Sample records for sardinia virus tylcsv

  1. Real-time PCR protocols for the quantification of the begomovirus tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus in tomato plants and in its insect vector.

    PubMed

    Noris, Emanuela; Miozzi, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) (Geminiviridae) is an important pathogen, transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, that severely affects the tomato production in the Mediterranean basin. Here, we describe real-time PCR protocols suitable for relative and absolute quantification of TYLCSV in tomato plants and in whitefly extracts. Using primers and probe specifically designed for TYLCSV, the protocols for relative quantification allow to compare the amount of TYLCSV present in different plant or whitefly samples, normalized to the amount of DNA present in each sample using endogenous tomato or Bemisia genes as internal references. The absolute quantification protocol allows to calculate the number of genomic units of TYLCSV over the genomic units of the plant host (tomato), with a sensitivity of as few as ten viral genome copies per sample. The described protocols are potentially suitable for several applications, such as plant breeding for resistance, analysis of virus replication, and virus-vector interaction studies. PMID:25287496

  2. Three years survey of Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus reservoir weed hosts in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Fanigliulo, Angele; Pacella, Rosa; Comes, Soccorsa; Crescenzi, Aniello

    2007-01-01

    During the period from August 2004 to June 2006 a serious tomato yellow leaf curl epidemic caused by both Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCS) was observed in protected tomato crops in Castrovillari, Calabria Region, in a group of greenhouses where tomato is grown hydroponically. A three years survey for reservoir weed hosts of these viruses was performed during summer period in order to identify where the viruses persist during the host-free period, interesting an area covering a ray of 500 m around the group of greenhouses. About 350 samples were collected from symptomless and symptomatic plants of the following botanic families: Graminaceae, Compositeae, Solanaceae, Portulacaceae, Malvaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Amaranthaceae, Convolvulaceae, Brassicaceae, Labiatae, Plantaginaceae, Asteraceae. Any virus presence was evaluated by DAS ELISA, using a "broad-spectrum" reagent combination detecting different Begomoviruses including TYLCSV and TYLCV. A couple of synthetic oligonucleotides allowing the amplification of the whole coat protein (CP) gene was used for PCR of ELISA positive samples in order to perform the molecular characterisation of the viral isolate responsible of the disease. RFLP analysis performed on the PCR product, 1008 bp long, showed the presence of only TYLCSV in the weeds found infected and belonging to Sonchus asper, Solanum nigrum, Datura stramonium and Cardaria draba species. Similarity analysis performed between the CP of each isolate and the TYLCSV isolate recovered within the greenhouse and responsible of the epidemic in mixed infection with a TYLCV isolate resulted in a value of 100% of identity, thus indicating that there was no variability in TYLCSV population in the surveyed area. S. asper, S. nigrum, D. stramonium and C. draba, as alternative hosts of TYLCSV and nutrient plants of the virus vector, Bemisia tabaci, were found to play an important role in virus ecology and epidemiology in the studied tomato ecosystem. No weed between those investigated has been found to be infected by TYLCV so far. To our knowledge this is the first report of S. asper and C. draba as TYLCSV hosts in natural infection. PMID:18396845

  3. Citrus Virus Symptoms in Sardinia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Bruno

    1964-01-01

    SARDINIA was believed to be a virus-free citrus region until Boselli1 first noted a disorder showing symptoms commonly referred to as the psorosis virus complex. Following this, the main citrus areas of the Island have been surveyed with the view of recognizing and recording virus or virus-like manifestations.

  4. Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus-resistant tomato plants expressing the multifunctional N-terminal domain of the replication-associated protein show transcriptional changes resembling stress-related responses.

    PubMed

    Lucioli, Alessandra; Berardi, Alessandra; Gatti, Francesca; Tavazza, Raffaela; Pizzichini, Daniele; Tavazza, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The N-terminal domain (amino acids 1-130) of the replication-associated protein (Rep130 ) of Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) retains the ability of full-length Rep to localize to the nucleus and to down-regulate C1 transcription when ectopically expressed in plants, both functions being required to inhibit homologous viral replication. In this study, we analysed the effect of Rep130 expression on virus resistance and the plant transcriptome in the natural and agronomically important host species of TYLCSV, Solanum lycopersicum. Tomato plants accumulating high levels of Rep130 were generated and proved to be resistant to TYLCSV. Using an in vitro assay, we showed that plant-expressed Rep130 also retains the catalytic activity of Rep, thus supporting the notion that this protein domain is fully functional. Interestingly, Rep130 -expressing tomatoes were characterized by an altered transcriptional profile resembling stress-related responses. Notably, the serine-type protease inhibitor (Ser-PI) category was over-represented among the 20 up-regulated genes. The involvement of Rep130 in the alteration of host mRNA steady-state levels was confirmed using a distinct set of virus-resistant transgenic tomato plants expressing the same TYLCSV Rep130 , but from a different, synthetic, gene. Eight genes were found to be up-regulated in both types of transgenic tomato and two encoded Ser-PIs. Four of these eight genes were also up-regulated in TYLCSV-infected wild-type tomato plants. Implications with regard to the ability of this Rep domain to interfere with viral infections and to alter the host transcriptome are discussed. PMID:23910556

  5. Severe outbreak of tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus on pepper in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Comes, Soccorsa; Fanigliulo, Angela; Pacella, Rosa; Crescenzi, Aniello

    2009-01-01

    During summer and autumn 2008 a severe outbreak of pepper leaf curl disease (PLCD) was observed in pepper crops under plastic tunnels in the ionic coast of Basilicata region. Its incidence reached, in some cases, values close to 50%. The beginning of infections was recorded along the perimeter of the tunnels, where it reached a percentage of almost 100%. The infection then progressively spread towards the central areas of the greenhouses. Large populations of whiteflies, identificated as Bemisia tabaci, were observed on the infected crops. Detection assays for TYLCSV and TYLCV were performed in order to ascertain the etiologic agent: 190 symptomatic samples were collected from different fields and assayed in DAS-ELISA using a broad-spectrum reagent combination (distributed by Bioreba AG) detecting TYLCV, TYLCSV and other Begamoviruses: of these, 176 samples resulted positive. In order to discriminate between TYLCSV, TYLCV or any other Begamovirus, 15 positive samples were analyzed by PCR using a couple of synthetic oligonucleotides allowing the amplification of the whole coat protein (CP) gene. RFLP analysis performed on the PCR product, 1008 bp long, showed the presence of only TYLCSV in all assayed samples. The molecular characterization performed by phylogenetic analysis of the sequenced coat protein gene revealed that the isolate shares a similarity of about 97% with the corresponding sequence of a tomato TYLCSV isolate from Sicily (Z28390) and is almost identical with the pepper isolate CAB-It recovered in the same area in 2007 (TYLCSV was first recorded on pepper in Italy in 2007 in Policoro-MT, Fanigliulo et al., 2008. Comm. Appl. Biol. Sci, Ghent University, 73/2, 2008), indicating that there is a very low variability in TYLCSV population in the surveyed area. The further diffusion of PLCD and its hazard has to be connected with the presence of wide tomato cultivations, of weed hosts alternative to pepper (Solanum nigrum, Datura stramonium, Sonchus asper, Cardaria draba and Abutilon theophrasti) and with the strong presence of the vector B. tabaci of the B biotype, more efficient than Q biotype in the virus transmission, and able to feed and reproduce on peppers as well as on tomatoes. PMID:20222578

  6. Transcriptomics of the interaction between the monopartite phloem-limited geminivirus tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus and Solanum lycopersicum highlights a role for plant hormones, autophagy and plant immune system fine tuning during infection.

    PubMed

    Miozzi, Laura; Napoli, Chiara; Sardo, Luca; Accotto, Gian Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV), a DNA virus belonging to the genus Begomovirus, causes severe losses in tomato crops. It infects only a limited number of cells in the vascular tissues, making difficult to detect changes in host gene expression linked to its presence. Here we present the first microarray study of transcriptional changes induced by the phloem-limited geminivirus TYLCSV infecting tomato, its natural host. The analysis was performed on the midrib of mature leaves, a material naturally enriched in vascular tissues. A total of 2206 genes were up-regulated and 1398 were down-regulated in infected plants, with an overrepresentation of genes involved in hormone metabolism and responses, nucleic acid metabolism, regulation of transcription, ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and autophagy among those up-regulated, and in primary and secondary metabolism, phosphorylation, transcription and methylation-dependent chromatin silencing among those down-regulated. Our analysis showed a series of responses, such as the induction of GA- and ABA-responsive genes, the activation of the autophagic process and the fine tuning of the plant immune system, observed only in TYLCSV-tomato compatible interaction so far. On the other hand, comparisons with transcriptional changes observed in other geminivirus-plant interactions highlighted common host responses consisting in the deregulation of biotic stress responsive genes, key enzymes in the ethylene biosynthesis and methylation cycle, components of the ubiquitin proteasome system and DNA polymerases II. The involvement of conserved miRNAs and of solanaceous- and tomato-specific miRNAs in geminivirus infection, investigated by integrating differential gene expression data with miRNA targeting data, is discussed. PMID:24587146

  7. Transcriptomics of the Interaction between the Monopartite Phloem-Limited Geminivirus Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Sardinia Virus and Solanum lycopersicum Highlights a Role for Plant Hormones, Autophagy and Plant Immune System Fine Tuning during Infection

    PubMed Central

    Miozzi, Laura; Napoli, Chiara; Sardo, Luca; Accotto, Gian Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV), a DNA virus belonging to the genus Begomovirus, causes severe losses in tomato crops. It infects only a limited number of cells in the vascular tissues, making difficult to detect changes in host gene expression linked to its presence. Here we present the first microarray study of transcriptional changes induced by the phloem-limited geminivirus TYLCSV infecting tomato, its natural host. The analysis was performed on the midrib of mature leaves, a material naturally enriched in vascular tissues. A total of 2206 genes were up-regulated and 1398 were down-regulated in infected plants, with an overrepresentation of genes involved in hormone metabolism and responses, nucleic acid metabolism, regulation of transcription, ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and autophagy among those up-regulated, and in primary and secondary metabolism, phosphorylation, transcription and methylation-dependent chromatin silencing among those down-regulated. Our analysis showed a series of responses, such as the induction of GA- and ABA-responsive genes, the activation of the autophagic process and the fine tuning of the plant immune system, observed only in TYLCSV-tomato compatible interaction so far. On the other hand, comparisons with transcriptional changes observed in other geminivirus-plant interactions highlighted common host responses consisting in the deregulation of biotic stress responsive genes, key enzymes in the ethylene biosynthesis and methylation cycle, components of the ubiquitin proteasome system and DNA polymerases II. The involvement of conserved miRNAs and of solanaceous- and tomato-specific miRNAs in geminivirus infection, investigated by integrating differential gene expression data with miRNA targeting data, is discussed. PMID:24587146

  8. Foreign Influences and Consequences on the Nuragic Culture of Sardinia 

    E-print Network

    Choltco, Margaret E.

    2010-07-14

    Although it is accepted that Phoenician colonization occurred on Sardinia by the 9th century B.C., it is possible that contact between Sardinia?s indigenous population and the Levantine region occurred in the Late Bronze ...

  9. Levynes and erionites from Sardinia, Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Passaglia; E. Galli; R. Rinaldi

    1974-01-01

    Three samples of levyne and two of erionite from three different localities of Sardinia are described. In two samples, levyne and erionite are intergrown by epitaxy. The levynes exhibit close chemical compositions with Ca>Na>K; as for their lattice constants, a is very similar in all three samples, while c of one sample is rather smaller than that of the other

  10. Evaluation of the risk factors contributing to the African swine fever occurrence in Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Martínez-López, Beatriz; Perez, Andres M; Feliziani, Francesco; Rolesu, Sandro; Mur, Lina; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José M

    2015-01-01

    This study assesses the relation between hypothesized risk factors and African swine fever virus (ASFV) distribution in Sardinia (Italy) after the beginning of the eradication program in 1993, using a Bayesian multivariable logistic regression mixed model. Results indicate that the probability of ASFV occurrence in Sardinia was associated to particular socio-cultural, productive and economical factors found in the region, particularly to large number of confined (i.e., closed) farms (most of them backyard), high road density, high mean altitude, large number of open fattening farms, and large number of pigs per commune. Conversely, large proportion of open farms with at least one census and large proportion of open farms per commune, were found to be protective factors for ASFV. Results suggest that basic preventive and control strategies, such as yearly census or registration of the pigs per farm and better control of the public lands where pigs are usually raised, together with endanced effords of outreach and communication with pig producers should help in the success of the eradication program for ASF in the Island. Methods and results presented here will inform decision making to better control and eradicate ASF in Sardinia and in all those areas with similar management and epidemiological conditions. PMID:25926829

  11. Characterization of the Monte Arci (Sardinia) Obsidian Sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert H. Tykot

    1997-01-01

    In the western Mediterranean, obsidian from four volcanic island sources was used beginning in the Neolithic period. The geological sources on Lipari, Palmarola, and Pantelleria have been located and chemically characterized; until now, however, the Monte Arci source in Sardinia was better known from the analysis of archaeological rather than geological specimens. The results of a comprehensive field survey and

  12. Comparison of the invasive alien flora in continental islands: Sardinia (Italy) and Balearic Islands (Spain)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Podda; P. Fraga i Arguimbau; F. Mascia; O. Mayoral García-Berlanga; G. Bacchetta

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a comparison of the invasive vascular flora of Sardinia and that of the Balearic Islands. The study\\u000a has recorded 53 invasive taxa in Sardinia (12% of the alien flora) while 48 (14%) in the Balearic Islands, 19 of them common for both territories. The\\u000a invasive flora of Sardinia is included in 18 families; Asteraceae is the richest

  13. Rickettsia conorii israelensis in Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Chisu, Valentina; Masala, Giovanna; Foxi, Cipriano; Socolovschi, Cristina; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2014-06-01

    The presence of tick-borne Rickettsia spp. was examined by PCR using DNA samples extracted from 254 ticks collected from mammals originating from northern and eastern Sardinia, Italy. The spotted fever group rickettsial agent Rickettsia conorii israelensis was detected in 3 Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks from a dog for the first time in this geographical area. In addition, Ri. massiliae, Ri. slovaca, and Ri. aeschlimannii were detected in Rh. turanicus, Rh. sanguineus, Dermacentor marginatus, and Hyalomma marginatum marginatum ticks from dogs, goats, wild boar, and horse. Moreover, Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae was detected in 2 Rh. turanicus ticks from goats. The detection of Ri. conorii israelensis, an emergent agent which causes Israeli spotted fever, increases our knowledge on tick-borne rickettsioses in Sardinia. PMID:24852264

  14. [Epidemiology and social/health implications of hydatidosis in Sardinia].

    PubMed

    Palmas, C; Attanasio, E; Ecca, A R; Gabriele, F

    1989-01-01

    All surgically treated cases of hydatidosis registered in Sardinia from 1969 to 1984 have been analysed. The 16-year period clearly shows that unilocular hydatid disease caused by larvae of tapeworm, Echinococcus granulosus, is endemic in Sardinia. In this region there are foci of human infection notably in the sheep rearing areas, of Nuoro and Sassari. The incidence of human hydatidosis shows a marked regional variation varying during the last survey (1982-1984) between 16.9/1000 in the province of Nuoro to 8.3/1000 in the province of Cagliari. Not all population is at equal risk e.g. 47.1/1000 is the incidence in shepherds respect to 8.9/1000 in employed in services. In Sardinia, although there are a wide variety of suitable intermediate host species, is sheep the determinant host for the perpetuation of the parasite's life cycle. The prevalence rate in cattle, pigs and goats in under 30% while the sheep incidence is extraordinarily high, over 90% are infected. The dogs showed a prevalence rate of 10-20%, the infection was more frequent in shepherd-dogs and strays. The rate of hydatidosis in man appears significantly correlated with number of dogs and sheep per inhabitants. Two factors are, at present, determinant in the dissemination of hydatidosis: the common sardinian practice of slaughtering sheep at home and the indiscriminate proliferation of dogs which mainly live as strays. The epidemiological picture and the economic consequences of hydatidosis in man and livestock, a damage of 28 billions of liras per year, strongly suggest this disease as a major public health problem in Sardinia. PMID:2491290

  15. Acid drainage from sulfides hosting gold mineralization (Furtei, Sardinia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Caboi; L. Fanfani; F. Frau

    1997-01-01

    The past mining activity for kaolin minerals left several abandoned quarries in the area of Furtei (southern Sardinia). Recently,\\u000a gold mineralization has been found in association with intensely altered andesitic rocks, and an open-pit gold mine is expected\\u000a to open in the near future. Twenty-one water samples were analyzed for a wide range of major and trace elements, in order

  16. Low Entalpy Geothermal suitability of north Sardinia (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuccuru, Stefano; Oggiano, Giacomo

    2015-04-01

    This note focus on geothermal potentialities of north Sardinia, where several positive thermal anomalies occur along with geolithological and climatic conditions, which make the area specifically suitable for geoexchange. Sardinia consists of a Variscan basement metamorphosed at different grade and further intruded by a late orogenic batholith. Above this basement, since Mesozoic time, a composite sedimentary and volcanic succession occurs, with maximum thickness of 2-3 Km in correspondence of some extensional and strike-slip Cenozoic basins. The volcanic activity consists of a calcalkaline cycle with crustal component, which started in the late Eocene and ended in the Serravallian; another, mantle derived, alkaline-transitional cycle took place during Pliocene and ended in the middle Pleistocene. Several evidences of geothermal circuits occur in northwestern Sardinia, where some springs characterized by anomalous water temperatures and/or chemical-physical features (e.g., high salinity and carbon dioxide content) were known. In addiction those already exploited (e.g., S. Lucia, S. Martino), new springs and boreholes characterized by positive anomalous water temperatures (in the range of 24 and 35 °C) have been highlighted during our recent surveys. These waters are warmer than the homoeothermic level temperature (where no seasonal variations are recorded), which in the area is 15-16 °C. Considering the absence of active volcanism, the anomalous temperatures must be generated by the uprising of deep meteoric water along a plumbing network of crustal faults that bound the extensional as well as the strike slip basins. Rainwater heated for geothermal gradient can upwell rapidly interacting with surface aquifers that, hence, experience heating at different degree. The physical characteristics (i.e., thermal conductivity, open porosity, permeability etc) of the rocks cropping in north Sardinia, regardless the positive thermal anomalies, are profitably suitable for exploiting the subsoil thermal inertia to store thermal energy in summer and recover it in winter by the geoexchange. In fact the widespread Variscan granites of the batholith, cropping in the northeastern side have very good thermal conductivity values (in the range of 2,5 and 3,5 [W/(mK)]) and the volcanic rocks mostly occurring in the northwestern side show good values (>2 [W/(mK)]). Besides the rock thermal conductivity, occurrence of aquifers can improve the thermal geo-exchange due to the formation of convective cells. The field surveys and lab characterization of the different rocks collected in north Sardinia evidenced the suitability of its north western side for many uses typical of low enthalpy water (teleheating, greenhouse, SPA etc.) Furthermore, taking into account the thermal favorable thermal conductivity values of granites outcropping in the north east, good results can be attained by borehole-heat-exchangers.

  17. Early Neolithic obsidians in Sardinia (Western Mediterranean): the Su Carroppu case

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlo Luglič; François-Xavier Le Bourdonnec; Gérard Poupeau; Enrico Atzeni; Stéphan Dubernet; Philippe Moretto; Laurent Serani

    2007-01-01

    All the obsidians from the undisturbed Early Neolithic (Cardial ware phase I) layer of the Su Carroppu rock-shelter (Sardinia island) were studied. Their elemental composition and that of obsidians from the Monte Arci (Sardinia) volcanic complex was determined by ion beam analysis (PIXE). A comparison between the composition of Su Carroppu artefacts, analysed non-destructively, and that of Western Mediterranean analysed

  18. Data-driven simulations of synoptic circulation and transports in the Tunisia-Sardinia-Sicily region

    E-print Network

    Leonard, John J.

    Data-driven simulations of synoptic circulation and transports in the Tunisia of the Tunisia-Sardinia-Sicily region are assimilated into a primitive equations ocean model. The model circulation and transports in the Tunisia-Sardinia-Sicily region, J. Geophys. Res., 108(C9), 8123, doi:10

  19. Cystic Echinococcosis in Sardinia: Farmers’ knowledge and dog infection in sheep farms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Varcasia; B. Tanda; M. Giobbe; C. Solinas; A. P. Pipia; R. Malgor; C. Carmona; G. Garippa; A. Scala

    2011-01-01

    Cystic Echinococcosis (CE) is one of the most widespread parasitic diseases in Sardinia, the second largest Mediterranean island where almost 3,558,000 milk sheep were raised extensively. The aim of this survey was to evaluate the level of farmers’ knowledge on CE transmission, focusing on the role of human to facilitate the persistence of this zoonosis in Sardinia after 14 years

  20. a GIS of SARDINIA'S Coastal Defense System (xvi - XVIII Century)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deidda, M.; Musa, C.; Vacca, G.

    2015-06-01

    The use of GIS as a tool for archival, analysis and representation of geographic information has become significantly popular in many scientific fields that are directly concerned with the "territory" as their object of study. The field of application of GIS, however, has expanded also in other areas, such as those related to humanities and architecture, in which the territory is studied in an "indirect" mode because it constitutes a kind of substrate on which to develop a specific spatial analysis for particular purposes. Among these areas are to be included certainly archeology and restoration, fields in which the GIS has become a useful tool for historical studies. In this work we present a GIS developed for the study of the historical and territorial coastal defense system of Sardinia (16th - 18th century), in order to respond to the need to store, analyze and efficiently manage the information regarding cultural heritage and landscape heritage such as that consisting of the coastal defensive towers of Sardinia. This defensive system, in fact, was composed by over 100 towers positioned around the entire coastal perimeter of Sardinia, of which more than 90 still exist today. Their position was planned on the basis of the following criteria: - Warning the neighboring towers about the sighting of enemy ships - Protecting coasts located near the towns - Monitoring the water sources near the coast - Allowing for the full visibility of the coasts of any morphology With this study we also verified, through the use of high resolution and high accuracy DTM (LiDAR) and the topographic databases, whether the positioning criteria specified in the design of the system were respected and effective.

  1. Paleozoic age of the Capo Spartivento Orthogneiss, Sardinia, Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludwig, K. R.; Turi, B.

    1989-01-01

    Zircon U Pb isotope dating of the Capo Spartivento Orthogneiss, proposed as a possible Precambrian basement of southern Sardinia, shows that this rock is Caledonian in age. Conventional multi-grain analyses yield an imprecise age of roughly 480 Ma, and ion-microprobe analyses of cores of single grains yield a consistent age of 449 Ma. Though some inherited grains of Proterozoic age are present in the zircon population, they are neither abundant nor consistent with Caledonian growth of new zircons within an older protolith. ?? 1989.

  2. Brucella suis infection in domestic pigs in Sardinia (Italy).

    PubMed

    Pilo, C; Tedde, M T; Orrů, G; Addis, G; Liciardi, M

    2015-07-01

    During a 4-year (2007-2010) survey, the presence of Brucella suis infection in domestic pigs in Sardinia was investigated. Serum samples were collected from breeding pigs located on 108 commercial farms with documented reproductive problems and analysed using the Rose Bengal (RBT) and complement fixation (CFT) tests for screening and confirmation of Brucella, respectively. Of the 1251 serum samples analysed by RBT, 406 sera, originating from 36 farms, were positive for B. suis. CFT was positive in 292/748 sera analysed, confirming positivity in all 36 pig herds. Pigs with international complement fixation test units per ml (ICFTU/ml) values ?160 were slaughtered, and their organs collected for bacteriological examination and testing by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Brucella spp. strains were isolated in culture from 13/502 organs analysed, and subsequently identified as B. suis biovar 2. PCR detected positivity to Brucella spp. in 19/285 organs analysed. These results confirm the presence and emergence of B. suis infection in domestic pigs in Sardinia. PMID:25530227

  3. Quinto Tiberio Angelerio and New Measures for Controlling Plague in 16th-Century Alghero, Sardinia

    PubMed Central

    Benedictow, Ole Jřrgen; Fornaciari, Gino; Giuffra, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Plague, a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, has been responsible for at least 3 pandemics. During 1582–1583, a plague outbreak devastated the seaport of Alghero in Sardinia. By analyzing contemporary medical texts and local documentation, we uncovered the pivotal role played by the Protomedicus of Alghero, Quinto Tiberio Angelerio (1532–1617), in controlling the epidemic. Angelerio imposed rules and antiepidemic measures new to the 16th-century sanitary system of Sardinia. Those measures undoubtedly spared the surrounding districts from the spread of the contagion. Angelerio seems to have been an extremely successful public health officer in the history of plague epidemics in Sardinia. PMID:23968598

  4. Oligo-Miocene rotation of Sardinia: KAr ages and paleomagnetic data of Tertiary volcanics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Montigny; J. B. Edel; R. Thuizat

    1981-01-01

    Conventional K-Ar dating was carried out on mineral separates, mostly plagioclases, from Middle Tertiary volcanics of Sardinia along with paleomagnetic studies. the close agreement of dates from the two methods establishes the rotation age of Sardinia relative to Europe within a rather short time span of 1.5 Ma between 20.5 and 19 Ma. From correlation of our results with the

  5. Geochemistry of sedimentary-derived migmatite from NE Sardinia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruciani, Gabriele; Fancello, Dario; Franceschelli, Marcello; Scodina, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    In NE Sardinia at Porto Ottiolu, about 30 km south of Olbia (NE Sardinia), crops out a sequence of migmatized ortho and paragneiss, belonging to the Variscan basement's axial zone. Sedimentary-derived migmatite, which have a layered appearance in the field, were affected by three major variscan folding phase. D2, which is characterized by tight folds, is the most widespread deformation in the field. Leucosomes consists of discontinuous centimetre-thick, coarse-grained layers, that follow the S2 schistosity and are folded by D2 deformation phase. The contact with mesosome is sharp and sometimes marked by melanosome trails. They consist of quartz, plagioclase, very rare K-feldspar, muscovite, biotite, fibrolite, and rare kyanite. Plagioclase is unzoned oligoclase, though in some cases a thin albite rim is observed. Muscovite occurs as: i) single small- to medium-grained flakes enclosed in feldspar; ii) coarse grained crystals associated to biotite, fibrolite, and opaques, iii) in intergrowth with biotite to form thin elongated, slightly oriented trails, marking the faint foliation. Mesosomes are medium-grained, well foliated rocks, consisting of quartz, plagioclase muscovite, , biotite, fibrolite ± K-feldspar ± garnet. Fibrolite, muscovite and biotite are associated, to form strongly oriented, thick levels. Muscovite also occurs as unoriented crystals, showing quartz exsolutions and thin rims. A few mm-thick melanosome is usually present at the boundary between the leucosomes and mesosomes. Leucosomes are characterized by: SiO2: 75.4-77.9; Al2O3: 13.2-14.5; Fe2O3tot: 0.3-0.5; MgO: 0.1-0.2; CaO: 2.7- 3.7; Na2O: 3.9-4.6; K2O: 0.4-0.6 wt.%. An interesting feature is the relative high calcium content already described in other sedimentary-derived migmatite from Sardinia (Cruciani et al., 2008). In the normative Ab-An-Or diagram (Barker, 1979) the leucosomes plot at the boundary between trondhjemite/tonalite fields. All leucosomes are corundum normative and peraluminous. Mesosomes show a lower content of silica and higher content of iron, magnesium and potash. Major elements ranges are: SiO2: 69.9-70.2; Al2O3: 12.8-13.3; Fe2O3tot: 5.4-5.6; MgO: 2.1-2.3; CaO: 2.0-2.1; Na2O: 2.4-2.5; K2O: 2.2-2.4 wt%. Chondrite-normalized REE pattern, shows that all leucosomes are characterized by a positive Eu anomaly and a significant enrichment in LREE. Mesosomes pattern shows a marked negative Eu anomaly, an enrichment in LREE and a depletion in HREE. Total REE content is higher in mesosomes (132-156 ppm) than in leucosomes (51-58 ppm). Trondjhemite/tonalite composition with high CaO, Na2O and low K2O of the leucosomes will be discussed in relation to their significance and origin. References: Barker, F., 1979, Trondhjemite: definition, environment and hypotheses of origin. In: Barker, F. (Ed.), Trondhjemites, dacites, and related rocks. Developments in petrology, vol. 6. Elsevier,Amsterdam, pp. 1-12. Cruciani, G., Franceschelli, M., Elter, F.M., Puxeddu, M., Utzeri, D., 2008, Petrogenesis of Al-silicate-bearing trondhjemitic migmatites from NE Sardinia, Italy. Lithos v. 102, p. 554-574.

  6. Modeling the landscape drivers of fire recurrence in Sardinia (Italy).

    PubMed

    Ricotta, Carlo; Di Vito, Stefania

    2014-06-01

    Although recurrent fire events with very short return periods have the most dangerous effects on landscape degradation, only a few papers have explored the landscape ecological factors that drive the probability of fire recurrence. In this paper we apply a habitat suitability model for analyzing the spatial relationship between a selected set of landscape factors (mainly land use types) and fire recurrence in Sardinia (Italy) in the years 2005-2010. Our results point out that fire occurrence in already burned areas is lower than expected in natural and semi-natural land cover types, like forest and shrublands. To the contrary, like in all regions where human activity is the main source of fire ignitions, the probability of fire recurrence is higher at low altitudes and close to roads and to urban and agricultural land cover types, thus showing marked preference for those landscape factors denoting higher anthropogenic ignition risk. PMID:24705728

  7. Precipitation estimation over Sardinia from satellite infrared data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marrocu, M.; Pompei, A.; Dalu, G.; Liberti, G. L.; Negri, A.

    1993-01-01

    Three techniques for the estimate of rain rate from infrared satellite images have been examined and modified to be used over the western Mediterranean Sea. An attempt to optimize these techniques has been made by comparing the remotely-sensed precipitation with in situ data, obtained from the rain gauge network over Sardinia, for three different seasons of 1988. The results obtained so far clearly reveal the limitations of infrared remote sensing techniques when applied to precipitation retrievals. However, these results give the possibility of gaining some useful insights on the general problem and show that infrared remote sensing techniques can give acceptable area-time averages of precipitation which are useful for climatological studies.

  8. New insights on metastrongyloid lungworms infecting cats of Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Tamponi, C; Varcasia, A; Brianti, E; Pipia, A P; Frau, V; Pinna Parpaglia, M L; Sanna, G; Garippa, G; Otranto, D; Scala, A

    2014-06-16

    In addition to the well-known Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Strongylida: Angiostrongylidae), Troglostrongylus brevior (Strongylida: Crenosomatidae) has recently been diagnosed as a causative agent of bronco-pulmonary infections of cats in Spain and Italy. However, information concerning the impact of this species of lungworm on feline population is limited to a few case reports. From July 2011 to May 2013 an epidemiological survey was carried out on Sardinia island (Italy), where 107 individual faecal samples were examined by Baermann technique, and first-stage larvae were identified based on their morphology and characterization of molecular markers. The 29.9% (32/107) of cats examined were infested by broncho-pulmonary nematodes and, although A. abstrusus was the most frequently detected (n=27; 25.2%), larvae of T. brevior were also found (n=7; 6.5%). In addition, two cats (1.9%) were co-infested by both species. Overall metastrongyloid infection was higher in female cats (n=22; 38.6%) than in males (n=10; 20%) (?(2)=4.39; p=0.036). The mean age of positive animals was 21.1 (±29.8) months, being infected animals from 2 months to 10 years of age. Of the 32 animals that scored positive for lungworms only 6 (18.8%) displayed a respiratory condition associated with lungworm infestations. Biomolecular characterization confirmed the morphological diagnosis of A. abstrusus. Positive samples that were identified at genus level as Troglostrongylus spp. were molecularly characterized as T. brevior. This study represents the first epidemiological survey on metastrongyloid lungworms of domestic cats in Sardinia and the first report of T. brevior on this island. PMID:24780162

  9. Founder effect, plant host, and recombination shape the emergent population of begomoviruses that cause the tomato yellow leaf curl disease in the Mediterranean basin.

    PubMed

    García-Andrés, Susana; Accotto, Gian Paolo; Navas-Castillo, Jesús; Moriones, Enrique

    2007-03-15

    Tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD)-associated viruses present a highly structured population in the western Mediterranean basin, depending on host, geographical region and time. About 1,900 tomato and common bean samples were analyzed from which 111 isolates were characterized genetically based on a genome sequence that comprises coding and non-coding regions. Isolates of three distinct begomoviruses previously described were found (Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, TYLCV, Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus, TYLCSV, and Tomato yellow leaf curl Málaga virus, TYLCMalV), together with a novel recombinant virus. Mixed infections were detected in single plants, rationalizing the occurrence of recombinants. Except for TYLCV-type strain, single, undifferentiated subpopulations were present for each virus type, probably the result of founder effects. Limited genetic variation was observed in genomic regions, with selection against amino acid change in coding regions. PMID:17070885

  10. First structural approach to the SE Sardinia mafic dyke swarm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Poza, Ana Isabel; Druguet, Elena

    2015-04-01

    We present a tectonic study of a NNW-SSE trending mafic dyke swarm intruded into granitoids of the late Variscan Sŕrrabus pluton in SE Sardinia (Italy). Porphyritic to lamprophyric dykes show a predominant calc-alkaline affinity and they were emplaced during the Lower Permian at about 290-270 Ma (Vaccaro et al., 1991). The circular scanlines method of Mauldon (2001) was applied to aerial photographs along the coastal exposures to measure fracture frequency tendencies. This, together with field measurements, allowed us to determine the dyke pattern and the joint network present in the granitoid rocks and in the dykes. The subvertical dykes have a ~N135o ~N165o mean trend, with a secondary set at ~N10o which mainly corresponds to a previous intrusive pulse. The joint network has a wider range of orientations, with multiple joint sets present both in the host rocks and in the dykes. A clear distinction cannot be established in terms of orientation between fractures pre-dating and post-dating dykes. Using dyke orientations from field data, we applied the Bussell (1989) method to deduce the mean dilation direction of the dykes (246/02), and then, we performed a paleostress analysis (Jolly and Sanderson 1997) to get the principal stress axes compatibles with dyke emplacement (?1: 135/77; ?2: 335/13; ?3: 244/05). ?3 is sub-parallel to the obtained sub-horizontal mean dyke opening direction, both being normal to the mean trend of the dyke swarm. During the dyke intrusion, the magmatic pressure (Pm) was lower than ?2. These results allowed us to construct the Mohr circle and to get the driving pressure ratio (R'=0.132) and the stress ratio (?=0.327). It is inferred that dykes intruded into extensional fractures at relatively low fluid pressure conditions in comparison with the relatively higher regional differential stresses. Dyke emplacement was likely taking place under an ENE-WSW extensional regime (without considering the effect of post-intrusion crustal block rotations). Further work is needed in order to fully understand the emplacement of the SE Sardinia dyke swarm and to correlate it with other neighboring dyke provinces of the European Variscides in Permian times, such as the Aiguablava lamprophyre dyke swarm (NE Spain). References: Bussell, M.A., 1989. A simple method for the determination of the dilation direction of intrusive sheets. J. Struct. Geol. 11, 679-687. Jolly, R.J.H., Sanderson, D.J., 1997. A Mohr circle construction for the opening of a pre-existing fracture. Journal of Structural Geology 19, 887-892. Mauldon, M., Dunneb, W.M. and Rohrbaugh Jr., M.B., 2001. Circular scanlines and circular windows: new tools for characterizing the geometry of fracture traces. Journal of Structural Geology 23, 247-258. Vaccaro, C., Atzori, P., Del Moro, A., Oddone, M., Traversa, G. and Villa, I.M., 1991. Geochronology and Sr isotope geochemistry of late-Hercynian dykes from Sardinia. Schweizerische Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen, 71, 221-230.

  11. Analysis of UV Satellite and Ground Observed data for Sardinia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervone, Guido; Manca, Germana; Johnson, Kathleen

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation in the 280 to 400 nanometers range has been found to be one of the primary cause for skin cancer. The correlation between UV radiation and skin cancer prevention is of global concern. Satellite observations from Nimbus7 (1978-1993), EarthProbe (1996-2004) and OMI/AURA (2004-present) provide long term UV time-series that can be used to study and compute the risk associated with exposure to harmful radiation. Additionally, several ground installations exist to acquire UV radiation data that can be paired with satellite observations. The current work presents the data mining analysis of UV time series from 1978 to present for the Italian region of Sardinia. Satellite observations are paired with ground measurements to provide historical averages of UV radiation, and daily maps of current exposure. A Geographical Information System (GIS) is used to fuse UV data with ground characteristics. The use of GIS is fundamental to calculate the real value of UV on the ground. It is known that the incidence of solar radiation, and consequently of UV, is modified by topography and surface features. Topography plays a important rule, because it is a major factor that determines the spatial variability of insulation and UV being a part of direct insulation. variation in elevation orientation (slope and aspect), and shadow cast by topographical features, determine the UV insulation in a given area or point.

  12. High-Mg Tertiary basalts in Southern Sardinia (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattioli, Michele; Guerrera, Francesco; Tramontana, Mario; Raffaelli, Giuliana; D'Atri, Mario

    2000-06-01

    High-Mg basaltic pillow lavas, important for an understanding of the petrogenetic evolution of the Tertiary volcanism of Sardinia, have recently been recognized in the lower part of the Early-Burdigalian volcano-sedimentary succession of the Villanovaforru (VF) area (Southern Sardinian Trough). Their textures vary from porphyritic to highly phyric types (doleritic) and the paragenesis is represented by Pl+Ol+Cpx±Opx±Opq. These basalts are sub-alkaline with a tholeiitic tendency; they display high MgO ( mg-number 64-68), high Ni and Cr contents and their geochemical features are related to subduction-related magmas, with large-ion lithophile element enrichment and negative Nb, Zr and Ce spikes in mantle-normalized diagrams. The mineralogical and geochemical characteristics indicate that the VF basalts crystallized from primitive magmas within an extension-dominated tectonic setting. The presence of primitive basalts suggests crustal thinning in association with the Burdigalian extensional tectonics affecting the Sardinian Trough.

  13. Two new Typhloreicheia species from Sardinia and their biogeographical significance (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Scaritinae).

    PubMed

    Casale, Achille; Marcia, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Typhloreicheia monachasp. n. and Typhloreicheia ilianaesp. n. are described from two caves of Central-Eastern Sardinia (Nuoro province): the Bue Marino cave and the Nurra 'e Pradu cave, respectively. Both caves are located in the part of the island where many highly specialised subterranean carabid beetles are localised. Typhloreicheia monacha is apparently related to two other species of the same area, i.e. Typhloreicheia onnisi Casale & Magrini, 2004 and Typhloreicheia elegans (Dodero, 1916); Typhloreicheia ilianae is closely related to Typhloreicheia henroti Jeannel, 1957, known from a cave near Dorgali. Relationships and diagnostic features among these taxa are discussed and illustrated, and a key for identification of the specialised subterranean Typhloreicheia species of Sardinia is provided. The hypothesis of adaptive radiation of Reicheiina species in Sardinia, recently proposed by the senior author of this contribution, is further elaborated in light of new data. PMID:22140340

  14. Two new Typhloreicheia species from Sardinia and their biogeographical significance (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Scaritinae)

    PubMed Central

    Casale, Achille; Marcia, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Typhloreicheia monacha sp. n. and Typhloreicheia ilianae sp. n. are described from two caves of Central-Eastern Sardinia (Nuoro province): the Bue Marino cave and the Nurra ‘e Pradu cave, respectively. Both caves are located in the part of the island where many highly specialised subterranean carabid beetles are localised. Typhloreicheia monacha is apparently related to two other species of the same area, i.e. Typhloreicheia onnisi Casale & Magrini, 2004 and Typhloreicheia elegans (Dodero, 1916); Typhloreicheia ilianae is closely related to Typhloreicheia henroti Jeannel, 1957, known from a cave near Dorgali. Relationships and diagnostic features among these taxa are discussed and illustrated, and a key for identification of the specialised subterranean Typhloreicheia species of Sardinia is provided. The hypothesis of adaptive radiation of Reicheiina species in Sardinia, recently proposed by the senior author of this contribution, is further elaborated in light of new data. PMID:22140340

  15. Isotopic constraints on the genesis of base-metal ores in southern and central Sardinia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludwig, K. R.; Vollmer, R.; Turi, B.; Simmons, K.R.; Perna, G.

    1989-01-01

    The Pb-Zn-Ag deposits of southwestern and central Sardinia occur within a restricted region, but comprise a variety of mineralization ages and styles. New Pb-isotope data, together with published data provide a reasonably coherent picture of possible sources for the various types of deposits. -from Authors

  16. Some herborizations on the islet of Pan di Zucchero (Sardinia WSW)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emanuele Bocchieri

    1990-01-01

    The author reports the results of some floristic research carried out on the islet of Pan di Zucchero (W-SW Sardinia). The presence of endemism and of a low and creeping Artemisia arborescens coverage have been pointed out, as well as a natural unviolated state unique among the Sardinian microinsular habitats, due to the inacessibility of the area.

  17. Soil moisture and vegetation controls on evapotranspiration in a heterogeneous Mediterranean ecosystem on Sardinia, Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matteo Detto; Nicola Montaldo; John D. Albertson; Marco Mancini; Gaby Katul

    2006-01-01

    Micrometeorological measurements of evapotranspiration (ET) can be difficult to interpret and use for validating model calculations in the presence of land cover heterogeneity. Land surface fluxes, soil moisture ($\\\\theta$), and surface temperatures (Ts) data were collected by an eddy correlation-based tower located at the Orroli (Sardinia) experimental field (covered by woody vegetation, grass, and bare soil) from April 2003 to

  18. Release of toxic elements from rocks and mine wastes at the Furtei gold mine (Sardinia, Italy)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefania Da Pelo; Elodia Musu; Rosa Cidu; Franco Frau; Pierfranco Lattanzi

    2009-01-01

    The Furtei gold mine in Sardinia (Italy) exploits a volcanic-hosted high-sulphidation epithermal deposit. Large amounts of materials derived from exploitation are present in open pits, waste rock dumps and cyanidation tailings impoundment. Mineralized rocks in outcrops and waste dumps contain significant amounts of sulphides (mainly pyrite and enargite). These materials have a high potential for acid drainage generation and release

  19. IS200 fingerprint of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium human strains isolated in Sardinia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. RUBINO; E. MURESU; M. SOLINAS; M. SANTONA; B. PAGLIETTI; A. AZARA; A. SCHIAFFINO; A. SANTONA; A. MAIDA; P. CAPPUCCINELLI

    1998-01-01

    SUMMARY A collection of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium human strains isolated in Northern Sardinia (Italy) was examined for the insertion sequence IS200, phage type, antibiotic profile, ribotyping polymorphisms and plasmid profile. All clinical isolates studied contained from 4 to 10 copies of the IS200 element. IS200 permitted to discriminate Typhimurium strains and to identify five IS200 types, some of them

  20. The influence of Sardinia on Corsican rainfall in the western Mediterranean Sea: A numerical sensitivity study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehmele, Florian; Barthlott, Christian; Corsmeier, Ulrich

    2015-02-01

    The interaction of orographic effects and moisture availability is of high importance to the precipitation amount and distribution in the western Mediterranean and neighboring land surfaces. In particular, the forecast of heavy precipitation events is still a challenge for operational weather forecast models. In this study, the thermal and dynamical interactions between the two neighboring islands of Corsica and Sardinia in the western Mediterranean Sea are investigated using the COnsortium for Small-scale MOdeling (COSMO) model. Six cases with different synoptic conditions are analyzed and the dependance of the Corsican rainfall on the presence and terrain characteristics of Sardinia is investigated. Besides a reference run with standard model orography, sensitivity runs with removed and flat island of Sardinia are performed. The numerical results show that the daily precipitation amount over Corsica can increase by up to 220% of the amount from the reference run. Whereas most of the sensitivity runs show a decrease of the precipitation amount under strong synoptic forcing, there is no systematic relationship on days with weak synoptic forcing. The differences in the precipitation amount are induced by (i) missing deviation or missing blocking of the southerly flow by Sardinia and (ii) by the influence of cold pools generated by deep convection over Sardinia. These differences can be attributed to changes of low-level convergence and moisture/heat content and their effect on thermodynamic parameters, like convective available potential energy or convective inhibition. Furthermore, the position and translation speed of frontal systems over Corsica on days with strong synoptic forcing also depend on the Sardinian orography. These results demonstrate the high sensitivity of numerical weather prediction to the interaction of neighboring mountainous islands.

  1. Structural and dynamical insights on HLA-DR2 complexes that confer susceptibility to multiple sclerosis in Sardinia: a molecular dynamics simulation study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Cocco, Eleonora; Atzori, Luigi; Marrosu, Maria Giovanna; Pieroni, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Sardinia is a major Island in the Mediterranean with a high incidence of multiple sclerosis, a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. Disease susceptibility in Sardinian population has been associated with five alleles of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DRB1 gene. We performed 120 ns of molecular dynamics simulation on one predisposing and one protective alleles, unbound and in complex with the two relevant peptides: Myelin Basic Protein and Epstein Barr Virus derived peptide. In particular we focused on the MHC peptide binding groove dynamics. The predisposing allele was found to form a stable complex with both the peptides, while the protective allele displayed stability only when bound with myelin peptide. The local flexibility of the MHC was probed dividing the binding groove into four compartments covering the well known peptide anchoring pockets. The predisposing allele in the first half cleft exhibits a narrower and more rigid groove conformation in the presence of myelin peptide. The protective allele shows a similar behavior, while in the second half cleft it displays a narrower and more flexible groove conformation in the presence of viral peptide. We further characterized these dynamical differences by evaluating H-bonds, hydrophobic and stacking interaction networks, finding striking similarities with super-type patterns emerging in other autoimmune diseases. The protective allele shows a defined preferential binding to myelin peptide, as confirmed by binding free energy calculations. All together, we believe the presented molecular analysis could help to design experimental assays, supports the molecular mimicry hypothesis and suggests that propensity to multiple sclerosis in Sardinia could be partly linked to distinct peptide-MHC interaction and binding characteristics of the antigen presentation mechanism. PMID:23555757

  2. The "Land Unit and Soil Capability Map of Sardinia" at a 1:50,000 scale, a new tool for land use planning in Sardinia (Italy) - The pilot area of Pula-Capoterra (southwestern Sardinia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacca, Andrea; Marrone, Vittorio Alessandro; Loddo, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    The Regional Landscape Plan (RLP) of Sardinia (Italy), approved in 2006, establishes the directions for any land use planning in Sardinia and requires that pre-existing plans have to be changed to comply with these directives. In the RLP, the soil is specifically considered one of the main landscape components and in the RLP guidelines a soil survey of the whole communal territory is required. Moreover, Land Unit and Land Capability maps are explicitly required, and the adoption of a single regional reference legend for these maps is strongly recommended. The Planning Department of the Regional Administration of Sardinia (RAS) has recently realized the need for specific knowledge and tools to support land use planning according to the RLP rules. Consequently, a new project for the creation of a "Land Unit and Soil Capability Map of Sardinia", at a scale of 1:50,000, was recently initiated in four pilot areas. Two Universities (Cagliari and Sassari) and two regional Agencies (AGRIS and LAORE) are involved in the project, each of them being responsible for one pilot area. In this work we present the map of the pilot area Pula-Capoterra (southwestern Sardinia, 46,040 ha). A GIS approach was used. We used the soil-landscape paradigm for the prediction of soil classes and their spatial distribution based on landscape features. The work was divided into two main phases. In the first phase, the available digital data on topography, geology and land cover were processed and classified according to their influence on weathering processes and soil properties. Digital thematic maps of soil-forming factors (landform, parent material, land cover) were produced to build the first draft of the Land Unit Map. The dataset was developed in a GIS environment, exploiting its potential to produce derived maps by intersections, reclassifications and summarizing themes using GIS functions. The existing soil data (areal and point data) were collected, reviewed, validated and standardized according to international and national guidelines. The data of 155 soil observations considered to be usable, 69 of which correspond to soil profiles with routine analytical data set, were input into a specific database created for the project. During the second phase, the first draft of the Land Unit Map was implemented with the existing soil data and verified in the field. During the field work, 603 new soil observations were carried out, 61 of which correspond to soil profiles with routine analyses. Considering that in the area 8,755 ha do not have soil cover (urban areas, industrial areas, and rock outcrops), the final survey density is equal to 1 soil observation per 50 ha. Finally, the Land Unit and Soil Capability Map was produced by classifying the land units using a reference matching table of land capability classes created for this project. The legend of this map is divided into three main sections: Land Unit, Soil and Soil Capability. Each section is divided into several parts containing detailed information. Acknowledgments This work has been supported by the RAS under the decree DGR n. 56/36 dated 29.12.2009.

  3. Mineralogical and fluid inclusion studies of low-sulfidation epithermal veins at Osilo (Sardinia), Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Simeone; S. F. Simmons

    1999-01-01

    Several precious metal-bearing, low sulfidation epithermal veins occur in the rolling topography of the Osilo area, northern\\u000a Sardinia. The Sa Pala de Sa Fae and the Sa Pedra Bianca veins were subject to intense diamond drilling exploration in the\\u000a mid 1990?s. The veins extend for 1–3 km, dip steeply, and range from 1 to 10?m in width. High K-calc-alkaline volcanic

  4. Rare earth elements in waters from the albitite-bearing granodiorites of Central Sardinia, Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Riccardo Biddau; Rosa Cidu; Franco Frau

    2002-01-01

    With the aim of contributing to the knowledge of the geochemical behaviour and mobility of the rare earth element (REE) in the natural water systems, the ground and surface waters of the Ottana–Orani area (Central Sardinia, Italy) were sampled. The study area consists of albititic bodies included in Hercynian granodiorites. The waters have pH in the range of 6.0–8.6, total

  5. Hydrological characteristics in the Tunisia–Sardinia–Sicily area during spring 1995

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Sammari; C. Millot; I. Taupierletage; A. Stefani; M. Brahim

    1999-01-01

    Within the framework of the Tunisian – EC SALTO\\/AVICENNE project, four hydrological sections were performed between Tunisia, Sardinia and Sicily with a 10–20km sampling interval in April–June 1995. To our knowledge, it is the first time that sections were repeated there at such a high frequency. These data significantly increase the number of observations available on the Tunisian side of

  6. Neogene evolution of the southwestern Tyrrhenian Sea (Sardinia Basin and western Bathyal plain)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renzo Sartori; Gabriela Carrara; Luigi Torelli; Nevio Zitellini

    2001-01-01

    The reprocessing of MCS reflection lines and sampling data across the SW Tyrrhenian Basin, from the Sardinia–Tunisia Strait (STS) to the Orosei Canyon Line (OCL), show that the acoustic basement of the area is made by Variscan crystalline-metamorphic rocks covered by a thick sequence of sediments, including the Messinian interval. The pre-Messinian sequence can be subdivided into three seismic intervals

  7. Oligo-Miocene rift of Sardinia and the early history of the Western Mediterranean Basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Cherchi; L. Montadert

    1982-01-01

    The geodynamic evolution of the Western Mediterranean Basin, in spite of many studies, is still uncertain. There is some consensus for interpreting this basin as a kind of small oceanic marginal basin. Its opening has generally been related to a subduction process which was active during the Oligocene-Miocene somewhere east of Sardinia-Corsica1-7. As the margins of the basin are deeply

  8. IMPACT OF THE CASARGIU MINE DRAINAGE (SW SARDINIA, ITALY) ON THE MEDITERRANEAN SEA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROSA CIDU; FRANCO FRAU

    In Sardinia (Italy), Pb-Zn vein ores hosted in Palaeozoic silicate-dominant rocks of the Arburese mining district have been exploited in a system of overlapping galleries for a depth of 600 m below ground level. To keep the pits dry, a total flow in the range of 55 to 70 liters per second (L\\/s) of water was pumped out of the

  9. Genetic testing improves the diagnosis of adult type hypolactasia in the Mediterranean population of Sardinia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E Schirru; V Corona; P Usai-Satta; M Scarpa; F Oppia; F Loriga; F Cucca; S De Virgiliis; R Rossino; M Doloretta Macis; R-D Jores; M Congia

    2007-01-01

    Objective:Recently, the C\\/T-13910 polymorphism on chromosome 2q21 in North-European populations has been found completely associated with lactase activity and its genetic typing proposed as first-stage screening test for adult hypolactasia. However, the C\\/T-13910 variant in some sub-Saharan African groups is not a predictor of lactase persistence. In this work, we wanted to verify if in the Mediterranean island of Sardinia,

  10. Response of durum wheat to water variability under climate change scenarios in southern Sardinia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soddu, Antonino; Deidda, Roberto; Marrocu, Marino; Meloni, Roberto; Paniconi, Claudio; Ludwig, Ralf; Sodde, Marcella; Mascaro, Giuseppe; Perra, Enrica

    2013-04-01

    Durum wheat is the most important C3 rainfed crop in southern Sardinia, Italy and is highly vulnerable to climate variability. This region has experienced severe drought conditions and problems of competing water demands during the last decades. Within the framework of European (1) and Regional (2) research projects, a study was conducted to evaluate the effects of increased maximum temperature and high rainfall variability on durum wheat yield, as part of an effort to devise strategies for water management and adaptation at the field and catchment scales in southern Sardinia. Towards this goal, the AquaCrop model was calibrated and its predictive performance was tested in the period from 1995 to 2012 using daily meteorological data and durum wheat (CV Creso) yield measurements from the experimental fields of the Agris Research Agency in Ussana (Sardinia, Italy). During the verification period, the model showed a good performance with a significant correlation between observed and simulated yield for durum wheat and a very good estimation of the water stress conditions during the drought period in 1995. Next, four future scenarios of climate change were simulated with AquaCrop to predict wheat yield responses and to investigate water availability for rainfed and irrigated crops for the 30-year periods 2011-2040, 2041-2070, and 2071-2100. The simulated future scenarios show potential improved productivity arising from the increased CO2 concentration. This positive outlook is however tempered by increased uncertainty and fluctuations in rainfall during the fall and early winter periods (September-December). The possible tradeoffs between these factors, as well as the expected negative effects of increased maximum temperatures, are being further examined. (1) Climate Induced Changes in the Mediterranean Region (CLIMB), funded by the European Commission 7th Framework Program. (2) Valutazione degli impatti sul comportamento idrologico dei bacini idrografici e sulle produzioni agricole conseguenti alle condizioni di cambiamento climatico, funded by L7/2007 of the Sardinia Region.

  11. Early-stage rifting of the Southern Tyrrhenian region: The Calabria–Sardinia breakup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milia, Alfonsa; Torrente, Maurizio M.

    2014-11-01

    The Southern Tyrrhenian Sea is an extensional basins linked to the Neogene evolution of the Calabria subduction zone located in the western Mediterranean realm where controversial kinematic and geodynamical models have been proposed. Our study provides a key to unravel timing and mode of extension of the upper plate and the breakup of Calabria from Sardinia. By combining original stratigraphic analysis of wells and seismic profiles off Calabria with a stratigraphic correlation to onshore outcrops, we re-assess the tectonic evolution that controlled the sedimentation and basement deformation of the Southern Tyrrhenian basin during Serravallian-Tortonian times. We document the tectono-stratigraphic evolution of adjacent extensional basins characterized by 3rd order depositional sequences (Ser1, Tor1 and Tor2) and different modes of extension, subsidence and opposite dipping faults. Episodic basin development is recorded by a coarsening-up and fining-up trend of the sedimentary succession and by tectonically enhanced unconformities that reflect three episodes of fault activity. We reconstruct Serravallian-Tortonian paleogeographic maps and propose a block faulting model for the evolution of the Sardinia-Calabria area. Sardinia was disconnected from Calabria through N-S normal faults forming Tyrrhenian extensional basins that formed contemporaneously to the E-W opening of the Algerian basin. Unlike published Serravallian-Tortonian reconstructions of the western Mediterranean realm, our results support a geodynamic model characterized by rapid trench retreat, trench-normal extension in the entire overriding plate and very weak coupling between plates.

  12. Beach and dunal system monitoring at Su Giudeu beach, Sardinia (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balzano, Andrea; Sulis, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Even if coastal floods are quite rare events in Sardinia (Italy) at present, they have had dramatic consequences for coastal communities, particularly in conjunction with river flooding. However, flood risk (defined as the product of event probability, vulnerability and value of assets) is expected to increase significantly in the future, due to climate change, defence degradation and sea level rise. Sardinia island has a costal length of approximately 1.900 km including minor neighbouring islands (25% of the entire Italian coasts) and the estimation of the potential exposure of coastal communities to flooding is therefore a critical task. To date methods for achieving this have been based on modelling of coastal inundation using hydrodynamic or GIS-based models of varying complexity. The Dept of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Architecture at the University of Cagliari is carrying out a comprehensive activity of coastal flooding risk mapping at the regional scale within the framework of a scientific collaboration with the Sardinian Regional Authority for the Hydrographic District, that includes monitoring and scientific activities along the entire Sardinian coast. Bathymetry and topographical surveys, sediment characterization, waves and currents measurements, hydrodynamic and morphodynamic modelling are planned, focusing on critical extended areas. In this paper we present an overview of the entire activity programme and give an in-depth account of the ongoing monitoring survey of the dunal system of the Su Giudeu beach (Southern Sardinia, 50 km far from the city of Cagliari). Su Giudeu is a sandy, bay-shaped beach, extending for about 1200 m between two headlands, evolving under waves with a predominant direction of 220-240°N (Scirocco wind). The survey is expected to provide evidence of the response of the remarkable dunal system to wave runup occurring during storm events, to be used in the verification of existing numerical models of dune erosion.

  13. Cost-effectiveness analysis of echinococcosis-hydatidosis eradication project in Sardinia.

    PubMed

    Attanasio, E; Palmas, C

    1984-01-01

    In this study we attempt to evaluate the convenience of a campaign to eradicate the echinococcosis in Sardinia vs a 'do-nothing' or do-very-little policy adopted at this time. The main conditions which have to be met in setting up the eradication programme are identified as follows: (a) precise knowledge of the real diffusion of the parasitosis in man and animals; (b) eradication project control (action research); (c) health education; (d) reduction of stray canine population; (e) anthelmintics distribution and permanent health control to registered dogs. In Italy, echinococcosis-hydatidosis is present in many regions but in none has reached the diffusion rate present in Sardinia where over 200 patients per year are surgically treated, with a prevalence rate of 13.32 per 100,000 inhabitants. The disease does not spare any social or age group. The economic aspects of hydatidosis involve losses due both to human and to livestock resources, evaluated in monetary or non-monetary terms, according to circumstances. As a method to evaluate the human life has been assumed the years gained related to the Potential Years of Life Lost (PYLL). Several Net Present Values (NPV) have been calculated under alternative discount rates inclusive of the Internal Rate of Return (IRR). PMID:6441260

  14. Toxic emissions from a military test site in the territory of Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Cristaldi, Mauro; Foschi, Cristiano; Szpunar, Germana; Brini, Carlo; Marinelli, Fiorenzo; Triolo, Lucio

    2013-04-01

    This work assesses the environmental impact from chemical emissions due to military tests and routine activities in the area occupied by the Italian Inter-force Test Range (PISQ), located at Salto di Quirra, Sardinia, Italy. After reviewing the military activities carried out at PISQ, such as rocket launching, blasting and armament destruction, projectile and mortar fire impact, the associated pollution is evaluated. Chemical analyses were performed by means of Scanning Electronic Microscopy and Energy Dispersion Spectrometry on biotic and abiotic matrices. Residues of Rb, Tl, W, Ti and Al were found in matrices collected in the PISQ areas and environs. A review of experimental data on air, water, soil, milk, forage and animal tissues obtained by various Public Agencies of Sardinia proved that toxic element residues often exceeded the legal limits. PM10 and PM2.5 air concentrations also exceeded the legal limits after military blasting. Cd and Pb contents in the liver and kidneys of sheep living in farms at PISQ and in control farms that were located more than 20 km away from PISQ were higher than the legal limits. This work was performed to investigate concentration of xenobiotics in ecosystems emitted from PISQ activities. This assessment could be useful to focus future epidemiological studies carried out in PISQ and its neighbouring areas. PMID:23603867

  15. Environmental geochemistry and mineralogy of lead at the old mine area of Baccu Locci (south-east Sardinia, Italy)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franco Frau; Carla Ardau; Luca Fanfani

    2009-01-01

    About a century of exploitation of the galena-arsenopyrite deposit of Baccu Locci in Sardinia (Italy) has caused a severe, persistent arsenic contamination that extends downstream from the mine for several kilometres. Differently from As, the contamination of lead in surface waters is only localised in the upper part of the mine despite very high Pb concentrations in geologic materials (waste

  16. Geochemical controls on arsenic distribution in the Baccu Locci stream catchment (Sardinia, Italy) affected by past mining

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franco Frau; Carla Ardau

    2003-01-01

    The Baccu Locci stream catchment (Sardinia, Italy) is affected by serious As contamination as a consequence of past mining. The presence of both point and widespread sources of contamination (waste-rock dumps and flotation tailings, respectively) strongly affects surface water chemistry, and produces high As concentrations (hundreds of ?g l?1) in stream waters. Water chemistry of the Baccu Locci stream changes

  17. Coastal water quality from remote sensing and GIS. A case study on South West Sardinia (Italy)

    SciTech Connect

    Poli, U.; Ippoliti, M.; Venturini, C.; Falcone, P.; Marino, A. [Italian Institute for Occupational Safety and Prevention (ISPESL), Rome (Italy)

    1997-08-01

    In this paper the application of remote sensing image processing and GIS techniques in monitoring and managing coastal areas is proposed. The methodology has been applied to South-West Sardinia Coast where the environment is endangered by industrial plants and other human activities. The area is characterized by the presence of many submarine springs aligned along coastal cliffs. Water quality parameters (chlorophyll, suspended sediments and temperature) spatial and temporal variations, have been studied using Landsat TM images. Particularly, in this paper are reported the results referred to sea surface thermal gradients, considered as one of the main water quality index. Thermal gradients have been mapped in order to outline water circulation, thermal pollution and presence and distribution of submarine springs. Furthermore, a GIS approach of relating mono and multitemporal TM data with ground referenced information on industrial plants characteristics and distribution has been applied.

  18. A Population Where Men Live As Long As Women: Villagrande Strisaili, Sardinia

    PubMed Central

    Poulain, Michel; Pes, Gianni; Salaris, Luisa

    2011-01-01

    Usually women live longer than men and female centenarians largely outnumber male centenarians. The findings of previous studies identifying a population with a femininity ratio close to 1.0 among centenarians in the mountainous region of Sardinia was the starting point of an in-depth investigation in order to compare mortality trajectories between men and women in that population. The exceptional survival of men compared to women emerges from the comparison with similar Italian data. Age exaggeration for men has been strictly excluded as a result of the age validation procedure. The discussion suggests that besides biological/genetic factors, the behavioral factors including life style, demographic behavior, family support, and community characteristics may play an important role. No single explanation is likely to account for such an exceptional situation and a fully integrated multidisciplinary approach is urgently needed. PMID:22132327

  19. Reclamation and agricultural reuse of wastewater: the experience of the Cagliari sewage treatment plant (Sardinia, Italy).

    PubMed

    Botti, P; Virdis, A; Solinas, G; Buscarinu, P; Ferralis, M; Marras, G; Spanu, P; Vacca, S

    2009-01-01

    In Sardinia, as in many other Mediterranean regions, recurrent droughts and climate change have dramatically reduced available water resources. As a result of this critical situation, in 1995 the Italian Government declared a state of emergency and drew up a program for financial support by the State and local authorities with the aim of reducing this serious deficit. One of the actions focused on reclaiming and reusing the effluent from the sewage treatment plant of Cagliari. This article reports on the multidisciplinary preliminary study performed by the Ente Acque della Sardegna (ENAS) to evaluate the suitability of reusing Is Arenas effluent for irrigation and on the operation of the tertiary treatment plant. PMID:19151487

  20. A Late Variscan Sn province: the Arburese region (SW Sardinia, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naitza, Stefano; Secchi, Francesco; Oggiano, Giacomo; Cuccuru, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    Late Variscan Sn - rich European provinces (e. g. Erzgebirge, Cornwall) are of particular relevance as they offer key insights into crustal evolution, intrusive processes and ore genesis. In Sardinia (Italy), small Sn deposits are only known in the Arburese historical mining region (SW Sardinia), hosted in low-grade metamorphics close to the contacts with intrusives. This region is characterised by two late variscan intrusions, which differ in age and composition: the Arbus and the Monte Linas pluton, aging 304 ± 1 Ma, and 289 ± 1 Ma respectively. They emplaced at shallow crustal levels and crosscut the basal thrust between the alloctonous prism and the foreland of the Variscan belt of Sardinia. The Arbus Pluton (AP) is a composite intrusion of piroxene- and amphibole- granodiorites hosting minor amounts of monzogabbroic rocks and cordierite-bearing granites with a wide core of leuco-monzogranites. Tourmaline greisens and pegmatites garnish the contact between the border facies and the host metamorphic rocks. The Monte Linas Pluton (MLP) has biotite monzogranite composition. The pluton is internally zoned, from medium grained monzogranite in the core to hololeucocratic fine-grained rock-types at the top, where often F-greisen, fayalite-pegmatite pods and sill are common. In both plutons the igneous associations are high-K ilmenite series, suggesting derivation from low- fO2 magmas possibly linked to a common crustal contribution; however, in the Linas Pluton magnetite in the fine-grained facies may indicate an increase in oxygen fugacity. The AP-related Sn ores consist of high-temperature As-Sn quartz veins. They are vertically zoned, from quartz-chlorite-cassiterite to large quartz-arsenopyrite veins. Ore microscopy and SEM-EDS analyses evidenced a vein texture made of thick idiomorphic and frequently twinned cassiterite crystals, alternated with several generations of banded/geodic quartz. Chlinoclore aggregates are included into the quartz. The arsenopyrite ore shows alternating bands of microgranular to crystalline millimetric arsenopyrite with quartz. Field and analytical data suggest genetic mechanisms dominated by mobilization of residual Sn by chloride and other complexes in reducing, As- and S- rich, low- fO2 juvenile fluids. Cassiterite and successive arsenopyrite precipitation occurred under changing physicochemical conditions (e.g. oxygen contents; temperature decrease; pH). The MLP Sn metallogeny include Sn- Pb-Zn-Cu veins (Canale Serci old mine). Cassiterite occurs as fine-grained corroded crystals. Optical and SEM-EDS analyses evidence a high-temperature oxide stage (quartz-chlorite- cassiterite) followed, after brecciation, by mesothermal sulfide stages, with progressive deposition of sphalerite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, tetrahedrite, galena, marcasite. Arsenopyrite is strikingly absent. These evidences indicate possible derivation of the ore from residual, reducing juvenile fluids, capable to carry Sn- complexes from monzogranite magmas from which cassiterite precipitated in consequence of an increasing in fO2. Despite their limited amount, the Sn ores of SW Sardinia have high metallogenic relevance, indicating the persistence, of geochemical conditions,which lasted 15 Ma, favorable to the genesis of a Sn metallogenic province.

  1. Monitoring water masses properties by Glider in Sardinia Channel during summer 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gana, Slim; Iudicone, Daniele; Ghenim, Leila; Mortier, Laurent; Testor, Pierre; Tintoré, Joaquin; Olita, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    1. Summary In the framework of the EC funded project, PERSEUS (WP3, Subtask 3.3.1: Repeated glider sections in key channels and sub-basin) and with the support of JERICO TNA (EU-FP7), a deep water glider (up to 1000m) was deployed from the R/V Tethys in the Sardinia Channel and has carried out 3 return trips during the period spanning from the 16th of August 2014 to the 19th of September 2014. The Gilder was equipped with CTD, O2 sensors, Fluorometers (ChlA), back scattering from 470 to 880 nm and was programmed to follow a path close to SARAL satellite track #887. During this experiment, a significant dataset, as never obtained before for this area, has been collected. The innovation stands in the high spatial resolution, in the temporal repetitivity and in the number of parameters sampled simultaneously. The first step of the work will focuses on the analysis of the hydrological properties of the existing water masses in the area. 2. Frame and aim of the experiment The Sardinia Channel is a zonally oriented passage connecting the Algerian and the Tyrrhenian basins, with a sill depth of about 1900 m. In spite of the considerable amount of work achieved and accurate results obtained about the circulation in the Western Mediterranean Sea, during the last 20 years, the Sardinia Channel is still one of the region where the dynamical processes and water exchanges are not clearly identified. Previous studies (Garzoli S. and C. Maillard, 1979, and Ozturgut Erdogan, 1975) pointed out the complexity of the processes in the region and the role of the bottom topography in sustaining them, and provided a first estimation of the involved fluxes. The main knowledge about the water masses crossing this region mostly concerns the AW (Atlantic Water) and the LIW (Levantine Intermediate Water). Along the Algerian coast, the AW is transported mainly by the Algerian current (AC Millot, 1985) from which the anticyclonic Algerian eddies (AEs, Puillat et al., 2002; Taupier-Letage et al., 2003), often involving surface and intermediate waters, are generated by baroclinic instabilities of the AC itself. The AEs generally remain more or less included in the main AC flow. The AEs alongslope-downstream propagation usually ends in the Channel of Sardinia, where AEs dramatically interact with the bathymetry and can remain almost blocked in the Sardinia Channel area for several months before collapsing (Puillat et al., 2002). In order to clarify some of these processes, including the behavior of the Algerian current and associated eddies, our methodology is based on a combined approach using glider observations and sea surface features observed by satellite. By autonomously collecting high-quality observations in three dimensions, gliders allow high-resolution oceanographic monitoring and provide useful contributions for the understanding of mesoscale dynamics and multidisciplinary interactions (e.g., Hodges and Fratantoni, 2009). On top of that, the glider route follows the ground track of the satellite SARAL, equipped with a Ka band altimeter (AltiKa), with the view to implement a methodology of analysis as performed by Bouffard et al. (2010). The main objectives of the project are : • identification of the physical properties of the surface and intermediate water masses between Northern Tunisian Coast and Sardinia and evaluation of the transport of water, salt and heat through the area • study of the variability of the physical properties of surface and intermediate water masses through the use of in-situ and satellite data. • understanding exchanges through sub-basins and the complex interactions through eddies • validation of the operational hydrodynamic numerical model of the western Mediterranean (http://www.seaforecast.cnr.it/en/fl/wmed.php) through the use of in-situ and satellite data. 3. Preliminary results of the experiment The glider carried out 6 legs during the period spanning from the 16th of August 2014 to the 19th of September 2014: Leg#1 (16 to 23 August 2014), Leg#2 (23 to 28 August 2014), Leg#3 (28 Aug. to 03 Sept. 2014)

  2. Coralline-algal assemblages of a Burdigalian platform slope: implications for carbonate platform reconstruction (northern Sardinia, western Mediterranean Sea)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Merle-Friederike Benisek; Christian Betzler; Gabriela Marcano; Maria Mutti

    2009-01-01

    The rhodolithic slope deposits of a Burdigalian carbonate platform in Sardinia near Sedini were analyzed to reconstruct facies\\u000a and palaeobathymetry. There is a distinct red-algal growth zonation along the platform slope. The clinoform rollover area\\u000a consists of coralline-algal bindstones, which downslope change into a zone where rhodoliths are locally fused by progressive\\u000a encrustation. Mid-slope rhodoliths are moderately branched, and downslope

  3. An ecological study of a bisexual Artemia population from Sant'Antioco solar saltworks (south-western Sardinia, Italy)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Graziella Mura

    1994-01-01

    Ecological studies onArtemia are still sparse, particularly in the Mediterranean area. The paper provides information on the main life-history traits of a bisexualArtemia strain in solar saltworks at Sant'Antioco, in the Province of Cagliari (southern Sardinia, Italy). Data on age class composition, reproductive mode and status, fecundity and other features are discussed in relation to environmental conditions and compared with

  4. Plants and traditional knowledge: An ethnobotanical investigation on Monte Ortobene (Nuoro, Sardinia)

    PubMed Central

    Signorini, Maria Adele; Piredda, Maddalena; Bruschi, Piero

    2009-01-01

    Background Most of the traditional knowledge about plants and their uses is fast disappearing as a consequence of socio-economic and land use changes. This trend is also occurring in areas that are historically exposed to very few external influences, such as Sardinia (Italy). From 2004 to 2005, an ethnobotanical investigation was carried out in the area of Monte Ortobene, a mountain located near Nuoro, in central Sardinia. Methods Data were collected by means of semi-structured interviews. All the records – defined as 'citations', i.e. a single use reported for a single botanical species by a single informant – were filed in a data base ('analytical table'), together with additional information: i.e. local names of plants, parts used, local frequencies, and habitats of plants, etc. In processing the data, plants and uses were grouped into general ('categories') and detailed ('secondary categories') typologies of use. Some synthetic indexes have also been used, such as Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC), Cultural Importance Index (CI), the Shannon-Wiener Index (H'), and Evenness Index (J). Results Seventy-two plants were cited by the informants as being traditionally used in the area. These 72 'ethnospecies' correspond to 99 botanical taxa (species or subspecies) belonging to 34 families. Three-hundred and one citations, 50 secondary categories of use, and 191 different uses were recorded, most of them concerning alimentary and medicinal plants. For the alimentary plants, 126 citations, 44 species, and 13 different uses were recorded, while for the medicinal plants, there were 106 citations, 40 species, and 12 uses. Few plants and uses were recorded for the remaining categories. Plants and uses for each category of use are discussed. Analyses of results include the relative abundance of botanical families, wild vs. cultivated species, habitats, frequency, parts of plant used, types of use, knowledge distribution, and the different cultural importance of the species in question. Conclusion The study provides examples of several interesting uses of plants in the community, which would seem to show that the custom of using wild plants is still alive in the Monte Ortobene area. However, many practices are no longer in use, and survive only as memories from the past in the minds of elderly people, and often only in one or just a few informants. This rapidly vanishing cultural diversity needs to be studied and documented before it disappears definitively. PMID:19208227

  5. Cystic echinococcosis in Sardinia: farmers' knowledge and dog infection in sheep farms.

    PubMed

    Varcasia, A; Tanda, B; Giobbe, M; Solinas, C; Pipia, A P; Malgor, R; Carmona, C; Garippa, G; Scala, A

    2011-09-27

    Cystic Echinococcosis (CE) is one of the most widespread parasitic diseases in Sardinia, the second largest Mediterranean island where almost 3,558,000 milk sheep were raised extensively. The aim of this survey was to evaluate the level of farmers' knowledge on CE transmission, focusing on the role of human to facilitate the persistence of this zoonosis in Sardinia after 14 years after the last campaign against CE. The other goal of the survey is to update on presence of Echinococcus granulosus in its definitive hosts through three ELISA coproantigen tests. An interview was carried out with 172 farmers. The questionnaire was designed to include possible factors associated with the transmission of Echinococcosis: ownership and number of dogs, the use of anthelmintic drugs against dog cestode, frequency of anthelmintic treatment in dogs, home slaughtering and offal disposal. Individual faecal samples were retrieved from 300 dogs, and after a preliminary macroscopic examination to discover adult worms and/or proglottids, was submitted to copromicroscopic examination. Coproantigens were then extracted according to the protocol described by Allan et al. (1992), and subsequently stored at -20°C until use. Faecal soluble antigens from E. granulosus were detected using three different ELISA coproantigen assays: (a) the commercially produced Chekit Echinotest (Bommeli, Bern, CH) based on polyclonal antibodies against adult excretory/secretory (E/S) antigens; (b) a sandwich ELISA that uses rabbit polyclonal antibodies against adult E/S antigens and biotinylated monoclonal antibody EmA9 produced against adult Echinococcus multilocularis somatic extract (Malgor et al., 1997); and (c) a sandwich assay that uses monoclonal antibody EgC3 produced by immunization with adult E. granulosus E/S products (Casaravilla et al., 2005). Questionnaire results reveal that on all farms home-slaughtering was done, and offal was used as dog meal raw (17%) or after boiling (37%), discarded in the trash (23%), or buried superficially (15%). Most farmers (69%) declared to deworm their dogs, but only 10% used cestodicidal drugs. The coprological survey of 300 farm dogs using sedimentation, flotation and three different coproantigen (CA) ELISAs resulted in a faecal prevalence of 8.3% for taeniid eggs, while the CA tests gave prevalences of 3% (Chekit Echinotest, Bommeli), 6% (EmA9 sandwich ELISA) and 10% (EgC3 sandwich ELISA). Our results show that this is not only an educational problem, but also an economic one, stressing the need that future control plans should follow an integrative approach including veterinary and medical services, farmers, breeders' associations and the Government. PMID:21645971

  6. Spatial genetic structure of Aquilegia taxa endemic to the island of Sardinia

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, J. L.; Fenu, G.; Mattana, E.; Bacchetta, G.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The Mediterranean Basin is one of the most important regions for the Earth's plant biodiversity; however, the scarcity of studies on fine scale patterns of genetic variation in this region is striking. Here, an assessment is made of the spatial genetic structure of all known locations of the three Sardinian endemic species of Aquilegia in order to determine the relative roles of gene flow and genetic drift as underlying evolutionary forces canalizing the divergence of Sardinian Aquilegia taxa, and to see if the spatial genetic structure found fits the current taxonomic differentiation of these taxa. Methods DNA from 89 individuals from all known locations of Aquilegia across Sardinia was analysed by means of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Both principal co-ordinates analysis (PCoA) and Bayesian clustering analyses were used to determine the spatial genetic structure irrespective of any taxonomic affiliation. Historical effects of gene flow and genetic drift were assessed by checking for the existence of isolation-by-distance patterns. Key Results STRUCTURE and PCoA analyses revealed a pattern of genetic variation geographically structured into four spatial genetic groups. No migration–drift equilibrium was detected for Aquilegia in Sardinia, when analysed either as a whole or in individual groups. The scenario approached a Case III pattern sensu Hutchinson and Templeton, which is associated with extreme isolation conditions where genetic drift has historically played a dominant role over gene flow. Conclusions The pattern of genetic variation of Sardinian taxa of Aquilegia indicates that genetic drift has been historically more influential than gene flow on population structure of Sardinian species of Aquilegia. Limited seed dispersal and divergent selection imposed by habitat conditions have been probably the main causes reinforcing post-Pleistocene geographical isolation of Aquilegia populations. The spatial genetic structure found here is not fully compatible with current taxonomic affiliations of Sardinian Aquilegia taxa. This is probably a consequence of the uncoupling between morphological and genetic patterns of differentiation frequently found in recently radiated taxa. PMID:22351486

  7. Helminth parasites of fish and shellfish from the Santa Gilla Lagoon in southern Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Culurgioni, J; Sabatini, A; De Murtas, R; Mattiucci, S; Figus, V

    2014-12-01

    An extensive survey of helminth parasites in fish and shellfish species from Santa Gilla, a brackish water lagoon in southern Sardinia (western Mediterranean), resulted in the identification of 69 helminth parasite taxa and/or species from 13 fish species (n= 515) and seven bivalve species (n= 2322) examined between September 2001 and July 2011. The list summarizes information on the helminth parasites harboured by fish and molluscs contained in the available literature. Digenea species (37), both adults and larvae, dominated the parasite fauna, whereas Cestoda were the least represented class (three species). Monogenea, Nematoda and Acanthocephala were present with 17, 6 and 6 species, respectively, which were mainly adults. The most widespread parasite species was the generalist Contracaecum rudolphii A (Nematoda). Other species, such as the Haploporidae and Ascocotyle (Phagicola) spp. 1 and 2 (Digenea), showed a high family specificity in Mugilidae. Importantly, the study recorded the occurrence of potential zoonotic agents, such as Heterophyes heterophyes, Ascocotyle (Phagicola) spp. and C. rudolphii A, the latter two reaching the highest indices of infection in the highly marketed fish grey mullet and sea bass, respectively. The highest parasite richness was detected in Dicentrarchus labrax, which harboured 17 helminth species, whereas the lowest value was observed in Atherina boyeri, infected by only three species. The list includes the first geographical record in Italian coastal waters of Robinia aurata and Stictodora sawakinensis, and 30 reports of new host-parasite complexes, including the larval stages of Ascocotyle (Ascocotyle) sp. and Southwellina hispida in D. labrax. PMID:23790066

  8. The Genetic Structure of the Remnant Populations of Centaurea horrida in Sardinia and Associated Islands

    PubMed Central

    Mameli, Giulia; Filigheddu, Rossella; Binelli, Giorgio; Meloni, Marilena

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims The Mediterranean region is of prime importance to biodiversity at a global level, mainly due to the abundance of endemic plant species. However, information about these species is still scarce, especially at the genetic level. In this paper the first assessment is reported of the genetic structure of Centaurea horrida (Asteraceae), an endemic, sea-cliff-dwelling plant from Sardinia. Methods The study was conducted on seven populations covering the entire natural range of the species by means of SSR (microsatellite) markers. Key Results A considerable amount of genetic variation was found (average He = 0·603–0·854), together with a medium-high differentiation among populations, as estimated both by FST (0·123) and RST (0·158). Both Bayesian analysis and AMOVA were employed to detect genetic structuring in this species. The results suggest that the origins of the current populations of C. horrida lie in two gene pools. Conclusions Despite the restricted range, C. horrida displays high levels of genetic diversity, structured in such a way that three management units could be deemed viable for its conservation. The protected status of the species will probably suffice to prevent the impoverishment of its genetic resources. PMID:18256022

  9. [Hydatidosis in Sardinia. Co-involved parameters and hypothesis for a control campaign].

    PubMed

    Palmas, C; Attanasio, E; Gabriele, F

    1985-12-01

    Although hydatidosis provokes in man and livestock losses of economic significance, there has been no comprehensive study on this disease. This article is an account of Sardinia as an important area of echinococcosis-hydatidosis. The incidence and distribution of infection in the intermediate and definitive hosts are reviewed and the current status of hydatid disease is evaluated. The review is divided into main sections: (a) geographical and environmental data; (b) domestic intermediate hosts; (c) definitive host; (d) human infections. An average of 85% of the sheep are infected and about 75% of cysts are fertile, 13% of the dogs are parasitized and mainly live as strays, up to 39% of the shepherd's dogs were found to harbour the mature worm of Echinococcus granulosus. Hospital data indicate that even nowadays about 200 people are operated every year with an incidence of 11.1/100.000 inhabitants. The socio-cultural factors (seminomadism, slaughtering practice, etc.) involved in the dissemination, the economic implication of this disease, the benefits due to an eradication, the feasibility of a campaign and the organizational structure aimed at eradicating echinococcosis/hydatidosis in this area, are discussed. PMID:3870643

  10. Tracing the boundaries of Cenozoic volcanic edifices from Sardinia (Italy): a geomorphometric contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melis, M. T.; Mundula, F.; DessĚ, F.; Cioni, R.; Funedda, A.

    2014-09-01

    Unequivocal delimitation of landforms is an important issue for different purposes, from science-driven morphometric analysis to legal issues related to land conservation. This study is aimed at giving a new contribution to the morphometric approach for the delineation of the boundaries of volcanic edifices, applied to 13 monogenetic volcanoes (scoria cones) related to the Pliocene-Pleistocene volcanic cycle in Sardinia (Italy). External boundary delimitation of the edifices is discussed based on an integrated methodology using automatic elaboration of digital elevation models together with geomorphological and geological observations. Different elaborations of surface slope and profile curvature have been proposed and discussed; among them, two algorithms based on simple mathematical functions combining slope and profile curvature well fit the requirements of this study. One of theses algorithms is a modification of a function introduced by Grosse et al. (2011), which better performs for recognizing and tracing the boundary between the volcanic scoria cone and its basement. Although the geological constraints still drive the final decision, the proposed method improves the existing tools for a semi-automatic tracing of the boundaries.

  11. Analysis of salinization processes in the coastal carbonate aquifer of Porto Torres (NW Sardinia, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghiglieri, Giorgio; Carletti, Alberto; Pittalis, Daniele

    2012-04-01

    SummaryThe Porto Torres (NW Sardinia) coastal aquifer is hosted in the carbonate rocks of the Miocene succession, which fills a NNW oriented half-graben. This aquifer is an important contributor to the fresh water supply of the local area. It is increasingly being degraded by salinization processes, mainly associated with intense groundwater over-exploitation. A combined hydrochemical and hydrogeological study has been carried out to identify the origin of the salinity in the groundwater. The behavior of the major ions showed that the changes in the chemical composition of the groundwater have been mainly controlled by the encroachment of seawater, accompanied by cation exchange reactions. Since seawater intrusion is a dynamic process, an Hydrochemical Facies Evolution Diagram, HFE-D (Gimenez Forcada, 2010) approach was taken to establish whether the aquifer was in the seawater intrusion or in the freshening phase. The assessment model developed provides regional authorities with a basic tools for sustainable water management in the framework of multi-disciplinary research activities aiming to combat and/or mitigate desertification and land degradation processes.

  12. Soil moisture and vegetation controls on evapotranspiration in a heterogeneous Mediterranean ecosystem on Sardinia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detto, Matteo; Montaldo, Nicola; Albertson, John D.; Mancini, Marco; Katul, Gaby

    2006-08-01

    Micrometeorological measurements of evapotranspiration (ET) can be difficult to interpret and use for validating model calculations in the presence of land cover heterogeneity. Land surface fluxes, soil moisture (?), and surface temperatures (Ts) data were collected by an eddy correlation-based tower located at the Orroli (Sardinia) experimental field (covered by woody vegetation, grass, and bare soil) from April 2003 to July 2004. Two Quickbird high-resolution images (summer 2003 and spring 2004) were acquired for depicting the contrasting land cover components. A procedure is presented for estimating ET in heterogeneous ecosystems as the residual term of the energy balance using Ts observations, a two-dimensional footprint model, and the Quickbird images. Two variations on the procedure are successfully implemented: a proposed two-source random model (2SR), which treats the heat sources of each land cover component separately but computes the bulk heat transfer coefficient as spatially homogeneous, and a common two-source tile model. For 2SR, new relationships between the interfacial transfer coefficient and the roughness Reynolds number are estimated for the two bare soil-woody vegetation and grass-woody vegetation composite surfaces. The ET versus ? relationships for each land cover component were also estimated, showing that that the woody vegetation has a strong tolerance to long droughts, transpiring at rates close to potential for even the driest conditions. Instead, the grass is much less tolerant to ? deficits, and the switch from grass to bare soil following the rainy season had a significant impact on ET.

  13. Geochemistry of Giuncana eclogite, North Sardinia (Italy) and comparison with coeval Sardinian eclogites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franceschelli, Marcello; Cruciani, Gabriele; Langone, Antonio; Scodina, Massimo; Puxeddu, Mariano

    2015-04-01

    The Giuncana eclogites are massive to poorly foliated, medium-to fine-grained rocks. The eclogites are embedded within Grt + St + Ky-bearing micaschist and paragneisses. Based on microstructural relationships and mineral assemblages, four stages of mineralogical re-equilibration have been distinguished in the Giuncana retrogressed eclogites. The stage I is characterized by the occurrence of omphacite enclosed in garnet porphyroblasts along with rutile, epidote, quartz, pargasitic amphibole and plagioclase. The stage II is defined by the breakdown of omphacite and formation of two types of symplectitic microstructures: (i) amphibole + quartz symplectite, and (ii) clinopyroxene + plagioclase ± amphibole symplectite. The stage III is documented by the widespread formation of amphibole as zoned porphyroblasts in the matrix, or as corona-type microstructure around garnet. The stage IV is characterized by the growth of actinolite at the rim of matrix amphibole, and by the growth of albite, chlorite, and epidote in the matrix. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon data on retrogressed eclogites sampled in the Giuncana locality from the Sardinian Medium Grade Metamorphic Complex yielded a weighted average age of 454 ± 6 Ma, in agreement with U-Pb zircon ages of 453-460 Ma obtained on eclogites from the High Grade Metamorphic Complex. The Giuncana eclogites are very similar to the other well known Sardinian eclogites. Taken as a whole the Ordovician eclogites from N Sardinia mostly plot in the fields of back-arc basins and continental flood basalts and near the boundary between basaltic andesites and subalkaline basalts. All the Sardinian eclogites show positive anomalies of K, Rb, Ba, U and Pb and negative anomalies of Nb, La, Ce and Sr. Th is depleted in the Giuncana eclogites and enriched in the Punta de li Tulchi and Punta Tittinosu eclogites. All these data reveal a clear crustal contamination of the Sardinian Ordovician mantle. Downgrading LREE and flat HREE patterns typical of N-MORBs characterize all the Sardinian eclogites. In the classical triangular diagrams the Sardinian eclogites plot in the N-MORB and VAB fields. The supply of crustal and calc-alkali materials to the Sardinian mantle during Ordovician is further confirmed by most Sardinian eclogites plotting to the left side and well above the mantle array in the Th/Yb vs. Nb/Yb diagram. In the general Variscan framework of northern Gondwana the Sardinian eclogites are the witness of the most recent back-arc N-MORB basins generated by the northwards opening of the Rheic ocean while the Sardinian alkali WPBs, that yielded the oldest age value of 440 Ma (Gaggero et al., 2012) within the southern branch of the Variscan belt, testify the incipient southwards opening of the Palaeo-Tethys ocean. References: Gaggero, L., Oggiano, G., Funedda, A., Buzzi, L., 2012, Rifting and Arc-Related Early Paleozoic Volcanism along the North Gondwana Margin: Geochemical and Geological Evidence from Sardinia (Italy). Journal of Geology v. 120, p. 273-292.

  14. Extreme Wildfire Spread and Behaviour: Case Studies from North Sardinia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salis, M.; Arca, B.; Ager, A.; Fois, C.; Bacciu, V.; Duce, P.; Spano, D.

    2012-04-01

    Worldwide, fire seasons are usually characterized by the occurrence of one or more days with extreme environmental conditions, such as heat waves associated with strong winds. On these days, fires can quickly get out of hand originating large and severe wildfires. In these cases, containment and extinguishment phases are critical, considering that the imperative goal is to keep fire crews, people and animals safe. In this work we will present a set of large and severe wildfires occurred with extreme environmental conditions in the northern area of Sardinia. The most recent wildfire we will describe was ignited on July 13, 2011 in the Oschiri municipality (40°43' N; 9°06' E), and burned about 2,500 ha of wooded and herbaceous pastures and oakwoods in few hours. The second wildfire we will present was ignited on July 23, 2009 in the Bonorva municipality (40°25' N; 8° 46' E), and was responsible for the death of two people and several damages to houses, animals and farms. This wildfire lasted on July 25, and burned about 10,000 ha of wooded and herbaceous pastures; the most of the area was burned during the first day. The last wildfire we will describe was ignited on July 23, 2007 in the Oniferi municipality (40°16' N; 9° 16' E) and burned about 9,000 ha of wooded and herbaceous pastures and oakwoods; about 8,000 ha were burned after 11 hours of propagation. All these wildfires were ignited in days characterized by very hot temperatures associated to the effect of air masses moving from inland North Africa to the Mediterranean Basin, and strong winds from west-south west. This is one of the typical weather pattern associated with large and severe wildfires in North Sardinia, and is well documented in the last years. Weather conditions, fuels and topography factors related to each case study will be accurately analyzed. Moreover, a detailed overview of observed fire spread and behavior and post-fire vegetation recovery will be presented. The fire spread and behavior data collected during the events will be also compared with the results obtained with FARSITE (Finney, 1994) and FLAMMAP (Finney, 2003) models. The main goal of this paper is to thoroughly describe the fire behavior of relevant and recent case studies, in order to learn from it and lessen the chance of making potential mistakes or hazardous firefighting operations in the same environmental conditions. Furthermore, a crucial point is to teach and prepare people and fire crews not to be surprised by severe or abrupt fire behavior under extreme environmental conditions. For these reasons, the combination of analysis, knowledge and awareness of historical case studies, field experience and computer modeling represent a key learning technique.

  15. Persistence of Pristine Deep-Sea Coral Gardens in the Mediterranean Sea (SW Sardinia)

    PubMed Central

    Bo, Marzia; Bavestrello, Giorgio; Angiolillo, Michela; Calcagnile, Lucio; Canese, Simonepietro; Cannas, Rita; Cau, Alessandro; D’Elia, Marisa; D’Oriano, Filippo; Follesa, Maria Cristina; Quarta, Gianluca; Cau, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Leiopathes glaberrima is a tall arborescent black coral species structuring important facies of the deep-sea rocky bottoms of the Mediterranean Sea that are severely stifled by fishing activities. At present, however, no morphological in vivo description, ecological characterization, age dating and evaluation of the possible conservation actions have ever been made for any population of this species in the basin. A dense coral population was reported during two Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) surveys conducted on a rocky bank off the SW coasts of Sardinia (Western Mediterranean Sea). L. glaberrima forms up to 2 m-tall colonies with a maximal observed basal diameter of nearly 7 cm. The radiocarbon dating carried out on a colony from this site with a 4 cm basal diameter revealed an approximately age of 2000 years. Considering the size-frequency distribution of the colonies in the area it is possible to hypothesize the existence of other millennial specimens occupying a supposedly very stable ecosystem. The persistence of this ecosystem is likely guaranteed by the heterogeneous rocky substrate hosting the black coral population that represents a physical barrier against the mechanical impacts acted on the surrounding muddy areas, heavily exploited as trawling fishing grounds. This favorable condition, together with the existence of a nursery area for catsharks within the coral ramifications and the occurrence of a meadow of the now rare soft bottom alcyonacean Isidella elongata in small surviving muddy enclaves, indicates that this ecosystem have to be considered a pristine Mediterranean deep-sea coral sanctuary that would deserve special protection. PMID:25790333

  16. A GIS based method for soil mapping in Sardinia, Italy: a geomatic approach.

    PubMed

    Vacca, A; Loddo, S; Melis, M T; Funedda, A; Puddu, R; Verona, M; Fanni, S; Fantola, F; Madrau, S; Marrone, V A; Serra, G; Tore, C; Manca, D; Pasci, S; Puddu, M R; Schirru, P

    2014-06-01

    A new project was recently initiated for the realization of the "Land Unit and Soil Capability Map of Sardinia" at a scale of 1:50,000 to support land use planning. In this study, we outline the general structure of the project and the methods used in the activities that have been thus far conducted. A GIS approach was used. We used the soil-landscape paradigm for the prediction of soil classes and their spatial distribution or the prediction of soil properties based on landscape features. The work is divided into two main phases. In the first phase, the available digital data on land cover, geology and topography were processed and classified according to their influence on weathering processes and soil properties. The methods used in the interpretation are based on consolidated and generalized knowledge about the influence of geology, topography and land cover on soil properties. The existing soil data (areal and point data) were collected, reviewed, validated and standardized according to international and national guidelines. Point data considered to be usable were input into a specific database created for the project. Using expert interpretation, all digital data were merged to produce a first draft of the Land Unit Map. During the second phase, this map will be implemented with the existing soil data and verified in the field if also needed with new soil data collection, and the final Land Unit Map will be produced. The Land Unit and Soil Capability Map will be produced by classifying the land units using a reference matching table of land capability classes created for this project. PMID:24315681

  17. Magnetic anisotropy, rock fabrics and finite strain in deformed sediments of SW Sardinia (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüneburg, Catalina M.; Lampert, Stephan A.; Lebit, Hermann D.; Hirt, Ann M.; Casey, Martin; Lowrie, William

    1999-06-01

    Although some empirical relationships have been established between the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and the state of finite strain in studies from specific geologic areas, the mechanisms governing correlations are not well understood. A comparative study has been made in order to elucidate the AMS-strain relationship by investigating mineral preferred orientations and the responsible microstructural deformation processes. Detailed analyses are presented from low-grade metamorphic slates of a Palaeozoic sequence exposed in the Variscan of SW Sardinia. Rock magnetic experiments suggest that paramagnetic minerals dominate the AMS in these rocks. Excellent agreement was found between magnetic fabrics and lattice preferred orientations (001) of mica and chlorite, determined from X-ray texture goniometry measurements. Depending on the oblate or prolate ellipsoidal shape of anisotropy, the minimum principal axes of AMS and X-ray textures can coincide with the poles to slaty cleavage or the maximum principal axes can coincide with the bedding/cleavage intersection, respectively. The measured AMS and X-ray textures only partially reflect the finite strain determined from deformed micro-pebbles and reduction spots. Axial orientations of magnetic fabrics, mica and chlorite preferred orientations, and finite strain ellipsoids are generally in good agreement depending on development of oblate or prolate fabric ellipsoidal shapes. Linear correlations can be established for magnitudes of minimum and intermediate axes of the AMS and finite strain ellipsoids but shape comparisons are complex. Microstructural studies by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicate that the preferred orientation of the phyllosilicates is caused by different grain-scale deformation mechanisms, such as kinking, micro-folding and preferential growth. Thus, magnetic fabrics and mineral preferred orientations evidently result from different deformation mechanisms than the finite strain. They reflect the heterogeneous deformation due to micro-mechanical reorientation processes of mineral grains while finite strain reflects the homogeneous deformation accommodated cumulatively by the strain markers.

  18. Male longevity in Sardinia, a review of historical sources supporting a causal link with dietary factors.

    PubMed

    Pes, G M; Tolu, F; Dore, M P; Sechi, G P; Errigo, A; Canelada, A; Poulain, M

    2015-04-01

    The identification of a hot spot of exceptional longevity, the Longevity Blue Zone (LBZ), in the mountain population of Sardinia has aroused considerable interest toward its traditional food as one of the potential causal factors. This preliminary study on the traditional Sardinian diet has been supported by the literature available, which has been carefully reviewed and compared. Up to a short time ago, the LBZ population depended mostly upon livestock rearing, and consumption of animal-derived foods was relatively higher than in the rest of the island. The nutrition transition (NT) in urbanized and lowland areas began in the mid-1950s, fueled by economic development, whereas in the LBZ it started later owing to prolonged resistance to change by a society organized around a rather efficient pastoral economy. Even nowadays a large proportion of the population in this area still follows the traditional diet based on cereal-derived foods and dairy products. The LBZ cohorts comprising individuals who were of a mature age when NT began may have benefited both from the high-quality, albeit rather monotonous, traditional diet to which they had been exposed most of their life and from the transitional diet, which introduced positive changes such as more variety, increased consumption of fruits and vegetables and moderate meat intake. It could be speculated that these changes may have brought substantial health benefits to this particular aging group, which was in need of nutrient-rich food at this specific time in life, thereby resulting in a decreased mortality risk and, in turn, life-span extension. PMID:25369832

  19. Zinc isotope and transition-element dynamics accompanying hydrozincite biomineralization in the Rio Naracauli, Sardinia, Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wanty, Richard B.; Podda, F.; De Giudici, Giovanni; Cidu, R.; Lattanzi, Pierfranco

    2013-01-01

    The Rio Naracauli in SW Sardinia drains part of the Ingurtosu Zn–Pb mining district, and contains extreme concentrations of dissolved Zn at near-neutral pH. In the upper reaches of the stream, pH, alkalinity and Zn concentrations are such that hydrozincite [Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6] precipitates in a biologically mediated process facilitated by a microalga (Chlorella sp.) and a cyanobacterium (Scytonema sp.). Values of ?66Zn in water and solid samples ranged from ? 0.35‰ to + 0.5‰ relative to the JMC 3-0749-Lyon standard, and closely follow a mass-dependent fractionation line. Two composite samples of sphalerite, the primary ore mineral in the Ingurtosu deposits, had an average ?66Zn of + 0.15‰, similar to sphalerite measured elsewhere in hydrothermal mineral deposits. Zinc isotope measurements of the stream water and the hydrozincite forming in the stream show a consistent preference for the heavy isotope, 66Zn, in the hydrozincite relative to 64Zn. Synthetic hydrozincites produced without added bacteria have ?66Zn identical to the dissolved Zn, thus suggesting a biologically mediated mineralization process in Rio Naracauli. The average fractionation, ?hdz-water, is 0.35‰, the magnitude of which is consistent with other studies, and suggests an extracellular mechanism of the biomineralization process. Zinc concentration and dissolved ?66Zn steadily decrease in the reach of the stream where the biomineralization occurs. The biomineralization process also leads to the sequestration of Pb, Cu and Ni in the hydrozincite lattice, and the coeval precipitation of an amorphous CdCO3 solid, prompting the suggestion that if optimized, the biomineralization process might represent a feasible passive remediation strategy for streams with high Zn and other metals, and with near-neutral pH.

  20. Gymnopilus maritimus (Basidiomycota, Agaricales), a new species from coastal psammophilous plant communities of northern Sardinia, Italy, and notes on G. arenophilus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Guzmán-Dávalos; A. Ortega; M. Contu; A. Vizzini; A. Rodríguez; A. R. Villalobos-Arámbula; A. Santerre

    2009-01-01

    The new species Gymnopilus maritimus is described from coastal plant communities of Juncus maritimus, growing on sandy soil or on decaying plants, from northwestern Sardinia (Italy). The distinguishing features of G. maritimus are: (1) an unusual habitat, (2) robust basidiomata, (3) mild taste, and (4) big and strongly warted spores. The new species\\u000a is compared with the micromorphologically similar species

  1. Rediscovery of Rhabdomastix (Rhabdomastix) incapax Starý, 2005 (Diptera, Limoniidae), a crane fly species flightless in both sexes and probably endemic to Sardinia

    PubMed Central

    Starý, Jaroslav; Rohá?ek, Jind?ich

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Rediscovery of Rhabdomastix (Rhabdomastix) incapax Starý, 2005 in Sardinia made it possible to update the description of the male and to provide the first description of the female of this species. Notes on the wing reduction, ecology, and behaviour of this species are appended. PMID:25931965

  2. Coupled UPbHf of detrital zircons of Cambrian sandstones from Morocco and Sardinia: Implications for provenance and Precambrian crustal evolution

    E-print Network

    Dov, Avigad

    Coupled U­Pb­Hf of detrital zircons of Cambrian sandstones from Morocco and Sardinia: Implications: Detrital zircons Provenance Neoproterozoic Cambrian North Africa U­Pb­Hf of detrital zircons from diverse.9­2.2 Ga; Eburnian) igneous activity. A preponder- ance of the Neoproterozoic detrital zircons possess

  3. Coupled U-Pb-Hf of detrital zircons of Cambrian sandstones from Morocco and Sardinia: implications for provenance and Precambrian crustal evolution of North

    E-print Network

    Dov, Avigad

    -Pb-Hf of detrital zircons of Cambrian sandstones from Morocco and Sardinia: implications for provenance 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 Abstract U-Pb-Hf of detrital zircons from diverse Cambrian units) igneous activity. A preponderance of the Neoproterozoic detrital zircons possess positive Hf(t) values

  4. Epidemiology of African swine fever virus.

    PubMed

    Costard, S; Mur, L; Lubroth, J; Sanchez-Vizcaino, J M; Pfeiffer, D U

    2013-04-01

    African swine fever virus used to occur primarily in Africa. There had been occasional incursions into Europe or America which apart from the endemic situation on the island of Sardinia always had been successfully controlled. But following an introduction of the virus in 2007, it now has expanded its geographical distribution into Caucasus and Eastern Europe where it has not been controlled, to date. African swine fever affects domestic and wild pig species, and can involve tick vectors. The ability of the virus to survive within a particular ecosystem is defined by the ecology of its wild host populations and the characteristics of livestock production systems, which influence host and vector species densities and interrelationships. African swine fever has high morbidity in naďve pig populations and can result in very high mortality. There is no vaccine or treatment available. Apart from stamping out and movement control, there are no control measures, thereby potentially resulting in extreme losses for producers. Prevention and control of the infection requires good understanding of its epidemiology, so that targeted measures can be instigated. PMID:23123296

  5. Metals and metalloids in hair samples of children living near the abandoned mine sites of Sulcis-Inglesiente (Sardinia, Italy).

    PubMed

    Varrica, D; Tamburo, E; Milia, N; Vallascas, E; Cortimiglia, V; De Giudici, G; Dongarrŕ, G; Sanna, E; Monna, F; Losno, R

    2014-10-01

    The Sulcis-Iglesiente district (SW Sardinia, Italy) is one of the oldest and most important polymetallic mining areas in Italy. Large outcrops of sulfide and oxide ores, as well as the products of the long-lasting mining activity, are present throughout the district releasing significant quantities of metals and metalloids into the surrounding environment. Here are reported concentrations of 21 elements determined in scalp hair samples from children (aged 11-13 years) living in different geochemical environments of southwestern Sardinia: Iglesias, hosting several abandoned mines, and the island of Sant?Antioco, not affected by significant base metal mineralization events. Trace element determinations were performed by ICP-MS. Statistically significant differences (p<0.01) in elemental concentration levels between the two study sites were found. Hair of children from Iglesias exhibited higher concentration values for Ag, Ba, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb, U, V, and Zn. Rubidium, V and U resulted more abundant at Sant?Antioco. Hair samples from Iglesias showed gender-related differences for a larger number of elements (Ag, Ba, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Sr, U and Zn) than at Sant?Antioco, where only U was significantly different. The above elemental concentrations in females were always higher than in male donors. Robust Principal Component Analysis operated on log-transformed elemental concentrations showed components indicative of a) sulfides ore minerals (PC1) reflecting the influence of the diffuse mineralization covering the entire study area, b) the presence of some bioavailable As sources (PC2) as As-rich pyrite and Fe-containing sphalerite and c) other sources of metals overlapping the diffuse mineralizations, as carbonate rocks and coal deposits (PC3). The results provided evidence of a potential risk of adverse effects on the health of the exposed population, with children living at Iglesias being greatly exposed to several metals and metalloids originated in mining tailings, enriched soils, waters and food. PMID:25212264

  6. Architecture and construction mechanisms of an incrementally built, vertically layered pluton (Punta Falcone, Sardinia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauser, Anne-Cécile; Bussy, François

    2014-05-01

    The granite-hosted mid-crustal mafic pluton of Punta Falcone, northern Sardinia, had been interpreted in the past as a one-shot magma chamber with in-situ differentiation. The (sub-) vertical fine-scale (~3cm) rhythmic magmatic layering prominent in the central part of the intrusion was attributed to the rotation of a initially horizontal layering formed by mineral segregation and accumulation due to gravity forces. Field investigations allowed us to identify a dozen of different gabbro cooling units with contrasting structures and grain-sizes. The intrusion is built symmetrically, with the external parts being emplaced first. Opx and/or cpx as well as ol (one unit) are found only in the central units, where they occur together with plg, amph and minor qtz and bt. An overall enrichment in CaO, Al2O3 and Mg-# coupled with a depletion in FeO and TiO2 is observable towards the central part of the intrusion. Part of this zonation is explained by the accumulation of plagioclase (up to 75 normative %) in the central part. The depletion in Fe and TiO2 could be linked to fractionation of Fe-Ti oxides (mag & ilm), in relation with higher fO2 values, which would also explain the presence of opx in these central units. Concerning the rhythmic magmatic layering, several parameters have been identified: - Layering occurs in a ~50m thick unit in the central part; it is thus located in a thermally preheated environment. - Layering is roughly parallel to most of the contacts between the different units and to the long axis of the elliptical intrusion, indicating a structural and/or a thermal control. - Intensity of layering decreases from the contact with the neighbouring unit inwards. - White bands consist of high-An plg rimmed by lower-An borders and minor interstitial qtz; dark bands consist of high-An plg without rims enclosed in big poikilitic amphiboles or pyroxenes. - Crystallization of up to 5mm big, poikilitic amphiboles with a patchy chemical zoning, occurs at the moment of development of layering in a water-saturated system. Crystallinity is expected to increase dramatically from ~40 to 70 vol-% over a small interval of temperature at this stage of evolution of the magma. - No preferred mineral orientation is visible in the white or dark layers. - AMS measurements yield oblate ellipsoids oriented parallel to the layering; this signature could reflect the concentration of magnetite in the dark layers. Given these parameters, we are currently considering a slowly migrating crystallization front acting together with element diffusion: amph crystallizes at the borders of the intruding unit, triggering the migration of amph-forming elements. This would lead to the development of a "depleted" white band once reached by the crystallization front. This process would be repeated sequentially until the thermal gradient gets too diffuse.

  7. Nutrient-flux evaluation by the LOICZ Biogeochemical Model in Mediterranean lagoons: the case of Cabras Lagoon (Central-Western Sardinia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. M. Padedda; A. Luglič; G. Ceccherelli; F. Trebini; N. Sechi

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the Land-Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone (LOICZ) budgeting procedure was used to evaluate the main nutrient pathways and ecosystem functions within Cabras Lagoon (Central-Western Sardinia, Italy) in 2004. The results of a simple one-box and one-layer model showed that nutrient accumulation prevailed over mobilisation for both dissolved inorganic phosphorus (annual mean of 675.69 mol d) and dissolved inorganic

  8. Changes of nutrient concentrations and phytoplankton communities after morphological modification in the S'Ena Arrubia Lagoon (Central-Western Sardinia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Felicina Trebini; Bachisio Mario Padedda; Giulia Ceccherelli; Antonella Luglič; Nicola Sechi

    2005-01-01

    S’Ena Arrubia Lagoon (Central-Western Sardinia) is a eutrophic system and is strongly influenced by human activities. The sea mouth was widened in 2000 to reduce the high trophic levels and improve its hydrodynamics. To study the environmental consequences of this ‘reframing’, nutrient concentrations and phytoplankton were compared before (1990–1999) and after (2000–2003) the hydrological works. The land–ocean interactions in the

  9. Molecular evidence for the occurrence of Contracaecum rudolphii A (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in shag Phalacrocorax aristotelis (Linnaeus) (Aves: Phalacrocoracidae) from Sardinia (western Mediterranean Sea)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarra Farjallah; Paolo Merella; Sofia Ingrosso; Andrea Rotta; Badreddine Ben Slimane; Giovanni Garippa; Khaled Said; Marina Busi

    2008-01-01

    Specimens of Contracaecum rudolphii Hartwich, 1964 (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from Phalacrocorax aristotelis (Linnaeus) from the Archipelago of La Maddalena (Sardinia, western Mediterranean Sea) were characterised genetically and compared with C. rudolphii A sensu D’Amelio et al. 1990 and C. rudolphii B sensu D’Amelio et al. 1990 from Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis (Blumenbach) from north-eastern Italy, and with C. rudolphii C sensu D’Amelio

  10. Foodborne viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Testing for human pathogenic viruses in foods represents a formidable task requiring the extraction, concentration, and assay of a host of viruses from a wide range of food matrices. The enteric viruses, particularly genogroup I and II (GI and GII) noroviruses and hepatitis A virus, are the princip...

  11. The fold-and-thrust tectonic setting of the Mesozoic carbonate units of Eastern Sardinia: insights from 3D (2D + t) modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arragoni, Simone; Cianfarra, Paola; Maggi, Matteo; Salvini, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    Present-day Eastern Sardinia structural setting was mainly determined by Cenozoic strike-slip-to-oblique faulting in the Tacchi and Golfo di Orosei regions, where Mesozoic shallow water carbonates crop out (Costamagna and Barca, 2004 and references therein). These structures are interpreted as the effects of the rotation of the Sardinia-Corsica block during Oligocene and the successive opening of the Tyrrhenian sea starting from lower Miocene (Oggiano et al., 2009 and references therein). New structural data indicate the presence of dip-slip compressive tectonics and thrusting affecting the Mesozoic carbonates and involving the underlying Paleozoic basement. This event shows a westward vergence (top-to-the-W) and is cut by later strike-slip faults. The age of this tectonics is constrained between Eocene (Lutetian rocks involved) and Oligo-Miocene (post-dated by the strike-slip tectonic event). The integration between these new structural observations and the available geological and geophysical datasets allowed to construct a balanced and admissible geological cross section in order to study the tectonic evolution of eastern Sardinia before the opening of the Tyrrhenian basin. The orientation of the section is parallel to the direction of the tectonic transport, that is WSW-ENE. The balanced cross-section has been modelled with the "Forctre" software in order to get a 3D (2D + t) evolutionary model and check its admissibility through time. The final section shows a thin-skin geometry (flats sectors prevailing over ramps) and is composed of two main tectonic slices deeply involving the Paleozoic basement and secondary thrusting affecting the Mesozoic carbonate units. These are characterized by "younger-on-older" flat-over-flat tectonics evidenced by Cretaceous-over-Jurassic thrusting. Similar geometries have been described also in the Latium-Abruzzi sector of the Southern Apennines. Costamagna L.G. & Barca S. 2004. Stratigrafia, analisi di facies, paleogeografia ed inquadramento regionale della successione giurassica dell'area dei Tacchi (Sardegna Orientale). Boll. Soc. Geol. It., 123, 477-495, 8 ff. Oggiano G., Funedda A., Carmignani L. & Pasci S. 2009. The Sardinia-Corsica microplate and its role in the Northern Apennine Geodynamics: new insights from the Tertiary intraplate strike-slip tectonics of Sardinia. Boll. Soc. Geol. It., 128 (2), 527-539.

  12. Predicting the spatio-temporal distribution of Culicoides imicola in Sardinia using a discrete-time population model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Culicoides imicola KIEFFER, 1913 (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is the principal vector of Bluetongue disease in the Mediterranean basin, Africa and Asia. Previous studies have identified a range of eco-climatic variables associated with the distribution of C. imicola, and these relationships have been used to predict the large-scale distribution of the vector. However, these studies are not temporally-explicit and can not be used to predict the seasonality in C. imicola abundances. Between 2001 and 2006, longitudinal entomological surveillance was carried out throughout Italy, and provided a comprehensive spatio-temporal dataset of C. imicola catches in Onderstepoort-type black-light traps, in particular in Sardinia where the species is considered endemic. Methods We built a dynamic model that allows describing the effect of eco-climatic indicators on the monthly abundances of C. imicola in Sardinia. Model precision and accuracy were evaluated according to the influence of process and observation errors. Results A first-order autoregressive cofactor, a digital elevation model and MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST)/or temperatures acquired from weather stations explained ~77% of the variability encountered in the samplings carried out in 9 sites during 6?years. Incorporating Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) or rainfall did not increase the model's predictive capacity. On average, dynamics simulations showed good accuracy (predicted vs. observed r corr?=?0.9). Although the model did not always reproduce the absolute levels of monthly abundances peaks, it succeeded in reproducing the seasonality in population level and allowed identifying the periods of low abundances and with no apparent activity. On that basis, we mapped C. imicola monthly distribution over the entire Sardinian region. Conclusions This study demonstrated prospects for modelling data arising from Culicoides longitudinal entomological surveillance. The framework explicitly incorporates the influence of eco-climatic factors on population growth rates and accounts for observation and process errors. Upon validation, such a model could be used to predict monthly population abundances on the basis of environmental conditions, and hence can potentially reduce the amount of entomological surveillance. PMID:23174043

  13. Computer viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Subramanya; N. Lakshminarasimhan

    2001-01-01

    Computer viruses have been around since the mid 1980s. Over 40,000 different viruses have been cataloged so far and the number of viruses is increasing dramatically. The damage they cause is estimated to be several billions of U.S. dollars per year. Most often, the origin of the virus is difficult to trace. Various kinds of anti-virus software have been developed

  14. GC-ITMS analysis of PAH contamination levels in the marine sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus in Sardinia.

    PubMed

    Angioni, Alberto; Cau, Alessandro; Secci, Marco; Addis, Piero

    2014-05-15

    This paper describes the results of a two-year monitoring study examining the pollution of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Sardinia. GC-ITMS analysis of sea urchin gonads showed the presence of 11 and 12 PAHs in the samples of Capo Pecora, and Capitana, respectively. Fluorene, naphthalene and its two degradation products, 1-methyl-naphthalene, and 2-methyl-naphthalene, were detected in all samples analyzed. The ?PAH residues showed a similar trend over the two-year sampling period. Furthermore, the residues in the first year were slightly higher than in the second year. The information obtained by the multivariate statistical analysis PLS-DA allowed for the determination of samples based on field site and varying habitat types (rocky reef, and Posidonia seabed). The results of this study showed that Posidonia sea urchins are contaminated by high molecular weight PAHs and that Capitana samples are more contaminated due to a higher level of human activity in the area. PMID:24703809

  15. Quantifying biomineralization of zinc in the Rio Naracauli (Sardinia, Italy), using a tracer injection and synoptic sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    De Giudici, Giovanni; Wanty, Richard B.; Podda, F.; Kimball, Briant A.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Lattanzi, P.; Cidu, R.; Medas, D.

    2014-01-01

    Streams draining mined areas throughout the world commonly have high concentrations of Zn. Because Zn is not easily removed from stream water and because it can be toxic to aquatic organisms, its presence is a persistent problem. The discovery of biomineralization of Zn-bearing solids in the mine drainage of Rio Naracauli, in Sardinia, Italy, provides insights into strategies for removing Zn and improving water quality in streams affected by mine drainage. Until now, the transport and attenuation of Zn has not been quantified in this stream setting. A continuous tracer injection experiment was conducted to quantify the biomineralization process and to identify the loading of constituents that causes a change from precipitation of hydrozincite [Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6] in the upstream reach to precipitation of a Zn-silicate phase downstream. Based on the mass-load calculations derived from the tracer experiment, about 1.2 kg/day of Zn is sequestered in hydrozincite. This biomineralization represents nearly 90% removal of Zn. Other elements such as Pb and Cd also are sequestered, either in the hydrozincite, or in a separate phase that forms simultaneously. In the lower 600 m of the stream, where the Zn-silicate forms, as much as 0.7 kg/day Zn are sequestered in this solid, but additions of Zn to the stream from groundwater discharge lead to an overall increase in load in that portion of the Rio Naracauli.

  16. Oncolytic Viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Nemunaitis

    1999-01-01

    Viruses capable of inducing lysis of malignant cells through theirreplication process are known as ``oncolytic'' viruses. Clinicaltrials in oncology have been performed with oncolytic viruses fornearly fifty years. Both systemic and intratumoral routes ofadministration have been explored. Toxicity has generally beenlimited to injection site pain, transient fever and tumor necrosis.Responses with early crude materials were usually short induration; however, recent

  17. Persistence of bone collagen cross-links in skeletons of the Nuraghi population living in Sardinia 1500-1200 B.C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojtowicz, A.; Yamauchi, M.; Montella, A.; Bandiera, P.; Sotowski, R.; Ostrowski, K.

    1999-01-01

    Bone collagen has a specific molecular ultrastructure which can be proved by birefringence. This protein, forming the main organic component of bone tissue, is known to survive millennia in paleontological bones and teeth. Birefringence of bone collagen obtained from the skeletons of the Nuraghi population living in Sardinia c-ca 1500 years B.C. was found previously by the use of polarizing microscopy [1]. In this paper, using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques, we show the existence of bone collagen cross-links preserved in Nuraghi skeletons after more than 3000 years.

  18. Quantification of hydrologic impacts of climate change in a Mediterranean basin in Sardinia, Italy, through high-resolution simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piras, M.; Mascaro, G.; Deidda, R.; Vivoni, E. R.

    2014-07-01

    Future climate projections robustly indicate that the Mediterranean region will experience a significant decrease of mean annual precipitation and an increase in temperature. These changes are expected to seriously affect the hydrologic regime, with a limitation of water availability and an intensification of hydrologic extremes, and to negatively impact local economies. In this study, we quantify the hydrologic impacts of climate change in the Rio Mannu basin (RMB), an agricultural watershed of 472.5 km2 in Sardinia, Italy. To simulate the wide range of runoff generation mechanisms typical of Mediterranean basins, we adopted a physically-based, distributed hydrologic model. The high-resolution forcings in reference and future conditions (30-year records for each period) were provided by four combinations of global and regional climate models, bias-corrected and downscaled in space and time (from ~25 km, 24 h to 5 km, 1 h) through statistical tools. The analysis of the hydrologic model outputs indicates that the RMB is expected to be severely impacted by future climate change. The range of simulations consistently predict: (i) a significant diminution of mean annual runoff at the basin outlet, mainly due to a decreasing contribution of the runoff generation mechanisms depending on water available in the soil; (ii) modest variations in mean annual runoff and intensification of mean annual discharge maxima in flatter sub-basins with clay and loamy soils, likely due to a higher occurrence of infiltration excess runoff; (iii) reduction of soil water content and real evapotranspiration in most areas of the basin; and (iv) a drop in the groundwater table. Results of this study are useful to support the adoption of adaptive strategies for management and planning of agricultural activities and water resources in the region.

  19. Virus Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Veesler, David; Johnson, John E.

    2013-01-01

    We examined virus maturation of selected non-enveloped and enveloped ssRNA viruses; retroviruses; bacteriophages and herpes virus. Processes associated with maturation in the RNA viruses range from subtle (noda and picornaviruses) to dramatic (tetraviruses and togaviruses). The elaborate assembly and maturation pathway of HIV is discussed in contrast to the less sophisticated but highly efficient processes associated with togaviruses. Bacteriophage assembly and maturation are discussed in general terms with specific examples chosen for emphasis. Finally the herpes viruses are compared with bacteriophages. The data support divergent evolution of noda, picorna and tetraviruses from a common ancestor and divergent evolution of alpha and flaviviruses from a common ancestor. Likewise, bacteriophages and herpes viruses almost certainly share a common ancestor in their evolution. Comparing all the viruses, we conclude that maturation is a convergent process that is required to solve conflicting requirements in biological dynamics and function. PMID:22404678

  20. Analysis of current and temperature data collected in the channel of Sardinia during the SALTO and MFSPP experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rougier, G.; Millot, C.; Chretien, E.; Gervais, T.; Fuda, J.-L.; Sammari, C.

    2003-04-01

    The SALTO experiment was conducted from July 1999 to April 2000 to study the intermediate and deep circulation in the channel of Sardinia. Five moorings were aligned from southeast (M1) to northwest (M5) along one of the XBT lines monitored twice monthly during the MFSPP experiment. They were set about 10 miles apart over isobaths of 1000-2000 m, and they were equipped with 12 current meters at 500 and 900 m (M1, M5), 1000 and 1400 m (M2, M4), 500, 1000, 1400 and 1900 m (M3). The time series were first qualified according to the analysis of the tidal components, which have amplitudes ranging from a few mm/s to about 1 cm/s there (Albérola et al., 1995). Consistently with the current time series collected in 1993-1994 during the PRIMO-1 experiment (Bouzinac et al., 1999), the mean circulation on the Sardinian side (M4, M5) was a few cm/s alongslope from the Tyrrhenian subbasin. The mean circulation in the middle of the channel (M3), which was low and erratic close to the bottom in 1993-1994, was now significant (a few cm/s) and directed eastwards, roughly along the channel axis there. The mean circulation on the Tunisian side (M1, M2), which was never measured before, was low at M1 and significant (a few cm/s) at M2, but strangely south-southeastwards, i.e. perpendicular to the slope. The overall temperature distribution was consistent with that previously described by Bouzinac et al. (1999) and by Sammari et al. (1999). Since the sole significant circulation of water of Atlantic origin is eastwards along Tunisia, isotherms in a 200-300 m surface layer are sloping down southwards there. Since waters at intermediate and greater depths are relatively warm (resp. cool) on the Sardinian side (resp. Tunisian side), all isotherms below about 500 m are sloping up southwards. Mean differences of about 0.4 °C between one side of the channel and the other are permanently encountered at depths ranging from about 500 to 1500 m. However, the variability is much larger on the Tunisian side. None of the EOF analyses performed with either the original time series or the low-passed filtered ones allows defining an energetic mode significantly involving all time series; hence, there was no overall circulation at intermediate and greater depths. Mode 1 (about 30% of the total variance) involves M4 and M5 with similar phases at both moorings and rectilinear variations in the same direction; it corresponds to fluctuations of the flow from the Tyrrhenian subbasin along the Sardinian slope. Mode 2 (about 25%) involves M3 and M4 with specific phases at each mooring (different by less than about 40°) and marked changes in direction; it corresponds to fluctuations of the flow from the Algerian subbasin that sometimes concern the lower part of the Sardinian slope. Mode 4 (about 20%), which involves M2 alone, corresponds to fluctuations that are specific to the lower part of the Tunisian slope. Thanks are due to the crew of the R.V. Hannibal managed by INSTM. REFERENCES Albérola C., S. Rousseau, C. Millot, M. Astraldi, J. Font, J. Garcia-Lafuente, G.P. Gasparini, U. Send and A. Vangriesheim, 1995. Tidal currents in the interior of the Western Mediterranean Sea. Oceanol. Acta, 18, 2, 273-284. Bouzinac C., J. Font and C. Millot, 1999. Hydrology and currents observed in the channel of Sardinia during the PRIMO-1 experiment from November 1993 to October 1994. J. Mar. Systems, 20, 1-4, 333-355. Sammari C., C. Millot, I. Taupier-Letage, A. Stefani and M. Brahim, 1999. Hydrological characteristics in the Tunisia-Sicily-Sardinia area during spring 1995. Deep-Sea Res., I-46, 1671-1703.

  1. Obesity Virus

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Update (AAAS; )

    2007-06-12

    Obesity has many causes, but there is growing evidence that common viruses may contribute to the condition in some people. Recently, Nikhil Dhurandhar and his colleagues at the Pennington Biomedical Research Center infected human stem cells with Ad-36, a common virus known to be associated with obesity in humans. They found that the cells they exposed to the virus accumulated a much higher amount of fat than uninfected cells.

  2. Climbing walls as multitasking sites of geo(morpho)logical interests: Italian examples from the Western Alps and Sardinia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollati, Irene; Fossati, Maria; Panizza, Valeria; Pelfini, Manuela; Zanoletti, Enrico; Zucali, Michele

    2015-04-01

    Geosites and in particular geomorphosites have been recently more and more used as base for educational activities in Earth Sciences and to enhance the geodiversity of a territory. Their attributes acquire a greater value and become especially appreciable when associated with field and outdoor activities. Frequently rock walls represent key sites for geological and gemorphological researches due to the wide outcrops of rocks where mineralogical composition and structures are very evident as well as landforms deriving from the modeling of outcrops surfaces. Where the rock walls are equipped for climbing activities they may be considered open-air laboratories useful to get in touch with the different features of rocks that condition progression on climbing routes. Due to these two aspects, geohistorical importance and educational exemplarity contribute to the increase of the scientific value and, as a consequence, of the global value of these sites as geosites. Geomorphosites from climbing sites allow to realize educational projects with different goals: 1) Recent researches in the Western Italian Alps have been conducted to make a census of climbing rock cliffs along the Ossola Valley (Verbanio-Cusio-Ossola Province, Italy) and to operate a choice of the ones characterized by high educational value (considering easy accessibility, grades for experts and beginners and the good exposition of rock features), representativeness, geohistorical importance, high cultural and socio-economic values, in order to propose an educational project addressed to students of an Italian secondary school aimed at introducing the three great families of rocks (magmatic, metamorphic and sedimentary); 2) The Eclogitic Micaschist Complex of the Austroalpine Domain (Montestrutto climbing wall, Turin Province, Italy) has been investigated in order to i) reconstruct the deformation stages at local scales along the sport climbing wall and the relationships between geological elements and physical elements necessary for vertical progression ii) elaborate an educational proposal; 3) Risk assessment and education has been approached through the analysis of site hazard on climbing routes, linked with both geomorphological processes, and to the variable meteorological conditions, at Monteleone Rocca Doria (Sardinia, Italy), a site sensitive to both the needs of the climbers and the environment. Here a particular attention was given to potential geomorphologically-related risks for climbers, the impacts linked to human presence and the specific features of the geomorphosite. In order to assess the possible risk situations related to the active geomorphological processes in a specific climbing site, a method for collecting data and information has been also proposed.

  3. Phytophthora viruses.

    PubMed

    Cai, Guohong; Hillman, Bradley I

    2013-01-01

    Phytophthora sp. is a genus in the oomycetes, which are similar to filamentous fungi in morphology and habitat, but phylogenetically more closely related to brown algae and diatoms and fall in the kingdom Stramenopila. In the past few years, several viruses have been characterized in Phytophthora species, including four viruses from Phytophthora infestans, the late blight pathogen, and an endornavirus from an unnamed Phytophthora species from Douglas fir. Studies on Phytophthora viruses have revealed several interesting systems. Phytophthora infestans RNA virus 1 (PiRV-1) and PiRV-2 are likely the first members of two new virus families; studies on PiRV-3 support the establishment of a new virus genus that is not affiliated with established virus families; PiRV-4 is a member of Narnaviridae, most likely in the genus Narnavirus; and Phytophthora endornavirus 1 (PEV1) was the first nonplant endornavirus at the time of reporting. Viral capsids have not been found in any of the above-mentioned viruses. PiRV-1 demonstrated a unique genome organization that requires further examination, and PiRV-2 may have played a role in late blight resurgence in 1980s-1990s. PMID:23498912

  4. Diseases Caused by Viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The symptoms, causal agents, epidemiology and management of important virus diseases in chickpea and lentil crops were reviewed in depth. The virus diseases include.Alflafa mosaic virus, Cucumber mosaiv virus, Faba bean necrotic yellows virus, Pea enation mosaic virus, Pea seed-borne mosaci virus,...

  5. Emerging Viruses

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lee, Amy.

    Emerging viruses are those "whose incidence in humans has increased in the past 2 decades or threatens to increase in the near future." This week's Topic in Depth focuses on sites related to viruses, particularly those that are considered "emerging."The first site (1) is an essay by Alison Jacobson of the University of Capetown that discusses some emerging and potentially emerging viruses, along with factors that contribute to the threat. From a US government interagency working group, the second report (2) focuses on the responses to infectious disease outbreaks, including drugs, vaccines, and government response. A World Health Organization site (3) highlights recent reports of infectious disease, archived by date and by disease. This ThinkQuest site (4) gives a basic introduction to viruses and how they cause infections. An online virology tutorial (5) by Ed Rybicki of the University of Cape Town serves as a lesson on the basics of virology for a more advanced student. The next two sites focus on the specifics of selected viruses. From the Institute for Molecular Virology (6) comes a resource on Marburg and Ebola viruses, and from the National Biological Information Infrastructure (7) is a site on West Nile Virus. The last resource (8) is a scholarly journal from the Centers for Disease Control that presents some of the latest scientific research on emerging diseases.

  6. Bioerosion by microbial euendoliths in benthic foraminifera from heavy metal-polluted coastal environments of Portovesme (South-Western Sardinia, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherchi, A.; Buosi, C.; Zuddas, P.; De Giudici, G.

    2012-08-01

    A monitoring survey of the coastal area facing the industrial area of Portoscuso-Portovesme (South-Western Sardinia, Italy) revealed intense bioerosional processes. Benthic foraminifera collected at the same depth (about 2 m) but at different distances from the pollution source show extensive microbial infestation, anomalous Mg/Ca molar ratios and high levels of heavy metals in the shell associated with a decrease in foraminifera richness, population density and biodiversity with the presence of morphologically abnormal specimens. We found that carbonate dissolution induced by euendoliths is selective, depending on the Mg content and morpho-structural types of foraminiferal taxa. This study provides evidences for a connection between heavy metal dispersion, decrease in pH of the sea-water and bioerosional processes on foraminifera.

  7. Bioerosion by microbial euendoliths in benthic foraminifera from heavy metal-polluted coastal environments of Portovesme (south-western Sardinia, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherchi, A.; Buosi, C.; Zuddas, P.; De Giudici, G.

    2012-11-01

    A monitoring survey of the coastal area facing the industrial area of Portoscuso-Portovesme (south-western Sardinia, Italy) revealed intense bioerosional processes. Benthic foraminifera collected at the same depth (about 2 m) but at different distances from the pollution source show extensive microbial infestation, anomalous Mg/Ca molar ratios and high levels of heavy metals in the shell associated with a decrease in foraminifera richness, population density and biodiversity with the presence of morphologically abnormal specimens. We found that carbonate dissolution induced by euendoliths is selective, depending on the Mg content and morpho-structural types of foraminiferal taxa. This study provides evidences for a connection between heavy metal dispersion, decrease in pH of the sea-water and bioerosional processes on foraminifera.

  8. New observations on the Ni-Co ores of the southern Arburese Variscan district (SW Sardinia, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naitza, Stefano; Secchi, Francesco; Oggiano, Giacomo; Cuccuru, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    Among the European Variscan regions, the Arburese district, located in the Paleozoic basement of SW Sardinia (Italy) is remarkable for its metallogenic complexity, and offers good opportunities to investigate time/space and genetic links between post-collisional Variscan intrusive magmatism and mineral deposits. The district hosts a large variety of mineral deposits and occurrences, which include the Pb-Zn (Cu, Ag) mesothermal veins of the Montevecchio Lode System, one of the largest and richest Variscan hydrothermal ore deposit of Europe, now exhausted. Ore deposits are genetically related to the emplacement of the Late Variscan (304±1 Ma) Arbus Pluton, a granitoid composite intrusion ranging from monzogabbroic to granodioritic and to peraluminous leucogranitic rock-types. After more than a century of geological studies in the area, several metallogenic issues are still unresolved; among them, the occurrence in the southern sectors of little known polymetallic Ni-Co-(Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag-Bi) veins, a kind of mineralization quite unusual for the Sardinian basement. These hydrothermal deposits are hosted by very low-grade metamorphic rocks at short distance from the intrusion, where contact effect generate also hornfels. Spatial, structural and textural characters of the hydrothermal system are coherent and in apparent continuity with those of the Montevecchio Lode System. Ni-Co ores are hosted by a system of parallel, 1-2 m thick high-angle veins that discontinuously follow the southwestern and southern contacts of the Arbus Pluton for about 7 km. They constantly dip SSW, sideways with respect to the pluton contact, and show a prevalence of fracture infilling (banded and brecciated) textures, with alternating quartz and siderite bands, cockades and frequent inclusions of wallrock fragments. Wallrocks are usually silicified, bleached and/or sericitized. Systematic studies of ore textures and parageneses from different veins along the system have been performed by standard ore microscopy and SEM-EDS. Ore minerals associations include Ni-Co (Fe, Sb) arsenides/sulfoarsenides (nickeline, rammelsbergite, skutterudite, safflorite, gersdorffite, breithauptite, lollingite, cobaltite), Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag-Bi sulfides (galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, tetrahedrite/freibergite, bismuthinite, proustite/pyrargirite, stephanite), native Bi and native Ag. Ore textures and mineral phases relationships allow to envisage the following paragenetic sequence: 1) deposition of quartz (I) and a Ni monoarsenide (nickeline), and antimonide (breithauptite) followed by 2) Ni-,Ni-Co, Co- and Fe- di-, tri- arsenides and sulfoarsenides (rammelsbergite, skutterudite, safflorite, löllingite, cobaltite), with bismuthinite and native Bi; 3) deposition of abundant siderite, with quartz (II), Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag sulfides and sulfosalts and rare native Ag, followed at last by 4) calcite. This sequence depicts a polyphased evolution with alternating gradual and abrupt changes of the physicochemical parameters of a mesothermal fluid initially characterized by Ni-As-(Sb) contents, subsequently evolved to higher contents of As, Co and Bi, and, finally, enriched in S, allowing Pb, Zn, Cu deposition as sulfides and sulfosalts.Thus, the fine alternating rims of pure nickeline (NiAs) and breithauptite (NiSb) in nickeline individuals, detected by SEM-EDS, may be explained by repeated compositional re-equilibrations due to variable As and Sb contents of the fluids; increases in As, and, moreover, the sudden appearance of siderite and sulfides after brecciations indicate further re-opening of the system, related to hydrothermal fracturing and syn-depositional tectonics.

  9. Antimony in the soil-water-plant system at the Su Suergiu abandoned mine (Sardinia, Italy): strategies to mitigate contamination.

    PubMed

    Cidu, Rosa; Biddau, Riccardo; Dore, Elisabetta; Vacca, Andrea; Marini, Luigi

    2014-11-01

    This study was aimed to implement the understanding of the Sb behavior in near-surface environments, as a contribution to address appropriate mitigation actions at contaminated sites. For this purpose, geochemical data of soil (8 sites), water (29 sites), and plant (12 sites) samples were collected. The study area is located at Su Suergiu and surroundings in Sardinia (Italy), an abandoned mine area heavily contaminated with Sb, with relevant impact on water bodies that supply water for agriculture and domestic uses. Antimony in the soil horizons ranged from 19 to 4400 mg kg(-1), with highest concentrations in soils located close to the mining-related wastes, and concentrations in the topsoil much higher than in the bedrock. The Sb readily available fraction was about 2% of the total Sb in the soil. Antimony in the pore water ranged from 23 to 1700 ?g L(-1), with highest values in the Sb-rich soils. The waters showed neutral to slightly alkaline pH, redox potential values indicating oxidizing conditions, electrical conductivity in the range of 0.2 to 3.7 mS cm(-1), and dissolved organic carbon ?2 mg L(-1). The waters collected upstream of the mine have Ca-bicarbonate dominant composition, and median concentration of Sb(tot) of 1.7 ?g L(-1) (that is total antimony determined in waters filtered through 0.45 ?m), a value relatively high as compared with the background value (?0.5 ?g L(-1) Sb) estimated for Sardinian waters, but below the limits established by the European Union and the World Health Organization for drinking water (5 ?g L(-1) Sb and 20 ?g L(-1) Sb, respectively). The waters flowing in the mine area are characterized by Ca-sulfate dominant composition, and median concentrations of 7000 ?g L(-1) Sb(tot). Extreme concentrations, up to 30,000 ?g L(-1) Sb(tot), were observed in waters flowing out of the slag materials derived from the processing of Sb-ore. The Sb(III) was in the range of 0.8 to 760 ?g L(-1) and represented up to 6% of Sb(tot). In the waters collected downstream of the mine, median Sb(tot) concentrations decreased as distance from the mine area increases: 1300 ?g L(-1) Sb(tot) in the stream Rio Ciurixeda at 3 km distance, and 25 ?g L(-1) Sb(tot) in the main River Flumendosa 15 km further downstream. Attenuation of Sb contamination was mainly due to dilution. Results of modeling, carried out by both EQ3 and Visual MINTEQ computer programs, suggest that sorption of dissolved Sb onto solid phases, and/or precipitation of Sb-bearing minerals, likely give a minor contribution to attenuation of Sb contamination. The slightly alkaline pH and oxidizing conditions might favor the persistence of inorganic Sb(V)-bearing species at long distance in the studied waters. Concentrations of Sb in the plants Pistacia lentiscus and Asparagus ranged from 0.1 to 22 mg kg(-1), with maximum values in plants growing very close to the mining-related wastes. The P. lentiscus grows well on the soils highly contaminated with Sb at Su Suergiu and might be used for revegetation of the Sb-rich heaps, thus contributing to reduce the dispersion of contaminated materials. Major effects of contamination were observed on the water bodies located downstream of the Su Suergiu abandoned mine. The maximum load (16.6 kg Sb per day) to the Flumendosa, the main aquatic recipient, was observed after heavy rain events. Therefore, priorities of mitigation actions should be focused on minimizing the contact of rain and runoff waters on the heaps of mining wastes. PMID:25137381

  10. Efficacy of chemical treatment of the Pietra cantone limestone in the restoration of historic buildings of Cagliari (southern Sardinia, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Columbu, Stefano; Lisci, Carla; Sitzia, Fabio; Buccellato, Giampaolo

    2015-04-01

    The present work aims to evaluate the efficacy of some chemical products in the restoration works of the "Pietra cantone" limestone, a calcarenitic rock belonging to the carbonatic miocenic series (lower Tortonian) of Cagliari (southern Sardinia, Italy), widely used in historic buildings. Such stone, once used in the masonry, if is not protected by plaster or in the presence of aqueous solutions circulating, frequently shows problems of chemical-physical decay, due to their petrophysical characteristics. In fact, being characterized by a highly porous (on average 35-42% vol.) carbonate matrix low-medium cemented, are easily alterable by weathering processes (i.e., dissolution, sulfation, etc.) and by cyclic mechanism of crystallization/solubilisation of salts and hydration/dehydration of hygroscopic phases belonging to the clay component of these calcarenites. These processes induce negative effects on physical-mechanical properties of stone, producing various macroscopic forms of alteration such as decohesion, disintegration, exfoliation, alveolation, etc. Where the decay of the walls is in an advanced stage, there was a strong retreat of the vertical profile of the facade of the building, resulting in critical static-structural. As a case study was taken the historic building of a tobacco manufacture, one of the first industrial establishments in Cagliari, then owned by the Italian State Monopoly. The factory dates back to the early decades of the XVIII century, the walls of which, however, belonged to the convent of the "Frati Minori" built towards the end of the XIV century along the wall that closed the east the historic district of "Marina" in front of the port of Cagliari. In addressing the structural restoration of this building, before selecting chemical products for dealing adequately of limestone, we proceeded at the outset to a thorough analysis of the structures built in "Pietra Cantone", and their physical-mechanical decay. Only thereafter the stone taken of this building was suitably treated with chemicals consolidating as "mineral silicate" in hydro-alcoholic dilution (i.e., potassium silicates in greater quantities, lithium and barium silicates) and ethyl silicate in hydro-alcohol dilution (i.e., ethyl ester of silicic acid with a concentration of 70% wt.), and with protective hydrophobic product with low molecular weight (used as gel), nanomolecular monomer silane-based (alkyl-alkoxy-silane-monomer with a concentration of 42-43% wt.). We have chosen this type of products consolidating because more compatible in chemical and physical terms with the carbonatic matrix of calcarenites studied. The evaluation of the efficacy of chemicals was made by comparing the data of the physical properties (porosity, bulk density, water absorption, gas permeability, etc.) and mechanical strengths (compression, flexion, index of resistance to punching) before and after treatment carried out in the laboratory, according to the most appropriate conditions and application doses of the chemicals. The results show that the properties of compressive and punching strengths are improved and, at the same time, have remained almost unchanged the characteristics of resistance to compression-traction strains (as evidenced by the results of the tests of resistance to flexion) and the breathability of this calcarenites, as demonstrated by the tests of permeability to water vapour. Keywords: Limestone alteration, Petrophysical features, Building stones, Permeability, Chemical treatment, Consolidation, Cultural Heritage conservation

  11. HIV virus

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Carl Henderson (National Institutes of Health; )

    2005-12-09

    HIV is a virus that can be transmitted through fluids exchanged in sexual activity. HIV eventually causes AIDS. AIDS patients have compromised immune systems and they eventually die from diseases that healthy humans would normally fight off very easily.

  12. Calf w/ Virus 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    ). One of the best animal models of MS is the demyelination induced by Theiler's virus. The early events that occur during Theiler's virus infection are crucial in the effective clearance of virus from the CNS. Failure to clear virus results...

  13. Ebola Virus Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Ebola virus disease Fact sheet N°103 Updated April 2015 Key facts Ebola virus disease (EVD), formerly ... live Ebola virus in vaginal secretions. Symptoms of Ebola virus disease The incubation period, that is, the ...

  14. Computer viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, F.B.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis investigates a recently discovered vulnerability in computer systems which opens the possibility that a single individual with an average user's knowledge could cause widespread damage to information residing in computer networks. This vulnerability is due to a transitive integrity corrupting mechanism called a computer virus which causes corrupted information to spread from program to program. Experiments have shown that a virus can spread at an alarmingly rapid rate from user to user, from system to system, and from network to network, even when the best-availability security techniques are properly used. Formal definitions of self-replication, evolution, viruses, and protection mechanisms are used to prove that any system that allows sharing, general functionality, and transitivity of information flow cannot completely prevent viral attack. Computational aspects of viruses are examined, and several undecidable problems are shown. It is demonstrated that a virus may evolve so as to generate any computable sequence. Protection mechanisms are explored, and the design of computer networks that prevent both illicit modification and dissemination of information are given. Administration and protection of information networks based on partial orderings are examined, and probably correct automated administrative assistance is introduced.

  15. Geochemical characterization of migmatized orthogneiss from Porto Ottiolu (NE Sardinia, Italy) and its inferences on partial melting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruciani, Gabriele; Fancello, Dario; Franceschelli, Marcello; Columbu, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    Migmatites are very common in the northern part of the axial zone of the Sardinia Variscan chain. At Porto Ottiolu, about 30 km south of Olbia, a wide sequence of igneous- and sedimentary-derived migmatites crops out. Migmatized orthogneiss have a complex structural evolution characterized by three folding phases (D1, D2, D3) followed by a shear deformation. The oldest structure observed in the migmatites is a gneissose layering (D1). The second deformation (D2) is the most pervasive in the field and produces tight folds. D3 deformation caused symmetric folds with sub-horizontal axes. The leucosomes are coarse-grained, centimetre-thick, deformed leucocratic layers and/or patches following or cutting the D2 foliation. Other leucosomes are emplaced along shear zones (S4). The mesosomes are medium-grained foliated rocks in which the foliation is identified by biotite oriented along the S2 schistosity. The contact between mesosome and leucosome is frequently marked by thin biotite-rich selvedge. Leucosomes mainly consist of quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspar, minor biotite, muscovite and rare garnet. Mesosomes consist of the same mineral assemblage but they are rich in biotite and muscovite. Muscovite is found as submillimetre-sized crystals with variable phengitic component (Si: 6.1, Fe: 0.14, Mg: 0.13 a.p.f.u., XMg: 0.48 in less phengitic crystals, Si: 6.2, Fe: 0.18, Mg: 0.20 a.p.f.u., XMg: 0.53 in more phengitic ones). Biotite is titanium rich (Ti 0.3 a.p.f.u.) and has XMg 0.4. Very rare garnet occurs as submillimetric unzoned almandine with high manganese and low calcium content (Alm: 79mol.%; Prp: 5; Sps: 11-13; Grs: 3). Plagioclase is an unzoned oligoclase (XAb: 0.7), sometimes surrounded by a thin rim of pure albite. K-feldspar often shows perthitic exsolutions. The modal amount of feldspars varies significantly within the same leucosome and between different leucosomes. In particular, leucosomes along shear zones are feldspar rich. Evidences of melting are given by the occurrence of myrmekitic miscrostructures between quartz and feldspar, quartz films at the feldspar interface and by albite rims around plagioclase. Some selected samples were analysed for major, minor and trace element content. The leucosomes are characterized by the following major elements content: SiO2: 72.9-76.2; Al2O3: 14.7-15.4; Fe2O3tot: 0.1-0.7; MgO: 0.1-0.3; CaO: 0.5-3.2; Na2O: 2.4-3.5; K2O: 4.0-8.6 wt%. The noticeable wide range in CaO and K2O is related to the high variability of the plagioclase/K-feldspar ratio. Most leucosomes have granitic composition, except for those occurring along shear zones that have tonalitic composition. Mesosomes major elements contents are SiO2 ca. 70; Al2O3: 14.4-15.1; Fe2O3tot: 2.1-3.4; MgO ca. 1.0; CaO ca. 3.0; Na2O ca. 3.5; K2O ca. 2.6 wt.%. They have granodioritic compositions. All leucosome and mesosome samples are corundum normative. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of leucosomes are characterized by a marked positive Eu anomaly and by LREE enrichment. Mesosomes are characterized by marked negative Eu anomalies, as well as by LREE and HREE enrichment. ?REE is higher in mesosomes (153 ppm) than in leucosomes (20-63 ppm). Field relationships, microstructural and geochemical data support the hypothesis that migmatization was generated by partial melting of a probaby Ordovician granitoid. The origin of the various types of leucosome has been discussed.

  16. Geomaterials and architecture of the medieval monuments of Sardinia (Italy): petrophysical investigations on their construction materials and documentation on the architectonic aspects using digital technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Columbu, Stefano; Verdiani, Giorgio

    2015-04-01

    The Sardinia Island is in the core area of the Mediterranean Sea. Its position has made it the crossing point of many cultural and political events, but at the same time its isolation has favoured the manifestation of specific and unique Cultural Heritage phenomena. The network of several medieval monuments (i.e., Romanesque churches) disseminated all around the island clearly shows how an architectural language can be declined according to site specific materials and specific artistical and practical choices, always preserving its original logic and grammar. On the bases of different architectural characteristics and petrophysical features of their lithology, a significant number of churches have been chosen from the different medieval geographical-political areas of the Sardinia named (at that time) "Giudicati". Each of these churches were surveyed using the following methods: photography, 3D Laser Scanner for the whole interior and exterior parts (using a Leica HDS 6000 and a Cam/2 Faro Photon units), photogrammetry (using high resolution Nikon D700 and D800e) of a selected set of the extern surface of significant altered samples (aimed to the production of high quality and highly detailed 3D digital models), direct sampling of representative rocks and ancient mortars for geochemical and minero-petrographic analysis using optical polarized microscope, electronic microscopy (SEM), X-Ray fluorescence (XRF), X-Ray diffractometry (XRD). The physical-mechanical properties (real and bulk densities, open and closed porosity, water absorption and saturation, vapour permeability, flexion and compression strengths, etc.) of various geomaterials are determined with helium picnometry, microscopic image analysis, gas-permeability thermostatic chamber, oil-hydraulic press machine, Point Load Test (PLT), abrasimeter. For each church, when there was the occasion, some specific case study has been developed, matching the information about the materials and the specific events connected to some Cultural Heritage element; this allowed to compare differences in recent substituted capitals, important reconstruction events, signs of the evolution of the building. All data were then treated and analysed to deepen the knowledge about the most meaningful aspects of different construction techniques and use of materials, provenance of raw materials, stone alterations and static-structure decay. As the result, a base was created to read common behaviours, design choices, recursive constructive solutions, and the "models" guiding the ancient intentions. A great effort has been made to keep together all these different kind of data, from the chemical and petrophysical information on the geomaterials to the geometrical description of the building, creating a robust relationship between the architectural and geological approach to the subject. The very specific photogrammetric survey of the stones sampled will be presented in details with a clear description of the applied processing and of the reached results. This contribution will present the progress state of this research, together with some widening about the most important churches between the investigated group, like: St. Saturnino in Cagliari (South Sardinia), St. Trinitŕ of Saccargia (near Sassari, North), St. Antioco of Bisarcio in Ozieri (North-central), St. Giusta (near Oristano, central-Western). Keywords: Petrographic characterization, Physical properties, Medieval architecture, Laser scan, Digital survey

  17. Trace and rare earth elements fractionation in volcanic- and sediment-hosted Mn ores: a study case of Sardinia (western Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinisi, Rosa

    2015-04-01

    It is widely accepted that, regardless of the geological environment (continental, marine or hydrothermal), the occurrences of clay minerals and/or mineral phases with clay-type crystal structure (as zeolites and Mn-oxides), play a key role in the trace elements and REEs uptake processes. The REE resources are produced mostly from ion-adsorption type REE deposits of southern China that are formed by weathering of granitic rocks and subsequent chemical adsorption of REE on clay minerals. A significant group of minerals with a high metal uptake capacity is represented by Mn oxides. Their "tunnel" structure, in fact, allows both the absorption (inside the minerals) and adsorption (outside the minerals) of cations and anions producing metal accumulations with economic and environmental significance. However, the ores, mainly that forming within sedimentary environment, often have impurities due to presence of minerals unrelated to mineralization. These minerals can significantly alter the compositional features of the ores and suggest misleading conclusions. In Sardinia (Italy, western Mediterranean), Mn-oxide mineralizations occur and recently their origin has been discussed and identified (Sinisi et al. 2012). In this study the mineralogical and chemical compositions of the Sardinian sediment-hosted and volcanic-hosted Mn-ore are exhibit exploring the possibility that they can represent exploitable trace and REE mineralizations. High contents of metals characterize these Mn deposits. Besides some trace elements (Ni, Cr, Zn, Cu, As, Pb, and U) that commonly typify the Mn oxi-hydroxide ores, all rare earth elements showed high concentrations in the Sardinian deposits, comparable to those of the main actually exploited REE sinks. For this reason, a simple statistical data treatment (R-mode Factor Analysis) was performed on fifteen and nineteen samples of sediment-hosted and volcanic-hosted Mn ore respectively, in order to identify both the mineral phases trapping trace and REE in Mn ores from different geological settings and the geochemical processes promoting the metal accumulation. Results clearly showed that in the studied deposits only the contents of trace metals may be referred to uptake process on Mn mineral phases. On the contrary, REE are probably hosted in silicates, such as zircons and clay minerals, that also characterize the mineralization or their presence is due to redox processes not linked to Mn ore deposition. Sinisi R., Mameli P., Mongelli G., Oggiano G. (2012). Different Mn-ores in a continental arc setting: geochemical and mineralogical evidence from Tertiary deposits of Sardinia (Italy). Ore Geology Reviews, 47, 110-125.

  18. Computer Viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robyn P. Weems

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a description of the major characteristics of disk and network borne viruses for the convenience of library and archival systems administrators. It includes a brief history of the use of destructive software by computer hackers, noting some of the early and more recent forms of attack, and suggests that computer languages newly developed for use with the

  19. Computer viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederick B. Cohen

    1986-01-01

    This thesis investigates a recently discovered vulnerability in computer systems which opens the possibility that a single individual with an average user's knowledge could cause widespread damage to information residing in computer networks. This vulnerability is due to a transitive integrity corrupting mechanism called a computer virus which causes corrupted information to spread from program to program. Experiments have shown

  20. Computer viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. E. Pelaez; John Bowles

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the main categories of malicious programs known as Trojan horses, viruses, bacteria, worms, and logic bombs. The focus is on their general behavior and the properties seen in their implementations rather than the ultimate effects or their intended destructive behavior. Possible preventive measures are also discussed

  1. Exploring computer viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Davis

    1988-01-01

    The author presents some thoughts on viruses and explores the anatomy of a sample computer virus. He details, using C language programs, some of the fundamental parts associated with viruses and how these viruses can be detected. It is concluded that the final decision for virus control rests with risk management. It is suggested that, at the very least, contingency

  2. METHODOLOGY Open Access Virus replicon particle based Chikungunya virus

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    METHODOLOGY Open Access Virus replicon particle based Chikungunya virus neutralization assay using Mareike Kümmerer1* Abstract Background: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has been responsible for large epidemic antibodies without the need of using infectious CHIKV. Keywords: Chikungunya virus, Virus replicon particles

  3. Chemical composition and biological activity of the essential oil from Helichrysum microphyllum Cambess. ssp. tyrrhenicum Bacch., Brullo e Giusso growing in La Maddalena Archipelago, Sardinia.

    PubMed

    Ornano, Luigi; Venditti, Alessandro; Sanna, Cinzia; Ballero, Mauro; Maggi, Filippo; Lupidi, Giulio; Bramucci, Massimo; Quassinti, Luana; Bianco, Armandodoriano

    2015-01-01

    Helichrysum microphyllum Cambess. subsp. tyrrhenicum Bacch., Brullo e Giusso (Asteraceae), previously known as Helichrysum italicum ssp. microphyllum (Willd.) Nyman, is one of the many endemic species growing in Sardinia, Corsica and Balearic Islands. In the present work the composition of the essential oil obtained from a population of H. microphyllum ssp. thyrrenicum growing in a littoral location of La Maddalena Archipelago was investigated by GC-FID and CG-MS. The major compounds of the oil were the monoterpene ester neryl acetate (18.2%), the oxygenated sesquiterpene 5-eudesmen-11-ol (rosifoliol, 11.3%), the sequiterpene hydrocarbons ?-cadinene (8.4%) and ?-cadinene (6.7%), showing a peculiar composition in comparison with other Sardinian populations. The oil was tested for cytotoxicity on three human tumor cell lines (MDA-MB 231, HCT116 and A375) by MTT assay showing a strong inhibitory activity on human malignant melanoma cells A375 (IC50 of 16 µg/ml). In addition the oil was assessed for antioxidant activity by DPPH and ABTS assay. PMID:25492232

  4. Levels and congener profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sheep milk from an industrialised area of Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Storelli, M M; Scarano, C; Spanu, C; De Santis, E P L; Busco, V P; Storelli, A; Marcotrigiano, G O

    2012-05-01

    Concentrations of 7 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), 10 polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and 22 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including 12 dioxin like-PCBs (non- and mono-ortho PCBs) were measured in 80 sheep milk samples from farms located in an industrialized area of Sardinia, Italy. PCDDs and PCDFs mean concentrations were 2.45 and 3.69 pgg(-1) fat basis, respectively. The mean dl-PCB concentration was 2.01 ngg(-1) fat basis, while cumulative ndl-PCB levels ranged from 1.02 to 20.42, with a mean of 4.92 ngg(-1) fat. The results expressed in pg WHO-TEQ/g fat showed that contamination level of milk was below the limit values for human consumption established by EC legislation. In the same way, all the investigated milk exhibited PCDD/Fs concentrations below EU action levels, while dl-PCBs concentrations exceeded the action level of 2.0 pg WHO-TEQ/g fat. These findings point to the need to continue to conduct general monitoring programmes, including also milk samples from areas not close to the contaminant-emitting industries, in order to better evaluate the impact of industrial activities on surrounding environment. PMID:22293285

  5. Description of a new species of Wormaldia from Sardinia and a new Drusus species from the Western Balkans (Trichoptera, Philopotamidae, Limnephilidae).

    PubMed

    Vitecek, Simon; Previši?, Ana; Ku?ini?, Mladen; Bálint, Miklós; Keresztes, Lujza; Waringer, Johann; Pauls, Steffen U; Malicky, Hans; Graf, Wolfram

    2015-01-01

    New species are described in the genera Wormaldia (Trichoptera, Philopotamidae) and Drusus (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae, Drusinae). Additionally, the larva of the new species Drususcrenophylax sp. n. is described, and a key provided to larval Drusus species of the bosnicus-group, in which the new species belongs. Observations on the threats to regional freshwater biodiversity and caddisfly endemism are discussed. The new species Wormaldiasarda sp. n. is an endemic of the Tyrrhenian island of Sardinia and differs most conspicuously from its congeners in the shape of segment X, which is trilobate in lateral view. The new species Drususcrenophylax sp. n. is a micro-endemic of the Western Balkans, and increases the endemism rate of Balkan Drusinae to 79% of 39 species. Compared to other Western Balkan Drusus, males of the new species are morphologically most similar to Drususdiscophorus Radovanovic and Drususvernonensis Malicky, but differ in the shape of superior and intermediate appendages. The females of Drususcrenophylax sp. n. are most similar to those of Drususvernonensis, but differ distinctly in the outline of segment X. Larvae of Drususcrenophylax sp. n. exhibit toothless mandibles, indicating a scraping grazing-feeding ecology. PMID:25931956

  6. In vitro inhibitory effects of Limonium contortirameum and L. virgatum extracts from sardinia on alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase.

    PubMed

    Foddai, Marzia; Kasabri, Violet; Petretto, Giacomo L; Azara, Emanuela; Sias, Angela; Afifi, Fatma U; Delogu, Giovanna; Chessa, Mario; Pintore, Giorgio

    2014-02-01

    Pancreatic triacylglycerol lipase (PL), alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase are interesting pharmacological targets for the management of dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, and obesity-diabetes. Limonium spp (Plumbaginaceae) are endemic to Sardinia, Italy. Comparable with acarbose, aqueous extracts (AE) of L. contortirameum and L. virgatum, and their phytoconstituent gallic acid concentration gradients (mg/mL) were identified as in vitro potent (p<0.001, n=3) and efficacious dual inhibitors of alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase with respective IC50 (mg/mL) values of 0.6 +/- 0.1, 1.2 +/- 0.1 and 0.15 +/- 0.02. Equivalent to orlistat (PL IC50 of 0.114 +/- 0.004 microg/mL), L. contortirameum, L. virgatum AE and their phytoprinciple gallic acid inhibited PL substantially (p<0.001, n=3) in a dose-dependent manner in vitro with PL- IC50 (microg/mL) of 920.4 +/- 105.2, 593.1 +/- 56.8 and 8.4 +/- 0.9, respectively. LC-MS analysis of extracts revealed the presence of several phenolic compounds in their aglycon and glycoside forms. These are catechins, flavones, epigallocatechins and flavonols. Flavonoid- and polyphenol-rich L contortirameum and L. virgatum, modulating gastrointestinal carbohydrate and lipid digestion and absorption, may be advocated as candidates for obesity-diabetes prevention and phytotherapy. PMID:24689285

  7. Molecular evidence for the occurrence of Contracaecum rudolphii A (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in shag Phalacrocorax aristotelis (Linnaeus) (Aves: Phalacrocoracidae) from Sardinia (western Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Farjallah, Sarra; Merella, Paolo; Ingrosso, Sofia; Rotta, Andrea; Slimane, Badreddine Ben; Garippa, Giovanni; Said, Khaled; Busi, Marina

    2008-12-01

    Specimens of Contracaecum rudolphii Hartwich, 1964 (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from Phalacrocorax aristotelis (Linnaeus) from the Archipelago of La Maddalena (Sardinia, western Mediterranean Sea) were characterised genetically and compared with C. rudolphii A sensu D'Amelio et al. 1990 and C. rudolphii B sensu D'Amelio et al. 1990 from Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis (Blumenbach) from north-eastern Italy, and with C. rudolphii C sensu D'Amelio et al. 2007 from Phalacrocorax auritus (Lesson) from west-central Florida, USA. The sequencing of the small subunit of the mitochondrial ribosomal RNA gene (rrnS) and by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the same gene and of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) allowed the identification of all specimens of C. rudolphii from P. aristotelis as C. rudolphii A. The results confirmed that the definition of genetic markers, following the analysis of nuclear ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA, provides quick and practical diagnostic tools for the detection of the 3 sibling species of C. rudolphii. The occurrence of C. rudolphii in P. aristotelis is reported for the first time from the Mediterranean area, improving the picture of the dispersal patterns of the populations of these piscivorous birds, and confirming the existence of different and isolated populations between the North and South European waters. PMID:18571974

  8. Inaccuracy of Labeling and Visual Inspection for Microsporidian Parasites in Anglerfish Lophius litulon (Jordan, 1902) Collected from Chinese Retail Markets in Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Meloni, Domenico; Arca, Costantino; Piras, Pierluigi

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy of labeling and the efficacy of visual inspection to detect the lesions by visible parasites in anglerfish Lophius litulon. One hundred samples were collected over a 2-year period (2011 to 2012) from Chinese retail markets in Sardinia, Italy. To assess the conformity of the items with the trade name, a preliminary visual inspection of the samples by a simple morphological analysis was performed. According to the Council Regulations (EC) 104/2000, 1224/2009, and 2074/2005, the Italian labels were examined to verify the appropriate indication of relevant information on traceability (trade name, scientific name, geographical area, and production method), and the samples of L. litulon were subjected to visual inspection to detect "visible parasites." Altogether, a high percentage of mismatching (70%) between the scientific name and trade name was pointed out. Moreover, 60% of the samples were visibly infected by Spraguea lophii, a microsporidian parasite of the nervous tissue that forms typical lesions (xenomas) in the fish flesh near the vertebral column. Although S. lophii is not pathogenic to humans, the presence of xenomas can decompose the fish flesh and render it unfit for human consumption. The high percentage of mislabeling, together with the inaccuracy in the visual inspection by Chinese food business operators highlighted the need to improve the European Union control system of fishery products imported from China and marketed in Europe. PMID:26038919

  9. Plant Virus Metagenomics: Advances in Virus Discovery.

    PubMed

    Roossinck, Marilyn J; Martin, Darren P; Roumagnac, Philippe

    2015-06-01

    In recent years plant viruses have been detected from many environments, including domestic and wild plants and interfaces between these systems-aquatic sources, feces of various animals, and insects. A variety of methods have been employed to study plant virus biodiversity, including enrichment for virus-like particles or virus-specific RNA or DNA, or the extraction of total nucleic acids, followed by next-generation deep sequencing and bioinformatic analyses. All of the methods have some shortcomings, but taken together these studies reveal our surprising lack of knowledge about plant viruses and point to the need for more comprehensive studies. In addition, many new viruses have been discovered, with most virus infections in wild plants appearing asymptomatic, suggesting that virus disease may be a byproduct of domestication. For plant pathologists these studies are providing useful tools to detect viruses, and perhaps to predict future problems that could threaten cultivated plants. PMID:26056847

  10. Dengue Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Greg Smith

    \\u000a Dengue Virus (DENV) diagnosis can be performed by isolation of DENV from blood or autopsy samples; demonstration of a four-fold\\u000a or greater rise in reciprocal IgG or IgM antibody titres to one or more DENV in paired serum samples (acute and convascent);\\u000a use of the newer rapid diagnostic test kit (also differentiates between primary and secondary dengue infections – these

  11. Virus Movement Maintains Local Virus Population Diversity

    SciTech Connect

    J. Snyder; B. Wiedenheft; M. Lavin; F. Roberto; J. Spuhler; A. Ortmann; T. Douglas; M. Young

    2007-11-01

    Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material.

  12. Viruses and Virus Diseases of Rubus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rubus species are propagated vegetatively and are subject to infection by viruses during development, propagation and fruit production stages. Reports of initial detection and symptoms of more than 30 viruses, virus-like diseases and phytoplasmas affecting Rubus spp. have been reviewed more than 20 ...

  13. Association of trace elements with lipid profiles and glycaemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus in northern Sardinia, Italy: An observational study.

    PubMed

    Peruzzu, Angela; Solinas, Giuliana; Asara, Yolande; Forte, Giovanni; Bocca, Beatrice; Tolu, Francesco; Malaguarnera, Lucia; Montella, Andrea; Madeddu, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    Sardinia is an Italian region with a high incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus. This study aimed to determine the associations of trace elements with lipid profiles and glycaemic control in patients with T1DM. A total of 192 patients with T1DM who attended the Unit of Diabetology and Metabolic Diseases in Sassari, Italy, were enrolled. Trace elements zinc, copper, selenium, chromium, and iron were measured in whole blood by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The correlations between metabolic variables and the levels of trace elements were determined. Zinc was positively correlated with total cholesterol (P=0.023), low-density lipoprotein (P=0.0015), and triglycerides (P=0.027). Iron as significantly correlated with TC (P=0.0189), LDL (P=0.0121), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (P=0.0466). In males, Cr was positively correlated with HDL (P=0.0079) and Se, in females was correlated with TG (P=0.0113). The mean fasting plasma glucose was166.2mgdL(-1). Chromium was correlated with fasting plasma glucose (P=0.0149), particularly in males (P=0.0038). Overall, 63.5% of the patients had moderate HbA1c (7-9%). Copper was significantly correlated with HbA1c% in males (P=0.0155). In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that trace elements show different associations with lipid levels and glycaemic control in T1DM. Zinc, Fe, and Se were associated with lipid levels whereas Cu and Cr were associated with HbA1c%. PMID:25828915

  14. The nature of measles virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Atherton; K. S. K. Lain

    1965-01-01

    Summary Observations of the effect of halogen derivatives of deoxyuridine, known to affect the synthesis of deoxyviruses (DNA-containing viruses) show that measles virus replication is unaffected. This suggests that measles virus is a ribovirus (RNA-containing virus).

  15. Molecular evolution of primate immunodeficiency viruses and hepatitis delta virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia Samuilovna Krushkal

    1996-01-01

    Primate immunodeficiency viruses, or lentiviruses (HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIV), and hepatitis delta virus (HDV) are RNA viruses characterized by rapid evolution. Infection by primate immunodeficiency viruses usually results in the development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans and AIDS-like illnesses in Asian macaques. Similarly, hepatitis delta virus infection causes hepatitis and liver cancer in humans. These viruses are heterogeneous

  16. Malondialdehyde–deoxyguanosine and bulky DNA adducts in schoolchildren resident in the proximity of the Sarroch industrial estate on Sardinia Island, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Peluso, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Air quality is a primary environmental concern in highly industrialised areas, with potential health effects in children residing nearby. The Sarroch industrial estate in Cagliari province, Sardinia Island, Italy, hosts the world’s largest power plant and the second largest European oil refinery and petrochemical park. This industrial estate produces a complex mixture of air pollutants, including benzene, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Thus, we conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the prevalence of malondialdehyde–deoxyguanosine adducts in the nasal epithelium of 75 representative children, aged 6–14 years, attending primary and secondary schools in Sarroch in comparison with 73 rural controls. Additionally, the levels of bulky DNA adducts were analysed in a subset of 62 study children. DNA damage was measured by 32P-postlabelling methodologies. The air concentrations of benzene and ethyl benzene were measured in the school gardens of Sarroch and a rural village by diffusive samplers. Outdoor measurements were also performed in other Sarroch areas and in the proximity of the industrial estate. The outdoor levels of benzene and ethyl benzene were significantly higher in the school gardens of Sarroch than in the rural village. Higher concentrations were also found in other Sarroch areas and in the vicinity of the industrial park. The mean levels of malondialdehyde–deoxyguanosine adducts per 108 normal nucleotides ± standard error (SE) were 74.6±9.1 and 34.1±4.4 in the children from Sarroch and the rural village, respectively. The mean ratio was 2.53, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.71–2.89, P < 0.001, versus rural controls. Similarly, the levels of bulky DNA adducts per 108 normal nucleotides ± SE were 2.9±0.4 and 1.6±0.2 in the schoolchildren from Sarroch and the rural village, respectively. The means ratio was 1.90, 95% CI: 1.25–2.89, P = 0.003 versus rural controls. Our study indicates that children residing near the industrial estate have a significant increment of DNA damage. PMID:23446175

  17. Malondialdehyde-deoxyguanosine and bulky DNA adducts in schoolchildren resident in the proximity of the Sarroch industrial estate on Sardinia Island, Italy.

    PubMed

    Peluso, Marco; Munnia, Armelle; Ceppi, Marcello; Giese, Roger W; Catelan, Dolores; Rusconi, Franca; Godschalk, Roger W L; Biggeri, Annibale

    2013-05-01

    Air quality is a primary environmental concern in highly industrialised areas, with potential health effects in children residing nearby. The Sarroch industrial estate in Cagliari province, Sardinia Island, Italy, hosts the world's largest power plant and the second largest European oil refinery and petrochemical park. This industrial estate produces a complex mixture of air pollutants, including benzene, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Thus, we conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the prevalence of malondialdehyde-deoxyguanosine adducts in the nasal epithelium of 75 representative children, aged 6-14 years, attending primary and secondary schools in Sarroch in comparison with 73 rural controls. Additionally, the levels of bulky DNA adducts were analysed in a subset of 62 study children. DNA damage was measured by (32)P-postlabelling methodologies. The air concentrations of benzene and ethyl benzene were measured in the school gardens of Sarroch and a rural village by diffusive samplers. Outdoor measurements were also performed in other Sarroch areas and in the proximity of the industrial estate. The outdoor levels of benzene and ethyl benzene were significantly higher in the school gardens of Sarroch than in the rural village. Higher concentrations were also found in other Sarroch areas and in the vicinity of the industrial park. The mean levels of malondialdehyde-deoxyguanosine adducts per 10(8) normal nucleotides ± standard error (SE) were 74.6±9.1 and 34.1±4.4 in the children from Sarroch and the rural village, respectively. The mean ratio was 2.53, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.71-2.89, P < 0.001, versus rural controls. Similarly, the levels of bulky DNA adducts per 10(8) normal nucleotides ± SE were 2.9±0.4 and 1.6±0.2 in the schoolchildren from Sarroch and the rural village, respectively. The means ratio was 1.90, 95% CI: 1.25-2.89, P = 0.003 versus rural controls. Our study indicates that children residing near the industrial estate have a significant increment of DNA damage. PMID:23446175

  18. Viruses and cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Rigby, P.W.J.; Wilkie, N.M.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 14 selections. Some of the titles are: Immortalising gene(s) encoded by Epstein-Barr Virus; Adenovirus genes involved in transformation. What determines the oncogenic phenotype.; Oncogenesis by mouse mammary tumour virus; and Transforming ras genes.

  19. BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an umbrella term for two species of viruses, BVDV1 and BVDV2, within the Pestivirus genus of the Flavivirus family. BVDV viruses are further subclassified as cytopathic and noncytopathic based on their activity in cultured epithelial cells. Noncytopathic BVDV p...

  20. Ecology of prokaryotic viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus G Weinbauer

    2004-01-01

    The finding that total viral abundance is higher than total prokaryotic abundance and that a significant fraction of the prokaryotic community is infected with phages in aquatic systems has stimulated research on the ecology of prokaryotic viruses and their role in ecosystems. This review treats the ecology of prokaryotic viruses (`phages') in marine, freshwater and soil systems from a `virus

  1. MAIZE FINE STREAK VIRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The report outlines the salient features of maize fine streak virus (MFSV) including a general description of the causal virus species, virion properties, genome description, the relationship of the virus to other taxa, biological properties of the disease and agronomic aspects of the disease. Maize...

  2. Chikungunya Virus, Cameroon, 2006

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christophe N. Peyrefi; Dominique Rousset; Boris A. M. Pastorino; Regis Pouillot; Maël Bessaud; Fabienne Tock; Helene Mansaray; Olivier L. Merle; Aurelie M. Pascual; Christophe Paupy; Aurelia Vessiere; Patrice Imbert; Jean-Paul Durand; Hugues J. Tolou; Marc Grandadam

    2007-01-01

    We report the isolation of chikungunya virus from a pa- tient during an outbreak of a denguelike syndrome in Cam- eroon in 2006. The virus was phylogenetically grouped in the Democratic Republic of the Congo cluster, indicating a continuous circulation of a genetically similar chikungunya virus population during 6 years in Central Africa.

  3. VIRUSES IN WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Viruses of animals, plants, and bacteria abound in sewage and receiving waters. Their ecological impact has, for the most part, gone unheeded except as it relates to viruses from human sources. Viruses present at levels infective to man have been recovered from waters used for re...

  4. Encephalitis Virus, Kyrgyzstan

    E-print Network

    Baker, Robert J.

    Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus, Kyrgyzstan Benjamin J. Briggs, Barry Atkinson, Donna M. Czechowski-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is an emerging pathogen in Europe and Asia. We investigated TBEV in Kyrgyzstan reported. Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae. The TBEV

  5. Prevalence and Transmission of Honeybee Viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. P. Chen; J. S. Pettis; A. Collins; M. F. Feldlaufer

    2006-01-01

    Transmission mechanisms of six honeybee viruses, including acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV), deformed wing virus (DWV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV), and sacbrood bee virus (SBV), in honey bee colonies were investigated by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) methods. The virus status of individual queens was evaluated by examining the presence of viruses

  6. Viruses of asparagus.

    PubMed

    Tomassoli, Laura; Tiberini, Antonio; Vetten, Heinrich-Josef

    2012-01-01

    The current knowledge on viruses infecting asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is reviewed. Over half a century, nine virus species belonging to the genera Ilarvirus, Cucumovirus, Nepovirus, Tobamovirus, Potexvirus, and Potyvirus have been found in this crop. The potyvirus Asparagus virus 1 (AV1) and the ilarvirus Asparagus virus 2 (AV2) are widespread and negatively affect the economic life of asparagus crops reducing yield and increasing the susceptibility to biotic and abiotic stress. The main properties and epidemiology of AV1 and AV2 as well as diagnostic techniques for their detection and identification are described. Minor viruses and control are briefly outlined. PMID:22682173

  7. Serodiagnosis for tumor viruses.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Brian J; Labo, Nazzarena; Miley, Wendell J; Whitby, Denise

    2015-04-01

    The known human tumor viruses include the DNA viruses Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV), Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), human papillomavirus (HPV), and hepatitis B virus (BV). RNA tumor viruses include human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). The serological identification of antigens/antibodies in serum is a rapidly progressing field with utility for both scientists and clinicians. Serology is useful for conducting seroepidemiology studies and to inform on the pathogenesis and host immune response to a particular viral agent. Clinically, serology is useful for diagnosing current or past infection and for aiding in clinical management decisions. Serology is useful for screening blood donations for infectious agents and for monitoring the outcome of vaccination against these viruses. Serodiagnosis of human tumor viruses has improved in recent years with increased specificity and sensitivity of the assays, as well as reductions in cost and the ability to assess multiple antibody/antigens in single assays. Serodiagnosis of tumor viruses plays an important role in our understanding of the prevalence and transmission of these viruses and ultimately in the ability to develop treatments/preventions for these globally important diseases. PMID:25843726

  8. Lipids of Archaeal Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Roine, Elina; Bamford, Dennis H.

    2012-01-01

    Archaeal viruses represent one of the least known territory of the viral universe and even less is known about their lipids. Based on the current knowledge, however, it seems that, as in other viruses, archaeal viral lipids are mostly incorporated into membranes that reside either as outer envelopes or membranes inside an icosahedral capsid. Mechanisms for the membrane acquisition seem to be similar to those of viruses infecting other host organisms. There are indications that also some proteins of archaeal viruses are lipid modified. Further studies on the characterization of lipids in archaeal viruses as well as on their role in virion assembly and infectivity require not only highly purified viral material but also, for example, constant evaluation of the adaptability of emerging technologies for their analysis. Biological membranes contain proteins and membranes of archaeal viruses are not an exception. Archaeal viruses as relatively simple systems can be used as excellent tools for studying the lipid protein interactions in archaeal membranes. PMID:23049284

  9. VIRUS AND VIRUS-LIKE DISEASES OF CITRUS IN EPIRUS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Barbarossa; G. Loconsole; C. Vovlas

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY In 2005 a survey was conducted in the main citrus- growing areas of Epirus. Commercial groves and nurs- eries were inspected for symptoms of virus and virus- like diseases and a total of 123 samples were collected. Molecular hybridisation was used to test for Citrus tris- teza virus (CTV), Citrus psorosis virus (CPsV), Citrus in- fectious variegation virus (CVV),

  10. Other Viruses and Viruslike Agents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diseases reported under 'Virus and Virus-like Agents' in the first volume of this compendium, with the exception of Cherry rasp leaf virus and Rubus chinese seed-borne virus, should be considered oddities since there are no known type isolates available for these reported viruses. Without a po...

  11. RNA Viruses Infecting Pest Insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    RNA viruses are viruses whose genetic material is ribonucleic acid (RNA). RNA viruses may be double or single-stranded based on the type of RNA they contain. Single-stranded RNA viruses can be further grouped into negative sense or positive-sense viruses according to the polarity of their RNA. Fur...

  12. Postmortem Stability of Ebola Virus

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Joseph; Bushmaker, Trenton; Fischer, Robert; Miazgowicz, Kerri; Judson, Seth

    2015-01-01

    The ongoing Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa has highlighted questions regarding stability of the virus and detection of RNA from corpses. We used Ebola virus–infected macaques to model humans who died of Ebola virus disease. Viable virus was isolated <7 days posteuthanasia; viral RNA was detectable for 10 weeks. PMID:25897646

  13. Tracing groundwater salinization processes in coastal aquifers: a hydrogeochemical and isotopic approach in the Na-Cl brackish waters of northwestern Sardinia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mongelli, G.; Monni, S.; Oggiano, G.; Paternoster, M.; Sinisi, R.

    2013-07-01

    Throughout the Mediterranean, salinization threatens water quality, especially in coastal areas. This salinization is the result of concomitant processes related to both seawater intrusion and water-rock interaction, which in some cases are virtually indistinguishable. In the Nurra region of northwestern Sardinia, recent salinization related to marine water intrusion has been caused by aquifer exploitation. However, the geology of this region records a long history from the Palaeozoic to the Quaternary, and is structurally complex and comprises a wide variety of lithologies, including Triassic evaporites. Determining the origin of the saline component of the Jurassic and Triassic aquifers in the Nurra region may provide a useful and more general model for salinization processes in the Mediterranean area, where the occurrence of evaporitic rocks in coastal aquifers is a common feature. In addition, due to intensive human activity and recent climatic change, the Nurra has become vulnerable to desertification and, in common with other Mediterranean islands, surface water resources periodically suffer from severe shortages. With this in mind, we report new data regarding brackish and surface waters (outcrop and lake samples) of the Na-Cl type from the Nurra region, including major ions and selected trace elements (B, Br, I, and Sr), in addition to isotopic data including ?18O, ?D in water, and ?34S and ?18O in dissolved SO4. To identify the origin of the salinity more precisely, we also analysed the mineralogical and isotopic composition of Triassic evaporites. The brackish waters have Cl contents of up to 2025 mg L-1 , and the ratios between dissolved ions and Cl, with the exception of the Br / Cl ratio, are not those expected on the basis of simple mixing between rainwater and seawater. The ?18O and ?D data indicate that most of the waters fall between the regional meteoric water line and the global meteoric water line, supporting the conclusion that they are meteoric in origin. A significant consequence of the meteoric origin of the Na-Cl-type water studied here is that the Br / Cl ratio, extensively used to assess the origin of salinity in fresh water, should be used with care in carbonate aquifers that are near the coast. Overall, ?34S and ?18O levels in dissolved SO4 suggest that water-rock interaction is responsible for the Na-Cl brackish composition of the water hosted by the Jurassic and Triassic aquifers of the Nurra, and this is consistent with the geology and lithological features of the study area. Evaporite dissolution may also explain the high Cl content, as halite was detected within the gypsum deposits. Finally, these Na-Cl brackish waters are undersaturated with respect to the more soluble salts, implying that in a climate evolving toward semi-arid conditions, the salinization process could intensify dramatically in the near future.

  14. Geochemical, petrographic and physical characterizations and associated alterations of the volcanic rocks of the Romanesque San Nicola Church (Ottana, central Sardinia, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Columbu, Stefano; Palomba, Marcella; Sitzia, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    In this research, the volcanic rocks belonging to the Sardinia Oligo-Miocene volcanic cycle (32 - 11 Ma) and building up the structure of the San Nicola church, one of the most representative churches of the Romanesque architecture, were studied. These stones were widely used in medieval architecture for the excellent workability, but they present some disadvantages, since they are greatly affected by alteration phenomena. The main objectives of this research are i) to focus the mineral, chemical and petrographic compositions of the San Nicola stones, ii) the chemical and physical alteration processes affecting these materials, and iii) to establish the exactly provenance of the volcanic rocks. Furthermore, a comparative study between the rocks from the ancient quarries and those forming the structure of the church was performed. In the ancient quarries, where presumably a more advanced alteration occurs due to the vertical alteration gradient, different facies of the same volcanic lithology, characterized by macroscopical evidences of chemical-physical degradation degree, were sampled. Petrographic, geochemical (both major elements that the traces) and physical-mechanical features of the collected samples were determined to highlight the compositional differences (density, porosity, water-absorption kinetics, mechanical resistance) as a function of the different alteration degree. Moreover, chemical-mineralogical analysis of the sample surfaces from the church, was performed, to highlight possible presence and nature of secondary newly-formed phases (e.g., salt efflorescence). Several methodologies were applied to carry out physical-chemical and petrographic analysis: X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) and Inductively Coupled Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), X-Ray Diffractometry (XRD) for chemical and mineral composition; Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) for textures, mineral assemblages and microstructures studies; He-picnometry, water-absorption and mechanical tests for physical properties. In the paper some significant result will be presented, to better illustrate the methodological approach and the results achieved in this field. The results indicate that the volcanics of church have a mainly dacitic composition and come from local quarries. The XRD and optical analyses mainly consisting of K-feldspars and plagioclases), show the presence of an important glass fraction (about 40% vol.), and newly-formed minerals occur in different amounts. The most important are: smectite-group minerals (mainly montmorillonite) up to 30 wt%, gypsum up to 10 wt%, illite up to 5 wt%. Celadonite, glauconite, K-Ca-Mg sulfates, are occasionally detectable and generally occur in traces. In some samples of the church, the chemical alteration on the surface is not manifest since operate slower than the physical degradation. This latter generally occurs as macroscopic forms of pitting, exfoliation and alveolation. The chemical analysis of the outcrop-samples show a mobilization increasing degree of alteration, with an consequent leaching for some elements. At the same time it shows a clear decrease in the mechanical strength, due to the increase of the total porosity and a decrease in the apparent density. These variations of the porosimetric characteristics (with total porosity between 20-50%) also determine an increase of the water absorption, with a potential increase in the interaction between the circulating-fluid and the rock. Keywords: Medieval monuments, Mineralogic-petrographic features, Physical properties, Chemical alteration, Physical decay

  15. Detailed petrophysical and geophysical characterization of core samples from the potential caprock-reservoir system in the Sulcis Coal Basin (South-Western Sardinia - Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fais, Silvana; Ligas, Paola; Cuccuru, Francesco; Maggio, Enrico; Plaisant, Alberto; Pettinau, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    The evaluation of the CO2 geologic storage site requires a robust experimental database especially with respect to spatial petrophysical heterogeneities. The integrated analysis of minero-petrographical, physical and geophysical parameters (e.g. longitudinal and transversal propagation velocity, VpVs ratio, dynamic elastic moduli, etc.) of the rocks that make up a caprock-reservoir system can substantially reduce the geologic uncertainity in the storage site characterization and in the geological and numerical modelling for the evaluation of the CO2 storage capacity. In this study the Middle Eocene - Lower Oligocene Cixerri Formation made up of siliciclastic rocks and the Upper Thanetian - Lower Ypresian Miliolitico Carbonate Complex in the Sulcis coal basin (South-Western Sardinia - Italy) have been identified respectively as potential caprock and reservoir for the CO2 storage. The petrographical, physical and geophysical parameters of the above mentioned geological Formations (Cixerri and Milolitico) were investigated to improve the geological model aimed at verifying the geological CO2 storage capacity within the carbonate reservoir rocks, in order to guarantee an efficient use of the reservoir, and to improve the numerical simulation of CO2 behaviour in the short, medium and long term after its injection in single or multiple wells. . The petrographical characteristics of the caprock-reservoir rocks were determined by optical and SEM analyses of core samples representing the different facies of the Cixerri Formation and of the Miliolitico Carbonate Complex, provided by Carbosulcis S.p.A.. Porosity analysis was completed by mercury porosimeter determinations which also provided quantitative information on the permeability of the study rocks and on the tortuosity of their pore system. Further physical properties, such as dry and saturated density and porosity, and water absorption were determined on the cylindrical core samples of intact rocks (ISRM, 1979) from wells drilled in the northern part of the Sulcis Coal Basin (Nuraxi Figus area). The propagation velocity of longitudinal (Vp) and transversal (Vs) waves was also determined on the same samples by a portable ultrasonic non-destructive digital indicating tester (P.U.N.D.I.T. plus) (ISRM, 1978). Starting from the P and S wave velocity, the dynamic elastic moduli (Young modulus, bulk modulus and Poisson's ratio) were determined using the well-known relationship involving the longitudinal (Vp) and shear wave (Vs) velocity and the rock bulk density. The elastic properties (Vp, Vs, elastic moduli) have been correlated with physical properties such as porosity and bulk density. The analysis of the above mentioned relations reveals that the geological formations that make up the caprock-reservoir system are affected by a high spatial heterogeneity in their petrophysical properties and then in their intrinsic characteristics. The petrophysical and geophysical parameter analysis also allowed to identify different lithologic types for the caprock (e.g. litharenites, siltites) and the reservoir (e.g. limestones, dolomitic limestones, calcareous dolomites). These data enhanced the interpretation of the surface reflection seismic data on the same area helping in distinguishing separate features. Acknowledgments: We thank Carbosulcis S.p.A. for providing us the core samples and the reflection seismic data used for this study.

  16. Emergence of West Nile Virus Lineage 2 in Europe: A Review on the Introduction and Spread of a Mosquito-Borne Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Triana, Luis M.; Jeffries, Claire L.; Mansfield, Karen L.; Carnell, George; Fooks, Anthony R.; Johnson, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is transmitted by mosquitoes and causes fever and encephalitis in humans, equines, and occasionally wild birds. The virus was first isolated in sub-Saharan Africa where it is endemic. WNV lineage 1 has been responsible for repeated disease outbreaks in the countries of the Mediterranean basin over the past 50?years. This lineage was also introduced into North America in 1999 causing widespread human, equine, and avian mortality. WNV lineage 2, the first WNV lineage to be isolated, was believed to be restricted to sub-Saharan Africa causing a relatively mild fever in humans. However, in 2004, an investigation in Hungary of a case of encephalitis in a wild goshawk (Accipiter gentiles) resulted in the isolation of WNV lineage 2. During the summer of 2004, and in subsequent years, the virus appeared to spread locally throughout Hungary and into neighboring Austria. Subsequently, WNV lineage 2 emerged in Greece in 2010 and in Italy in 2011, involving outbreaks on the Italian mainland and Sardinia. Further spread through the Balkan countries is also suspected. Whole genome sequencing has confirmed that the virus responsible for the outbreaks in Greece and Italy was almost identical to that isolated in Hungary. However, unlike the outbreaks in Hungary, the burden of disease in Mediterranean countries has fallen upon the human population with numerous cases of West Nile fever and a relatively higher mortality rate than in previous outbreaks. The emergence of WNV lineage 2 in Europe, its over-wintering and subsequent spread over large distances illustrates the repeated threat of emerging mosquito-borne diseases. This article will review the emergence of WNV lineage 2 in Europe; consider the pathways for virus spread and the public health implications for the continent. PMID:25538937

  17. Viruses in Antarctic lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kepner, R. L. Jr; Wharton, R. A. Jr; Suttle, C. A.; Wharton RA, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Water samples collected from four perennially ice-covered Antarctic lakes during the austral summer of 1996-1997 contained high densities of extracellular viruses. Many of these viruses were found to be morphologically similar to double-stranded DNA viruses that are known to infect algae and protozoa. These constitute the first observations of viruses in perennially ice-covered polar lakes. The abundance of planktonic viruses and data suggesting substantial production potential (relative to bacteria] secondary and photosynthetic primary production) indicate that viral lysis may be a major factor in the regulation of microbial populations in these extreme environments. Furthermore, we suggest that Antarctic lakes may be a reservoir of previously undescribed viruses that possess novel biological and biochemical characteristics.

  18. Cell transformation by viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph L. Melnick; Janet S. Butel; Satvir S. Tevethia; Nilambar Biswal; Matilda Benyesh-Melnick

    1971-01-01

    Summary  This paper describes some current work pertaining to transformation of cells by oncogenic viruses.\\u000a \\u000a Part I includes: (1) the effect of a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) tumor virus (SV40) on the antigenic characteristics of transformed\\u000a cells; (2) in vitro and in vivo methods of detecting virus-specific surface antigens; (3) the role that the host cell may\\u000a play in the expression of

  19. Virus entry paradigms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manjula Kalia; Shahid Jameel

    Viruses, despite being relatively simple in structure and composition, have evolved to exploit complex cellular processes\\u000a for their replication in the host cell. After binding to their specific receptor on the cell surface, viruses (or viral genomes)\\u000a have to enter cells to initiate a productive infection. Though the entry processes of many enveloped viruses is well understood,\\u000a that of most

  20. Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus 

    E-print Network

    Morgan, Gaylon

    2005-01-26

    . Infected wheat plants normally are stunted, with leaves mottled and streaked in green-yellow, parallel and discontinuous patterns (Fig. 1). This disease?s negative impact varies from year to year depending on its severity and distribution...; in the Southern Great Plains states, crop losses due to WSMV exceed $30 million in some years but are in- significant in others. High Plains Virus High Plains Virus (HPV), occasionally called High Plains Disease, is a relatively new virus identified...

  1. Water system virus detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, A. S.; Wells, A. F.; Tenoso, H. J.

    1975-01-01

    A monitoring system developed to test the capability of a water recovery system to reject the passage of viruses into the recovered water is described. A nonpathogenic marker virus, bacteriophage F2, is fed into the process stream before the recovery unit and the reclaimed water is assayed for its presence. Detection of the marker virus consists of two major components, concentration and isolation of the marker virus, and detection of the marker virus. The concentration system involves adsorption of virus to cellulose acetate filters in the presence of trivalent cations and low pH with subsequent desorption of the virus using volumes of high pH buffer. The detection of the virus is performed by a passive immune agglutination test utilizing specially prepared polystyrene particles. An engineering preliminary design was performed as a parallel effort to the laboratory development of the marker virus test system. Engineering schematics and drawings of a fully functional laboratory prototype capable of zero-G operation are presented. The instrument consists of reagent pump/metering system, reagent storage containers, a filter concentrator, an incubation/detector system, and an electronic readout and control system.

  2. CDC: West Nile Virus

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Web site contains the most recent West Nile virus data from the Centers for Disease Control. The main features include a 2003 Human Case Count and updated maps representing the spread of the virus. A downloadable document outlines the CDC's West Nile virus surveillance and control program, which involves weekly data collection for wild birds, sentinel chicken flocks, human cases, veterinary cases, and mosquito surveillance. The site also provides links to general information about the virus, from the ecology and virology of West Nile to epidemiological and laboratory issues.

  3. Newcastle disease virus (velogens)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is also known as avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 (APMV-1). While all NDV are referred to as APMV-1 and are of one serotype, only infections with virulent NDV (vNDV) cause Newcastle disease (ND). Newcastle disease virus strains are defined as virulent if they 1) have th...

  4. Lettuce Necrotic Yellows Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. L. Stubbs; R. G. GROGAN

    1963-01-01

    A DESTRUCTIVE virus disease of lettuce, causing extensive crop losses sometimes as high as 100 per cent, was recognized in Victoria in 1954 as being distinct from the lettuce mosaic disease. Until 1959, however, all attempts to transmit the virus to lettuce with aphids which commonly infest lettuce, with thrips, leaf-hoppers and sap inoculation methods were unsuccessful. In that year

  5. Papaya ringspot virus (Potyviridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya ringspot virus, a member of the family Potyviridae, is single stranded RNA plant virus with a monocistronic genome of about 10,326 nucleotides that is expressed via a large polyprotein subsequently cleaved into functional proteins. It causes severe damage on cucurbit crops such as squash and...

  6. Papaya Ringspot Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The term papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) was coined by Jensen in 1949, to describe a papaya disease in Hawaii. Later work showed that diseases such as papaya mosaic and watermelon mosaic virus-1 were caused by PRSV. The primary host range of PRSV is papaya and cucurbits, with Chenopium amaranticolor ...

  7. Human Papilloma Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Wright, V. Cecil

    1989-01-01

    Genital warts are believed to be caused by human papilloma viruses and to be sexually transmitted. The viruses are classified by DNA types, which appear to cause different types of disease. The choice of treatment, and usually its success rate, vary according to the type of disease and its location. PMID:21248973

  8. DETECTING VIRUSES IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article, which reviews the subject of detecting viruses in water, encompasses two topics. he first topic consists of methods used for concentrating viruses from large volumes of water into smaller, more manageable volumes. he second topic consists of assay methods used for e...

  9. Towards synthetic viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guy Zuber; Emmanuel Dauty; Marc Nothisen; Pascale Belguise; Jean-Paul Behr

    2001-01-01

    Gene delivery is too complex to be performed with a single carrier molecule. Synthetic multicomponent vectors are being designed that mimic key properties of viruses. Some solutions, such as diverting cell-anchoring molecules or the endogenous nuclear import machinery from their normal function, are directly copied from bacteria and viruses. Some other solutions are original ones: monomolecular genome condensation via detergent

  10. Biological versus computer viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel GUINIER

    1989-01-01

    To understand biological viruses, some notions of the fundamental knowledge of the structure of DNA, the genetic code, the biosynthesis of proteins, the transcription, replication and transfer processes,... are presented so as to give an idea as to how the genetic information is decrypted by biological mechanisms and consequently, how viruses work.A computer \\

  11. Virus separation using membranes.

    PubMed

    Grein, Tanja A; Michalsky, Ronald; Czermak, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Industrial manufacturing of cell culture-derived viruses or virus-like particles for gene therapy or vaccine production are complex multistep processes. In addition to the bioreactor, such processes require a multitude of downstream unit operations for product separation, concentration, or purification. Similarly, before a biopharmaceutical product can enter the market, removal or inactivation of potential viral contamination has to be demonstrated. Given the complexity of biological solutions and the high standards on composition and purity of biopharmaceuticals, downstream processing is the bottleneck in many biotechnological production trains. Membrane-based filtration can be an economically attractive and efficient technology for virus separation. Viral clearance, for instance, of up to seven orders of magnitude has been reported for state of the art polymeric membranes under best conditions.This chapter summarizes the fundamentals of virus ultrafiltration, diafiltration, or purification with adsorptive membranes. In lieu of an impractical universally applicable protocol for virus filtration, application of these principles is demonstrated with two examples. The chapter provides detailed methods for production, concentration, purification, and removal of a rod-shaped baculovirus (Autographa californica M nucleopolyhedrovirus, about 40 × 300 nm in size, a potential vector for gene therapy, and an industrially important protein expression system) or a spherical parvovirus (minute virus of mice, 22-26 nm in size, a model virus for virus clearance validation studies). PMID:24297430

  12. Equine Arteritis Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    03. Nidovirales : 03.004. Arteriviridae : 03.004.0. {03.004.0. unknown} : 03.004.0.01. Arterivirus : 03.004.0.01.001. Equine arteritis virus will be published online. The article details the phenotypic and genotypic makeup of equine arteritis virus (EAV), and summarizes its biological properties....

  13. Rift Valley Fever Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-transmitted virus or arbovirus that is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. In the last decade, Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks have resulted in loss of human and animal life, as well as had significant economic impact. The disease in livestock is primarily a...

  14. Cutthroat Trout Virus

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Electron micrograph of the cutthroat trout virus (CTV) showing the small, round virions of approximately 30 nanometers in diameter containing a single-stranded RNA genome. CTV, whose genome was first characterized by USGS researchers, is being used in research into the human virus Hepatitis E....

  15. Characterization and identification of two virus diseases of spinach in South Texas 

    E-print Network

    Adams, Edward Blair

    1979-01-01

    mosaic virus Beet western yellows virus Beet yellows virus Broad bean wilt virus Carnation ring spot virus Clover yellow mosaic virus Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus Cucumber mosaic virus Lettuce mosaic virus Radish mosaic virus Raspberry...

  16. Replication of Sendai Virus

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Carol D.; Robinson, William S.

    1970-01-01

    Chick embryo fibroblast cultures infected with Sendai virus were incubated with 3H-uridine in the presence of actinomycin D beginning at 18 hr after infection. The 35 and 18S virus-specific ribonucleic acid (RNA) components were found in a ribonuclease-sensitive form in the cell and appeared to be associated with polyribosomes. Newly synthesized 57S viral RNA was rapidly coated with protein to form intracellular viral nucleocapsid, and no 57S RNA was found “free” (ribonucleasesensitive) in the 2,000 × g supernatant fraction of disrupted cells. The nucleocapsid from detergent-disrupted Sendai virus and that from disrupted cells were indistinguishable in ultrastructure and buoyant density, and neither was found to be infectious or have hemagglutinating activity. Kinetic studies of nucleocapsid and virus formation indicated a relative block in conversion of viral nucleocapsid to complete enveloped virus in these cells, resulting in accumulation of large amounts of nucleocapsid in the cell cytoplasm. Images PMID:4315961

  17. Is The Virus Problem Getting Worse?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Hruska

    2001-01-01

    The number of known viruses exceeded 50?000 in August 2000. The vast majority of those (74%) are parasitic viruses (attacking executables), second most populous are macro viruses (19%) and 7% are boot sector viruses. In May 2000, 88% of infections reported to Sophos were due to macro viruses, 9% were parasitic viruses and only 3% were boot sector viruses. Note

  18. Understanding virus filtration membrane performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ranil Wickramasinghe; Emily D. Stump; David L. Grzenia; Scott M. Husson; John Pellegrino

    2010-01-01

    Virus filtration membranes are used to obtain virus clearance during the purification of biopharmaceutical products. These direct flow (also referred to as dead end or normal flow) filtration membranes are designed to reject virus particles and yield >98% product recovery for proteins less than 170kDa. Virus filtration feed streams generally have high purity and high product concentrations. Decrease in permeate

  19. Realms of the Viruses Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    Viruses have evolved strategies for infecting all taxa, but most viruses are highly specific about their cellular host. In humans, viruses cause diverse diseases, from chronic but benign warts, to acute and deadly hemorrhagic fever. Viruses have entertaining names like Zucchini Yellow Mosaic, Semliki Forest, Coxsackie, and the original terminator,…

  20. Virus-PEDOT Biocomposite Films

    PubMed Central

    Donavan, Keith C.; Arter, Jessica A.

    2012-01-01

    Virus-poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (virus-PEDOT) biocomposite films are prepared by electropolymerizing 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) in aqueous electrolytes containing 12 mM LiClO4 and the bacteriophage M13. The concentration of virus in these solutions, [virus]soln, is varied from 3 nM to 15 nM. A quartz crystal microbalance is used to directly measure the total mass of the biocomposite film during its electrodeposition. In combination with a measurement of the electrodeposition charge, the mass of the virus incorporated into the film is calculated. These data show that concentration of the M13 within the electropolymerized film, [virus]film, increases linearly with [virus]soln. The incorporation of virus particles into the PEDOT film from solution is efficient, resulting in a concentration ratio: [virus]film:[virus]soln ?450. Virus incorporation into the PEDOT causes roughening of the film topography that is observed using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The electrical conductivity of the virus-PEDOT film, measured perpendicular to the plane of the film using conductive tip AFM, decreases linearly with virus loading, from 270 ?S/cm for pure PE-DOT films to 50 ?S/cm for films containing 100 ?M virus. The presence on the virus surface of displayed affinity peptides did not significantly influence the efficiency of incorporation into virus-PEDOT biocomposite films. PMID:22856875

  1. Viruses isolated from Panamanian sloths.

    PubMed

    Seymour, C; Peralta, P H; Montgomery, G G

    1983-11-01

    Seven virus strains were isolated in Vero cells from whole blood samples from 80 wild-caught sloths, Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni, from Central Panamá. Four strains of at least two different serotypes are related to Changuinola virus; two of these were associated with prolonged or recrudescent viremias. One strain is an antigenic subtype of Punta Toro virus, and another, described here as Bradypus-4 virus, is a new, antigenically ungrouped virus. A second new virus from sloths, Utive virus, forms an antigenic complex within the Simbu serogroup with Utinga and Pintupo viruses. Tests on sequential plasma samples from radio-marked free-ranging sloths and from recently captured animals maintained in captivity showed that both species develop neutralizing antibodies following naturally acquired virus infections. Antibodies against the Changuinola and Simbu serogroup viruses are widespread in both sloth species and are especially prevalent in Choloepus, but are virtually absent in all other wild vertebrate species tested. PMID:6316795

  2. Towards synthetic viruses.

    PubMed

    Zuber, G; Dauty, E; Nothisen, M; Belguise, P; Behr, J P

    2001-11-19

    Gene delivery is too complex to be performed with a single carrier molecule. Synthetic multicomponent vectors are being designed that mimic key properties of viruses. Some solutions, such as diverting cell-anchoring molecules or the endogenous nuclear import machinery from their normal function, are directly copied from bacteria and viruses. Some other solutions are original ones: monomolecular genome condensation via detergent dimerization or endosome disruption by the proton sponge effect are not exploited by natural cell invaders. All these components, however, still have to be assembled into a unique supramolecular system, an 'artificial virus'. PMID:11718949

  3. [Grapevine viruses in Tunisia].

    PubMed

    Acheche, H; Fattouch, S; M'Hirsi, S; Marzouki, N; Marrakchi, M

    1998-01-01

    Tunisian grapevine culture is affected by many viruses caused by some phytovirus belonging to nepovirus, closterovirus and trichovirus groups. The present work deal with the economically important viroses identified in tunisian grapevines. We present here the development methods to detect these viruses in propagating material. The important viruses biologically, biochemically, serologically and using molecular techniques, characterised are: GFLV, GLRaV3 and GVB. The genetic polymorphism analysis was also carried and tunisian isolates were compared to previously described ones in literature. PMID:14666749

  4. Rapid Detection and Quantification of RNA of Ebola and Marburg Viruses, Lassa Virus, Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Rift Valley Fever Virus, Dengue Virus, and Yellow Fever Virus by Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Drosten; Stephan Göttig; Stefan Schilling; Marcel Asper; Marcus Panning; Herbert Schmitz; Stephan Günther

    2002-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are acute infections with high case fatality rates. Important VHF agents are Ebola and Marburg viruses (MBGV\\/EBOV), Lassa virus (LASV), Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), dengue virus (DENV), and yellow fever virus (YFV). VHFs are clinically difficult to diagnose and to distinguish; a rapid and reliable laboratory diagnosis is required in

  5. Virus Chapter: Iflaviridae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The iflaviruses comprise viruses isolated from arthropod species of agricultural importance. All members of iflaviruses have a genome arrangement similar to the picornaviruses, ootyviruses, and secoviruses. However, phylogenetic analysis using the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase region showed that th...

  6. What's West Nile Virus?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... discovered all the way back in 1937 in Africa, the West Nile virus probably didn't make ... Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart.com

  7. The dengue viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Henchal, E A; Putnak, J R

    1990-01-01

    Dengue, a major public health problem throughout subtropical and tropical regions, is an acute infectious disease characterized by biphasic fever, headache, pain in various parts of the body, prostration, rash, lymphadenopathy, and leukopenia. In more severe or complicated dengue, patients present with a severe febrile illness characterized by abnormalities of hemostasis and increased vascular permeability, which in some instances results in a hypovolemic shock. Four distinct serotypes of the dengue virus (dengue-1, dengue-2, dengue-3, and dengue-4) exist, with numerous virus strains found worldwide. Molecular cloning methods have led to a greater understanding of the structure of the RNA genome and definition of virus-specific structural and nonstructural proteins. Progress towards producing safe, effective dengue virus vaccines, a goal for over 45 years, has been made. Images PMID:2224837

  8. Avoiding Computer Viruses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Joyce; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The threat of computer sabotage is a real concern to business teachers and others responsible for academic computer facilities. Teachers can minimize the possibility. Eight suggestions for avoiding computer viruses are given. (JOW)

  9. Sexually transmitted viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Rapp, F.

    1989-01-01

    Human viruses known to be spread by sexual contact include herpes simplex viruses (HSV), papillomaviruses (HPV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus, and cytomegalovirus. Infections with the first three (HSV, HPV, and HIV) have reached epidemic proportions and pose global health concerns. Most of what we know about these human pathogens has been learned only recently, owing to the advent of DNA technologies and advances in culture techniques. In fact, our awareness of one virally transmitted venereal disease, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, dates to the early 1980s. This paper touches on various aspects of the biology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and, where applicable, oncogenicity of these agents, as well as current treatments and vaccine initiatives. PMID:2549736

  10. VIRUS instrument enclosures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prochaska, T.; Allen, R.; Mondrik, N.; Rheault, J. P.; Sauseda, M.; Boster, E.; James, M.; Rodriguez-Patino, M.; Torres, G.; Ham, J.; Cook, E.; Baker, D.; DePoy, Darren L.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Hill, G. J.; Perry, D.; Savage, R. D.; Good, J. M.; Vattiat, Brian L.

    2014-08-01

    The Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument will be installed at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope† in the near future. The instrument will be housed in two enclosures that are mounted adjacent to the telescope, via the VIRUS Support Structure (VSS). We have designed the enclosures to support and protect the instrument, to enable servicing of the instrument, and to cool the instrument appropriately while not adversely affecting the dome environment. The system uses simple HVAC air handling techniques in conjunction with thermoelectric and standard glycol heat exchangers to provide efficient heat removal. The enclosures also provide power and data transfer to and from each VIRUS unit, liquid nitrogen cooling to the detectors, and environmental monitoring of the instrument and dome environments. In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication of the VIRUS enclosures and their subsystems.

  11. Powassan (POW) Virus Basics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... attachment time needed to transmit the virus. When spending time in wooded or brushy habitat in north ... and woods, and doing thorough tick checks after spending time in the woods. These precautions are most ...

  12. West Nile Virus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & Jobs Drugs & Alcohol Staying Safe Recipes En Espańol ... Image West Nile Virus KidsHealth > Teens > Infections > Bacterial & ...

  13. Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus

    E-print Network

    Morgan, Gaylon

    2005-01-26

    Virus First discovered in Nebraska in 1922, wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) remains a threat today across most of the U.S. Central Plains. WSMV affects spring wheat, barley, corn, triticale, rye and numerous other annual and perennial grasses... have tre- mendous reproductive capability, enabling large populations to build. The mite is most active during warm weather, with temperatures of 75-80 degrees F optimum for reproduction. Mites require a living grass host to survive the summer; sum...

  14. Dengue Virus Diagnostics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evgeni Eltzov; Danit Atias; Levi Gheber; Robert S. Marks

    \\u000a Dengue fever (DF) is an emerging arborviral disease caused by infection with dengue virus (DENV) which has emerged as the\\u000a most important vector-borne viral disease in tropical areas and it continues to expand geographically. The four serotypes\\u000a of DENV that cause human disease are transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Expansion in geographic distribution of both viruses\\u000a and mosquito vectors, has led

  15. Origins of Viruses

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ed Rybicki

    This page is part of a site created as a supplement for an introduction to virology course for second year microbiology students. It includes discussions on the origins of viruses as well as how they might have evolved. There are several links to pertinent conceptial matter such as basics on the different types of viruses as well as a link to the course home page.

  16. Hepatitis B virus infection.

    PubMed

    Trépo, Christian; Chan, Henry L Y; Lok, Anna

    2014-12-01

    Hepatitis B virus infection is a major public health problem worldwide; roughly 30% of the world's population show serological evidence of current or past infection. Hepatitis B virus is a partly double-stranded DNA virus with several serological markers: HBsAg and anti-HBs, HBeAg and anti-HBe, and anti-HBc IgM and IgG. It is transmitted through contact with infected blood and semen. A safe and effective vaccine has been available since 1981, and, although variable, the implementation of universal vaccination in infants has resulted in a sharp decline in prevalence. Hepatitis B virus is not cytopathic; both liver damage and viral control--and therefore clinical outcome--depend on the complex interplay between virus replication and host immune response. Overall, as much as 40% of men and 15% of women with perinatally acquired hepatitis B virus infection will die of liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. In addition to decreasing hepatic inflammation, long-term antiviral treatment can reverse cirrhosis and reduce hepatocellular carcinoma. Development of new therapies that can improve HBsAg clearance and virological cure is warranted. PMID:24954675

  17. Tick-borne viruses*

    PubMed Central

    Work, Telford H.

    1963-01-01

    More than 150 arthropod-borne viruses are now recognized, and over 50 of these are known to produce human infections and disease. Among these viruses are those of the tick-borne Russian spring-summer complex, which is etiologically involved in a wide variety of human diseases of varying severity. The eight antigenically different members of this complex so far known are Russian spring-summer encephalitis, louping-ill, Central European encephalitis, Omsk haemorrhagic fever, Kyasanur Forest disease, Langat, Negishi and Powassan viruses. In his review of the problems posed by these viruses and of research on them, the author points out that, while this complex is distributed around the globe in the temperate zone of the northern hemisphere, the only serious tick-borne virus disease known in the tropics is Kyasanur Forest disease. It is probable, however, that there are other, unrecognized tick-borne viruses in the tropical areas of Asia, Africa and America of importance to human health, and that these will be brought to light as virological studies of diseases of now obscure etiology are pursued. PMID:14043753

  18. Multiple virus infections in the honey bee and genome divergence of honey bee viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanping Chen; Yan Zhao; John Hammond; Hei-ti Hsu; Jay Evans; Mark Feldlaufer

    2004-01-01

    Using uniplex RT-PCR we screened honey bee colonies for the presence of several bee viruses, including black queen cell virus (BQCV), deformed wing virus (DWV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV), and sacbrood virus (SBV), and described the detection of mixed virus infections in bees from these colonies. We report for the first time that individual bees can harbor four viruses simultaneously.

  19. Immunology of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelina Nascimbeni; Barbara Rehermann

    2005-01-01

    More than 500 million people worldwide are persistently infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and\\/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) and are at risk of developing chronic liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite many common features in the pathogenesis of HBV- and HCV-related liver disease, these viruses markedly differ in their virological properties and in their immune escape and

  20. Glycyrrhizic acid inhibits virus growth and inactivates virus particles.

    PubMed

    Pompei, R; Flore, O; Marccialis, M A; Pani, A; Loddo, B

    1979-10-25

    Screening investigations in antiviral action of plant extracts have revealed that a component of Glycyrrhiza glabra roots, found to be glycyrrhizie acid, is active against viruses. We report here that this drug inhibits growth and cytopathology of several unrelated DNA and RNA viruses, while not affecting cell activity and ability to replicate. In addition, glycyrrhizic acid inactivates herpes simplex virus particles irreversibly. PMID:233133

  1. Chicken anemia virus.

    PubMed

    Schat, K A

    2009-01-01

    Chicken anemia virus (CAV), the only member of the genus Gyrovirus of the Circoviridae, is a ubiquitous pathogen of chickens and has a worldwide distribution. CAV shares some similarities with Torque teno virus (TTV) and Torque teno mini virus (TTMV) such as coding for a protein inducing apoptosis and a protein with a dual-specificity phosphatase. In contrast to TTV, the genome of CAV is highly conserved. Another important difference is that CAV can be isolated in cell culture. CAV produces a single polycistronic messenger RNA (mRNA), which is translated into three proteins. The promoter-enhancer region has four direct repeats resembling estrogen response elements. Transcription is enhanced by estrogen and repressed by at least two other transcription factors, one of which is COUP-TF1. A remarkable feature of CAV is that the virus can remain latent in gonadal tissues in the presence or absence of virus-neutralizing antibodies. In contrast to TTV, CAV can cause clinical disease and subclinical immunosuppression especially affecting CD8+ T lymphocytes. Clinical disease is associated with infection in newly hatched chicks lacking maternal antibodies or older chickens with a compromised humoral immune response. PMID:19230563

  2. Research on computer virus database management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Guoquan

    2011-12-01

    The growing proliferation of computer viruses becomes the lethal threat and research focus of the security of network information. While new virus is emerging, the number of viruses is growing, virus classification increasing complex. Virus naming because of agencies' capture time differences can not be unified. Although each agency has its own virus database, the communication between each other lacks, or virus information is incomplete, or a small number of sample information. This paper introduces the current construction status of the virus database at home and abroad, analyzes how to standardize and complete description of virus characteristics, and then gives the information integrity, storage security and manageable computer virus database design scheme.

  3. Mosquitoborne Viruses, Czech Republic, 2002

    PubMed Central

    Zeman, Petr; Halouzka, Ji?í; Ju?icová, Zina; Š?oví?ková, Eva; Bálková, Helena; Šikutová, Silvie; Rudolf, Ivo

    2005-01-01

    Specimens from residents (n = 497) of an area affected by the 2002 flood were examined serologically for mosquitoborne viruses. Antibodies were detected against Tahyna (16%), Sindbis (1%), and Batai (0.2%) viruses, but not West Nile virus. An examination of paired serum samples showed 1 Tahyna bunyavirus (California group) infection. PMID:15705333

  4. CAN CRYPTOGRAPHY PREVENT COMPUTER VIRUSES?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John F Morar; David M Chess

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between cryptography and virus prevention is anything but simple. Since the beginning of the computer virus problem, people have proposed solutions involving some form of cryptography; but cryptography plays only a minor role in the solutions we actually use today. Encryption can also make virus prevention more difficult, by providing viral hiding places inside the objects that it

  5. An introduction to computer viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.R.

    1992-03-01

    This report on computer viruses is based upon a thesis written for the Master of Science degree in Computer Science from the University of Tennessee in December 1989 by David R. Brown. This thesis is entitled An Analysis of Computer Virus Construction, Proliferation, and Control and is available through the University of Tennessee Library. This paper contains an overview of the computer virus arena that can help the reader to evaluate the threat that computer viruses pose. The extent of this threat can only be determined by evaluating many different factors. These factors include the relative ease with which a computer virus can be written, the motivation involved in writing a computer virus, the damage and overhead incurred by infected systems, and the legal implications of computer viruses, among others. Based upon the research, the development of a computer virus seems to require more persistence than technical expertise. This is a frightening proclamation to the computing community. The education of computer professionals to the dangers that viruses pose to the welfare of the computing industry as a whole is stressed as a means of inhibiting the current proliferation of computer virus programs. Recommendations are made to assist computer users in preventing infection by computer viruses. These recommendations support solid general computer security practices as a means of combating computer viruses.

  6. Viruses and viral proteins

    PubMed Central

    Verdaguer, Nuria; Ferrero, Diego; Murthy, Mathur R. N.

    2014-01-01

    For more than 30 years X-ray crystallography has been by far the most powerful approach for determining the structures of viruses and viral proteins at atomic resolution. The information provided by these structures, which covers many important aspects of the viral life cycle such as cell-receptor recognition, viral entry, nucleic acid transfer and genome replication, has extensively enriched our vision of the virus world. Many of the structures available correspond to potential targets for antiviral drugs against important human pathogens. This article provides an overview of the current knowledge of different structural aspects of the above-mentioned processes. PMID:25485129

  7. Soilborne viruses: advances in virus movement, virus induced gene silencing, and engineered resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeanmarie Verchot-Lubicz

    2003-01-01

    Until recently soilborne plant viruses were considered important only because they are causative agents for agricultural diseases. In recent years, soilborne plant viruses have played a significant role in advancing research into mechanisms of plasmodesmata transport, gene silencing, and engineered resistance to plant pathogens. Three different mechanisms by which viruses move through plasmodesmata have been identified using dianthoviruses, nepoviruses, and

  8. Bat flight and zoonotic viruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, Thomas; Cryan, Paul M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hayman, David T.S.; Luis, Angela D.; Peel, Alison J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Wood, James L.N.

    2014-01-01

    Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host–virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts.

  9. Toscana Virus in Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara Sanbonmatsu-Gámez; Mercedes Pérez-Ruiz; Ximena Collao; María Paz Sánchez-Seco; Francisco Morillas-Márquez; Manuel de la Rosa-Fraile; José María Navarro-Marí; Antonio Tenorio

    2005-01-01

    Toscana virus (TOSV, Phlebovirus, family Bunya- viridae) infection is one of the most prevalent arboviruses in Spain. Within the objectives of a multidisciplinary network, a study on the epidemiology of TOSV was conducted in Granada, in southern Spain. The overall seroprevalence rate was 24.9%, significantly increasing with age. TOSV was detected in 3 of 103 sandfly pools by viral culture

  10. From Shakespeare to Viruses

    ScienceCinema

    Sung-Hou Kim

    2010-01-08

    Berkeley Lab scientists have created a unique new tool for analyzing and comparing long sets of data, be it the genomes of mammals or viruses, or the works of Shakespeare. The results of the Shakespeare analysis surprised scholars with their accuracy

  11. Virus Chapter: Dicistrovidae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dicistroviridae family comprises viruses infecting both beneficial arthropods such as honey bees and shrimp and insect pests of medical and agricultural importance. During the last five years, advances in sequencing and phylogenetic analysis have led to the discovery and identification of sever...

  12. Cache Valley virus.

    PubMed

    Edwards, J F

    1994-11-01

    Cache Valley Virus (CVV) is a causative agent of a mosquito-borne disease syndrome of sheep and, possibly, of all ruminants, characterized by embryonic and fetal death, stillbirths, and multiple congenital malformations. CVV is endemic in Canada, Mexico, and the United States. Several related Bunyaviruses also may play a role in syndromes of congenital malformations and embryonic losses in North America. PMID:7728634

  13. Human Viruses and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Sánchez, Abigail; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M.

    2014-01-01

    The first human tumor virus was discovered in the middle of the last century by Anthony Epstein, Bert Achong and Yvonne Barr in African pediatric patients with Burkitt’s lymphoma. To date, seven viruses -EBV, KSHV, high-risk HPV, MCPV, HBV, HCV and HTLV1- have been consistently linked to different types of human cancer, and infections are estimated to account for up to 20% of all cancer cases worldwide. Viral oncogenic mechanisms generally include: generation of genomic instability, increase in the rate of cell proliferation, resistance to apoptosis, alterations in DNA repair mechanisms and cell polarity changes, which often coexist with evasion mechanisms of the antiviral immune response. Viral agents also indirectly contribute to the development of cancer mainly through immunosuppression or chronic inflammation, but also through chronic antigenic stimulation. There is also evidence that viruses can modulate the malignant properties of an established tumor. In the present work, causation criteria for viruses and cancer will be described, as well as the viral agents that comply with these criteria in human tumors, their epidemiological and biological characteristics, the molecular mechanisms by which they induce cellular transformation and their associated cancers. PMID:25341666

  14. Viruses and autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Kudchodkar, Sagar B.; Levine, Beth

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved intracellular process by which bulk cytoplasm is enveloped inside a double-membraned vesicle and shuttled to lysosomes for degradation. Within the last 15 years, the genes necessary for the execution of autophagy have been identified and the number of tools for studying this process has grown. Autophagy is essential for tissue homeostasis and development and defective autophagy is associated with a number of diseases. As intracellular parasites, during the course of an infection, viruses encounter autophagy and interact with the proteins that execute this process. Autophagy and/or autophagy genes likely play both anti-viral and proviral roles in the life cycles and pathogenesis of many different virus families. With respect to anti-viral roles, the autophagy proteins function in targeting viral components or virions for lysosomal degradation in a process termed xenophagy, and they also play a role in the initiation of innate and adaptive immune system responses to viral infections. Consistent with this anti-viral role of host autophagy, some viruses encode virulence factors that interact with the host autophagy machinery and block the execution of autophagy. In contrast, other viruses appear to utilise components of the autophagic machinery to foster their own intracellular growth or non-lytic cellular egress. As the details of the role(s) of autophagy in viral pathogenesis become clearer, new anti-viral therapies could be developed to inhibit the beneficial and enhance the destructive aspects of autophagy on the viral life cycle. PMID:19750559

  15. VIRUS PERSISTENCE IN GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether measurable chemical and physical factors correlate with virus survival in groundwater. Groundwater samples were obtained from 11 sites throughout the United States. Water temperature was measured at the time of collection. Several...

  16. Molecular epidemiology of respiratory viruses in virus-induced asthma

    PubMed Central

    Ishioka, Taisei; Noda, Masahiro; Kozawa, Kunihisa; Kimura, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    Acute respiratory illness (ARI) due to various viruses is not only the most common cause of upper respiratory infection in humans but is also a major cause of morbidity and mortality, leading to diseases such as bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Previous studies have shown that respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human rhinovirus (HRV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), human parainfluenza virus (HPIV), and human enterovirus infections may be associated with virus-induced asthma. For example, it has been suggested that HRV infection is detected in the acute exacerbation of asthma and infection is prolonged. Thus it is believed that the main etiological cause of asthma is ARI viruses. Furthermore, the number of asthma patients in most industrial countries has greatly increased, resulting in a morbidity rate of around 10-15% of the population. However, the relationships between viral infections, host immune response, and host factors in the pathophysiology of asthma remain unclear. To gain a better understanding of the epidemiology of virus-induced asthma, it is important to assess both the characteristics of the viruses and the host defense mechanisms. Molecular epidemiology enables us to understand the pathogenesis of microorganisms by identifying specific pathways, molecules, and genes that influence the risk of developing a disease. However, the epidemiology of various respiratory viruses associated with virus-induced asthma is not fully understood. Therefore, in this article, we review molecular epidemiological studies of RSV, HRV, HPIV, and HMPV infection associated with virus-induced asthma. PMID:24062735

  17. Polyadenylic acid in Visna virus RNA.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, D; Takemoto, K; Robert, M; Gallo, R C

    1973-03-30

    Visna virus 70S RNA contains long stretches of polyadenylic acid [poly(A)]. The homogeneity in length of poly(4) regions is observed in 70S RNA from visna virus and all RNA tumor viruses tested, and not with other types of RNA. By this criterion visna virus resembles RNA tumor viruses. PMID:4631425

  18. GB virus-C infection in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans L Tillmann; Michael P Manns

    2001-01-01

    Hepatitis virus infections are frequent in patients suffering from HIV infection due to similar transmission routes of these viruses. In addition, hepatitis virus infections lead to impaired survival in HIV positive patients. The recently discovered flavivirus GB virus C (alias Hepatitis G Virus) was initially believed to be another hepatitis virus. While there is still some minor discussion whether GB

  19. Heparan Sulfate-Mediated Binding of Infectious Dengue Virus Type 2 and Yellow Fever Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raphaële Germi; Jean-Marc Crance; Daniel Garin; Josette Guimet; Hugues Lortat-Jacob; Rob W. H. Ruigrok; Jean-Pierre Zarski; Emmanuel Drouet

    2002-01-01

    Dengue virus type 2 and Yellow fever virus are arthropod-borne flaviviruses causing hemorrhagic fever in humans. Identification of virus receptors is important in understanding flavivirus pathogenesis. The aim of this work was to study the role of cellular heparan sulfate in the adsorption of infectious Yellow fever and Dengue type 2 viruses. Virus attachment was assessed by adsorbing virus to

  20. Detection of sweet potato viruses in Yunnan and genetic diversity analysis of the common viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two hundred seventy-nine samples with virus-like symptoms collected from 16 regions in Yunnan Province were tested by RT-PCR/PCR using virus-specific primers for 8 sweet potato viruses. Six viruses, Sweet potato chlorotic fleck virus (SPCFV), Sweet Potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), Sweet potato ...

  1. Virus diseases of Solanum laciniatum Ait. in New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. D. Thomson

    1976-01-01

    Cucumber mosaic virus, potato virus Y, potato virus X, tobacco mosaic virus, and tomato spotted wilt virus were identified in Solatium laciniatum Ait. Cucumber mosaic virus induced the most severe symptoms, including mottle and narrowing of the leaf lamina. Infection of crops with cucumber mosaic virus varied from 0–70% (mean of seven crops 25%), and potato virus Y from 0–48%

  2. PREVALENCE AND TRANSMISSION ROUTES OF HONEY BEE VIRUSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transmission mechanisms of six viruses including acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV), deformed wing virus (DWV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV), and sacbrood bee virus (SBV) in honey bee colonies were investigated by RT-PCR methods. The virus...

  3. Phage Displayed Peptides to Avian H5N1 Virus Distinguished the Virus from Other Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Chengfeng; Ren, Xiaofeng

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to identify potential ligands and develop a novel diagnostic test to highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (HPAI), subtype H5N1 viruses using phage display technology. The H5N1 viruses were used as an immobilized target in a biopanning process using a 12-mer phage display random peptide library. After five rounds of panning, three phages expressing peptides HAWDPIPARDPF, AAWHLIVALAPN or ATSHLHVRLPSK had a specific binding activity to H5N1 viruses were isolated. Putative binding motifs to H5N1 viruses were identified by DNA sequencing. In terms of the minimum quantity of viruses, the phage-based ELISA was better than antiserum-based ELISA and a manual, semi-quantitative endpoint RT-PCR for detecting H5N1 viruses. More importantly, the selected phages bearing the specific peptides to H5N1 viruses were capable of differentiating this virus from other avian viruses in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. PMID:21887228

  4. Frequently Asked Questions on Ebola Virus Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Response Network Biorisk Reduction Frequently asked questions on Ebola virus disease May 2015 FAQs from August 2014 ... based on recent evidence. For more information on Ebola virus disease Fact sheet on Ebola virus disease ...

  5. Virus-encoded superantigens.

    PubMed Central

    Huber, B T; Hsu, P N; Sutkowski, N

    1996-01-01

    Superantigens are microbial agents that have a strong effect on the immune response of the host. Their initial target is the T lymphocyte, but a whole cascade of immunological reactions ensues. It is thought that the microbe engages the immune system of the host to its own advantage, to facilitate persistent infection and/or transmission. In this review, we discuss in detail the structure and function of the superantigen encoded by the murine mammary tumor virus, a B-type retrovirus which is the causative agent of mammary carcinoma. We will also outline what has more recently become known about superantigen activity associated with two human herpesviruses, cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus. It is likely that we have only uncovered the tip of the iceberg in our discovery of microbial superantigens, and we predict a flood of new information on this topic shortly. PMID:8840782

  6. Mechanisms of Virus Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlmutter, Jason D.; Hagan, Michael F.

    2015-04-01

    Viruses are nanoscale entities containing a nucleic acid genome encased in a protein shell called a capsid and in some cases are surrounded by a lipid bilayer membrane. This review summarizes the physics that govern the processes by which capsids assemble within their host cells and in vitro. We describe the thermodynamics and kinetics for the assembly of protein subunits into icosahedral capsid shells and how these are modified in cases in which the capsid assembles around a nucleic acid or on a lipid bilayer. We present experimental and theoretical techniques used to characterize capsid assembly, and we highlight aspects of virus assembly that are likely to receive significant attention in the near future.

  7. Canine respiratory viruses.

    PubMed

    Buonavoglia, Canio; Martella, Vito

    2007-01-01

    Acute contagious respiratory disease (kennel cough) is commonly described in dogs worldwide. The disease appears to be multifactorial and a number of viral and bacterial pathogens have been reported as potential aetiological agents, including canine parainfluenza virus, canine adenovirus and Bordetella bronchiseptica, as well as mycoplasmas, Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus, canine herpesvirus and reovirus-1,-2 and -3. Enhancement of pathogenicity by multiple infections can result in more severe clinical forms. In addition, acute respiratory diseases associated with infection by influenza A virus, and group I and II coronaviruses, have been described recently in dogs. Host species shifts and tropism changes are likely responsible for the onset of these new pathogens. The importance of the viral agents in the kennel cough complex is discussed. PMID:17296161

  8. The encephalomyocarditis virus

    PubMed Central

    Carocci, Margot; Bakkali-Kassimi, Labib

    2012-01-01

    The encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) is a small non-enveloped single-strand RNA virus, the causative agent of not only myocarditis and encephalitis, but also neurological diseases, reproductive disorders and diabetes in many mammalian species. EMCV pathogenesis appears to be viral strain- and host-specific, and a better understanding of EMCV virulence factors is increasingly required. Indeed, EMCV is often used as a model for diabetes and viral myocarditis, and is also widely used in immunology as a double-stranded RNA stimulus in the study of Toll-like as well as cytosolic receptors. However, EMCV virulence and properties have often been neglected. Moreover, EMCV is able to infect humans albeit with a low morbidity. Progress on xenografts, such as pig heart transplantation in humans, has raised safety concerns that need to be explored. In this review we will highlight the biology of EMCV and all known and potential virulence factors. PMID:22722247

  9. Measles Virus Receptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Yanagi; M. Takeda; S. Ohno; T. Hashiguchi

    Measles virus (MV) has two envelope glycoproteins, the hemagglutinin (H) and fusion protein, which are responsible for attachment\\u000a and membrane fusion, respectively. Signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM, also called CD150), a membrane glycoprotein\\u000a expressed on immune cells, acts as the principal cellular receptor for MV, accounting for its lymphotropism and immunosuppressive\\u000a nature. MV also infects polarized epithelial cells via an

  10. Chikungunya Virus Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabrice Simon; Emilie Javelle; Manuela Oliver; Isabelle Leparc-Goffart; Catherine Marimoutou

    2011-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus transmitted by mosquitoes, mostly Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. After half a century of focal outbreaks of acute febrile polyarthralgia in Africa and Asia, the disease unexpectedly spread\\u000a in the past decade with large outbreaks in Africa and around the Indian Ocean and rare autochthonous transmission in temperate\\u000a areas. This emergence brought new insights

  11. Molecular studies of avian leukosis virus 

    E-print Network

    Mozisek, Blayne Myron

    2007-04-25

    leukosis virus (ALV), Rous sarcoma virus (RSV), mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV), and murine leukemia virus (MLV). These viruses were the subject of intense study due to their propensity to form neoplastic disease in their host organisms. Investigations... into the mechanisms by which these viruses were able to cause tumors eventually led to the discovery and development of the oncogene theory of tumorigenesis: the elucidation of oncogenes within their viral genomes or their interaction with host oncogenes following...

  12. Nuclear entry of DNA viruses

    PubMed Central

    Fay, Nikta; Panté, Nelly

    2015-01-01

    DNA viruses undertake their replication within the cell nucleus, and therefore they must first deliver their genome into the nucleus of their host cells. Thus, trafficking across the nuclear envelope is at the basis of DNA virus infections. Nuclear transport of molecules with diameters up to 39 nm is a tightly regulated process that occurs through the nuclear pore complex (NPC). Due to the enormous diversity of virus size and structure, each virus has developed its own strategy for entering the nucleus of their host cells, with no two strategies alike. For example, baculoviruses target their DNA-containing capsid to the NPC and subsequently enter the nucleus intact, while the hepatitis B virus capsid crosses the NPC but disassembles at the nuclear side of the NPC. For other viruses such as herpes simplex virus and adenovirus, although both dock at the NPC, they have each developed a distinct mechanism for the subsequent delivery of their genome into the nucleus. Remarkably, other DNA viruses, such as parvoviruses and human papillomaviruses, access the nucleus through an NPC-independent mechanism. This review discusses our current understanding of the mechanisms used by DNA viruses to deliver their genome into the nucleus, and further presents the experimental evidence for such mechanisms.

  13. Nuclear entry of DNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Fay, Nikta; Panté, Nelly

    2015-01-01

    DNA viruses undertake their replication within the cell nucleus, and therefore they must first deliver their genome into the nucleus of their host cells. Thus, trafficking across the nuclear envelope is at the basis of DNA virus infections. Nuclear transport of molecules with diameters up to 39 nm is a tightly regulated process that occurs through the nuclear pore complex (NPC). Due to the enormous diversity of virus size and structure, each virus has developed its own strategy for entering the nucleus of their host cells, with no two strategies alike. For example, baculoviruses target their DNA-containing capsid to the NPC and subsequently enter the nucleus intact, while the hepatitis B virus capsid crosses the NPC but disassembles at the nuclear side of the NPC. For other viruses such as herpes simplex virus and adenovirus, although both dock at the NPC, they have each developed a distinct mechanism for the subsequent delivery of their genome into the nucleus. Remarkably, other DNA viruses, such as parvoviruses and human papillomaviruses, access the nucleus through an NPC-independent mechanism. This review discusses our current understanding of the mechanisms used by DNA viruses to deliver their genome into the nucleus, and further presents the experimental evidence for such mechanisms. PMID:26029198

  14. Limits in virus filtration capability? Impact of virus quality and spike level on virus removal with xenotropic murine leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Roush, David J; Myrold, Adam; Burnham, Michael S; And, Joseph V; Hughes, Joseph V

    2015-01-01

    Virus filtration (VF) is a key step in an overall viral clearance process since it has been demonstrated to effectively clear a wide range of mammalian viruses with a log reduction value (LRV)?>?4. The potential to achieve higher LRV from virus retentive filters has historically been examined using bacteriophage surrogates, which commonly demonstrated a potential of?>?9 LRV when using high titer spikes (e.g. 10(10) PFU/mL). However, as the filter loading increases, one typically experiences significant decreases in performance and LRV. The 9 LRV value is markedly higher than the current expected range of 4-5 LRV when utilizing mammalian retroviruses on virus removal filters (Miesegaes et al., Dev Biol (Basel) 2010;133:3-101). Recent values have been reported in the literature (Stuckey et al., Biotech Progr 2014;30:79-85) of LRV in excess of 6 for PPV and XMuLV although this result appears to be atypical. LRV for VF with therapeutic proteins could be limited by several factors including process limits (flux decay, load matrix), virus spike level and the analytical methods used for virus detection (i.e. the Limits of Quantitation), as well as the virus spike quality. Research was conducted using the Xenotropic-Murine Leukemia Virus (XMuLV) for its direct relevance to the most commonly cited document, the International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) Q5A (International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use, Geneva, Switzerland, 1999) for viral safety evaluations. A unique aspect of this work is the independent evaluation of the impact of retrovirus quality and virus spike level on VF performance and LRV. The VF studies used XMuLV preparations purified by either ultracentrifugation (Ultra 1) or by chromatographic processes that yielded a more highly purified virus stock (Ultra 2). Two monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) with markedly different filtration characteristics and with similar levels of aggregate (<1.5%) were evaluated with the Ultra 1 and Ultra 2 virus preparations utilizing the Planova 20 N, a small virus removal filter. Impurities in the virus preparation ultimately limited filter loading as measured by determining the volumetric loading condition where 75% flux decay is observed versus initial conditions (V75). This observation occurred with both Mabs with the difference in virus purity more pronounced when very high spike levels were used (>5 vol/vol %). Significant differences were seen for the process performance over a number of lots of the less-pure Ultra 1 virus preparations. Experiments utilizing a developmental lot of the chromatographic purified XMuLV (Ultra 2 Development lot) that had elevated levels of host cell residuals (vs. the final Ultra 2 preparations) suggest that these contaminant residuals can impact virus filter fouling, even if the virus prep is essentially monodisperse. Process studies utilizing an Ultra 2 virus with substantially less host cell residuals and highly monodispersed virus particles demonstrated superior performance and an LRV in excess of 7.7 log10 . A model was constructed demonstrating the linear dependence of filtration flux versus filter loading which can be used to predict the V75 for a range of virus spike levels conditions using this highly purified virus. Fine tuning the virus spike level with this model can ultimately maximize the LRV for the virus filter step, essentially adding the LRV equivalent of another process step (i.e. protein A or CEX chromatography). PMID:25395156

  15. Computer virus information update CIAC-2301

    SciTech Connect

    Orvis, W.J.

    1994-01-15

    While CIAC periodically issues bulletins about specific computer viruses, these bulletins do not cover all the computer viruses that affect desktop computers. The purpose of this document is to identify most of the known viruses for the MS-DOS and Macintosh platforms and give an overview of the effects of each virus. The authors also include information on some windows, Atari, and Amiga viruses. This document is revised periodically as new virus information becomes available. This document replaces all earlier versions of the CIAC Computer virus Information Update. The date on the front cover indicates date on which the information in this document was extracted from CIAC`s Virus database.

  16. Tomato chlorosis virus and Tomato infectious chlorosis virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation will help consultants, growers, and other practitioners in the Southern and Western Regions of the US, as well as Mexico and the Caribbean identify and manage Tomato infectious chlorosis virus (TICV) and Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV) in tomato. Information will directly benefit cr...

  17. Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus: an ideal persistent virus?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter G. W. Plagemann; Raymond R. R. Rowland; Chen Even; Kay S. Faaberg

    1995-01-01

    LDV contradicts all commonly held views about mechanisms of virus persistence, namely that persistence is primarily associated with noncytopathic viruses, or the selection of immune escape variants or other mutants, or a decrease in expression of certain viral proteins by infected cells, or replication in “immune-privileged sites”, or a general suppression of the host immune system, etc. [1, 2, 5,

  18. Bovine virus diarrhoea virus - strategic decisions for diagnosis and control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joe Brownlie; Ian Thompson; Andrew Curwen

    2000-01-01

    IN the 15 years since the last In Practice article on bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) (Brownlie 1985), there has been an explosion in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of viral replication and mutation, especially those related to biotypic variation. Hand in hand has come a greater understanding of the importance of BVDV as a primary pathogen of cattle,

  19. Group 2 Vaccinia Virus, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Assis, Felipe Lopes; Borges, Iara Apolinario; Ferreira, Paulo César Peregrino; Bonjardim, Cláudio Antônio; Trindade, Giliane de Souza; Lobato, Zélia Inęs Portela; Guedes, Maria Isabel Maldonado; Mesquita, Vaz; Kroon, Erna Geessien

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, vaccinia virus caused an outbreak of bovine vaccinia, affecting dairy cattle and dairy workers in Brazil. Genetic and phenotypic analyses identified this isolate as distinct from others recently identified, thereby reinforcing the hypothesis that different vaccinia virus strains co-circulate in Brazil. PMID:23171598

  20. INTERACTIONS OF VIRUS AND HOST

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an ubiquitous pathogen of ruminants, found worldwide that is often associated with severe economic losses. Understanding these viruses, particularly at the cellular and molecular levels, is important to develop new vaccination and treatment strategies for produc...

  1. West Nile Virus and Wildlife

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter P. Marra; Sean Griffing; Carolee Caffrey; A. Marm Kilpatrick; Robert McLean; Christopher Brand; Emi Saito; Alan P. Dupuis; Laura Kramer; Robert Novak

    2004-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) has spread rapidly across North America, resulting in human deaths and in the deaths of untold numbers of birds, mammals, and reptiles. The virus has reached Central America and the Caribbean and may spread to Hawaii and South America. Although tens of thousands of birds have died, and studies of some bird species show local declines,

  2. Hepatitis C Virus and Cardiomyopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akira Matsumori

    2000-01-01

    The importance of hepatitis C virus infection has been recently noted in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or dilated cardiomyopathy. In a collaborative research project of the Committees for the Study of Idiopathic Cardiomyopathy, hepatitis C virus antibody was found in 74 of 697 patients (10.65) with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and in 42 of 663 patients (6.3%) with dilated cardiomyopathy; these prevalences

  3. Human viruses: discovery and emergence

    PubMed Central

    Woolhouse, Mark; Scott, Fiona; Hudson, Zoe; Howey, Richard; Chase-Topping, Margo

    2012-01-01

    There are 219 virus species that are known to be able to infect humans. The first of these to be discovered was yellow fever virus in 1901, and three to four new species are still being found every year. Extrapolation of the discovery curve suggests that there is still a substantial pool of undiscovered human virus species, although an apparent slow-down in the rate of discovery of species from different families may indicate bounds to the potential range of diversity. More than two-thirds of human viruses can also infect non-human hosts, mainly mammals, and sometimes birds. Many specialist human viruses also have mammalian or avian origins. Indeed, a substantial proportion of mammalian viruses may be capable of crossing the species barrier into humans, although only around half of these are capable of being transmitted by humans and around half again of transmitting well enough to cause major outbreaks. A few possible predictors of species jumps can be identified, including the use of phylogenetically conserved cell receptors. It seems almost inevitable that new human viruses will continue to emerge, mainly from other mammals and birds, for the foreseeable future. For this reason, an effective global surveillance system for novel viruses is needed. PMID:22966141

  4. TOTAL CULTURABLE VIRUS QUANTAL ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter describes a quantal method for assaying culturable human enteric viruses from water matrices. The assay differs from the plaque assay described in Chapter 10 (December 1987 Revision) in that it is based upon the direct microscopic viewing of cells for virus-induced ...

  5. Swine Influenza Virus: Emerging Understandings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: In March-April 2009, a novel pandemic H1N1 emerged in the human population in North America [1]. The gene constellation of the emerging virus was demonstrated to be a combination of genes from swine influenza A viruses (SIV) of North American and Eurasian lineages that had never before...

  6. Dynamic models for computer viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jose R. C. Piqueira; Adolfo A. De Vasconcelos; Carlos E. C. J. Gabriel; Vanessa O. Araujo

    2008-01-01

    Computer viruses are an important risk to computational systems endangering either corporations of all sizes or personal computers used for domestic applications. Here, classical epidemiological models for disease propagation are adapted to computer networks and, by using simple systems identification techniques a model called SAIC (Susceptible, Antidotal, Infectious, Contaminated) is developed. Real data about computer viruses are used to validate

  7. Computer viruses: a quantitative analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Coulthard; T. A. Vuori

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides interesting insights for anti-virus research, as it reflects a period of rapid uptake in the application of the Internet and the use of e-mail for business purposes. The purpose of the research is to provide independent justification of the growing prevalence of computer virus incidents over the past five years, and identify patterns in the frequency and

  8. Mathematical models on computer viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bimal Kumar Mishra; Dinesh Saini

    2007-01-01

    An attempt has been made to develop mathematical models on computer viruses infecting the system under different conditions. Mathematical model 1 discusses the situation to find the probability that at any time t how many software components are infected by virus, assuming the recovery rate and proportion of un-infected population receiving infection per unit time does not change with time.

  9. Computer Viruses as Artificial Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eugene H. Spafford

    1994-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in computer viruses since they first appeared in 1981, and especially in the past few years as they have reached epidemic numbers in many per- sonal computer environments. Viruses have been written about as a security problem, as a social problem, and as a possible means of performing useful tasks in a distributed computing environment.

  10. Oropouche Virus Isolation, Southeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Lívia Carício; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Chiang, Jannifer Oliveira; Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro da Silva; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P.A.; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2005-01-01

    An Oropouche virus strain was isolated from a novel host (Callithrix sp.) in Arinos, Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. The virus was identified by complement fixation test and confirmed by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenetic analysis identified this strain as a genotype III isolate previously recognized only in Panama. PMID:16318707

  11. Defining Life: The Virus Viewpoint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forterre, Patrick

    2010-04-01

    Are viruses alive? Until very recently, answering this question was often negative and viruses were not considered in discussions on the origin and definition of life. This situation is rapidly changing, following several discoveries that have modified our vision of viruses. It has been recognized that viruses have played (and still play) a major innovative role in the evolution of cellular organisms. New definitions of viruses have been proposed and their position in the universal tree of life is actively discussed. Viruses are no more confused with their virions, but can be viewed as complex living entities that transform the infected cell into a novel organism—the virus—producing virions. I suggest here to define life (an historical process) as the mode of existence of ribosome encoding organisms (cells) and capsid encoding organisms (viruses) and their ancestors. I propose to define an organism as an ensemble of integrated organs (molecular or cellular) producing individuals evolving through natural selection. The origin of life on our planet would correspond to the establishment of the first organism corresponding to this definition.

  12. Pathogenic pseudorabies virus, China, 2012.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiuling; Zhou, Zhi; Hu, Dongmei; Zhang, Qian; Han, Tao; Li, Xiaoxia; Gu, Xiaoxue; Yuan, Lin; Zhang, Shuo; Wang, Baoyue; Qu, Ping; Liu, Jinhua; Zhai, Xinyan; Tian, Kegong

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, an unprecedented large-scale outbreak of disease in pigs in China caused great economic losses to the swine industry. Isolates from pseudorabies virus epidemics in swine herds were characterized. Evidence confirmed that the pathogenic pseudorabies virus was the etiologic agent of this epidemic. PMID:24377462

  13. Pathogenic Pseudorabies Virus, China, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiuling; Zhou, Zhi; Hu, Dongmei; Zhang, Qian; Han, Tao; Li, Xiaoxia; Gu, Xiaoxue; Yuan, Lin; Zhang, Shuo; Wang, Baoyue; Qu, Ping; Liu, Jinhua; Zhai, Xinyan

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, an unprecedented large-scale outbreak of disease in pigs in China caused great economic losses to the swine industry. Isolates from pseudorabies virus epidemics in swine herds were characterized. Evidence confirmed that the pathogenic pseudorabies virus was the etiologic agent of this epidemic. PMID:24377462

  14. How Viruses Enter Animal Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alicia E. Smith; Ari Helenius

    2004-01-01

    Viruses replicate within living cells and use the cellular machinery for the synthesis of their genome and other components. To gain access, they have evolved a variety of elegant mechanisms to deliver their genes and accessory proteins into the host cell. Many animal viruses take advantage of endocytic pathways and rely on the cell to guide them through a complex

  15. Marine Viruses: Truth or Dare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitbart, Mya

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two decades, marine virology has progressed from a curiosity to an intensely studied topic of critical importance to oceanography. At concentrations of approximately 10 million viruses per milliliter of surface seawater, viruses are the most abundant biological entities in the oceans. The majority of these viruses are phages (viruses that infect bacteria). Through lysing their bacterial hosts, marine phages control bacterial abundance, affect community composition, and impact global biogeochemical cycles. In addition, phages influence their hosts through selection for resistance, horizontal gene transfer, and manipulation of bacterial metabolism. Recent work has also demonstrated that marine phages are extremely diverse and can carry a variety of auxiliary metabolic genes encoding critical ecological functions. This review is structured as a scientific "truth or dare," revealing several well-established "truths" about marine viruses and presenting a few "dares" for the research community to undertake in future studies.

  16. Vaccinia virus in postvaccinal encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Gurvich, E B; Vilesova, I S

    1983-03-01

    Results of virological examination of 239 samples taken from 84 children with neurological complications after smallpox vaccination are described. In postvaccinal encephalitis, vaccinia virus was isolated from blood, cerebrospinal fluid and pharyngeal secretions of 23 out of 40 children (57.5%) as well as from autopsy specimens sampled between 10-35 days after vaccination. During the acute period of disease, virus was detected in 17 out of 31 (54.2%) cerebrospinal fluid specimens. In 3 postvaccinal encephalitis cases the virus was present in brain and in a case of encephalomyelitis--in the spinal cord. These results confirmed the participation of vaccinia virus in the pathogenesis of postvaccinal encephalitis. The pathogenicity of vaccinia virus may be manifested only under a changed reactivity of the vaccinated host. PMID:6135334

  17. Co-infections with Chikungunya Virus and Dengue Virus in Delhi, India

    PubMed Central

    Chahar, Harendra S.; Bharaj, Preeti; Dar, Lalit; Guleria, Randeep; Kabra, Sushil K.

    2009-01-01

    Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are common vectors for dengue virus and chikungunya virus. In areas where both viruses cocirculate, they can be transmitted together. During a dengue outbreak in Delhi in 2006, 17 of 69 serum samples were positive for chikungunya virus by reverse transcription–PCR; 6 samples were positive for both viruses. PMID:19624923

  18. Genome Sequence of Bivens Arm Virus, a Tibrovirus Belonging to the Species Tibrogargan virus (Mononegavirales: Rhabdoviridae)

    PubMed Central

    Hensley, Lisa E.

    2015-01-01

    The new rhabdoviral genus Tibrovirus currently has two members, Coastal Plains virus and Tibrogargan virus. Here, we report the coding-complete genome sequence of a putative member of this genus, Bivens Arm virus. A genomic comparison reveals Bivens Arm virus to be closely related to, but distinct from, Tibrogargan virus. PMID:25792044

  19. IInoculate your computer with Symantec AntiVirus, for free! Welchia virus? Blaster

    E-print Network

    IInoculate your computer with Symantec AntiVirus, for free! Welchia virus? Blaster virus? PC all students, faculty and staff can get a free copy. Computer viruses on campus are no laughing matter. Last Symantec AntiVirus managed version from the "Computing Essentials 2004" CD or download it from http

  20. Infectious vaccinia virus recombinants that express hepatitis B virus surface antigen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Geoffrey L.; Mackett, Michael; Moss, Bernard

    1983-04-01

    Potential live vaccines against hepatitis B virus have been produced. The coding sequence for hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) has been inserted into the vaccinia virus genome under control of vaccinia virus early promoters. Cells infected with these vaccinia virus recombinants synthesize and excrete HBsAg and vaccinated rabbits rapidly produce antibodies to HBsAg.

  1. A single vertebrate DNA virus protein disarms invertebrate immunity to RNA virus infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virus-host interactions drive a remarkable diversity of immune responses and countermeasures. While investigating virus-invertebrate host interactions we found that two RNA viruses with broad host ranges, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and Sindbis virus (SINV), were unable to infect certain Lepido...

  2. Immunogenicity of combination DNA vaccines for Rift Valley fever virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, Hantaan virus, and Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristin Spik; Amy Shurtleff; Anita K. McElroy; Mary C. Guttieri; Jay W. Hooper; Connie Schmaljohn

    2006-01-01

    DNA vaccines for Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), and Hantaan virus (HTNV), were tested in mice alone or in various combinations. The bunyavirus vaccines (RVFV, CCHFV, and HTNV) expressed Gn and Gc genes, and the flavivirus vaccine (TBEV) expressed the preM and E genes. All vaccines were delivered by gene

  3. Biologically Inspired Defenses Against Computer Viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey O. Kephart; Gregory B. Sorkin; William C. Arnold; David M. Chess; Gerald Tesauro; Steve R. White

    1995-01-01

    Today's anti-virus technology, based largely on analysis of existing viruses by human experts, is just barely able to keep pace with the more than three new computer viruses that are writ­ ten daily. In a few years, intelligent agents nav­ igating through highly connected networks are likely to form an extremely fertile medium for a new breed of viruses. At

  4. Modeling Computer Viruses MSc Thesis (Afstudeerscriptie)

    E-print Network

    Amsterdam, University of

    Modeling Computer Viruses MSc Thesis (Afstudeerscriptie) written by Luite Menno Pieter van Zelst About half a year ago, Alban Ponse, my thesis supervisor, suggested that the topic of `computer viruses indus- try and the creators of computer viruses. After all, the anti-virus industry stands to lose a lot

  5. Hepatitis E Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Harry R.; Abravanel, Florence; Izopet, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a worldwide disease. An improved understanding of the natural history of HEV infection has been achieved within the last decade. Several reservoirs and transmission modes have been identified. Hepatitis E is an underdiagnosed disease, in part due to the use of serological assays with low sensitivity. However, diagnostic tools, including nucleic acid-based tests, have been improved. The epidemiology and clinical features of hepatitis E differ between developing and developed countries. HEV infection is usually an acute self-limiting disease, but in developed countries it causes chronic infection with rapidly progressive cirrhosis in organ transplant recipients, patients with hematological malignancy requiring chemotherapy, and individuals with HIV. HEV also causes extrahepatic manifestations, including a number of neurological syndromes and renal injury. Acute infection usually requires no treatment, but chronic infection should be treated by reducing immunosuppression in transplant patients and/or the use of antiviral therapy. In this comprehensive review, we summarize the current knowledge about the virus itself, as well as the epidemiology, diagnostics, natural history, and management of HEV infection in developing and developed countries. PMID:24396139

  6. Virus interactions with human signal transduction pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhongming; Xia, Junfeng; Tastan, Oznur; Singh, Irtisha; Kshirsagar, Meghana; Carbonell, Jaime; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Viruses depend on their hosts at every stage of their life cycles and must therefore communicate with them via Protein-Protein Interactions (PPIs). To investigate the mechanisms of communication by different viruses, we overlay reported pairwise human-virus PPIs on human signalling pathways. Of 671 pathways obtained from NCI and Reactome databases, 355 are potentially targeted by at least one virus. The majority of pathways are linked to more than one virus. We find evidence supporting the hypothesis that viruses often interact with different proteins depending on the targeted pathway. Pathway analysis indicates overrepresentation of some pathways targeted by viruses. The merged network of the most statistically significant pathways shows several centrally located proteins, which are also hub proteins. Generally, hub proteins are targeted more frequently by viruses. Numerous proteins in virus-targeted pathways are known drug targets, suggesting that these might be exploited as potential new approaches to treatments against multiple viruses. PMID:21330695

  7. A new unstable variant of the fetal hemoglobin HBG2 gene: Hb F-Turritana [(G) ?64(E8)Gly?Asp, HBG2:c.194G>A] found in cis to the Hb F-Sardinia gene [(A) ?(E19)Ile?Thr, HBG1:c.227T>C].

    PubMed

    Pirastru, Monica; Mereu, Paolo; Trova, Sandro; Manca, Laura; Masala, Bruno

    2014-06-01

    A new variant of the fetal hemoglobin (Hb) was observed in a newborn baby subjected to phototherapy due to jaundice, by means of electrophoretic and chromatographic techniques. The variant Hb resulted unstable by the isopropanol stability test. After HBG2 gene sequencing, the G to A transversion at codon 64, position eight of the E helix, was found, which corresponds to the Asp for Gly amino acid substitution. The new variant was called Hb F-Turritana [(G) ?64(E8)Gly?Asp, HBG2:c.194G>A]. Incoming aspartic acid residue, bulky and negatively charged, may be responsible for alteration of the heme pocket steric configuration and for instability. The new abnormal HBG2 gene was found to be associated in cis with the mutated HBG1 gene, which characterizes the Hb F-Sardinia [(A) ? (E19)Ile?Thr, HBG1:c.227T>C] variant. PMID:24483321

  8. Modelling the evolution of the influenza virus

    E-print Network

    Burke, David

    2008-06-27

    CamGrid: High Throughput Computing in Science dfb21@cam.ac.uk Dr David Burke Antigenic Cartography Group Department of Zoology University of Cambridge 25th June 2008 Modelling the evolution of the influenza virus Antigenic variation of viruses... Antigenically Stable Pathogens Antigenically Variable Pathogens Smallpox Measles Tuberculosis Mumps Tetanus Influenza Virus Malaria HIV Dengue The Influenza Virus Annually, 'flu infects 7-14% of the population (400-800 million people globally ) Virus...

  9. SARS and West Nile Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark B. Loeb

    Clinical presentation of SARS is nonspecific; the important clinical findings in West Nile virus infection are those associated\\u000a with neurological complications.\\u000a \\u000a Rapid and accurate diagnosis of SARS and West Nile virus infection remains an important clinical challenge.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Older adults are at higher risk of complications, including death from SARS and West Nile virus.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a At present, there is no effective therapy

  10. Respiratory Viruses Other than Influenza Virus: Impact and Therapeutic Advances

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, W. Garrett; Peck Campbell, Angela J.; Boeckh, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Summary: Though several antivirals have been developed and marketed to treat influenza virus infections, the development of antiviral agents with clinical activity against other respiratory viruses has been more problematic. Here we review the epidemiology of respiratory viral infections in immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts, examine the evidence surrounding the currently available antivirals for respiratory viral infections other than influenza, highlight those that are in the pipeline, and discuss the hurdles for development of such agents. PMID:18400797

  11. Gene homology between orf virus and smallpox variola virus.

    PubMed

    Mercer, A A; Fraser, K M; Esposito, J J

    1996-01-01

    About 47% identity was observed between the deduced amino acid sequences of a protein encoded by a gene of the parapoxvirus orf virus (OV) strain NZ2 and a 6 kDa protein of unknown function reported to be produced by an open reading frame expressed early after infection by the orthopoxvirus Western Reserve vaccinia virus (VAC); the open reading frame is absent from VAC strain Copenhagen. Examination of sequences reported for variola virus (VAR) strains Bangladesh, India, Congo- 1970, Somalia- 1977 and Garcia- 1966 revealed each encoded a correlate 58 amino acid protein. The open reading frame was not reported in the original analyses of these sequences because a lower limit of 60 amino acids was used to identify potential encoded proteins. Inspection of partial reading frames reported for cowpox virus (CWV) and ectromelia virus (EMV) suggested that these viruses might also code for a correlate of the VAC WR protein. DNA sequencing of cloned fragments of CWV and EMV confirmed that both these orthopoxviruses encode closely related, full length variants of the VAC and VAR open reading frames. The OV homologue is coded in the OV strain NZ2 BamHI-E fragment E2L open reading frame, which we reported is transcribed early postinfection; moreover, analysis of an NZ2 variant showed E2L was absent, indicating that E2L, like the VAC cognate, is nonessential for virus replication in cell culture. The parapoxvirus and orthopoxvirus correlates have about 20% amino acid sequence resemblance to African swine fever virus DNA binding protein p10, suggesting an ancestral relation of genes. PMID:8972571

  12. Oncolytic virus therapy using genetically engineered herpes simplex viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomoki Todo

    2002-01-01

    An increasing number of oncolytic virus vectors has been developed lately for cancer therapy. Herpes simplex virus type 1\\u000a (HSV-1) vectors are particularly useful, because they can be genetically engineered to replicate and spread highly selectively\\u000a in tumor cells and can also express multiple foreign transgenes. These vectors can manifest cytopathic effect in a wide variety\\u000a of tumor types without

  13. The stones and historic mortars of the Santissima Trinitŕ di Saccargia Romanesque Basilica (Sardinia, Italy): a multi-analytical techniques' approach for the study of their features and provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Columbu, Stefano; Palomba, Marcella; Sitzia, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    A research project devoted to the study of building materials of the Romanesque churches in Sardinia is currently underway. One of the objectives of the project is to focus the mineral, chemical-physical and petrographic characterisation of the construction materials, as well as the alteration processes. To make a contribution to the preservation of Sardinian monuments, we suggests a new approach to define the different alteration-modes of rocks in function of their local exposure to the weather, studying: 1) the changes of physical properties on surface of stone (porosity, water absorption, micro-morphology) determined through laboratory tests and photogrammetry observations, 2) the alteration phases present on surface (e.g., secondary minerals, soluble salts) determined by mineralogical and chemical investigations. This methodological approach will allow to select appropriate, suitable and compatible materials for replacing the original altered one's, and to plan appropriate strategies devoted to the restoration work. In this paper the geomaterials used for construct the Santissima Trinitŕ di Saccargia Basilica have been investigated. The church, finished in 1116 over the ruins of a pre-existing monastery, is the most important Romanesque site in the island. Have been studied the chemical alterations and physical decay of two different stones, as volcanic rocks (i.e., basalt) and sedimentary rocks (i.e., limestones) used in bichromy on the Basilica. The main purpose is to observe the different modes of alteration of these two lithologies with different petrophysical characteristics, placed in the same conditions of weathering. Macroscopic evidences show that the limestones, while not having a high porosity, they were strongly affected by alteration phenomena, especially in the outer surface of ashlars, due to the solubilization of the carbonate matrix. The basalt rocks show no obvious physical alteration. Occasionally, in some ashlar located in basal zone of the monument structure, where the samples have a greater porosity, patinas of soluble salts on their surface can be observed. The features of a selected set of samples, including the stones and historic mortars, has been determined by the application of different techniques, as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Thermal Analysis (simultaneous TG and DTA analysis), Optical Microscopy, X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Inductively Coupled Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Mineral data, both from XRD and petrographic studies, show that limestones' ashlars consist of pure calcite (100 wt%) or to include other mineral species, especially dolomite (up to 15 wt%), as well as minor fractions of illite and quartz. Newly-formed minerals occur in different amounts, both in limestones (gypsum up to 10 wt%, illite up to 5 wt%) and basalts (smectite-group minerals up to 10 wt%, K-Ca-Mg sulfates in traces). Original masonry mortars show a qualitatively constant mineral association, mainly consisting of calcite (from 50 to 70 wt%), quartz (10-20 wt%), plagioclase (10-15 wt%), k-feldspar (5-10 wt%), gypsum (5-40 wt%), and illite (traces). The heterogeneous composition and high porosity of study mortars strongly affected its durability. The weathering processes have seriously damaged their texture and consistency, also contributing to the instability of other building materials in contact. Keywords: Medieval monuments, Mineralogic-petrographic features, Physical properties, Chemical-physical decay, Micro-photogrammetry

  14. Rice Yellow Mottle Virus, an RNA Plant Virus, Evolves as Rapidly as Most RNA Animal Viruses? †

    PubMed Central

    Fargette, D.; Pinel, A.; Rakotomalala, M.; Sangu, E.; Traoré, O.; Sérémé, D.; Sorho, F.; Issaka, S.; Hébrard, E.; Séré, Y.; Kanyeka, Z.; Konaté, G.

    2008-01-01

    The rate of evolution of an RNA plant virus has never been estimated using temporally spaced sequence data, by contrast to the information available on an increasing range of animal viruses. Accordingly, the evolution rate of Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) was calculated from sequences of the coat protein gene of isolates collected from rice over a 40-year period in different parts of Africa. The evolution rate of RYMV was estimated by pairwise distance linear regression on five phylogeographically defined groups comprising a total of 135 isolates. It was further assessed from 253 isolates collected all over Africa by Bayesian coalescent methods under strict and relaxed molecular clock models and under constant size and skyline population genetic models. Consistent estimates of the evolution rate between 4 × 10?4 and 8 × 10?4 nucleotides (nt)/site/year were obtained whatever method and model were applied. The synonymous evolution rate was between 8 × 10?4 and 11 × 10?4 nt/site/year. The overall and synonymous evolution rates of RYMV were within the range of the rates of 50 RNA animal viruses, below the average but above the distribution median. Experimentally, in host change studies, substitutions accumulated at an even higher rate. The results show that an RNA plant virus such as RYMV evolves as rapidly as most RNA animal viruses. Knowledge of the molecular clock of plant viruses provides methods for testing a wide range of biological hypotheses. PMID:18199644

  15. Adeno-associated virus: from defective virus to effective vector

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Manuel AFV

    2005-01-01

    The initial discovery of adeno-associated virus (AAV) mixed with adenovirus particles was not a fortuitous one but rather an expression of AAV biology. Indeed, as it came to be known, in addition to the unavoidable host cell, AAV typically needs a so-called helper virus such as adenovirus to replicate. Since the AAV life cycle revolves around another unrelated virus it was dubbed a satellite virus. However, the structural simplicity plus the defective and non-pathogenic character of this satellite virus caused recombinant forms to acquire centre-stage prominence in the current constellation of vectors for human gene therapy. In the present review, issues related to the development of recombinant AAV (rAAV) vectors, from the general principle to production methods, tropism modifications and other emerging technologies are discussed. In addition, the accumulating knowledge regarding the mechanisms of rAAV genome transduction and persistence is reviewed. The topics on rAAV vectorology are supplemented with information on the parental virus biology with an emphasis on aspects that directly impact on vector design and performance such as genome replication, genetic structure, and host cell entry. PMID:15877812

  16. Role of murine leukemia virus nucleocapsid protein in virus assembly.

    PubMed

    Muriaux, Delphine; Costes, Sylvain; Nagashima, Kunio; Mirro, Jane; Cho, Ed; Lockett, Stephen; Rein, Alan

    2004-11-01

    The retroviral nucleocapsid protein (NC) originates by cleavage of the Gag polyprotein. It is highly basic and contains one or two zinc fingers. Mutations in either the basic residues or the zinc fingers can affect several events of the virus life cycle. They frequently prevent the specific packaging of the viral RNA, affect reverse transcription, and impair virion assembly. In this work, we explore the role of NC in murine leukemia virus (MLV) particle assembly and release. A panel of NC mutants, including mutants of the zinc finger and of a basic region, as well as truncations of the NC domain of Gag, were studied. Several of these mutations dramatically reduce the release of virus particles. A mutant completely lacking the NC domain is apparently incapable of assembling into particles, although its Gag protein is still targeted to the plasma membrane. By electron microscopy on thin sections of virus-producing cells, we observed that some NC mutants exhibit various stages of budding defects at the plasma membrane and have aberrant particle morphology; electron micrographs of cells expressing some of these mutants are strikingly similar to those of cells expressing "late-domain" mutants. However, the defects of NC mutants with respect to virus release and infectivity could be complemented by an MLV lacking the p12 domain. Therefore, the functions of NC in virus budding and infectivity are completely distinct from viral late-domain function. PMID:15507624

  17. Role of Murine Leukemia Virus Nucleocapsid Protein in Virus Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Muriaux, Delphine; Costes, Sylvain; Nagashima, Kunio; Mirro, Jane; Cho, Ed; Lockett, Stephen; Rein, Alan

    2004-01-01

    The retroviral nucleocapsid protein (NC) originates by cleavage of the Gag polyprotein. It is highly basic and contains one or two zinc fingers. Mutations in either the basic residues or the zinc fingers can affect several events of the virus life cycle. They frequently prevent the specific packaging of the viral RNA, affect reverse transcription, and impair virion assembly. In this work, we explore the role of NC in murine leukemia virus (MLV) particle assembly and release. A panel of NC mutants, including mutants of the zinc finger and of a basic region, as well as truncations of the NC domain of Gag, were studied. Several of these mutations dramatically reduce the release of virus particles. A mutant completely lacking the NC domain is apparently incapable of assembling into particles, although its Gag protein is still targeted to the plasma membrane. By electron microscopy on thin sections of virus-producing cells, we observed that some NC mutants exhibit various stages of budding defects at the plasma membrane and have aberrant particle morphology; electron micrographs of cells expressing some of these mutants are strikingly similar to those of cells expressing “late-domain” mutants. However, the defects of NC mutants with respect to virus release and infectivity could be complemented by an MLV lacking the p12 domain. Therefore, the functions of NC in virus budding and infectivity are completely distinct from viral late-domain function. PMID:15507624

  18. Human immunodeficiency virus endocrinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Uma; Sengupta, Nilanjan; Mukhopadhyay, Prasanta; Roy, Keshab Sinha

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) endocrinopathy encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders. Almost all the endocrine organs are virtually affected by HIV infection. HIV can directly alter glandular function. More commonly secondary endocrine dysfunction occurs due to opportunistic infections and neoplasms in immunocompromised state. The complex interaction between HIV infection and endocrine system may be manifested as subtle biochemical and hormonal perturbation to overt glandular failure. Antiretroviral therapy as well as other essential medications often result in adverse endocrinal consequences. Apart from adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadism, diabetes and bone loss, AIDS wasting syndrome and HIV lipodystrophy need special reference. Endocrinal evaluation should proceed as in other patients with suspected endocrine dysfunction. Available treatment options have been shown to improve quality of life and long-term mortality in AIDS patients. PMID:22028995

  19. Ebola virus disease.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Kathleen J

    2015-01-01

    Ebola is an unfamiliar disease with a high mortality rate. Until recently, it occurred only in rural tropical regions and most health care providers had only read about it in epidemiology classes. With globalization, international travel, and foreign medical missions, it is possible that a patient with Ebola exposure and/or symptoms may present in any emergency department. All health care providers must be familiar with identifying the signs and symptoms of Ebola and capable of initiating an appropriate response. This article presents an overview of Ebola virus disease for health care providers, covering pathophysiology, identification, treatment, and general considerations for hospitals and providers to consider when developing policies and procedures. PMID:25929221

  20. Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter describes the taxonomic classification of Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV). Included are: host, genome, classification, morphology, physicochemical and physical properties, nucleic acid, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, geographic range, phylogenetic properties, biologic...

  1. Arthropod viruses and small RNAs.

    PubMed

    Vijayendran, Diveena; Airs, Paul M; Dolezal, Kelly; Bonning, Bryony C

    2013-10-01

    The recently characterized small RNAs provide a new paradigm for physiological studies. These molecules have been shown to be integral players in processes as diverse as development and innate immunity against bacteria and viruses in eukaryotes. Several of the well-characterized small RNAs including small interfering RNAs, microRNAs and PIWI-interacting RNAs are emerging as important players in mediating arthropod host-virus interactions. Understanding the role of small RNAs in arthropod host-virus molecular interactions will facilitate manipulation of these pathways for both management of arthropod pests of agricultural and medical importance, and for protection of beneficial arthropods such as honey bees and shrimp. This review highlights recent research on the role of small RNAs in arthropod host-virus interactions with reference to other host-pathogen systems. PMID:23932976

  2. Mapping overlapping functional elements embedded within the protein-coding regions of RNA viruses

    E-print Network

    Firth, Andrew E.

    2014-10-17

    with the potential to cause acute fatal disease in healthy adult humans are RNA viruses. Such viruses include influenza A virus (IAV), Ebola virus, ra- bies virus, SARS virus, MERS virus, Japanese encephali- tis virus, yellow fever virus, dengue virus, eastern equine...

  3. Cellular Sequences in Stealth Viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. John Martin

    1998-01-01

    Cloned DNA obtained from the culture of an African green monkey simian cytomegalovirus-derived stealth virus contains multiple discrete regions of significant sequence homology (p values ranging from 4 × 10–3to 1 × 10–20) to portions of known human cellular genes. The stealth virus was cultured from a patient with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Earlier studies had revealed considerable sequence heterogeneity

  4. Coronavirus avian infectious bronchitis virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dave Cavanagh

    2007-01-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), the coronavirus of the chicken (Gallus gallus), is one of the foremost causes of economic loss within the poultry industry, affecting the performance of both meat-type and egg-laying birds. The virus replicates not only in the epithelium of upper and lower respiratory tract tissues, but also in many tissues along the alimentary tract and elsewhere e.g.

  5. Simian virus 40 in humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernanda Martini; Alfredo Corallini; Veronica Balatti; Silvia Sabbioni; Cecilia Pancaldi; Mauro Tognon

    2007-01-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) is a monkey virus that was administered to human populations by contaminated vaccines which were produced in SV40 naturally infected monkey cells. Recent molecular biology and epidemiological studies suggest that SV40 may be contagiously transmitted in humans by horizontal infection, independently from the earlier administration of SV40-contaminated vaccines. SV40 footprints in humans have been found associated

  6. Foodborne viruses: an emerging problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marion Koopmans; Erwin Duizer

    2004-01-01

    Several groups of viruses may infect persons after ingestion and then are shed via stool. Of these, the norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) are currently recognised as the most important human foodborne pathogens with regard to the number of outbreaks and people affected in the Western world.NoV and HAV are highly infectious and may lead to widespread outbreaks.

  7. Human Enteric Viruses in Groundwater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. H. Park; E. J. Kim; T. H. Yun; J. H. Lee; C. K. Kim; Y. H. Seo; S. A. Oh; S. S. Choi; S. J. Cho; M. S. Kim; G. Y. Han; M. Y. Kim; H. S. Jeong; D. S. Cheon; H. S. Kim

    2010-01-01

    Waterborne outbreaks of enteric viruses are a major public health concern. The present study has been carried out to assess\\u000a the presence of enteric viruses responsible for human acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in groundwater intended for drinking and\\u000a produce washing. In total, 62 samples from groundwater for drinking and produce washing collected from Dec 2007 to Dec 2008\\u000a in Seoul were

  8. Lily symptomless virus in tulip

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. F. L. M. Derks; C. J. Asjes

    1975-01-01

    Lily symptomless virus (LSV) was transmitted mechanically to only two out of 53 plant species (18 families) tested, i.e.Lilium formosanum and tulip ‘Rose Copland’ (Liliaceae). The aphid speciesMacrosiphum euphorbiae, Myzus persicae, andAphis gossypii transmitted LSV in a non-persistent manner fromLilium Mid-century hybrid ‘Enchantment’ to tulip ‘Rose Copland’.M. euphorbiae transmitted the virus more efficiently thanM. persicae andA. gossypii. The yield of

  9. Intense mesoscale variability in the Sardinia Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Aniello; Borrione, Ines; Falchetti, Silvia; Knoll, Michaela; Fiekas, Heinz-Volker; Heywood, Karen; Oddo, Paolo; Onken, Reiner

    2015-04-01

    From the 6 to 25 June 2014, the REP14-MED sea trial was conducted by CMRE, supported by 20 partners from six different nations. The at-sea activities were carried out onboard the research vessels Alliance (NATO) and Planet (German Ministry of Defense), comprising a marine area of about 110 x 110 km2 to the west of the Sardinian coast. More than 300 CTD casts typically spaced at 10 km were collected; both ships continuously recorded vertical profiles of currents by means of their ADCPs, and a ScanFish® and a CTD chain were towed for almost three days by Alliance and Planet, respectively, following parallel routes. Twelve gliders from different manufacturers (Slocum, SeaGliderTM and SeaExplorer) were continuously sampling the study area following zonal tracks spaced at 10 km. In addition, six moorings, 17 surface drifters and one ARVOR float were deployed. From a first analysis of the observations, several mesoscale features were identified in the survey area, in particular: (i) a warm-core anticyclonic eddy in the southern part of the domain, about 50 km in diameter and with the strongest signal at about 50-m depth (ii) another warm-core anticyclonic eddy of comparable dimensions in the central part of the domain, but extending to greater depth than the former one, and (iii) a small (less than 15 km in diameter) cold-core cyclonic eddy of Winter Intermediate Water in the depth range between 170 m and 370 m. All three eddies showed intensified currents, up to 50 cm s-1. The huge high-resolution observational data set and the variety of observation techniques enabled the mesoscale features and their variability to be tracked for almost three weeks. In order to obtain a deeper understanding of the mesoscale dynamic behaviour and their interactions, assimilation studies with an ocean circulation model are underway.

  10. Another Really, Really Big Virus

    PubMed Central

    Van Etten, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Viruses with genomes larger than 300 kb and up to 1.2 Mb, which encode hundreds of proteins, are being discovered and characterized with increasing frequency. Most, but not all, of these large viruses (often referred to as giruses) infect protists that live in aqueous environments. Bioinformatic analyses of metagenomes of aqueous samples indicate that large DNA viruses are quite common in nature and await discovery. One issue that is perhaps not appreciated by the virology community is that large viruses, even those classified in the same family, can differ significantly in morphology, lifestyle, and gene complement. This brief commentary, which will mention some of these unique properties, was stimulated by the characterization of the newest member of this club, virus CroV (Fischer, M.G.; Allen, M.J.; Wilson, W.H.; Suttle, C.A. Giant virus with a remarkable complement of genes infects marine zooplankton. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2010, 107, 19508–19513 [1]). CroV has a 730 kb genome (with ?544 protein-encoding genes) and infects the marine microzooplankton Cafeteria roenbergensis producing a lytic infection. PMID:21994725

  11. A DNA Virus of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Unckless, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the viruses infecting most species. Even in groups as well-studied as Drosophila, only a handful of viruses have been well-characterized. A viral metagenomic approach was used to explore viral diversity in 83 wild-caught Drosophila innubila, a mushroom feeding member of the quinaria group. A single fly that was injected with, and died from, Drosophila C Virus (DCV) was added to the sample as a control. Two-thirds of reads in the infected sample had DCV as the best BLAST hit, suggesting that the protocol developed is highly sensitive. In addition to the DCV hits, several sequences had Oryctes rhinoceros Nudivirus, a double-stranded DNA virus, as a best BLAST hit. The virus associated with these sequences was termed Drosophila innubila Nudivirus (DiNV). PCR screens of natural populations showed that DiNV was both common and widespread taxonomically and geographically. Electron microscopy confirms the presence of virions in fly fecal material similar in structure to other described Nudiviruses. In 2 species, D. innubila and D. falleni, the virus is associated with a severe (?80–90%) loss of fecundity and significantly decreased lifespan. PMID:22053195

  12. ENZYMATIC VARIANTS OF INFLUENZA VIRUS

    PubMed Central

    Padgett, Billie L.; Walker, Duard L.

    1958-01-01

    The rate of elution of the variant virus from chicken RBC is progressively decreased as the temperature of incubation is increased above 25°C. The activity of the parent virus, on the other hand, is increased as the temperature is increased up to 40°C. The major cause of the decreased activity of the variant at temperatures above 2S°C. is an inhibition of the variant enzyme rather than its inactivation. The activity of the variant enzyme is stimulated in the presence of strontium, calcium, and barium ions. Manganese has only a slight effect, and magnesium has no stimulatory effect on the elution of the variant virus. Elution of the variant at 37°C. is progressively inhibited at pH values above 7, while the parent virus is still active at pH 8. In the absence of calcium the variant enzyme, hemagglutinin, and infectivity are more heat labile than those of the parent virus. The addition of calcium increases the heat stability of all three properties of the variant, and in the presence of calcium the infectivity of the variant is as stable as that of the parent virus. PMID:13587849

  13. PC viruses: How do they do that

    SciTech Connect

    Pichnarczyk, K.

    1992-07-01

    The topic of PC Viruses has been an issue for a number of years now. They've been reported in every major newspaper, tabloids, television and radio. People from all fields get viruses: government, private sector businesses, home computers, schools, computer software suppliers. A definition is proposed to introduce the virus phenomenon. Virus authors come from a variety of communities. Motives and ideologies of authors are discussed, and examples of viruses are offered. Also mentioned is the growing number of viruses developed, isolated, and never distributed to the public at large, but kept within the antivirus research community. Virus examples are offered as well. Viruses are distributed not only through bulletin boards and shareware, but also from areas previously assumed to be safe, including the threat of receiving a virus through a standard in-house function, such as an in-house hardware maintenance shop. Three categories of viruses are presented: File Infecter viruses, Boot Sector Infecters, and the new category of Directory Entry Infecter virus. Also discussed are crossover viruses, that is, viruses which utilize a variety of techniques to ensure survival. An explanation of what is occurring within every stage of various viruses is given. Replication strategies common to all three types is noted, mainly the two different replication strategies of memory resident infecters and active selection infecters. A detailed definition, description and application of a stealth virus is presented. Detection strategies are discussed as each topic in this section is completed; a high level schemata of the operation of various virus detection programs ispresented. Since most eradication today is done using virus detection/eradication software, this paper attempts to reveal the techniques used by these packages.Included in the paper is the topic of manual eradication.

  14. PC viruses: How do they do that?

    SciTech Connect

    Pichnarczyk, K.

    1992-07-01

    The topic of PC Viruses has been an issue for a number of years now. They`ve been reported in every major newspaper, tabloids, television and radio. People from all fields get viruses: government, private sector businesses, home computers, schools, computer software suppliers. A definition is proposed to introduce the virus phenomenon. Virus authors come from a variety of communities. Motives and ideologies of authors are discussed, and examples of viruses are offered. Also mentioned is the growing number of viruses developed, isolated, and never distributed to the public at large, but kept within the antivirus research community. Virus examples are offered as well. Viruses are distributed not only through bulletin boards and shareware, but also from areas previously assumed to be safe, including the threat of receiving a virus through a standard in-house function, such as an in-house hardware maintenance shop. Three categories of viruses are presented: File Infecter viruses, Boot Sector Infecters, and the new category of Directory Entry Infecter virus. Also discussed are crossover viruses, that is, viruses which utilize a variety of techniques to ensure survival. An explanation of what is occurring within every stage of various viruses is given. Replication strategies common to all three types is noted, mainly the two different replication strategies of memory resident infecters and active selection infecters. A detailed definition, description and application of a stealth virus is presented. Detection strategies are discussed as each topic in this section is completed; a high level schemata of the operation of various virus detection programs ispresented. Since most eradication today is done using virus detection/eradication software, this paper attempts to reveal the techniques used by these packages.Included in the paper is the topic of manual eradication.

  15. Genomic sequencing of deer tick virus and phylogeny of powassan-related viruses of North America.

    PubMed

    Kuno, G; Artsob, H; Karabatsos, N; Tsuchiya, K R; Chang, G J

    2001-11-01

    Powassan (POW) virus is responsible for central nervous system infection in humans in North America and the eastern parts of Russia. Recently, a new flavivirus, deer tick (DT) virus, related to POW virus was isolated in the United States, but neither its pathogenic potential in human nor the taxonomic relationship with POW virus has been elucidated. In this study, we obtained the near-full-length genomic sequence of the DT virus and complete sequences of 3 genomic regions of 15 strains of POW-related virus strains. The phylogeny revealed 2 lineages, one of which had the prototype POW virus and the other DT virus. Both lineages can cause central nervous system infection in humans. By use of the combination of molecular definition of virus species within the genus Flavivirus and serological distinction in a 2-way cross-neutralization test, the lineage of DT virus is classified as a distinct genotype of POW virus. PMID:11716135

  16. Foodborne viruses: an emerging problem.

    PubMed

    Koopmans, Marion; Duizer, Erwin

    2004-01-01

    Several groups of viruses may infect persons after ingestion and then are shed via stool. Of these, the norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) are currently recognised as the most important human foodborne pathogens with regard to the number of outbreaks and people affected in the Western world. NoV and HAV are highly infectious and may lead to widespread outbreaks. The clinical manifestation of NoV infection, however, is relatively mild. Asymptomatic infections are common and may contribute to the spread of the infection. Introduction of NoV in a community or population (a seeding event) may be followed by additional spread because of the highly infectious nature of NoV, resulting in a great number of secondary infections (50% of contacts). Hepatitis A is an increasing problem because of the decrease in immunity of populations in countries with high standards of hygiene. Molecular-based methods can detect viruses in shellfish but are not yet available for other foods. The applicability of the methods currently available for monitoring foods for viral contamination is unknown. No consistent correlation has been found between the presence of indicator microorganisms (i.e. bacteriophages, E. coli) and viruses. NoV and HAV are highly infectious and exhibit variable levels of resistance to heat and disinfection agents. However, they are both inactivated at 100 degrees C. No validated model virus or model system is available for studies of inactivation of NoV, although investigations could make use of structurally similar viruses (i.e. canine and feline caliciviruses). In the absence of a model virus or model system, food safety guidelines need to be based on studies that have been performed with the most resistant enteric RNA viruses (i.e. HAV, for which a model system does exist) and also with bacteriophages (for water). Most documented foodborne viral outbreaks can be traced to food that has been manually handled by an infected foodhandler, rather than to industrially processed foods. The viral contamination of food can occur anywhere in the process from farm to fork, but most foodborne viral infections can be traced back to infected persons who handle food that is not heated or otherwise treated afterwards. Therefore, emphasis should be on stringent personal hygiene during preparation. If viruses are present in food preprocessing, residual viral infectivity may be present after some industrial processes. Therefore, it is key that sufficient attention be given to good agriculture practice (GAP) and good manufacturing practice (GMP) to avoid introduction of viruses onto the raw material and into the food-manufacturing environment, and to HACCP to assure adequate management of (control over) viruses present during the manufacturing process. If viruses are present in foods after processing, they remain infectious in most circumstances and in most foods for several days or weeks, especially if kept cooled (at 4 degrees C). Therefore, emphasis should be on stringent personal hygiene during preparation. For the control of foodborne viral infections, it is necessary to: Heighten awareness about the presence and spread of these viruses by foodhandlers; Optimise and standardise methods for the detection of foodborne viruses; Develop laboratory-based surveillance to detect large, common-source outbreaks at an early stage; and Emphasise consideration of viruses in setting up food safety quality control and management systems (GHP, GMP, HACCP). PMID:14672828

  17. Comparison of cowpox-like viruses isolated from European zoos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Baxby; W. B. Shackleton; Jean Wheeler; A. Turner

    1979-01-01

    Summary Poxviruses isolated from captive carnivores in Russia (Moscow virus) and elephants in Germany (elephant virus) were very closely-related to cowpox virus. Immunological analysis with absorbed sera separated elephant virus but not cowpox and Moscow virus, whereas polypeptide analysis separated cowpox but not elephant and Moscow virus. A combination of biological tests separated all three. The epidemiological implications are briefly

  18. Stochastic analysis of virus transport in aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, Rehmann L.L.; Welty, C.; Harvey, R.W.

    1999-01-01

    A large-scale model of virus transport in aquifers is derived using spectral perturbation analysis. The effects of spatial variability in aquifer hydraulic conductivity and virus transport (attachment, detachment, and inactivation) parameters on large-scale virus transport are evaluated. A stochastic mean model of virus transport is developed by linking a simple system of local-scale free-virus transport and attached-virus conservation equations from the current literature with a random-field representation of aquifer and virus transport properties. The resultant mean equations for free and attached viruses are found to differ considerably from the local-scale equations on which they are based and include effects such as a free-virus effective velocity that is a function of aquifer heterogeneity as well as virus transport parameters. Stochastic mean free-virus breakthrough curves are compared with local model output in order to observe the effects of spatial variability on mean one-dimensional virus transport in three-dimensionally heterogeneous porous media. Significant findings from this theoretical analysis include the following: (1) Stochastic model breakthrough occurs earlier than local model breakthrough, and this effect is most pronounced for the least conductive aquifers studied. (2) A high degree of aquifer heterogeneity can lead to virus breakthrough actually preceding that of a conservative tracer. (3) As the mean hydraulic conductivity is increased, the mean model shows less sensitivity to the variance of the natural-logarithm hydraulic conductivity and mean virus diameter. (4) Incorporation of a heterogeneous colloid filtration term results in higher predicted concentrations than a simple first-order adsorption term for a given mean attachment rate. (5) Incorporation of aquifer heterogeneity leads to a greater range of virus diameters for which significant breakthrough occurs. (6) The mean model is more sensitive to the inactivation rate of viruses associated with solid surfaces than to the inactivation rate of viruses in solution.

  19. Emerging and re-emerging swine viruses.

    PubMed

    Meng, X J

    2012-03-01

    In the past two decades or so, a number of viruses have emerged in the global swine population. Some, such as porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), cause economically important diseases in pigs, whereas others such as porcine torque teno virus (TTV), now known as Torque teno sus virus (TTSuV), porcine bocavirus (PBoV) and related novel parvoviruses, porcine kobuvirus, porcine toroviruses (PToV) and porcine lymphotropic herpesviruses (PLHV), are mostly subclinical in swine herds. Although some emerging swine viruses such as swine hepatitis E virus (swine HEV), porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) and porcine sapovirus (porcine SaV) may have a limited clinical implication in swine health, they do pose a potential public health concern in humans due to zoonotic (swine HEV) or potential zoonotic (porcine SaV) and xenozoonotic (PERV, PLHV) risks. Other emerging viruses such as Nipah virus, Bungowannah virus and Menangle virus not only cause diseases in pigs but some also pose important zoonotic threat to humans. This article focuses on emerging and re-emerging swine viruses that have a limited or uncertain clinical and economic impact on pig health. The transmission, epidemiology and pathogenic potential of these viruses are discussed. In addition, the two economically important emerging viruses, PRRSV and PCV2, are also briefly discussed to identify important knowledge gaps. PMID:22225855

  20. Plasmodesmata: channels for viruses on the move.

    PubMed

    Heinlein, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    The symplastic communication network established by plasmodesmata (PD) and connected phloem provides an essential pathway for spatiotemporal intercellular signaling in plant development but is also exploited by viruses for moving their genomes between cells in order to infect plants systemically. Virus movement depends on virus-encoded movement proteins (MPs) that target PD and therefore represent important keys to the cellular mechanisms underlying the intercellular trafficking of viruses and other macromolecules. Viruses and their MPs have evolved different mechanisms for intracellular transport and interaction with PD. Some viruses move from cell to cell by interacting with cellular mechanisms that control the size exclusion limit of PD whereas other viruses alter the PD architecture through assembly of specialized transport structures within the channel. Some viruses move between cells in the form of assembled virus particles whereas other viruses may interact with nucleic acid transport mechanisms to move their genomes in a non-encapsidated form. Moreover, whereas several viruses rely on the secretory pathway to target PD, other viruses interact with the cortical endoplasmic reticulum and associated cytoskeleton to spread infection. This chapter provides an introduction into viruses and their role in studying the diverse cellular mechanisms involved in intercellular PD-mediated macromolecular trafficking. PMID:25287194

  1. Phylogenetic Properties of RNA Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Pompei, Simone; Loreto, Vittorio; Tria, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    A new word, phylodynamics, was coined to emphasize the interconnection between phylogenetic properties, as observed for instance in a phylogenetic tree, and the epidemic dynamics of viruses, where selection, mediated by the host immune response, and transmission play a crucial role. The challenges faced when investigating the evolution of RNA viruses call for a virtuous loop of data collection, data analysis and modeling. This already resulted both in the collection of massive sequences databases and in the formulation of hypotheses on the main mechanisms driving qualitative differences observed in the (reconstructed) evolutionary patterns of different RNA viruses. Qualitatively, it has been observed that selection driven by the host immune response induces an uneven survival ability among co-existing strains. As a consequence, the imbalance level of the phylogenetic tree is manifestly more pronounced if compared to the case when the interaction with the host immune system does not play a central role in the evolutive dynamics. While many imbalance metrics have been introduced, reliable methods to discriminate in a quantitative way different level of imbalance are still lacking. In our work, we reconstruct and analyze the phylogenetic trees of six RNA viruses, with a special emphasis on the human Influenza A virus, due to its relevance for vaccine preparation as well as for the theoretical challenges it poses due to its peculiar evolutionary dynamics. We focus in particular on topological properties. We point out the limitation featured by standard imbalance metrics, and we introduce a new methodology with which we assign the correct imbalance level of the phylogenetic trees, in agreement with the phylodynamics of the viruses. Our thorough quantitative analysis allows for a deeper understanding of the evolutionary dynamics of the considered RNA viruses, which is crucial in order to provide a valuable framework for a quantitative assessment of theoretical predictions. PMID:23028645

  2. Virus Population Dynamics and Acquired Virus Resistance in Natural Microbial Communities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anders F. Andersson; Jillian F. Banfield

    2008-01-01

    Viruses shape microbial community structure and function by altering the fitness of their hosts and by promoting genetic exchange. The complexity of most natural ecosystems has precluded detailed studies of virus-host interactions. We reconstructed virus and host bacterial and archaeal genome sequences from community genomic data from two natural acidophilic biofilms. Viruses were matched to their hosts by analyzing spacer

  3. Nyamanini and Midway Viruses Define a Novel Taxon of RNA Viruses in the Order Mononegavirales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathie A. Mihindukulasuriya; Nang L. Nguyen; Guang Wu; Henry V. Huang; Vsevolod L. Popov; Robert B. Tesh; David Wang

    2009-01-01

    Here, we report the sequencing and classification of Nyamanini virus (NYMV) and Midway virus (MIDWV), two antigenically related viruses that were first isolated in 1957 and 1966, respectively. Although these viruses have been cultured multiple times from cattle egrets, seabirds, and their ticks, efforts to classify them taxonomically using conventional serological and electron microscopic approaches have failed completely. We used

  4. Differential diagnosis and genetic analysis of the antigenically related swine vesicular disease virus and Coxsackie viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Otfried Marquardt; Volker F. Ohlinger

    1995-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies directed against an isolate of swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV), characterized by virus neutralization tests and competition assays, were used to compare SVDV isolates and isolates of the antigenically related Coxsackie viruses by ELISA. Four SVDV-specific reaction patterns and one specific for Coxsackie viruses were observed. This provided a method for distinguishing between these enteroviruses. In addition, RT-PCRs

  5. A comparative electrophoretic examination of swine vesicular disease virus and Coxsackie B5 virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1977-01-01

    Summary Purified suspensions of Coxsackie B5 virus and swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) were prepared by harvesting and purifying cell pack virus. Crossed immunoelectrophoresis was carried out with purified N and H antigen fractions (full and empty particles). Relative migration velocity (RMV) was calculated for the N antigen fraction of 3 SVD viruses (UKG72, HK71 and Italy66) and 2 Coxsackie

  6. A Fusion-Inhibiting Peptide against Rift Valley Fever Virus Inhibits Multiple, Diverse Viruses

    E-print Network

    A Fusion-Inhibiting Peptide against Rift Valley Fever Virus Inhibits Multiple, Diverse Viruses (Class I, II, and III) based on the protein sequence and structure. For Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV KW, Taylor SL, et al. (2013) A Fusion-Inhibiting Peptide against Rift Valley Fever Virus Inhibits

  7. Functional Features of Hepatitis C Virus Glycoproteins for Pseudotype Virus Entry into Mammalian Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith Meyer; Arnab Basu; Ranjit Ray

    2000-01-01

    We have previously reported the generation of pseudotype virus from chimeric gene constructs encoding the ectodomain of the E1 or E2 glycoprotein of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1a appended to the trans membrane domain and cytoplasmic tail of the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) G protein. Sera derived from chimpanzees immunized with homologous HCV glycoproteins neutralized pseudotype virus infectivity (L.

  8. Research Projects in Ly's & Liang's Labs How virus-host interactions affect Lassa and Influenza virus

    E-print Network

    Blanchette, Robert A.

    Guanarito (BSL4) Sabia (BSL4) Chapare (BSL4) Lujo (BSL4) Rift Valley Fever (BSL3) (BSL4) Yellow Fever (BSL and Influenza virus replication, virulence and pathogenesis? I fl iLassa fever virus Influenza virus #12;Lassa Virus Causes Lethal Hemorrhagic Fever · Severe multisystem syndrome · Damage to overall vascular system

  9. Structure of the hepatitis E virus-like particle suggests mechanisms for virus assembly

    E-print Network

    Tao, Yizhi Jane

    Structure of the hepatitis E virus-like particle suggests mechanisms for virus assembly (received for review May 1, 2009) Hepatitis E virus (HEV), a small, non-enveloped RNA virus in the family Hepeviridae, is associated with endemic and epidemic acute viral hepatitis in developing countries. Our 3.5-Ĺ

  10. GENOMIC SEQUENCING OF DEER TICK VIRUS AND PHYLOGENY OF POWASSAN-RELATED VIRUSES OF NORTH AMERICA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. KUNO; H. ARTSOB; N. KARABATSOS; K. R. TSUCHIYA; G. J. J. CHANG

    2001-01-01

    Powassan (POW) virus is responsible for central nervous system infection in humans in North America and the eastern parts of Russia. Recently, a new flavivirus, deer tick (DT) virus, related to POW virus was isolated in the United States, but neither its pathogenic potential in human nor the taxonomic relationship with POW virus has been elucidated. In this study, we

  11. Full Genome Sequencing and Genetic Characterization of Eubenangee Viruses Identify Pata Virus as a Distinct Species within the Genus Orbivirus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manjunatha N. Belaganahalli; Sushila Maan; Narender S. Maan; Kyriaki Nomikou; Ian Pritchard; Ross Lunt; Peter D. Kirkland; Houssam Attoui; Joe Brownlie; Peter P. C. Mertens

    2012-01-01

    Eubenangee virus has previously been identified as the cause of Tammar sudden death syndrome (TSDS). Eubenangee virus (EUBV), Tilligery virus (TILV), Pata virus (PATAV) and Ngoupe virus (NGOV) are currently all classified within the Eubenangee virus species of the genus Orbivirus, family Reoviridae. Full genome sequencing confirmed that EUBV and TILV (both of which are from Australia) show high levels

  12. Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling of Influenza A Virus Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Yu, Meng; Zheng, Weinan; Liu, Wenjun

    2015-01-01

    Influenza viruses transcribe and replicate their genomes in the nuclei of infected host cells. The viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) complex of influenza virus is the essential genetic unit of the virus. The viral proteins play important roles in multiple processes, including virus structural maintenance, mediating nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the vRNP complex, virus particle assembly, and budding. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of viral proteins occurs throughout the entire virus life cycle. This review mainly focuses on matrix protein (M1), nucleoprotein (NP), nonstructural protein (NS1), and nuclear export protein (NEP), summarizing the mechanisms of their nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and the regulation of virus replication through their phosphorylation to further understand the regulation of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling in host adaptation of the viruses. PMID:26008706

  13. Testing for the Hepatitis C Virus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... C Virus" /> Consumer Summary – Sept. 13, 2013 Testing for the Hepatitis C Virus Formats View PDF ( ... longer for bleeding to stop Understanding Hepatitis C Testing How do I know if I have the ...

  14. The Origins of the AIDS Virus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essex, Max; Kanki, Phyllis J.

    1988-01-01

    States that the virus is not unique since it has been discovered in other primates as well as in man. Relates studies of viruses that indicate some have evolved disease-free coexistence with their animal hosts. (RT)

  15. Recombination Promoted by DNA Viruses: Phage ? to Herpes Simplex Virus

    PubMed Central

    Weller, Sandra K.; Sawitzke, James A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to explore recombination strategies in DNA viruses. Homologous recombination is a universal genetic process that plays multiple roles in the biology of all organisms, including viruses. Recombination and DNA replication are interconnected, with recombination being essential for repairing DNA damage and supporting replication of the viral genome. Recombination also creates genetic diversity, and viral recombination mechanisms have important implications for understanding viral origins as well as the dynamic nature of viral-host interactions. Both bacteriophage ? and herpes simplex virus (HSV) display high rates of recombination, both utilizing their own proteins and commandeering cellular proteins to promote recombination reactions. We focus primarily on ? and HSV, as they have proven amenable to both genetic and biochemical analysis and have recently been shown to exhibit some surprising similarities that will guide future studies. PMID:25002096

  16. Autophagic machinery activated by dengue virus enhances virus replication

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.-R. [Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lei, H.-Y. [Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Liu, M.-T. [Tainan Hospital, Department of Health, Executive Yuan, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Wang, J.-R. [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chen, S.-H. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Jiang-Shieh, Y.-F. [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lin, Y.-S. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Yeh, T.-M. [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Liu, C.-C. [Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Liu, H.-S. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: a713@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2008-05-10

    Autophagy is a cellular response against stresses which include the infection of viruses and bacteria. We unravel that Dengue virus-2 (DV2) can trigger autophagic process in various infected cell lines demonstrated by GFP-LC3 dot formation and increased LC3-II formation. Autophagosome formation was also observed under the transmission electron microscope. DV2-induced autophagy further enhances the titers of extracellular and intracellular viruses indicating that autophagy can promote viral replication in the infected cells. Moreover, our data show that ATG5 protein is required to execute DV2-induced autophagy. All together, we are the first to demonstrate that DV can activate autophagic machinery that is favorable for viral replication.

  17. Evolution of Computer Virus Concealment and Anti-Virus Techniques: A Short Survey

    E-print Network

    Rad, Babak Bashari; Ibrahim, Suhaimi

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a general overview on evolution of concealment methods in computer viruses and defensive techniques employed by anti-virus products. In order to stay far from the anti-virus scanners, computer viruses gradually improve their codes to make them invisible. On the other hand, anti-virus technologies continually follow the virus tricks and methodologies to overcome their threats. In this process, anti-virus experts design and develop new methodologies to make them stronger, more and more, every day. The purpose of this paper is to review these methodologies and outline their strengths and weaknesses to encourage those are interested in more investigation on these areas.

  18. A Mediterranean arbovirus: The Toscana virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcello Valassina; Maria Grazia Cusi; Pier Egisto Valensin

    2003-01-01

    Toscana virus (Bunyaviridae family, Phlebovirus genus) is a sandfly fever virus responsible for human neurological infections.\\u000a Sandfly viruses are transmitted by insect vectors (Phlebotomus species) and the infection is present in climatic areas that\\u000a allow the life cycle of the vector. The arthropode-borne Toscana virus is the etiologic agent of meningitis, meningoencephalitis,\\u000a and encephalitis. The frequency of this neuropathic infection

  19. SURVEY OF GRAPEVINE VIRUSES IN CHILE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Fiore; S. Prodan; J. Montealegre; E. Aballay; A. M. Pino; A. Zamorano

    SUMMARY Grapevines from six Chilean regions were surveyed for virus diseases and tested for the presence of the most important viruses. ELISA testing of 2535 samples and confirmatory RT-PCR of some ELISA-negative samples from symptomatic and symptomless vines gave the fol- lowing infection rates: 6.36% for Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV); 4.67% for Grapevine leafroll associated virus 1 (GLRaV-1); 16.05% for

  20. Metamorphic Viruses Detection Using Artificial Immune System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Essam Al Daoud

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a new artificial immune system for metamorphic viruses detection, the suggested system uses components and techniques found in the biological immune system such as multilayer, self, nonself , skin,skeleton, B-cell and receptors. In this study; metamorphic viruses are generated by two tools: Next Generation Virus Creation Kit (NGVCK0.30) and Virus Creation Lab for Windows 32 (VCL32). The

  1. Recent advances in oncolytic virus design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rubén Hernández-Alcoceba

    2011-01-01

    The cytolytic properties of viruses can be used to treat cancer. Replication of certain viruses is favoured in cancer cells,\\u000a whereas others can be modified to obtain tumour specificity. This approach has evolved to become a new discipline called virotherapy.\\u000a In addition, these replication-competent (oncolytic) viruses can be adapted as vectors for cancer gene therapy. The “armed”\\u000a viruses show a

  2. Virus-membrane interactions: spectroscopic studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. P. Datema

    1987-01-01

    In this thesis some new aspects of the infection process of nonenveloped viruses are reported. The interaction of a rod-shaped (TMV) and three spherical (CCMV, BMV, SBMV) plant viruses, of the filamentous bacteriophage M13, and of their coat proteins with membranes have been investigated. A comparison is made between the infection mechanisms of these non-enveloped viruses.1 EFFECT OF PLANT VIRUSES

  3. Characteristics of Filoviridae: Marburg and Ebola Viruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, Brigitte; Kurth, Reinhard; Bukreyev, Alexander

    Filoviruses are enveloped, nonsegmented negative-stranded RNA viruses. The two species, Marburg and Ebola virus, are serologically, biochemically, and genetically distinct. Marburg virus was first isolated during an outbreak in Europe in 1967, and Ebola virus emerged in 1976 as the causative agent of two simultaneous outbreaks in southern Sudan and northern Zaire. Although the main route of infection is known to be person-to-person transmission by intimate contact, the natural reservoir for filoviruses still remains a mystery.

  4. Fatal Case of Deer Tick Virus Encephalitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norma P. Tavakoli; Heng Wang; Michelle Dupuis; Rene Hull; Gregory D. Ebel; Emily J. Gilmore; Phyllis L. Faust

    2010-01-01

    Summary Deer tick virus is related to Powassan virus, a tickborne encephalitis virus. A 62-year- old man presented with a meningoencephalitis syndrome and eventually died. Analy- ses of tissue samples obtained during surgery and at autopsy revealed a widespread necrotizing meningoencephalitis. Nucleic acid was extracted from formalin-fixed tissue, and the presence of deer tick virus was verified on a flavivirus-specific

  5. Cooperation between the Hemagglutinin of Avian Viruses and the Matrix Protein of Human Influenza A Viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoph Scholtissek; Jürgen Stech; Scott Krauss; Robert G. Webster

    2002-01-01

    To analyze the compatibility of avian influenza A virus hemagglutinins (HAs) and human influenza A virus matrix (M) proteins M1 and M2, we doubly infected Madin-Darby canine kidney cells with amantadine (1-aminoadamantane hydrochloride)-resistant human viruses and amantadine-sensitive avian strains. By using antisera against the human virus HAs and amantadine, we selected reassortants containing the human virus M gene and the

  6. Class II virus membrane fusion proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret Kielian

    2006-01-01

    Enveloped animal viruses fuse their membrane with a host cell membrane, thus delivering the virus genetic material into the cytoplasm and initiating infection. This critical membrane fusion reaction is mediated by a virus transmembrane protein known as the fusion protein, which inserts its hydrophobic fusion peptide into the cell membrane and refolds to drive the fusion reaction. This review describes

  7. Citrus tristeza virus-host interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a phloem-limited virus whose natural host range is restricted to citrus and related species. Although the virus has killed millions of trees, almost destroying whole industries, and continually limits production in many citrus growing areas, most isolates are mild or s...

  8. Immunotherapy for chronic hepatitis B virus infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xian-Jie Yu; Gui-Qiang Wang

    2007-01-01

    The immune system functions to control and clear virus infections. Viral persistence has been closely associated with dysfunctional specific immunity, especially cellular immunity. Current antiviral therapies have been disappointing. Immunotherapies with strategies to boost or restore the virus-specific immune response of patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection have been proposed for curing persistent i n f e c t

  9. killed-virus influenza vaccine Polio vaccine

    E-print Network

    Shyy, Wei

    killed-virus influenza vaccine Polio vaccine FluMist Thomas Francis, Jr. National Institutes of Health live-virus influenza vaccine Hunein Maassab Jonas Salk Type-A virus trivalent cold that Maassab's innovative, trivalent, cold- adapted influenza vaccine, FluMist, which uses live but weakened

  10. Inhibition of Interferons by Ectromelia Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincent P. Smith; Antonio Alcami

    2002-01-01

    Ectromelia virus (EV) is an orthopoxvirus (OPV) that causes mousepox, a severe disease of laboratory mice. Mousepox is a useful model of OPV infection because EV is likely to be a natural mouse pathogen, unlike its close relatives vaccinia virus (VV) and variola virus. Several studies have highlighted the importance of mouse interferons (IFNs) in resistance to and recovery from

  11. Report on potato virus diseases in 1939

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. P. Dykstra

    1940-01-01

    This report gives a review of some of the papers on potato virus diseases published during 1939 and the latter part of I938. Not all these papers were read, and in some cases only the abstracts found in the Review of Applied Mycology were used. Dennis (8) conducted studies to determine the properties of Solanum virus 4 (= virus B)

  12. Review article Pathobiology of bovine leukemia virus

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Review article Pathobiology of bovine leukemia virus I Schwartz D Lévy URA-INRA d-Alfort cedex, France (Received 16 March 1994; accepted 25 July 1994) Summary ― Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a retrovirus similar to the human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV). Most BLV infected animals (70

  13. ENTOMOPATHOGENIC VIRUS FROM GLASSY-WINGED SHARPSHOOTER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The glassy-winged sharpshooter, GWSS, has been shown to be susceptible to insect virus infections. A new virus was isolated from field caught GWSS and partially sequenced. Sequence identity showed that this was a new sharpshooter virus separate from those already reported by Hunter et. al. 2004, and...

  14. GENETIC VARIABILITY IN MAIZE CHLOROTIC DWARF VIRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize chlorotic dwarf virus (MCDV) (genus Waikavirus; family Sequiviridae) is a picorna-like virus transmitted by the black-faced leafhopper, Graminella nigrifrons, in a semi-persistent manner using a virus-encoded helper protein. The MCDV genome contains one large open reading frame encoding a poly...

  15. Ubiquitous Reassortments in influenza a viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiu-feng Wan; Mufit Ozden; Guohui Lin

    2008-01-01

    Influenza A virus is a negative stranded RNA virus, composed of eight segmented RNA molecules, including polymerases (PB2, PB1, PA), haemaglutin (HA), nucleoprotein (NP), neuraminidase (NA), matrix protein (MP), and nonstructure gene (NS). The influenza A viruses are notorious for rapid mutations, frequent genomic reassortments, and possible recombinations. Among these evolutionary events, genetic reassortments refer to exchanges of internal fragments

  16. Taxonomic Classification of Hepatitis A Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian D. Gust; Anthony G. Coulepis; Stephen M. Feinstone; Stephen A. Locarnini; Yasuo Moritsugu; Raphael Najera; Gunter Siegl

    1983-01-01

    Summary Sufficient data have accumulated to permit the ICTV Ad Hoc Study Group on the Taxonomy of Hepatitis Viruses to recognize hepatitis A virus as a picornavirus. Within the family Picornaviridae, hepatitis A virus closely resembles members of the genus Enterovirus.Copyright © 1983 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. Email Virus Propagation Modeling and Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cliff C. Zou; Don Towsley; Weibo Gong

    2003-01-01

    Email viruses constitute one of the major Internet security problems. In this paper we present an email virus model that accounts for the behaviors of email users, such as email checking frequency and the probability of opening an email attachment. Email viruses spread over a logical network defined by email address books. The topology of email network plays an important

  18. A modified epidemiological model for computer viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Roberto C. Piqueira; Vanessa O. Araujo

    2009-01-01

    Since the computer viruses pose a serious problem to individual and corporative computer systems, a lot of effort has been dedicated to study how to avoid their deleterious actions, trying to create anti-virus programs acting as vaccines in personal computers or in strategic network nodes. Another way to combat viruses propagation is to establish preventive policies based on the whole

  19. A history of computer viruses - Introduction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harold Joseph Highland

    1997-01-01

    The following series of articles are taken from Harold's Computer Virus Handbook, published by Elsevier Advanced Technology in 1990. Viruses have moved on a long way since then, but the extracts published here provide a useful background in virus development, and contain much information that is still relevant today. It is also interesting to note that Harold introduces the Macro

  20. Current best practice against computer viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fred Cohen

    1991-01-01

    Summarizes research on viruses and defenses. The author examines the state-of-the-art in virus defense today and describes how normal computing activities can proceed without undue risk of substantial viral harm. He then describes a set of redundant integrity protection mechanisms used in defending against computer viruses in untrusted computing environments. They include applications of coding theory, cryptography, operating system modifications,

  1. An Abstract Theory of Computer Viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard M. Adleman

    1988-01-01

    In recent years the detection of computer viruses has become common place. It appears that for the most part these viruses\\u000a have been ‘benign’ or only mildly destructive. However, whether or not computer viruses have the potential to cause major\\u000a and prolonged disruptions of computing environments is an open question.

  2. Pairwise Alignment of Metamorphic Computer Viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott McGhee

    2007-01-01

    Computer viruses and other forms of malware pose a threat to virtually any software system (with only a few exceptions). A computer virus is a piece of software which takes advantage of known weaknesses in a software system, and usually has the ability to deliver a malicious payload. A common technique that virus writers use to avoid detection is to

  3. On the time complexity of computer viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhi-hong Zuo; Qing-xin Zhu; Ming-tian Zhou

    2005-01-01

    Computer viruses can disable computer systems not only by destroying data or modifying a system's configuration, but also by consuming most of the computing resources such as CPU time and storage. The latter effects are related to the computational complexity of computer viruses. In this correspondence, we investigate some issues concerning the time complexity of computer viruses, and prove some

  4. Semester Thesis Virus Inoculation on Social Graphs -

    E-print Network

    Schmid, Stefan

    led to a huge number of computer-viruses, acting in many different manners and aiming at diverse. A contaminated computer hence serves as a source for the virus to infect every other directly linked computer of the virus, every computer that eventually is infected has also to face a drawback in terms of e.g. lost data

  5. Virus detection and quantification using electrical parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Mahmoud Al; Mustafa, Farah; Ali, Lizna M.; Rizvi, Tahir A.

    2014-10-01

    Here we identify and quantitate two similar viruses, human and feline immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and FIV), suspended in a liquid medium without labeling, using a semiconductor technique. The virus count was estimated by calculating the impurities inside a defined volume by observing the change in electrical parameters. Empirically, the virus count was similar to the absolute value of the ratio of the change of the virus suspension dopant concentration relative to the mock dopant over the change in virus suspension Debye volume relative to mock Debye volume. The virus type was identified by constructing a concentration-mobility relationship which is unique for each kind of virus, allowing for a fast (within minutes) and label-free virus quantification and identification. For validation, the HIV and FIV virus preparations were further quantified by a biochemical technique and the results obtained by both approaches corroborated well. We further demonstrate that the electrical technique could be applied to accurately measure and characterize silica nanoparticles that resemble the virus particles in size. Based on these results, we anticipate our present approach to be a starting point towards establishing the foundation for label-free electrical-based identification and quantification of an unlimited number of viruses and other nano-sized particles.

  6. Open Problems in Computer Virus Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steve R. White

    1998-01-01

    Over a decade of work on the computer virus problem has resulted in a number of useful scientific and technological achievements. The study of biological epidemiology has been extended to help us understand when and why computer viruses spread. Techniques have been developed to help us estimate the safety and effectiveness of anti-virus technology before it is deployed. Technology for

  7. Assembly and budding of influenza virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debi P. Nayak; Eric Ka-Wai Hui; Subrata Barman

    2004-01-01

    Influenza viruses are causative agents of an acute febrile respiratory disease called influenza (commonly known as “flu”) and belong to the Orthomyxoviridae family. These viruses possess segmented, negative stranded RNA genomes (vRNA) and are enveloped, usually spherical and bud from the plasma membrane (more specifically, the apical plasma membrane of polarized epithelial cells). Complete virus particles, therefore, are not found

  8. VIRUS TRANSPORT EXPERIMENTS IN A SANDY AQUIFER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The occurrence of human enteric viruses in ground water has been well documented in the literature. Bacteriophages, such as MS-2 and PRD1, have properties similar to pathogenic human viruses, suggesting that bacteriophages can be used as proxies for virus transport. The objective of this study is to...

  9. G to A hypermutation of TT virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masataka Tsuge; Chiemi Noguchi; Rie Akiyama; Miyuki Matsushita; Kana Kunihiro; Sachi Tanaka; Hiromi Abe; Fukiko Mitsui; Shosuke Kitamura; Tsuyoshi Hatakeyama; Takashi Kimura; Daiki Miki; Nobuhiko Hiraga; Michio Imamura; Shoichi Takahashi; C. Nelson Hayses; Kazuaki Chayama

    2010-01-01

    APOBEC3 proteins function as part of innate antiviral immunity and induce G to A hypermutation in retroviruses and hepatitis B virus (HBV) genomes. Whether APOBEC3 proteins affect viruses that replicate without a reverse transcription step is unknown. TT virus (TTV), known to present in serum of healthy individuals and HBV carriers, has a single-stranded circular DNA genome and replicates without

  10. Emerging intracellular receptors for hemorrhagic fever viruses.

    PubMed

    Jae, Lucas T; Brummelkamp, Thijn R

    2015-07-01

    Ebola virus and Lassa virus belong to different virus families that can cause viral hemorrhagic fever, a life-threatening disease in humans with limited treatment options. To infect a target cell, Ebola and Lassa viruses engage receptors at the cell surface and are subsequently shuttled into the endosomal compartment. Upon arrival in late endosomes/lysosomes, the viruses trigger membrane fusion to release their genome into the cytoplasm. Although contact sites at the cell surface were recognized for Ebola virus and Lassa virus, it was postulated that Ebola virus requires a critical receptor inside the cell. Recent screens for host factors identified such internal receptors for both viruses: Niemann-Pick disease type C1 protein (NPC1) for Ebola virus and lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1) for Lassa virus. A cellular trigger is needed to permit binding of the viral envelope protein to these intracellular receptors. This 'receptor switch' represents a previously unnoticed step in virus entry with implications for host-pathogen interactions and viral tropism. PMID:26004032

  11. Phylogeny of North American Powassan virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory D. Ebel; Andrew Spielman; Sam R. Telford

    2001-01-01

    To determine whether Powassan virus (POW) and deer tick virus (DTV) constitute distinct flaviviral populations transmitted by ixodid ticks in North America, we analysed diverse nucleotide sequences from 16 strains of these viruses. Two distinct genetic lineages are evident, which may be defined by geographical and host associations. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of lineage one (comprising New York

  12. VideoLab:Virus Spreads Fourfold Faster

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Virginie Doceul (Imperial College London, St Maryâ??s Campus; Department of Virology, Faculty of Medicine)

    2010-02-12

    Viruses are thought to infect cells cyclically: infect, replicate, release, repeat. However, the vaccinia virus can spread four times faster than this iterative process allows (first movie clip). To explain this incredible speed, Doceul et al. found that as soon as this virus infects a cell, it directs the cell to make two crucial surface proteins.

  13. HIV-1 Pathogenesis: The Virus

    PubMed Central

    Swanstrom, Ronald; Coffin, John

    2012-01-01

    Transmission of HIV-1 results in the establishment of a new infection, typically starting from a single virus particle. That virion replicates to generate viremia and persistent infection in all of the lymphoid tissue in the body. HIV-1 preferentially infects T cells with high levels of CD4 and those subsets of T cells that express CCR5, particularly memory T cells. Most of the replicating virus is in the lymphoid tissue, yet most of samples studied are from blood. For the most part the tissue and blood viruses represent a well-mixed population. With the onset of immunodeficiency, the virus evolves to infect new cell types. The tropism switch involves switching from using CCR5 to CXCR4 and corresponds to an expansion of infected cells to include naďve CD4+ T cells. Similarly, the virus evolves the ability to enter cells with low levels of CD4 on the surface and this potentiates the ability to infect macrophages, although the scope of sites where infection of macrophages occurs and the link to pathogenesis is only partly known and is clear only for infection of the central nervous system. A model linking viral evolution to these two pathways has been proposed. Finally, other disease states related to immunodeficiency may be the result of viral infection of additional tissues, although the evidence for a direct role for the virus is less strong. Advancing immunodeficiency creates an environment in which viral evolution results in viral variants that can target new cell types to generate yet another class of opportunistic infections (i.e., HIV-1 with altered tropism). PMID:23143844

  14. Dominant resistance against plant viruses

    PubMed Central

    de Ronde, Dryas; Butterbach, Patrick; Kormelink, Richard

    2014-01-01

    To establish a successful infection plant viruses have to overcome a defense system composed of several layers. This review will overview the various strategies plants employ to combat viral infections with main emphasis on the current status of single dominant resistance (R) genes identified against plant viruses and the corresponding avirulence (Avr) genes identified so far. The most common models to explain the mode of action of dominant R genes will be presented. Finally, in brief the hypersensitive response (HR) and extreme resistance (ER), and the functional and structural similarity of R genes to sensors of innate immunity in mammalian cell systems will be described. PMID:25018765

  15. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: characteristics of the virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reviews the history of research on bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) from their discovery in the 1940's to the design of current BVDV eradication programs. The physiochemical characteristics of BVDV are discussed and well as classification of BVDV into biotypes and genotypes. The trans...

  16. Halting viruses in scale-free networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dezs?, Zoltán; Barabási, Albert-László

    2002-05-01

    The vanishing epidemic threshold for viruses spreading on scale-free networks indicate that traditional methods, aiming to decrease a virus' spreading rate cannot succeed in eradicating an epidemic. We demonstrate that policies that discriminate between the nodes, curing mostly the highly connected nodes, can restore a finite epidemic threshold and potentially eradicate a virus. We find that the more biased a policy is towards the hubs, the more chance it has to bring the epidemic threshold above the virus' spreading rate. Furthermore, such biased policies are more cost effective, requiring less cures to eradicate the virus.

  17. Divergent Roles of Autophagy in Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chiramel, Abhilash I.; Brady, Nathan R.; Bartenschlager, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Viruses have played an important role in human evolution and have evolved diverse strategies to co-exist with their hosts. As obligate intracellular pathogens, viruses exploit and manipulate different host cell processes, including cellular trafficking, metabolism and immunity-related functions, for their own survival. In this article, we review evidence for how autophagy, a highly conserved cellular degradative pathway, serves either as an antiviral defense mechanism or, alternatively, as a pro-viral process during virus infection. Furthermore, we highlight recent reports concerning the role of selective autophagy in virus infection and how viruses manipulate autophagy to evade lysosomal capture and degradation. PMID:24709646

  18. Comparative analysis of chrysanthemum transcriptome in response to three RNA viruses: Cucumber mosaic virus, Tomato spotted wilt virus and Potato virus X.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hoseong; Jo, Yeonhwa; Lian, Sen; Jo, Kyoung-Min; Chu, Hyosub; Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Choi, Seung-Kook; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Cho, Won Kyong

    2015-06-01

    The chrysanthemum is one of popular flowers in the world and a host for several viruses. So far, molecular interaction studies between the chrysanthemum and viruses are limited. In this study, we carried out a transcriptome analysis of chrysanthemum in response to three different viruses including Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and Potato virus X (PVX). A chrysanthemum 135K microarray derived from expressed sequence tags was successfully applied for the expression profiles of the chrysanthemum at early stage of virus infection. Finally, we identified a total of 125, 70 and 124 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) for CMV, TSWV and PVX, respectively. Many DEGs were virus specific; however, 33 DEGs were commonly regulated by three viruses. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis identified a total of 132 GO terms, and of them, six GO terms related stress response and MCM complex were commonly identified for three viruses. Several genes functioning in stress response such as chitin response and ethylene mediated signaling pathway were up-regulated indicating their involvement in establishment of host immune system. In particular, TSWV infection significantly down-regulated genes related to DNA metabolic process including DNA replication, chromatin organization, histone modification and cytokinesis, and they are mostly targeted to nucleosome and MCM complex. Taken together, our comparative transcriptome analysis revealed several genes related to hormone mediated viral stress response and DNA modification. The identified chrysanthemums genes could be good candidates for further functional study associated with resistant to various plant viruses. PMID:25904110

  19. Top 10 plant viruses in molecular plant pathology.

    PubMed

    Scholthof, Karen-Beth G; Adkins, Scott; Czosnek, Henryk; Palukaitis, Peter; Jacquot, Emmanuel; Hohn, Thomas; Hohn, Barbara; Saunders, Keith; Candresse, Thierry; Ahlquist, Paul; Hemenway, Cynthia; Foster, Gary D

    2011-12-01

    Many scientists, if not all, feel that their particular plant virus should appear in any list of the most important plant viruses. However, to our knowledge, no such list exists. The aim of this review was to survey all plant virologists with an association with Molecular Plant Pathology and ask them to nominate which plant viruses they would place in a 'Top 10' based on scientific/economic importance. The survey generated more than 250 votes from the international community, and allowed the generation of a Top 10 plant virus list for Molecular Plant Pathology. The Top 10 list includes, in rank order, (1) Tobacco mosaic virus, (2) Tomato spotted wilt virus, (3) Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, (4) Cucumber mosaic virus, (5) Potato virus Y, (6) Cauliflower mosaic virus, (7) African cassava mosaic virus, (8) Plum pox virus, (9) Brome mosaic virus and (10) Potato virus X, with honourable mentions for viruses just missing out on the Top 10, including Citrus tristeza virus, Barley yellow dwarf virus, Potato leafroll virus and Tomato bushy stunt virus. This review article presents a short review on each virus of the Top 10 list and its importance, with the intent of initiating discussion and debate amongst the plant virology community, as well as laying down a benchmark, as it will be interesting to see in future years how perceptions change and which viruses enter and leave the Top 10. PMID:22017770

  20. Viruses and prions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Wickner, Reed B.; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Esteban, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been a key experimental organism for the study of infectious diseases, including dsRNA viruses, ssRNA viruses and prions. Studies of the mechanisms of virus and prion replication, virus structure and structure of the amyloid filaments that are the basis of yeast prions have been at the forefront of such studies in these classes of infectious entities. Yeast has been particularly useful in defining the interactions of the infectious elements with cellular components: chromosomally encoded proteins necessary for or blocking the propagation of the viruses and prions, and proteins involved in expression of viral components. Here we emphasize the L-A dsRNA virus and its killer-toxin-encoding satellites, the 20S and 23S ssRNA naked viruses, and the several infectious proteins (prions) of yeast. PMID:23498901

  1. Systems analysis of West Nile virus infection.

    PubMed

    Suthar, Mehul S; Pulendran, Bali

    2014-06-01

    Emerging and re-emerging mosquito-borne viruses continue to pose a significant threat to human health throughout the world. Over the past decade, West Nile virus (WNV), Dengue virus (DENV), and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), have caused annual epidemics of virus-induced encephalitis, hemorrhagic fever\\shock syndromes, and arthritis, respectively. Currently, no specific antiviral therapies or vaccines exist for use in humans to combat or prevent these viral infections. Thus, there is a pressing need to define the virus-host interactions that govern immunity and infection outcome. Recent technological breakthroughs in 'omics' resources and high-throughput based assays are beginning to accelerate antiviral drug discovery and improve on current strategies for vaccine design. In this review, we highlight studies with WNV and discuss how traditional and systems biological approaches are being used to rapidly identify novel host targets for therapeutic intervention and develop a deeper conceptual understanding of the host response to virus infection. PMID:24851811

  2. West Nile virus in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Christal G

    2008-06-01

    West Nile virus causes sporadic disease in the Eastern hemisphere that is often asymptomatic or mild, whereas in the Western hemisphere, West Nile virus has been associated with illness and profound mortality in many avian species. West Nile virus might have been transported to North America by an infected mosquito or the virus could have entered within a vertebrate host like a bird. Although the most important method of West Nile virus transmission is by Culex species mosquitoes, additional modes of transmission have been identified. West Nile virus has been isolated from almost 300 species of Western birds. The long-term effects on common species such as corvids, sparrows, grackles, finches, hawks, and robins are still being debated. However the potential effect of West Nile virus on small populations or species with limited geographic distribution, such as Hawaiian avifauna, could be much more catastrophic. PMID:18689077

  3. Virus-Induced Aggregates in Infected Cells

    PubMed Central

    Moshe, Adi; Gorovits, Rena

    2012-01-01

    During infection, many viruses induce cellular remodeling, resulting in the formation of insoluble aggregates/inclusions, usually containing viral structural proteins. Identification of aggregates has become a useful diagnostic tool for certain viral infections. There is wide variety of viral aggregates, which differ by their location, size, content and putative function. The role of aggregation in the context of a specific virus is often poorly understood, especially in the case of plant viruses. The aggregates are utilized by viruses to house a large complex of proteins of both viral and host origin to promote virus replication, translation, intra- and intercellular transportation. Aggregated structures may protect viral functional complexes from the cellular degradation machinery. Alternatively, the activation of host defense mechanisms may involve sequestration of virus components in aggregates, followed by their neutralization as toxic for the host cell. The diversity of virus-induced aggregates in mammalian and plant cells is the subject of this review. PMID:23202461

  4. Systems analysis of West Nile virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Suthar, Mehul S.; Pulendran, Bali

    2014-01-01

    Emerging and re-emerging mosquito-borne viruses continue to pose a significant threat to human health throughout the world. Over the past decade, West Nile virus (WNV), Dengue virus (DENV), and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), have caused annual epidemics of virus-induced encephalitis, hemorrhagic fever\\shock syndromes, and arthritis, respectively. Currently, no specific antiviral therapies or vaccines exist for use in humans to combat or prevent these viral infections. Thus, there is a pressing need to define the virus-host interactions that govern immunity and infection outcome. Recent technological breakthroughs in ‘omics’ resources and high-throughput based assays are beginning to accelerate antiviral drug discovery and improve on current strategies for vaccine design. In this review, we highlight studies with WNV and discuss how traditional and systems based approaches are being used to rapidly identify novel host targets for therapeutic intervention and develop a deeper conceptual understanding of the host response to virus infection. PMID:24851811

  5. Xenotransplantation and Hepatitis E virus.

    PubMed

    Denner, Joachim

    2015-05-01

    Xenotransplantation using pig cells, tissues and organs may be associated with the transmission of porcine microorganisms to the human recipient. Some of these microorganisms may induce a zoonosis, that is an infectious disease induced by microorganisms transmitted from another species. With exception of the porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs), which are integrated in the genome of all pigs, the transmission of all other microorganisms can be prevented by specified or designated pathogen-free (spf or dpf, respectively) production of the animals. However, it is becoming clear in the last years that the hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the viruses which are difficult to eliminate. It is important to note that there are differences between HEV of genotypes (gt) 1 and gt2 on one hand and HEV of gt3 and gt4 on the other. HEV gt1 and gt2 are human viruses, and they induce hepatitis and in the worst case fatal infections in pregnant women. In contrast, HEV gt3 and gt4 are viruses of pigs, and they may infect humans, induce commonly only mild diseases, if any, and are harmless for pregnant women. The goal of this review was to evaluate the risk posed by HEV gt3 and gt4 for xenotransplantation and to indicate ways of their elimination from pigs in order to prevent transmission to the human recipient. PMID:25676629

  6. A virus-based biocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carette, Noëlle; Engelkamp, Hans; Akpa, Eric; Pierre, Sebastien J.; Cameron, Neil R.; Christianen, Peter C. M.; Maan, Jan C.; Thies, Jens C.; Weberskirch, Ralf; Rowan, Alan E.; Nolte, Roeland J. M.; Michon, Thierry; van Hest, Jan C. M.

    2007-04-01

    Virus particles are probably the most precisely defined nanometre-sized objects that can be formed by protein self-assembly. Although their natural function is the storage and transport of genetic material, they have more recently been applied as scaffolds for mineralization and as containers for the encapsulation of inorganic compounds. The reproductive power of viruses has been used to develop versatile analytical methods, such as phage display, for the selection and identification of (bio)active compounds. To date, the combined use of self-assembly and reproduction has not been used for the construction of catalytic systems. Here we describe a self-assembled system based on a plant virus that has its coat protein genetically modified to provide it with a lipase enzyme. Using single-object and bulk catalytic studies, we prove that the virus-anchored lipase molecules are catalytically active. This anchored biocatalyst, unlike man-made supported catalysts, has the capability to reproduce itself in vivo, generating many independent catalytically active copies.

  7. Who Let the Virus In?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-11-01

    Fifty-second monthly installment of our "What A Year!" website project, introducing life science breakthroughs to middle and high school students and their teachers. Respiratory syncytial virus, RSV for short, is so common that almost every child in the United States under two years of age has been infected once, and that half of children under three have been infected at least twice.

  8. West Nile Virus Problem Space

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ethel Stanley (Beloit College; )

    2005-12-13

    As an emerging disease in the public eye, WNV continues to generate scientific interest as well. Researchers are exploring questions about its origin, evolution, transmission by multiple vectors and host tissues, replication in multiple hosts, viremic period, viral loads, seroconversion and antibody production, detection, vaccine potential, etc. Central to these investigations are the use of molecular data including nucleic acid sequences and the use of bioinformatics. There are multiple ways this data can be used in courses. Other instructors have used West Nile Virus to: * Help students become familiar with Biology Workbench, including the use of Nucleic Acid Tools such as ClustalW and SixFrame as well as Alignment Tools such as DrawGram, BoxShade, and MView, etc. * Locate and download sequence data on line using Biology WorkBench, NCBI, and more. Edit the sequences for comparing sequence data obtained from multiple sources and/or for making shorter labels. * Learn more about the West Nile Virus, including structure of the virus, transmission cycle, replication cycle, viremia, blood titers and the disease in reservoir and incidental hosts, vectors for virus, natural history in the US and around the world, and testing for WNV.

  9. Characterization of Reemerging Chikungunya Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marion Sourisseau; Clémentine Schilte; Nicoletta Casartelli; Céline Trouillet; Florence Guivel-Benhassine; Dominika Rudnicka; Nathalie Sol-Foulon; Karin Le Roux; Marie-Christine Prevost; Hafida Fsihi; Marie-Pascale Frenkiel; Fabien Blanchet; Philippe V. Afonso; Pierre-Emmanuel Ceccaldi; Simona Ozden; Antoine Gessain; Isabelle Schuffenecker; Bruno Verhasselt; Alessia Zamborlini; Ali Saďb; Felix A. Rey; Fernando Arenzana-Seisdedos; Philippe Desprčs; Alain Michault; Matthew L. Albert; Olivier Schwartz

    2007-01-01

    An unprecedented epidemic of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection recently started in countries of the Indian Ocean area, causing an acute and painful syndrome with strong fever, asthenia, skin rash, polyarthritis, and lethal cases of encephalitis. The basis for chikungunya disease and the tropism of CHIKV remain unknown. Here, we describe the replication characteristics of recent clinical CHIKV strains. Human epithelial

  10. Oncolytic Viruses as Anticancer Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Woller, Norman; Gürlevik, Engin; Ureche, Cristina-Ileana; Schumacher, Anja; Kühnel, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Oncolytic virotherapy has shown impressive results in preclinical studies and first promising therapeutic outcomes in clinical trials as well. Since viruses are known for a long time as excellent vaccination agents, oncolytic viruses are now designed as novel anticancer agents combining the aspect of lysis-dependent cytoreductive activity with concomitant induction of antitumoral immune responses. Antitumoral immune activation by oncolytic virus infection of tumor tissue comprises both, immediate effects of innate immunity and also adaptive responses for long lasting antitumoral activity, which is regarded as the most prominent challenge in clinical oncology. To date, the complex effects of a viral tumor infection on the tumor microenvironment and the consequences for the tumor-infiltrating immune cell compartment are poorly understood. However, there is more and more evidence that a tumor infection by an oncolytic virus opens up a number of options for further immunomodulating interventions such as systemic chemotherapy, generic immunostimulating strategies, dendritic cell-based vaccines, and antigenic libraries to further support clinical efficacy of oncolytic virotherapy. PMID:25101244

  11. New vaccines against influenza virus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hye; Ko, Eun-Ju; Lee, Yu-Na; Kim, Min-Chul; Kwon, Young-Man; Tang, Yinghua; Cho, Min-Kyoung; Lee, Youn-Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is one of the most effective and cost-benefit interventions that prevent the mortality and reduce morbidity from infectious pathogens. However, the licensed influenza vaccine induces strain-specific immunity and must be updated annually based on predicted strains that will circulate in the upcoming season. Influenza virus still causes significant health problems worldwide due to the low vaccine efficacy from unexpected outbreaks of next epidemic strains or the emergence of pandemic viruses. Current influenza vaccines are based on immunity to the hemagglutinin antigen that is highly variable among different influenza viruses circulating in humans and animals. Several scientific advances have been endeavored to develop universal vaccines that will induce broad protection. Universal vaccines have been focused on regions of viral proteins that are highly conserved across different virus subtypes. The strategies of universal vaccines include the matrix 2 protein, the hemagglutinin HA2 stalk domain, and T cell-based multivalent antigens. Supplemented and/or adjuvanted vaccination in combination with universal target antigenic vaccines would have much promise. This review summarizes encouraging scientific advances in the field with a focus on novel vaccine designs. PMID:24427759

  12. Schmallenberg Virus Recurrence, Germany, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Conraths, Franz J.

    2015-01-01

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) emerged in Germany in 2011, spread rapidly across Europe, and almost disappeared in 2013. However, since late summer 2014, new cases have occurred in adult cattle. Full-genome analysis revealed some amino acid substitution differences from the first SBV sample. Viremia developed in experimentally infected sheep and cattle for 4–6 days. PMID:26079975

  13. Powassan virus encephalitis, Minnesota, USA.

    PubMed

    Birge, Justin; Sonnesyn, Steven

    2012-10-01

    Powassan virus (POWV) is a rare tick-borne agent of encephalitis in North America. Historically, confirmed cases occurred mainly in the northeastern United States. Since 2008, confirmed cases in Minnesota and Wisconsin have increased. We report a fatal case of POWV encephalitis in Minnesota. POWV infection should be suspected in tick-exposed patients with viral encephalitis. PMID:23017222

  14. Powassan Virus Encephalitis, Minnesota, USA

    PubMed Central

    Sonnesyn, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Powassan virus (POWV) is a rare tick-borne agent of encephalitis in North America. Historically, confirmed cases occurred mainly in the northeastern United States. Since 2008, confirmed cases in Minnesota and Wisconsin have increased. We report a fatal case of POWV encephalitis in Minnesota. POWV infection should be suspected in tick-exposed patients with viral encephalitis. PMID:23017222

  15. Molecular Characteristic-Based Epidemiology of Hepatitis B, C, and E Viruses and GB Virus C\\/Hepatitis G Virus in Myanmar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KAZUHIKO NAKAI; KHIN MAUNG WIN; SAN SAN OO; YASUYUKI ARAKAWA; KENJI ABE

    2001-01-01

    We carried out a molecular characteristic-based epidemiological survey of various hepatitis viruses, includ- ing hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis E virus (HEV), and GB virus C (GBV-C)\\/hepatitis G virus (HGV), in Myanmar. The study population of 403 subjects consisted of 213 healthy individuals residing in the city of Yangon, Myanmar, and the surrounding suburbs and 190

  16. Clarification and guidance on the proper usage of virus and virus species names

    PubMed Central

    Jahrling, Peter B.

    2010-01-01

    A pivotal step in the development of a consistent nomenclature for virus classification was the introduction of the virus species concept by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) in 1991. Yet, almost two decades later, many virologists still are unable to differentiate between virus species and actual viruses. Here we attempt to explain the origin of this confusion, clarify the difference between taxa and physical entities, and suggest simple measures that could be implemented by ICTV Study Groups to make virus taxonomy and nomenclature more accessible to laboratory virologists. PMID:20204430

  17. Pathogenic Interactions Between Sorghum Yellow Banding Virus and Other Viruses Infecting Sorghum. 

    E-print Network

    Theu, M.P.K.J; Toler, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Between Sorghum Yellow Banding Virus and Other Viruses Infecting Sorghum M.P.K.J. Theu and R. W. Toler1 Abstract A pathogenic interaction between sorghum yel low banding virus (SYBV) and maize dwarf mosaic (MDMV-A) virus was proved. Inoculation... of MDMV A 3 days before inoculation with SYBV resulted in a more severe disease and the resultant disease symp toms were different from those caused by either virus alone. Both viruses were serologically detected in a treatment in which MDMV...

  18. What contemporary viruses tell us about evolution: a personal view.

    PubMed

    Moelling, Karin

    2013-09-01

    Recent advances in information about viruses have revealed novel and surprising properties such as viral sequences in the genomes of various organisms, unexpected amounts of viruses and phages in the biosphere, and the existence of giant viruses mimicking bacteria. Viruses helped in building genomes and are driving evolution. Viruses and bacteria belong to the human body and our environment as a well-balanced ecosystem. Only in unbalanced situations do viruses cause infectious diseases or cancer. In this article, I speculate about the role of viruses during evolution based on knowledge of contemporary viruses. Are viruses our oldest ancestors? PMID:23568292

  19. Electronic Parameters of Mesoporous Silicon Upon Adsorption of Plant Viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuriy Vashpanov; Jung-Young Son; Kae-Dal Kwack; Seung-Jung Shin

    2008-01-01

    Changes in the electronic parameters of mesoporous silicon upon adsorption of nematodetransmitted polyhedral (NEPO) viruses of plant [tomato ringspot virus (TORSV), grapevine virus A (GVA), and grapevine fan leaf virus (GFLV)] measured at room temperature are investigated. The adsorption of these viruses affected essentially on the electronic characteristic of the porous material. The measurement of the electronic characteristics of porous

  20. SURVEY FOR VIRUSES OF GRAPEVINE IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grapevines in Washington and Oregon were surveyed for the prevalence of key grapevine viruses. Samples collected from 1522 vines in Washington were tested for Rupestris stem pitting associated virus (RSPaV), Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV), Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV), Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV), ...

  1. Flow cytometry assay for intracellular rabies virus detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juliano Bordignon; Silvia Cordoba Pires Ferreira; Graciane Maria Medeiros Caporale; Maria Luiza Carrieri; Ivanete Kotait; Hermęnio Cavalcante Lima; Carlos Roberto Zanetti

    2002-01-01

    Following previous studies reporting microbiological diagnosis by flow cytometry, the possibility of using this method was examined to monitor infection of susceptible cell lines by a fixed rabies virus strain (Pasteur Virus strain—PV) or a wild rabies virus strain (WRS). Suspensions of BHK-21 and C6 cells were infected with viruses and a time course of virus infection was established. Sequentially,

  2. Genetic mechanisms of Maize dwarf mosaic virus resistance in maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize resistance to viruses has been well-characterized at the genetic level, and loci responsible for resistance to potyviruses including Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV), Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV), and Johnsongrass mosaic virus (JGMV), have been mapped in several ge...

  3. A Dynamic Immunity-Based Model for Computer Virus Detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Zhang; Tao Li; Renchao Qin

    2008-01-01

    Internet provides a fertile medium for new breeds of computer viruses. Many people who have access to a wealth of information via Internet are attacked by more computer viruses than they can effectively process. We present a dynamic computer virus detection model that can detect known viruses and previously unknown viruses to prevent information systems from damage. This model is

  4. Canine distemper virus in Lake Baikal seals (Phoca sibirica)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. V. Mamaev; I. K. G. Visser; S. I. Belikov; N. N. Denikina; T. C. Harder; L. Goatley; B. Rima; B. Edginton; A. D. M. E. Osterhaus; T. Barrett

    1996-01-01

    The virus epizootic which resulted in significant mortality in Siberian seals (Phoca sibirica) in Lake Baikal during 1987\\/88 was caused by canine distemper virus. Sequence analysis of the virus glycoprotein genes revealed that it was most closely related to recent European field isolates of canine distemper virus. This paper presents evidence that the same virus continued to circulate in seals

  5. Determinants of the Host Range of Feline Leukaemia Viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Jarrett; HELEN M. LAIRD; D. Hay

    1973-01-01

    SUMMARY Feline leukaemia viruses of subgroups B and C multiply in human and canine cells, while subgroup A viruses do not. This host range restriction is determined by the virus envelope and operates at the level of virus entry into the cell. Subgroup A virus genomes are expressed and replicated when they are introduced within B subgroup envelopes into human

  6. Managing diseases caused by viruses, viroids, and phytoplasmas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant viruses and virus-like pathogens are of considerable economic importance in potato production. The plant viruses and viroids are small, noncellular pathogens. In contrast, phytoplasmas are cellular organisms. In this chapter, information is presented on a number of virus and virus-like pat...

  7. Intrahost Dynamics of Influenza Virus Reassortment

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Hui; Steel, John

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The segmented nature of the influenza virus genome allows reassortment between coinfecting viruses. This process of genetic exchange vastly increases the diversity of circulating influenza viruses. The importance of reassortment to public health is clear from its role in the emergence of a number of epidemiologically important viruses, including novel pandemic and epidemic strains. To gauge its impact on within-host genomic variation, we tracked reassortment in coinfected guinea pigs over time and given matched or discordant doses of coinfecting viruses. To ensure unbiased detection of reassortants, we used parental viruses of equivalent fitness that differ only by noncoding nucleotide changes. These viruses were based on the isolate A/Panama/2007/1999 (H3N2). At a dose of 2 × 102 PFU, one parental virus was absent from each guinea pig throughout the time course, indicating the presence of a bottleneck. With an intermediate dose of 2 × 103 PFU, genomic diversity present in nasal lavage samples increased from 1 to 3 days postinfection (dpi) and then declined by 6 dpi. With a high dose of 2 × 106 PFU, however, reassortment levels were high (avg. 59%) at 1 dpi and remained stable. Even late in the course of infection, parental viruses were not eclipsed by reassortants, suggesting that a uniformly high multiplicity of infection was not achieved in vivo. Inoculation with ?10-fold discordant doses did not reduce reassortment relative to equivalent inputs but markedly changed the spectrum of genotypes produced. Our data reveal the potential for reassortment to contribute to intrahost diversity in mixed influenza virus infection. IMPORTANCE Influenza virus reassortment is prevalent in nature and is a major contributor to the diversity of influenza viruses circulating in avian, swine, human and other host species. This diversity, in turn, increases the potential for influenza viruses to evade selective pressures or adapt to new host environments. As examples, reassortment was key to the emergence of the 1957, 1968, and 2009 pandemics; the unusually severe influenza epidemics of 2003, 1951, and 1947; and the rise in adamantane resistance among currently circulating human H3N2 viruses. We reveal here the diversity of viral genotypes generated over time in a host coinfected with two influenza viruses. We found that intrahost diversity driven by reassortment is dynamic and dependent on the amount of each virus initiating infection. Our results demonstrate the readiness with which reassortant influenza viruses arise, offering new insight into this important mechanism of influenza virus evolution. PMID:24741099

  8. Detection of Multiple Potato Viruses in the Field Suggests Synergistic Interactions among Potato Viruses in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Hameed, Amir; Iqbal, Zafar; Asad, Shaheen; Mansoor, Shahid

    2014-01-01

    Viral diseases have been a major limiting factor threating sustainable potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production in Pakistan. Surveys were conducted to serologically quantify the incidence of RNA viruses infecting potato; Potato virus X (PVX), Potato virus Y (PVY), Potato virus S (PVS), Potato virus A (PVA), Potato virus M (PVM) and Potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) in two major potato cultivars (Desiree and Cardinal). The results suggest the prevalence of multiple viruses in all surveyed areas with PVY, PVS and PVX dominantly widespread with infection levels of up to 50% in some regions. Co-infections were detected with the highest incidence (15.5%) for PVX and PVS. Additionally the data showed a positive correlation between co-infecting viruses with significant increase in absorbance value (virus titre) for at least one of the virus in an infected plant and suggested a synergistic interaction. To test this hypothesis, glasshouse grown potato plants were challenged with multiple viruses and analyzed for systemic infections and symptomology studies. The results obtained conclude that multiple viral infections dramatically increase disease epidemics as compared to single infection and an effective resistance strategy in targeting multiple RNA viruses is required to save potato crop. PMID:25506305

  9. Pharmacological Inhibition of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV)

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Hakimeh; Bienzle, Dorothee

    2012-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a member of the retroviridae family of viruses and causes an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in domestic and non-domestic cats worldwide. Genome organization of FIV and clinical characteristics of the disease caused by the virus are similar to those of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Both viruses infect T lymphocytes, monocytes and macrophages, and their replication cycle in infected cells is analogous. Due to marked similarity in genomic organization, virus structure, virus replication and disease pathogenesis of FIV and HIV, infection of cats with FIV is a useful tool to study and develop novel drugs and vaccines for HIV. Anti-retroviral drugs studied extensively in HIV infection have targeted different steps of the virus replication cycle: (1) inhibition of virus entry into susceptible cells at the level of attachment to host cell surface receptors and co-receptors; (2) inhibition of fusion of the virus membrane with the cell membrane; (3) blockade of reverse transcription of viral genomic RNA; (4) interruption of nuclear translocation and viral DNA integration into host genomes; (5) prevention of viral transcript processing and nuclear export; and (6) inhibition of virion assembly and maturation. Despite much success of anti-retroviral therapy slowing disease progression in people, similar therapy has not been thoroughly investigated in cats. In this article we review current pharmacological approaches and novel targets for anti-lentiviral therapy, and critically assess potentially suitable applications against FIV infection in cats. PMID:22754645

  10. Sumoylation of Influenza A Virus Nucleoprotein Is Essential for Intracellular Trafficking and Virus Growth

    PubMed Central

    Han, Qinglin; Chang, Chong; Li, Li; Klenk, Christoph; Cheng, Jinke; Chen, Yixin; Xia, Ningshao; Shu, Yuelong; Chen, Ze; Gabriel, Gülsah

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Viruses take advantage of host posttranslational modifications for their own benefit. It was recently reported that influenza A virus proteins interact extensively with the host sumoylation system. Thereby, several viral proteins, including NS1 and M1, are sumoylated to facilitate viral replication. However, to what extent sumoylation is exploited by influenza A virus is not fully understood. In this study, we found that influenza A virus nucleoprotein (NP) is a bona fide target of sumoylation in both NP-transfected cells and virus-infected cells. We further found that NP is sumoylated at the two most N-terminal residues, lysines 4 and 7, and that sumoylation at lysine 7 of NP is highly conserved across different influenza A virus subtypes and strains, including the recently emerged human H7N9 virus. While NP stability and polymerase activity are little affected by sumoylation, the NP sumoylation-defective WSN-NPK4,7R virus exhibited early cytoplasmic localization of NP. The growth of the WSN-NPK4,7R virus was highly attenuated compared to that of the wild-type WSN virus, and the lysine residue at position 7 is indispensable for the virus's survival, as illustrated by the rapid emergence of revertant viruses. Thus, sumoylation of influenza A virus NP is essential for intracellular trafficking of NP and for virus growth, illustrating sumoylation as a crucial strategy extensively exploited by influenza A virus for survival in its host. IMPORTANCE Host posttranslational modifications are heavily targeted by viruses for their own benefit. We and others previously reported that influenza A virus interacts extensively with the host sumoylation system. However, the functional outcomes of viral sumoylation are not fully understood. Here we found that influenza A virus nucleoprotein (NP), an essential component for virus replication, is a new target of SUMO. This is the first study to find that NP from different influenza A viruses, including recently emerged H7N9, is sumoylated at conserved lysine 7. Our data further illustrated that sumoylation of influenza A virus NP is essential for intracellular trafficking of NP and virus growth, indicating that influenza A virus relies deeply on sumoylation to survive in host cells. Strategies to downregulate viral sumoylation could thus be a potential antiviral treatment. PMID:24920808

  11. Comparison of Swine Vesicular Disease Virus and Coxsackie B5 Virus by Serological and RNA Hybridization Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Brown; T. F. Wild; L. W. Rowe; B. O. Underwood; T. J. R. Harris

    1976-01-01

    SUMMARY The relatedness of swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) and Coxsackie B5 virus has been studied by virus neutralization and immunodiffusion tests and by hybridization of the virus RNAs. Clearly defined differences between the two viruses were found by the three methods. Isolates of SVDV from several countries were very closely related but could be differentiated. Recent isolates of Coxsackie

  12. Molecular Epidemiology of Hepatitis Viruses and Genotypic Distribution of Hepatitis B and C Viruses in Harbin, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xin Ding; Hongxi Gu; Zhao-Hua Zhong; Xu Zilong; Huy Thien-Tuan Tran; Yohko Iwaki; Tian-Cheng Li; Tetsutaro Sata; Kenji Abe

    2003-01-01

    SUMMARY: We carried out a molecular-based epidemiological survey of hepatitis viruses, including hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatitis E virus (HEV), in Harbin, China. The study population of 358 subjects consisted of 132 healthy blood donors and 226 liver disease patients residing in Harbin City and surrounding suburbs. The infection rate of each virus among healthy

  13. Chemical Modification of Viruses and Virus-Like Particles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Strable; M. G. Finn

    Protein capsids derived from viruses may be modified by methods, generated, isolated, and purified on large scales with relative\\u000a ease. In recent years, methods for their chemical derivatization have been employed to broaden the properties and functions\\u000a accessible to investigators desiring monodisperse, atomic-resolution structures on the nanometer scale. Here we review the\\u000a reactions and methods used in these endeavors, including

  14. Malsoor Virus, a Novel Bat Phlebovirus, Is Closely Related to Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus and Heartland Virus

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, P. D.; Basu, A.; Shete, A.; Patil, D. Y.; Zawar, D.; Majumdar, T. D.; Kokate, P.; Sarkale, P.; Raut, C. G.; Jadhav, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    During a survey in the year 2010, a novel phlebovirus was isolated from the Rousettus leschenaultii species of bats in western India. The virus was identified by electron microscopy from infected Vero E6 cells. Phylogenic analysis of the complete genome showed its close relation to severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) and Heartland viruses, which makes it imperative to further study its natural ecology and potential as a novel emerging zoonotic virus. PMID:24390329

  15. Host range and some properties of Physalis mosaic virus, a new virus of the turnip yellow mosaic virus group

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Peters; A. F. L. M. Derks

    1974-01-01

    An apparently undescribed virus was isolated fromPhysalis subglabrata in Illinois, USA, and its properties were studied. The virus was namedPhysalis mosaic virus (PMV). It was readily transmitted by sap inoculation to 23 out of 34 Solanaceae tested, toChenopodium foetidum andSonchus oleraceus but not to 28 other non-solanaceous species inoculated. Purified preparations of PMV contained isometric particles of 27 nm in

  16. Malsoor virus, a novel bat phlebovirus, is closely related to severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus and heartland virus.

    PubMed

    Mourya, D T; Yadav, P D; Basu, A; Shete, A; Patil, D Y; Zawar, D; Majumdar, T D; Kokate, P; Sarkale, P; Raut, C G; Jadhav, S M

    2014-03-01

    During a survey in the year 2010, a novel phlebovirus was isolated from the Rousettus leschenaultii species of bats in western India. The virus was identified by electron microscopy from infected Vero E6 cells. Phylogenic analysis of the complete genome showed its close relation to severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) and Heartland viruses, which makes it imperative to further study its natural ecology and potential as a novel emerging zoonotic virus. PMID:24390329

  17. Powassan virus: persistence of virus activity during 1966.

    PubMed

    McLean, D M; Cobb, C; Gooderham, S E; Smart, C A; Wilson, A G; Wilson, W E

    1967-03-18

    Powassan virus isolations were achieved from three of 60 pools of Ixodes cookei ticks removed from 286 groundhogs (Marmota monax) which were collected some 200 miles north of Toronto between May 5 and September 5, 1966. Virus yields per pool of one to 11 ticks ranged from 10(2.5) to 10(6.0) TCD(50) for primary swine kidney tissue cultures, and positive pools were collected on June 24, July 15 and August 10. Powassan neutralizing antibodies were detected by mouse inoculation tests in 143 of 362 animals including 127 of 286 groundhogs, 14 of 45 red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) and two of 31 other forest mammals. The monthly prevalence of antibody in the current season's groundhogs increased from 0 to 25% with the progression of summer, but in older animals the incidence remained between 38 and 62% throughout the season. These results substantiate earlier findings which pointed towards the maintenance of Powassan virus in nature by a cycle involving groundhogs and squirrels as reservoirs, with ticks as vectors, from which human infections occurred tangentially. PMID:6019677

  18. Powassan Virus: Persistence of Virus Activity During 1966

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Donald M.; Cobb, Cathron; Gooderham, Susan E.; Smart, Carol A.; Wilson, A. G.; Wilson, W. E.

    1967-01-01

    Powassan virus isolations were achieved from three of 60 pools of Ixodes cookei ticks removed from 286 groundhogs (Marmota monax) which were collected some 200 miles north of Toronto between May 5 and September 5, 1966. Virus yields per pool of one to 11 ticks ranged from 102.5 to 106.0 TCD50 for primary swine kidney tissue cultures, and positive pools were collected on June 24, July 15 and August 10. Powassan neutralizing antibodies were detected by mouse inoculation tests in 143 of 362 animals including 127 of 286 groundhogs, 14 of 45 red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) and two of 31 other forest mammals. The monthly prevalence of antibody in the current season's groundhogs increased from 0 to 25% with the progression of summer, but in older animals the incidence remained between 38 and 62% throughout the season. These results substantiate earlier findings which pointed towards the maintenance of Powassan virus in nature by a cycle involving groundhogs and squirrels as reservoirs, with ticks as vectors, from which human infections occurred tangentially. PMID:6019677

  19. Kunjin Virus Replicon Vectors for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Vaccine Development†

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Tracey J.; Anraku, Itaru; Linedale, Richard; Harrich, David; Mackenzie, Jason; Suhrbier, Andreas; Khromykh, Alexander A.

    2003-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated the ability of the vaccine vectors based on replicon RNA of the Australian flavivirus Kunjin (KUN) to induce protective antiviral and anticancer CD8+ T-cell responses using murine polyepitope as a model immunogen (I. Anraku, T. J. Harvey, R. Linedale, J. Gardner, D. Harrich, A. Suhrbier, and A. A. Khromykh, J. Virol. 76:3791-3799, 2002). Here we showed that immunization of BALB/c mice with KUN replicons encoding HIV-1 Gag antigen resulted in induction of both Gag-specific antibody and protective Gag-specific CD8+ T-cell responses. Two immunizations with KUNgag replicons in the form of virus-like particles (VLPs) induced anti-Gag antibodies with titers of ?1:10,000. Immunization with KUNgag replicons delivered as plasmid DNA, naked RNA, or VLPs induced potent Gag-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, with one immunization of KUNgag VLPs inducing 4.5-fold-more CD8+ T cells than the number induced after immunization with recombinant vaccinia virus carrying the gag gene (rVVgag). Two immunizations with KUNgag VLPs also provided significant protection against challenge with rVVgag. Importantly, KUN replicon VLP vaccinations induced long-lasting immune responses with CD8+ T cells able to secrete gamma interferon and to mediate protection 6 to 10 months after immunization. These results illustrate the potential value of the KUN replicon vectors for human immunodeficiency virus vaccine design. PMID:12829819

  20. Identification of Novel Viruses Using VirusHunter -- an Automated Data Analysis Pipeline

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guoyan; Krishnamurthy, Siddharth; Cai, Zhengqiu; Popov, Vsevolod L.; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P.; Guzman, Hilda; Cao, Song; Virgin, Herbert W.; Tesh, Robert B.; Wang, David

    2013-01-01

    Quick and accurate identification of microbial pathogens is essential for both diagnosis and response to emerging infectious diseases. The advent of next-generation sequencing technology offers an unprecedented platform for rapid sequencing-based identification of novel viruses. We have developed a customized bioinformatics data analysis pipeline, VirusHunter, for the analysis of Roche/454 and other long read Next generation sequencing platform data. To illustrate the utility of VirusHunter, we performed Roche/454 GS FLX titanium sequencing on two unclassified virus isolates from the World Reference Center for Emerging Viruses and Arboviruses (WRCEVA). VirusHunter identified sequences derived from a novel bunyavirus and a novel reovirus in the two samples respectively. Further sequence analysis demonstrated that the viruses were novel members of the Phlebovirus and Orbivirus genera. Both Phlebovirus and Orbivirus genera include many economic important viruses or serious human pathogens. PMID:24167629

  1. Virus population dynamics and acquired virus resistance in natural microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Anders F; Banfield, Jillian F

    2008-05-23

    Viruses shape microbial community structure and function by altering the fitness of their hosts and by promoting genetic exchange. The complexity of most natural ecosystems has precluded detailed studies of virus-host interactions. We reconstructed virus and host bacterial and archaeal genome sequences from community genomic data from two natural acidophilic biofilms. Viruses were matched to their hosts by analyzing spacer sequences that occur among clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) that are a hallmark of virus resistance. Virus population genomic analyses provided evidence that extensive recombination shuffles sequence motifs sufficiently to evade CRISPR spacers. Only the most recently acquired spacers match coexisting viruses, which suggests that community stability is achieved by rapid but compensatory shifts in host resistance levels and virus population structure. PMID:18497291

  2. Virus vector gene inserts are stabilized in the presence of satellite panicum mosaic virus coat protein 

    E-print Network

    Everett, Anthany Laurence

    2009-05-15

    The coat protein of satellite panicum mosaic virus (SPMV) was used to stabilize viral vector gene inserts in planta. A Potato virus X (PVX) vector carrying the SPMV capsid protein (CP) gene was successfully stabilized through three serial passages...

  3. The role of feline syncytium forming virus in feline immunodeficiency virus-mediated acquired immunodeficiency 

    E-print Network

    Zenger, Elizabeth

    1991-01-01

    THE ROLE OF FELINE SYNCYTIUM FORMING VIRUS IN FELINE IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS-MEDIATED ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY A Thesis by ELIZABETH ZENGER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1991 Major Subject: Veterinary Medicine and Surgery THE ROLE OF FELINE SYNCYTIUM FORMING VIRUS IN FELINE IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS-MEDIATED ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY A Thesis by ELIZABETH ZENGER...

  4. Human and Animal Viruses in Food (Including Taxonomy of Enteric Viruses)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gail E. Greening

    1.0. INTRODUCTION In recent years, there has been an increase in the incidence of food-borne diseases worldwide, with viruses now recognized as a major cause of these illnesses. The viruses implicated in food-borne disease are the enteric viruses, which are found in the human gut, excreted in human feces, and transmitted by the fecal-oral route. Many different viruses are found

  5. Molecular Detection of Cucumber Mosaic Virus and Other RNA Viruses Based on New Techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jishuang Chen

    \\u000a Plant diseases caused by viruses and related pathogenic agents bring about substantial losses in agricultural and horticultural\\u000a crops. And the study of plant viruses has contributed quite a lot to the agricultural progress and basic understanding of\\u000a plant development as a molecular standard. For example, based on a virus’s diagnosis, the omission of plant viruses from potato\\u000a and many vegetative

  6. Virus Neutralising Antibodies Against 22 Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus Isolates in Vaccinated Calves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Hamers; E. Di valentin; C. Lecomte; M. Lambot; E. Joris; B. Genicot; P. Pastoret

    2002-01-01

    Seven of nine colostrum deprived calves, free from bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), were vaccinated with a commercially available vaccine containing two inactivated strains of BVDV, an inactivated strain of bovine herpesvirus-1 and modified-live strains of bovine respiratory syncytial virus and para-influenza-3 virus. The two other calves were kept as controls. The virus neutralising (VN) antibodies induced by vaccination were

  7. Systemic vaccination with inactivated bovine virus diarrhoea virus protects against respiratory challenge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Howard; M. C. Clarke; P. Sopp; J. Brownlie

    1994-01-01

    Inactivated bovine virus diarrhoea virus, strain 11249nc, inoculated subcutaneously three times with Quil-A into calves protected against intranasal challenge with the same strain. Virus was isolated from nasopharyngeal swabs taken 4 to 8 days post challenge and blood taken 4 to 6 days post challenge from control calves but not from vaccinated calves. A second strain of virus, Kyl203nc, was

  8. Yellow fever vector live-virus vaccines: West Nile virus vaccine development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Arroyo; Charles A Miller; John Catalan; Thomas P Monath

    2001-01-01

    By combining molecular-biological techniques with our increased understanding of the effect of gene sequence modification on viral function, yellow fever 17D, a positive-strand RNA virus vaccine, has been manipulated to induce a protective immune response against viruses of the same family (e.g. Japanese encephalitis and dengue viruses). Triggered by the emergence of West Nile virus infections in the New World

  9. Satsuma Dwarf and Related Viruses Belong to a New Lineage of Plant Picorna-like Viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander V. Karasev; Sang Sub Han; Toru Iwanami

    2001-01-01

    Satsuma dwarf virus (SDV) and two closely related viruses, Citrus mosaic (CiMV), and Naval orange infectious mottling (NIMV), seriously affect citrus varieties grown in Japan and East Asia. All three viruses have icosahedral particles built of two proteins encapsidating two single-stranded genomic RNAs. The natural mode of transmission of these SDV-like viruses is unknown, and they were previously placed among

  10. Satellite RNAs and Satellite Viruses of Plants

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Chung-Chi; Hsu, Yau-Heiu; Lin, Na-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    The view that satellite RNAs (satRNAs) and satellite viruses are purely molecular parasites of their cognate helper viruses has changed. The molecular mechanisms underlying the synergistic and/or antagonistic interactions among satRNAs/satellite viruses, helper viruses, and host plants are beginning to be comprehended. This review aims to summarize the recent achievements in basic and practical research, with special emphasis on the involvement of RNA silencing mechanisms in the pathogenicity, population dynamics, and, possibly, the origin(s) of these subviral agents. With further research following current trends, the comprehensive understanding of satRNAs and satellite viruses could lead to new insights into the trilateral interactions among host plants, viruses, and satellites. PMID:21994595

  11. Determination of Time Dependent Virus Inactivation Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrysikopoulos, C. V.; Vogler, E. T.

    2003-12-01

    A methodology is developed for estimating temporally variable virus inactivation rate coefficients from experimental virus inactivation data. The methodology consists of a technique for slope estimation of normalized virus inactivation data in conjunction with a resampling parameter estimation procedure. The slope estimation technique is based on a relatively flexible geostatistical method known as universal kriging. Drift coefficients are obtained by nonlinear fitting of bootstrap samples and the corresponding confidence intervals are obtained by bootstrap percentiles. The proposed methodology yields more accurate time dependent virus inactivation rate coefficients than those estimated by fitting virus inactivation data to a first-order inactivation model. The methodology is successfully applied to a set of poliovirus batch inactivation data. Furthermore, the importance of accurate inactivation rate coefficient determination on virus transport in water saturated porous media is demonstrated with model simulations.

  12. Fatal case of deer tick virus encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Tavakoli, Norma P; Wang, Heng; Dupuis, Michelle; Hull, Rene; Ebel, Gregory D; Gilmore, Emily J; Faust, Phyllis L

    2009-05-14

    Deer tick virus is related to Powassan virus, a tickborne encephalitis virus. A 62-year-old man presented with a meningoencephalitis syndrome and eventually died. Analyses of tissue samples obtained during surgery and at autopsy revealed a widespread necrotizing meningoencephalitis. Nucleic acid was extracted from formalin-fixed tissue, and the presence of deer tick virus was verified on a flavivirus-specific polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) assay, followed by sequence confirmation. Immunohistochemical analysis with antisera specific for deer tick virus identified numerous immunoreactive neurons, with prominent involvement of large neurons in the brain stem, cerebellum, basal ganglia, thalamus, and spinal cord. This case demonstrates that deer tick virus can be a cause of fatal encephalitis. PMID:19439744

  13. 21 CFR 866.3330 - Influenza virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Influenza virus serological reagents. 866...Serological Reagents § 866.3330 Influenza virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Influenza virus serological reagents are...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3330 - Influenza virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Influenza virus serological reagents. 866...Serological Reagents § 866.3330 Influenza virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Influenza virus serological reagents are...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3330 - Influenza virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Influenza virus serological reagents. 866...Serological Reagents § 866.3330 Influenza virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Influenza virus serological reagents are...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3330 - Influenza virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Influenza virus serological reagents. 866...Serological Reagents § 866.3330 Influenza virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Influenza virus serological reagents are...

  17. Virus Mutation Explains Poor Performance of Last Season's Flu Shot

    MedlinePLUS

    ... html Virus Mutation Explains Poor Performance of Last Season's Flu Shot: Study Strain of H3N2 virus that ... the virus that circulated during the last flu season. The findings were published June 25 in the ...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866... Serological Reagents § 866.3305 Herpes simplex virus serological assays. (a) Identification . Herpes simplex virus serological assays...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866... Serological Reagents § 866.3305 Herpes simplex virus serological assays. (a) Identification . Herpes simplex virus serological assays...

  20. Foot-and-mouth disease virus L peptidase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), equine rhinitis A virus (ERAV) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) comprise the genus Aphthovirus of the Picornaviridae family. Seven genera within this family, Aphthoviruses, Cardioviruses, Erboviruses (ERBV), Kobuviruses, Senecaviruses, Sapeloviruses, and Tescho...

  1. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine Development

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Yoshihiko

    2009-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a clinically significant cause of respiratory tract disease, especially among high-risk infants and immunocompromised and elderly adults. Despite the burden of disease, there is no licensed prophylactic RSV vaccine. The initial efforts to develop an RSV vaccine involved formalin-inactivated virus preparations that unexpectedly caused vaccine-enhanced disease in clinical trials in RSV-naďve children. Over the last four decades, cautious and deliberate progress has been made towards RSV vaccine development using a variety of experimental approaches (Table 1), including live attenuated strains, vector-based, and viral protein subunit/DNA-based candidates. The scientific rationale, preclinical testing, and clinical development of each of these approaches are reviewed. PMID:19892231

  2. Seasonal Inactivated Influenza Virus Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Couch, Robert B.

    2008-01-01

    Inactivated influenza virus vaccines are the primary modality used for prevention of influenza. A system of annual identification of new strains causing illnesses, selections for vaccines, chick embryo growth, inactivation, processing, packaging, distribution and usage has been in place for decades. Current vaccines contain 15 µg of the HA of an A/H1N1, A/H3N2 and B strain and are given parenterally to induce serum anti-HA antibody for prevention of subsequent infection and illness from natural influenza. Reactogenicity is low and protection among healthy older children and adults is good; protection levels are generally lower in young children and the elderly. Needs include ensuring antigenic matches of vaccine and epidemic viruses each season, enhancing immunization rates, and providing new and improved vaccines and immunization approaches for the varied populations and circumstances globally. PMID:18602728

  3. [Characterization of Marburg virus morphology].

    PubMed

    Song, Jing-Dong; Qu, Jian-Guo; Hong, Tao

    2014-05-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV) belong to the family Filoviridae. Filoviruses cause severe filovirus hemorrhagic fever (FHF) in humans, with high case fatality rates, and represent potential agents for bioterrorism and biological weapons. It is necessary to keep surveillance of filoviruses, even though there is no report of their isolation and patients in China so far. To characterize MARV morphology, the Lake Victoria marburgvirus--Leiden was stained negatively and observed under a transmission electron microscope which is one of important detection methods for filoviruses in emergencies and bioterrorism. MARV showed pleomorphism, with filamentous, rod-shaped, cobra-like, spherical, and branch-shaped particles of uniform diameter but different lengths. Pleomorphism of negatively stained MARV is summarized in this article, so as to provide useful information for possible electron microscopic identification of filoviruses in China. PMID:25118385

  4. Respiratory syncytial virus vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    Hurwitz, Julia L

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract viral disease in infants and young children. Presently, there are no explicit recommendations for RSV treatment apart from supportive care. The virus is therefore responsible for an estimated 160,000 deaths per year worldwide. Despite half a century of dedicated research, there remains no licensed vaccine product. Herein are described past and current efforts to harness innate and adaptive immune potentials to combat RSV. A plethora of candidate vaccine products and strategies are reviewed. The development of a successful RSV vaccine may ultimately stem from attention to historical lessons, in concert with an integral partnering of immunology and virology research fields. PMID:21988307

  5. Eradicating Computer Viruses on Networks

    E-print Network

    Huang, Jinyu

    2012-01-01

    Spread of computer viruses can be modeled as the SIS (susceptible-infected-susceptible) epidemic propagation. We show that in order to ensure the random immunization or the targeted immunization effectively prevent computer viruses propagation on homogeneous networks, we should install antivirus programs in every computer node and frequently update those programs. This may produce large work and cost to install and update antivirus programs. Then we propose a new policy called "network monitors" to tackle this problem. In this policy, we only install and update antivirus programs for small number of computer nodes, namely the "network monitors". Further, the "network monitors" can monitor their neighboring nodes' behavior. This mechanism incur relative small cost to install and update antivirus programs.We also indicate that the policy of the "network monitors" is efficient to protect the network's safety. Numerical simulations confirm our analysis.

  6. West Nile Virus Maps - 2002

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The US Geological Survey Center for Integration of Natural Disaster Information has provided these maps of reported occurrences of West Nile Virus (WNV). "The West Nile Virus Surveillance System is intended to monitor the geographic and temporal spread of WNV over the contiguous United States." Maps include 2002 surveillance data for birds, humans, mosquitoes, sentinel chicken flocks, and data submitted by veterinarians. Maps from previous years are available, including comprehensive maps through 2000, and maps of 2001 data. It is unclear whether the 2002 maps are based on 2002 data alone, or include all data through June of 2002. Brief background on WNV and surveillance activities help make this site appealing to a broader audience.

  7. Influenza virus and neurological diseases.

    PubMed

    Hayase, Y; Tobita, K

    1997-08-01

    Influenza viruses rarely cause acute encephalopathy. Post-influenzal encephalitis, which occurs a few weeks after recovery from influenza is thought to be an autoimmune process associated with demyelination and vasculopathy. It has been suggested that Economo lethargic encephalitis followed by postencephalitic Parkinsonism was associated with the influenza A epidemic of 1918 (Spanish flu). The incidence of Reye's syndrome has markedly decreased due to the avoidance of salicylates in the treatment of influenza or varicella. One inactivated flu vaccine is thought to have caused Guillain Barre syndrome due to molecular mimicry between viral protein and myelin, which triggered autoimmune responses. The persistence of influenza virus genes in neural cells as one of the causes of chronic degenerative diseases of the central nervous system by inducing apoptosis of the host cells is yet to be proven. PMID:9316161

  8. Replication of avian influenza viruses in humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Beare; R. G. Webster

    1991-01-01

    Summary Volunteers inoculated with avian influenza viruses belonging to subtypes currently circulating in humans (H1N1 and H3N2) were largely refractory to infection. However 11 out of 40 volunteers inoculated with the avian subtypes, H4N8, H6N1, and H10N7, shed virus and had mild clinical symptoms: they did not produce a detectable antibody response. This was presumably because virus multiplication was limited

  9. Inactivation of Viruses by Benzalkonium Chloride

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, J. A.; Froelich, E. J.

    1964-01-01

    Benzalkonium chloride (as Roccal or Zephiran) was found to inactivate influenza, measles, canine distemper, rabies, fowl laryngotracheitis, vaccinia, Semliki Forest, feline pneumonitis, meningopneumonitis, and herpes simplex viruses after 10 min of exposure at 30 C or at room temperature. Poliovirus and encephalomyocarditis virus were not inactivated under the same conditions. It was concluded that all viruses tested were sensitive except members of the picorna group. The literature was reviewed. PMID:4288740

  10. Biomedical Nanotechnology Using Virus-Based Nanoparticles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Destito; A. Schneemann; M. Manchester

    A great challenge in biomedicine is the ability to target therapeutics to specific locations in the body in order to increase\\u000a therapeutic benefit and minimize adverse effects. Virus-based nanotechnology takes advantage of the natural circulatory and\\u000a targeting properties of viruses, in order to design therapeutics and vaccines that specifically target tissues of interest\\u000a in vivo. Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) and

  11. Newly discovered viruses of flying foxes.

    PubMed

    Halpin, K; Young, P L; Field, H; Mackenzie, J S

    1999-08-16

    Flying foxes have been the focus of research into three newly described viruses from the order Mononegavirales, namely Hendra virus (HeV), Menangle virus and Australian Bat Lyssavirus (ABL). Early investigations indicate that flying foxes are the reservoir host for these viruses. In 1994, two outbreaks of a new zoonotic disease affecting horses and humans occurred in Queensland. The virus which was found to be responsible was called equine morbillivirus (EMV) and has since been renamed HeV. Investigation into the reservoir of HeV has produced evidence that antibodies capable of neutralising HeV have only been detected in flying foxes. Over 20% of flying foxes in eastern Australia have been identified as being seropositive. Additionally six species of flying foxes in Papua New Guinea have tested positive for antibodies to HeV. In 1996 a virus from the family Paramyxoviridae was isolated from the uterine fluid of a female flying fox. Sequencing of 10000 of the 18000 base pairs (bp) has shown that the sequence is identical to the HeV sequence. As part of investigations into HeV, a virus was isolated from a juvenile flying fox which presented with neurological signs in 1996. This virus was characterised as belonging to the family Rhabdoviridae, and was named ABL. Since then four flying fox species and one insectivorous species have tested positive for ABL. The third virus to be detected in flying foxes is Menangle virus, belonging to the family Paramyxoviridae. This virus was responsible for a zoonotic disease affecting pigs and humans in New South Wales in 1997. Antibodies capable of neutralising Menangle virus, were detected in flying foxes. PMID:10501164

  12. Dose-Response Model for Lassa Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sushil B. Tamrakar; Charles N. Haas

    2008-01-01

    This article develops dose-response models for Lassa fever virus using data sets found in the open literature. Dose-response data were drawn from two studies in which guinea pigs were given subcutaneous and aerosol exposure to Lassa virus. In one study, six groups of inbred guinea pigs were inoculated subcutaneously with doses of Lassa virus and five groups of out-bred guinea

  13. Influenza virus propagation in embryonated chicken eggs.

    PubMed

    Brauer, Rena; Chen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Influenza infection is associated with about 36,000 deaths and more than 200,000 hospitalizations every year in the United States. The continuous emergence of new influenza virus strains due to mutation and re-assortment complicates the control of the virus and necessitates the permanent development of novel drugs and vaccines. The laboratory-based study of influenza requires a reliable and cost-effective method for the propagation of the virus. Here, a comprehensive protocol is provided for influenza A virus propagation in fertile chicken eggs, which consistently yields high titer viral stocks. In brief, serum pathogen-free (SPF) fertilized chicken eggs are incubated at 37 °C and 55-60% humidity for 10-11 days. Over this period, embryo development can be easily monitored using an egg candler. Virus inoculation is carried out by injection of virus stock into the allantoic cavity using a needle. After 2 days of incubation at 37 °C, the eggs are chilled for at least 4 hr at 4 °C. The eggshell above the air sac and the chorioallantoic membrane are then carefully opened, and the allantoic fluid containing the virus is harvested. The fluid is cleared from debris by centrifugation, aliquoted and transferred to -80 °C for long-term storage. The large amount (5-10 ml of virus-containing fluid per egg) and high virus titer which is usually achieved with this protocol has made the usage of eggs for virus preparation our favorable method, in particular for in vitro studies which require large quantities of virus in which high dosages of the same virus stock are needed. PMID:25867050

  14. RNA Virus Reverse Genetics and Vaccine Design

    PubMed Central

    Stobart, Christopher C.; Moore, Martin L.

    2014-01-01

    RNA viruses are capable of rapid spread and severe or potentially lethal disease in both animals and humans. The development of reverse genetics systems for manipulation and study of RNA virus genomes has provided platforms for designing and optimizing viral mutants for vaccine development. Here, we review the impact of RNA virus reverse genetics systems on past and current efforts to design effective and safe viral therapeutics and vaccines. PMID:24967693

  15. Detecting Unknown Computer Viruses - A New Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akira Mori

    2003-01-01

    \\u000a We give an overview of the tools to detect computer viruses without relying on “pattern files” that contain “signatures” of\\u000a previously captured viruses. The system combines static code analysis with code simulation to identify malicious behaviors\\u000a commonly found in computer viruses such as mass mailing, file infection, and registry overwrite. These prohibited behaviors\\u000a are defined separately as security policies at

  16. Nucleotide sequence of cassava latent virus DNA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Stanley; Michael R. Gay

    1983-01-01

    Only two groups of plant viruses, the caulimoviruses1,2 and the geminiviruses3, are known to contain a genome of DNA. Unlike that of the caulimoviruses, the genome of the geminivinises is composed of single-stranded, covalently-closed circles of DNA. There is evidence that the geminiviruses, specifically bean golden mosaic virus4 and tomato golden mosaic virus5, have a genome composed of two similar-sized

  17. Tubule-Guided Movement of Plant Viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christophe Ritzenthaler; Christina Hofmann

    Plant viruses move from cell to cell through plasmodesmata, which are complex gatable pores in the\\u000a cell wall. While plasmodesmata normally allow the diffusion of only small molecules, they can be biochemically\\u000a or structurally modified by virus-encoded movement proteins to enable the passage of either infectious ribonucleoprotein\\u000a complexes or entire virus particles. In the latter case, the movement protein forms

  18. NK Cells and Virus-Related Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Rabinarayan; Welsh, Raymond M.; Szomolanyi-Tsuda, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells become activated during viral infections and can play roles in such infections by attacking virus-infected cells or by regulating adaptive immune responses. Experimental models suggest that NK cells may also have the capacity to restrain virus-induced cancers. Here, we discuss the seven viruses linked to human cancers and the evidence of NK cell involvement in these systems. PMID:24941377

  19. Transgenic gene silencing strategies for virus control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. Dietzgen; N. Mitter

    2006-01-01

    Co-suppression of transgenes and their homologous viral sequences by RNA silencing is a powerful strategy for achieving high-level\\u000a virus resistance in plants. This review provides a brief overview of RNA silencing mechanisms in plants and discusses important\\u000a transgene construct design features underpinning successful RNA silencing-mediated transgenic virus control. Application of\\u000a those strategies to protect horticultural and field crops from virus

  20. Virus Transmission—Getting Out and In

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stéphane Blanc

    Logically, most plant viruses being vector-transmitted, the majority of viral transport mechanisms\\u000a associated to the transmission step have been approached through the study of virus-vector relationships.\\u000a However, in the case of non-vector vertical transmission through the seeds, some viruses have evolved specific\\u000a patterns to colonize either the gametes or the embryo, thereby connecting viral transport within the plant\\u000a to that

  1. Maize rayado fino virus capsid proteins assemble into virus-like particles in Escherichia coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV; genus Marafivirus; family Tymoviridae) is a small spherical plant virus that contains two components: empty shells and complete virus particles (encapsidating the 6.3 kb genomic RNA). Virions are approximately 30 nm in diameter and composed of two serologically related...

  2. Incorporation of High Levels of Chimeric Human Immunodeficiency Virus Envelope Glycoproteins into Virus-Like Particles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bao-Zhong Wang; Weimin Liu; Sang-Moo Kang; Munir Alam; Chunzi Huang; Ling Ye; Yuliang Sun; Yingying Li; Denise L. Kothe; Peter Pushko; Terje Dokland; Barton F. Haynes; Gale Smith; Beatrice H. Hahn; Richard W. Compans

    2007-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope (Env) protein is incorporated into HIV virions or virus-like particles (VLPs) at very low levels compared to the glycoproteins of most other enveloped viruses. To test factors that influence HIV Env particle incorporation, we generated a series of chimeric gene constructs in which the coding sequences for the signal peptide (SP), transmembrane (TM), and

  3. Cell Type Mediated Resistance of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus and Sendai Virus to Ribavirin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nirav R. Shah; Amanda Sunderland; Valery Z. Grdzelishvili; Ron A. M. Fouchier

    2010-01-01

    Ribavirin (RBV) is a synthetic nucleoside analog with broad spectrum antiviral activity. Although RBV is approved for the treatment of hepatitis C virus, respiratory syncytial virus, and Lassa fever virus infections, its mechanism of action and therapeutic efficacy remains highly controversial. Recent reports show that the development of cell-based resistance after continuous RBV treatment via decreased RBV uptake can greatly

  4. Multiplex Real Time PCR For Detection of Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus and Triticum Mosaic Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) and Triticum mosaic virus (TRIMV) are widespread throughout the southwestern Great Plains states. Using conventional diagnostics such as Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA), these two viruses are commonly found together in infected wheat samples. Methods for m...

  5. New perspectives on virus detection in shellfish: hemocytes as a source of concentrated virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    USDA ARS research indicates that circulating phagocytic cells (hemocytes) within oysters retain virus particles. We find that persistence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) within oyster hemocytes correlates with the presence of virus within whole oysters. Since bivalve shellfish have no self-nonself immun...

  6. Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Like Particles Produced by a Vaccinia Virus Expression Vector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Velissarios Karacostas; Kunio Nagashima; Matthew A. Gonda; Bernard Moss

    1989-01-01

    Infectious retrovirus particles consist of a core structure containing RNA and gag-pol polypeptides surrounded by a lipid membrane studded with env proteins. A recombinant vaccinia virus was designed to express the entire gag-pol precursor protein of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Synthesis and processing of gag proteins occurred in mammalian cells infected with this live recombinant virus, and reverse

  7. Vesicular Stomatitis Virus–Based Vaccines against Lassa and Ebola Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Marzi, Andrea; Feldmann, Friederike; Geisbert, Thomas W.; Feldmann, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrated that previous vaccination with a vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)–based Lassa virus vaccine does not alter protective efficacy of subsequent vaccination with a VSV-based Ebola virus vaccine. These findings demonstrate the utility of VSV-based vaccines against divergent viral pathogens, even when preexisting immunity to the vaccine vector is present. PMID:25625358

  8. 72 FR 4467 - Viruses, Serums, Toxins, and Analogous Products; Detection of Avian Lymphoid Leukosis Virus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2007-01-31

    We are proposing to amend the Virus-Serum-Toxin Act regulations concerning testing for avian lymphoid leukosis in veterinary biologics to specify that the test is for the detection of extraneous replicating avian leukosis virus; require such testing to be conducted using a procedure that will detect extraneous replicating avian leukosis virus and that is acceptable to the Animal and Plant Health......

  9. Targeting CTCF to Control Virus Gene Expression: A Common Theme amongst Diverse DNA Viruses.

    PubMed

    Pentland, Ieisha; Parish, Joanna L

    2015-01-01

    All viruses target host cell factors for successful life cycle completion. Transcriptional control of DNA viruses by host cell factors is important in the temporal and spatial regulation of virus gene expression. Many of these factors are recruited to enhance virus gene expression and thereby increase virus production, but host cell factors can also restrict virus gene expression and productivity of infection. CCCTC binding factor (CTCF) is a host cell DNA binding protein important for the regulation of genomic chromatin boundaries, transcriptional control and enhancer element usage. CTCF also functions in RNA polymerase II regulation and in doing so can influence co-transcriptional splicing events. Several DNA viruses, including Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human papillomavirus (HPV) utilize CTCF to control virus gene expression and many studies have highlighted a role for CTCF in the persistence of these diverse oncogenic viruses. CTCF can both enhance and repress virus gene expression and in some cases CTCF increases the complexity of alternatively spliced transcripts. This review article will discuss the function of CTCF in the life cycle of DNA viruses in the context of known host cell CTCF functions. PMID:26154016

  10. Salivary gland hypertrophy viruses (SGHVs): a novel group of insect pathogenic viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salivary gland hypertrophy viruses (SGHVs) are a unique, unclassified group of entomopathogenic, double-stranded DNA viruses that have been reported from three genera of Diptera. These viruses replicate in nuclei of salivary gland cells in adult flies, inducing gland enlargement with little obvious ...

  11. A comparative study of O'nyong nyong virus with Chikungunya virus and plaque variants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. Chanas; Z. Hubalek; B. K. Johnson; D. I. H. Simpson

    1979-01-01

    Summary Two plaque variants of Chikungunya (CHIK) virus were serologically compared with O'nyong nyong (ONN) virus in order to elucidate the reported one way antigenic relationships between the two viruses. Three different hypotheses are examined and evidence is shown to support one of them.

  12. Marburg virus-like particles protect guinea pigs from lethal Marburg virus infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelly L Warfield; Dana L Swenson; Diane L Negley; Alan L Schmaljohn; M. Javad Aman; Sina Bavari

    2004-01-01

    Ongoing outbreaks of filoviruses in Africa and concerns about their use in bioterrorism attacks have led to intense efforts to find safe and effective vaccines to prevent the high mortality associated with these viruses. We previously reported the generation of virus-like particles (VLPs) for the filoviruses, Marburg (MARV) and Ebola (EBOV) virus, and that vaccinating mice with Ebola VLPs (eVLPs)

  13. Origin of giant viruses from smaller DNA viruses not from a fourth domain of cellular life.

    PubMed

    Yutin, Natalya; Wolf, Yuri I; Koonin, Eugene V

    2014-10-01

    The numerous and diverse eukaryotic viruses with large double-stranded DNA genomes that at least partially reproduce in the cytoplasm of infected cells apparently evolved from a single virus ancestor. This major group of viruses is known as Nucleocytoplasmic Large DNA Viruses (NCLDV) or the proposed order Megavirales. Among the "Megavirales", there are three groups of giant viruses with genomes exceeding 500kb, namely Mimiviruses, Pithoviruses, and Pandoraviruses that hold the current record of viral genome size, about 2.5Mb. Phylogenetic analysis of conserved, ancestral NLCDV genes clearly shows that these three groups of giant viruses have three distinct origins within the "Megavirales". The Mimiviruses constitute a distinct family that is distantly related to Phycodnaviridae, Pandoraviruses originate from a common ancestor with Coccolithoviruses within the Phycodnaviridae family, and Pithoviruses are related to Iridoviridae and Marseilleviridae. Maximum likelihood reconstruction of gene gain and loss events during the evolution of the "Megavirales" indicates that each group of giant viruses evolved from viruses with substantially smaller and simpler gene repertoires. Initial phylogenetic analysis of universal genes, such as translation system components, encoded by some giant viruses, in particular Mimiviruses, has led to the hypothesis that giant viruses descend from a fourth, probably extinct domain of cellular life. The results of our comprehensive phylogenomic analysis of giant viruses refute the fourth domain hypothesis and instead indicate that the universal genes have been independently acquired by different giant viruses from their eukaryotic hosts. PMID:25042053

  14. Emergence of Groundnut ringspot virus and Tomato chlorotic spot virus in U.S. vegetable production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Host and geographic ranges, genetic diversity and thrips transmission of Groundnut ringspot virus and Tomato chlorotic spot virus isolates from the U.S. were characterized. This report provides an overview of these viruses for growers, extension workers, crop consultants and research and regulatory...

  15. Subterranean clover red leaf virus and bean yellow mosaic virus in alsike clover

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Ashby

    1976-01-01

    Subterranean clover red leaf virus (SCRLV) and bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) were isolated from alsike clover (Trifolium hybridum L.) grown in experimental plots on the Canterbury Plains. SCRLV caused reddening of older leaves, and BYMV caused yellowing and streaking of the leaves of infected plants. Some plants were infected by both viruses. A survey in the mid-altitude zone (50D-1000

  16. Treatment of ebola virus disease.

    PubMed

    Kilgore, Paul E; Grabenstein, John D; Salim, Abdulbaset M; Rybak, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In March 2014, the largest Ebola outbreak in history exploded across West Africa. As of November 14, 2014, the World Health Organization has reported a total of 21,296 Ebola virus disease (EVD) cases, including 13,427 laboratory-confirmed EVD cases reported from the three most affected countries (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone). As the outbreak of EVD has spread, clinical disease severity and national EVD case-fatality rates have remained high (21.2-60.8%). Prior to 2013, several EVD outbreaks were controlled by using routine public health interventions; however, the widespread nature of the current EVD outbreak as well as cultural practices in the affected countries have challenged even the most active case identification efforts. In addition, although treatment centers provide supportive care, no effective therapeutic agents are available for EVD-endemic countries. The ongoing EVD outbreak has stimulated investigation of several different therapeutic strategies that target specific viral structures and mechanisms of Ebola viruses. Six to eight putative pharmacotherapies or immunologically based treatments have demonstrated promising results in animal studies. In addition, agents composed of small interfering RNAs targeting specific proteins of Ebola viruses, traditional hyperimmune globulin isolated from Ebola animal models, monoclonal antibodies, and morpholino oligomers (small molecules used to block viral gene expression). A number of EVD therapeutic agents are now entering accelerated human trials in EVD-endemic countries. The goal of therapeutic agent development includes postexposure prevention and EVD cure. As knowledge of Ebola virus virology and pathogenesis grows, it is likely that new therapeutic tools will be developed. Deployment of novel Ebola therapies will require unprecedented cooperation as well as investment to ensure that therapeutic tools become available to populations at greatest risk for EVD and its complications. In this article, we review several agents and strategies that are now under active development. PMID:25630412

  17. West Nile Virus Neuroinvasive Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberta L. DeBiasi

    2011-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV), first recognized in North America in 1999, was responsible for the largest arboviral epidemic of human\\u000a encephalitis in history and continues to be the most frequent cause of epidemic meningoencephalitis in North America. WNV\\u000a neuroinvasive disease (WNND) occurs in fewer than 1% of infected individuals, with presentations including aseptic meningitis,\\u000a encephalitis, and poliomyelitis. Between 1999 and

  18. Giant virus in the sea

    PubMed Central

    Claverie, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    The viral nature of the first “giant virus,” Mimivirus, was realized in 2003, 10 y after its initial isolation from the water of a cooling tower in Bradford, UK. Soon after its genome was sequenced, the mining of the Global Ocean Sampling environmental sequence database revealed that the closest relatives of Mimivirus, only known to infect Acanthamoeba, were to be found in the sea. These predicted marine Mimivirus relatives remained elusive until 2010, with the first genomic characterization of a virus infecting a heterotrophic unicellular eukaryote, the microflagellate grazer Cafeteria roenbergensis. The genome analysis of a virus (PgV) infecting the common unicellular algae Phaeocystis globosa now shows that it is a bona fide member of the Mimivirus family (i.e., the Megaviridae), extending the realm of these giant viruses to abundant blooming phytoplankton species. Despite its smaller genome size (460 kb encoding 434 proteins), PgV exhibits the most intriguing feature of the previously characterized Megaviridae: an associated virophage. However, the 19-kb virophage genome, devoid of a capsid gene, is packaged in the PgV particle and propagated as a “viral plasmid,” the first ever described. The PgV genome also exhibits the duplication of “core genes,” normally present as single copies and a putative new type of mobile element. In a DNA polymerase phylogeny including representatives of the three cellular domains, PgV and the other Megaviridae cluster into their own clade deeply branching between domains Archaea and Eukarya domains, thus exhibiting the topology of a fourth domain in the Tree of Life. PMID:24563700

  19. Metamorphic Viruses with Built-In Buffer Overflow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronak Shah

    2010-01-01

    Metamorphic computer viruses change their structure—and thereby their signature—each time they infect a system. Metamorphic viruses are potentially one of the most dangerous types of computer viruses because they are difficult to detect using signature-based methods. Most anti-virus software today is based on signature detection techniques. In this project, we create and analyze a metamorphic virus toolkit which creates viruses

  20. Reversible Inactivation and Desiccation Tolerance of Silicified Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Laidler, James R.; Shugart, Jessica A.; Cady, Sherry L.; Bahjat, Keith S.

    2013-01-01

    Long-distance host-independent virus dispersal is poorly understood, especially for viruses found in isolated ecosystems. To demonstrate a possible dispersal mechanism, we show that bacteriophage T4, archaeal virus Sulfolobus spindle-shaped virus Kamchatka, and vaccinia virus are reversibly inactivated by mineralization in silica under conditions similar to volcanic hot springs. In contrast, bacteriophage PRD1 is not silicified. Moreover, silicification provides viruses with remarkable desiccation resistance, which could allow extensive aerial dispersal. PMID:24109222

  1. Reversible inactivation and desiccation tolerance of silicified viruses.

    PubMed

    Laidler, James R; Shugart, Jessica A; Cady, Sherry L; Bahjat, Keith S; Stedman, Kenneth M

    2013-12-01

    Long-distance host-independent virus dispersal is poorly understood, especially for viruses found in isolated ecosystems. To demonstrate a possible dispersal mechanism, we show that bacteriophage T4, archaeal virus Sulfolobus spindle-shaped virus Kamchatka, and vaccinia virus are reversibly inactivated by mineralization in silica under conditions similar to volcanic hot springs. In contrast, bacteriophage PRD1 is not silicified. Moreover, silicification provides viruses with remarkable desiccation resistance, which could allow extensive aerial dispersal. PMID:24109222

  2. Electronic Parameters of Mesoporous Silicon Upon Adsorption of Plant Viruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vashpanov, Yuriy; Son, Jung-Young; Kwack, Kae-Dal; Shin, Seung-Jung

    2008-06-01

    Changes in the electronic parameters of mesoporous silicon upon adsorption of nematodetransmitted polyhedral (NEPO) viruses of plant [tomato ringspot virus (TORSV), grapevine virus A (GVA), and grapevine fan leaf virus (GFLV)] measured at room temperature are investigated. The adsorption of these viruses affected essentially on the electronic characteristic of the porous material. The measurement of the electronic characteristics of porous silicon can be applied to the creation of detectors for the presence of viruses in a given environment.

  3. Quantitation of Grapevine leafroll associated virus-1 and -3, Grapevine virus A, Grapevine fanleaf virus and Grapevine fleck virus in field-collected Vitis vinifera L. ‘Nebbiolo’ by real-time reverse transcription-PCR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Davide Pacifico; Piero Caciagli; Sabrina Palmano; Franco Mannini; Cristina Marzachě

    2011-01-01

    TaqMan one-step real-time qRT-PCR assays were developed for the quantitation of Grapevine leafroll associated virus-1 and -3 (GLRaV-1 and -3), Grapevine virus A (GVA), Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) and Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV) in Vitis vinifera L. Virus load in the progenies of three ‘Nebbiolo’ clones planted in two experimental vineyards in Piemonte (northwestern Italy), and carrying the viruses in

  4. Infectious laryngotracheitis virus in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Shan-Chia; Giambrone, Joseph J

    2012-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an important respiratory disease of chickens and annually causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry world-wide. ILT virus (ILTV) belongs to alphaherpesvirinae and the Gallid herpesvirus 1 species. The transmission of ILTV is via respiratory and ocular routes. Clinical and post-mortem signs of ILT can be separated into two forms according to its virulence. The characteristic of the severe form is bloody mucus in the trachea with high mortality. The mild form causes nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, and reduced weight gain and egg production. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nested PCR, real-time PCR, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification were developed to detect ILTV samples from natural or experimentally infected birds. The PCR combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) can separate ILTVs into several genetic groups. These groups can separate vaccine from wild type field viruses. Vaccination is a common method to prevent ILT. However, field isolates and vaccine viruses can establish latent infected carriers. According to PCR-RFLP results, virulent field ILTVs can be derived from modified-live vaccines. Therefore, modified-live vaccine reversion provides a source for ILT outbreaks on chicken farms. Two recently licensed commercial recombinant ILT vaccines are also in use. Other recombinant and gene-deficient vaccine candidates are in the developmental stages. They offer additional hope for the control of this disease. However, in ILT endemic regions, improved biosecurity and management practices are critical for improved ILT control. PMID:24175219

  5. Infectious laryngotracheitis virus in chickens.

    PubMed

    Ou, Shan-Chia; Giambrone, Joseph J

    2012-10-12

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an important respiratory disease of chickens and annually causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry world-wide. ILT virus (ILTV) belongs to alphaherpesvirinae and the Gallid herpesvirus 1 species. The transmission of ILTV is via respiratory and ocular routes. Clinical and post-mortem signs of ILT can be separated into two forms according to its virulence. The characteristic of the severe form is bloody mucus in the trachea with high mortality. The mild form causes nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, and reduced weight gain and egg production. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nested PCR, real-time PCR, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification were developed to detect ILTV samples from natural or experimentally infected birds. The PCR combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) can separate ILTVs into several genetic groups. These groups can separate vaccine from wild type field viruses. Vaccination is a common method to prevent ILT. However, field isolates and vaccine viruses can establish latent infected carriers. According to PCR-RFLP results, virulent field ILTVs can be derived from modified-live vaccines. Therefore, modified-live vaccine reversion provides a source for ILT outbreaks on chicken farms. Two recently licensed commercial recombinant ILT vaccines are also in use. Other recombinant and gene-deficient vaccine candidates are in the developmental stages. They offer additional hope for the control of this disease. However, in ILT endemic regions, improved biosecurity and management practices are critical for improved ILT control. PMID:24175219

  6. Structural studies of Hantaan virus.

    PubMed

    Battisti, Anthony J; Chu, Yong-Kyu; Chipman, Paul R; Kaufmann, Bärbel; Jonsson, Colleen B; Rossmann, Michael G

    2011-01-01

    Hantaan virus is the prototypic member of the Hantavirus genus within the family Bunyaviridae and is a causative agent of the potentially fatal hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. The Bunyaviridae are a family of negative-sense RNA viruses with three-part segmented genomes. Virions are enveloped and decorated with spikes derived from a pair of glycoproteins (Gn and Gc). Here, we present cryo-electron tomography and single-particle cryo-electron microscopy studies of Hantaan virus virions. We have determined the structure of the tetrameric Gn-Gc spike complex to a resolution of 2.5 nm and show that spikes are ordered in lattices on the virion surface. Large cytoplasmic extensions associated with each Gn-Gc spike also form a lattice on the inner surface of the viral membrane. Rod-shaped ribonucleoprotein complexes are arranged into nearly parallel pairs and triplets within virions. Our results differ from the T=12 icosahedral organization found for some bunyaviruses. However, a comparison of our results with the previous tomographic studies of the nonpathogenic Tula hantavirus indicates a common structural organization for hantaviruses. PMID:21068243

  7. West Nile Virus Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Siew Pheng; Shi, Pei-Yong

    2013-01-01

    The outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) in 1999 in the USA, and its continued spread throughout the Americas, parts of Europe, the Middle East and Africa, underscored the need for WNV antiviral development. Here, we review the current status of WNV drug discovery. A number of approaches have been used to search for inhibitors of WNV, including viral infection-based screening, enzyme-based screening, structure-based virtual screening, structure-based rationale design, and antibody-based therapy. These efforts have yielded inhibitors of viral or cellular factors that are critical for viral replication. For small molecule inhibitors, no promising preclinical candidate has been developed; most of the inhibitors could not even be advanced to the stage of hit-to-lead optimization due to their poor drug-like properties. However, several inhibitors developed for related members of the family Flaviviridae, such as dengue virus and hepatitis C virus, exhibited cross-inhibition of WNV, suggesting the possibility to re-purpose these antivirals for WNV treatment. Most promisingly, therapeutic antibodies have shown excellent efficacy in mouse model; one of such antibodies has been advanced into clinical trial. The knowledge accumulated during the past fifteen years has provided better rationale for the ongoing WNV and other flavivirus antiviral development. PMID:24300672

  8. Inhibition of enveloped viruses infectivity by curcumin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tzu-Yen; Chen, Da-Yuan; Wen, Hsiao-Wei; Ou, Jun-Lin; Chiou, Shyan-Song; Chen, Jo-Mei; Wong, Min-Liang; Hsu, Wei-Li

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin, a natural compound and ingredient in curry, has antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic properties. Previously, we reported that curcumin abrogated influenza virus infectivity by inhibiting hemagglutination (HA) activity. This study demonstrates a novel mechanism by which curcumin inhibits the infectivity of enveloped viruses. In all analyzed enveloped viruses, including the influenza virus, curcumin inhibited plaque formation. In contrast, the nonenveloped enterovirus 71 remained unaffected by curcumin treatment. We evaluated the effects of curcumin on the membrane structure using fluorescent dye (sulforhodamine B; SRB)-containing liposomes that mimic the viral envelope. Curcumin treatment induced the leakage of SRB from these liposomes and the addition of the influenza virus reduced the leakage, indicating that curcumin disrupts the integrity of the membranes of viral envelopes and of liposomes. When testing liposomes of various diameters, we detected higher levels of SRB leakage from the smaller-sized liposomes than from the larger liposomes. Interestingly, the curcumin concentration required to reduce plaque formation was lower for the influenza virus (approximately 100 nm in diameter) than for the pseudorabies virus (approximately 180 nm) and the vaccinia virus (roughly 335 × 200 × 200 nm). These data provide insights on the molecular antiviral mechanisms of curcumin and its potential use as an antiviral agent for enveloped viruses. PMID:23658730

  9. Structural and Functional Studies of Archaeal Viruses*

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, C. Martin; Menon, Smita; Eilers, Brian J.; Bothner, Brian; Khayat, Reza; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    Viruses populate virtually every ecosystem on the planet, including the extreme acidic, thermal, and saline environments where archaeal organisms can dominate. For example, recent studies have identified crenarchaeal viruses in the hot springs of Yellowstone National Park and other high temperature environments worldwide. These viruses are often morphologically and genetically unique, with genomes that show little similarity to genes of known function, complicating efforts to understand their viral life cycles. Here, we review progress in understanding these fascinating viruses at the molecular level and the evolutionary insights coming from these studies. PMID:19158076

  10. Viruses: Making Friends with Old Foes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Trevor Douglas (Montana State University; Center for Bio-Inspired Nanomaterials)

    2006-05-12

    Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required: The study of viruses has traditionally focused on their roles as infectious agents and as tools for understanding cell biology. Viruses are now finding a new expanded role as nanoplatforms with applications in materials science and medicine. Viruses form highly symmetrical monodisperse architectures and are ideal templates for engineering multifunctionality, including multivalent display of surface ligands and encapsulation of inorganic and organic materials. These developments assure that viruses will find applications as versatile nanoscale materials.

  11. Flexible filamentous virus structure from fiber diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbs, Gerald; Kendall, Amy; McDonald, Michele; Bian, Wen; Bowles, Timothy; Baumgarten, Sarah; McCullough, Ian; Shi, Jian; Stewart, Phoebe; Bullitt, Esther; Gore, David; Ghabrial, Said (IIT); (BU-M); (Vanderbilt); (Kentucky)

    2008-10-24

    Fiber diffraction data have been obtained from Narcissus mosaic virus, a potexvirus from the family Flexiviridae, and soybean mosaic virus (SMV), a potyvirus from the family Potyviridae. Analysis of the data in conjunction with cryo-electron microscopy data allowed us to determine the symmetry of the viruses and to make reconstructions of SMV at 19 {angstrom} resolution and of another potexvirus, papaya mosaic virus, at 18 {angstrom} resolution. These data include the first well-ordered data ever obtained for the potyviruses and the best-ordered data from the potexviruses, and offer the promise of eventual high resolution structure determinations.

  12. Neutralizing Antibody Response to Hepatitis C Virus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Keck, Zhen-Yong; Foung, Steven K. H.

    2011-01-01

    A critical first step in a “rational vaccine design” approach for hepatitis C virus (HCV) is to identify the most relevant mechanisms of immune protection. Emerging evidence provides support for a protective role of virus neutralizing antibodies, and the ability of the B cell response to modify the course of acute HCV infection. This has been made possible by the development of in vitro cell culture models, based on HCV retroviral pseudotype particles expressing E1E2 and infectious cell culture-derived HCV virions, and small animal models that are robust tools in studies of antibody-mediated virus neutralization. This review is focused on the immunogenic determinants on the E2 glycoprotein mediating virus neutralization and the pathways in which the virus is able to escape from immune containment. Encouraging findings from recent studies provide support for the existence of broadly neutralization antibodies that are not associated with virus escape. The identification of conserved epitopes mediating virus neutralization that are not associated with virus escape will facilitate the design of a vaccine immunogen capable of eliciting broadly neutralizing antibodies against this highly diverse virus. PMID:22163337

  13. [Rift Valley fever virus: evolution in progress].

    PubMed

    Tolou, H; Plumet, S; Leparc-Goffart, I; Couissinier-Paris, P

    2009-06-01

    Several viruses now circulating in tropical zones around the globe are potential threats for ever-increasing human populations even in temperate zones that have long remained unaffected. The mechanisms underlying transport and transmission, which can be enhanced by human activity, can be even stronger in zones where factors needed to support development of these viruses, i.e., hosts, reservoirs and vectors, are already present. This possibility has been illustrated by dengue virus, and now by the rapid spread of the Chikungunya virus on Reunion Island in 2005 and then in Italy in 2007. The spreading of Chikungunya virus despite its mild reputation had a major unexpected impact. It showed that the evolution of the virus, whether a cause or consequence of observed events, could be determinant. The risk of extension of more pathogenic viruses due to similar mechanisms must be considered as a possibility. In this regard the Rift Valley fever virus, that already involves a large area and has a major reservoir, is one of the viruses that deserves close surveillance. PMID:19702138

  14. Control of sweet potato virus diseases.

    PubMed

    Loebenstein, Gad

    2015-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is ranked seventh in global food crop production and is the third most important root crop after potato and cassava. Sweet potatoes are vegetative propagated from vines, root slips (sprouts), or tubers. Therefore, virus diseases can be a major constrain, reducing yields markedly, often more than 50%. The main viruses worldwide are Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). Effects on yields by SPFMV or SPCSV alone are minor, or but in complex infection by the two or other viruses yield losses of 50%. The orthodox way of controlling viruses in vegetative propagated crops is by supplying the growers with virus-tested planting material. High-yielding plants are tested for freedom of viruses by PCR, serology, and grafting to sweet potato virus indicator plants. After this, meristem tips are taken from those plants that reacted negative. The meristems were grown into plants which were kept under insect-proof conditions and away from other sweet potato material for distribution to farmers after another cycle of reproduction. PMID:25591876

  15. The nucleolar interface of RNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Rawlinson, Stephen M; Moseley, Gregory W

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, understanding of the nucleolus has undergone a renaissance. Once considered primarily as the sites of ribosome biogenesis, nucleoli are now understood to be highly dynamic, multifunctional structures that participate in a plethora of cellular functions including regulation of the cell cycle, signal recognition particle assembly, apoptosis and stress responses. Although the molecular/mechanistic details of many of these functions remain only partially resolved, it is becoming increasingly apparent that nucleoli are also common targets of almost all types of viruses, potentially allowing viruses to manipulate cellular responses and the intracellular environment to facilitate replication and propagation. Importantly, a number of recent studies have moved beyond early descriptive observations to identify key roles for nucleolar interactions in the viral life cycle and pathogenesis. While it is perhaps unsurprising that many viruses that replicate within the nucleus also form interactions with nucleoli, the roles of nucleoli in the biology of cytoplasmic viruses is less intuitive. Nevertheless, a number of positive-stranded RNA viruses that replicate exclusively in the cytoplasm are known to express proteins that enter the nucleus and target nucleoli, and recent data have indicated similar processes in several cytoplasmic negative-sense RNA viruses. Here, we review this emerging aspect of the virus-host interface with a focus on examples where virus-nucleolus interactions have been linked to specific functional outcomes/mechanistic processes in infection and on the nucleolar interfaces formed by viruses that replicate exclusively in the cytoplasm. PMID:26041433

  16. Viruses as Modulators of Mitochondrial Functions

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Sanjeev K.; Tikoo, Suresh K.

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria are multifunctional organelles with diverse roles including energy production and distribution, apoptosis, eliciting host immune response, and causing diseases and aging. Mitochondria-mediated immune responses might be an evolutionary adaptation by which mitochondria might have prevented the entry of invading microorganisms thus establishing them as an integral part of the cell. This makes them a target for all the invading pathogens including viruses. Viruses either induce or inhibit various mitochondrial processes in a highly specific manner so that they can replicate and produce progeny. Some viruses encode the Bcl2 homologues to counter the proapoptotic functions of the cellular and mitochondrial proteins. Others modulate the permeability transition pore and either prevent or induce the release of the apoptotic proteins from the mitochondria. Viruses like Herpes simplex virus 1 deplete the host mitochondrial DNA and some, like human immunodeficiency virus, hijack the host mitochondrial proteins to function fully inside the host cell. All these processes involve the participation of cellular proteins, mitochondrial proteins, and virus specific proteins. This review will summarize the strategies employed by viruses to utilize cellular mitochondria for successful multiplication and production of progeny virus. PMID:24260034

  17. RNA Viruses: ROS-Mediated Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Reshi, Mohammad Latif; Su, Yi-Che; Hong, Jiann-Ruey

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are well known for being both beneficial and deleterious. The main thrust of this review is to investigate the role of ROS in ribonucleic acid (RNA) virus pathogenesis. Much evidences has accumulated over the past decade, suggesting that patients infected with RNA viruses are under chronic oxidative stress. Changes to the body's antioxidant defense system, in relation to SOD, ascorbic acid, selenium, carotenoids, and glutathione, have been reported in various tissues of RNA-virus infected patients. This review focuses on RNA viruses and retroviruses, giving particular attention to the human influenza virus, Hepatitis c virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and the aquatic Betanodavirus. Oxidative stress via RNA virus infections can contribute to several aspects of viral disease pathogenesis including apoptosis, loss of immune function, viral replication, inflammatory response, and loss of body weight. We focus on how ROS production is correlated with host cell death. Moreover, ROS may play an important role as a signal molecule in the regulation of viral replication and organelle function, potentially providing new insights in the prevention and treatment of RNA viruses and retrovirus infections. PMID:24899897

  18. Infectivity of rabies virus-exposed macrophages.

    PubMed

    Nazé, Florence; Suin, Vanessa; Lamoral, Sophie; Francart, Aurélie; Brochier, Bernard; Roels, Stefan; Mast, Jan; Kalai, Michael; Van Gucht, Steven

    2013-02-01

    Rabies virus distributes widely in infected mice, including lymphoid tissues and spleen macrophages. The infection characteristics in murine macrophages and the infectivity of virus-exposed macrophages were examined upon inoculation in mice. In vitro, Mf4/4 spleen macrophages supported mild virus production (10(4)-fold less than neuroblastoma), with formation of typical virions. Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) were most efficient to capture virus, but new virus production was not detected. Virus-induced cell death was significantly stronger in BMM, which might have eliminated BMM with productive infection. Still, viral RNA remained detectable in the remaining BMM for at least 4 weeks. Injection of in vitro-infected Mf4/4 in the nose or brain proved efficient to propagate infection in mice, even when cells were pre-incubated with neutralizing antibodies. Surprisingly, injection of ex-vivo-infected BMM in the brain also led to lethal infection in 8 out of 12 mice. Injection of infected Mf4/4 in the muscle mostly favoured a protective antibody response. Despite that macrophages are less fit to support virus production, they can still act as a source of infectious virus upon transfer in mice. This may be relevant for screening donor organs/cells, for which RT-PCR should be preferred over the traditional antigen or virus isolation assays. PMID:23159243

  19. Isolation of influenza viruses in MDCK 33016PF cells and clearance of contaminating respiratory viruses.

    PubMed

    Roth, Bernhard; Mohr, Hannah; Enders, Martin; Garten, Wolfgang; Gregersen, Jens-Peter

    2012-01-11

    This paper summarizes results obtained by multiplex PCR screening of human clinical samples for respiratory viruses and corresponding data obtained after passaging of virus-positive samples in MDCK 33016PF cells. Using the ResPlexII v2.0 (Qiagen) multiplex PCR, 393 positive results were obtained in 468 clinical samples collected during an influenza season in Germany. The overall distribution of positive results was influenza A 42.0%, influenza B 38.7%, adenovirus 1.5%, bocavirus 0.5%, coronavirus 3.3%, enterovirus 5.6%, metapneumovirus 1.0%, parainfluenza virus 0.8%, rhinovirus 4.1%, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) 2.5%. Double infections of influenza virus together with another virus were found for adenovirus B and E, bocavirus, coronavirus, enterovirus and for rhinovirus. These other viruses were rapidly lost upon passages in MDCK 33016PF cells and under conditions as applied to influenza virus passaging. Clinical samples, in which no influenza virus but other viruses were found, were also subject to passages in MDCK 33016PF cells. Using lower inoculum dilutions than those normally applied for preparations containing influenza virus (total dilution of the original sample of ?10(4)), the positive results for the different viruses turned negative already after 2 or 3 passages in MDCK 33016PF cells. These results demonstrate that, under practical conditions as applied to grow influenza viruses, contaminating viruses can be effectively removed by passages in MDCK cells. In combination with their superior isolation efficiency, MDCK cells appear highly suitable to be used as an alternative to embryonated eggs to isolate and propagate influenza vaccine candidate viruses. PMID:22119922

  20. Upolu virus and Aransas Bay virus, Two Presumptive Bunyaviruses, Are Novel Members of the Family Orthomyxoviridae

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhary, Rashmi; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia; Hutchison, Stephen K.; Popov, Vsevolod; Street, Craig; Tesh, Robert B.; Lipkin, W. Ian

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Emerging and zoonotic pathogens pose continuing threats to human health and ongoing challenges to diagnostics. As nucleic acid tests are playing increasingly prominent roles in diagnostics, the genetic characterization of molecularly uncharacterized agents is expected to significantly enhance detection and surveillance capabilities. We report the identification of two previously unrecognized members of the family Orthomyxoviridae, which includes the influenza viruses and the tick-transmitted Thogoto and Dhori viruses. We provide morphological, serologic, and genetic evidence that Upolu virus (UPOV) from Australia and Aransas Bay virus (ABV) from North America, both previously considered potential bunyaviruses based on electron microscopy and physicochemical features, are orthomyxoviruses instead. Their genomes show up to 68% nucleotide sequence identity to Thogoto virus (segment 2; ?74% at the amino acid level) and a more distant relationship to Dhori virus, the two prototype viruses of the recognized species of the genus Thogotovirus. Despite sequence similarity, the coding potentials of UPOV and ABV differed from that of Thogoto virus, instead being like that of Dhori virus. Our findings suggest that the tick-transmitted viruses UPOV and ABV represent geographically distinct viruses in the genus Thogotovirus of the family Orthomyxoviridae that do not fit in the two currently recognized species of this genus. IMPORTANCE Upolu virus (UPOV) and Aransas Bay virus (ABV) are shown to be orthomyxoviruses instead of bunyaviruses, as previously thought. Genetic characterization and adequate classification of agents are paramount in this molecular age to devise appropriate surveillance and diagnostics. Although more closely related to Thogoto virus by sequence, UPOV and ABV differ in their coding potentials by lacking a proposed pathogenicity factor. In this respect, they are similar to Dhori virus, which, despite the lack of a pathogenicity factor, can cause disease. These findings enable further studies into the evolution and pathogenicity of orthomyxoviruses. PMID:24574415

  1. Characterization of uncultivable bat influenza virus using a replicative synthetic virus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bin; Ma, Jingjiao; Liu, Qinfang; Bawa, Bhupinder; Wang, Wei; Shabman, Reed S; Duff, Michael; Lee, Jinhwa; Lang, Yuekun; Cao, Nan; Nagy, Abdou; Lin, Xudong; Stockwell, Timothy B; Richt, Juergen A; Wentworth, David E; Ma, Wenjun

    2014-10-01

    Bats harbor many viruses, which are periodically transmitted to humans resulting in outbreaks of disease (e.g., Ebola, SARS-CoV). Recently, influenza virus-like sequences were identified in bats; however, the viruses could not be cultured. This discovery aroused great interest in understanding the evolutionary history and pandemic potential of bat-influenza. Using synthetic genomics, we were unable to rescue the wild type bat virus, but could rescue a modified bat-influenza virus that had the HA and NA coding regions replaced with those of A/PR/8/1934 (H1N1). This modified bat-influenza virus replicated efficiently in vitro and in mice, resulting in severe disease. Additional studies using a bat-influenza virus that had the HA and NA of A/swine/Texas/4199-2/1998 (H3N2) showed that the PR8 HA and NA contributed to the pathogenicity in mice. Unlike other influenza viruses, engineering truncations hypothesized to reduce interferon antagonism into the NS1 protein didn't attenuate bat-influenza. In contrast, substitution of a putative virulence mutation from the bat-influenza PB2 significantly attenuated the virus in mice and introduction of a putative virulence mutation increased its pathogenicity. Mini-genome replication studies and virus reassortment experiments demonstrated that bat-influenza has very limited genetic and protein compatibility with Type A or Type B influenza viruses, yet it readily reassorts with another divergent bat-influenza virus, suggesting that the bat-influenza lineage may represent a new Genus/Species within the Orthomyxoviridae family. Collectively, our data indicate that the bat-influenza viruses recently identified are authentic viruses that pose little, if any, pandemic threat to humans; however, they provide new insights into the evolution and basic biology of influenza viruses. PMID:25275541

  2. Pathogenic Interactions Between Sorghum Yellow Banding Virus and Other Viruses Infecting Sorghum.

    E-print Network

    Theu, M.P.K.J; Toler, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Between Sorghum Yellow Banding Virus and Other Viruses Infecting Sorghum M.P.K.J. Theu and R. W. Toler1 Abstract A pathogenic interaction between sorghum yel low banding virus (SYBV) and maize dwarf mosaic (MDMV-A) virus was proved. Inoculation..., MDMV-A was the only virus that was serologically detected. SYBV infected root tissue revealed the presence of SYBV particles in the mitochondria and not in the nucleus. Maize dwarf mosaic strain 0 also produced a patho genic synergistic interaction...

  3. Detection of Vaccinia Virus DNA, but not Infectious Virus, in the Blood of Smallpox Vaccine Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jeffrey I.; Hohman, Patricia; Preuss, Jeanne C.; Li, Li; Fischer, Steven H.; Fedorko, Daniel P.

    2007-01-01

    The authors of a recent study suggested that the duration of deferral for blood donations by smallpox vaccinees should be extended, based on detection of vaccinia virus DNA in 5 blood samples by PCR and the potential for viremia. We found that 4 of 202 blood specimens (from 3 of 27 smallpox vaccinees) were positive for vaccinia virus DNA by PCR; none were positive for virus by culture. Throat swabs were negative by PCR and culture. Thus, while some blood specimens contained vaccinia virus DNA, infectious virus was not detected. Current guidelines for deferral of blood donation in vaccinees seem appropriate. PMID:17493714

  4. Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) resistance in transgenic citrus based on virus challenge of protoplasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Olivares-Fuster; G. H. Fleming; M. R. Albiach-Marti; S. Gowda; W. O. Dawson; J. W. Crosser

    2003-01-01

    Summary  A strategy for the sereening of candidate virus-derived sequences to provide RNA-mediated citrus tristeza virus (CTV) resistance\\u000a and early selection of virus-resistant citrus is presented. The system is based on the polyethylene glycol-(PEG) mediated\\u000a cotransformation of protoplasts using virus-derived sequences and green fluorescent protein as a single selectable marker,\\u000a followed by an in vitro assay of virus inoculation into transgenic

  5. Characterization of the Early Steps of Hepatitis C Virus Infection by Using Luciferase Reporter Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Koutsoudakis, George; Kaul, Artur; Steinmann, Eike; Kallis, Stephanie; Lohmann, Volker; Pietschmann, Thomas; Bartenschlager, Ralf

    2006-01-01

    The lack of an efficient system to produce hepatitis C virus (HCV) particles has impeded the analysis of the HCV life cycle. Recently, we along with others demonstrated that transfection of Huh7 hepatoma cells with a novel HCV isolate (JFH1) yields infectious viruses. To facilitate studies of HCV replication, we generated JFH1-based bicistronic luciferase reporter virus genomes. We found that RNA replication of the reporter construct was only slightly attenuated and that virus titers produced were only three- to fivefold lower compared to the parental virus, making these reporter viruses an ideal tool for quantitative analyses of HCV infections. To expand the scope of the system, we created two chimeric JFH1 luciferase reporter viruses with structural proteins from the Con1 (genotype 1b) and J6CF (genotype 2a) strains. Using these and the authentic JFH1 reporter viruses, we analyzed the early steps of the HCV life cycle. Our data show that the mode of virus entry is conserved between these isolates and involves CD81 as a key receptor for pH-dependent virus entry. Competition studies and time course experiments suggest that interactions of HCV with cell surface-resident glycosaminoglycans aid in efficient infection of Huh7 cells and that CD81 acts during a postattachment step. The reporter viruses described here should be instrumental for investigating the viral life cycle and for the development of HCV inhibitors. PMID:16699011

  6. Animal Viruses Probe dataset (AVPDS) for microarray-based diagnosis and identification of viruses.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Brijesh S; Pokhriyal, Mayank; Vasishtha, Dinesh P; Sharma, Bhaskar

    2014-03-01

    AVPDS (Animal Viruses Probe dataset) is a dataset of virus-specific and conserve oligonucleotides for identification and diagnosis of viruses infecting animals. The current dataset contain 20,619 virus specific probes for 833 viruses and their subtypes and 3,988 conserved probes for 146 viral genera. Dataset of virus specific probe has been divided into two fields namely virus name and probe sequence. Similarly conserved probes for virus genera table have genus, and subgroup within genus name and probe sequence. The subgroup within genus is artificially divided subgroups with no taxonomic significance and contains probes which identifies viruses in that specific subgroup of the genus. Using this dataset we have successfully diagnosed the first case of Newcastle disease virus in sheep and reported a mixed infection of Bovine viral diarrhea and Bovine herpesvirus in cattle. These dataset also contains probes which cross reacts across species experimentally though computationally they meet specifications. These probes have been marked. We hope that this dataset will be useful in microarray-based detection of viruses. The dataset can be accessed through the link https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/94060831/avpds/HOME.html. PMID:24129840

  7. Virus Enrichment for Single Virus Infection by Using 3D Insulator Based Dielectrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Taisuke; Maruyama, Hisataka; Honda, Ayae; Arai, Fumihito

    2014-01-01

    We developed an active virus filter (AVF) that enables virus enrichment for single virus infection, by using insulator-based dielectrophoresis (iDEP). A 3D-constricted flow channel design enabled the production of an iDEP force in the microfluidic chip. iDEP using a chip with multiple active virus filters (AVFs) was more accurate and faster than using a chip with a single AVF, and improved the efficiency of virus trapping. We utilized maskless photolithography to achieve the precise 3D gray-scale exposure required for fabrication of constricted flow channel. Influenza virus (A PR/8) was enriched by a negative DEP force when sinusoidal wave was applied to the electrodes within an amplitude range of 20 Vp-p and a frequency of 10 MHz. AVF-mediated virus enrichment can be repeated simply by turning the current ON or OFF. Furthermore, the negative AVF can inhibit virus adhesion onto the glass substrate. We then trapped and transported one of the enriched viruses by using optical tweezers. This microfluidic chip facilitated the effective transport of a single virus from AVFs towards the cell-containing chamber without crossing an electrode. We successfully transported the virus to the cell chamber (v?=?10 µm/s) and brought it infected with a selected single H292 cell. PMID:24918921

  8. Virus enrichment for single virus infection by using 3D insulator based dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Taisuke; Maruyama, Hisataka; Honda, Ayae; Arai, Fumihito

    2014-01-01

    We developed an active virus filter (AVF) that enables virus enrichment for single virus infection, by using insulator-based dielectrophoresis (iDEP). A 3D-constricted flow channel design enabled the production of an iDEP force in the microfluidic chip. iDEP using a chip with multiple active virus filters (AVFs) was more accurate and faster than using a chip with a single AVF, and improved the efficiency of virus trapping. We utilized maskless photolithography to achieve the precise 3D gray-scale exposure required for fabrication of constricted flow channel. Influenza virus (A PR/8) was enriched by a negative DEP force when sinusoidal wave was applied to the electrodes within an amplitude range of 20 Vp-p and a frequency of 10 MHz. AVF-mediated virus enrichment can be repeated simply by turning the current ON or OFF. Furthermore, the negative AVF can inhibit virus adhesion onto the glass substrate. We then trapped and transported one of the enriched viruses by using optical tweezers. This microfluidic chip facilitated the effective transport of a single virus from AVFs towards the cell-containing chamber without crossing an electrode. We successfully transported the virus to the cell chamber (v = 10 µm/s) and brought it infected with a selected single H292 cell. PMID:24918921

  9. Label-Free Capacitance-Based Identification of Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Mahmoud Al; Mustafa, Farah; Ali, Lizna M.; Karakkat, Jimsheena V.; Rizvi, Tahir A.

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to quantitate a single virus suspension in culture medium without any pre-processing. The electrical capacitance per virus particle was used to identify the kind of virus present by measuring the suspension (virus plus medium) capacitance, de-embedding the medium contribution, and dividing by the virus count. The proposed technique is based on finding the single virus effective dielectric constant which is directly related to the virus composition. This value was used to identify the virus type accordingly. Two types of viruses thus tested were further quantified by a biochemical technique to validate the results. Furthermore, non-organic nanoparticles with known concentration and capacitance per particle were identified using the proposed method. The selectivity of the method was demonstrated by performing electrical measurements on a third virus, revealing that the proposed technique is specific and sensitive enough to permit detection of a few hundred virus particles per milliliter within a few minutes. PMID:25966875

  10. Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus co-infection: a therapeutic challenge.

    PubMed

    Hamzaoui, Lamine; El Bouchtili, Souheil; Siai, Karima; Mahmoudi, Moufida; Azzouz, Mohamed Msaddak

    2013-02-01

    Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus are the two most common causes of chronic liver disease in the world. Dual infection with hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus, whose prevalence is underestimated, is characterized by a more severe liver injury, a higher probability of liver cirrhosis and a higher incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma. Treatment of these patients represents a therapeutic challenge. We report the case of an hepatitis B virus-hepatitis C virus co-infected patient, which particularly illustrates the interactions between these two viruses and therapeutic problems caused by the dual infection. HCV was initially dominant, which indicated a combination therapy by pegylated interferon and ribavirin. This treatment was associated with an early virological response of the HCV but an increase of HBV DNA occurred, requiring the use of a nucleoside analogue. A good response was obtained for the HBV but a relapse of HCV was noted, posing a problem for therapeutic decision. PMID:22959099

  11. Expression of the Hantaan virus M genome segment by using a vaccinia virus recombinant.

    PubMed

    Pensiero, M N; Jennings, G B; Schmaljohn, C S; Hay, J

    1988-03-01

    A cDNA containing the complete open reading frame of the Hantaan virus (HTN) M genome segment has been cloned into vaccinia virus. This recombinant virus expresses two glycoproteins which are similar to the HTN structural glycoproteins, G1 and G2, in molecular weight, cleavage pattern, and cellular distribution. Both HTN and recombinant vaccinia virus glycoproteins are exclusively associated with the Golgi apparatus of the cell. Despite this intracellular restriction, mice inoculated with the recombinant vaccinia virus raised neutralizing antibodies against HTN. The specificity of virus neutralization appears to reside in the HTN glycoproteins, since a vaccinia virus recombinant expressing the HTN nucleocapsid protein was unable to elicit a neutralizing antibody response. PMID:3123711

  12. Satsuma dwarf and related viruses belong to a new lineage of plant picorna-like viruses.

    PubMed

    Karasev, A V; Han, S S; Iwanami, T

    2001-01-01

    Satsuma dwarf virus (SDV) and two closely related viruses, Citrus mosaic (CiMV), and Naval orange infectious mottling (NIMV), seriously affect citrus varieties grown in Japan and East Asia. All three viruses have icosahedral particles built of two proteins encapsidating two single-stranded genomic RNAs. The natural mode of transmission of these SDV-like viruses is unknown, and they were previously placed among tentative members of the family Comoviridae. Recently, a complete genome of SDV was sequenced, and its replication-related proteins were found only distantly related to those of viruses from the family Comoviridae (Iwanami T., Kondo Y., and Karasev A.V. J Gen Virol 80, 793-797, 1999). Here we present a partial genome sequence for another SDV-like virus, NIMV, and a thorough phylogenetic analysis of the gene products encoded by SDV, CiMV, and NIMV to assess their relationships with picorna-like viruses infecting plants, insects, and vertebrates. The RdRp's of SDV-like viruses form a new lineage, separate from members of Como- and Sequiviridae families. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that SDV-like viruses may represent a new family of plant picorna-like viruses. Sequence analysis of the capsid proteins (CPs) encoded by the SDV-like viruses revealed a region of similarity to CPs of animal calici- and picornaviruses that encompasses the structural core of the eight-strand beta-barrel characteristic of picornaviral CPs. These data suggest that SDV and related bipartite viruses evolved separately from the viruses in the family Comoviridae and that the split of an ancestor, monopartite picorna-like virus genome might have occurred more than once. PMID:11556400

  13. GRAPEVINE RUPESTRIS STEM PITTING-ASSOCIATED VIRUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus (GRSPaV) is a recently identified virus and belongs to the Foveavirus genus within the Flexiviridae family. Its single–stranded RNA genome contains five open reading frames that potentially encode the replication related proteins, a triple gene bloc...

  14. Immunopathogenesis of hepatitis C virus infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony J Freeman; George Marinos; Rosemary A Ffrench; Andrew R Lloyd

    2001-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus, a recently identified member of the family Flaviviridae, is an important cause of chronic viral hepatitis and cirrhosis. There are similarities in the nature of the immune response to this pathogen with immunity in other flavivirus and hepatotropic virus infections, such as hepatitis B. However, the high rate of viral persistence after primary hepatitis C infection, and

  15. Swine influenza virus: epidemiology and vaccine concerns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction. Swine influenza virus (SIV) is a primary cause of respiratory disease in swine and a component of the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). Influenza viruses are an important health and economic concern for swine producers throughout the world. Swine operations may be affected by...

  16. Influenza A virus infections in Chinese landbirds

    E-print Network

    Peterson, A. Townsend; Bush, Sarah E.; Spackman, Erica; Swayne, David E.; Ip, Hon S.

    2009-10-01

    occurrence of infl uenza viruses in diverse taxa of Emerging Infectious Diseases • www.cdc.gov/eid • Vol. 14, No. 10, October 2008 1645 Table. Prevalence of influenza A virus in avian orders and families at 5 sites, People’s Republic of China Location, no...

  17. Influenza A Virus Infections in Land

    E-print Network

    Clayton, Dale H.

    Influenza A Virus Infections in Land Birds, People's Republic of China A. Townsend Peterson, Sarah­PCR testing of 939 Asian land birds of 153 species. Influenza A infection was found, particularly among influenza virus ecology has long regarded water- birds as a primary reservoir. Although the benchmark study

  18. The Genomes of Sheeppox and Goatpox Viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. R. Tulman; C. L. Afonso; Z. Lu; L. Zsak; J.-H. Sur; N. T. Sandybaev; U. Z. Kerembekova; V. L. Zaitsev; G. F. Kutish; D. L. Rock

    2002-01-01

    Sheeppox virus (SPPV) and goatpox virus (GTPV), members of the Capripoxvirus genus of the Poxviridae, are etiologic agents of important diseases of sheep and goats in northern and central Africa, southwest and central Asia, and the Indian subcontinent. Here we report the genomic sequence and comparative analysis of five SPPV and GTPV isolates, including three pathogenic field isolates and two

  19. Epidemiology of Blackberry yellow vein associated virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blackberry yellow vein disease is one of the most important diseases of blackberry in the United States. Several viruses are found associated with the symptomology but Blackberry yellow vein associated virus (BYVaV) appears to be the most prevalent of all, leading to the need for a better understand...

  20. Original article Bovine respiratory syncytial virus

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    antibodies and suggest a widespread BRSV infection in the cattle population of Uruguay. respiratory syncytial. INTRODUCTION Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus (BRSV) is the major cause of acute respi- ratory diseaseOriginal article Bovine respiratory syncytial virus: first serological evidence in Uruguay Mauro