymes, by stealing the cap of cellular mRNA in a process named "cap snatching", or using virus-encoded capping enzymes. Many viral enzymes involved in this process have recently been structurally and functionally characterized. These studies have revealed original cap synthesis mechanisms and pave the way towards the development of specific inhibitors bearing antiviral drug potential. PMID:22549871
Bouvet, Mickaël; Ferron, François; Imbert, Isabelle; Gluais, Laure; Selisko, Barbara; Coutard, Bruno; Canard, Bruno; Decroly, Etienne
HIV-infected patients may acquire new viral co-infections; they may also experience the reactivation or worsening of existing viral infections, including active, smoldering, or latent infections. HIV-infected patients may be predisposed to these viral infections due to immunodeficiency or to risk factors common to HIV and other viruses. A number of these affect the kidney, either by direct infection or by deposition of immune complexes. In this review we discuss the renal manifestations and treatment of hepatitis C virus, BK virus, adenovirus, cytomegalovirus, and parvovirus B19 in patients with HIV disease. We also discuss an approach to the identification of new viral renal pathogens, using a viral gene chip to identify viral DNA or RNA.
Waldman, Meryl; Marshall, Vickie; Whitby, Denise; Kopp, Jeffrey B.
The most common enteric viruses responsible for diarrhoea are rotavirus, enteric adenoviruses, caliciviruses including the Norwalk agent and astrovirus. These infections are usually mild to moderate in severity, self-limiting and of short duration and thus, specific antiviral therapy is not recommended. The standard management of these infections is restoration of fluid and electrolyte balance and then maintenance of hydration until the infection resolves. WHO oral rehydration therapy (ORT) was introduced about 30 years ago and has saved the lives of many infants and young children. During the last 10 years it has become evident that the efficacy of ORT can be increased by reducing the osmolality of the WHO oral rehydration solution (ORS) to produce a relatively hypotonic solution. Hypotonic ORS appears to be safe and effective in all forms of acute diarrhoea in childhood. Complex substrate ORS, which is also usually hypotonic, has been shown to have increased efficacy in cholera but not in other bacterial or viral diarrhoeas. Nevertheless, the scientific rationale for using rice or resistant starch as substrate in ORS is of physiological interest. Other treatments such as hyperimmune bovine colostrum, probiotics and antiviral agents are largely experimental and have not been introduced into routine clinical practice. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection of the gastrointestinal tract occurs mainly in the immunocompromised although it has been reported in immunocompetent individuals. CMV infects both the oesophagus and colon to produce oesophagitis, often with discrete ulcers, and colitis, respectively. Both conditions can be treated with ganciclovir or foscarnet. Failure to respond to monotherapy is an indication to use both agents concurrently. PMID:11444033
Farthing, M J
During lyssavirus surveillance, 1,221 bats of at least 30 species were collected from 25 locations in Kenya. One isolate of Lagos bat virus (LBV) was obtained from a dead Eidolon helvum fruit bat. The virus was most similar phylogenetically to LBV isolates from Senegal (1985) and from France (imported from Togo or Egypt; 1999), sharing with these viruses 100% nucleoprotein identity and 99.8 to 100% glycoprotein identity. This genome conservancy across space and time suggests that LBV is well adapted to its natural host species and that populations of reservoir hosts in eastern and western Africa have sufficient interactions to share pathogens. High virus concentrations, in addition to being detected in the brain, were detected in the salivary glands and tongue and in an oral swab, suggesting that LBV is transmitted in the saliva. In other extraneural organs, the virus was generally associated with innervations and ganglia. The presence of infectious virus in the reproductive tract and in a vaginal swab implies an alternative opportunity for transmission. The isolate was pathogenic for laboratory mice by the intracerebral and intramuscular routes. Serologic screening demonstrated the presence of LBV-neutralizing antibodies in E. helvum and Rousettus aegyptiacus fruit bats. In different colonies the seroprevalence ranged from 40 to 67% and 29 to 46% for E. helvum and R. aegyptiacus, respectively. Nested reverse transcription-PCR did not reveal the presence of viral RNA in oral swabs of bats in the absence of brain infection. Several large bat roosts were identified in areas of dense human populations, raising public health concerns for the potential of lyssavirus infection.
Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Niezgoda, Michael; Franka, Richard; Agwanda, Bernard; Markotter, Wanda; Beagley, Janet C.; Urazova, Olga Y.; Breiman, Robert F.; Rupprecht, Charles E.
Respiratory syncytial virus infection is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in young children. Palivizumab, a respiratory syncytial virus-specific monoclonal antibody, reduces the hospitalization rate of high-risk children but it is very costly. This statement replaces three previous position statements from the Canadian Paediatric Society about this topic, and was updated primarily to discuss recent changes in the American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines in the Canadian context. It reviews the published literature and provides recommendations regarding palivizumab use in high-risk children.
Neonatal herpes simplex virus infections are uncommon, but because of the morbidity and mortality associated with the infection they are often considered in the differential diagnosis of ill neonates. The use of polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis of central nervous system infections and the development of safe and effective antiviral therapy has revolutionized the diagnosis and management of these infants. Initiation of long-term antiviral suppressive therapy in these infants has led to significant improvement in morbidity. This article summarizes the epidemiology of neonatal herpes simplex virus infections and discusses clinical presentation, diagnosis, management, and follow up of infants with neonatal herpes disease. PMID:23481105
Pinninti, Swetha G; Kimberlin, David W
Four influenza pandemics have struck the human population during the last 100 years causing substantial morbidity and mortality. The pandemics were caused by the introduction of a new virus into the human population from an avian or swine host or through the mixing of virus segments from an animal host with a human virus to create a new reassortant subtype virus. Understanding which changes have contributed to the adaptation of the virus to the human host is essential in assessing the pandemic potential of current and future animal viruses. Here, we develop a measure of the level of adaptation of a given virus strain to a particular host. We show that adaptation to the human host has been gradual with a timescale of decades and that none of the virus proteins have yet achieved full adaptation to the selective constraints. When the measure is applied to historical data, our results indicate that the 1918 influenza virus had undergone a period of preadaptation prior to the 1918 pandemic. Yet, ancestral reconstruction of the avian virus that founded the classical swine and 1918 human influenza lineages shows no evidence that this virus was exceptionally preadapted to humans. These results indicate that adaptation to humans occurred following the initial host shift from birds to mammals, including a significant amount prior to 1918. The 2009 pandemic virus seems to have undergone preadaptation to human-like selective constraints during its period of circulation in swine. Ancestral reconstruction along the human virus tree indicates that mutations that have increased the adaptation of the virus have occurred preferentially along the trunk of the tree. The method should be helpful in assessing the potential of current viruses to found future epidemics or pandemics. PMID:21109586
dos Reis, Mario; Tamuri, Asif U; Hay, Alan J; Goldstein, Richard A
Rabies is one of the oldest diseases known to man, but its successful control has remained elusive. Although effective vaccines of tissue culture origin against rabies do exist1, such preparations are expensive. Live vaccinia virus (VV) recombinants expressing influenza or hepatitis B antigens have recently been used to immunize against these diseases2-4. We have now used this approach to produce
M. P. Kieny; R. Lathe; R. Drillien; D. Spehner; S. Skory; D. Schmitt; T. Wiktor; H. Koprowski; J. P. Lecocq
Virus evolution has become a topic that involves population based selection. Both quasispecies based populations and reticulated mosaic exchange of populations of genetic elements are now well established. This has led us to the understanding that a cooperative consortia can be a crucial aspect of virus driven evolution. Thus viruses exist in groups that can cooperate. However, consortial based evolution (group selection) has long been dismissed by evolutionary biologist. Recently, biocommunication theory has concluded that the evolution and editing of any code or language requires a consortial based process in order to adhere to pragmatic (context) requirements for meaning (in conflict with survival of the fittest concepts). This has led to the idea that viruses are the natural editors of biological codes or language. In this chapter, I present the view that the persistence of virus information in their host provides a natural process of host code editing that is inherently consortial. Since persistence requires mechanisms to attain stability and preclude competition, it also provided mechanisms that promote group identity. Accordingly, I review the viral origins of addiction modules and how these affect both persistence and group identity. The concepts emerging from addiction module based group identity are then generalized and applied to social identity systems as well. I then examine the prokaryotes and the involvement of viral elements in the emergence of their group identity systems (biofilms). Here, integrating dsDNA agents prevailed. In the eukaryotes, however, a large shift in virus-host evolution occurred in which the role of dsDNA agents was diminished but the role of retroviruses and retroposons was greatly enhanced. These agents provided greatly expanded and network based regulatory complexity that was controlled by sensory inputs. From this perspective, the role of virus in the origin of the adaptive immune system is then outlined. I then consider human evolution from the perspective of the great HERV colonization. The origin of a large social brain able to support the learning of language is presented from this viral perspective. The role of addiction modules in the origin of extended social bonding of humans is outlined and applied to the emergence of language as a system of group identity. PMID:22399381
We describe the creative ways that virologists are leveraging experimental cross-species infections to study the interactions between viruses and hosts. While viruses are usually well adapted to their hosts, cross-species approaches involve pairing viruses with species that they dont naturally infect. These cross-species infections pit viruses against animals, cell lines, or even single genes from foreign species. We highlight examples where cross-species infections have yielded insights into mechanisms of host innate immunity, viral countermeasures, and the evolutionary interplay between viruses and hosts.
Sawyer, Sara L.; Elde, Nels C.
To date there is no known evidence of viruses within the rock record. Their small size and absence of a metabolism has led to the hypothesis that they lack unique biological signatures, and the potential to become preserved. Biosignature research relevant to early Earth has focused on prokaryotic communities; however, the most abundant member of modern ecosystems, viruses, have been ignored. In order to establish a baseline for research on virus biosignatures, we have initiated laboratory research on known lipid-containing viruses. PRD1 is a lipid-containing virus that infects and replicates in Salmonella typhimurium LT2. PRD1 is a 65 nm spherical virus with an internal lipid membrane, which is a few nanometers thick. When the PRD1 virus stock was mixed with a 400 ppm SiO2 (final concentration) solution and incubated for six months. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and lipid analysis using gas chromatography revealed that the virus lipids were still detectable despite complete removal of dissolved silica. Free fatty acids were also detected. Titers of infectious PRD1 viruses after six months in the presence of silica decreased 40 times more than without silica. Though virus biosignature research is in its incipient stages, the data suggest that virus lipid signatures are preserved under laboratory conditions and may offer the potential for contribution to the organic geochemical record.
Kyle, J.; Jahnke, L. L.; Stedman, K. M.
A simple method with poliovirus as the model was developed for recovering human enteric viruses from aerosols. Filterite filters (pore size, 0.45 micron; Filterite Corp., Timonium, Md.) moistened with glycine buffer (pH 3.5) were used for adsorbing the aerosolized virus. No virus passed the filter, even with air flow rates of 100 liters/min. Virus recovery from the filter was achieved by rapid elution with 800 ml of glycine buffer, pH 10. The virus in the primary eluate was reconcentrated by adjusting the pH to 3.5, adding AlCl3 to 0.0005 M, collecting the virus on a 0.25-micron-pore Filerite disk (diameter, 25 mm) and and eluting with 6 ml of buffer, pH 10. With this method, virus could be detected regularly in aerosols produced by flushing when 3 X 10(8) PFU of poliovirus were present in the toilet bowl. Poliovirus-containing fecal material from two of four infants who had recently received oral polio vaccine also yielded virus in the aerosols when feces containing 2.4 X 10(7) to 4.5 X 10(7) PFU of virus had been added to the toilet bowl. Persons infected with a variety of natural enteric viruses are known to excrete this amount of virus in their daily stools. Images
Wallis, C; Melnick, J L; Rao, V C; Sox, T E
1. Cross-neutralization tests with sera from swine recovered from infection with swine influenza indicated the serological identity of 7 strains of swine influenza virus obtained from different sources. 2. Cross-neutralization tests with sera from rabbits, immunized to swine influenza virus, exposed serological differences among the same 7 swine influenza virus strains. Two strains appeared to be serologically similar and were characterized by the ability to produce effective homologous virus-neutralizing sera which were, however, poor or ineffective against the heterologous virus strains. Two other strains were also serologically similar but produced antibodies effective not only against themselves, but against all heterologous strains as well. The remaining 3 strains were intermediate in their ability to produce heterologous virus-neutralizing antibodies. 3. The human influenza viruses included, especially strains WS and Oakham, were most effectively differentiated serologically from the swine influenza viruses by rabbit antisera. 4. The suggestion is advanced that swine antisera express the antigenic composition of the swine influenza viruses, while rabbit antisera reflect either their antigenic arrangement or the arrangement of the components responsible for their mouse pathogenicity. On this interpretation the 7 strains of swine influenza virus studied would be considered to have similar antigenic compositions but differing antigenic structures. 5. The serological differences among strains of the swine influenza virus, detectible by rabbit antisera, are probably of no practical significance so far as the natural disease, swine influenza, is concerned.
Shope, Richard E.
In a recent BMC Evolutionary Biology article, Huiquan Liu and colleagues report two new genomes of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses from fungi and use these as a springboard to perform an extensive phylogenomic analysis of dsRNA viruses. The results support the old scenario of polyphyletic origin of dsRNA viruses from different groups of positive-strand RNA viruses and additionally reveal extensive horizontal gene transfer between diverse viruses consistent with the network-like rather than tree-like mode of viral evolution. Together with the unexpected discoveries of the first putative archaeal RNA virus and a RNA-DNA virus hybrid, this work shows that RNA viral genomics has major surprises to deliver. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/12/91
During infection, many viruses induce cellular remodeling, resulting in the formation of insoluble aggregates/inclusions, usually containing viral structural proteins. Identification of aggregates has become a useful diagnostic tool for certain viral infections. There is wide variety of viral aggregates, which differ by their location, size, content and putative function. The role of aggregation in the context of a specific virus is often poorly understood, especially in the case of plant viruses. The aggregates are utilized by viruses to house a large complex of proteins of both viral and host origin to promote virus replication, translation, intra- and intercellular transportation. Aggregated structures may protect viral functional complexes from the cellular degradation machinery. Alternatively, the activation of host defense mechanisms may involve sequestration of virus components in aggregates, followed by their neutralization as toxic for the host cell. The diversity of virus-induced aggregates in mammalian and plant cells is the subject of this review.
Moshe, Adi; Gorovits, Rena
During infection, many viruses induce cellular remodeling, resulting in the formation of insoluble aggregates/inclusions, usually containing viral structural proteins. Identification of aggregates has become a useful diagnostic tool for certain viral infections. There is wide variety of viral aggregates, which differ by their location, size, content and putative function. The role of aggregation in the context of a specific virus is often poorly understood, especially in the case of plant viruses. The aggregates are utilized by viruses to house a large complex of proteins of both viral and host origin to promote virus replication, translation, intra- and intercellular transportation. Aggregated structures may protect viral functional complexes from the cellular degradation machinery. Alternatively, the activation of host defense mechanisms may involve sequestration of virus components in aggregates, followed by their neutralization as toxic for the host cell. The diversity of virus-induced aggregates in mammalian and plant cells is the subject of this review. PMID:23202461
Moshe, Adi; Gorovits, Rena
In this study, we optimized procedures to enumerate viruses from marine sediments by epifluorescence microscopy using SYBR Green I as a stain. The highest virus yields from the bulk of the sediments were obtained by utilizing pyrophosphate and 3 min of sonication. The efficiency of extraction benthic viruses by pyrophosphate-ultrasound treatment was about 60% of the extractable virus particles. Samples treated with nucleases had increased virus counts, suggesting a masking effect of extracellular DNA. No significant differences were observed between virus counts obtained by epifluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Both formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde gave significant reductions of virus counts after only 24 h of sediment storage, but no further loss occurred after 7 days.
Danovaro, R.; Dell'Anno, A.; Trucco, A.; Serresi, M.; Vanucci, S.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been a key experimental organism for the study of infectious diseases, including dsRNA viruses, ssRNA viruses, and prions. Studies of the mechanisms of virus and prion replication, virus structure, and structure of the amyloid filaments that are the basis of yeast prions have been at the forefront of such studies in these classes of infectious entities. Yeast has been particularly useful in defining the interactions of the infectious elements with cellular components: chromosomally encoded proteins necessary for blocking the propagation of the viruses and prions, and proteins involved in the expression of viral components. Here, we emphasize the L-A dsRNA virus and its killer-toxin-encoding satellites, the 20S and 23S ssRNA naked viruses, and the several infectious proteins (prions) of yeast. PMID:23498901
Wickner, Reed B; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Esteban, Rosa
We studied human neutrophils for uptake of vaccinia virus. Uptake was determined radiometrically and by electron microscopy. Vaccinia virus was labeled with /sup 14/C or /sup 3/H, incubated with neutrophils, and quantified in neutrophil pellets in a new radiometric phagocytosis assay. Better results were obtained from assays of (/sup 3/H)thymidine-labeled virus; uptake increased through 1 hr and then plateaued. Phagocytosis of 3H-labeled Staphylococcus aureus was normal. Uptake of virus was serum dependent. Hexose monophosphate shunt activity was measured by two methods. No /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from (/sup 14/C)1-glucose accompanied uptake of vaccinia virus, in contrast to the respiratory burst accompanying bacterial phagocytosis. Electron microscopy showed intact to slightly digested intraphagolysosomal vaccinia virus. Pock reduction assay showed a decrease in viral content due to neutrophils until 6 hr of incubation, when a modest but significant increase was observed. Thus, neutrophil uptake of vaccinia virus is distinguished from bacterial phagocytosis.
West, B.C.; Eschete, M.L.; Cox, M.E.; King, J.W.
Bats play important roles as pollen disseminators and pest predators. However, recent interest has focused on their role as natural reservoirs of pathogens associated with emerging infectious diseases. Prior to the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), about 60 bat virus species had been reported. The number of identified bat viruses has dramatically increased since the initial SARS outbreak, and most are putative novel virus species or genotypes. Serious infectious diseases caused by previously identified bat viruses continue to emerge throughout in Asia, Australia, Africa and America. Intriguingly, bats infected by these different viruses seldom display clinical symptoms of illness. The pathogenesis and potential threat of bat-borne viruses to public health remains largely unknown. This review provides a brief overview of bat viruses associated with emerging human infectious diseases. PMID:23917838
The diagnosis of virus diseases of ornamental hibiscus or shoe flower, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis and H. hybrid, was conducted using tissue blot immunoassay techniques. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify the viral coat protein (CP) gene from infected hibiscus and its nu...
In recent years human and animal cancers have increasingly been shown to have a viral component in their aetiology. Oncogenic viruses will continue to be discovered although with certain cancers there is also an important environmental component, and with others congenital cancers and cancers of early childhood an important genetic component. There is thus the probability that cancer
Powassan virus (POWV) is a rare tick-borne agent of encephalitis in North America. Historically, confirmed cases occurred mainly in the northeastern United States. Since 2008, confirmed cases in Minnesota and Wisconsin have increased. We report a fatal case of POWV encephalitis in Minnesota. POWV infection should be suspected in tick-exposed patients with viral encephalitis.
Powassan virus (POWV) is a rare tick-borne agent of encephalitis in North America. Historically, confirmed cases occurred mainly in the northeastern United States. Since 2008, confirmed cases in Minnesota and Wisconsin have increased. We report a fatal case of POWV encephalitis in Minnesota. POWV infection should be suspected in tick-exposed patients with viral encephalitis. PMID:23017222
Birge, Justin; Sonnesyn, Steven
(1) Amapari virus has been isolated from only two of the many species of rodents and other vertebrates studied at Serra do Navio, Amapa, Brazil. These are Oryzomys capito goeldii and Neacomys guianae. The isolation rate for each species over 4 years was c...
F. P. Pinheiro J. P. Woodall
Fifty-second monthly installment of our "What A Year!" website project, introducing life science breakthroughs to middle and high school students and their teachers. Respiratory syncytial virus, RSV for short, is so common that almost every child in the United States under two years of age has been infected once, and that half of children under three have been infected at least twice.
Virus particles are probably the most precisely defined nanometre-sized objects that can be formed by protein self-assembly. Although their natural function is the storage and transport of genetic material, they have more recently been applied as scaffolds for mineralization and as containers for the encapsulation of inorganic compounds. The reproductive power of viruses has been used to develop versatile analytical methods, such as phage display, for the selection and identification of (bio)active compounds. To date, the combined use of self-assembly and reproduction has not been used for the construction of catalytic systems. Here we describe a self-assembled system based on a plant virus that has its coat protein genetically modified to provide it with a lipase enzyme. Using single-object and bulk catalytic studies, we prove that the virus-anchored lipase molecules are catalytically active. This anchored biocatalyst, unlike man-made supported catalysts, has the capability to reproduce itself in vivo, generating many independent catalytically active copies.
Carette, Noëlle; Engelkamp, Hans; Akpa, Eric; Pierre, Sebastien J.; Cameron, Neil R.; Christianen, Peter C. M.; Maan, Jan C.; Thies, Jens C.; Weberskirch, Ralf; Rowan, Alan E.; Nolte, Roeland J. M.; Michon, Thierry; van Hest, Jan C. M.
During viral infections, the complex and dynamic distributions of variants, termed viral quasispecies, play a key role in the adaptability of viruses to changing environments and the fate of the population as a whole. Mutant spectra are continuously and avoidably generated during RNA genome replication, and they are not just a by-product of error-prone replication, devoid of biological relevance. On
E. Domingo; V. Martín; C. Perales; A. Grande-Pérez; J. García-Arriaza; A. Arias
This peer-reviewed resource from BioScience is about West Nile virus in wildlife. West Nile virus (WNV) has spread rapidly across North America, resulting in human deaths and in the deaths of untold numbers of birds, mammals, and reptiles. The virus has reached Central America and the Caribbean and may spread to Hawaii and South America. Although tens of thousands of birds have died, and studies of some bird species show local declines, few regionwide declines can be attributed to WNV. Predicting future impacts of WNV on wildlife, and pinpointing what drives epidemics, will require substantial additional research into host susceptibility, reservoir competency, and linkages between climate, mosquitoes, and disease. Such work will entail a collaborative effort between scientists in governmental research groups, in surveillance and control programs, and in nongovernmental organizations. West Nile virus was not the first, and it will not be the last, exotic disease to be introduced to the New World. Its spread in North America highlights the need to strengthen animal monitoring programs and to integrate them with research on disease ecology.
PETER P. MARRA, SEAN GRIFFING, CAROLEE CAFFREY, A. MARM KILPATRICK, ROBERT McLEAN, CHRISTOPHER BRAND, EMI SAITO, ALAN P. DUPUIS, LAURA KRAMER, and ROBERT NOVAK (;)
In 1988, hepatitis B virus (HBV) was classified into four genotypes by a sequence divergence in the entire genome exceeding 8%, and designated by capital letters of the alphabet from A to D. There are seven genotypes of HBV (AG) at present, and an eighth is on the horizon. They have an uneven geographical distribution, and only a few of
Yuzo Miyakawa; Masashi Mizokami
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a Flavivirus with a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome of about 9,600 nucleotides. It is a major cause of liver disease, infecting almost 200 million people all over the world. Similarly to most RNA viruses, HCV displays very high levels of genetic diversity which have been used to differentiate six major genotypes and about 80 subtypes. Although the different genotypes and subtypes share basic biological and pathogenic features they differ in clinical outcomes, response to treatment and epidemiology. The first HCV recombinant strain, in which different genome segments derived from parentals of different genotypes, was described in St. Petersburg (Russia) in 2002. Since then, there have been only a few more than a dozen reports including descriptions of HCV recombinants at all levels: between genotypes, between subtypes of the same genotype and even between strains of the same subtype. Here, we review the literature considering the reasons underlying the difficulties for unequivocally establishing recombination in this virus along with the analytical methods necessary to do it. Finally, we analyze the potential consequences, especially in clinical practice, of HCV recombination in light of the coming new therapeutic approaches against this virus.
Gonzalez-Candelas, Fernando; Lopez-Labrador, F. Xavier; Bracho, Maria Alma
t was the summer of 2002 and the West Nile Virus (WNV) was making its inexorable journey across the United States. The equine population had already been devastated and there were reports of neurological disease and death in camelids, but no one really knew what the risk was to alpacas and llamas. The Alpaca Research Foundation (ARF) Board of Directors
Michelle Anne Kutzler
Dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) is a complicated disease associated with viral and immune pathogenesis. There is still no effective vaccine to prevent the progression of DHF because of its undefined pathogenic mechanisms. The generation of autoimmunity in dengue virus (DEN) infection has been implicated in dengue pathogenesis. Based on our previous studies showing antibodies (Abs) against DEN nonstructural protein 1
Chiou-Feng Lin; Huan-Yao Lei; Ching-Chuan Liu; Hsiao-Sheng Liu; Trai-Ming Yeh; Shun-Hua Chen; Yee-Shin Lin
The simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) are a diverse group of viruses that naturally infect a wide range of African primates, including African green monkeys (AGMs) and sooty mangabey monkeys (SMs). Although natural infection is widespread in feral populations of AGMs and SMs, this infection generally does not result in immunodeficiency. However, experimental inoculation of Asian macaques results in an immunodeficiency syndrome remarkably similar to human AIDS. Thus, natural nonprogressive SIV infections appear to represent an evolutionary adaptation between these animals and their primate lentiviruses. Curiously, these animals maintain robust virus replication but have evolved strategies to avoid disease progression. Adaptations observed in these primates include phenotypic changes to CD4+ T cells, limited chronic immune activation, and altered mucosal immunity. It is probable that these animals have achieved a unique balance between T-cell renewal and proliferation and loss through activation-induced apoptosis, and virus-induced cell death. A clearer understanding of the mechanisms underlying the lack of disease progression in natural hosts for SIV infection should therefore yield insights into the pathogenesis of AIDS and may inform vaccine design.
Klatt, Nichole R.; Silvestri, Guido; Hirsch, Vanessa
Rabies viruses isolated from different animal species in various parts of the world were in the past considered to be antigenically closely related. Only when the antibodies produced in animals immunized with whole virions or viral components were assayed by the plaque reduction method, were some minor differences detected in the antigenic composition of various rabies strains (1). On the
T. J. WIKTOR; H. KOPROWSKI
In February 2008, a Mayaro fever virus (MAYV) outbreak occurred in a settlement in Santa Barbara municipality, northern Brazil. Patients had rash, fever, and severe arthralgia lasting up to 7 days. Immunoglobulin M against MAYV was detected by ELISA in 36 persons; 3 MAYV isolates sequenced were characterized as genotype D.
Azevedo, Raimunda S.S.; Silva, Eliana V.P.; Carvalho, Valeria L.; Rodrigues, Sueli G.; Neto, Joaquim P. Nunes; Monteiro, Hamilton A.O.; Peixoto, Victor S.; Chiang, Jannifer O.; Nunes, Marcio R.T.
Fresh human B-lymphoblasts established in culture following exposure of adult peripheral blood leukocytes to type C retro- viruses of the simian sarcoma virus\\/simian sarcoma-associ ated virus-gibbon ape leukemia virus group were analyzed in detail for the presence of the infecting virus. Viral expression ranged from production of low levels of intact virus in a few cultures to the presence of
P. D. Markham; F. W. Ruscelli; V. S. Kalyanaraman; L. Ceccherini-Nelli; N. R. Miller; M. S. Reitz; S. Z. Salahuddin; R. C. Gallo
Characterization of virus-specific immune responses to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) is important to understanding the early virus-host interactions that may determine the course of virus infection and disease. Using a comprehensive panel of serological assays, we have previously demonstrated a complex and lengthy maturation of virus-specific antibody responses elicited by attenuated strains of
KELLY STEFANO COLE; MICHAEL MURPHEY-CORB; OPENDRA NARAYAN; SANJAY V. JOAG; GEORGE M. SHAW; RONALD C. MONTELARO; Marion Merrell Dow
Replication of Semliki Forest virus, a typical alphavirus, takes place in the cytoplasm of many eukaryotic cells. The virus genome, the 42 S RNA, directs the synthesis of at least two RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. By the aid of these enzymes complementary 45 S RNA is synthesized; it serves as a template for the synthesis of positive RNA strands with sedimentation values of 45 S and 26 S. In BHK cells close to 200,000 molecules of each RNA species are produced per cell. Both 26 S and 42 S RNAs are associated with polysomes synthesizing viral structural proteins. The 26 S RNA is a duplication of the nucleotide sequences coding for the virion proteins. These are translated as a polyprotein with the capsid protein at the N-terminal end followed by the envelope proteins E2 and E1. Usually only small amounts of nonstructural proteins are synthesized at the exponential phase of virus growth, indicating that a translational control operates in Semliki Forest virus-infected cells. One of our temperature-sensitive mutants, ts-1, directs, however, the synthesis of two nonstructural proteins with MWs of 78,000 and 86,000 when grown at the nonpermissive temperature. The assembly of the viral nucleocapsid begins by association of the capsid protein with the 42 S RNA, which is still serving as a messenger. In this process a cytoplasmic structure sedimenting at about 65 S is presumably one of the capsid protein donors. The 140 S nucleocapsid buds through the host cell plasma membrane whereby the capsid protein interacts with the envelope proteins creating a specific viral envelope devoid of host proteins. Altogether 5,000 to 20,000 virus particles are released from each cell by the end of the growth cycle, representing about 10% of the 42 S RNA molecules synthesized during the infection. PMID:1107685
Kääriäinen, L; Keränen, S; Lachmi, B; Söderlund, H; Tuomi, K; Ulmanen, I
A pivotal step in the development of a consistent nomenclature for virus classification was the introduction of the virus species concept by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) in 1991. Yet, almost two decades later, many virologists still are unable to differentiate between virus species and actual viruses. Here we attempt to explain the origin of this confusion, clarify the difference between taxa and physical entities, and suggest simple measures that could be implemented by ICTV Study Groups to make virus taxonomy and nomenclature more accessible to laboratory virologists.
Jahrling, Peter B.
Cross-protection between Junin virus and five other Tacaribe complex viruses and the serological response of guinea pigs inoculated with Tacaribe virus are reported here. Previous infection with Tamiami or Pichinde viruses significantly delayed guinea pig deaths. A 58% survival rate was found among animals immunized with three doses of Amapari virus, while guinea pigs inoculated with one dose of Machupo or Tacaribe virus were fully protected against Junin virus. Neutralization tests performed in serum samples of guinea pigs immunized with five doses of Tacaribe virus showed that they developed monologous and heterologous neutralizing antibodies. PMID:178627
Weissenbacher, M C; Coto, C E; Calello, M A
Plant viruses and virus-like pathogens are of considerable economic importance in potato production. The plant viruses and viroids are small, noncellular pathogens. In contrast, phytoplasmas are cellular organisms. In this chapter, information is presented on a number of virus and virus-like pat...
Maize resistance to viruses has been well-characterized at the genetic level, and loci responsible for resistance to potyviruses including Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV), Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV), and Johnsongrass mosaic virus (JGMV), have been mapped in several ge...
Summary Multiplication of swine influenza (SW) virus is inhibited by fowl plague virus (FPV) at the level of RNA synthesis when host cells are infected with both viruses at a high multiplicity of infection. Under these conditions reassortment between the two viruses cannot be detected. The inhibitory effect of FPV is highly reduced and recombinants between the two viruses could
R. Rott; M. Orlich; C. Scholtissek
The influenza A virus genome consists of eight negative-sense RNA segments. Here we review the currently available data on structure-function relationships in influenza virus RNAs. Various ideas and hypotheses about the roles of influenza virus RNA folding in the virus replication are also discussed in relation to other viruses. PMID:20923332
Gultyaev, Alexander P; Fouchier, Ron A M; Olsthoorn, René C L
The antiviral activity of a new series of thymidine analogs was determined against vaccinia virus