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1

High Genetic Stability of the Begomovirus Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus in Southern Spain Over an 8-Year Period.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The evolution of the plant single-stranded DNA virus Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) has been monitored for 8 years after its appearance in southern Spain. Variation within three genomic regions of 166 TYLCSV isolates collected from three locations was assessed by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. According to SSCP, the intergenic region (IR) was the most variable. Low genetic diversity was found within the population and geographical or temporal differences were not evident. Nucleotide sequences of specific genomic regions of haplotypes identified by SSCP indicated close relationships among them. Therefore, the Spanish TYLCSV population appears to represent a single, undifferentiated population. The analysis of IR sequences for a subsample of 76 randomly chosen isolates confirmed the limited genetic diversity revealed by the SSCP analysis. A tendency to a lineal increase in diversity over time was observed in Málaga and Almería subpopulations; however, no accumulation of mutations in single isolates was evident. Negative selection to variation seems to operate to conserve certain regions of the genome. Thus, the low genetic diversity found in the studied TYLCSV population might be the result of a founder effect with subsequent selection against less fit variants arising by mutation. PMID:18942962

Sánchez-Campos, S; Díaz, J A; Monci, F; Bejarano, E R; Reina, J; Navas-Castillo, J; Aranda, M A; Moriones, E

2002-08-01

2

RNA viruses and their silencing suppressors boost Abutilon mosaic virus, but not the Old World Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus.  

PubMed

Mixed viral infections can induce different changes in symptom development, genome accumulation and tissue tropism. These issues were investigated for two phloem-limited begomoviruses, Abutilon mosaic virus (AbMV) and Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) in Nicotiana benthamiana plants doubly infected by either the potyvirus Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) or the tombusvirus Artichoke mottled crinkle virus (AMCV). Both RNA viruses induced an increase of the amount of AbMV, led to its occasional egress from the phloem and induced symptom aggravation, while the amount and tissue tropism of TYLCSV were almost unaffected. In transgenic plants expressing the silencing suppressors of CABMV (HC-Pro) or AMCV (P19), AbMV was supported to a much lesser extent than in the mixed infections, with the effect of CABMV HC-Pro being superior to that of AMCV P19. Neither of the silencing suppressors influenced TYLCSV accumulation. These results demonstrate that begomoviruses differentially respond to the invasion of other viruses and to silencing suppression. PMID:21843560

Sardo, Luca; Wege, Christina; Kober, Sigrid; Kocher, Conny; Accotto, Gian Paolo; Noris, Emanuela

2011-11-01

3

Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus-resistant tomato plants expressing the multifunctional N-terminal domain of the replication-associated protein show transcriptional changes resembling stress-related responses.  

PubMed

The N-terminal domain (amino acids 1-130) of the replication-associated protein (Rep130 ) of Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) retains the ability of full-length Rep to localize to the nucleus and to down-regulate C1 transcription when ectopically expressed in plants, both functions being required to inhibit homologous viral replication. In this study, we analysed the effect of Rep130 expression on virus resistance and the plant transcriptome in the natural and agronomically important host species of TYLCSV, Solanum lycopersicum. Tomato plants accumulating high levels of Rep130 were generated and proved to be resistant to TYLCSV. Using an in vitro assay, we showed that plant-expressed Rep130 also retains the catalytic activity of Rep, thus supporting the notion that this protein domain is fully functional. Interestingly, Rep130 -expressing tomatoes were characterized by an altered transcriptional profile resembling stress-related responses. Notably, the serine-type protease inhibitor (Ser-PI) category was over-represented among the 20 up-regulated genes. The involvement of Rep130 in the alteration of host mRNA steady-state levels was confirmed using a distinct set of virus-resistant transgenic tomato plants expressing the same TYLCSV Rep130 , but from a different, synthetic, gene. Eight genes were found to be up-regulated in both types of transgenic tomato and two encoded Ser-PIs. Four of these eight genes were also up-regulated in TYLCSV-infected wild-type tomato plants. Implications with regard to the ability of this Rep domain to interfere with viral infections and to alter the host transcriptome are discussed. PMID:23910556

Lucioli, Alessandra; Berardi, Alessandra; Gatti, Francesca; Tavazza, Raffaela; Pizzichini, Daniele; Tavazza, Mario

2014-01-01

4

Virion Stability Is Important for the Circulative Transmission of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Sardinia Virus by Bemisia tabaci, but Virion Access to Salivary Glands Does Not Guarantee Transmissibility? †  

PubMed Central

The capsid protein (CP) of the monopartite begomovirus Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV), family Geminiviridae, is indispensable for plant infection and vector transmission. A region between amino acids 129 and 152 is critical for virion assembly and insect transmissibility. Two previously described mutants, one with a double Q129P Q134H mutation (PNHD) and another with a further D152E change (PNHE), were found nontransmissible (NT). Another NT mutant with a single N130D change (QDQD) was retrieved from a new mutational analysis. In this study, these three NT mutants and the wild-type (wt) virus were compared in their relationships with the whitefly vector Bemisia tabaci and the nonvector Trialeurodes vaporariorum. Retention kinetics of NT mutants were analyzed by quantitative dot blot hybridization in whiteflies fed on infected plants. The QDQD mutant, whose virions appeared nongeminate following purification, was hardly detectable in either whitefly species at any sampling time. The PNHD mutant was acquired and circulated in both whitefly species for up to 10 days, like the wt virus, while PNHE circulated in B. tabaci only. Using immunogold labeling, both PNHD and PNHE CPs were detected in B. tabaci salivary glands (SGs) like the wt virus, while no labeling was found in any whitefly tissue with the QDQD mutant. Significant inhibition of transmission of the wt virus was observed after prior feeding of the insects on plants infected with the PNHE mutant, but not on plants infected with the other mutants. Virion stability and ability to cross the SG barrier are necessary for TYLCSV transmission, but interactions with molecular components inside the SGs are also critical for transmissibility. PMID:19321611

Caciagli, Piero; Medina Piles, Vicente; Marian, Daniele; Vecchiati, Manuela; Masenga, Vera; Mason, Giovanna; Falcioni, Tania; Noris, Emanuela

2009-01-01

5

Severe outbreak of tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus on pepper in southern Italy.  

PubMed

During summer and autumn 2008 a severe outbreak of pepper leaf curl disease (PLCD) was observed in pepper crops under plastic tunnels in the ionic coast of Basilicata region. Its incidence reached, in some cases, values close to 50%. The beginning of infections was recorded along the perimeter of the tunnels, where it reached a percentage of almost 100%. The infection then progressively spread towards the central areas of the greenhouses. Large populations of whiteflies, identificated as Bemisia tabaci, were observed on the infected crops. Detection assays for TYLCSV and TYLCV were performed in order to ascertain the etiologic agent: 190 symptomatic samples were collected from different fields and assayed in DAS-ELISA using a broad-spectrum reagent combination (distributed by Bioreba AG) detecting TYLCV, TYLCSV and other Begamoviruses: of these, 176 samples resulted positive. In order to discriminate between TYLCSV, TYLCV or any other Begamovirus, 15 positive samples were analyzed by PCR using a couple of synthetic oligonucleotides allowing the amplification of the whole coat protein (CP) gene. RFLP analysis performed on the PCR product, 1008 bp long, showed the presence of only TYLCSV in all assayed samples. The molecular characterization performed by phylogenetic analysis of the sequenced coat protein gene revealed that the isolate shares a similarity of about 97% with the corresponding sequence of a tomato TYLCSV isolate from Sicily (Z28390) and is almost identical with the pepper isolate CAB-It recovered in the same area in 2007 (TYLCSV was first recorded on pepper in Italy in 2007 in Policoro-MT, Fanigliulo et al., 2008. Comm. Appl. Biol. Sci, Ghent University, 73/2, 2008), indicating that there is a very low variability in TYLCSV population in the surveyed area. The further diffusion of PLCD and its hazard has to be connected with the presence of wide tomato cultivations, of weed hosts alternative to pepper (Solanum nigrum, Datura stramonium, Sonchus asper, Cardaria draba and Abutilon theophrasti) and with the strong presence of the vector B. tabaci of the B biotype, more efficient than Q biotype in the virus transmission, and able to feed and reproduce on peppers as well as on tomatoes. PMID:20222578

Comes, Soccorsa; Fanigliulo, Angela; Pacella, Rosa; Crescenzi, Aniello

2009-01-01

6

Two new natural begomovirus recombinants associated with the tomato yellow leaf curl disease co-exist with parental viruses in tomato epidemics in Italy.  

PubMed

Two tomato geminivirus species co-exist in protected crops in Sicily, Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV, found in 1989) and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV, found in 2002), and mixed infections have been detected. In a field survey conducted in 2004, the viral intergenic region (IR) was amplified from infected plants, and molecules apparently hybrid between the two species were found, but only in plants where one or both parental species were also present. Two of these hybrids, named 2/2 and 2/5, were isolated and infectious clones were obtained. They were both readily whitefly-transmitted to tomato plants; clone 2/5 produced symptoms typical of TYLCSV and TYLCV, while clone 2/2 produced more severe symptoms, with leaves showing downward curling and rugosity. Sequence analysis showed that both 2/2 and 2/5 are newly generated hybrids, with two recombination sites each. One site, common to both hybrids, is in the stem-loop of the IR. The other is close to the 3'-end of the CP ORF in 2/5 and within the Rep ORF in 2/2. Thus, the 2/2 hybrid virus has a hybrid Rep protein, with the 202 amino-terminal aa from TYLCV and the remaining 155 aa from TYLCSV. Replication assays in leaf disc indicated a lower replicative capacity with respect to parental viruses, a fact that might help to explain why plants infected only by a recombinant have not been found so far. PMID:19463717

Davino, Salvatore; Napoli, Chiara; Dellacroce, Chiara; Miozzi, Laura; Noris, Emanuela; Davino, Mario; Accotto, Gian Paolo

2009-07-01

7

A sensitive method for the quantification of virion-sense and complementary-sense DNA strands of circular single-stranded DNA viruses.  

PubMed

Circular single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses are the smallest viruses known to infect eukaryotes. High recombination and mutation rates have conferred these viruses with an evolutionary potential that has facilitated their emergence. Their damaging effects on livestock (circoviruses) and crops (geminiviruses and nanoviruses), and the ubiquity of anelloviruses in human populations and other mammalian species, have resulted in increased interest in better understanding their epidemiology and infection mechanisms. Circular ssDNA viral replication involves the synthesis of dsDNA intermediates containing complementary-sense (CS) and virion-sense (VS) strands. Precise quantification of VS and CS accumulation during viral infections can provide insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying viral replication and the host invasion process. Although qPCR protocols for quantifying viral molecules exist, none of them discriminate VS and CS strands. Here, using a two-step qPCR protocol we have quantified VS and CS molecule accumulation during the infection process of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae). Our results show that the VS/CS strand ratio and overall dsDNA amounts vary throughout the infection process. Moreover, we show that these values depend on the virus-host combination, and that most CS strands are present as double-stranded molecules. PMID:25241765

Rodríguez-Negrete, Edgar A; Sánchez-Campos, Sonia; Cañizares, M Carmen; Navas-Castillo, Jesús; Moriones, Enrique; Bejarano, Eduardo R; Grande-Pérez, Ana

2014-01-01

8

The Sardinia Radio Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the status of the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) project, a new general purpose, fully steerable 64 m diameter parabolic radio telescope under construction in Sardinia. The instrument is funded by Italian Ministry of University and Research (MIUR), by the Sardinia Regional Government (RAS), and by the Italian Space Agency (ASI), and it is charge to three research structures of the National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF): the Institute of Radio Astronomy of Bologna, the Cagliari Astronomical Observatory (in Sardinia), and the Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory in Florence. The radio telescope has a shaped Gregorian optical configuration with a 8 m diameter secondary mirror and additional Beam-Wave Guide (BWG) mirrors. One of the most challenging feature of SRT is the active surface of the primary reflector which provides good efficiency up to about 100 GHz. This paper reports on the most recent advances of the construction.

D'Amico, Nichi

2011-08-01

9

Corsica and Sardinia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rich in antiquities and picturesque landscapes, the island provinces of Corsica, France, (top) and Sardinia, Italy, (bottom) have captured the imaginations of historians and poets alike for centuries. Corsica, crowned with snow-capped mountains, jeweled with shimmering lakes, and cloaked in misty emerald forests, is situated in the sapphire blue Mediterranean Sea southeast of mainland France. The island enjoys a relatively warm climate consisting of hot, dry summers full of sunshine, and mild winters that rarely dip below 0oC (32oF). In this scene, Corsica is the smaller island to the north. The island has almost 1,700 hills and mountains, ranging from 300 to over 2,700 meters in height. The tallest of these peaks is the snow-capped Monte Cinto toward the northern end of the island. Coursing throughout the island is an extensive network of rivers, carved into Corsica's granite face by snowmelt and rainwater runoff. The Corsican Cape sits on the island's northern finger; its eastern slope is somewhat hilly. There are quite a few agricultural fields and vineyards visible as the light green swath to the south all along the eastern shore. Along the southern shore are the dazzling cliffs of Bonifacio. Moving up the west coast in the state of Ajaccio we see a jagged, chiseled water front, reminiscent of the famous fjords of Norway. There are four large gulfs and many smaller rocky inlets sculpted into Corsica's west coast. Moving soutward, they are the Gulfs of Porto, Sagone, Ajaccio, and Valinco. The larger island to the south--across the Strait of Bonifacio--is Sardinia, Italy, one the earliest populated lands of Europe. Some ancient artifacts date human populations there as old as 6000 B.C. Around 1500 B.C., another group of settlers arrived on the island (historians don't know where they came from) and spread quickly across the island. Known as the Nuragic people, these settlers built almost 30,000 circular fortresses--called 'nuraghe'-- around the island; each strategically located so that they were within eyesight of their nearest neighbors. Today, about 7,000 nuraghe ruins still stand, unlike any other ruins in the world. Sardinia is the second largest island in the Mediterranean, situated due west of mainland Italy. Stretching across the central, eastern part of Sardinia is the rugged terrain of Gennargentu--mountainous and thickly vegetated. Mostly uninhabited by people, the 50,000-hectare wilderness of Monte Arcosu is home to a unique population of fallow deer as well as wild boar, hares, foxes, golden eagles, and the Sardinian wildcat. Founded in the ninth century by Phoenicians, the port city of Cagliari sits on the large bay on Sardinia's southeastern coast. To the north lies the old city of Sassari (originally an ancient settlement called Tathari), situated on a hillside overlooking the large Gulf of Asinara. This true-color image was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite, on December 7, 2001. Image courtesy Liam Gumley, Space Science and Engineering Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison

2002-01-01

10

New remarkable records of microfungi from Sardinia (Italy).  

PubMed

In June 2009 we organized a botanical student excursion to the eastern part of Sardinia, Italy. On this occasion we were able to collect and identify over 80 species of microfungi growing on higher plants. The collecting sites were spread over a large area, among them were La Caletta, Capo Comino, Monte Albo, Cala Gonone, Monte Maccione, San Teodoro, Capo Testa. The collected microfungi were parasitic or saprophytic; Basidiomycotina (Uredinales), Ascomycotina and Deuteromycotina (Hyphomycetes, Coelomycetes) were predominant. Examples are Pezicula corticola (Jörg.) NANNF. (new for Sardinia), on Pyrus communis. Puccinia chamaecyparissi TROTT. (new for Sardinia), on Santolina insularis. Sphaceloma oleae CICC. and GRANITI (new for Sardinia) and Phlyctema vagabunda DESM. (new for Sardinia), on Olea europaea and Arbutus unedo. Puccinia pseudosphaeria MONT. (new for Sardinia), on Sonchus oleraceus. Discula umbrinella (BERK. and BR.) SUTTON (new for Sardinia)(D. quercina WEST. and BARK), on Quercus coccifera. Zaghouania phillyreae PAT. (new for Sardinia), on Phillyrea angustifolia. Phymatotrichum omnivorum (DUGGAR) HENNEBERT, new on Verbascum thapsus for Sardinia. Guignardia punctoidea (COOKE) SCHROTER (new for Sardinia), on Quercus ilex. Many of the collected species are rare or unknown for the area of investigation until now. All specimens are located in the Herbarium ESS, Mycotheca Parva collection G.B. Feige and N. Ale-Agha. PMID:21534478

Jensen, M; Nerat, N; Ale-Agha, N

2010-01-01

11

Identification of host genes involved in geminivirus infection using a reverse genetics approach.  

PubMed

Geminiviruses, like all viruses, rely on the host cell machinery to establish a successful infection, but the identity and function of these required host proteins remain largely unknown. Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV), a monopartite geminivirus, is one of the causal agents of the devastating Tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD). The transgenic 2IRGFP N. benthamiana plants, used in combination with Virus Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS), entail an important potential as a tool in reverse genetics studies to identify host factors involved in TYLCSV infection. Using these transgenic plants, we have made an accurate description of the evolution of TYLCSV replication in the host in both space and time. Moreover, we have determined that TYLCSV and Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) do not dramatically influence each other when co-infected in N. benthamiana, what makes the use of TRV-induced gene silencing in combination with TYLCSV for reverse genetic studies feasible. Finally, we have tested the effect of silencing candidate host genes on TYLCSV infection, identifying eighteen genes potentially involved in this process, fifteen of which had never been implicated in geminiviral infections before. Seven of the analyzed genes have a potential anti-viral effect, whereas the expression of the other eleven is required for a full infection. Interestingly, almost half of the genes altering TYLCSV infection play a role in postranslational modifications. Therefore, our results provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying geminivirus infections, and at the same time reveal the 2IRGFP/VIGS system as a powerful tool for functional reverse genetics studies. PMID:21818318

Lozano-Durán, Rosa; Rosas-Díaz, Tábata; Luna, Ana P; Bejarano, Eduardo R

2011-01-01

12

Status of the Sardinia Radio Telescope project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the status of the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) project, a new general purpose, fully steerable 64 m diameter parabolic radiotelescope capable to operate with high efficiency in the 0.3-116 GHz frequency range. The instrument is the result of a scientific and technical collaboration among three Structures of the Italian National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF): the Institute of Radio Astronomy of Bologna, the Cagliari Astronomy Observatory (in Sardinia,) and the Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory in Florence. Funding agencies are the Italian Ministry of Education and Scientific Research, the Sardinia Regional Government, and the Italian Space Agency (ASI,) that has recently rejoined the project. The telescope site is about 35 km North of Cagliari. The radio telescope has a shaped Gregorian optical configuration with a 7.9 m diameter secondary mirror and supplementary Beam-WaveGuide (BWG) mirrors. With four possible focal positions (primary, Gregorian, and two BWGs), SRT will be able to allocate up to 20 remotely controllable receivers. One of the most advanced technical features of the SRT is the active surface: the primary mirror will be composed by 1008 panels supported by electromechanical actuators digitally controlled to compensate for gravitational deformations. With the completion of the foundation on spring 2006 the SRT project entered its final construction phase. This paper reports on the latest advances on the SRT project.

Tofani, Gianni; Alvito, Gianni; Ambrosini, Roberto; Bolli, Pietro; Bortolotti, Claudio; Bruca, Loredana; Buffa, Franco; Cattani, Alessandro; Comoretto, Gianni; Cremonini, Andrea; Cresci, Luca; D'Amico, Nichi; Deiana, Gian Luigi; Fara, Antonietta; Feretti, Luigina; Fiocchi, Franco; Flamini, Enrico; Fusi Pecci, Flavio; Grueff, Gavril; Maccaferri, Giuseppe; Maccaferri, Andrea; Mantovani, Franco; Mariotti, Sergio; Migoni, Carlo; Messina, Filippo; Monari, Jader; Morsiani, Marco; Murgia, Matteo; Musmeci, José; Nanni, Mauro; Natale, Vincenzo; Navarrini, Alessandro; Negusini, Monia; Nesti, Renzo; Olmi, Luca; Orfei, Alessandro; Orlati, Andrea; Palla, Francesco; Panella, Dario; Pernechele, Claudio; Pilloni, Salvatore; Pisanu, Tonino; Poddighe, Antonio; Poloni, Marco; Poma, Angelo; Poppi, Sergio; Porceddu, Ignazio; Prandoni, Isabella; Roda, Juri; Roma, Mauro; Sarti, Pierguido; Scalambra, Alessandro; Schillirò, Francesco; Tarchi, Andrea; Vargiu, Gian Paolo; Zacchiroli, Giampaolo

2008-07-01

13

Virtual Sardinia: A Large-Scale Hypermedia Regional Information System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Virtual Sardinia project aims at collecting a large amount of heterogeneous data concerning the island of Sardinia and representing them in such a way that a casual user can easily navigate through them in a virtual trip. All these data are interconnected in an hypermedia way, browsable in the World-wide Web, ranging from geographic to archaeological data, from historical

Enrico Gobbetti; Andrea O. Leone

1996-01-01

14

New species of terrestrial isopods (Isopoda: Oniscidea) from Sardinia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four new species of terrestrial isopods from Sardinia are described: Alpioniscus thanit sp. nov. (Trichoniscidae), Halophiloscia cristagalli sp. nov. (Halophilosciidae), Alloschizidium maymon sp. nov. and Alloschizidium magrinii sp. nov. (Armadillidiidae). Alpioniscus thanit and Alloschizidium magrinii were collected in endogean environments, Halophiloscia cristagalli on granitic beaches of small islands in the northern and western part of Sardinia, and Alloschizidium maymon from

STEFANO TAITI; ROBERTO ARGANO

15

Foreign Influences and Consequences on the Nuragic Culture of Sardinia  

E-print Network

FOREIGN INFLUENCES AND CONSEQUENCES ON THE NURAGIC CULTURE OF SARDINIA A Thesis by MARGARET CHOLTCO Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF ARTS December 2009 Major Subject: Anthropology FOREIGN INFLUENCES AND CONSEQUENCES ON THE NURAGIC CULTURE OF SARDINIA A Thesis by MARGARET CHOLTCO Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University...

Choltco, Margaret E.

2010-07-14

16

Some examples of palaeokarst in Sardinia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lower Cambrian limestones and dolostones of Iglesiente (Southwest Sardinia, Italy) are known to host important active and fossil karst phenomena. Besides active and still accessible cave systems, often characterised by important speleothem formations and rare cave minerals (e.g. hydrozincite, hemimorphite etc.) palaeokarsts have been encountered in underground excavations or in quarries. Several of the important mineral deposits are in fact infillings of great karst cavities, such as at Barega or Mount San Giovanni. During various geological surveying campaigns several different palaeokarst deposits have been recognised and studied. Among these some deserve further attention and are here described in detail. On the top of Mount San Giovanni (Gonnesa), a short mine drift at 300 m a.s.l. has intercepted a decametre-sized cavity filled with pyroclastic sediments. Other similar but smaller cavities have been discovered on the western slope of the mountain. These are composed of rhyolitic ignimbrites and epiclastites of unknown age. These volcanoclastics may be related to the volcanism that characterised this part of the Island during Oligo-Miocene, or, in alternative, may be products of the Permian volcanic cycle. In any case, their preservation on the top of the mountain testifies the extremely low denudation rates of these carbonates at least in this part of Sardinia. Some 40 metres higher, in the same area, another sinkhole filled with red detritic sandy sediments has been exposed on a quarry face. Also these sediments may be of Oligocene or Permian-Triassic age and are probably genetically connected to the aforementioned palaeokarsts. Of completely different nature is the palaeokarst discovered in a limestone quarry at San Luigi (Buggerru), 15 km North of Mount San Giovanni. Here several pockets and fractures are filled with fine and laminated yellowish-brownish sands. The almost vertical layering of these sediments is concordant with the closeby contact between Lower Cambrian ceroid limestones and dolostones. This would indicate their sedimentation before their dislocation occurred in Middle Ordovician ("Sardinian Phase", Auct.). If this is true, these karst sediments are the among the oldest found in Iglesiente. Further detailed investigations on these palaeokarsts are under way and will give further insight into the karst evolution of this complicated area.

de Waele, Jo; Pasci, Sandro; Sanna, Laura

2010-05-01

17

Characterization of fire regime in Sardinia (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last decades, a number of Authors highlighted the crucial role of forest fires within Mediterranean ecosystems, with impacts both negative and positive on all biosphere components and with reverberations on different scales. Fire determines the landscape structure and plant composition, but it is also the cause of enormous economic and ecological damages, beside the loss of human life. In Sardinia (Italy), the second largest island of the Mediterranean Basin, forest fires are perceived as one of the main environmental and social problems, and data are showing that the situation is worsening especially within the rural-urban peripheries and the increasing number of very large forest fires. The need for information concerning forest fire regime has been pointed out by several Authors (e.g. Rollins et al., 2002), who also emphasized the importance of understanding the factors (such as weather/climate, socio-economic, and land use) that determine spatial and temporal fire patterns. These would be used not only as a baseline to predict the climate change effect on forest fires, but also as a fire management and mitigation strategy. The main aim of this paper is, thus, to analyze the temporal and spatial patterns of fire occurrence in Sardinia (Italy) during the last three decades (1980-2010). For the analyzed period, fire statistics were provided by the Sardinian Forest Service (CFVA - Corpo Forestale e di Vigilanza Ambientale), while weather data for eight weather stations were obtained from the web site www.tutiempo.it. For each station, daily series of precipitation, mean, maximum and minimum temperature, relative humidity and wind speed were available. The present study firstly analyzed fire statistics (burned area and number of fires) according to the main fire regime characteristics (seasonality, fire return interval, fire incidence, fire size distribution). Then, fire and weather daily values were averaged to obtain monthly, seasonal and annual values, and a set of parametric and not parametric statistical tests were used to analyze the fire-weather relationships. Results showed a high inter- and intra-annual variability, also considering the different type of affected vegetation. As for other Mediterranean areas, a smaller number of large fires caused a high proportion of burned area. Land cover greatly influenced fire occurrence and fire size distribution across the landscape. Furthermore, fire activity (number of fires and area burned) showed significant correlations with weather variables, especially summer precipitation and wind, which seemed to drive the fire seasons and the fire propagation, respectively.

Bacciu, V. M.; Salis, M.; Mastinu, S.; Masala, F.; Sirca, C.; Spano, D.

2012-12-01

18

Beta-Thalassaemia types in southern Sardinia.  

PubMed Central

In this study the prevalence of the different beta-thalassaemia types in southern Sardinia was investigated by cellulose acetate and agar gel electrophoresis or globin chain synthesis analysis on column chromatography or both in (1) all the patients (347) presenting with thalassaemia major or intermedia at our haematology service from 1976 to 1979, and (2) a group of 82 patients with transfusion-dependent thalassaemia major randomly chosen from 236 under our care. Apart from six subjects with delta(beta)0/beta+-thalassaemia genotype and eight with beta0/beta+ or less probably beta+/beta/-thalassaemia, all thalassaemia major and intermedia patients studied were beta0-thalassaemia homozygotes. Globin chain synthesis on peripheral blood cells from these patients, performed at different intervals from blood transfusion, showed no incorporation of radioactive leucine into beta-globin peak, the same as before the transfusion. No correlation between kappa/gamma ratios and clinical severity or hypersplenism was found. Globin chain synthesis analysis carried out at birth in three infants later found to have homozygous beta0-thalassaemia demonstrated imbalanced or borderline kappa/gamma ratios. Images PMID:7241542

Cao, A; Furbetta, M; Ximenes, A; Angius, A; Rosatelli, C; Tuveri, T; Scalas, M T; Falchi, A M; Maccioni, L; Melis, M A; Galanello, R

1981-01-01

19

The gross structure of the crust under Corsica and Sardinia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the European Geotraverse Project (EGT) a number of international cooperative seismic refraction surveys were carried out along the N-S segment from the Ligurian Sea, across the islands of Corsica and Sardinia, to the Sardinian Channel between Sardinia and North Africa, from 1982 to 1985. For all the experiments offshore explosions served as energy sources ranging from 200 to 1125 kg. The main result is that the crust in the Ligurian Sea is of transitional type with a thickness of only 18 km. The two continental blocks of Corsica and Sardinia have a maximum crustal thickness of 33 and 34 km with average crustal velocities of 6.4 and 6.3 km/s, respectively. Other results are that the internal crustal structure as derived from the available data in both islands is rather undifferentiated with only local evidence for a more steplike interface in the lower crust (Corsica 6.3 to 6.6 km/s; Sardinia 6.5 to 6.8 km/s). There are also indications of a slight velocity inversion under the southwestern part of Sardinia. Farther south in the Sardinian Channel the crustal thickness decreases again to 20 km. A significant feature is the observed P n velocity. This parameter increases from the relatively low value of 7.5 km/s in the north (Ligurian Sea), to 7.7 km/s and 7.9 km/s for Corsica and Sardinia and finally to 8.0 km/s under the Sardinian Channel. These values reflect the tectonic evolution of that part of the Mediterranean Sea.

Egger, A.; Demartin, M.; Ansorge, J.; Banda, E.; Maistrello, M.

1988-08-01

20

Anthropological approach to agricultural landscape history in Sardinia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In southern Europe the link between agricultural activities and changes in the landscape is greatly evident. An investigation of the past landscape is necessary to understand why these changes occurred and what they mean.In Sardinia the plains, once covered by the Mediterranean forest, have been used for agricultural purposes since Roman times. Notable landscape variation, however, occurred between the eighteenth

Gloria Pungetti

1995-01-01

21

Geological impact of some tailings dams in Sardinia, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with the results of a survey carried out in Sardinia on both active and abandoned tailings dams, and we also discuss the geological impact of tailings dams of two mines: the Masua mine, a large syngenetic Pb-Zn deposit located in Cambrian limestones, and the Montevecchio mine, a Pb-Zn vein deposit near a Hercynian granite intrusion. The characteristics

Felice Di Gregorio; Raniero Massoli-Novelli

1992-01-01

22

Comparison of the invasive alien flora in continental islands: Sardinia (Italy) and Balearic Islands (Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a comparison of the invasive vascular flora of Sardinia and that of the Balearic Islands. The study\\u000a has recorded 53 invasive taxa in Sardinia (12% of the alien flora) while 48 (14%) in the Balearic Islands, 19 of them common for both territories. The\\u000a invasive flora of Sardinia is included in 18 families; Asteraceae is the richest

L. Podda; P. Fraga i Arguimbau; F. Mascia; O. Mayoral García-Berlanga; G. Bacchetta

2011-01-01

23

Aedes albopictus in Sardinia: reappearance or widespread colonization?  

PubMed

The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894) was first discovered in the South of Sardinia in October 1994, in a tyre depot not far from Cagliari-Elmas airport. Insecticide treatment was thought to have successfully eradicated the mosquito, but in 1996 and 1997 new breeding sites were discovered, a few at some distance from the first. More recently two sites have been reported in the heart of the city of Cagliari. It is not known whether the mosquito has spread from the first breeding place discovered, where treatment may not have been definitive, or whether they have been newly introduced. The recent sighting of Ae. albopictus in Olbia in the Northeast of the island tends to suggest the latter. Cagliari and Olbia are actually Sardinia's two largest sea ports of entry. PMID:18416003

Contini, C

2007-06-01

24

Results of Skylab investigation over Italy. [Sicily and Sardinia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Multispectral high resolution photography of S190A was successfully applied to the detection of paleoriverbeds in flat lands. Results of SL-3 mission were compared to those of LANDSAT for two regional geological surveys (linear structures) on the islands of Sicily and Sardinia. On Sicily, the seasonal conditions were unfavorable for Skylab while LANDSAT played a major role in discovering long, unknown lineaments of great interest for the geodynamics of the area. On Sardinia, owing to the vegetation type and to the geomorphic conditions, the Skylab imagery was successfully employed to describe the network of linears, both regional and local. Results can be used to study the relationship between linears, actual fracturing and the occurrence of mineral deposits.

Cassinis, R.; Lechi, G. M.; Tonelli, A. M. (principal investigators)

1975-01-01

25

Genetic heterogeneity of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Sardinia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity was assayed quantitatively in red cells from 100 consecutive G6PD-deficient newborn male babies born in a city hospital in Sassari, Sardinia. In four cases G6PD activity was between 30% and 45% of normal: these appeared on electrophoresis to be identical with G6PD Seattle-like. In 65 cases G6PD activity ranged from 2% to 14% of normal,

U. Testa; T. Meloni; A. Lania; G. Battistuzzi; S. Cutillo; L. Luzzatto

1980-01-01

26

Eocene rotation of Sardinia, and the paleogeography of the western Mediterranean region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Key to understanding the complex Mediterranean subduction history is the kinematic reconstruction of its paleogeography after Jurassic extension between Iberia, Eurasia, and Africa. While post-Eocene Liguro-Provençal back-arc extension, and associated Miocene ?50° counterclockwise (ccw) rotation of Sardinia-Corsica have been well documented, pre-Oligocene reconstructions suffer uncertainties related to the position of Sardinia-Corsica with respect to Iberia. If a previously constrained major post-middle Jurassic, pre-Oligocene rotation of Sardinia-Corsica can be quantified in time, we can test the hypothesis that Sardinia-Corsica was (or was not) part of Iberia, which underwent a ?35° ccw during the Aptian (121-112 Ma). Here, we present new paleomagnetic results from Triassic, Jurassic, Upper Cretaceous and Lower Eocene carbonate rocks from Sardinia. Our results show a consistent well constrained post-early Eocene to pre-Oligocene ?45° ccw rotation of Sardinia-Corsica relative to Eurasia. This rotation postdated the Iberian rotation, and unambiguously shows that the two domains must have been separated by a (transform) plate boundary. The Eocene rotation of Sardinia-Corsica was synchronous with and likely responsible for documented N-S shortening in the Provence and the incorporation of the Briançonnais continental domain, likely connected to Corsica, into the western Alps. We argue that this rotation resulted from the interplay between a southward ‘Alpine’ subduction zone at Corsica, retreating northward, and a northward subduction zone below Sardinia, remaining relatively stationary versus Eurasia.

Advokaat, Eldert L.; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Maffione, Marco; Langereis, Cor G.; Vissers, Reinoud L. M.; Cherchi, Antonietta; Schroeder, Rolf; Madani, Haroen; Columbu, Stefano

2014-09-01

27

An analysis on Wildland Urban Interface in North Sardinia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate variability and drought, typical of the Mediterranean climate, together with different anthropogenic disturbances (modifications of land use, deforestation, grazing, forest fires, etc.) makes the Mediterranean basin ecosystems extremely sensitive and vulnerable. In the last three decades, an increasing number of fires threatening the wildland urban interface (WUI) was observed. In Sardinia, this phenomenon is particularly evident in tourist and coastal areas where a large number of resorts is built within and surrounded by Mediterranean vegetation that is highly prone to events of wildfire. In these situations, the related risk of damage for villages, tourist resorts, other human activities and people is elevated especially in summer when the presence of human people is highest and meteorological conditions are extreme. In addition, fire can have significant effect on the hydrological response of the WUI causing the intensification of the erosive processes. Therefore, the development of planning policies is required in order to implement strategies to prevent and reduce wildfire and soil erosion risk in wildland urban interface areas. The main aims of this work are i) to assess presence and characteristics of wildland urban interface in a touristic areas of North Sardinia and ii) to evaluate fire danger and soil erosion risk in the studied area. The study was carried out in a coastal area located in North Sardinia, characterized by strong touristic development in the last thirty years. In that area, the characterization and mapping of the WUI were performed. In addition several simulation were carried out by the Farsite fire area simulator with the aim to study the spatial pattern of the fire danger factors in the vegetated areas closer to the WUI. Finally, maps of soil erosion were produced for the identification of the areas at high erosion risk in the WUI. This work is supported by MIIUR - Metodologie e indicatori per la valutazione del rischio di Incendio nelle aree di Interfaccia Urbano Rurale in ambiente mediterraneo. Legge Regionale 7 agosto 2007, n. 7.

Arca, B.; Pellizzaro, G.; Canu, A.; Pintus, G. V.; Ferrara, R.; Duce, P.

2012-04-01

28

Paleozoic age of the Capo Spartivento Orthogneiss, Sardinia, Italy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Zircon U Pb isotope dating of the Capo Spartivento Orthogneiss, proposed as a possible Precambrian basement of southern Sardinia, shows that this rock is Caledonian in age. Conventional multi-grain analyses yield an imprecise age of roughly 480 Ma, and ion-microprobe analyses of cores of single grains yield a consistent age of 449 Ma. Though some inherited grains of Proterozoic age are present in the zircon population, they are neither abundant nor consistent with Caledonian growth of new zircons within an older protolith. ?? 1989.

Ludwig, K.R.; Turi, B.

1989-01-01

29

The Sardinia Radio Telescope conversion, distribution, and receiver control system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent upgrade of the 32-m radio telescope located in Medicina (Bologna - Italy) has allowed us to gain a lot of know-how about ''frequency agility'' management. In this parabolic dish antenna the receiver change is now completely performed only using software controls and avoiding, in this way, human intervention. The acquired experience on this topic has been used to define the framework for the conversion/distribution system design for the SRT (Sardinia Radio Telescope), the new ''64-meter class'' Italian radio telescope. The suitably designed architectures for Local Oscillators (LOs), Intermediate Frequencies (IFs), Ground Unit (GU), Reference (REF) distribution systems and control system will be described in this paper.

Monari, J.; Orfei, A.; Scalambra, A.; Mariotti, S.; Poloni, M.; Fiocchi, F.; Cattani, A.; Maccaferri, A.; Perini, F.; Boschi, M.

30

virus  

E-print Network

The nucleotide sequences of the L gene and 5 ? trailer region of Ebola virus strain Mayinga (subtype Zaire) have been determined, thus completing the sequence of the Ebola virus genome. The putative transcription start signal of the L gene was identical to the determined 5 ? terminus of the L mRNA (5 ? GAGGAAGAUUAA) and showed a high degree of similarity to the corresponding regions of other Ebola virus genes. The 3 ? end of the L mRNA terminated with 5 ? AUUAUAAAAAA, a sequence which is distinct from the proposed transcription termination signals of other genes. The 5 ? trailer sequence of the Ebola virus genomic RNA consisted of 676 nt and revealed a selfcomplementary sequence at the extreme end which may play an important role in virus replication. The L gene contained a single ORF encoding a polypeptide of 2212 aa. The deduced amino acid sequence showed identities of about 73 and 44 % to the L proteins of Ebola virus strain Maleo (subtype Sudan) and Marburg virus, respectively. Sequence comparison studies of the Ebola virus L proteins with several corresponding proteins of other non-segmented, negative-strand RNA viruses, including Marburg viruses, confirmed a close relationship between filoviruses and members of the Paramyxovirinae. The presence of several conserved linear domains commonly found within L proteins of other members of the order Mononegavirales identified this protein as the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of Ebola virus.

Viktor E. Volchkov; Valentina A. Volchkova; R A. Chepurnov; Vladimir M. Blinov; Olga Dolnik; Sergej V. Netesov; Heinz Feldmann

31

Cercopithifilaria spp. in dogs in Sardinia Island (Italy).  

PubMed

A survey on Cercopithifilaria spp. was carried out on owned and kennelled dogs in Sardinia, Italy. A total of 180 dogs were sampled and tested by microscopic detection or PCR of dermal microfilariae in skin snip sediments. The overall prevalence for Cercopithifilaria spp. at both microscopy and molecular tests was 9.4 % (17/180), while 8.3 % (15/180) of dogs scored positive at microscopic detection of sediments only. Of the 225 microfilariae measured, 212 were identified as Cercopithifilaria bainae and the remaining as Cercopithifilaria sp. II. All samples were molecularly processed for specific amplification of cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and ribosomal 12S gene fragments. The Basic Local Alignment Search Tool analysis of the cox1 and 12S sequences here obtained showed a high nucleotide similarity (99 and 100 %, respectively) with those of C. bainae available in GenBank. In particular, cox1 haplotype I (HI; n=14), haplotype HXVIII (n=2), and a new haplotype, named HXIX (n=1), differing for a single polymorphism from HI, were detected. This study reports data on the occurrence, distribution, and genetic makeup of C. bainae and Cercopithifilaria sp. II infesting dogs in Sardinia, suggesting that these filarioids are spread in areas where Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato ticks occur. PMID:24271152

Solinas, C; Varcasia, A; Brianti, E; Giannetto, S; Pipia, A P; Columbano, N; Tosciri, G; Dantas-Torres, F; Garippa, G; Otranto, D; Scala, A

2014-02-01

32

Monitoring trace metals using moss bags in Sardinia, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As well known anthropic activities are producing an increase of trace metal concentration in the terrestrial ecosystems. Previous researches have shown that several species of cryptogams can be used as a low-cost bio-accumulator to detect metal deposition. In this study biomonitoring of airborne trace metals was made using moss bags technique. The moss Hypnum cupressiforme was used as a bio-accumulator for the estimation of atmospheric traces metal deposition in three sites characterized by different source of pollution around an industrialized area and two urban areas (north-west of Sardinia, Italy). Moss carpets were collected from trees in a forest of central Sardinia where air pollution is not present. In the laboratory, the moss plant samples were cleaned and moss bags were prepared by weighing out 2 g air-dried weight, and packing it loosely in nylon nets of 12 x 12 cm with mesh of 4 mm2. In each site the moss bags were exposed for six weeks during autumn, winter, spring and summer seasons from November 2007 to July 2008. Two moss bags, used as control, were not exposed. Following exposure the moss samples were analyzed for total concentration of As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry. Results obtained showed higher values of trace metal load factor for the following elements: Cu, Ni, Zn, and As. The most accumulation values were found in moss bags exposed in the industrial area for all period of experimentation.

Pellizzaro, Grazia; Canu, Annalisa; Ventura, Andrea; Arca, Angelo; Duce, Pierpaolo

2010-05-01

33

Quinto Tiberio Angelerio and new measures for controlling plague in 16th-century Alghero, Sardinia.  

PubMed

Plague, a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, has been responsible for at least 3 pandemics. During 1582-1583, a plague outbreak devastated the seaport of Alghero in Sardinia. By analyzing contemporary medical texts and local documentation, we uncovered the pivotal role played by the Protomedicus of Alghero, Quinto Tiberio Angelerio (1532-1617), in controlling the epidemic. Angelerio imposed rules and antiepidemic measures new to the 16th-century sanitary system of Sardinia. Those measures undoubtedly spared the surrounding districts from the spread of the contagion. Angelerio seems to have been an extremely successful public health officer in the history of plague epidemics in Sardinia. PMID:23968598

Bianucci, Raffaella; Benedictow, Ole Jørgen; Fornaciari, Gino; Giuffra, Valentina

2013-01-01

34

Micromorphological and phytochemical characters of Teucrium marum and T. subspinosum ( Labiatae ) from Sardinia and Balearic Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micromorphology and distribution of trichomes in different plant parts ofTeucrium marum andTeucrium subspinosum from Sardinia and the Balearic Islands are described. The composition of volatile compounds in the same plants has also been studied. The occurrence in Sardinia of two differentT. marum entities is evidenced. One of them, growing in the NW. part of the island, is very similar toT.

O. Servettaz; L. Bini Maleci; A. Pinetti

1992-01-01

35

High-precision pointing with the Sardinia Radio Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present here the systems aimed to measure and minimize the pointing errors for the Sardinia Radio Telescope: they consist of an optical telescope to measure errors due to the mechanical structure deformations and a lasers system for the errors due to the subreflector displacement. We show here the results of the tests that we have done on the Medicina 32 meters VLBI radio telescope. The measurements demonstrate we can measure the pointing errors of the mechanical structure, with an accuracy of about ~1 arcsec. Moreover, we show the technique to measure the displacement of the subreflector, placed in the SRT at 22 meters from the main mirror, within +/-0.1 mm from its optimal position. These measurements show that we can obtain the needed accuracy to correct also the non repeatable pointing errors, which arise on time scale varying from seconds to minutes.

Poppi, Sergio; Pernechele, Claudio; Pisanu, Tonino; Morsiani, Marco

2010-07-01

36

Geological impact of some tailings dams in Sardinia, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article deals with the results of a survey carried out in Sardinia on both active and abandoned tailings dams, and we also discuss the geological impact of tailings dams of two mines: the Masua mine, a large syngenetic Pb-Zn deposit located in Cambrian limestones, and the Montevecchio mine, a Pb-Zn vein deposit near a Hercynian granite intrusion. The characteristics and metal content of material in the dams were analyzed. A high contamination of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu) was found both in the soils and water of Rio Montevecchio, a stream draining the tailings dams and other mining operations in the area. The study indicates that a control plan to minimize heavy metal pollution must be drawn up for all mines of the area, whether active or abandoned.

di Gregorio, Felice; Massoli-Novelli, Raniero

1992-05-01

37

Modeling the Landscape Drivers of Fire Recurrence in Sardinia (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although recurrent fire events with very short return periods have the most dangerous effects on landscape degradation, only a few papers have explored the landscape ecological factors that drive the probability of fire recurrence. In this paper we apply a habitat suitability model for analyzing the spatial relationship between a selected set of landscape factors (mainly land use types) and fire recurrence in Sardinia (Italy) in the years 2005-2010. Our results point out that fire occurrence in already burned areas is lower than expected in natural and semi-natural land cover types, like forest and shrublands. To the contrary, like in all regions where human activity is the main source of fire ignitions, the probability of fire recurrence is higher at low altitudes and close to roads and to urban and agricultural land cover types, thus showing marked preference for those landscape factors denoting higher anthropogenic ignition risk.

Ricotta, Carlo; Di Vito, Stefania

2014-06-01

38

Modeling the landscape drivers of fire recurrence in Sardinia (Italy).  

PubMed

Although recurrent fire events with very short return periods have the most dangerous effects on landscape degradation, only a few papers have explored the landscape ecological factors that drive the probability of fire recurrence. In this paper we apply a habitat suitability model for analyzing the spatial relationship between a selected set of landscape factors (mainly land use types) and fire recurrence in Sardinia (Italy) in the years 2005-2010. Our results point out that fire occurrence in already burned areas is lower than expected in natural and semi-natural land cover types, like forest and shrublands. To the contrary, like in all regions where human activity is the main source of fire ignitions, the probability of fire recurrence is higher at low altitudes and close to roads and to urban and agricultural land cover types, thus showing marked preference for those landscape factors denoting higher anthropogenic ignition risk. PMID:24705728

Ricotta, Carlo; Di Vito, Stefania

2014-06-01

39

Program to Eradicate Malaria in Sardinia, 1946-1950  

PubMed Central

During 1946–1950, the Rockefeller Foundation conducted a large-scale experiment in Sardinia to test the feasibility of indigenous vector species eradication. The interruption of malaria transmission did not require vector eradication, but with a goal of developing a new strategy to fight malaria, the choice was made to wage a rapid attack with a powerful new chemical. Costing millions of dollars, 267 metric tons of DDT were spread over the island. Although malaria was eliminated, the main objective, complete eradication of the vector, was not achieved. Despite its being considered almost eradicated in the mid-1940s, malaria 60 years later is still a major public health problem throughout the world, and its eradication is back on the global health agenda. PMID:19788815

2009-01-01

40

New palaeontological discoveries in some Early Permian sequences of Sardinia. Biostratigraphic and palaeogeographic implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

New palaeontological material was collected during recent extensive fieldwork in the Early Permian Perdasdefogu and Escalaplano basins (SE Sardinia). For the first time, an accurate biostratigraphic position can be assumed for the sediments of these two basins, on the basis of their fossiliferous content (floras; ostracods). Regional and inter-regional correlations are proposed and palaeogeographical implications are analysed.

Ausonio Ronchi; Jean Broutin; José-Bienvenîdo Diez; Pierre Freytet; Jean Galtier; Francis Lethiers

1998-01-01

41

Isotopic constraints on the genesis of base-metal ores in southern and central Sardinia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Pb-Zn-Ag deposits of southwestern and central Sardinia occur within a restricted region, but comprise a variety of mineralization ages and styles. New Pb-isotope data, together with published data provide a reasonably coherent picture of possible sources for the various types of deposits. -from Authors

Ludwig, K.R.; Vollmer, R.; Turi, B.; Simmons, K.R.; Perna, G.

1989-01-01

42

Santa Giusta Lagoon (Sardinia): phytoplankton and nutrients before and after waste water diversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper was to assess the effect of the diversion of waste water on the trophic status of the Stagno di Santa Giusta, a hypertrophic lagoon on the centre-western coast of Sardinia. The data available (1990, 1992-1994) before the diversion (1995) were compared with those collected from 1995 to 1999. The lagoon has an area of about

Nicola SECHI; Fatima FIOCCA; Antonietta SANNIO; Antonella LUGLIÈ

2001-01-01

43

Soil moisture and vegetation controls on evapotranspiration in a heterogeneous Mediterranean ecosystem on Sardinia, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micrometeorological measurements of evapotranspiration (ET) can be difficult to interpret and use for validating model calculations in the presence of land cover heterogeneity. Land surface fluxes, soil moisture ($\\\\theta$), and surface temperatures (Ts) data were collected by an eddy correlation-based tower located at the Orroli (Sardinia) experimental field (covered by woody vegetation, grass, and bare soil) from April 2003 to

Matteo Detto; Nicola Montaldo; John D. Albertson; Marco Mancini; Gaby Katul

2006-01-01

44

Hydrothermal dolomites in SW Sardinia (Italy): evidence for a widespread late-Variscan fluid flow event  

E-print Network

Hydrothermal dolomites in SW Sardinia (Italy): evidence for a widespread late-Variscan fluid flow Terra Universita` di Napoli, Largo San Marcellino 10, I-80138 Naples, Italy b Geologisch di Geofisica e Vulcanologia Universita` di Napoli, Via Mezzocannone 8, I-80134 Naples, Italy Received

Boni, Maria

45

Integrated approach to TYLCD management in Sardinia (Italy).  

PubMed

In Sardinia (Italy) Tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD) re-emerged in 2003, after a period of decline, producing severe yield losses in protected tomato crops. This epidemic outbreak highlighted the inadequacy of the approach to TYLCD management based chiefly on the chemical control of its vector, the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, and the use of 40-mesh nets for greenhouse screening. To evaluate the reliability of alternative practices for implementation within IP&DM programmes, in 2007 and 2008 we carried out two field experiments on greenhouse tomato crops planted in summer. In both trials we tested the use of UV-reflective mulches (UVRM) or floating row covers (NWRC), against an uncovered control on clear mulch. Furthermore, we assessed the effectiveness of acibenzolar-S-methyl, a SAR elicitor, as subplot factor in a split plot design. In 2007 because of the low incidence of the disease it was not possible to assess differences among the treatments. However a significant increase in plant growth, and production was observed in UVRM plots. By contrast, in 2008 the study crop was seriously affected by TYLCD. In the plots not treated with acibenzolar-S-methyl, the disease progression was initially slowed down in NWRC and, to a lesser extent, in UVRM plots compared to control plots but, during the second month of the cropping period, the differences among treatments became statistically not significant. In the plots treated with acibenzolar-S-methyl the dynamics of TYLCD infection during the first five weeks exhibited the same trend as in the untreated plots. Thereafter, the combination of UVRM and, to a lesser extent, of NWRC with the SAR elicitor resulted in a reduction of disease incidence with respect to the control. In conclusion, all the control measures tested in the present work showed the potential for TYLCD management in greenhouse tomatoes. However, the most promising results were achieved using UV-reflective mulch and non-woven row cover in combination with acibenzolar-S-methyl. In view of its positive impact on plant growth and yield in summer planted tomato crops, as well as on TYLCD infection, the use of UV-reflective mulch warrants further investigation. PMID:20222567

Sirigu, A; Nannini, M; Chessa, F; Crescenzi, A

2009-01-01

46

A 3mm band SIS receiver for the Sardinia Radio Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the optical and mechanical design of a 3mm band SIS receiver for the Gregorian focus of the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT). The receiver, was designed and built at IRAM and deployed on the IRAM for the Plateau de Bure Interferometer antennas until 2006. Following its decommissioning the receiver was purchased by the INAFAstronomical Observatory of Cagliari with the aim to adapt its optics for test of the performance of the new 64-m diameter Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) in the 3 mm band (84 - 116 GHz). The instrument will be installed in the rotating turret inside of the Gregorian focal room of SRT. The dimensions of the focal room, the horn position in the lower side of the cryostat and the vessel for the liquid helium impose very hard constraints to the optical and mechanical mounting structure of the receiver inside the cabin. We present the receiver configuration and how we plan to install it on SRT.

Ladu, A.; Pisanu, T.; Navarrini, A.; Marongiu, P.; Valente, G.

2014-07-01

47

Human outbreak of trichinellosis in the Mediterranean island of Sardinia, Italy.  

PubMed

Trichinella sp. infection has been documented in both humans and animals in most Mediterranean countries, yet in the past 60 years no infections have been reported on the Mediterranean islands. We describe the first outbreak of Trichinella sp. infection to have been reported on the island of Sardinia. The outbreak occurred in two villages in 2005 and involved 11 persons who had eaten raw sausages made from the same free-ranging sow. All 11 persons developed signs and symptoms of trichinellosis and seroconverted within 48 days of consuming the infected meat. The etiological agent was Trichinella britovi. Sardinia, like all Mediterranean islands, had been considered to be Trichinella-free. The present report, together with a recent report of T. britovi infection in animals on the nearby island of Corsica (France), raises questions as to the validity of the concept of Trichinella-free areas or regions. PMID:16621284

Pozio, Edoardo; Mesina, Pietro; Sechi, Franco; Pira, Michele; Liciardi, Manuele; Cossu, Pasquale; Marucci, Gianluca; Garippa, Giovanni; Firinu, Antonio

2006-08-31

48

Redescription of the male of Ixodes festai Rondelli, 1926 (Ixodida: Ixodidae) on specimens from Sardinia (Italy)  

PubMed Central

Ixodes festai Rondelli, 1926 is a poorly known bird parasite tick. Its immature forms have not been described yet, while the adult forms only insufficiently, especially the male. In this note the presence of the male of Ixodes festai for the first time in Sardinia (Italy) is reported and a detailed redescription is provided. Morphometric data as well as photographs performed both with optical and electron microscope (ESEM FEI Quanta 200) are also shown. PMID:21894264

Contini, C.; Palmas, C.; Seu, V.; Stancampiano, L.; Usai, F.

2011-01-01

49

A restored section of the “southern Variscan realm” across the Corsica-Sardinia microcontinent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A complete section of the southern realm of the Variscan orogenic belt can be restored in the Corsica-Sardinia segment. Northern Corsica exposes a nonmetamorphosed Palaeozoic succession lying on Panafrican mica schist related to a microcontinent (most likely Armorica or from a microcontinent from the Hun superterrane) that had drifted away directly from Gondwana. These formations are thrust over the Variscan Internal Zone composed mainly of anatectic high-grade Palaeozoic formations that crop out from central Corsica to northern Sardinia; the metamorphic peak of the eclogite remnants has been dated at c. 420 Ma. The Variscan Internal Zone interpreted here as a collision zone, and also the Eovariscan suture, was intruded in Corsica by Mg-K granite from 345 to 335 Ma. The thrust of this Internal Zone onto the stack of parautochthonous nappes in central Sardinia is cross-cut by the Posada Asinara dextral shear zone. To the south, parautochthonous nappes overthrust the North-Gondwana margin which displays a possible Panafrican basement topped by an Iglesiente-Sulcis nonmetamorphic/anchimetamorphic Palaeozoic succession.

Rossi, Philippe; Oggiano, Giacomo; Cocherie, Alain

2009-02-01

50

Early-stage rifting of the Southern Tyrrhenian region: The Calabria–Sardinia breakup  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Southern Tyrrhenian Sea is an extensional basins linked to the Neogene evolution of the Calabria subduction zone located in the western Mediterranean realm where controversial kinematic and geodynamical models have been proposed. Our study provides a key to unravel timing and mode of extension of the upper plate and the breakup of Calabria from Sardinia. By combining original stratigraphic analysis of wells and seismic profiles off Calabria with a stratigraphic correlation to onshore outcrops, we re-assess the tectonic evolution that controlled the sedimentation and basement deformation of the Southern Tyrrhenian basin during Serravallian-Tortonian times. We document the tectono-stratigraphic evolution of adjacent extensional basins characterized by 3rd order depositional sequences (Ser1, Tor1 and Tor2) and different modes of extension, subsidence and opposite dipping faults. Episodic basin development is recorded by a coarsening-up and fining-up trend of the sedimentary succession and by tectonically enhanced unconformities that reflect three episodes of fault activity. We reconstruct Serravallian-Tortonian paleogeographic maps and propose a block faulting model for the evolution of the Sardinia-Calabria area. Sardinia was disconnected from Calabria through N-S normal faults forming Tyrrhenian extensional basins that formed contemporaneously to the E-W opening of the Algerian basin. Unlike published Serravallian-Tortonian reconstructions of the western Mediterranean realm, our results support a geodynamic model characterized by rapid trench retreat, trench-normal extension in the entire overriding plate and very weak coupling between plates.

Milia, Alfonsa; Torrente, Maurizio M.

2014-11-01

51

An infrastructure for multi back-end observations with the Sardinia Radio Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio astronomical observations are ordinarily aimed at reaching a specific scientific goal. Radio telescopes are equipped with a certain number of receivers and back-ends, and the choice of the most suitable receiver/back-end combination in order to best match the scientific application of interest is up to the astronomer. However, the opportunity to process the incoming signal, simultaneously, with different back-ends, thus providing different observational 'points of view', may indeed provide additional scientific results. In this paper, we describe a system, developed for the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT), which allows the observer to take profit of such a capability.

Melis, Andrea; Valente, Giuseppe; Tarchi, Andrea; Barbaro, Massimo; Concu, Raimondo; Corongiu, Alessandro; Gaudiomonte, Francesco; Migoni, Carlo; Montisci, Giorgio; Poppi, Sergio; Trois, Alessio

2014-07-01

52

Stream water chemistry in the arsenic-contaminated Baccu Locci mine watershed (Sardinia, Italy) after remediation.  

PubMed

The abandoned Pb-As Baccu Locci mine represents the first and only case of mine site remediation in Sardinia, Italy. Arsenic is the most relevant environmental concern in the Baccu Locci stream watershed, with concentrations in surface waters up to and sometimes over 1 mg/L. The main remediation action consisted in creation of a "storage site", for the collection of contaminated materials from different waste-rock dumps and most of tailings piles occurring along the Baccu Locci stream. This paper reports preliminary results on the level of contamination in the Baccu Locci stream after the completion of remediation measures. Post-remediation stream water chemistry has not substantially changed compared to the pre-remediation situation. In particular, dissolved As maintains an increasing trend along the Baccu Locci stream, with a concentration of about 400 ?g/L measured at a distance of 7 km from the storage site. Future monitoring will provide fundamental information on the effectiveness of remediation actions conducted and their applicability to other mine sites in Sardinia. At the stage of mine site characterisation of future remediation plans, it is recommended to pay more attention to the understanding of mineralogical and geochemical processes responsible for pollution. Moreover, mixing of materials with different composition and reactivity in a storage site should require careful consideration and long-term leaching tests. PMID:23666684

Ardau, Carla; Podda, Francesca; Da Pelo, Stefania; Frau, Franco

2013-11-01

53

Toxic Emissions from a Military Test Site in the Territory of Sardinia, Italy  

PubMed Central

This work assesses the environmental impact from chemical emissions due to military tests and routine activities in the area occupied by the Italian Inter-force Test Range (PISQ), located at Salto di Quirra, Sardinia, Italy. After reviewing the military activities carried out at PISQ, such as rocket launching, blasting and armament destruction, projectile and mortar fire impact, the associated pollution is evaluated. Chemical analyses were performed by means of Scanning Electronic Microscopy and Energy Dispersion Spectrometry on biotic and abiotic matrices. Residues of Rb, Tl, W, Ti and Al were found in matrices collected in the PISQ areas and environs. A review of experimental data on air, water, soil, milk, forage and animal tissues obtained by various Public Agencies of Sardinia proved that toxic element residues often exceeded the legal limits. PM10 and PM2.5 air concentrations also exceeded the legal limits after military blasting. Cd and Pb contents in the liver and kidneys of sheep living in farms at PISQ and in control farms that were located more than 20 km away from PISQ were higher than the legal limits. This work was performed to investigate concentration of xenobiotics in ecosystems emitted from PISQ activities. This assessment could be useful to focus future epidemiological studies carried out in PISQ and its neighbouring areas. PMID:23603867

Cristaldi, Mauro; Foschi, Cristiano; Szpunar, Germana; Brini, Carlo; Marinelli, Fiorenzo; Triolo, Lucio

2013-01-01

54

Population Density and Distribution of Wheat Bugs Infesting Durum Wheat in Sardinia, Italy  

PubMed Central

Wheat is a very important crop in Italy, and is infested by wheat bugs belonging to the genera Eurygaster (Hemiptera: Scutellaridae) and Aelia (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Many wheat bug infestations have been reported in the north, south, and center of Italy, both in the past as well as recently. The present study was carried out in Sardinia, Italy, during two years (2007 and 2008). The objective of this study was to determine the species and distribution of wheat bugs in durum wheat fields in Sardinia, and to estimate their population density in order to know the incidence of the pest on the island. Sampling took place twice a year (May and June) in three zones, representative of durum wheat cropping in the island. Four species of wheat bugs were found; the predominant species was Eurygaster austriaca (Schrank), followed by Aelia germari (Kuster), Eurygaster maura L., and Aelia acuminata L. The average density of wheat bugs was low (1.1 individuals/m2), but in certain areas it was above the damage threshold (4 individuals/m2). For this reason, the conclusion of the study is that this pest should be monitored in order to control outbreaks and prevent their further spread. PMID:23906035

Salis, Luigi; Goula, Marta; Izquierdo, Jordi; Gordun, Elena

2013-01-01

55

High Differentiation among Eight Villages in a Secluded Area of Sardinia Revealed by Genome-Wide High Density SNPs Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To better design association studies for complex traits in isolated populations it's important to understand how history and isolation moulded the genetic features of different communities. Population isolates should not ''a priori'' be considered homogeneous, even if the communities are not distant and part of a small region. We studied a particular area of Sardinia called Ogliastra, characterized by the

Giorgio Pistis; Ignazio Piras; Nicola Pirastu; Ivana Persico; Alessandro Sassu; Andrea Picciau; Dionigio Prodi; Cristina Fraumene; Evelina Mocci; Maria Teresa Manias; Rossano Atzeni; Massimiliano Cosso; Mario Pirastu; Andrea Angius

2009-01-01

56

Height and Survival at Older Ages among Men Born in an Inland Village in Sardinia (Italy), 1866–2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the relationship between individual height and survival at older ages among conscripts born between 1866 and 1915 in an inland village of Sardinia, Italy. Individual age at death was related to military height measurement at age 20. Differential longevity of conscripts at older ages was investigated through the comparison of age-specific mortality rates and life expectancy estimates.

Luisa Salaris; Michel Poulain; Thomas T. Samaras

2012-01-01

57

Hydrologic climate change: are the existing dams still safe? The Flumendosa case study in Sardinia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of the hydraulic safety of existing dams is becoming crucial due to the recent increase of floods. In Sardinia dams were built for both electric production and water supply for irrigation and civil uses during the 1920-1960 period. Recent floods showed a significant increase in magnitude and frequency, supporting the hypothesis of a hydrologic climate change. Are the existing dams still safe? For answering the question 1) a method for estimating the flood hydrograph with return period of 2000 years also accounting for possible climate change is developed, 2) an hydrologic model is implemented, and 3) the hydraulic safety of existing dams is tested. The case study is the Flumendosa river basin (area of about 1300 km2) located in central-eastern Sardinia (Italy), whose reservoir system (3 dams) is the main water supply of southern Sardinia, including its largest city, Cagliari. The smallest dam is located in the upper part of the basin with a drainage area of about 50 km2. At this dam, during the December 2004 flood an extremely high peak discharge of around 2000 m3/s was observed (total daily rain was of 600 mm). In the basin the soils are generally of modest thickness, the vegetation throughout the basin has been in part altered by human activities, with many areas (before covered by scrubs) converted to pasture. Urbanized areas are a minor component. Rainfall and discharge data of historical floods (from 1940) were acquired so that a fully evaluation of the hydrologic model has been performed. The distributed hydrologic model is an event model (FEST) which assesses runoff through a simplified approach based on Soil Conservation Service equations and runoff propagation through the Muskingum-Cunge approach. The FEST model well simulates historical and recent floods. The results demonstrated that the dams are not safe for the estimated flood with return period of 2000 year, but also demonstrated the extreme uncertainty in the estimate of floods with extremely high return period. The proposed method is able to include this uncertainty.

Maccioni, G.; Montaldo, N.; Saba, A.

2009-04-01

58

Sea-level change during the Holocene in Sardinia and in the northeastern Adriatic (central Mediterranean Sea) from archaeological and geomorphological data  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide new data on relative sea-level change from the late Holocene for two locations in the central Mediterranean: Sardinia and NE Adriatico. They are based on precise measures of submerged archaeological and tide notch markers that are good indicators of past sea-level elevation. Twelve submerged archaeological sites were studied: six, aged between 2.5 and 1.6kaBP, located along the Sardinia

F. Antonioli; M. Anzidei; K. Lambeck; R. Auriemma; D. Gaddi; S. Furlani; P. Orrù; E. Solinas; A. Gaspari; S. Karinja; V. Kova?i?; L. Surace

2007-01-01

59

Zn biomineralization processes and microbial biofilm in a metal-rich stream (Naracauli, Sardinia).  

PubMed

Several decades after the closure of the Ingurtosu mine (SW Sardinia), a variety of seasonal Zn biomineralizations occurs. In this work, waters, microbial consortia, and seasonal precipitates from the Naracauli stream were sampled to investigate chemical composition of stream waters and biominerals, and microbial strain identity. Molecular and morphological analysis revealed that activity of dominant cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya frigida results in precipitation of Zn silicate. The activity of the cyanobacterium was associated to other bacteria and many kind of diatoms, such as Halamphora subsalina and Encyonopsis microcephala, which are trapped in the process of biomineral growth. In this work, the precipitation process is shown to be the result of many different parameters such as hydrologic regime, microbial community adaptation, and biological mediation. It results in a decrease of dissolved Zn in the stream water, and is a potential tool for Zn pollution abatement. PMID:23872900

Podda, F; Medas, D; De Giudici, G; Ryszka, P; Wolowski, K; Turnau, K

2014-06-01

60

Molecular characterization of Toxoplasma gondii Type II in sheep abortion in Sardinia, Italy  

PubMed Central

During 2009–2010, 161 tissue samples (142 placentas, 16 brains, and 3 livers) from aborted ovine fetuses on Sardinia Island, Italy, were tested for toxoplasmosis. Organs that showed a positive result by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the ITS1 region for Toxoplasma gondii were also amplified with 11 genetic markers (SAG1, 5?-SAG2, 3?-SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico) and then subjected to PCR/RFLP for genetic typing. T. gondii DNA was found in 5 placentas, 14 brains, and 2 livers by PCR analysis and all isolates displayed Type II alleles at all 11 loci with all 11 markers. The results indicate that the Type II T. gondii is associated with ovine abortion. PMID:24534616

Chessa, Giovanna; Chisu, Valentina; Porcu, Rosaura; Masala, Giovanna

2014-01-01

61

Redescription of Cercopithifilaria bainae Almeida & Vicente, 1984 (Spirurida, Onchocercidae) from a dog in Sardinia, Italy  

PubMed Central

Background Three species of the genus Cercopithifilaria have been morphologically and molecularly characterized in dog populations in southern Europe: Cercopithifilaria grassii (Noè, 1907), Cercopithifilaria sp. sensu Otranto et al., 2011 (reported as Cercopithifilaria sp. I), and Cercopithifilaria sp. II sensu Otranto et al., 2012. The adults of Cercopithifilaria sp. I have remained unknown until the present study. Methods The material originated from a dog from Sardinia (Italy) diagnosed with dermal microfilariae of Cercopithifilaria sp. I. The holotype and three paratypes of Cercopithifilaria bainae Almeida & Vicente, 1984, described from dogs in Brazil, were studied as comparative material. A cox1 (~689 bp) and 12S (~330 bp) gene fragments were amplified and phylogenetic analysis carried out. Results The highest numbers of adult nematodes (82%) were collected in the sediment of the subcutaneous tissues of the trunk (n = 37) and forelimbs (n = 36). The morphology of the adult nematodes and microfilariae collected from the dog in Sardinia corresponded to those of C. bainae. All cox1 and 12S gene sequences showed a high homology (99-100%) with sequences from microfilariae of Cercopithifilaria sp. I. Conclusions The morphological and molecular identity of the microfilariae of C. bainae overlap those described previously as Cercopithifilaria sp. sensu Otranto et al., 2011 (=Cercopithifilaria sp. I). Therefore, the present study reports the occurrence of C. bainae in Europe, for the first time after its description and the single record in Brazil. C. bainae appears to be highly diffused in dog populations in southern Europe. The phylogenetic analyses based on cox1 and 12S do not reveal the three species of Cercopithifilaria parasitizing dogs as a monophyletic group, which suggests that they have derived independently by host switching. PMID:23642161

2013-01-01

62

Effects of The NAO/ao Fluctuations Upon Precipitation Over Sardinia In The 20th Century.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects at regional scale of decadal fluctuation of the NAO/AO on the 20th cen- tury precipitation over Sardinia will be analyzed. Decadal variations of precipitation will initially be described, by use of the Standardized Anomaly Index (Katz &Glantz, 1986) based on two indicators: the cumulated precipitation (the classical approach) and the number of rainy days. A clear decreasing trend in the last two deacdes, statis- tically significant at the 1% level, will be highlighted. A short survey of connections with MSLP and 500hPA Geopotential Height fields will be used to give an overview of dependence of Sardinia (regional) precipitation on synoptic-scale and planetary scale features. In the following part, three different paradigms of the NAO/AO will be used: the classical two point obscillation, the PCA analysis of MSLP (Thompson &Wallace, 1998) and the centers of action approach (Machel et al., 1998). The results of the anal- ysis of the effects of NAO/AO (described in the former three ways) on precipitation will enable to discuss how such a teleconnection influences regional precipitation on this part of the Mediterranean. Statistical significance of each result will be provided during the presentation. Katz, R., Glantz, M., 1986. "Anatomy of a Rainfall Index". Mon. Wea. Rev., 114, 764-771. Mächel, M., Kapala, A., Flohn, H., 1998. "Behaviour of the Centers of Action above the Atlantic since 1881. Part I: Characteristics of seasonal and interannual Variability". Int. Jou. of Climatol., 18, 1-22. Thopson, D. W. J., Wallace, J. M., 1998. "The Arctic Oscillation signature in the wintertime geopotential height and temperature fields". Geoph. Res. Let., 25, 1297- 1300.

Delitala, A.

63

The dual-band LP feed system for the Sardinia Radio Telescope prime focus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the design of the passive feed system of the dual-band receiver for the prime focus of the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT), a new 64 m diameter radio telescope which is being built in Sardinia, Italy. The feed system operates simultaneously in P-band (305-410 MHz) and L-band (1300-1800 MHz). The room temperature illuminators are arranged in coaxial configuration with an inner circular waveguide for L-band (diameter of 19 cm) and an outer coaxial waveguide for P-band (diameter of 65 cm). Choke flanges are used outside the coaxial section to improve the crosspolarization performance and the back scattering of the P-band feed. The geometry was optimized for compactness and high antenna efficiency in both bands using commercial electromagnetic simulators. Four probes arranged in symmetrical configuration are used in both the P and the L-band feeds to extract dual-linearly polarized signals and to combine them, through phased-matched coaxial cables, into 180 deg hybrid couplers. A vacuum vessel encloses the two P-band hybrids and the two L-band hybrids which are cooled, respectively at 15 K and 77 K. For the P-Band, four low loss coaxial feedthroughs are used to cross the vacuum vessel, while for the L-Band a very low loss large window is employed. The P-band hybrids are based on a microstrip rat-race design with fractal geometry. The L-band hybrids are based on an innovative double-ridged waveguide design that also integrates a band-pass filter for Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) mitigation.

Valente, G.; Pisanu, T.; Bolli, P.; Mariotti, S.; Marongiu, P.; Navarrini, A.; Nesti, R.; Orfei, A.; Roda, J.

2010-07-01

64

Southern Segment of the European Geotraverse — a wide-angle seismic refraction experiment in the Sardinia Channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sardinia Channel dataset was collected as part of the European Geotraverse (EGT)—a 4000 km seismic refraction line running from Northern Norway to the Sahara, designed to investigate the structure of the lithosphere beneath Europe. Wideangle seismic data recorded by ocean bottom seismometers deployed in the Sardinia Channel as part of the Southern Segment of the EGT, together with gravity data, were used to constrain the final crustal model. In the centre of the Channel the crust is identified as thinned continental in nature, with a crystalline thickness of 10 km overlain by 4 km of sediments and 2.5 km of water in the most extended region. High velocities in the lower crust in the central region are thought to represent an area of underplating or intrusion by igneous material caused by extension related to the opening of the Tyrrhenian Sea. The crust overlies an anomalously low velocity upper mantle.

Peirce, C.; Barton, P. J.

1992-09-01

65

Plants and traditional knowledge: An ethnobotanical investigation on Monte Ortobene (Nuoro, Sardinia)  

PubMed Central

Background Most of the traditional knowledge about plants and their uses is fast disappearing as a consequence of socio-economic and land use changes. This trend is also occurring in areas that are historically exposed to very few external influences, such as Sardinia (Italy). From 2004 to 2005, an ethnobotanical investigation was carried out in the area of Monte Ortobene, a mountain located near Nuoro, in central Sardinia. Methods Data were collected by means of semi-structured interviews. All the records – defined as 'citations', i.e. a single use reported for a single botanical species by a single informant – were filed in a data base ('analytical table'), together with additional information: i.e. local names of plants, parts used, local frequencies, and habitats of plants, etc. In processing the data, plants and uses were grouped into general ('categories') and detailed ('secondary categories') typologies of use. Some synthetic indexes have also been used, such as Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC), Cultural Importance Index (CI), the Shannon-Wiener Index (H'), and Evenness Index (J). Results Seventy-two plants were cited by the informants as being traditionally used in the area. These 72 'ethnospecies' correspond to 99 botanical taxa (species or subspecies) belonging to 34 families. Three-hundred and one citations, 50 secondary categories of use, and 191 different uses were recorded, most of them concerning alimentary and medicinal plants. For the alimentary plants, 126 citations, 44 species, and 13 different uses were recorded, while for the medicinal plants, there were 106 citations, 40 species, and 12 uses. Few plants and uses were recorded for the remaining categories. Plants and uses for each category of use are discussed. Analyses of results include the relative abundance of botanical families, wild vs. cultivated species, habitats, frequency, parts of plant used, types of use, knowledge distribution, and the different cultural importance of the species in question. Conclusion The study provides examples of several interesting uses of plants in the community, which would seem to show that the custom of using wild plants is still alive in the Monte Ortobene area. However, many practices are no longer in use, and survive only as memories from the past in the minds of elderly people, and often only in one or just a few informants. This rapidly vanishing cultural diversity needs to be studied and documented before it disappears definitively. PMID:19208227

Signorini, Maria Adele; Piredda, Maddalena; Bruschi, Piero

2009-01-01

66

Spatial genetic structure of Aquilegia taxa endemic to the island of Sardinia  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The Mediterranean Basin is one of the most important regions for the Earth's plant biodiversity; however, the scarcity of studies on fine scale patterns of genetic variation in this region is striking. Here, an assessment is made of the spatial genetic structure of all known locations of the three Sardinian endemic species of Aquilegia in order to determine the relative roles of gene flow and genetic drift as underlying evolutionary forces canalizing the divergence of Sardinian Aquilegia taxa, and to see if the spatial genetic structure found fits the current taxonomic differentiation of these taxa. Methods DNA from 89 individuals from all known locations of Aquilegia across Sardinia was analysed by means of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Both principal co-ordinates analysis (PCoA) and Bayesian clustering analyses were used to determine the spatial genetic structure irrespective of any taxonomic affiliation. Historical effects of gene flow and genetic drift were assessed by checking for the existence of isolation-by-distance patterns. Key Results STRUCTURE and PCoA analyses revealed a pattern of genetic variation geographically structured into four spatial genetic groups. No migration–drift equilibrium was detected for Aquilegia in Sardinia, when analysed either as a whole or in individual groups. The scenario approached a Case III pattern sensu Hutchinson and Templeton, which is associated with extreme isolation conditions where genetic drift has historically played a dominant role over gene flow. Conclusions The pattern of genetic variation of Sardinian taxa of Aquilegia indicates that genetic drift has been historically more influential than gene flow on population structure of Sardinian species of Aquilegia. Limited seed dispersal and divergent selection imposed by habitat conditions have been probably the main causes reinforcing post-Pleistocene geographical isolation of Aquilegia populations. The spatial genetic structure found here is not fully compatible with current taxonomic affiliations of Sardinian Aquilegia taxa. This is probably a consequence of the uncoupling between morphological and genetic patterns of differentiation frequently found in recently radiated taxa. PMID:22351486

Garrido, J. L.; Fenu, G.; Mattana, E.; Bacchetta, G.

2012-01-01

67

Late reproduction at lower risk in Sardinia island: a case of reproductive longevity?  

PubMed

Population of Sardinia Island is characterized by geographical and historical isolation, a deep-rooted tendency to postpone childbearing, and a demographic and genetic structure largely different from that of continental Italy and other European countries. Based on such differences we investigated whether the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome associated with late reproduction was different between the Sardinian population and two mainland areas (North+Centre and South+Sicily), representative of different Italian socio-economic contexts. In particular we suggest that parents, who show aptitude to late childbearing associated with a reduced risk of adverse pregnancy outcome, enjoy "reproductive longevity". Data set come from the National Institute of Statistics and concern all 1990-98 Italian birth records (n=4 830 742). We considered three types of adverse pregnancy outcome: i) stillbirths of the total births, ii) very preterm births (<32 gestation weeks) of the live births, iii) very low birthweight births (<1.5 Kg) of the live births after exclusion of very preterm births. Using logistic regression models we investigated whether the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome associated with maternal or paternal ageing followed differing trends between areas. Moreover we evaluated the Odds Ratio of the three types of adverse outcome as a function of maternal and paternal age and education, and delivery rank. We found that in the three areas the risks increase with parental ageing, but in Sardinia the increase is less rapid than in the mainland. In particular with respect to South+Sicily, in Sardinian mothers=35 years and fathers=40 years the OR is 25% lower for stillbirth and preterm birth, and 19% lower for low birthweight. We suggest that the aptitude to late and successful childbearing may be a peculiar trait of the Sardinian population, indicative of "reproductive longevity". The possibility of identifying populations where a relevant proportion of mothers show the character might promote case-control studies focused on the possible determinants and measures of prevention and/or protection against the adverse effect of late reproduction. PMID:19934474

Astolfi, Paola; De Pasquale, Antonio; Zonta, Laura A

2008-01-01

68

Helminth parasites of fish and shellfish from the Santa Gilla Lagoon in southern Sardinia, Italy.  

PubMed

An extensive survey of helminth parasites in fish and shellfish species from Santa Gilla, a brackish water lagoon in southern Sardinia (western Mediterranean), resulted in the identification of 69 helminth parasite taxa and/or species from 13 fish species (n= 515) and seven bivalve species (n= 2322) examined between September 2001 and July 2011. The list summarizes information on the helminth parasites harboured by fish and molluscs contained in the available literature. Digenea species (37), both adults and larvae, dominated the parasite fauna, whereas Cestoda were the least represented class (three species). Monogenea, Nematoda and Acanthocephala were present with 17, 6 and 6 species, respectively, which were mainly adults. The most widespread parasite species was the generalist Contracaecum rudolphii A (Nematoda). Other species, such as the Haploporidae and Ascocotyle (Phagicola) spp. 1 and 2 (Digenea), showed a high family specificity in Mugilidae. Importantly, the study recorded the occurrence of potential zoonotic agents, such as Heterophyes heterophyes, Ascocotyle (Phagicola) spp. and C. rudolphii A, the latter two reaching the highest indices of infection in the highly marketed fish grey mullet and sea bass, respectively. The highest parasite richness was detected in Dicentrarchus labrax, which harboured 17 helminth species, whereas the lowest value was observed in Atherina boyeri, infected by only three species. The list includes the first geographical record in Italian coastal waters of Robinia aurata and Stictodora sawakinensis, and 30 reports of new host-parasite complexes, including the larval stages of Ascocotyle (Ascocotyle) sp. and Southwellina hispida in D. labrax. PMID:23790066

Culurgioni, J; Sabatini, A; De Murtas, R; Mattiucci, S; Figus, V

2014-12-01

69

Phenotypic and genotypic analysis of rhizobia isolated from pasture legumes native of Sardinia and Asinara Island.  

PubMed

Thirty-five rhizobial strains were isolated from nodules of Lotus edulis, L. ornithopodioides, L. cytisoides, Hedysarum coronarium, Ornithopus compressus and Scorpiurus muricatus growing in Sardinia and Asinara Island. Basic characteristics applied to identification of rhizobia such as symbiotic properties, antibiotic- and salt-resistance, temperate-sensitivities, utilization of different sources of carbon and nitrogen were studied. The results from the 74 metabolic tests were used for cluster analysis of the new rhizobial isolates and 28 reference strains, belonging to previously classified and unclassified fast-, intermediate- and slow-growing rhizobia. All strains examined were divided into two large groups at a linkage distance of 0.58. None of the reference strains clustered with the new rhizobial isolates, which formed five subgroups almost respective of their plant origin. RFLP analysis of PCR-amplified 16S-23S rDNA IGS showed that the levels of similarity between rhizobial isolates from Ornithopus, Hedysarum and Scorpiurus, and the type strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum, Mesorhizobium loti, M. ciceri, M. mediterraneum, Sinorhizobium meliloti and Bradyrhizobium japonicum were not more than 30%. Thus, it can be assumed that these groups of new rhizobial isolates are not closely related to the validly described rhizobial species. PMID:15031655

Safronova, V I; Piluzza, G; Belimov, A A; Bullitta, S

2004-02-01

70

The Genetic Structure of the Remnant Populations of Centaurea horrida in Sardinia and Associated Islands  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The Mediterranean region is of prime importance to biodiversity at a global level, mainly due to the abundance of endemic plant species. However, information about these species is still scarce, especially at the genetic level. In this paper the first assessment is reported of the genetic structure of Centaurea horrida (Asteraceae), an endemic, sea-cliff-dwelling plant from Sardinia. Methods The study was conducted on seven populations covering the entire natural range of the species by means of SSR (microsatellite) markers. Key Results A considerable amount of genetic variation was found (average He = 0·603–0·854), together with a medium-high differentiation among populations, as estimated both by FST (0·123) and RST (0·158). Both Bayesian analysis and AMOVA were employed to detect genetic structuring in this species. The results suggest that the origins of the current populations of C. horrida lie in two gene pools. Conclusions Despite the restricted range, C. horrida displays high levels of genetic diversity, structured in such a way that three management units could be deemed viable for its conservation. The protected status of the species will probably suffice to prevent the impoverishment of its genetic resources. PMID:18256022

Mameli, Giulia; Filigheddu, Rossella; Binelli, Giorgio; Meloni, Marilena

2008-01-01

71

Shallow water sea-floor morphologies around Asinara Island (NW Sardinia, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Side scan sonar, high-resolution seismic and multibeam data collected off the coast of Asinara Island in the northernmost part of Sardinia have revealed the occurrence of four distinct acoustical patterns that can be related to four main sea-bed types. The four facies represent fine sand (Type A), medium to coarse sand (Type B), patchy sand cover between basement outcrops (Type C) and a predominantly sandy sea-floor colonized by the seagrass Posidonia Oceanica (Type P). The distribution of the sea-bed types indicates that the study area is characterized by a rather complex morphological setting. A remarkable physiographic difference exists between the eastern and western sector of the island, with the latter being affected by strong, westerly winds, mainly the so-called "Mistral". The wave climate in this area is dominated by wind waves, which can reach a maximum height of 8 m during winter storms. Sediments are mobilized at water depths greater than 30 m from the sea surface during these energetic oceanographic regimes. We infer that dune fields and sand ribbons are deposited by strong offshore flows along the sea-bed resulting as a consequence of wave- and wind-induced onshore water transport.

Donda, F.; Gordini, E.; Rebesco, M.; Pascucci, V.; Fontolan, G.; Lazzari, P.; Mosetti, R.

2008-10-01

72

An overview of the Sardinia Radio Telescope geodetic potential at national and international levels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) potentials in geodesy are mostly connected to VLBI techniques and they may have a remarkable impact on both national and international geodetic science. A development plan concerning geodetic technical instrumentation should be provided soon, so as to perform geodetic observations with the SRT in the near future. The SRT is being developed within a well-consolidated national environment of geodetic VLBI activities: Medicina and Noto observatories have been continuously participating in geodetic VLBI observations for almost two decades. Matera observatory, whose 20-m VLBI telescope is entirely devoted to geodetic VLBI, is one of the few fundamental geodetic Earth's observatories and is running VLBI experiments since 1990. At a national level, the SRT has the capability to establish a self-consistent Italian VLBI network: it would represent a unique facility in Europe. At an international level, the SRT should be made part of the geodetic International VLBI Network whose operations are supported and coordinated by the IVS (International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry). IVS promotes research and technological development in geodesy and astrometry, with important outcomes for the astronomical VLBI community, too. In the following sections, the contribution of the SRT to space geodesy, geophysics and related research fields will be outlined.

Sarti, P.; Negusini, M.; Montaguti, S.; Mantovani, F.; Buffa, F.; Deiana, G. L.; Gusai, V.; Poma, A.; Sorgente, M.

73

Soil moisture and vegetation controls on evapotranspiration in a heterogeneous Mediterranean ecosystem on Sardinia, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micrometeorological measurements of evapotranspiration (ET) can be difficult to interpret and use for validating model calculations in the presence of land cover heterogeneity. Land surface fluxes, soil moisture (?), and surface temperatures (Ts) data were collected by an eddy correlation-based tower located at the Orroli (Sardinia) experimental field (covered by woody vegetation, grass, and bare soil) from April 2003 to July 2004. Two Quickbird high-resolution images (summer 2003 and spring 2004) were acquired for depicting the contrasting land cover components. A procedure is presented for estimating ET in heterogeneous ecosystems as the residual term of the energy balance using Ts observations, a two-dimensional footprint model, and the Quickbird images. Two variations on the procedure are successfully implemented: a proposed two-source random model (2SR), which treats the heat sources of each land cover component separately but computes the bulk heat transfer coefficient as spatially homogeneous, and a common two-source tile model. For 2SR, new relationships between the interfacial transfer coefficient and the roughness Reynolds number are estimated for the two bare soil-woody vegetation and grass-woody vegetation composite surfaces. The ET versus ? relationships for each land cover component were also estimated, showing that that the woody vegetation has a strong tolerance to long droughts, transpiring at rates close to potential for even the driest conditions. Instead, the grass is much less tolerant to ? deficits, and the switch from grass to bare soil following the rainy season had a significant impact on ET.

Detto, Matteo; Montaldo, Nicola; Albertson, John D.; Mancini, Marco; Katul, Gaby

2006-08-01

74

Tracing the boundaries of Cenozoic volcanic edifices from Sardinia (Italy): a geomorphometric contribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unequivocal delimitation of landforms is an important issue for different purposes, from science-driven morphometric analysis to legal issues related to land conservation. This study is aimed at giving a new contribution to the morphometric approach for the delineation of the boundaries of volcanic edifices, applied to 13 monogenetic volcanoes (scoria cones) related to the Pliocene-Pleistocene volcanic cycle in Sardinia (Italy). External boundary delimitation of the edifices is discussed based on an integrated methodology using automatic elaboration of digital elevation models together with geomorphological and geological observations. Different elaborations of surface slope and profile curvature have been proposed and discussed; among them, two algorithms based on simple mathematical functions combining slope and profile curvature well fit the requirements of this study. One of theses algorithms is a modification of a function already discussed by Grosse et al. (2011), which better perform for recognizing and tracing the boundary between the volcanic scoria cone and its basement. Although the geological constraints still drive the final decision, the proposed method improves the existing tools for a semi-automatic tracing of the boundaries.

Melis, M. T.; Mundula, F.; Dessì, F.; Cioni, R.; Funedda, A.

2014-05-01

75

Potential of pressure solution for strain localization in the Baccu Locci Shear Zone (Sardinia, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mylonites of the Baccu Locci Shear Zone (BLSZ), Sardinia (Italy), were deformed during thrusting along a bottom-to-top strain gradient in lower greenschist facies. The microstructure of metavolcanic protoliths shows evidence for composite deformation accommodated by dislocation creep within strong quartz porphyroclasts, and pressure solution in the finer grained matrix. The evolution of mylonite is simulated in two sets of numerical experiments, assuming either a constant width of the deforming zone (model 1) or a narrowing shear zone (model 2). A 2-5 mm y-1 constant-external-velocity boundary condition is applied on the basis of geologic constraints. Inputs to the models are provided by inverting paleostress values obtained from quartz recrystallized grain-size paleopiezometry. Both models predict a significant stress drop across the shear zone. However, model 1 involves a dramatic decrease in strain rate towards the zone of apparent strain localization. In contrast, model 2 predicts an increase in strain rate with time (from 10-14 to 10-12 s-1), which is consistent with stabilization of the shear zone profile and localization of deformation near the hanging wall. Extrapolating these results to the general context of crust strength suggests that pressure-solution creep may be a critical process for strain softening and for the stabilization of deformation within shear zones.

Casini, Leonardo; Funedda, Antonio

2014-09-01

76

The amorphous Zn biomineralization at Naracauli stream, Sardinia: electron microscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy.  

PubMed

An amorphous Zn biomineralization ("white mud"), occurring at Naracauli stream, Sardinia, in association with cyanobacteria Leptolyngbya frigida and diatoms, was investigated by electron microscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Preliminary diffraction analysis shows that the precipitate sampled on Naracauli stream bed is mainly amorphous, with some peaks ascribable to quartz and phyllosilicates, plus few minor unattributed peaks. Scanning electron microscopy analysis shows that the white mud, precipitated in association with a seasonal biofilm, is made of sheaths rich in Zn, Si, and O, plus filaments likely made of organic matter. Transmission electron microscopy analysis shows that the sheaths are made of smaller units having a size in the range between 100 and 200 nm. X-ray absorption near-edge structure and extended X-ray absorption fine structure data collected at the Zn K-edge indicate that the biomineral has a local structure similar to hemimorphite, a zinc sorosilicate. The differences of this biomineral with respect to the hydrozincite biomineralization documented about 3 km upstream in the same Naracauli stream may be related to either variations in the physicochemical parameters and/or different metabolic behavior of the involved biota. PMID:23832800

Medas, D; Lattanzi, P; Podda, F; Meneghini, C; Trapananti, A; Sprocati, A; Casu, M A; Musu, E; De Giudici, G

2014-06-01

77

Tracing the boundaries of Cenozoic volcanic edifices from Sardinia (Italy): a geomorphometric contribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unequivocal delimitation of landforms is an important issue for different purposes, from science-driven morphometric analysis to legal issues related to land conservation. This study is aimed at giving a new contribution to the morphometric approach for the delineation of the boundaries of volcanic edifices, applied to 13 monogenetic volcanoes (scoria cones) related to the Pliocene-Pleistocene volcanic cycle in Sardinia (Italy). External boundary delimitation of the edifices is discussed based on an integrated methodology using automatic elaboration of digital elevation models together with geomorphological and geological observations. Different elaborations of surface slope and profile curvature have been proposed and discussed; among them, two algorithms based on simple mathematical functions combining slope and profile curvature well fit the requirements of this study. One of theses algorithms is a modification of a function introduced by Grosse et al. (2011), which better performs for recognizing and tracing the boundary between the volcanic scoria cone and its basement. Although the geological constraints still drive the final decision, the proposed method improves the existing tools for a semi-automatic tracing of the boundaries.

Melis, M. T.; Mundula, F.; DessÌ, F.; Cioni, R.; Funedda, A.

2014-09-01

78

Molecular characterization of Fasciola hepatica from Sardinia based on sequence analysis of genomic and mitochondrial gene markers.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study is to investigate for the first time the genetic diversity of samples identified morphologically as Fasciola hepatica (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda: Digenea) (n=66) from sheep and cattle from two localities of Sardinia and to compare them with available data from other localities by partial sequences of the first (ITS-1), the 5.8S, and second (ITS-2) Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) genes, the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit I (ND1) genes. Comparison of the sequences from Sardinia with sequences of Fasciola spp. from GenBank confirmed that all samples belong to the species F. hepatica. The nucleotide sequencing of ITS rDNA showed no nucleotide variation in the ITS-1, 5.8S and ITS-2 rDNA sequences among all Sardinian samples, comparing with two ITS-2 haplotypes in standard F. hepatica, showing a substitution C/T in 20 position 859, reported previously from Tunisia, Algeria, Australia, Uruguay and Spain. The present study shows that in Sardinian sheep and cattle there is the most frequent haplotype (FhITS-H1) of F. hepatica species from South Europe. Considering NDI sequences, the phylogenetic trees showed reliable grouping among the haplotypes of F. hepatica from Sardinia and the mitochondrial lineage I, including the main N1 haplotype, observed previously from Europe (Russia, Belarus, Ukraine and Bulgaria), Armenia, West Africa (Nigeria), America (Uruguay and USA), Asia (Turkey, Japan, and China), Georgia, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan and Australia. Furthermore, common haplotypes FhCOI-H1 and FhCOI-H2 of F. hepatica from Sardinia also corresponded mostly to the first lineage including the main C1 haplotype reported previously from Eastern European and Western Asian populations, they belonged just to a phylogenically distinguishable clade, as F. hepatica from Australia, France, Turkey, Uruguay, Russia, Armenia, Ukraine, Belarus, Turkmenistan, USA, Tunisia and Algeria, indicating that this is the main haplotype involved in the spread of F. hepatica throughout all continents. PMID:23994483

Farjallah, Sarra; Ben Slimane, Badreddine; Piras, Cristina Maria; Amor, Nabil; Garippa, Giovanni; Merella, Paolo

2013-11-01

79

On the decrease of water resources during the last decades in the Flumendosa basin, Sardinia.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mediterranean climate is characterized by a cool and wet winter and a hot and dry summer. In these climate ecosystems during the winter months much of the precipitation recharges sub-surface and surface reservoirs. However, in the late winter and early spring, when vegetation growth conditions are favorable, much of the precipitation can be depleted by transpiration and, furthermore, runoff reduced directly by the increased vegetation cover. A common feature of the Mediterranean region is the evident effect of climate changes that it is causing several problems on the water resources availability. Brunetti et al. (2000) and Dunkeloh and Jacobeit (2003) have shown a strong decreasing trend in winter precipitation amounts over much of the Mediterranean for the past several decades. Additionally, there is evidence of shifts in how the precipitation is distributed across the winter and spring months. Considering that the most of the runoff to surface reservoirs occurs in the winter months and that spring hydrologic response is likely to be influenced strongly by vegetation (depending on overlap between rainy- and growing-seasons) these precipitation changes can be considered hydrologically important. Case study is the Flumendosa basin (Sardinia, basin area of about 1700 km2), which is characterized by a reservoir system that supplies water to the main city of Sardinia, Cagliari. Data are from 42 rain gauges stations (1922-2008 period) over the entire basin and data of runoff are available for the same period. Interestingly in the Flumendosa reservoir system the average annual input from stream discharge in the latter part of the 20th century was less than half the historic average rate, while the precipitation over the Flumendosa basin has decreased, but not at such a drastic rate as the discharge, suggesting a marked non-linear response of discharge to precipitation changes. Trends in precipitation series were examined using the Mann-Kendall non-parametric trend test, which shows a sequence of alternating decreasing and increasing trends in monthly precipitation, statistically significant. In autumn and winter months rains are decreasing, while an increase of monthly precipitation is estimated in the spring and summer months. The analysis of the mean seasonal precipitation climatology confirms the same behavior, highlighting a clear change of the rain regime after 1980. Hence, in late 30 years the rain decreased during the winter months (i.e., less recharges to the reservoirs), and increases during spring and summer months, when the evapotraspiration is higher (i.e., recharges to the reservoirs doesn't increase). Interestingly we found differences of rain between the mountain and the down plane area of the basin: in the mountain area of the Flumendosa basin there is a strong positive trend, i.e. an increase, of the number of wet days of the winter months only for the highest rain intensity (> 50 mm/d), in contrast with the other part of the basin and the lower rain intensities. Hence, the results highlight an increase of floods only for the mountain part of the basin during the winter months due to the increase of the frequency of the highest rain intensities; while at the whole basin scale the rainfall trend is negative for the winter months, so that runoff decreased in the most important period of the year for reservoir recharge.

Corona, Roberto; Montaldo, Nicola; Albertson, John D.

2014-05-01

80

Genetic structure and linkage disequilibrium in landrace populations of barley in Sardinia.  

PubMed

Multilocus digenic linkage disequilibria (LD) and their population structure were investigated in eleven landrace populations of barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare L.) in Sardinia, using 134 dominant simple-sequence amplified polymorphism markers. The analysis of molecular variance for these markers indicated that the populations were partially differentiated (F(ST) = 0.18), and clustered into three geographic areas. Consistent with this population pattern, STRUCTURE analysis allocated individuals from a bulk of all populations into four genetic groups, and these groups also showed geographic patterns. In agreement with other molecular studies in barley, the general level of LD was low (13% of locus pairs, with P < 0.01) in the bulk of 337 lines, and decayed steeply with map distance between markers. The partitioning of multilocus associations into various components indicated that genetic drift and founder effects played a major role in determining the overall genetic makeup of the diversity in these landrace populations, but that epistatic homogenising or diversifying selection was also present. Notably, the variance of the disequilibrium component was relatively high, which implies caution in the pooling of barley lines for association studies. Finally, we compared the analyses of multilocus structure in barley landrace populations with parallel analyses in both composite crosses of barley on the one hand and in natural populations of wild barley on the other. Neither of these serves as suitable mimics of landraces in barley, which require their own study. Overall, the results suggest that these populations can be exploited for LD mapping if population structure is controlled. PMID:22411093

Rodriguez, Monica; Rau, Domenico; O'Sullivan, Donal; Brown, Anthony H D; Papa, Roberto; Attene, Giovanna

2012-06-01

81

Population Based Study of 12 Autoimmune Diseases in Sardinia, Italy: Prevalence and Comorbidity  

PubMed Central

Background The limited availability of prevalence data based on a representative sample of the general population, and the limited number of diseases considered in studies about co-morbidity are the critical factors in study of autoimmune diseases. This paper describes the prevalence of 12 autoimmune diseases in a representative sample of the general population in the South of Sardinia, Italy, and tests the hypothesis of an overall association among these diseases. Methods Data were obtained from 21 GPs. The sample included 25,885 people. Prevalence data were expressed with 95% Poisson C.I. The hypothesis of an overall association between autoimmune diseases was tested by evaluating the co-occurrence within individuals. Results Prevalence per 100,000 are: 552 rheumatoid arthritis, 124 ulcerative colitis, 15 Crohn's disease, 464 type 1 diabetes, 81 systemic lupus erythematosus, 124 celiac disease, 35 myasthenia gravis, 939 psoriasis/psoriatic arthritis, 35 systemic sclerosis, 224 multiple sclerosis, 31 Sjogren's syndrome, and 2,619 autoimmune thyroiditis . An overall association between autoimmune disorders was highlighted. Conclusions The comparisons with prevalence reported in current literature do not show outlier values, except possibly for a few diseases like celiac disease and myasthenia gravis. People already affected by a first autoimmune disease have a higher probability of being affected by a second autoimmune disorder. In the present study, the sample size, together with the low overall prevalence of autoimmune diseases in the population, did not allow us to examine which diseases are most frequently associated with other autoimmune diseases. However, this paper makes available an adequate control population for future clinical studies aimed at exploring the co-morbidity of specific pairs of autoimmune diseases. PMID:22396771

Sardu, Claudia; Cocco, Eleonora; Mereu, Alessandra; Massa, Roberta; Cuccu, Alessandro; Marrosu, Maria Giovanna; Contu, Paolo

2012-01-01

82

a High Temperature Superconductor Microwave Filter Working in C-Band for the Sardinia Radio Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A planar band-pass filter based on High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) has been designed for possible implementation in the cryogenic front-end of the C-band receiver for the Sardinia Radio Telescope. The band-pass filter is designed to operate at relatively high frequencies: center frequency 6.7 GHz with 30% bandwidth. Seven nominally identical filters have been fabricated to test different carrier materials and connector types aimed to keep the fabrication of the HTS filter simpler and more cost competitive. In addition to the conventional approach, silver plating, copper carriers and SMA connectors have been used. Cryogenic scattering parameter measurements show a good agreement with numerical results: the average of the transmission losses turns out to be in the range 0.15-0.25 dB depending on the prototypes, whereas the reflection coefficient is below -16 dB. The insertion loss has been also measured by using a radiometric approach based on the cold attenuator method showing consistent results with those given by the Vector Network Analyzer. Multiple cool-down measurements have been performed successfully proving the data repeatability both in short- and medium-term. Concerning alternative technical solutions, the SMA connectors and silver plating appear to be valid options whereas the copper carriers are inclined to destroy the circuit. Finally, numerical simulations and experimental measurements on a traditional copper filter operating at 20 K show that the HTS filter improves the losses of about 0.2 dB with respect to the copper one.

Bolli, P.; Cresci, L.; Huang, F.; Mariotti, S.; Panella, D.

83

Prevalence of Anisakis spp. and Hysterothylacium spp. larvae in teleosts and cephalopods sampled from waters off Sardinia.  

PubMed

A study was carried out on the presence of Anisakis and Hysterothylacium larvae in fish and cephalopods caught in Sardinian waters. A total of 369 specimens of 24 different species of teleosts and 5 species of cephalopods were collected from different fishing areas of Sardinia. Larvae were detected and isolated by both visual inspection and enzymatic digestion. These methods allowed Anisakis type I and type II third-stage larvae and Hysterothylacium third- and fourth-stage larvae to be detected. The prevalence, mean intensity, and mean abundance were calculated. The results obtained showed the highest prevalence of Anisakidae in Zeus faber (100%) and of Anisakis in Micromesistius poutassou (87.5%). The highest prevalence of Anisakis type I larvae was in M. poutassou (81.2%), and that of Anisakis type II larvae was in Todarodes sagittatus (20%). The highest values for prevalence, mean intensity, and mean abundance for Hysterothylacium were found in Z. faber. These prevalences and the mean intensity and abundance were higher than those reported by different authors in other Mediterranean areas. This may be because the enzymatic digestive method used in this research resulted in higher recovery levels. The data suggest that Sardinia may be a high-risk area for zoonotic diseases and that measures such as information campaigns, aimed at both sanitary service personnel and consumers, should be employed to limit the spread of such zoonosis. PMID:22004829

Angelucci, Giulia; Meloni, Mauro; Merella, Paolo; Sardu, Francesco; Madeddu, Salvatore; Marrosu, Raffaele; Petza, Franco; Salati, Fulvio

2011-10-01

84

Hypogenic speleogenesis in quartzite: The case of Corona 'e Sa Craba Cave (SW Sardinia, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents a detailed study demonstrating the hypogenic origin of the Corona 'e Sa Craba quartzite cave in SW Sardinia (Italy). Although the quartzite host-rock of this cave derived from silicification of Cambrian dolostones and dissolution of carbonate remnants could have had a role in the speleogenesis, detailed morphologic and petrographic investigation revealed clear evidence of quartz dissolution without signs of mechanical erosion by running waters. Thin section microscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images show pervasive dissolution morphologies, such as pits and notches on quartz crystals causing the deep arenization of the cave walls, suggesting that the dissolution of quartz had a primary role in the formation of the void. The study of secondary cave minerals and the sulfur isotopic composition of sulfates and sulfides, coupled with data on fluid inclusions, allowed reconstruction of the peculiar speleogenetic history of this hypogenic hydrothermal quartzite cave. The cave formed by reduced hydrothermal fluids, probably under basic-neutral pH in phreatic conditions. The presence of abundant cations of Ba2 + in reduced Cl-rich fluids enhanced the quartz dissolution rate, allowing the formation of the voids in deep settings. During the Late Oligocene uplift of the area, the hydrothermal fluids in the cave reached oxygen-rich conditions, thus a minerogenetic phase started with the deposition of barite when the temperature of the fluid was ? 50 °C. The presence of cinnabar crusts in the lower part of the cave walls and on the boulders suggests a later volcanic phase with Hg-rich vapors ascending from below. Other minerals such as alunite, basaluminite, gypsum and halloysite (typical of an acid sulfate alteration environment), and phosphates were formed in a final, much more recent stage. The ?34S values of the cave sulfate minerals indicate that S is derived from the remobilization of original Precambrian Pb-Zn Mississippi Valley Type ores. These last two stages did not significantly affect the morphology of the cave. The Corona 'e Sa Craba appears to be the world's first example of a hypogenic cave in quartzite where the speleogenetic mechanisms have been studied and reconstructed in detail, using a variety of modern methods. This study confirms that dissolution of quartz by thermal alkaline fluids at depth can produce large dissolutional voids in the apparently poorly soluble quartzite rocks.

Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Onac, Bogdan P.; Galli, Ermanno; Dublyansky, Yuri; Baldoni, Eleonora; Sanna, Laura

2014-04-01

85

Fuel type characterization and potential fire behavior estimation in Sardinia and Corsica islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildland fires represent a serious threat to forests and wooded areas of the Mediterranean Basin. As recorded by the European Commission (2009), during the last decade Southern Countries have experienced an annual average of about 50,000 forest fires and about 470,000 burned hectares. The factor that can be directly manipulated in order to minimize fire intensity and reduce other fire impacts, such as three mortality, smoke emission, and soil erosion, is wildland fuel. Fuel characteristics, such as vegetation cover, type, humidity status, and biomass and necromass loading are critical variables in affecting wildland fire occurrence, contributing to the spread, intensity, and severity of fires. Therefore, the availability of accurate fuel data at different spatial and temporal scales is needed for fire management applications, including fire behavior and danger prediction, fire fighting, fire effects simulation, and ecosystem simulation modeling. In this context, the main aims of our work are to describe the vegetation parameters involved in combustion processes and develop fire behavior fuel maps. The overall work plan is based firstly on the identification and description of the different fuel types mainly affected by fire occurrence in Sardinia (Italy) and Corsica (France) Islands, and secondly on the clusterization of the selected fuel types in relation to their potential fire behavior. In the first part of the work, the available time series of fire event perimeters and the land use map data were analyzed with the purpose of identifying the main land use types affected by fires. Thus, field sampling sites were randomly identified on the selected vegetation types and several fuel variables were collected (live and dead fuel load partitioned following Deeming et al., (1977), depth of fuel layer, plant cover, surface area-to-volume ratio, heat content). In the second part of the work, the potential fire behavior for every experimental site was simulated using BEHAVE fire behavior prediction system (Andrews, 1989) and experimental fuel data. Fire behavior was simulated by setting different weather scenarios representing the most frequent summer meteorological conditions. The simulation outputs (fireline intensity, rate of spread, flame length) were then analyzed for clustering the different fuel types in relation to their potential fire behavior. The results of this analysis can be used to produce fire behavior fuel maps that are important tools in evaluating fire hazard and risk for land management planning, locating and rating fuel treatments, and aiding in environmental assessments and fire danger programs modeling. This work is supported by FUME Project FP7-ENV-2009-1, Grant Agreement Number 243888 and Proterina-C Project, EU Italia-Francia Marittimo 2007-2013 Programme.

Bacciu, V.; Pellizzaro, G.; Santoni, P.; Arca, B.; Ventura, A.; Salis, M.; Barboni, T.; Leroy, V.; Cancellieri, D.; Leoni, E.; Ferrat, L.; Perez, Y.; Duce, P.; Spano, D.

2012-04-01

86

Lithofacies characteristics of diatreme deposits: Examples from a basaltic volcanic field of SW Sardinia (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A deeply eroded diatreme field, consisting in several, decametric-sized, vertical, mainly clastic volcanic bodies of basaltic composition is described for the first time in the Variscan basement of SW Sardinia. The recognition and description of four different lithofacies in these diatremes allowed discussion of the role of the different processes which control magma eruption and conduit infilling, and making general inferences about diatremes. The studied diatremes have a cross-sectional shape from elliptical to sub-triangular, and are slightly elongated nearly parallel to the main foliation of the intruded meta-sedimentary rocks. Foliation of host rocks is locally reoriented or folded close to the contact with the diatremes, suggesting that magma possibly rose to the surface through fissures oriented nearly parallel to host rock foliation. Textural features of the volcanic bodies show many analogies with kimberlitic diatremes, despite the difference in petrography and composition. Juvenile lapilli are mainly made by ghosts of mafic phenocrysts (olivine and clinopyroxene) set in a groundmass formed by plagioclase microlites immersed in a cryptocrystalline, chlorite-rich matrix. The four lithofacies were described mainly based on the shape and physical features of the clasts and textural anisotropy: a globular, juvenile-rich, lapilli tuff facies (GJLt); an angular, juvenile-rich, lapilli tuff facies (AJLt); a lithic-rich, lapilli tuff facies LiRLt), and a coherent, lava-like facies (COH). All the clastic lithofacies are generally well sorted and typically lack a fine-grained matrix. Juvenile fragments are lapilli sized and from equant to oblate in axial ratio, and from rounded-globular to very angular in shape. Conversely, lithic clasts are largely variable in shape and size, and are mainly represented by basement-derived clasts. The absence of bedding, the scarcity of the coherent facies and the dominance of clast supported, structureless, volcaniclastic facies suggest that the outcropping portion of these volcanic bodies represents the lower diatreme zone. The presence of diffuse welding and the globular shapes of some juvenile fragments, together with their vesicularity, suggest that magma fragmentation was mainly driven by magmatic gas exsolution occurring at a deeper level respect to classical, basaltic explosive activity. Textural features, facies association and facies architecture of the studied deposits are suggestive of an important affinity with kimberlitic and other ultramafic diatremes.

Mundula, F.; Cioni, R.; Funedda, A.; Leone, F.

2013-04-01

87

Epidemiology of African swine fever virus.  

PubMed

African swine fever virus used to occur primarily in Africa. There had been occasional incursions into Europe or America which apart from the endemic situation on the island of Sardinia always had been successfully controlled. But following an introduction of the virus in 2007, it now has expanded its geographical distribution into Caucasus and Eastern Europe where it has not been controlled, to date. African swine fever affects domestic and wild pig species, and can involve tick vectors. The ability of the virus to survive within a particular ecosystem is defined by the ecology of its wild host populations and the characteristics of livestock production systems, which influence host and vector species densities and interrelationships. African swine fever has high morbidity in naïve pig populations and can result in very high mortality. There is no vaccine or treatment available. Apart from stamping out and movement control, there are no control measures, thereby potentially resulting in extreme losses for producers. Prevention and control of the infection requires good understanding of its epidemiology, so that targeted measures can be instigated. PMID:23123296

Costard, S; Mur, L; Lubroth, J; Sanchez-Vizcaino, J M; Pfeiffer, D U

2013-04-01

88

A statistical approach to rank multiple priorities in environmental epidemiology: an example from high-risk areas in Sardinia, Italy.  

PubMed

In environmental epidemiology, long lists of relative risk estimates from exposed populations are compared to a reference to scrutinize the dataset for extremes. Here, inference on disease profiles for given areas, or for fixed disease population signatures, are of interest and summaries can be obtained averaging over areas or diseases. We have developed a multivariate hierarchical Bayesian approach to estimate posterior rank distributions and we show how to produce league tables of ranks with credibility intervals useful to address the above mentioned inferential problems. Applying the procedure to a real dataset from the report "Environment and Health in Sardinia (Italy)" we selected 18 areas characterized by high environmental pressure for industrial, mining or military activities investigated for 29 causes of deaths among male residents. Ranking diseases highlighted the increased burdens of neoplastic (cancerous), and non-neoplastic respiratory diseases in the heavily polluted area of Portoscuso. The averaged ranks by disease over areas showed lung cancer among the three highest positions. PMID:19021111

Catelan, Dolores; Biggeri, Annibale

2008-11-01

89

Impact of network geometry, observation schemes and telescope structure deformations on local ties: simulations applied to Sardinia Radio Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 64-m Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) is currently under construction in Sardinia (Italy). To ensure future surveying and monitoring operations at an utmost level of accuracy, we aim at selecting the optimal design and the most cost-effective solution for the establishment of the local ground control network (LGCN). We simulate and test 45 data sets corresponding to 5 different network configurations. We investigate the influence of 2 LGCN geometries (14 or 8 ground markers) and 3 terrestrial observation schemes (based on redundant forward intersections or side shots) on the precision and accuracy of the conventional reference point (CRP) of SRT and the simulated tie vector with a global navigation satellite system (GNSS) station. In addition, thermal and gravitational deformations of the radio telescope structure are simulated as systematic errors introduced into the observations and their effects on the CRP estimates are quantified. The state-of-the-art of CRP surveying and computation, based on terrestrial indirect methods, is applied. We show how terrestrial indirect methods can estimate the position of the radio telescope CRP to the millimeter precision level. With our simulations, we prove that limiting the LGCN to a 8-point configuration ensures the same precision on the CRP obtained with a 14-point network. Furthermore, we demonstrate that in the absence of telescope deformations, side shots, despite the lower redundancy, preserve a precision similar to that of redundant forward intersections. We show that the deformations due to gravitational flexure and thermal expansion of the radio telescope cannot be neglected in the tie vector computation, since they may bias the CRP estimate by several millimeters degrading its accuracy but not impacting on its formal precision. We highlight the dependency of the correlation matrices of the solutions on the geometry of the network and the observation schemes. Similarly, varying the extent of telescope deformations, we show that the CRP estimate again depends on the combination of the network geometry and the observation schemes.

Abbondanza, Claudio; Sarti, Pierguido

2012-03-01

90

Architecture and construction mechanisms of an incrementally built, vertically layered pluton (Punta Falcone, Sardinia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The granite-hosted mid-crustal mafic pluton of Punta Falcone, northern Sardinia, had been interpreted in the past as a one-shot magma chamber with in-situ differentiation. The (sub-) vertical fine-scale (~3cm) rhythmic magmatic layering prominent in the central part of the intrusion was attributed to the rotation of a initially horizontal layering formed by mineral segregation and accumulation due to gravity forces. Field investigations allowed us to identify a dozen of different gabbro cooling units with contrasting structures and grain-sizes. The intrusion is built symmetrically, with the external parts being emplaced first. Opx and/or cpx as well as ol (one unit) are found only in the central units, where they occur together with plg, amph and minor qtz and bt. An overall enrichment in CaO, Al2O3 and Mg-# coupled with a depletion in FeO and TiO2 is observable towards the central part of the intrusion. Part of this zonation is explained by the accumulation of plagioclase (up to 75 normative %) in the central part. The depletion in Fe and TiO2 could be linked to fractionation of Fe-Ti oxides (mag & ilm), in relation with higher fO2 values, which would also explain the presence of opx in these central units. Concerning the rhythmic magmatic layering, several parameters have been identified: - Layering occurs in a ~50m thick unit in the central part; it is thus located in a thermally preheated environment. - Layering is roughly parallel to most of the contacts between the different units and to the long axis of the elliptical intrusion, indicating a structural and/or a thermal control. - Intensity of layering decreases from the contact with the neighbouring unit inwards. - White bands consist of high-An plg rimmed by lower-An borders and minor interstitial qtz; dark bands consist of high-An plg without rims enclosed in big poikilitic amphiboles or pyroxenes. - Crystallization of up to 5mm big, poikilitic amphiboles with a patchy chemical zoning, occurs at the moment of development of layering in a water-saturated system. Crystallinity is expected to increase dramatically from ~40 to 70 vol-% over a small interval of temperature at this stage of evolution of the magma. - No preferred mineral orientation is visible in the white or dark layers. - AMS measurements yield oblate ellipsoids oriented parallel to the layering; this signature could reflect the concentration of magnetite in the dark layers. Given these parameters, we are currently considering a slowly migrating crystallization front acting together with element diffusion: amph crystallizes at the borders of the intruding unit, triggering the migration of amph-forming elements. This would lead to the development of a "depleted" white band once reached by the crystallization front. This process would be repeated sequentially until the thermal gradient gets too diffuse.

Hauser, Anne-Cécile; Bussy, François

2014-05-01

91

Morphology and origin of coastal karst landforms in Miocene and Quaternary carbonate rocks along the central-western coast of Sardinia (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the area of Punta Funtanas (Arbus, Central-West Sardinia) some small surfaces of Miocene limestones crop out, partially covered with Quaternary calcarenites and Plio-Quaternary basalts. The biggest of these outcrops forms a fossil wave-cut shore platform of up to 50 m wide with an altitude above sea level of approximately 4–5 m. On this platform a wide variety of dissolution landforms can

Jo De Waele; Mauro Mucedda; Luca Montanaro

2009-01-01

92

Molecular evidence for the occurrence of Contracaecum rudolphii A (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in shag Phalacrocorax aristotelis (Linnaeus) (Aves: Phalacrocoracidae) from Sardinia (western Mediterranean Sea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specimens of Contracaecum rudolphii Hartwich, 1964 (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from Phalacrocorax aristotelis (Linnaeus) from the Archipelago of La Maddalena (Sardinia, western Mediterranean Sea) were characterised genetically and compared with C. rudolphii A sensu D’Amelio et al. 1990 and C. rudolphii B sensu D’Amelio et al. 1990 from Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis (Blumenbach) from north-eastern Italy, and with C. rudolphii C sensu D’Amelio

Sarra Farjallah; Paolo Merella; Sofia Ingrosso; Andrea Rotta; Badreddine Ben Slimane; Giovanni Garippa; Khaled Said; Marina Busi

2008-01-01

93

Striking differentiation of sub-populations within a genetically homogeneous isolate (Ogliastra) in Sardinia as revealed by mtDNA analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the reduced genetic diversity found in isolates should simplify the study of complex traits, analyses of patterns of homogeneity within populations are of particular interest. We analysed the mtDNA haplogroups and hypervariable segment I (HVS-I) sequences of 475 individuals from a geographically restricted and isolated area (Ogliastra) within Sardinia, comprehending 175 random samples from 20 out of 23 villages. The

Cristina Fraumene; Enrico Petretto; Andrea Angius; Mario Pirastu

2003-01-01

94

Sea-level change during the Holocene in Sardinia and in the northeastern Adriatic (central Mediterranean Sea) from archaeological and geomorphological data  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide new data on relative sea-level change from the late Holocene for two locations in the central Mediterranean: Sardinia and NE Adriatico. They are based on precise measures of submerged archaeological and tide notch markers that are good indicators of past sea-level elevation. Twelve submerged archaeological sites were studied: six, aged between 2.5 and 1.6 ka BP, located along

F. Antoniolia; M. Anzideib; R. Auriemmad Lambeckc; D. Gaddie; E. Solinash Orrug; A. Gasparii; S. Karinjaj; V. Kovacick; L. Suracel

95

Predicting the spatio-temporal distribution of Culicoides imicola in Sardinia using a discrete-time population model  

PubMed Central

Background Culicoides imicola KIEFFER, 1913 (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is the principal vector of Bluetongue disease in the Mediterranean basin, Africa and Asia. Previous studies have identified a range of eco-climatic variables associated with the distribution of C. imicola, and these relationships have been used to predict the large-scale distribution of the vector. However, these studies are not temporally-explicit and can not be used to predict the seasonality in C. imicola abundances. Between 2001 and 2006, longitudinal entomological surveillance was carried out throughout Italy, and provided a comprehensive spatio-temporal dataset of C. imicola catches in Onderstepoort-type black-light traps, in particular in Sardinia where the species is considered endemic. Methods We built a dynamic model that allows describing the effect of eco-climatic indicators on the monthly abundances of C. imicola in Sardinia. Model precision and accuracy were evaluated according to the influence of process and observation errors. Results A first-order autoregressive cofactor, a digital elevation model and MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST)/or temperatures acquired from weather stations explained ~77% of the variability encountered in the samplings carried out in 9 sites during 6?years. Incorporating Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) or rainfall did not increase the model's predictive capacity. On average, dynamics simulations showed good accuracy (predicted vs. observed r corr?=?0.9). Although the model did not always reproduce the absolute levels of monthly abundances peaks, it succeeded in reproducing the seasonality in population level and allowed identifying the periods of low abundances and with no apparent activity. On that basis, we mapped C. imicola monthly distribution over the entire Sardinian region. Conclusions This study demonstrated prospects for modelling data arising from Culicoides longitudinal entomological surveillance. The framework explicitly incorporates the influence of eco-climatic factors on population growth rates and accounts for observation and process errors. Upon validation, such a model could be used to predict monthly population abundances on the basis of environmental conditions, and hence can potentially reduce the amount of entomological surveillance. PMID:23174043

2012-01-01

96

Soil Water Balance and Vegetation Dynamics in two Contrasting Water-limited Mediterranean Ecosystems on Sardinia, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water limited conditions strongly impacts soil and vegetation dynamics in Mediterranean regions, which are commonly heterogeneous ecosystems, characterized by inter-annual rainfall variability, topography variability and contrasting plant functional types (PFTs) competing for water use. Mediterranean regions are characterized by two main ecosystems, grassland and woodland, which for both natural and anthropogenic causes can grow in soils with different characteristics, highly impacting water resources. Water resources and forestal planning need a deep understanding of the dynamics between PFTs, soil and atmosphere and their impacts on water and CO2 distributions of these two main ecosystems. The first step is the monitoring of land surface fluxes, soil moisture, and vegetation dynamics of the two contrasting ecosystems. Moreover, due to the large percentage of soils with low depth (< 50 cm), and due to the quick hydrologic answer to atmospheric forcing in these soils, there is also the need to understand the impact of the soil depth in the vegetation dynamics, and make measurements in these types of soils. Sardinia island is a very interesting and representative region of Mediterranean ecosystems. It is low urbanized, and is not irrigated, except some plan areas close to the main cities where main agricultural activities are concentrated. The case study sites are within the Flumendosa river basin on Sardinia. Two sites, both in the Flumendosa river and with similar height a.s.l., are investigated. The distance between the sites is around 4 km but the first is a typically grass site located on an alluvial plan valley with a soil depth more than 2m, while the second site is a patchy mixture of Mediterranean vegetation types Oaks, creepers of the wild olive trees and C3 herbaceous species and the soil thickness varies from 15-40 cm, bounded from below by a rocky layer of basalt, partially fractured. In both sites land-surface fluxes and CO2 fluxes are estimated by eddy correlation technique based micrometeorological towers. Soil moisture profiles were also continuously estimated using water content reflectometers and gravimetric method, and periodically leaf area index PFTs are estimated during the Spring-Summer 2005. The following objectives are addressed:1) pointing out the dynamics of land surface fluxes, soil moisture, CO2 and vegetation cover for two contrasting water-limited ecosystems; 2) assess the impact of the soil depth and type on the CO2 and water balance dynamics. For reaching the objectives an ecohydrologic model is also successfully used and applied to the case studies. It couples a vegetation dynamic model, which computes the change in biomass over time for the PFTs, and a 3-component (bare soil, grass and woody vegetation) land surface model.

Montaldo, N.; Albertson, J. D.; Corona, R.

2011-12-01

97

Uptake of heavy metals by native species growing in a mining area in Sardinia, Italy: discovering native flora for phytoremediation.  

PubMed

This study assessed the distribution and availability of plant uptake of Zn, Pb, and Cd present in an abandoned mine at Ingurtosu, Sardinia (Italy). Geological matrix samples (sediments, tailings, and soil from a nearby pasture site) and samples of the predominant plant species growing on sediments and tailings were collected. Mean values of total Zn, Pb and Cd were respectively (mg kg(-1)) 7400, 1800, and 56 in tailings, 31000, 2900, and 100 in sediments, and 400, 200, and 8 in the pasture soil. The metal concentration values were high even in the mobile fractions evaluated by simplified sequential extraction (Zn 7485-103, Pb 1015-101, Cd 47-4 mg kg(-1)). Predominant native species were identified and analyzed for heavy metal content in various tissues. Among the plant species investigated Inula viscosa, Euphorbia dendroides, and Poa annua showed the highest metal concentration in aboveground biomass (mean average of Zn: 1680, 1020, 1400; Pb: 420, 240, 80; Cd: 28, 7, 19 mg kg(-1), respectively). The above mentioned species and A. donax could be good candidates for a phytoextraction procedure. Cistus salvifolius and Helichrysum italicus generally showed behavior more suitable for a phytostabilizer. PMID:21972566

Barbafieri, M; Dadea, C; Tassi, E; Bretzel, F; Fanfani, L

2011-01-01

98

Quantifying biomineralization of zinc in the Rio Naracauli (Sardinia, Italy), using a tracer injection and synoptic sampling  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Streams draining mined areas throughout the world commonly have high concentrations of Zn. Because Zn is not easily removed from stream water and because it can be toxic to aquatic organisms, its presence is a persistent problem. The discovery of biomineralization of Zn-bearing solids in the mine drainage of Rio Naracauli, in Sardinia, Italy, provides insights into strategies for removing Zn and improving water quality in streams affected by mine drainage. Until now, the transport and attenuation of Zn has not been quantified in this stream setting. A continuous tracer injection experiment was conducted to quantify the biomineralization process and to identify the loading of constituents that causes a change from precipitation of hydrozincite [Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6] in the upstream reach to precipitation of a Zn-silicate phase downstream. Based on the mass-load calculations derived from the tracer experiment, about 1.2 kg/day of Zn is sequestered in hydrozincite. This biomineralization represents nearly 90% removal of Zn. Other elements such as Pb and Cd also are sequestered, either in the hydrozincite, or in a separate phase that forms simultaneously. In the lower 600 m of the stream, where the Zn-silicate forms, as much as 0.7 kg/day Zn are sequestered in this solid, but additions of Zn to the stream from groundwater discharge lead to an overall increase in load in that portion of the Rio Naracauli.

De Giudici, Giovanni; Wanty, Richard B.; Podda, F.; Kimball, Briant A.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Lattanzi, P.; Cidu, R.; Medas, D.

2014-01-01

99

Prospecting for clay minerals within volcanic successions: Application of electrical resistivity tomography to characterise bentonite deposits in northern Sardinia (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is applied to prospect for and characterise a bentonitic clay deposit in northern Sardinia. Sardinian bentonites derived from the hydrothermal alteration of thick successions of pyroclastic flows and epiclastites are associated with the Oligo-Miocene calc-alkaline volcanic cycle. The alteration of these rocks is generally controlled by faults that control the local circulation of hydrothermal fluids. Two-dimensional ERT investigations were performed close to a faulted area to define the location, thickness and lateral continuity of the clayey body, and determine how it relates to faulting and stratigraphy. A line-based three-dimensional ERT data acquisition was carried out in a selected area to estimate the available clay reserves. The reliability of these resistivity models was assessed by comparison with local borehole data. Finally, the interpretation of the ERT results was optimised through synthetic modelling of the electrical resistivity imaging technique. The results define the extent and geometry of the bentonitic deposit with good accuracy and outline the scenarios where the ERT method may provide optimal results when prospecting for clay deposits.

Longo, V.; Testone, V.; Oggiano, G.; Testa, A.

2014-12-01

100

Archaeo-metallurgical studies of tuyeres and smelting slags found at Tharros (north-western Sardinia, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large number of pyrometallurgical materials such as tuyeres, slags and refractory tools likely associated with metal extraction processes have been found at Tharros (north-western Sardinia, Italy) during archaeological excavations stratigraphically related to the Phoenician-Punic period (VI-III centuries BC). Micro-chemical, micro-structural and mineralogical studies have been carried out by means of the combined use of X-ray diffraction (XRD), selected-area X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) in order to identify pyrometallurgical processes and main relevant technological parameters. The results reveal that tuyeres, slags and refractory tools can be associated with an iron ore smelting process to extract the metal by slagging the unwanted by-products. Moreover, temperature and duration of the smelting process have been estimated through mineralogical studies and by a comparative analysis between the micro-chemical and structural features of thermally treated refractory materials and tuyeres. The results disclose the high level of technological competence of the ancient metallurgists able to carry out complex high-temperature processes to extract iron from ores by separating the metal from unwanted siliceous species.

de Caro, T.; Riccucci, C.; Parisi, E. I.; Renzulli, A.; Del Moro, S.; Santi, P.; Faraldi, F.

2013-12-01

101

Ancient silver extraction in the Montevecchio mine basin (Sardinia, Italy): micro-chemical study of pyrometallurgical materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different pyrometallurgical materials such as slags, refractory materials and thermally treated lead ores likely related to smelting and extractive processes and chronologically related to Punic and Roman periods (IV-III BC) have been found at Bocche di Sciria and Conca e Mosu in the Montevecchio mine basin (south western Sardinia, Italy), where archaeological findings and classical authors locate extractive metallurgy activities since pre-Roman times. By means of the combined use of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), selected-area X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and optical microscopy (OM), micro-chemical and micro-structural investigations have been carried out in order to identify the nature of the pyrometallurgical materials, to decipher the processes carried out there and their technological steps and to determine the technological level of competence reached by the ancient metallurgists. The results confirm that the findings can be associated with smelting and extractive processes carried out close to the metal ore deposits first for the argentiferous lead production and, then, for the silver recovery via a cupellation process. Finally, the results disclose the high level of technological competence of the ancient metallurgists able to carry out complex high-temperature processes to treat the argentiferous lead ores and to recover low amounts of silver via high-temperature lead-selective oxidation.

De Caro, Tilde; Riccucci, Cristina; Parisi, Erica I.; Faraldi, Federica; Caschera, D.

2013-12-01

102

Persistence of bone collagen cross-links in skeletons of the Nuraghi population living in Sardinia 1500-1200 B.C  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bone collagen has a specific molecular ultrastructure which can be proved by birefringence. This protein, forming the main organic component of bone tissue, is known to survive millennia in paleontological bones and teeth. Birefringence of bone collagen obtained from the skeletons of the Nuraghi population living in Sardinia c-ca 1500 years B.C. was found previously by the use of polarizing microscopy [1]. In this paper, using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques, we show the existence of bone collagen cross-links preserved in Nuraghi skeletons after more than 3000 years.

Wojtowicz, A.; Yamauchi, M.; Montella, A.; Bandiera, P.; Sotowski, R.; Ostrowski, K.

1999-01-01

103

ECHO virus  

MedlinePLUS

Enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses that lead to gastrointestinal infection and skin rashes. ... Echovirus is one of several families of viruses that affect the ... are common. In the US, they are most common in the summer and ...

104

Epidemiology, chronobiology and taxonomic updates of Rhinoestrus spp. infestation in horses of Sardinia Isle, Western Mediterranean (Italy).  

PubMed

From January to December 2008, 265 horses slaughtered in Sardinia (Italy) were examined for the presence of Rhinoestrus spp. (Diptera: Oestridae) through the examination of the nasal cavities and pharynges. Larvae were detected in 49% of the horses, with a mean intensity of infestation of 16.09 and abundance of 7.95. A total of 2108 larvae were collected, 66% of which were classified in first instar (L1), 22% in second instar (L2) and 12% in third instar (L3). The most frequent localization of larvae was the ethmoid, while the less one the larynx. According to the dynamics of Rhinoestrus larval stages, three periods in the chronobiology can be considered, the diapause (September-February) characterized by an absolute prevalence of first larval stage; the active phase of the endogenous phase (February-September) with an increase in the percentages of L2 and L3, and the exit phase (May-September), pointed by a further increase of L1. Morphological examination of L3 larvae revealed the presence of the Rhinoestrus purpureus features in 8% of the examined larvae, of 8% of the Rhinoestrus usbekistanicus features, while in 84% of the larvae were evidenced intermediate features. Contrastingly biomolecular analysis of the COI gene of the larvae evidenced uniformity at genetic level, confirming the presence of a unique species in the Mediterranean area. The results of the present paper, reveal the wide diffusion of rhinoestrosis among Sardinian horses, and suggest the need for applying appropriate control measures. Chemotherapy should be very useful if administered during the diapause period, for reducing the presence of L1 stages and interrupting thus the life cycle of this myiasis. PMID:23182302

Mula, P; Pilo, C; Solinas, C; Pipia, A P; Varcasia, A; Francisco, I; Arias, M S; Paz Silva, A; Sánchez-Andrade, R; Morrondo, P; Díez-Baños, P; Scala, A

2013-02-18

105

Magnetic petrology of variably retrogressed eclogites and amphibolites: A case study from the Hercynian basement of northern Sardinia (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study constitutes the first attempt to integrate rock magnetism and metamorphic petrology in the Hercynian basement of northern Sardinia. The investigation focused on the magnetic petrology of variably retrogressed eclogites and amphibolites from two suites of basic meta-igneous rocks, which occur along a major tectonic line (Posada-Asinara Line), within a medium-grade (MG) and a high-grade (HG) metamorphic complex. Consistent with petromagnetic results, HG metabasites contain variable amounts of monoclinic pyrrhotite (intergrown with rutile) and titanomagnetite (occurring as inclusions in garnet), abundant ilmenite (associated to secondary hornblende and with sphene ± low-Ti-magnetite rims), and rutile both as inclusions in ilmenite and as discrete grains. In MG metabasites, pyrrhotite is restricted to amphibolites of the Posada Valley area where it occurs as rare inclusions in garnet. All samples are characterized by variable amounts of ilmenite, rutile, and sphene which show the same microstructural features described in HG rocks. Microstructural evidence and geothermobarometric data indicate that (1) pyrrhotite and titanomagnetite likely formed prior to and remained stable during the eclogite facies metamorphic peak and (2) the growth of ilmenite and sphene can be attributed to the amphibolite facies retrogression, mainly due to model reactions such as garnet + omphacite + rutile + H2O ? hornblende + plagioclase + ilmenite and amphibole + ilmenite + O2 ? sphene + magnetite + quartz + H2O. The results from our combined petrological and petromagnetic study corroborate the hypothesis that significant volumes of mafic/ultramafic rocks, similar to some of the investigated outcrops, may account for the magnetic anomalies flanking the northeastern part of the Posada-Asinara Line.

Strada, Eleonora; Talarico, Franco Maria; Florindo, Fabio

2006-12-01

106

Quantification of hydrologic impacts of climate change in a Mediterranean basin in Sardinia, Italy, through high-resolution simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future climate projections robustly indicate that the Mediterranean region will experience a significant decrease of mean annual precipitation and an increase in temperature. These changes are expected to seriously affect the hydrologic regime, with a limitation of water availability and an intensification of hydrologic extremes, and to negatively impact local economies. In this study, we quantify the hydrologic impacts of climate change in the Rio Mannu basin (RMB), an agricultural watershed of 472.5 km2 in Sardinia, Italy. To simulate the wide range of runoff generation mechanisms typical of Mediterranean basins, we adopted a physically-based, distributed hydrologic model. The high-resolution forcings in reference and future conditions (30-year records for each period) were provided by four combinations of global and regional climate models, bias-corrected and downscaled in space and time (from ~25 km, 24 h to 5 km, 1 h) through statistical tools. The analysis of the hydrologic model outputs indicates that the RMB is expected to be severely impacted by future climate change. The range of simulations consistently predict: (i) a significant diminution of mean annual runoff at the basin outlet, mainly due to a decreasing contribution of the runoff generation mechanisms depending on water available in the soil; (ii) modest variations in mean annual runoff and intensification of mean annual discharge maxima in flatter sub-basins with clay and loamy soils, likely due to a higher occurrence of infiltration excess runoff; (iii) reduction of soil water content and real evapotranspiration in most areas of the basin; and (iv) a drop in the groundwater table. Results of this study are useful to support the adoption of adaptive strategies for management and planning of agricultural activities and water resources in the region.

Piras, M.; Mascaro, G.; Deidda, R.; Vivoni, E. R.

2014-07-01

107

Integrated stratigraphic reconstruction for the last 80 kyr in a deep sector of the Sardinia Channel (Western Mediterranean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A quantitative analysis of planktonic foraminifera, coupled with petrophysical and paleomagnetic measurements and 14C-AMS calibrations, was carried out on a deep core recovered in the Sardinia Channel (Western Mediterranean Sea), during the CIESM Sub2 survey, providing an integrated stratigraphic time-framework over the last 80 kyr. Significant changes in the quantitative distribution of planktonic foraminifera allowed the identification of several eco-bioevents useful to accurately mark the boundaries of the eco-biozones widely recognized in the Western Mediterranean records and used for large-scale correlations. Namely, 10 eco-biozones were identified based on the relative abundance of selected climate-sensitive planktonic foraminiferal species. Sixteen codified eco-bioevents were correlated with Alboran Sea planktonic foraminiferal data and several climatic global events (Sapropel S1, Younger Dryas, Greenland Isotope Interstadial 1, Greenland Isotope Stadial 2, Heinrich event H1-H6) were recognized. The eco-bioevents together with the 14C-AMS calibrations allowed us to define an accurate age model, spanning between 2 and 83 kyr. The reliability of the age model was confirmed by comparing the colour reflectance (550 nm%) data of the studied record with the astronomically tuned record from the Ionian Sea (ODP-Site 964). A mean sedimentation rate of about 7 cm/kyr included three turbidite event beds that were chronologically constrained within the relative low stand and regressive sea-level phases of MIS 4 and 3. The deep-sea sedimentary record includes a distinct tephra occurring at the base of the core that dates 78 ka cal. BP. The paleomagnetic data provide a well-defined record of the characteristic remanent magnetization that may be used to reconstruct the geomagnetic paleosecular variation for the Mediterranean back to 83 kyr.

Budillon, F.; Lirer, F.; Iorio, M.; Macrì, P.; Sagnotti, L.; Vallefuoco, M.; Ferraro, L.; Garziglia, S.; Innangi, S.; Sahabi, M.; Tonielli, R.

2009-05-01

108

The effect of hydrodynamics on shell orientation and population density of Pinna nobilis in the Gulf of Oristano (Sardinia, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pinna nobilis is the largest endemic bivalve of the Mediterranean Sea, declared protected since 1992. Although hydrodynamic stress induced by waves is known to influence density, size and orientation of P. nobilis, the effect of other hydrological features is unknown. This paper considers a P. nobilis population living within a Posidonia oceanica meadow in the Gulf of Oristano (Sardinia, Italy). We hypothesize that spatial differences in density and orientation of P. nobilis may be related to significant wave height (HS), wave direction (DW), bottom current direction (DBC) and bottom current speed (SBC). A population of P. nobilis was investigated at different sites and its distribution was correlated to hydrodynamics by means of a numerical modeling approach. The spatial distribution was patchy, with a density of 0.06-6.7 ind. 100 m- 2. A non-uniform distribution of shell orientations (OS) was demonstrated in 4 sites out of 6. DBC and SBC were the main factors affecting OS, while waves had little influence. A SBC of 0.07 m s- 1 appears to be the threshold for inducing specimen directionality with shells aligned to the current and the ventral side exposed to the flow. This suggests that feeding strategy is a key factor in determining OS, in addition to drag minimization. We also highlighted the role of adjacent lagoons in supporting high densities as a result of high food availability. These findings demonstrate the usefulness of modeling techniques in explaining the spatial distribution pattern of P. nobilis and in contributing to our knowledge of its ecological traits.

Coppa, Stefania; de Lucia, Giuseppe Andrea; Magni, Paolo; Domenici, Paolo; Antognarelli, Fabio; Satta, Andrea; Cucco, Andrea

2013-02-01

109

Virus World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the Institute for Molecular Virology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, this Web site offers high quality virus images that may be used for seminar presentations or any other noncommercial use. Users can choose from American Society for Virology conference poster images, enhanced EM pictures, and images of virology-related book and journal covers. Images may be searched by virus name; the results page will provide links to summary information from the Protein Data Bank and to the Scripps Research Institute's Virus Particle Explorer. Movie animations and relevant links are provided for some of the virus images. Users can also access tutorials on virus structure and other topics.

2002-01-01

110

CHLORELLA VIRUSES  

PubMed Central

Chlorella viruses or chloroviruses are large, icosahedral, plaque?forming, double?stranded?DNA—containing viruses that replicate in certain strains of the unicellular green alga Chlorella. DNA sequence analysis of the 330?kbp genome of Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV?1), the prototype of this virus family (Phycodnaviridae), predict ?366 protein?encoding genes and 11 tRNA genes. The predicted gene products of ?50% of these genes resemble proteins of known function, including many that are completely unexpected for a virus. In addition, the chlorella viruses have several features and encode many gene products that distinguish them from most viruses. These products include: (1) multiple DNA methyltransferases and DNA site?specific endonucleases, (2) the enzymes required to glycosylate their proteins and synthesize polysaccharides such as hyaluronan and chitin, (3) a virus?encoded K+ channel (called Kcv) located in the internal membrane of the virions, (4) a SET domain containing protein (referred to as vSET) that dimethylates Lys27 in histone 3, and (5) PBCV?1 has three types of introns; a self?splicing intron, a spliceosomal processed intron, and a small tRNA intron. Accumulating evidence indicates that the chlorella viruses have a very long evolutionary history. This review mainly deals with research on the virion structure, genome rearrangements, gene expression, cell wall degradation, polysaccharide synthesis, and evolution of PBCV?1 as well as other related viruses. PMID:16877063

Yamada, Takashi; Onimatsu, Hideki; Van Etten, James L.

2007-01-01

111

Rheomorphic structures in a high-grade ignimbrite: the Nuraxi tuff, Sulcis volcanic district (SW Sardinia, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deposits of the 15.8 Ma Nuraxi explosive eruption crop out in the Sulcis volcanic district, southwestern Sardinia. They consist of a decimeter-thick pumice fallout layer overlain, with no apparent temporal break, by several tens of meters thick, high-grade ignimbrite. The eruption was from a vent probably located ˜20-30 km north of S. Pietro island, and it tapped a compositionally uniform, rhyolite magma reservoir (SiO 2 70-72 wt.%) bearing about 20 vol.% crystals. The ignimbrite consists of: (a) a Lower Ignimbrite (LI), <2-m-thick, fine-grained and glassy grading upward into a partly devitrified lapilli-tuff, and (b) an Upper Ignimbrite (UI) that is an intensely welded to lava-like lapilli-tuff. The deposit has an inferred maximum runout of about 80 km and overall dispersal/thickness characteristic of a low aspect-ratio ignimbrite. Over most of its outcrop the tuff rests on a flat, horizontal paleosurface and forms an ignimbrite plateau with uniform thickness and structural characteristics. However, in some areas it shows extensive folding and over-thickening as a result of rheomorphic flow into topographic depressions. Structural analysis of the ignimbrite reveals the presence of a pervasive foliation and lineation as well as macroscopic and microscopic flow structures. Occurrence of abundant, widely distributed stretched cavities in the tuff indicates that a substantial amount of gas was trapped in the tuff during aggradation. The observed pattern of structures of the ignimbrite plateau accords well with a conceptual model in which syn-depositional structures are formed during non-particulate, basal laminar flow due to agglutination of juvenile particles within the lower part of the pyroclastic density current. The flow was controlled by the substantial transfer of momentum from the high-speed, particulate upper part of the current to the top of the non-particulate part of the current and the onset of a complex relationship between welding, flow and sedimentation processes. It is proposed in particular that elongated gas pockets played a major role in guiding the laminar shear within the non-particulate part of the current in flat, horizontal areas, eventually promoting brittle failure of the deforming tuff mass along shear planes.

Pioli, Laura; Rosi, Mauro

2005-04-01

112

Obesity Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Obesity has many causes, but there is growing evidence that common viruses may contribute to the condition in some people. Recently, Nikhil Dhurandhar and his colleagues at the Pennington Biomedical Research Center infected human stem cells with Ad-36, a common virus known to be associated with obesity in humans. They found that the cells they exposed to the virus accumulated a much higher amount of fat than uninfected cells.

Science Update (AAAS;)

2007-06-12

113

Ebola virus.  

PubMed

Ebola virus was first identified as a filovirus in 1976, following epidemics of severe haemorrhagic fever in sub-Saharan Africa. Further outbreaks have occurred since, but, despite extensive and continued investigations, the natural reservoir for the virus remains unknown. The mortality rate is high and there is no cure for Ebola virus infection. Molecular technology is proving useful in extending our knowledge of the virus. Identification of the host reservoir, control and prevention of further outbreaks, rapid diagnosis of infection, and vaccine development remain areas of continued interest in the fight against this biosafety level-four pathogen. PMID:10795373

Streether, L A

1999-01-01

114

Bioerosion by microbial euendoliths in benthic foraminifera from heavy metal-polluted coastal environments of Portovesme (south-western Sardinia, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A monitoring survey of the coastal area facing the industrial area of Portoscuso-Portovesme (south-western Sardinia, Italy) revealed intense bioerosional processes. Benthic foraminifera collected at the same depth (about 2 m) but at different distances from the pollution source show extensive microbial infestation, anomalous Mg/Ca molar ratios and high levels of heavy metals in the shell associated with a decrease in foraminifera richness, population density and biodiversity with the presence of morphologically abnormal specimens. We found that carbonate dissolution induced by euendoliths is selective, depending on the Mg content and morpho-structural types of foraminiferal taxa. This study provides evidences for a connection between heavy metal dispersion, decrease in pH of the sea-water and bioerosional processes on foraminifera.

Cherchi, A.; Buosi, C.; Zuddas, P.; De Giudici, G.

2012-11-01

115

Bioerosion by microbial euendoliths in benthic foraminifera from heavy metal-polluted coastal environments of Portovesme (South-Western Sardinia, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A monitoring survey of the coastal area facing the industrial area of Portoscuso-Portovesme (South-Western Sardinia, Italy) revealed intense bioerosional processes. Benthic foraminifera collected at the same depth (about 2 m) but at different distances from the pollution source show extensive microbial infestation, anomalous Mg/Ca molar ratios and high levels of heavy metals in the shell associated with a decrease in foraminifera richness, population density and biodiversity with the presence of morphologically abnormal specimens. We found that carbonate dissolution induced by euendoliths is selective, depending on the Mg content and morpho-structural types of foraminiferal taxa. This study provides evidences for a connection between heavy metal dispersion, decrease in pH of the sea-water and bioerosional processes on foraminifera.

Cherchi, A.; Buosi, C.; Zuddas, P.; De Giudici, G.

2012-08-01

116

C-QUALITY: cost and quality-of-life pharmacoeconomic analysis of antidepressants used in major depressive disorder in the regional Italian settings of Veneto and Sardinia  

PubMed Central

Background Major depression is a commonly occurring, seriously impairing, and often recurrent mental disorder. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are the treatments most commonly used for major depressive disorder. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of SSRIs and SNRIs in the treatment of major depressive disorder in two Italian regional settings, ie, Veneto and Sardinia. Methods A decision analytic model was adapted from the Swedish Dental and Pharmaceutical Benefits Agency to reflect current clinical practice in the treatment of major depressive disorder in the most significant Italian regions. This adaptation was possible as a result of collaboration with an expert panel of Italian psychiatrists and health economists. The population comprised patients with a first diagnosis of major depressive disorder and initiating one SSRI or SNRI drug for the first time. The time frame used was 12 months. Efficacy and utility data for the model were retrieved from the literature and validated by the expert panel. Local data were used for resource utilization and for treatment costs based on the perspective of each regional health service. Scenario analyses and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to test the robustness of the model. Results Base case analysis showed that escitalopram is associated with the largest health gain (in quality-adjusted life years) and a lower total cost at one year for Sardinia (except for sertraline, against which it was cost-effective) and for Veneto, and therefore dominates the other treatment strategies, given that more quality-adjusted life years are achieved at a lower total cost. Scenario analyses and probabilistic sensitivity analyses support the robustness of the model. Conclusion The results indicate that escitalopram is the most cost-effective pharmacologic treatment strategy for both regional health services compared with all SSRIs and all SNRIs used in the first-line treatment of major depressive disorder. PMID:24348057

Mencacci, Claudio; Aguglia, Eugenio; Biggio, Giovanni; Cappellari, Lodovico; Di Sciascio, Guido; Fagiolini, Andrea; Maina, Giuseppe; Tortorella, Alfonso; Katz, Pablo; Ripellino, Claudio

2013-01-01

117

Runoff coefficient and average yearly natural aquifer recharge assessment by physiography-based indirect methods for the island of Sardinia (Italy) and its NW area (Nurra)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Runoff estimation and water budget in ungauged basins is a challenge for hydrological researchers and planners. The principal aim of this study was the application and validation of the Kennessey method, which is a physiography-based indirect process for determining the average annual runoff coefficient and the basin-scale water balance. The coefficient can be calculated using specific physiographic characteristics (slope, permeability and vegetation cover) and a parameter that defines climatic conditions and does not require instrumental data. One of the main purposes of this study was to compare the average annual runoff coefficient obtained using the Kennessey method with the coefficients calculated using data from 30 instrumented drainage basins in Sardinia (Italy) over 71 years (from 1922 to 1992). These measurements represent an important and complete historical dataset from the study area. Using the runoff coefficient map, the method was also applied to assess the effective annual recharge rate of the aquifers of the Calich hydrogeological basin in the Nurra Plain (Alghero, NW Sardinia-Italy). The groundwater recharge rate was compared with rates calculated using the standard water balance method. The implementation of the method at the regional and basin scales was supported by GIS analyses. The results of the method are promising but show some discrepancies with other methodologies due to the higher weights given to the physiographic parameters than to the meteorological parameters. However, even though the weights assigned to the parameters require improvements, the Kennessey method is a useful tool for evaluating hydrologic processes, particularly for water management in areas where instrumental data are not available.

Ghiglieri, Giorgio; Carletti, Alberto; Pittalis, Daniele

2014-11-01

118

The emergence of Schmallenberg virus across Culicoides communities and ecosystems in Europe.  

PubMed

Schmallenberg virus (SBV), a novel arboviral pathogen, has emerged and spread across Europe since 2011 inflicting congenital deformities in the offspring of infected adult ruminants. Several species of Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) have been implicated in the transmission of SBV through studies conducted in northern Europe. In this study Culicoides from SBV outbreak areas of mainland France and Italy (Sardinia) were screened for viral RNA. The role of both C. obsoletus and the Obsoletus complex (C. obsoletus and C. scoticus) in transmission of SBV were confirmed in France and SBV was also discovered in a pool of C. nubeculosus for the first time, implicating this species as a potential vector. While collections in Sardinia were dominated by C. imicola, only relatively small quantities of SBV RNA were detected in pools of this species and conclusive evidence of its potential role in transmission is required. In addition to these field-based studies, infection rates in colony-derived individuals of C. nubeculosus and field-collected C. scoticus are also examined in the laboratory. Rates of infection in C. nubeculosus were low, confirming previous studies, while preliminary examination of C. scoticus demonstrated that while this species can replicate SBV to a potentially transmissible level, further work is required to fully define comparative competence between species in the region. Finally, the oral competence for SBV of two abundant and widespread mosquito vector species in the laboratory is assessed. Neither Aedes albopictus nor Culex pipiens were demonstrated to replicate SBV to transmissible levels and appear unlikely to play a major role in transmission. Other vector competence data produced from studies across Europe to date is then comprehensively reviewed and compared with that generated previously for bluetongue virus. PMID:24698329

Balenghien, Thomas; Pagès, Nonito; Goffredo, Maria; Carpenter, Simon; Augot, Denis; Jacquier, Elisabeth; Talavera, Sandra; Monaco, Federica; Depaquit, Jérôme; Grillet, Colette; Pujols, Joan; Satta, Giuseppe; Kasbari, Mohamed; Setier-Rio, Marie-Laure; Izzo, Francesca; Alkan, Cigdem; Delécolle, Jean-Claude; Quaglia, Michela; Charrel, Rémi; Polci, Andrea; Bréard, Emmanuel; Federici, Valentina; Cêtre-Sossah, Catherine; Garros, Claire

2014-10-15

119

Emerging Viruses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Emerging viruses are those "whose incidence in humans has increased in the past 2 decades or threatens to increase in the near future." This week's Topic in Depth focuses on sites related to viruses, particularly those that are considered "emerging."The first site (1) is an essay by Alison Jacobson of the University of Capetown that discusses some emerging and potentially emerging viruses, along with factors that contribute to the threat. From a US government interagency working group, the second report (2) focuses on the responses to infectious disease outbreaks, including drugs, vaccines, and government response. A World Health Organization site (3) highlights recent reports of infectious disease, archived by date and by disease. This ThinkQuest site (4) gives a basic introduction to viruses and how they cause infections. An online virology tutorial (5) by Ed Rybicki of the University of Cape Town serves as a lesson on the basics of virology for a more advanced student. The next two sites focus on the specifics of selected viruses. From the Institute for Molecular Virology (6) comes a resource on Marburg and Ebola viruses, and from the National Biological Information Infrastructure (7) is a site on West Nile Virus. The last resource (8) is a scholarly journal from the Centers for Disease Control that presents some of the latest scientific research on emerging diseases.

Lee, Amy.

2002-01-01

120

Antimony in the soil-water-plant system at the Su Suergiu abandoned mine (Sardinia, Italy): Strategies to mitigate contamination.  

PubMed

This study was aimed to implement the understanding of the Sb behavior in near-surface environments, as a contribution to address appropriate mitigation actions at contaminated sites. For this purpose, geochemical data of soil (8 sites), water (29 sites), and plant (12 sites) samples were collected. The study area is located at Su Suergiu and surroundings in Sardinia (Italy), an abandoned mine area heavily contaminated with Sb, with relevant impact on water bodies that supply water for agriculture and domestic uses. Antimony in the soil horizons ranged from 19 to 4400mgkg(-1), with highest concentrations in soils located close to the mining-related wastes, and concentrations in the topsoil much higher than in the bedrock. The Sb readily available fraction was about 2% of the total Sb in the soil. Antimony in the pore water ranged from 23 to 1700?gL(-1), with highest values in the Sb-rich soils. The waters showed neutral to slightly alkaline pH, redox potential values indicating oxidizing conditions, electrical conductivity in the range of 0.2 to 3.7mScm(-1), and dissolved organic carbon ?2mgL(-1). The waters collected upstream of the mine have Ca-bicarbonate dominant composition, and median concentration of Sb(tot) of 1.7?gL(-1) (that is total antimony determined in waters filtered through 0.45?m), a value relatively high as compared with the background value (?0.5?gL(-1) Sb) estimated for Sardinian waters, but below the limits established by the European Union and the World Health Organization for drinking water (5?gL(-1) Sb and 20?gL(-1) Sb, respectively). The waters flowing in the mine area are characterized by Ca-sulfate dominant composition, and median concentrations of 7000?gL(-1) Sb(tot). Extreme concentrations, up to 30,000?gL(-1) Sb(tot), were observed in waters flowing out of the slag materials derived from the processing of Sb-ore. The Sb(III) was in the range of 0.8 to 760?gL(-1) and represented up to 6% of Sb(tot). In the waters collected downstream of the mine, median Sb(tot) concentrations decreased as distance from the mine area increases: 1300?gL(-1) Sb(tot) in the stream Rio Ciurixeda at 3km distance, and 25?gL(-1) Sb(tot) in the main River Flumendosa 15km further downstream. Attenuation of Sb contamination was mainly due to dilution. Results of modeling, carried out by both EQ3 and Visual MINTEQ computer programs, suggest that sorption of dissolved Sb onto solid phases, and/or precipitation of Sb-bearing minerals, likely give a minor contribution to attenuation of Sb contamination. The slightly alkaline pH and oxidizing conditions might favor the persistence of inorganic Sb(V)-bearing species at long distance in the studied waters. Concentrations of Sb in the plants Pistacia lentiscus and Asparagus ranged from 0.1 to 22mgkg(-1), with maximum values in plants growing very close to the mining-related wastes. The P. lentiscus grows well on the soils highly contaminated with Sb at Su Suergiu and might be used for revegetation of the Sb-rich heaps, thus contributing to reduce the dispersion of contaminated materials. Major effects of contamination were observed on the water bodies located downstream of the Su Suergiu abandoned mine. The maximum load (16.6kg Sb per day) to the Flumendosa, the main aquatic recipient, was observed after heavy rain events. Therefore, priorities of mitigation actions should be focused on minimizing the contact of rain and runoff waters on the heaps of mining wastes. PMID:25137381

Cidu, Rosa; Biddau, Riccardo; Dore, Elisabetta; Vacca, Andrea; Marini, Luigi

2014-11-01

121

Computer viruses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The worm, Trojan horse, bacterium, and virus are destructive programs that attack information stored in a computer's memory. Virus programs, which propagate by incorporating copies of themselves into other programs, are a growing menace in the late-1980s world of unprotected, networked workstations and personal computers. Limited immunity is offered by memory protection hardware, digitally authenticated object programs,and antibody programs that kill specific viruses. Additional immunity can be gained from the practice of digital hygiene, primarily the refusal to use software from untrusted sources. Full immunity requires attention in a social dimension, the accountability of programmers.

Denning, Peter J.

1988-01-01

122

HIV virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

HIV is a virus that can be transmitted through fluids exchanged in sexual activity. HIV eventually causes AIDS. AIDS patients have compromised immune systems and they eventually die from diseases that healthy humans would normally fight off very easily.

Carl Henderson (National Institutes of Health;)

2005-12-09

123

On the tectonic evolution of the Tyrrhenian basin: new data from detrital zircons sampled in the Sardinia-Corsica Block and in the Calabria-Peloritain Arc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geodynamic models and palinspastic reconstructions of pery-Thyrrenian terranes in the Western Mediterranean area are still extremely complex and speculative (Stampfly & Borel 2002, Trombetta et al., 2004; Alvarez & Shimabukuro, 2009; Carminati et al., 2012).A contribute can be done by considering the relationships between Sardinia-Corsica Block (SCB) and Calabria-Peloritain Arc (CPA). They shared a similar Variscan evolution and were the western part of the Briançonnais plate until the opening of the Algero-Provençal Basin during Burdigalian and then were separated in Late Tertiary during the spreading of South-Tyrrhenian Basin. During this period the CPA moved southeastward, with respect to the SCB, driven by a progressive roll-back of the subducted slab. However, is still ambiguous if the CPA was a single terrane during the Middle and Late Tertiary (Amodio Morelli et alii, 1976) or formed by the amalgamation of two or more continental "terranes" that collided during the Tertiary (Bonardi et al., 1980; Scandone, 1982; Alvarez & Shimabukuro, 2009). The data about the paleo-tectonic linkages, the terranes derivations, and the tectonic setting of the SCB and CPA as peri-Tyrrhenian blocks during Tertiary are still poor. Some evidence of their early evolution could be found in coeval Tertiary deposits cropping out both in the SCB and CPA. These deposits represent the early stage of the estensional event developed in the Tyrrhenian region during late Oligocene-Lower Miocene in a broader regional context dominated by the opening of Atlantic Ocean and the resulting convergence of Europe and Apulia microplate (Oggiano et al., 2009). To improve the knowledge on this topic, combined U-Pb and Lu-Hf analyses on zircons from Tertiary detrital sediments from Sardinia, Corsica, and both North and South Calabria have been performed using a Thermo-Fisher Neptune MC-ICP-MS coupled with a Nd:YAG UP213 New Wave laser ablation system, at the Laboratory of Geochronology of the University of Brasilia. In this way the source areas of these terranes can be compared. The sampled formations are: in Eastern Sardinia, the Cuccuru 'e Flores Conglomerate (CFC); in the Eastern Corsica, the Solaro Flysch (SF); in the Southern Calabria (Aspromonte sub-region), the Stilo Capo d'Orlando Fm. (SCOF) and in the Northern Calabria (Sila subregion), the Paludi Fm. (PF). The data about Northern CPA (NCPA) and SCB show similar zircons population inputs suggesting an analogous source areas. Zircons from the Southern CPA (SCPA) show different input spectra. In SCPA lack at all the Grenvillian ages (0.9-1.8 Ga) and an important crustal signature. These data suggest a different position during the tectonic evolution of the Gondwana margin of SCPA respect of NCPA and SCB. Following these data is it possible to infer the SCPA a North Africa derivation, well fitting with the Gondwanan European Variscan terranes, characterized by the lacking of mesoproterozoic age (KOBER et alii, 2004).

Pavanetto, Pamela; Funedda, Antonio; Matteini, Massimo; Loi, Alfredo

2013-04-01

124

Virus Information Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Symantec Corporation's AntiVirus Research Center has recently released a virus information database that includes over 10,000 computer viruses. The searchable and browseable database can include information about aliases for each virus, infection length, area of infection, likelihood of infection, region reported, characteristics, target platform and target date, in addition to a brief description of how the virus works. The site also provides a basic tutorial on viruses. Symantec, under the Norton name, produces several anti-virus products.

125

Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) program: Study of geological structure of Sicily and other Italian areas. [Sardinia and the Gulf of Orosei  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The usefulness of thermal inertia mapping in discriminating geolithological units was investigated using Sardinia and the Gulf of Orosei as test sites. Software designed for LANDSAT data were modified and improved for HCMM tapes. A first attempt was made to compare the geological cross section, the topography, the IR radiance, and the thermal inertia along selected profiles of the test site. Thermal inertia profiles appear smoothed in comparison with the thermal radiance. The lowest apparent thermal inertia (ATI) was found on granitic and basaltic outcrops where their image is of sufficient extent, while ATI is higher on carbonatic and dolomitic or moist deposits. Almost every fault is marked by a jump of ATI, the interval being sometimes of the order of one pixel. This seems to demonstrate the ability of ATI to detect contacts or tectonically disturbed zones with a good resolution. It seems more difficult to measure the differences in ATI between homogeneous materials having different lithology. Ground surveys conducted and a simulation model of diurnal temperatures of rocks having different thermal inertia are discussed.

Cassinis, R.; Lechi, G. (principal investigators); Zilioli, E.; Marini, A.; Brivio, P. A.; Tosi, N.

1981-01-01

126

Molecular evidence for the occurrence of Contracaecum rudolphii A (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in shag Phalacrocorax aristotelis (Linnaeus) (Aves: Phalacrocoracidae) from Sardinia (western Mediterranean Sea).  

PubMed

Specimens of Contracaecum rudolphii Hartwich, 1964 (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from Phalacrocorax aristotelis (Linnaeus) from the Archipelago of La Maddalena (Sardinia, western Mediterranean Sea) were characterised genetically and compared with C. rudolphii A sensu D'Amelio et al. 1990 and C. rudolphii B sensu D'Amelio et al. 1990 from Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis (Blumenbach) from north-eastern Italy, and with C. rudolphii C sensu D'Amelio et al. 2007 from Phalacrocorax auritus (Lesson) from west-central Florida, USA. The sequencing of the small subunit of the mitochondrial ribosomal RNA gene (rrnS) and by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the same gene and of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) allowed the identification of all specimens of C. rudolphii from P. aristotelis as C. rudolphii A. The results confirmed that the definition of genetic markers, following the analysis of nuclear ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA, provides quick and practical diagnostic tools for the detection of the 3 sibling species of C. rudolphii. The occurrence of C. rudolphii in P. aristotelis is reported for the first time from the Mediterranean area, improving the picture of the dispersal patterns of the populations of these piscivorous birds, and confirming the existence of different and isolated populations between the North and South European waters. PMID:18571974

Farjallah, Sarra; Merella, Paolo; Ingrosso, Sofia; Rotta, Andrea; Slimane, Badreddine Ben; Garippa, Giovanni; Said, Khaled; Busi, Marina

2008-12-01

127

Geological, geochemical and mineralogical features of some bauxite deposits from Nurra (Western Sardinia, Italy): insights on conditions of formation and parental affinity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bauxite deposits are widespread in NW Sardinia. They formed during the middle Cretaceous, in consequence of a period of emergence of the Mesozoic carbonate shelf. In the Nurra area the geometries derived by the Middle Cretaceous tectonic phases controlled the ore typologies. Two bauxite profiles, laying on different bedrocks, were sampled. The bauxitization proceeded from the surface downward, with the accumulation of Al2O3 and residual ‘immobile’ elements (Al, Ti, HFSE), and corresponding mobility and loss of SiO2 and Fe2O3. Epigenetic kaolinite formed close to faults and joints, probably as a result of silicification, introduced by low temperature hydrothermal solutions. Rare earth elements, especially LREE, are concentrated in Fe-rich bauxite horizons, probably due to scavenging by goethite. REE-enrichment is not observed in the boehmite-rich horizons. Very high REE contents are observed in a Fe-depleted horizon due to the occurrence of REE accessory minerals, probably of the bastnäsite group. Conservative indices, including TiO2/Al2O3 and Ti/Cr ratios, and Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu*), suggest that the deposits formed by weathering of sediments derived from mafic rocks of the Hercynian basement. This, in turn, implies that the basement was exposed during middle Cretaceous.

Mameli, Paola; Mongelli, Giovanni; Oggiano, Giacomo; Dinelli, Enrico

2007-10-01

128

In vitro inhibitory effects of Limonium contortirameum and L. virgatum extracts from sardinia on alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase.  

PubMed

Pancreatic triacylglycerol lipase (PL), alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase are interesting pharmacological targets for the management of dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, and obesity-diabetes. Limonium spp (Plumbaginaceae) are endemic to Sardinia, Italy. Comparable with acarbose, aqueous extracts (AE) of L. contortirameum and L. virgatum, and their phytoconstituent gallic acid concentration gradients (mg/mL) were identified as in vitro potent (p<0.001, n=3) and efficacious dual inhibitors of alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase with respective IC50 (mg/mL) values of 0.6 +/- 0.1, 1.2 +/- 0.1 and 0.15 +/- 0.02. Equivalent to orlistat (PL IC50 of 0.114 +/- 0.004 microg/mL), L. contortirameum, L. virgatum AE and their phytoprinciple gallic acid inhibited PL substantially (p<0.001, n=3) in a dose-dependent manner in vitro with PL- IC50 (microg/mL) of 920.4 +/- 105.2, 593.1 +/- 56.8 and 8.4 +/- 0.9, respectively. LC-MS analysis of extracts revealed the presence of several phenolic compounds in their aglycon and glycoside forms. These are catechins, flavones, epigallocatechins and flavonols. Flavonoid- and polyphenol-rich L contortirameum and L. virgatum, modulating gastrointestinal carbohydrate and lipid digestion and absorption, may be advocated as candidates for obesity-diabetes prevention and phytotherapy. PMID:24689285

Foddai, Marzia; Kasabri, Violet; Petretto, Giacomo L; Azara, Emanuela; Sias, Angela; Afifi, Fatma U; Delogu, Giovanna; Chessa, Mario; Pintore, Giorgio

2014-02-01

129

Recognition of zinc transporter 8 and MAP3865c homologous epitopes by hashimoto's thyroiditis subjects from Sardinia: a common target with type 1 diabetes?  

PubMed

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) asymptomatic infection has been previously linked to Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and Multiple Sclerosis. An association between MAP infection and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) was also proposed only in a case report. This study aimed to investigate the robustness of the latter association, testing a large cohort of HT and healthy control (HCs) subjects, all from Sardinia. Prevalence of anti-MAP3865c Abs was assessed by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Moreover, given that human ZnT8 is specifically expressed in the pancreatic ?-cells, in the follicle epithelial cells and in the parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland, we also tested ZnT8 epitopes homologues to the MAP3865c immunodominant peptides previously identified. Indeed, Abs targeting MAP3865c and ZnT8 homologous regions display similar frequencies in patients and controls, thus suggesting that Abs recognizing these epitopes could be cross-reactive. A statistically significant difference was found between HT patients and HCs when analyzing the humoral response mounted against MAP3865c/ZnT8 homologues epitopes. To our knowledge, this is the first report, which provides statistically significant evidence sustaining the existence of an association between MAP sero-reactivity and HT. Further studies are required to investigate the relevance of MAP to HT, aimed at deciphering if this pathogen can be at play in triggering this autoimmune disease. Likewise, genetic polymorphism of the host, and other environmental factors need to be investigated. PMID:24830306

Masala, Speranza; Cossu, Davide; Palermo, Mario; Sechi, Leonardo Antonio

2014-01-01

130

Recognition of Zinc Transporter 8 and MAP3865c Homologous Epitopes by Hashimoto's Thyroiditis Subjects from Sardinia: A Common Target with Type 1 Diabetes?  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) asymptomatic infection has been previously linked to Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and Multiple Sclerosis. An association between MAP infection and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) was also proposed only in a case report. This study aimed to investigate the robustness of the latter association, testing a large cohort of HT and healthy control (HCs) subjects, all from Sardinia. Prevalence of anti-MAP3865c Abs was assessed by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Moreover, given that human ZnT8 is specifically expressed in the pancreatic ?-cells, in the follicle epithelial cells and in the parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland, we also tested ZnT8 epitopes homologues to the MAP3865c immunodominant peptides previously identified. Indeed, Abs targeting MAP3865c and ZnT8 homologous regions display similar frequencies in patients and controls, thus suggesting that Abs recognizing these epitopes could be cross-reactive. A statistically significant difference was found between HT patients and HCs when analyzing the humoral response mounted against MAP3865c/ZnT8 homologues epitopes. To our knowledge, this is the first report, which provides statistically significant evidence sustaining the existence of an association between MAP sero-reactivity and HT. Further studies are required to investigate the relevance of MAP to HT, aimed at deciphering if this pathogen can be at play in triggering this autoimmune disease. Likewise, genetic polymorphism of the host, and other environmental factors need to be investigated. PMID:24830306

Masala, Speranza; Cossu, Davide; Palermo, Mario; Sechi, Leonardo Antonio

2014-01-01

131

West Nile Virus: Transmission  

MedlinePLUS

... About CDC.gov . West Nile Virus Share Compartir Transmission West Nile virus is most commonly transmitted to ... fully cooking meat from either birds or mammals. Transmission cycle West Nile Virus Transmission Cycle [PDF - 1 ...

132

West Nile Virus  

MedlinePLUS

... is a virus that can infect humans, birds, horses and mosquitoes. Infection from this virus is most ... Nile virus has been found in humans, birds, horses or mosquitoes are at risk for infection. You ...

133

Attenuated Influenza A Virus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An attenuated influenza virus of a first strain is described together with a method for preparing the attenuated influenza virus. The attenuated influenza virus of the first strain comprises a sufficient number of single strand RNA segments of negative po...

P. Palese, T. Muster, B. R. Murphy, M. Enami, M. Bergmann

1992-01-01

134

Hanta virus (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Hanta virus is a distant cousin of Ebola virus, but is found worldwide. The virus is spread by human contact with rodent waste. Dangerous respiratory illness develops. Effective treatment is not yet available and over 50% of cases end ...

135

Human Parainfluenza Viruses  

MedlinePLUS

... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) commonly cause respiratory ... HPIVs Are Not the Same as Influenza (Flu) Viruses People usually get HPIV infections in the spring, ...

136

Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Images of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Disease.  Vesicular stomatitis viruses (VSV) are in the family Rhabdoviridae and the genus Vesiculovirus and are enveloped viruses with bullet-shaped capsids.

American Society For Microbiology;

2007-01-09

137

Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV)  

MedlinePLUS

... Caribbean Countries with reported local transmission of chikungunya virus (as of July 2014) The mosquitoes • Aedes species mosquitoes transmit chikungunya virus • These same types of mosquitoes transmit dengue virus • ...

138

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)  

MedlinePLUS

... been added to your dashboard . RSV Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common virus that infects the lungs and breathing passages. Almost ... antiviral is medicine that kills infections caused by viruses. How can you help protect your baby from ...

139

Ebola Virus Disease  

MedlinePLUS

Ebola virus disease Fact sheet N°103 Updated September 2014 Key facts Ebola virus disease (EVD), formerly ... 7 weeks after recovery from illness. Symptoms of Ebola virus disease The incubation period, that is, the ...

140

Virus Movement Maintains Local Virus Population Diversity  

SciTech Connect

Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material.

J. Snyder; B. Wiedenheft; M. Lavin; F. Roberto; J. Spuhler; A. Ortmann; T. Douglas; M. Young

2007-11-01

141

Virus movement maintains local virus population diversity.  

PubMed

Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material. PMID:18025457

Snyder, Jamie C; Wiedenheft, Blake; Lavin, Matthew; Roberto, Francisco F; Spuhler, Josh; Ortmann, Alice C; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark

2007-11-27

142

A follow-up on patients with severe mental disorders in Sardinia after two changes in regional policies: poor resources still correlate with poor outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background This survey followed a cohort of patients with chronic psychosis recruited from five catchment areas (DSMs) of the Sardinian community mental health services. The objective was to examine whether the amount of resources in the different sites may be a determinant of the outcomes. Methods Naturalistic follow-up study on 309 consecutive users with diagnosis of schizophrenic disorder, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar affective disorder with psychotic symptoms (DSM-IV TR) of five Sardinian community mental health services. Mental state and clinical symptoms along with functioning were assessed using semi-structured clinical interviews (ANTAS), Clinical Global Impression Severity Scale (CGI-S), Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (GAF) and Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HONOS). Assessments were conducted at the beginning of the study and after one year. Results The proportion of professionals working in all DSMs participating in the study was found lower than the national Italian standard (0.7 vs 1.0 per 1,500 inhabitants). Follow-up revealed significant differences between DSMs in the improvement of the Honos scores (F?=?5.932, p?=?0.000). These differences correlate with the improvement of resources in terms of number of professionals during, and one year prior, to the trial. Conclusions The study shows that mental health services provided in the public sector in Sardinia are still very resource-poor, at least in terms of human resources. Our findings suggest that mental health service resources influence outcomes as regards the social functioning of users. We urge policy makers to take these observations into account when planning future services. PMID:24313930

2013-01-01

143

A MATLAB-derived software (geothermMOD1.2) for one-dimensional thermal modeling, and its application to the Corsica-Sardinia batholith  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determination of the thermal state of the crust is of fundamental importance to understand the feedbacks between tectonics, rheology and metamorphism. The most important parameters controlling the variation of temperature with depth in the crust are the heat flow across the Moho, the thermal conductivity and the vertical distribution of heat-producing elements 238,235U, 232Th and 40K. The Corsica-Sardinia batholith formed during a regional high-temperature metamorphic event by extensive partial melting of the Variscan crust. Petrologic observations indicate that most granites and migmatites formed between 0.6-0.2 GPa, requiring the geotherms to flatten substantially relative to the stage of crustal thickening. The adjustment of geotherms may be interpreted in terms of enrichment in heat-producing elements or, alternatively, in terms of increased mantle contribution. The validity of these two end-member hypothesis has been tested by performing numerical experiments with a software package appositely developed in Matlab. The software allows to set up crustal model composed of up to five different layers, and to plot the calculated geotherm along with the stability field of the haplogranite system and other thermo-barometric constraints. The steady-state thermal structure of the Sardinian Variscan crust has been computed at four different time steps (320, 310, 300, and 280 Ma), which cover the batholith evolution. The geometry and composition of each of these crustal models has been constrained based on geophysical observations, geochronology and petrology. In a first experiment, the heat conduction equation has been solved for all of the four time-steps, assuming constant (15 mW/m2) heat flow across the Moho in order to simulate a ‘fully crustal' evolution of the thermal structure. The alternative has been simulated in a second experiment, by rising the basal heat flow up to 40 mW/m2 during the last two time steps.

Casini, Leonardo

2012-08-01

144

Corrosion of calcite crystals by metal-rich mud in caves: Study case in Crovassa Ricchi in Argento Cave (SW Sardinia, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unusual orange ochre crusts were recently discovered in Crovassa Ricchi in Argento Cave (San Giovanni Mine, SW Sardinia). These speleothems appear covering the cave walls on hydrothermal calcite spars as well as filling widened spaces between calcite crystals. Planar crusts display geometrical forms following the boundaries between the calcite spars. EDX-SEM microanalyses reveal that these deposits comprise substances of Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn and O that occur as solid inclusions in pits on the surface of altered calcite microcrystals. Micro-Raman spectroscopy analyses suggest the presence of calcite and ferromanganese oxides with a low degree of crystallinity. The genetic mechanism proposed for these speleothems describes an initial stage of precipitation of euhedral calcite crystals from warm water under subaqueous conditions. The crystal surfaces were eroded and corroded by colder aggressive water that smoothed the surfaces of the crystals and slightly widened the spaces between calcite spars. Metal-rich mud coming from alteration of bedrock and ore bodies filled the cave, also penetrating along the spaces between the calcite spars. When the water table fell below the cave level, part of the sediments was eroded but the cave walls remained covered with metal-rich clayey sediments. Under aerobic conditions, metals - which were reduced in previous stages - oxidized to oxides, lowering the pH and thus the crystal surface and the calcite planes between the spars were corroded. Subsequently, the polymetallic crusts became harder through evaporation within the cave, "fossilizing" the products of this process within the planes between spars. Finally, the exposed calcite surfaces continued to be altered due to CO2 diffusion into condensation water, while the boundaries between crystals were preserved against corrosion thanks to the crust coating. As a result, the external crystal edges protrude by several centimeters from the current cave wall, while the crystal surfaces are depressed, giving rise to calcite "ghosts".

Gázquez, Fernando; Calaforra, José-María; Forti, Paolo; De Waele, Jo; Sanna, Laura; Rull, Fernando; Sanz, Aurelio

2013-09-01

145

Processes controlling very low sedimentation rates on the continental slope of the Gonone-Orosei canyon system, NE Sardinia—terrestrial and oceanic significance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The narrow shelf and upper slope immediately above the Gonone canyon head off NE Sardinia represent areas of very low sedimentation rates. Along the sides of the canyon head (1,600 m water depth), the sediment deposits are homogeneous but show alternating light-grey intervals rich in carbonate and dark-grey ones rich in organic matter, possibly related to distal turbidite processes. Deposits older than 50,000 years are already encountered at core depths of 2.50 m, the sedimentation rates varying from 6-21 cm/103 years in the lower parts of two cores and from 1.5-3 cm/103 years in the upper parts. At about 35,000 years BP, both cores show a simultaneous drop in sedimentation rate by a factor of 3, probably in response to local mechanisms of channel avulsion. Lithological, mineralogical and geochemical properties reveal the environmental factors which are responsible for the extremely slow sediment accumulation. The southernmost sector of the coast, and partly also of the shelf, consists of Jurassic limestones which supply only small amounts of fine-grained material transported in suspension. During the last sea-level highstand, the accumulation of the Cedrino River pro-delta remained restricted to the coast, the low siliciclastic sediment yields resulting in poor shelf sediment trapping. The present morphology of the canyon head prevented the occurrence of gravity processes in the deeper part of the canyon system, including the coring sites. Accordingly, deposition was mainly fed by hemipelagic material of planktonic origin, together with only moderate terrigenous inputs. On a wider late Pleistocene timescale, seismic data indicate the occurrence of a coarse-grained, layered turbidite facies, implying a very different architecture of the canyon drainage system probably prior to 60,000 years BP.

Giresse, Pierre; Pascucci, Vincenzo; Lymer, Gaël; Gaullier, Virginie; Thinon, Isabelle

2014-08-01

146

Molecular epidemiology of bluetongue virus in Portugal during 2004-2006 outbreak.  

PubMed

After 44 years of epidemiological silence, bluetongue virus (BTV) was reintroduced in Portugal in the autumn of 2004. The first clinical cases of bluetongue disease (BT) were notified in sheep farms located in the South of Portugal, close to the Spanish border. A total of six BTV, five of serotype 4 and one of serotype 2 were isolated from sheep and cattle during the 2004-2006 epizootics. The nucleotide sequence of gene segments L2, S7 and S10 of BTV-4 prototype strain (BTV4/22045/PT04) obtained from the initial outbreak and of BTV-2 (BTV2/26629/PT05) was fully determined and compared with those from other parts of the world. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that BTV4/22045/PT04 is related to other BTV-4 strains that circulate in the Mediterranean basin since 1998, showing the highest identity (99%) with BTV-4 isolates of 2003 from Sardinia and Corsica, whereas BTV2/26629/PT05 is almost indistinguishable from the Onderstepoort BTV-2 live-attenuated vaccine strain and its related field strain isolated in Italy. Since live-attenuated BTV-2 vaccine was never used in Portugal, the isolation of this strain may represent a natural circulation of the vaccine virus used in other countries in Mediterranean Europe. PMID:17521832

Barros, Sílvia C; Ramos, Fernanda; Luís, Tiago M; Vaz, Andreia; Duarte, Margarida; Henriques, Margarida; Cruz, Benedita; Fevereiro, Miguel

2007-09-20

147

The Tobacco Mosaic Virus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how the tobacco mosaic virus can be used to study virology. Presents facts about the virus, procedures to handle the virus in the laboratory, and four laboratory exercises involving the viruses' survival under inactivating conditions, dilution end point, filterability, and microscopy. (MDH)

Sulzinski, Michael A.

1992-01-01

148

West Nile virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

West Nile virus was discovered in 1937 in the West Nile region of Uganda. The virus was found only in the Eastern Hemisphere until 1999. In 1999, West Nile virus was first identified in the Western Hemisphere in New York City. Since 1999, viremic birds have continued to spread the disease across the United States. West Nile virus is an

Patricia A Devine

2003-01-01

149

Mapping overlapping functional elements embedded within the protein-coding regions of RNA viruses  

E-print Network

viruses. Such viruses include influenza A virus, Ebola virus, rabies virus, SARS virus, MERS virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, yellow fever virus, dengue virus, eastern equine encephalitis virus, and Lassa virus. Many other human pathogenic viruses...

Firth, Andrew E.

2014-01-01

150

Virus-vectored influenza virus vaccines.  

PubMed

Despite the availability of an inactivated vaccine that has been licensed for >50 years, the influenza virus continues to cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. Constant evolution of circulating influenza virus strains and the emergence of new strains diminishes the effectiveness of annual vaccines that rely on a match with circulating influenza strains. Thus, there is a continued need for new, efficacious vaccines conferring cross-clade protection to avoid the need for biannual reformulation of seasonal influenza vaccines. Recombinant virus-vectored vaccines are an appealing alternative to classical inactivated vaccines because virus vectors enable native expression of influenza antigens, even from virulent influenza viruses, while expressed in the context of the vector that can improve immunogenicity. In addition, a vectored vaccine often enables delivery of the vaccine to sites of inductive immunity such as the respiratory tract enabling protection from influenza virus infection. Moreover, the ability to readily manipulate virus vectors to produce novel influenza vaccines may provide the quickest path toward a universal vaccine protecting against all influenza viruses. This review will discuss experimental virus-vectored vaccines for use in humans, comparing them to licensed vaccines and the hurdles faced for licensure of these next-generation influenza virus vaccines. PMID:25105278

Tripp, Ralph A; Tompkins, S Mark

2014-08-01

151

Viruses Infecting Reptiles  

PubMed Central

A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch’s postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions. PMID:22163336

Marschang, Rachel E.

2011-01-01

152

Symantec: Virus Alerts and Hoaxes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website by Symantec (makers of Norton AntiVirus) provides information on the latest virus threats, security advisories, updates for Symantec products and removal tools, as well as some basic information on viruses. The Reference Area includes FAQ, a Glossary, Newsletter, White Papers, a section where you can Submit Virus Samples, postings of Hoaxes, a Security Database, Virus Encyclopedia, and Virus Calendar.

153

Advances in virus research  

SciTech Connect

This book contains eight chapters. Some of the titles are: Initiation of viral DNA replication; Vaccinia: virus, vector, vaccine; The pre-S region of hepadnavirus envelope proteins; and Archaebacterial viruses.

Maramorosch, K. (Rutgers--the State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (USA)); Murphy, F.A. (Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA (USA)); Shatkin, A.J. (Rutgers-UMDNJ, Piscataway, NJ (US))

1988-01-01

154

Tumorigenic DNA viruses  

SciTech Connect

The eighth volume of Advances in Viral Oncology focuses on the three major DNA virus groups with a postulated or proven tumorigenic potential: papillomaviruses, animal hepatitis viruses, and the Epstein-Bar virus. In the opening chapters, the contributors analyze the evidence that papillomaviruses and animal hepatitis viruses are involved in tumorigenesis and describe the mechanisms that trigger virus-host cell interactions. A detailed section on the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) - comprising more than half the book - examines the transcription and mRNA processing patterns of the virus genome; the mechanisms by which EBV infects lymphoid and epithelial cells; the immunological aspects of the virus; the actions of EBV in hosts with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome; and the involvement of EBV in the etiology of Burkitt's lymphoma.

Klein, G.

1989-01-01

155

Viruses and cancer  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 14 selections. Some of the titles are: Immortalising gene(s) encoded by Epstein-Barr Virus; Adenovirus genes involved in transformation. What determines the oncogenic phenotype.; Oncogenesis by mouse mammary tumour virus; and Transforming ras genes.

Rigby, P.W.J.; Wilkie, N.M.

1985-01-01

156

Virus Assembly and Maturation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use two techniques to look at three-dimensional virus structure: electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) and X-ray crystallography. Figure 1 is a gallery of virus particles whose structures Timothy Baker, one of my former colleagues at Purdue University, used cryoEM to determine. It illustrates the variety of sizes of icosahedral virus particles. The largest virus particle on this slide is the Herpes simplex virus, around 1200Å in diameter; the smallest we examined was around 250Å in diameter. Viruses bear their genomic information either as positive-sense DNA and RNA, double-strand DNA, double-strand RNA, or negative-strand RNA. Viruses utilize the various structure and function "tactics" seen throughout cell biology to replicate at high levels. Many of the biological principles that we consider general were in fact discovered in the context of viruses ...

Johnson, John E.

2004-03-01

157

West Nile virus  

MedlinePLUS

West Nile virus is a disease spread by mosquitoes. The condition ranges from mild to severe. ... West Nile virus was first identified in 1937 in Uganda in eastern Africa. It was first discovered in the United States ...

158

West Nile Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Good introduction and synopsis of West Nile Virus. Briefly reporting on such topics as geographic distribution, symptoms and treatment, transmission and prevention. The article includes a list of references for further investigation into the West Nile Virus.

0002-11-30

159

Hepatitis virus panel  

MedlinePLUS

The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used to detect current or past infection by hepatitis A , hepatitis ... samples for more than one kind of hepatitis virus at the same time. Antibody and antigen tests ...

160

Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections  

MedlinePLUS

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes mild, cold-like symptoms in adults and older healthy children. It can cause serious problems in ... tests can tell if your child has the virus. There is no specific treatment. You should give ...

161

West Nile Virus  

MedlinePLUS

... Most mosquitoes are simply annoying. But a small percentage can carry diseases like West Nile virus. Over the past few years, West Nile virus has been found in animals, birds, and humans in all continental states in the United States. ...

162

Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus  

E-print Network

Virus First discovered in Nebraska in 1922, wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) remains a threat today across most of the U.S. Central Plains. WSMV affects spring wheat, barley, corn, triticale, rye and numerous other annual and perennial grasses... Virus First discovered in Nebraska in 1922, wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) remains a threat today across most of the U.S. Central Plains. WSMV affects spring wheat, barley, corn, triticale, rye and numerous other annual and perennial grasses...

Morgan, Gaylon

2005-01-26

163

Computer Virus Protection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computer virus is a program--a piece of executable code--that has the unique ability to replicate. Like biological viruses, computer viruses can spread quickly and are often difficult to eradicate. They can attach themselves to just about any type of file, and are spread by replicating and being sent from one individual to another. Simply having…

Rajala, Judith B.

2004-01-01

164

Tobacco mosaic virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource demonstrates how the Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) provides an excellent model for teaching students about properties of a plant virus and the relationship between a virus and its host plant. Four activities geared toward grades 9-12 are described. Teaching tips, troubleshooting help and sources of materials information is also included.

Rosemary Ford (Washington College;); Tom Evans (University of Delaware;)

2003-05-28

165

Viruses of asparagus.  

PubMed

The current knowledge on viruses infecting asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is reviewed. Over half a century, nine virus species belonging to the genera Ilarvirus, Cucumovirus, Nepovirus, Tobamovirus, Potexvirus, and Potyvirus have been found in this crop. The potyvirus Asparagus virus 1 (AV1) and the ilarvirus Asparagus virus 2 (AV2) are widespread and negatively affect the economic life of asparagus crops reducing yield and increasing the susceptibility to biotic and abiotic stress. The main properties and epidemiology of AV1 and AV2 as well as diagnostic techniques for their detection and identification are described. Minor viruses and control are briefly outlined. PMID:22682173

Tomassoli, Laura; Tiberini, Antonio; Vetten, Heinrich-Josef

2012-01-01

166

Viruses and marine pollution.  

PubMed

This short review summarises the present knowledge on pollutant impacts on marine viruses, virus-host systems and their potential ecological implications. Excess nutrients from sewage and river effluents are a primary cause of marine eutrophication and mucilage formation, often related to the development of large viral assemblages. At the same time, hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyl and pesticides alter ecosystem functioning and can determinate changes in the virus-host interactions, thus increasing the potential of viral infection. All these pollutants might have synergistic effects on the virus-host system and are able to induce prophage, thus increasing the impact of viruses on marine ecosystems. PMID:12604062

Danovaro, R; Armeni, M; Corinaldesi, C; Mei, M L

2003-03-01

167

Elastic Properties of Viruses  

PubMed Central

Viruses are compact biological nanoparticles whose elastic and dynamical properties are hardly known. Inelastic (Brillouin) light scattering was used to characterize these properties, from microcrystals of the Satellite Tobacco Mosaic Virus, a nearly spherical plant virus of 17-nm diameter. Longitudinal sound velocities in wet and dry Satellite Tobacco Mosaic Virus crystals were determined and compared to that of the well-known protein crystal, lysozyme. Localized vibrational modes of the viral particles (i.e., particle modes) were sought in the relevant frequency ranges, as derived assuming the viruses as full free nanospheres. Despite very favorable conditions, regarding virus concentration and expected low damping in dry microcrystals, no firm evidence of virus particle modes could be detected. PMID:17526576

Stephanidis, B.; Adichtchev, S.; Gouet, P.; McPherson, A.; Mermet, A.

2007-01-01

168

Elastic properties of viruses.  

PubMed

Viruses are compact biological nanoparticles whose elastic and dynamical properties are hardly known. Inelastic (Brillouin) light scattering was used to characterize these properties, from microcrystals of the Satellite Tobacco Mosaic Virus, a nearly spherical plant virus of 17-nm diameter. Longitudinal sound velocities in wet and dry Satellite Tobacco Mosaic Virus crystals were determined and compared to that of the well-known protein crystal, lysozyme. Localized vibrational modes of the viral particles (i.e., particle modes) were sought in the relevant frequency ranges, as derived assuming the viruses as full free nanospheres. Despite very favorable conditions, regarding virus concentration and expected low damping in dry microcrystals, no firm evidence of virus particle modes could be detected. PMID:17526576

Stephanidis, B; Adichtchev, S; Gouet, P; McPherson, A; Mermet, A

2007-08-15

169

GHG emissions quantification at high spatial and temporal resolution at urban scale: the case of the town of Sassari (NW Sardinia - Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Union has set as priorities the fight against climate change related to greenhouse gas releases. The largest source of these emissions comes from human activities in urban areas that account for more than 70% of the world's emissions and several local governments intend to support the European strategic policies in understanding which crucial sectors drive GHG emissions in their city. Planning for mitigation actions at the community scale starts with the compilation of a GHG inventories that, among a wide range of measurement tools, provide information on the current status of GHG emissions across a specific jurisdiction. In the framework of a regional project for quantitative estimate of the net exchange of CO2 (emissions and sinks) at the municipal level in Sardinia, the town of Sassari represents a pilot site where a spatial and temporal high resolution GHG emissions inventory is built in line with European and international standard protocols to establish a baseline for tracking emission trends. The specific purpose of this accurate accounting is to obtain an appropriate allocation of CO2 and other GHG emissions at the fine building and hourly scale. The aim is to test the direct measurements needed to enable the construction of future scenarios of these emissions and for assessing possible strategies to reduce their impact. The key element of the methodologies used to construct this GHG emissions inventory is the Global Protocol for Community-Scale Greenhouse Gas Emissions (GPC) (March 2012) that identifies four main types of emission sources: (i) Stationary Units, (ii) Mobile Units, (iii) Waste, and (iv) Industrial Process and Product Use Emissions. The development of the GHG emissions account in Sassari consists in the collection of a range of alternative data sources (primary data, IPCC emission factors, national and local statistic, etc.) selected on the base on relevance and completeness criteria performed for 2010, as baseline year, using top-down, bottom-up or mixed approaches. GPC protocol also defines three standard scopes for downscaling emissions from the national to the community level, that allow to handle the attribution of releases that occur outside the community boundary as a result of activity or consumption within it. The procedures for data processing have simple and concise structure, applicable in different communities that led to the possibility to compare the results with other national contexts. An appropriate GHG emissions allocation over detailed spatial and temporal scales has been achieved on the basis of specific indicators (population, industrial employees, amount of product, etc.) and of geo-location and size of all buildings, using appropriate models, that enable to properly georeference them respect to their uses. The main advantage of neighborhood-level quantification consists in the identification of the main productive sources and emissive activities within the urban boundaries that mostly contribute to the current GHG emissions and then focus the efforts on possible mitigation.

Sanna, Laura; Ferrara, Roberto; Zara, Pierpaolo; Duce, Pierpaolo

2014-05-01

170

Tracing groundwater salinization processes in coastal aquifers: a hydrogeochemical and isotopic approach in the Na-Cl brackish waters of northwestern Sardinia, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Throughout the Mediterranean, salinization threatens water quality, especially in coastal areas. This salinization is the result of concomitant processes related to both seawater intrusion and water-rock interaction, which in some cases are virtually indistinguishable. In the Nurra region of northwestern Sardinia, recent salinization related to marine water intrusion has been caused by aquifer exploitation. However, the geology of this region records a long history from the Palaeozoic to the Quaternary, and is structurally complex and comprises a wide variety of lithologies, including Triassic evaporites. Determining the origin of the saline component of the Jurassic and Triassic aquifers in the Nurra region may provide a useful and more general model for salinization processes in the Mediterranean area, where the occurrence of evaporitic rocks in coastal aquifers is a common feature. In addition, due to intensive human activity and recent climatic change, the Nurra has become vulnerable to desertification and, in common with other Mediterranean islands, surface water resources periodically suffer from severe shortages. With this in mind, we report new data regarding brackish and surface waters (outcrop and lake samples) of the Na-Cl type from the Nurra region, including major ions and selected trace elements (B, Br, I, and Sr), in addition to isotopic data including ?18O, ?D in water, and ?34S and ?18O in dissolved SO4. To identify the origin of the salinity more precisely, we also analysed the mineralogical and isotopic composition of Triassic evaporites. The brackish waters have Cl contents of up to 2025 mg L-1 , and the ratios between dissolved ions and Cl, with the exception of the Br / Cl ratio, are not those expected on the basis of simple mixing between rainwater and seawater. The ?18O and ?D data indicate that most of the waters fall between the regional meteoric water line and the global meteoric water line, supporting the conclusion that they are meteoric in origin. A significant consequence of the meteoric origin of the Na-Cl-type water studied here is that the Br / Cl ratio, extensively used to assess the origin of salinity in fresh water, should be used with care in carbonate aquifers that are near the coast. Overall, ?34S and ?18O levels in dissolved SO4 suggest that water-rock interaction is responsible for the Na-Cl brackish composition of the water hosted by the Jurassic and Triassic aquifers of the Nurra, and this is consistent with the geology and lithological features of the study area. Evaporite dissolution may also explain the high Cl content, as halite was detected within the gypsum deposits. Finally, these Na-Cl brackish waters are undersaturated with respect to the more soluble salts, implying that in a climate evolving toward semi-arid conditions, the salinization process could intensify dramatically in the near future.

Mongelli, G.; Monni, S.; Oggiano, G.; Paternoster, M.; Sinisi, R.

2013-07-01

171

Tracing groundwater salinization processes in coastal aquifers: a hydrogeochemical and isotopic approach in Na-Cl brackish waters of north-western Sardinia, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Mediterranean area the demand of good quality water is often threatened by salinization, especially in coastal areas. The salinization is the result of concomitant processes due to both marine water intrusion and rock-water interaction, which in some cases are hardly distinguishable. In northwestern Sardinia, in the Nurra area, salinization due to marine water intrusion has been recently evidenced as consequence of bore hole exploitation. However, the geology of the Nurra records a long history from Paleozoic to Quaternary, resulting in relative structural complexity and in a wide variety of lithologies, including Triassic evaporites. To elucidate the origin of the saline component in the Nurra aquifer, may furnish a useful and more general model for the salinization processes in the Mediterranean area, where the occurrence of evaporitic rocks in coastal aquifers is a common feature. In addition, due to intensive human activities and recent climatic changes, the Nurra has become vulnerable to desertification and, similarly to other Mediterranean islands, surface-water resources can periodically suffer from drastic shortage. With this in mind we report new data, regarding brackish waters of Na-Cl type of the Nurra, including major ions and selected trace elements (B, Br, I and Sr) and isotopic data, including ?18O, ?D in water, and ?34S and ?18O in dissolved sulphate. To better depict the origin of the salinity we also analyzed a set of Nurra Triassic evaporites for mineralogical and isotopic composition. The brackish waters have Cl contents up to 2025 mg L-1 and the ratios between dissolved ions and chlorine, with the exception of the Br/Cl ratio, are not those expected on the basis of a simple mixing between rain water and seawater. The ?18O and ?D data indicate that most of the waters are within the Regional Meteoric Water Line and the Global Meteoric Water Line supporting the idea that they are meteoric in origin. A relevant consequence of the meteoric origin of the Nurra Na-Cl type water is that the Br/Cl ratio, extensively used to assess the origin of salinity in fresh water, should be used with care also in near coastal carbonate aquifers. Overall, and consistent with the geology and the lithological features of the study area, ?34S and ?18O in dissolved sulphate suggest that water-rock interaction is the responsible for the Nurra Na-Cl brackish water composition. Evaporites dissolution also explain the high chlorine contents since halite has been detected in the gypsum levels. Finally, the Nurra Na-Cl brackish water are undersaturated with respect to the more soluble salts involving, in a climate evolving toward semi-arid conditions, that the salinization process could dramatically intensify in the near future.

Mongelli, G.; Monni, S.; Oggiano, G.; Paternoster, M.; Sinisi, R.

2013-01-01

172

The Acute bee paralysis virus–Kashmir bee virus–Israeli acute paralysis virus complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV) and Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) are part of a complex of closely related viruses from the Family Dicistroviridae. These viruses have a widespread prevalence in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies and a predominantly sub-clinical etiology that contrasts sharply with the extremely virulent pathology encountered at elevated titres, either artificially induced

Joachim R. de Miranda; Guido Cordoni; Giles Budge

2010-01-01

173

Viruses in the stools.  

PubMed Central

It has long been possible to isolate viruses from the stools by culture, though the viruses found are rarely implicated in disease of the gut. In contrast, only recently has it been possible to identify viruses in the stools of patients with diarrhoea. Initially, such identifications were made by electron microscopy but the unsuitability of the microscope for large-scale screening has led to the development of other methods. The new methods have concentrated on rotaviruses but other viruses are also implicated and an overall view of the significance of finding a virus in any stool specimen has to take into account the evidence about all viruses, old and new. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:219041

Madeley, C R

1979-01-01

174

Constructing computer virus phylogenies  

SciTech Connect

There has been much recent algorithmic work on the problem of reconstructing the evolutionary history of biological species. Computer virus specialists are interested in finding the evolutionary history of computer viruses--a virus is often written using code fragments from one or more other viruses, which are its immediate ancestors. A phylogeny for a collection of computer viruses is a directed acyclic graph whose nodes are the viruses and whose edges map ancestors to descendants and satisfy the property that each code fragment is ``invented`` only once. To provide a simple explanation for the data, we consider the problem of constructing such a phylogeny with a minimal number of edges. In general, this optimization problem cannot be solved in quasi-polynomial time unless NQP=QP; we present positive and negative results for associated approximated problems. When tree solutions exist, they can be constructed and randomly sampled in polynomial time.

Goldberg, L.A. [Warwick Univ., Coventry (United Kingdom) Dept. of Computer Science; Goldberg, P.W. [Aston Univ., Birmingham (United Kingdom) Dept. of Applied Mathematics; Phillips, C.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sorkin, G.B. [International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (United States). Thomas J. Watson Research Center

1996-03-01

175

Biological Nanomachines: Viruses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although nanotechnology is a new and emerging field, nanoscale structures are not new. Small molecules such as water, large molecules such as proteins, and larger, more complex objects such as viruses and nanotubes are naturally occurring and exist all around us. Viruses are particularly interesting nanoscale objects because of their precise geometrical shape, their self-assembling capability, and their fascinating ability to invade cells and alter their function. Nanoscale science researchers are studying virus properties with the aim of developing new treatments for human disease. The virus is also being studied as a model for how to make materials and engineer products at the nanoscsale through a process called "self-assembly." In this investigation, students create an icosahedral virus model and consider how virus structure and behavior could be mimicked in nanotechnology applications. This free selection includes the Table of Contents, Acknowledgments, a Dedication page, and an Introduction.

Taylor, Amy R.; Broadwell, Bethany P.; Jones, M. G.; Falvo, Michael R.

2007-01-01

176

Virus trafficking – learning from single-virus tracking  

PubMed Central

What could be a better way to study virus trafficking than ‘miniaturizing oneself’ and ‘taking a ride with the virus particle’ on its journey into the cell? Single-virus tracking in living cells potentially provides us with the means to visualize the virus journey. This approach allows us to follow the fate of individual virus particles and monitor dynamic interactions between viruses and cellular structures, revealing previously unobservable infection steps. The entry, trafficking and egress mechanisms of various animal viruses have been elucidated using this method. The combination of single-virus trafficking with systems approaches and state-of-the-art imaging technologies should prove exciting in the future. PMID:17304249

Brandenburg, Boerries; Zhuang, Xiaowei

2009-01-01

177

About Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs)  

MedlinePLUS

... Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) Share Compartir About Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) Overview Describes HPIVs, who is at risk, symptoms, how the viruses spread... Symptoms & Illnesses Lists symptoms and illnesses caused ...

178

The human oncogenic viruses  

SciTech Connect

This book contains eight selections. The titles are: Cytogenetics of the Leukemias and Lymphomas; Cytogenetics of Solid Tumors: Renal Cell Carcinoma, Malignant Melanoma, Retinoblastoma, and Wilms' Tumor; Elucidation of a Normal Function for a Human Proto-Oncogene; Detection of HSV-2 Genes and Gene Products in Cervical Neoplasia; Papillomaviruses in Anogennital Neoplasms; Human Epstein-Barr Virus and Cancer; Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatocellular Carcinoma; and Kaposi's Sarcoma: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Associated Viruses.

Luderer, A.A.; Weetall, H.H

1986-01-01

179

Herpes Simplex Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) are two of the eight known viruses that make up\\u000a the human herpesvirus family. As with all herpesviruses, they are large, enveloped virions with an icosahedral nucleocapsid\\u000a consisting of 162 capsomeres arranged around a linear, double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) core. The DNAs of HSV-1\\u000a and HSV-2 are

David W. Kimberlin

180

CDC: West Nile Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site contains the most recent West Nile virus data from the Centers for Disease Control. The main features include a 2003 Human Case Count and updated maps representing the spread of the virus. A downloadable document outlines the CDC's West Nile virus surveillance and control program, which involves weekly data collection for wild birds, sentinel chicken flocks, human cases, veterinary cases, and mosquito surveillance. The site also provides links to general information about the virus, from the ecology and virology of West Nile to epidemiological and laboratory issues.

2007-12-12

181

CDC: West Nile Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site contains the most recent West Nile virus data from the Centers for Disease Control. The main features include a 2003 Human Case Count and updated maps representing the spread of the virus. A downloadable document outlines the CDC's West Nile virus surveillance and control program, which involves weekly data collection for wild birds, sentinel chicken flocks, human cases, veterinary cases, and mosquito surveillance. The site also provides links to general information about the virus, from the ecology and virology of West Nile to epidemiological and laboratory issues.

182

Tracking a Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students simulate the spread of a virus such as HIV through a population by "sharing" (but not drinking) the water in a plastic cup with several classmates. Although invisible, the water in a few of the cups has already be tainted with the "virus" (sodium carbonate). After all the students have shared their liquids, the contents of the cups are tested for the virus with phenolphthalein, a chemical that causes a striking color change in the presence of sodium carbonate. Students then set about trying to determine which of their classmates were the ones originally infected with the virus.

Engineering K-Phd Program

183

Deformed wing virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deformed wing virus (DWV; Iflaviridae) is one of many viruses infecting honeybees and one of the most heavily investigated due to its close association with honeybee colony collapse induced by Varroadestructor. In the absence of V.destructor DWV infection does not result in visible symptoms or any apparent negative impact on host fitness. However, for reasons that are still not fully

Joachim R. de Miranda; Elke Genersch

2010-01-01

184

Making Better Influenza Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Killed and live influenza virus vaccines are effective in preventing and curbing the spread of disease, but new technologies such as reverse genetics could be used to improve them and to shorten the lengthy process of prepar- ing vaccine seed viruses. By taking advantage of these new technologies, we could develop live vaccines that would be safe, cross-protective against variant

Peter Palese

2006-01-01

185

Positive reinforcement for viruses  

PubMed Central

Summary Virus-cell membrane fusion requires a critical transition from positive to negative membrane curvature. St. Vincent et al., in PNAS (St Vincent, et al., 2010), designed a class of antivirals that targets this transition. These Rigid Amphipathic Fusion Inhibitors are active against an array of enveloped viruses. PMID:21035726

Vigant, Frederic; Jung, Michael; Lee, Benhur

2010-01-01

186

Lettuce Necrotic Yellows Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A DESTRUCTIVE virus disease of lettuce, causing extensive crop losses sometimes as high as 100 per cent, was recognized in Victoria in 1954 as being distinct from the lettuce mosaic disease. Until 1959, however, all attempts to transmit the virus to lettuce with aphids which commonly infest lettuce, with thrips, leaf-hoppers and sap inoculation methods were unsuccessful. In that year

L. L. Stubbs; R. G. GROGAN

1963-01-01

187

Ebola virus disease epidemic.  

PubMed

The Ebola virus disease epidemic now constitutes an international public health emergency. Occupational and environmental health nurses can collaborate with international colleagues to halt Ebola virus transmission within Africa, protect workers from exposures, and prevent another pandemic. [Workplace Health Saf 2014;62(11):484.]. PMID:25373029

Phillips, Jennan A

2014-11-01

188

Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) A parent's guide to condition and treatment information A A A Though more common near the lips, ... eruption of skin or mouth sores with the herpes simplex virus (HSV) is called primary herpes. This may ...

189

The hepatitis B virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA recombinant technology has radically changed hepatitis B virus (HBV) virology. The genetic organization, transcription and replication of the virus are basically understood, structures of integrated HBV sequences in hepatocellular carcinoma have been characterized, and new vaccines produced by recombinant DNA technique are being developed.

Pierre Tiollais; Christine Pourcel; Anne Dejean

1985-01-01

190

Virus persistence in groundwater.  

PubMed Central

More than 50% of the outbreaks of waterborne disease in the United States are due to the consumption of contaminated groundwater. An estimated 65% of the cases in these outbreaks are caused by enteric viruses. Little, however, is known about the persistence of viruses in groundwater. The purpose of this study was to determine whether measurable chemical and physical factors correlate with virus survival in groundwater. Groundwater samples were obtained from 11 sites throughout the United States. Water temperature was measured at the time of collection. Several physical and chemical characteristics, including pH, nitrates, turbidity, and hardness, were determined for each sample. Separate water samples were inoculated with each of three viruses (poliovirus 1, echovirus 1, and MS-2 coliphage) and incubated at the in situ groundwater temperature; selected samples were also incubated at other temperatures. Assays were performed at predetermined intervals over a 30-day period to determine the number of infective viruses remaining. Multiple regression analysis revealed that temperature was the only variable significantly correlated with the decay rates of all three viruses. No significant differences were found among the decay rates of the three viruses, an indication that MS-2 coliphage might be used as a model of animal virus survival in groundwater. PMID:4004211

Yates, M V; Gerba, C P; Kelley, L M

1985-01-01

191

Schmallenberg Virus as Possible Ancestor of Shamonda Virus  

PubMed Central

Schmallenberg virus (SBV), an orthobunyavirus of the Simbu serogroup, recently emerged in Europe and has been suggested to be a Shamonda/Sathuperi virus reassortant. Results of full-genome and serologic investigations indicate that SBV belongs to the species Sathuperi virus and is a possible ancestor of the reassortant Shamonda virus. PMID:23017842

Goller, Katja V.; Hoper, Dirk; Schirrmeier, Horst; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.

2012-01-01

192

Eragrostis minor streak virus: an Asian streak virus in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genus Mastrevirus of the single-stranded DNA virus family Geminiviridae consists of four distinct virus lineages that have been sampled in different parts of the Old World. These include the Panicoideae-infecting African streak viruses (ten described species including the geographical outlier, Digitaria streak virus [DSV] from Vanuatu) and Australian striate mosaic viruses (three described species), the dicotyledonous-plant-infecting mastreviruses (seven described

Darren P. Martin; Daphne Linderme; Pierre Lefeuvre; Dionne N. Shepherd; Arvind Varsani

2011-01-01

193

Review article PRRSV, the virus  

E-print Network

Abstract ­ Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a positive-strand RNA virus developed infectious cDNA clone of PRRSV. PRRSV / genome organisation / structural protein / infectious cDNA clone Résumé ­ Syndrome dysgénésique et respiratoire porcin, le virus. Le virus du syndrome dys

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

194

Pacui Virus, Rio Preto da Eva Virus, and Tapirape Virus, Three Distinct Viruses within the Family Bunyaviridae  

PubMed Central

Nearly complete genome sequences for three ungrouped viruses, Pacui virus (BEAN27326), Rio Preto da Eva virus (BEAR540870), and Tapirape virus (BEAN767592) isolated in the Amazon region are reported here. All three genomic segments (small, medium and large RNA) were recovered and were similar to members of the genus Orthobunyavirus. PMID:25395627

Medeiros, Daniele Barbosa de Almeida; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Martins, Livia Caricio; de Lima, Clayton Pereira Silva; de Oliveira, Layanna Freitas; de Vasconcelos, Janaina Mota; Da Silva, Daisy Elaine; Cardoso, Jedson Ferreira; da Silva, Sandro Patroca; Vianez-Júnior, João Lídio da Silva Gonçalves; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

2014-01-01

195

Influenza virus isolation.  

PubMed

The isolation of influenza viruses is important for the diagnosis of respiratory diseases in lower animals and humans, for the detection of the infecting agent in surveillance programs, and is an essential element in the development and production of vaccine. Since influenza is caused by a zoonotic virus it is necessary to do surveillance in the reservoir species (aquatic waterfowls), intermediate hosts (quails, pigs), and in affected mammals including humans. Two of the hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes of influenza A viruses (H5 and H7) can evolve into highly pathogenic (HP) strains for gallinaceous poultry; some HP H5 and H7 strains cause lethal infection of humans. In waterfowls, low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) isolates are obtained primarily from the cloaca (or feces); in domestic poultry, the virus is more often recovered from the respiratory tract than from cloacal samples; in mammals, the virus is most often isolated from the respiratory tract, and in cases of high pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) from the blood and internal organs of infected birds. Virus isolation procedures are performed by inoculation of clinical specimens into embryonated eggs (primarily chicken eggs) or onto a variety of primary or continuous tissue culture systems. Successful isolation of influenza virus depends on the quality of the sample and matching the appropriate culture method to the sample type. PMID:22528151

Krauss, Scott; Walker, David; Webster, Robert G

2012-01-01

196

Viruses in reptiles  

PubMed Central

The etiology of reptilian viral diseases can be attributed to a wide range of viruses occurring across different genera and families. Thirty to forty years ago, studies of viruses in reptiles focused mainly on the zoonotic potential of arboviruses in reptiles and much effort went into surveys and challenge trials of a range of reptiles with eastern and western equine encephalitis as well as Japanese encephalitis viruses. In the past decade, outbreaks of infection with West Nile virus in human populations and in farmed alligators in the USA has seen the research emphasis placed on the issue of reptiles, particularly crocodiles and alligators, being susceptible to, and reservoirs for, this serious zoonotic disease. Although there are many recognised reptilian viruses, the evidence for those being primary pathogens is relatively limited. Transmission studies establishing pathogenicity and cofactors are likewise scarce, possibly due to the relatively low commercial importance of reptiles, difficulties with the availability of animals and permits for statistically sound experiments, difficulties with housing of reptiles in an experimental setting or the inability to propagate some viruses in cell culture to sufficient titres for transmission studies. Viruses as causes of direct loss of threatened species, such as the chelonid fibropapilloma associated herpesvirus and ranaviruses in farmed and wild tortoises and turtles, have re-focused attention back to the characterisation of the viruses as well as diagnosis and pathogenesis in the host itself. 1. Introduction 2. Methods for working with reptilian viruses 3. Reptilian viruses described by virus families 3.1. Herpesviridae 3.2. Iridoviridae 3.2.1 Ranavirus 3.2.2 Erythrocytic virus 3.2.3 Iridovirus 3.3. Poxviridae 3.4. Adenoviridae 3.5. Papillomaviridae 3.6. Parvoviridae 3.7. Reoviridae 3.8. Retroviridae and inclusion body disease of Boid snakes 3.9. Arboviruses 3.9.1. Flaviviridae 3.9.2. Togaviridae 3.10. Caliciviridae 3.11. Picornaviridae 3.12. Paramyxoviridae 4. Summary 5. Acknowledgements 6. Competing interests 7. References PMID:21933449

2011-01-01

197

Avoiding Computer Viruses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The threat of computer sabotage is a real concern to business teachers and others responsible for academic computer facilities. Teachers can minimize the possibility. Eight suggestions for avoiding computer viruses are given. (JOW)

Rowe, Joyce; And Others

1989-01-01

198

Feline immunodeficiency virus latency  

E-print Network

HIV-1, Feline, Animal model, Antilatency therapy, Reservoirto test this therapy in an animal model of lentiviraltherapy (reactivating latent virus to purge the reservoir) is to progress, use of an animal

McDonnel, Samantha J; Sparger, Ellen E; Murphy, Brian G

2013-01-01

199

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)  

MedlinePLUS

... RSV often spreads quickly in crowded households and day care centers. The virus can live for a half ... The following increase the risk for RSV: Attending day care Being near tobacco smoke Having school-aged brothers ...

200

Ebola virus (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Ebola is a virus-caused disease limited to parts of Africa. Within a week, a raised rash, often hemorrhagic (bleeding), spreads over the body. Bleeding from the mucous membranes is typical causing apparent bleeding from the mouth, ...

201

VIRUS instrument enclosures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument will be installed at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope† in the near future. The instrument will be housed in two enclosures that are mounted adjacent to the telescope, via the VIRUS Support Structure (VSS). We have designed the enclosures to support and protect the instrument, to enable servicing of the instrument, and to cool the instrument appropriately while not adversely affecting the dome environment. The system uses simple HVAC air handling techniques in conjunction with thermoelectric and standard glycol heat exchangers to provide efficient heat removal. The enclosures also provide power and data transfer to and from each VIRUS unit, liquid nitrogen cooling to the detectors, and environmental monitoring of the instrument and dome environments. In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication of the VIRUS enclosures and their subsystems.

Prochaska, T.; Allen, R.; Mondrik, N.; Rheault, J. P.; Sauseda, M.; Boster, E.; James, M.; Rodriguez-Patino, M.; Torres, G.; Ham, J.; Cook, E.; Baker, D.; DePoy, Darren L.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Hill, G. J.; Perry, D.; Savage, R. D.; Good, J. M.; Vattiat, Brian L.

2014-08-01

202

Dengue Virus Diagnostics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Dengue fever (DF) is an emerging arborviral disease caused by infection with dengue virus (DENV) which has emerged as the\\u000a most important vector-borne viral disease in tropical areas and it continues to expand geographically. The four serotypes\\u000a of DENV that cause human disease are transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Expansion in geographic distribution of both viruses\\u000a and mosquito vectors, has led

Evgeni Eltzov; Danit Atias; Levi Gheber; Robert S. Marks

203

MEDLINEPlus: Monkeypox Virus Infections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Readers can keep up with the latest developments in the Monkeypox outbreak with this straightforward Web site from MEDLINEplus. The site features the latest Monkeypox news as well as links to authoritative sites for background information about the virus. Readers will also find information on prevention and screening, updated statistics on the outbreak from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, and more. The site also includes a downloadable electron micrograph of the Monkeypox virus.

204

AVG Anti-Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Those who wish for an antivirus program that is both versatile and reliable should definitely consider this latest iteration of the AVG Anti-Virus program. With this program, visitors can be assured that AVG will look for new virus definitions on a daily basis and that it will also create an effective rescue disk in case a dire situation emerges. This website features a number of archived versions of the AVG software for users to choose from.

2008-01-01

205

Origins of Viruses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page is part of a site created as a supplement for an introduction to virology course for second year microbiology students. It includes discussions on the origins of viruses as well as how they might have evolved. There are several links to pertinent conceptial matter such as basics on the different types of viruses as well as a link to the course home page.

Rybicki, Ed; Town, University O.

206

Rapid Detection and Quantification of RNA of Ebola and Marburg Viruses, Lassa Virus, Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Rift Valley Fever Virus, Dengue Virus, and Yellow Fever Virus by Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are acute infections with high case fatality rates. Important VHF agents are Ebola and Marburg viruses (MBGV\\/EBOV), Lassa virus (LASV), Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), dengue virus (DENV), and yellow fever virus (YFV). VHFs are clinically difficult to diagnose and to distinguish; a rapid and reliable laboratory diagnosis is required in

Christian Drosten; Stephan Göttig; Stefan Schilling; Marcel Asper; Marcus Panning; Herbert Schmitz; Stephan Günther

2002-01-01

207

Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans  

MedlinePLUS

... What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Language: English Español Share ... Human Infection with Avian Influenza A Viruses Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Although avian influenza A viruses ...

208

Ebola virus-like particles prevent lethal Ebola virus infection  

E-print Network

... successfully immunized mice against Ebola virus using virus-like particles ... exposed to lethal doses of Ebola . The work could serve as ... basis for developing countermeasures to Ebola , which causes hemorrhagic fever with ...

209

Recombinant Vaccinia Virus: Immunization against Multiple Pathogens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coding sequences for the hepatitis B virus surface antigen, the herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D, and the influenza virus hemagglutinin were inserted into a single vaccinia virus genome. Rabbits inoculated intravenously or intradermally with this polyvalent vaccinia virus recombinant produced antibodies reactive to all three authentic foreign antigens. In addition, the feasibility of multiple rounds of vaccination with recombinant vaccinia virus was demonstrated.

Perkus, Marion E.; Piccini, Antonia; Lipinskas, Bernard R.; Paoletti, Enzo

1985-09-01

210

Molecular characterization of African swine fever virus isolates originating from outbreaks in the Russian Federation between 2007 and 2011.  

PubMed

African swine fever is one of the most important viral diseases of pigs and which caused significant economic damage on the pig production worldwide. Nowadays, it is still present on the African continent, in Transcaucasus countries (TCC), on Island of Sardinia and in Russia. Outbreaks of the disease have been reported in Russia for the last four years, affected especially the Southern Federal District of the country. Since 2010, a new outbreak area has been observed in the Northwestern Federal District. In order to study the evolution of African swine fever virus (ASFV) isolates, strains were collected in the Russian Federation from 2007 to 2011 and investigated by means of partial sequencing and fragment length polymorphism. In detail, 7 variable regions, namely B646L, E183L, I196L, B602L, I73R/I329R, I78R/I215L and KP86R were investigated. Phylogenetic analyses revealed 100% nucleotide identity of B646L and E183L gene sequences of all examined isolates. All isolates formed one genetic cluster within genotype II. Moreover, no amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was observed for B602L, I196L, I73R/I329R, and I78R/I215L genes. The flanking primers used to amplify the KP86R gene failed to amplify a product in all the isolates. The obtained data strongly suggests that only one ASFV virus variant caused the outbreaks from 2007 to 2011 in the territory of the Russian Federation. PMID:22445729

Malogolovkin, Alexander; Yelsukova, Alexandra; Gallardo, Carmina; Tsybanov, Sodnom; Kolbasov, Denis

2012-08-17

211

Immunology of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 500 million people worldwide are persistently infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and\\/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) and are at risk of developing chronic liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite many common features in the pathogenesis of HBV- and HCV-related liver disease, these viruses markedly differ in their virological properties and in their immune escape and

Michelina Nascimbeni; Barbara Rehermann

2005-01-01

212

Production of virus resistant plants  

DOEpatents

A method of suppressing virus gene expression in plants using untranslatable plus sense RNA is disclosed. The method is useful for the production of plants that are resistant to virus infection. 9 figs.

Dougherty, W.G.; Lindbo, J.A.

1996-12-10

213

Studies Relating to Virus Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Fifty years' effort to control virus infections in the USSR; Thirtieth anniversary of the discovery of the causative agent of tick-borne encephalitis; Relationship between the effect of ionizing radiation on the course of virus infections and th...

O. V. Baroyan, E. N. Levkovich, A. G. Moroz

1968-01-01

214

Chlorella viruses isolated in China  

SciTech Connect

Plaque-forming viruses of the unicellular, eukaryotic, exsymbiotic, Chlorella-like green algae strain NC64A, which are common in the United States, were also present in fresh water collected in the People's Republic of China. Seven of the Chinese viruses were examined in detail and compared with the Chlorella viruses previously isolated in the United States. Like the American viruses, the Chinese viruses were large polyhedra and sensitive to chloroform. They contained numerous structural proteins and large double-stranded DNA genomes of at least 300 kilobase pairs. Each of the DNAs from the Chinese viruses contained 5-methyldeoxycytosine, which varied from 12.6 to 46.7% of the deoxycytosine, and N{sup 6}-methyldeoxyadenosine, which varied from 2.2 to 28.3% of the deoxyadenosine. Four of the Chinese virus DNAs hybridized extensively with {sup 32}P-labeled DNA from the American virus PBCV-1, and three hybridized poorly.

Zhang, Y.; Burbank, D.E.; Van Etten, J.L. (Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln (USA))

1988-09-01

215

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV): Diagnosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content ... t need to visit a healthcare provider. The virus generally runs its course with the help of ...

216

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV): Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content ... get beter. Good handwashing can prevent spread the virus. In more severe cases, people with RSV might ...

217

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV): Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content ... to six days after being exposed to the virus. However, RSV can be particularly dangerous in premature ...

218

Jaloro': A New Multiple Virus Resistant Hot Yellow Jalapeno Pepper.  

E-print Network

per cultivars are susceptible to to bacco etch virus (TEV), potato virus Y (PVY), pepper mottle virus (PeMV), tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), and Texas pepper gemini virus (TPGV). Some yellow types exhibit a local... per cultivars are susceptible to to bacco etch virus (TEV), potato virus Y (PVY), pepper mottle virus (PeMV), tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), and Texas pepper gemini virus (TPGV). Some yellow types exhibit a local...

Villalon, Benigno

1992-01-01

219

An introduction to computer viruses  

SciTech Connect

This report on computer viruses is based upon a thesis written for the Master of Science degree in Computer Science from the University of Tennessee in December 1989 by David R. Brown. This thesis is entitled An Analysis of Computer Virus Construction, Proliferation, and Control and is available through the University of Tennessee Library. This paper contains an overview of the computer virus arena that can help the reader to evaluate the threat that computer viruses pose. The extent of this threat can only be determined by evaluating many different factors. These factors include the relative ease with which a computer virus can be written, the motivation involved in writing a computer virus, the damage and overhead incurred by infected systems, and the legal implications of computer viruses, among others. Based upon the research, the development of a computer virus seems to require more persistence than technical expertise. This is a frightening proclamation to the computing community. The education of computer professionals to the dangers that viruses pose to the welfare of the computing industry as a whole is stressed as a means of inhibiting the current proliferation of computer virus programs. Recommendations are made to assist computer users in preventing infection by computer viruses. These recommendations support solid general computer security practices as a means of combating computer viruses.

Brown, D.R.

1992-03-01

220

Epstein-Barr virus test  

MedlinePLUS

Epstein-Barr virus test is a blood test to detect antibodies to the Epstein-Barr virus ( EBV ) antigens. See also: Monospot test ... specialist looks for antibodies to the Epstein-Barr virus. In the first stages of an illness, little ...

221

Protecting Your Computer from Viruses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computer virus is defined as a software program capable of reproducing itself and usually capable of causing great harm to files or other programs on the same computer. The existence of computer viruses--or the necessity of avoiding viruses--is part of using a computer. With the advent of the Internet, the door was opened wide for these…

Descy, Don E.

2006-01-01

222

Neuroinvasion by Chandipura virus.  

PubMed

Chandipura virus (CHPV) is an arthropod borne rhabdovirus associated with acute encephalitis in children below the age of 15 years in the tropical states of India. Although the entry of the virus into the nervous system is among the crucial events in the pathogenesis of CHPV, the exact mechanism allowing CHPV to invade the central nervous system (CNS) is currently poorly understood. In the present review, based on the knowledge of host interactors previously predicted for CHPV, along with the support from experimental data available for other encephalitic viruses, the authors have speculated the various plausible modes by which CHPV could surpass the blood-brain barrier and invade the CNS to cause encephalitis whilst evading the host immune surveillance. Collectively, this review provides a conservative set of potential interactions that can be employed for future experimental validation with a view to better understand the neuropathogenesis of CHPV. PMID:24713200

Rajasekharan, Sreejith; Rana, Jyoti; Gulati, Sahil; Gupta, Vandana; Gupta, Sanjay

2014-07-01

223

Sediment features, macrozoobenthic assemblages and trophic relationships (delta13C and delta15N analysis) following a dystrophic event with anoxia and sulphide development in the Santa Giusta lagoon (western Sardinia, Italy).  

PubMed

Macrozoobenthic assemblages and stable carbon (delta(13)C) and nitrogen (delta(15)N) isotope values of various primary producers (macroalgae and angiosperms) and consumers (macroinvertebrate filter/suspension feeders, deposit feeders, detritivores/omnivores and carnivores and fishes) were studied in the Santa Giusta lagoon (Sardinia, Italy) before (spring) and after (autumn) a dystrophic event which occurred in the summer of 2004. A few days after the dystrophy, the physico-chemical characteristics of sediments and macrozoobenthic assemblages were also investigated. In the latter occasion, high total organic carbon (3.9%) and organic matter (15.9%) contents of surface sediments went together with peaks in acid-volatile sulphide concentrations. Certain immediate effects were quite extreme, such as the drastic reduction in macrozoobenthos and the massive fish kill in August 2004. Among the macrozoobenthos, there were few individuals of chironomid larvae and Capitella cf. capitata left. However, by October, chironomid larvae were numerous, indicating a lack of predators (e.g. fish) and competitors. In addition, some bivalve species and polychaetes which were absent, or present in small numbers before the event, became relatively numerous. The results are discussed based on a knowledge of the sulphide tolerance of these species. Stable isotope analysis clearly showed that the basal level of the food web for most consumers consisted mainly of macroalgae and sedimentary organic matter, and that the values before and after the dystrophic event were not significantly different from one another. This indicates that the relations among different trophic levels were quickly restored following the dystrophic event. PMID:18093619

Magni, P; Rajagopal, S; van der Velde, G; Fenzi, G; Kassenberg, J; Vizzini, S; Mazzola, A; Giordani, G

2008-01-01

224

Herpes Virus Amplicon Vectors  

PubMed Central

Since its emergence onto the gene therapy scene nearly 25 years ago, the replication-defective Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1 (HSV-1) amplicon has gained significance as a versatile gene transfer platform due to its extensive transgene capacity, widespread cellular tropism, minimal immunogenicity, and its amenability to genetic manipulation. Herein, we detail the recent advances made with respect to the design of the HSV amplicon, its numerous in vitro and in vivo applications, and the current impediments this virus-based gene transfer platform faces as it navigates a challenging path towards future clinical testing. PMID:19956558

de Silva, Suresh; Bowers, William J.

2009-01-01

225

Fragg Virus - Kinetic City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Fragg Virus is a learning module centered learning the importance of systems; it is a part of the Kinetic City-Mission to Vearth site. In general this module is concerned with how different parts work within a system. The Fragg Virus module is equipped with a computer simulation mind game, creative writing exercises for independent study, and art-centered exercises, as well as lesson plans for hands on games and activities designed for a group. The focus of the activities is evolution and the features of an animal that helps the animal survive in its environment. Certain features explored are the giraffes neck, polar bears fir, and a birds beak.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)

2008-04-17

226

Jun?n Virus Pathogenesis and Virus Replication  

PubMed Central

Junín virus, the etiological agent of Argentine hemorrhagic fever, causes significant morbidity and mortality. The virus is spread through the aerosolization of host rodent excreta and endemic to the humid pampas of Argentina. Recently, significant progress has been achieved with the development of new technologies (e.g. reverse genetics) that have expanded knowledge about the pathogenesis and viral replication of Junín virus. We will review the pathogenesis of Junín virus in various animal models and the role of innate and adaptive immunity during infection. We will highlight current research regarding the role of molecular biology of Junín virus in elucidating virus attenuation. We will also summarize current knowledge on Junín virus pathogenesis focusing on the recent development of vaccines and potential therapeutics. PMID:23202466

Grant, Ashley; Seregin, Alexey; Huang, Cheng; Kolokoltsova, Olga; Brasier, Allan; Peters, Clarence; Paessler, Slobodan

2012-01-01

227

Infectious virus-antibody complexes of sindbis virus.  

PubMed Central

Infectious virus-antibody complexes were formed when Sindbis virus was reacted with antibodies raised against purified viral envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 as well as against preparations of intact virus. Results from rate zonal centrifugation in sucrose gradients of the complex formed with anti-E1 sera showed this complex to be about the same size as virions. A test of virus neutralization, based on direct plaque assay, by antibodies raised in rabbits and mice given virus in complete Freund adjuvant indicated the presence of antibodies able to complex but not neutralize virus. Conditions were found in which most of the virus was complexed and protected fron neutralization, suggesting that these sera may contain a mixed population of antiviral antibodies with different specificities and different avidities. PMID:870428

Symington, J; McCann, A K; Schlesinger, M J

1977-01-01

228

Additional hosts of alfalfa mosaic virus, cucumber mosaic virus, and tobacco mosaic virus in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

In New Zealand, alfalfa mosaic virus is recorded on three new field crop hosts, Cajanus cajan (L.) Huth, Coriandrum sativum L., and Wasabia japonica (Miquel) Matsum. Cucumber mosaic virus is recorded on the weeds Cirsium vulgare L. and Veronica persica Poiret and on the ornamental perennial Gentiana sp. Tobacco mosaic virus is recorded on sunflower Helianthus annuus L.

J. D. Fletcher

1989-01-01

229

RNA viruses in the sea.  

PubMed

Viruses are ubiquitous in the sea and appear to outnumber all other forms of marine life by at least an order of magnitude. Through selective infection, viruses influence nutrient cycling, community structure, and evolution in the ocean. Over the past 20 years we have learned a great deal about the diversity and ecology of the viruses that constitute the marine virioplankton, but until recently the emphasis has been on DNA viruses. Along with expanding knowledge about RNA viruses that infect important marine animals, recent isolations of RNA viruses that infect single-celled eukaryotes and molecular analyses of the RNA virioplankton have revealed that marine RNA viruses are novel, widespread, and genetically diverse. Discoveries in marine RNA virology are broadening our understanding of the biology, ecology, and evolution of viruses, and the epidemiology of viral diseases, but there is still much that we need to learn about the ecology and diversity of RNA viruses before we can fully appreciate their contributions to the dynamics of marine ecosystems. As a step toward making sense of how RNA viruses contribute to the extraordinary viral diversity in the sea, we summarize in this review what is currently known about RNA viruses that infect marine organisms. PMID:19243445

Lang, Andrew S; Rise, Matthew L; Culley, Alexander I; Steward, Grieg F

2009-03-01

230

Bat flight and zoonotic viruses  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host–virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts.

O'Shea, Thomas; Cryan, Paul M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hayman, David T.S.; Luis, Angela D.; Peel, Alison J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Wood, James L.N.

2014-01-01

231

From Shakespeare to Viruses  

ScienceCinema

Berkeley Lab scientists have created a unique new tool for analyzing and comparing long sets of data, be it the genomes of mammals or viruses, or the works of Shakespeare. The results of the Shakespeare analysis surprised scholars with their accuracy

Sung-Hou Kim

2010-01-08

232

From Shakespeare to Viruses  

SciTech Connect

Berkeley Lab scientists have created a unique new tool for analyzing and comparing long sets of data, be it the genomes of mammals or viruses, or the works of Shakespeare. The results of the Shakespeare analysis surprised scholars with their accuracy

Sung-Hou Kim

2009-02-09

233

Virus-associated arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of arthritis in patients who were infected by a virus has been widely observed. In some cases, the clinical appearance seems to resemble that of rheumatoid arthritis. The mechanism by which the viral infection proceeds to the arthritic manifestation is, however, still to be investigated. Several biological and immunological pathways are suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis.

Kusuki Nishioka

2003-01-01

234

Yellow Fever Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

A sequential and quantitative survey of brain and liver of suckling mice for infective virus and complement-fixing antigen, after infection with yellow fever virus, showed that while there was progressive increase of infective virus content in both organs, only the brain showed a corresponding rise in CF antigen. Histopathological examination revealed that the liver was not significantly involved. The target organ was the brain, where the progressive pathological changes culminated in an acute encephalitis by the 3rd day of experiment. Organ destruction began with the molecular layer of the grey matter. But by the 4th day after infection the entire cerebral cortex was involved. At the initial stages the hippocampus was particularly affected. Tissue damage did not appear to be entirely due to the differential quantitative localization of infective virus. It was hypothesized that the CF antigen acting singly or in conjunction with some hypothetical proteins may be principally involved in the pathological outcome of the disease. ImagesFigs. 7-9Figs. 3-6 PMID:5582071

David-West, Tam. S.; Smith, J. A.

1971-01-01

235

West Nile virus  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To provide primary care physicians with an understanding of West Nile virus in North America. This article focuses on epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and prevention of infection. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE MEDLINE and EMBASE searches revealed epidemiologic, surveillance, cohort, and outcome studies providing level II evidence. There were no randomized controlled trials of treatment. Recommended prevention and treatment strategies are based on level II and III evidence. MAIN MESSAGE The mosquito-borne virus that first appeared on this continent in 1999 is now prevalent throughout North America. Most infections are asymptomatic. Fewer than 1% of those infected develop severe illness; 3% to 15% of those with severe illness die. While methods for controlling the mosquito population are available, we lack evidence that they reduce infection in the general human population. Family physicians have an important role in advising their patients on ways to prevent infection and in identifying patients who might be infected with West Nile virus. CONCLUSION The general population is at low risk of West Nile virus infection. Prevention of infection rests on controlling the mosquito population and educating people on how to protect themselves against mosquito bites. PMID:15986939

MacDonald, Russell D.; Krym, Valerie F.

2005-01-01

236

Toscana Virus in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toscana virus (TOSV, Phlebovirus, family Bunya- viridae) infection is one of the most prevalent arboviruses in Spain. Within the objectives of a multidisciplinary network, a study on the epidemiology of TOSV was conducted in Granada, in southern Spain. The overall seroprevalence rate was 24.9%, significantly increasing with age. TOSV was detected in 3 of 103 sandfly pools by viral culture

Sara Sanbonmatsu-Gámez; Mercedes Pérez-Ruiz; Ximena Collao; María Paz Sánchez-Seco; Francisco Morillas-Márquez; Manuel de la Rosa-Fraile; José María Navarro-Marí; Antonio Tenorio

2005-01-01

237

Antibodies, viruses and vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutralizing antibodies are crucial for vaccine-mediated protection against viral diseases. They probably act, in most cases, by blunting the infection, which is then resolved by cellular immunity. The protective effects of neutralizing antibodies can be achieved not only by neutralization of free virus particles, but also by several activities directed against infected cells. In certain instances, non-neutralizing antibodies contribute to

Dennis R. Burton

2002-01-01

238

Human Viruses and Cancer  

PubMed Central

The first human tumor virus was discovered in the middle of the last century by Anthony Epstein, Bert Achong and Yvonne Barr in African pediatric patients with Burkitt’s lymphoma. To date, seven viruses -EBV, KSHV, high-risk HPV, MCPV, HBV, HCV and HTLV1- have been consistently linked to different types of human cancer, and infections are estimated to account for up to 20% of all cancer cases worldwide. Viral oncogenic mechanisms generally include: generation of genomic instability, increase in the rate of cell proliferation, resistance to apoptosis, alterations in DNA repair mechanisms and cell polarity changes, which often coexist with evasion mechanisms of the antiviral immune response. Viral agents also indirectly contribute to the development of cancer mainly through immunosuppression or chronic inflammation, but also through chronic antigenic stimulation. There is also evidence that viruses can modulate the malignant properties of an established tumor. In the present work, causation criteria for viruses and cancer will be described, as well as the viral agents that comply with these criteria in human tumors, their epidemiological and biological characteristics, the molecular mechanisms by which they induce cellular transformation and their associated cancers. PMID:25341666

Morales-Sanchez, Abigail; Fuentes-Panana, Ezequiel M.

2014-01-01

239

Turnip Yellow Mosaic Virus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The bumpy exterior of the turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) protein coat, or capsid, was defined in detail by Dr. Alexander McPherson of the University of California, Irvin using proteins crystallized in space for analysis on Earth. TYMV is an icosahedral virus constructed from 180 copies of the same protein arranged into 12 clusters of five proteins (pentamers), and 20 clusters of six proteins (hexamers). The final TYMV structure led to the unexpected hypothesis that the virus releases its RNA by essentially chemical-mechanical means. Most viruses have fairly flat coats, but in TYNV, the fold in each protein, called the jellyroll, is clustered at the points where the protein pentamers and hexamers join. The jellyrolls are almost standing on end, producing a bumpy surface with knobs at all of the pentamers and hexamers. At the inside surface of the pentamers is a void that is not present at the hexamers. The coating had been seen in early stuties of TYMV, but McPherson's atomic structure shows much more detail. The inside surface is strikingly, and unexpectedly, different than the outside. While the pentamers contain a central void on the inside, the hexameric units contain peptides linked to each other, forming a ring or, more accurately, rings to fill the void. Credit: Dr. Alexander McPherson, University of California, Irvine

2000-01-01

240

Viruses of haloarchaea.  

PubMed

In hypersaline environments, haloarchaea (halophilic members of the Archaea) are the dominant organisms, and the viruses that infect them, haloarchaeoviruses are at least ten times more abundant. Since their discovery in 1974, described haloarchaeoviruses include head-tailed, pleomorphic, spherical and spindle-shaped morphologies, representing Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae, Pleolipoviridae, Sphaerolipoviridae and Fuselloviridae families. This review overviews current knowledge of haloarchaeoviruses, providing information about classification, morphotypes, macromolecules, life cycles, genetic manipulation and gene regulation, and host-virus responses. In so doing, the review incorporates knowledge from laboratory studies of isolated viruses, field-based studies of environmental samples, and both genomic and metagenomic analyses of haloarchaeoviruses. What emerges is that some haloarchaeoviruses possess unique morphological and life cycle properties, while others share features with other viruses (e.g., bacteriophages). Their interactions with hosts influence community structure and evolution of populations that exist in hypersaline environments as diverse as seawater evaporation ponds, to hot desert or Antarctic lakes. The discoveries of their wide-ranging and important roles in the ecology and evolution of hypersaline communities serves as a strong motivator for future investigations of both laboratory-model and environmental systems. PMID:25402735

Luk, Alison W S; Williams, Timothy J; Erdmann, Susanne; Papke, R Thane; Cavicchioli, Ricardo

2014-01-01

241

Interaction of Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus with Neutralizing Antibody: II. The Persistent Virus Fraction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The persistent virus fraction that results from the interaction of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) virus with antiviral serum is an infectious virus-antibody complex (sensitized virus) that can be neutralized by anti-IgG serum. The quantities of...

N. Hahon

1969-01-01

242

Antibodies against vaccinia virus do not neutralize extracellular enveloped virus but prevent virus release from infected cells and comet formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vaccinia virus (VV) produces two antigenically and structurally distinct infectious virions, intracellular mature virus (IMV) and extracellular enveloped virus (EEV). EEV is important for the efficient dissemi- nation of virus both in vivo and in vitro where it causes formation of comet-shaped virus plaques. Here, we show that EEV, in contrast to IMV, is resistant to neutralization by antibodies bound

Alain Vanderplasschen; Michael Hollinshead; Geoffrey L. Smith

1997-01-01

243

Measles virus for cancer therapy  

PubMed Central

Measles virus offers an ideal platform from which to build a new generation of safe, effective oncolytic viruses. Occasional "spontaneous" tumor regressions have occurred during natural measles infections, but common tumors do not express SLAM, the wild-type MV receptor, and are therefore not susceptible to the virus. Serendipitously, attenuated vaccine strains of measles virus have adapted to use CD46, a regulator of complement activation that is expressed in higher abundance on human tumor cells than on their non transformed counterparts. For this reason, attenuated measles viruses are potent and selective oncolytic agents showing impressive antitumor activity in mouse xenograft models. The viruses can be engineered to enhance their tumor specificity, increase their antitumor potency and facilitate noninvasive in vivo monitoring of their spread. A major impediment to the successful deployment of oncolytic measles viruses as anticancer agents is the high prevalence of pre-existing anti measles immunity, which impedes bloodstream delivery and curtails intratumoral virus spread. It is hoped that these problems can be addressed by delivering the virus inside measles-infected cell carriers and/or by concomitant administration of immunosuppressive drugs. From a safety perspective, population immunity provides an excellent defense against measles spread from patient to carers and, in fifty years of human experience, reversion of attenuated measles to a wild type pathogenic phenotype has not been observed. Clinical trials testing oncolytic measles viruses as an experimental cancer therapy are currently underway. PMID:19203112

Russell, Stephen J.; Whye Peng, Kah

2014-01-01

244

A Fusion-Inhibiting Peptide against Rift Valley Fever Virus Inhibits Multiple, Diverse Viruses  

E-print Network

virus), Class II (Andes virus), or Class III (vesicular stomatitis virus) fusion proteins using, we show that infectivity can be inhibited for diverse, unrelated RNA viruses that have Class I (EbolaA Fusion-Inhibiting Peptide against Rift Valley Fever Virus Inhibits Multiple, Diverse Viruses

245

Heparan Sulfate-Mediated Binding of Infectious Dengue Virus Type 2 and Yellow Fever Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dengue virus type 2 and Yellow fever virus are arthropod-borne flaviviruses causing hemorrhagic fever in humans. Identification of virus receptors is important in understanding flavivirus pathogenesis. The aim of this work was to study the role of cellular heparan sulfate in the adsorption of infectious Yellow fever and Dengue type 2 viruses. Virus attachment was assessed by adsorbing virus to

Raphaële Germi; Jean-Marc Crance; Daniel Garin; Josette Guimet; Hugues Lortat-Jacob; Rob W. H. Ruigrok; Jean-Pierre Zarski; Emmanuel Drouet

2002-01-01

246

Phage Displayed Peptides to Avian H5N1 Virus Distinguished the Virus from Other Viruses  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the current study was to identify potential ligands and develop a novel diagnostic test to highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (HPAI), subtype H5N1 viruses using phage display technology. The H5N1 viruses were used as an immobilized target in a biopanning process using a 12-mer phage display random peptide library. After five rounds of panning, three phages expressing peptides HAWDPIPARDPF, AAWHLIVALAPN or ATSHLHVRLPSK had a specific binding activity to H5N1 viruses were isolated. Putative binding motifs to H5N1 viruses were identified by DNA sequencing. In terms of the minimum quantity of viruses, the phage-based ELISA was better than antiserum-based ELISA and a manual, semi-quantitative endpoint RT-PCR for detecting H5N1 viruses. More importantly, the selected phages bearing the specific peptides to H5N1 viruses were capable of differentiating this virus from other avian viruses in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. PMID:21887228

Qin, Chengfeng; Ren, Xiaofeng

2011-01-01

247

The encephalomyocarditis virus  

PubMed Central

The encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) is a small non-enveloped single-strand RNA virus, the causative agent of not only myocarditis and encephalitis, but also neurological diseases, reproductive disorders and diabetes in many mammalian species. EMCV pathogenesis appears to be viral strain- and host-specific, and a better understanding of EMCV virulence factors is increasingly required. Indeed, EMCV is often used as a model for diabetes and viral myocarditis, and is also widely used in immunology as a double-stranded RNA stimulus in the study of Toll-like as well as cytosolic receptors. However, EMCV virulence and properties have often been neglected. Moreover, EMCV is able to infect humans albeit with a low morbidity. Progress on xenografts, such as pig heart transplantation in humans, has raised safety concerns that need to be explored. In this review we will highlight the biology of EMCV and all known and potential virulence factors. PMID:22722247

Carocci, Margot; Bakkali-Kassimi, Labib

2012-01-01

248

Viruses and schizophrenia.  

PubMed

A viral hypothesis for the pathogenesis of schizophrenia has been under serious consideration for more than 70 years. To date, attempts have failed to identify a specific virus which contributes to the aetiology of the disorder. There has, however, been a recent resurgence of interest in a possible relationship between viral illness and schizophrenia. This renewed attention is the result of epidemiological evidence suggesting an excess of winter births in patients with schizophrenia, indications of foetal insults in persons who develop schizophrenia and an association between foetal exposure to the influenza virus and the subsequent development of schizophrenia. Advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of viral diseases and the development of sophisticated techniques to study them have resulted in more complex viral hypotheses of schizophrenic aetiology, such as viral disruption of normal neurodevelopment, viral induced autoimmunity and retroviral integration. These hypotheses are now beginning to be tested experimentally. PMID:7527632

O'Reilly, R L

1994-06-01

249

Origin of hepatitis ? virus  

PubMed Central

This article addresses some of the questions relating to how hepatitis ? virus (HDV), an agent so far unique in the animal world, might have arisen. HDV was discovered in patients infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV). It generally makes HBV infections more damaging to the liver. It is a subviral satellite agent that depends upon HBV envelope proteins for its assembly and ability to infect new cells. In other aspects of replication, HDV is both independent of and very different from HBV. In addition, the small single-stranded circular RNA genome of HDV, and its mechanism of replication, demonstrate an increasing number of similarities to the viroids – a large family of helper-independent subviral agents that cause pathogenesis in plants. PMID:20210550

Taylor, John; Pelchat, Martin

2010-01-01

250

Principles of Virus Structural Organization  

PubMed Central

Viruses, the molecular nanomachines infecting hosts ranging from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, come in different sizes, shapes and symmetries. Questions such as what principles govern their structural organization, what factors guide their assembly, how these viruses integrate multifarious functions into one unique structure have enamored researchers for years. In the last five decades, following Caspar and Klug's elegant conceptualization of how viruses are constructed, high resolution structural studies using X-ray crystallography and more recently cryo-EM techniques have provided a wealth of information on structures of variety of viruses. These studies have significantly furthered our understanding of the principles that underlie structural organization in viruses. Such an understanding has practical impact in providing a rational basis for the design and development of antiviral strategies. In this chapter, we review principles underlying capsid formation in a variety of viruses, emphasizing the recent developments along with some historical perspective. PMID:22297509

Prasad, B.V. Venkataram; Schmid, Michael F

2013-01-01

251

Genus Orthopoxvirus: Cowpox virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cowpox virus (CPXV) is distinguished from other orthopoxvirus (OPV) species by producing cytoplasmic A-type inclusion bodies and flattened\\u000a pocks with a hemorrhagic center on the chorioallantoic membrane. CPXV is endemic to Western Eurasia and naturally infects\\u000a a broad range of host species including domestic animals, and zoo animals, as well as humans. Infections in humans seem to\\u000a increase in importance

Sandra Essbauer; Hermann Meyer

252

Viruses in extreme environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tolerance limits of extremophiles in term of temperature, pH, salinity, desiccation, hydrostatic pressure, radiation,\\u000a anaerobiosis far exceed what can support non-extremophilic organisms. Like all other organisms, extremophiles serve as hosts\\u000a for viral replication. Many lines of evidence suggest that viruses could no more be regarded as simple infectious “fragments\\u000a of life” but on the contrary as one of the

Marc Le Romancer; Mélusine Gaillard; Claire Geslin; Daniel Prieur

253

Viruses in extreme environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tolerance limits of extremophiles in term of temperature, pH, salinity, desiccation, hydrostatic pressure, radiation,\\u000a anaerobiosis far exceed what can support non-extremophilic organisms. Like all other organisms, extremophiles serve as hosts\\u000a for viral replication. Many lines of evidence suggest that viruses could no more be regarded as simple infectious “fragments\\u000a of life” but on the contrary as one of the

Marc Le Romancer; Mélusine Gaillard; Claire Geslin; Daniel Prieur

2007-01-01

254

VIRUS instrument collimator assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Visual Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument is a baseline array 150 identical fiber fed optical spectrographs designed to support observations for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). The collimator subassemblies of the instrument have been assembled in a production line and are now complete. Here we review the design choices and assembly practices used to produce a suite of identical low-cost spectrographs in a timely fashion using primarily unskilled labor.

Marshall, Jennifer L.; DePoy, Darren L.; Prochaska, Travis; Allen, Richard D.; Williams, Patrick; Rheault, Jean-Philippe; Li, Ting; Nagasawa, Daniel Q.; Akers, Christopher; Baker, David; Boster, Emily; Campbell, Caitlin; Cook, Erika; Elder, Alison; Gary, Alex; Glover, Joseph; James, Michael; Martin, Emily; Meador, Will; Mondrik, Nicholas; Rodriguez-Patino, Marisela; Villanueva, Steven; Hill, Gary J.; Tuttle, Sarah; Vattiat, Brian; Lee, Hanshin; Chonis, Taylor S.; Dalton, Gavin B.; Tacon, Mike

2014-07-01

255

Introducing Virological Concepts Using an Insect Virus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A technique is presented which utilizes wax moth larvae in a laboratory investigation of an insect virus. Describes how an insect virus can be used to introduce undergraduate biology students to laboratory work on viruses and several virological concepts. (SA)

Sheppard, Roger F.

1980-01-01

256

NATIONAL RESPIRATORY AND ENTERIC VIRUS SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System is a lab based system which monitors temporal and geographic patterns associated with the detection of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV), respiratory and enteric adenoviruses, and r...

257

Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV) and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... Healthcare Providers Media Policy Makers  Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV) and Pregnancy Language: English Español (Spanish) Share Compartir LCMV (Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus) is a virus that can cause infection in ...

258

Virus Interference. I. The Interferon  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a study of the interference produced by heat-inactivated influenza virus with the growth of live virus in fragments of chick chorio-allantoic membrane it was found that following incubation of heated virus with membrane a new factor was released. This factor, recognized by its ability to induce interference in fresh pieces of chorio-allantoic membrane, was called interferon. Following a lag

A. Isaacs; J. Lindenmann

1957-01-01

259

Tracking the West Nile Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How can viral sequences help us establish the origin of the virus that appeared in the US in 1999? Epidemiologists have adopted bioinformatics approaches using sequence data from strains of pathogens to track the movement of bacteria and viruses from continent to continent. * explore a data set of West Nile Virus sequences from all over the world that date from the mid-20th century to the present

Erica Suchmann (University of California - San Diego;Biology); Mark Gallo (Niagara University;Biology)

2006-05-20

260

Reemergence of chikungunya virus.  

PubMed

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes acute fever and acute and chronic musculoskeletal pain in humans. Since 2004, CHIKV has caused millions of cases of disease in the Indian Ocean region and has emerged in new areas, including Europe, the Middle East, and the Pacific region. The mosquito vectors for this virus are globally distributed in tropical and temperate zones, providing the opportunity for CHIKV to continue to expand into new geographic regions. In October 2013, locally acquired cases of CHIKV infection were identified on the Caribbean island of Saint Martin, signaling the arrival of the virus in the Western Hemisphere. In just 9 months, CHIKV has spread to 22 countries in the Caribbean and Central and South America, resulting in hundreds of thousands of cases. CHIKV disease can be highly debilitating, and large epidemics have severe economic consequences. Thus, there is an urgent need for continued research into the epidemiology, pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of these infections. PMID:25078691

Morrison, Thomas E

2014-10-01

261

Rubella virus perturbs autophagy.  

PubMed

Autophagy is a cellular catabolic process implicated in numerous physiological processes and pathological conditions, including infections. Viruses have evolved different strategies to modulate the autophagic process. Since the effects of rubella virus (RV) on autophagy have not yet been reported, we evaluated the autophagic activity in the Statens Seruminstitut Rabbit Cornea cell line infected with the To336 strain of RV. Our results showed that RV lowered the levels of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 B-II (LC3B-II) and the autophagy-related gene 12-autophagy-related gene 5 conjugate, inhibited the autophagic flux, suppressed the intracellular redistribution of LC3B, decreased both the average number and the size of autophagosomes per cell and impeded the formation of acidic vesicular organelles. Induction of autophagy by using rapamycin decreased both the viral yields and the apoptotic rates of infected cultures. Besides its cytoprotective effects, autophagy furnishes an important antiviral mechanism, inhibition of which may reorchestrate intracellular environment so as to better serve the unique requirements of RV replication. Together, our observations suggest that RV utilizes a totally different strategy to cope with autophagy than that evolved by other positive-stranded RNA viruses, and there is considerable heterogeneity among the members of the Togaviridae family in terms of their effects on the cellular autophagic cascade. PMID:24824868

Pásztor, Kata; Orosz, László; Seprényi, György; Megyeri, Klára

2014-10-01

262

West Nile Virus Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the potential effects of global climate change is the spread of disease to new areas, as the vectors of those diseases (e.g., mosquitoes, birds) expand into new locations in response to shifting climate conditions. Although the direct cause of West Nile Virus (WNV) in the United States is not known, the National Atlas of the US Geological Survey (reviewed in the June 26, 1998 Scout Report) has recently launched this new resource on WNV distribution. First documented in the US during the summer of 1999 and previously limited to Africa, Eastern Europe, West Asia, and the Middle East, the West Nile Virus is of danger to humans as it interferes with "normal central nervous system functioning" and can cause encephalitis. This site describes WNV Surveillance Activity for the year 2000 and offers a series of maps highlighting the US distribution of WNV cases found in humans, wild birds, chickens, mosquitoes, and veterinary clinics. A series of links point to further information on the virus.

263

Emergence of influenza A viruses.  

PubMed Central

Pandemic influenza in humans is a zoonotic disease caused by the transfer of influenza A viruses or virus gene segments from animal reservoirs. Influenza A viruses have been isolated from avian and mammalian hosts, although the primary reservoirs are the aquatic bird populations of the world. In the aquatic birds, influenza is asymptomatic, and the viruses are in evolutionary stasis. The aquatic bird viruses do not replicate well in humans, and these viruses need to reassort or adapt in an intermediate host before they emerge in human populations. Pigs can serve as a host for avian and human viruses and are logical candidates for the role of intermediate host. The transmission of avian H5N1 and H9N2 viruses directly to humans during the late 1990s showed that land-based poultry also can serve between aquatic birds and humans as intermediate hosts of influenza viruses. That these transmission events took place in Hong Kong and China adds further support to the hypothesis that Asia is an epicentre for influenza and stresses the importance of surveillance of pigs and live-bird markets in this area. PMID:11779380

Webby, R J; Webster, R G

2001-01-01

264

Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus  

MedlinePLUS

Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Women’s Health Care Physicians patient education Fact Sheet PFS005: Testing for Human Immunodeficiency ...

265

Computer virus information update CIAC-2301  

SciTech Connect

While CIAC periodically issues bulletins about specific computer viruses, these bulletins do not cover all the computer viruses that affect desktop computers. The purpose of this document is to identify most of the known viruses for the MS-DOS and Macintosh platforms and give an overview of the effects of each virus. The authors also include information on some windows, Atari, and Amiga viruses. This document is revised periodically as new virus information becomes available. This document replaces all earlier versions of the CIAC Computer virus Information Update. The date on the front cover indicates date on which the information in this document was extracted from CIAC`s Virus database.

Orvis, W.J.

1994-01-15

266

McAfee's Virus Information Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

McAfee, the well-known anti-virus software company, offers this free library, containing information on over 40,000 known PC viruses. Virus details include their source, how they infect your computer, and how to remove them. Users can search for viruses by keyword or browse by category. The site also lists new viruses, the year's top ten, and hoax viruses. Although in most cases the instructions for virus removal include the use of a McAfee product, the site is still an excellent source of virus information.

267

Human viruses: discovery and emergence  

PubMed Central

There are 219 virus species that are known to be able to infect humans. The first of these to be discovered was yellow fever virus in 1901, and three to four new species are still being found every year. Extrapolation of the discovery curve suggests that there is still a substantial pool of undiscovered human virus species, although an apparent slow-down in the rate of discovery of species from different families may indicate bounds to the potential range of diversity. More than two-thirds of human viruses can also infect non-human hosts, mainly mammals, and sometimes birds. Many specialist human viruses also have mammalian or avian origins. Indeed, a substantial proportion of mammalian viruses may be capable of crossing the species barrier into humans, although only around half of these are capable of being transmitted by humans and around half again of transmitting well enough to cause major outbreaks. A few possible predictors of species jumps can be identified, including the use of phylogenetically conserved cell receptors. It seems almost inevitable that new human viruses will continue to emerge, mainly from other mammals and birds, for the foreseeable future. For this reason, an effective global surveillance system for novel viruses is needed. PMID:22966141

Woolhouse, Mark; Scott, Fiona; Hudson, Zoe; Howey, Richard; Chase-Topping, Margo

2012-01-01

268

Virus dynamics and drug therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent development of potent antiviral drugs not only has raised hopes for effective treatment of infections with HIV or the hepatitis B virus, but also has led to important quantitative insights into viral dynamics in vivo. Interpretation of the experimental data depends upon mathe- matical models that describe the nonlinear interaction between virus and host cell populations. Here we

SEBASTIAN BONHOEFFER; R OBERT M. MAY; G EORGE M. SHAW; MARTIN A. NOWAK

1997-01-01

269

Measles Virus in the Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measles virus can give three different forms of infections in the central nervous system. These are acute postinfectious encephalitis, acute progressive infectious encephalitis, and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE). The postinfectious acute disease is interpreted to reflect an autoimmune reaction. The acute progressive form of brain disease, also referred to as inclusion body encephalitis, reflects a direct attack by the virus

Erling Norrby; Krister Kristensson

1997-01-01

270

INFECTIOUS DOSE OF NORWALK VIRUS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Norwalk virus and related viruses (caliciviruses) have been identified as a common cause of waterborne disease. Moreover, there are many outbreaks of waterborne disease every year where the causative agent was never identified, and it is thought that many of these are due to ...

271

Mutants of Alfalfa Mosaic Virus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this thesis the isolation and characterization of a number of mutants of alfalfa mosaic virus, a plant virus with a coat protein dependent genome, is described. Thermo-sensitive (ts) mutants were selected since, at least theoretically, ts mutations can...

J. Roosien

1983-01-01

272

Oropouche virus isolation, southeast Brazil.  

PubMed

An Oropouche virus strain was isolated from a novel host (Callithrix sp.) in Arinos, Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. The virus was identified by complement fixation test and confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenetic analysis identified this strain as a genotype III isolate previously recognized only in Panama. PMID:16318707

Nunes, Márcio Roberto Teixeira; Martins, Lívia Carício; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Chiang, Jannifer Oliveira; Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro da Silva; da Rosa, Amelia P A Travassos; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

2005-10-01

273

Antivirals for High Hazard Viruses,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In large areas of the world there exist extremely high hazard viruses for which there are no vaccines for prophylaxis and no effective drugs for therapy. Examples of such viruses are Ebola, Argentine, Bolivian, Crimean-Congo, and Korean hemorrhagic fevers...

P. G. Canonico

1988-01-01

274

Virioplankton: Viruses in Aquatic Ecosystems†  

PubMed Central

The discovery that viruses may be the most abundant organisms in natural waters, surpassing the number of bacteria by an order of magnitude, has inspired a resurgence of interest in viruses in the aquatic environment. Surprisingly little was known of the interaction of viruses and their hosts in nature. In the decade since the reports of extraordinarily large virus populations were published, enumeration of viruses in aquatic environments has demonstrated that the virioplankton are dynamic components of the plankton, changing dramatically in number with geographical location and season. The evidence to date suggests that virioplankton communities are composed principally of bacteriophages and, to a lesser extent, eukaryotic algal viruses. The influence of viral infection and lysis on bacterial and phytoplankton host communities was measurable after new methods were developed and prior knowledge of bacteriophage biology was incorporated into concepts of parasite and host community interactions. The new methods have yielded data showing that viral infection can have a significant impact on bacteria and unicellular algae populations and supporting the hypothesis that viruses play a significant role in microbial food webs. Besides predation limiting bacteria and phytoplankton populations, the specific nature of virus-host interaction raises the intriguing possibility that viral infection influences the structure and diversity of aquatic microbial communities. Novel applications of molecular genetic techniques have provided good evidence that viral infection can significantly influence the composition and diversity of aquatic microbial communities. PMID:10704475

Wommack, K. Eric; Colwell, Rita R.

2000-01-01

275

Écosystèmes forestiers et virus Ebola  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Ebola virus and forest ecosystem. Despite data collected since the emergence of the Ebola virus in 1976, its natural transmission cycle and especially the nature of its reservoirs and means of transmission are still an enigma. This means that effective epidemiological surveillance and prevention are difficult to implement. The location of outbreak areas has suggested that the reservoir and

J. M. Morvan; E. Nakouné; V. Deubel; M. Colyn

276

Marine Viruses: Truth or Dare  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past two decades, marine virology has progressed from a curiosity to an intensely studied topic of critical importance to oceanography. At concentrations of approximately 10 million viruses per milliliter of surface seawater, viruses are the most abundant biological entities in the oceans. The majority of these viruses are phages (viruses that infect bacteria). Through lysing their bacterial hosts, marine phages control bacterial abundance, affect community composition, and impact global biogeochemical cycles. In addition, phages influence their hosts through selection for resistance, horizontal gene transfer, and manipulation of bacterial metabolism. Recent work has also demonstrated that marine phages are extremely diverse and can carry a variety of auxiliary metabolic genes encoding critical ecological functions. This review is structured as a scientific "truth or dare," revealing several well-established "truths" about marine viruses and presenting a few "dares" for the research community to undertake in future studies.

Breitbart, Mya

2012-01-01

277

Epidemic of cell phone virus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Standard operating systems and Bluetooth technology will be a trend for future cell phone features. These will enable cell phone viruses to spread either through SMS or by sending Bluetooth requests when cell phones are physically close enough. The difference in spreading methods gives these two types of viruses' different epidemiological characteristics. SMS viruses' spread is mainly based on people's social connections, whereas the spreading of Bluetooth viruses is affected by people's mobility patterns and population distribution. Using cell phone data recording calls, SMS and locations of more than 6 million users, we study the spread of SMS and Bluetooth viruses and characterize how the social network and the mobility of mobile phone users affect such spreading processes.

Wang, Pu; González, Marta; Barabási, Albert-László.

2008-03-01

278

The ecology of Ebola virus.  

PubMed

Since Ebola virus was first identified more than 30 years ago, tremendous progress has been made in understanding the molecular biology and pathogenesis of this virus. However, the means by which Ebola virus is maintained and transmitted in nature remains unclear despite dedicated efforts to answer these questions. Recent work has provided new evidence that fruit bats might have a role as a reservoir species, but it is not clear whether other species are also involved or how transmission to humans or apes takes place. Two opposing hypotheses for Ebola emergence have surfaced; one of long-term local persistence in a cryptic and infrequently contacted reservoir, versus another of a more recent introduction of the virus and directional spread through susceptible populations. Nevertheless, with the increasing frequency of human filovirus outbreaks and the tremendous impact of infection on the already threatened great ape populations, there is an urgent need to better understand the ecology of Ebola virus in nature. PMID:17698361

Groseth, Allison; Feldmann, Heinz; Strong, James E

2007-09-01

279

Do viruses require the cytoskeleton?  

PubMed Central

Background It is generally thought that viruses require the cytoskeleton during their replication cycle. However, recent experiments in our laboratory with rubella virus, a member of the family Togaviridae (genus rubivirus), revealed that replication proceeded in the presence of drugs that inhibit microtubules. This study was done to expand on this observation. Findings The replication of three diverse viruses, Sindbis virus (SINV; family Togaviridae family), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV; family Rhabdoviridae), and Herpes simplex virus (family Herpesviridae), was quantified by the titer (plaque forming units/ml; pfu/ml) produced in cells treated with one of three anti-microtubule drugs (colchicine, noscapine, or paclitaxel) or the anti-actin filament drug, cytochalasin D. None of these drugs affected the replication these viruses. Specific steps in the SINV infection cycle were examined during drug treatment to determine if alterations in specific steps in the virus replication cycle in the absence of a functional cytoskeletal system could be detected, i.e. redistribution of viral proteins and replication complexes or increases/decreases in their abundance. These investigations revealed that the observable impacts were a colchicine-mediated fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus and concomitant intracellular redistribution of the virion structural proteins, along with a reduction in viral genome and sub-genome RNA levels, but not double-stranded RNA or protein levels. Conclusions The failure of poisons affecting the cytoskeleton to inhibit the replication of a diverse set of viruses strongly suggests that viruses do not require a functional cytoskeletal system for replication, either because they do not utilize it or are able to utilize alternate pathways when it is not available. PMID:23597412

2013-01-01

280

Fujinami Sarcoma Virus: An Avian RNA Tumor Virus with a Unique Transforming Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oncogenic properties and RNA of the Fujinami avian sarcoma virus (FSV) and the protein it encodes were investigated and compared to those of other avian tumor viruses with sarcomagenic properties such as Rous sarcoma virus and the acute leukemia viruses MC29 and erythroblastosis virus. Cloned stocks of FSV caused sarcomas in all chickens inoculated and were found to contain

Wen-Hwa Lee; Klaus Bister; Anthony Pawson; Terry Robins; Carlo Moscovici; Peter H. Duesberg

1980-01-01

281

A Seven-Segmented Influenza A Virus Expressing the Influenza C Virus Glycoprotein HEF  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influenza viruses are classified into three types: A, B, and C. The genomes of A- and B-type influenza viruses consist of eight RNA segments, whereas influenza C viruses only have seven RNAs. Both A and B influenza viruses contain two major surface glycoproteins: the hemagglutinin (HA) and the neuraminidase (NA). Influenza C viruses have only one major surface glycoprotein, HEF

Qinshan Gao; Edward W. A. Brydon; Peter Palese

2008-01-01

282

Infectious vaccinia virus recombinants that express hepatitis B virus surface antigen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Potential live vaccines against hepatitis B virus have been produced. The coding sequence for hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) has been inserted into the vaccinia virus genome under control of vaccinia virus early promoters. Cells infected with these vaccinia virus recombinants synthesize and excrete HBsAg and vaccinated rabbits rapidly produce antibodies to HBsAg.

Smith, Geoffrey L.; Mackett, Michael; Moss, Bernard

1983-04-01

283

Co-Circulation of Toscana Virus and Punique Virus in Northern Tunisia: A Microneutralisation-Based  

E-print Network

Co-Circulation of Toscana Virus and Punique Virus in Northern Tunisia: A Microneutralisation: In northern Tunisia, the co-circulation of two related sand fly-borne phleboviruses, Toscana virus (TOSV-Circulation of Toscana Virus and Punique Virus in Northern Tunisia: A Microneutralisation-Based Seroprevalence Study. PLo

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

284

Comparison of Immunohistochemistry and Virus Isolation for Diagnosis of West Nile Virus  

PubMed Central

Immunohistochemistry and virus isolation were performed on 1,057 birds. Immunohistochemistry, virus isolation, or both found 325 birds to be West Nile virus positive. Of these, 271 were positive by both methods. These results indicate that virus isolation and immunohistochemistry are approximately equal in their ability to detect West Nile virus. PMID:15956415

Ellis, Angela E.; Mead, Daniel G.; Allison, Andrew B.; Gibbs, Samantha E. J.; Gottdenker, Nicole L.; Stallknecht, David E.; Howerth, Elizabeth W.

2005-01-01

285

IInoculate your computer with Symantec AntiVirus, for free! Welchia virus? Blaster  

E-print Network

IInoculate your computer with Symantec AntiVirus, for free! Welchia virus? Blaster virus? PC all locked up? Ever run into these? Help is on the way. NC State has licensed Symantec AntiVirus and NC State students, faculty and staff can get a free copy. Computer viruses on campus are no laughing matter. Last

286

Physical Interaction of a Murine Leukemia Virus with Influenza Virus in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incubated mixtures of PR8 influenza virus and Rauscher leukemia virus retained the egg infectivity and hemagglutinin of the influenza virus and the ability of the Rauscher virus to induce splenomegaly in mice. Density-gradient centrifugation on potassium citrate gradients revealed a new interviral product with an intermediate density as the principal constituent of such mixtures. Chicken erythrocytes adsorbed the Rauscher virus

T. E. O'Connor; F. J. Rauscher

1964-01-01

287

Aphid Transmission of Tobacco Mosaic Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aphids (Myzus persicae Sulz.) can acquire tobacco mosaic virus from tobacco leaves coated with a virus suspension and inoculate it into healthy leaves. Transmission depends on virus concentration, period of acquisition, previous feeding history of the aphids, and time between acquisition and transmission feedings. Aphids whose stylets are cut do not transmit the virus.

John S. Lojek; Gert B. Orlob

1969-01-01

288

Ebola Virus Antibodies in Fruit Bats, Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

To determine geographic range for Ebola virus, we tested 276 bats in Bangladesh. Five (3.5%) bats were positive for antibodies against Ebola Zaire and Reston viruses; no virus was detected by PCR. These bats might be a reservoir for Ebola or Ebola-like viruses, and extend the range of filoviruses to mainland Asia. PMID:23343532

Islam, Ariful; Yu, Meng; Anthony, Simon J.; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Khan, Salah Uddin; Crameri, Gary; Wang, Lin-Fa; Lipkin, W. Ian; Luby, Stephen P.; Daszak, Peter

2013-01-01

289

The Epstein-Barr virus: Recent advances  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 11 chapters. Some of the titles are: Failure in Immunological Control of the Virus Infection: Post-Transplant Lymphomas; Cellular Immunological Responses to the Virus Infection; Characterization of the Virus-Determined Antigens; and the Virus Genome and its Expression in Latent Infection.

Epstein, M.A.; Achong, B.G.

1986-01-01

290

Label-Free Chemiresistive Immunosensors for Viruses  

E-print Network

Label-Free Chemiresistive Immunosensors for Viruses D H A M M A N A N D J . S H I R A L E , M A N of viruses. Bacteriophages T7 and MS2 were used as safe models for viruses for demonstration. Ppy nanowires, and affordable detection of bioagents/pathogens. Introduction Detection of viruses is central to human health

Chen, Wilfred

291

Safe Computing: An Overview of Viruses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computer virus is a program that replicates itself, in conjunction with an additional program that can harm a computer system. Common viruses include boot-sector, macro, companion, overwriting, and multipartite. Viruses can be fast, slow, stealthy, and polymorphic. Anti-virus products are described. (MLH)

Wodarz, Nan

2001-01-01

292

Newcastle disease virus f glycoprotein expressed from a recombinant vaccinia virus vector protects chickens against live?virus challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chickens were immunised using a vaccinia recombinant virus (vaccinia?Italien?F), expressing the F protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Immunisation was successful using either TK” cells infected with the vaccinia?Italien?F virus, the recombinant virus grown in TK7 cells and inoculated intra?cerebrally in one?day?old chickens or the recombinant virus given by wing?web to adult chickens after adaptation by alternate passage in chick

G. Meulemans; C. Letellier; M. Gonze; M. C. Carlier; A. Burny

1988-01-01

293

Virus interactions with human signal transduction pathways  

PubMed Central

Viruses depend on their hosts at every stage of their life cycles and must therefore communicate with them via Protein-Protein Interactions (PPIs). To investigate the mechanisms of communication by different viruses, we overlay reported pairwise human-virus PPIs on human signalling pathways. Of 671 pathways obtained from NCI and Reactome databases, 355 are potentially targeted by at least one virus. The majority of pathways are linked to more than one virus. We find evidence supporting the hypothesis that viruses often interact with different proteins depending on the targeted pathway. Pathway analysis indicates overrepresentation of some pathways targeted by viruses. The merged network of the most statistically significant pathways shows several centrally located proteins, which are also hub proteins. Generally, hub proteins are targeted more frequently by viruses. Numerous proteins in virus-targeted pathways are known drug targets, suggesting that these might be exploited as potential new approaches to treatments against multiple viruses. PMID:21330695

Zhao, Zhongming; Xia, Junfeng; Tastan, Oznur; Singh, Irtisha; Kshirsagar, Meghana; Carbonell, Jaime; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith

2011-01-01

294

Hepatitis viruses: changing patterns of human disease.  

PubMed Central

Viral hepatitis is a disease of antiquity, but evidence for more than one etiologic agent has been recognized only since the 1940s, when two viruses (hepatitis A virus and hepatitis B virus) were thought to account for all disease. In the past 20 years, three additional hepatitis agents (hepatitis C virus, hepatitis D virus, and hepatitis E virus) have been discovered, and there is evidence for at least one additional virus. Each of the five recognized hepatitis viruses belongs to a different virus family, and each has a unique epidemiology. The medical impact of these viruses on society has been strongly influenced by changes in human ecology. This has resulted in some cases in diminished disease and in others in increases in the incidence of disease. PMID:8146130

Purcell, R H

1994-01-01

295

Transmitting plant viruses using whiteflies.  

PubMed

Whiteflies, Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, Bemisia tabaci, a complex of morphologically indistinquishable species(5), are vectors of many plant viruses. Several genera of these whitefly-transmitted plant viruses (Begomovirus, Carlavirus, Crinivirus, Ipomovirus, Torradovirus) include several hundred species of emerging and economically significant pathogens of important food and fiber crops (reviewed by(9,10,16)). These viruses do not replicate in their vector but nevertheless are moved readily from plant to plant by the adult whitefly by various means (reviewed by(2,6,7,9,10,11,17)). For most of these viruses whitefly feeding is required for acquisition and inoculation, while for others only probing is required. Many of these viruses are unable or cannot be easily transmitted by other means. Therefore maintenance of virus cultures, biological and molecular characterization (identification of host range and symptoms)(3,13), ecology(2,12), require that the viruses be transmitted to experimental hosts using the whitefly vector. In addition the development of new approaches to management, such as evaluation of new chemicals(14) or compounds(15), new cultural approaches(1,4,19), or the selection and development of resistant cultivars(7,8,18), requires the use of whiteflies for virus transmission. The use of whitefly transmission of plant viruses for the selection and development of resistant cultivars in breeding programs is particularly challenging(7). Effective selection and screening for resistance employs large numbers of plants and there is a need for 100% of the plants to be inoculated in order to find the few genotypes which possess resistance genes. These studies use very large numbers of viruliferous whiteflies, often several times per year. Whitefly maintenance described here can generate hundreds or thousands of adult whiteflies on plants each week, year round, without the contamination of other plant viruses. Plants free of both whiteflies and virus must be produced to introduce into the whitefly colony each week. Whitefly cultures must be kept free of whitefly pathogens, parasites, and parasitoids that can reduce whitefly populations and/or reduce the transmission efficiency of the virus. Colonies produced in the manner described can be quickly scaled to increase or decrease population numbers as needed, and can be adjusted to accommodate the feeding preferences of the whitefly based on the plant host of the virus. There are two basic types of whitefly colonies that can be maintained: a nonviruliferous and a viruliferous whitefly colony. The nonviruliferous colony is composed of whiteflies reared on virus-free plants and allows the weekly availability of whiteflies which can be used to transmit viruses from different cultures. The viruliferous whitefly colony, composed of whiteflies reared on virus-infected plants, allows weekly availability of whiteflies which have acquired the virus thus omitting one step in the virus transmission process. PMID:24300175

Polston, Jane E; Capobianco, H

2013-01-01

296

Modelling the evolution of the influenza virus  

E-print Network

CamGrid: High Throughput Computing in Science dfb21@cam.ac.uk Dr David Burke Antigenic Cartography Group Department of Zoology University of Cambridge 25th June 2008 Modelling the evolution of the influenza virus Antigenic variation of viruses... Antigenically Stable Pathogens Antigenically Variable Pathogens Smallpox Measles Tuberculosis Mumps Tetanus Influenza Virus Malaria HIV Dengue The Influenza Virus Annually, 'flu infects 7-14% of the population (400-800 million people globally ) Virus...

Burke, David

2008-06-27

297

Influenza Viruses in Animal Wildlife Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influenza viruses belong to the family Orthomyxoviridae. Genus Influenza A viruses are true zoonotic agents with many animal reservoirs, whereas genus Influenza B viruses are generally\\u000a considered to be a virus of humans. The genome of influenza A viruses consists of eight unique segments of single-stranded\\u000a RNA of negative polarity; they are typed according to their surface proteins, hemagglutinin (HA)

R. J. Webby; R. G. Webster; Jürgen A. Richt

298

21 CFR 866.3360 - Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents.  

... false Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. 866.3360 Section...866.3360 Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents are devices...

2014-04-01

299

21 CFR 866.3360 - Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. 866.3360 Section...866.3360 Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents are devices...

2013-04-01

300

THE VACUOLATING VIRUS OF MONKEYS  

PubMed Central

Cells infected with the vacuolating virus, SV40, respond by swelling to several times their normal volume. Within enlarged nuclei, virus-containing inclusions appear which are acidophilic and Feulgen-positive. The formation of nuclear inclusions is followed by the appearance of cytoplasmic vacuoles and then shrinkage of the cell. Inclusions were found to exhibit unique double staining when a light-green counterstain was used in the Feulgen reaction. The virus is of low electron density, round, and 300 A in diameter. It occurs in large numbers, singly and in short chains, and it appears to multiply at the expense of chromatin. PMID:13897378

Gaylord, W. H.; Hsiung, G.-D.

1961-01-01

301

Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-related Virus (XMRV) Backgrounder  

Cancer.gov

Researchers have not found evidence that XMRV causes any diseases in humans or in animals. The presence of an infectious agent, such as a virus, in diseased tissue does not mean that the agent causes the disease.

302

9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.215 Section 113.215 Animals and...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS;...

2013-01-01

303

9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.215 Section 113.215 Animals and...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS;...

2010-01-01

304

9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.215 Section 113.215 Animals and...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS;...

2011-01-01

305

9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.215 Section 113.215 Animals and...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS;...

2012-01-01

306

9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.215 Section 113.215 Animals and...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS;...

2014-01-01

307

Jatobal virus is a reassortant containing the small RNA of Oropouche virus.  

PubMed

Jatobal (JAT) virus was isolated in 1985 from a carnivore (Nasua nasua) in Tucuruí, Pará state, Brazil and was classified as a distinct member of the Simbu serogroup of the Bunyavirus genus, family Bunyaviridae on the basis of neutralization tests. On the basis of nucleotide sequencing, we have found that the small (S) RNA of JAT virus is very similar (>95% identity) to that of Oropouche (ORO) virus, in particular, the Peruvian genotype of ORO virus. In comparison, limited nucleotide sequencing of the G2 protein gene, encoded by the middle (M) RNA, of JAT and ORO viruses, revealed relatively little identity (<66%) between these two viruses. Neutralization tests confirmed the lack of cross-reactivity between the viruses. These results suggest that JAT virus is a reassortant containing the S RNA of ORO virus. JAT virus was attenuated in hamsters compared to ORO virus suggesting that the S RNA of ORO virus is not directly involved in hamster virulence. PMID:11451484

Saeed, M F; Wang, H; Suderman, M; Beasley, D W; Travassos da Rosa, A; Li, L; Shope, R E; Tesh, R B; Barrett, A D

2001-09-01

308

Antiviral Drugs for Viruses Other Than Human Immunodeficiency Virus  

PubMed Central

Most viral diseases, with the exception of those caused by human immunodeficiency virus, are self-limited illnesses that do not require specific antiviral therapy. The currently available antiviral drugs target 3 main groups of viruses: herpes, hepatitis, and influenza viruses. With the exception of the antisense molecule fomivirsen, all antiherpes drugs inhibit viral replication by serving as competitive substrates for viral DNA polymerase. Drugs for the treatment of influenza inhibit the ion channel M2 protein or the enzyme neuraminidase. Combination therapy with Interferon-? and ribavirin remains the backbone treatment for chronic hepatitis C; the addition of serine protease inhibitors improves the treatment outcome of patients infected with hepatitis C virus genotype 1. Chronic hepatitis B can be treated with interferon or a combination of nucleos(t)ide analogues. Notably, almost all the nucleos(t) ide analogues for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B possess anti–human immunodeficiency virus properties, and they inhibit replication of hepatitis B virus by serving as competitive substrates for its DNA polymerase. Some antiviral drugs possess multiple potential clinical applications, such as ribavirin for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C and respiratory syncytial virus and cidofovir for the treatment of cytomegalovirus and other DNA viruses. Drug resistance is an emerging threat to the clinical utility of antiviral drugs. The major mechanisms for drug resistance are mutations in the viral DNA polymerase gene or in genes that encode for the viral kinases required for the activation of certain drugs such as acyclovir and ganciclovir. Widespread antiviral resistance has limited the clinical utility of M2 inhibitors for the prevention and treatment of influenza infections. This article provides an overview of clinically available antiviral drugs for the primary care physician, with a special focus on pharmacology, clinical uses, and adverse effects. PMID:21964179

Razonable, Raymund R.

2011-01-01

309

Vesicular Stomatitis Virus and RNA Viruses as Gene Therapy Vectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of RNA viruses to efficiently reproduce in transformed cells was first recognized nearly 100 yr ago. However,\\u000a it wasn’t until the late 1990s that a resurrection of the interest in the ability of certain viruses to preferentially replicate\\u000a in malignant cells and less so in normal cells occurred, the curiosity being to evaluate whether these agents could be

Glen N. Barber

310

Rubella Virus Replication Complexes Are Virus-Modified Lysosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Replication complexes are membrane-bound cytoplasmic vacuoles involved in rubella virus (RV) replication. These structures can be identified by their characteristic morphology at the electron microscopy (EM) level and by their association with double-stranded (ds) RNA in immunogold labeling EM studies. Although these virus-induced structures bear some resemblance to lysosomes, their exact nature and origin are unknown. In this study, the

Dianna Magliano; John A. Marshall; D. Scott Bowden; Nicholas Vardaxis; Jayesh Meanger; Jia-Yee Lee

1998-01-01

311

West Nile virus meningoencephalitis  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Since its first appearance in the US in 1999, West Nile virus (WNV) has emerged as the most common cause of epidemic meningoencephalitis in North America. In the 6 years following the 1999 outbreak, the geographic range and burden of the disease in birds, mosquitoes and humans has greatly expanded to include the 48 contiguous US and 7 Canadian provinces, as well as Mexico, the Caribbean islands and Colombia. WNV has shown an increasing propensity for neuroinvasive disease over the past decade, with varied presentations including meningitis, encephalitis and acute flaccid paralysis. Although neuroinvasive disease occurs in less than 1% of infected individuals, it is associated with high mortality. From 1999–2005, more than 8,000 cases of neuroinvasive WNV disease were reported in the US, resulting in over 780 deaths. In this review, we discuss epidemiology, risk factors, clinical features, diagnosis and prognosis of WNV meningoencephalitis, along with potential treatments. PMID:16932563

DeBiasi, Roberta L.; Tyler, Kenneth L.

2013-01-01

312

Etablierung eines infektiösen Minigenomsystems für Marburg Virus basierend auf Virus-ähnlichen Partikeln.  

E-print Network

??Marburg Virus gehört taxonomisch mit dem Ebola Virus zur Familie der Filoviridae. Diese Erreger verursachen eine fieberhafte hämorrhagische Erkrankung bei Menschen und nichtmenschlichen Primaten, die… (more)

Wenigenrath, Jörg

2009-01-01

313

Reverse genetics of influenza virus.  

PubMed

Reverse genetics is the creation of a virus from a full-length cDNA copy of the viral genome, referred to as an "infectious clone," and is one of the most powerful genetic tools in modern virology. Since its development in 1999, plasmid-based reverse genetics has been effectively applied to numerous aspects of influenza studies which include revolutionizing the production of seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccine seed strains. Although continual improvement in reverse genetics system is being made in different laboratories for the efficient rescue of the influenza virus, the basic concept of synthesizing viral RNA using RNA polymerase I remains the same. Coupled with in vitro mutagenesis, reverse genetics can be applied widely to accelerate progress in understanding the influenza virus life cycle, the generation of customized vaccine seed strains, development of live-attenuated vaccines, and the use of influenza virus as vaccine and gene delivery vectors. PMID:24899418

Lee, Chang-Won

2014-01-01

314

Viruses of eukaryotice green algae  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of our research was to develop the Chlorella-PBCV-1 virus system so that it can be used as a model system for studying gene expression in a photosynthetic eukaryote. We have made considerable progress and have learned much about PBCV-1 and its replication cycle. In addition, several significant discoveries were made in the last 3 to 4 years. These discoveries include: (i) the finding that morphologically similar, plaque forming, dsDNA containing viruses are common in nature and can be isolated readily from fresh water, (ii) the finding that all of these Chlorella viruses contain methylated bases which range in concentration from 0.1% to 47.5% m{sup 5}dC and 0 to 37% m{sup 6}dA and (iii) the discovery that infection with at least some of these viruses induces the appearance of DNA modification/restriction systems. 26 refs.

Van Etten, J.L.

1989-01-01

315

Bronchiolitis and Respiratory Syncytial Virus  

MedlinePLUS

ADVICE FOR PATIENTS Bronchiolitis and Respiratory Syncytial Virus B ronchiolitis is an infection that affects the lungs and breathing passages; the name “bronchiolitis” means inflammation of the small airways in the ...

316

Foodborne viruses: an emerging problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several groups of viruses may infect persons after ingestion and then are shed via stool. Of these, the norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) are currently recognised as the most important human foodborne pathogens with regard to the number of outbreaks and people affected in the Western world.NoV and HAV are highly infectious and may lead to widespread outbreaks.

Marion Koopmans; Erwin Duizer

2004-01-01

317

Hepatitis viruses: a pandora's box?  

PubMed

The term hepatitis virus is reserved for those viruses that are predominantly hepatotropic, although several new agents have been assigned to this category in the absence of hepatotropism and clinical disease. The hepatitis viruses can be broadly divided into those transmitted via the fecal-oral route, and those by blood, blood products and body fluids. Hepatitis A (picornaviridae), hepatitis B (hepadnaviridae) and hepatitis C (flaviviridae) represent the major public health problems. The epidemiology of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) is changing in response to vaccination. In the case of HAV, older age groups are now deemed at risk, particularly of fulminant hepatitis if exposed over the age of 50. Chronic hepatitis B in some regions is now predominantly of the so-called precore mutant type where high levels of HBV replication persist in the presence of anti-hepatitis B virus (HBe) antibodies. The HBV vaccination is among the most cost-effective health care measures. The epidemiological significance of mutations found increasingly in the HBV S gene isolated from vaccinated children is unclear. Evidence that hepatitis G and TT virus are significant causes of hepatitis is lacking. Of interest, however, is the finding that the related GBV-B agent of monkeys may be a model for developing new antiviral agents against HCV. Animal models of hepatitis infections are providing new insights into the pathogenesis of hepatitis in humans. Indeed it is possible that hepatitis E is primarily an agent of pigs and other domesticated livestock. Intriguingly, the new TT virus shares many properties with the circoviruses, significant pathogens of chickens and pigs. The challenge in the next decade will be to assess the significance of these new agents in terms of public health and resources. Value judgements will have to be made in assessing the risks associated with blood containing trace amounts of these adventitious agents. PMID:12534779

Howard, Colin R

2002-12-01

318

Movement of Viruses between Biomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viruses are abundant in all known ecosystems. In the present study, we tested the possibility that viruses from one biome can successfully propagate in another. Viral concentrates were prepared from different near-shore marine sites, lake water, marine sediments, and soil. The concentrates were added to microcosms containing dissolved organic matter as a food source (after filtration to allow 100-kDa particles

Emiko Sano; Suzanne Carlson; Linda Wegley; Forest Rohwer

2004-01-01

319

Human Infection with Foamy Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Virtually all nonhuman primate species investigated thus far including prosimians, New World and Old World monkeys and apes\\u000a all harbor distinct and species-specific clades of simian foamy virus (SFV). However, evidence supporting the existence of\\u000a a human-specific foamy virus (FV) is not yet available. Early reports describing widespread infection of healthy and sick\\u000a humans with FV could not be confirmed.

W. Heneine; M. Schweizer; P. Sandstrom; T. Folks

320

New hosts of Alfalfa mosaic virus, Cucumber mosaic virus, Potato virus Y, Soybean dwarf virus, and Tomato spotted wilt virus in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alfalfa mosaic virus is recorded for the first time in New Zealand on Cirsium arvense, Medicago lupulina, Mentha sp., Petunia × hybrida, Rumex obtusifolius, Senecio vulgaris, Sonchus asper, and Trifolium ambiguum. Cucumber mosaic virus is recorded on Arthropodium cirratum, Capsella bursa?pastoris, Carthamus tinctorius, Conium maculatum, Coronopus didymus, Galium aparine, Hirschfeldia incana, Marrubium vulgare, Malva parviflora, Malva sylvestris, Ranunculus sardous, and

J. D. Fletcher

2001-01-01

321

A DNA Virus of Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the viruses infecting most species. Even in groups as well-studied as Drosophila, only a handful of viruses have been well-characterized. A viral metagenomic approach was used to explore viral diversity in 83 wild-caught Drosophila innubila, a mushroom feeding member of the quinaria group. A single fly that was injected with, and died from, Drosophila C Virus (DCV) was added to the sample as a control. Two-thirds of reads in the infected sample had DCV as the best BLAST hit, suggesting that the protocol developed is highly sensitive. In addition to the DCV hits, several sequences had Oryctes rhinoceros Nudivirus, a double-stranded DNA virus, as a best BLAST hit. The virus associated with these sequences was termed Drosophila innubila Nudivirus (DiNV). PCR screens of natural populations showed that DiNV was both common and widespread taxonomically and geographically. Electron microscopy confirms the presence of virions in fly fecal material similar in structure to other described Nudiviruses. In 2 species, D. innubila and D. falleni, the virus is associated with a severe (?80–90%) loss of fecundity and significantly decreased lifespan. PMID:22053195

Unckless, Robert L.

2011-01-01

322

Another Really, Really Big Virus  

PubMed Central

Viruses with genomes larger than 300 kb and up to 1.2 Mb, which encode hundreds of proteins, are being discovered and characterized with increasing frequency. Most, but not all, of these large viruses (often referred to as giruses) infect protists that live in aqueous environments. Bioinformatic analyses of metagenomes of aqueous samples indicate that large DNA viruses are quite common in nature and await discovery. One issue that is perhaps not appreciated by the virology community is that large viruses, even those classified in the same family, can differ significantly in morphology, lifestyle, and gene complement. This brief commentary, which will mention some of these unique properties, was stimulated by the characterization of the newest member of this club, virus CroV (Fischer, M.G.; Allen, M.J.; Wilson, W.H.; Suttle, C.A. Giant virus with a remarkable complement of genes infects marine zooplankton. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2010, 107, 19508–19513 [1]). CroV has a 730 kb genome (with ?544 protein-encoding genes) and infects the marine microzooplankton Cafeteria roenbergensis producing a lytic infection. PMID:21994725

Van Etten, James L.

2011-01-01

323

NOVA: Reviving the 1918 Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video with accompanying interactive activity puts learners in the role of active decision-makers regarding the ethics of a recent experiment to revive the deadly 1918 influenza virus. In 2005, researchers sequenced the germ's genome and published the data on a public database. Other researchers used the genome to bring the long-vanished killer virus back to life. Was the experiment justified, or should dead viruses be left alone? After watching the 10-minute video, an interactive activity allows learners to explore arguments from both sides, then vote online. They will consider the following: 1) Does the knowledge gained outweigh the risks? 2) What if terrorists recreated the virus? 3) What if the virus accidentally leaked into the environment, like the SARS virus in 2004? 4) Should scientists publish genome sequences of potentially deadly organisms? Editor's Note: This resource will help students see that scientists must consider the implications of their work, and whether it is responsible to freely publish all findings. Allow 50 minutes.

2010-10-21

324

Circulating avian influenza viruses closely related to the 1918 virus have pandemic potential.  

PubMed

Wild birds harbor a large gene pool of influenza A viruses that have the potential to cause influenza pandemics. Foreseeing and understanding this potential is important for effective surveillance. Our phylogenetic and geographic analyses revealed the global prevalence of avian influenza virus genes whose proteins differ only a few amino acids from the 1918 pandemic influenza virus, suggesting that 1918-like pandemic viruses may emerge in the future. To assess this risk, we generated and characterized a virus composed of avian influenza viral segments with high homology to the 1918 virus. This virus exhibited pathogenicity in mice and ferrets higher than that in an authentic avian influenza virus. Further, acquisition of seven amino acid substitutions in the viral polymerases and the hemagglutinin surface glycoprotein conferred respiratory droplet transmission to the 1918-like avian virus in ferrets, demonstrating that contemporary avian influenza viruses with 1918 virus-like proteins may have pandemic potential. PMID:24922572

Watanabe, Tokiko; Zhong, Gongxun; Russell, Colin A; Nakajima, Noriko; Hatta, Masato; Hanson, Anthony; McBride, Ryan; Burke, David F; Takahashi, Kenta; Fukuyama, Satoshi; Tomita, Yuriko; Maher, Eileen A; Watanabe, Shinji; Imai, Masaki; Neumann, Gabriele; Hasegawa, Hideki; Paulson, James C; Smith, Derek J; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

2014-06-11

325

Unusual Influenza A Viruses in Bats  

PubMed Central

Influenza A viruses infect a remarkably diverse number of hosts. Two completely new influenza A virus subtypes were recently discovered in bats, dramatically expanding the host range of the virus. These bat viruses are extremely divergent from all other known strains and likely have unique replication cycles. Phylogenetic analysis indicates long-term, isolated evolution in bats. This is supported by a high seroprevalence in sampled bat populations. As bats represent ~20% of all classified mammals, these findings suggests the presence of a massive cryptic reservoir of poorly characterized influenza A viruses. Here, we review the exciting progress made on understanding these newly discovered viruses, and discuss their zoonotic potential. PMID:25256392

Mehle, Andrew

2014-01-01

326

SUSCEPTIBILITY OF SUCKLING MICE TO VARIOLA VIRUS  

PubMed Central

Marshall, Ronald G. (Army Chemical Corps, Fredrick, Md.), and Peter J. Gerone. Susceptibility of suckling mice to variola virus. J. Bacteriol. 82:15–19. 1961.—The susceptibility of suckling mice inoculated intraperitoneally or intracerebrally with variola virus was investigated. Data are presented that define the death patterns, the relationship of incubation period to dose of virus inoculated, the multiplication of virus in suckling mice, and the influence of the age of suckling mice on their susceptibility to this virus. Additionally the results indicate that a variola virus neutralization test is feasible using the young suckling mouse as an indicator host. PMID:13767234

Marshall, Ronald G.; Gerone, Peter J.

1961-01-01

327

Interactions between human immunodeficiency virus-1, hepatitis delta virus and hepatitis B virus infections in 260 chronic carriers of hepatitis B virus.  

PubMed

To evaluate the factors determining the severity of chronic hepatitis B virus infection and the interactions of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis delta virus infections, we retrospectively analyzed 260 patients, 146 of whom were followed for a mean of 31.4 +/- 1.8 mo. Human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis delta virus status and aminotransferase activities, histological activity index, alcohol consumption and the prevalence of cirrhosis were investigated. The patients included 54 homosexuals, 19 parenteral drug abusers and 187 subjects with other or unidentified risk factors for exposure to hepatitis B virus. Thirty-five patients (13%) were positive for antibody to human immunodeficiency virus; 27 were homosexual and 8 were drug abusers. The mean aminotransferase activities, histological activity index and the prevalence of cirrhosis were similar in the human immunodeficiency virus-positive and human immunodeficiency virus-negative subgroups. Actuarial survival was significantly lower in the human immunodeficiency virus-negative subgroups. Actuarial survival was significantly lower in the human immunodeficiency virus-positive group than in the human immunodeficiency virus-negative subjects (p = 0.004); the cause of death was clearly related to liver failure in four of the five human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients and two of the six human immunodeficiency virus-negative subjects who died. To evaluate the factors determining the severity of liver disease, we compared homogeneous subgroups of subjects. Among the homosexual patients, the prevalence of HBeAg and hepatitis B virus DNA, aminotransferase activities and the histological activity index did not differ according to human immunodeficiency virus antibody status.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1551633

Housset, C; Pol, S; Carnot, F; Dubois, F; Nalpas, B; Housset, B; Berthelot, P; Brechot, C

1992-04-01

328

Viruses and viruslike particles of eukaryotic algae.  

PubMed Central

Until recently there was little interest or information on viruses and viruslike particles of eukaryotic algae. However, this situation is changing. In the past decade many large double-stranded DNA-containing viruses that infect two culturable, unicellular, eukaryotic green algae have been discovered. These viruses can be produced in large quantities, assayed by plaque formation, and analyzed by standard bacteriophage techniques. The viruses are structurally similar to animal iridoviruses, their genomes are similar to but larger (greater than 300 kbp) than that of poxviruses, and their infection process resembles that of bacteriophages. Some of the viruses have DNAs with low levels of methylated bases, whereas others have DNAs with high concentrations of 5-methylcytosine and N6-methyladenine. Virus-encoded DNA methyltransferases are associated with the methylation and are accompanied by virus-encoded DNA site-specific (restriction) endonucleases. Some of these enzymes have sequence specificities identical to those of known bacterial enzymes, and others have previously unrecognized specificities. A separate rod-shaped RNA-containing algal virus has structural and nucleotide sequence affinities to higher plant viruses. Quite recently, viruses have been associated with rapid changes in marine algal populations. In the next decade we envision the discovery of new algal viruses, clarification of their role in various ecosystems, discovery of commercially useful genes in these viruses, and exploitation of algal virus genetic elements in plant and algal biotechnology. Images PMID:1779928

Van Etten, J L; Lane, L C; Meints, R H

1991-01-01

329

Comparison of cowpox-like viruses isolated from European zoos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Poxviruses isolated from captive carnivores in Russia (Moscow virus) and elephants in Germany (elephant virus) were very closely-related to cowpox virus. Immunological analysis with absorbed sera separated elephant virus but not cowpox and Moscow virus, whereas polypeptide analysis separated cowpox but not elephant and Moscow virus. A combination of biological tests separated all three. The epidemiological implications are briefly

D. Baxby; W. B. Shackleton; Jean Wheeler; A. Turner

1979-01-01

330

[The Chikungunya virus].  

PubMed

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a member of the Alphavirus genus, represents a real public health problem in tropical regions of the Southeast Asia and Africa. It is transmitted to the man by Aedes mosquitoes and the illness, known as Chikungunya, is characterized by fever, eruptions and invalidating arthralgia. An increased surveillance in tropical and subtropical areas is necessary, as far as we have noticed recently the emergence of this new disease in regions where it had never existed before. The epidemic context is of a high importance for diagnosis. It is very important to know the clinical characteristics of the infection, to detect forms rarely or never described previously. Permanence of a highly technical core in specialized laboratories will allow, fast, specific and differential diagnosis. The knowledge of the epidemiological chain of transmission from reservoir, still unknown, to the host aims to protect populations by limiting the risks of exposure when it is possible. The only prevention measures available are individual protection against mosquitoes and antivectorial fight, in the absence of specific antiviral treatment and vaccine. PMID:17627914

Nakouné, E; Finance, C; Le Faou, A; Rihn, B

2007-01-01

331

HETEROLOGOUS IMMUNITY BETWEEN VIRUSES  

PubMed Central

Summary Immune memory responses to previously encountered pathogens can sometimes alter the immune response to and the course of infection of an unrelated pathogen by a process known as heterologous immunity. This response can lead to enhanced or diminished protective immunity and altered immunopathology. Here we discuss the nature of T-cell cross-reactivity and describe matrices of epitopes from different viruses eliciting cross-reactive CD8+ T-cell responses. We examine the parameters of heterologous immunity mediated by these cross-reactive T cells during viral infections in mice and humans. We show that heterologous immunity can disrupt T-cell memory pools, alter the complexity of the T-cell repertoire, change patterns of T-cell immunodominance, lead to the selection of viral epitope-escape variants, alter the pathogenesis of viral infections, and, by virtue of the private specificity of T-cell repertoires within individuals, contribute to dramatic variations in viral disease. We propose that heterologous immunity is an important factor in resistance to and variations of human viral infections and that issues of heterologous immunity should be considered in the design of vaccines. PMID:20536568

Welsh, Raymond M.; Che, Jenny; Brehm, Michael A.; Selin, Liisa K.

2010-01-01

332

Dengue viruses - an overview  

PubMed Central

Dengue viruses (DENVs) cause the most common arthropod-borne viral disease in man with 50–100 million infections per year. Because of the lack of a vaccine and antiviral drugs, the sole measure of control is limiting the Aedes mosquito vectors. DENV infection can be asymptomatic or a self-limited, acute febrile disease ranging in severity. The classical form of dengue fever (DF) is characterized by high fever, headache, stomach ache, rash, myalgia, and arthralgia. Severe dengue, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) are accompanied by thrombocytopenia, vascular leakage, and hypotension. DSS, which can be fatal, is characterized by systemic shock. Despite intensive research, the underlying mechanisms causing severe dengue is still not well understood partly due to the lack of appropriate animal models of infection and disease. However, even though it is clear that both viral and host factors play important roles in the course of infection, a fundamental knowledge gap still remains to be filled regarding host cell tropism, crucial host immune response mechanisms, and viral markers for virulence. PMID:24003364

Back, Anne Tuiskunen; Lundkvist, Ake

2013-01-01

333

Usutu virus in Africa.  

PubMed

Usutu virus (USUV) was discovered in South Africa in 1959. Since then, it has been reported in several African countries including Senegal, Central African Republic, Nigeria, Uganda, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, and Morocco. In 2001, USUV has been identified for the first time outside of Africa, namely in Europe, where it caused a significant mortality among blackbirds in Vienna, Austria. In 2009, the first two human cases of USUV infection in Europe have been reported in Italy, causing encephalitis in immunocompromised patients. The host range in Africa includes mainly Culex mosquitoes, birds, and also humans with one benign and one severe case. Given its role as a potential human pathogen and the similar appearance compared with other emerging arboviruses, it is essential to investigate the natural history and ecology of USUV in Africa. In this regard, we review the emergence of USUV in Africa, summarizing data about isolations, host range, and potential vectors, which should help to improve our understanding of the factors underlying the circulation of USUV in Europe and Africa. PMID:21767160

Nikolay, Birgit; Diallo, Mawlouth; Boye, Cheikh Saad Bouh; Sall, Amadou Alpha

2011-11-01

334

High prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 in acute retinal necrosis syndrome associated with herpes simplex virus in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE:To determine the type of herpes simplex virus in acute retinal necrosis syndrome associated with herpes simplex virus.METHODS:Herpes simplex virus type 1, herpes simplex virus type 2, varicella-zoster virus, Epstein-Barr virus, and cytomegalovirus were examined by polymerase chain reaction in intraocular specimens from 16 patients with acute retinal necrosis syndrome. Anti–herpes simplex virus type 1 and anti–herpes simplex virus type

Norihiko Itoh; Nozomi Matsumura; Akiko Ogi; Tadayuki Nishide; Yumi Imai; Hikaru Kanai; Shigeaki Ohno

2000-01-01

335

Isolation of 16L Virus: A Rapidly Transforming Sarcoma Virus from an Avian Leukosis Virus-Induced Sarcoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have isolated a replication-defective rapidly transforming sarcoma virus (designated 16L virus) from a fibro-sarcoma in a chicken infected with td107A, a transformation-defective deletion mutant of subgroup A Schmidt-Ruppin Rous sarcoma virus. 16L virus transforms fibroblasts and causes sarcomas in infected chickens within 2 wk. Its genomic RNA is 6.0 kilobases and contains sequences homologous to the transforming gene (fps)

Benjamin G. Neel; Lu-Hai Wang; Bernard Mathey-Prevot; Teruko Hanafusa; Hidesaburo Hanafusa; William S. Hayward

1982-01-01

336

Coping with Computer Viruses: General Discussion and Review of Symantec Anti-Virus for the Macintosh.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses computer viruses that attack the Macintosh and describes Symantec AntiVirus for Macintosh (SAM), a commercial program designed to detect and eliminate viruses; sample screen displays are included. SAM is recommended for use in library settings as well as two public domain virus protection programs. (four references) (MES)

Primich, Tracy

1992-01-01

337

Identification du virus de rabougrissement buissonneux de la tomate (Tomato Bushy Stunt Virus)  

E-print Network

Identification du virus de rabougrissement buissonneux de la tomate (Tomato Bushy Stunt Virus) en observé à de nombreuses reprises le virus du rabougrissement buissonneux de la tomate (Tomato Bushy Stunt of Tomato Bushy Stunt Virus on tomato, pepper and eggplant in Tunisia. Some characteristics of the Tunisian

Boyer, Edmond

338

Caveolin-1 interacts with the Gag precursor of murine leukaemia virus and modulates virus production  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Retroviral Gag determines virus assembly at the plasma membrane and the formation of virus-like particles in intracellular multivesicular bodies. Thereby, retroviruses exploit by interaction with cellular partners the cellular machineries for vesicular transport in various ways. RESULTS: The retroviral Gag precursor protein drives assembly of murine leukaemia viruses (MLV) at the plasma membrane (PM) and the formation of virus

Zheng Yu; Christiane Beer; Mario Koester; Manfred Wirth

2006-01-01

339

Giant viruses in the oceans : the 4th Algal Virus Workshop  

E-print Network

Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus (PBCV-1), the prototype of the Phycodnaviridae, was isolated more than 20 bursaria chlorella viruses: NY-2A (infecting PBCV-1 host Chlorella species NC64A) and Chlorella Pbi virus MT325. NY-2A genome contains 368,683 bp, making it the largest chlorella virus sequenced to date

Boyer, Edmond

340

Replication of Herpes Simplex Virus DNA: Localization of Replication Recognition Signals within Defective Virus Genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serially passaged herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) strain Justin was previously shown to contain defective virus genomes consisting of head-to-tail reiterations of sequences derived from the end of the S component of the standard virus DNA. Cotransfection of purified monomeric defective genome repeat units with foster helper virus DNAs onto rabbit skin cells resulted in regeneration and replication of

Donald A. Vlazny; Niza Frenkel

1981-01-01

341

Nyamanini and Midway Viruses Define a Novel Taxon of RNA Viruses in the Order Mononegavirales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here, we report the sequencing and classification of Nyamanini virus (NYMV) and Midway virus (MIDWV), two antigenically related viruses that were first isolated in 1957 and 1966, respectively. Although these viruses have been cultured multiple times from cattle egrets, seabirds, and their ticks, efforts to classify them taxonomically using conventional serological and electron microscopic approaches have failed completely. We used

Kathie A. Mihindukulasuriya; Nang L. Nguyen; Guang Wu; Henry V. Huang; Vsevolod L. Popov; Robert B. Tesh; David Wang

2009-01-01

342

Recombination Promoted by DNA Viruses: Phage ? to Herpes Simplex Virus.  

PubMed

The purpose of this review is to explore recombination strategies in DNA viruses. Homologous recombination is a universal genetic process that plays multiple roles in the biology of all organisms, including viruses. Recombination and DNA replication are interconnected, with recombination being essential for repairing DNA damage and supporting replication of the viral genome. Recombination also creates genetic diversity, and viral recombination mechanisms have important implications for understanding viral origins as well as the dynamic nature of viral-host interactions. Both bacteriophage ? and herpes simplex virus (HSV) display high rates of recombination, both utilizing their own proteins and commandeering cellular proteins to promote recombination reactions. We focus primarily on ? and HSV, as they have proven amenable to both genetic and biochemical analysis and have recently been shown to exhibit some surprising similarities that will guide future studies. PMID:25002096

Weller, Sandra K; Sawitzke, James A

2014-09-01

343

Release of virus from lymphoid tissue affects human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and hepatitis C virus kinetics in the blood.  

PubMed

Kinetic parameters of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections have been estimated from plasma virus levels following perturbation of the chronically infected (quasi-) steady state. We extend previous models by also considering the large pool of virus localized in the lymphoid tissue (LT) compartment. The results indicate that the fastest time scale of HIV-1 plasma load decay during therapy probably reflects the clearance rate of LT virus and not, as previously supposed, the clearance rate of virus in plasma. This resolves the discrepancy between the clearance rate estimates during therapy and those based on plasma apheresis experiments. In the extended models plasma apheresis measurements are indeed expected to reflect the plasma decay rate. We can reconcile all current HIV-1 estimates with this model when, on average, the clearance rate of virus in plasma is approximately 20 day(-1), that of LT virus is approximately 3 day(-1), and the death rate of virus-producing cells is approximately 0.5 day(-1). The fast clearance in the LT compartment increases current estimates for total daily virus production. Because HCV is produced in the liver, we let virus be produced into the blood compartment of our model. The results suggest that extending current HCV models with an LT compartment is not likely to affect current estimates for kinetic parameters and virus production. Estimates for treatment efficacy might be affected, however. PMID:11222682

Müller, V; Marée, A F; De Boer, R J

2001-03-01

344

4:41 Prevalence rates of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus among musculoskeletal tissue donors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose of study: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) among potential musculoskeletal tissue donors tested during the period July 1996 through June 2001. Limitations of the methods of acquiring, screening and testing tissue donors that contribute to higher risk for viral

Robert Kennedy; Jeffrey Wang; Randal Mills; Michael Roberts

2002-01-01

345

Full Genome Sequencing and Genetic Characterization of Eubenangee Viruses Identify Pata Virus as a Distinct Species within the Genus Orbivirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eubenangee virus has previously been identified as the cause of Tammar sudden death syndrome (TSDS). Eubenangee virus (EUBV), Tilligery virus (TILV), Pata virus (PATAV) and Ngoupe virus (NGOV) are currently all classified within the Eubenangee virus species of the genus Orbivirus, family Reoviridae. Full genome sequencing confirmed that EUBV and TILV (both of which are from Australia) show high levels

Manjunatha N. Belaganahalli; Sushila Maan; Narender S. Maan; Kyriaki Nomikou; Ian Pritchard; Ross Lunt; Peter D. Kirkland; Houssam Attoui; Joe Brownlie; Peter P. C. Mertens

2012-01-01

346

Antigens Associated with Viruses and Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Cancergram covers antigens identified with all viruses associated with cancer: both DNA and RNA, in humans, other primates, and in subprimate species. The antigens may be expressed within infected cells, on cell surfaces, on free virus particules or i...

1978-01-01

347

Antigens Associated with Viruses and Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Cancergram covers antigens identified with all viruses associated with cancer: both DNA and RNA, in humans, other primates and in subprimate species. The antigens may be expressed within infected cells, on cell surfaces, on free virus particules or in...

1977-01-01

348

Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Viruses  

MedlinePLUS

... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Information on Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Viruses Language: English Español ... pigs and variant influenza virus infections in humans. Swine Flu in Swine (pigs) Swine Flu in Swine ( ...

349

Selecting Viruses for the Seasonal Influenza Vaccine  

MedlinePLUS

... PCR and Other Molecular Assays for Diagnosis of Influenza Virus Infection Clinical Signs and Symptoms of Influenza International ... influenza. This involves receiving and testing thousands of influenza virus samples from patients with suspected flu illness. The ...

350

Variant (Swine Origin) Influenza Viruses in Humans  

MedlinePLUS

... PCR and Other Molecular Assays for Diagnosis of Influenza Virus Infection Clinical Signs and Symptoms of Influenza International ... each case of human infection with a swine influenza virus should be fully investigated to be sure that ...

351

Kids' Severe Respiratory Virus Confirmed in Northeast  

MedlinePLUS

... this page, please enable JavaScript. Kids' Severe Respiratory Virus Confirmed in Northeast Health officials urge good hygiene ... Sept. 15, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- The severe respiratory virus believed to have sickened hundreds of U.S. children ...

352

About Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)  

MedlinePLUS

... Providers Laboratory Testing References & Resources About Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Share Compartir On this Page Symptoms Transmission Diagnosis Prevention & Treatment Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), also known as human herpesvirus 4, is ...

353

West Nile Virus: Prevention and Control  

MedlinePLUS

... a regular basis. Help Your Community West Nile Virus Surveillance and Control Programs Support your local community ... Software Health Education Public Service Videos West Nile Virus in Spanish Preguntas frecuentes: Preguntas generales sobre el ...

354

[Sensitivity of normal and Rous virus-transformed lines of Armenian hamster cells to infectious viruses].  

PubMed

The capacity of normal (NHET) and Rous virus-transformed cell line of armenian hamster both producing (SHET Sh-R) and not producing (SHET K-3) virus to support reproduction of vaccinia and Newcastle disease viruses was demonstrated. The former of these viruses replicated in the cell cultures with cytopathic effect, the latter did so without causing cell degeneration. The degree of Newcastle disease virus reproduction in all 3 cultures was the same whereas vaccinia virus synthesis in SHET Sh-R was inhibited as compared with NHET and SHET K-3 cultures. Interference between Rous virus and vaccinia virus in SHET Sh-R culture was not due to interferon. The infectious viruses under study caused no activation of Rous virus genome in the virogenic SHET K-3 cell line. PMID:176825

Nadzharian, N U; Kamalian, L A

1975-01-01

355

Viruses: Making Friends with Old Foes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of viruses has traditionally focused on their roles as infectious agents and as tools for understanding cell biology. Viruses are now finding a new expanded role as nanoplatforms with applications in materials science and medicine. Viruses form highly symmetrical monodisperse architectures and are ideal templates for engineering multifunctionality, including multivalent display of surface ligands and encapsulation of inorganic and organic materials. These developments assure that viruses will find applications as versatile nanoscale materials.

Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark

2006-05-01

356

Recent advances in oncolytic virus design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cytolytic properties of viruses can be used to treat cancer. Replication of certain viruses is favoured in cancer cells,\\u000a whereas others can be modified to obtain tumour specificity. This approach has evolved to become a new discipline called virotherapy.\\u000a In addition, these replication-competent (oncolytic) viruses can be adapted as vectors for cancer gene therapy. The “armed”\\u000a viruses show a

Rubén Hernández-Alcoceba

2011-01-01

357

Rapid Genotyping of Swine Influenza Viruses  

PubMed Central

The emergence of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus highlighted the need for enhanced surveillance of swine influenza viruses. We used real-time reverse–transcription PCR–based genotyping and found that this rapid and simple genotyping method may identify reassortants derived from viruses of Eurasian avian-like, triple reassortant-like, and pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus lineages. PMID:21470462

Mak, Polly W.Y.; Wong, Chloe K.S.; Li, Olive T.W.; Chan, Kwok Hung; Cheung, Chung Lam; Ma, Edward S.; Webby, Richard J.; Guan, Yi; Peiris, Joseph S. Malik

2011-01-01

358

Structure of Immature West Nile Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure of immature West Nile virus particles, propagated in the presence of ammonium chloride to block virus maturation in the low-pH environment of the trans-Golgi network, was determined by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). The structure of these particles was similar to that of immature West Nile virus particles found as a minor component of mature virus samples (naturally occurring immature

Ying Zhang; Barbel Kaufmann; Paul R. Chipman; Richard J. Kuhn; Michael G. Rossmann

2007-01-01

359

Characteristics of Filoviridae: Marburg and Ebola Viruses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Filoviruses are enveloped, nonsegmented negative-stranded RNA viruses. The two species, Marburg and Ebola virus, are serologically, biochemically, and genetically distinct. Marburg virus was first isolated during an outbreak in Europe in 1967, and Ebola virus emerged in 1976 as the causative agent of two simultaneous outbreaks in southern Sudan and northern Zaire. Although the main route of infection is known to be person-to-person transmission by intimate contact, the natural reservoir for filoviruses still remains a mystery.

Beer, Brigitte; Kurth, Reinhard; Bukreyev, Alexander

360

Characteristics of Filoviridae: Marburg and Ebola viruses.  

PubMed

Filoviruses are enveloped, nonsegmented negative-stranded RNA viruses. The two species, Marburg and Ebola virus, are serologically, biochemically, and genetically distinct. Marburg virus was first isolated during an outbreak in Europe in 1967, and Ebola virus emerged in 1976 as the causative agent of two simultaneous outbreaks in southern Sudan and northern Zaire. Although the main route of infection is known to be person-to-person transmission by intimate contact, the natural reservoir for filoviruses still remains a mystery. PMID:10024977

Beer, B; Kurth, R; Bukreyev, A

1999-01-01

361

Searching for virus phylotypes  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Large phylogenies are being built today to study virus evolution, trace the origin of epidemics, establish the mode of transmission and survey the appearance of drug resistance. However, no tool is available to quickly inspect these phylogenies and combine them with extrinsic traits (e.g. geographic location, risk group, presence of a given resistance mutation), seeking to extract strain groups of specific interest or requiring surveillance. Results: We propose a new method for obtaining such groups, which we call phylotypes, from a phylogeny having taxa (strains) annotated with extrinsic traits. Phylotypes are subsets of taxa with close phylogenetic relationships and common trait values. The method combines ancestral trait reconstruction using parsimony, with combinatorial and numerical criteria measuring tree shape characteristics and the diversity and separation of the potential phylotypes. A shuffling procedure is used to assess the statistical significance of phylotypes. All algorithms have linear time complexity. This results in low computing times, typically a few minutes for the larger data sets with a number of shuffling steps. Two HIV-1 data sets are analyzed, one of which is large, containing >3000 strains of HIV-1 subtype C collected worldwide, where the method shows its ability to recover known clusters and transmission routes, and to detect new ones. Availability: This method and companion tools are implemented in an interactive Web interface (www.phylotype.org), which provides a wide choice of graphical views and output formats, and allows for exploratory analyses of large data sets. Contact: francois.chevenet@ird.fr, gascuel@lirmm.fr Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:23329414

Chevenet, Francois; Jung, Matthieu; Peeters, Martine; de Oliveira, Tulio; Gascuel, Olivier

2013-01-01

362

[Dependence of oligomerization of influenza virus nucleoprotein on the species affiliation of the virus].  

PubMed

Comparison of human and avian influenza virus nucleoprotein (NP) oligomerization showed that the efficiency of NP oligomerization is different in influenza viruses of different origin. NP oligomerization is virtually complete in avian influenza viruses, while in human influenza viruses only part of monomeric NP is oligomerized. The authors discuss the utilization of NP oligomerization efficiency as a sign for identification of the origin of influenza virus. PMID:11200638

Semenova, N P; Prokudina, E N; Chumakov, V M; Rudneva, I A; Fediakina, I G; Iamnikova, S S

2000-01-01

363

Virus detection and quantification using electrical parameters  

PubMed Central

Here we identify and quantitate two similar viruses, human and feline immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and FIV), suspended in a liquid medium without labeling, using a semiconductor technique. The virus count was estimated by calculating the impurities inside a defined volume by observing the change in electrical parameters. Empirically, the virus count was similar to the absolute value of the ratio of the change of the virus suspension dopant concentration relative to the mock dopant over the change in virus suspension Debye volume relative to mock Debye volume. The virus type was identified by constructing a concentration-mobility relationship which is unique for each kind of virus, allowing for a fast (within minutes) and label-free virus quantification and identification. For validation, the HIV and FIV virus preparations were further quantified by a biochemical technique and the results obtained by both approaches corroborated well. We further demonstrate that the electrical technique could be applied to accurately measure and characterize silica nanoparticles that resemble the virus particles in size. Based on these results, we anticipate our present approach to be a starting point towards establishing the foundation for label-free electrical-based identification and quantification of an unlimited number of viruses and other nano-sized particles. PMID:25355078

Ahmad, Mahmoud Al; Mustafa, Farah; Ali, Lizna M.; Rizvi, Tahir A.

2014-01-01

364

Advances in virus research. Volume 31  

SciTech Connect

This book presents topics in virus research and advances made in this field. Topics covered include: ambisense RNA genomes of arenaviruses and phleboviruses; the molecular basis of antigenic variation in influenza virus; epitope mapping of flavivirus glycoproteins; regulation of adenovirus mRNA formation; regulation of protein synthesis in virus infected animal cells; and antibody-dependent enhancement of vira infectivity.

Maramorosch, K.; Murphy, F.A.; Shatkin, A.J.

1986-01-01

365

Packaging of actin into Ebola virus VLPs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The actin cytoskeleton has been implicated in playing an important role assembly and budding of several RNA virus families including retroviruses and paramyxoviruses. In this report, we sought to determine whether actin is incorporated into Ebola VLPs, and thus may play a role in assembly and\\/or budding of Ebola virus. Our results indicated that actin and Ebola virus VP40 strongly

Ziying Han; Ronald N Harty

2005-01-01

366

Beet mosaic virus: epidemiology and damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overview:<\\/strong>The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to obtain a thorough understanding of the main factors determining the spread of a potyvirus in a high plant density crop. The factors studied included the relationships between virus, host and vector, the spread of the virus around an initial virus source consisting of one or more infected plants, the

A. N. Dusi

1999-01-01

367

Virus detection and quantification using electrical parameters.  

PubMed

Here we identify and quantitate two similar viruses, human and feline immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and FIV), suspended in a liquid medium without labeling, using a semiconductor technique. The virus count was estimated by calculating the impurities inside a defined volume by observing the change in electrical parameters. Empirically, the virus count was similar to the absolute value of the ratio of the change of the virus suspension dopant concentration relative to the mock dopant over the change in virus suspension Debye volume relative to mock Debye volume. The virus type was identified by constructing a concentration-mobility relationship which is unique for each kind of virus, allowing for a fast (within minutes) and label-free virus quantification and identification. For validation, the HIV and FIV virus preparations were further quantified by a biochemical technique and the results obtained by both approaches corroborated well. We further demonstrate that the electrical technique could be applied to accurately measure and characterize silica nanoparticles that resemble the virus particles in size. Based on these results, we anticipate our present approach to be a starting point towards establishing the foundation for label-free electrical-based identification and quantification of an unlimited number of viruses and other nano-sized particles. PMID:25355078

Ahmad, Mahmoud Al; Mustafa, Farah; Ali, Lizna M; Rizvi, Tahir A

2014-01-01

368

Virus entry: molecular mechanisms and biomedical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viruses have evolved to enter cells from all three domains of life — Bacteria, Archaea and Eukaryotes. Of more than 3,600 known viruses, hundreds can infect human cells and most of those are associated with disease. To gain access to the cell interior, animal viruses attach to host-cell receptors. Advances in our understanding of how viral entry proteins interact with

Dimiter S. Dimitrov

2004-01-01

369

MODEL OF VIRUS TRANSPORT IN UNSATURATED SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

As a result of the recently-proposed mandatory ground-water disinfection requirements to inactivate viruses in potable water supplies, there has been increasing interest in virus fate and transport in the subsurface. everal models have been developed to predict the fate of viruse...

370

Pathogenesis of Dengue Vaccine Viruses in Mosquitoes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The dengue-l candidate vaccine (TP 56, nonmutagenized) and it parent virus were compared for their ability to infect orally Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. The vaccine virus was as infective orally as the parent virus for both mosquito spec...

B. J. Beaty

1983-01-01

371

Virus detection and quantification using electrical parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we identify and quantitate two similar viruses, human and feline immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and FIV), suspended in a liquid medium without labeling, using a semiconductor technique. The virus count was estimated by calculating the impurities inside a defined volume by observing the change in electrical parameters. Empirically, the virus count was similar to the absolute value of the ratio of the change of the virus suspension dopant concentration relative to the mock dopant over the change in virus suspension Debye volume relative to mock Debye volume. The virus type was identified by constructing a concentration-mobility relationship which is unique for each kind of virus, allowing for a fast (within minutes) and label-free virus quantification and identification. For validation, the HIV and FIV virus preparations were further quantified by a biochemical technique and the results obtained by both approaches corroborated well. We further demonstrate that the electrical technique could be applied to accurately measure and characterize silica nanoparticles that resemble the virus particles in size. Based on these results, we anticipate our present approach to be a starting point towards establishing the foundation for label-free electrical-based identification and quantification of an unlimited number of viruses and other nano-sized particles.

Ahmad, Mahmoud Al; Mustafa, Farah; Ali, Lizna M.; Rizvi, Tahir A.

2014-10-01

372

Mutation pattern of human immunodeficiency virus genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Human immunodeficiency viruses (HIVs) show extensive genetic variation. This feature is the fundamental cause of pathogenicity of HIVs and thwarts efforts to develop effective vaccines. To understand the mutation mechanism of these viruses, we analyzed nucleotide sequences ofenv andgag genes of the viruses by use of molecular evolutionary methods and estimated the direction and frequency of nucleotide substitutions. Results

Etsuko N. Moriyama; Yasuo Ina; Kazuho Ikeo; Nobuaki Shimizu; Takashi Gojobori

1991-01-01

373

FAQ: West Nile Virus and Dead Birds  

MedlinePLUS

... Nile virus is found in all 48 contiguous states (not in Alaska and Hawaii) and the virus circulates in mosquitoes and birds every year. Because West Nile virus is well established, some states and local jurisdictions are no longer collecting dead ...

374

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Primary Infection  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Primary Infection Information for adults A A A When HIV is first contracted, there may be ... 1–6 weeks following exposure to HIV (the human immunodeficiency virus). Chronic infection with this virus can ...

375

CLASSIFICATION AND NOMENCLATURE OF VIRUSES OF CYANOBACTERIA  

EPA Science Inventory

The Study Group finds it appropriate that viruses which have as their host cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) should be grouped within the well-categorized families of the bacterial viruses. Thus, the term cyanophage is adopted as a synonym for the vernacular name BGA virus (BGAV) ...

376

Advanced Review Viruses and the cellular RNA  

E-print Network

Advanced Review Viruses and the cellular RNA decay machinery Marta Maria Gaglia and Britt A interactions between the eukaryotic RNA turnover machinery and a wide variety of viruses. Interestingly, in many cases viruses have evolved mechanisms not only to evade eradication by these pathways, but also

377

VideoLab:Virus Spreads Fourfold Faster  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Viruses are thought to infect cells cyclically: infect, replicate, release, repeat. However, the vaccinia virus can spread four times faster than this iterative process allows (first movie clip). To explain this incredible speed, Doceul et al. found that as soon as this virus infects a cell, it directs the cell to make two crucial surface proteins.

Virginie Doceul (Imperial College London, St MaryâÂÂs Campus;Department of Virology, Faculty of Medicine); Michael Hollinshead (Imperial College London, St MaryâÂÂs Campus;Department of Virology, Faculty of Medicine); Lonneke Van der Linden (Imperial College London, St MaryâÂÂs Campus;Department of Virology, Faculty of Medicine); Geoffrey L. Smith (Imperial College London, St MaryâÂÂs Campus;Department of Virology, Faculty of Medicine)

2010-02-12

378

Open Problems in Computer Virus Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over a decade of work on the computer virus problem has resulted in a number of useful scientific and technological achievements. The study of biological epidemiology has been extended to help us understand when and why computer viruses spread. Techniques have been developed to help us estimate the safety and effectiveness of anti-virus technology before it is deployed. Technology for

Steve R. White

1998-01-01

379

Mechanism of Virulence Transfer by Bacterial Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: Further experimental evidence is described to support the concept that bacterial viruses exert a controlling effect on bacterial variation and evolution. A number of strains of diphtheria bacilli, both mitis and gravis, have been found to be carrying viruses capable of converting a susceptible avirulent diphtheria strain to full virulence and toxigenicity. The virus-resistant strains thus converted to viru-

L. F. Hewitt

1954-01-01

380

Frequently Asked Questions on Ebola Virus Disease  

MedlinePLUS

Frequently asked questions on Ebola virus disease Updated 8 August 2014 1. What is Ebola virus disease? Download the FAQ on Ebola in pdf format ... in detail. Should patients with suspected or confirmed Ebola virus be separated from other patients? Isolating patients ...

381

Disinfection of human enteric viruses on fomites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The virucidal action of several commercially available disinfectant preparations was assayed against hepatitis A virus and human rotavirus dried on polystyrene. Overall, the level of virus disinfection achieved was very poor, usually inducing less than 3 log titre reduction. Suspension tests performed with the same disinfectants showed different virus inactivation rates, thus failing to provide a reliable indication of the

F. Xavier Abad; Rosa M Pintó; Albert Bosch

1997-01-01

382

Novel avian influenza virus vaccines.  

PubMed

Current vaccines against avian influenza (AI) virus infections are primarily based on classical inactivated whole-virus preparations. Although administration of these vaccines can protect poultry from clinical disease, sterile immunity is not achieved under field conditions, allowing for undetected virus spread and evolution under immune cover. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a robust and reliable system of differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals. Moreover, current AI vaccines must be administered individually, requiring the handling of excessively large numbers of animals, which makes it difficult to obtain high vaccine coverage. Consequently, AI vaccines conferring solid immunity that could be used for mass application would be advantageous. Several approaches are being pursued to improve existing vaccines and develop novel vaccines, all of which will be covered in this overview. PMID:19618635

Fuchs, W; Römer-Oberdörfer, A; Veits, J; Mettenleiter, T C

2009-04-01

383

HIV-1 Pathogenesis: The Virus  

PubMed Central

Transmission of HIV-1 results in the establishment of a new infection, typically starting from a single virus particle. That virion replicates to generate viremia and persistent infection in all of the lymphoid tissue in the body. HIV-1 preferentially infects T cells with high levels of CD4 and those subsets of T cells that express CCR5, particularly memory T cells. Most of the replicating virus is in the lymphoid tissue, yet most of samples studied are from blood. For the most part the tissue and blood viruses represent a well-mixed population. With the onset of immunodeficiency, the virus evolves to infect new cell types. The tropism switch involves switching from using CCR5 to CXCR4 and corresponds to an expansion of infected cells to include naïve CD4+ T cells. Similarly, the virus evolves the ability to enter cells with low levels of CD4 on the surface and this potentiates the ability to infect macrophages, although the scope of sites where infection of macrophages occurs and the link to pathogenesis is only partly known and is clear only for infection of the central nervous system. A model linking viral evolution to these two pathways has been proposed. Finally, other disease states related to immunodeficiency may be the result of viral infection of additional tissues, although the evidence for a direct role for the virus is less strong. Advancing immunodeficiency creates an environment in which viral evolution results in viral variants that can target new cell types to generate yet another class of opportunistic infections (i.e., HIV-1 with altered tropism). PMID:23143844

Swanstrom, Ronald; Coffin, John

2012-01-01

384

Lagos bat virus in Kenya.  

PubMed

During lyssavirus surveillance, 1,221 bats of at least 30 species were collected from 25 locations in Kenya. One isolate of Lagos bat virus (LBV) was obtained from a dead Eidolon helvum fruit bat. The virus was most similar phylogenetically to LBV isolates from Senegal (1985) and from France (imported from Togo or Egypt; 1999), sharing with these viruses 100% nucleoprotein identity and 99.8 to 100% glycoprotein identity. This genome conservancy across space and time suggests that LBV is well adapted to its natural host species and that populations of reservoir hosts in eastern and western Africa have sufficient interactions to share pathogens. High virus concentrations, in addition to being detected in the brain, were detected in the salivary glands and tongue and in an oral swab, suggesting that LBV is transmitted in the saliva. In other extraneural organs, the virus was generally associated with innervations and ganglia. The presence of infectious virus in the reproductive tract and in a vaginal swab implies an alternative opportunity for transmission. The isolate was pathogenic for laboratory mice by the intracerebral and intramuscular routes. Serologic screening demonstrated the presence of LBV-neutralizing antibodies in E. helvum and Rousettus aegyptiacus fruit bats. In different colonies the seroprevalence ranged from 40 to 67% and 29 to 46% for E. helvum and R. aegyptiacus, respectively. Nested reverse transcription-PCR did not reveal the presence of viral RNA in oral swabs of bats in the absence of brain infection. Several large bat roosts were identified in areas of dense human populations, raising public health concerns for the potential of lyssavirus infection. PMID:18305130

Kuzmin, Ivan V; Niezgoda, Michael; Franka, Richard; Agwanda, Bernard; Markotter, Wanda; Beagley, Janet C; Urazova, Olga Y; Breiman, Robert F; Rupprecht, Charles E

2008-04-01

385

Neonatal herpes simplex virus infections.  

PubMed

Neonatal herpes simplex virus infections are uncommon, but because of the morbidity and mortality associated with the infection they are often considered in the differential diagnosis of ill neonates. The use of polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis of central nervous system infections and the development of safe and effective antiviral therapy has revolutionized the diagnosis and management of these infants. Initiation of long-term antiviral suppressive therapy in these infants has led to significant improvement in morbidity. This article summarizes the epidemiology of neonatal herpes simplex virus infections and discusses clinical presentation, diagnosis, management, and follow up of infants with neonatal herpes disease. PMID:23481105

Pinninti, Swetha G; Kimberlin, David W

2013-04-01

386

THE SIZE OF INFLUENZA VIRUS  

PubMed Central

The sedimentation behavior of influenza virus in dilute solutions of electrolyte was found to be quite variable. At times the virus activity appeared to sediment at a rate comparable with that of particles about 80 to 120 mµ in diameter, at other times at a rate comparable with that of particles about 10 mµ in diameter, and at still other times the bulk of the activity appeared to sediment at a rate comparable with that of the larger particles and the residual activity at a rate comparable with that of the smaller particles. However, in the presence of a sucrose density gradient, the virus activity was always found to sediment with a rate comparable to that of particles about 80 to 120 mµ in diameter; hence it appeared that the variable sedimentation behavior in dilute electrolyte solution was due to convection or mechanical disturbances during centrifugation. About 30 per cent of the high molecular weight protein present in the allantoic fluid of chick embryos infected with the F 12 strain of influenza virus was found to consist of a component having a sedimentation constant of about 30 S, and hence a probable particle diameter of about 10 mµ. The residual protein of high molecular weight was present in the form of a component having a sedimentation constant of about 600 S, and hence a probable particle diameter of about 70 mµ. The proportion of the 30 S component in allantoic fluid of chick embryos infected with the PR8 strain of influenza virus was found to be considerably less. The 600 S and 30 S components of F 12 allantoic fluid were purified and separated by differential centrifugation. The purified preparations of the 600 S component were found to possess a specific virus activity from 100 to over 10,000 times that of the purified preparations of the 30 S component, the difference in activity apparently depending only on the degree of fractionation of the two components. The purified 30 S component was found to sediment normally in the presence of 12 per cent sucrose, whereas the small residual virus activity of such preparations was found to sediment in the presence of a sucrose density gradient with a rate comparable to that of much heavier particles. It is concluded that influenza virus activity is not associated with material having a particle diameter of about 10 mµ, but is associated solely with material having a sedimentation constant of about 600 S and hence a probable particle diameter of about 70 mµ. PMID:19871369

Stanley, W. M.

1944-01-01

387

Replication-defective viruses as vaccines and vaccine vectors Tim Dudek a,b  

E-print Network

, such as human immunodeficiency virus or herpes simplex virus. Therefore, new types of vaccines are needed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 Herpes simplex virus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 Herpes simplex virus

Knipe, David M.

388

Macro Viruses 1. CyberCIEGE Macro Viruses  

E-print Network

the "Campaign Player" seen in figure 1. December 6, 2005 Lab 1-1 #12;Macro Viruses Figure 1: Select "Life In your first time through, don't make any configuration changes. Just press the "esc" key to move past each balloon text. Don't even bother to click the "Objectives" button. See what happens if you just let

389

The tale of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus.  

PubMed

In 2006, a new retrovirus was isolated from prostate cancer patient tissue. Named xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV), this was potentially the third class of retrovirus to be pathogenic in humans. XMRV made a more dramatic impact on the wider scientific community, and indeed the media, in 2009 when it was reported to be present in a remarkably high proportion of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome as well as a significant, albeit smaller, proportion of healthy controls. The apparent strong link to disease and the fear of a previously unknown retrovirus circulating in the general population lead to a surge in XMRV research. Subsequent studies failed to find an association of XMRV with disease and, in most cases, failed to find the virus in human samples. In 2011, the case against XMRV and human disease strengthened, ending with several decisive publications revealing the origin of the virus and demonstrating contamination of samples. In this review, we outline the passage of research on XMRV and its potential association with disease from its isolation to the present day, where we find ourselves at the end of a turbulent story. PMID:22357751

Groom, Harriet C T; Bishop, Kate N

2012-05-01

390

Viruses and host evolution: virus-mediated self identity.  

PubMed

Virus evolution has become a topic that involves population based selection. Both quasispecies based populations and reticulated mosaic exchange of populations of genetic elements are now well established. This has led us to the understanding that a cooperative consortia can be a crucial aspect of virus driven evolution. Thus viruses exist in groups that can cooperate. However, consortial based evolution (group selection) has long been dismissed by evolutionary biologist. Recently, biocommunication theory has concluded that the evolution and editing of any code or language requires a consortial based process in order to adhere to pragmatic (context) requirements for meaning (in conflict with survival of the fittest concepts). This has led to the idea that viruses are the natural editors of biological codes or language. In this chapter, I present the view that the persistence of virus information in their host provides a natural process of host code editing that is inherently consortial. Since persistence requires mechanisms to attain stability and preclude competition, it also provided mechanisms that promote group identity. Accordingly, I review the viral origins of addiction modules and how these affect both persistence and group identity. The concepts emerging from addiction module based group identity are then generalized and applied to social identity systems as well. I then examine the prokaryotes and the involvement of viral elements in the emergence of their group identity systems (biofilms). Here, integrating dsDNA agents prevailed. In the eukaryotes, however, a large shift in virus-host evolution occurred in which the role of dsDNA agents was diminished but the role of retroviruses and retroposons was greatly enhanced. These agents provided greatly expanded and network based regulatory complexity that was controlled by sensory inputs. From this perspective, the role of virus in the origin of the adaptive immune system is then outlined. I then consider human evolution from the perspective of the great HERV colonization. The origin of a large social brain able to support the learning of language is presented from this viral perspective. The role of addiction modules in the origin of extended social bonding of humans is outlined and applied to the emergence of language as a system of group identity. PMID:22399381

Villarreal, Luis

2012-01-01

391

Human viruses in sediments, sludges, and soils*  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have provided a greater understanding of the movement of viruses in the environment by their attachment to solids. These studies have focused on solids-associated viruses present in wastewater discharged into the ocean and on viruses in sludge and wastewater that may be retained in soil following their land disposal. Such ocean or land disposal of wastewater and sludge may result in a discharge of one or more of 120 human enteric virus pathogens including those causing poliomyelitis, viral hepatitis A and acute gastroenteritis. Solids-associated viruses in effluents discharged into coastal waters accumulate in bottom sediments, which may contain 10 to 10 000 more virus per unit volume than the overlying seawater. Solids-associated viruses resuspended by water turbulence may be transported from polluted to distant non-polluted recreational or shellfish-growing water. Transmission of viruses causing hepatitis or gastroenteritis may result from contact by bathers or swimmers with these viruses in recreational waters, or from ingestion of raw or improperly cooked shellfish in which the solids-associated virus had been bioaccumulated. The land disposal of sludge and wastewater has a potential of causing infections in farm workers, contamination of crops, pollution of raw potable water sources or infiltration of ground water. Viruses retained on soils can be released by rain water and may contaminate ground water through lateral and vertical movements. PMID:3015442

Rao, V. Chalapati; Metcalf, Theodore G.; Melnick, Joseph L.

1986-01-01

392

Newcastle disease virus: propagation, quantification, and storage.  

PubMed

Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a prototype paramyxovirus used to define basic steps in the life cycle of this family of viruses. NDV is also an ideal virus system for elucidating determinants of viral pathogenicity. Some strains of this virus are important agricultural pathogens that cause disease in poultry with a high mortality while other strains are avirulent and used for vaccines. Methods for preparation and titration of virus stocks are essential for all of these purposes. Procedures for growth and purification of NDV stocks in embryonated chicken eggs as well as in tissue culture cells are described. Use of embryonated chicken eggs to grow the virus is the superior method since infectious stocks of all strains of NDV result. Stocks of avirulent NDV prepared in tissue culture are noninfectious. Virus stocks are routinely titered using plaque assays or hemagglutination assays, both of which are described. PMID:18770579

McGinnes, Lori W; Pantua, Homer; Reitter, Julie; Morrison, Trudy G

2006-06-01

393

Expanding networks of RNA virus evolution  

PubMed Central

In a recent BMC Evolutionary Biology article, Huiquan Liu and colleagues report two new genomes of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses from fungi and use these as a springboard to perform an extensive phylogenomic analysis of dsRNA viruses. The results support the old scenario of polyphyletic origin of dsRNA viruses from different groups of positive-strand RNA viruses and additionally reveal extensive horizontal gene transfer between diverse viruses consistent with the network-like rather than tree-like mode of viral evolution. Together with the unexpected discoveries of the first putative archaeal RNA virus and a RNA-DNA virus hybrid, this work shows that RNA viral genomics has major surprises to deliver. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/12/91 PMID:22715894

2012-01-01

394

Virus-Induced Aggregates in Infected Cells  

PubMed Central

During infection, many viruses induce cellular remodeling, resulting in the formation of insoluble aggregates/inclusions, usually containing viral structural proteins. Identification of aggregates has become a useful diagnostic tool for certain viral infections. There is wide variety of viral aggregates, which differ by their location, size, content and putative function. The role of aggregation in the context of a specific virus is often poorly understood, especially in the case of plant viruses. The aggregates are utilized by viruses to house a large complex of proteins of both viral and host origin to promote virus replication, translation, intra- and intercellular transportation. Aggregated structures may protect viral functional complexes from the cellular degradation machinery. Alternatively, the activation of host defense mechanisms may involve sequestration of virus components in aggregates, followed by their neutralization as toxic for the host cell. The diversity of virus-induced aggregates in mammalian and plant cells is the subject of this review. PMID:23202461

Moshe, Adi; Gorovits, Rena

2012-01-01

395

Vulnerability of unconfined aquifers to virus contamination.  

PubMed

An empirical formula was developed for determining the vulnerability of unconfined sandy aquifers to virus contamination, expressed as a dimensionless setback distance r(s)(*). The formula can be used to calculate the setback distance required for the protection of drinking water production wells against virus contamination. This empirical formula takes into account the intrinsic properties of the virus and the unconfined sandy aquifer. Virus removal is described by a rate coefficient that accounts for virus inactivation and attachment to sand grains. The formula also includes pumping rate, saturated thickness of the aquifer, depth of the screen of the pumping well, and anisotropy of the aquifer. This means that it accounts also for dilution effects as well as horizontal and vertical virus transport. Because the empirical model includes virus source concentration it can be used as an integral part of a quantitative viral risk assessment. PMID:20110099

Schijven, J F; Hassanizadeh, S Majid; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria

2010-02-01

396

[Ebola virus reproduction in cell cultures].  

PubMed

Ebola-Zaire virus production in Vero and BGM cells was studied. The CPE developed in both cell cultures. The cell monolayer destruction by 80-90% was seen at a low multiplicity of infection in 7-8 days after virus inoculation. An overlay composition was developed for virus titration using plaque assay. The plaque production was shown to be directly proportional to the virus dose. The curve of Ebola virus production in Vero cell culture fluid was determined. At a multiplicity of infection of 0.01 PFU/cell, the maximum virus titer of 10(6.4) PFU/ml was reached in 7 days postinfection. Specific antisera were generated by inoculation of guinea pigs. Indirect immunofluorescent assay was used for testing of virus-specific antigen and antibody. PMID:1279896

Titenko, A M; Novozhilov, S S; Andaev, E I; Borisova, T I; Kulikova, E V

1992-01-01

397

Repository of Eurasian influenza A virus hemagglutinin and neuraminidase reverse genetics vectors and recombinant viruses.  

PubMed

Reverse genetics can be used to produce recombinant influenza A viruses containing virtually every desired combination of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes using the virus backbone of choice. Here, a repository of plasmids and recombinant viruses representing all contemporary Eurasian HA and NA subtypes, H1-H16 and N1-N9, was established. HA and NA genes were selected based on sequence analyses of influenza virus genes available from public databases. Prototype Eurasian HA and NA genes were cloned in bidirectional reverse genetics plasmids. Recombinant viruses based on the virus backbone of A/PR/8/34, and containing a variety of HA and NA genes were produced in 293T cells. Virus stocks were produced in MDCK cells and embryonated chicken eggs. These plasmids and viruses may be useful for numerous purposes, including influenza virus research projects, vaccination studies, and to serve as reference reagents in diagnostic settings. PMID:20600474

Keawcharoen, J; Spronken, M I J; Vuong, O; Bestebroer, T M; Munster, V J; Osterhaus, A D M E; Rimmelzwaan, G F; Fouchier, R A M

2010-08-16

398

Psoralen inactivation of influenza and herpes simplex viruses and of virus-infected cells  

SciTech Connect

Psoralen compounds covalently bind to nucleic acids when irradiated with long-wavelength ultraviolet light. This treatment can destroy the infectivity of deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid viruses. Two psoralen compounds, 4'-hydroxymethyltrioxsalen and 4'-aminomethyltrioxsalen, were used with long-wavelength ultraviolet light to inactivate cell-free herpes simplex and influenza viruses and to render virus-infected cells noninfectious. This method of inactivation was compared with germicidal (short-wavelength) ultraviolet light irradiation. The antigenicity of the treated, virus-infected, antigen-bearing cells was examined by immunofluorescence and radioimmunoassay and by measuring the capacity of the herpes simplex virus-infected cells to stimulate virus-specific lymphocyte proliferation. The infectivity of the virus-infected cells could be totally eliminated without altering their viral antigenicity. The use of psoralen plus long-wavelength ultraviolet light is well suited to the preparation of noninfectious virus antigens and virus antigen-bearing cells for immunological assays.

Redfield, D.C.; Richman, D.D.; Oxman, M.N.; Kronenberg, L.H.

1981-06-01

399

New vaccines against influenza virus  

PubMed Central

Vaccination is one of the most effective and cost-benefit interventions that prevent the mortality and reduce morbidity from infectious pathogens. However, the licensed influenza vaccine induces strain-specific immunity and must be updated annually based on predicted strains that will circulate in the upcoming season. Influenza virus still causes significant health problems worldwide due to the low vaccine efficacy from unexpected outbreaks of next epidemic strains or the emergence of pandemic viruses. Current influenza vaccines are based on immunity to the hemagglutinin antigen that is highly variable among different influenza viruses circulating in humans and animals. Several scientific advances have been endeavored to develop universal vaccines that will induce broad protection. Universal vaccines have been focused on regions of viral proteins that are highly conserved across different virus subtypes. The strategies of universal vaccines include the matrix 2 protein, the hemagglutinin HA2 stalk domain, and T cell-based multivalent antigens. Supplemented and/or adjuvanted vaccination in combination with universal target antigenic vaccines would have much promise. This review summarizes encouraging scientific advances in the field with a focus on novel vaccine designs. PMID:24427759

Lee, Young-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hye; Ko, Eun-Ju; Lee, Yu-Na; Kim, Min-Chul; Kwon, Young-Man; Tang, Yinghua; Cho, Min-Kyoung; Lee, Youn-Jeong

2014-01-01

400

West Nile Virus and Wildlife  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed resource from BioScience is about West Nile virus in wildlife. West Nile virus (WNV) has spread rapidly across North America, resulting in human deaths and in the deaths of untold numbers of birds, mammals, and reptiles. The virus has reached Central America and the Caribbean and may spread to Hawaii and South America. Although tens of thousands of birds have died, and studies of some bird species show local declines, few regionwide declines can be attributed to WNV. Predicting future impacts of WNV on wildlife, and pinpointing what drives epidemics, will require substantial additional research into host susceptibility, reservoir competency, and linkages between climate, mosquitoes, and disease. Such work will entail a collaborative effort between scientists in governmental research groups, in surveillance and control programs, and in nongovernmental organizations. West Nile virus was not the first, and it will not be the last, exotic disease to be introduced to the New World. Its spread in North America highlights the need to strengthen animal monitoring programs and to integrate them with research on disease ecology.

PETER P. MARRA, SEAN GRIFFING, CAROLEE CAFFREY, A. MARM KILPATRICK, ROBERT McLEAN, CHRISTOPHER BRAND, EMI SAITO, ALAN P. DUPUIS, LAURA KRAMER, and ROBERT NOVAK (;)

2004-05-01

401

Oncolytic Viruses as Anticancer Vaccines  

PubMed Central

Oncolytic virotherapy has shown impressive results in preclinical studies and first promising therapeutic outcomes in clinical trials as well. Since viruses are known for a long time as excellent vaccination agents, oncolytic viruses are now designed as novel anticancer agents combining the aspect of lysis-dependent cytoreductive activity with concomitant induction of antitumoral immune responses. Antitumoral immune activation by oncolytic virus infection of tumor tissue comprises both, immediate effects of innate immunity and also adaptive responses for long lasting antitumoral activity, which is regarded as the most prominent challenge in clinical oncology. To date, the complex effects of a viral tumor infection on the tumor microenvironment and the consequences for the tumor-infiltrating immune cell compartment are poorly understood. However, there is more and more evidence that a tumor infection by an oncolytic virus opens up a number of options for further immunomodulating interventions such as systemic chemotherapy, generic immunostimulating strategies, dendritic cell-based vaccines, and antigenic libraries to further support clinical efficacy of oncolytic virotherapy. PMID:25101244

Woller, Norman; Gurlevik, Engin; Ureche, Cristina-Ileana; Schumacher, Anja; Kuhnel, Florian

2014-01-01

402

Herpes Simplex Virus: Dry Mass.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dry mass of herpes simplex virus particles was measured by quantitative electron microscopy after isolation by surface spreading and critical-point drying of infected cells. The core weighed about 2 x 10 to the minus 16th power gram, the empty naked capsi...

F. Lampert, G. F. Bahr, A. S. Rabson

1969-01-01

403

Viruses Associated with Human Cancer  

PubMed Central

It is estimated that viral infections contribute to 15–20% of all human cancers. As obligatory intracellular parasites, viruses encode proteins that reprogram host cellular signaling pathways that control proliferation, differentiation, cell death, genomic integrity, and recognition by the immune system. These cellular processes are governed by complex and redundant regulatory networks and are surveyed by sentinel mechanisms that ensure that aberrant cells are removed from the proliferative pool. Given that the genome size of a virus is highly restricted to ensure packaging within an infectious structure, viruses must target cellular regulatory nodes with limited redundancy and need to inactivate surveillance mechanisms that would normally recognize and extinguish such abnormal cells. In many cases, key proteins in these same regulatory networks are subject to mutation in non-virally associated diseases and cancers. Oncogenic viruses have thus served as important experimental models to identify and molecularly investigate such cellular networks. These include the discovery of oncogenes and tumor suppressors, identification of regulatory networks that are critical for maintenance of genomic integrity, and processes that govern immune surveillance. PMID:18201576

McLaughlin-Drubin, Margaret E.; Munger, Karl

2008-01-01

404

A virus-based biocatalyst  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Virus particles are probably the most precisely defined nanometre-sized objects that can be formed by protein self-assembly. Although their natural function is the storage and transport of genetic material, they have more recently been applied as scaffolds for mineralization and as containers for the encapsulation of inorganic compounds. The reproductive power of viruses has been used to develop versatile analytical methods, such as phage display, for the selection and identification of (bio)active compounds. To date, the combined use of self-assembly and reproduction has not been used for the construction of catalytic systems. Here we describe a self-assembled system based on a plant virus that has its coat protein genetically modified to provide it with a lipase enzyme. Using single-object and bulk catalytic studies, we prove that the virus-anchored lipase molecules are catalytically active. This anchored biocatalyst, unlike man-made supported catalysts, has the capability to reproduce itself in vivo, generating many independent catalytically active copies.

Carette, Noëlle; Engelkamp, Hans; Akpa, Eric; Pierre, Sebastien J.; Cameron, Neil R.; Christianen, Peter C. M.; Maan, Jan C.; Thies, Jens C.; Weberskirch, Ralf; Rowan, Alan E.; Nolte, Roeland J. M.; Michon, Thierry; van Hest, Jan C. M.

2007-04-01

405

Satellite Tobacco Mosaic Virus (STMV)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The structure of the Satellite Tobacco Mosaic Virus (STMV)--one of the smallest viruses known--has been successfully deduced using STMV crystals grown aboard the Space Shuttle in 1992 and 1994. The STMV crystals were up to 30 times the volume of any seen in the laboratory. At the same time they gave the best resolution data ever obtained on any virus crystal. STMV is a small icosahedral plant virus, consisting of a protein shell made up of 60 identical protein subunits of molecular weight 17,500. Particularly noteworthy is the fact that, in contrast to the crystal grown on Earth, the crystals grown under microgravity conditions were viusally perfect, with no striations or clumping of crystals. Furthermore, the X-ray diffraction data obtained from the space-grown crystals was of a much higher quality than the best data available at that time from ground-based crystals. This computer model shows the external coating or capsid. STMV is used because it is a simple protein to work with; studies are unrelated to tobacco. Credit: Dr. Alex McPherson, Univeristy of California at Irvin.

2000-01-01

406

Who Let the Virus In?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fifty-second monthly installment of our "What A Year!" website project, introducing life science breakthroughs to middle and high school students and their teachers. Respiratory syncytial virus, RSV for short, is so common that almost every child in the United States under two years of age has been infected once, and that half of children under three have been infected at least twice.

2011-11-01

407

Turnip Yellow Mosaic Virus Structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The bumpy exterior of the turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) protein coat, or capsid, was defined in detail by Dr. Alexander McPherson of the University of California, Irvin using protein crystallized in space for analysis on Earth. TYMV is an icosahedral virus constructed from 180 copies of the same protein arranged into 12 clusters of five proteins (pentamers), and 20 clusters of six proteins (hexamers). The final TYMV structure led to the enexpected hypothesis that the virus release its RNA by essentially chemical-mechanical means. Most viruses have farly flat coats, but in TYMV, the fold in each protein, called the jellyroll, is clustered at the points where the protein pentamers and hexamers join. The jellyrolls are almost standing on end, producing a bumpy surface with knobs at all of the pentamers and hexamers. At the inside surface of the pentamers is a void that is not present at the hexamers. The coating had been seen in early studies of TYMV, but McPhereson's atomic structure shows much more detail. The inside surface is strikingly, and unexpectedly, different than the outside. While the pentamers contain a central viod on the inside, the hexameric units contain peptides liked to each other, forming a ring or, more accurately, rings to fill the voild. Credit: Dr. Alexander McPherson, University of California, Irvine.

2000-01-01

408

Computer analysis identifies sequence homologies between potential gene products of Maize Streak Virus and those of Cassava Latent Virus and Tomato Golden Mosaic Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amino acid sequences of the putative polypeptides of maize streak virus (MSV) have been systematically compared with those of cassava latent virus (CLV) and tomato golden mosaic virus (TGMV) using the programme DIAGON (8).

P. M. Mullineaux; J. Donson; M. I. Boulton; B. A. M. Morris-Krsinich; P. G. Markham; J. W. Davies

1985-01-01

409

Full Genome Characterization of the Culicoides-Borne Marsupial Orbiviruses: Wallal Virus, Mudjinbarry Virus and Warrego Viruses  

PubMed Central

Viruses belonging to the species Wallal virus and Warrego virus of the genus Orbivirus were identified as causative agents of blindness in marsupials in Australia during 1994/5. Recent comparisons of nucleotide (nt) and amino acid (aa) sequences have provided a basis for the grouping and classification of orbivirus isolates. However, full-genome sequence data are not available for representatives of all Orbivirus species. We report full-genome sequence data for three additional orbiviruses: Wallal virus (WALV); Mudjinabarry virus (MUDV) and Warrego virus (WARV). Comparisons of conserved polymerase (Pol), sub-core-shell ‘T2’ and core-surface ‘T13’ proteins show that these viruses group with other Culicoides borne orbiviruses, clustering with Eubenangee virus (EUBV), another orbivirus infecting marsupials. WARV shares <70% aa identity in all three conserved proteins (Pol, T2 and T13) with other orbiviruses, consistent with its classification within a distinct Orbivirus species. Although WALV and MUDV share <72.86%/67.93% aa/nt identity with other orbiviruses in Pol, T2 and T13, they share >99%/90% aa/nt identities with each other (consistent with membership of the same virus species - Wallal virus). However, WALV and MUDV share <68% aa identity in their larger outer capsid protein VP2(OC1), consistent with membership of different serotypes within the species - WALV-1 and WALV-2 respectively. PMID:25299687

Belaganahalli, Manjunatha N.; Maan, Sushila; Maan, Narender S.; Pritchard, Ian; Kirkland, Peter D.; Brownlie, Joe; Attoui, Houssam; Mertens, Peter P. C.

2014-01-01

410

Clarification and guidance on the proper usage of virus and virus species names  

PubMed Central

A pivotal step in the development of a consistent nomenclature for virus classification was the introduction of the virus species concept by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) in 1991. Yet, almost two decades later, many virologists still are unable to differentiate between virus species and actual viruses. Here we attempt to explain the origin of this confusion, clarify the difference between taxa and physical entities, and suggest simple measures that could be implemented by ICTV Study Groups to make virus taxonomy and nomenclature more accessible to laboratory virologists. PMID:20204430

Jahrling, Peter B.

2010-01-01

411

Clinical and biological differences between recurrent herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections  

SciTech Connect

The major features that distinguish recurrent herpes simplex virus infections from zoster are illustrated in this article by two case histories. The clinical and epidemiologic features that characterize recurrent herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections are reviewed. It is noted that herpesvirus infections are more common and severe in patients with cellular immune deficiency. Each virus evokes both humoral and cellular immune response in the course of primary infection. DNA hybridization studies with RNA probes labelled with sulfur-35 indicate that herpes simplex viruses persist within neurons, and that varicella-zoster virus is found in the satellite cells that encircle the neurons.

Straus, S.E. (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD (USA))

1989-12-01

412

Susceptibility of Echium plantagineum L. to tobacco mosaic, alfalfa mosaic, tobacco ringspot, and tobacco necrosis viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Echiurn plantagineurn was infected locally by inoculation with tobacco mosaic virus strain U1 (TMV-U1) and systemically by TMV-U2, several isolates of alfalfa mosaic virus, tobacco ringspot virus and tobacco necrosis virus. However, bean yellow mosaic\\u000a virus, cucumber mosaic virus, potato virus Y, red clover necrotic mosaic virus, subterranean clover mottle virus, tomato spotted\\u000a wilt virus and velvet tobacco mottle virus,

J. W. Randles; Gien Osmond

1986-01-01

413

Reemergence of Vaccinia Virus during Zoonotic Outbreak, Par? State, Brazil  

PubMed Central

In 2010, vaccinia virus caused an outbreak of bovine vaccinia that affected dairy cattle and rural workers in Pará State, Brazil. Genetic analyses identified the virus as distinct from BeAn58058 vaccinia virus (identified in 1960s) and from smallpox vaccine virus strains. These findings suggest spread of autochthonous group 1 vaccinia virus in this region. PMID:24274374

de Assis, Felipe L.; Vinhote, Wagner M.; Barbosa, Jose D.; de Oliveira, Cairo H.S.; de Oliveira, Carlos M.G.; Campos, Karinny F.; Silva, Natalia S.; Trindade, Giliane de Souza

2013-01-01

414

Pseudorabies Virus Infection Alters Neuronal Activity and Connectivity In Vitro  

E-print Network

-herpesviruses, including human herpes simplex virus 1 & 2, varicella zoster virus and the swine pseudorabies virus (PRV on motor and sensory neuron activity. For example, herpes simplex virus type 1 causes herpes labialis with the sensations of numbness and tingling [1]; herpes simplex virus type 2 causes genital herpes

Tank, David

415

Human MxA protein inhibits tick-borne Thogoto virus but not Dhori virus.  

PubMed Central

Thogoto and Dhori viruses are tick-borne orthomyxoviruses infecting humans and livestock in Africa, Asia, and Europe. Here, we show that human MxA protein is an efficient inhibitor of Thogoto virus but is inactive against Dhori virus. When expressed in the cytoplasm of stably transfected cell lines, MxA protein interfered with the accumulation of Thogoto viral RNA and proteins. Likewise, MxA(R645), a mutant MxA protein known to be active against influenza virus but inactive against vesicular stomatitis virus, was equally efficient in blocking Thogoto virus growth. Hence, a common antiviral mechanism that is distinct from the antiviral action against vesicular stomatitis virus may operate against both influenza virus and Thogoto virus. When moved to the nucleus with the help of a foreign nuclear transport signal, MxA(R645) remained active against Thogoto virus, indicating that a nuclear step of virus replication was inhibited. In contrast, Dhori virus was not affected by wild-type or mutant MxA protein, indicating substantial differences between these two tick-transmitted orthomyxoviruses. Human MxB protein had no antiviral activity against either virus. PMID:7745744

Frese, M; Kochs, G; Meier-Dieter, U; Siebler, J; Haller, O

1995-01-01

416

Powassan Virus: Persistence of Virus Activity During 1966  

PubMed Central

Powassan virus isolations were achieved from three of 60 pools of Ixodes cookei ticks removed from 286 groundhogs (Marmota monax) which were collected some 200 miles north of Toronto between May 5 and September 5, 1966. Virus yields per pool of one to 11 ticks ranged from 102.5 to 106.0 TCD50 for primary swine kidney tissue cultures, and positive pools were collected on June 24, July 15 and August 10. Powassan neutralizing antibodies were detected by mouse inoculation tests in 143 of 362 animals including 127 of 286 groundhogs, 14 of 45 red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) and two of 31 other forest mammals. The monthly prevalence of antibody in the current season's groundhogs increased from 0 to 25% with the progression of summer, but in older animals the incidence remained between 38 and 62% throughout the season. These results substantiate earlier findings which pointed towards the maintenance of Powassan virus in nature by a cycle involving groundhogs and squirrels as reservoirs, with ticks as vectors, from which human infections occurred tangentially. PMID:6019677

McLean, Donald M.; Cobb, Cathron; Gooderham, Susan E.; Smart, Carol A.; Wilson, A. G.; Wilson, W. E.

1967-01-01

417

Powassan virus: persistence of virus activity during 1966.  

PubMed

Powassan virus isolations were achieved from three of 60 pools of Ixodes cookei ticks removed from 286 groundhogs (Marmota monax) which were collected some 200 miles north of Toronto between May 5 and September 5, 1966. Virus yields per pool of one to 11 ticks ranged from 10(2.5) to 10(6.0) TCD(50) for primary swine kidney tissue cultures, and positive pools were collected on June 24, July 15 and August 10. Powassan neutralizing antibodies were detected by mouse inoculation tests in 143 of 362 animals including 127 of 286 groundhogs, 14 of 45 red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) and two of 31 other forest mammals. The monthly prevalence of antibody in the current season's groundhogs increased from 0 to 25% with the progression of summer, but in older animals the incidence remained between 38 and 62% throughout the season. These results substantiate earlier findings which pointed towards the maintenance of Powassan virus in nature by a cycle involving groundhogs and squirrels as reservoirs, with ticks as vectors, from which human infections occurred tangentially. PMID:6019677

McLean, D M; Cobb, C; Gooderham, S E; Smart, C A; Wilson, A G; Wilson, W E

1967-03-18

418

Recombinant Vaccinia Virus Expressing the Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Glycoprotein C Protects Mice against Herpes Simplex Virus Challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The gene encoding the herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-1) glycoprotein C (gC) was isolated and cloned into a vaccinia virus insertion vector, and the resulting vaccinia-gC vector was used to construct a recombinant vaccinia virus that expressed gC (VVgC5). Infection of cells with VVgC5 resulted in cell surface expression of authentic HSV-1 gC. HSV-1 gC-specific neutralizing antibodies were

JERRY P. WEIR; MALCOLM BENNETT; ELIZABETH M. ALLEN; KAREN L. ELKINS; STEPHEN MARTIN; BARRY T. ROUSE

1989-01-01

419

Malsoor Virus, a Novel Bat Phlebovirus, Is Closely Related to Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus and Heartland Virus  

PubMed Central

During a survey in the year 2010, a novel phlebovirus was isolated from the Rousettus leschenaultii species of bats in western India. The virus was identified by electron microscopy from infected Vero E6 cells. Phylogenic analysis of the complete genome showed its close relation to severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) and Heartland viruses, which makes it imperative to further study its natural ecology and potential as a novel emerging zoonotic virus. PMID:24390329

Yadav, P. D.; Basu, A.; Shete, A.; Patil, D. Y.; Zawar, D.; Majumdar, T. D.; Kokate, P.; Sarkale, P.; Raut, C. G.; Jadhav, S. M.

2014-01-01

420

Evolution and ecology of influenza A viruses.  

PubMed Central

In this review we examine the hypothesis that aquatic birds are the primordial source of all influenza viruses in other species and study the ecological features that permit the perpetuation of influenza viruses in aquatic avian species. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequence of influenza A virus RNA segments coding for the spike proteins (HA, NA, and M2) and the internal proteins (PB2, PB1, PA, NP, M, and NS) from a wide range of hosts, geographical regions, and influenza A virus subtypes support the following conclusions. (i) Two partly overlapping reservoirs of influenza A viruses exist in migrating waterfowl and shorebirds throughout the world. These species harbor influenza viruses of all the known HA and NA subtypes. (ii) Influenza viruses have evolved into a number of host-specific lineages that are exemplified by the NP gene and include equine Prague/56, recent equine strains, classical swine and human strains, H13 gull strains, and all other avian strains. Other genes show similar patterns, but with extensive evidence of genetic reassortment. Geographical as well as host-specific lineages are evident. (iii) All of the influenza A viruses of mammalian sources originated from the avian gene pool, and it is possible that influenza B viruses also arose from the same source. (iv) The different virus lineages are predominantly host specific, but there are periodic exchanges of influenza virus genes or whole viruses between species, giving rise to pandemics of disease in humans, lower animals, and birds. (v) The influenza viruses currently circulating in humans and pigs in North America originated by transmission of all genes from the avian reservoir prior to the 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic; some of the genes have subsequently been replaced by others from the influenza gene pool in birds. (vi) The influenza virus gene pool in aquatic birds of the world is probably perpetuated by low-level transmission within that species throughout the year. (vii) There is evidence that most new human pandemic strains and variants have originated in southern China. (viii) There is speculation that pigs may serve as the intermediate host in genetic exchange between influenza viruses in avian and humans, but experimental evidence is lacking. (ix) Once the ecological properties of influenza viruses are understood, it may be possible to interdict the introduction of new influenza viruses into humans. Images PMID:1579108

Webster, R G; Bean, W J; Gorman, O T; Chambers, T M; Kawaoka, Y

1992-01-01

421

Pseudotyping of vesicular stomatitis virus with the envelope glycoproteins of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses.  

PubMed

Pseudotype viruses are useful for studying the envelope proteins of harmful viruses. This work describes the pseudotyping of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) with the envelope glycoproteins of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. VSV lacking the homotypic glycoprotein (G) gene (VSV?G) was used to express haemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA) or the combination of both. Propagation-competent pseudotype viruses were only obtained when HA and NA were expressed from the same vector genome. Pseudotype viruses containing HA from different H5 clades were neutralized specifically by immune sera directed against the corresponding clade. Fast and sensitive reading of test results was achieved by vector-mediated expression of GFP. Pseudotype viruses expressing a mutant VSV matrix protein showed restricted spread in IFN-competent cells. This pseudotype system will facilitate the detection of neutralizing antibodies against virulent influenza viruses, circumventing the need for high-level biosafety containment. PMID:24814925

Zimmer, Gert; Locher, Samira; Berger Rentsch, Marianne; Halbherr, Stefan J

2014-08-01

422

Impact of anti-virus software on computer virus dynamical behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of anti-virus software on the spreading of computer virus is investigated via developing a mathematical model in this paper. Considering the anti-virus software may not be effective, as it may be an outdated version, and then the computers may be infected with a reduced incidence rate. According to the method of next generation matrix, the basic reproduction number is derived. By introducing appropriate Lyapunov function and the Routh stability criterion, acquiring the stability conditions of the virus-free equilibrium and virus equilibrium. The effect of anti-virus software and disconnecting rate on the spreading of virus are also analyzed. When combined with the numerical results, a set of suggestions are put forward for eradicating virus effectively.

Sun, Mei; Li, Dandan; Han, Dun; Jia, Changsheng

2014-11-01

423

Full Genome Sequencing of Corriparta Virus, Identifies California Mosquito Pool Virus as a Member of the Corriparta virus Species  

PubMed Central

The species Corriparta virus (CORV), within the genus Orbivirus, family Reoviridae, currently contains six virus strains: corriparta virus MRM1 (CORV-MRM1); CS0109; V654; V370; Acado virus and Jacareacanga virus. However, lack of neutralization assays, or reference genome sequence data has prevented further analysis of their intra-serogroup/species relationships and identification of individual serotypes. We report whole-genome sequence data for CORV-MRM1, which was isolated in 1960 in Australia. Comparisons of the conserved, polymerase (VP1), sub-core-shell ‘T2’ and core-surface ‘T13’ proteins encoded by genome segments 1, 2 and 8 (Seg-1, Seg-2 and Seg-8) respectively, show that this virus groups with the other mosquito borne orbiviruses. However, highest levels of nt/aa sequence identity (75.9%/91.6% in Seg-2/T2: 77.6%/91.7% in Seg-8/T13, respectively) were detected between CORV-MRM1 and California mosquito pool virus (CMPV), an orbivirus isolated in the USA in 1974, showing that they belong to the same virus species. The data presented here identify CMPV as a member of the Corriparta virus species and will facilitate identification of additional CORV isolates, diagnostic assay design and epidemiological studies. PMID:24015178

Belaganahalli, Manjunatha N.; Maan, Sushila; Maan, Narender S.; Nomikou, Kyriaki; Guimera, Marc; Brownlie, Joe; Tesh, Robert; Attoui, Houssam; Mertens, Peter P. C.

2013-01-01

424

Ebola virus infection: an overview.  

PubMed

The current outbreak of the Ebola virus infection in Africa has yet again proven that highly dangerous diseases that are transmitted via the blood-borne route may be endemic in some parts of the world and may emerge as sporadic outbreaks causing worldwide concern. Health care professionals are at the forefront of combatting these diseases and treating infected individuals. Though dental professionals are unlikely to be directly involved in the management of such acute infections, with very high mortality rates, they may encounter patients seeking dental treatment who are either from, or who have recently toured the endemic disease areas. This overview, therefore, is a thumb nail sketch of the Ebola virus infection and its implications for dentistry. PMID:8935292

Samaranayake, L P; Peiris, J S; Scully, C

1996-04-01

425

Respiratory syncytial virus vaccine development  

PubMed Central

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract viral disease in infants and young children. Presently, there are no explicit recommendations for RSV treatment apart from supportive care. The virus is therefore responsible for an estimated 160,000 deaths per year worldwide. Despite half a century of dedicated research, there remains no licensed vaccine product. Herein are described past and current efforts to harness innate and adaptive immune potentials to combat RSV. A plethora of candidate vaccine products and strategies are reviewed. The development of a successful RSV vaccine may ultimately stem from attention to historical lessons, in concert with an integral partnering of immunology and virology research fields. PMID:21988307

Hurwitz, Julia L

2011-01-01

426

West Nile Virus Maps - 2002  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Geological Survey Center for Integration of Natural Disaster Information has provided these maps of reported occurrences of West Nile Virus (WNV). "The West Nile Virus Surveillance System is intended to monitor the geographic and temporal spread of WNV over the contiguous United States." Maps include 2002 surveillance data for birds, humans, mosquitoes, sentinel chicken flocks, and data submitted by veterinarians. Maps from previous years are available, including comprehensive maps through 2000, and maps of 2001 data. It is unclear whether the 2002 maps are based on 2002 data alone, or include all data through June of 2002. Brief background on WNV and surveillance activities help make this site appealing to a broader audience.

427

West Nile Virus in California  

PubMed Central

West Nile virus (WNV) was first isolated in California during July 2003 from a pool of Culex tarsalis collected near El Centro, Imperial County. WNV transmission then increased and spread in Imperial and Coachella Valleys, where it was tracked by isolation from pools of Cx. tarsalis, seroconversions in sentinel chickens, and seroprevalence in free-ranging birds. WNV then dispersed to the city of Riverside, Riverside County, and to the Whittier Dam area of Los Angeles County, where it was detected in dead birds and pools of Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus. By October, WNV was detected in dead birds collected from riparian corridors in Los Angeles, west to Long Beach, and through inland valleys south from Riverside to San Diego County. WNV was reported concurrently from Arizona in mid-August and from Baja, Mexico, in mid-November. Possible mechanisms for virus introduction, amplification, and dispersal are discussed. PMID:15496236

Lothrop, Hugh; Chiles, Robert; Madon, Minoo; Cossen, Cynthia; Woods, Leslie; Husted, Stan; Kramer, Vicki; Edman, John

2004-01-01

428

Genomic organization of Borna disease virus.  

PubMed Central

Borna disease virus is a neurotropic negative-strand RNA virus that infects a wide range of vertebrate hosts, causing disturbances in movement and behavior. We have cloned and sequenced the 8910-nucleotide viral genome by using RNA from Borna disease virus particles. The viral genome has complementary 3' and 5' termini and contains antisense information for five open reading frames. Homology to Filoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, and Rhabdoviridae is found in both cistronic and extracistronic regions. Northern analysis indicates that the virus transcribes mono- and polycistronic RNAs and uses termination/polyadenylylation signals reminiscent of those observed in other negative-strand RNA viruses. Borna disease virus is likely to represent a previously unrecognized genus, bornaviruses, or family, Bornaviridae, within the order Mononegavirales. Images PMID:8183914

Briese, T; Schneemann, A; Lewis, A J; Park, Y S; Kim, S; Ludwig, H; Lipkin, W I

1994-01-01

429

Chloroviruses: not your everyday plant virus.  

PubMed

Viruses infecting higher plants are among the smallest viruses known and typically have four to ten protein-encoding genes. By contrast, many viruses that infect algae (classified in the virus family Phycodnaviridae) are among the largest viruses found to date and have up to 600 protein-encoding genes. This brief review focuses on one group of plaque-forming phycodnaviruses that infect unicellular chlorella-like green algae. The prototype chlorovirus PBCV-1 has more than 400 protein-encoding genes and 11 tRNA genes. About 40% of the PBCV-1 encoded proteins resemble proteins of known function including many that are completely unexpected for a virus. In many respects, chlorovirus infection resembles bacterial infection by tailed bacteriophages. PMID:22100667

Van Etten, James L; Dunigan, David D

2012-01-01

430

Akabane and bovine ephemeral fever virus infections.  

PubMed

Akabane and bovine ephemeral fever viruses are exotic to the American continent. Both viruses are spread by insect vectors, and each causes disease of varying severity in food-producing animals. However, there are few other similarities between the agents and the diseases that they cause. They do not share the same insect vectors, the mammalian host range is different, and the clinical manifestations of virus infection vary markedly. Akabane virus is a cause of severe congenital defects, but adult animals show no signs of infection. In contrast, bovine ephemeral fever virus causes a febrile illness affecting mainly mature animals. If introduced to North America, it is probable that there would be significant economic losses, at least until endemic virus transmission patterns were established. Subsequently, it is likely that there would be patterns of alternate disease outbreaks followed by interepidemic periods in which there is a minor clinical effect. PMID:12442580

Kirkland, Peter D

2002-11-01

431

Yellow fever vector live-virus vaccines: West Nile virus vaccine development  

Microsoft Academic Search

By combining molecular-biological techniques with our increased understanding of the effect of gene sequence modification on viral function, yellow fever 17D, a positive-strand RNA virus vaccine, has been manipulated to induce a protective immune response against viruses of the same family (e.g. Japanese encephalitis and dengue viruses). Triggered by the emergence of West Nile virus infections in the New World

Juan Arroyo; Charles A Miller; John Catalan; Thomas P Monath

2001-01-01

432

Extracellular truncated influenza virus nucleoprotein.  

PubMed

In the culture medium of MDCK cells infected with influenza A/Duck/Ukraine/1/63(H3N8) virus two kinds of virus nucleoprotein (NP) are detected: full-length 56 kDa NP and truncated 53 kDa NP. However, in infected cells 53 kDa NP may be detected only at short pulse and after 10 min chase it becomes nondetectable. The extracellular truncated 53 kDa NP is detected in free RNP, and not in the virions. Both extracellular free 53 and 56 kDa NP in the virions are completely oligomerized. Several data argue against the possibility of extracellular 53 kDa NP formation being a result of extracellular 56 kDa NP proteolytic degradation. Thus, the accumulation of extracellular 53 kDa NP takes place only in the course of infection, and the amount of 53 kDa NP is not increased during prolonged storage of cell-free culture medium at +37 degrees C. Moreover, all extracellular 56 kDa NP of A/Duck/Ukraine/1/63 influenza virus is present in the oligomeric form, and the latter, in contrast to the mononeric form, is highly resistant to proteases. The possibility is discussed that in the course of A/Duck/Ukraine/1/63 (H3N8) influenza virus infection a fraction of the synthesized 56 kDa monomeric NP undergoes the proteolytic cleavage in the infected cells before oligomerization and forms the 53 kDa NP. This 53 kDa NP is then oligomerized, enters the RNP and is quickly secreted from the cells. PMID:11451486

Prokudina, E N; Semenova, N P; Chumakov, V M; Rudneva, I A; Yamnikova, S S

2001-09-01

433

The virus-immunity ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ecology of pathogenic viruses can be considered both in the context of survival in the macro-environments of nature, the\\u000a theme pursued generally by epidemiologists, and in the micro-environments of the infected host. The long-lived, complex, higher\\u000a vertebrates have evolved specialized, adaptive immune systems designed to minimise the consequences of such parasitism. Through\\u000a evolutionary time, the differential selective pressures exerted

P. C. Doherty; S. J. Turner

434

Replication of hepatitis C virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exciting progress has recently been made in understanding the replication of hepatitis C virus, a major cause of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide. The development of complete cell-culture systems should now enable the systematic dissection of the entire viral lifecycle, providing insights into the hitherto difficult-to-study early and late steps. These efforts have already translated into the

François Penin; Charles M. Rice; Darius Moradpour

2007-01-01

435

Hepatitis C virus and autoimmunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatitis C virus infection is associated with several extrahepatic manifestations. About 60% of patients infected with HCV\\u000a develop at least one extrahepatic manifestation. The majority of these diseases seem to be triggered through autoimmune mechanisms,\\u000a such as autoantibody production, autoreactive T cells and complex autoimmune mechanisms leading to systemic autoimmune disorders.\\u000a In this review we categorize these diseases into three

Barbara C. Böckle; Norbert T. Sepp

2010-01-01

436

9 CFR 113.311 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. 113.311 Section...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.311 Bovine...

2013-01-01

437

9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206 Section 113.206 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.206 Wart...

2010-01-01

438

9 CFR 113.213 - Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.213 Section 113.213 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.213...

2013-01-01

439

9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206 Section 113.206 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.206 Wart...

2012-01-01

440

21 CFR 866.3940 - West Nile virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false West Nile virus serological reagents. 866.3940 ...Serological Reagents § 866.3940 West Nile virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. West Nile virus serological reagents are devices...

2011-04-01

441

21 CFR 866.3400 - Parainfluenza virus serological reagents.  

... 2014-04-01 false Parainfluenza virus serological reagents. 866.3400 Section...Reagents § 866.3400 Parainfluenza virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Parainfluenza virus serological reagents are devices...

2014-04-01

442

9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

... Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.210 Section 113.210 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.210 Feline...

2014-01-01

443

9 CFR 113.34 - Detection of hemagglutinating viruses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Detection of hemagglutinating viruses. 113.34 Section 113.34 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...113.34 Detection of hemagglutinating viruses. The test for detection of...

2011-01-01

444

9 CFR 113.34 - Detection of hemagglutinating viruses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Detection of hemagglutinating viruses. 113.34 Section 113.34 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...113.34 Detection of hemagglutinating viruses. The test for detection of...

2012-01-01

445

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Occurrence of adenovirus and other enteric viruses in  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Occurrence of adenovirus and other enteric viruses in limited-contact freshwater Introduction Recreational outbreaks caused by adenoviruses, coxsackie- viruses, echoviruses and noroviruses (CSOs) and stormwater are sources of viruses which could significantly impact recreational water quality

Illinois at Chicago, University of

446

9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

...2014-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206 Section 113.206 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.206 Wart...

2014-01-01

447