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1

Three years survey of Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus reservoir weed hosts in southern Italy.  

PubMed

During the period from August 2004 to June 2006 a serious tomato yellow leaf curl epidemic caused by both Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCS) was observed in protected tomato crops in Castrovillari, Calabria Region, in a group of greenhouses where tomato is grown hydroponically. A three years survey for reservoir weed hosts of these viruses was performed during summer period in order to identify where the viruses persist during the host-free period, interesting an area covering a ray of 500 m around the group of greenhouses. About 350 samples were collected from symptomless and symptomatic plants of the following botanic families: Graminaceae, Compositeae, Solanaceae, Portulacaceae, Malvaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Amaranthaceae, Convolvulaceae, Brassicaceae, Labiatae, Plantaginaceae, Asteraceae. Any virus presence was evaluated by DAS ELISA, using a "broad-spectrum" reagent combination detecting different Begomoviruses including TYLCSV and TYLCV. A couple of synthetic oligonucleotides allowing the amplification of the whole coat protein (CP) gene was used for PCR of ELISA positive samples in order to perform the molecular characterisation of the viral isolate responsible of the disease. RFLP analysis performed on the PCR product, 1008 bp long, showed the presence of only TYLCSV in the weeds found infected and belonging to Sonchus asper, Solanum nigrum, Datura stramonium and Cardaria draba species. Similarity analysis performed between the CP of each isolate and the TYLCSV isolate recovered within the greenhouse and responsible of the epidemic in mixed infection with a TYLCV isolate resulted in a value of 100% of identity, thus indicating that there was no variability in TYLCSV population in the surveyed area. S. asper, S. nigrum, D. stramonium and C. draba, as alternative hosts of TYLCSV and nutrient plants of the virus vector, Bemisia tabaci, were found to play an important role in virus ecology and epidemiology in the studied tomato ecosystem. No weed between those investigated has been found to be infected by TYLCV so far. To our knowledge this is the first report of S. asper and C. draba as TYLCSV hosts in natural infection. PMID:18396845

Fanigliulo, Angele; Pacella, Rosa; Comes, Soccorsa; Crescenzi, Aniello

2007-01-01

2

Tête à Tête of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus and Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Sardinia Virus in Single Nuclei  

PubMed Central

Since 1997 two distinct geminivirus species, Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), have caused a similar yellow leaf curl disease in tomato, coexisted in the fields of southern Spain, and very frequently doubly infected single plants. Tomatoes as well as experimental test plants (e.g., Nicotiana benthamiana) showed enhanced symptoms upon mixed infections under greenhouse conditions. Viral DNA accumulated to a similar extent in singly and doubly infected plants. In situ tissue hybridization showed TYLCSV and TYLCV DNAs to be confined to the phloem in both hosts, irrespective of whether they were inoculated individually or in combination. The number of infected nuclei in singly or doubly infected plants was determined by in situ hybridization of purified nuclei. The percentage of nuclei containing viral DNA (i.e., 1.4% in tomato or 6% in N. benthamiana) was the same in plants infected with either TYLCSV, TYLCV, or both. In situ hybridization of doubly infected plants, with probes that discriminate between both DNAs, revealed that at least one-fifth of infected nuclei harbored DNAs from both virus species. Such a high number of coinfected nuclei may explain why recombination between different geminivirus DNAs occurs frequently. The impact of these findings for epidemiology and for resistance breeding concerning tomato yellow leaf curl diseases is discussed. PMID:15367638

Morilla, Gabriel; Krenz, Björn; Jeske, Holger; Bejarano, Eduardo R.; Wege, Christina

2004-01-01

3

Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus-resistant tomato plants expressing the multifunctional N-terminal domain of the replication-associated protein show transcriptional changes resembling stress-related responses.  

PubMed

The N-terminal domain (amino acids 1-130) of the replication-associated protein (Rep130 ) of Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) retains the ability of full-length Rep to localize to the nucleus and to down-regulate C1 transcription when ectopically expressed in plants, both functions being required to inhibit homologous viral replication. In this study, we analysed the effect of Rep130 expression on virus resistance and the plant transcriptome in the natural and agronomically important host species of TYLCSV, Solanum lycopersicum. Tomato plants accumulating high levels of Rep130 were generated and proved to be resistant to TYLCSV. Using an in vitro assay, we showed that plant-expressed Rep130 also retains the catalytic activity of Rep, thus supporting the notion that this protein domain is fully functional. Interestingly, Rep130 -expressing tomatoes were characterized by an altered transcriptional profile resembling stress-related responses. Notably, the serine-type protease inhibitor (Ser-PI) category was over-represented among the 20 up-regulated genes. The involvement of Rep130 in the alteration of host mRNA steady-state levels was confirmed using a distinct set of virus-resistant transgenic tomato plants expressing the same TYLCSV Rep130 , but from a different, synthetic, gene. Eight genes were found to be up-regulated in both types of transgenic tomato and two encoded Ser-PIs. Four of these eight genes were also up-regulated in TYLCSV-infected wild-type tomato plants. Implications with regard to the ability of this Rep domain to interfere with viral infections and to alter the host transcriptome are discussed. PMID:23910556

Lucioli, Alessandra; Berardi, Alessandra; Gatti, Francesca; Tavazza, Raffaela; Pizzichini, Daniele; Tavazza, Mario

2014-01-01

4

Virion Stability Is Important for the Circulative Transmission of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Sardinia Virus by Bemisia tabaci, but Virion Access to Salivary Glands Does Not Guarantee Transmissibility? †  

PubMed Central

The capsid protein (CP) of the monopartite begomovirus Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV), family Geminiviridae, is indispensable for plant infection and vector transmission. A region between amino acids 129 and 152 is critical for virion assembly and insect transmissibility. Two previously described mutants, one with a double Q129P Q134H mutation (PNHD) and another with a further D152E change (PNHE), were found nontransmissible (NT). Another NT mutant with a single N130D change (QDQD) was retrieved from a new mutational analysis. In this study, these three NT mutants and the wild-type (wt) virus were compared in their relationships with the whitefly vector Bemisia tabaci and the nonvector Trialeurodes vaporariorum. Retention kinetics of NT mutants were analyzed by quantitative dot blot hybridization in whiteflies fed on infected plants. The QDQD mutant, whose virions appeared nongeminate following purification, was hardly detectable in either whitefly species at any sampling time. The PNHD mutant was acquired and circulated in both whitefly species for up to 10 days, like the wt virus, while PNHE circulated in B. tabaci only. Using immunogold labeling, both PNHD and PNHE CPs were detected in B. tabaci salivary glands (SGs) like the wt virus, while no labeling was found in any whitefly tissue with the QDQD mutant. Significant inhibition of transmission of the wt virus was observed after prior feeding of the insects on plants infected with the PNHE mutant, but not on plants infected with the other mutants. Virion stability and ability to cross the SG barrier are necessary for TYLCSV transmission, but interactions with molecular components inside the SGs are also critical for transmissibility. PMID:19321611

Caciagli, Piero; Medina Piles, Vicente; Marian, Daniele; Vecchiati, Manuela; Masenga, Vera; Mason, Giovanna; Falcioni, Tania; Noris, Emanuela

2009-01-01

5

Severe outbreak of tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus on pepper in southern Italy.  

PubMed

During summer and autumn 2008 a severe outbreak of pepper leaf curl disease (PLCD) was observed in pepper crops under plastic tunnels in the ionic coast of Basilicata region. Its incidence reached, in some cases, values close to 50%. The beginning of infections was recorded along the perimeter of the tunnels, where it reached a percentage of almost 100%. The infection then progressively spread towards the central areas of the greenhouses. Large populations of whiteflies, identificated as Bemisia tabaci, were observed on the infected crops. Detection assays for TYLCSV and TYLCV were performed in order to ascertain the etiologic agent: 190 symptomatic samples were collected from different fields and assayed in DAS-ELISA using a broad-spectrum reagent combination (distributed by Bioreba AG) detecting TYLCV, TYLCSV and other Begamoviruses: of these, 176 samples resulted positive. In order to discriminate between TYLCSV, TYLCV or any other Begamovirus, 15 positive samples were analyzed by PCR using a couple of synthetic oligonucleotides allowing the amplification of the whole coat protein (CP) gene. RFLP analysis performed on the PCR product, 1008 bp long, showed the presence of only TYLCSV in all assayed samples. The molecular characterization performed by phylogenetic analysis of the sequenced coat protein gene revealed that the isolate shares a similarity of about 97% with the corresponding sequence of a tomato TYLCSV isolate from Sicily (Z28390) and is almost identical with the pepper isolate CAB-It recovered in the same area in 2007 (TYLCSV was first recorded on pepper in Italy in 2007 in Policoro-MT, Fanigliulo et al., 2008. Comm. Appl. Biol. Sci, Ghent University, 73/2, 2008), indicating that there is a very low variability in TYLCSV population in the surveyed area. The further diffusion of PLCD and its hazard has to be connected with the presence of wide tomato cultivations, of weed hosts alternative to pepper (Solanum nigrum, Datura stramonium, Sonchus asper, Cardaria draba and Abutilon theophrasti) and with the strong presence of the vector B. tabaci of the B biotype, more efficient than Q biotype in the virus transmission, and able to feed and reproduce on peppers as well as on tomatoes. PMID:20222578

Comes, Soccorsa; Fanigliulo, Angela; Pacella, Rosa; Crescenzi, Aniello

2009-01-01

6

Transcriptomics of the Interaction between the Monopartite Phloem-Limited Geminivirus Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Sardinia Virus and Solanum lycopersicum Highlights a Role for Plant Hormones, Autophagy and Plant Immune System Fine Tuning during Infection  

PubMed Central

Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV), a DNA virus belonging to the genus Begomovirus, causes severe losses in tomato crops. It infects only a limited number of cells in the vascular tissues, making difficult to detect changes in host gene expression linked to its presence. Here we present the first microarray study of transcriptional changes induced by the phloem-limited geminivirus TYLCSV infecting tomato, its natural host. The analysis was performed on the midrib of mature leaves, a material naturally enriched in vascular tissues. A total of 2206 genes were up-regulated and 1398 were down-regulated in infected plants, with an overrepresentation of genes involved in hormone metabolism and responses, nucleic acid metabolism, regulation of transcription, ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and autophagy among those up-regulated, and in primary and secondary metabolism, phosphorylation, transcription and methylation-dependent chromatin silencing among those down-regulated. Our analysis showed a series of responses, such as the induction of GA- and ABA-responsive genes, the activation of the autophagic process and the fine tuning of the plant immune system, observed only in TYLCSV-tomato compatible interaction so far. On the other hand, comparisons with transcriptional changes observed in other geminivirus-plant interactions highlighted common host responses consisting in the deregulation of biotic stress responsive genes, key enzymes in the ethylene biosynthesis and methylation cycle, components of the ubiquitin proteasome system and DNA polymerases II. The involvement of conserved miRNAs and of solanaceous- and tomato-specific miRNAs in geminivirus infection, investigated by integrating differential gene expression data with miRNA targeting data, is discussed. PMID:24587146

Miozzi, Laura; Napoli, Chiara; Sardo, Luca; Accotto, Gian Paolo

2014-01-01

7

Transcriptomics of the interaction between the monopartite phloem-limited geminivirus tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus and Solanum lycopersicum highlights a role for plant hormones, autophagy and plant immune system fine tuning during infection.  

PubMed

Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV), a DNA virus belonging to the genus Begomovirus, causes severe losses in tomato crops. It infects only a limited number of cells in the vascular tissues, making difficult to detect changes in host gene expression linked to its presence. Here we present the first microarray study of transcriptional changes induced by the phloem-limited geminivirus TYLCSV infecting tomato, its natural host. The analysis was performed on the midrib of mature leaves, a material naturally enriched in vascular tissues. A total of 2206 genes were up-regulated and 1398 were down-regulated in infected plants, with an overrepresentation of genes involved in hormone metabolism and responses, nucleic acid metabolism, regulation of transcription, ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and autophagy among those up-regulated, and in primary and secondary metabolism, phosphorylation, transcription and methylation-dependent chromatin silencing among those down-regulated. Our analysis showed a series of responses, such as the induction of GA- and ABA-responsive genes, the activation of the autophagic process and the fine tuning of the plant immune system, observed only in TYLCSV-tomato compatible interaction so far. On the other hand, comparisons with transcriptional changes observed in other geminivirus-plant interactions highlighted common host responses consisting in the deregulation of biotic stress responsive genes, key enzymes in the ethylene biosynthesis and methylation cycle, components of the ubiquitin proteasome system and DNA polymerases II. The involvement of conserved miRNAs and of solanaceous- and tomato-specific miRNAs in geminivirus infection, investigated by integrating differential gene expression data with miRNA targeting data, is discussed. PMID:24587146

Miozzi, Laura; Napoli, Chiara; Sardo, Luca; Accotto, Gian Paolo

2014-01-01

8

Corsica and Sardinia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rich in antiquities and picturesque landscapes, the island provinces of Corsica, France, (top) and Sardinia, Italy, (bottom) have captured the imaginations of historians and poets alike for centuries. Corsica, crowned with snow-capped mountains, jeweled with shimmering lakes, and cloaked in misty emerald forests, is situated in the sapphire blue Mediterranean Sea southeast of mainland France. The island enjoys a relatively warm climate consisting of hot, dry summers full of sunshine, and mild winters that rarely dip below 0oC (32oF). In this scene, Corsica is the smaller island to the north. The island has almost 1,700 hills and mountains, ranging from 300 to over 2,700 meters in height. The tallest of these peaks is the snow-capped Monte Cinto toward the northern end of the island. Coursing throughout the island is an extensive network of rivers, carved into Corsica's granite face by snowmelt and rainwater runoff. The Corsican Cape sits on the island's northern finger; its eastern slope is somewhat hilly. There are quite a few agricultural fields and vineyards visible as the light green swath to the south all along the eastern shore. Along the southern shore are the dazzling cliffs of Bonifacio. Moving up the west coast in the state of Ajaccio we see a jagged, chiseled water front, reminiscent of the famous fjords of Norway. There are four large gulfs and many smaller rocky inlets sculpted into Corsica's west coast. Moving soutward, they are the Gulfs of Porto, Sagone, Ajaccio, and Valinco. The larger island to the south--across the Strait of Bonifacio--is Sardinia, Italy, one the earliest populated lands of Europe. Some ancient artifacts date human populations there as old as 6000 B.C. Around 1500 B.C., another group of settlers arrived on the island (historians don't know where they came from) and spread quickly across the island. Known as the Nuragic people, these settlers built almost 30,000 circular fortresses--called 'nuraghe'-- around the island; each strategically located so that they were within eyesight of their nearest neighbors. Today, about 7,000 nuraghe ruins still stand, unlike any other ruins in the world. Sardinia is the second largest island in the Mediterranean, situated due west of mainland Italy. Stretching across the central, eastern part of Sardinia is the rugged terrain of Gennargentu--mountainous and thickly vegetated. Mostly uninhabited by people, the 50,000-hectare wilderness of Monte Arcosu is home to a unique population of fallow deer as well as wild boar, hares, foxes, golden eagles, and the Sardinian wildcat. Founded in the ninth century by Phoenicians, the port city of Cagliari sits on the large bay on Sardinia's southeastern coast. To the north lies the old city of Sassari (originally an ancient settlement called Tathari), situated on a hillside overlooking the large Gulf of Asinara. This true-color image was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite, on December 7, 2001. Image courtesy Liam Gumley, Space Science and Engineering Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison

2002-01-01

9

The 2011 West Nile disease outbreak in Sardinia region, Italy.  

PubMed

In 2011, strains of West Nile Virus (WNV) belonging to lineage 1 spread for the first time in Sardinia region (Italy). In contrast to previous WNV Italian incursion, the strains were found in Culex modestus and, more surprisingly, they were able to cause severe clinical signs in the affected birds. Based on the partial sequence of the NS3 encoding gene, the Sardinian WNV strains demonstrated a high similarity with the other WNV strains recently detected in the Mediterranean Basin. Nonetheless, the 2011 Sardinian sequences were grouped in a distinct sub-cluster. Both the NS3-249P and NS3-249T genotypes were detected in the Sardinian outbreaks confirming that the co-circulation of different genotypes in the affected population might be common for WNV as for many RNA viruses. No association, however, was observed between virulence and viral genotype. PMID:25842208

Monaco, Federica; Goffredo, Maria; Briguglio, Paolo; Pinoni, Chiara; Polci, Andrea; Iannetti, Simona; Marruchella, Giuseppe; Di Francesco, Gabriella; Di Gennaro, Anna Pia; Pais, Monica; Teodori, Liana; Bruno, Rossana; Catalani, Monica; Ruiu, Angelo; Lelli, Rossella; Savini, Giovanni

2015-03-31

10

New remarkable records of microfungi from Sardinia (Italy).  

PubMed

In June 2009 we organized a botanical student excursion to the eastern part of Sardinia, Italy. On this occasion we were able to collect and identify over 80 species of microfungi growing on higher plants. The collecting sites were spread over a large area, among them were La Caletta, Capo Comino, Monte Albo, Cala Gonone, Monte Maccione, San Teodoro, Capo Testa. The collected microfungi were parasitic or saprophytic; Basidiomycotina (Uredinales), Ascomycotina and Deuteromycotina (Hyphomycetes, Coelomycetes) were predominant. Examples are Pezicula corticola (Jörg.) NANNF. (new for Sardinia), on Pyrus communis. Puccinia chamaecyparissi TROTT. (new for Sardinia), on Santolina insularis. Sphaceloma oleae CICC. and GRANITI (new for Sardinia) and Phlyctema vagabunda DESM. (new for Sardinia), on Olea europaea and Arbutus unedo. Puccinia pseudosphaeria MONT. (new for Sardinia), on Sonchus oleraceus. Discula umbrinella (BERK. and BR.) SUTTON (new for Sardinia)(D. quercina WEST. and BARK), on Quercus coccifera. Zaghouania phillyreae PAT. (new for Sardinia), on Phillyrea angustifolia. Phymatotrichum omnivorum (DUGGAR) HENNEBERT, new on Verbascum thapsus for Sardinia. Guignardia punctoidea (COOKE) SCHROTER (new for Sardinia), on Quercus ilex. Many of the collected species are rare or unknown for the area of investigation until now. All specimens are located in the Herbarium ESS, Mycotheca Parva collection G.B. Feige and N. Ale-Agha. PMID:21534478

Jensen, M; Nerat, N; Ale-Agha, N

2010-01-01

11

Foreign Influences and Consequences on the Nuragic Culture of Sardinia  

E-print Network

much effect did the introduction of exotic, or non-native, goods have on the indigenous culture of Sardinia and by what mechanism did these artifacts find their way into Nuragic society? The earliest date of Phoenician settlement on Sardinia... of Phoenician settlement of Sardinia. The eastern artifacts found at Nuragic sites are the subtle clues that begin to explain the mystery between the elusive foreign merchants, the pre-colonization stage inferred from the inscriptions, and the established...

Choltco, Margaret E.

2010-07-14

12

Ecotypic differentiation of Medicago polymorpha in Sardinia and Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY - Burr medic (Medicago polymorpha L.) is commonly found in Sardinia and in Chile throughout a wide range of Mediterranean type climates. In Sardinia it is part of the native flora at altitudes ranging between 0 and 1000 m a.s.l., with annual rainfall ranging between 500 and 1100 mm. In Chile, burr medic is naturalized and distributed in a

A. Del Pozo; C. Porqueddu; C. Ovalle

13

Analyzing wildfire exposure on Sardinia, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used simulation modeling based on the minimum travel time algorithm (MTT) to analyze wildfire exposure of key ecological, social and economic features on Sardinia, Italy. Sardinia is the second largest island of the Mediterranean Basin, and in the last fifty years experienced large and dramatic wildfires, which caused losses and threatened urban interfaces, forests and natural areas, and agricultural productions. Historical fires and environmental data for the period 1995-2009 were used as input to estimate fine scale burn probability, conditional flame length, and potential fire size in the study area. With this purpose, we simulated 100,000 wildfire events within the study area, randomly drawing from the observed frequency distribution of burn periods and wind directions for each fire. Estimates of burn probability, excluding non-burnable fuels, ranged from 0 to 1.92x10-3, with a mean value of 6.48x10-5. Overall, the outputs provided a quantitative assessment of wildfire exposure at the landscape scale and captured landscape properties of wildfire exposure. We then examined how the exposure profiles varied among and within selected features and assets located on the island. Spatial variation in modeled outputs resulted in a strong effect of fuel models, coupled with slope and weather. In particular, the combined effect of Mediterranean maquis, woodland areas and complex topography on flame length was relevant, mainly in north-east Sardinia, whereas areas with herbaceous fuels and flat areas were in general characterized by lower fire intensity but higher burn probability. The simulation modeling proposed in this work provides a quantitative approach to inform wildfire risk management activities, and represents one of the first applications of burn probability modeling to capture fire risk and exposure profiles in the Mediterranean basin.

Salis, Michele; Ager, Alan A.; Arca, Bachisio; Finney, Mark A.; Alcasena, Fermin; Bacciu, Valentina; Duce, Pierpaolo; Munoz Lozano, Olga; Spano, Donatella

2014-05-01

14

Thirty-Five-Year Presence of African Swine Fever in Sardinia: History, Evolution and Risk Factors for Disease Maintenance.  

PubMed

Despite the implementation of control efforts and funds to fight against the disease, African swine fever (ASF) has been present in Sardinia since 1978. It has caused serious problems for both the industrial pig sector and the regional authorities in Sardinia, as well as the economy of Italy and the European Union, which annually supports the costly eradication programme. During this time, ASF has persisted, especially in the central-east part of Sardinia where almost 75% of the total outbreaks are concentrated. The Sardinian pig sector is clearly divided into two categories based on the specialization and industrialization of production: industrial farms, which represents only 1.8% of the farms in the island and non-professional holdings, which are comprised of small producers (90% of pig holdings have <15 pigs) and apply little to no biosecurity measures. Additionally, illegally raised pigs are still bred in free-ranging systems in certain isolated parts of the island, despite strict regulations. The illegal raising of pigs, along with other high-risk management practices (e.g. use of communal areas) are likely the primary reasons for endemic persistence of the virus in this area. The compensation provided to the farmers, and other aspects of the eradication programme have also negatively influenced eradication efforts, indicating that socio-cultural and economic factors play an important role in the epidemiology of ASF on the island. The aim of this study was to comprehensively review the evolution of the 35-year presence of ASF in Sardinia, including control measures, and the environmental and socio-economic factors that may have contributed to disease endemicity on the island. The present review highlights the need for a coordinated programme that considers these socio-economic and environmental factors and includes an assessment of new cost-effective control strategies and diagnostic tools for effectively controlling ASF in Sardinia. PMID:25212957

Mur, L; Atzeni, M; Martínez-López, B; Feliziani, F; Rolesu, S; Sanchez-Vizcaino, J M

2014-09-12

15

Characterization of fire regime in Sardinia (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last decades, a number of Authors highlighted the crucial role of forest fires within Mediterranean ecosystems, with impacts both negative and positive on all biosphere components and with reverberations on different scales. Fire determines the landscape structure and plant composition, but it is also the cause of enormous economic and ecological damages, beside the loss of human life. In Sardinia (Italy), the second largest island of the Mediterranean Basin, forest fires are perceived as one of the main environmental and social problems, and data are showing that the situation is worsening especially within the rural-urban peripheries and the increasing number of very large forest fires. The need for information concerning forest fire regime has been pointed out by several Authors (e.g. Rollins et al., 2002), who also emphasized the importance of understanding the factors (such as weather/climate, socio-economic, and land use) that determine spatial and temporal fire patterns. These would be used not only as a baseline to predict the climate change effect on forest fires, but also as a fire management and mitigation strategy. The main aim of this paper is, thus, to analyze the temporal and spatial patterns of fire occurrence in Sardinia (Italy) during the last three decades (1980-2010). For the analyzed period, fire statistics were provided by the Sardinian Forest Service (CFVA - Corpo Forestale e di Vigilanza Ambientale), while weather data for eight weather stations were obtained from the web site www.tutiempo.it. For each station, daily series of precipitation, mean, maximum and minimum temperature, relative humidity and wind speed were available. The present study firstly analyzed fire statistics (burned area and number of fires) according to the main fire regime characteristics (seasonality, fire return interval, fire incidence, fire size distribution). Then, fire and weather daily values were averaged to obtain monthly, seasonal and annual values, and a set of parametric and not parametric statistical tests were used to analyze the fire-weather relationships. Results showed a high inter- and intra-annual variability, also considering the different type of affected vegetation. As for other Mediterranean areas, a smaller number of large fires caused a high proportion of burned area. Land cover greatly influenced fire occurrence and fire size distribution across the landscape. Furthermore, fire activity (number of fires and area burned) showed significant correlations with weather variables, especially summer precipitation and wind, which seemed to drive the fire seasons and the fire propagation, respectively.

Bacciu, V. M.; Salis, M.; Mastinu, S.; Masala, F.; Sirca, C.; Spano, D.

2012-12-01

16

Presence of Chlamydia trachomatis in young women in Northern Sardinia.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease among women. The aim of this study was to determine by PCR the incidence of C. trachomatis among young women in Northern Sardinia since no studies are present in this area. The results obtained showed a moderate increase of chlamydial infection since 1997. PMID:17319603

Zanetti, Stefania; Usai, D; Molicotti, Paola; Deriu, Antonella; Sechi, Leonardo Antonio

2007-01-01

17

Crossbreeding the Sardinian and East Friesian breeds in Sardinia  

E-print Network

Crossbreeding the Sardinian and East Friesian breeds in Sardinia J. G. BOYAZOGLU S. CASU J. C be obtained through the crossbreeding and upgrading of the ewes of the local breed with imported male lines, to introduce the East Friesian for crossbreeding purposes. According to the bibliography known at the time (Sc

Boyer, Edmond

18

A Dynamical Analysis of Sea Breeze Hodograph Rotation on Sardinia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the dynamics of diurnal sea-breeze rotation over coastal Sardinia using realistic and idealized model runs and historical observations. Earlier research on sea-breezes in Sardinia shows that the onshore winds around various coasts of the island exhibit both the theoretically predicted clockwise rotation as well as seemingly anomalous anticlockwise rotation. A non-hydrostatic fully compressible numerical model (WRF) is used to simulate wind fields on and around the island on previously-studied sea-breeze days. WRF accurately captures the sea breeze circulation on all coasts, as depicted in station data. Diurnal rotation of wind is examined and patterns of clockwise and anti-clockwise rotation are identified. A dynamical analysis is performed by extracting individual forcing terms from the horizontal momentum equations. Analysis of several regions around the island shows that the direction of rotation is a result of a complex interaction between near-surface and synoptic pressure gradient, Coriolis and advection forcings. An idealized simulation is performed over an artificial island of similar dimensions and latitude to Sardinia, but with dramatically simplified topography. Dynamical analysis of the idealized runs reveals a rather different pattern of hodograph rotation to the real Sardinia, yet similar underlying dynamics. The research provides new insights into the dynamics underlying sea-breeze hodograph rotation, especially in coastal zones with complex topography and/or coastline.

Moisseeva, Nadya; Steyn, Douw

2014-05-01

19

Comparison of the invasive alien flora in continental islands: Sardinia (Italy) and Balearic Islands (Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a comparison of the invasive vascular flora of Sardinia and that of the Balearic Islands. The study\\u000a has recorded 53 invasive taxa in Sardinia (12% of the alien flora) while 48 (14%) in the Balearic Islands, 19 of them common for both territories. The\\u000a invasive flora of Sardinia is included in 18 families; Asteraceae is the richest

L. Podda; P. Fraga i Arguimbau; F. Mascia; O. Mayoral García-Berlanga; G. Bacchetta

2011-01-01

20

No relative rotation detected between Corsica and Sardinia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forty dikes of Upper Paleozoic age have been investigated paleomagnetically on both sides of the Straits of Bonifacio to detect a possible rotation of Sardinia relative to Corsica. A primary component of magnetization has been isolated after thermal and alternating field cleaning. Eleven sites in Corsica yield a paleomagnetic mean of D = 134.7, I = -11.3 ( ?95 = 6.8), while 11 sites from Sardinia showed a paleomagnetic mean of D = 132.7, I = -1.6 ( ?95 = 7.3). The two directions are not significantly different at the 95% confidence level. No relative rotation between Corsica and Sardinia occurred across the Bonifacio Straits and the two islands maintained the present spatial relationship since the Upper Paleozoic. A mean paleomagnetic direction of D = 133.7, I = -6.5 ( ?95 = 5.1) for the Sardo-Corso Massif yield a corresponding virtual mean pole position at 249.4°E, 33.7°N coincident with Upper Paleozoic data of the Mediterranean region. This data implies about 70° of counterclockwise rotation of the block respect stable Europe.

Vigliotti, L.; Alvarez, W.; McWilliams, M.

1990-06-01

21

Paleozoic age of the Capo Spartivento Orthogneiss, Sardinia, Italy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Zircon U Pb isotope dating of the Capo Spartivento Orthogneiss, proposed as a possible Precambrian basement of southern Sardinia, shows that this rock is Caledonian in age. Conventional multi-grain analyses yield an imprecise age of roughly 480 Ma, and ion-microprobe analyses of cores of single grains yield a consistent age of 449 Ma. Though some inherited grains of Proterozoic age are present in the zircon population, they are neither abundant nor consistent with Caledonian growth of new zircons within an older protolith. ?? 1989.

Ludwig, K. R.; Turi, B.

1989-01-01

22

Nuraghic Well of Santa Cristina, Paulilatino, Oristano, Sardinia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nuraghic well of Santa Cristina, Sardinia, has been regarded as a ritual monument built to receive moonlight on its water mirror at the time of the meridian passage of the moon when it reaches its highest point in the sky around the time of a major standstill. In this chapter, we investigate the precision that could have been achieved and conclude that the well could indeed have served as an instrument for measuring the lunar declination during half of the draconic cycle of 18.61 years.

Lebeuf, Arnold

23

The control software for the Sardinia Radio Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) is a new 64-meter shaped antenna designed to carry out observations up to 100 GHz. This large instrument has been built in Sardinia, 35 km north of Cagliari, and is now facing the technical commissioning phase. This paper describes the architecture, the implementation solutions and the development status of NURAGHE, the SRT control software. Aim of the project was to produce a software which is reliable, easy to keep up to date and flexible against other telescopes. The most ambitious goal will be to install NURAGHE at all the three italian radio telescopes, allowing the astronomers to access these facilities through a common interface with very limited extra effort. We give a description of all the control software subsystems (servo systems, backends, receivers, etc.) focusing on the resulting design, which is based on the ACS (Alma Common Software) patterns and comes from linux-based, LGPL, Object-Oriented development technologies. We also illustrate how NURAGHE deals with higher level requirements, coming from the telescope management or from the system users.

Orlati, A.; Buttu, M.; Melis, A.; Migoni, C.; Poppi, S.; Righini, S.

2012-09-01

24

Quinto Tiberio Angelerio and new measures for controlling plague in 16th-century Alghero, Sardinia.  

PubMed

Plague, a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, has been responsible for at least 3 pandemics. During 1582-1583, a plague outbreak devastated the seaport of Alghero in Sardinia. By analyzing contemporary medical texts and local documentation, we uncovered the pivotal role played by the Protomedicus of Alghero, Quinto Tiberio Angelerio (1532-1617), in controlling the epidemic. Angelerio imposed rules and antiepidemic measures new to the 16th-century sanitary system of Sardinia. Those measures undoubtedly spared the surrounding districts from the spread of the contagion. Angelerio seems to have been an extremely successful public health officer in the history of plague epidemics in Sardinia. PMID:23968598

Bianucci, Raffaella; Benedictow, Ole Jørgen; Fornaciari, Gino; Giuffra, Valentina

2013-01-01

25

Quinto Tiberio Angelerio and New Measures for Controlling Plague in 16th-Century Alghero, Sardinia  

PubMed Central

Plague, a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, has been responsible for at least 3 pandemics. During 1582–1583, a plague outbreak devastated the seaport of Alghero in Sardinia. By analyzing contemporary medical texts and local documentation, we uncovered the pivotal role played by the Protomedicus of Alghero, Quinto Tiberio Angelerio (1532–1617), in controlling the epidemic. Angelerio imposed rules and antiepidemic measures new to the 16th-century sanitary system of Sardinia. Those measures undoubtedly spared the surrounding districts from the spread of the contagion. Angelerio seems to have been an extremely successful public health officer in the history of plague epidemics in Sardinia. PMID:23968598

Benedictow, Ole Jørgen; Fornaciari, Gino; Giuffra, Valentina

2013-01-01

26

De inventio Sardiniæ : the idea of Sardinia in historical and travel writing 1780-1955   

E-print Network

This thesis investigates the way the national identity of Sardinia was perceived in travel literature – and more particularly the way writing about travel experiences contributed to shape identity, both of the visited ...

Corso, Sandro

2012-06-28

27

Micromorphological and phytochemical characters of Teucrium marum and T. subspinosum ( Labiatae ) from Sardinia and Balearic Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micromorphology and distribution of trichomes in different plant parts ofTeucrium marum andTeucrium subspinosum from Sardinia and the Balearic Islands are described. The composition of volatile compounds in the same plants has also been studied. The occurrence in Sardinia of two differentT. marum entities is evidenced. One of them, growing in the NW. part of the island, is very similar toT.

O. Servettaz; L. Bini Maleci; A. Pinetti

1992-01-01

28

Modeling the Landscape Drivers of Fire Recurrence in Sardinia (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although recurrent fire events with very short return periods have the most dangerous effects on landscape degradation, only a few papers have explored the landscape ecological factors that drive the probability of fire recurrence. In this paper we apply a habitat suitability model for analyzing the spatial relationship between a selected set of landscape factors (mainly land use types) and fire recurrence in Sardinia (Italy) in the years 2005-2010. Our results point out that fire occurrence in already burned areas is lower than expected in natural and semi-natural land cover types, like forest and shrublands. To the contrary, like in all regions where human activity is the main source of fire ignitions, the probability of fire recurrence is higher at low altitudes and close to roads and to urban and agricultural land cover types, thus showing marked preference for those landscape factors denoting higher anthropogenic ignition risk.

Ricotta, Carlo; Di Vito, Stefania

2014-06-01

29

Polar compounds from Parentucellia viscosa (L.) Caruel from Sardinia.  

PubMed

In this work, we examined a sample of Parentucellia viscosa from Sardinia island, showing similarities and differences of the secondary metabolite content with respect to previous study conducted on an accession of continental origin, and also with Bellardia trixago, a species very close to Parentucellia. In this aspect, the proximity between these species, previously stated by a phylogenetic study, was confirmed by a phytochemical approach. Within the non-iridoidic fraction a chiral polyol (mannitol) and two aromatic acids (benzoic acid and gallic acid) were evidenced. These two acids are not common in Scropulariaceae since they have been reported only from a few species, and it is worth to note that gallic acid was never reported from the Orobanchaceae family. PMID:25342105

Venditti, Alessandro; Ballero, Mauro; Serafini, Mauro; Bianco, Armandodoriano

2014-10-24

30

Modeling the landscape drivers of fire recurrence in Sardinia (Italy).  

PubMed

Although recurrent fire events with very short return periods have the most dangerous effects on landscape degradation, only a few papers have explored the landscape ecological factors that drive the probability of fire recurrence. In this paper we apply a habitat suitability model for analyzing the spatial relationship between a selected set of landscape factors (mainly land use types) and fire recurrence in Sardinia (Italy) in the years 2005-2010. Our results point out that fire occurrence in already burned areas is lower than expected in natural and semi-natural land cover types, like forest and shrublands. To the contrary, like in all regions where human activity is the main source of fire ignitions, the probability of fire recurrence is higher at low altitudes and close to roads and to urban and agricultural land cover types, thus showing marked preference for those landscape factors denoting higher anthropogenic ignition risk. PMID:24705728

Ricotta, Carlo; Di Vito, Stefania

2014-06-01

31

“Where There's No Woman There's No Home”: Profile of the Agro-Pastoral Family in Nineteenth-Century Sardinia  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: At the time of Italian Unification, in the mid-nineteenth century, Sardinia was known as one of the most economically and socially archaic parts of the new nation. This article considers family life and women's roles in both the cereal-producing villages and the pastoral mountain communities of Sardinia. Although nuclear family households characterize much of the island, in the pastoral

Anna Oppo

1990-01-01

32

Analyzing seasonal patterns of wildfire exposure factors in Sardinia, Italy.  

PubMed

In this paper, we applied landscape scale wildfire simulation modeling to explore the spatiotemporal patterns of wildfire likelihood and intensity in the island of Sardinia (Italy). We also performed wildfire exposure analysis for selected highly valued resources on the island to identify areas characterized by high risk. We observed substantial variation in burn probability, fire size, and flame length among time periods within the fire season, which starts in early June and ends in late September. Peak burn probability and flame length were observed in late July. We found that patterns of wildfire likelihood and intensity were mainly related to spatiotemporal variation in ignition locations, fuel moisture, and wind vectors. Our modeling approach allowed consideration of historical patterns of winds, ignition locations, and live and dead fuel moisture on fire exposure factors. The methodology proposed can be useful for analyzing potential wildfire risk and effects at landscape scale, evaluating historical changes and future trends in wildfire exposure, as well as for addressing and informing fuel management and risk mitigation issues. PMID:25471625

Salis, Michele; Ager, Alan A; Alcasena, Fermin J; Arca, Bachisio; Finney, Mark A; Pellizzaro, Grazia; Spano, Donatella

2015-01-01

33

Molecular epizootiology and diagnosis of porcine babesiosis in Sardinia, Italy.  

PubMed

The recent characterization of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) of a pathogenic Babesia species in a domestic sow paved the way for establishing diagnostic and epidemiological tools for porcine babesiosis. Here, we developed the first specific Babesia sp. Suis PCR, and we applied this test to a panel of samples collected from animals living in a typical Mediterranean environment (Sardinia, Italy), including domestic pigs, wild boars, and ticks. In domestic pigs, PCR coupled with sequencing revealed an estimated Babesia infection frequency of 26.2% and the presence of distinct 18S sequence types. The different distribution of sequence types in symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects might suggest the existence of phylogenetically closely related strains with variable pathogenicity in pigs. Moreover, molecular identification of tick species indicated Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Rhipicephalus bursa as candidate vectors potentially involved in the transmission of this pathogen. Collectively, the data reveal the suitability of 18S rRNA PCR/sequencing for molecular diagnosis of porcine babesiosis and for large-scale investigations on the presence and geographical distribution of Babesia sp. Suis genetic variants. PMID:25325315

Zobba, Rosanna; Nuvoli, Anna Maria; Sotgiu, Francesca; Lecis, Roberta; Spezzigu, Antonio; Dore, Gian Mario; Masia, Marco Antonio; Cacciotto, Carla; Parpaglia, Maria Luisa Pinna; Dessì, Daniele; Pittau, Marco; Alberti, Alberto

2014-10-01

34

Two new Typhloreicheia species from Sardinia and their biogeographical significance (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Scaritinae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Typhloreicheia monacha sp. n. and Typhloreicheia ilianae sp. n. are described from two caves of Central-Eastern Sardinia (Nuoro province): the Bue Marino cave and the Nurra ‘e Pradu cave, respectively. Both caves are located in the part of the island where many highly specialised subterranean carabid beetles are localised. Typhloreicheia monacha is apparently related to two other species of the same area, i.e. Typhloreicheia onnisi Casale & Magrini, 2004 and Typhloreicheia elegans (Dodero, 1916); Typhloreicheia ilianae is closely related to Typhloreicheia henroti Jeannel, 1957, known from a cave near Dorgali. Relationships and diagnostic features among these taxa are discussed and illustrated, and a key for identification of the specialised subterranean Typhloreicheia species of Sardinia is provided. The hypothesis of adaptive radiation of Reicheiina species in Sardinia, recently proposed by the senior author of this contribution, is further elaborated in light of new data. PMID:22140340

Casale, Achille; Marcia, Paolo

2011-01-01

35

Viruses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lytic bacteriophages, viruses which infect and lyse bacterial cells, can provide a natural method to reduce bacterial pathogens on produce commodities. The use of multi-phage cocktails is most likely to be effective against bacterial pathogens on produce commodities, and minimize the development of...

36

Multidisciplinary studies on ancient sandstone quarries of Western Sardinia (Italy).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ancient coastal quarries of Mediterranean are increasingly considered geosites of multidisciplinary relevance. They are sites of historical-archaeological interest that show ancient techniques of stone extraction; they are significant for cultural heritage conservation and restoration, as sources of the stones used in ancient buildings and monuments; they are sites of geological relevance, as often retain important stratigraphic sections; they are also useful markers of secular changes in the sea level. A multisciplinary study is in progress on the ancient quarries of the Sinis region (western Sardinia island), integrating archaeological, geological, minero-petrographical data. In Sardinia, coastal quarries have been established from Punic and Roman times. Many of them exploited Quaternary sediments along the southern and western coasts of the island. They consist of middle-late Pleistocene marine conglomerates and carbonate sandstones, and of coastal (aeolian) carbonate sandstones. Sandstone blocks of different sizes have been widely used in ancient cities for buildings, defensive works, harbours, etc. Three main areas of stone extraction (San Giovanni di Sinis, Punta Maimoni, Is Arutas) have been so far recognized in the Sinis. GIS-supported mapping and documentation of the sites includes their geology and stratigraphy, the extension and layout of the quarries, and an evaluation of volumes of extracted rocks. Documented archaeological evidences include ancient extraction fronts, spoil heaps, working areas, working traces in the old fronts, transport routes of blocks, and traces of loading facilities. The study is aimed at reconstructing the relationships of the quarries with the urban areas of Sinis, as the ancient Punic-Roman city of Tharros. Consequently, a minero-petrographical characterization (optical microscopy, XRD) is performed on sandstones sampled in each quarry, and in historical buildings in Tharros and other centres of the region (Cabras, Oristano, Santa Giusta). They are prevailing fine-medium grained carbonate sandstones, and subordinate coarse sandstones and micro-conglomerates, variably cemented. In the studied areas, stratigraphic sequences grade from coarser facies of marine environment to fine-grained aeolian deposits, marked by cross-stratification. The Quaternary sedimentary sequence rests on Miocene limestones and clays, and on Plio-Pleistocene basalts. On optical microscopy, sandstones show grain-supported texture, with abundant carbonate bioclasts, intraclasts and algal nodules, with quartz, feldspars and fragments of granitoids, quartzites, volcanics. Grainsize in sandstone sequences progressively decreases towards the top, corresponding to an increase of fine bioclastic components. Terrigenous components change from the northernmost outcrops (Is Arutas quarries), where clasts of granitoid origin are dominant, to the southern outcrops (San Giovanni di Sinis quarries), which show a more marked compositional heterogeneity, with frequent volcanic feldspars and lithoclasts. The calcitic cement also shows distinct variations, both along the stratigraphic sequence and at areal scale, between the sparitic type and the micro/cryptocrystalline type. First evidences on samples from Tharros city walls indicate that sandstone blocks may come, almost in part, from the quarries of San Giovanni di Sinis that, consequently, could have started to work during the Punic age. Other evidences in the area, however, indicate that quarrying activities in Sinis continued well over the Ancient times, presumably including all the Middle Ages.

Grillo, Silvana Maria; Del Vais, Carla; Naitza, Stefano

2013-04-01

37

Soil moisture and vegetation controls on evapotranspiration in a heterogeneous Mediterranean ecosystem on Sardinia, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micrometeorological measurements of evapotranspiration (ET) can be difficult to interpret and use for validating model calculations in the presence of land cover heterogeneity. Land surface fluxes, soil moisture ($\\\\theta$), and surface temperatures (Ts) data were collected by an eddy correlation-based tower located at the Orroli (Sardinia) experimental field (covered by woody vegetation, grass, and bare soil) from April 2003 to

Matteo Detto; Nicola Montaldo; John D. Albertson; Marco Mancini; Gaby Katul

2006-01-01

38

ANTHROPOGENIC IMPACTS ON THE BLUEFIN TUNA (THUNNUS THYNNUS L.) TRAP FISHERY OF SARDINIA (WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Mediterranean traps harvest the ancestral migratory flow of bluefin tuna at a fixed site. Therefore it is reasonable to consider that environmental alterations generated by social and economic events at a local scale are disruptive to the pathways of tuna schools and thus account for catches variability. The southwestern area of Sardinia has been the location of important trap

Piero Addis; Ivan Locci

2009-01-01

39

ICFA Sardinia July 1-6, 2002 Z. Huang (zrh@aps.anl.gov) CSR Microbunching  

E-print Network

@aps.anl.gov) Integral Equation for CSR MicrobunchingIntegral Equation for CSR Microbunching · For bunching parameter bICFA Sardinia July 1-6, 2002 Z. Huang (zrh@aps.anl.gov) CSR Microbunching: Gain Calculation Zhirong initial condition (density and/or energy modulation), this determines the final microbunching · Calculate

40

Assessing exposure of human and ecological values to wildfire in Sardinia, Italy  

E-print Network

Assessing exposure of human and ecological values to wildfire in Sardinia, Italy Michele Salis), Via Enrico De Nicola 9, I-07100, Sassari, Italy. B Euro-Mediterranean Center for Climate Changes (CMCC), IAFENT Division, Via De Nicola 9, I-07100, Sassari, Italy. C USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest

41

The First International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC2002), Sardinia, Italy, June 2002.  

E-print Network

The First International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC2002), Sardinia, Italy, June 2002. Building the Semantic Web on XML Peter F. Patel-Schneider and J´er^ome Sim´eon Bell Labs Research, Murray Hill, NJ, U.S.A. pfps,simeon¡ @research.bell-labs.com Abstract. The semantic discontinuity between World-Wide Web

Jeffrey, Alan

42

The First International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC2002), Sardinia, Italy, June 2002.  

E-print Network

The First International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC2002), Sardinia, Italy, June 2002. Building the Semantic Web on XML Peter F. Patel­Schneider and Jâ??erâ??ome Simâ??eon Bell Labs Research, Murray Hill, NJ, U.S.A. fpfps,simeong@research.bell­labs.com Abstract. The semantic discontinuity between World­Wide Web

Patel-Schneider, Peter F.

43

SARDINIA2003_2_Infrastructure.doc 1 Waste Treatment Infrastructure in North Rhine-Westphalia,  

E-print Network

SARDINIA2003_2_Infrastructure.doc 1 Waste Treatment Infrastructure in North Rhine infrastructure in the Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia / Germany (18 mn inhabitants = 530 inh./km²) sets commercial and industrial waste management sector. For the turn of the year 2001/2002, this infrastructure

Columbia University

44

Genetic relationships between cultivated and wild olives of Corsica and Sardinia using RAPD markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to ensure the genetic diversity of the Olea europaea complex,it is necessary to characterize the cultivated varieties and the wildpopulations. In the present study, we focused on the olives growing on twoMediterranean islands, Corsica and Sardinia. On these two islands, there areolives with many denominations, as well as forests of oleasters. Here, it wasproposed to determine the relationships

Virginie Bronzini de Caraffa; Jean Giannettini; Claude Gambotti; Jacques Maury

2002-01-01

45

The influence of Sardinia on Corsican rainfall in the western Mediterranean Sea: A numerical sensitivity study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction of orographic effects and moisture availability is of high importance to the precipitation amount and distribution in the western Mediterranean and neighboring land surfaces. In particular, the forecast of heavy precipitation events is still a challenge for operational weather forecast models. In this study, the thermal and dynamical interactions between the two neighboring islands of Corsica and Sardinia in the western Mediterranean Sea are investigated using the COnsortium for Small-scale MOdeling (COSMO) model. Six cases with different synoptic conditions are analyzed and the dependance of the Corsican rainfall on the presence and terrain characteristics of Sardinia is investigated. Besides a reference run with standard model orography, sensitivity runs with removed and flat island of Sardinia are performed. The numerical results show that the daily precipitation amount over Corsica can increase by up to 220% of the amount from the reference run. Whereas most of the sensitivity runs show a decrease of the precipitation amount under strong synoptic forcing, there is no systematic relationship on days with weak synoptic forcing. The differences in the precipitation amount are induced by (i) missing deviation or missing blocking of the southerly flow by Sardinia and (ii) by the influence of cold pools generated by deep convection over Sardinia. These differences can be attributed to changes of low-level convergence and moisture/heat content and their effect on thermodynamic parameters, like convective available potential energy or convective inhibition. Furthermore, the position and translation speed of frontal systems over Corsica on days with strong synoptic forcing also depend on the Sardinian orography. These results demonstrate the high sensitivity of numerical weather prediction to the interaction of neighboring mountainous islands.

Ehmele, Florian; Barthlott, Christian; Corsmeier, Ulrich

2015-02-01

46

Thermochronological response to rifting and subduction in the Corsica-Sardinia block  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The linkage between deep-seated tectonic processes and surface processes provides a key to investigate the geological evolution of complex plate boundaries starting from the analysis of low-temperature geochronological systems. Here, we integrate published thermochronological data from Corsica (Danišík et al., 2007) with a new multi-thermochronological dataset (i.e., zircon and apatite fission track (ZFT and AFT), and apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) data) from Sardinia, in order to tackle the Western Mediterranean tectonic issue and constrain the problematic transition in space and time between the opposite-dipping Alpine (European) and Apenninic (Adriatic) subductions. Mesozoic AFT ages (169-201 Ma) and AHe ages (133-204 Ma), found on mountain ridges of central Sardinia and on the eastern coast of the island, indicate that rocks now exposed at the surface have resided since Jurassic times at very shallow depth, i.e., above the partial annealing zone of the AFT system (~60-110°C) or even above the partial retention zone of the AHe system (~40-80°C). The observed age pattern and track length distributions are consistent with those predicted after rising of isothermal surfaces during rifting and subsequent thermal relaxation after continental break-up. We demonstrate that the crustal sections now exposed in central and eastern Sardinia were originally located closer to the Tethyan rift axis than crustal sections exposed in NW Sardinia and Corsica, pointing to a NNE trend for the continental crust isopachs of the northern Tethyan margin (ENE before Corsica-Sardinia rotation), with burial depth progressively increasing from SE to NW. In Alpine Corsica, the low-T geochronological evidence of Jurassic rifting was largely obliterated by Cenozoic metamorphism, but it is still recognized in high-T systems. AFT and AHe ages set after Tethyan rifting but not thermally affected by Neogene backarc extension, define a SE-NW trend of decreasing ages from southern Sardinia to northern Variscan Corsica (N-S in Paleogene coordinates). Modelled time-temperature paths show that this age trend is consistent with an erosional pulse migrating northward during the Paleogene, which led to the re-exposure of the Mesozoic planation surfaces previously buried by Paleogene detrital sequences. The northward migration of erosional pulses mirrors the coeval northward trajectory of Adria relative to Europe as inferred by magnetic anomalies. Preservation of the low-T fingerprint acquired during Tethyan rifting indicates that no European continental subduction took place south of Corsica since the Mesozoic, and suggests that the post-Jurassic Adria-Europe convergence along the Sardinia transect was possibly accommodated on the Adriatic side of the subduction system, consistent with the onset of Cenozoic orogenic magmatism. The inferred tectonic reconstruction for the Paleocene - early Eocene time frame thus includes a northwestward (Apenninic) subduction that was active along the Sardinia transect, and an eastward (Alpine) subduction that was still active along the Corsica transect and choked in middle-late Eocene times, when Adria started moving towards the NNE (Malusà et al., 2011). The northward translation of the Adriatic slab beneath Sardinia and Corsica is mirrored by the coeval migration of exhumation pulses at the surface, until the slab reached the remnants of the Alpine wedge of Corsica in Oligocene times shortly before the onset of slab rollback. Danišík, M., Kuhlemann, J., Dunkl, I., Székely, B., Frisch, W., 2007. Burial and exhumation of Corsica (France) in the light of fission track data. Tectonics 26(TC1001). Malusà, M.G., Faccenna, C., Garzanti, E., Polino, R., 2011. Divergence in subduction zones and exhumation of high-pressure rocks (Eocene Western Alps). Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 310, 21-32.

Malusà, Marco Giovanni; Danišík, Martin; Kuhlemann, Joachim

2014-05-01

47

Conformation-Selective Methylation of Geminivirus DNA ?  

PubMed Central

Geminiviruses with small circular single-stranded DNA genomes replicate in plant cell nuclei by using various double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) intermediates: distinct open circular and covalently closed circular as well as heterogeneous linear DNA. Their DNA may be methylated partially at cytosine residues, as detected previously by bisulfite sequencing and subsequent PCR. In order to determine the methylation patterns of the circular molecules, the DNAs of tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) and Abutilon mosaic virus were investigated utilizing bisulfite treatment followed by rolling circle amplification. Shotgun sequencing of the products yielded a randomly distributed 50% rate of C maintenance after the bisulfite reaction for both viruses. However, controls with unmethylated single-stranded bacteriophage DNA resulted in the same level of C maintenance. Only one short DNA stretch within the C2/C3 promoter of TYLCSV showed hyperprotection of C, with the protection rate exceeding the threshold of the mean value plus 1 standard deviation. Similarly, the use of methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes suggested that geminiviruses escape silencing by methylation very efficiently, by either a rolling circle or recombination-dependent replication mode. In contrast, attempts to detect methylated bases positively by using methylcytosine-specific antibodies detected methylated DNA only in heterogeneous linear dsDNA, and methylation-dependent restriction enzymes revealed that the viral heterogeneous linear dsDNA was methylated preferentially. PMID:21835804

Paprotka, T.; Deuschle, K.; Metzler, V.; Jeske, H.

2011-01-01

48

A 3mm band SIS receiver for the Sardinia Radio Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the optical and mechanical design of a 3mm band SIS receiver for the Gregorian focus of the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT). The receiver, was designed and built at IRAM and deployed on the IRAM for the Plateau de Bure Interferometer antennas until 2006. Following its decommissioning the receiver was purchased by the INAFAstronomical Observatory of Cagliari with the aim to adapt its optics for test of the performance of the new 64-m diameter Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) in the 3 mm band (84 - 116 GHz). The instrument will be installed in the rotating turret inside of the Gregorian focal room of SRT. The dimensions of the focal room, the horn position in the lower side of the cryostat and the vessel for the liquid helium impose very hard constraints to the optical and mechanical mounting structure of the receiver inside the cabin. We present the receiver configuration and how we plan to install it on SRT.

Ladu, A.; Pisanu, T.; Navarrini, A.; Marongiu, P.; Valente, G.

2014-07-01

49

Non-random distribution of 17 Y-chromosome STR loci in different areas of Sardinia.  

PubMed

Allele frequencies of 17 Y-chromosome short tandem repeat (STR) loci, included in the AmpFlSTR(®) Y-FilerTM amplification kit, were analyzed for the first time in different samplings (N=268) from Sardinia, Italy. Samples were collected from three isolated populations (N=139) and three open populations (N=129). A total of 230 unique haplotypes were detected; the observed haplotype diversity and discrimination capacity were 0.998 and 0.858, respectively. The data presented confirm that Sardinian population is well differentiated from other Italian and Mediterranean populations. Although regarded as a homogeneous population, substantial heterogeneity was detected when Sardinian isolated villages or microareas were analyzed. Our results highlights the importance of building a Sardinia-own database, organized by small areas, as a powerful tool for both forensic applications and population genetics studies. PMID:25498479

Robledo, R; Mameli, A; Scudiero, C M; Vona, G; Corrias, L; Bachis, V; Culigioni, C; Calò, C M

2015-05-01

50

Rare earth elements in waters from the albitite-bearing granodiorites of Central Sardinia, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the aim of contributing to the knowledge of the geochemical behaviour and mobility of the rare earth element (REE) in the natural water systems, the ground and surface waters of the Ottana–Orani area (Central Sardinia, Italy) were sampled. The study area consists of albititic bodies included in Hercynian granodiorites. The waters have pH in the range of 6.0–8.6, total

Riccardo Biddau; Rosa Cidu; Franco Frau

2002-01-01

51

A multifeed S-band cryogenic receiver for the Sardinia Radio Telescope primary focus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The noise temperature of existing radio telescope receivers has actually achieved very low values. In any case, there are other practical ways to increase the observational speed of a single dish antennas without using longer integration time: observe with multi-beam and large bandwidth receiver. In this paper we present the front end and the cryogenic dewar design of the 5 beams FPA double linear polarization receiver for the primary focus of the 64 m Sardinia Radio Telescope.

Valente, G.; Serra, G.; Gaudiomonte, F.; Ladu, A.; Pisanu, T.; Marongiu, P.; Corongiu, A.; Melis, A.; Buttu, M.; Perrodin, D.; Montisci, G.; Mazzarella, Gi.; Egron, E.; Iacolina, N.; Tiburzi, C.; Vacca, V.

2014-07-01

52

Geochronology and magmatic character of the pliocene-pleistocene volcanism in Sardinia (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pliocene-Pleistocene subaerial volcanic activity of the island of Sardinia developed from about five million years ago\\u000a to the Pleistocene. Volcanism was mainly fissural, related to rifting of the Sardinian crustal block and connected to intraplate\\u000a tensional tectonics involving at the same time the area of the Tyrrhenian Sea.\\u000a \\u000a Areally the most abundant rocks are basic, ranging in serial character

L. Beccaluva; M. Deriu; G. Macciotta; C. Savelli; G. Venturelli

1977-01-01

53

LRRK2 mutations and Parkinson's disease in Sardinia—A Mediterranean genetic isolate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase 2 (LRRK2) Gly2019Ser mutation is frequent among Parkinson's disease (PD) patients from the Arab, Jewish, and Iberian populations, while another mutation, Arg1441Gly, is common in the Basque population. We studied the prevalence of these mutations in Sardinia, a Mediterranean genetic isolate with peculiar structure and similarities with the Basque population. Among 98 Sardinian PD probands we

Giovanni Cossu; Marina van Doeselaar; Marcello Deriu; Maurizio Melis; Andrea Molari; Alessio Di Fonzo; Ben A. Oostra; Vincenzo Bonifati

2007-01-01

54

Response of durum wheat to water variability under climate change scenarios in southern Sardinia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Durum wheat is the most important C3 rainfed crop in southern Sardinia, Italy and is highly vulnerable to climate variability. This region has experienced severe drought conditions and problems of competing water demands during the last decades. Within the framework of European (1) and Regional (2) research projects, a study was conducted to evaluate the effects of increased maximum temperature and high rainfall variability on durum wheat yield, as part of an effort to devise strategies for water management and adaptation at the field and catchment scales in southern Sardinia. Towards this goal, the AquaCrop model was calibrated and its predictive performance was tested in the period from 1995 to 2012 using daily meteorological data and durum wheat (CV Creso) yield measurements from the experimental fields of the Agris Research Agency in Ussana (Sardinia, Italy). During the verification period, the model showed a good performance with a significant correlation between observed and simulated yield for durum wheat and a very good estimation of the water stress conditions during the drought period in 1995. Next, four future scenarios of climate change were simulated with AquaCrop to predict wheat yield responses and to investigate water availability for rainfed and irrigated crops for the 30-year periods 2011-2040, 2041-2070, and 2071-2100. The simulated future scenarios show potential improved productivity arising from the increased CO2 concentration. This positive outlook is however tempered by increased uncertainty and fluctuations in rainfall during the fall and early winter periods (September-December). The possible tradeoffs between these factors, as well as the expected negative effects of increased maximum temperatures, are being further examined. (1) Climate Induced Changes in the Mediterranean Region (CLIMB), funded by the European Commission 7th Framework Program. (2) Valutazione degli impatti sul comportamento idrologico dei bacini idrografici e sulle produzioni agricole conseguenti alle condizioni di cambiamento climatico, funded by L7/2007 of the Sardinia Region.

Soddu, Antonino; Deidda, Roberto; Marrocu, Marino; Meloni, Roberto; Paniconi, Claudio; Ludwig, Ralf; Sodde, Marcella; Mascaro, Giuseppe; Perra, Enrica

2013-04-01

55

Study of the saltwater pond at Capoterra, southern Sardinia: General characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Capoterra Pond in southern Sardinia is described and analyzed with respect to its morphological, meteorological, physical and chemical characteristics, and its zoobenthic, zooplankton, and phytoplankton biocenoses. The birdlife, flora, and riparian associations of vegetation are studied in order to draw international attention to the importance of this lagoon, the precariousness of its ecosystem, the seriousness of current attempts to destabilize it, and the need to encourage the Sardinian authorities to initiate conservation measures, especially as rare birds have found their niches there.

de Martis, B.; de Miranda Restivo, M. A.; Mocci Demartis, A.; Serra, E.

1992-05-01

56

Redescription of the male of Ixodes festai Rondelli, 1926 (Ixodida: Ixodidae) on specimens from Sardinia (Italy)  

PubMed Central

Ixodes festai Rondelli, 1926 is a poorly known bird parasite tick. Its immature forms have not been described yet, while the adult forms only insufficiently, especially the male. In this note the presence of the male of Ixodes festai for the first time in Sardinia (Italy) is reported and a detailed redescription is provided. Morphometric data as well as photographs performed both with optical and electron microscope (ESEM FEI Quanta 200) are also shown. PMID:21894264

Contini, C.; Palmas, C.; Seu, V.; Stancampiano, L.; Usai, F.

2011-01-01

57

First isolation and characterization of Chlamydophila abortus from abortion tissues of sheep in Sardinia, Italy.  

PubMed

Chlamydophila abortus (C. abortus) is the responsible agent for chlamydial abortion [commonly known as Enzootic Abortion of Ewes (EAE)] and, as such, it causes major financial losses to the sheep industry worldwide. Isolation of the pathogen is considered the 'gold standard' and most sensitive method of detection for diagnosing chlamydial infection. So far, there has been no isolation of C. abortus from ovines in Sardinia, Italy. This letter describes the results of a study conducted on a total of 89 aborted samples (40 foetuses and 49 placentae) collected in 2010 in Northern Sardinia, Italy. Three placentae resulted PCR-positive when analyzed using the putative outer membrane protein (pmp) specific primers, the test lead to the identification and first isolation in cell culture of C. abortus. This letter to the editor describes the first isolation of C. abortus from ovine placentae and increases the knowledge of one of the agents that causes ovine abortion in Sardinia and, more generally, in the Mediterranean basin. PMID:24362772

Chisu, Valentina; Porcu, Rosaura; Tanda, Antonio; Masala, Giovanna

2013-01-01

58

Early-stage rifting of the Southern Tyrrhenian region: The Calabria–Sardinia breakup  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Southern Tyrrhenian Sea is an extensional basins linked to the Neogene evolution of the Calabria subduction zone located in the western Mediterranean realm where controversial kinematic and geodynamical models have been proposed. Our study provides a key to unravel timing and mode of extension of the upper plate and the breakup of Calabria from Sardinia. By combining original stratigraphic analysis of wells and seismic profiles off Calabria with a stratigraphic correlation to onshore outcrops, we re-assess the tectonic evolution that controlled the sedimentation and basement deformation of the Southern Tyrrhenian basin during Serravallian-Tortonian times. We document the tectono-stratigraphic evolution of adjacent extensional basins characterized by 3rd order depositional sequences (Ser1, Tor1 and Tor2) and different modes of extension, subsidence and opposite dipping faults. Episodic basin development is recorded by a coarsening-up and fining-up trend of the sedimentary succession and by tectonically enhanced unconformities that reflect three episodes of fault activity. We reconstruct Serravallian-Tortonian paleogeographic maps and propose a block faulting model for the evolution of the Sardinia-Calabria area. Sardinia was disconnected from Calabria through N-S normal faults forming Tyrrhenian extensional basins that formed contemporaneously to the E-W opening of the Algerian basin. Unlike published Serravallian-Tortonian reconstructions of the western Mediterranean realm, our results support a geodynamic model characterized by rapid trench retreat, trench-normal extension in the entire overriding plate and very weak coupling between plates.

Milia, Alfonsa; Torrente, Maurizio M.

2014-11-01

59

The East Variscan Shear Zone: Geochronological constraints from the Capo Ferro area (NE Sardinia, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exhumation of the Variscan High Grade Metamorphic Complex of Sardinia was driven by large-scale asymmetric shear zones which reached middle crustal levels at 325 ± 1.3 (U-Pb, monazite) Ma. Exhumation was accompanied by heating and partial melting. The migmatization process was followed by the emplacement of syntectonic granites dated with U-Pb on zircon at 318 ± 3 Ma and 317 ± 2 Ma, which produced contact metamorphism at 315 ± 1.3 Ma (U-Pb, monazite) in mylonitic Silurian orthogneisses. The NW-SE dextral shear zone of the Capo Ferro area (NE Sardinia) is affected by partial melting, by granite emplacement and shows remarkable petrotectonic analogies to, and can thus be related to the East Variscan Shear Zone, a major intra-continental shear zone which was active in the southern European Variscides from 325 Ma to 315 Ma and that has been precisely dated with the U-Pb monazite system. The emplacement of migmatitic gneisses along large shear zones within this time interval is not restricted to Sardinia, but has also been observed in southern Corsica, in the French Massif Central, in the Western Alps and in central Spain. This pattern of shear zones is related to a complex geodynamic scenario, linked to the oblique convergence of the Gondwana and Laurussia plates during the Middle-Upper Carboniferous.

Padovano, Matteo; Dörr, Wolfgang; Elter, Franco Marco; Gerdes, Axel

2014-05-01

60

A restored section of the “southern Variscan realm” across the Corsica-Sardinia microcontinent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A complete section of the southern realm of the Variscan orogenic belt can be restored in the Corsica-Sardinia segment. Northern Corsica exposes a nonmetamorphosed Palaeozoic succession lying on Panafrican mica schist related to a microcontinent (most likely Armorica or from a microcontinent from the Hun superterrane) that had drifted away directly from Gondwana. These formations are thrust over the Variscan Internal Zone composed mainly of anatectic high-grade Palaeozoic formations that crop out from central Corsica to northern Sardinia; the metamorphic peak of the eclogite remnants has been dated at c. 420 Ma. The Variscan Internal Zone interpreted here as a collision zone, and also the Eovariscan suture, was intruded in Corsica by Mg-K granite from 345 to 335 Ma. The thrust of this Internal Zone onto the stack of parautochthonous nappes in central Sardinia is cross-cut by the Posada Asinara dextral shear zone. To the south, parautochthonous nappes overthrust the North-Gondwana margin which displays a possible Panafrican basement topped by an Iglesiente-Sulcis nonmetamorphic/anchimetamorphic Palaeozoic succession.

Rossi, Philippe; Oggiano, Giacomo; Cocherie, Alain

2009-02-01

61

Oligonucleotide microarray-based detection and identification of 10 major tomato viruses.  

PubMed

A DNA microarray chip was developed for screening 10 major economically important tomato viruses from infected plants using "Combimatrix" platform 40-mer oligonucleotide probes. A total of 279 oligonucleotide virus probes were specific for simultaneous multiple detection, identification, differentiation and/or genotyping of each of the following tomato RNA viruses and/or strains and a virus satellite: Cucumber mosaic virus, Cucumber mosaic virus satellite RNA, Tomatoinfectiouschlorosisvirus, Tomato chlorosisvirus, Tomato spotted wilt virus, Pepino mosaic virus, Potato virus Y, Tobacco mosaic virus and Tomato mosaic virus. This selection included both positive and negative single-stranded RNA viruses. The single-stranded DNA viruses, Tomato yellow leaf curl virus and Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus were detected but were not differentiated using probes designed from their coat protein genes. A sectored oligonucleotide microarray chip containing four sets of 2000 features (4 x 2 K) was designed. In this way, four samples were tested simultaneously in a hybridization event and 16 samples were analyzed by re-using the chip four times. The hybrids had low background signals. Many of the 40-mer oligonucleotide probes were specific for the detection and identification of each RNA viral species, RNA viral satellite and genotyping strains of Cucumber mosaic virus, Pepino mosaic virus and Potato virus Y. Universal probes were developed for strains of the last three viruses and also for the genus Tobamovirus which includes both Tobacco mosaicvirus and Tomato mosaic virus. PMID:20470828

Tiberini, Antonio; Tomassoli, Laura; Barba, Marina; Hadidi, Ahmed

2010-09-01

62

Beach and dunal system monitoring at Su Giudeu beach, Sardinia (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Even if coastal floods are quite rare events in Sardinia (Italy) at present, they have had dramatic consequences for coastal communities, particularly in conjunction with river flooding. However, flood risk (defined as the product of event probability, vulnerability and value of assets) is expected to increase significantly in the future, due to climate change, defence degradation and sea level rise. Sardinia island has a costal length of approximately 1.900 km including minor neighbouring islands (25% of the entire Italian coasts) and the estimation of the potential exposure of coastal communities to flooding is therefore a critical task. To date methods for achieving this have been based on modelling of coastal inundation using hydrodynamic or GIS-based models of varying complexity. The Dept of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Architecture at the University of Cagliari is carrying out a comprehensive activity of coastal flooding risk mapping at the regional scale within the framework of a scientific collaboration with the Sardinian Regional Authority for the Hydrographic District, that includes monitoring and scientific activities along the entire Sardinian coast. Bathymetry and topographical surveys, sediment characterization, waves and currents measurements, hydrodynamic and morphodynamic modelling are planned, focusing on critical extended areas. In this paper we present an overview of the entire activity programme and give an in-depth account of the ongoing monitoring survey of the dunal system of the Su Giudeu beach (Southern Sardinia, 50 km far from the city of Cagliari). Su Giudeu is a sandy, bay-shaped beach, extending for about 1200 m between two headlands, evolving under waves with a predominant direction of 220-240°N (Scirocco wind). The survey is expected to provide evidence of the response of the remarkable dunal system to wave runup occurring during storm events, to be used in the verification of existing numerical models of dune erosion.

Balzano, Andrea; Sulis, Andrea

2014-05-01

63

Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis as presentation of HIV infection in Sardinia, insular Italy.  

PubMed

Leishmaniasis is endemic in Sardinia but only cutaneous and visceral cases have been reported to date. We report a case of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis as presentation of HIV infection in a Sardinian patient who had never visited endemic areas. Serological and clinical diagnosis was cytologically and histopathologically confirmed. The patient had a good response to treatment with liposomal amphotericin combined with highly active antiretroviral therapy without recurrences after four years. Our case report highlights the need to better assess the circulation of species, risk factors and clinical spectrum of Leishmania infection in the Italian Mediterranean islands. PMID:24126182

Madeddu, Giordano; Fiori, Maria Laura; Ena, Pasquale; Riu, Francesco; Lovigu, Carla; Nunnari, Giuseppe; Bagella, Paola; Maida, Ivana; Babudieri, Sergio; Mura, Maria Stella

2014-02-01

64

Population Density and Distribution of Wheat Bugs Infesting Durum Wheat in Sardinia, Italy  

PubMed Central

Wheat is a very important crop in Italy, and is infested by wheat bugs belonging to the genera Eurygaster (Hemiptera: Scutellaridae) and Aelia (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Many wheat bug infestations have been reported in the north, south, and center of Italy, both in the past as well as recently. The present study was carried out in Sardinia, Italy, during two years (2007 and 2008). The objective of this study was to determine the species and distribution of wheat bugs in durum wheat fields in Sardinia, and to estimate their population density in order to know the incidence of the pest on the island. Sampling took place twice a year (May and June) in three zones, representative of durum wheat cropping in the island. Four species of wheat bugs were found; the predominant species was Eurygaster austriaca (Schrank), followed by Aelia germari (Kuster), Eurygaster maura L., and Aelia acuminata L. The average density of wheat bugs was low (1.1 individuals/m2), but in certain areas it was above the damage threshold (4 individuals/m2). For this reason, the conclusion of the study is that this pest should be monitored in order to control outbreaks and prevent their further spread. PMID:23906035

Salis, Luigi; Goula, Marta; Izquierdo, Jordi; Gordún, Elena

2013-01-01

65

Population density and distribution of wheat bugs infesting durum wheat in Sardinia, Italy.  

PubMed

Wheat is a very important crop in Italy, and is infested by wheat bugs belonging to the genera Eurygaster (Hemiptera: Scutellaridae) and Aelia (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Many wheat bug infestations have been reported in the north, south, and center of Italy, both in the past as well as recently. The present study was carried out in Sardinia, Italy, during two years (2007 and 2008). The objective of this study was to determine the species and distribution of wheat bugs in durum wheat fields in Sardinia, and to estimate their population density in order to know the incidence of the pest on the island. Sampling took place twice a year (May and June) in three zones, representative of durum wheat cropping in the island. Four species of wheat bugs were found; the predominant species was Eurygaster austriaca (Schrank), followed by Aelia germari (Kuster), Eurygaster maura L., and Aelia acuminata L. The average density of wheat bugs was low (1.1 individuals/m²), but in certain areas it was above the damage threshold (4 individuals/m²). For this reason, the conclusion of the study is that this pest should be monitored in order to control outbreaks and prevent their further spread. PMID:23906035

Salis, Luigi; Goula, Marta; Izquierdo, Jordi; Gordún, Elena

2013-01-01

66

Topographical and astronomical analysis on the Neolithic "Altar" Of Monte D'accoddi In Sardinia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pre-historic 'altar' of Monte d'Accoddi - near Sassari, Sardinia - is a unique monument in the whole Mediterranean area. It is indeed a huge 'pyramid' constructed out of cyclopean masonry, but it exhibits a monumental access ramp similar to the Mesopotamian Ziggurats. The monument is extremely ancient since its first phases of construction date back to 3200 BC; it is usually interpreted as a sacred center perhaps devoted to the 'Mother Earth'. Although pretty little is known about pre-nuragic religion, astronomical alignments have been documented in contemporary sites in Sardinia. Therefore, with the aim of contributing to the interpretation of such a unique construction, we have carried out a new complete archaeoastronomical survey of this monument and its annexes, which is presented here. It turns out that, the presence of astronomical references at the site becomes apparent if the alignments defined by the menhirs located in the fields nearby are analyzed. Indeed, there exists convincing evidence that, from the summit of the platform, lines of sight at the eastern horizon guided by a white limestone menhir and by a reddish stone menhir located at some two hundreds meters from the monument framed the rising of the Sun at winter solstice, pointing to the rising of Sirius and to the southern extreme declination of Venus respectively, while the same menhirs were likely used as backsights for the standstills of the Moon as observed from the eastern corners of the monument.

Pili, P.; Realini, E.; Sampietro, D.; Zedda, M. P.; Franzoni, E.; Magli, G.

67

Identification of mycobacterial infections in wild boars in Northern Sardinia, Italy.  

PubMed

During a six-month period a region of Northern Sardinia was monitored to check the presence of mycobacterial infections in wild boars. Forty-eight serum and 229 biopsy samples were collected from different animals and examined by both traditional diagnostic techniques (culture, bacterioscopic and molecular tests) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The latter was used to determine the antibody response against both methylated and nonmethylated Heparin-Binding Haemagglutinin (HBHA) protein. Nine mycobacterial strains were isolated: three M. avium ssp. paratuberculosis (Map), three M. avium, one M. interjectum and two M. scrofulaceum strains. By PCR, only one animal was positive for M. bovis, whereas 10 animals were positive for Map. Out of the 48 sera tested, 19 showed a good humoral response to methylated HBHA and 17 to nonmethylated HBHA. Our data provide new information on the prevalence of mycobacterial infection among wild boars in Northern Sardinia and suggest that a more effective program should be developed to monitor mycobacterial infections in the wild animal population. PMID:18669241

Zanetti, Stefania; Bua, Alessandra; Molicotti, Paola; Delogu, Giovanni; Mura, Antonio; Ortu, Silvia; Sechi, Leonardo Antonio

2008-06-01

68

LRRK2 mutations and Parkinson's disease in Sardinia--A Mediterranean genetic isolate.  

PubMed

The Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase 2 (LRRK2) Gly2019Ser mutation is frequent among Parkinson's disease (PD) patients from the Arab, Jewish, and Iberian populations, while another mutation, Arg1441Gly, is common in the Basque population. We studied the prevalence of these mutations in Sardinia, a Mediterranean genetic isolate with peculiar structure and similarities with the Basque population. Among 98 Sardinian PD probands we detected one heterozygous Gly2019Ser carrier. This mutation was also found in one of 55 Sardinian controls, an 85-year-old man, later shown to have a positive family history of parkinsonism. No carriers of Arg1441Gly, Arg1441Cys, or Arg1441His mutations were found among cases and controls. Our results suggest that the "Basque"LRRK2 mutation is absent or very rare in Sardinia. The Gly2019Ser mutation is present but its frequency is lower than that in Iberian, Arab, or Jewish populations. The identification of an 85-year-old, healthy Gly2019Ser carrier supports the concept that this mutation displays incomplete penetrance. PMID:17064949

Cossu, Giovanni; van Doeselaar, Marina; Deriu, Marcello; Melis, Maurizio; Molari, Andrea; Di Fonzo, Alessio; Oostra, Ben A; Bonifati, Vincenzo

2007-02-01

69

Craniofacial morphometric variation and the biological history of the peopling of Sardinia.  

PubMed

The aim of this work is to explore the pattern of craniofacial morphometric variation and the relationships among five prehistoric Sardinian groups dated from Late Neolithic to the Nuragic Period (Middle and Late Bronze Age), in order to formulate hypotheses on the peopling history of Sardinia. Biological relationships with coeval populations of central peninsular Italy were also analysed to detect influences from and towards extra-Sardinian sources. Furthermore, comparison with samples of contemporary populations from Sardinia and from continental Italy provided an indication of the trend leading to the final part of the peopling history. Finally, Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic samples were included in the analyses to compare the prehistoric Sardinians with some of their potential continental ancestors. The analysis is based on multivariate techniques including Mahalanobis D(2) distance, non-parametric multidimensional scaling (MDS) and principal component analysis (PCA). The results showed the tendency to progressive differentiation between Sardinian groups and peninsular Italian groups, with the possible exception of a discontinuity showed by the Bonnànaro (Early Bronze Age) Sardinian sample. Several aspects of the morphological results were found to agree with the current genetic evidence available for the present-day Sardinian population and a Nuragic sample: (1) biological divergence between the Sardinian and peninsular Italian populations; (2) similarity/continuity among Neolithic, Bronze Age and recent Sardinians; (3) biological separation between the Nuragic and Etruscan populations; (4) contribution of a Palaeo-Mesolithic gene pool to the genetic structure of current Sardinians. PMID:20979998

D'Amore, G; Di Marco, S; Floris, G; Pacciani, E; Sanna, E

2010-12-01

70

Toxic Emissions from a Military Test Site in the Territory of Sardinia, Italy  

PubMed Central

This work assesses the environmental impact from chemical emissions due to military tests and routine activities in the area occupied by the Italian Inter-force Test Range (PISQ), located at Salto di Quirra, Sardinia, Italy. After reviewing the military activities carried out at PISQ, such as rocket launching, blasting and armament destruction, projectile and mortar fire impact, the associated pollution is evaluated. Chemical analyses were performed by means of Scanning Electronic Microscopy and Energy Dispersion Spectrometry on biotic and abiotic matrices. Residues of Rb, Tl, W, Ti and Al were found in matrices collected in the PISQ areas and environs. A review of experimental data on air, water, soil, milk, forage and animal tissues obtained by various Public Agencies of Sardinia proved that toxic element residues often exceeded the legal limits. PM10 and PM2.5 air concentrations also exceeded the legal limits after military blasting. Cd and Pb contents in the liver and kidneys of sheep living in farms at PISQ and in control farms that were located more than 20 km away from PISQ were higher than the legal limits. This work was performed to investigate concentration of xenobiotics in ecosystems emitted from PISQ activities. This assessment could be useful to focus future epidemiological studies carried out in PISQ and its neighbouring areas. PMID:23603867

Cristaldi, Mauro; Foschi, Cristiano; Szpunar, Germana; Brini, Carlo; Marinelli, Fiorenzo; Triolo, Lucio

2013-01-01

71

Interaction between loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) and marine litter in Sardinia (Western Mediterranean Sea).  

PubMed

Anthropogenic debris in the environment affects many species that accidentally ingest it. The aim of this study is to evaluate the quantity and composition of marine litter ingested by loggerheads in Sardinia, thus supplying for the lack of data in the existing literature for this area. Seventeen of the 121 (14.04%) monitored turtles presented debris in their digestive tracts. Litter in faecal pellet of alive individuals (n = 91) and in gastro-intestinal contents of dead ones (n = 30) was categorized, counted and weighed. User plastic was the main category of ingested debris with a frequency of occurrence of 13.22% of the total sample, while sheet (12.39%) and fragments (9.09%) were the most relevant sub-categories. This study highlights for the first time the incidence of litter in alive turtles in Sardinia. This contribution improves the knowledge about marine litter interaction on Caretta caretta as bio-indicator. Results will be useful for the Marine Strategy implementation. PMID:24388284

Camedda, Andrea; Marra, Stefano; Matiddi, Marco; Massaro, Giorgio; Coppa, Stefania; Perilli, Angelo; Ruiu, Angelo; Briguglio, Paolo; de Lucia, G Andrea

2014-09-01

72

DIFFERENTIAL MORTALITY IN A LONG-LIVING COMMUNITY IN SARDINIA (ITALY): A COHORT ANALYSIS.  

PubMed

Summary The majority of studies on longevity in Sardinia point to an exceptional level of longevity, particularly for males, in this region of Italy. This study used individual data, considering selected groups of individuals such as centenarians, or focusing on cohorts of newborns in a large time period, that have previously been treated as a single group. An analysis on decennial birth cohorts from 1872 to 1911 in a selected village located in the Blue Zone area of longevity in Sardinia was used to gain insight into sex differentials in mortality in this area of high longevity and to separate differences between cohorts' experiences, considering the possible role of significant events in determining differential mortality among them. The results show that there is not a secular trend in survival in the birth cohorts under study, but rather that several points of mortality convergence and crossover occur, which make the estimates derived from conventional sensitivity tests of survival curves unreliable. Differences among birth cohorts' experiences are more marked among the male population and at early adult ages. External events are shown to play a relevant role in mortality variations, despite not having an impact on the ageing process. The results highlight that, although there are not statistically significant differences between the two sexes, the male population is exposed to a higher risk of death and proves to be more vulnerable to external changes. This suggests that extreme contextual conditions, both favourable and unfavourable, may significantly affect the mortality trajectories of a population. PMID:24911445

Salaris, Luisa

2014-06-01

73

Stream water chemistry in the arsenic-contaminated Baccu Locci mine watershed (Sardinia, Italy) after remediation.  

PubMed

The abandoned Pb-As Baccu Locci mine represents the first and only case of mine site remediation in Sardinia, Italy. Arsenic is the most relevant environmental concern in the Baccu Locci stream watershed, with concentrations in surface waters up to and sometimes over 1 mg/L. The main remediation action consisted in creation of a "storage site", for the collection of contaminated materials from different waste-rock dumps and most of tailings piles occurring along the Baccu Locci stream. This paper reports preliminary results on the level of contamination in the Baccu Locci stream after the completion of remediation measures. Post-remediation stream water chemistry has not substantially changed compared to the pre-remediation situation. In particular, dissolved As maintains an increasing trend along the Baccu Locci stream, with a concentration of about 400 ?g/L measured at a distance of 7 km from the storage site. Future monitoring will provide fundamental information on the effectiveness of remediation actions conducted and their applicability to other mine sites in Sardinia. At the stage of mine site characterisation of future remediation plans, it is recommended to pay more attention to the understanding of mineralogical and geochemical processes responsible for pollution. Moreover, mixing of materials with different composition and reactivity in a storage site should require careful consideration and long-term leaching tests. PMID:23666684

Ardau, Carla; Podda, Francesca; Da Pelo, Stefania; Frau, Franco

2013-11-01

74

Safflower ( Carthamus tinctorius L.) as a novel pasture species for dairy sheep in the Mediterranean conditions of Sardinia and Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nutritional value of sown safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) annual pastures for Mediterranean dairy sheep was investigated in the Northern Negev Desert of Israel (250mm of rainfall) with Awassi hoggets and in Sardinia (Italy, 590mm of rainfall) with Sarda milking ewes. Safflower (termed “Saf”) was compared with barley (“Bar”) in Israel, and with chicory (Cichorium intybus L., termed “Chi”) and

S. Landau; G. Molle; N. Fois; S. Friedman; D. Barkai; M. Decandia; A. Cabiddu; L. Dvash; M. Sitzia

2005-01-01

75

Re-Os age for molybdenite from SW Sardinia (Italy): A comparison with Ar dating of Variscan granitoids  

E-print Network

- alization (W-Mo, Sn, Ni-Co, F-Cu-Zn-Pb), smaller in size and of negligible economic importance, have been ABSTRACT: Molybdenites from two small deposits in late Variscan granites from SW Sardinia, have been dated-known stratabound ore deposits hosted by Lower Cambrian sediments (Boni et al. 1996), other types of miner

Boni, Maria

76

Dissecting the genetic make-up of North-East Sardinia using a large set of haploid and autosomal markers  

PubMed Central

Sardinia has been used for genetic studies because of its historical isolation, genetic homogeneity and increased prevalence of certain rare diseases. Controversy remains concerning the genetic substructure and the extent of genetic homogeneity, which has implications for the design of genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We revisited this issue by examining the genetic make-up of a sample from North-East Sardinia using a dense set of autosomal, Y chromosome and mitochondrial markers to assess the potential of the sample for GWAS and fine mapping studies. We genotyped individuals for 500K single-nucleotide polymorphisms, Y chromosome markers and sequenced the mitochondrial hypervariable (HVI–HVII) regions. We identified major haplogroups and compared these with other populations. We estimated linkage disequilibrium (LD) and haplotype diversity across autosomal markers, and compared these with other populations. Our results show that within Sardinia there is no major population substructure and thus it can be considered a genetically homogenous population. We did not find substantial differences in the extent of LD in Sardinians compared with other populations. However, we showed that at least 9% of genomic regions in Sardinians differed in LD structure, which is helpful for identifying functional variants using fine mapping. We concluded that Sardinia is a powerful setting for genetic studies including GWAS and other mapping approaches. PMID:22378280

Pardo, Luba M; Piras, Giovanna; Asproni, Rosanna; van der Gaag, Kristiaan J; Gabbas, Attilio; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; de Knijff, Peter; Monne, Maria; Rizzu, Patrizia; Heutink, Peter

2012-01-01

77

Sediment characteristics and macrofauna distribution along a human-modified inlet in the Gulf of Oristano (Sardinia, Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the spatial variability and within-year temporal changes in hydrological features, grain size composition and chemical characteristics of sediments, as well as macrofaunal assemblages, along a heavily modified inlet in the Gulf of Oristano (western Sardinia, Italy). The inlet connects the Cabras lagoon to the gulf through a series of convoluted creeks and man-made structures, including a dam and

S. Como; P. Magni; D. Casu; A. Floris; G. Giordani; S. Natale; G. A. Fenzi; G. Signa; G. De Falco

2007-01-01

78

Industrial mineral occurrences associated with Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Sardinia (Italy): Geological, mineralogical, geochemical features and genetic implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most important Industrial Mineral (IM) deposits associated with the Cenozoic volcanics of Sardinia include kaolin, bentonite, and zeolites. Though of less significance, perlite and potassium feldspar, are also important in local and national markets. Bentonite, and to a lesser extent kaolin and perlite, form economically viable deposits and zeolites appear as very important industrial mineral commodities for future economic

M. Palomba; G. Padalino; M. Marchi

2006-01-01

79

Molecular characterization of Toxoplasma gondii Type II in sheep abortion in Sardinia, Italy.  

PubMed

During 2009-2010, 161 tissue samples (142 placentas, 16 brains, and 3 livers) from aborted ovine fetuses on Sardinia Island, Italy, were tested for toxoplasmosis. Organs that showed a positive result by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the ITS1 region for Toxoplasma gondii were also amplified with 11 genetic markers (SAG1, 5'-SAG2, 3'-SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico) and then subjected to PCR/RFLP for genetic typing. T. gondii DNA was found in 5 placentas, 14 brains, and 2 livers by PCR analysis and all isolates displayed Type II alleles at all 11 loci with all 11 markers. The results indicate that the Type II T. gondii is associated with ovine abortion. PMID:24534616

Chessa, Giovanna; Chisu, Valentina; Porcu, Rosaura; Masala, Giovanna

2014-01-01

80

Molecular characterization of Toxoplasma gondii Type II in sheep abortion in Sardinia, Italy  

PubMed Central

During 2009–2010, 161 tissue samples (142 placentas, 16 brains, and 3 livers) from aborted ovine fetuses on Sardinia Island, Italy, were tested for toxoplasmosis. Organs that showed a positive result by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the ITS1 region for Toxoplasma gondii were also amplified with 11 genetic markers (SAG1, 5?-SAG2, 3?-SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico) and then subjected to PCR/RFLP for genetic typing. T. gondii DNA was found in 5 placentas, 14 brains, and 2 livers by PCR analysis and all isolates displayed Type II alleles at all 11 loci with all 11 markers. The results indicate that the Type II T. gondii is associated with ovine abortion. PMID:24534616

Chessa, Giovanna; Chisu, Valentina; Porcu, Rosaura; Masala, Giovanna

2014-01-01

81

Coastal water quality from remote sensing and GIS. A case study on South West Sardinia (Italy)  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the application of remote sensing image processing and GIS techniques in monitoring and managing coastal areas is proposed. The methodology has been applied to South-West Sardinia Coast where the environment is endangered by industrial plants and other human activities. The area is characterized by the presence of many submarine springs aligned along coastal cliffs. Water quality parameters (chlorophyll, suspended sediments and temperature) spatial and temporal variations, have been studied using Landsat TM images. Particularly, in this paper are reported the results referred to sea surface thermal gradients, considered as one of the main water quality index. Thermal gradients have been mapped in order to outline water circulation, thermal pollution and presence and distribution of submarine springs. Furthermore, a GIS approach of relating mono and multitemporal TM data with ground referenced information on industrial plants characteristics and distribution has been applied.

Poli, U.; Ippoliti, M.; Venturini, C.; Falcone, P.; Marino, A. [Italian Institute for Occupational Safety and Prevention (ISPESL), Rome (Italy)

1997-08-01

82

Pressure-temperature and deformational evolution of high-pressure metapelites from Variscan NE Sardinia, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chloritoid schists crop out north of the village of Lula in the Inner Zone of the Variscan chain of Sardinia consisting of a variety of metamorphic rocks. The S1 and S2 foliations in these schists are defined by the orientation of muscovite, paragonite, and chloritoid. Chlorite is an additional mineral oriented along S2. Late margarite grew at the expense of chloritoid included in garnet. Garnet porphyroblasts, enclosing quartz, chloritoid, rutile, Fe-oxide, apatite and paragonite, show a progressive decrease of spessartine component from 17 to 7 mol% and an increase of pyrope component from 4 to 6 mol% from core to rim. The grossular content firstly increases from the inner (Grs~ 21) to the outer core (Grs~ 27) and then decreases towards the outermost rim (Grs~ 15). Compositional mapping of white mica also revealed zoning and a wide range in Si content (from 6.0 to 6.6 pfu). The highest Si content is related to the highest Fe and Mg contents and the lowest Na content. P-T pseudosections were calculated in the system Na2O-K2O-CaO-FeO-MnO-MgO-Al2O3-TiO2-SiO2-H2O for compositions of chloritoid schists. The highest Si contents of K-white mica and the garnet core composition suggest pressures close to 1.8 GPa and temperatures of 460-500 °C. The garnet rim composition and low Si contents in K-white mica are compatible with re-equilibration at 540-570 °C and 0.7-1.0 GPa. These results suggest an HP-metamorphic imprint during the D1 deformation phase which occurred before the Barrovian amphibolite-facies metamorphism of NE Sardinia. D2 folding and shearing occurred at decreasing P-T conditions during the exhumation of the metamorphic complex.

Cruciani, Gabriele; Franceschelli, Marcello; Massonne, Hans-Joachim; Carosi, Rodolfo; Montomoli, Chiara

2013-08-01

83

Redescription of Cercopithifilaria bainae Almeida & Vicente, 1984 (Spirurida, Onchocercidae) from a dog in Sardinia, Italy  

PubMed Central

Background Three species of the genus Cercopithifilaria have been morphologically and molecularly characterized in dog populations in southern Europe: Cercopithifilaria grassii (Noè, 1907), Cercopithifilaria sp. sensu Otranto et al., 2011 (reported as Cercopithifilaria sp. I), and Cercopithifilaria sp. II sensu Otranto et al., 2012. The adults of Cercopithifilaria sp. I have remained unknown until the present study. Methods The material originated from a dog from Sardinia (Italy) diagnosed with dermal microfilariae of Cercopithifilaria sp. I. The holotype and three paratypes of Cercopithifilaria bainae Almeida & Vicente, 1984, described from dogs in Brazil, were studied as comparative material. A cox1 (~689 bp) and 12S (~330 bp) gene fragments were amplified and phylogenetic analysis carried out. Results The highest numbers of adult nematodes (82%) were collected in the sediment of the subcutaneous tissues of the trunk (n = 37) and forelimbs (n = 36). The morphology of the adult nematodes and microfilariae collected from the dog in Sardinia corresponded to those of C. bainae. All cox1 and 12S gene sequences showed a high homology (99-100%) with sequences from microfilariae of Cercopithifilaria sp. I. Conclusions The morphological and molecular identity of the microfilariae of C. bainae overlap those described previously as Cercopithifilaria sp. sensu Otranto et al., 2011 (=Cercopithifilaria sp. I). Therefore, the present study reports the occurrence of C. bainae in Europe, for the first time after its description and the single record in Brazil. C. bainae appears to be highly diffused in dog populations in southern Europe. The phylogenetic analyses based on cox1 and 12S do not reveal the three species of Cercopithifilaria parasitizing dogs as a monophyletic group, which suggests that they have derived independently by host switching. PMID:23642161

2013-01-01

84

MONK SEAL (MONACHUS MONACHUS) BONES IN BEL TORRENTE CAVE (CENTRAL-EAST SARDINIA) AND THEIR PALEOGEOGRAPHICAL SIGNIFICANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fragments of monk seal bones (Monachus monachus) discovered 7-12 m below water level in Bel Torrente Cave (central-east Sardinia) in 2004 have been AMS radiocarbon dated. The bones, probably of different individuals, have calibrated ages ranging from 5000-6500 calendar years B.P. and allow reconstruction of the paleogeography of the cave and the surrounding area during this time period. Monk seals

JO DE WAELE; G EORGE A. BROOK; ANKE OERTEL

2009-01-01

85

Genetic diversity and relationships between wild and cultivated olives ( Olea europaea L.) in Sardinia as assessed by SSR markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic relationships within and between wild and cultivated olives were examined and clarified in an isolated and restricted\\u000a area, such as the Mediterranean island of Sardinia. Wild (21 individuals) and cultivated olive trees (22 local cultivars from\\u000a a germplasm collection and 35 ancient trees) were genotyped by means of 13 SSR loci. Five cases of synonymy were observed\\u000a and

Patrizia Erre; Innocenza Chessa; Concepción Muñoz-Diez; Angjelina Belaj; Luis Rallo; Isabel Trujillo

2010-01-01

86

Plants and traditional knowledge: An ethnobotanical investigation on Monte Ortobene (Nuoro, Sardinia)  

PubMed Central

Background Most of the traditional knowledge about plants and their uses is fast disappearing as a consequence of socio-economic and land use changes. This trend is also occurring in areas that are historically exposed to very few external influences, such as Sardinia (Italy). From 2004 to 2005, an ethnobotanical investigation was carried out in the area of Monte Ortobene, a mountain located near Nuoro, in central Sardinia. Methods Data were collected by means of semi-structured interviews. All the records – defined as 'citations', i.e. a single use reported for a single botanical species by a single informant – were filed in a data base ('analytical table'), together with additional information: i.e. local names of plants, parts used, local frequencies, and habitats of plants, etc. In processing the data, plants and uses were grouped into general ('categories') and detailed ('secondary categories') typologies of use. Some synthetic indexes have also been used, such as Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC), Cultural Importance Index (CI), the Shannon-Wiener Index (H'), and Evenness Index (J). Results Seventy-two plants were cited by the informants as being traditionally used in the area. These 72 'ethnospecies' correspond to 99 botanical taxa (species or subspecies) belonging to 34 families. Three-hundred and one citations, 50 secondary categories of use, and 191 different uses were recorded, most of them concerning alimentary and medicinal plants. For the alimentary plants, 126 citations, 44 species, and 13 different uses were recorded, while for the medicinal plants, there were 106 citations, 40 species, and 12 uses. Few plants and uses were recorded for the remaining categories. Plants and uses for each category of use are discussed. Analyses of results include the relative abundance of botanical families, wild vs. cultivated species, habitats, frequency, parts of plant used, types of use, knowledge distribution, and the different cultural importance of the species in question. Conclusion The study provides examples of several interesting uses of plants in the community, which would seem to show that the custom of using wild plants is still alive in the Monte Ortobene area. However, many practices are no longer in use, and survive only as memories from the past in the minds of elderly people, and often only in one or just a few informants. This rapidly vanishing cultural diversity needs to be studied and documented before it disappears definitively. PMID:19208227

Signorini, Maria Adele; Piredda, Maddalena; Bruschi, Piero

2009-01-01

87

Cystic echinococcosis in Sardinia: farmers' knowledge and dog infection in sheep farms.  

PubMed

Cystic Echinococcosis (CE) is one of the most widespread parasitic diseases in Sardinia, the second largest Mediterranean island where almost 3,558,000 milk sheep were raised extensively. The aim of this survey was to evaluate the level of farmers' knowledge on CE transmission, focusing on the role of human to facilitate the persistence of this zoonosis in Sardinia after 14 years after the last campaign against CE. The other goal of the survey is to update on presence of Echinococcus granulosus in its definitive hosts through three ELISA coproantigen tests. An interview was carried out with 172 farmers. The questionnaire was designed to include possible factors associated with the transmission of Echinococcosis: ownership and number of dogs, the use of anthelmintic drugs against dog cestode, frequency of anthelmintic treatment in dogs, home slaughtering and offal disposal. Individual faecal samples were retrieved from 300 dogs, and after a preliminary macroscopic examination to discover adult worms and/or proglottids, was submitted to copromicroscopic examination. Coproantigens were then extracted according to the protocol described by Allan et al. (1992), and subsequently stored at -20°C until use. Faecal soluble antigens from E. granulosus were detected using three different ELISA coproantigen assays: (a) the commercially produced Chekit Echinotest (Bommeli, Bern, CH) based on polyclonal antibodies against adult excretory/secretory (E/S) antigens; (b) a sandwich ELISA that uses rabbit polyclonal antibodies against adult E/S antigens and biotinylated monoclonal antibody EmA9 produced against adult Echinococcus multilocularis somatic extract (Malgor et al., 1997); and (c) a sandwich assay that uses monoclonal antibody EgC3 produced by immunization with adult E. granulosus E/S products (Casaravilla et al., 2005). Questionnaire results reveal that on all farms home-slaughtering was done, and offal was used as dog meal raw (17%) or after boiling (37%), discarded in the trash (23%), or buried superficially (15%). Most farmers (69%) declared to deworm their dogs, but only 10% used cestodicidal drugs. The coprological survey of 300 farm dogs using sedimentation, flotation and three different coproantigen (CA) ELISAs resulted in a faecal prevalence of 8.3% for taeniid eggs, while the CA tests gave prevalences of 3% (Chekit Echinotest, Bommeli), 6% (EmA9 sandwich ELISA) and 10% (EgC3 sandwich ELISA). Our results show that this is not only an educational problem, but also an economic one, stressing the need that future control plans should follow an integrative approach including veterinary and medical services, farmers, breeders' associations and the Government. PMID:21645971

Varcasia, A; Tanda, B; Giobbe, M; Solinas, C; Pipia, A P; Malgor, R; Carmona, C; Garippa, G; Scala, A

2011-09-27

88

Rheomorphic diapirs in densely welded ignimbrites: The Serra di Paringianu ignimbrite of Sardinia, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rheomorphic structures in welded ignimbrites are commonly associated with deposition from hot pyroclastic flows on inclined topography or by tractional shear on aggrading agglutinate by the pyroclastic density current. We describe a type of rheomorphic deformation involving the formation of diapirs in ignimbrite following the re-equilibration of internal gravitational instabilities within the deposit. We show that diapirs can develop in horizontal welded ignimbrites that have an inverted density stratification. The interpretation of these structures in terms of their dynamics and kinematics can help in defining the timing of the deformation history of ignimbrites. The rhyolitic Serra di Paringianu Ignimbrite is the uppermost, largest ignimbrite of Cenozoic volcanism in SW Sardinia. A detailed study at La Punta, north of San Pietro island (Sardinia; Italy), schematically characterized by a twin sequence of densely welded and partially welded ignimbrite flow units of the Serra di Paringianu Ignimbrite, revealed the presence of mushroom and pillow-shaped diapiric structures, constituted by material of an intermediate, partially welded, flow unit intruding into an upper, densely welded, unit. The diapirs are generally connected with their source region and show both vertical and lateral variations in the textural and physical features. The uppermost densely welded unit is deformed within a few meters of the diapiric structures, with the foliation pattern of the surrounding ignimbrite enveloping the cup region of diapirs. We used the existing numerical models of cooling-compaction of welded ignimbrites to constrain the time scale for the development of specific rheomorphic structures. We present a model in which the diapirism involves the buoyant rise of partially welded lithofacies into the densely welded cover in a time scale of a few months. The diapir model takes into account the rheology of the host and intruding layers and explains the textural and physical modifications both experienced by the partially welded lithofacies during rise and induced in the host layers. The model shows that the time scale of the diapiric rise well agrees with the time scale of the cooling process of the upper portion of the ignimbrite.

Mundula, F.; Cioni, R.; Mulas, M.

2013-05-01

89

Beauvericin and fumonisin B1 in preharvest Fusarium moniliforme maize ear rot in Sardinia.  

PubMed

Six selected samples of preharvest maize ear rot, from different localities in Sardinia, Italy, were examined for causal Fusarium species and associated mycotoxins. All samples were almost exclusively found to be affected by Fusarium moniliforme, which was isolated from all infected ear sample kernels (100%). In two samples, in addition to F. moniliforme, F. proliferatum was also present but in a reduced percentage of kernels (up to 42%). All samples were found to be contaminated by fumonisin B1 (up to 250 mg/kg). Four samples were also found to be contaminated by beauvericin (up to 10 mg/kg), with higher concentration in samples also infected by F. proliferatum. When cultured on autoclaved maize kernels for 4 weeks at 25 degrees C, all 13 strains of F. moniliforme examined produced fumonisin B1 (up to 3750 mg/kg), whereas only three strains also produced beauvericin, but in very low amounts (5 mg/kg). In the same assay, four isolates of F. proliferatum also produced high amounts of fumonisin B1 (up to 2500 mg/kg) but this was associated with higher concentrations of beauvericin (up to 175 mg/kg). This is the first indication of the production of beauvericin by F. moniliforme, as well as of its co-occurrence with fumonisin B1 in preharvest F. moniliforme maize ear rot. PMID:7589723

Bottalico, A; Logrieco, A; Ritieni, A; Moretti, A; Randazzo, G; Corda, P

1995-01-01

90

Hydrogeology of the Nurra Region, Sardinia (Italy): basement-cover influences on groundwater occurrence and hydrogeochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nurra district in the Island of Sardinia (Italy) has a Palaeozoic basement and covers, consisting of Mesozoic carbonates, Cenozoic pyroclastic rocks and Quaternary, mainly clastic, sediments. The faulting and folding affecting the covers predominantly control the geomorphology. The morphology of the southern part is controlled by the Tertiary volcanic activity that generated a stack of pyroclastic flows. Geological structures and lithology exert the main control on recharge and groundwater circulation, as well as its availability and quality. The watershed divides do not fit the groundwater divide; the latter is conditioned by open folds and by faults. The Mesozoic folded carbonate sequences contain appreciable amounts of groundwater, particularly where structural lows are generated by synclines and normal faults. The regional groundwater flow has been defined. The investigated groundwater shows relatively high TDS and chloride concentrations which, along with other hydrogeochemical evidence, rules out sea-water intrusion as the cause of high salinity. The high chloride and sulphate concentrations can be related to deep hydrothermal circuits and to Triassic evaporites, respectively. The source water chemistry has been modified by various geochemical processes due to the groundwater-rock interaction, including ion exchange with hydrothermal minerals and clays, incongruent solution of dolomite, and sulphate reduction.

Ghiglieri, Giorgio; Oggiano, Giacomo; Fidelibus, Maria Dolores; Alemayehu, Tamiru; Barbieri, Giulio; Vernier, Antonio

2009-03-01

91

The amorphous Zn biomineralization at Naracauli stream, Sardinia: electron microscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy.  

PubMed

An amorphous Zn biomineralization ("white mud"), occurring at Naracauli stream, Sardinia, in association with cyanobacteria Leptolyngbya frigida and diatoms, was investigated by electron microscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Preliminary diffraction analysis shows that the precipitate sampled on Naracauli stream bed is mainly amorphous, with some peaks ascribable to quartz and phyllosilicates, plus few minor unattributed peaks. Scanning electron microscopy analysis shows that the white mud, precipitated in association with a seasonal biofilm, is made of sheaths rich in Zn, Si, and O, plus filaments likely made of organic matter. Transmission electron microscopy analysis shows that the sheaths are made of smaller units having a size in the range between 100 and 200 nm. X-ray absorption near-edge structure and extended X-ray absorption fine structure data collected at the Zn K-edge indicate that the biomineral has a local structure similar to hemimorphite, a zinc sorosilicate. The differences of this biomineral with respect to the hydrozincite biomineralization documented about 3 km upstream in the same Naracauli stream may be related to either variations in the physicochemical parameters and/or different metabolic behavior of the involved biota. PMID:23832800

Medas, D; Lattanzi, P; Podda, F; Meneghini, C; Trapananti, A; Sprocati, A; Casu, M A; Musu, E; De Giudici, G

2014-06-01

92

Evolution of the Corsica-Sardinia Batholith and late-orogenic shearing of the Variscides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Corsica-Sardinia Batholith formed in the late Carboniferous-Permian along the northern Gondwana margin. One or more of the following processes may have raised the Variscan geotherm enhancing melting of the crust and uppermost mantle, such as: i) break-off and detachment of the Rheic oceanic slab, ii) mantle delamination due to gravitational re-equilibration of thickened crust, iii) shear heating, iv) advection of mantle-derived melts, and v) concentration of heat-producing elements. In this paper, we present a simple one-dimensional thermal model to explain the origin of the batholith in a geodynamic setting consistent with intraplate shearing between Gondwana and Cadomian-Avalonian blocks. Input parameters, and boundary and initial conditions of the model crust are derived from a careful re-examination of large petrological, geochronological, and structural datasets. All parameters are varied within a range of geologically realistic values to reproduce thermal histories related to different tectonic processes, and the reliability of models is quantitatively evaluated by comparing the simulated geotherms with a large dataset of pressure-temperature-time (P-T-t) constraints. The best fit to P-T-t constraints is obtained for: i) break-off in the Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous, ii) decreasing exhumation rates from 340 to 280 Ma, and iii) transpression at high average strain rates, mostly coeval with the peak of high-T-low-P metamorphism.

Casini, L.; Cuccuru, S.; Puccini, A.; Oggiano, G.; Rossi, Ph.

2015-04-01

93

Tracing the boundaries of Cenozoic volcanic edifices from Sardinia (Italy): a geomorphometric contribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unequivocal delimitation of landforms is an important issue for different purposes, from science-driven morphometric analysis to legal issues related to land conservation. This study is aimed at giving a new contribution to the morphometric approach for the delineation of the boundaries of volcanic edifices, applied to 13 monogenetic volcanoes (scoria cones) related to the Pliocene-Pleistocene volcanic cycle in Sardinia (Italy). External boundary delimitation of the edifices is discussed based on an integrated methodology using automatic elaboration of digital elevation models together with geomorphological and geological observations. Different elaborations of surface slope and profile curvature have been proposed and discussed; among them, two algorithms based on simple mathematical functions combining slope and profile curvature well fit the requirements of this study. One of theses algorithms is a modification of a function introduced by Grosse et al. (2011), which better performs for recognizing and tracing the boundary between the volcanic scoria cone and its basement. Although the geological constraints still drive the final decision, the proposed method improves the existing tools for a semi-automatic tracing of the boundaries.

Melis, M. T.; Mundula, F.; DessÌ, F.; Cioni, R.; Funedda, A.

2014-09-01

94

Phenotypic and genotypic analysis of rhizobia isolated from pasture legumes native of Sardinia and Asinara Island.  

PubMed

Thirty-five rhizobial strains were isolated from nodules of Lotus edulis, L. ornithopodioides, L. cytisoides, Hedysarum coronarium, Ornithopus compressus and Scorpiurus muricatus growing in Sardinia and Asinara Island. Basic characteristics applied to identification of rhizobia such as symbiotic properties, antibiotic- and salt-resistance, temperate-sensitivities, utilization of different sources of carbon and nitrogen were studied. The results from the 74 metabolic tests were used for cluster analysis of the new rhizobial isolates and 28 reference strains, belonging to previously classified and unclassified fast-, intermediate- and slow-growing rhizobia. All strains examined were divided into two large groups at a linkage distance of 0.58. None of the reference strains clustered with the new rhizobial isolates, which formed five subgroups almost respective of their plant origin. RFLP analysis of PCR-amplified 16S-23S rDNA IGS showed that the levels of similarity between rhizobial isolates from Ornithopus, Hedysarum and Scorpiurus, and the type strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum, Mesorhizobium loti, M. ciceri, M. mediterraneum, Sinorhizobium meliloti and Bradyrhizobium japonicum were not more than 30%. Thus, it can be assumed that these groups of new rhizobial isolates are not closely related to the validly described rhizobial species. PMID:15031655

Safronova, V I; Piluzza, G; Belimov, A A; Bullitta, S

2004-02-01

95

Potential of pressure solution for strain localization in the Baccu Locci Shear Zone (Sardinia, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mylonites of the Baccu Locci Shear Zone (BLSZ), Sardinia (Italy), were deformed during thrusting along a bottom-to-top strain gradient in lower greenschist facies. The microstructure of metavolcanic protoliths shows evidence for composite deformation accommodated by dislocation creep within strong quartz porphyroclasts, and pressure solution in the finer grained matrix. The evolution of mylonite is simulated in two sets of numerical experiments, assuming either a constant width of the deforming zone (model 1) or a narrowing shear zone (model 2). A 2-5 mm y-1 constant-external-velocity boundary condition is applied on the basis of geologic constraints. Inputs to the models are provided by inverting paleostress values obtained from quartz recrystallized grain-size paleopiezometry. Both models predict a significant stress drop across the shear zone. However, model 1 involves a dramatic decrease in strain rate towards the zone of apparent strain localization. In contrast, model 2 predicts an increase in strain rate with time (from 10-14 to 10-12 s-1), which is consistent with stabilization of the shear zone profile and localization of deformation near the hanging wall. Extrapolating these results to the general context of crust strength suggests that pressure-solution creep may be a critical process for strain softening and for the stabilization of deformation within shear zones.

Casini, Leonardo; Funedda, Antonio

2014-09-01

96

Mendelian breeding units versus standard sampling strategies: Mitochondrial DNA variation in southwest Sardinia  

PubMed Central

We report a sampling strategy based on Mendelian Breeding Units (MBUs), representing an interbreeding group of individuals sharing a common gene pool. The identification of MBUs is crucial for case-control experimental design in association studies. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possible existence of bias in terms of genetic variability and haplogroup frequencies in the MBU sample, due to severe sample selection. In order to reach this goal, the MBU sampling strategy was compared to a standard selection of individuals according to their surname and place of birth. We analysed mitochondrial DNA variation (first hypervariable segment and coding region) in unrelated healthy subjects from two different areas of Sardinia: the area around the town of Cabras and the western Campidano area. No statistically significant differences were observed when the two sampling methods were compared, indicating that the stringent sample selection needed to establish a MBU does not alter original genetic variability and haplogroup distribution. Therefore, the MBU sampling strategy can be considered a useful tool in association studies of complex traits. PMID:21734814

Sanna, Daria; Pala, Maria; Cossu, Piero; Dedola, Gian Luca; Melis, Sonia; Fresu, Giovanni; Morelli, Laura; Obinu, Domenica; Tonolo, Giancarlo; Secchi, Giannina; Triunfo, Riccardo; Lorenz, Joseph G.; Scheinfeldt, Laura; Torroni, Antonio; Robledo, Renato; Francalacci, Paolo

2011-01-01

97

Helminth parasites of fish and shellfish from the Santa Gilla Lagoon in southern Sardinia, Italy.  

PubMed

An extensive survey of helminth parasites in fish and shellfish species from Santa Gilla, a brackish water lagoon in southern Sardinia (western Mediterranean), resulted in the identification of 69 helminth parasite taxa and/or species from 13 fish species (n= 515) and seven bivalve species (n= 2322) examined between September 2001 and July 2011. The list summarizes information on the helminth parasites harboured by fish and molluscs contained in the available literature. Digenea species (37), both adults and larvae, dominated the parasite fauna, whereas Cestoda were the least represented class (three species). Monogenea, Nematoda and Acanthocephala were present with 17, 6 and 6 species, respectively, which were mainly adults. The most widespread parasite species was the generalist Contracaecum rudolphii A (Nematoda). Other species, such as the Haploporidae and Ascocotyle (Phagicola) spp. 1 and 2 (Digenea), showed a high family specificity in Mugilidae. Importantly, the study recorded the occurrence of potential zoonotic agents, such as Heterophyes heterophyes, Ascocotyle (Phagicola) spp. and C. rudolphii A, the latter two reaching the highest indices of infection in the highly marketed fish grey mullet and sea bass, respectively. The highest parasite richness was detected in Dicentrarchus labrax, which harboured 17 helminth species, whereas the lowest value was observed in Atherina boyeri, infected by only three species. The list includes the first geographical record in Italian coastal waters of Robinia aurata and Stictodora sawakinensis, and 30 reports of new host-parasite complexes, including the larval stages of Ascocotyle (Ascocotyle) sp. and Southwellina hispida in D. labrax. PMID:23790066

Culurgioni, J; Sabatini, A; De Murtas, R; Mattiucci, S; Figus, V

2014-12-01

98

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis as a trigger of type-1 diabetes: destination Sardinia, or beyond?  

PubMed Central

Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a multifactorial autoimmune disease in which the insulin producing ? cell population is destroyed by the infiltrated T lymphocytes. Even though the exact cause of T1DM is yet to be ascertained, varying degree of genetic susceptibility and environmental factors have been linked to the disease progress and outcome. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is an obligate zoonotic pathogen that causes chronic infection of intestines in ruminants, the Johne's disease. MAP that can even survive pasteurization and chlorination has also been implicated to cause similar type of enteritis in humans called Crohn's disease. With the increasing recognition of the link between MAP and Crohn's disease, it has been postulated that MAP is an occult antigen which besides Crohn's could as well be thought to trigger T1DM. Epitope homologies between mycobacterial proteins (Hsp 65) and pancreatic glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD 65) and infant nutrition studies implicate MAP as one of the triggers for T1DM. PCR and ELISA analyses in diabetic patients from Sardinia suggest that MAP acts as a possible trigger for T1DM. Systematic mechanistic insights are needed to prove this link. Unfortunately, no easy animal model(s) or in-vitro systems are available to decipher the complex immunological network that is triggered in MAP infection leading to T1DM. PMID:20350307

2010-01-01

99

Mitochondrial phylogeography of the Bedriaga's rock lizard, Archaeolacerta bedriagae (Reptilia: Lacertidae) endemic to Corsica and Sardinia.  

PubMed

Archaeolacerta bedriagae is a rock-dwelling lizard endemic to the Corso-Sardinian insular system. We investigated the phylogeography of the species by using the mitochondrial ND4 and flanking tRNAs genes from 94 specimens belonging to 19 populations. Phylogenetic, Barrier, and SAMOVA analyses revealed a highly structured pattern characterized by two levels of discontinuities in the geographical distribution of mtDNA diversity: (i) a deep phylogeographic break in Northern Corsica between Lineage A, restricted to northernmost Corsica, and Lineage B widespread all over the remaining range of the species, and (ii) some minor phylogeographic discontinuities within lineage B, which is sub-structured into six closely related haplotype clades with remarkable concordance with geography. The first evolutionary event concerning the split between the two main lineages from an ancestral population occurred in the Upper Pliocene (5.87-3.68 mya), while the divergence within lineage B would have started from the Upper Pleistocene (2.5-1.6 mya), between Corsican and Sardinian populations. Somewhat later (1.7-1.1 mya), the Sardinian ancestral population underwent fragmentation into population groups inhabiting North, Central, and South Sardinia. As inferred from previous allozyme surveys, the divergence among population groups would be driven by allopatric fragmentation, while the discrepancy concerning the major partition into two lineages inferred from mtDNA but not apparent in analysis of allozymes needs further investigation. PMID:20302956

Salvi, Daniele; Harris, D James; Bombi, Pierluigi; Carretero, Miguel A; Bologna, Marco A

2010-08-01

100

The new French 2010 Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus causes an RHD-like disease in the Sardinian Cape hare (Lepus capensis mediterraneus)  

PubMed Central

Lagovirus is an emerging genus of Caliciviridae, which includes the Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) of rabbits and the European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) of hares that cause lethal hepatitis. In 2010, a new RHDV related virus (RHDV2) with a unique genetic and antigenic profile and lower virulence was identified in France in rabbits. Here we report the identification of RHDV2 as the cause in Sardinia of several outbreaks of acute hepatitis in rabbits and Cape hare (Lepus capensis mediterraneus). This is the first account of a lagovirus that causes fatal hepatitis in both rabbits and hares. PMID:24099575

2013-01-01

101

The new French 2010 Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus causes an RHD-like disease in the Sardinian Cape hare (Lepus capensis mediterraneus).  

PubMed

Lagovirus is an emerging genus of Caliciviridae, which includes the Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) of rabbits and the European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) of hares that cause lethal hepatitis. In 2010, a new RHDV related virus (RHDV2) with a unique genetic and antigenic profile and lower virulence was identified in France in rabbits. Here we report the identification of RHDV2 as the cause in Sardinia of several outbreaks of acute hepatitis in rabbits and Cape hare (Lepus capensis mediterraneus). This is the first account of a lagovirus that causes fatal hepatitis in both rabbits and hares. PMID:24099575

Puggioni, Giantonella; Cavadini, Patrizia; Maestrale, Caterina; Scivoli, Rosario; Botti, Giuliana; Ligios, Ciriaco; Le Gall-Reculé, Ghislaine; Lavazza, Antonio; Capucci, Lorenzo

2013-01-01

102

On the decrease of water resources during the last decades in the Flumendosa basin, Sardinia.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mediterranean climate is characterized by a cool and wet winter and a hot and dry summer. In these climate ecosystems during the winter months much of the precipitation recharges sub-surface and surface reservoirs. However, in the late winter and early spring, when vegetation growth conditions are favorable, much of the precipitation can be depleted by transpiration and, furthermore, runoff reduced directly by the increased vegetation cover. A common feature of the Mediterranean region is the evident effect of climate changes that it is causing several problems on the water resources availability. Brunetti et al. (2000) and Dunkeloh and Jacobeit (2003) have shown a strong decreasing trend in winter precipitation amounts over much of the Mediterranean for the past several decades. Additionally, there is evidence of shifts in how the precipitation is distributed across the winter and spring months. Considering that the most of the runoff to surface reservoirs occurs in the winter months and that spring hydrologic response is likely to be influenced strongly by vegetation (depending on overlap between rainy- and growing-seasons) these precipitation changes can be considered hydrologically important. Case study is the Flumendosa basin (Sardinia, basin area of about 1700 km2), which is characterized by a reservoir system that supplies water to the main city of Sardinia, Cagliari. Data are from 42 rain gauges stations (1922-2008 period) over the entire basin and data of runoff are available for the same period. Interestingly in the Flumendosa reservoir system the average annual input from stream discharge in the latter part of the 20th century was less than half the historic average rate, while the precipitation over the Flumendosa basin has decreased, but not at such a drastic rate as the discharge, suggesting a marked non-linear response of discharge to precipitation changes. Trends in precipitation series were examined using the Mann-Kendall non-parametric trend test, which shows a sequence of alternating decreasing and increasing trends in monthly precipitation, statistically significant. In autumn and winter months rains are decreasing, while an increase of monthly precipitation is estimated in the spring and summer months. The analysis of the mean seasonal precipitation climatology confirms the same behavior, highlighting a clear change of the rain regime after 1980. Hence, in late 30 years the rain decreased during the winter months (i.e., less recharges to the reservoirs), and increases during spring and summer months, when the evapotraspiration is higher (i.e., recharges to the reservoirs doesn't increase). Interestingly we found differences of rain between the mountain and the down plane area of the basin: in the mountain area of the Flumendosa basin there is a strong positive trend, i.e. an increase, of the number of wet days of the winter months only for the highest rain intensity (> 50 mm/d), in contrast with the other part of the basin and the lower rain intensities. Hence, the results highlight an increase of floods only for the mountain part of the basin during the winter months due to the increase of the frequency of the highest rain intensities; while at the whole basin scale the rainfall trend is negative for the winter months, so that runoff decreased in the most important period of the year for reservoir recharge.

Corona, Roberto; Montaldo, Nicola; Albertson, John D.

2014-05-01

103

Persistence of Pristine Deep-Sea Coral Gardens in the Mediterranean Sea (SW Sardinia).  

PubMed

Leiopathes glaberrima is a tall arborescent black coral species structuring important facies of the deep-sea rocky bottoms of the Mediterranean Sea that are severely stifled by fishing activities. At present, however, no morphological in vivo description, ecological characterization, age dating and evaluation of the possible conservation actions have ever been made for any population of this species in the basin. A dense coral population was reported during two Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) surveys conducted on a rocky bank off the SW coasts of Sardinia (Western Mediterranean Sea). L. glaberrima forms up to 2 m-tall colonies with a maximal observed basal diameter of nearly 7 cm. The radiocarbon dating carried out on a colony from this site with a 4 cm basal diameter revealed an approximately age of 2000 years. Considering the size-frequency distribution of the colonies in the area it is possible to hypothesize the existence of other millennial specimens occupying a supposedly very stable ecosystem. The persistence of this ecosystem is likely guaranteed by the heterogeneous rocky substrate hosting the black coral population that represents a physical barrier against the mechanical impacts acted on the surrounding muddy areas, heavily exploited as trawling fishing grounds. This favorable condition, together with the existence of a nursery area for catsharks within the coral ramifications and the occurrence of a meadow of the now rare soft bottom alcyonacean Isidella elongata in small surviving muddy enclaves, indicates that this ecosystem have to be considered a pristine Mediterranean deep-sea coral sanctuary that would deserve special protection. PMID:25790333

Bo, Marzia; Bavestrello, Giorgio; Angiolillo, Michela; Calcagnile, Lucio; Canese, Simonepietro; Cannas, Rita; Cau, Alessandro; D'Elia, Marisa; D'Oriano, Filippo; Follesa, Maria Cristina; Quarta, Gianluca; Cau, Angelo

2015-01-01

104

Evaporation in a Mediterranean environment by energy budget and Penman methods, Lake Baratz, Sardinia, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Mediterranean environments, evaporation is a key component of lake water budgets. This applies to Lake Baratz in Sardinia, Italy, a closed lake that almost dried up in 2008 after a succession of years with low seasonal rainfall. We used the energy budget method and Penman's equation to estimate evaporation over Lake Baratz. We measured, using a raft station, water temperature at the surface and at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 m depth, as well as air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and net radiation over a period of three years. We also compared Penman's equation and the energy budget method in two other climatic zones using published data. Our results indicate that mean yearly evaporation over Lake Baratz was 950 mm. On an annual scale evaporation estimated by Penman was 18% higher than by the energy budget method, with monthly difference ranging between -38 and +60%. Solar radiation and heat storage were found to be the most important energy fluxes to and from the lake and had the greatest effect on evaporation rates for the energy budget method. The bias between the two methods has a seasonal cycle due to the storage and release of energy from the lake. Energy advected to and from the lake by precipitation, surface water, and ground water had minor effect on evaporation rates. Lake Baratz, like other lakes in a Mediterranean environment, is particularly sensitive to the summer hot and dry climate. In contrast, we found that rates of evaporation estimated from Penman and the energy budget methods over tropical African lakes were nearly constant over the entire year and the difference between the two methods smaller. Difference between the two methods for north American lakes is also smaller probably owing to the ice-cover season and to lower radiation and lower temperatures during summer.

Giadrossich, F.; Niedda, M.; Cohen, D.; Pirastru, M.

2015-02-01

105

Zinc isotope and transition-element dynamics accompanying hydrozincite biomineralization in the Rio Naracauli, Sardinia, Italy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Rio Naracauli in SW Sardinia drains part of the Ingurtosu Zn–Pb mining district, and contains extreme concentrations of dissolved Zn at near-neutral pH. In the upper reaches of the stream, pH, alkalinity and Zn concentrations are such that hydrozincite [Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6] precipitates in a biologically mediated process facilitated by a microalga (Chlorella sp.) and a cyanobacterium (Scytonema sp.). Values of ?66Zn in water and solid samples ranged from ? 0.35‰ to + 0.5‰ relative to the JMC 3-0749-Lyon standard, and closely follow a mass-dependent fractionation line. Two composite samples of sphalerite, the primary ore mineral in the Ingurtosu deposits, had an average ?66Zn of + 0.15‰, similar to sphalerite measured elsewhere in hydrothermal mineral deposits. Zinc isotope measurements of the stream water and the hydrozincite forming in the stream show a consistent preference for the heavy isotope, 66Zn, in the hydrozincite relative to 64Zn. Synthetic hydrozincites produced without added bacteria have ?66Zn identical to the dissolved Zn, thus suggesting a biologically mediated mineralization process in Rio Naracauli. The average fractionation, ?hdz-water, is 0.35‰, the magnitude of which is consistent with other studies, and suggests an extracellular mechanism of the biomineralization process. Zinc concentration and dissolved ?66Zn steadily decrease in the reach of the stream where the biomineralization occurs. The biomineralization process also leads to the sequestration of Pb, Cu and Ni in the hydrozincite lattice, and the coeval precipitation of an amorphous CdCO3 solid, prompting the suggestion that if optimized, the biomineralization process might represent a feasible passive remediation strategy for streams with high Zn and other metals, and with near-neutral pH.

Wanty, Richard B.; Podda, F.; De Giudici, Giovanni; Cidu, R.; Lattanzi, Pierfranco

2013-01-01

106

Persistence of Pristine Deep-Sea Coral Gardens in the Mediterranean Sea (SW Sardinia)  

PubMed Central

Leiopathes glaberrima is a tall arborescent black coral species structuring important facies of the deep-sea rocky bottoms of the Mediterranean Sea that are severely stifled by fishing activities. At present, however, no morphological in vivo description, ecological characterization, age dating and evaluation of the possible conservation actions have ever been made for any population of this species in the basin. A dense coral population was reported during two Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) surveys conducted on a rocky bank off the SW coasts of Sardinia (Western Mediterranean Sea). L. glaberrima forms up to 2 m-tall colonies with a maximal observed basal diameter of nearly 7 cm. The radiocarbon dating carried out on a colony from this site with a 4 cm basal diameter revealed an approximately age of 2000 years. Considering the size-frequency distribution of the colonies in the area it is possible to hypothesize the existence of other millennial specimens occupying a supposedly very stable ecosystem. The persistence of this ecosystem is likely guaranteed by the heterogeneous rocky substrate hosting the black coral population that represents a physical barrier against the mechanical impacts acted on the surrounding muddy areas, heavily exploited as trawling fishing grounds. This favorable condition, together with the existence of a nursery area for catsharks within the coral ramifications and the occurrence of a meadow of the now rare soft bottom alcyonacean Isidella elongata in small surviving muddy enclaves, indicates that this ecosystem have to be considered a pristine Mediterranean deep-sea coral sanctuary that would deserve special protection. PMID:25790333

Bo, Marzia; Bavestrello, Giorgio; Angiolillo, Michela; Calcagnile, Lucio; Canese, Simonepietro; Cannas, Rita; Cau, Alessandro; D’Elia, Marisa; D’Oriano, Filippo; Follesa, Maria Cristina; Quarta, Gianluca; Cau, Angelo

2015-01-01

107

Evaluating disturbance on mediterranean karst areas: the example of Sardinia (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaluating the human disturbance on karst areas is a difficult task because of the complexity of these peculiar and unique environments. The human impact on karstic geo-ecosystems is increasingly important and there is an increasing need for multidisciplinary tools to assess the environmental changes in karst areas. Many disciplines, such as biology, geomorphology, hydrology and social-economical sciences are to be considered to sufficiently evaluate the impact on these intrinsically vulnerable areas. This article gives an overview of the evolution of environmental impact on karst areas of the island Sardinia (Italy). For this particular case, the most important impacts in the past 50 years are derived from the following activities, in decreasing importance: (1) mining and quarrying; (2) deforestation, agriculture and grazing; (3) building (widespread urbanisation, isolated homes, etc.) and related infrastructures (roads, sewer systems, aqueducts, waste dumps, etc.); (4) tourism; (5) military activities. To evaluate the present environmental state of these areas the Disturbance Index for Karst environments [Van Beynen and Townsend (Environ Manage 36:101-116)] is applied in a slightly modified version. Instead of considering the indicators of environmental disturbances used in the original method, this slightly modified index evaluates the disturbances causing the deterioration of the environmental attributes. In the Sardinian case study, 27 disturbances have been evaluated, giving rise to the definition of a Disturbance Index ranging between 0 (Pristine) and 1 (highly disturbed). This Disturbance Index simplifies the original KDI method, appears to adequately measure disturbance on Mediterranean karst areas and could be applied with success to other similar regions.

de Waele, Jo

2009-07-01

108

Prevalence of silent celiac disease in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis from Northern Sardinia.  

PubMed

Celiac disease (CD) is frequently associated with other autoimmune diseases such as Type 1 diabetes mellitus, autoimmune thyroiditis (AT), and Addison's disease. The frequency of these associations varies with the populations studied. We conducted this study to ascertain the prevalence of CD in patients with AT from Sardinia, an area with a very high prevalence of CD. To this aim, 297 consecutive patients with AT (as defined by elevated antithyroid antibody levels and a positive ultrasound scan) were studied. Immunoglobulin A and G-class antigliadin antibodies were assayed in serum; if either or both were positive, antiendomysium antibodies were determined. If two markers were positive, serum ferritin, folate, and vitamin B12 levels were measured and jejunal biopsy was suggested. Thirteen out of the 14 patients who showed at least two positive markers consented to jejunal biopsy and all of them showed histological features of CD. The prevalence of CD in AT patients was 4-fold greater than that observed in the general population (4.37 vs 1.06%, p<0.0001). Ferritin was low in 6 and vitamin B12 in 2 out of 13 patients; serum folates were normal in all patients. Molecular typing of HLA class II alleles showed an increased frequency of the extended haplotype DRB1*0301/DQA1*0501/DQB1*0201. None of our patients had a history of gastrointestinal symptoms. We confirm the increased prevalence of silent CD in patients with AT. Patients with AT ought to be regarded as a high-risk group for CD and should be screened routinely for it; if negative, screening tests should be repeated at regular intervals. PMID:11407647

Meloni, G F; Tomasi, P A; Bertoncelli, A; Fanciulli, G; Delitala, G; Meloni, T

2001-05-01

109

Population Based Study of 12 Autoimmune Diseases in Sardinia, Italy: Prevalence and Comorbidity  

PubMed Central

Background The limited availability of prevalence data based on a representative sample of the general population, and the limited number of diseases considered in studies about co-morbidity are the critical factors in study of autoimmune diseases. This paper describes the prevalence of 12 autoimmune diseases in a representative sample of the general population in the South of Sardinia, Italy, and tests the hypothesis of an overall association among these diseases. Methods Data were obtained from 21 GPs. The sample included 25,885 people. Prevalence data were expressed with 95% Poisson C.I. The hypothesis of an overall association between autoimmune diseases was tested by evaluating the co-occurrence within individuals. Results Prevalence per 100,000 are: 552 rheumatoid arthritis, 124 ulcerative colitis, 15 Crohn's disease, 464 type 1 diabetes, 81 systemic lupus erythematosus, 124 celiac disease, 35 myasthenia gravis, 939 psoriasis/psoriatic arthritis, 35 systemic sclerosis, 224 multiple sclerosis, 31 Sjogren's syndrome, and 2,619 autoimmune thyroiditis . An overall association between autoimmune disorders was highlighted. Conclusions The comparisons with prevalence reported in current literature do not show outlier values, except possibly for a few diseases like celiac disease and myasthenia gravis. People already affected by a first autoimmune disease have a higher probability of being affected by a second autoimmune disorder. In the present study, the sample size, together with the low overall prevalence of autoimmune diseases in the population, did not allow us to examine which diseases are most frequently associated with other autoimmune diseases. However, this paper makes available an adequate control population for future clinical studies aimed at exploring the co-morbidity of specific pairs of autoimmune diseases. PMID:22396771

Sardu, Claudia; Cocco, Eleonora; Mereu, Alessandra; Massa, Roberta; Cuccu, Alessandro; Marrosu, Maria Giovanna; Contu, Paolo

2012-01-01

110

Heartland Virus  

MedlinePLUS

... Vector-Borne Diseases (DVBD) NCEZID Share Compartir Heartland virus On this Page What is Heartland virus? How ... Do I Need to Know? What is Heartland virus? Heartland virus belongs to a family of viruses ...

111

Submarine geo-hazards on the eastern Sardinia-Corsica continental margin based on preliminary pipeline route investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The understanding of the morphology and the shallow geo-hazards of the seafloor is a major focus for both academic and private industry research. On November and December 2009 a geophysical pipeline survey was carried out by Fugro Oceansismica S.p.A. (FOSPA) and FUGRO France (FFSA) for DORIS Engineering on behalf of GRTgaz (Engineering centre, Transmission Pipe Department; http://www.grtgaz.com) which are currently investigating the possibility of laying a pipeline between Sardinia and Corsica as a spur line from the planned GALSI Project. The Project, "Alimentation de la Corse en gaz naturel", consists of a corridor 100 km long and 1.0 km wide along the Corsica-Sardinia shelf. The integration of the multibeam, sidescan sonar and sparker data provided a high resolution seafloor mapping for geo-hazard assessment. In this article the data acquired along a break of slope section (approximately 20 km × 1.5 km), in the eastern sector of the Strait of Bonifacio are described. The area was abandoned during the survey, because of its unsuitability. Indeed, in this area the continental shelf, approximately 100 m deep and deepening gently eastward, is characterized by an uneven morphology, with different seabed features such as Beach- rocks mainly NNW-SSE oriented. Also, the continuity of the continental margin, identified around -110/-115 m, is interrupted by four canyon heads which incise the slope and are associated with glide deposits.

Cecchini, S.; Taliana, D.; Giacomini, L.; Herisson, C.; Bonnemaire, B.

2011-03-01

112

Using New Tools to Define the Genetic Underpinnings of Risky Traits Associated With Coronary Artery Disease: The SardiNIA Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genomewide association studies are increasingly being applied to search for novel genes that might underlie cardiovascular diseases. In this article, we briefly review the principles that underlie modern genetic analyses and provide several illustrations from the SardiNIA study of genomewide association studies for cardiovascular risk factor traits.

James B. Strait; Manuela Uda; Edward G. Lakatta; Samer S. Najjar

2009-01-01

113

Gymnopilus maritimus (Basidiomycota, Agaricales), a new species from coastal psammophilous plant communities of northern Sardinia, Italy, and notes on G. arenophilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new species Gymnopilus maritimus is described from coastal plant communities of Juncus maritimus, growing on sandy soil or on decaying plants, from northwestern Sardinia (Italy). The distinguishing features of G. maritimus are: (1) an unusual habitat, (2) robust basidiomata, (3) mild taste, and (4) big and strongly warted spores. The new species\\u000a is compared with the micromorphologically similar species

L. Guzmán-Dávalos; A. Ortega; M. Contu; A. Vizzini; A. Rodríguez; A. R. Villalobos-Arámbula; A. Santerre

2009-01-01

114

Genetic loci linked to Type 1 Diabetes and Multiple Sclerosis families in Sardinia  

PubMed Central

Background The Mediterranean island of Sardinia has a strikingly high incidence of the autoimmune disorders Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) and Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Furthermore, the two diseases tend to be co-inherited in the same individuals and in the same families. These observations suggest that some unknown autoimmunity variant with relevant effect size could be fairly common in this founder population and could be detected using linkage analysis. Methods To search for T1D and MS loci as well as any that predispose to both diseases, we performed a whole genome linkage scan, sequentially genotyping 593 microsatellite marker loci in 954 individuals distributed in 175 Sardinian families. In total, 413 patients were studied; 285 with T1D, 116 with MS and 12 with both disorders. Model-free linkage analysis was performed on the genotyped samples using the Kong and Cox logarithm of odds (LOD) score statistic. Results In T1D, aside from the HLA locus, we found four regions showing a lod-score ?1; 1p31.1, 6q26, 10q21.2 and 22q11.22. In MS we found three regions showing a lod-score ?1; 1q42.2, 18p11.21 and 20p12.3. In the combined T1D-MS scan for shared autoimmunity loci, four regions showed a LOD >1, including 6q26, 10q21.2, 20p12.3 and 22q11.22. When we typed more markers in these intervals we obtained suggestive evidence of linkage in the T1D scan at 10q21.2 (LOD = 2.1), in the MS scan at 1q42.2 (LOD = 2.5) and at 18p11.22 (LOD = 2.6). When all T1D and MS families were analysed jointly we obtained suggestive evidence in two regions: at 10q21.1 (LOD score = 2.3) and at 20p12.3 (LOD score = 2.5). Conclusion This suggestive evidence of linkage with T1D, MS and both diseases indicates critical chromosome intervals to be followed up in downstream association studies. PMID:18205952

Pitzalis, Maristella; Zavattari, Patrizia; Murru, Raffaele; Deidda, Elisabetta; Zoledziewska, Magdalena; Murru, Daniela; Moi, Loredana; Motzo, Costantino; Orrù, Valeria; Costa, Gianna; Solla, Elisabetta; Fadda, Elisabetta; Schirru, Lucia; Melis, Maria Cristina; Lai, Marina; Mancosu, Cristina; Tranquilli, Stefania; Cuccu, Stefania; Rolesu, Marcella; Secci, Maria Antonietta; Corongiu, Daniela; Contu, Daniela; Lampis, Rosanna; Nucaro, Annalisa; Pala, Gavino; Pacifico, Adolfo; Maioli, Mario; Frongia, Paola; Chessa, Margherita; Ricciardi, Rossella; Lostia, Stanislao; Marinaro, Anna Maria; Milia, Anna Franca; Landis, Novella; Zedda, Maria Antonietta; Whalen, Michael B; Santoni, Federico; Marrosu, Maria Giovanna; Devoto, Marcella; Cucca, Francesco

2008-01-01

115

Hypogenic speleogenesis in quartzite: The case of Corona 'e Sa Craba Cave (SW Sardinia, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents a detailed study demonstrating the hypogenic origin of the Corona 'e Sa Craba quartzite cave in SW Sardinia (Italy). Although the quartzite host-rock of this cave derived from silicification of Cambrian dolostones and dissolution of carbonate remnants could have had a role in the speleogenesis, detailed morphologic and petrographic investigation revealed clear evidence of quartz dissolution without signs of mechanical erosion by running waters. Thin section microscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images show pervasive dissolution morphologies, such as pits and notches on quartz crystals causing the deep arenization of the cave walls, suggesting that the dissolution of quartz had a primary role in the formation of the void. The study of secondary cave minerals and the sulfur isotopic composition of sulfates and sulfides, coupled with data on fluid inclusions, allowed reconstruction of the peculiar speleogenetic history of this hypogenic hydrothermal quartzite cave. The cave formed by reduced hydrothermal fluids, probably under basic-neutral pH in phreatic conditions. The presence of abundant cations of Ba2 + in reduced Cl-rich fluids enhanced the quartz dissolution rate, allowing the formation of the voids in deep settings. During the Late Oligocene uplift of the area, the hydrothermal fluids in the cave reached oxygen-rich conditions, thus a minerogenetic phase started with the deposition of barite when the temperature of the fluid was ? 50 °C. The presence of cinnabar crusts in the lower part of the cave walls and on the boulders suggests a later volcanic phase with Hg-rich vapors ascending from below. Other minerals such as alunite, basaluminite, gypsum and halloysite (typical of an acid sulfate alteration environment), and phosphates were formed in a final, much more recent stage. The ?34S values of the cave sulfate minerals indicate that S is derived from the remobilization of original Precambrian Pb-Zn Mississippi Valley Type ores. These last two stages did not significantly affect the morphology of the cave. The Corona 'e Sa Craba appears to be the world's first example of a hypogenic cave in quartzite where the speleogenetic mechanisms have been studied and reconstructed in detail, using a variety of modern methods. This study confirms that dissolution of quartz by thermal alkaline fluids at depth can produce large dissolutional voids in the apparently poorly soluble quartzite rocks.

Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Onac, Bogdan P.; Galli, Ermanno; Dublyansky, Yuri; Baldoni, Eleonora; Sanna, Laura

2014-04-01

116

Virus Resistance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Identification, characterization and deployment of virus resistant maize are complex tasks requiring multidisciplinary approaches. Insect transmission of viruses in nature and the potential presence of biologically distinct virus strains complicate screening for virus resistance. At least ten maize...

117

A statistical approach to rank multiple priorities in environmental epidemiology: an example from high-risk areas in Sardinia, Italy.  

PubMed

In environmental epidemiology, long lists of relative risk estimates from exposed populations are compared to a reference to scrutinize the dataset for extremes. Here, inference on disease profiles for given areas, or for fixed disease population signatures, are of interest and summaries can be obtained averaging over areas or diseases. We have developed a multivariate hierarchical Bayesian approach to estimate posterior rank distributions and we show how to produce league tables of ranks with credibility intervals useful to address the above mentioned inferential problems. Applying the procedure to a real dataset from the report "Environment and Health in Sardinia (Italy)" we selected 18 areas characterized by high environmental pressure for industrial, mining or military activities investigated for 29 causes of deaths among male residents. Ranking diseases highlighted the increased burdens of neoplastic (cancerous), and non-neoplastic respiratory diseases in the heavily polluted area of Portoscuso. The averaged ranks by disease over areas showed lung cancer among the three highest positions. PMID:19021111

Catelan, Dolores; Biggeri, Annibale

2008-11-01

118

Molecular and epidemiological data on Anisakis spp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in commercial fish caught off northern Sardinia (western Mediterranean Sea).  

PubMed

Anisakiasis is a fish-borne zoonosis caused by third stage larvae of the nematode Anisakis sp. present in fish or cephalopods. This is the first contribution to the molecular identification and epidemiology of Anisakis spp. in commercial fish from the Gulf of Asinara (Sardinia, western Mediterranean Sea). Between April 2006 to November 2011, 777 specimens of 10 fish species (Engraulis encrasicolus, Merluccius merluccius, Micromesistius poutassou, Phycis blennoides, Sardina pilchardus, Sardinella aurita, Scomber colias, Sphyraena viridensis, Trachurus mediterraneus, Trachurus trachurus) were examined for Anisakis sp. larvae. A total of 1286 larvae were found in 218 fish. The great majority of larvae were located in the body cavity, and only a small part (60, 4.7%) in the muscle. All the Type I larvae (1272) were identified as Anisakis pegreffii and all the Type II (14) as Anisakis physeteris, confirming that A. pegreffii is the dominant species and the most important agent of human anisakiasis in the western Mediterranean Sea. PMID:24630706

Piras, M C; Tedde, T; Garippa, G; Virgilio, S; Sanna, D; Farjallah, S; Merella, P

2014-06-16

119

Using AQUACROP to model the impacts of future climates on crop production and possible adaptation strategies in Sardinia and Tunisia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A work package in the FP-7 funded CLIMB Project - Climate Induced Changes on the Hydrology of Mediterranean Basins Reducing Uncertainty and Quantifying Risk through an Integrated Monitoring and Modeling System had the goal of assessing socioeconomic vulnerability in two super-sites in future climates (2040-2070). The work package had deliverables to describe of agricultural adaptation measures appropriate to each site under future water availability scenarios and assess the risk of income losses due to water shortages in agriculture. The FAO model AQUACROP was used to estimate losses of agricultural productivity and indicate possible adaptation strategies. The presentation will focus on two interesting crops which show extreme vulnerability to expected changes in climate; irrigated lettuce in Sardinia and irrigated tomatoes in Tunisia. Modelling methodology, results and possible adaptation strategies will be presented.

Bird, Neil; Benabdallah, Sihem; Gouda, Nadine; Hummel, Franz; La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Meyer, Swen; Soddu, Antonino; Woess-Gallasch, Susanne

2014-05-01

120

Impact of network geometry, observation schemes and telescope structure deformations on local ties: simulations applied to Sardinia Radio Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 64-m Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) is currently under construction in Sardinia (Italy). To ensure future surveying and monitoring operations at an utmost level of accuracy, we aim at selecting the optimal design and the most cost-effective solution for the establishment of the local ground control network (LGCN). We simulate and test 45 data sets corresponding to 5 different network configurations. We investigate the influence of 2 LGCN geometries (14 or 8 ground markers) and 3 terrestrial observation schemes (based on redundant forward intersections or side shots) on the precision and accuracy of the conventional reference point (CRP) of SRT and the simulated tie vector with a global navigation satellite system (GNSS) station. In addition, thermal and gravitational deformations of the radio telescope structure are simulated as systematic errors introduced into the observations and their effects on the CRP estimates are quantified. The state-of-the-art of CRP surveying and computation, based on terrestrial indirect methods, is applied. We show how terrestrial indirect methods can estimate the position of the radio telescope CRP to the millimeter precision level. With our simulations, we prove that limiting the LGCN to a 8-point configuration ensures the same precision on the CRP obtained with a 14-point network. Furthermore, we demonstrate that in the absence of telescope deformations, side shots, despite the lower redundancy, preserve a precision similar to that of redundant forward intersections. We show that the deformations due to gravitational flexure and thermal expansion of the radio telescope cannot be neglected in the tie vector computation, since they may bias the CRP estimate by several millimeters degrading its accuracy but not impacting on its formal precision. We highlight the dependency of the correlation matrices of the solutions on the geometry of the network and the observation schemes. Similarly, varying the extent of telescope deformations, we show that the CRP estimate again depends on the combination of the network geometry and the observation schemes.

Abbondanza, Claudio; Sarti, Pierguido

2012-03-01

121

Architecture and construction mechanisms of an incrementally built, vertically layered pluton (Punta Falcone, Sardinia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The granite-hosted mid-crustal mafic pluton of Punta Falcone, northern Sardinia, had been interpreted in the past as a one-shot magma chamber with in-situ differentiation. The (sub-) vertical fine-scale (~3cm) rhythmic magmatic layering prominent in the central part of the intrusion was attributed to the rotation of a initially horizontal layering formed by mineral segregation and accumulation due to gravity forces. Field investigations allowed us to identify a dozen of different gabbro cooling units with contrasting structures and grain-sizes. The intrusion is built symmetrically, with the external parts being emplaced first. Opx and/or cpx as well as ol (one unit) are found only in the central units, where they occur together with plg, amph and minor qtz and bt. An overall enrichment in CaO, Al2O3 and Mg-# coupled with a depletion in FeO and TiO2 is observable towards the central part of the intrusion. Part of this zonation is explained by the accumulation of plagioclase (up to 75 normative %) in the central part. The depletion in Fe and TiO2 could be linked to fractionation of Fe-Ti oxides (mag & ilm), in relation with higher fO2 values, which would also explain the presence of opx in these central units. Concerning the rhythmic magmatic layering, several parameters have been identified: - Layering occurs in a ~50m thick unit in the central part; it is thus located in a thermally preheated environment. - Layering is roughly parallel to most of the contacts between the different units and to the long axis of the elliptical intrusion, indicating a structural and/or a thermal control. - Intensity of layering decreases from the contact with the neighbouring unit inwards. - White bands consist of high-An plg rimmed by lower-An borders and minor interstitial qtz; dark bands consist of high-An plg without rims enclosed in big poikilitic amphiboles or pyroxenes. - Crystallization of up to 5mm big, poikilitic amphiboles with a patchy chemical zoning, occurs at the moment of development of layering in a water-saturated system. Crystallinity is expected to increase dramatically from ~40 to 70 vol-% over a small interval of temperature at this stage of evolution of the magma. - No preferred mineral orientation is visible in the white or dark layers. - AMS measurements yield oblate ellipsoids oriented parallel to the layering; this signature could reflect the concentration of magnetite in the dark layers. Given these parameters, we are currently considering a slowly migrating crystallization front acting together with element diffusion: amph crystallizes at the borders of the intruding unit, triggering the migration of amph-forming elements. This would lead to the development of a "depleted" white band once reached by the crystallization front. This process would be repeated sequentially until the thermal gradient gets too diffuse.

Hauser, Anne-Cécile; Bussy, François

2014-05-01

122

PEDOGENIC FORMATION OF KAOLINITE-SMECTI TE MIXED LAYERS IN A SOIL TOPOSEQUENCE DEVELOPED FROM BASALTIC PARENT MATERIAL IN SARDINIA (ITALY)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Format ion of kaolinite-smectite (K-S) mixed layers in a soil toposequence developed from basaltic parent material was examined. The soil formed in a temperate climate with alternating dry and wet seasons in Sardinia (Italy). Chemical composition and charge characteristics of the smectite compo- nent in the K-S mixed layers were analyzed to help determine a mechanism for formation. Soils were

FABIO TERRIBILE; SABINE PETIT

123

Changes of nutrient concentrations and phytoplankton communities after morphological modification in the S'Ena Arrubia Lagoon (Central-Western Sardinia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

S’Ena Arrubia Lagoon (Central-Western Sardinia) is a eutrophic system and is strongly influenced by human activities. The sea mouth was widened in 2000 to reduce the high trophic levels and improve its hydrodynamics. To study the environmental consequences of this ‘reframing’, nutrient concentrations and phytoplankton were compared before (1990–1999) and after (2000–2003) the hydrological works. The land–ocean interactions in the

Felicina Trebini; Bachisio Mario Padedda; Giulia Ceccherelli; Antonella Lugliè; Nicola Sechi

2005-01-01

124

Monoxia obesula Blake, 1939, a species native to the U.S.A. and adventive to Sardinia, Italy (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Galerucini).  

PubMed

Monoxia obesula Blake, 1939, a species native to North America, is newly found in Sardinia, Italy. This discovery constitutes the first report of the species from Europe, as well as the first report from outside of the U.S.A. The species is redescribed and illustrated, and errors in the original description are corrected. Host plants are species of Atriplex and Chenopodium occurring in saline habitats. PMID:24871407

Clark, Shawn M; Rattu, Andrea; Cillo, Davide

2014-01-01

125

Predicting the spatio-temporal distribution of Culicoides imicola in Sardinia using a discrete-time population model  

PubMed Central

Background Culicoides imicola KIEFFER, 1913 (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is the principal vector of Bluetongue disease in the Mediterranean basin, Africa and Asia. Previous studies have identified a range of eco-climatic variables associated with the distribution of C. imicola, and these relationships have been used to predict the large-scale distribution of the vector. However, these studies are not temporally-explicit and can not be used to predict the seasonality in C. imicola abundances. Between 2001 and 2006, longitudinal entomological surveillance was carried out throughout Italy, and provided a comprehensive spatio-temporal dataset of C. imicola catches in Onderstepoort-type black-light traps, in particular in Sardinia where the species is considered endemic. Methods We built a dynamic model that allows describing the effect of eco-climatic indicators on the monthly abundances of C. imicola in Sardinia. Model precision and accuracy were evaluated according to the influence of process and observation errors. Results A first-order autoregressive cofactor, a digital elevation model and MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST)/or temperatures acquired from weather stations explained ~77% of the variability encountered in the samplings carried out in 9 sites during 6?years. Incorporating Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) or rainfall did not increase the model's predictive capacity. On average, dynamics simulations showed good accuracy (predicted vs. observed r corr?=?0.9). Although the model did not always reproduce the absolute levels of monthly abundances peaks, it succeeded in reproducing the seasonality in population level and allowed identifying the periods of low abundances and with no apparent activity. On that basis, we mapped C. imicola monthly distribution over the entire Sardinian region. Conclusions This study demonstrated prospects for modelling data arising from Culicoides longitudinal entomological surveillance. The framework explicitly incorporates the influence of eco-climatic factors on population growth rates and accounts for observation and process errors. Upon validation, such a model could be used to predict monthly population abundances on the basis of environmental conditions, and hence can potentially reduce the amount of entomological surveillance. PMID:23174043

2012-01-01

126

Quantifying biomineralization of zinc in the Rio Naracauli (Sardinia, Italy), using a tracer injection and synoptic sampling  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Streams draining mined areas throughout the world commonly have high concentrations of Zn. Because Zn is not easily removed from stream water and because it can be toxic to aquatic organisms, its presence is a persistent problem. The discovery of biomineralization of Zn-bearing solids in the mine drainage of Rio Naracauli, in Sardinia, Italy, provides insights into strategies for removing Zn and improving water quality in streams affected by mine drainage. Until now, the transport and attenuation of Zn has not been quantified in this stream setting. A continuous tracer injection experiment was conducted to quantify the biomineralization process and to identify the loading of constituents that causes a change from precipitation of hydrozincite [Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6] in the upstream reach to precipitation of a Zn-silicate phase downstream. Based on the mass-load calculations derived from the tracer experiment, about 1.2 kg/day of Zn is sequestered in hydrozincite. This biomineralization represents nearly 90% removal of Zn. Other elements such as Pb and Cd also are sequestered, either in the hydrozincite, or in a separate phase that forms simultaneously. In the lower 600 m of the stream, where the Zn-silicate forms, as much as 0.7 kg/day Zn are sequestered in this solid, but additions of Zn to the stream from groundwater discharge lead to an overall increase in load in that portion of the Rio Naracauli.

De Giudici, Giovanni; Wanty, Richard B.; Podda, F.; Kimball, Briant A.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Lattanzi, P.; Cidu, R.; Medas, D.

2014-01-01

127

Powassan (POW) Virus Basics  

MedlinePLUS

Powassan (POW) Virus Basics Powassan (POW) virus is related to some mosquito-borne viruses, including West Nile virus. The virus is ... concerns? How do people get infected with POW virus? POW virus is passed to people by ticks: ...

128

Foodborne viruses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Testing for human pathogenic viruses in foods represents a formidable task requiring the extraction, concentration, and assay of a host of viruses from a wide range of food matrices. The enteric viruses, particularly genogroup I and II (GI and GII) noroviruses and hepatitis A virus, are the princip...

129

Computer viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer viruses have been around since the mid 1980s. Over 40,000 different viruses have been cataloged so far and the number of viruses is increasing dramatically. The damage they cause is estimated to be several billions of U.S. dollars per year. Most often, the origin of the virus is difficult to trace. Various kinds of anti-virus software have been developed

S. R. Subramanya; N. Lakshminarasimhan

2001-01-01

130

Persistence of bone collagen cross-links in skeletons of the Nuraghi population living in Sardinia 1500-1200 B.C  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bone collagen has a specific molecular ultrastructure which can be proved by birefringence. This protein, forming the main organic component of bone tissue, is known to survive millennia in paleontological bones and teeth. Birefringence of bone collagen obtained from the skeletons of the Nuraghi population living in Sardinia c-ca 1500 years B.C. was found previously by the use of polarizing microscopy [1]. In this paper, using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques, we show the existence of bone collagen cross-links preserved in Nuraghi skeletons after more than 3000 years.

Wojtowicz, A.; Yamauchi, M.; Montella, A.; Bandiera, P.; Sotowski, R.; Ostrowski, K.

1999-01-01

131

Quantification of hydrologic impacts of climate change in a Mediterranean basin in Sardinia, Italy, through high-resolution simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future climate projections robustly indicate that the Mediterranean region will experience a significant decrease of mean annual precipitation and an increase in temperature. These changes are expected to seriously affect the hydrologic regime, with a limitation of water availability and an intensification of hydrologic extremes, and to negatively impact local economies. In this study, we quantify the hydrologic impacts of climate change in the Rio Mannu basin (RMB), an agricultural watershed of 472.5 km2 in Sardinia, Italy. To simulate the wide range of runoff generation mechanisms typical of Mediterranean basins, we adopted a physically based, distributed hydrologic model. The high-resolution forcings in reference and future conditions (30-year records for each period) were provided by four combinations of global and regional climate models, bias-corrected and downscaled in space and time (from ~25 km, 24 h to 5 km, 1 h) through statistical tools. The analysis of the hydrologic model outputs indicates that the RMB is expected to be severely impacted by future climate change. The range of simulations consistently predict (i) a significant diminution of mean annual runoff at the basin outlet, mainly due to a decreasing contribution of the runoff generation mechanisms depending on water available in the soil; (ii) modest variations in mean annual runoff and intensification of mean annual discharge maxima in flatter sub-basins with clay and loamy soils, likely due to a higher occurrence of infiltration excess runoff; (iii) reduction of soil water content and actual evapotranspiration in most areas of the basin; and (iv) a drop in the groundwater table. Results of this study are useful to support the adoption of adaptive strategies for management and planning of agricultural activities and water resources in the region.

Piras, M.; Mascaro, G.; Deidda, R.; Vivoni, E. R.

2014-12-01

132

Integrated stratigraphic reconstruction for the last 80 kyr in a deep sector of the Sardinia Channel (Western Mediterranean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A quantitative analysis of planktonic foraminifera, coupled with petrophysical and paleomagnetic measurements and 14C-AMS calibrations, was carried out on a deep core recovered in the Sardinia Channel (Western Mediterranean Sea), during the CIESM Sub2 survey, providing an integrated stratigraphic time-framework over the last 80 kyr. Significant changes in the quantitative distribution of planktonic foraminifera allowed the identification of several eco-bioevents useful to accurately mark the boundaries of the eco-biozones widely recognized in the Western Mediterranean records and used for large-scale correlations. Namely, 10 eco-biozones were identified based on the relative abundance of selected climate-sensitive planktonic foraminiferal species. Sixteen codified eco-bioevents were correlated with Alboran Sea planktonic foraminiferal data and several climatic global events (Sapropel S1, Younger Dryas, Greenland Isotope Interstadial 1, Greenland Isotope Stadial 2, Heinrich event H1-H6) were recognized. The eco-bioevents together with the 14C-AMS calibrations allowed us to define an accurate age model, spanning between 2 and 83 kyr. The reliability of the age model was confirmed by comparing the colour reflectance (550 nm%) data of the studied record with the astronomically tuned record from the Ionian Sea (ODP-Site 964). A mean sedimentation rate of about 7 cm/kyr included three turbidite event beds that were chronologically constrained within the relative low stand and regressive sea-level phases of MIS 4 and 3. The deep-sea sedimentary record includes a distinct tephra occurring at the base of the core that dates 78 ka cal. BP. The paleomagnetic data provide a well-defined record of the characteristic remanent magnetization that may be used to reconstruct the geomagnetic paleosecular variation for the Mediterranean back to 83 kyr.

Budillon, F.; Lirer, F.; Iorio, M.; Macrì, P.; Sagnotti, L.; Vallefuoco, M.; Ferraro, L.; Garziglia, S.; Innangi, S.; Sahabi, M.; Tonielli, R.

2009-05-01

133

Quantification of hydrologic impacts of climate change in a Mediterranean basin in Sardinia, Italy, through high-resolution simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future climate projections robustly indicate that the Mediterranean region will experience a significant decrease of mean annual precipitation and an increase in temperature. These changes are expected to seriously affect the hydrologic regime, with a limitation of water availability and an intensification of hydrologic extremes, and to negatively impact local economies. In this study, we quantify the hydrologic impacts of climate change in the Rio Mannu basin (RMB), an agricultural watershed of 472.5 km2 in Sardinia, Italy. To simulate the wide range of runoff generation mechanisms typical of Mediterranean basins, we adopted a physically-based, distributed hydrologic model. The high-resolution forcings in reference and future conditions (30-year records for each period) were provided by four combinations of global and regional climate models, bias-corrected and downscaled in space and time (from ~25 km, 24 h to 5 km, 1 h) through statistical tools. The analysis of the hydrologic model outputs indicates that the RMB is expected to be severely impacted by future climate change. The range of simulations consistently predict: (i) a significant diminution of mean annual runoff at the basin outlet, mainly due to a decreasing contribution of the runoff generation mechanisms depending on water available in the soil; (ii) modest variations in mean annual runoff and intensification of mean annual discharge maxima in flatter sub-basins with clay and loamy soils, likely due to a higher occurrence of infiltration excess runoff; (iii) reduction of soil water content and real evapotranspiration in most areas of the basin; and (iv) a drop in the groundwater table. Results of this study are useful to support the adoption of adaptive strategies for management and planning of agricultural activities and water resources in the region.

Piras, M.; Mascaro, G.; Deidda, R.; Vivoni, E. R.

2014-07-01

134

Chlorella Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorella viruses or chloroviruses are large, icosahedral, plaque?forming, double?stranded?DNA–containing viruses that replicate in certain strains of the unicellular green alga Chlorella. DNA sequence analysis of the 330?kbp genome of Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV?1), the prototype of this virus family (Phycodnaviridae), predict ?366 protein?encoding genes and 11 tRNA genes. The predicted gene products of ?50% of these genes resemble

Takashi Yamada; Hideki Onimatsu; James L. Van Etten

2006-01-01

135

ECHO virus  

MedlinePLUS

Enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses that lead to gastrointestinal infection and skin rashes. ... Echovirus is one of several families of viruses that affect the ... are common. In the US, they are most common in the summer and ...

136

A new eco-hydrological distributed model for the analysis of the climate change impact on water resources of Mediterranean ecosystems: the Flumendosa basin case study in Sardinia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last three decades, climate change and human activities increased desertification process in Mediterranean regions, with dramatic consequences for agriculture and water availability. For instance in the Flumendosa reservoir system in Sardinia the average annual runoff in the latter part of the 20th century was less than half the historic average rate, while the precipitation over the Flumendosa basin has decreased, but not at such a drastic rate as the discharge, suggesting a marked non-linear response of discharge to precipitation changes. With the objective of analyzing and looking for the reasons of the historical runoff decrease a new ecohydrological model is developed and tested for the main basin of the Sardinia island, the Flumendosa basin. The eco-hydrological model developed couples a distributed hydrological model and a vegetation dynamic model (VDM). The hydrological model estimates the soil water balance of each basin cell using the force-restore method and the Philips model for runoff estimate. Then it computes runoff propagation along the river network through a modified version of the Muskingum -Cunge method (Mancini et al., 2000; Montaldo et al., 2004). The VDM evaluates the changes in biomass over time from the difference between the rates of biomass production (photosynthesis) and loss (respiration and senescence), and provides LAI, which is then used by the hydrological model for evapotranspiration and rainfall interception estimates. Case study is the Flumendosa basin (Sardinia, basin area of about 1700 km2), which is characterized by a reservoir system that supplies water to the main city of Sardinia, Cagliari. Data are from 42 rain stations (1922-2008 period) over the entire basin and data of runoff are available for the same period. The model has been successfully calibrated for the 1922 - 2008 period for which rain, meteorological data and discharge data are available. We demonstrate that the hystorical strong decrease of runoff is due to a change of rainfall regime, with a decrease of rainfall during the winter months, and a little increase of rainfall during spring-summer months. Indeed, the higher Spring rainfall produced an increase of transpiration mainly, whithout any impact on runoff. Instead the decrease of rainfall in winter months produces a strong decrease of runoff. This trend impacts significantly on monthly runoff production, and, more important, on yearly runoff production, because most of the yearly runoff contribution comes from the winter months. Yearly runoff is more important in Sardinia water resources systems, because runoff is accumulated in dam reservoirs, and is the main water resources of the island. Hence, due to the change of rainfall regime in last decades we are observing a dramatic decrease of runoff, which is reaching to impact on the water availability of the Sardinian major city, Cagliari.

Sarigu, Alessio; Cortis, Clorinda; Montaldo, Nicola

2014-05-01

137

Virus World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the Institute for Molecular Virology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, this Web site offers high quality virus images that may be used for seminar presentations or any other noncommercial use. Users can choose from American Society for Virology conference poster images, enhanced EM pictures, and images of virology-related book and journal covers. Images may be searched by virus name; the results page will provide links to summary information from the Protein Data Bank and to the Scripps Research Institute's Virus Particle Explorer. Movie animations and relevant links are provided for some of the virus images. Users can also access tutorials on virus structure and other topics.

2002-01-01

138

Soil carbon changes after plantation of autochthonous species in a semi-arid Mediterranean old-field in Sardinia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forested areas are important in arid and semi-arid regions primarily to combat desertification, but also to increase carbon sinks. According to the last Italian National Inventory of Forest and Carbon INFC dated 2005, Mediterranean maquis and shrublands cover about 690,100 ha, in Italy. Considering their vast diffusion, efforts should be done to evaluate the potential of these ecosystems in sequestering C in order to achieve the Kyoto Protocol commitments and dampen desertification processes. The aim of this work was to present preliminary observations on soil C accumulation and release in a planted Mediterranean semi-arid shrubland. During the first three years particular effort was done to quantify the plant growth and soil CO2 emission, to test if species-specific responses could be detectable and relevant for the C-budget. The experimental area is located in North West Sardinia, and is characterized by a Mediterranean climate. The revegetation was set up in February 2006, in an old-field, planting local species (Juniperus phoenicea, Pistacia lentiscus and Rosmarinus officinalis) in mono-specific or mixed plots. Soil total organic carbon and nitrogen was measured at the same time of plantation and after 3 years, collecting soil cores (144 samples) at two depths (0-20 cm and 20-40 cm). Moreover, in order to measure soil CO2 emissions, 4 collars are inserted into the soil at 30-60-90-120 cm from 3 plants per each species. Measurements have being made monthly since July 2006 by a portable IRGA. Presently, soil C in the studied area is about 0.7 - 0.8 t ha-1. Based on soil CO2 emissions measurements (?7 t C ha-1 yr-1) and on the low biomass accumulation (0.25-0.60 t ha-1 yr-1), the plantation is at the present a net C source. This is an effect of the low plant growth, very little input from litter, and the contemporary mineralization of old C deriving from the preceding agricultural phase (priming effect).

de Dato, Giovanbattista; de Angelis, Paolo

2010-05-01

139

Sediment characteristics and macrofauna distribution along a human-modified inlet in the Gulf of Oristano (Sardinia, Italy).  

PubMed

We studied the spatial variability and within-year temporal changes in hydrological features, grain size composition and chemical characteristics of sediments, as well as macrofaunal assemblages, along a heavily modified inlet in the Gulf of Oristano (western Sardinia, Italy). The inlet connects the Cabras lagoon to the gulf through a series of convoluted creeks and man-made structures, including a dam and fish barriers built in the last three decades. Sediments were muddy and mainly composed of the "non-sortable" fraction (i.e., <8 microm particle size) in all four areas investigated: Lagoon, Creeks, Channel and Seaward. Along the inlet, however, the ratio between the <8 microm and the 8-64 microm fractions was highest in Creeks and Channel, between the fish barriers and the dam, suggesting impaired hydrodynamics. Consistently, steep gradients in water salinity, temperature and dissolved oxygen concentrations were found in proximity to the fish barriers. The whole inlet was characterized by a major organic enrichment of sediments, with up to an annual mean of 33.6% of organic matter and 11.7% of total organic carbon in Seaward due to the presence of seagrass leaf litter. Acid-volatile sulphide and chromium-reduced sulphur concentrations were highest throughout the year in Seaward and Lagoon, respectively, with a peak in summer. Consistently, the whole inlet supported low structured macrofaunal assemblages dominated by few opportunist species, with a relatively lower diversity in Lagoon throughout the year and the highest abundances in Seaward in summer. We infer that the presence of artificial structures along the inlet, such as fish barriers and the dam, impair the lagoon-gulf hydrodynamics, sediment exchange and animal recruitment and colonization. We suggest that the removal of these structures would favour water renewal in the Cabras lagoon, but would also increase the outflow of organic C-bonding fine particles into the gulf with serious consequences for Posidonia oceanica and Cymodocea nodosa seagrass meadows. We conclude that all possible consequences of such initiatives should be carefully considered before any action is taken. PMID:17335856

Como, S; Magni, P; Casu, D; Floris, A; Giordani, G; Natale, S; Fenzi, G A; Signa, G; De Falco, G

2007-06-01

140

On the estimate of the Vegetation effects on the surface runoff through a plot scale rainfall simulator in Sardinia, Italy.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In semi-arid regions with the Mediterranean climate of cool, wet winters and hot, dry summers, precipitation timing and amount, vegetation growth, and surface runoff are tightly intertwined. In the experimental site of Sardinia, the main source of water is surface reservoirs that are recharged by surface runoff in the rainy winter season. However, changes in climate are expected to bring both an overall decrease in winter precipitation and increased interannual variability of precipitation to this region. These changes may affect characteristics of the water-limited vegetation growth such as timing and production, and consequently change the amount of overland flow and reservoir recharge. Currently, there is little research on the combination of these effects; therefore, the goal of this research is to assess the runoff response of the land surface with varying vegetation states to ultimately predict how changes in the climate of Mediterranean watersheds may affect the needs of water resource management. A 4 m by 4 m rainfall simulator was designed, constructed, and tested as the first stage of this research. The rainfall simulator consisted of four independent lines of low-cost pressure washing nozzles operated at a pressure of 80 mbar, with the number of nozzles determining the rainfall intensity delivered to the plot. The rainfall intensity of the simulator varies from approximately 26 to 52 mm/h with a coefficient of uniformity ranging from 0.40 to 0.59. Measurements taken include surface runoff using a tipping bucket flow meter and soil moisture throughout the plot. Literature models for surface runoff predictions (Philips, Horton, Green Ampt, Soil conservation Service model, bucket model) are widely tested highlighting the typical hortonian behavior of this soil. The simulator was used to monitor changes in the surface runoff throughout the seasons (July 2010, August 2010, June 2011, July 2011, December 2011, January 2012) as the vegetation changes. Results shows the great impact of changes in vegetation cover on soil runoff processes: the increase of LAI from values of 0 to 1.5 produces a decrease of surface runoff of the 50%.

Corona, R.; Montaldo, N.; Cortis, C.; Albertson, J. D.

2012-04-01

141

CHLORELLA VIRUSES  

PubMed Central

Chlorella viruses or chloroviruses are large, icosahedral, plaque?forming, double?stranded?DNA—containing viruses that replicate in certain strains of the unicellular green alga Chlorella. DNA sequence analysis of the 330?kbp genome of Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV?1), the prototype of this virus family (Phycodnaviridae), predict ?366 protein?encoding genes and 11 tRNA genes. The predicted gene products of ?50% of these genes resemble proteins of known function, including many that are completely unexpected for a virus. In addition, the chlorella viruses have several features and encode many gene products that distinguish them from most viruses. These products include: (1) multiple DNA methyltransferases and DNA site?specific endonucleases, (2) the enzymes required to glycosylate their proteins and synthesize polysaccharides such as hyaluronan and chitin, (3) a virus?encoded K+ channel (called Kcv) located in the internal membrane of the virions, (4) a SET domain containing protein (referred to as vSET) that dimethylates Lys27 in histone 3, and (5) PBCV?1 has three types of introns; a self?splicing intron, a spliceosomal processed intron, and a small tRNA intron. Accumulating evidence indicates that the chlorella viruses have a very long evolutionary history. This review mainly deals with research on the virion structure, genome rearrangements, gene expression, cell wall degradation, polysaccharide synthesis, and evolution of PBCV?1 as well as other related viruses. PMID:16877063

Yamada, Takashi; Onimatsu, Hideki; Van Etten, James L.

2007-01-01

142

Chlorella viruses.  

PubMed

Chlorella viruses or chloroviruses are large, icosahedral, plaque-forming, double-stranded-DNA-containing viruses that replicate in certain strains of the unicellular green alga Chlorella. DNA sequence analysis of the 330-kbp genome of Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV-1), the prototype of this virus family (Phycodnaviridae), predict approximately 366 protein-encoding genes and 11 tRNA genes. The predicted gene products of approximately 50% of these genes resemble proteins of known function, including many that are completely unexpected for a virus. In addition, the chlorella viruses have several features and encode many gene products that distinguish them from most viruses. These products include: (1) multiple DNA methyltransferases and DNA site-specific endonucleases, (2) the enzymes required to glycosylate their proteins and synthesize polysaccharides such as hyaluronan and chitin, (3) a virus-encoded K(+) channel (called Kcv) located in the internal membrane of the virions, (4) a SET domain containing protein (referred to as vSET) that dimethylates Lys27 in histone 3, and (5) PBCV-1 has three types of introns; a self-splicing intron, a spliceosomal processed intron, and a small tRNA intron. Accumulating evidence indicates that the chlorella viruses have a very long evolutionary history. This review mainly deals with research on the virion structure, genome rearrangements, gene expression, cell wall degradation, polysaccharide synthesis, and evolution of PBCV-1 as well as other related viruses. PMID:16877063

Yamada, Takashi; Onimatsu, Hideki; Van Etten, James L

2006-01-01

143

Obesity Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Obesity has many causes, but there is growing evidence that common viruses may contribute to the condition in some people. Recently, Nikhil Dhurandhar and his colleagues at the Pennington Biomedical Research Center infected human stem cells with Ad-36, a common virus known to be associated with obesity in humans. They found that the cells they exposed to the virus accumulated a much higher amount of fat than uninfected cells.

Science Update (AAAS; )

2007-06-12

144

TUMOR VIRUSES  

E-print Network

It has been known for many years that infection of an experimental animal with one of a relatively small group of viruses somehow resulted in the appearance of gross tumors. Because of this and the known intimate relationships between the infecting virus and the functions of the cell it invades, many scientists have hypothesized that cancer in man may well be of viral etiology. Yet even today when the amount and sophistication of tumor virus research has markedly increased in recent years, it is not known how a virus transforms a normal cell to one having the properties of a tumor cell nor is there direct evidence that viruses cause cancer in man. However, in the last five years there has been a remarkable change in the experimental approach to the study of tumor viruses. Whereas most early investigations were limited to observations of biological phenomena at the whole animal-gross tumor level, now modern, virological, biochemical, and immunological methods are used to examine the quantitative interaction of tumor viruses with the single cell in the transforming event and to look for determining characteristics of the tumor virus particles, as such. This has been a logical development as techniques in these basic areas have been discovered and applied to other biological problems. Thus, although the final answers are still far from being achieved, we find that a number of basic factors of importance in viral oncogenesis have been defined in certain experimental virus-induced tumor systems. IMPORTANCE OF IN VITRO SYSTEMS FOR VIRUS TRANSFORMATION The chief reason that we are able to start formulating some tentative answers to the question of how a virus transforms a normal cell to a tumor cell is the development of tissue culture systems in which virus transformation occurs in vitro. The degree of control that these isolated systems

145

Runoff coefficient and average yearly natural aquifer recharge assessment by physiography-based indirect methods for the island of Sardinia (Italy) and its NW area (Nurra)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Runoff estimation and water budget in ungauged basins is a challenge for hydrological researchers and planners. The principal aim of this study was the application and validation of the Kennessey method, which is a physiography-based indirect process for determining the average annual runoff coefficient and the basin-scale water balance. The coefficient can be calculated using specific physiographic characteristics (slope, permeability and vegetation cover) and a parameter that defines climatic conditions and does not require instrumental data. One of the main purposes of this study was to compare the average annual runoff coefficient obtained using the Kennessey method with the coefficients calculated using data from 30 instrumented drainage basins in Sardinia (Italy) over 71 years (from 1922 to 1992). These measurements represent an important and complete historical dataset from the study area. Using the runoff coefficient map, the method was also applied to assess the effective annual recharge rate of the aquifers of the Calich hydrogeological basin in the Nurra Plain (Alghero, NW Sardinia-Italy). The groundwater recharge rate was compared with rates calculated using the standard water balance method. The implementation of the method at the regional and basin scales was supported by GIS analyses. The results of the method are promising but show some discrepancies with other methodologies due to the higher weights given to the physiographic parameters than to the meteorological parameters. However, even though the weights assigned to the parameters require improvements, the Kennessey method is a useful tool for evaluating hydrologic processes, particularly for water management in areas where instrumental data are not available.

Ghiglieri, Giorgio; Carletti, Alberto; Pittalis, Daniele

2014-11-01

146

A Comparison of Y-Chromosome Variation in Sardinia and Anatolia Is More Consistent with Cultural Rather than Demic Diffusion of Agriculture  

PubMed Central

Two alternative models have been proposed to explain the spread of agriculture in Europe during the Neolithic period. The demic diffusion model postulates the spreading of farmers from the Middle East along a Southeast to Northeast axis. Conversely, the cultural diffusion model assumes transmission of agricultural techniques without substantial movements of people. Support for the demic model derives largely from the observation of frequency gradients among some genetic variants, in particular haplogroups defined by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Y-chromosome. A recent network analysis of the R-M269 Y chromosome lineage has purportedly corroborated Neolithic expansion from Anatolia, the site of diffusion of agriculture. However, the data are still controversial and the analyses so far performed are prone to a number of biases. In the present study we show that the addition of a single marker, DYSA7.2, dramatically changes the shape of the R-M269 network into a topology showing a clear Western-Eastern dichotomy not consistent with a radial diffusion of people from the Middle East. We have also assessed other Y-chromosome haplogroups proposed to be markers of the Neolithic diffusion of farmers and compared their intra-lineage variation—defined by short tandem repeats (STRs)—in Anatolia and in Sardinia, the only Western population where these lineages are present at appreciable frequencies and where there is substantial archaeological and genetic evidence of pre-Neolithic human occupation. The data indicate that Sardinia does not contain a subset of the variability present in Anatolia and that the shared variability between these populations is best explained by an earlier, pre-Neolithic dispersal of haplogroups from a common ancestral gene pool. Overall, these results are consistent with the cultural diffusion and do not support the demic model of agriculture diffusion. PMID:20454687

Santoni, Federico; Whalen, Michael B.; Francalacci, Paolo; Cucca, Francesco

2010-01-01

147

The impact of commercial and recreational harvesting for Paracentrotus lividus on shallow rocky reef sea urchin communities in North-western Sardinia, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fishery for the edible sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus is of great importance to many European regions, although in some of them this species has shown a wide scale decline in recent years. This paper reports on direct (on P. lividus) and indirect (on the co-occurring but not fished echinoid, Arbacia lixula) effects of sea urchin harvesting in shallow rocky reefs in North-western Sardinia (Italy, central-western Mediterranean Sea), where this activity is intensively practised. Density, size (test diameter), and biomass of both species were assessed in autumn 2004 at two locations impacted by P. lividus fishery, and at two controls within an adjacent Marine Protected Area. Density of P. lividus and A. lixula was significantly greater at the controls than at the exploited locations. The average test diameter of P. lividus was also significantly larger at the controls, where large-sized specimens (i.e. >5 cm) were notably more abundant. The average size of A. lixula did not significantly differ between the impacted locations and the controls. The average biomass of P. lividus was significantly greater at the controls than at the exploited locations, whereas no differences were detected for A. lixula. These results reveal the existence of a heavy fishing impact on P. lividus in North-western Sardinia and the need for regulation of its harvesting to prevent severe direct effects on its populations. Since no indirect effects on A. lixula have been detected, it could be hypothesized that this species did not benefit from P. lividus fishery due to an only moderate competition for habitat and resources between these two echinoids. Implications for management of edible sea urchin fishery are also discussed.

Pais, Antonio; Chessa, Lorenzo A.; Serra, Simone; Ruiu, Alberto; Meloni, Gianni; Donno, Yuri

2007-07-01

148

Antimony in the soil-water-plant system at the Su Suergiu abandoned mine (Sardinia, Italy): strategies to mitigate contamination.  

PubMed

This study was aimed to implement the understanding of the Sb behavior in near-surface environments, as a contribution to address appropriate mitigation actions at contaminated sites. For this purpose, geochemical data of soil (8 sites), water (29 sites), and plant (12 sites) samples were collected. The study area is located at Su Suergiu and surroundings in Sardinia (Italy), an abandoned mine area heavily contaminated with Sb, with relevant impact on water bodies that supply water for agriculture and domestic uses. Antimony in the soil horizons ranged from 19 to 4400 mg kg(-1), with highest concentrations in soils located close to the mining-related wastes, and concentrations in the topsoil much higher than in the bedrock. The Sb readily available fraction was about 2% of the total Sb in the soil. Antimony in the pore water ranged from 23 to 1700 ?g L(-1), with highest values in the Sb-rich soils. The waters showed neutral to slightly alkaline pH, redox potential values indicating oxidizing conditions, electrical conductivity in the range of 0.2 to 3.7 mS cm(-1), and dissolved organic carbon ?2 mg L(-1). The waters collected upstream of the mine have Ca-bicarbonate dominant composition, and median concentration of Sb(tot) of 1.7 ?g L(-1) (that is total antimony determined in waters filtered through 0.45 ?m), a value relatively high as compared with the background value (?0.5 ?g L(-1) Sb) estimated for Sardinian waters, but below the limits established by the European Union and the World Health Organization for drinking water (5 ?g L(-1) Sb and 20 ?g L(-1) Sb, respectively). The waters flowing in the mine area are characterized by Ca-sulfate dominant composition, and median concentrations of 7000 ?g L(-1) Sb(tot). Extreme concentrations, up to 30,000 ?g L(-1) Sb(tot), were observed in waters flowing out of the slag materials derived from the processing of Sb-ore. The Sb(III) was in the range of 0.8 to 760 ?g L(-1) and represented up to 6% of Sb(tot). In the waters collected downstream of the mine, median Sb(tot) concentrations decreased as distance from the mine area increases: 1300 ?g L(-1) Sb(tot) in the stream Rio Ciurixeda at 3 km distance, and 25 ?g L(-1) Sb(tot) in the main River Flumendosa 15 km further downstream. Attenuation of Sb contamination was mainly due to dilution. Results of modeling, carried out by both EQ3 and Visual MINTEQ computer programs, suggest that sorption of dissolved Sb onto solid phases, and/or precipitation of Sb-bearing minerals, likely give a minor contribution to attenuation of Sb contamination. The slightly alkaline pH and oxidizing conditions might favor the persistence of inorganic Sb(V)-bearing species at long distance in the studied waters. Concentrations of Sb in the plants Pistacia lentiscus and Asparagus ranged from 0.1 to 22 mg kg(-1), with maximum values in plants growing very close to the mining-related wastes. The P. lentiscus grows well on the soils highly contaminated with Sb at Su Suergiu and might be used for revegetation of the Sb-rich heaps, thus contributing to reduce the dispersion of contaminated materials. Major effects of contamination were observed on the water bodies located downstream of the Su Suergiu abandoned mine. The maximum load (16.6 kg Sb per day) to the Flumendosa, the main aquatic recipient, was observed after heavy rain events. Therefore, priorities of mitigation actions should be focused on minimizing the contact of rain and runoff waters on the heaps of mining wastes. PMID:25137381

Cidu, Rosa; Biddau, Riccardo; Dore, Elisabetta; Vacca, Andrea; Marini, Luigi

2014-11-01

149

The emergence of Schmallenberg virus across Culicoides communities and ecosystems in Europe.  

PubMed

Schmallenberg virus (SBV), a novel arboviral pathogen, has emerged and spread across Europe since 2011 inflicting congenital deformities in the offspring of infected adult ruminants. Several species of Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) have been implicated in the transmission of SBV through studies conducted in northern Europe. In this study Culicoides from SBV outbreak areas of mainland France and Italy (Sardinia) were screened for viral RNA. The role of both C. obsoletus and the Obsoletus complex (C. obsoletus and C. scoticus) in transmission of SBV were confirmed in France and SBV was also discovered in a pool of C. nubeculosus for the first time, implicating this species as a potential vector. While collections in Sardinia were dominated by C. imicola, only relatively small quantities of SBV RNA were detected in pools of this species and conclusive evidence of its potential role in transmission is required. In addition to these field-based studies, infection rates in colony-derived individuals of C. nubeculosus and field-collected C. scoticus are also examined in the laboratory. Rates of infection in C. nubeculosus were low, confirming previous studies, while preliminary examination of C. scoticus demonstrated that while this species can replicate SBV to a potentially transmissible level, further work is required to fully define comparative competence between species in the region. Finally, the oral competence for SBV of two abundant and widespread mosquito vector species in the laboratory is assessed. Neither Aedes albopictus nor Culex pipiens were demonstrated to replicate SBV to transmissible levels and appear unlikely to play a major role in transmission. Other vector competence data produced from studies across Europe to date is then comprehensively reviewed and compared with that generated previously for bluetongue virus. PMID:24698329

Balenghien, Thomas; Pagès, Nonito; Goffredo, Maria; Carpenter, Simon; Augot, Denis; Jacquier, Elisabeth; Talavera, Sandra; Monaco, Federica; Depaquit, Jérôme; Grillet, Colette; Pujols, Joan; Satta, Giuseppe; Kasbari, Mohamed; Setier-Rio, Marie-Laure; Izzo, Francesca; Alkan, Cigdem; Delécolle, Jean-Claude; Quaglia, Michela; Charrel, Rémi; Polci, Andrea; Bréard, Emmanuel; Federici, Valentina; Cêtre-Sossah, Catherine; Garros, Claire

2014-10-15

150

Diseases Caused by Viruses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The symptoms, causal agents, epidemiology and management of important virus diseases in chickpea and lentil crops were reviewed in depth. The virus diseases include.Alflafa mosaic virus, Cucumber mosaiv virus, Faba bean necrotic yellows virus, Pea enation mosaic virus, Pea seed-borne mosaci virus,...

151

Emerging Viruses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Emerging viruses are those "whose incidence in humans has increased in the past 2 decades or threatens to increase in the near future." This week's Topic in Depth focuses on sites related to viruses, particularly those that are considered "emerging."The first site (1) is an essay by Alison Jacobson of the University of Capetown that discusses some emerging and potentially emerging viruses, along with factors that contribute to the threat. From a US government interagency working group, the second report (2) focuses on the responses to infectious disease outbreaks, including drugs, vaccines, and government response. A World Health Organization site (3) highlights recent reports of infectious disease, archived by date and by disease. This ThinkQuest site (4) gives a basic introduction to viruses and how they cause infections. An online virology tutorial (5) by Ed Rybicki of the University of Cape Town serves as a lesson on the basics of virology for a more advanced student. The next two sites focus on the specifics of selected viruses. From the Institute for Molecular Virology (6) comes a resource on Marburg and Ebola viruses, and from the National Biological Information Infrastructure (7) is a site on West Nile Virus. The last resource (8) is a scholarly journal from the Centers for Disease Control that presents some of the latest scientific research on emerging diseases.

Lee, Amy.

152

Computer viruses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The worm, Trojan horse, bacterium, and virus are destructive programs that attack information stored in a computer's memory. Virus programs, which propagate by incorporating copies of themselves into other programs, are a growing menace in the late-1980s world of unprotected, networked workstations and personal computers. Limited immunity is offered by memory protection hardware, digitally authenticated object programs,and antibody programs that kill specific viruses. Additional immunity can be gained from the practice of digital hygiene, primarily the refusal to use software from untrusted sources. Full immunity requires attention in a social dimension, the accountability of programmers.

Denning, Peter J.

1988-01-01

153

HIV virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

HIV is a virus that can be transmitted through fluids exchanged in sexual activity. HIV eventually causes AIDS. AIDS patients have compromised immune systems and they eventually die from diseases that healthy humans would normally fight off very easily.

Carl Henderson (National Institutes of Health; )

2005-12-09

154

West Nile Virus  

MedlinePLUS

... virus is a virus that can infect humans, birds, horses and mosquitoes. Infection from this virus is ... spread by mosquitoes. Mosquitoes become infected by biting birds that carry the virus. People can get West ...

155

Computer Viruses. Technology Update.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides general information on computer viruses, how to help protect a computer network from them, measures to take if a computer becomes infected. Highlights include the origins of computer viruses; virus contraction; a description of some common virus types (File Virus, Boot Sector/Partition Table Viruses, Trojan Horses, and…

Ponder, Tim, Comp.; Ropog, Marty, Comp.; Keating, Joseph, Comp.

156

Re-equilibration history and P-T path of eclogites from Variscan Sardinia, Italy: a case study from the medium-grade metamorphic complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Retrogressed eclogites are hosted within the Variscan low- to medium-grade metamorphic complex near Giuncana, north-central Sardinia. These rocks are medium to fine grained with garnet and amphibole as the most abundant mineral phases along with clinopyroxene, plagioclase, quartz, biotite, chlorite, epidote, ilmenite, rutile and titanite. Four stages of mineralogical re-equilibration have been distinguished. The stage I is characterized by the occurrence of omphacite, epidote, quartz, amphibole, rutile and ilmenite in garnet poikiloblasts. The stage II is characterized by two types of symplectitic microstructures: (1) amphibole + quartz symplectite and (2) clinopyroxene + plagioclase ± amphibole symplectite. The first symplectite type replaces omphacite included in garnet, whereas the second one is widespread in the matrix. Biotite droplets and/or lamellae intimately growing with fine-grained plagioclase resemble biotite + plagioclase symplectite after phengite. The stage III is characterized by the widespread formation of amphibole: (1) as zoned porphyroblasts in the matrix, (2) as corona-type microstructure replacing garnet. Subordinate plagioclase (oligoclase) is also present in the amphibole corona. The stage IV is characterized by the local formation of biotite replacing garnet, actinolite, chlorite, albite and titanite. P-T pseudosections calculated with Perple_X give P-T conditions 580 < T < 660 °C, 1.3 < P < 1.8 GPa for the stage I. After the stage I, pressure decrease and temperature increase led to the breakdown of omphacite with the formation of clinopyroxene + plagioclase ± amphibole symplectite at ~1.25-1.40 GPa and 650-710 °C (stage II). P-T conditions of the amphibolite-facies stage III have been defined at 600-670 °C, P = 0.65-0.95 GPa. P-T conditions of the latest stage IV are in the range of greenschist facies. The P-T path of the retrogressed eclogite hosted in the medium-grade micaschist and paragneiss of Giuncana recalls the P-T trajectory of retrogressed eclogite hosted in the migmatite complex of northern Sardinia. The eclogites from Giuncana do not preserve the prograde segment of the P-T path, but, similarly to the other Sardinian eclogites, they record a slight increase in temperature, though slighter, during exhumation. This suggests that the thermal flow responsible for the amphibolitic-granulitic event post-dating the eclogitic stage recorded in the Giuncana eclogite may be tentatively referred to the slab break-off also responsible for the production of the Mg-K igneous suite in Corsica.

Cruciani, Gabriele; Franceschelli, Marcello; Groppo, Chiara; Oggiano, Giacomo; Spano, Maria Elena

2014-11-01

157

Parainfluenza Viruses  

PubMed Central

Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV) were first discovered in the late 1950s. Over the last decade, considerable knowledge about their molecular structure and function has been accumulated. This has led to significant changes in both the nomenclature and taxonomic relationships of these viruses. HPIV is genetically and antigenically divided into types 1 to 4. Further major subtypes of HPIV-4 (A and B) and subgroups/genotypes of HPIV-1 and HPIV-3 have been described. HPIV-1 to HPIV-3 are major causes of lower respiratory infections in infants, young children, the immunocompromised, the chronically ill, and the elderly. Each subtype can cause somewhat unique clinical diseases in different hosts. HPIV are enveloped and of medium size (150 to 250 nm), and their RNA genome is in the negative sense. These viruses belong to the Paramyxoviridae family, one of the largest and most rapidly growing groups of viruses causing significant human and veterinary disease. HPIV are closely related to recently discovered megamyxoviruses (Hendra and Nipah viruses) and metapneumovirus. PMID:12692097

Henrickson, Kelly J.

2003-01-01

158

Computer viruses  

SciTech Connect

This thesis investigates a recently discovered vulnerability in computer systems which opens the possibility that a single individual with an average user's knowledge could cause widespread damage to information residing in computer networks. This vulnerability is due to a transitive integrity corrupting mechanism called a computer virus which causes corrupted information to spread from program to program. Experiments have shown that a virus can spread at an alarmingly rapid rate from user to user, from system to system, and from network to network, even when the best-availability security techniques are properly used. Formal definitions of self-replication, evolution, viruses, and protection mechanisms are used to prove that any system that allows sharing, general functionality, and transitivity of information flow cannot completely prevent viral attack. Computational aspects of viruses are examined, and several undecidable problems are shown. It is demonstrated that a virus may evolve so as to generate any computable sequence. Protection mechanisms are explored, and the design of computer networks that prevent both illicit modification and dissemination of information are given. Administration and protection of information networks based on partial orderings are examined, and probably correct automated administrative assistance is introduced.

Cohen, F.B.

1986-01-01

159

Recognition of Zinc Transporter 8 and MAP3865c Homologous Epitopes by Hashimoto's Thyroiditis Subjects from Sardinia: A Common Target with Type 1 Diabetes?  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) asymptomatic infection has been previously linked to Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and Multiple Sclerosis. An association between MAP infection and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) was also proposed only in a case report. This study aimed to investigate the robustness of the latter association, testing a large cohort of HT and healthy control (HCs) subjects, all from Sardinia. Prevalence of anti-MAP3865c Abs was assessed by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Moreover, given that human ZnT8 is specifically expressed in the pancreatic ?-cells, in the follicle epithelial cells and in the parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland, we also tested ZnT8 epitopes homologues to the MAP3865c immunodominant peptides previously identified. Indeed, Abs targeting MAP3865c and ZnT8 homologous regions display similar frequencies in patients and controls, thus suggesting that Abs recognizing these epitopes could be cross-reactive. A statistically significant difference was found between HT patients and HCs when analyzing the humoral response mounted against MAP3865c/ZnT8 homologues epitopes. To our knowledge, this is the first report, which provides statistically significant evidence sustaining the existence of an association between MAP sero-reactivity and HT. Further studies are required to investigate the relevance of MAP to HT, aimed at deciphering if this pathogen can be at play in triggering this autoimmune disease. Likewise, genetic polymorphism of the host, and other environmental factors need to be investigated. PMID:24830306

Masala, Speranza; Cossu, Davide; Palermo, Mario; Sechi, Leonardo Antonio

2014-01-01

160

Recognition of zinc transporter 8 and MAP3865c homologous epitopes by Hashimoto's thyroiditis subjects from Sardinia: a common target with type 1 diabetes?  

PubMed

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) asymptomatic infection has been previously linked to Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and Multiple Sclerosis. An association between MAP infection and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) was also proposed only in a case report. This study aimed to investigate the robustness of the latter association, testing a large cohort of HT and healthy control (HCs) subjects, all from Sardinia. Prevalence of anti-MAP3865c Abs was assessed by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Moreover, given that human ZnT8 is specifically expressed in the pancreatic ?-cells, in the follicle epithelial cells and in the parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland, we also tested ZnT8 epitopes homologues to the MAP3865c immunodominant peptides previously identified. Indeed, Abs targeting MAP3865c and ZnT8 homologous regions display similar frequencies in patients and controls, thus suggesting that Abs recognizing these epitopes could be cross-reactive. A statistically significant difference was found between HT patients and HCs when analyzing the humoral response mounted against MAP3865c/ZnT8 homologues epitopes. To our knowledge, this is the first report, which provides statistically significant evidence sustaining the existence of an association between MAP sero-reactivity and HT. Further studies are required to investigate the relevance of MAP to HT, aimed at deciphering if this pathogen can be at play in triggering this autoimmune disease. Likewise, genetic polymorphism of the host, and other environmental factors need to be investigated. PMID:24830306

Masala, Speranza; Cossu, Davide; Palermo, Mario; Sechi, Leonardo Antonio

2014-01-01

161

Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) program: Study of geological structure of Sicily and other Italian areas. [Sardinia and the Gulf of Orosei  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The usefulness of thermal inertia mapping in discriminating geolithological units was investigated using Sardinia and the Gulf of Orosei as test sites. Software designed for LANDSAT data were modified and improved for HCMM tapes. A first attempt was made to compare the geological cross section, the topography, the IR radiance, and the thermal inertia along selected profiles of the test site. Thermal inertia profiles appear smoothed in comparison with the thermal radiance. The lowest apparent thermal inertia (ATI) was found on granitic and basaltic outcrops where their image is of sufficient extent, while ATI is higher on carbonatic and dolomitic or moist deposits. Almost every fault is marked by a jump of ATI, the interval being sometimes of the order of one pixel. This seems to demonstrate the ability of ATI to detect contacts or tectonically disturbed zones with a good resolution. It seems more difficult to measure the differences in ATI between homogeneous materials having different lithology. Ground surveys conducted and a simulation model of diurnal temperatures of rocks having different thermal inertia are discussed.

Cassinis, R.; Lechi, G. (principal investigators); Zilioli, E.; Marini, A.; Brivio, P. A.; Tosi, N.

1981-01-01

162

Benthic foraminifera response and geochemical characterization of the coastal environment surrounding the polluted industrial area of Portovesme (South-Western Sardinia, Italy).  

PubMed

To study the benthic foraminifers' response to heavy metal pollution and analyse the geochemical parameters, samples of surface sediments were collected in 2005 and 2006 from a polluted coastal zone shorefront to the industrial complex of Portoscuso-Portovesme (Sulcis, South-Western Sardinia). The samples came from the upper 1-2 cm of the undisturbed sediments in water less than 2m deep, along coastline (about 8.5 km in length) proximal to emerged alluvial plain. The entire examined marine area represents a shallow inner shelf, which is physiographically fairly protected and characterized by low turbulence, but subjected to southwards littoral drift. Geochemical analyses of seawater, sediments and foraminiferal tests correlated to biotic indexes (Dominance, Shannon-Weaver, Simpson, Eveness, Menhinick, Margalef, Equitability, Fisher-alpha, Berger-Parker and Q-mode Cluster Analyses--Ward Method) and provide data on environmental stress. A total of 38 benthic foraminiferal species were identified. Increasing pollution results in low species diversity, low population density and more frequent abnormal specimens. Results from ESEM images allow recognition of a strong infestation on the calcareous foraminiferal tests by microbial communities developed in the polluted environment. PMID:19853262

Cherchi, A; Da Pelo, S; Ibba, A; Mana, D; Buosi, C; Floris, N

2009-01-01

163

Geological, geochemical and mineralogical features of some bauxite deposits from Nurra (Western Sardinia, Italy): insights on conditions of formation and parental affinity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bauxite deposits are widespread in NW Sardinia. They formed during the middle Cretaceous, in consequence of a period of emergence of the Mesozoic carbonate shelf. In the Nurra area the geometries derived by the Middle Cretaceous tectonic phases controlled the ore typologies. Two bauxite profiles, laying on different bedrocks, were sampled. The bauxitization proceeded from the surface downward, with the accumulation of Al2O3 and residual ‘immobile’ elements (Al, Ti, HFSE), and corresponding mobility and loss of SiO2 and Fe2O3. Epigenetic kaolinite formed close to faults and joints, probably as a result of silicification, introduced by low temperature hydrothermal solutions. Rare earth elements, especially LREE, are concentrated in Fe-rich bauxite horizons, probably due to scavenging by goethite. REE-enrichment is not observed in the boehmite-rich horizons. Very high REE contents are observed in a Fe-depleted horizon due to the occurrence of REE accessory minerals, probably of the bastnäsite group. Conservative indices, including TiO2/Al2O3 and Ti/Cr ratios, and Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu*), suggest that the deposits formed by weathering of sediments derived from mafic rocks of the Hercynian basement. This, in turn, implies that the basement was exposed during middle Cretaceous.

Mameli, Paola; Mongelli, Giovanni; Oggiano, Giacomo; Dinelli, Enrico

2007-10-01

164

In vitro inhibitory effects of Limonium contortirameum and L. virgatum extracts from sardinia on alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase.  

PubMed

Pancreatic triacylglycerol lipase (PL), alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase are interesting pharmacological targets for the management of dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, and obesity-diabetes. Limonium spp (Plumbaginaceae) are endemic to Sardinia, Italy. Comparable with acarbose, aqueous extracts (AE) of L. contortirameum and L. virgatum, and their phytoconstituent gallic acid concentration gradients (mg/mL) were identified as in vitro potent (p<0.001, n=3) and efficacious dual inhibitors of alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase with respective IC50 (mg/mL) values of 0.6 +/- 0.1, 1.2 +/- 0.1 and 0.15 +/- 0.02. Equivalent to orlistat (PL IC50 of 0.114 +/- 0.004 microg/mL), L. contortirameum, L. virgatum AE and their phytoprinciple gallic acid inhibited PL substantially (p<0.001, n=3) in a dose-dependent manner in vitro with PL- IC50 (microg/mL) of 920.4 +/- 105.2, 593.1 +/- 56.8 and 8.4 +/- 0.9, respectively. LC-MS analysis of extracts revealed the presence of several phenolic compounds in their aglycon and glycoside forms. These are catechins, flavones, epigallocatechins and flavonols. Flavonoid- and polyphenol-rich L contortirameum and L. virgatum, modulating gastrointestinal carbohydrate and lipid digestion and absorption, may be advocated as candidates for obesity-diabetes prevention and phytotherapy. PMID:24689285

Foddai, Marzia; Kasabri, Violet; Petretto, Giacomo L; Azara, Emanuela; Sias, Angela; Afifi, Fatma U; Delogu, Giovanna; Chessa, Mario; Pintore, Giorgio

2014-02-01

165

Virus Information Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Symantec Corporation's AntiVirus Research Center has recently released a virus information database that includes over 10,000 computer viruses. The searchable and browseable database can include information about aliases for each virus, infection length, area of infection, likelihood of infection, region reported, characteristics, target platform and target date, in addition to a brief description of how the virus works. The site also provides a basic tutorial on viruses. Symantec, under the Norton name, produces several anti-virus products.

166

Virus and Spam Protection Virus Protection  

E-print Network

Virus and Spam Protection Virus Protection On November 14, 2002, we installed software that detects and protects our I-Mail from viruses. This software works in the following way: If someone sends a piece, for some reason, actually wants the quarantined file we will make this (virus infected) file available

California at Santa Barbara, University of

167

Computer Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a description of the major characteristics of disk and network borne viruses for the convenience of library and archival systems administrators. It includes a brief history of the use of destructive software by computer hackers, noting some of the early and more recent forms of attack, and suggests that computer languages newly developed for use with the

Robyn P. Weems

1998-01-01

168

Computer viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of the main categories of malicious programs known as Trojan horses, viruses, bacteria, worms, and logic bombs. The focus is on their general behavior and the properties seen in their implementations rather than the ultimate effects or their intended destructive behavior. Possible preventive measures are also discussed

C. E. Pelaez; John Bowles

1991-01-01

169

Computer viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis investigates a recently discovered vulnerability in computer systems which opens the possibility that a single individual with an average user's knowledge could cause widespread damage to information residing in computer networks. This vulnerability is due to a transitive integrity corrupting mechanism called a computer virus which causes corrupted information to spread from program to program. Experiments have shown

Frederick B. Cohen

1986-01-01

170

Other liver viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous viruses can infect the liver and the incidence of hepatitis caused by such hepatotropic viruses is increasing in the UK, perhaps related to increased travel worldwide. This article will outline the epidemiology, presentation and management of hepatitis A and E viruses, Epstein–Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus. In certain groups such as pregnant women, and patients in immunocompromised

William Alazawi; Heather Lewis; Graham R. Foster

2011-01-01

171

The Geometry of Viruses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is an activity in which students make models of viruses, which allows them to visualize the shape of these microorganisms. Included are some background on viruses, the biology and geometry of viruses, directions for building viruses, a comparison of cells and viruses, and questions for students. (KR)

Case, Christine L.

1991-01-01

172

Exploring computer viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author presents some thoughts on viruses and explores the anatomy of a sample computer virus. He details, using C language programs, some of the fundamental parts associated with viruses and how these viruses can be detected. It is concluded that the final decision for virus control rests with risk management. It is suggested that, at the very least, contingency

R. Davis

1988-01-01

173

Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV)  

MedlinePLUS

... Caribbean Countries with reported local transmission of chikungunya virus (as of July 2014) The mosquitoes • Aedes species mosquitoes transmit chikungunya virus • These same types of mosquitoes transmit dengue virus • ...

174

Hanta virus (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Hanta virus is a distant cousin of Ebola virus, but is found worldwide. The virus is spread by human contact with rodent waste. Dangerous respiratory illness develops. Effective treatment is not yet ...

175

Computer Viruses: An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the early history and current proliferation of computer viruses that occur on Macintosh and DOS personal computers, mentions virus detection programs, and offers suggestions for how libraries can protect themselves and their users from damage by computer viruses. (LRW)

Marmion, Dan

1990-01-01

176

Preliminary estimation of the peak discharge at the Su Gologone spring (Central-East Sardinia) during the flood event of November 18th, 2013  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Last November 2013, an exceptional rainfall has occurred in Sardinia causing 18 casualties at Olbia and Bitti and severe economic damage to infrastructures and land in many areas (e.g. Torpè and Cedrino plains). From a meteorological point of view, this rainfall event was caused by south-western warm and humid air currents moving from Africa coming in contact with cold air masses located above the higher parts of the island, creating convective phenomena of a certain intensity. Estimating the peak discharge of the rivers related to these high intensity rainfall events is of fundamental importance to improve flood-risk management and to prevent and/or reduce the damages. In carbonate areas, quantifying the karst aquifer recharge is an even more difficult task due to the fact that the precipitation and resulting surface flow is rapidly transferred to the underground cave systems, and then suddenly released at karst outflows. We report the case of the Su Gologone spring, in Supramonte area (Central-East Sardinia, Italy), a karst resurgence located only twenty metres from the Cedrino river and one of the main water supplies to this river. The freshwater of this karst spring feeds the Preda 'e Othoni dam, located a few kilometres downstream of the resurgence, and originally built to regulate the flooding of Cedrino river but currently used for all sorts of purposes, as electricity supply, irrigation of farmlands, industrial uses and especially for drinking water, an important source that has to be quantified and preserved. With the purpose of evaluating the contribution of this karst spring to the river discharge, at the beginning of the hydrological year 2013-14, Su Gologone has been equipped with a multi-parametric probe for in-continuous monitoring, at regular intervals, of the values of pressure (and therefore the level of water), electrical conductivity and water temperature. During the entire monitoring period flow rate measurements have been performed three times at the spring, based on the speed of the water taken with a hydraulic reel specially dedicated for this type of survey. These data show that an increase in water level of just 60 cm, produces a flow rate ten times higher than that during low discharge. During the peak discharge at the spring the probe has recorded a rise in the water level of over 11 metres, between 18:00 and 21:00 on November 18th, 2013. Part of this increase, however, was due to the barrier function of the nearby Cedrino river, whose high water level has blocked the drainage of the water from the karst system. The water spring level curve shows a temporary lowering around noon, before the flood peak, probably due to the opening of the dam. On the basis of the comparison between the measured speed of water flow in the stages immediately preceding and succeeding the flood event and of the values of water level recorded by the multi-parametric probe, it has been possible to estimate the contribution of the karst spring to the peak discharge of the river in around 40 cubic metres per second, a value of two orders of magnitude greater than the average flow of the spring (around 200 L/s).

Cossu, Antonello; De Waele, Jo; Sanna, Francesco; Sanna, Laura

2014-05-01

177

Processes controlling very low sedimentation rates on the continental slope of the Gonone-Orosei canyon system, NE Sardinia—terrestrial and oceanic significance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The narrow shelf and upper slope immediately above the Gonone canyon head off NE Sardinia represent areas of very low sedimentation rates. Along the sides of the canyon head (1,600 m water depth), the sediment deposits are homogeneous but show alternating light-grey intervals rich in carbonate and dark-grey ones rich in organic matter, possibly related to distal turbidite processes. Deposits older than 50,000 years are already encountered at core depths of 2.50 m, the sedimentation rates varying from 6-21 cm/103 years in the lower parts of two cores and from 1.5-3 cm/103 years in the upper parts. At about 35,000 years BP, both cores show a simultaneous drop in sedimentation rate by a factor of 3, probably in response to local mechanisms of channel avulsion. Lithological, mineralogical and geochemical properties reveal the environmental factors which are responsible for the extremely slow sediment accumulation. The southernmost sector of the coast, and partly also of the shelf, consists of Jurassic limestones which supply only small amounts of fine-grained material transported in suspension. During the last sea-level highstand, the accumulation of the Cedrino River pro-delta remained restricted to the coast, the low siliciclastic sediment yields resulting in poor shelf sediment trapping. The present morphology of the canyon head prevented the occurrence of gravity processes in the deeper part of the canyon system, including the coring sites. Accordingly, deposition was mainly fed by hemipelagic material of planktonic origin, together with only moderate terrigenous inputs. On a wider late Pleistocene timescale, seismic data indicate the occurrence of a coarse-grained, layered turbidite facies, implying a very different architecture of the canyon drainage system probably prior to 60,000 years BP.

Giresse, Pierre; Pascucci, Vincenzo; Lymer, Gaël; Gaullier, Virginie; Thinon, Isabelle

2014-12-01

178

Metabasite with eclogite facies relics from Variscan NE Sardinia: within plate OIB-like melt with extremely high Sr and extremely low Nd isotopic ratios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A retrogressed eclogite lens ( metabasite from Punta Orvili, PO, near Posada south of Olbia) from Variscan NE Sardinia has proved to be the first case of WP basalt among the neighbouring tholeiitic metabasites with eclogite facies relics. The composition is characterized by SiO2: 44.89-47.57 wt %; Al2O3: 7.53-9.59 wt%; MgO: 12.94-14.35 wt%; Fe2O3tot : 13.25-15.13 wt%; Na2O: 0.75-1.38 wt%; K2O : 0.54-0.88 wt%; Cr: 550-870 ppm; Ni: 273-420 ppm; Mg#: 68.1-70.4. A thorough examination of the geochemical data in the light of the chemical changes induced by alteration and/or metamorphic processes allow to exclude any modification of the protolith geochemistry. High normative contents of mafic minerals suggest a picritic nature for the protolith. The enrichment factor is 60-180 times for LREE, 30-60 times for MREE and 10-20 times for HREE. The remarkable fractionation (LaN/SmN : 3.0-3.9; GdN/YbN : 3.2-3.6 and LaN/YbN : 13.7-18.2) produces steep chondrite normalized abundance patterns strongly contrasting with the flat to LREE-depleted patterns of the other Sardinian eclogite-derived metabasites. The prevalent mantle source is OIB-like as suggested by La/Nb : 0.77-0.94, La-Ta : 12.90-15.04, Ce/Nb : 1.59-1.84, Th/Nb: 0.10-0.11, all values far from those of average and upper crust. Isotopic values, calculated at 460 Ma, mean age of eclogite-derived metabasites from Sardinia, are: (87Sr/86Sr)i : 0.708891-0.709050; ?Sr : + 70-72; (143Nd/144Nd)i : 0.511966-0.511970; ?Nd: - 1.54 to - 1.47. The tholeiitic eclogite-derived samples from Posada Valley and from Punta de li Tulchi at 460 Ma are: (87Sr/86Sr)i : 0.704328 - 0.704460; ?Sr : +5.15 to +7.02; (143Nd/144Nd)i : 0.512275 - 0.512418; ?Nd: +4.48 to +7.28. The strongly anomalous isotopic values, the very high Ba (1045-2530 ppm), Pb (9-12 ppm), Cs (1.92-4.38 ppm) contents and the chondrite normalized abundance patterns with negative peak for Rb, K and Sr seem to suggest a possible interaction of the main OIB component with an enriched subcontinental litospheric mantle similar in composition to kimberlites Group II. An alternative end member for the interaction with OIB-derived melts could be a mantle source resembling the mafic and ultramafic xenoliths from Streap Comlaidh, Scotland (Menzies and Halliday, 1988) and from Middle Ordovician (465 Ma) Fuxian kimberlites, China (Zhang et al., 2008). The strong horizontal shift of the 87Sr/86Sr towards the right side of the mantle array has been observed elsewhere, e.g. in peridotite xenoliths from Spitzbergen Islands (Ionov et al., 2002). According to Ionov et al.(2002), this 'Sr-Nd isotopic decoupling' is a signature of metasomatic processes within the mantle source and is generated by chromatographic effects of melt percolation through the peridotite matrix. The geodynamic model here proposed is in agreement with the widely accepted hypothesis that eclogite-derived metabasites from NE Sardinia are not related to a wide ocean basin but represent the witness of the incipient opening of a marginal basin within a thinned continental crust or of an intracratonic basin generated during an Early to Middle Ordovician rifting episode. REFERENCES Ionov, D., Samuel, B., Mukasa, S.B., Bodinier, J.L. (2002): Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions of peridotite xenoliths from Spitsbergen: Numerical modelling indicates Sr-Nd decoupling in the mantle by melt percolation metasomatism. J. Petrol., 43, 2261-2278. Menzies, M. A. & Halliday, A. N. (1988): Lithospheric mantle domains beneath the Archean and Proterozoic crust of Scotland. J. Petrol. Spec. Lithosphere Issue 275-302. Zhang, H.F., Goldstein, S.L., Zhou, X.H., Sum, M., Zheng, J.P., Cai, Y. (2008): Evolution of subcontinental lithospheric mantle beneath eastern China: Re-Os isotopic evidence from mantle xenoliths in Paleozoic kimberlites and Mesozoic basalts. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 155, 271-293.

Cruciani, Gabriele; Dini, Andrea; Franceschelli, Marcello; Puxeddu, Mariano; Utzeri, Daniela

2010-05-01

179

Virus Movement Maintains Local Virus Population Diversity  

SciTech Connect

Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material.

J. Snyder; B. Wiedenheft; M. Lavin; F. Roberto; J. Spuhler; A. Ortmann; T. Douglas; M. Young

2007-11-01

180

Virus movement maintains local virus population diversity.  

PubMed

Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material. PMID:18025457

Snyder, Jamie C; Wiedenheft, Blake; Lavin, Matthew; Roberto, Francisco F; Spuhler, Josh; Ortmann, Alice C; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark

2007-11-27

181

Virus movement maintains local virus population diversity  

PubMed Central

Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material. PMID:18025457

Snyder, Jamie C.; Wiedenheft, Blake; Lavin, Matthew; Roberto, Francisco F.; Spuhler, Josh; Ortmann, Alice C.; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark

2007-01-01

182

Immunomodulation by viruses: the myxoma virus story  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myxoma virus is a poxvirus pathogen of rabbits that has evolved to replicate successfully in the presence of an active immune response by an infected host. To accomplish this, the virus has developed a variety of strategies to avoid detection by or obstruct specific aspects of the antiviral response whose consolidated action is antagonistic to virus survival. We describe two

Piers Nash; John Barrett; Jing-Xin Cao; Sheela Hota-Mitchell; Alshad S. Lalani; Helen Everett; Xiao-Ming Xu; Janine Robichaud; Shawna Hnatiuk; Cheryl Ainslie; Bruce T. Seet; Grant McFadden

1999-01-01

183

Bacterial viruses against viruses pathogenic for man?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review, we discuss possible models of bacteriophage–virus interactions. The first is based on the mechanism by which phages may interact indirectly with viruses. Its essence is that bacteriophage-derived nucleic acid may inhibit pathogenic virus infection. It seems that this phenomenon can be partly explained on the basis of interferon induction. We also discuss a study by Borecky's group

Ryszard Miedzybrodzki; Wojciech Fortuna; Beata Weber-Dabrowska; Andrzej Gorski

2005-01-01

184

The Tobacco Mosaic Virus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how the tobacco mosaic virus can be used to study virology. Presents facts about the virus, procedures to handle the virus in the laboratory, and four laboratory exercises involving the viruses' survival under inactivating conditions, dilution end point, filterability, and microscopy. (MDH)

Sulzinski, Michael A.

1992-01-01

185

Junín Virus Pathogenesis and Virus Replication  

PubMed Central

Junín virus, the etiological agent of Argentine hemorrhagic fever, causes significant morbidity and mortality. The virus is spread through the aerosolization of host rodent excreta and endemic to the humid pampas of Argentina. Recently, significant progress has been achieved with the development of new technologies (e.g. reverse genetics) that have expanded knowledge about the pathogenesis and viral replication of Junín virus. We will review the pathogenesis of Junín virus in various animal models and the role of innate and adaptive immunity during infection. We will highlight current research regarding the role of molecular biology of Junín virus in elucidating virus attenuation. We will also summarize current knowledge on Junín virus pathogenesis focusing on the recent development of vaccines and potential therapeutics. PMID:23202466

Grant, Ashley; Seregin, Alexey; Huang, Cheng; Kolokoltsova, Olga; Brasier, Allan; Peters, Clarence; Paessler, Slobodan

2012-01-01

186

Understanding ebola virus transmission.  

PubMed

An unprecedented number of Ebola virus infections among healthcare workers and patients have raised questions about our understanding of Ebola virus transmission. Here, we explore different routes of Ebola virus transmission between people, summarizing the known epidemiological and experimental data. From this data, we expose important gaps in Ebola virus research pertinent to outbreak situations. We further propose experiments and methods of data collection that will enable scientists to fill these voids in our knowledge about the transmission of Ebola virus. PMID:25654239

Judson, Seth; Prescott, Joseph; Munster, Vincent

2015-02-01

187

Malondialdehyde–deoxyguanosine and bulky DNA adducts in schoolchildren resident in the proximity of the Sarroch industrial estate on Sardinia Island, Italy  

PubMed Central

Air quality is a primary environmental concern in highly industrialised areas, with potential health effects in children residing nearby. The Sarroch industrial estate in Cagliari province, Sardinia Island, Italy, hosts the world’s largest power plant and the second largest European oil refinery and petrochemical park. This industrial estate produces a complex mixture of air pollutants, including benzene, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Thus, we conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the prevalence of malondialdehyde–deoxyguanosine adducts in the nasal epithelium of 75 representative children, aged 6–14 years, attending primary and secondary schools in Sarroch in comparison with 73 rural controls. Additionally, the levels of bulky DNA adducts were analysed in a subset of 62 study children. DNA damage was measured by 32P-postlabelling methodologies. The air concentrations of benzene and ethyl benzene were measured in the school gardens of Sarroch and a rural village by diffusive samplers. Outdoor measurements were also performed in other Sarroch areas and in the proximity of the industrial estate. The outdoor levels of benzene and ethyl benzene were significantly higher in the school gardens of Sarroch than in the rural village. Higher concentrations were also found in other Sarroch areas and in the vicinity of the industrial park. The mean levels of malondialdehyde–deoxyguanosine adducts per 108 normal nucleotides ± standard error (SE) were 74.6±9.1 and 34.1±4.4 in the children from Sarroch and the rural village, respectively. The mean ratio was 2.53, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.71–2.89, P < 0.001, versus rural controls. Similarly, the levels of bulky DNA adducts per 108 normal nucleotides ± SE were 2.9±0.4 and 1.6±0.2 in the schoolchildren from Sarroch and the rural village, respectively. The means ratio was 1.90, 95% CI: 1.25–2.89, P = 0.003 versus rural controls. Our study indicates that children residing near the industrial estate have a significant increment of DNA damage. PMID:23446175

Peluso, Marco

2013-01-01

188

Virus-Vectored Influenza Virus Vaccines  

PubMed Central

Despite the availability of an inactivated vaccine that has been licensed for >50 years, the influenza virus continues to cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. Constant evolution of circulating influenza virus strains and the emergence of new strains diminishes the effectiveness of annual vaccines that rely on a match with circulating influenza strains. Thus, there is a continued need for new, efficacious vaccines conferring cross-clade protection to avoid the need for biannual reformulation of seasonal influenza vaccines. Recombinant virus-vectored vaccines are an appealing alternative to classical inactivated vaccines because virus vectors enable native expression of influenza antigens, even from virulent influenza viruses, while expressed in the context of the vector that can improve immunogenicity. In addition, a vectored vaccine often enables delivery of the vaccine to sites of inductive immunity such as the respiratory tract enabling protection from influenza virus infection. Moreover, the ability to readily manipulate virus vectors to produce novel influenza vaccines may provide the quickest path toward a universal vaccine protecting against all influenza viruses. This review will discuss experimental virus-vectored vaccines for use in humans, comparing them to licensed vaccines and the hurdles faced for licensure of these next-generation influenza virus vaccines. PMID:25105278

Tripp, Ralph A.; Tompkins, S. Mark

2014-01-01

189

Viruses Infecting Reptiles  

PubMed Central

A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch’s postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions. PMID:22163336

Marschang, Rachel E.

2011-01-01

190

Three-dimensional modeling in the study of subsidence in mining Acquaresi (Sardinia South - West) - Francesco Muntoni (1) Teresa Balvis (2) Paolo Bevilacqua (3) (1) Geological, Mining Park of Sardinia - Via Monteverdi, 16 09016 - Iglesias (2) freelance (3) Department of Engineering and Architecture - University of Trieste, Via Valerio 10 - Trieste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of subsidence and subsequent landslides in mining areas are very frequent, the study examines the proposed mining area of Acquaresi (Sardinia South - West), interested in the years between 1991 and 2003 by major subsidence phenomena and consequent events landslides. The valley of Acquaresi is particularly important, not only for its mines, but also for the aspect related to the geomorphological evolution morphotectonic in the context of Paleozoic lithologies, which have a rectangular structure parallel to the coastline. To make measurements and analysis of the evolution of human morphostructural and throughout the industry, it was considered appropriate to create a three-dimensional model that would allow a synoptic view with the different information available to the industry. E 'was created a model using the points listed extrapolated from the Regional Technical Map scale 1:10,000, the map at scale 1:2000 dell'IGEA and the values of a detailed survey of the study area, measured at a scale 1: 500. How MicroStation CAD software was used, with whom it is made of a TIN high detail taking into account then is, if possible, of quoted points, roads, major infrastructure, contour lines (lines-intermediate-auxiliary), buildings and lines coast. The model was supported and shaped (draping) image obtained by integrating the color orthophotos of the area in 1:10,000 scale of the Autonomous Region of Sardinia and photos to scale 1:2,000 made to run dall'IGEA spa at the last event of the landslide. The use of aerial photographs, a scale similar to that of cartography, has allowed us to achieve excellent results by superimposing the frames of the areas of interest on models made, with views that appear to be consistent with the technical papers, with a maximum error of less than that of the reference mapping. Moreover, to emphasize the tectonic lineations, morphological aspects and changes in landscape and environment, it was considered appropriate to use a three-dimensional model, thanks to software used in this trial, with a high detail 3D visualization. Starting from the Regional Technical Map has been possible to realize the DEM file, then perform an interpolation with a point layer containing elevation values recorded separately and then superimpose the orthophoto to 3D surface. It was also decided to use a terrain model DTM knitted irregular TIN compared to a regular grid pattern GRID, because the first best response to the need to have a shirt that exploited all possible points present and identifiable in the territory. With the use of a TIN was thus possible to insert also the points detected by the GPS in the country to verify the area of detachment of the landslide, thus being able to increase the detail in the area of observation. Getting a noticeable "jump" quality: moving from a two-dimensional to a three-dimensional display. The model thus obtained has allowed a very good point of the area: they are easy to locate the outcrops of the different lithological structures, facilitating the study and evaluation for interventions of recovery.

Muntoni, F.

2013-12-01

191

Symantec: Virus Alerts and Hoaxes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website by Symantec (makers of Norton AntiVirus) provides information on the latest virus threats, security advisories, updates for Symantec products and removal tools, as well as some basic information on viruses. The Reference Area includes FAQ, a Glossary, Newsletter, White Papers, a section where you can Submit Virus Samples, postings of Hoaxes, a Security Database, Virus Encyclopedia, and Virus Calendar.

192

Viruses and human cancer  

SciTech Connect

This book contains papers on the following topics: Immunology and Epidemiology, Biology and Pathogenesis, Models of Pathogenesis and Treatment, Simian and Bovine Retroviruses, Human Papilloma Viruses, EBV and Herpesvirus, and Hepatitis B Virus.

Gallo, R.C.; Haseltine, W.; Klein, G.; Zur Hausen, H.

1987-01-01

193

Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections  

MedlinePLUS

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes mild, cold-like symptoms in adults and older healthy children. It can cause serious problems in ... tests can tell if your child has the virus. There is no specific treatment. You should give ...

194

West Nile virus  

MedlinePLUS

West Nile virus is a disease spread by mosquitoes. The condition ranges from mild to severe. ... West Nile virus was first identified in 1937 in Uganda in eastern Africa. It was first discovered in the United States ...

195

West Nile Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Good introduction and synopsis of West Nile Virus. Briefly reporting on such topics as geographic distribution, symptoms and treatment, transmission and prevention. The article includes a list of references for further investigation into the West Nile Virus.

0000-00-00

196

Human Parainfluenza Viruses  

MedlinePLUS

... HPIVs Are Not the Same as Influenza (Flu) Viruses People usually get HPIV infections in the spring, ... hands, and touching objects or surfaces with the viruses on them then touching your mouth, nose, or ...

197

West Nile Virus  

MedlinePLUS

... West Nile virus has been found in animals, birds, and humans in all continental states in the ... picked up the virus after feeding on infected birds. Pets and other animals can also become infected ...

198

Viruses and Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix. PMID:24281093

Lawson, James S.; Heng, Benjamin

2010-01-01

199

West Nile Virus  

MedlinePLUS

West Nile virus (WNV) is an infectious disease that first appeared in the United States in 1999. Infected mosquitoes ... usually go away on their own. If West Nile virus enters the brain, however, it can be ...

200

SOLENOPSIS INVICTA VIRUSES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Unique Solenopsis invicta viruses (SINV) have been identified and their genome sequenced. Oligonucleotide primers have been developed using the isolated nucleic acid sequences of the SINV. The viruses are used as a biocontrol agent for control of fire ants....

201

Tumorigenic DNA viruses  

SciTech Connect

The eighth volume of Advances in Viral Oncology focuses on the three major DNA virus groups with a postulated or proven tumorigenic potential: papillomaviruses, animal hepatitis viruses, and the Epstein-Bar virus. In the opening chapters, the contributors analyze the evidence that papillomaviruses and animal hepatitis viruses are involved in tumorigenesis and describe the mechanisms that trigger virus-host cell interactions. A detailed section on the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) - comprising more than half the book - examines the transcription and mRNA processing patterns of the virus genome; the mechanisms by which EBV infects lymphoid and epithelial cells; the immunological aspects of the virus; the actions of EBV in hosts with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome; and the involvement of EBV in the etiology of Burkitt's lymphoma.

Klein, G.

1989-01-01

202

Viruses and cancer  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 14 selections. Some of the titles are: Immortalising gene(s) encoded by Epstein-Barr Virus; Adenovirus genes involved in transformation. What determines the oncogenic phenotype.; Oncogenesis by mouse mammary tumour virus; and Transforming ras genes.

Rigby, P.W.J.; Wilkie, N.M.

1985-01-01

203

Viruses and the Microbiota  

PubMed Central

Every surface of the human body is colonized by a diverse microbial community called the microbiota, yet the impact of microbiota on viruses is unclear. Recent research has advanced our understanding of how microbiota influence viral infection. Microbiota inhibit infection of some viruses and promote infection of other viruses. These effects can occur through direct and/or indirect effects on the host and/or virus. This review examines the known effects and mechanisms by which the microbiota influence mammalian virus infections. Furthermore, we suggest strategies for future research on how microbiota impact viruses. Overall, microbiota may influence a wide array of viruses through diverse mechanisms, making the study of virus-microbiota interactions a fertile area for future investigation.

Robinson, Christopher M.; Pfeiffer, Julie K.

2015-01-01

204

GHG emissions quantification at high spatial and temporal resolution at urban scale: the case of the town of Sassari (NW Sardinia - Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Union has set as priorities the fight against climate change related to greenhouse gas releases. The largest source of these emissions comes from human activities in urban areas that account for more than 70% of the world's emissions and several local governments intend to support the European strategic policies in understanding which crucial sectors drive GHG emissions in their city. Planning for mitigation actions at the community scale starts with the compilation of a GHG inventories that, among a wide range of measurement tools, provide information on the current status of GHG emissions across a specific jurisdiction. In the framework of a regional project for quantitative estimate of the net exchange of CO2 (emissions and sinks) at the municipal level in Sardinia, the town of Sassari represents a pilot site where a spatial and temporal high resolution GHG emissions inventory is built in line with European and international standard protocols to establish a baseline for tracking emission trends. The specific purpose of this accurate accounting is to obtain an appropriate allocation of CO2 and other GHG emissions at the fine building and hourly scale. The aim is to test the direct measurements needed to enable the construction of future scenarios of these emissions and for assessing possible strategies to reduce their impact. The key element of the methodologies used to construct this GHG emissions inventory is the Global Protocol for Community-Scale Greenhouse Gas Emissions (GPC) (March 2012) that identifies four main types of emission sources: (i) Stationary Units, (ii) Mobile Units, (iii) Waste, and (iv) Industrial Process and Product Use Emissions. The development of the GHG emissions account in Sassari consists in the collection of a range of alternative data sources (primary data, IPCC emission factors, national and local statistic, etc.) selected on the base on relevance and completeness criteria performed for 2010, as baseline year, using top-down, bottom-up or mixed approaches. GPC protocol also defines three standard scopes for downscaling emissions from the national to the community level, that allow to handle the attribution of releases that occur outside the community boundary as a result of activity or consumption within it. The procedures for data processing have simple and concise structure, applicable in different communities that led to the possibility to compare the results with other national contexts. An appropriate GHG emissions allocation over detailed spatial and temporal scales has been achieved on the basis of specific indicators (population, industrial employees, amount of product, etc.) and of geo-location and size of all buildings, using appropriate models, that enable to properly georeference them respect to their uses. The main advantage of neighborhood-level quantification consists in the identification of the main productive sources and emissive activities within the urban boundaries that mostly contribute to the current GHG emissions and then focus the efforts on possible mitigation.

Sanna, Laura; Ferrara, Roberto; Zara, Pierpaolo; Duce, Pierpaolo

2014-05-01

205

Tracing groundwater salinization processes in coastal aquifers: a hydrogeochemical and isotopic approach in the Na-Cl brackish waters of northwestern Sardinia, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Throughout the Mediterranean, salinization threatens water quality, especially in coastal areas. This salinization is the result of concomitant processes related to both seawater intrusion and water-rock interaction, which in some cases are virtually indistinguishable. In the Nurra region of northwestern Sardinia, recent salinization related to marine water intrusion has been caused by aquifer exploitation. However, the geology of this region records a long history from the Palaeozoic to the Quaternary, and is structurally complex and comprises a wide variety of lithologies, including Triassic evaporites. Determining the origin of the saline component of the Jurassic and Triassic aquifers in the Nurra region may provide a useful and more general model for salinization processes in the Mediterranean area, where the occurrence of evaporitic rocks in coastal aquifers is a common feature. In addition, due to intensive human activity and recent climatic change, the Nurra has become vulnerable to desertification and, in common with other Mediterranean islands, surface water resources periodically suffer from severe shortages. With this in mind, we report new data regarding brackish and surface waters (outcrop and lake samples) of the Na-Cl type from the Nurra region, including major ions and selected trace elements (B, Br, I, and Sr), in addition to isotopic data including ?18O, ?D in water, and ?34S and ?18O in dissolved SO4. To identify the origin of the salinity more precisely, we also analysed the mineralogical and isotopic composition of Triassic evaporites. The brackish waters have Cl contents of up to 2025 mg L-1 , and the ratios between dissolved ions and Cl, with the exception of the Br / Cl ratio, are not those expected on the basis of simple mixing between rainwater and seawater. The ?18O and ?D data indicate that most of the waters fall between the regional meteoric water line and the global meteoric water line, supporting the conclusion that they are meteoric in origin. A significant consequence of the meteoric origin of the Na-Cl-type water studied here is that the Br / Cl ratio, extensively used to assess the origin of salinity in fresh water, should be used with care in carbonate aquifers that are near the coast. Overall, ?34S and ?18O levels in dissolved SO4 suggest that water-rock interaction is responsible for the Na-Cl brackish composition of the water hosted by the Jurassic and Triassic aquifers of the Nurra, and this is consistent with the geology and lithological features of the study area. Evaporite dissolution may also explain the high Cl content, as halite was detected within the gypsum deposits. Finally, these Na-Cl brackish waters are undersaturated with respect to the more soluble salts, implying that in a climate evolving toward semi-arid conditions, the salinization process could intensify dramatically in the near future.

Mongelli, G.; Monni, S.; Oggiano, G.; Paternoster, M.; Sinisi, R.

2013-07-01

206

Tracing groundwater salinization processes in coastal aquifers: a hydrogeochemical and isotopic approach in Na-Cl brackish waters of north-western Sardinia, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Mediterranean area the demand of good quality water is often threatened by salinization, especially in coastal areas. The salinization is the result of concomitant processes due to both marine water intrusion and rock-water interaction, which in some cases are hardly distinguishable. In northwestern Sardinia, in the Nurra area, salinization due to marine water intrusion has been recently evidenced as consequence of bore hole exploitation. However, the geology of the Nurra records a long history from Paleozoic to Quaternary, resulting in relative structural complexity and in a wide variety of lithologies, including Triassic evaporites. To elucidate the origin of the saline component in the Nurra aquifer, may furnish a useful and more general model for the salinization processes in the Mediterranean area, where the occurrence of evaporitic rocks in coastal aquifers is a common feature. In addition, due to intensive human activities and recent climatic changes, the Nurra has become vulnerable to desertification and, similarly to other Mediterranean islands, surface-water resources can periodically suffer from drastic shortage. With this in mind we report new data, regarding brackish waters of Na-Cl type of the Nurra, including major ions and selected trace elements (B, Br, I and Sr) and isotopic data, including ?18O, ?D in water, and ?34S and ?18O in dissolved sulphate. To better depict the origin of the salinity we also analyzed a set of Nurra Triassic evaporites for mineralogical and isotopic composition. The brackish waters have Cl contents up to 2025 mg L-1 and the ratios between dissolved ions and chlorine, with the exception of the Br/Cl ratio, are not those expected on the basis of a simple mixing between rain water and seawater. The ?18O and ?D data indicate that most of the waters are within the Regional Meteoric Water Line and the Global Meteoric Water Line supporting the idea that they are meteoric in origin. A relevant consequence of the meteoric origin of the Nurra Na-Cl type water is that the Br/Cl ratio, extensively used to assess the origin of salinity in fresh water, should be used with care also in near coastal carbonate aquifers. Overall, and consistent with the geology and the lithological features of the study area, ?34S and ?18O in dissolved sulphate suggest that water-rock interaction is the responsible for the Nurra Na-Cl brackish water composition. Evaporites dissolution also explain the high chlorine contents since halite has been detected in the gypsum levels. Finally, the Nurra Na-Cl brackish water are undersaturated with respect to the more soluble salts involving, in a climate evolving toward semi-arid conditions, that the salinization process could dramatically intensify in the near future.

Mongelli, G.; Monni, S.; Oggiano, G.; Paternoster, M.; Sinisi, R.

2013-01-01

207

Tobacco mosaic virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource demonstrates how the Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) provides an excellent model for teaching students about properties of a plant virus and the relationship between a virus and its host plant. Four activities geared toward grades 9-12 are described. Teaching tips, troubleshooting help and sources of materials information is also included.

Rosemary Ford (Washington College; )

2003-05-28

208

Computer Virus Protection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computer virus is a program--a piece of executable code--that has the unique ability to replicate. Like biological viruses, computer viruses can spread quickly and are often difficult to eradicate. They can attach themselves to just about any type of file, and are spread by replicating and being sent from one individual to another. Simply having…

Rajala, Judith B.

2004-01-01

209

Viruses in the sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viruses exist wherever life is found. They are a major cause of mortality, a driver of global geochemical cycles and a reservoir of the greatest genetic diversity on Earth. In the oceans, viruses probably infect all living things, from bacteria to whales. They affect the form of available nutrients and the termination of algal blooms. Viruses can move between marine

Curtis A. Suttle

2005-01-01

210

Viruses of waterfowl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viral disease can cause substantial mortality in wild populations of ducks as well as domesticated geese and ducks. Migrating and captive waterfowl play a role in the dynamics and epidemiology of some viruses that also infect humans, such as influenza virus and West Nile virus. Crowded farm conditions favor the transmission of infectious disease agents among birds. Disease transmission is

Jennifer C. Hess; Jean A. Paré

2004-01-01

211

MAIZE FINE STREAK VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The report outlines the salient features of maize fine streak virus (MFSV) including a general description of the causal virus species, virion properties, genome description, the relationship of the virus to other taxa, biological properties of the disease and agronomic aspects of the disease. Maize...

212

Ecology of prokaryotic viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The finding that total viral abundance is higher than total prokaryotic abundance and that a significant fraction of the prokaryotic community is infected with phages in aquatic systems has stimulated research on the ecology of prokaryotic viruses and their role in ecosystems. This review treats the ecology of prokaryotic viruses (`phages') in marine, freshwater and soil systems from a `virus

Markus G Weinbauer

2004-01-01

213

AVIAN TUMOR VIRUS  

E-print Network

Thymus glands of chicks with leukemia induced by BAI strain A (myeloblastosis) virus were fixed in cold 4 per cent formaldehyde-sucrose. Frozen sections were incubated in the ATPase medium of Wachstein and Meisel and studied by light microscopy and electron microscopy. The ATPase activity of the virus is localized to the outermost membrane of the virus. The membrane of the blast-like cells of the thymus cortex from which the virus emerges, by budding, also possesses such activity. It appears likely that the outermost membrane of the virus is derived from the plasma membrane of these cells.

214

Lipids of Archaeal Viruses  

PubMed Central

Archaeal viruses represent one of the least known territory of the viral universe and even less is known about their lipids. Based on the current knowledge, however, it seems that, as in other viruses, archaeal viral lipids are mostly incorporated into membranes that reside either as outer envelopes or membranes inside an icosahedral capsid. Mechanisms for the membrane acquisition seem to be similar to those of viruses infecting other host organisms. There are indications that also some proteins of archaeal viruses are lipid modified. Further studies on the characterization of lipids in archaeal viruses as well as on their role in virion assembly and infectivity require not only highly purified viral material but also, for example, constant evaluation of the adaptability of emerging technologies for their analysis. Biological membranes contain proteins and membranes of archaeal viruses are not an exception. Archaeal viruses as relatively simple systems can be used as excellent tools for studying the lipid protein interactions in archaeal membranes. PMID:23049284

Roine, Elina; Bamford, Dennis H.

2012-01-01

215

Virus trafficking – learning from single-virus tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

What could be a better way to study virus trafficking than 'miniaturizing oneself' and 'taking a ride with the virus particle' on its journey into the cell? Single-virus tracking in living cells potentially provides us with the means to visualize the virus journey. This approach allows us to follow the fate of individual virus particles and monitor dynamic interactions between

Boerries Brandenburg; Xiaowei Zhuang

2007-01-01

216

Abacá mosaic virus: A distinct strain of Sugarcane mosaic virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abacá mosaic virus (AbaMV) is related to members of the sugarcane mosaic virus subgroup of the genus Potyvirus. The ?2 kb 3? terminal region of the viral genome was sequenced and, in all areas analysed, found to be most similar to Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) and distinct from Johnsongrass mosaic virus (JGMV), Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) and Sorghum mosaic

C. F. Gambley; J. E. Thomas; L. V. Magnaye; L. Herradura

2004-01-01

217

Review article PRRSV, the virus  

E-print Network

Review article PRRSV, the virus Janneke J.M. MEULENBERG Department of Virology, Institute Abstract ­ Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a positive-strand RNA virusDNA clone Résumé ­ Syndrome dysgénésique et respiratoire porcin, le virus. Le virus du syndrome dys

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

218

Other Viruses and Viruslike Agents  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The diseases reported under 'Virus and Virus-like Agents' in the first volume of this compendium, with the exception of Cherry rasp leaf virus and Rubus chinese seed-borne virus, should be considered oddities since there are no known type isolates available for these reported viruses. Without a po...

219

RNA Viruses Infecting Pest Insects  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

RNA viruses are viruses whose genetic material is ribonucleic acid (RNA). RNA viruses may be double or single-stranded based on the type of RNA they contain. Single-stranded RNA viruses can be further grouped into negative sense or positive-sense viruses according to the polarity of their RNA. Fur...

220

Rabies-related viruses.  

PubMed Central

Five viruses related to rabies occur in Africa. Two of these, Obodhiang from Sudan and kotonkan from Nigeria, were found in insects and are only distantly related to rabies virus. The other three are antigenically more closely related to rabies. Mokola virus was isolated from shrews in Nigeria, Lagos bat virus from fruit bats in Nigeria, and Duvenhage virus from brain of a man bitten by a bat in South Africa. The public health significance of the rabies-related viruses was emphasized in Zimbabwe where in 1981 a rabies-related virus became epizootic in the dog and cat population. It is postulated that the ancestral origin of rabies virus was Africa where the greatest antigenic diversity occurs and that the ancestor may have been an insect virus. Questions are raised why rabies has not evolved more rapidly in the New World, given the frequency and ease with which antigenic changes can be induced in the laboratory, and how the virus became so extensively established in New World bats. PMID:6758373

Shope, R. E.

1982-01-01

221

West Nile Virus Map  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Given the increased concern over contagious diseases and viruses spread by various host animals and insects (such as the West Nile virus), these maps provided by the USGS are both helpful in their pragmatic applications, and for those studying the spatial distribution of the West Nile virus. The Web site begins with a brief background essay on the history of the virus, how the virus is transmitted, and the symptoms that may be evident by those who have become infected. The maps track which states have tested various carriers (such as birds, humans, and mosquitoes) for West Nile virus, and where these tests have turned up positive results. The Web site is updated frequently, and where available, also contains links to state and county public health agencies. [KMG

2003-01-01

222

Water system virus detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of a waste water reclamation system is monitored by introducing a non-pathogenic marker virus, bacteriophage F2, into the waste-water prior to treatment and, thereafter, testing the reclaimed water for the presence of the marker virus. A test sample is first concentrated by absorbing any marker virus onto a cellulose acetate filter in the presence of a trivalent cation at low pH and then flushing the filter with a limited quantity of a glycine buffer solution to desorb any marker virus present on the filter. Photo-optical detection of indirect passive immune agglutination by polystyrene beads indicates the performance of the water reclamation system in removing the marker virus. A closed system provides for concentrating any marker virus, initiating and monitoring the passive immune agglutination reaction, and then flushing the system to prepare for another sample.

Fraser, A. S.; Wells, A. F.; Tenoso, H. J. (inventors)

1978-01-01

223

DNA Virus Replication Compartments  

PubMed Central

Viruses employ a variety of strategies to usurp and control cellular activities through the orchestrated recruitment of macromolecules to specific cytoplasmic or nuclear compartments. Formation of such specialized virus-induced cellular microenvironments, which have been termed viroplasms, virus factories, or virus replication centers, complexes, or compartments, depends on molecular interactions between viral and cellular factors that participate in viral genome expression and replication and are in some cases associated with sites of virion assembly. These virus-induced compartments function not only to recruit and concentrate factors required for essential steps of the viral replication cycle but also to control the cellular mechanisms of antiviral defense. In this review, we summarize characteristic features of viral replication compartments from different virus families and discuss similarities in the viral and cellular activities that are associated with their assembly and the functions they facilitate for viral replication. PMID:24257611

Schmid, Melanie; Speiseder, Thomas; Dobner, Thomas

2014-01-01

224

Constructing computer virus phylogenies  

SciTech Connect

There has been much recent algorithmic work on the problem of reconstructing the evolutionary history of biological species. Computer virus specialists are interested in finding the evolutionary history of computer viruses--a virus is often written using code fragments from one or more other viruses, which are its immediate ancestors. A phylogeny for a collection of computer viruses is a directed acyclic graph whose nodes are the viruses and whose edges map ancestors to descendants and satisfy the property that each code fragment is ``invented`` only once. To provide a simple explanation for the data, we consider the problem of constructing such a phylogeny with a minimal number of edges. In general, this optimization problem cannot be solved in quasi-polynomial time unless NQP=QP; we present positive and negative results for associated approximated problems. When tree solutions exist, they can be constructed and randomly sampled in polynomial time.

Goldberg, L.A. [Warwick Univ., Coventry (United Kingdom) Dept. of Computer Science; Goldberg, P.W. [Aston Univ., Birmingham (United Kingdom) Dept. of Applied Mathematics; Phillips, C.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sorkin, G.B. [International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (United States). Thomas J. Watson Research Center

1996-03-01

225

Viruses in Antarctic lakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water samples collected from four perennially ice-covered Antarctic lakes during the austral summer of 1996-1997 contained high densities of extracellular viruses. Many of these viruses were found to be morphologically similar to double-stranded DNA viruses that are known to infect algae and protozoa. These constitute the first observations of viruses in perennially ice-covered polar lakes. The abundance of planktonic viruses and data suggesting substantial production potential (relative to bacteria] secondary and photosynthetic primary production) indicate that viral lysis may be a major factor in the regulation of microbial populations in these extreme environments. Furthermore, we suggest that Antarctic lakes may be a reservoir of previously undescribed viruses that possess novel biological and biochemical characteristics.

Kepner, R. L. Jr; Wharton, R. A. Jr; Suttle, C. A.; Wharton RA, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

1998-01-01

226

Biological Nanomachines: Viruses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although nanotechnology is a new and emerging field, nanoscale structures are not new. Small molecules such as water, large molecules such as proteins, and larger, more complex objects such as viruses and nanotubes are naturally occurring and exist all around us. Viruses are particularly interesting nanoscale objects because of their precise geometrical shape, their self-assembling capability, and their fascinating ability to invade cells and alter their function. Nanoscale science researchers are studying virus properties with the aim of developing new treatments for human disease. The virus is also being studied as a model for how to make materials and engineer products at the nanoscsale through a process called "self-assembly." In this investigation, students create an icosahedral virus model and consider how virus structure and behavior could be mimicked in nanotechnology applications. This free selection includes the Table of Contents, Acknowledgments, a Dedication page, and an Introduction.

Amy R. Taylor

2007-01-01

227

Viruses for Tumor Therapy  

PubMed Central

Oncolytic virotherapy exploits live viruses with selective tropism for cancerous cells and tissues to treat cancer. As discussed here, the field has progressed considerably as a result of both the successes and failures of previous and on-going clinical trials for various cancers. These studies indicate that oncolytic viruses are remarkably safe and more efficacious when virus replication stimulates sustained antitumor immune responses. In the future, virotherapy should be combined with immunomodulatory reagents that target immune tolerance to established cancers. PMID:24629333

Bell, John; McFadden, Grant

2014-01-01

228

The human oncogenic viruses  

SciTech Connect

This book contains eight selections. The titles are: Cytogenetics of the Leukemias and Lymphomas; Cytogenetics of Solid Tumors: Renal Cell Carcinoma, Malignant Melanoma, Retinoblastoma, and Wilms' Tumor; Elucidation of a Normal Function for a Human Proto-Oncogene; Detection of HSV-2 Genes and Gene Products in Cervical Neoplasia; Papillomaviruses in Anogennital Neoplasms; Human Epstein-Barr Virus and Cancer; Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatocellular Carcinoma; and Kaposi's Sarcoma: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Associated Viruses.

Luderer, A.A.; Weetall, H.H

1986-01-01

229

CDC: West Nile Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site contains the most recent West Nile virus data from the Centers for Disease Control. The main features include a 2003 Human Case Count and updated maps representing the spread of the virus. A downloadable document outlines the CDC's West Nile virus surveillance and control program, which involves weekly data collection for wild birds, sentinel chicken flocks, human cases, veterinary cases, and mosquito surveillance. The site also provides links to general information about the virus, from the ecology and virology of West Nile to epidemiological and laboratory issues.

2007-12-12

230

Water system virus detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A monitoring system developed to test the capability of a water recovery system to reject the passage of viruses into the recovered water is described. A nonpathogenic marker virus, bacteriophage F2, is fed into the process stream before the recovery unit and the reclaimed water is assayed for its presence. Detection of the marker virus consists of two major components, concentration and isolation of the marker virus, and detection of the marker virus. The concentration system involves adsorption of virus to cellulose acetate filters in the presence of trivalent cations and low pH with subsequent desorption of the virus using volumes of high pH buffer. The detection of the virus is performed by a passive immune agglutination test utilizing specially prepared polystyrene particles. An engineering preliminary design was performed as a parallel effort to the laboratory development of the marker virus test system. Engineering schematics and drawings of a fully functional laboratory prototype capable of zero-G operation are presented. The instrument consists of reagent pump/metering system, reagent storage containers, a filter concentrator, an incubation/detector system, and an electronic readout and control system.

Fraser, A. S.; Wells, A. F.; Tenoso, H. J.

1975-01-01

231

Tracking a Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students simulate the spread of a virus such as HIV through a population by "sharing" (but not drinking) the water in a plastic cup with several classmates. Although invisible, the water in a few of the cups has already be tainted with the "virus" (sodium carbonate). After all the students have shared their liquids, the contents of the cups are tested for the virus with phenolphthalein, a chemical that causes a striking color change in the presence of sodium carbonate. Students then set about trying to determine which of their classmates were the ones originally infected with the virus.

Engineering K-PhD Program,

232

CDC: West Nile Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site contains the most recent West Nile virus data from the Centers for Disease Control. The main features include a 2003 Human Case Count and updated maps representing the spread of the virus. A downloadable document outlines the CDC's West Nile virus surveillance and control program, which involves weekly data collection for wild birds, sentinel chicken flocks, human cases, veterinary cases, and mosquito surveillance. The site also provides links to general information about the virus, from the ecology and virology of West Nile to epidemiological and laboratory issues.

233

The hepatitis B virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA recombinant technology has radically changed hepatitis B virus (HBV) virology. The genetic organization, transcription and replication of the virus are basically understood, structures of integrated HBV sequences in hepatocellular carcinoma have been characterized, and new vaccines produced by recombinant DNA technique are being developed.

Pierre Tiollais; Christine Pourcel; Anne Dejean

1985-01-01

234

What is a Virus?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page is part of a web site that was created as a tutorial for an introductory virology class for college level microbiology students. It includes links to definitions of virus, virions, other virus-like-agents, and organisms, as well as the "definition of life".

Rybicki, Ed

235

EPIDEMIOLOGY OF RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) is an avian retrovirus unrelated to the leukosis/sarcoma group of viruses. REV infects chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, pheasants, quail, and probably many other avian species . The most common clinical diseases induced by REV are chronic lymphomas and an immunosupp...

236

Sweetpotato viruses in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

China is the largest sweetpotato producer country in the world, with its total growing area and yield reaching 5.5 million ha and 106 million metric tones, respectively. Viral diseases constitute a major hindrance to the development and highly profitable production of the sweetpotato industry. The present article provides updated comprehensive information on type of virus, yield loss caused by viruses,

Qingmei Wang; Liming Zhang; Biao Wang; Zhenfang Yin; Chaohong Feng; Qiaochun Wang

2010-01-01

237

Positive reinforcement for viruses  

PubMed Central

Summary Virus-cell membrane fusion requires a critical transition from positive to negative membrane curvature. St. Vincent et al., in PNAS (St Vincent, et al., 2010), designed a class of antivirals that targets this transition. These Rigid Amphipathic Fusion Inhibitors are active against an array of enveloped viruses. PMID:21035726

Vigant, Frederic; Jung, Michael; Lee, Benhur

2010-01-01

238

Cutthroat Trout Virus  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Electron micrograph of the cutthroat trout virus (CTV) showing the small, round virions of approximately 30 nanometers in diameter containing a single-stranded RNA genome. CTV, whose genome was first characterized by USGS researchers, is being used in research into the human virus Hepatitis E....

239

Bovine viral diarrhea viruses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Infections with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) result in significant economic losses for beef and dairy producers worldwide. BVDV is actually an umbrella term for two species of viruses, BVDV1 and BVDV2, within the Pestivirus genus of the Flavivirus family. While denoted as a bovine pathogen...

240

RYEGRASS MOSAIC VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A brief technical description of Ryegrass mosaic virus (RGMV) is presented. Described are biological properties, genome organization, and phylogenetic relationships among RGMV and other potyvirus species. RGMV is designated as a the type species of the genus Rymovirus within the plant virus family ...

241

Papaya Ringspot Virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The term papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) was coined by Jensen in 1949, to describe a papaya disease in Hawaii. Later work showed that diseases such as papaya mosaic and watermelon mosaic virus-1 were caused by PRSV. The primary host range of PRSV is papaya and cucurbits, with Chenopium amaranticolor ...

242

DETECTING VIRUSES IN WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

This article, which reviews the subject of detecting viruses in water, encompasses two topics. he first topic consists of methods used for concentrating viruses from large volumes of water into smaller, more manageable volumes. he second topic consists of assay methods used for e...

243

Equine Arteritis Virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

03. Nidovirales : 03.004. Arteriviridae : 03.004.0. {03.004.0. unknown} : 03.004.0.01. Arterivirus : 03.004.0.01.001. Equine arteritis virus will be published online. The article details the phenotypic and genotypic makeup of equine arteritis virus (EAV), and summarizes its biological properties....

244

Recombination in AIDS viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombination contributes to the generation of genetic diversity in human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) but can only occur between viruses replicating within the same cell. Since individuals have not been found to be simultaneously coinfected with multiple divergent strains of HIV-1 or HIV-2, recombination events have been thought to be restricted to the rather closely related members of the quasispecies that

David L. Robertson; Beatrice H. Hahn; Paul M. Sharp

1995-01-01

245

Ebola virus disease epidemic.  

PubMed

The Ebola virus disease epidemic now constitutes an international public health emergency. Occupational and environmental health nurses can collaborate with international colleagues to halt Ebola virus transmission within Africa, protect workers from exposures, and prevent another pandemic. [Workplace Health Saf 2014;62(11):484.]. PMID:25373029

Phillips, Jennan A

2014-11-01

246

Virus separation using membranes.  

PubMed

Industrial manufacturing of cell culture-derived viruses or virus-like particles for gene therapy or vaccine production are complex multistep processes. In addition to the bioreactor, such processes require a multitude of downstream unit operations for product separation, concentration, or purification. Similarly, before a biopharmaceutical product can enter the market, removal or inactivation of potential viral contamination has to be demonstrated. Given the complexity of biological solutions and the high standards on composition and purity of biopharmaceuticals, downstream processing is the bottleneck in many biotechnological production trains. Membrane-based filtration can be an economically attractive and efficient technology for virus separation. Viral clearance, for instance, of up to seven orders of magnitude has been reported for state of the art polymeric membranes under best conditions.This chapter summarizes the fundamentals of virus ultrafiltration, diafiltration, or purification with adsorptive membranes. In lieu of an impractical universally applicable protocol for virus filtration, application of these principles is demonstrated with two examples. The chapter provides detailed methods for production, concentration, purification, and removal of a rod-shaped baculovirus (Autographa californica M nucleopolyhedrovirus, about 40 × 300 nm in size, a potential vector for gene therapy, and an industrially important protein expression system) or a spherical parvovirus (minute virus of mice, 22-26 nm in size, a model virus for virus clearance validation studies). PMID:24297430

Grein, Tanja A; Michalsky, Ronald; Czermak, Peter

2014-01-01

247

Biological versus computer viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand biological viruses, some notions of the fundamental knowledge of the structure of DNA, the genetic code, the biosynthesis of proteins, the transcription, replication and transfer processes,... are presented so as to give an idea as to how the genetic information is decrypted by biological mechanisms and consequently, how viruses work.A computer \\

Daniel GUINIER

1989-01-01

248

Influenza A virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Influenza A viruses are important veterinary and human health pathogens around the world. Avian influenza (AI) virus in poultry is unusual in that it can cause a range of disease symptoms from a subclinical infection to being highly virulent with 100% mortality. The difference between low pathogen...

249

Grapevine Leafroll Associated Viruses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This book chapter reviews recent advances in molecular characterization of grapevine leafroll associated viruses (GLRaV), and the development and application of molecular techniques for a timely and sensitive detection of nine viruses that are associated with the leafroll disease on grapevine. To d...

250

Human Papilloma Virus Infections  

PubMed Central

Genital warts are believed to be caused by human papilloma viruses and to be sexually transmitted. The viruses are classified by DNA types, which appear to cause different types of disease. The choice of treatment, and usually its success rate, vary according to the type of disease and its location. PMID:21248973

Wright, V. Cecil

1989-01-01

251

Usutu Virus, Italy, 1996  

PubMed Central

Retrospective analysis of archived tissue samples from bird deaths in the Tuscany region of Italy in 1996 identified Usutu virus. Partial sequencing confirmed identity with the 2001 Vienna strain and provided evidence for a much earlier introduction of this virus into Europe than previously assumed. PMID:23347844

Bakonyi, Tamás; Rossi, Giacomo; Mani, Paolo; Nowotny, Norbert

2013-01-01

252

PATHOLOGIE VGTALE Interactions entre virus ou entre virus et leurs  

E-print Network

PATHOLOGIE V�G�TALE SYNTH�SE Interactions entre virus ou entre virus et leurs satellites chez un 84140 Montfavet R�SUM� Deux ou plusieurs virus, apparentés ou non, peuvent se multiplier ensemble dans une même plante et également dans une même cellule. Les interactions entre virus qui en résultent

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

253

Review article Aujeszky's disease (pseudorabies) virus: the virus and  

E-print Network

Review article Aujeszky's disease (pseudorabies) virus: the virus and molecular pathogenesis la séquence génomique de l'ADN du virus. Cette revue de la littéra- ture, qui fait suite à un article-Loeffler-Institutes, Federal Research Centre for Virus Diseases of Animals, 17498 Insel Riems, Germany Abstract ­ Considerable

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

254

Eragrostis minor streak virus: an Asian streak virus in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genus Mastrevirus of the single-stranded DNA virus family Geminiviridae consists of four distinct virus lineages that have been sampled in different parts of the Old World. These include the Panicoideae-infecting African streak viruses (ten described species including the geographical outlier, Digitaria streak virus [DSV] from Vanuatu) and Australian striate mosaic viruses (three described species), the dicotyledonous-plant-infecting mastreviruses (seven described

Darren P. Martin; Daphne Linderme; Pierre Lefeuvre; Dionne N. Shepherd; Arvind Varsani

2011-01-01

255

Pacui Virus, Rio Preto da Eva Virus, and Tapirape Virus, Three Distinct Viruses within the Family Bunyaviridae  

PubMed Central

Nearly complete genome sequences for three ungrouped viruses, Pacui virus (BEAN27326), Rio Preto da Eva virus (BEAR540870), and Tapirape virus (BEAN767592) isolated in the Amazon region are reported here. All three genomic segments (small, medium and large RNA) were recovered and were similar to members of the genus Orthobunyavirus. PMID:25395627

Medeiros, Daniele Barbosa de Almeida; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Martins, Livia Caricio; de Lima, Clayton Pereira Silva; de Oliveira, Layanna Freitas; de Vasconcelos, Janaina Mota; Da Silva, Daisy Elaine; Cardoso, Jedson Ferreira; da Silva, Sandro Patroca; Vianez-Júnior, João Lídio da Silva Gonçalves; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

2014-01-01

256

Pacui Virus, Rio Preto da Eva Virus, and Tapirape Virus, Three Distinct Viruses within the Family Bunyaviridae.  

PubMed

Nearly complete genome sequences for three ungrouped viruses, Pacui virus (BEAN27326), Rio Preto da Eva virus (BEAR540870), and Tapirape virus (BEAN767592) isolated in the Amazon region are reported here. All three genomic segments (small, medium and large RNA) were recovered and were similar to members of the genus Orthobunyavirus. PMID:25395627

Rodrigues, Daniela Sueli Guerreiro; Medeiros, Daniele Barbosa de Almeida; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Martins, Livia Caricio; de Lima, Clayton Pereira Silva; de Oliveira, Layanna Freitas; de Vasconcelos, Janaina Mota; Da Silva, Daisy Elaine; Cardoso, Jedson Ferreira; da Silva, Sandro Patroca; Vianez-Júnior, João Lídio da Silva Gonçalves; Nunes, Márcio Roberto Teixeira; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

2014-01-01

257

Computer Viruses: Pathology and Detection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how computer viruses were originally created, how a computer can become infected by a virus, how viruses operate, symptoms that indicate a computer is infected, how to detect and remove viruses, and how to prevent a reinfection. A sidebar lists eight antivirus resources. (four references) (LRW)

Maxwell, John R.; Lamon, William E.

1992-01-01

258

A Virus in Turbo Pascal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses why the authors feel it is not inappropriate to teach about viruses in the how-to, hands-on fashion. Identifies the special features of Turbo Pascal that have to be used for the creation of an effective virus. Defines virus, derives its structure, and from this structure is derived the implemented virus. (PR)

Teleky, Heidi Ann; And Others

1993-01-01

259

Realms of the Viruses Online  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Viruses have evolved strategies for infecting all taxa, but most viruses are highly specific about their cellular host. In humans, viruses cause diverse diseases, from chronic but benign warts, to acute and deadly hemorrhagic fever. Viruses have entertaining names like Zucchini Yellow Mosaic, Semliki Forest, Coxsackie, and the original terminator,…

Liu, Dennis

2007-01-01

260

Viruses isolated from Panamanian sloths.  

PubMed

Seven virus strains were isolated in Vero cells from whole blood samples from 80 wild-caught sloths, Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni, from Central Panamá. Four strains of at least two different serotypes are related to Changuinola virus; two of these were associated with prolonged or recrudescent viremias. One strain is an antigenic subtype of Punta Toro virus, and another, described here as Bradypus-4 virus, is a new, antigenically ungrouped virus. A second new virus from sloths, Utive virus, forms an antigenic complex within the Simbu serogroup with Utinga and Pintupo viruses. Tests on sequential plasma samples from radio-marked free-ranging sloths and from recently captured animals maintained in captivity showed that both species develop neutralizing antibodies following naturally acquired virus infections. Antibodies against the Changuinola and Simbu serogroup viruses are widespread in both sloth species and are especially prevalent in Choloepus, but are virtually absent in all other wild vertebrate species tested. PMID:6316795

Seymour, C; Peralta, P H; Montgomery, G G

1983-11-01

261

Ocular Tropism of Respiratory Viruses  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Respiratory viruses (including adenovirus, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, and rhinovirus) cause a broad spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from mild influenza-like symptoms to acute respiratory failure. While species D adenoviruses and subtype H7 influenza viruses are known to possess an ocular tropism, documented human ocular disease has been reported following infection with all principal respiratory viruses. In this review, we describe the anatomical proximity and cellular receptor distribution between ocular and respiratory tissues. All major respiratory viruses and their association with human ocular disease are discussed. Research utilizing in vitro and in vivo models to study the ability of respiratory viruses to use the eye as a portal of entry as well as a primary site of virus replication is highlighted. Identification of shared receptor-binding preferences, host responses, and laboratory modeling protocols among these viruses provides a needed bridge between clinical and laboratory studies of virus tropism. PMID:23471620

Rota, Paul A.; Tumpey, Terrence M.

2013-01-01

262

Influenza Viruses: Transmission Between Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The only direct evidence for transmission of influenza viruses between species comes from studies on swine influenza viruses. Antigenically and genetically identical Hsw1N1 influenza viruses were isolated from pigs and man on the same farm in Wisconsin, U.S.A. The isolation of H3N2 influenza viruses from a wide range of lower animals and birds suggests that influenza viruses of man can

R. G. Webster; V. S. Hinshaw; W. J. Bean; G. Sriram

1980-01-01

263

Parainfluenza virus infections  

PubMed Central

Parainfluenza viruses types 1, 2 and 3 were found in 2·5%, 0·8% and 1·6% respectively of patients examined in the MRC/PHLS general practice survey and in 2·2%, 0·7% and 2·7% of those in the hospital survey. Type 3 infections were found earlier in life than type 1, while type 2 infections tended to be detected in older children. These viruses were found most frequently in croup and laryngitis but were also common causes of coryza and lower respiratory infections, especially in general practice. The epidemiology and diagnosis of parainfluenza virus infections are discussed briefly. PMID:4377299

Clarke, Suzanne K. R.

1973-01-01

264

Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus  

E-print Network

Figure 1. Leaves infected with Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus. Picture from KSU Department of Plant Pathology web-site. Figure 2. Wheat plant infected with Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus and High Plains Virus. Picture was provided by Dr. Charlie Rush, Plant....edu/Agriculture/Entomology/entfacts/fldcrops/ef117. htm ? Compendium of Wheat Diseases, Wiese. American Phy- topathological Society. 1987. Produced by AgriLife Communications and Marketing, Texas A&M System Extension publications can be found on the Web at: http://AgriLifebookstore.org Visit...

Morgan, Gaylon

2005-01-26

265

Fighting cancer with viruses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most promising strategies to treat cancer is attacking it with viruses. Viruses can kill tumor cells specifically or act as carriers that deliver normal genes into cancer cells. A model for virotherapy of cancer is investigated and its predictions are in agreement with results obtained from experimental tumors. Furthermore, the model reveals an oscillatory (periodic or aperiodic) response of tumor cells and virus populations which may make clinical prognosis difficult. These results suggest the need for new in vivo and in vitro experiments aiming to detect this oscillatory response.

Ferreira, S. C.; Martins, M. L.; Vilela, M. J.

2005-01-01

266

Viruses in reptiles  

PubMed Central

The etiology of reptilian viral diseases can be attributed to a wide range of viruses occurring across different genera and families. Thirty to forty years ago, studies of viruses in reptiles focused mainly on the zoonotic potential of arboviruses in reptiles and much effort went into surveys and challenge trials of a range of reptiles with eastern and western equine encephalitis as well as Japanese encephalitis viruses. In the past decade, outbreaks of infection with West Nile virus in human populations and in farmed alligators in the USA has seen the research emphasis placed on the issue of reptiles, particularly crocodiles and alligators, being susceptible to, and reservoirs for, this serious zoonotic disease. Although there are many recognised reptilian viruses, the evidence for those being primary pathogens is relatively limited. Transmission studies establishing pathogenicity and cofactors are likewise scarce, possibly due to the relatively low commercial importance of reptiles, difficulties with the availability of animals and permits for statistically sound experiments, difficulties with housing of reptiles in an experimental setting or the inability to propagate some viruses in cell culture to sufficient titres for transmission studies. Viruses as causes of direct loss of threatened species, such as the chelonid fibropapilloma associated herpesvirus and ranaviruses in farmed and wild tortoises and turtles, have re-focused attention back to the characterisation of the viruses as well as diagnosis and pathogenesis in the host itself. 1. Introduction 2. Methods for working with reptilian viruses 3. Reptilian viruses described by virus families 3.1. Herpesviridae 3.2. Iridoviridae 3.2.1 Ranavirus 3.2.2 Erythrocytic virus 3.2.3 Iridovirus 3.3. Poxviridae 3.4. Adenoviridae 3.5. Papillomaviridae 3.6. Parvoviridae 3.7. Reoviridae 3.8. Retroviridae and inclusion body disease of Boid snakes 3.9. Arboviruses 3.9.1. Flaviviridae 3.9.2. Togaviridae 3.10. Caliciviridae 3.11. Picornaviridae 3.12. Paramyxoviridae 4. Summary 5. Acknowledgements 6. Competing interests 7. References PMID:21933449

2011-01-01

267

Hepatitis virus panel  

MedlinePLUS

Hepatitis A antibody test; Hepatitis B antibody test; Hepatitis C antibody test; Hepatitis D antibody test ... Blood (serology) tests are used to check for antibodies to each of the hepatitis viruses.

268

Virus Ultra Structure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Linda Stannard of the University of Capetown, South Africa, has composed a page which, although it was intended to serve as an introductory manual for students of virology, can be appreciated by a wide audience. A section on the principles of virus architecture uses text and outstanding graphics to provide an introduction to why viruses look the way they do. Other parts of the site emphasize how virus shapes and structures are "seen" and recorded with sections on negative staining and electron microscopy of DNA- and RNA-containing viruses. This site's success relies on the use of well-chosen graphics and the inclusion of interesting factoids such as the following: "The head of a dress-maker's pin can provide seating accommodation for five hundred million rhinoviruses (cause of the common cold)!".

269

VIRUS instrument enclosures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument will be installed at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope† in the near future. The instrument will be housed in two enclosures that are mounted adjacent to the telescope, via the VIRUS Support Structure (VSS). We have designed the enclosures to support and protect the instrument, to enable servicing of the instrument, and to cool the instrument appropriately while not adversely affecting the dome environment. The system uses simple HVAC air handling techniques in conjunction with thermoelectric and standard glycol heat exchangers to provide efficient heat removal. The enclosures also provide power and data transfer to and from each VIRUS unit, liquid nitrogen cooling to the detectors, and environmental monitoring of the instrument and dome environments. In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication of the VIRUS enclosures and their subsystems.

Prochaska, T.; Allen, R.; Mondrik, N.; Rheault, J. P.; Sauseda, M.; Boster, E.; James, M.; Rodriguez-Patino, M.; Torres, G.; Ham, J.; Cook, E.; Baker, D.; DePoy, Darren L.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Hill, G. J.; Perry, D.; Savage, R. D.; Good, J. M.; Vattiat, Brian L.

2014-08-01

270

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)  

MedlinePLUS

... RSV often spreads quickly in crowded households and day care centers. The virus can live for a half ... The following increase the risk for RSV: Attending day care Being near tobacco smoke Having school-aged brothers ...

271

Respiratory Syncytial Virus  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Skip Content Marketing Share this: ... common. The infection can progress to the lower respiratory tract to cause more severe illness such as ...

272

Virus Chapter: Iflaviridae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The iflaviruses comprise viruses isolated from arthropod species of agricultural importance. All members of iflaviruses have a genome arrangement similar to the picornaviruses, ootyviruses, and secoviruses. However, phylogenetic analysis using the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase region showed that th...

273

Ebola Virus Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... survival. There is as yet no licensed treatment proven to neutralise the virus but a range of ... symptoms, improves survival. There is as yet no proven treatment available for EVD. However, a range of ...

274

How rigid are viruses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viruses have traditionally been studied as pathogens, but in recent years they have been adapted for applications ranging from drug delivery and gene therapy to nanotechnology, photonics, and electronics. Although the structures of many viruses are known, most of their biophysical properties remain largely unexplored. Using Brillouin light scattering, we analyzed the mechanical rigidity, intervirion coupling, and vibrational eigenmodes of Wiseana iridovirus (WIV). We identified phonon modes propagating through the viral assemblies as well as the localized vibrational eigenmode of individual viruses. The measurements indicate a Young’s modulus of ˜7GPa for single virus particles and their assemblies, surprisingly high for “soft” materials. Mechanical modeling confirms that the DNA core dominates the WIV rigidity. The results also indicate a peculiar mechanical coupling during self-assembly of WIV particles.

Hartschuh, R. D.; Wargacki, S. P.; Xiong, H.; Neiswinger, J.; Kisliuk, A.; Sihn, S.; Ward, V.; Vaia, R. A.; Sokolov, A. P.

2008-08-01

275

Hepatitis B virus (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Hepatitis B is also known as serum hepatitis and is spread through blood and sexual contact. It is seen ... This photograph is an electronmicroscopic image of hepatitis B virus particles. (Image courtesy of the Centers for ...

276

Hepatitis G virus  

PubMed Central

A number of new hepatitis viruses (G, TT, SEN) were discovered late in the past century. We review the data available in the literature and our own findings suggesting that the new hepatitis G virus (HGV), disclosed in the late 1990s, has been rather well studied. Analysis of many studies dealing with HGV mainly suggests the lymphotropicity of this virus. HGV or GBV-C has been ascertained to influence course and prognosis in the HIV-infected patient. Until now, the frequent presence of GBV-C in coinfections, hematological diseases, and biliary pathology gives no grounds to determine it as an “accidental tourist” that is of no significance. The similarity in properties of GBV-C and hepatitis C virus (HCV) offers the possibility of using HGV, and its induced experimental infection, as a model to study hepatitis C and to develop a hepatitis C vaccine. PMID:18720531

Reshetnyak, Vasiliy Ivanovich; Karlovich, Tatiana Igorevna; Ilchenko, Ljudmila Urievna

2008-01-01

277

Feline immunodeficiency virus latency  

E-print Network

HIV-1, Feline, Animal model, Antilatency therapy, Reservoirto test this therapy in an animal model of lentiviraltherapy (reactivating latent virus to purge the reservoir) is to progress, use of an animal

McDonnel, Samantha J; Sparger, Ellen E; Murphy, Brian G

2013-01-01

278

The dengue viruses.  

PubMed Central

Dengue, a major public health problem throughout subtropical and tropical regions, is an acute infectious disease characterized by biphasic fever, headache, pain in various parts of the body, prostration, rash, lymphadenopathy, and leukopenia. In more severe or complicated dengue, patients present with a severe febrile illness characterized by abnormalities of hemostasis and increased vascular permeability, which in some instances results in a hypovolemic shock. Four distinct serotypes of the dengue virus (dengue-1, dengue-2, dengue-3, and dengue-4) exist, with numerous virus strains found worldwide. Molecular cloning methods have led to a greater understanding of the structure of the RNA genome and definition of virus-specific structural and nonstructural proteins. Progress towards producing safe, effective dengue virus vaccines, a goal for over 45 years, has been made. Images PMID:2224837

Henchal, E A; Putnak, J R

1990-01-01

279

Avoiding Computer Viruses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The threat of computer sabotage is a real concern to business teachers and others responsible for academic computer facilities. Teachers can minimize the possibility. Eight suggestions for avoiding computer viruses are given. (JOW)

Rowe, Joyce; And Others

1989-01-01

280

Rapid Detection and Quantification of RNA of Ebola and Marburg Viruses, Lassa Virus, Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Rift Valley Fever Virus, Dengue Virus, and Yellow Fever Virus by Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are acute infections with high case fatality rates. Important VHF agents are Ebola and Marburg viruses (MBGV\\/EBOV), Lassa virus (LASV), Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), dengue virus (DENV), and yellow fever virus (YFV). VHFs are clinically difficult to diagnose and to distinguish; a rapid and reliable laboratory diagnosis is required in

Christian Drosten; Stephan Göttig; Stefan Schilling; Marcel Asper; Marcus Panning; Herbert Schmitz; Stephan Günther

2002-01-01

281

AVG Anti-Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Those who wish for an antivirus program that is both versatile and reliable should definitely consider this latest iteration of the AVG Anti-Virus program. With this program, visitors can be assured that AVG will look for new virus definitions on a daily basis and that it will also create an effective rescue disk in case a dire situation emerges. This website features a number of archived versions of the AVG software for users to choose from.

2008-01-01

282

MEDLINEPlus: Monkeypox Virus Infections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Readers can keep up with the latest developments in the Monkeypox outbreak with this straightforward Web site from MEDLINEplus. The site features the latest Monkeypox news as well as links to authoritative sites for background information about the virus. Readers will also find information on prevention and screening, updated statistics on the outbreak from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, and more. The site also includes a downloadable electron micrograph of the Monkeypox virus.

283

Respiratory syncytial virus infections  

PubMed Central

RS virus was isolated from 10·5% of the specimens examined in the MRC/PHLS hospital survey and from 0·9% of those in the general practice survey. The highest isolation rates were in infants with lower respiratory tract infections. Dyspnoea, wheezing and cough were the predominant clinical features. The differences in the rates between hospital and general practice and newer methods of diagnosis of RS virus infection are discussed. PMID:4806397

Gardner, P. S.

1973-01-01

284

Origins of Viruses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page is part of a site created as a supplement for an introduction to virology course for second year microbiology students. It includes discussions on the origins of viruses as well as how they might have evolved. There are several links to pertinent conceptial matter such as basics on the different types of viruses as well as a link to the course home page.

Ed Rybicki

285

Smaller Fleas: Viruses of Microorganisms  

PubMed Central

Life forms can be roughly differentiated into those that are microscopic versus those that are not as well as those that are multicellular and those that, instead, are unicellular. Cellular organisms seem generally able to host viruses, and this propensity carries over to those that are both microscopic and less than truly multicellular. These viruses of microorganisms, or VoMs, in fact exist as the world's most abundant somewhat autonomous genetic entities and include the viruses of domain Bacteria (bacteriophages), the viruses of domain Archaea (archaeal viruses), the viruses of protists, the viruses of microscopic fungi such as yeasts (mycoviruses), and even the viruses of other viruses (satellite viruses). In this paper we provide an introduction to the concept of viruses of microorganisms, a.k.a., viruses of microbes. We provide broad discussion particularly of VoM diversity. VoM diversity currently spans, in total, at least three-dozen virus families. This is roughly ten families per category—bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and protist—with some virus families infecting more than one of these microorganism major taxa. Such estimations, however, will vary with further discovery and taxon assignment and also are dependent upon what forms of life one includes among microorganisms. PMID:24278736

Hyman, Paul; Abedon, Stephen T.

2012-01-01

286

Tick-borne viruses*  

PubMed Central

More than 150 arthropod-borne viruses are now recognized, and over 50 of these are known to produce human infections and disease. Among these viruses are those of the tick-borne Russian spring-summer complex, which is etiologically involved in a wide variety of human diseases of varying severity. The eight antigenically different members of this complex so far known are Russian spring-summer encephalitis, louping-ill, Central European encephalitis, Omsk haemorrhagic fever, Kyasanur Forest disease, Langat, Negishi and Powassan viruses. In his review of the problems posed by these viruses and of research on them, the author points out that, while this complex is distributed around the globe in the temperate zone of the northern hemisphere, the only serious tick-borne virus disease known in the tropics is Kyasanur Forest disease. It is probable, however, that there are other, unrecognized tick-borne viruses in the tropical areas of Asia, Africa and America of importance to human health, and that these will be brought to light as virological studies of diseases of now obscure etiology are pursued. PMID:14043753

Work, Telford H.

1963-01-01

287

Cell Biology of Virus Entry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part 1 of this lecture will discuss ways in which viruses bind to the surface of host cells. Simian Virus 40 which binds to specific cell surface glycolipids, and Human Papilloma Virus-16 which binds to sites on filoipodia, are examples of different binding mechanisms. Attachment of viruses to the plasma membrane activates cell signaling resulting in endocytosis of the viral particles.In the second lecture, the next steps in viral infection are described. Part 3 focuses on a single virus, the Vaccinia virus, as a model for cell binding, signaling and endocytosis.

Ari Helenius (Insitute of Biochemistry, ETH Zurich, Switzerland; )

2009-02-01

288

Article de synthse LES PORTEURS DE VIRUS  

E-print Network

Article de synthèse LES PORTEURS DE VIRUS: ANALYSE DES Ã?TATS D'Ã?QUILIBRE ENTRE LE VIRUS ET SON HÃ?TE/07/86/accepté le 28/12/86 Abstract VIRUS PERSISTENCE ― ANALYSIS OF EQUILIBRIUM STATES BETWEEN VIRUS AND ITS HOST. ― The various mechanisms of virus persistence are described. Four kinds of virus

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

289

Immunology of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 500 million people worldwide are persistently infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and\\/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) and are at risk of developing chronic liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite many common features in the pathogenesis of HBV- and HCV-related liver disease, these viruses markedly differ in their virological properties and in their immune escape and

Michelina Nascimbeni; Barbara Rehermann

2005-01-01

290

Insect transmission of plant viruses: a constraint on virus variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic diversity in viruses is shaped by high rates of recombination and is constrained by host defenses and the requirements of transmission. Recent studies of insect-transmitted plant viruses demonstrate highly conserved molecular motifs in viral genomes that regulate the specificity of insect transmission. In contrast, advances in our understanding of host plant response to virus infection reveal some generalized patterns

Alison G Power

2000-01-01

291

DWEET MOTTLE VIRUS AND CITRUS LEAF BLOTCH VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Dweet Mottle Virus’ (DMV) of Citrus was first described in the early 1960s in California. It is associated with particular symptoms on the ‘Dweet’ tangor indicator. Recently, the Spanish group at IVIA published a new virus, ‘Citrus Leaf Botch Virus’ (CLBV). CLBV reacts similarly to DMV in ‘Dweet’ b...

292

Characterization of K virus and its comparison with polyoma virus.  

PubMed Central

The antigenic relationship between the two murine papovaviruses, K virus and polyoma virus, was examined by serological techniques to determine whether they shared any antigenic components. No cross-reactivity was found associated with the viral (V) antigens by the indirect immunofluorescence, neutralization, or hemagglutination-inhibition tests. The tumor (T) antigens expressed in transformed cells or cells productively infected by either K or polyoma virus did not cross-react by indirect immunofluorescence. An antigenic relationship was detected, however, among the late proteins of K virus, polyoma virus, simian virus 40, and the human papovavirus BKV, when tested with either hyperimmune sera prepared against polyoma virus and simian virus 40 or sera prepared against disrupted virions. The nucleic acids of K and polyoma viruses were compared by agarose gel electrophoresis and restriction endonuclease analysis. No nucleotide sequence homology between the genomes of these two viruses was detectable by DNA-DNA hybridization techniques under stringent conditions. The genome of K virus was found to be slightly smaller than that of polyoma virus, and the cleavage patterns of the viral DNAs with six restriction endonucleases were different. These findings indicate that there is little relationship between these two murine papovaviruses. Images PMID:81318

Bond, S B; Howley, P M; Takemoto, K K

1978-01-01

293

About Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs)  

MedlinePLUS

... Diagnosis HPIV Seasons Resources & References About Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Overview ... HPIVs, who is at risk, symptoms, how the viruses spread... Symptoms & Illnesses Lists symptoms and illnesses caused ...

294

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV): Diagnosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content ... t need to visit a healthcare provider. The virus generally runs its course with the help of ...

295

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV): Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content ... get beter. Good handwashing can prevent spread the virus. In more severe cases, people with RSV might ...

296

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV): Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content ... to six days after being exposed to the virus. However, RSV can be particularly dangerous in premature ...

297

Production of virus resistant plants  

DOEpatents

A method of suppressing virus gene expression in plants using untranslatable plus sense RNA is disclosed. The method is useful for the production of plants that are resistant to virus infection. 9 figs.

Dougherty, W.G.; Lindbo, J.A.

1996-12-10

298

Chlorella viruses isolated in China  

SciTech Connect

Plaque-forming viruses of the unicellular, eukaryotic, exsymbiotic, Chlorella-like green algae strain NC64A, which are common in the United States, were also present in fresh water collected in the People's Republic of China. Seven of the Chinese viruses were examined in detail and compared with the Chlorella viruses previously isolated in the United States. Like the American viruses, the Chinese viruses were large polyhedra and sensitive to chloroform. They contained numerous structural proteins and large double-stranded DNA genomes of at least 300 kilobase pairs. Each of the DNAs from the Chinese viruses contained 5-methyldeoxycytosine, which varied from 12.6 to 46.7% of the deoxycytosine, and N{sup 6}-methyldeoxyadenosine, which varied from 2.2 to 28.3% of the deoxyadenosine. Four of the Chinese virus DNAs hybridized extensively with {sup 32}P-labeled DNA from the American virus PBCV-1, and three hybridized poorly.

Zhang, Y.; Burbank, D.E.; Van Etten, J.L. (Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln (USA))

1988-09-01

299

Molluscum contagiosum virus infection.  

PubMed

Molluscum contagiosum virus is an important human skin pathogen: it can cause disfigurement and suffering in children, in adults it is less common and often sexually transmitted. Extensive and persistent skin infection with the virus can indicate underlying immunodeficiency. Traditional ablative therapies have not been compared directly with newer immune-modulating and specific antiviral therapies. Advances in research raise the prospect of new approaches to treatment informed by the biology of the virus; in human skin, the infection is localised in the epidermal layers, where it induces a typical, complex hyperproliferative lesion with an abundance of virus particles but a conspicuous absence of immune effectors. Functional studies of the viral genome have revealed effects on cellular pathways involved in the cell cycle, innate immunity, inflammation, and cell death. Extensive lesions caused by molluscum contagiosum can occur in patients with DOCK8 deficiency-a genetic disorder affecting migration of dendritic and specialised T cells in skin. Sudden disappearance of lesions is the consequence of a vigorous immune response in healthy people. Further study of the unique features of infection with molluscum contagiosum virus could give fundamental insight into the nature of skin immunity. PMID:23972567

Chen, Xiaoying; Anstey, Alex V; Bugert, Joachim J

2013-10-01

300

Engineered plant virus resistance.  

PubMed

Virus diseases are among the key limiting factors that cause significant yield loss and continuously threaten crop production. Resistant cultivars coupled with pesticide application are commonly used to circumvent these threats. One of the limitations of the reliance on resistant cultivars is the inevitable breakdown of resistance due to the multitude of variable virus populations. Similarly, chemical applications to control virus transmitting insect vectors are costly to the farmers, cause adverse health and environmental consequences, and often result in the emergence of resistant vector strains. Thus, exploiting strategies that provide durable and broad-spectrum resistance over diverse environments are of paramount importance. The development of plant gene transfer systems has allowed for the introgression of alien genes into plant genomes for novel disease control strategies, thus providing a mechanism for broadening the genetic resources available to plant breeders. Genetic engineering offers various options for introducing transgenic virus resistance into crop plants to provide a wide range of resistance to viral pathogens. This review examines the current strategies of developing virus resistant transgenic plants. PMID:25438782

Galvez, Leny C; Banerjee, Joydeep; Pinar, Hasan; Mitra, Amitava

2014-11-01

301

Viruses and Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disorder of unknown etiology, possibly caused by a virus or virus-triggered immunopathology. The virus might reactivate after years of latency and lyse oligodendrocytes, as in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, or initiate immunopathological demyelination, as in animals infected with Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus or coronaviruses. The argument for a viral cause of MS is supported by epidemiological analyses and studies of MS in identical twins, indicating that disease is acquired. However, the most important evidence is the presence of bands of oligoclonal IgG (OCBs) in MS brain and CSF that persist throughout the lifetime of the patient. OCBs are found almost exclusively in infectious CNS disorders, and antigenic targets of OCBs represent the agent that causes disease. Here, the authors review past attempts to identify an infectious agent in MS brain cells and discuss the promise of using recombinant antibodies generated from clonally expanded plasma cells in brain and CSF to identify disease-relevant antigens. They show how this strategy has been used successfully to analyze antigen specificity in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, a chronic encephalitis caused by measles virus, and in neuromyelitis optica, a chronic autoimmune demyelinating disease produced by antibodies directed against the aquaporin-4 water channel. PMID:22130640

Owens, Gregory P.; Gilden, Don; Burgoon, Mark P.; Yu, Xiaoli; Bennett, Jeffrey L.

2012-01-01

302

Dinoflagellates, diatoms, and their viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the first discovery of the very high virus abundance in marine environments, a number of researchers were fascinated\\u000a with the world of “marine viruses”, which had previously been mostly overlooked in studies on marine ecosystems. In the present\\u000a paper, the possible role of viruses infecting marine eukaryotic microalgae is enlightened, especially summarizing the most\\u000a up-to-the-minute information of marine viruses

Keizo Nagasaki

2008-01-01

303

Raspberry latent virus in Rubus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Raspberry latent virus (RpLV) is a recently characterized virus reported from the Pacific Northwest, including Oregon and Washington in the United States and British Columbia in Canada. The virus appears to spread rapidly in the Fraser River Valley (northwest Washington and southwest British Columb...

304

Protecting Your Computer from Viruses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computer virus is defined as a software program capable of reproducing itself and usually capable of causing great harm to files or other programs on the same computer. The existence of computer viruses--or the necessity of avoiding viruses--is part of using a computer. With the advent of the Internet, the door was opened wide for these…

Descy, Don E.

2006-01-01

305

Ipomoviruses: Squash vein yellowing virus, Cucumber vein yellowing virus, Cassava brown streak virus, and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ipomoviruses including Squash vein yellowing virus, Cucumber vein yellowing virus and Cassava brown streak virus are currently causing significant economic impact on crop production in several regions of the world. Only recently have results of detailed characterization of their whitefly transmissi...

306

Occupational Exposure to Rabies Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This fact sheet is for workers who may be exposed to the rabies virus on the job, and their employers. Three main groups are at risk: those who work with animal species that can transmit the virus, workers whose jobs may incidentally expose them to carrier animal species, and lab workers who use live rabies virus in research or vaccine

2008-01-01

307

Replicon System for Lassa Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lassa virus is endemic to West Africa and causes hemorrhagic fever in humans. To facilitate the functional analysis of this virus, a replicon system was developed based on Lassa virus strain AV. Genomic and antige- nomic minigenomes (MG) were constructed consisting of the intergenic region of S RNA and a reporter gene (Renilla luciferase) in antisense orientation, flanked by the

Meike Hass; Uta Golnitz; Stefanie Muller; Beate Becker-Ziaja; Stephan Gunther

2004-01-01

308

An introduction to computer viruses  

SciTech Connect

This report on computer viruses is based upon a thesis written for the Master of Science degree in Computer Science from the University of Tennessee in December 1989 by David R. Brown. This thesis is entitled An Analysis of Computer Virus Construction, Proliferation, and Control and is available through the University of Tennessee Library. This paper contains an overview of the computer virus arena that can help the reader to evaluate the threat that computer viruses pose. The extent of this threat can only be determined by evaluating many different factors. These factors include the relative ease with which a computer virus can be written, the motivation involved in writing a computer virus, the damage and overhead incurred by infected systems, and the legal implications of computer viruses, among others. Based upon the research, the development of a computer virus seems to require more persistence than technical expertise. This is a frightening proclamation to the computing community. The education of computer professionals to the dangers that viruses pose to the welfare of the computing industry as a whole is stressed as a means of inhibiting the current proliferation of computer virus programs. Recommendations are made to assist computer users in preventing infection by computer viruses. These recommendations support solid general computer security practices as a means of combating computer viruses.

Brown, D.R.

1992-03-01

309

Endosomes, exosomes and Trojan viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retroviruses are enveloped viruses that are generally assumed to bud at the plasma membrane of infected cells. Recently it has become apparent that some of these viruses use the endocytic pathway to coordinate their assembly and release. In addition, these and some other enveloped viruses exploit the machinery that generates the internal membranes of multivesicular bodies (MVB). These observations and

Annegret Pelchen-Matthews; Graça Raposo; Mark Marsh

2004-01-01

310

Pathobiology of avian influenza viruses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Avian influenza virus causes serious disease in a wide variety of birds and mammals. Its natural hosts are wild aquatic birds, in which most infections are unapparent. Avian Influenza (AI) viruses are classified into 16 hemagglutinin (H1-16) and nine neuraminidase (N1-9) subtypes. Each virus has on...

311

Computer Bytes, Viruses and Vaccines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a history of computer viruses, explains various types of viruses and how they affect software or computer operating systems, and describes examples of specific viruses. Available vaccines are explained, and precautions for protecting programs and disks are given. (nine references) (LRW)

Palmore, Teddy B.

1989-01-01

312

CAN CRYPTOGRAPHY PREVENT COMPUTER VIRUSES?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between cryptography and virus prevention is anything but simple. Since the beginning of the computer virus problem, people have proposed solutions involving some form of cryptography; but cryptography plays only a minor role in the solutions we actually use today. Encryption can also make virus prevention more difficult, by providing viral hiding places inside the objects that it

John F Morar; David M Chess

2000-01-01

313

Research on computer virus database management system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growing proliferation of computer viruses becomes the lethal threat and research focus of the security of network information. While new virus is emerging, the number of viruses is growing, virus classification increasing complex. Virus naming because of agencies' capture time differences can not be unified. Although each agency has its own virus database, the communication between each other lacks, or virus information is incomplete, or a small number of sample information. This paper introduces the current construction status of the virus database at home and abroad, analyzes how to standardize and complete description of virus characteristics, and then gives the information integrity, storage security and manageable computer virus database design scheme.

Qi, Guoquan

2011-12-01

314

Simian Varicella Virus Pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

Because varicella zoster virus (VZV) is an exclusively human pathogen, the development of an animal model is necessary to study pathogenesis, latency, and reactivation. The pathological, virological, and immunological features of simian varicella virus (SVV) infection in nonhuman primates are similar to those of VZV infection in humans. Both natural infection of cynomolgus and African green monkeys as well as intrabronchial inoculation of rhesus macaques with SVV provide the most useful models to study viral and immunological aspects of latency and the host immune response. Experimental immunosuppression of monkeys latently infected with SVV results in zoster, thus providing a new model system to study how the loss of adaptive immunity modulates virus reactivation. PMID:20186611

Mahalingam, Ravi; Messaoudi, Ilhem; Gilden, Don

2010-01-01

315

[Diversification of influenza viruses].  

PubMed

The presence of flu in humankind history was cited by numerous sources (the oldest known source was written by Hyppocrates, in 412 BC), but the epidemic impact could be measured only starting with the XVIII-th century, after the pandemics from 1729 - 1733 (with estimates of about two million deaths). Nowadays, health scientists dispenses vaccines, containing the antigenes of the viruses responsible with the flu in the last winter mixed with other two major flu-types. The effect of the current flu vaccines extends over about six months from the moment of innoculation. The reason of that short effectiveness of the vaccines is given by ability of viruses to change themselves very quickly. There are two ways through which the virus can astonish the victim antibodies (humans or animals): the mutation (named antigenic drift) and the genetic recombination of the genomic segments from different strains (named antigenic shift). PMID:20422926

Marian, Constantin V; Mih?escu, Grigore

2009-01-01

316

Viruses in water  

PubMed Central

Attention is drawn in this paper to the increasing problem of viral contamination of water and shellfish, particularly since growing demands for available water resources by a rising world population and expanding industry will make the recycling of wastewater almost inevitable in the future. The problem of eliminating viruses pathogenic for man from water is considered in the light of present water treatment procedures, which are often inadequate for that purpose. Man may be exposed to waterborne viruses through the consumption of contaminated water, shellfish, or crops, as a result of recreational activities involving water, or from aerosols following the spraying of crops with liquid wastes. Physical and chemical methods of eliminating viruses from water are discussed. PMID:310357

Melnick, Joseph L.; Gerba, Charles P.; Wallis, Craig

1978-01-01

317

Fragg Virus - Kinetic City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Fragg Virus is a learning module centered learning the importance of systems; it is a part of the Kinetic City-Mission to Vearth site. In general this module is concerned with how different parts work within a system. The Fragg Virus module is equipped with a computer simulation mind game, creative writing exercises for independent study, and art-centered exercises, as well as lesson plans for hands on games and activities designed for a group. The focus of the activities is evolution and the features of an animal that helps the animal survive in its environment. Certain features explored are the giraffes neck, polar bears fir, and a birds beak.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (; )

2008-04-17

318

Viruses and viral proteins  

PubMed Central

For more than 30 years X-ray crystallography has been by far the most powerful approach for determining the structures of viruses and viral proteins at atomic resolution. The information provided by these structures, which covers many important aspects of the viral life cycle such as cell-receptor recognition, viral entry, nucleic acid transfer and genome replication, has extensively enriched our vision of the virus world. Many of the structures available correspond to potential targets for antiviral drugs against important human pathogens. This article provides an overview of the current knowledge of different structural aspects of the above-mentioned processes. PMID:25485129

Verdaguer, Nuria; Ferrero, Diego; Murthy, Mathur R. N.

2014-01-01

319

Zika Virus Outside Africa  

PubMed Central

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus related to yellow fever, dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses. In 2007 ZIKV caused an outbreak of relatively mild disease characterized by rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis on Yap Island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. This was the first time that ZIKV was detected outside of Africa and Asia. The history, transmission dynamics, virology, and clinical manifestations of ZIKV disease are discussed, along with the possibility for diagnostic confusion between ZIKV illness and dengue.The emergence of ZIKV outside of its previously known geographic range should prompt awareness of the potential for ZIKV to spread to other Pacific islands and the Americas. PMID:19788800

2009-01-01

320

Additional hosts of alfalfa mosaic virus, cucumber mosaic virus, and tobacco mosaic virus in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

In New Zealand, alfalfa mosaic virus is recorded on three new field crop hosts, Cajanus cajan (L.) Huth, Coriandrum sativum L., and Wasabia japonica (Miquel) Matsum. Cucumber mosaic virus is recorded on the weeds Cirsium vulgare L. and Veronica persica Poiret and on the ornamental perennial Gentiana sp. Tobacco mosaic virus is recorded on sunflower Helianthus annuus L.

J. D. Fletcher

1989-01-01

321

Soilborne viruses: advances in virus movement, virus induced gene silencing, and engineered resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until recently soilborne plant viruses were considered important only because they are causative agents for agricultural diseases. In recent years, soilborne plant viruses have played a significant role in advancing research into mechanisms of plasmodesmata transport, gene silencing, and engineered resistance to plant pathogens. Three different mechanisms by which viruses move through plasmodesmata have been identified using dianthoviruses, nepoviruses, and

Jeanmarie Verchot-Lubicz

2003-01-01

322

Bat flight and zoonotic viruses  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host–virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts.

O'Shea, Thomas; Cryan, Paul M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hayman, David T.S.; Luis, Angela D.; Peel, Alison J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Wood, James L.N.

2014-01-01

323

Bat Flight and Zoonotic Viruses  

PubMed Central

Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host–virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts. PMID:24750692

Cryan, Paul M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hayman, David T.S.; Luis, Angela D.; Peel, Alison J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Wood, James L.N.

2014-01-01

324

Turnip Yellow Mosaic Virus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The bumpy exterior of the turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) protein coat, or capsid, was defined in detail by Dr. Alexander McPherson of the University of California, Irvin using proteins crystallized in space for analysis on Earth. TYMV is an icosahedral virus constructed from 180 copies of the same protein arranged into 12 clusters of five proteins (pentamers), and 20 clusters of six proteins (hexamers). The final TYMV structure led to the unexpected hypothesis that the virus releases its RNA by essentially chemical-mechanical means. Most viruses have fairly flat coats, but in TYNV, the fold in each protein, called the jellyroll, is clustered at the points where the protein pentamers and hexamers join. The jellyrolls are almost standing on end, producing a bumpy surface with knobs at all of the pentamers and hexamers. At the inside surface of the pentamers is a void that is not present at the hexamers. The coating had been seen in early stuties of TYMV, but McPherson's atomic structure shows much more detail. The inside surface is strikingly, and unexpectedly, different than the outside. While the pentamers contain a central void on the inside, the hexameric units contain peptides linked to each other, forming a ring or, more accurately, rings to fill the void. Credit: Dr. Alexander McPherson, University of California, Irvine

2000-01-01

325

Varicella zoster virus latency  

PubMed Central

Primary infection by varicella zoster virus (VZV) typically results in childhood chickenpox, at which time latency is established in the neurons of the cranial nerve, dorsal root and autonomic ganglia along the entire neuraxis. During latency, the histone-associated virus genome assumes a circular episomal configuration from which transcription is epigenetically regulated. The lack of an animal model in which VZV latency and reactivation can be studied, along with the difficulty in obtaining high-titer cell-free virus, has limited much of our understanding of VZV latency to descriptive studies of ganglia removed at autopsy and analogy to HSV-1, the prototype alphaherpesvirus. However, the lack of miRNA, detectable latency-associated transcript and T-cell surveillance during VZV latency highlight basic differences between the two neurotropic herpesviruses. This article focuses on VZV latency: establishment, maintenance and reactivation. Comparisons are made with HSV-1, with specific attention to differences that make these viruses unique human pathogens. PMID:21695042

Eshleman, Emily; Shahzad, Aamir; Cohrs, Randall J

2011-01-01

326

Newcastle disease virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Newcastle disease virus (NDV), a member of the Avulavirus genus in the Paramyxoviridae family, has a ribonucleic acid (RNA) genome that is negative sense, non-segmented, and single-stranded. The genome codes for six structural proteins: nucleocapsid, phosphoprotein, matrix, fusion, hemagglutinin-neu...

327

Virus Chapter: Dicistrovidae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Dicistroviridae family comprises viruses infecting both beneficial arthropods such as honey bees and shrimp and insect pests of medical and agricultural importance. During the last five years, advances in sequencing and phylogenetic analysis have led to the discovery and identification of sever...

328

GENOME OF HORSEPOX VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Here we present the genomic sequence of horsepox virus (HSPV) isolate MNR-76, an orthopoxvirus (OPV) isolated in 1976 from diseased Mongolian horses. The 212 kbp genome contained 7.5 kbp inverted terminal repeats (ITR) and lacked extensive terminal tandem repetition. HSPV contained 236 ORFs with sim...

329

Raspberry leaf curl virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Raspberry leaf curl virus (RLCV) is limited to hosts in the genus Rubus and is transmitted persistently by the small raspberry aphid, Aphis rubicola Oestlund. It is found only in North America, principally in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada and in the Rocky Mountain regions of...

330

From Shakespeare to Viruses  

ScienceCinema

Berkeley Lab scientists have created a unique new tool for analyzing and comparing long sets of data, be it the genomes of mammals or viruses, or the works of Shakespeare. The results of the Shakespeare analysis surprised scholars with their accuracy.

Kim, Sung-Hou

2013-05-29

331

From Shakespeare to Viruses  

SciTech Connect

Berkeley Lab scientists have created a unique new tool for analyzing and comparing long sets of data, be it the genomes of mammals or viruses, or the works of Shakespeare. The results of the Shakespeare analysis surprised scholars with their accuracy.

Kim, Sung-Hou

2009-01-01

332

Cold Facts about Viruses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides ways for students to demonstrate their understanding of scientific concepts and skills. Describes a mini-unit around the cold in which students can relate humans to viruses. Includes activities and a modified simulation that provides questions to guide students. Discusses ways that allows students to apply prior knowledge, take ownership…

Pea, Celeste; Sterling, Donna R.

2002-01-01

333

From Shakespeare to Viruses  

SciTech Connect

Berkeley Lab scientists have created a unique new tool for analyzing and comparing long sets of data, be it the genomes of mammals or viruses, or the works of Shakespeare. The results of the Shakespeare analysis surprised scholars with their accuracy

Sung-Hou Kim

2009-02-09

334

Human Viruses and Cancer  

PubMed Central

The first human tumor virus was discovered in the middle of the last century by Anthony Epstein, Bert Achong and Yvonne Barr in African pediatric patients with Burkitt’s lymphoma. To date, seven viruses -EBV, KSHV, high-risk HPV, MCPV, HBV, HCV and HTLV1- have been consistently linked to different types of human cancer, and infections are estimated to account for up to 20% of all cancer cases worldwide. Viral oncogenic mechanisms generally include: generation of genomic instability, increase in the rate of cell proliferation, resistance to apoptosis, alterations in DNA repair mechanisms and cell polarity changes, which often coexist with evasion mechanisms of the antiviral immune response. Viral agents also indirectly contribute to the development of cancer mainly through immunosuppression or chronic inflammation, but also through chronic antigenic stimulation. There is also evidence that viruses can modulate the malignant properties of an established tumor. In the present work, causation criteria for viruses and cancer will be described, as well as the viral agents that comply with these criteria in human tumors, their epidemiological and biological characteristics, the molecular mechanisms by which they induce cellular transformation and their associated cancers. PMID:25341666

Morales-Sánchez, Abigail; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M.

2014-01-01

335

Apple mosaic virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Apple mosaic virus (ApMV), a member of the ilarvirus group, naturally infects Betula, Aesculus, Humulus, and several crop genera in the family Rosaceae (Malus, Prunus, Rosa and Rubus). ApMV was first reported in Rubus in several blackberry and raspberry cultivars in the United States and subsequentl...

336

BLUEBERRY SCORCH VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Blueberry scorch disease was first described in the state of Washington in the USA by Martin and Bristow in 1988 and it was later determined that Sheep Pen Hill disease, described previously in New Jersey, USA was also caused by Blueberry scorch virus (BlScV). BlScV has flexuous, rod-shaped particl...

337

Antibodies, viruses and vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutralizing antibodies are crucial for vaccine-mediated protection against viral diseases. They probably act, in most cases, by blunting the infection, which is then resolved by cellular immunity. The protective effects of neutralizing antibodies can be achieved not only by neutralization of free virus particles, but also by several activities directed against infected cells. In certain instances, non-neutralizing antibodies contribute to

Dennis R. Burton

2002-01-01

338

West Nile virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of West Nile virus (WNV) has resulted in the emergence of WNV variants that have a significant pathogenicity for humans, horses, and birds. WNV appeared in North America in New York City in 1999 and has since spread throughout the continent into the Caribbean and Mexico and is now believed to be enzootic in much of the United

David N Phalen; Bob Dahlhausen

2004-01-01

339

VIRUSES IN GROUNDWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The microbial contamination of ground water is a serious problem that can result in large outbreaks of waterborne disease. The purpose of this article is to review the literature available on viruses in ground water in order to evaluate the present state-of-knowledge, assess the ...

340

Viruses of Haloarchaea  

PubMed Central

In hypersaline environments, haloarchaea (halophilic members of the Archaea) are the dominant organisms, and the viruses that infect them, haloarchaeoviruses are at least ten times more abundant. Since their discovery in 1974, described haloarchaeoviruses include head-tailed, pleomorphic, spherical and spindle-shaped morphologies, representing Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae, Pleolipoviridae, Sphaerolipoviridae and Fuselloviridae families. This review overviews current knowledge of haloarchaeoviruses, providing information about classification, morphotypes, macromolecules, life cycles, genetic manipulation and gene regulation, and host-virus responses. In so doing, the review incorporates knowledge from laboratory studies of isolated viruses, field-based studies of environmental samples, and both genomic and metagenomic analyses of haloarchaeoviruses. What emerges is that some haloarchaeoviruses possess unique morphological and life cycle properties, while others share features with other viruses (e.g., bacteriophages). Their interactions with hosts influence community structure and evolution of populations that exist in hypersaline environments as diverse as seawater evaporation ponds, to hot desert or Antarctic lakes. The discoveries of their wide-ranging and important roles in the ecology and evolution of hypersaline communities serves as a strong motivator for future investigations of both laboratory-model and environmental systems. PMID:25402735

Luk, Alison W. S.; Williams, Timothy J.; Erdmann, Susanne; Papke, R. Thane; Cavicchioli, Ricardo

2014-01-01

341

Bluetongue virus surveillance in a newly infected area.  

PubMed

The occurrence of bluetongue virus (BTV) in areas in which intensive animal production is practised and where there is extensive movement of animals may have a substantial impact on both animal trade and husbandry. This situation occurred in Italy after the detection of bluetongue (BT) in August 2000. In such situations, surveillance can be used to delineate with precision those areas in which the virus is circulating and, consequently, to enforce the appropriate animal movement restrictions. Furthermore, surveillance can provide the data required to assess the risk associated with animal movement and trade. A structured surveillance system for the detection of BTV has been in place in Italy since August 2001. The system is based on the periodical testing of unvaccinated sentinel cattle that are uniformly scattered throughout Italy in a grid of 400 km(2) cells. The initial number of sentinel sites and sentinel animals, together with the width of the restricted area generated by the finding of a single seroconversion in a sentinel animal, were based on conservative criteria. Animal movement was restricted in a 20 km radius buffer zone around any positive serological result. This buffer area extends about 1,257 km(2), equivalent to the area of three grid cells. After the commencement of the BT vaccination campaign in Italy, the sentinel surveillance system was the only way in which the effectiveness of vaccination and the incidence of infection in the non-immunised strata of ruminant animals could be estimated. Data collected over two years was used to assess the risks posed by the adoption of less conservative criteria for the delineation of infected areas and by the progressive relaxation of movement restrictions of vaccinated animals. In regard to the delineation of restricted areas, a new approach was tested and validated in the field, based on a Bayesian analysis of the positive and negative results obtained by the testing of sentinel animals from defined regions. For the risks related to animal movement, the surveillance data was used in risk assessment analyses to address the movement of slaughter and breeding animals from vaccinated/infected and surrounding areas to free areas. These risk assessments led to an amendment of the relevant European Union legislation. Finally, a Montecarlo simulation model was developed to simulate different sentinel system scenarios and to decrease the total number of sentinel animals and sites required by the surveillance system. The sentinel surveillance system was complemented by an entomological surveillance system based on the use of a number of permanent blacklight traps run weekly year-round and a number of mobile blacklight traps moved through the grid cells during the summer and autumn of each year. The aim of entomological surveillance was to define the maximum distribution of vectors and their seasonal population dynamics. Furthermore, the permanent trap system provides an early warning of the start of new epidemics. The data from the entomological surveillance system were also analysed to generate probability maps of the presence of the principal BTV vector (Culicoides imicola) and to define the geographical risk of BT on a nationwide basis, and to predict the geographical distribution and the short-term spread of C. imicola in Sardinia, using spatio-temporal data. The detection, since 2001, of BT outbreaks in the absence of C. imicola and the recent identification of BTV in midges of the Obsoletus Complex also stimulated investigations on other vector Culicoides, including C. obsoletus and C. pulicaris. PMID:20419661

Giovannini, A; Calistri, P; Conte, A; Savini, L; Nannini, D; Patta, C; Santucci, U; Caporale, V

2004-01-01

342

Equine immunity to viruses.  

PubMed

The identification of some of the adaptive immune responses to infection with equine viruses has been the first step toward rational immunoprophylactic design. Sufficient knowledge of infection-induced immunity and informed estimates of the requirements for long-term immunity for EIV have now been obtained. Thus, the future for inactivated EIV vaccines is promising now that new adjuvants have been applied to induce cellular immunity and safe methods have been designed to stimulate virus-neutralizing (VN) antibody at mucosal surfaces. Adenoviruses induce circulating VN antibody, the presence of which appears to correlate with protection from reinfection. Therefore, the potential of vaccines to induce VN antibody and protect from challenge is an important next step with this virus. With persistent viruses such as EHV-1, antibody-mediated protection from infection can be achieved only at the site of initial infection, that is, the nasopharynx and upper respiratory tract. Systemic dissemination is very rapid and consequently VN antibody is unlikely to play a major role in prevention of disease once the initial infection event has occurred. Cellular immune responses, particularly CTLs, play a dominant role in protection and recovery and are important in immune surveillance and determination of the outcome of reactivation of latent virus. Therefore, the key to future EHV-1 vaccine design is to focus on stimulation of CTL responses, and this requires the successful presentation of vaccine-derived antigenic peptides to MHC class I molecules that are recognized by specific receptors on CTL. There is some evidence that stimulation of EHV-1-specific CTL precursors may correlate with immunity to this virus. By analogy with gamma herpesviruses in humans, CTL precursor frequency may also function as an immune correlate for EHV-2. Although EAV infection induces strong immunity in females and geldings, persistent infection of the genital tract is an important route of dissemination from stallions. Although inactivated vaccines induce strong immunity (which depends upon VN activity of serum antibody) to first infection, the immunologic control of persistent infection is currently poorly understood; however, analogy with other persistent viruses suggests that CTLs are also likely to play an important role in the control of persistent EAV infections. PMID:10752138

Slater, J; Hannant, D

2000-04-01

343

Molecular epidemiology of respiratory viruses in virus-induced asthma  

PubMed Central

Acute respiratory illness (ARI) due to various viruses is not only the most common cause of upper respiratory infection in humans but is also a major cause of morbidity and mortality, leading to diseases such as bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Previous studies have shown that respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human rhinovirus (HRV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), human parainfluenza virus (HPIV), and human enterovirus infections may be associated with virus-induced asthma. For example, it has been suggested that HRV infection is detected in the acute exacerbation of asthma and infection is prolonged. Thus it is believed that the main etiological cause of asthma is ARI viruses. Furthermore, the number of asthma patients in most industrial countries has greatly increased, resulting in a morbidity rate of around 10-15% of the population. However, the relationships between viral infections, host immune response, and host factors in the pathophysiology of asthma remain unclear. To gain a better understanding of the epidemiology of virus-induced asthma, it is important to assess both the characteristics of the viruses and the host defense mechanisms. Molecular epidemiology enables us to understand the pathogenesis of microorganisms by identifying specific pathways, molecules, and genes that influence the risk of developing a disease. However, the epidemiology of various respiratory viruses associated with virus-induced asthma is not fully understood. Therefore, in this article, we review molecular epidemiological studies of RSV, HRV, HPIV, and HMPV infection associated with virus-induced asthma. PMID:24062735

Ishioka, Taisei; Noda, Masahiro; Kozawa, Kunihisa; Kimura, Hirokazu

2013-01-01

344

Viruses and neurodegeneration  

PubMed Central

Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) are chronic degenerative diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), which affect 37 million people worldwide. As the lifespan increases, the NDs are the fourth leading cause of death in the developed countries and becoming increasingly prevalent in developing countries. Despite considerable research, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Although the large majority of studies do not show support for the involvement of pathogenic aetiology in classical NDs, a number of emerging studies show support for possible association of viruses with classical neurodegenerative diseases in humans. Space does not permit for extensive details to be discussed here on non-viral-induced neurodegenerative diseases in humans, as they are well described in literature. Viruses induce alterations and degenerations of neurons both directly and indirectly. Their ability to attack the host immune system, regions of nervous tissue implies that they can interfere with the same pathways involved in classical NDs in humans. Supporting this, many similarities between classical NDs and virus-mediated neurodegeneration (non-classical) have been shown at the anatomic, sub-cellular, genomic and proteomic levels suggesting that viruses can explain neurodegenerative disorders mechanistically. The main objective of this review is to provide readers a detailed snapshot of similarities viral and non-viral neurodegenerative diseases share, so that mechanistic pathways of neurodegeneration in human NDs can be clearly understood. Viruses can guide us to unveil these pathways in human NDs. This will further stimulate the birth of new concepts in the biological research, which is needed for gaining deeper insights into the treatment of human NDs and delineate mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration. PMID:23724961

2013-01-01

345

A vaccinia virus renaissance  

PubMed Central

In 1796, Edward Jenner introduced the concept of vaccination with cowpox virus, an Orthopoxvirus within the family Poxviridae that elicits cross protective immunity against related orthopoxviruses, including smallpox virus (variola virus). Over time, vaccinia virus (VACV) replaced cowpox virus as the smallpox vaccine, and vaccination efforts eventually led to the successful global eradication of smallpox in 1979. VACV has many characteristics that make it an excellent vaccine and that were crucial for the successful eradication of smallpox, including (1) its exceptional thermal stability (a very important but uncommon characteristic in live vaccines), (2) its ability to elicit strong humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, (3) the fact that it is easy to propagate, and (4) that it is not oncogenic, given that VACV replication occurs exclusively within the host cell cytoplasm and there is no evidence that the viral genome integrates into the host genome. Since the eradication of smallpox, VACV has experienced a renaissance of interest as a viral vector for the development of recombinant vaccines, immunotherapies, and oncolytic therapies, as well as the development of next-generation smallpox vaccines. This revival is mainly due to the successful use and extensive characterization of VACV as a vaccine during the smallpox eradication campaign, along with the ability to genetically manipulate its large dsDNA genome while retaining infectivity and immunogenicity, its wide mammalian host range, and its natural tropism for tumor cells that allows its use as an oncolytic vector. This review provides an overview of new uses of VACV that are currently being explored for the development of vaccines, immunotherapeutics, and oncolytic virotherapies. PMID:22777090

Verardi, Paulo H.; Titong, Allison; Hagen, Caitlin J.

2012-01-01

346

Virus Maturation by Budding  

PubMed Central

Enveloped viruses mature by budding at cellular membranes. It has been generally thought that this process is driven by interactions between the viral transmembrane proteins and the internal virion components (core, capsid, or nucleocapsid). This model was particularly applicable to alphaviruses, which require both spike proteins and a nucleocapsid for budding. However, genetic studies have clearly shown that the retrovirus core protein, i.e., the Gag protein, is able to form enveloped particles by itself. Also, budding of negative-strand RNA viruses (rhabdoviruses, orthomyxoviruses, and paramyxoviruses) seems to be accomplished mainly by internal components, most probably the matrix protein, since the spike proteins are not absolutely required for budding of these viruses either. In contrast, budding of coronavirus particles can occur in the absence of the nucleocapsid and appears to require two membrane proteins only. Biochemical and structural data suggest that the proteins, which play a key role in budding, drive this process by forming a three-dimensional (cage-like) protein lattice at the surface of or within the membrane. Similarly, recent electron microscopic studies revealed that the alphavirus spike proteins are also engaged in extensive lateral interactions, forming a dense protein shell at the outer surface of the viral envelope. On the basis of these data, we propose that the budding of enveloped viruses in general is governed by lateral interactions between peripheral or integral membrane proteins. This new concept also provides answers to the question of how viral and cellular membrane proteins are sorted during budding. In addition, it has implications for the mechanism by which the virion is uncoated during virus entry. PMID:9841669

Garoff, Henrik; Hewson, Roger; Opstelten, Dirk-Jan E.

1998-01-01

347

Virus movement within grafted watermelon plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Watermelon production in Florida is impacted by several viruses including whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus and Cucurbit leaf crumple virus, and aphid-transmitted Papaya ringspot virus type W (PRSV-W). While germplasm resistant to some...

348

Marine Viruses: Truth or Dare Mya Breitbart  

E-print Network

Marine Viruses: Truth or Dare Mya Breitbart College of Marine Science, University of South Florida million viruses per milliliter of surface seawater, viruses are the most abundant biological entities in the oceans. The majority of these viruses are phages (viruses that infect bacteria). Through lysing

Saleska, Scott

349

How Hepatitis D Virus Can Hinder the Control of Hepatitis B Virus  

E-print Network

How Hepatitis D Virus Can Hinder the Control of Hepatitis B Virus Maria Xiridou1 *, Barbara Borkent) virus is a defective virus that relies on hepatitis B virus (HBV) for transmission; infection of the bond between the two viruses, control measures for HBV may have also affected the spread of hepatitis D

Hulshof, Joost

350

Detection of sweet potato viruses in Yunnan and genetic diversity analysis of the common viruses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two hundred seventy-nine samples with virus-like symptoms collected from 16 regions in Yunnan Province were tested by RT-PCR/PCR using virus-specific primers for 8 sweet potato viruses. Six viruses, Sweet potato chlorotic fleck virus (SPCFV), Sweet Potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), Sweet potato ...

351

Heparan Sulfate-Mediated Binding of Infectious Dengue Virus Type 2 and Yellow Fever Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dengue virus type 2 and Yellow fever virus are arthropod-borne flaviviruses causing hemorrhagic fever in humans. Identification of virus receptors is important in understanding flavivirus pathogenesis. The aim of this work was to study the role of cellular heparan sulfate in the adsorption of infectious Yellow fever and Dengue type 2 viruses. Virus attachment was assessed by adsorbing virus to

Raphaële Germi; Jean-Marc Crance; Daniel Garin; Josette Guimet; Hugues Lortat-Jacob; Rob W. H. Ruigrok; Jean-Pierre Zarski; Emmanuel Drouet

2002-01-01

352

Hepatitis C Virus and other Flaviviridae Viruses Enter Cells via Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endocytosis of the Flaviviridae viruses, hepatitis C virus, GB virus C\\/hepatitis G virus, and bovine viral diarrheal virus (BVDV) was shown to be mediated by low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors on cultured cells by several lines of evidence: by the demonstration that endocytosis of these virus correlated with LDL receptor activity, by complete inhibition of detectable endocytosis by anti-LDL receptor

Vincent Agnello; Gyorgy Abel; Mutasim Elfahal; Glenn B. Knight; Qing-Xiu Zhang

1999-01-01

353

Measles virus for cancer therapy  

PubMed Central

Measles virus offers an ideal platform from which to build a new generation of safe, effective oncolytic viruses. Occasional "spontaneous" tumor regressions have occurred during natural measles infections, but common tumors do not express SLAM, the wild-type MV receptor, and are therefore not susceptible to the virus. Serendipitously, attenuated vaccine strains of measles virus have adapted to use CD46, a regulator of complement activation that is expressed in higher abundance on human tumor cells than on their non transformed counterparts. For this reason, attenuated measles viruses are potent and selective oncolytic agents showing impressive antitumor activity in mouse xenograft models. The viruses can be engineered to enhance their tumor specificity, increase their antitumor potency and facilitate noninvasive in vivo monitoring of their spread. A major impediment to the successful deployment of oncolytic measles viruses as anticancer agents is the high prevalence of pre-existing anti measles immunity, which impedes bloodstream delivery and curtails intratumoral virus spread. It is hoped that these problems can be addressed by delivering the virus inside measles-infected cell carriers and/or by concomitant administration of immunosuppressive drugs. From a safety perspective, population immunity provides an excellent defense against measles spread from patient to carers and, in fifty years of human experience, reversion of attenuated measles to a wild type pathogenic phenotype has not been observed. Clinical trials testing oncolytic measles viruses as an experimental cancer therapy are currently underway. PMID:19203112

Russell, Stephen J.; Whye Peng, Kah

2014-01-01

354

Human herpes virus 8: a new virus discloses its face  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human herpes virus 8 (HHV8) or Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV) is present in all Kaposi’s sarcoma, and\\u000a the detection of the virus using polymerase chain reaction or in situ hybridization is a highly sensitive and specific diagnostic\\u000a test for the diagnosis of this neoplasm. HHV8 is furthermore invariably present in primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and has\\u000a also been

Gieri Cathomas

2000-01-01

355

Principles of Virus Structural Organization  

PubMed Central

Viruses, the molecular nanomachines infecting hosts ranging from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, come in different sizes, shapes and symmetries. Questions such as what principles govern their structural organization, what factors guide their assembly, how these viruses integrate multifarious functions into one unique structure have enamored researchers for years. In the last five decades, following Caspar and Klug's elegant conceptualization of how viruses are constructed, high resolution structural studies using X-ray crystallography and more recently cryo-EM techniques have provided a wealth of information on structures of variety of viruses. These studies have significantly furthered our understanding of the principles that underlie structural organization in viruses. Such an understanding has practical impact in providing a rational basis for the design and development of antiviral strategies. In this chapter, we review principles underlying capsid formation in a variety of viruses, emphasizing the recent developments along with some historical perspective. PMID:22297509

Prasad, B.V. Venkataram; Schmid, Michael F

2013-01-01

356

Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV) and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... us online at: www.OTISpregnancy.org . Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV) and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman ... from your healthcare professional. What is Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV)? LCMV is a virus that can cause ...

357

Screening for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)  

MedlinePLUS

... Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task ... is human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)? HIV is a virus that attacks cells that help the body fight ...

358

West Nile Virus Infection and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... online at: http://www.mothertobaby.org/. West Nile Virus Infection and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman ... your health care professional. What is West Nile Virus (WNV)? WNV is a virus that can infect ...

359

Variant (Swine Origin) Influenza Viruses in Humans  

MedlinePLUS

... Submit Button Past Newsletters Variant (Swine Origin) Influenza Viruses in Humans Language: English Español Recommend on ... United States since 2005 Background On Variant Influenza Viruses Swine flu viruses do not normally infect humans. ...

360

FAQ: West Nile Virus and Dead Birds  

MedlinePLUS

... Virus Share Compartir FAQ: West Nile Virus & Dead Birds How do birds get infected with West Nile ... dead bird sightings to local authorities. How do birds get infected with West Nile virus? West Nile ...

361

NATIONAL RESPIRATORY AND ENTERIC VIRUS SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System is a lab based system which monitors temporal and geographic patterns associated with the detection of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV), respiratory and enteric adenoviruses, and r...

362

Antigenic determinants in influenza virus hemagglutinin.  

PubMed Central

Three antigenic determinants were revealed in H3 hemagglutinin of influenza A viruses isolated from 1968 to 1975. One of them was common for all viruses, and two others specified differences between the viruses possessing H3 hemagglutinin. PMID:89090

Rovnova, Z I; Kosyakov, P N; Berezina, O N; Isayeva, E I; Zhdanov, V M

1979-01-01

363

Mechanisms of virus assembly  

E-print Network

Viruses are nanoscale entities containing a nucleic acid genome encased in a protein shell called a capsid, and in some cases surrounded by a lipid bilayer membrane. This review summarizes the physics that govern the processes by which capsids assembles within their host cells and in vitro. We describe the thermodynamics and kinetics for assembly of protein subunits into icosahedral capsid shells, and how these are modified in cases where the capsid assembles around a nucleic acid or on a lipid bilayer. We present experimental and theoretical techniques that have been used to characterize capsid assembly, and we highlight aspects of virus assembly which are likely to receive significant attention in the near future.

Jason D Perlmutter; Michael F Hagan

2014-07-15

364

Virus Interference. I. The Interferon  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a study of the interference produced by heat-inactivated influenza virus with the growth of live virus in fragments of chick chorio-allantoic membrane it was found that following incubation of heated virus with membrane a new factor was released. This factor, recognized by its ability to induce interference in fresh pieces of chorio-allantoic membrane, was called interferon. Following a lag

A. Isaacs; J. Lindenmann

1957-01-01

365

Tracking the West Nile Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How can viral sequences help us establish the origin of the virus that appeared in the US in 1999? Epidemiologists have adopted bioinformatics approaches using sequence data from strains of pathogens to track the movement of bacteria and viruses from continent to continent. * explore a data set of West Nile Virus sequences from all over the world that date from the mid-20th century to the present

Erica Suchmann (University of California - San Diego; Biology)

2006-05-20

366

Viruses from extreme thermal environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viruses of extreme thermophiles are of great interest because they serve as model systems for understanding the biochemistry and molecular biology required for life at high temperatures. In this work, we report the discovery, isolation, and preliminary characterization of viruses and virus-like particles from extreme thermal acidic environments (70-92°C, pH 1.0-4.5) found in Yellowstone National Park. Six unique particle morphologies

George Rice; Kenneth Stedman; Jamie Snyder; Blake Wiedenheft; Debbie Willits; Susan Brumfield; Timothy McDermott; Mark J. Young

2001-01-01

367

Genus Orthopoxvirus: Cowpox virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cowpox virus (CPXV) is distinguished from other orthopoxvirus (OPV) species by producing cytoplasmic A-type inclusion bodies and flattened\\u000a pocks with a hemorrhagic center on the chorioallantoic membrane. CPXV is endemic to Western Eurasia and naturally infects\\u000a a broad range of host species including domestic animals, and zoo animals, as well as humans. Infections in humans seem to\\u000a increase in importance

Sandra Essbauer; Hermann Meyer

368

Human Immunodeficiency Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral health is an integral component of overall health and well-being in all patients. However, for an immunocompromised patient,\\u000a many common oral conditions may have a significant impact on quality of life. Intraoral pain, which is a common complaint\\u000a among patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), will compromise patients’ ability to maintain adequate and appropriate\\u000a oral intake. Furthermore, the polypharmacopeia

Anita Patel; Michael Glick

369

VIRUS instrument collimator assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Visual Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument is a baseline array 150 identical fiber fed optical spectrographs designed to support observations for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). The collimator subassemblies of the instrument have been assembled in a production line and are now complete. Here we review the design choices and assembly practices used to produce a suite of identical low-cost spectrographs in a timely fashion using primarily unskilled labor.

Marshall, Jennifer L.; DePoy, Darren L.; Prochaska, Travis; Allen, Richard D.; Williams, Patrick; Rheault, Jean-Philippe; Li, Ting; Nagasawa, Daniel Q.; Akers, Christopher; Baker, David; Boster, Emily; Campbell, Caitlin; Cook, Erika; Elder, Alison; Gary, Alex; Glover, Joseph; James, Michael; Martin, Emily; Meador, Will; Mondrik, Nicholas; Rodriguez-Patino, Marisela; Villanueva, Steven; Hill, Gary J.; Tuttle, Sarah; Vattiat, Brian; Lee, Hanshin; Chonis, Taylor S.; Dalton, Gavin B.; Tacon, Mike

2014-07-01

370

Symptomatic mumps virus reinfections.  

PubMed

Although natural mumps virus infection is believed to induce lifelong immunity, our laboratory was confronted with 82 patients who developed mumps-evoking lesions but exhibited serological evidence of a booster immune response, namely a rise or a high titer of virus-specific IgG, without IgM. In order to provide arguments favoring the existence of recurrent mumps attacks, the age, symptomatology, and humoral response of these patients (group 1) were compared to that of 82 randomly selected true primary infected patients (group 2), 10 parainfluenza virus-infected patients (group 3), and 20 noninfected mumps-immune subjects (group 4). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) procedures with different viral antigenic preparations were used for determination of specific IgM, IgA, IgG, IgG subclasses, and IgG avidity. The patients of group 1, older than those of group 2 (28 vs. 10 years, P < 0.0001), presented a significantly less severe and less typical symptomatology. Against the whole virus they exhibited IgG of higher avidity (P < 0.001), a lower prevalence and titer of IgA (10 vs. 68%, P < 0.0001 and 278 vs. 5,009, P < 0.001, respectively). Values obtained for IgG 1, 2, and 3 were significantly different between the two groups. Prevalence and absorbance of nucleocapsid-directed IgG 3 were significantly lower in group 1 (27 vs. 46%, P < 0.01 and 0.444 vs. 0.869, P < 0.01, respectively). A significant discrepancy also allowed patients from group 1 to be distinguished from those of groups 3 and 4.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7714488

Gut, J P; Lablache, C; Behr, S; Kirn, A

1995-01-01

371

West Nile Virus Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the potential effects of global climate change is the spread of disease to new areas, as the vectors of those diseases (e.g., mosquitoes, birds) expand into new locations in response to shifting climate conditions. Although the direct cause of West Nile Virus (WNV) in the United States is not known, the National Atlas of the US Geological Survey (reviewed in the June 26, 1998 Scout Report) has recently launched this new resource on WNV distribution. First documented in the US during the summer of 1999 and previously limited to Africa, Eastern Europe, West Asia, and the Middle East, the West Nile Virus is of danger to humans as it interferes with "normal central nervous system functioning" and can cause encephalitis. This site describes WNV Surveillance Activity for the year 2000 and offers a series of maps highlighting the US distribution of WNV cases found in humans, wild birds, chickens, mosquitoes, and veterinary clinics. A series of links point to further information on the virus.

372

Reemergence of chikungunya virus.  

PubMed

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes acute fever and acute and chronic musculoskeletal pain in humans. Since 2004, CHIKV has caused millions of cases of disease in the Indian Ocean region and has emerged in new areas, including Europe, the Middle East, and the Pacific region. The mosquito vectors for this virus are globally distributed in tropical and temperate zones, providing the opportunity for CHIKV to continue to expand into new geographic regions. In October 2013, locally acquired cases of CHIKV infection were identified on the Caribbean island of Saint Martin, signaling the arrival of the virus in the Western Hemisphere. In just 9 months, CHIKV has spread to 22 countries in the Caribbean and Central and South America, resulting in hundreds of thousands of cases. CHIKV disease can be highly debilitating, and large epidemics have severe economic consequences. Thus, there is an urgent need for continued research into the epidemiology, pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of these infections. PMID:25078691

Morrison, Thomas E

2014-10-01

373

[Ebola virus disease].  

PubMed

Ebola virus disease is a zoonosis causing high mortality epidemics in both human and animal populations. The virus belongs to the Filoviride family. It is composed of a single-strand of RNA. Morbidity foci appear in sub-Saharan Africa. The most probable reservoir are fruit bats, which are local delicacy. The most common route of infection is via mucosa or damaged skin. The spread of disease is rapid due to dietary habits, funeral rites and the insufficient supply of disposable equipment in hospitals. The incubation period of the disease ranges from 2 to 21 days. The beginning is abrupt, dominated by influenza-like symptoms. The disease is staggering with the predominant multi-organ failure and shock. Present-day epidemic symptoms from digestive system in the form of vomiting and diarrhoea are dominant. Currently, the research on vaccine and experimental drug is in progress. The virus is damaged by standard disinfectants used in health care units. Epidemic, which broke out in February 2014, caused by the most dangerous type Zaire, is the greatest of the existing. Morbidity and mortality is underestimated due to numerous unreported cases. PMID:25763588

Karwowska, Kornelia

2015-01-01

374

Review: influenza virus in pigs.  

PubMed

Influenza virus disease still remains one of the major threats to human health, involving a wide range of animal species and pigs play an important role in influenza ecology. Pigs were labeled as "mixing vessels" since they are susceptible to infection with avian, human and swine influenza viruses and genetic reassortment between these viruses can occur. After the H1N1 influenza pandemic of 2009 with a swine origin virus, the most recent research in "influenzology" is directed at improving knowledge of porcine influenza virus infection. This tendency is probably due to the fact that domestic pigs are closely related to humans and represent an excellent animal model to study various microbial infectious diseases. In spite of the role of the pig in influenza virus ecology, swine immune responses against influenza viruses are not fully understood. Considering these premises, the aim of this review is to focus on the in vitro studies performed with porcine cells and influenza virus and on the immune responses of pigs against human, avian and swine influenza viruses in vivo. The increased acceptance of pigs as suitable and valuable models in the scientific community may stimulate the development of new tools to assess porcine immune responses, paving the way for their consideration as the future "gold standard" large-animal model in immunology. PMID:23523121

Crisci, Elisa; Mussá, Tufária; Fraile, Lorenzo; Montoya, Maria

2013-10-01

375

Selective advantage for conservative viruses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article we study the full semiconservative treatment of a model for the coevolution of a virus and an adaptive immune system. Regions of viability are calculated for both conservatively and semiconservatively replicating viruses interacting with a realistic semiconservatively replicating immune system. The conservative virus is found to have a selective advantage in the form of an ability to survive in regions with a wider range of mutation rates than its semiconservative counterpart, as well as an increased replication rate where both species can survive. This may help explain the existence of a rich range of viruses with conservatively replicating genomes, a trait that is found nowhere else in nature.

Brumer, Yisroel; Shakhnovich, Eugene I.

2005-03-01

376

RECOVIR Software for Identifying Viruses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses mutate rapidly to generate a large number of strains with highly divergent capsid sequences. Determining the capsid residues or nucleotides that uniquely characterize these strains is critical in understanding the strain diversity of these viruses. RECOVIR (an acronym for "recognize viruses") software predicts the strains of some ssRNA viruses from their limited sequence data. Novel phylogenetic-tree-based databases of protein or nucleic acid residues that uniquely characterize these virus strains are created. Strains of input virus sequences (partial or complete) are predicted through residue-wise comparisons with the databases. RECOVIR uses unique characterizing residues to identify automatically strains of partial or complete capsid sequences of picorna and caliciviruses, two of the most highly diverse ssRNA virus families. Partition-wise comparisons of the database residues with the corresponding residues of more than 300 complete and partial sequences of these viruses resulted in correct strain identification for all of these sequences. This study shows the feasibility of creating databases of hitherto unknown residues uniquely characterizing the capsid sequences of two of the most highly divergent ssRNA virus families. These databases enable automated strain identification from partial or complete capsid sequences of these human and animal pathogens.

Chakravarty, Sugoto; Fox, George E.; Zhu, Dianhui

2013-01-01

377

Influenza viruses, 1957-60  

PubMed Central

During the period 1957-60 large numbers of influenza A viruses were received at the World Influenza Centre from countries throughout the world. With one exception all the strains were antigenically closely related to the A2 viruses isolated early in the Asian influenza epidemic, and strikingly different from the A1 strains of the previous decade. The A2 viruses were very uniform antigenically and in other in vitro characteristics such as insensitivity to the ?-inhibitor of agglutination. However, many of the strains, particularly during the early stages of the epidemic, showed a low avidity for antibody. At the same time as the influenza A viruses showed a large antigenic change the influenza B viruses showed a lesser antigenic change from earlier influenza B viruses. As with influenza A, the new influenza B viruses have replaced earlier B strains. In 1960 one strain of influenza virus A1 was recovered from a soldier in England. Evidence is presented that this could not be explained as a laboratory pick-up and the suggestion is put forward that this patient may have harboured virus in latent form for many years. PMID:20604108

Isaacs, Alick; Hart, R. J. C.; Law, V. G.

1962-01-01

378

Limits in virus filtration capability? Impact of virus quality and spike level on virus removal with xenotropic murine leukemia virus.  

PubMed

Virus filtration (VF) is a key step in an overall viral clearance process since it has been demonstrated to effectively clear a wide range of mammalian viruses with a log reduction value (LRV)?>?4. The potential to achieve higher LRV from virus retentive filters has historically been examined using bacteriophage surrogates, which commonly demonstrated a potential of?>?9 LRV when using high titer spikes (e.g. 10(10) PFU/mL). However, as the filter loading increases, one typically experiences significant decreases in performance and LRV. The 9 LRV value is markedly higher than the current expected range of 4-5 LRV when utilizing mammalian retroviruses on virus removal filters (Miesegaes et al., Dev Biol (Basel) 2010;133:3-101). Recent values have been reported in the literature (Stuckey et al., Biotech Progr 2014;30:79-85) of LRV in excess of 6 for PPV and XMuLV although this result appears to be atypical. LRV for VF with therapeutic proteins could be limited by several factors including process limits (flux decay, load matrix), virus spike level and the analytical methods used for virus detection (i.e. the Limits of Quantitation), as well as the virus spike quality. Research was conducted using the Xenotropic-Murine Leukemia Virus (XMuLV) for its direct relevance to the most commonly cited document, the International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) Q5A (International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use, Geneva, Switzerland, 1999) for viral safety evaluations. A unique aspect of this work is the independent evaluation of the impact of retrovirus quality and virus spike level on VF performance and LRV. The VF studies used XMuLV preparations purified by either ultracentrifugation (Ultra 1) or by chromatographic processes that yielded a more highly purified virus stock (Ultra 2). Two monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) with markedly different filtration characteristics and with similar levels of aggregate (<1.5%) were evaluated with the Ultra 1 and Ultra 2 virus preparations utilizing the Planova 20 N, a small virus removal filter. Impurities in the virus preparation ultimately limited filter loading as measured by determining the volumetric loading condition where 75% flux decay is observed versus initial conditions (V75 ). This observation occurred with both Mabs with the difference in virus purity more pronounced when very high spike levels were used (>5 vol/vol %). Significant differences were seen for the process performance over a number of lots of the less-pure Ultra 1 virus preparations. Experiments utilizing a developmental lot of the chromatographic purified XMuLV (Ultra 2 Development lot) that had elevated levels of host cell residuals (vs. the final Ultra 2 preparations) suggest that these contaminant residuals can impact virus filter fouling, even if the virus prep is essentially monodisperse. Process studies utilizing an Ultra 2 virus with substantially less host cell residuals and highly monodispersed virus particles demonstrated superior performance and an LRV in excess of 7.7 log10 . A model was constructed demonstrating the linear dependence of filtration flux versus filter loading which can be used to predict the V75 for a range of virus spike levels conditions using this highly purified virus. Fine tuning the virus spike level with this model can ultimately maximize the LRV for the virus filter step, essentially adding the LRV equivalent of another process step (i.e. protein A or CEX chromatography). © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 31:135-144, 2015. PMID:25395156

Roush, David J; Myrold, Adam; Burnham, Michael S; And, Joseph V; Hughes, Joseph V

2015-01-01

379

McAfee's Virus Information Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

McAfee, the well-known anti-virus software company, offers this free library, containing information on over 40,000 known PC viruses. Virus details include their source, how they infect your computer, and how to remove them. Users can search for viruses by keyword or browse by category. The site also lists new viruses, the year's top ten, and hoax viruses. Although in most cases the instructions for virus removal include the use of a McAfee product, the site is still an excellent source of virus information.

380

Computer virus information update CIAC-2301  

SciTech Connect

While CIAC periodically issues bulletins about specific computer viruses, these bulletins do not cover all the computer viruses that affect desktop computers. The purpose of this document is to identify most of the known viruses for the MS-DOS and Macintosh platforms and give an overview of the effects of each virus. The authors also include information on some windows, Atari, and Amiga viruses. This document is revised periodically as new virus information becomes available. This document replaces all earlier versions of the CIAC Computer virus Information Update. The date on the front cover indicates date on which the information in this document was extracted from CIAC`s Virus database.

Orvis, W.J.

1994-01-15

381

Tomato chlorosis virus and Tomato infectious chlorosis virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This presentation will help consultants, growers, and other practitioners in the Southern and Western Regions of the US, as well as Mexico and the Caribbean identify and manage Tomato infectious chlorosis virus (TICV) and Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV) in tomato. Information will directly benefit cr...

382

DETECTION OF RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUS IN LIVE VIRUS VACCINES OF POULTRY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In vitro and in vivo assays have been used for detection of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) in live virus vaccines of poultry. The presence of REV is confirmed by the demonstration of viral antigen or provirus in chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) or in specific-pathogen-free chickens inoculated wi...

383

Parainfluenza virus 5 expressing the g protein of rabies virus protects mice after rabies virus infection.  

PubMed

Rabies remains a major public health threat around the world. Once symptoms appear, there is no effective treatment to prevent death. In this work, we tested a recombinant parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) strain expressing the glycoprotein (G) of rabies (PIV5-G) as a therapy for rabies virus infection: we have found that PIV5-G protected mice as late as 6 days after rabies virus infection. PIV5-G is a promising vaccine for prevention and treatment of rabies virus infection. PMID:25552723

Huang, Ying; Chen, Zhenhai; Huang, Junhua; Fu, ZhenFang; He, Biao

2015-03-15

384

Prevalence and Transmission of Honeybee Viruses  

PubMed Central

Transmission mechanisms of six honeybee viruses, including acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV), deformed wing virus (DWV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV), and sacbrood bee virus (SBV), in honey bee colonies were investigated by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) methods. The virus status of individual queens was evaluated by examining the presence of viruses in the queens' feces and tissues, including hemolymph, gut, ovaries, spermatheca, head, and eviscerated body. Except for head tissue, all five tissues as well as queen feces were found to be positive for virus infections. When queens in bee colonies were identified as positive for BQCV, DWV, CBPV, KBV, and SBV, the same viruses were detected in their offspring, including eggs, larvae, and adult workers. On the other hand, when queens were found positive for only two viruses, BQCV and DWV, only these two viruses were detected in their offspring. The presence of viruses in the tissue of ovaries and the detection of the same viruses in queens' eggs and young larvae suggest vertical transmission of viruses from queens to offspring. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of vertical transmission of viruses in honeybee colonies. PMID:16391097

Chen, Y. P.; Pettis, J. S.; Collins, A.; Feldlaufer, M. F.

2006-01-01

385

Human viruses: discovery and emergence  

PubMed Central

There are 219 virus species that are known to be able to infect humans. The first of these to be discovered was yellow fever virus in 1901, and three to four new species are still being found every year. Extrapolation of the discovery curve suggests that there is still a substantial pool of undiscovered human virus species, although an apparent slow-down in the rate of discovery of species from different families may indicate bounds to the potential range of diversity. More than two-thirds of human viruses can also infect non-human hosts, mainly mammals, and sometimes birds. Many specialist human viruses also have mammalian or avian origins. Indeed, a substantial proportion of mammalian viruses may be capable of crossing the species barrier into humans, although only around half of these are capable of being transmitted by humans and around half again of transmitting well enough to cause major outbreaks. A few possible predictors of species jumps can be identified, including the use of phylogenetically conserved cell receptors. It seems almost inevitable that new human viruses will continue to emerge, mainly from other mammals and birds, for the foreseeable future. For this reason, an effective global surveillance system for novel viruses is needed. PMID:22966141

Woolhouse, Mark; Scott, Fiona; Hudson, Zoe; Howey, Richard; Chase-Topping, Margo

2012-01-01

386

[Virus transmission in drinking water].  

PubMed

Several epidemiological data confirm the presence of enteric viruses in drinking water. The present paper deals with several problems tied to the virological analysis, such as the concentration of the samples, the isolation and the identification of enteric viruses. PMID:14677255

Divizia, M; Gabrieli, R; Macaluso, A; el Ouardi, A

2003-01-01

387

Arenaviruses other than Lassa virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The family Arenaviridae includes 23 viral species, of which 5 can cause viral hemorrhagic fevers with a case fatality rate of about 20%. These five viruses are Junin, Machupo, Guanarito, Sabia and Lassa virus, the manipulation of which requires biosafety level 4 facilities. They are included in the Category A Pathogen List established by the Center for Disease Control and

Rémi N Charrel; Xavier de Lamballerie

2003-01-01

388

Tomato ringspot virus in Rubus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV) is the most widespread and important of the nematode-transmitted viruses affecting cultivated Rubus in North and South America but is not known to occur outside of the Western Hemisphere. A recent report from Turkey on ToRSV in blackberry in borders of stone fruit orcha...

389

TOTAL CULTURABLE VIRUS QUANTAL ASSAY  

EPA Science Inventory

This chapter describes a quantal method for assaying culturable human enteric viruses from water matrices. The assay differs from the plaque assay described in Chapter 10 (December 1987 Revision) in that it is based upon the direct microscopic viewing of cells for virus-induced ...

390

RNA viruses as virotherapy agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

RNA viruses are rapidly emerging as extraordinarily promising agents for oncolytic virotherapy. Integral to the lifecycles of all RNA viruses is the formation of double-stranded RNA, which activates a spectrum of cellular defense mechanisms including the activation of PKR and the release of interferon. Tumors are frequently defective in their PKR signaling and interferon response pathways, and therefore provide a

Stephen J Russell

2002-01-01

391

Virioplankton: Viruses in Aquatic Ecosystems†  

PubMed Central

The discovery that viruses may be the most abundant organisms in natural waters, surpassing the number of bacteria by an order of magnitude, has inspired a resurgence of interest in viruses in the aquatic environment. Surprisingly little was known of the interaction of viruses and their hosts in nature. In the decade since the reports of extraordinarily large virus populations were published, enumeration of viruses in aquatic environments has demonstrated that the virioplankton are dynamic components of the plankton, changing dramatically in number with geographical location and season. The evidence to date suggests that virioplankton communities are composed principally of bacteriophages and, to a lesser extent, eukaryotic algal viruses. The influence of viral infection and lysis on bacterial and phytoplankton host communities was measurable after new methods were developed and prior knowledge of bacteriophage biology was incorporated into concepts of parasite and host community interactions. The new methods have yielded data showing that viral infection can have a significant impact on bacteria and unicellular algae populations and supporting the hypothesis that viruses play a significant role in microbial food webs. Besides predation limiting bacteria and phytoplankton populations, the specific nature of virus-host interaction raises the intriguing possibility that viral infection influences the structure and diversity of aquatic microbial communities. Novel applications of molecular genetic techniques have provided good evidence that viral infection can significantly influence the composition and diversity of aquatic microbial communities. PMID:10704475

Wommack, K. Eric; Colwell, Rita R.

2000-01-01

392

Groundnut Ringspot Virus in Florida  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tospoviruses in vegetable crops are difficult to manage due to a shortage of basic information about the viruses and their vectors. This is especially true for the recently detected Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV). This publication presents all current knowledge of GRSV in Florida....

393

Oropouche Virus Isolation, Southeast Brazil  

PubMed Central

An Oropouche virus strain was isolated from a novel host (Callithrix sp.) in Arinos, Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. The virus was identified by complement fixation test and confirmed by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenetic analysis identified this strain as a genotype III isolate previously recognized only in Panama. PMID:16318707

Martins, Lívia Carício; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Chiang, Jannifer Oliveira; Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro da Silva; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P.A.; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

2005-01-01

394

Defining Life: The Virus Viewpoint  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Are viruses alive? Until very recently, answering this question was often negative and viruses were not considered in discussions on the origin and definition of life. This situation is rapidly changing, following several discoveries that have modified our vision of viruses. It has been recognized that viruses have played (and still play) a major innovative role in the evolution of cellular organisms. New definitions of viruses have been proposed and their position in the universal tree of life is actively discussed. Viruses are no more confused with their virions, but can be viewed as complex living entities that transform the infected cell into a novel organism—the virus—producing virions. I suggest here to define life (an historical process) as the mode of existence of ribosome encoding organisms (cells) and capsid encoding organisms (viruses) and their ancestors. I propose to define an organism as an ensemble of integrated organs (molecular or cellular) producing individuals evolving through natural selection. The origin of life on our planet would correspond to the establishment of the first organism corresponding to this definition.

Forterre, Patrick

2010-04-01

395

Swine Influenza Virus: Emerging Understandings  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Introduction: In March-April 2009, a novel pandemic H1N1 emerged in the human population in North America [1]. The gene constellation of the emerging virus was demonstrated to be a combination of genes from swine influenza A viruses (SIV) of North American and Eurasian lineages that had never before...

396

West Nile Virus and Wildlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

West Nile virus (WNV) has spread rapidly across North America, resulting in human deaths and in the deaths of untold numbers of birds, mammals, and reptiles. The virus has reached Central America and the Caribbean and may spread to Hawaii and South America. Although tens of thousands of birds have died, and studies of some bird species show local declines,

Peter P. Marra; Sean Griffing; Carolee Caffrey; A. Marm Kilpatrick; Robert McLean; Christopher Brand; Emi Saito; Alan P. Dupuis; Laura Kramer; Robert Novak

2004-01-01

397

Computer viruses: a quantitative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides interesting insights for anti-virus research, as it reflects a period of rapid uptake in the application of the Internet and the use of e-mail for business purposes. The purpose of the research is to provide independent justification of the growing prevalence of computer virus incidents over the past five years, and identify patterns in the frequency and

A. Coulthard; T. A. Vuori

2002-01-01

398

Mathematical models on computer viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attempt has been made to develop mathematical models on computer viruses infecting the system under different conditions. Mathematical model 1 discusses the situation to find the probability that at any time t how many software components are infected by virus, assuming the recovery rate and proportion of un-infected population receiving infection per unit time does not change with time.

Bimal Kumar Mishra; Dinesh Saini

2007-01-01

399

Dynamic models for computer viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer viruses are an important risk to computational systems endangering either corporations of all sizes or personal computers used for domestic applications. Here, classical epidemiological models for disease propagation are adapted to computer networks and, by using simple systems identification techniques a model called SAIC (Susceptible, Antidotal, Infectious, Contaminated) is developed. Real data about computer viruses are used to validate

Jose R. C. Piqueira; Adolfo A. De Vasconcelos; Carlos E. C. J. Gabriel; Vanessa O. Araujo

2008-01-01

400

Computer Viruses as Artificial Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been considerable interest in computer viruses since they first appeared in 1981, and especially in the past few years as they have reached epidemic numbers in many per- sonal computer environments. Viruses have been written about as a security problem, as a social problem, and as a possible means of performing useful tasks in a distributed computing environment.

Eugene H. Spafford

1994-01-01

401

INTERACTIONS OF VIRUS AND HOST  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an ubiquitous pathogen of ruminants, found worldwide that is often associated with severe economic losses. Understanding these viruses, particularly at the cellular and molecular levels, is important to develop new vaccination and treatment strategies for produc...

402

Human polyomavirus JC virus genome.  

PubMed Central

The complete DNA sequence of the human JC virus, which was found to consist of 5,130 nucleotide pairs, is presented. The amino acid sequence of six proteins could be deduced: the early, nonstructural proteins, large T and small t antigens; the late capsid proteins, VP1, VP2, and VP3; and the agnogene product encoded within the late leader sequence, called the agnoprotein in simian virus 40. The extent of homology between JC virus DNA and the genomes of simian virus 40 (69%) and BK virus (75%) confirmed the close evolutionary relationship of these three polyomaviruses. The sequences showing the greatest divergence in these viral DNAs occurred within the tandem repeats located to the late side of the replication origins. PMID:6086957

Frisque, R J; Bream, G L; Cannella, M T

1984-01-01

403

Herpes viruses hedge their bets.  

PubMed

Static latency is the hallmark of all herpes viruses. The varicella zoster virus, for instance, causes varicella (chickenpox), and after a latent phase of between 5 and 40 years, it can give rise to herpes zoster (shingles). This latency and the subsequent reactivation has intrigued and puzzled virologists. Although several factors have been suggested, it is unknown what triggers reactivation. However, latency can be explained with a simple evolutionary model. Here, we demonstrate that a simple, yet efficient, bet-hedging strategy might have evolved in a number of viruses, especially those belonging to the herpes virus family and most importantly in varicella zoster virus. We show that the evolution of latency can be explained by the population dynamics of infectious diseases in fluctuating host populations. PMID:12409612

Stumpf, Michael P H; Laidlaw, Zoe; Jansen, Vincent A A

2002-11-12

404

New aspects of influenza viruses.  

PubMed Central

Influenza virus infections continue to cause substantial morbidity and mortality with a worldwide social and economic impact. The past five years have seen dramatic advances in our understanding of viral replication, evolution, and antigenic variation. Genetic analyses have clarified relationships between human and animal influenza virus strains, demonstrating the potential for the appearance of new pandemic reassortants as hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes are exchanged in an intermediate host. Clinical trials of candidate live attenuated influenza virus vaccines have shown the cold-adapted reassortants to be a promising alternative to the currently available inactivated virus preparations. Modern molecular techniques have allowed serious consideration of new approaches to the development of antiviral agents and vaccines as the functions of the viral genes and proteins are further elucidated. The development of techniques whereby the genes of influenza viruses can be specifically altered to investigate those functions will undoubtedly accelerate the pace at which our knowledge expands. PMID:1310439

Shaw, M W; Arden, N H; Maassab, H F

1992-01-01

405

Marine Viruses: Truth or Dare  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past two decades, marine virology has progressed from a curiosity to an intensely studied topic of critical importance to oceanography. At concentrations of approximately 10 million viruses per milliliter of surface seawater, viruses are the most abundant biological entities in the oceans. The majority of these viruses are phages (viruses that infect bacteria). Through lysing their bacterial hosts, marine phages control bacterial abundance, affect community composition, and impact global biogeochemical cycles. In addition, phages influence their hosts through selection for resistance, horizontal gene transfer, and manipulation of bacterial metabolism. Recent work has also demonstrated that marine phages are extremely diverse and can carry a variety of auxiliary metabolic genes encoding critical ecological functions. This review is structured as a scientific "truth or dare," revealing several well-established "truths" about marine viruses and presenting a few "dares" for the research community to undertake in future studies.

Breitbart, Mya

2012-01-01

406

Unleash your Idea Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In his book, Unleashing the Idea Virus, Godin explores the concept of "ideaviruses," or those ideas or trends that seem spread entirely by word of mouth. New ideas are driving the New Economy, and those "ideas that spread the fastest win." Godin predicts that word of mouth, which is faster, easier to launch, and more effective than traditional marketing strategies, will soon become the preferred way to market new ideas and brand products. Fast Company features an article by Godin, summarizing the ideavirus concept.

Godin, Seth.

2000-01-01

407

IInoculate your computer with Symantec AntiVirus, for free! Welchia virus? Blaster  

E-print Network

IInoculate your computer with Symantec AntiVirus, for free! Welchia virus? Blaster virus? PC all locked up? Ever run into these? Help is on the way. NC State has licensed Symantec AntiVirus and NC State students, faculty and staff can get a free copy. Computer viruses on campus are no laughing matter. Last

408

Complete Genome Sequence of Le Blanc Virus, a Third Caenorhabditis Nematode-Infecting Virus  

E-print Network

Complete Genome Sequence of Le Blanc Virus, a Third Caenorhabditis Nematode-Infecting Virus Carl J,a and Institute of Biology of the Ecole Normale Supérieure (IBENS), Paris, Franceb Orsay virus and Santeuil virus, the first known viruses capable of naturally infecting the nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans

Wang, David

409

Comportement de deux virus filamenteux (Carnation Vein Mottle Virus, Carnation Streak  

E-print Network

Comportement de deux virus filamenteux (Carnation Vein Mottle Virus, Carnation Streak Virus) dans Botanique et de Pathologie végétale, Villa Thuret, B.P. 78, 06602 Antibes Cedex. R�SUM� Virus filamenteux, Dosage, Spectrophotométrie, OEillet. L'évolution de la teneur en virus de la Marbrure des Nervures de l

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

410

Immunobiologic heterotypic activity associated with viral and soluble components of bovine virus diarrhea virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The V and S antigens of bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) virus were studied by pig inoculation experiments to determine the basis for the bovine virus diarrheahog cholera heterotypic relationship. BVD virus infected tissue cultures were harvested and separated by ultracentrifugation and ultrafiltration. V antigen was prepared by Tween-ether-urea inactivation of virus. S antigen was quantitated in filtration samples and

F. J. Volenec; B. E. Sheffy; J. A. Baker

1972-01-01

411

Live-attenuated influenza A virus vaccines using a B virus backbone  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The currently FDA-licensed live attenuated influenza virus vaccine contains a trivalent mixture of types A (H1N1 and H3N2) and B vaccine viruses. The two A virus vaccines have the backbone of a cold-adapted influenza A virus and the B virus vaccine has the six backbone segments derived from a cold-...

412

Genome Sequence of Bivens Arm Virus, a Tibrovirus Belonging to the Species Tibrogargan virus (Mononegavirales: Rhabdoviridae)  

PubMed Central

The new rhabdoviral genus Tibrovirus currently has two members, Coastal Plains virus and Tibrogargan virus. Here, we report the coding-complete genome sequence of a putative member of this genus, Bivens Arm virus. A genomic comparison reveals Bivens Arm virus to be closely related to, but distinct from, Tibrogargan virus. PMID:25792044

Hensley, Lisa E.

2015-01-01

413

Comparison of Immunohistochemistry and Virus Isolation for Diagnosis of West Nile Virus  

PubMed Central

Immunohistochemistry and virus isolation were performed on 1,057 birds. Immunohistochemistry, virus isolation, or both found 325 birds to be West Nile virus positive. Of these, 271 were positive by both methods. These results indicate that virus isolation and immunohistochemistry are approximately equal in their ability to detect West Nile virus. PMID:15956415

Ellis, Angela E.; Mead, Daniel G.; Allison, Andrew B.; Gibbs, Samantha E. J.; Gottdenker, Nicole L.; Stallknecht, David E.; Howerth, Elizabeth W.

2005-01-01

414

Safe Computing: An Overview of Viruses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computer virus is a program that replicates itself, in conjunction with an additional program that can harm a computer system. Common viruses include boot-sector, macro, companion, overwriting, and multipartite. Viruses can be fast, slow, stealthy, and polymorphic. Anti-virus products are described. (MLH)

Wodarz, Nan

2001-01-01

415

Virus Evolution: Insights from an Experimental  

E-print Network

Virus Evolution: Insights from an Experimental Approach Santiago F. Elena and Rafael Sanju Viruses represent a serious problem faced by human and veterinary medicine and agronomy. New viruses indicates that the evolution of viruses is determined mainly by key features such as their small genomes

Elena, Santiago F.

416

Virus Versus Mankind Aviezri S. Fraenkel  

E-print Network

Virus Versus Mankind Aviezri S. Fraenkel Department of Computer Science and Applied Mathematics://www.wisdom.weizmann.ac.il/~fraenkel Humanity is but a passing episode in the eternal life of the virus Abstract. We define a two­player virus game played on a finite cyclic digraph G = (V; E). Each vertex is either occupied by a single virus

Fraenkel, Aviezri

417

Experimental evolution of plant RNA viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Undoubtedly, viruses represent a major threat faced by human and veterinary medicines and by agronomy. The rapid evolution of viruses enables them to escape from natural immunities and from state-of-the-art antiviral treatments, with new viruses periodically emerging with deadly consequences. Viruses have also become powerful and are increasingly used tools in the field of experimental evolution. A growing body of

S F Elena; P Agudelo-Romero; P Carrasco; F M Codoñer; S Martín; C Torres-Barceló; R Sanjuán

2008-01-01

418

Original article Virus association with lymphocytes  

E-print Network

Original article Virus association with lymphocytes in acute African swine fever L Carrasco F with a highly virulent African swine fever (ASF) virus isolate (Malawi' 83), and the adhesion of the lymphocytes to macrophages containing the virus replication sites. Virus replication in lymph-node medullar tissue

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

419

Cellular Factors Required for Lassa Virus Budding  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known that Lassa virus Z protein is sufficient for the release of virus-like particles (VLPs) and that it has two L domains, PTAP and PPPY, in its C terminus. However, little is known about the cellular factor for Lassa virus budding. We examined which cellular factors are used in Lassa virus Z budding. We demonstrated that Lassa Z

S. Urata; T. Noda; Yoshihiro Kawaoka; Hideyoshi Yokosawa; Jiro Yasuda

2006-01-01

420

Label-Free Chemiresistive Immunosensors for Viruses  

E-print Network

Label-Free Chemiresistive Immunosensors for Viruses D H A M M A N A N D J . S H I R A L E , M A N of viruses. Bacteriophages T7 and MS2 were used as safe models for viruses for demonstration. Ppy nanowires, and affordable detection of bioagents/pathogens. Introduction Detection of viruses is central to human health

Chen, Wilfred

421

Biologically Inspired Defenses Against Computer Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's anti-virus technology, based largely on analysis of existing viruses by human experts, is just barely able to keep pace with the more than three new computer viruses that are writ­ ten daily. In a few years, intelligent agents nav­ igating through highly connected networks are likely to form an extremely fertile medium for a new breed of viruses. At

Jeffrey O. Kephart; Gregory B. Sorkin; William C. Arnold; David M. Chess; Gerald Tesauro; Steve R. White

1995-01-01

422

Modeling Computer Viruses MSc Thesis (Afstudeerscriptie)  

E-print Network

Modeling Computer Viruses MSc Thesis (Afstudeerscriptie) written by Luite Menno Pieter van Zelst About half a year ago, Alban Ponse, my thesis supervisor, suggested that the topic of `computer viruses indus- try and the creators of computer viruses. After all, the anti-virus industry stands to lose a lot

Amsterdam, University of

423

Ebola virus antibodies in fruit bats, bangladesh.  

PubMed

To determine geographic range for Ebola virus, we tested 276 bats in Bangladesh. Five (3.5%) bats were positive for antibodies against Ebola Zaire and Reston viruses; no virus was detected by PCR. These bats might be a reservoir for Ebola or Ebola-like viruses, and extend the range of filoviruses to mainland Asia. PMID:23343532

Olival, Kevin J; Islam, Ariful; Yu, Meng; Anthony, Simon J; Epstein, Jonathan H; Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Khan, Salah Uddin; Crameri, Gary; Wang, Lin-Fa; Lipkin, W Ian; Luby, Stephen P; Daszak, Peter

2013-02-01

424

Fertility and family configurations in Sardinia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we argue that the strength of intergenerational relationships in Italy is one important element in understanding low fertility in this country, but that the role that family plays in a couple’s fertility decisions needs to be understood in light of the wider context of normative influences on life-course transitions. While choices about childbearing rest with the couple,

Laura Bernardi; Anna Oppo

2007-01-01

425

Hepatitis E Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a worldwide disease. An improved understanding of the natural history of HEV infection has been achieved within the last decade. Several reservoirs and transmission modes have been identified. Hepatitis E is an underdiagnosed disease, in part due to the use of serological assays with low sensitivity. However, diagnostic tools, including nucleic acid-based tests, have been improved. The epidemiology and clinical features of hepatitis E differ between developing and developed countries. HEV infection is usually an acute self-limiting disease, but in developed countries it causes chronic infection with rapidly progressive cirrhosis in organ transplant recipients, patients with hematological malignancy requiring chemotherapy, and individuals with HIV. HEV also causes extrahepatic manifestations, including a number of neurological syndromes and renal injury. Acute infection usually requires no treatment, but chronic infection should be treated by reducing immunosuppression in transplant patients and/or the use of antiviral therapy. In this comprehensive review, we summarize the current knowledge about the virus itself, as well as the epidemiology, diagnostics, natural history, and management of HEV infection in developing and developed countries. PMID:24396139

Dalton, Harry R.; Abravanel, Florence; Izopet, Jacques

2014-01-01

426

Transmitting Plant Viruses Using Whiteflies  

PubMed Central

Whiteflies, Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, Bemisia tabaci, a complex of morphologically indistinquishable species5, are vectors of many plant viruses. Several genera of these whitefly-transmitted plant viruses (Begomovirus, Carlavirus, Crinivirus, Ipomovirus, Torradovirus) include several hundred species of emerging and economically significant pathogens of important food and fiber crops (reviewed by9,10,16). These viruses do not replicate in their vector but nevertheless are moved readily from plant to plant by the adult whitefly by various means (reviewed by2,6,7,9,10,11,17). For most of these viruses whitefly feeding is required for acquisition and inoculation, while for others only probing is required. Many of these viruses are unable or cannot be easily transmitted by other means. Therefore maintenance of virus cultures, biological and molecular characterization (identification of host range and symptoms)3,13, ecology2,12, require that the viruses be transmitted to experimental hosts using the whitefly vector. In addition the development of new approaches to management, such as evaluation of new chemicals14 or compounds15, new cultural approaches1,4,19, or the selection and development of resistant cultivars7,8,18, requires the use of whiteflies for virus transmission. The use of whitefly transmission of plant viruses for the selection and development of resistant cultivars in breeding programs is particularly challenging7. Effective selection and screening for resistance employs large numbers of plants and there is a need for 100% of the plants to be inoculated in order to find the few genotypes which possess resistance genes. These studies use very large numbers of viruliferous whiteflies, often several times per year. Whitefly maintenance described here can generate hundreds or thousands of adult whiteflies on plants each week, year round, without the contamination of other plant viruses. Plants free of both whiteflies and virus must be produced to introduce into the whitefly colony each week. Whitefly cultures must be kept free of whitefly pathogens, parasites, and parasitoids that can reduce whitefly populations and/or reduce the transmission efficiency of the virus. Colonies produced in the manner described can be quickly scaled to increase or decrease population numbers as needed, and can be adjusted to accommodate the feeding preferences of the whitefly based on the plant host of the virus. There are two basic types of whitefly colonies that can be maintained: a nonviruliferous and a viruliferous whitefly colony. The nonviruliferous colony is composed of whiteflies reared on virus-free plants and allows the weekly availability of whiteflies which can be used to transmit viruses from different cultures. The viruliferous whitefly colony, composed of whiteflies reared on virus-infected plants, allows weekly availability of whiteflies which have acquired the virus thus omitting one step in the virus transmission process. PMID:24300175

Polston, Jane E.; Capobianco, H.

2013-01-01

427

Multiple sclerosis: autoimmunity and viruses  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review This review will explore two new aspects of the involvement of viruses in multiple sclerosis pathogenesis. The first aspect is the complex interactions between viruses. The second aspect is the proposal of a mechanism by which autoreactive T cells are able to escape thymic selection and potentially recognize self and a pathogen. Recent findings With regard to viruses, recent work has demonstrated that one virus may enhance the replication of another virus, potentially leading to an increase in inflammation and disease progression. Also, interactions between human endogenous retroviruses, which likely do not replicate, and certain herpes viruses, may also play a role in disease pathogenesis. Mechanistically, T cells expressing dual T-cell receptors would be able to recognize self and a foreign antigen specifically. Therefore, human endogenous retroviruses potentially play a role in multiple sclerosis pathogenesis, and both interactions between multiple viruses and autoreactive CD8+ T cells with dual T-cell receptors may play a role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Summary The complex interactions between multiple viral infections, either within the central nervous system or in the periphery, and the host immune response to viral infection may be such that a variety of viral specificities result in the activation of T cells that recognize self and induce multiple sclerosis. Therefore, it is unlikely that any one microbe will be determined to be the causative agent of multiple sclerosis as reflected by the number of potential triggering mechanisms of the disease. PMID:23656710

Cusick, Matthew F.; Libbey, Jane E.; Fujinami, Robert S.

2015-01-01

428

21 CFR 866.3360 - Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. 866.3360 Section...866.3360 Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents are devices...

2013-04-01

429

21 CFR 866.3360 - Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. 866.3360 Section...866.3360 Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents are devices...

2011-04-01

430

21 CFR 866.3360 - Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. 866.3360 Section...866.3360 Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents are devices...

2014-04-01

431

21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. 866.3240...866.3240 Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents are...

2014-04-01

432

21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. 866.3240...866.3240 Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents are...

2011-04-01

433

21 CFR 866.3360 - Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. 866.3360 Section...866.3360 Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents are devices...

2012-04-01

434

21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. 866.3240...866.3240 Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents are...

2013-04-01

435

21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. 866.3240...866.3240 Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents are...

2012-04-01

436

The genesis of a pandemic influenza virus.  

PubMed

Pandemic influenza viruses pose a significant threat to public health worldwide. In a recent Nature paper, Taubenberger et al. (2005) now report remarkable similarities between the polymerase genes of the influenza virus that caused the 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic and those of avian influenza viruses. Meanwhile, Tumpey et al. (2005) reporting in Science show that the reconstructed 1918 Spanish influenza virus kills mice faster than any other influenza virus so far tested. PMID:16269328

Russell, Charles J; Webster, Robert G

2005-11-01

437

Modelling the evolution of the influenza virus  

E-print Network

CamGrid: High Throughput Computing in Science dfb21@cam.ac.uk Dr David Burke Antigenic Cartography Group Department of Zoology University of Cambridge 25th June 2008 Modelling the evolution of the influenza virus Antigenic variation of viruses... Antigenically Stable Pathogens Antigenically Variable Pathogens Smallpox Measles Tuberculosis Mumps Tetanus Influenza Virus Malaria HIV Dengue The Influenza Virus Annually, 'flu infects 7-14% of the population (400-800 million people globally ) Virus...

Burke, David

2008-06-27

438

Why do RNA viruses recombine?  

PubMed Central

Recombination occurs in many RNA viruses and can be of major evolutionary significance. However, rates of recombination vary dramatically among RNA viruses, which can range from clonal to highly recombinogenic. Here, we review the factors that might explain this variation in recombination frequency and show that there is little evidence that recombination is favoured by natural selection to create advantageous genotypes or purge deleterious mutations, as predicted if recombination functions as a form of sexual reproduction. Rather, recombination rates seemingly reflect larger-scale patterns of viral genome organization, such that recombination may be a mechanistic by-product of the evolutionary pressures acting on other aspects of virus biology. PMID:21725337

Simon-Loriere, Etienne; Holmes, Edward C.

2012-01-01

439

METHODOLOGY Open Access Virus replicon particle based Chikungunya virus  

E-print Network

the efficacy of potential vaccines. As CHIKV is a BSL3 agent, neutralization assays with infectious virus need outbreaks causing fever, headache, rash and severe arthralgia. So far, no specific treatment or vaccine

Boyer, Edmond

440

Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-related Virus (XMRV) Backgrounder  

Cancer.gov

Researchers have not found evidence that XMRV causes any diseases in humans or in animals. The presence of an infectious agent, such as a virus, in diseased tissue does not mean that the agent causes the disease.

441

Rice Yellow Mottle Virus, an RNA Plant Virus, Evolves as Rapidly as Most RNA Animal Viruses? †  

PubMed Central

The rate of evolution of an RNA plant virus has never been estimated using temporally spaced sequence data, by contrast to the information available on an increasing range of animal viruses. Accordingly, the evolution rate of Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) was calculated from sequences of the coat protein gene of isolates collected from rice over a 40-year period in different parts of Africa. The evolution rate of RYMV was estimated by pairwise distance linear regression on five phylogeographically defined groups comprising a total of 135 isolates. It was further assessed from 253 isolates collected all over Africa by Bayesian coalescent methods under strict and relaxed molecular clock models and under constant size and skyline population genetic models. Consistent estimates of the evolution rate between 4 × 10?4 and 8 × 10?4 nucleotides (nt)/site/year were obtained whatever method and model were applied. The synonymous evolution rate was between 8 × 10?4 and 11 × 10?4 nt/site/year. The overall and synonymous evolution rates of RYMV were within the range of the rates of 50 RNA animal viruses, below the average but above the distribution median. Experimentally, in host change studies, substitutions accumulated at an even higher rate. The results show that an RNA plant virus such as RYMV evolves as rapidly as most RNA animal viruses. Knowledge of the molecular clock of plant viruses provides methods for testing a wide range of biological hypotheses. PMID:18199644

Fargette, D.; Pinel, A.; Rakotomalala, M.; Sangu, E.; Traoré, O.; Sérémé, D.; Sorho, F.; Issaka, S.; Hébrard, E.; Séré, Y.; Kanyeka, Z.; Konaté, G.

2008-01-01

442

Human immunodeficiency virus endocrinopathy  

PubMed Central

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) endocrinopathy encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders. Almost all the endocrine organs are virtually affected by HIV infection. HIV can directly alter glandular function. More commonly secondary endocrine dysfunction occurs due to opportunistic infections and neoplasms in immunocompromised state. The complex interaction between HIV infection and endocrine system may be manifested as subtle biochemical and hormonal perturbation to overt glandular failure. Antiretroviral therapy as well as other essential medications often result in adverse endocrinal consequences. Apart from adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadism, diabetes and bone loss, AIDS wasting syndrome and HIV lipodystrophy need special reference. Endocrinal evaluation should proceed as in other patients with suspected endocrine dysfunction. Available treatment options have been shown to improve quality of life and long-term mortality in AIDS patients. PMID:22028995

Sinha, Uma; Sengupta, Nilanjan; Mukhopadhyay, Prasanta; Roy, Keshab Sinha

2011-01-01

443

West Nile virus meningoencephalitis  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Since its first appearance in the US in 1999, West Nile virus (WNV) has emerged as the most common cause of epidemic meningoencephalitis in North America. In the 6 years following the 1999 outbreak, the geographic range and burden of the disease in birds, mosquitoes and humans has greatly expanded to include the 48 contiguous US and 7 Canadian provinces, as well as Mexico, the Caribbean islands and Colombia. WNV has shown an increasing propensity for neuroinvasive disease over the past decade, with varied presentations including meningitis, encephalitis and acute flaccid paralysis. Although neuroinvasive disease occurs in less than 1% of infected individuals, it is associated with high mortality. From 1999–2005, more than 8,000 cases of neuroinvasive WNV disease were reported in the US, resulting in over 780 deaths. In this review, we discuss epidemiology, risk factors, clinical features, diagnosis and prognosis of WNV meningoencephalitis, along with potential treatments. PMID:16932563

DeBiasi, Roberta L.; Tyler, Kenneth L.

2013-01-01

444

Varicella-zoster virus.  

PubMed Central

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a ubiquitous human alphaherpesvirus that causes varicella (chicken pox) and herpes zoster (shingles). Varicella is a common childhood illness, characterized by fever, viremia, and scattered vesicular lesions of the skin. As is characteristic of the alphaherpesviruses, VZV establishes latency in cells of the dorsal root ganglia. Herpes zoster, caused by VZV reactivation, is a localized, painful, vesicular rash involving one or adjacent dermatomes. The incidence of herpes zoster increases with age or immunosuppression. The VZV virion consists of a nucleocapsid surrounding a core that contains the linear, double-stranded DNA genome; a protein tegument separates the capsid from the lipid envelope, which incorporates the major viral glycoproteins. VZV is found in a worldwide geographic distribution but is more prevalent in temperate climates. Primary VZV infection elicits immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA antibodies, which bind to many classes of viral proteins. Virus-specific cellular immunity is critical for controlling viral replication in healthy and immunocompromised patients with primary or recurrent VZV infections. Rapid laboratory confirmation of the diagnosis of varicella or herpes zoster, which can be accomplished by detecting viral proteins or DNA, is important to determine the need for antiviral therapy. Acyclovir is licensed for treatment of varicella and herpes zoster, and acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir are approved for herpes zoster. Passive antibody prophylaxis with varicella-zoster immune globulin is indicated for susceptible high-risk patients exposed to varicella. A live attenuated varicella vaccine (Oka/Merck strain) is now recommended for routine childhood immunization. PMID:8809466

Arvin, A M

1996-01-01

445

Epstein-Barr virus test  

MedlinePLUS

EBV antibody test; Monospot ... a lab, where a lab specialist looks for antibodies to the Epstein-Barr virus. In the first stages of an illness, little antibody may be detected. For this reason, serology tests ...

446

Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus  

MedlinePLUS

... screening test looks for the presence of HIV antibodies in a sample of your blood. Urine and ... damaged by infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Antibodies: Proteins in the blood produced in reaction to ...

447

Bronchiolitis and Respiratory Syncytial Virus  

MedlinePLUS

ADVICE FOR PATIENTS Bronchiolitis and Respiratory Syncytial Virus B ronchiolitis is an infection that affects the lungs and breathing passages; the name “bronchiolitis” means inflammation of the small airways in the ...

448

Viruses of eukaryotice green algae  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of our research was to develop the Chlorella-PBCV-1 virus system so that it can be used as a model system for studying gene expression in a photosynthetic eukaryote. We have made considerable progress and have learned much about PBCV-1 and its replication cycle. In addition, several significant discoveries were made in the last 3 to 4 years. These discoveries include: (i) the finding that morphologically similar, plaque forming, dsDNA containing viruses are common in nature and can be isolated readily from fresh water, (ii) the finding that all of these Chlorella viruses contain methylated bases which range in concentration from 0.1% to 47.5% m{sup 5}dC and 0 to 37% m{sup 6}dA and (iii) the discovery that infection with at least some of these viruses induces the appearance of DNA modification/restriction systems. 26 refs.

Van Etten, J.L.

1989-01-01

449

Movement of Viruses between Biomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viruses are abundant in all known ecosystems. In the present study, we tested the possibility that viruses from one biome can successfully propagate in another. Viral concentrates were prepared from different near-shore marine sites, lake water, marine sediments, and soil. The concentrates were added to microcosms containing dissolved organic matter as a food source (after filtration to allow 100-kDa particles

Emiko Sano; Suzanne Carlson; Linda Wegley; Forest Rohwer

2004-01-01

450

Plant Viruses Transmitted by Whiteflies  

Microsoft Academic Search

One-hundred and fourteen virus species are transmitted by whiteflies (family Aleyrodidae). Bemisia tabaci transmits 111 of these species while Trialeurodes vaporariorum and T. abutilonia transmit three species each. B. tabaci and T. vaporariorum are present in the European–Mediterranean region, though the former is restricted in its distribution. Of the whitefly-transmitted virus species, 90% belong to the Begomovirus genus, 6% to

David R. Jones

2003-01-01

451

The Genome of Canarypox Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we present the genomic sequence, with analysis, of a canarypox virus (CNPV). The 365-kbp CNPV genome contains 328 potential genes in a central region and in 6.5-kbp inverted terminal repeats. Comparison with the previously characterized fowlpox virus (FWPV) genome revealed avipoxvirus-specific genomic fea- tures, including large genomic rearrangements relative to other chordopoxviruses and novel cellular homo- logues and gene

E. R. Tulman; C. L. Afonso; Z. Lu; L. Zsak; G. F. Kutish; D. L. Rock

2004-01-01

452

Bifunctional thiosialosides inhibit influenza virus  

PubMed Central

We have synthesized a panel of bivalent S-sialoside analogues, with modifications at the 4 position, as inhibitors of influenza virus. These first generation compounds show IC50 values ranging from low micromolar to high nanomolar in enzyme inhibition and plaque reduction assays with two intact viruses, Influenza H1N1 (A/California/07/2009) and H3N2 (A/Hongkong/8/68). PMID:24374271

Yang, Yang; He, Yun; Li, Xingzhe; Dinh, Hieu

2014-01-01

453

Taxonomy and nomenclature of viruses.  

PubMed

In his article The species concept in plant virology Milne1 describes the CMI/AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses2 as providing the 'creeping barrage' (for the 'anti-species' views of many plant virologists and others) in the seemingly unending trench warfare over virus taxonomy and nomenclature. As an editor since 1970 (with BD Harrison) of this continuing series, I am moved to fire a few additional shots in support of Milne's thesis. PMID:3940013

Murant, A F

1985-07-01

454

Foodborne viruses: an emerging problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several groups of viruses may infect persons after ingestion and then are shed via stool. Of these, the norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) are currently recognised as the most important human foodborne pathogens with regard to the number of outbreaks and people affected in the Western world.NoV and HAV are highly infectious and may lead to widespread outbreaks.

Marion Koopmans; Erwin Duizer

2004-01-01

455

Kinetics of virus production from single cells  

PubMed Central

The production of virus by infected cells is an essential process for the spread and persistence of viral diseases, the effectiveness of live-viral vaccines, and the manufacture of viruses for diverse applications. Yet despite its importance, methods to precisely measure virus production from cells are lacking. Most methods test infected-cell populations, masking how individual cells behave. Here we measured the kinetics of virus production from single cells. We combined simple steps of liquid-phase infection, serial dilution, centrifugation, and harvesting, without specialized equipment, to track the production of virus particles from BHK cells infected with vesicular stomatitis virus. Remarkably, cell-to-cell differences in latent times to virus release were within a factor of two, while production rates and virus yields spanned over 300-fold, highlighting an extreme diversity in virus production for cells from the same population. These findings have fundamental and technological implications for health and disease. PMID:22222212

Timm, Andrea; Yin, John

2011-01-01

456

Major tomato viruses in the Mediterranean basin.  

PubMed

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) originated in South America and was brought to Europe by the Spaniards in the sixteenth century following their colonization of Mexico. From Europe, tomato was introduced to North America in the eighteenth century. Tomato plants show a wide climatic tolerance and are grown in both tropical and temperate regions around the world. The climatic conditions in the Mediterranean basin favor tomato cultivation, where it is traditionally produced as an open-field plant. However, viral diseases are responsible for heavy yield losses and are one of the reasons that tomato production has shifted to greenhouses. The major tomato viruses endemic to the Mediterranean basin are described in this chapter. These viruses include Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, Tomato torrado virus, Tomato spotted wilt virus, Tomato infectious chlorosis virus, Tomato chlorosis virus, Pepino mosaic virus, and a few minor viruses as well. PMID:22682165

Hanssen, Inge M; Lapidot, Moshe

2012-01-01

457

Mapping overlapping functional elements embedded within the protein-coding regions of RNA viruses  

E-print Network

viruses. Such viruses include influenza A virus, Ebola virus, rabies virus, SARS virus, MERS virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, yellow fever virus, dengue virus, eastern equine encephalitis virus, and Lassa virus. Many other human pathogenic viruses... functional elements embedded within the coding sequences [40]. For Enterovirus C these include the cre (cis-acting replication element) [41], the RNase L ciRNA (competitive inhibitor of RNase L) [42], and the ?/3D-7000 element [7,10]. The synplot2 analysis...

Firth, Andrew E.

2014-01-01

458

New hosts of Alfalfa mosaic virus, Cucumber mosaic virus, Potato virus Y, Soybean dwarf virus, and Tomato spotted wilt virus in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alfalfa mosaic virus is recorded for the first time in New Zealand on Cirsium arvense, Medicago lupulina, Mentha sp., Petunia × hybrida, Rumex obtusifolius, Senecio vulgaris, Sonchus asper, and Trifolium ambiguum. Cucumber mosaic virus is recorded on Arthropodium cirratum, Capsella bursa?pastoris, Carthamus tinctorius, Conium maculatum, Coronopus didymus, Galium aparine, Hirschfeldia incana, Marrubium vulgare, Malva parviflora, Malva sylvestris, Ranunculus sardous, and

J. D. Fletcher

2001-01-01

459

Another Really, Really Big Virus  

PubMed Central

Viruses with genomes larger than 300 kb and up to 1.2 Mb, which encode hundreds of proteins, are being discovered and characterized with increasing frequency. Most, but not all, of these large viruses (often referred to as giruses) infect protists that live in aqueous environments. Bioinformatic analyses of metagenomes of aqueous samples indicate that large DNA viruses are quite common in nature and await discovery. One issue that is perhaps not appreciated by the virology community is that large viruses, even those classified in the same family, can differ significantly in morphology, lifestyle, and gene complement. This brief commentary, which will mention some of these unique properties, was stimulated by the characterization of the newest member of this club, virus CroV (Fischer, M.G.; Allen, M.J.; Wilson, W.H.; Suttle, C.A. Giant virus with a remarkable complement of genes infects marine zooplankton. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2010, 107, 19508–19513 [1]). CroV has a 730 kb genome (with ?544 protein-encoding genes) and infects the marine microzooplankton Cafeteria roenbergensis producing a lytic infection. PMID:21994725

Van Etten, James L.

2011-01-01

460

Virus detection using nanoelectromechanical devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have used a resonating mechanical cantilever to detect immunospecific binding of viruses, captured from liquid. As a model virus, we used a nonpathogenic insect baculovirus to test the ability to specifically bind and detect small numbers of virus particles. Arrays of surface micromachined, antibody-coated polycrystalline silicon nanomechanical cantilever beams were used to detect binding from various concentrations of baculoviruses in a buffer solution. Because of their small mass, the 0.5?m×6?m cantilevers have mass sensitivities on the order of 10-19g/Hz, enabling the detection of an immobilized AcV1 antibody monolayer corresponding to a mass of about 3×10-15g. With these devices, we can detect the mass of single-virus particles bound to the cantilever. Resonant frequency shift resulting from the adsorbed mass of the virus particles distinguished solutions of virus concentrations varying between 105 and 107pfu/ml. Control experiments using buffer solutions without baculovirus showed small amounts (<50attograms) of nonspecific adsorption to the antibody layer.

Ilic, B.; Yang, Y.; Craighead, H. G.

2004-09-01

461

Live viruses to treat cancer.  

PubMed

Viruses that selectively replicate in cancer cells, leading to the death of the cell, are being studied for their potential as cancer therapies. Some of these viruses are naturally occurring but cause little if any illness in humans; others have been engineered to make them specifically able to kill cancer cells while sparing normal cells. These oncolytic viruses may be selective for cancer cells because viral receptors are over-expressed on the surface of cancer cells or because antiviral pathways are distorted in cancer cells. Additionally, when oncolytic viruses kill cancer cells, it can stimulate an antitumour immune response from the host that can enhance efficacy. Numerous early phase trials of at least six oncolytic viruses have been reported with no evidence of concerning toxicity either as single agents or in combination with chemotherapies and radiotherapy. Three oncolytic viruses have reached randomized testing in cancer patients; reolysin in head and neck cancer and JX594 in hepatocellular cancers, while results from the first-phase III trial of T-vec in metastatic melanoma are expected shortly. PMID:23824333

Donnelly, Oliver; Harrington, Kevin; Melcher, Alan; Pandha, Hardev

2013-08-01

462

Viruses in Turing's Garden by Jean-Yves Marion  

E-print Network

Viruses in Turing's Garden by Jean-Yves Marion Cohen and his supervisor Adleman defined a virus as follows: "A virus is a program security community as a foundational definition. Thus, a virus is a self

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

463

PC viruses: How do they do that?  

SciTech Connect

The topic of PC Viruses has been an issue for a number of years now. They`ve been reported in every major newspaper, tabloids, television and radio. People from all fields get viruses: government, private sector businesses, home computers, schools, computer software suppliers. A definition is proposed to introduce the virus phenomenon. Virus authors come from a variety of communities. Motives and ideologies of authors are discussed, and examples of viruses are offered. Also mentioned is the growing number of viruses developed, isolated, and never distributed to the public at large, but kept within the antivirus research community. Virus examples are offered as well. Viruses are distributed not only through bulletin boards and shareware, but also from areas previously assumed to be safe, including the threat of receiving a virus through a standard in-house function, such as an in-house hardware maintenance shop. Three categories of viruses are presented: File Infecter viruses, Boot Sector Infecters, and the new category of Directory Entry Infecter virus. Also discussed are crossover viruses, that is, viruses which utilize a variety of techniques to ensure survival. An explanation of what is occurring within every stage of various viruses is given. Replication strategies common to all three types is noted, mainly the two different replication strategies of memory resident infecters and active selection infecters. A detailed definition, description and application of a stealth virus is presented. Detection strategies are discussed as each topic in this section is completed; a high level schemata of the operation of various virus detection programs ispresented. Since most eradication today is done using virus detection/eradication software, this paper attempts to reveal the techniques used by these packages.Included in the paper is the topic of manual eradication.

Pichnarczyk, K.

1992-07-01

464

PC viruses: How do they do that  

SciTech Connect

The topic of PC Viruses has been an issue for a number of years now. They've been reported in every major newspaper, tabloids, television and radio. People from all fields get viruses: government, private sector businesses, home computers, schools, computer software suppliers. A definition is proposed to introduce the virus phenomenon. Virus authors come from a variety of communities. Motives and ideologies of authors are discussed, and examples of viruses are offered. Also mentioned is the growing number of viruses developed, isolated, and never distributed to the public at large, but kept within the antivirus research community. Virus examples are offered as well. Viruses are distributed not only through bulletin boards and shareware, but also from areas previously assumed to be safe, including the threat of receiving a virus through a standard in-house function, such as an in-house hardware maintenance shop. Three categories of viruses are presented: File Infecter viruses, Boot Sector Infecters, and the new category of Directory Entry Infecter virus. Also discussed are crossover viruses, that is, viruses which utilize a variety of techniques to ensure survival. An explanation of what is occurring within every stage of various viruses is given. Replication strategies common to all three types is noted, mainly the two different replication strategies of memory resident infecters and active selection infecters. A detailed definition, description and application of a stealth virus is presented. Detection strategies are discussed as each topic in this section is completed; a high level schemata of the operation of various virus detection programs ispresented. Since most eradication today is done using virus detection/eradication software, this paper attempts to reveal the techniques used by these packages.Included in the paper is the topic of manual eradication.

Pichnarczyk, K.

1992-07-01

465

Virus of Pekin ducks with structural and biological relatedness to human hepatitis B virus.  

PubMed

A virus found in the sera of Pekin ducks appears to be a new member of the human hepatitis B-like family of viruses. This virus had a diameter of 40 nm and an appearance in the electron microscope similar to that of human hepatitis B virus. The DNA genome of the virus was circular and partially single stranded, and an endogenous DNA polymerase associated with the virus was capable of converting the genome to a double-stranded circle with a size of ca. 3,000 base pairs. An analysis for viral DNA in the organs of infected birds indicated preferential localization in the liver, implicating this organ as the site of virus replication. In all of these aspects, the virus bears a striking resemblance to human hepatitis B virus and appears to be a new member of this family, which also includes ground squirrel hepatitis virus and woodchuck hepatitis virus. PMID:7463557

Mason, W S; Seal, G; Summers, J

1980-12-01

466

Virus-like particles as virus substitutes to design artificial virus-recognition nanomaterials.  

PubMed

Functional recognition imprints of virus-like particles, at the surface of silica particles, were generated following a strategy based on protein-templated polycondensation of organosilanes. PMID:25558487

Sykora, Sabine; Cumbo, Alessandro; Belliot, Gaël; Pothier, Pierre; Arnal, Charlotte; Dudal, Yves; Corvini, Philippe F-X; Shahgaldian, Patrick

2015-01-27