These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

First record of tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) on pepper in Italy.  

PubMed

During a survey in summer 2007, a disease of pepper (Capsicum annuum) under plastic tunnels was observed in Policoro (Matera), on the Ionic coast of Basilicata Region, with a disease incidence in some cases of more than 50%. Affected cultivars were Eppo and Almund (S Et G). The diseased plants exhibited light mosaic or mottling, leaf distortion, interveinal and marginal leaf chlorosis, upward curling of leaf margins of older leaves. The causal pathogen was suspected to be a begomovirus due to the large population of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci observed on the crop. Detection assays for Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) were used. In DAS-ELISA, positive results (178 plants resulted positive over 200 symptomatic plants assayed) were obtained using a "broad-spectrum" reagent combination (distributed by Bioreba AG) detecting TYLCV, TYLCSV, and other begamoviruses. A couple of synthetic oligonucleotides allowing the amplification of the whole coat protein (CP) gene of TYLCSV and TYLCV was used for PCR of ELISA positive samples in order to perform the molecular characterisation of the viral isolate responsible of the disease. RFLP analysis performed on the PCR product, 1008 bp long, showed the presence of only TYLCSV in the infected pepper plants. The same couple of primers allowed the detection of the virus also in symptomless pepper plants. To test whitefly transmission, adults of B. tabaci allowed to feed on naturally infected pepper plants were transferred on 10 healthy Eppo pepper seedlings (15 whiteflies/plant). Insects were killed 2 days later using an insecticide. Twenty days post exposition 10 plants/10 resulted positive in ELISA, and showed the same symptoms observed in natural infection. TYLCSV was not reported before on pepper in the surveyed area, but it was recorded with severe outbreaks on tomato, both in protected and in open field crops. This species was probably the primary source of infection from which subsequent diffusion by way of the vector B. tabaci followed on pepper. To our knowledge this is the first time that a natural infection of TYLCSV on pepper is recorded in Italy, with serious implications for the epidemiology of TYLCSV in our country. PMID:19226766

Fanigliulo, A; Pacella, R; Comes, S; Crescenzi, A

2008-01-01

2

Real-time PCR protocols for the quantification of the begomovirus tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus in tomato plants and in its insect vector.  

PubMed

Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) (Geminiviridae) is an important pathogen, transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, that severely affects the tomato production in the Mediterranean basin. Here, we describe real-time PCR protocols suitable for relative and absolute quantification of TYLCSV in tomato plants and in whitefly extracts. Using primers and probe specifically designed for TYLCSV, the protocols for relative quantification allow to compare the amount of TYLCSV present in different plant or whitefly samples, normalized to the amount of DNA present in each sample using endogenous tomato or Bemisia genes as internal references. The absolute quantification protocol allows to calculate the number of genomic units of TYLCSV over the genomic units of the plant host (tomato), with a sensitivity of as few as ten viral genome copies per sample. The described protocols are potentially suitable for several applications, such as plant breeding for resistance, analysis of virus replication, and virus-vector interaction studies. PMID:25287496

Noris, Emanuela; Miozzi, Laura

2015-01-01

3

Virion Stability Is Important for the Circulative Transmission of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Sardinia Virus by Bemisia tabaci, but Virion Access to Salivary Glands Does Not Guarantee Transmissibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capsid protein (CP) of the monopartite begomovirus Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV), family Geminiviridae, is indispensable for plant infection and vector transmission. A region between amino acids 129 and 152 is critical for virion assembly and insect transmissibility. Two previously described mutants, one with a double Q129P Q134H mutation (PNHD) and another with a further D152E change

Piero Caciagli; Vicente Medina Piles; Daniele Marian; Manuela Vecchiati; Vera Masenga; Giovanna Mason; Tania Falcioni; Emanuela Noris

2009-01-01

4

Integrated management of TYLCV/TYLCSV on greenhouse hydroponic tomatoes in Southern Italy.  

PubMed

Tomato yellow leaf curl (TYLC) caused by Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV), vectored by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, is a major disease of tomato in Sardinia and Sicily, and is becoming a serious threat in Southern Italy too. TYLCSV was first reported in Calabria region in 1991, but apparently it was an occasional outbreak, and B. tabaci was not detected. Later, during the 2003-2004 winter, a serious epidemic was observed in protected tomato crops in Castrovillari, Cosenza province. TYLCV was first described in Sicily in 2003 and during 2004 in continental Italy. Both viruses were detected in winter 2005-2006 on the Basilicata Ionic coast, in the Metapontum area, both in protected and in open field tomato crops. Experiments were conducted in Calabria Region, Southern Italy, under controlled conditions in a group of greenhouses where several tomato crops were grown hydroponically to determine the separate and integrated effects of UV-reflective mulch (UVRM), Acibenzolar-S-methyl (Actigard) and the two insecticides Imidacloprid (ADMIRE 2F) and Thiamethoxam (ACTARA 25WG). Highly UV-reflective mulch covered plots were treated with Actigard and insecticides, both alone or in combination. TYLC disease incidence was determined from late August 2005 to late January 2006. The highly UVRM alone was effective in reducing disease incidence of about 28.6% at the end of October, and of 31.7% at the end of January. However, Actigard with UVRM significantly reduced TYLC disease incidence to 70% and 48.5%, in 2 months and 5 months after the first treatment, respectively. The insecticides with UVRM, resulted in a moderate reduction of disease incidence (22.5%) at the end of October. At the end of January a reduction in disease incidence due to insecticide applications was not significant. The use of Actigard combined with the insecticides on UVRM reduced the disease incidence (63.4% with Admire and 56.1% with Actara) at the end of January. Actigard alone or with insecticides on UVRM was effective in reducing disease incidences. Highly UVRM and Actigard were effective in reducing the primary spread of TYLCV/TYLCSV in greenhouse hydroponic tomatoes. Comparative analysis of their effects at different periods post-treatment suggests that multiple applications of Actigard may be necessary to reduce progress of this disease. PMID:17390886

Fanigliulo, A; Ferrara, L; Caligiuri, G; Comes, S; Momol, M T; Olson, S M; Crescenzi, A

2006-01-01

5

Severe outbreak of tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus on pepper in southern Italy.  

PubMed

During summer and autumn 2008 a severe outbreak of pepper leaf curl disease (PLCD) was observed in pepper crops under plastic tunnels in the ionic coast of Basilicata region. Its incidence reached, in some cases, values close to 50%. The beginning of infections was recorded along the perimeter of the tunnels, where it reached a percentage of almost 100%. The infection then progressively spread towards the central areas of the greenhouses. Large populations of whiteflies, identificated as Bemisia tabaci, were observed on the infected crops. Detection assays for TYLCSV and TYLCV were performed in order to ascertain the etiologic agent: 190 symptomatic samples were collected from different fields and assayed in DAS-ELISA using a broad-spectrum reagent combination (distributed by Bioreba AG) detecting TYLCV, TYLCSV and other Begamoviruses: of these, 176 samples resulted positive. In order to discriminate between TYLCSV, TYLCV or any other Begamovirus, 15 positive samples were analyzed by PCR using a couple of synthetic oligonucleotides allowing the amplification of the whole coat protein (CP) gene. RFLP analysis performed on the PCR product, 1008 bp long, showed the presence of only TYLCSV in all assayed samples. The molecular characterization performed by phylogenetic analysis of the sequenced coat protein gene revealed that the isolate shares a similarity of about 97% with the corresponding sequence of a tomato TYLCSV isolate from Sicily (Z28390) and is almost identical with the pepper isolate CAB-It recovered in the same area in 2007 (TYLCSV was first recorded on pepper in Italy in 2007 in Policoro-MT, Fanigliulo et al., 2008. Comm. Appl. Biol. Sci, Ghent University, 73/2, 2008), indicating that there is a very low variability in TYLCSV population in the surveyed area. The further diffusion of PLCD and its hazard has to be connected with the presence of wide tomato cultivations, of weed hosts alternative to pepper (Solanum nigrum, Datura stramonium, Sonchus asper, Cardaria draba and Abutilon theophrasti) and with the strong presence of the vector B. tabaci of the B biotype, more efficient than Q biotype in the virus transmission, and able to feed and reproduce on peppers as well as on tomatoes. PMID:20222578

Comes, Soccorsa; Fanigliulo, Angela; Pacella, Rosa; Crescenzi, Aniello

2009-01-01

6

An epidemiological survey of TYLCD in southern Sardinia (Italy).  

PubMed

Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) are among the most virulent pathogens of greenhouse tomatoes in Sardinia (Italy). To investigate the relationship between seasonal population trends of the vector Bemisia tabaci and the dynamics of TYLCD spread to susceptible crops, between May and October 2007 we carried out a survey in a tomato growing area located in the south of the island. On three farms specialized in the production of fresh market tomatoes we monitored, outside commercial greenhouses, the following parameters related to TYLCD epidemiology: mean weekly catches of the whiteflies B. tabaci and Trialeurodes voporariorum on yellow sticky traps, ratio between the two whitefly species and proportion of B. tabaci adults carrying TYLCSV/TYLCV in adult samples collected on hosts not susceptible to the disease, proportion of tomato plants infected by TYLCSV/TYLCV after a two-week exposure to open field conditions. Generally speaking, the flight activity of whiteflies increased during spring, reached a peak in May or June and gradually declined in summer. At the beginning of the survey, T. vaporariorum was found to be the prevalent species, but after a shift in composition of whitefly populations during July, B. tabaci became predominant. While the percentage of vector adults carrying the viral agents of the disease was relatively high up to July, with maximum values ranging between 14 and 25%, during the following months it decreased to less than 5%. The incidence of TYLCD in the plants exposed outside the greenhouses showed a similar trend in the sites surveyed, with two peaks roughly coinciding with the beginning and end of summer. Therefore, two distinct phases of TYLCD spread were observed: from spring to midsummer when the disease was transmitted by low 8. tabaci populations with relatively high proportions of virus carriers; from midsummer to autumn, when the disease was spread by larger vector populations with low percentages of individuals carrying the viruses. Further studies are necessary to gain a better understanding of the interactions among B. tabaci biotypes, TYLCSV/TYLCV and their hosts. PMID:20222569

Nannini, M; Foddi, F; Murgia, G; Pisci, R; Sanna, F; Testa, M; Accotto, G P

2009-01-01

7

Genetic structure and evolution of natural populations of viruses causing the tomato yellow leaf curl disease in Spain.  

PubMed

The population structure and genetic variation of two begomoviruses: tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) and tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) in tomato crops of Spain were studied from 1997 until 2001. Restriction digestion of a genomic region comprised of the CP coat protein gene (CPR) of 358 TYLC virus isolates enabled us to classify them into 14 haplotypes. Nucleotide sequences of two genomic regions: CPR, and the surrounding intergenic region (SIR) were determined for at least two isolates per haplotype. SIR was more variable than CPR and showed multiple recombination events whereas no recombination was detected within CPR. In all geographic regions except Murcia, the population was, or evolved to be composed of one predominant haplotype with a low genetic diversity (<0.0180). In Murcia, two successive changes of the predominant haplotype were observed in the best studied population. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the TYLCSV sequences determined clustered with sequences obtained from the GenBank of other TYLCSV Spanish isolates which were clearly separated from TYLCSV Italian isolates. Most of our TYLCV sequences were similar to those of isolates from Japan and Portugal, and the sequences obtained from TYLCV isolates from the Canary island of Lanzarote were similar to those of Caribbean TYLCV isolates. PMID:17524509

Font, María Isabel; Rubio, Luis; Martínez-Culebras, Pedro Vicente; Jordá, Concepción

2007-09-01

8

Short Communication Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus can overcome transgene-mediated RNA silencing of two essential viral genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate RNA silencing for the control of geminivirus infection, two classes of post-transcriptionally silenced (PTS) plants were tested using Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardiniavirus(TYLCSV)Rep-210-transgenic plants,asense6antisensehybridandtwomulticopy sense lines. In both classes, PTS plants accumulated low or undetectable amounts of Rep-210 protein and mRNA but high amounts of Rep-210 small interfering RNAs. PTS plants were susceptible to TYLCSV when challenged by

Emanuela Noris; Alessandra Lucioli; Raffaela Tavazza; Piero Caciagli; Gian Paolo Accotto; Mario Tavazza

9

Detection methods for TYLCV and TYLCSV  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD) has been known for many years. The cause was, premature but with commendable intuition,\\u000a put down to an entity named Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) (Cohen and Nitzany, 1966) although the viral etiology was recognized only in the late 1970s, and a virus with geminate\\u000a morphology detected even later. Electron microscopic (EM)

GIAN PAOLO ACCOTTO; Emanuela Noris

10

The Sardinia Radio Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the status of the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) project, a new general purpose, fully steerable 64 m diameter parabolic radio telescope under construction in Sardinia. The instrument is funded by Italian Ministry of University and Research (MIUR), by the Sardinia Regional Government (RAS), and by the Italian Space Agency (ASI), and it is charge to three research structures of the National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF): the Institute of Radio Astronomy of Bologna, the Cagliari Astronomical Observatory (in Sardinia), and the Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory in Florence. The radio telescope has a shaped Gregorian optical configuration with a 8 m diameter secondary mirror and additional Beam-Wave Guide (BWG) mirrors. One of the most challenging feature of SRT is the active surface of the primary reflector which provides good efficiency up to about 100 GHz. This paper reports on the most recent advances of the construction.

D'Amico, Nichi

2011-08-01

11

Solution Structure of the Endonuclease Domain from the Master Replication Initiator Protein of the Nanovirus Faba Bean Necrotic Yellows Virus and Comparison with the corresponding Geminivirus and Circovirus Structures†‡  

PubMed Central

Nanoviruses are a family of plant viruses that posses a genome of multiple circular single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) components and are strikingly similar in their replication mode to the plant geminiviruses and to the circoviruses that infect birds or mammals. These viruses multiply by rolling circle replication using virus-encoded multifunctional replication initiator proteins (Rep proteins) that catalyze the initiation of replication on a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) intermediate and the resolution of the ssDNA into circles. Here we report the solution NMR three-dimensional structure of the endonuclease domain from the Master Rep (M-Rep) protein of faba bean necrotic yellows virus (FBNYV), a representative of the nanoviruses. The domain comprises amino acids 2-95 (M-Rep2-95) and its global fold is similar to those previously described for the gemini- and circovirus Rep endonuclease domain, consisting of a central 5-stranded antiparallel ?-sheet covered on one side by an ?-helix and irregular loops and on the other, more open side of the domain, by an ?-helix containing the catalytic tyrosine residue (the catalytic helix). Longer domain constructs extending to amino acids 117 and 124, were also characterized. They contain an additional ?-helix, are monomeric and exhibit catalytic activity indistinguishable from that of M-Rep2-95. The binding site for the catalytic metal was identified by paramagnetic broadening and maps to residues on the exposed face of the central ?-sheet. A comparison with the previously determined Rep endonuclease domain structures of tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV), a geminivirus, and that of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) Rep allows the identification of a positively charged surface that is most likely involved dsDNA binding, and reveals common features shared by all endonuclease domains of nanovirus, geminivirus, and circovirus Rep proteins. PMID:17472345

Vega-Rocha, Susana; Gronenborn, Bruno; Gronenborn, Angela M.; Campos-Olivas, Ramón

2008-01-01

12

New remarkable records of microfungi from Sardinia (Italy).  

PubMed

In June 2009 we organized a botanical student excursion to the eastern part of Sardinia, Italy. On this occasion we were able to collect and identify over 80 species of microfungi growing on higher plants. The collecting sites were spread over a large area, among them were La Caletta, Capo Comino, Monte Albo, Cala Gonone, Monte Maccione, San Teodoro, Capo Testa. The collected microfungi were parasitic or saprophytic; Basidiomycotina (Uredinales), Ascomycotina and Deuteromycotina (Hyphomycetes, Coelomycetes) were predominant. Examples are Pezicula corticola (Jörg.) NANNF. (new for Sardinia), on Pyrus communis. Puccinia chamaecyparissi TROTT. (new for Sardinia), on Santolina insularis. Sphaceloma oleae CICC. and GRANITI (new for Sardinia) and Phlyctema vagabunda DESM. (new for Sardinia), on Olea europaea and Arbutus unedo. Puccinia pseudosphaeria MONT. (new for Sardinia), on Sonchus oleraceus. Discula umbrinella (BERK. and BR.) SUTTON (new for Sardinia)(D. quercina WEST. and BARK), on Quercus coccifera. Zaghouania phillyreae PAT. (new for Sardinia), on Phillyrea angustifolia. Phymatotrichum omnivorum (DUGGAR) HENNEBERT, new on Verbascum thapsus for Sardinia. Guignardia punctoidea (COOKE) SCHROTER (new for Sardinia), on Quercus ilex. Many of the collected species are rare or unknown for the area of investigation until now. All specimens are located in the Herbarium ESS, Mycotheca Parva collection G.B. Feige and N. Ale-Agha. PMID:21534478

Jensen, M; Nerat, N; Ale-Agha, N

2010-01-01

13

Status of the Sardinia Radio Telescope project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the status of the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) project, a new general purpose, fully steerable 64 m diameter parabolic radiotelescope capable to operate with high efficiency in the 0.3-116 GHz frequency range. The instrument is the result of a scientific and technical collaboration among three Structures of the Italian National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF): the Institute of Radio Astronomy of Bologna, the Cagliari Astronomy Observatory (in Sardinia,) and the Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory in Florence. Funding agencies are the Italian Ministry of Education and Scientific Research, the Sardinia Regional Government, and the Italian Space Agency (ASI,) that has recently rejoined the project. The telescope site is about 35 km North of Cagliari. The radio telescope has a shaped Gregorian optical configuration with a 7.9 m diameter secondary mirror and supplementary Beam-WaveGuide (BWG) mirrors. With four possible focal positions (primary, Gregorian, and two BWGs), SRT will be able to allocate up to 20 remotely controllable receivers. One of the most advanced technical features of the SRT is the active surface: the primary mirror will be composed by 1008 panels supported by electromechanical actuators digitally controlled to compensate for gravitational deformations. With the completion of the foundation on spring 2006 the SRT project entered its final construction phase. This paper reports on the latest advances on the SRT project.

Tofani, Gianni; Alvito, Gianni; Ambrosini, Roberto; Bolli, Pietro; Bortolotti, Claudio; Bruca, Loredana; Buffa, Franco; Cattani, Alessandro; Comoretto, Gianni; Cremonini, Andrea; Cresci, Luca; D'Amico, Nichi; Deiana, Gian Luigi; Fara, Antonietta; Feretti, Luigina; Fiocchi, Franco; Flamini, Enrico; Fusi Pecci, Flavio; Grueff, Gavril; Maccaferri, Giuseppe; Maccaferri, Andrea; Mantovani, Franco; Mariotti, Sergio; Migoni, Carlo; Messina, Filippo; Monari, Jader; Morsiani, Marco; Murgia, Matteo; Musmeci, José; Nanni, Mauro; Natale, Vincenzo; Navarrini, Alessandro; Negusini, Monia; Nesti, Renzo; Olmi, Luca; Orfei, Alessandro; Orlati, Andrea; Palla, Francesco; Panella, Dario; Pernechele, Claudio; Pilloni, Salvatore; Pisanu, Tonino; Poddighe, Antonio; Poloni, Marco; Poma, Angelo; Poppi, Sergio; Porceddu, Ignazio; Prandoni, Isabella; Roda, Juri; Roma, Mauro; Sarti, Pierguido; Scalambra, Alessandro; Schillirò, Francesco; Tarchi, Andrea; Vargiu, Gian Paolo; Zacchiroli, Giampaolo

2008-07-01

14

Ecotypic differentiation of Medicago polymorpha in Sardinia and Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY - Burr medic (Medicago polymorpha L.) is commonly found in Sardinia and in Chile throughout a wide range of Mediterranean type climates. In Sardinia it is part of the native flora at altitudes ranging between 0 and 1000 m a.s.l., with annual rainfall ranging between 500 and 1100 mm. In Chile, burr medic is naturalized and distributed in a

A. Del Pozo; C. Porqueddu; C. Ovalle

15

Analyzing wildfire exposure on Sardinia, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used simulation modeling based on the minimum travel time algorithm (MTT) to analyze wildfire exposure of key ecological, social and economic features on Sardinia, Italy. Sardinia is the second largest island of the Mediterranean Basin, and in the last fifty years experienced large and dramatic wildfires, which caused losses and threatened urban interfaces, forests and natural areas, and agricultural productions. Historical fires and environmental data for the period 1995-2009 were used as input to estimate fine scale burn probability, conditional flame length, and potential fire size in the study area. With this purpose, we simulated 100,000 wildfire events within the study area, randomly drawing from the observed frequency distribution of burn periods and wind directions for each fire. Estimates of burn probability, excluding non-burnable fuels, ranged from 0 to 1.92x10-3, with a mean value of 6.48x10-5. Overall, the outputs provided a quantitative assessment of wildfire exposure at the landscape scale and captured landscape properties of wildfire exposure. We then examined how the exposure profiles varied among and within selected features and assets located on the island. Spatial variation in modeled outputs resulted in a strong effect of fuel models, coupled with slope and weather. In particular, the combined effect of Mediterranean maquis, woodland areas and complex topography on flame length was relevant, mainly in north-east Sardinia, whereas areas with herbaceous fuels and flat areas were in general characterized by lower fire intensity but higher burn probability. The simulation modeling proposed in this work provides a quantitative approach to inform wildfire risk management activities, and represents one of the first applications of burn probability modeling to capture fire risk and exposure profiles in the Mediterranean basin.

Salis, Michele; Ager, Alan A.; Arca, Bachisio; Finney, Mark A.; Alcasena, Fermin; Bacciu, Valentina; Duce, Pierpaolo; Munoz Lozano, Olga; Spano, Donatella

2014-05-01

16

Thirty-Five-Year Presence of African Swine Fever in Sardinia: History, Evolution and Risk Factors for Disease Maintenance.  

PubMed

Despite the implementation of control efforts and funds to fight against the disease, African swine fever (ASF) has been present in Sardinia since 1978. It has caused serious problems for both the industrial pig sector and the regional authorities in Sardinia, as well as the economy of Italy and the European Union, which annually supports the costly eradication programme. During this time, ASF has persisted, especially in the central-east part of Sardinia where almost 75% of the total outbreaks are concentrated. The Sardinian pig sector is clearly divided into two categories based on the specialization and industrialization of production: industrial farms, which represents only 1.8% of the farms in the island and non-professional holdings, which are comprised of small producers (90% of pig holdings have <15 pigs) and apply little to no biosecurity measures. Additionally, illegally raised pigs are still bred in free-ranging systems in certain isolated parts of the island, despite strict regulations. The illegal raising of pigs, along with other high-risk management practices (e.g. use of communal areas) are likely the primary reasons for endemic persistence of the virus in this area. The compensation provided to the farmers, and other aspects of the eradication programme have also negatively influenced eradication efforts, indicating that socio-cultural and economic factors play an important role in the epidemiology of ASF on the island. The aim of this study was to comprehensively review the evolution of the 35-year presence of ASF in Sardinia, including control measures, and the environmental and socio-economic factors that may have contributed to disease endemicity on the island. The present review highlights the need for a coordinated programme that considers these socio-economic and environmental factors and includes an assessment of new cost-effective control strategies and diagnostic tools for effectively controlling ASF in Sardinia. PMID:25212957

Mur, L; Atzeni, M; Martínez-López, B; Feliziani, F; Rolesu, S; Sanchez-Vizcaino, J M

2014-09-12

17

The Bibionidae (Diptera) of Sardinia, with description of two new species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of eight species of Bibionidae is reported from Sardinia, mainly based upon recent collections made in the south-western part of the island. Two species, Dilophus bispinosus Lundström, 1913 and D. humeralis Zetterstedt, 1850, are new records for Sardinia, while two species are described as new to science: Bibio sardocyrneus sp. nov. (from Sardinia and Corsica) and Dilophus sardous

JEAN-PAUL HAENNI

18

Post collisional transpressive tectonics in northern Sardinia (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work is to review and synthetize the geological and structural analysis performed in the Variscan Basement of Northern Sardinian during the last ten years and to add new preliminary data on the Anglona-SW Gallura area. A transpressive crustal- scale deformation (D2), is documented in the Variscan Basement of northern Sardinia. A shear deformation parallel to the

R. Carosi; C. Frassi; D. Iacopini; C. Montomoli

2005-01-01

19

A Dynamical Analysis of Sea Breeze Hodograph Rotation on Sardinia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the dynamics of diurnal sea-breeze rotation over coastal Sardinia using realistic and idealized model runs and historical observations. Earlier research on sea-breezes in Sardinia shows that the onshore winds around various coasts of the island exhibit both the theoretically predicted clockwise rotation as well as seemingly anomalous anticlockwise rotation. A non-hydrostatic fully compressible numerical model (WRF) is used to simulate wind fields on and around the island on previously-studied sea-breeze days. WRF accurately captures the sea breeze circulation on all coasts, as depicted in station data. Diurnal rotation of wind is examined and patterns of clockwise and anti-clockwise rotation are identified. A dynamical analysis is performed by extracting individual forcing terms from the horizontal momentum equations. Analysis of several regions around the island shows that the direction of rotation is a result of a complex interaction between near-surface and synoptic pressure gradient, Coriolis and advection forcings. An idealized simulation is performed over an artificial island of similar dimensions and latitude to Sardinia, but with dramatically simplified topography. Dynamical analysis of the idealized runs reveals a rather different pattern of hodograph rotation to the real Sardinia, yet similar underlying dynamics. The research provides new insights into the dynamics underlying sea-breeze hodograph rotation, especially in coastal zones with complex topography and/or coastline.

Moisseeva, Nadya; Steyn, Douw

2014-05-01

20

Characterization of the Monte Arci (Sardinia) Obsidian Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the western Mediterranean, obsidian from four volcanic island sources was used beginning in the Neolithic period. The geological sources on Lipari, Palmarola, and Pantelleria have been located and chemically characterized; until now, however, the Monte Arci source in Sardinia was better known from the analysis of archaeological rather than geological specimens. The results of a comprehensive field survey and

Robert H. Tykot

1997-01-01

21

Rickettsia conorii israelensis in Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, Sardinia, Italy.  

PubMed

The presence of tick-borne Rickettsia spp. was examined by PCR using DNA samples extracted from 254 ticks collected from mammals originating from northern and eastern Sardinia, Italy. The spotted fever group rickettsial agent Rickettsia conorii israelensis was detected in 3 Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks from a dog for the first time in this geographical area. In addition, Ri. massiliae, Ri. slovaca, and Ri. aeschlimannii were detected in Rh. turanicus, Rh. sanguineus, Dermacentor marginatus, and Hyalomma marginatum marginatum ticks from dogs, goats, wild boar, and horse. Moreover, Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae was detected in 2 Rh. turanicus ticks from goats. The detection of Ri. conorii israelensis, an emergent agent which causes Israeli spotted fever, increases our knowledge on tick-borne rickettsioses in Sardinia. PMID:24852264

Chisu, Valentina; Masala, Giovanna; Foxi, Cipriano; Socolovschi, Cristina; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

2014-06-01

22

Results of Skylab investigation over Italy. [Sicily and Sardinia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Multispectral high resolution photography of S190A was successfully applied to the detection of paleoriverbeds in flat lands. Results of SL-3 mission were compared to those of LANDSAT for two regional geological surveys (linear structures) on the islands of Sicily and Sardinia. On Sicily, the seasonal conditions were unfavorable for Skylab while LANDSAT played a major role in discovering long, unknown lineaments of great interest for the geodynamics of the area. On Sardinia, owing to the vegetation type and to the geomorphic conditions, the Skylab imagery was successfully employed to describe the network of linears, both regional and local. Results can be used to study the relationship between linears, actual fracturing and the occurrence of mineral deposits.

Cassinis, R.; Lechi, G. M.; Tonelli, A. M. (principal investigators)

1975-01-01

23

Foreign Influences and Consequences on the Nuragic Culture of Sardinia  

E-print Network

stag or red deer, Cervus elaphus, dwarfed island species of European wild boar, Sus scrofa meridionalis,65 and the wild pigeon, Columba livia.66 Still present in the mountainous region of Marmilla, are small wild horses known as the giara, Equus... caballus Giarae.67 The cattle and sheep that are found on Sardinia in modern times are of a hearty, rustic variety, Bos taurus sardo and Ovis aries sardo, descendants to the bovines and mouflons kept by the ancient Sardinians.68 Metal...

Choltco, Margaret E.

2010-07-14

24

Dynamical analysis of sea-breeze hodograph rotation in Sardinia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the diurnal evolution of sea-breeze rotation over an island in the mid-latitudes. Earlier research on sea-breezes in Sardinia shows that the onshore winds around various coasts of the island exhibit both the theoretically predicted clockwise rotation as well as seemingly anomalous anti-clockwise rotation. A non-hydrostatic fully compressible numerical model (WRF) is used to simulate wind fields on and around the island on previously-studied sea-breeze days and is shown to accurately capture the circulation on all coasts. Diurnal rotation of wind is examined and patterns of clockwise and anti-clockwise rotation are identified. A dynamical analysis is performed by extracting individual forcing terms from the horizontal momentum equations. Analysis of several regions around the island shows that the direction of rotation is a result of a complex interaction between near-surface and synoptic pressure gradient, Coriolis and advection forcings. An idealized simulation is performed over an artificial island with dramatically simplified topography, yet similar dimensions and latitude to Sardinia. Dynamical analysis of the idealized case reveals a rather different pattern of hodograph rotation to the real Sardinia, yet similar underlying dynamics. The research provides new insights into the dynamics underlying sea-breeze hodograph rotation, especially in coastal zones with complex topography and/or coastline.

Moisseeva, N.; Steyn, D. G.

2014-09-01

25

Dynamical analysis of sea-breeze hodograph rotation in Sardinia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the diurnal evolution of sea-breeze (SB) rotation over an island at the middle latitudes. Earlier research on sea breezes in Sardinia shows that the onshore winds around various coasts of the island exhibit both the theoretically predicted clockwise rotation as well as seemingly anomalous anticlockwise rotation. A non-hydrostatic fully compressible numerical model (WRF) is used to simulate wind fields on and around the island on previously studied sea-breeze days, and is shown to capture the circulation on all coasts accurately. Diurnal rotation of wind is examined, and patterns of clockwise and anticlockwise rotation are identified. A dynamical analysis is performed by extracting individual forcing terms from the horizontal momentum equations. Analysis of several regions around the island shows that the direction of rotation is a result of a complex interaction between near-surface and synoptic pressure gradient, Coriolis and advection forcings. An idealized simulation is performed over an artificial island with dramatically simplified topography yet similar dimensions and latitude to Sardinia. Dynamical analysis of the idealized case reveals a rather different pattern of hodograph rotation to the real Sardinia, yet similar underlying dynamics. The research provides new insights into the dynamics underlying sea-breeze hodograph rotation, especially in coastal zones with a complex topography and/or coastline.

Moisseeva, N.; Steyn, D. G.

2014-12-01

26

Early Neolithic obsidians in Sardinia (Western Mediterranean): the Su Carroppu case  

Microsoft Academic Search

All the obsidians from the undisturbed Early Neolithic (Cardial ware phase I) layer of the Su Carroppu rock-shelter (Sardinia island) were studied. Their elemental composition and that of obsidians from the Monte Arci (Sardinia) volcanic complex was determined by ion beam analysis (PIXE). A comparison between the composition of Su Carroppu artefacts, analysed non-destructively, and that of Western Mediterranean analysed

Carlo Lugliè; François-Xavier Le Bourdonnec; Gérard Poupeau; Enrico Atzeni; Stéphan Dubernet; Philippe Moretto; Laurent Serani

2007-01-01

27

Eocene rotation of Sardinia, and the paleogeography of the western Mediterranean region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Key to understanding the complex Mediterranean subduction history is the kinematic reconstruction of its paleogeography after Jurassic extension between Iberia, Eurasia, and Africa. While post-Eocene Liguro-Provençal back-arc extension, and associated Miocene ?50° counterclockwise (ccw) rotation of Sardinia-Corsica have been well documented, pre-Oligocene reconstructions suffer uncertainties related to the position of Sardinia-Corsica with respect to Iberia. If a previously constrained major post-middle Jurassic, pre-Oligocene rotation of Sardinia-Corsica can be quantified in time, we can test the hypothesis that Sardinia-Corsica was (or was not) part of Iberia, which underwent a ?35° ccw during the Aptian (121-112 Ma). Here, we present new paleomagnetic results from Triassic, Jurassic, Upper Cretaceous and Lower Eocene carbonate rocks from Sardinia. Our results show a consistent well constrained post-early Eocene to pre-Oligocene ?45° ccw rotation of Sardinia-Corsica relative to Eurasia. This rotation postdated the Iberian rotation, and unambiguously shows that the two domains must have been separated by a (transform) plate boundary. The Eocene rotation of Sardinia-Corsica was synchronous with and likely responsible for documented N-S shortening in the Provence and the incorporation of the Briançonnais continental domain, likely connected to Corsica, into the western Alps. We argue that this rotation resulted from the interplay between a southward ‘Alpine’ subduction zone at Corsica, retreating northward, and a northward subduction zone below Sardinia, remaining relatively stationary versus Eurasia.

Advokaat, Eldert L.; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Maffione, Marco; Langereis, Cor G.; Vissers, Reinoud L. M.; Cherchi, Antonietta; Schroeder, Rolf; Madani, Haroen; Columbu, Stefano

2014-09-01

28

An analysis on Wildland Urban Interface in North Sardinia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate variability and drought, typical of the Mediterranean climate, together with different anthropogenic disturbances (modifications of land use, deforestation, grazing, forest fires, etc.) makes the Mediterranean basin ecosystems extremely sensitive and vulnerable. In the last three decades, an increasing number of fires threatening the wildland urban interface (WUI) was observed. In Sardinia, this phenomenon is particularly evident in tourist and coastal areas where a large number of resorts is built within and surrounded by Mediterranean vegetation that is highly prone to events of wildfire. In these situations, the related risk of damage for villages, tourist resorts, other human activities and people is elevated especially in summer when the presence of human people is highest and meteorological conditions are extreme. In addition, fire can have significant effect on the hydrological response of the WUI causing the intensification of the erosive processes. Therefore, the development of planning policies is required in order to implement strategies to prevent and reduce wildfire and soil erosion risk in wildland urban interface areas. The main aims of this work are i) to assess presence and characteristics of wildland urban interface in a touristic areas of North Sardinia and ii) to evaluate fire danger and soil erosion risk in the studied area. The study was carried out in a coastal area located in North Sardinia, characterized by strong touristic development in the last thirty years. In that area, the characterization and mapping of the WUI were performed. In addition several simulation were carried out by the Farsite fire area simulator with the aim to study the spatial pattern of the fire danger factors in the vegetated areas closer to the WUI. Finally, maps of soil erosion were produced for the identification of the areas at high erosion risk in the WUI. This work is supported by MIIUR - Metodologie e indicatori per la valutazione del rischio di Incendio nelle aree di Interfaccia Urbano Rurale in ambiente mediterraneo. Legge Regionale 7 agosto 2007, n. 7.

Arca, B.; Pellizzaro, G.; Canu, A.; Pintus, G. V.; Ferrara, R.; Duce, P.

2012-04-01

29

Paleozoic age of the Capo Spartivento Orthogneiss, Sardinia, Italy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Zircon U Pb isotope dating of the Capo Spartivento Orthogneiss, proposed as a possible Precambrian basement of southern Sardinia, shows that this rock is Caledonian in age. Conventional multi-grain analyses yield an imprecise age of roughly 480 Ma, and ion-microprobe analyses of cores of single grains yield a consistent age of 449 Ma. Though some inherited grains of Proterozoic age are present in the zircon population, they are neither abundant nor consistent with Caledonian growth of new zircons within an older protolith. ?? 1989.

Ludwig, K.R.; Turi, B.

1989-01-01

30

Nuraghic Well of Santa Cristina, Paulilatino, Oristano, Sardinia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nuraghic well of Santa Cristina, Sardinia, has been regarded as a ritual monument built to receive moonlight on its water mirror at the time of the meridian passage of the moon when it reaches its highest point in the sky around the time of a major standstill. In this chapter, we investigate the precision that could have been achieved and conclude that the well could indeed have served as an instrument for measuring the lunar declination during half of the draconic cycle of 18.61 years.

Lebeuf, Arnold

31

The control software for the Sardinia Radio Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) is a new 64-meter shaped antenna designed to carry out observations up to 100 GHz. This large instrument has been built in Sardinia, 35 km north of Cagliari, and is now facing the technical commissioning phase. This paper describes the architecture, the implementation solutions and the development status of NURAGHE, the SRT control software. Aim of the project was to produce a software which is reliable, easy to keep up to date and flexible against other telescopes. The most ambitious goal will be to install NURAGHE at all the three italian radio telescopes, allowing the astronomers to access these facilities through a common interface with very limited extra effort. We give a description of all the control software subsystems (servo systems, backends, receivers, etc.) focusing on the resulting design, which is based on the ACS (Alma Common Software) patterns and comes from linux-based, LGPL, Object-Oriented development technologies. We also illustrate how NURAGHE deals with higher level requirements, coming from the telescope management or from the system users.

Orlati, A.; Buttu, M.; Melis, A.; Migoni, C.; Poppi, S.; Righini, S.

2012-09-01

32

New insights onto cardiopulmonary nematodes of dogs in Sardinia, Italy.  

PubMed

Dog heartworms Angiostrongylus vasorum and Dirofilaria immitis cause severe parasitological diseases; the importance of these parasitosis is growing due to their health impact on animals, the possible zoonotic implications and the recent spreading across several European countries and previously non-endemic areas. The aim of this study is to update the epidemiological scenario of cardiopulmonary nematodes A. vasorum and D. immitis in dogs of Sardinia island and to perform a morphological identification of larvae by the use of the Baermann and Knott techniques respectively and the molecular characterization of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) and the second ribosomal transcribed spacer region (ITS-2) of larvae L1 of A. vasorum. In the present study, 3.4% (5/146) of dogs resulted positive at Baermann technique for A. vasorum while 8.9% (61/684) to D. immitis. If on one side A. vasorum can be considered an emerging parasite in Sardinia, the parasitic pressure and the risk of infection for D. immitis in the island seems to be increased compared with the recent past. PMID:24525757

Pipia, A P; Varcasia, A; Tosciri, G; Seu, S; Manunta, M L; Mura, M C; Sanna, G; Tamponi, C; Brianti, E; Scala, A

2014-04-01

33

Quinto Tiberio Angelerio and new measures for controlling plague in 16th-century Alghero, Sardinia.  

PubMed

Plague, a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, has been responsible for at least 3 pandemics. During 1582-1583, a plague outbreak devastated the seaport of Alghero in Sardinia. By analyzing contemporary medical texts and local documentation, we uncovered the pivotal role played by the Protomedicus of Alghero, Quinto Tiberio Angelerio (1532-1617), in controlling the epidemic. Angelerio imposed rules and antiepidemic measures new to the 16th-century sanitary system of Sardinia. Those measures undoubtedly spared the surrounding districts from the spread of the contagion. Angelerio seems to have been an extremely successful public health officer in the history of plague epidemics in Sardinia. PMID:23968598

Bianucci, Raffaella; Benedictow, Ole Jørgen; Fornaciari, Gino; Giuffra, Valentina

2013-01-01

34

Quinto Tiberio Angelerio and New Measures for Controlling Plague in 16th-Century Alghero, Sardinia  

PubMed Central

Plague, a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, has been responsible for at least 3 pandemics. During 1582–1583, a plague outbreak devastated the seaport of Alghero in Sardinia. By analyzing contemporary medical texts and local documentation, we uncovered the pivotal role played by the Protomedicus of Alghero, Quinto Tiberio Angelerio (1532–1617), in controlling the epidemic. Angelerio imposed rules and antiepidemic measures new to the 16th-century sanitary system of Sardinia. Those measures undoubtedly spared the surrounding districts from the spread of the contagion. Angelerio seems to have been an extremely successful public health officer in the history of plague epidemics in Sardinia. PMID:23968598

Benedictow, Ole Jørgen; Fornaciari, Gino; Giuffra, Valentina

2013-01-01

35

The dual-band LP feed system for the Sardinia Radio Telescope prime focus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the design of the passive feed system of the dual-band receiver for the prime focus of the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT), a new 64 m diameter radio telescope which is being built in Sardinia, Italy. The feed system operates simultaneously in P-band (305-410 MHz) and L-band (1300-1800 MHz). The room temperature illuminators are arranged in coaxial configuration with

G. Valente; T. Pisanu; P. Bolli; S. Mariotti; P. Marongiu; A. Navarrini; R. Nesti; A. Orfei; J. Roda

2010-01-01

36

Micromorphological and phytochemical characters of Teucrium marum and T. subspinosum ( Labiatae ) from Sardinia and Balearic Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micromorphology and distribution of trichomes in different plant parts ofTeucrium marum andTeucrium subspinosum from Sardinia and the Balearic Islands are described. The composition of volatile compounds in the same plants has also been studied. The occurrence in Sardinia of two differentT. marum entities is evidenced. One of them, growing in the NW. part of the island, is very similar toT.

O. Servettaz; L. Bini Maleci; A. Pinetti

1992-01-01

37

Modeling the Landscape Drivers of Fire Recurrence in Sardinia (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although recurrent fire events with very short return periods have the most dangerous effects on landscape degradation, only a few papers have explored the landscape ecological factors that drive the probability of fire recurrence. In this paper we apply a habitat suitability model for analyzing the spatial relationship between a selected set of landscape factors (mainly land use types) and fire recurrence in Sardinia (Italy) in the years 2005-2010. Our results point out that fire occurrence in already burned areas is lower than expected in natural and semi-natural land cover types, like forest and shrublands. To the contrary, like in all regions where human activity is the main source of fire ignitions, the probability of fire recurrence is higher at low altitudes and close to roads and to urban and agricultural land cover types, thus showing marked preference for those landscape factors denoting higher anthropogenic ignition risk.

Ricotta, Carlo; Di Vito, Stefania

2014-06-01

38

Geological impact of some tailings dams in Sardinia, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article deals with the results of a survey carried out in Sardinia on both active and abandoned tailings dams, and we also discuss the geological impact of tailings dams of two mines: the Masua mine, a large syngenetic Pb-Zn deposit located in Cambrian limestones, and the Montevecchio mine, a Pb-Zn vein deposit near a Hercynian granite intrusion. The characteristics and metal content of material in the dams were analyzed. A high contamination of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu) was found both in the soils and water of Rio Montevecchio, a stream draining the tailings dams and other mining operations in the area. The study indicates that a control plan to minimize heavy metal pollution must be drawn up for all mines of the area, whether active or abandoned.

di Gregorio, Felice; Massoli-Novelli, Raniero

1992-05-01

39

A case of brachymetatarsia from medieval Sardinia (Italy).  

PubMed

Archaeological excavations carried out in the Medieval village of Geridu (Sardinia) uncovered several burials dating to the late 13th or the first half of 14th century. Among these individuals, the skeleton of an adult female showing a bilateral abnormal shortness of the fourth metatarsal bone was identified. Bilaterality and absence of other skeletal anomalies allow to rule out an acquired aetiology of the disease and to support a diagnosis of congenital brachymetatarsia. Such a rare deformity has a clinical incidence of 0.02% to 0.05%, with strong predominance of the female gender. To our knowledge, no other cases of brachymetatarsia have been reported in paleopathology so far. PMID:24478252

Valentina, Giuffra; Raffaella, Bianucci; Milanese, Marco; Eugenia, Tognotti; Andrea, Montella; Davide, Caramella; Fornaciari, Gino; Pasquale, Bandiera

2014-04-01

40

Analyzing seasonal patterns of wildfire exposure factors in Sardinia, Italy.  

PubMed

In this paper, we applied landscape scale wildfire simulation modeling to explore the spatiotemporal patterns of wildfire likelihood and intensity in the island of Sardinia (Italy). We also performed wildfire exposure analysis for selected highly valued resources on the island to identify areas characterized by high risk. We observed substantial variation in burn probability, fire size, and flame length among time periods within the fire season, which starts in early June and ends in late September. Peak burn probability and flame length were observed in late July. We found that patterns of wildfire likelihood and intensity were mainly related to spatiotemporal variation in ignition locations, fuel moisture, and wind vectors. Our modeling approach allowed consideration of historical patterns of winds, ignition locations, and live and dead fuel moisture on fire exposure factors. The methodology proposed can be useful for analyzing potential wildfire risk and effects at landscape scale, evaluating historical changes and future trends in wildfire exposure, as well as for addressing and informing fuel management and risk mitigation issues. PMID:25471625

Salis, Michele; Ager, Alan A; Alcasena, Fermin J; Arca, Bachisio; Finney, Mark A; Pellizzaro, Grazia; Spano, Donatella

2015-01-01

41

Multidisciplinary studies on ancient sandstone quarries of Western Sardinia (Italy).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ancient coastal quarries of Mediterranean are increasingly considered geosites of multidisciplinary relevance. They are sites of historical-archaeological interest that show ancient techniques of stone extraction; they are significant for cultural heritage conservation and restoration, as sources of the stones used in ancient buildings and monuments; they are sites of geological relevance, as often retain important stratigraphic sections; they are also useful markers of secular changes in the sea level. A multisciplinary study is in progress on the ancient quarries of the Sinis region (western Sardinia island), integrating archaeological, geological, minero-petrographical data. In Sardinia, coastal quarries have been established from Punic and Roman times. Many of them exploited Quaternary sediments along the southern and western coasts of the island. They consist of middle-late Pleistocene marine conglomerates and carbonate sandstones, and of coastal (aeolian) carbonate sandstones. Sandstone blocks of different sizes have been widely used in ancient cities for buildings, defensive works, harbours, etc. Three main areas of stone extraction (San Giovanni di Sinis, Punta Maimoni, Is Arutas) have been so far recognized in the Sinis. GIS-supported mapping and documentation of the sites includes their geology and stratigraphy, the extension and layout of the quarries, and an evaluation of volumes of extracted rocks. Documented archaeological evidences include ancient extraction fronts, spoil heaps, working areas, working traces in the old fronts, transport routes of blocks, and traces of loading facilities. The study is aimed at reconstructing the relationships of the quarries with the urban areas of Sinis, as the ancient Punic-Roman city of Tharros. Consequently, a minero-petrographical characterization (optical microscopy, XRD) is performed on sandstones sampled in each quarry, and in historical buildings in Tharros and other centres of the region (Cabras, Oristano, Santa Giusta). They are prevailing fine-medium grained carbonate sandstones, and subordinate coarse sandstones and micro-conglomerates, variably cemented. In the studied areas, stratigraphic sequences grade from coarser facies of marine environment to fine-grained aeolian deposits, marked by cross-stratification. The Quaternary sedimentary sequence rests on Miocene limestones and clays, and on Plio-Pleistocene basalts. On optical microscopy, sandstones show grain-supported texture, with abundant carbonate bioclasts, intraclasts and algal nodules, with quartz, feldspars and fragments of granitoids, quartzites, volcanics. Grainsize in sandstone sequences progressively decreases towards the top, corresponding to an increase of fine bioclastic components. Terrigenous components change from the northernmost outcrops (Is Arutas quarries), where clasts of granitoid origin are dominant, to the southern outcrops (San Giovanni di Sinis quarries), which show a more marked compositional heterogeneity, with frequent volcanic feldspars and lithoclasts. The calcitic cement also shows distinct variations, both along the stratigraphic sequence and at areal scale, between the sparitic type and the micro/cryptocrystalline type. First evidences on samples from Tharros city walls indicate that sandstone blocks may come, almost in part, from the quarries of San Giovanni di Sinis that, consequently, could have started to work during the Punic age. Other evidences in the area, however, indicate that quarrying activities in Sinis continued well over the Ancient times, presumably including all the Middle Ages.

Grillo, Silvana Maria; Del Vais, Carla; Naitza, Stefano

2013-04-01

42

Data-driven simulations of synoptic circulation and transports in the Tunisia-Sardinia-Sicily region  

E-print Network

-Sardinia-Sicily region Reiner Onken1 SACLANT Undersea Research Centre, Viale San Bartolomeo, La Spezia, Italy Allan R TERMS: 4243 Oceanography: General: Marginal and semienclosed seas; 4283 Oceanography: General: Water masses; 4532 Oceanography: Physical: General circulation; 4255 Oceanography: General: Numerical modeling

Leonard, John J.

43

Malaria in prehistoric Sardinia (Italy): An examination of skeletal remains from the middle Bronze Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sardinia was an island with a history of a malarious environment until eradication efforts were conducted from 1946 to 1950. While historic documents suggest the disease was introduced from North Africa around 500 BC, no study has been conducted to test for the presence of malaria in prehistoric native populations, such as the Nuragic people of the Bronze Age. However,

Teddi J Setzer

2010-01-01

44

Plants and traditional knowledge: An ethnobotanical investigation on Monte Ortobene (Nuoro, Sardinia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Most of the traditional knowledge about plants and their uses is fast disappearing as a consequence of socio-economic and land use changes. This trend is also occurring in areas that are historically exposed to very few external influences, such as Sardinia (Italy). From 2004 to 2005, an ethnobotanical investigation was carried out in the area of Monte Ortobene, a

Maria Adele Signorini; Maddalena Piredda; Piero Bruschi

2009-01-01

45

The influence of Sardinia on Corsican rainfall in the western Mediterranean Sea: A numerical sensitivity study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction of orographic effects and moisture availability is of high importance to the precipitation amount and distribution in the western Mediterranean and neighboring land surfaces. In particular, the forecast of heavy precipitation events is still a challenge for operational weather forecast models. In this study, the thermal and dynamical interactions between the two neighboring islands of Corsica and Sardinia in the western Mediterranean Sea are investigated using the COnsortium for Small-scale MOdeling (COSMO) model. Six cases with different synoptic conditions are analyzed and the dependance of the Corsican rainfall on the presence and terrain characteristics of Sardinia is investigated. Besides a reference run with standard model orography, sensitivity runs with removed and flat island of Sardinia are performed. The numerical results show that the daily precipitation amount over Corsica can increase by up to 220% of the amount from the reference run. Whereas most of the sensitivity runs show a decrease of the precipitation amount under strong synoptic forcing, there is no systematic relationship on days with weak synoptic forcing. The differences in the precipitation amount are induced by (i) missing deviation or missing blocking of the southerly flow by Sardinia and (ii) by the influence of cold pools generated by deep convection over Sardinia. These differences can be attributed to changes of low-level convergence and moisture/heat content and their effect on thermodynamic parameters, like convective available potential energy or convective inhibition. Furthermore, the position and translation speed of frontal systems over Corsica on days with strong synoptic forcing also depend on the Sardinian orography. These results demonstrate the high sensitivity of numerical weather prediction to the interaction of neighboring mountainous islands.

Ehmele, Florian; Barthlott, Christian; Corsmeier, Ulrich

2015-02-01

46

Thermochronological response to rifting and subduction in the Corsica-Sardinia block  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The linkage between deep-seated tectonic processes and surface processes provides a key to investigate the geological evolution of complex plate boundaries starting from the analysis of low-temperature geochronological systems. Here, we integrate published thermochronological data from Corsica (Danišík et al., 2007) with a new multi-thermochronological dataset (i.e., zircon and apatite fission track (ZFT and AFT), and apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) data) from Sardinia, in order to tackle the Western Mediterranean tectonic issue and constrain the problematic transition in space and time between the opposite-dipping Alpine (European) and Apenninic (Adriatic) subductions. Mesozoic AFT ages (169-201 Ma) and AHe ages (133-204 Ma), found on mountain ridges of central Sardinia and on the eastern coast of the island, indicate that rocks now exposed at the surface have resided since Jurassic times at very shallow depth, i.e., above the partial annealing zone of the AFT system (~60-110°C) or even above the partial retention zone of the AHe system (~40-80°C). The observed age pattern and track length distributions are consistent with those predicted after rising of isothermal surfaces during rifting and subsequent thermal relaxation after continental break-up. We demonstrate that the crustal sections now exposed in central and eastern Sardinia were originally located closer to the Tethyan rift axis than crustal sections exposed in NW Sardinia and Corsica, pointing to a NNE trend for the continental crust isopachs of the northern Tethyan margin (ENE before Corsica-Sardinia rotation), with burial depth progressively increasing from SE to NW. In Alpine Corsica, the low-T geochronological evidence of Jurassic rifting was largely obliterated by Cenozoic metamorphism, but it is still recognized in high-T systems. AFT and AHe ages set after Tethyan rifting but not thermally affected by Neogene backarc extension, define a SE-NW trend of decreasing ages from southern Sardinia to northern Variscan Corsica (N-S in Paleogene coordinates). Modelled time-temperature paths show that this age trend is consistent with an erosional pulse migrating northward during the Paleogene, which led to the re-exposure of the Mesozoic planation surfaces previously buried by Paleogene detrital sequences. The northward migration of erosional pulses mirrors the coeval northward trajectory of Adria relative to Europe as inferred by magnetic anomalies. Preservation of the low-T fingerprint acquired during Tethyan rifting indicates that no European continental subduction took place south of Corsica since the Mesozoic, and suggests that the post-Jurassic Adria-Europe convergence along the Sardinia transect was possibly accommodated on the Adriatic side of the subduction system, consistent with the onset of Cenozoic orogenic magmatism. The inferred tectonic reconstruction for the Paleocene - early Eocene time frame thus includes a northwestward (Apenninic) subduction that was active along the Sardinia transect, and an eastward (Alpine) subduction that was still active along the Corsica transect and choked in middle-late Eocene times, when Adria started moving towards the NNE (Malusà et al., 2011). The northward translation of the Adriatic slab beneath Sardinia and Corsica is mirrored by the coeval migration of exhumation pulses at the surface, until the slab reached the remnants of the Alpine wedge of Corsica in Oligocene times shortly before the onset of slab rollback. Danišík, M., Kuhlemann, J., Dunkl, I., Székely, B., Frisch, W., 2007. Burial and exhumation of Corsica (France) in the light of fission track data. Tectonics 26(TC1001). Malusà, M.G., Faccenna, C., Garzanti, E., Polino, R., 2011. Divergence in subduction zones and exhumation of high-pressure rocks (Eocene Western Alps). Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 310, 21-32.

Malusà, Marco Giovanni; Danišík, Martin; Kuhlemann, Joachim

2014-05-01

47

A 3mm band SIS receiver for the Sardinia Radio Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the optical and mechanical design of a 3mm band SIS receiver for the Gregorian focus of the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT). The receiver, was designed and built at IRAM and deployed on the IRAM for the Plateau de Bure Interferometer antennas until 2006. Following its decommissioning the receiver was purchased by the INAFAstronomical Observatory of Cagliari with the aim to adapt its optics for test of the performance of the new 64-m diameter Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) in the 3 mm band (84 - 116 GHz). The instrument will be installed in the rotating turret inside of the Gregorian focal room of SRT. The dimensions of the focal room, the horn position in the lower side of the cryostat and the vessel for the liquid helium impose very hard constraints to the optical and mechanical mounting structure of the receiver inside the cabin. We present the receiver configuration and how we plan to install it on SRT.

Ladu, A.; Pisanu, T.; Navarrini, A.; Marongiu, P.; Valente, G.

2014-07-01

48

Rare earth elements in waters from the albitite-bearing granodiorites of Central Sardinia, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the aim of contributing to the knowledge of the geochemical behaviour and mobility of the rare earth element (REE) in the natural water systems, the ground and surface waters of the Ottana–Orani area (Central Sardinia, Italy) were sampled. The study area consists of albititic bodies included in Hercynian granodiorites. The waters have pH in the range of 6.0–8.6, total

Riccardo Biddau; Rosa Cidu; Franco Frau

2002-01-01

49

A multifeed S-band cryogenic receiver for the Sardinia Radio Telescope primary focus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The noise temperature of existing radio telescope receivers has actually achieved very low values. In any case, there are other practical ways to increase the observational speed of a single dish antennas without using longer integration time: observe with multi-beam and large bandwidth receiver. In this paper we present the front end and the cryogenic dewar design of the 5 beams FPA double linear polarization receiver for the primary focus of the 64 m Sardinia Radio Telescope.

Valente, G.; Serra, G.; Gaudiomonte, F.; Ladu, A.; Pisanu, T.; Marongiu, P.; Corongiu, A.; Melis, A.; Buttu, M.; Perrodin, D.; Montisci, G.; Mazzarella, Gi.; Egron, E.; Iacolina, N.; Tiburzi, C.; Vacca, V.

2014-07-01

50

Redescription of the male of Ixodes festai Rondelli, 1926 (Ixodida: Ixodidae) on specimens from Sardinia (Italy)  

PubMed Central

Ixodes festai Rondelli, 1926 is a poorly known bird parasite tick. Its immature forms have not been described yet, while the adult forms only insufficiently, especially the male. In this note the presence of the male of Ixodes festai for the first time in Sardinia (Italy) is reported and a detailed redescription is provided. Morphometric data as well as photographs performed both with optical and electron microscope (ESEM FEI Quanta 200) are also shown. PMID:21894264

Contini, C.; Palmas, C.; Seu, V.; Stancampiano, L.; Usai, F.

2011-01-01

51

Identification of a geographic area characterized by extreme longevity in the Sardinia island: the AKEA study.  

PubMed

High prevalence and low female/male ratio for validated centenarians are observed in Sardinia and these findings appear to be thus far unique to this island. Moreover a specific region on the island is characterized by exceptional male longevity. We calculated the extreme longevity index (ELI), defined as the percentage of persons born in Sardinia between 1880 and 1900, who became centenarians. A gaussian smoothing method was used in order to identify the so-called 'Blue Zone', where longevity is concentrated in the central-eastern part of the island and covers all the mountainous areas of central Sardinia. The estimated life expectancy in the 'Blue Zone' is longer than in the remaining territory of the island especially for men and the male to female ratio among centenarians born in this area is 1.35 compared to 2.43 in the rest of Sardinia. The specific mechanism by which persons living in this territory were more likely to reach extreme longevity remains unknown but it is interesting to note that most of the 'longevity hot spots' identified in various regions of the world over the years have been located in mountainous geographical areas even if none of these longevity regions have been fully validated. An alternative and interesting hypothesis is that the high rate of inbreeding determined by frequent marriages between consanguineous individuals and low immigration rates have progressively decreased the variability of the genetic pool and facilitated the emergence of genetic characteristics that protect individuals from diseases that are major causes of mortality particularly in older individuals. Given the exceptionally high prevalence of male centenarians in the 'Blue Zone', it is reasonable to assume that either the environmental characteristics or the genetic factors, or both, exert their favorable effect more strongly in men than in women. Thus, the mechanism involved may be modulated by the hormonal milieu, or may be associated with genes located in the sex chromosomes. PMID:15489066

Poulain, Michel; Pes, Giovanni Mario; Grasland, Claude; Carru, Ciriaco; Ferrucci, Luigi; Baggio, Giovannella; Franceschi, Claudio; Deiana, Luca

2004-09-01

52

Response of durum wheat to water variability under climate change scenarios in southern Sardinia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Durum wheat is the most important C3 rainfed crop in southern Sardinia, Italy and is highly vulnerable to climate variability. This region has experienced severe drought conditions and problems of competing water demands during the last decades. Within the framework of European (1) and Regional (2) research projects, a study was conducted to evaluate the effects of increased maximum temperature and high rainfall variability on durum wheat yield, as part of an effort to devise strategies for water management and adaptation at the field and catchment scales in southern Sardinia. Towards this goal, the AquaCrop model was calibrated and its predictive performance was tested in the period from 1995 to 2012 using daily meteorological data and durum wheat (CV Creso) yield measurements from the experimental fields of the Agris Research Agency in Ussana (Sardinia, Italy). During the verification period, the model showed a good performance with a significant correlation between observed and simulated yield for durum wheat and a very good estimation of the water stress conditions during the drought period in 1995. Next, four future scenarios of climate change were simulated with AquaCrop to predict wheat yield responses and to investigate water availability for rainfed and irrigated crops for the 30-year periods 2011-2040, 2041-2070, and 2071-2100. The simulated future scenarios show potential improved productivity arising from the increased CO2 concentration. This positive outlook is however tempered by increased uncertainty and fluctuations in rainfall during the fall and early winter periods (September-December). The possible tradeoffs between these factors, as well as the expected negative effects of increased maximum temperatures, are being further examined. (1) Climate Induced Changes in the Mediterranean Region (CLIMB), funded by the European Commission 7th Framework Program. (2) Valutazione degli impatti sul comportamento idrologico dei bacini idrografici e sulle produzioni agricole conseguenti alle condizioni di cambiamento climatico, funded by L7/2007 of the Sardinia Region.

Soddu, Antonino; Deidda, Roberto; Marrocu, Marino; Meloni, Roberto; Paniconi, Claudio; Ludwig, Ralf; Sodde, Marcella; Mascaro, Giuseppe; Perra, Enrica

2013-04-01

53

Early-stage rifting of the Southern Tyrrhenian region: The Calabria–Sardinia breakup  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Southern Tyrrhenian Sea is an extensional basins linked to the Neogene evolution of the Calabria subduction zone located in the western Mediterranean realm where controversial kinematic and geodynamical models have been proposed. Our study provides a key to unravel timing and mode of extension of the upper plate and the breakup of Calabria from Sardinia. By combining original stratigraphic analysis of wells and seismic profiles off Calabria with a stratigraphic correlation to onshore outcrops, we re-assess the tectonic evolution that controlled the sedimentation and basement deformation of the Southern Tyrrhenian basin during Serravallian-Tortonian times. We document the tectono-stratigraphic evolution of adjacent extensional basins characterized by 3rd order depositional sequences (Ser1, Tor1 and Tor2) and different modes of extension, subsidence and opposite dipping faults. Episodic basin development is recorded by a coarsening-up and fining-up trend of the sedimentary succession and by tectonically enhanced unconformities that reflect three episodes of fault activity. We reconstruct Serravallian-Tortonian paleogeographic maps and propose a block faulting model for the evolution of the Sardinia-Calabria area. Sardinia was disconnected from Calabria through N-S normal faults forming Tyrrhenian extensional basins that formed contemporaneously to the E-W opening of the Algerian basin. Unlike published Serravallian-Tortonian reconstructions of the western Mediterranean realm, our results support a geodynamic model characterized by rapid trench retreat, trench-normal extension in the entire overriding plate and very weak coupling between plates.

Milia, Alfonsa; Torrente, Maurizio M.

2014-11-01

54

Coupled U-Pb-Hf of detrital zircons of Cambrian sandstones from Morocco and Sardinia: implications for provenance and Precambrian crustal evolution of North  

E-print Network

-Pb-Hf of detrital zircons of Cambrian sandstones from Morocco and Sardinia: implications for provenance in Morocco and Sardinia were investigated in order to clarify the sandstone provenance and how it evolved detrital signal from Middle Cambrian quartz-rich sandstone is dominated by Cryogenian-aged detrital zircons

Dov, Avigad

55

Coupled UPbHf of detrital zircons of Cambrian sandstones from Morocco and Sardinia: Implications for provenance and Precambrian crustal evolution  

E-print Network

Coupled U­Pb­Hf of detrital zircons of Cambrian sandstones from Morocco and Sardinia: Implications Cambrian units in Morocco and Sardinia were investigated in order to clarify the sandstone provenance-rich sandstone is dominated by Cryogenian-aged detrital zircons peaking at 0.65 Ga alongside a noteworthy early

Dov, Avigad

56

Oligonucleotide microarray-based detection and identification of 10 major tomato viruses.  

PubMed

A DNA microarray chip was developed for screening 10 major economically important tomato viruses from infected plants using "Combimatrix" platform 40-mer oligonucleotide probes. A total of 279 oligonucleotide virus probes were specific for simultaneous multiple detection, identification, differentiation and/or genotyping of each of the following tomato RNA viruses and/or strains and a virus satellite: Cucumber mosaic virus, Cucumber mosaic virus satellite RNA, Tomatoinfectiouschlorosisvirus, Tomato chlorosisvirus, Tomato spotted wilt virus, Pepino mosaic virus, Potato virus Y, Tobacco mosaic virus and Tomato mosaic virus. This selection included both positive and negative single-stranded RNA viruses. The single-stranded DNA viruses, Tomato yellow leaf curl virus and Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus were detected but were not differentiated using probes designed from their coat protein genes. A sectored oligonucleotide microarray chip containing four sets of 2000 features (4 x 2 K) was designed. In this way, four samples were tested simultaneously in a hybridization event and 16 samples were analyzed by re-using the chip four times. The hybrids had low background signals. Many of the 40-mer oligonucleotide probes were specific for the detection and identification of each RNA viral species, RNA viral satellite and genotyping strains of Cucumber mosaic virus, Pepino mosaic virus and Potato virus Y. Universal probes were developed for strains of the last three viruses and also for the genus Tobamovirus which includes both Tobacco mosaicvirus and Tomato mosaic virus. PMID:20470828

Tiberini, Antonio; Tomassoli, Laura; Barba, Marina; Hadidi, Ahmed

2010-09-01

57

Classical Kaposi's sarcoma in north-east Sardinia: an overview from 1977 to 1991.  

PubMed Central

The incidence of classical Kaposi's sarcoma in 1977-91 was studied in north-east Sardinia. In this period, 160 new cases were observed in a defined area, of which 124 were in males. This represented a standardised incidence of the disease of 1.58/100,000 inhabitants per year (2.43 for males and 0.77 for females). This is the highest incidence of classical Kaposi's sarcoma so far recorded. The incidence increased with age, particularly after the age of 70 in males. PMID:8624276

Cottoni, F.; De Marco, R.; Montesu, M. A.

1996-01-01

58

An infrastructure for multi back-end observations with the Sardinia Radio Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio astronomical observations are ordinarily aimed at reaching a specific scientific goal. Radio telescopes are equipped with a certain number of receivers and back-ends, and the choice of the most suitable receiver/back-end combination in order to best match the scientific application of interest is up to the astronomer. However, the opportunity to process the incoming signal, simultaneously, with different back-ends, thus providing different observational 'points of view', may indeed provide additional scientific results. In this paper, we describe a system, developed for the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT), which allows the observer to take profit of such a capability.

Melis, Andrea; Valente, Giuseppe; Tarchi, Andrea; Barbaro, Massimo; Concu, Raimondo; Corongiu, Alessandro; Gaudiomonte, Francesco; Migoni, Carlo; Montisci, Giorgio; Poppi, Sergio; Trois, Alessio

2014-07-01

59

Craniofacial morphometric variation and the biological history of the peopling of Sardinia.  

PubMed

The aim of this work is to explore the pattern of craniofacial morphometric variation and the relationships among five prehistoric Sardinian groups dated from Late Neolithic to the Nuragic Period (Middle and Late Bronze Age), in order to formulate hypotheses on the peopling history of Sardinia. Biological relationships with coeval populations of central peninsular Italy were also analysed to detect influences from and towards extra-Sardinian sources. Furthermore, comparison with samples of contemporary populations from Sardinia and from continental Italy provided an indication of the trend leading to the final part of the peopling history. Finally, Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic samples were included in the analyses to compare the prehistoric Sardinians with some of their potential continental ancestors. The analysis is based on multivariate techniques including Mahalanobis D(2) distance, non-parametric multidimensional scaling (MDS) and principal component analysis (PCA). The results showed the tendency to progressive differentiation between Sardinian groups and peninsular Italian groups, with the possible exception of a discontinuity showed by the Bonnànaro (Early Bronze Age) Sardinian sample. Several aspects of the morphological results were found to agree with the current genetic evidence available for the present-day Sardinian population and a Nuragic sample: (1) biological divergence between the Sardinian and peninsular Italian populations; (2) similarity/continuity among Neolithic, Bronze Age and recent Sardinians; (3) biological separation between the Nuragic and Etruscan populations; (4) contribution of a Palaeo-Mesolithic gene pool to the genetic structure of current Sardinians. PMID:20979998

D'Amore, G; Di Marco, S; Floris, G; Pacciani, E; Sanna, E

2010-12-01

60

Interaction between loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) and marine litter in Sardinia (Western Mediterranean Sea).  

PubMed

Anthropogenic debris in the environment affects many species that accidentally ingest it. The aim of this study is to evaluate the quantity and composition of marine litter ingested by loggerheads in Sardinia, thus supplying for the lack of data in the existing literature for this area. Seventeen of the 121 (14.04%) monitored turtles presented debris in their digestive tracts. Litter in faecal pellet of alive individuals (n = 91) and in gastro-intestinal contents of dead ones (n = 30) was categorized, counted and weighed. User plastic was the main category of ingested debris with a frequency of occurrence of 13.22% of the total sample, while sheet (12.39%) and fragments (9.09%) were the most relevant sub-categories. This study highlights for the first time the incidence of litter in alive turtles in Sardinia. This contribution improves the knowledge about marine litter interaction on Caretta caretta as bio-indicator. Results will be useful for the Marine Strategy implementation. PMID:24388284

Camedda, Andrea; Marra, Stefano; Matiddi, Marco; Massaro, Giorgio; Coppa, Stefania; Perilli, Angelo; Ruiu, Angelo; Briguglio, Paolo; de Lucia, G Andrea

2014-09-01

61

Safflower ( Carthamus tinctorius L.) as a novel pasture species for dairy sheep in the Mediterranean conditions of Sardinia and Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nutritional value of sown safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) annual pastures for Mediterranean dairy sheep was investigated in the Northern Negev Desert of Israel (250mm of rainfall) with Awassi hoggets and in Sardinia (Italy, 590mm of rainfall) with Sarda milking ewes. Safflower (termed “Saf”) was compared with barley (“Bar”) in Israel, and with chicory (Cichorium intybus L., termed “Chi”) and

S. Landau; G. Molle; N. Fois; S. Friedman; D. Barkai; M. Decandia; A. Cabiddu; L. Dvash; M. Sitzia

2005-01-01

62

Industrial mineral occurrences associated with Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Sardinia (Italy): Geological, mineralogical, geochemical features and genetic implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most important Industrial Mineral (IM) deposits associated with the Cenozoic volcanics of Sardinia include kaolin, bentonite, and zeolites. Though of less significance, perlite and potassium feldspar, are also important in local and national markets. Bentonite, and to a lesser extent kaolin and perlite, form economically viable deposits and zeolites appear as very important industrial mineral commodities for future economic

M. Palomba; G. Padalino; M. Marchi

2006-01-01

63

Dissecting the genetic make-up of North-East Sardinia using a large set of haploid and autosomal markers  

PubMed Central

Sardinia has been used for genetic studies because of its historical isolation, genetic homogeneity and increased prevalence of certain rare diseases. Controversy remains concerning the genetic substructure and the extent of genetic homogeneity, which has implications for the design of genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We revisited this issue by examining the genetic make-up of a sample from North-East Sardinia using a dense set of autosomal, Y chromosome and mitochondrial markers to assess the potential of the sample for GWAS and fine mapping studies. We genotyped individuals for 500K single-nucleotide polymorphisms, Y chromosome markers and sequenced the mitochondrial hypervariable (HVI–HVII) regions. We identified major haplogroups and compared these with other populations. We estimated linkage disequilibrium (LD) and haplotype diversity across autosomal markers, and compared these with other populations. Our results show that within Sardinia there is no major population substructure and thus it can be considered a genetically homogenous population. We did not find substantial differences in the extent of LD in Sardinians compared with other populations. However, we showed that at least 9% of genomic regions in Sardinians differed in LD structure, which is helpful for identifying functional variants using fine mapping. We concluded that Sardinia is a powerful setting for genetic studies including GWAS and other mapping approaches. PMID:22378280

Pardo, Luba M; Piras, Giovanna; Asproni, Rosanna; van der Gaag, Kristiaan J; Gabbas, Attilio; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; de Knijff, Peter; Monne, Maria; Rizzu, Patrizia; Heutink, Peter

2012-01-01

64

Coastal water quality from remote sensing and GIS. A case study on South West Sardinia (Italy)  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the application of remote sensing image processing and GIS techniques in monitoring and managing coastal areas is proposed. The methodology has been applied to South-West Sardinia Coast where the environment is endangered by industrial plants and other human activities. The area is characterized by the presence of many submarine springs aligned along coastal cliffs. Water quality parameters (chlorophyll, suspended sediments and temperature) spatial and temporal variations, have been studied using Landsat TM images. Particularly, in this paper are reported the results referred to sea surface thermal gradients, considered as one of the main water quality index. Thermal gradients have been mapped in order to outline water circulation, thermal pollution and presence and distribution of submarine springs. Furthermore, a GIS approach of relating mono and multitemporal TM data with ground referenced information on industrial plants characteristics and distribution has been applied.

Poli, U.; Ippoliti, M.; Venturini, C.; Falcone, P.; Marino, A. [Italian Institute for Occupational Safety and Prevention (ISPESL), Rome (Italy)

1997-08-01

65

ESR dating of an ancient goat tooth from Nuoro, Sardinia, Italy.  

PubMed

The dating of fossil teeth of an ancient goat (Nesogoral melonii) using the electron spin resonance (ESR) technique is reported. This animal was found in the fossiliferous site at Orosei (Nuoro, Sardinia, Italy) and was endemic in the region. Molar teeth were cleaned and enamel was completely removed from dentine. Enamel was irradiated with a 60Co gamma source and measured with an ESR spectrometer (X-band) to obtain the signal vs. dose curve and fitted with an exponential function. The archeological dose obtained by the fitting was 211 +/- 34 Gy. Uranium and thorium concentrations were determined by neutron activation analysis. With the software ROSY the age estimates were 195 +/- 30 ky for early uptake, 247 +/- 40 ky for linear uptake and 243 +/- 40 ky for a combination of uptake processes. PMID:16597696

Baffa, O; Kinoshita, A; Figueiredo, A M G; Brunetti, A; Ginesu, S

2006-01-01

66

Pressure-temperature and deformational evolution of high-pressure metapelites from Variscan NE Sardinia, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chloritoid schists crop out north of the village of Lula in the Inner Zone of the Variscan chain of Sardinia consisting of a variety of metamorphic rocks. The S1 and S2 foliations in these schists are defined by the orientation of muscovite, paragonite, and chloritoid. Chlorite is an additional mineral oriented along S2. Late margarite grew at the expense of chloritoid included in garnet. Garnet porphyroblasts, enclosing quartz, chloritoid, rutile, Fe-oxide, apatite and paragonite, show a progressive decrease of spessartine component from 17 to 7 mol% and an increase of pyrope component from 4 to 6 mol% from core to rim. The grossular content firstly increases from the inner (Grs~ 21) to the outer core (Grs~ 27) and then decreases towards the outermost rim (Grs~ 15). Compositional mapping of white mica also revealed zoning and a wide range in Si content (from 6.0 to 6.6 pfu). The highest Si content is related to the highest Fe and Mg contents and the lowest Na content. P-T pseudosections were calculated in the system Na2O-K2O-CaO-FeO-MnO-MgO-Al2O3-TiO2-SiO2-H2O for compositions of chloritoid schists. The highest Si contents of K-white mica and the garnet core composition suggest pressures close to 1.8 GPa and temperatures of 460-500 °C. The garnet rim composition and low Si contents in K-white mica are compatible with re-equilibration at 540-570 °C and 0.7-1.0 GPa. These results suggest an HP-metamorphic imprint during the D1 deformation phase which occurred before the Barrovian amphibolite-facies metamorphism of NE Sardinia. D2 folding and shearing occurred at decreasing P-T conditions during the exhumation of the metamorphic complex.

Cruciani, Gabriele; Franceschelli, Marcello; Massonne, Hans-Joachim; Carosi, Rodolfo; Montomoli, Chiara

2013-08-01

67

The dual-band LP feed system for the Sardinia Radio Telescope prime focus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the design of the passive feed system of the dual-band receiver for the prime focus of the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT), a new 64 m diameter radio telescope which is being built in Sardinia, Italy. The feed system operates simultaneously in P-band (305-410 MHz) and L-band (1300-1800 MHz). The room temperature illuminators are arranged in coaxial configuration with an inner circular waveguide for L-band (diameter of 19 cm) and an outer coaxial waveguide for P-band (diameter of 65 cm). Choke flanges are used outside the coaxial section to improve the crosspolarization performance and the back scattering of the P-band feed. The geometry was optimized for compactness and high antenna efficiency in both bands using commercial electromagnetic simulators. Four probes arranged in symmetrical configuration are used in both the P and the L-band feeds to extract dual-linearly polarized signals and to combine them, through phased-matched coaxial cables, into 180 deg hybrid couplers. A vacuum vessel encloses the two P-band hybrids and the two L-band hybrids which are cooled, respectively at 15 K and 77 K. For the P-Band, four low loss coaxial feedthroughs are used to cross the vacuum vessel, while for the L-Band a very low loss large window is employed. The P-band hybrids are based on a microstrip rat-race design with fractal geometry. The L-band hybrids are based on an innovative double-ridged waveguide design that also integrates a band-pass filter for Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) mitigation.

Valente, G.; Pisanu, T.; Bolli, P.; Mariotti, S.; Marongiu, P.; Navarrini, A.; Nesti, R.; Orfei, A.; Roda, J.

2010-07-01

68

The Origin of Clonal Diversity and Structure of Populus alba in Sardinia: Evidence from Nuclear and Plastid Microsatellite Markers  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Populus alba is a thermophilic forest tree present in the Mediterranean basin. Its habitat is highly fragmented and its distribution range has been subject to long-term human interference, resulting in debate surrounding whether certain populations are native or exotic in origin. In particular, populations from the islands of Corsica and Sardinia are of uncertain origin. While populations of P. alba mainly reproduce sexually, clonal reproduction is also common. The aims of this study were to locate and molecularly characterize the poorly studied island populations of P. alba and compare these with samples from various spatial scales, in order to provide information on the genetic structure and phylogeography of this species. This information will provide evidence on whether the species is native to Sardinia, which is important for the development of conservation strategies. Methods DNA extracts were obtained from the following P. alba trees: 159 from Sardinia, 47 from Ticino regional park (northern Italy), 15 acquired from an Italian Germoplasm Bank (IRC; Italian Reference Collection) and 28 from the Mediterranean basin (MB). Genetic polymorphisms were revealed at nuclear and chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) microsatellite loci, both at the island scale (Sardinia) and at broader scales, for comparative assessment of the genetic and genotypic diversity and phylogeography. Key Results Based on nuclear microsatellite loci, Sardinian white poplar consists of a small number of genets (26), each of which is represented by several ramets. Despite the uniqueness of the Sardinian haplotypes and the very low value of genetic diversity at the cpDNA level (vK = 0·15), the HT (0·60) and the AR (3·61) values, estimated at the nuclear level for Sardinia, were comparable with those of the other populations and collections. Conclusions The uniqueness of the cpDNA haplotypes, the prevalence of clonality and the restricted number of genets recorded suggest that Sardinian white poplar could be a floristic relict of the native flora of the island, which has spread through available habitats on the island mainly by means of vegetative propagation and human activities. PMID:18845663

Brundu, Giuseppe; Lupi, Renato; Zapelli, Ilaria; Fossati, Tiziana; Patrignani, Giuseppe; Camarda, Ignazio; Sala, Francesco; Castiglione, Stefano

2008-01-01

69

The new French 2010 Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus causes an RHD-like disease in the Sardinian Cape hare (Lepus capensis mediterraneus)  

PubMed Central

Lagovirus is an emerging genus of Caliciviridae, which includes the Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) of rabbits and the European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) of hares that cause lethal hepatitis. In 2010, a new RHDV related virus (RHDV2) with a unique genetic and antigenic profile and lower virulence was identified in France in rabbits. Here we report the identification of RHDV2 as the cause in Sardinia of several outbreaks of acute hepatitis in rabbits and Cape hare (Lepus capensis mediterraneus). This is the first account of a lagovirus that causes fatal hepatitis in both rabbits and hares. PMID:24099575

2013-01-01

70

Phenotypic and genotypic analysis of rhizobia isolated from pasture legumes native of Sardinia and Asinara Island.  

PubMed

Thirty-five rhizobial strains were isolated from nodules of Lotus edulis, L. ornithopodioides, L. cytisoides, Hedysarum coronarium, Ornithopus compressus and Scorpiurus muricatus growing in Sardinia and Asinara Island. Basic characteristics applied to identification of rhizobia such as symbiotic properties, antibiotic- and salt-resistance, temperate-sensitivities, utilization of different sources of carbon and nitrogen were studied. The results from the 74 metabolic tests were used for cluster analysis of the new rhizobial isolates and 28 reference strains, belonging to previously classified and unclassified fast-, intermediate- and slow-growing rhizobia. All strains examined were divided into two large groups at a linkage distance of 0.58. None of the reference strains clustered with the new rhizobial isolates, which formed five subgroups almost respective of their plant origin. RFLP analysis of PCR-amplified 16S-23S rDNA IGS showed that the levels of similarity between rhizobial isolates from Ornithopus, Hedysarum and Scorpiurus, and the type strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum, Mesorhizobium loti, M. ciceri, M. mediterraneum, Sinorhizobium meliloti and Bradyrhizobium japonicum were not more than 30%. Thus, it can be assumed that these groups of new rhizobial isolates are not closely related to the validly described rhizobial species. PMID:15031655

Safronova, V I; Piluzza, G; Belimov, A A; Bullitta, S

2004-02-01

71

Anthraquinone distribution in the hypogeal apparatus of Rubia peregrina L. growing wild in Sardinia.  

PubMed

The isolation, characterisation and quantification of anthraquinones, from hypogeal apparatus of Rubia peregrina L. (Wild Madder) growing wild in Sardinia (Italy) are described. The present study allowed us to perform an easy and fast HPLC analytical method for the detection of anthraquinones in all underground parts of plant. Concentrations of these compounds are variable in the different hypogeal parts before and after hydrolysis of the crude methanolic extracts. Before hydrolysis, we found that pseudopurpurin was 0.18% in rhizomes, alizarin 0.02% in rhizomes and principal stolons, and purpurin 0.56% in stolons of second order. Rubiadin is the major constituent of R. peregrina and reached a higher concentration in principal stolons of up to 4.8%. After hydrolysis, we found some drastic changes: an increase of purpurin in rhizomes (0.04%) and pseudopurpurin in all hypogeal parts (around 0.57%), and a decrease of purpurin in all parts of hypogeal apparatus. The most important change was found in rubiadin concentration, which reached its maximum in principal stolons (11.3%). No anthraquinones were found in the aerial parts of the plant. PMID:20401794

Usai, M; Marchetti, M

2010-04-01

72

Prevention of homozygous beta-thalassemia by carrier screening and prenatal diagnosis in Sardinia.  

PubMed

We report here results of a 3-year pilot voluntary screening program coupled with prenatal diagnosis directed to the prospective prevention of homozygous beta-thalassemia (beta-thal) in Sardinia. The screening program took two approaches: outreach community testing and hospital testing on request after a period of sensibilization. The outreach testing was very effective as, taking into account the already known number of couples at risk with an affected proband (20), 74% of the couple at risk expected (61) on the basis of the carrier rate were identified. Less effective was the hospital testing in which half of the couples at risk expected were detected (502 with the 199 without an affected proband). After nondirective genetic counseling, approximately 85% of the couples at risk, which had a pregnancy, with no statistically significant difference between those with and those without a proband, requested prenatal testing. This figure showed a steadily increase from the beginning in 1977 to 1980. All the pregnancies (42), but two carrying homozygous fetuses, were terminated on parental request. A continuous hospital survey of thal-major admissions in the different hospitals of the counties showed a steady decline in the incidence figure at birth from 1976 (1:213) to 1978 (1:290). These results showed that even in a medium-developed, rural, Catholic population screening coupled with prenatal diagnosis can be successful in the control of a fatal, recessively inherited disorder. PMID:7258188

Cao, A; Furbetta, M; Galanello, R; Melis, M A; Angius, A; Ximenes, A; Rosatelli, C; Ruggeri, R; Addis, M; Tuveri, T; Falchi, A M; Paglietti, E; Scalas, M T

1981-07-01

73

Helminth parasites of fish and shellfish from the Santa Gilla Lagoon in southern Sardinia, Italy.  

PubMed

An extensive survey of helminth parasites in fish and shellfish species from Santa Gilla, a brackish water lagoon in southern Sardinia (western Mediterranean), resulted in the identification of 69 helminth parasite taxa and/or species from 13 fish species (n= 515) and seven bivalve species (n= 2322) examined between September 2001 and July 2011. The list summarizes information on the helminth parasites harboured by fish and molluscs contained in the available literature. Digenea species (37), both adults and larvae, dominated the parasite fauna, whereas Cestoda were the least represented class (three species). Monogenea, Nematoda and Acanthocephala were present with 17, 6 and 6 species, respectively, which were mainly adults. The most widespread parasite species was the generalist Contracaecum rudolphii A (Nematoda). Other species, such as the Haploporidae and Ascocotyle (Phagicola) spp. 1 and 2 (Digenea), showed a high family specificity in Mugilidae. Importantly, the study recorded the occurrence of potential zoonotic agents, such as Heterophyes heterophyes, Ascocotyle (Phagicola) spp. and C. rudolphii A, the latter two reaching the highest indices of infection in the highly marketed fish grey mullet and sea bass, respectively. The highest parasite richness was detected in Dicentrarchus labrax, which harboured 17 helminth species, whereas the lowest value was observed in Atherina boyeri, infected by only three species. The list includes the first geographical record in Italian coastal waters of Robinia aurata and Stictodora sawakinensis, and 30 reports of new host-parasite complexes, including the larval stages of Ascocotyle (Ascocotyle) sp. and Southwellina hispida in D. labrax. PMID:23790066

Culurgioni, J; Sabatini, A; De Murtas, R; Mattiucci, S; Figus, V

2014-12-01

74

Potential of pressure solution for strain localization in the Baccu Locci Shear Zone (Sardinia, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mylonites of the Baccu Locci Shear Zone (BLSZ), Sardinia (Italy), were deformed during thrusting along a bottom-to-top strain gradient in lower greenschist facies. The microstructure of metavolcanic protoliths shows evidence for composite deformation accommodated by dislocation creep within strong quartz porphyroclasts, and pressure solution in the finer grained matrix. The evolution of mylonite is simulated in two sets of numerical experiments, assuming either a constant width of the deforming zone (model 1) or a narrowing shear zone (model 2). A 2-5 mm y-1 constant-external-velocity boundary condition is applied on the basis of geologic constraints. Inputs to the models are provided by inverting paleostress values obtained from quartz recrystallized grain-size paleopiezometry. Both models predict a significant stress drop across the shear zone. However, model 1 involves a dramatic decrease in strain rate towards the zone of apparent strain localization. In contrast, model 2 predicts an increase in strain rate with time (from 10-14 to 10-12 s-1), which is consistent with stabilization of the shear zone profile and localization of deformation near the hanging wall. Extrapolating these results to the general context of crust strength suggests that pressure-solution creep may be a critical process for strain softening and for the stabilization of deformation within shear zones.

Casini, Leonardo; Funedda, Antonio

2014-09-01

75

Inferring genealogical processes from patterns of Bronze-Age and modern DNA variation in Sardinia.  

PubMed

The ancient inhabitants of a region are often regarded as ancestral, and hence genetically related, to the modern dwellers (for instance, in studies of admixture), but so far, this assumption has not been tested empirically using ancient DNA data. We studied mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in Sardinia, across a time span of 2,500 years, comparing 23 Bronze-Age (nuragic) mtDNA sequences with those of 254 modern individuals from two regions, Ogliastra (a likely genetic isolate) and Gallura, and considering the possible impact of gene flow from mainland Italy. To understand the genealogical relationships between past and present populations, we developed seven explicit demographic models; we tested whether these models can account for the levels and patterns of genetic diversity in the data and which one does it best. Extensive simulation based on a serial coalescent algorithm allowed us to compare the posterior probability of each model and estimate the relevant evolutionary (mutation and migration rates) and demographic (effective population sizes, times since population splits) parameters, by approximate Bayesian computations. We then validated the analyses by investigating how well parameters estimated from the simulated data can reproduce the observed data set. We show that a direct genealogical continuity between Bronze-Age Sardinians and the current people of Ogliastra, but not Gallura, has a much higher probability than any alternative scenarios and that genetic diversity in Gallura evolved largely independently, owing in part to gene flow from the mainland. PMID:19955482

Ghirotto, Silvia; Mona, Stefano; Benazzo, Andrea; Paparazzo, Francesco; Caramelli, David; Barbujani, Guido

2010-04-01

76

Prevention of homozygous beta-thalassemia by carrier screening and prenatal diagnosis in Sardinia.  

PubMed Central

We report here results of a 3-year pilot voluntary screening program coupled with prenatal diagnosis directed to the prospective prevention of homozygous beta-thalassemia (beta-thal) in Sardinia. The screening program took two approaches: outreach community testing and hospital testing on request after a period of sensibilization. The outreach testing was very effective as, taking into account the already known number of couples at risk with an affected proband (20), 74% of the couple at risk expected (61) on the basis of the carrier rate were identified. Less effective was the hospital testing in which half of the couples at risk expected were detected (502 with the 199 without an affected proband). After nondirective genetic counseling, approximately 85% of the couples at risk, which had a pregnancy, with no statistically significant difference between those with and those without a proband, requested prenatal testing. This figure showed a steadily increase from the beginning in 1977 to 1980. All the pregnancies (42), but two carrying homozygous fetuses, were terminated on parental request. A continuous hospital survey of thal-major admissions in the different hospitals of the counties showed a steady decline in the incidence figure at birth from 1976 (1:213) to 1978 (1:290). These results showed that even in a medium-developed, rural, Catholic population screening coupled with prenatal diagnosis can be successful in the control of a fatal, recessively inherited disorder. PMID:7258188

Cao, A; Furbetta, M; Galanello, R; Melis, M A; Angius, A; Ximenes, A; Rosatelli, C; Ruggeri, R; Addis, M; Tuveri, T; Falchi, A M; Paglietti, E; Scalas, M T

1981-01-01

77

Wild grapevine: silvestris, hybrids or cultivars that escaped from vineyards? Molecular evidence in Sardinia.  

PubMed

Vitis vinifera ssp. silvestris, the spontaneous subspecies of V. vinifera L., is believed to be the ancestor of present grapevine cultivars. In this work, polymorphism at 13 SSR loci was investigated to answer the following key question: are wild plants (i) true silvestris, (ii) hybrids between wild and cultivated plants or (iii) or 'escapes' from vineyards? In particular, the objective of the present study was to identify truly wild individuals and to search for possible hybridization events. The study was performed in Sardinia, the second largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, which is characterized by a large and well-described number of both grape cultivars and wild populations. This region was ideal for the study because of its spatial isolation and, consequently, limited contamination from outside material. The results of this study show that domesticated and wild grapevine germplasms are genetically divergent and thus are real silvestris. Pure lineages (both domesticated and wild) show very high average posterior probabilities of assignment to their own clusters, with a low level of introgression. PMID:20522194

Zecca, G; De Mattia, F; Lovicu, G; Labra, M; Sala, F; Grassi, F

2010-05-01

78

Effect of fire on soil physical and chemical properties in a Mediterranean area of Sardinia.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires are one of the most widespread factors of ecosystem degradation around the world. The degree of change in both chemical and biological properties of soil inducted by forest fires is related to temperature and persistence of the fire as well as to moisture content of soil and of fuel. The present note reports the first experimental results of a wider-scale research project, whose aim is to develop methods for analysis and collection of field data by using a multidisciplinary approach in order to evaluate land erosion hazard. Specific objectives of this study are: i) to compare burned and unburned soil in order to evaluate the effect of fire on physical and chemical soil properties; ii) to measure soil erosion after fire in relation to different slopes. The experimental site is located in Mediterranean basin, on a steep slope in a hilly area of north-western Sardinia (Municipality of Ittiri, Italy), where a human caused fire occurred in august 2013. The area is mainly covered by the typical Mediterranean vegetation. Immediately after fire, several soil samples were collected from 0-10 cm depth, both in burned and in unburned plots. The soil organic matter, N, and P contents, pH, and soil texture were then determined in laboratory. Soil erosion rates from experimental plots were measured and estimated by silt fences technique taking into account different slopes and vegetation distribution.

Canu, Annalisa; Motroni, Andrea; Arca, Bachisio; Pellizzaro, Grazia; Ventura, Andrea; Secci, Romina; Robichaud, Peter

2014-05-01

79

Chronobiology of Oestrus ovis (Diptera: Oestridae) in Sardinia, Italy: guidelines to chemoprophylaxis.  

PubMed

Oestrus ovis (Linné 1761) larvae are obligatory parasites of the nasal and sinus cavities of sheep and goats. Infestation is prevalent in hot and dry regions, such as Mediterranean countries. The current work was developed to establish the chronobiology of O. ovis in Sardinia, to determine the most suitable time for chemoprophylaxis. A survey was carried out during 1998, and sheep heads were collected monthly from local flocks. A total of 443 heads was examined, and the prevalence of oestrosis was 73.8%. We collected 2,691 larvae (mean = 6.07 +/- 9.52), and the intensity was greatest in November. The humoral immune response against the nasal bot fly was analyzed by means of an indirect-ELISA using second-instar O. ovis excretory and secretory antigens. A seasonal variation in the antibody levels was observed, increasing from April and peaked in June and in September. A significant correlation was observed between first instar intensity and the mean relative humidity (r2 = 0.120; P < 0.05), and between second-instar intensity and the mean temperature (r2 = 0.241; P < 0.05). Three periods in the chronobiology of O. ovis were defined: diapause (October-February), the active phase ofthe endogenous cycle (March-September) and the exit phase (May-September). Our results showed that treatment in October-November was suitable, because first instars were in diapause, preventing the development of first into second instars, and second into third instars. PMID:12144298

Scala, A; Paz-Silva, A; Suárez, J L; López, C; Díaz, P; Díez-Baños, P; Sánchez-Andrade Fernández, R

2002-07-01

80

Spouse selection by health status and physical traits. Sardinia, 1856-1925.  

PubMed

Military medical information and data from civil registers of death and marriage have been used to study the role of physical characteristics and health conditions in explaining access to marriage for the male population of Alghero, a small city located in Sardinia Island (Italy), at the turn of 19th century. Literature data about contemporary populations have already demonstrated the influence of somatic traits in the mate choice. The results presented here show that men with low height and poor health status at the age of 20 were negatively selected for marriage. This holds true also in a society where families often arranged marriages for their children. This pattern of male selection on marriage was found to be particularly marked among the richest and wealthiest SES groups. Our hypothesis is that this social group carefully selected for marriage those individuals who were apparently healthier and therefore more likely to guarantee good health status and better life conditions to offspring. In evolutionary terms, the mate choice component of sexual selection suggests that the height of prospective partners could be claimed as one of the determinants, along with other environmental causes, of the observed higher stature of men belonging to the wealthiest social strata of the Alghero population. PMID:19902452

Manfredini, M; Breschi, M; Mazzoni, S

2010-02-01

81

The Genetic Structure of the Remnant Populations of Centaurea horrida in Sardinia and Associated Islands  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The Mediterranean region is of prime importance to biodiversity at a global level, mainly due to the abundance of endemic plant species. However, information about these species is still scarce, especially at the genetic level. In this paper the first assessment is reported of the genetic structure of Centaurea horrida (Asteraceae), an endemic, sea-cliff-dwelling plant from Sardinia. Methods The study was conducted on seven populations covering the entire natural range of the species by means of SSR (microsatellite) markers. Key Results A considerable amount of genetic variation was found (average He = 0·603–0·854), together with a medium-high differentiation among populations, as estimated both by FST (0·123) and RST (0·158). Both Bayesian analysis and AMOVA were employed to detect genetic structuring in this species. The results suggest that the origins of the current populations of C. horrida lie in two gene pools. Conclusions Despite the restricted range, C. horrida displays high levels of genetic diversity, structured in such a way that three management units could be deemed viable for its conservation. The protected status of the species will probably suffice to prevent the impoverishment of its genetic resources. PMID:18256022

Mameli, Giulia; Filigheddu, Rossella; Binelli, Giorgio; Meloni, Marilena

2008-01-01

82

An exome study of Parkinson's disease in Sardinia, a Mediterranean genetic isolate.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder of complex aetiology. Rare, highly penetrant PD-causing mutations and common risk factors of small effect size have been identified in several genes/loci. However, these mutations and risk factors only explain a fraction of the disease burden, suggesting that additional, substantial genetic determinants remain to be found. Genetically isolated populations offer advantages for dissecting the genetic architecture of complex disorders, such as PD. We performed exome sequencing in 100 unrelated PD patients from Sardinia, a genetic isolate. SNPs absent from dbSNP129 and 1000 Genomes, shared by at least five patients, and of functional effects were genotyped in an independent Sardinian case-control sample (n?=?500). Variants associated with PD with nominal p value <0.05 and those with odds ratio (OR) ?3 were validated by Sanger sequencing and typed in a replication sample of 2965 patients and 2678 controls from Italy, Spain, and Portugal. We identified novel moderately rare variants in several genes, including SCAPER, HYDIN, UBE2H, EZR, MMRN2 and OGFOD1 that were specifically present in PD patients or enriched among them, nominating these as novel candidate risk genes for PD, although no variants achieved genome-wide significance after Bonferroni correction. Our results suggest that the genetic bases of PD are highly heterogeneous, with implications for the design of future large-scale exome or whole-genome analyses of this disease. PMID:25294124

Quadri, Marialuisa; Yang, Xu; Cossu, Giovanni; Olgiati, Simone; Saddi, Valeria M; Breedveld, Guido J; Ouyang, Limei; Hu, Jingchu; Xu, Na; Graafland, Josja; Ricchi, Valeria; Murgia, Daniela; Guedes, Leonor Correia; Mariani, Claudio; Marti, Maria J; Tarantino, Patrizia; Asselta, Rosanna; Valldeoriola, Francesc; Gagliardi, Monica; Pezzoli, Gianni; Ezquerra, Mario; Quattrone, Aldo; Ferreira, Joaquim; Annesi, Grazia; Goldwurm, Stefano; Tolosa, Eduardo; Oostra, Ben A; Melis, Maurizio; Wang, Jun; Bonifati, Vincenzo

2015-01-01

83

Extreme Wildfire Spread and Behaviour: Case Studies from North Sardinia, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Worldwide, fire seasons are usually characterized by the occurrence of one or more days with extreme environmental conditions, such as heat waves associated with strong winds. On these days, fires can quickly get out of hand originating large and severe wildfires. In these cases, containment and extinguishment phases are critical, considering that the imperative goal is to keep fire crews, people and animals safe. In this work we will present a set of large and severe wildfires occurred with extreme environmental conditions in the northern area of Sardinia. The most recent wildfire we will describe was ignited on July 13, 2011 in the Oschiri municipality (40°43' N; 9°06' E), and burned about 2,500 ha of wooded and herbaceous pastures and oakwoods in few hours. The second wildfire we will present was ignited on July 23, 2009 in the Bonorva municipality (40°25' N; 8° 46' E), and was responsible for the death of two people and several damages to houses, animals and farms. This wildfire lasted on July 25, and burned about 10,000 ha of wooded and herbaceous pastures; the most of the area was burned during the first day. The last wildfire we will describe was ignited on July 23, 2007 in the Oniferi municipality (40°16' N; 9° 16' E) and burned about 9,000 ha of wooded and herbaceous pastures and oakwoods; about 8,000 ha were burned after 11 hours of propagation. All these wildfires were ignited in days characterized by very hot temperatures associated to the effect of air masses moving from inland North Africa to the Mediterranean Basin, and strong winds from west-south west. This is one of the typical weather pattern associated with large and severe wildfires in North Sardinia, and is well documented in the last years. Weather conditions, fuels and topography factors related to each case study will be accurately analyzed. Moreover, a detailed overview of observed fire spread and behavior and post-fire vegetation recovery will be presented. The fire spread and behavior data collected during the events will be also compared with the results obtained with FARSITE (Finney, 1994) and FLAMMAP (Finney, 2003) models. The main goal of this paper is to thoroughly describe the fire behavior of relevant and recent case studies, in order to learn from it and lessen the chance of making potential mistakes or hazardous firefighting operations in the same environmental conditions. Furthermore, a crucial point is to teach and prepare people and fire crews not to be surprised by severe or abrupt fire behavior under extreme environmental conditions. For these reasons, the combination of analysis, knowledge and awareness of historical case studies, field experience and computer modeling represent a key learning technique.

Salis, M.; Arca, B.; Ager, A.; Fois, C.; Bacciu, V.; Duce, P.; Spano, D.

2012-04-01

84

Robust characterization of rainfall intermittency in Sardinia and identification of physical controls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of rainfall statistical variability is important for a wide range of water-related disciplines. Rainfall intermittency is often referred to two different aspects of variability: (i) the sudden variations of intensity, and (ii) the alternation of dry and wet periods, which can be analyzed through the construction of the binary series (BS). In this study, we characterize rainfall intermittency in time using a dataset collected by more than 200 tipping-bucket rain gages, covering the entire territory of Sardinia, Italy. For each gage, we sampled the rainfall signal at a resolution of 1 min and selected time sequences of ~45 days, thus focusing on a range of scales interesting for hydrological applications. On each sequence, we applied several techniques to investigate intermittency, including spectral and scale invariance analysis, and computation of clustering and intermittency exponents. The spectral analysis reveals the existence of two scaling regimes, typical of stratiform (from 3 days to 2.5 h) and convective (from 2.5 h to 2 min) systems, consistent with other studies. Investigation of scale invariance for higher moments shows the existence of an additional breaking point at 15-30 min. The change of statistical properties of the rainfall signals at these scales is also confirmed by the clustering and intermittency exponents. These metrics indicate that (i) the BS shows a behavior similar to the white noise at scales lower than 15-30 min, and (ii) rainfall intensity fluctuations tend to attenuate (amplify) the intermittency of the BS at scales smaller (larger) than 15-30 min. Finally, thanks to the availability of a large dataset, we show the presence of spatial patterns for the metrics characterizing rainfall intermittency, which can be explained by the geographical location and the topographic features of the gages, and by the interaction of these characteristics with the dominant weather conditions.

Mascaro, G.; Deidda, R.; Hellies, M.

2012-04-01

85

Association between protective and deleterious HLA alleles with multiple sclerosis in Central East Sardinia.  

PubMed

The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex on chromosome 6p21 has been unambiguously associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). The complex features of the HLA region, especially its high genic content, extreme polymorphism, and extensive linkage disequilibrium, has prevented to resolve the nature of HLA association in MS. We performed a family based association study on the isolated population of the Nuoro province (Sardinia) to clarify the role of HLA genes in MS. The main stage of our study involved an analysis of the ancestral haplotypes A2Cw7B58DR2DQ1 and A30Cw5B18DR3DQ2. On the basis of a multiplicative model, the effect of the first haplotype is protective with an odds ratio (OR) = 0.27 (95% confidence interval CI 0.13-0.57), while that of the second is deleterious, OR 1.78 (95% CI 1.26-2.50). We found both class I (A, Cw, B) and class II (DR, DQ) loci to have an effect on MS susceptibility, but we saw that they act independently from each other. We also performed an exploratory analysis on a set of 796 SNPs in the same HLA region. Our study supports the claim that Class I and Class II loci act independently on MS susceptibility and this has a biological explanation. Also, the analysis of SNPs suggests that there are other HLA genes involved in MS, but replication is needed. This opens up new perspective on the study of MS. PMID:19654877

Pastorino, Roberta; Menni, Cristina; Barca, Monserrata; Foco, Luisa; Saddi, Valeria; Gazzaniga, Giovanna; Ferrai, Raffaela; Mascaretti, Luca; Dudbridge, Frank; Berzuini, Carlo; Murgia, Salvatore Bruno; Piras, Maria Luisa; Ticca, Anna; Bitti, Pier Paolo; Bernardinelli, Luisa

2009-01-01

86

Population Based Study of 12 Autoimmune Diseases in Sardinia, Italy: Prevalence and Comorbidity  

PubMed Central

Background The limited availability of prevalence data based on a representative sample of the general population, and the limited number of diseases considered in studies about co-morbidity are the critical factors in study of autoimmune diseases. This paper describes the prevalence of 12 autoimmune diseases in a representative sample of the general population in the South of Sardinia, Italy, and tests the hypothesis of an overall association among these diseases. Methods Data were obtained from 21 GPs. The sample included 25,885 people. Prevalence data were expressed with 95% Poisson C.I. The hypothesis of an overall association between autoimmune diseases was tested by evaluating the co-occurrence within individuals. Results Prevalence per 100,000 are: 552 rheumatoid arthritis, 124 ulcerative colitis, 15 Crohn's disease, 464 type 1 diabetes, 81 systemic lupus erythematosus, 124 celiac disease, 35 myasthenia gravis, 939 psoriasis/psoriatic arthritis, 35 systemic sclerosis, 224 multiple sclerosis, 31 Sjogren's syndrome, and 2,619 autoimmune thyroiditis . An overall association between autoimmune disorders was highlighted. Conclusions The comparisons with prevalence reported in current literature do not show outlier values, except possibly for a few diseases like celiac disease and myasthenia gravis. People already affected by a first autoimmune disease have a higher probability of being affected by a second autoimmune disorder. In the present study, the sample size, together with the low overall prevalence of autoimmune diseases in the population, did not allow us to examine which diseases are most frequently associated with other autoimmune diseases. However, this paper makes available an adequate control population for future clinical studies aimed at exploring the co-morbidity of specific pairs of autoimmune diseases. PMID:22396771

Sardu, Claudia; Cocco, Eleonora; Mereu, Alessandra; Massa, Roberta; Cuccu, Alessandro; Marrosu, Maria Giovanna; Contu, Paolo

2012-01-01

87

Paleomagnetic data from Late Paleozoic dykes of Sardinia: Evidence for block rotations and implications for the intra-Pangea megashear system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

studies of dyke swarms from the Variscan belt of Europe can be used to reconstruct internal postorogenic rotations within the fold belt. Here we present paleomagnetic data from 13 late Variscan dykes from Sardinia ranging in age from 298 ± 5 to 270 ± 10 Ma. The dykes can be grouped on the basis of their different directions in strike in a northern, a central-eastern and a south-eastern province. Paleomagnetic component directions have been obtained using thermal and alternating field demagnetization techniques, which give reproducible results. The paleomagnetic mean directions differ significantly between northern Sardinia and south-eastern and central-eastern Sardinia, the latter two regions yielding statistically similar paleomagnetic mean directions. These results indicate that Sardinia fragmented into two, arguably three, crustal blocks after emplacement of the dykes, which experienced differential relative rotations, as is also indicated by the differences in overall strike directions. The determination of timing, sense, and magnitude of these rotations has major implications for the reconstruction of the geodynamic evolution of the region in post-Carboniferous times. We argue that the observed block rotations occurred during the Permian as the result of post-Variscan intra-Pangea mobility possibly related to the transformation of an Early Permian Pangea B to a Late Permian Pangea A.

Aubele, K.; Bachtadse, V.; Muttoni, G.; Ronchi, A.

2014-05-01

88

Hypogenic speleogenesis in quartzite: The case of Corona 'e Sa Craba Cave (SW Sardinia, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents a detailed study demonstrating the hypogenic origin of the Corona 'e Sa Craba quartzite cave in SW Sardinia (Italy). Although the quartzite host-rock of this cave derived from silicification of Cambrian dolostones and dissolution of carbonate remnants could have had a role in the speleogenesis, detailed morphologic and petrographic investigation revealed clear evidence of quartz dissolution without signs of mechanical erosion by running waters. Thin section microscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images show pervasive dissolution morphologies, such as pits and notches on quartz crystals causing the deep arenization of the cave walls, suggesting that the dissolution of quartz had a primary role in the formation of the void. The study of secondary cave minerals and the sulfur isotopic composition of sulfates and sulfides, coupled with data on fluid inclusions, allowed reconstruction of the peculiar speleogenetic history of this hypogenic hydrothermal quartzite cave. The cave formed by reduced hydrothermal fluids, probably under basic-neutral pH in phreatic conditions. The presence of abundant cations of Ba2 + in reduced Cl-rich fluids enhanced the quartz dissolution rate, allowing the formation of the voids in deep settings. During the Late Oligocene uplift of the area, the hydrothermal fluids in the cave reached oxygen-rich conditions, thus a minerogenetic phase started with the deposition of barite when the temperature of the fluid was ? 50 °C. The presence of cinnabar crusts in the lower part of the cave walls and on the boulders suggests a later volcanic phase with Hg-rich vapors ascending from below. Other minerals such as alunite, basaluminite, gypsum and halloysite (typical of an acid sulfate alteration environment), and phosphates were formed in a final, much more recent stage. The ?34S values of the cave sulfate minerals indicate that S is derived from the remobilization of original Precambrian Pb-Zn Mississippi Valley Type ores. These last two stages did not significantly affect the morphology of the cave. The Corona 'e Sa Craba appears to be the world's first example of a hypogenic cave in quartzite where the speleogenetic mechanisms have been studied and reconstructed in detail, using a variety of modern methods. This study confirms that dissolution of quartz by thermal alkaline fluids at depth can produce large dissolutional voids in the apparently poorly soluble quartzite rocks.

Sauro, Francesco; De Waele, Jo; Onac, Bogdan P.; Galli, Ermanno; Dublyansky, Yuri; Baldoni, Eleonora; Sanna, Laura

2014-04-01

89

Lithofacies characteristics of diatreme deposits: Examples from a basaltic volcanic field of SW Sardinia (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A deeply eroded diatreme field, consisting in several, decametric-sized, vertical, mainly clastic volcanic bodies of basaltic composition is described for the first time in the Variscan basement of SW Sardinia. The recognition and description of four different lithofacies in these diatremes allowed discussion of the role of the different processes which control magma eruption and conduit infilling, and making general inferences about diatremes. The studied diatremes have a cross-sectional shape from elliptical to sub-triangular, and are slightly elongated nearly parallel to the main foliation of the intruded meta-sedimentary rocks. Foliation of host rocks is locally reoriented or folded close to the contact with the diatremes, suggesting that magma possibly rose to the surface through fissures oriented nearly parallel to host rock foliation. Textural features of the volcanic bodies show many analogies with kimberlitic diatremes, despite the difference in petrography and composition. Juvenile lapilli are mainly made by ghosts of mafic phenocrysts (olivine and clinopyroxene) set in a groundmass formed by plagioclase microlites immersed in a cryptocrystalline, chlorite-rich matrix. The four lithofacies were described mainly based on the shape and physical features of the clasts and textural anisotropy: a globular, juvenile-rich, lapilli tuff facies (GJLt); an angular, juvenile-rich, lapilli tuff facies (AJLt); a lithic-rich, lapilli tuff facies LiRLt), and a coherent, lava-like facies (COH). All the clastic lithofacies are generally well sorted and typically lack a fine-grained matrix. Juvenile fragments are lapilli sized and from equant to oblate in axial ratio, and from rounded-globular to very angular in shape. Conversely, lithic clasts are largely variable in shape and size, and are mainly represented by basement-derived clasts. The absence of bedding, the scarcity of the coherent facies and the dominance of clast supported, structureless, volcaniclastic facies suggest that the outcropping portion of these volcanic bodies represents the lower diatreme zone. The presence of diffuse welding and the globular shapes of some juvenile fragments, together with their vesicularity, suggest that magma fragmentation was mainly driven by magmatic gas exsolution occurring at a deeper level respect to classical, basaltic explosive activity. Textural features, facies association and facies architecture of the studied deposits are suggestive of an important affinity with kimberlitic and other ultramafic diatremes.

Mundula, F.; Cioni, R.; Funedda, A.; Leone, F.

2013-04-01

90

HLA-DRB1-DQB1 Haplotypes Confer Susceptibility and Resistance to Multiple Sclerosis in Sardinia  

PubMed Central

Introduction Genetic predisposition to multiple sclerosis (MS) in Sardinia (Italy) has been associated with five DRB1*-DQB1* haplotypes of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA). Given the complexity of these associations, an in-depth re-analysis was performed with the specific aims of confirming the haplotype associations; establishing the independence of the associated haplotypes; and assessing patients' genotypic risk of developing MS. Methods and Results A transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) of the DRB1*-DQB1* haplotypes in 943 trio families, confirmed a higher than expected transmission rate (over-transmission) of the *13:03-*03:01 (OR?=?2.9, P?=?7.6×10?3), *04:05-*03:01 (OR?=?2.4, P?=?4.4×10?6) and *03:01-*02:01 (OR?=?2.1, P?=?1.0×10?15) haplotype. In contrast, the *16:01-*05:02 (OR?=?0.5, P?=?5.4×10?11) and the *15:02-*06:01 (OR?=?0.3, P?=?1.5×10?3) haplotypes exhibited a lower than expected transmission rate (under-transmission). The independence of the transmission of each positively and negatively associated haplotype was confirmed relative to all positively associated haplotypes, and to the negatively associated *16:01-*05:02 haplotype. In patients, carriage of two predisposing haplotypes, or of protective haplotypes, respectively increased or decreased the patient's risk of developing MS. The risk of MS followed a multiplicative model of genotypes, which was, in order of decreasing ORs: *04:05-*0301/*03:01-*02:01 (OR?=?4.5); *03:01-*02:01/*03:01-*02:01 (OR?=?4.1); and the *16:01-*05:02/*16:01-*0502 (OR?=?0.2) genotypes. Analysis of DRB1 and DQB1 protein chain residues showed that the Val/Gly residue at position 86 of the DRB1 chain was the only difference between the protective *16:01- *15:02 alleles and the predisposing *15:01 one. Similarly, the Ala/Val residue at position 38 of the DQB1 chain differentiated the positively associated *06:02 allele and the negatively associated *05:02, *06:01 alleles. Conclusions These findings show that the association of specific, independent DRB1*-DQB1* haplotypes confers susceptibility or resistance to MS in the MS-prone Sardinian population. The data also supports a functional role for specific residues of the DRB1 and DQB1 proteins in predisposing patients to MS. PMID:22509268

Cocco, Eleonora; Sardu, Claudia; Pieroni, Enrico; Valentini, Maria; Murru, Raffaele; Costa, Gianna; Tranquilli, Stefania; Frau, Jessica; Coghe, Giancarlo; Carboni, Nicola; Floris, Matteo; Contu, Paolo; Marrosu, Maria Giovanna

2012-01-01

91

Genetic loci linked to Type 1 Diabetes and Multiple Sclerosis families in Sardinia  

PubMed Central

Background The Mediterranean island of Sardinia has a strikingly high incidence of the autoimmune disorders Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) and Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Furthermore, the two diseases tend to be co-inherited in the same individuals and in the same families. These observations suggest that some unknown autoimmunity variant with relevant effect size could be fairly common in this founder population and could be detected using linkage analysis. Methods To search for T1D and MS loci as well as any that predispose to both diseases, we performed a whole genome linkage scan, sequentially genotyping 593 microsatellite marker loci in 954 individuals distributed in 175 Sardinian families. In total, 413 patients were studied; 285 with T1D, 116 with MS and 12 with both disorders. Model-free linkage analysis was performed on the genotyped samples using the Kong and Cox logarithm of odds (LOD) score statistic. Results In T1D, aside from the HLA locus, we found four regions showing a lod-score ?1; 1p31.1, 6q26, 10q21.2 and 22q11.22. In MS we found three regions showing a lod-score ?1; 1q42.2, 18p11.21 and 20p12.3. In the combined T1D-MS scan for shared autoimmunity loci, four regions showed a LOD >1, including 6q26, 10q21.2, 20p12.3 and 22q11.22. When we typed more markers in these intervals we obtained suggestive evidence of linkage in the T1D scan at 10q21.2 (LOD = 2.1), in the MS scan at 1q42.2 (LOD = 2.5) and at 18p11.22 (LOD = 2.6). When all T1D and MS families were analysed jointly we obtained suggestive evidence in two regions: at 10q21.1 (LOD score = 2.3) and at 20p12.3 (LOD score = 2.5). Conclusion This suggestive evidence of linkage with T1D, MS and both diseases indicates critical chromosome intervals to be followed up in downstream association studies. PMID:18205952

Pitzalis, Maristella; Zavattari, Patrizia; Murru, Raffaele; Deidda, Elisabetta; Zoledziewska, Magdalena; Murru, Daniela; Moi, Loredana; Motzo, Costantino; Orrù, Valeria; Costa, Gianna; Solla, Elisabetta; Fadda, Elisabetta; Schirru, Lucia; Melis, Maria Cristina; Lai, Marina; Mancosu, Cristina; Tranquilli, Stefania; Cuccu, Stefania; Rolesu, Marcella; Secci, Maria Antonietta; Corongiu, Daniela; Contu, Daniela; Lampis, Rosanna; Nucaro, Annalisa; Pala, Gavino; Pacifico, Adolfo; Maioli, Mario; Frongia, Paola; Chessa, Margherita; Ricciardi, Rossella; Lostia, Stanislao; Marinaro, Anna Maria; Milia, Anna Franca; Landis, Novella; Zedda, Maria Antonietta; Whalen, Michael B; Santoni, Federico; Marrosu, Maria Giovanna; Devoto, Marcella; Cucca, Francesco

2008-01-01

92

From northern Gondwana passive margin to arc dismantling: a geochemical discrimination of Ordovician volcanisms (Sardinia, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Sardinia, one of the southernmost remain of the European Variscan belt, a crustal section through northern Gondwanan paleodomains is largely preserved. It bears significant evidence of igneous activity, recently detailed in field relationships and radiometric dating (Oggiano et al., submitted). A Cambro - Ordovician (491.7 ± 3.5 Ma ÷ 479.9 ± 2.1 Ma, LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon age) bimodal volcanic suite occurs with continuity in external and inner Variscan nappes of Sardinia below the so-called Sardic unconformity. The igneous suite represents an intraplate volcanic activity developed through subsequent episodes: i) an intermediate explosive and effusive volcanism, i.e. pyroclastic fall deposits and lava flows, embedded into epicontinental clastic sediments, culminating in silicic ignimbrite eruptions, and ii) mafic effusives. Geochemical data document a transitional, within-plate signature, e.g. the average Th/Ta (4.5) and La/Nb (2.7) overlap the upper continental crust values. The volcanites are characterized by slight fractionation of LREEs, nearly flat HREE abundance. The negative Eu anomaly increases towards evolved compositions. Some prominent HREE depletion (GdCN/YbCN = 13.8), and the high Nb/Y suggest a garnet-bearing source. The high 87Sr radiogenic content (87Sr/86Sr 490 Ma = 0.71169) and the epsilon Nd 490 Ma value of -6.54 for one dacite sample, imply a time integrated LREE-enriched source with a high Rb/Sr, such as a metasedimentary source. The stratigraphy of the succession and the geochemical composition of igneous members suggest a volcanic passive margin along the northern Gondwana at the early Ordovician. The bimodal Mid-Ordovician arc volcanism (465.4 ± 1.4 Ma, U-Pb zircon age; Oggiano et al., submitted) is developed in the external nappes (e.g. in Sarrabus and Sarcidano) and in the foreland occurs as clasts at the base of the Hirnantian succession (Leone et al. 1991). The Mid Ordovician sub-alkalic volcanic suite has reliable stratigraphic and palaeontological constraints, as it post-dates the Sarrabese (i.e. Sardic) unconformity and pre-dates the Upper Ordovician transgression. It consists of basaltic - andesites and abundant andesites and rhyolites. The negative Ta-, Nb-, Sr-, P-, Yb- and Ti-anomalies in mantle-normalized spiderdiagrams and Th/Ta compare with volcanic rocks from active continental margins. Andesite and dacite samples reveal Sr and Nd isotopic compositions consistent with a less depleted mantle source than rhyolites (epsilon Nd 465 Ma = -3.03 to -5.75; 87Sr/86Sr 465 Ma = 0.70931-0.71071). The positive epsilon Nd 465 Ma values of rhyolites (+1.15 to +2.42) suggest that their precursors, with a crustal residence age of ~1 Ga (TDM), were derived from a long-term depleted mantle source. On the whole, the isotopic data for Mid Ordovician volcanites suggest partial melting of an isotopically heterogeneous mantle. The bimodal suite has been unanimously interpreted as a marker of the Rheic ocean subduction. An Upper Ordovician transitional to alkalic volcanic activity is documented both in the foreland, and in the external and internal nappes (Di Pisa et al. 1992). The Late Ordovician alkalic mafic suite (440 ± 1.7 Ma) i.e. the Ordovician-Silurian boundary, occurs as sills, epiclastites and lava flows within the post-Caradocian transgressive sequence. The volcanic rocks are characterized by fractionation of REEs (LaCN/YbCN ~ 4.4-13), variable LILE abundances and significant Ta, Nb and LREE enrichments. Th/Ta in the range 1-2 and La/Nb < 1 evidence an anorogenic intraplate setting. The epsilon Nd 440 Ma values are positive (+1.60 to +4.14), reflecting an origin in a depleted mantle source, while the 87Sr/86Sr vary from 0.70518 to 0.71321. Negative epsilon Nd 440 Ma values (-4.76 and -4.62) in trachy-andesites suggest a less depleted mantle source, while the 87Sr/86Sr 440 Ma (0.70511 to 0.70694) and the Sm/Nd up to 0.36 align along the mantle array. The Late Ordovician alkalic suite suggest a continental rift geodynamic setting, and likely represent an early phase of the major rifting e

Gaggero, L.; Oggiano, G.; Buzzi, L.; Funedda, A.

2009-04-01

93

Study of factors influencing susceptibility and age at onset of type 1 diabetes: A review of data from Continental Italy and Sardinia  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the role of protein tyrosin phosphatase 22 (PTPN22), maternal age at conception and sex on susceptibility and age at onset of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in Continental Italy and Sardinian populations. METHODS: Three hundred seventy six subjects admitted consecutively to the hospital for T1D and 1032 healthy subjects as controls were studied in Continental Italy and 284 subjects admitted consecutively to the hospital for T1D and 5460 healthy newborns were studied in Sardinia. PTPN22 genotype was determined by DNA analysis. Maternal age at conception and age at onset of disease were obtained from clinical records. ?2 test of independence, student t test for differences between means and odds ratio analysis were carried out by SPSS programs. Three way contingency table analysis was carried out according to Sokal and Rohlf. RESULTS: The pattern of association between PTPN22 and T1D is similar in Continental Italy and Sardinia: the proportion of *T allele carriers is 13.6% in T1D vs 6.7% in controls in Continental Italy while in Sardinia is 7.3% in T1D vs 4.4% in controls. The association between T1D and maternal age at conception is much stronger in Sardinia than in Italy: the proportion of newborn from mother aging more than 32 years is 89.3% in T1D vs 32.7% in consecutive newborn in Sardinia (P < 10-6) while in Continental Italy is 32.2% in T1D vs 19.1% in consecutive newborns (P = 0.005). This points to an important role of ethnicity. A slight prevalence of T1D males on T1D females is observed both in Continental Italy and Sardinia. PTPN22 genotype does not exert significant effect on the age at onset neither in Continental Italy nor and Sardinia. Maternal age does not influence significantly age at onset in Italy (8.2 years in T1D infants from mothers aging 32 years or less vs 7.89 years in T1D infants from mothers aging more than 32 years: P = 0.824) while in Sardinia a border line effect is observed (5.75 years in T1D infants from mothers aging 32 years or less vs 7.54 years in T1D infants from mothers aging more than 32 years: P = 0.062). No effect of sex on age at onset is observed in Continental Italy while in Sardinia female show a lower age at onset of T1D as compared to males (8.07 years in males vs 6.3 years in females: P = 0.002). CONCLUSION: The present data confirm the importance of ethnicity on susceptibility and on the age at onset of T1D. PMID:25126401

Gloria-Bottini, Fulvia; Saccucci, Patrizia; Meloni, Gian Franco; Manca-Bitti, Maria Luisa; Coppeta, Luca; Neri, Anna; Magrini, Andrea; Egidio, Bottini

2014-01-01

94

Epidemiology of African swine fever virus.  

PubMed

African swine fever virus used to occur primarily in Africa. There had been occasional incursions into Europe or America which apart from the endemic situation on the island of Sardinia always had been successfully controlled. But following an introduction of the virus in 2007, it now has expanded its geographical distribution into Caucasus and Eastern Europe where it has not been controlled, to date. African swine fever affects domestic and wild pig species, and can involve tick vectors. The ability of the virus to survive within a particular ecosystem is defined by the ecology of its wild host populations and the characteristics of livestock production systems, which influence host and vector species densities and interrelationships. African swine fever has high morbidity in naïve pig populations and can result in very high mortality. There is no vaccine or treatment available. Apart from stamping out and movement control, there are no control measures, thereby potentially resulting in extreme losses for producers. Prevention and control of the infection requires good understanding of its epidemiology, so that targeted measures can be instigated. PMID:23123296

Costard, S; Mur, L; Lubroth, J; Sanchez-Vizcaino, J M; Pfeiffer, D U

2013-04-01

95

Molecular and epidemiological data on Anisakis spp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in commercial fish caught off northern Sardinia (western Mediterranean Sea).  

PubMed

Anisakiasis is a fish-borne zoonosis caused by third stage larvae of the nematode Anisakis sp. present in fish or cephalopods. This is the first contribution to the molecular identification and epidemiology of Anisakis spp. in commercial fish from the Gulf of Asinara (Sardinia, western Mediterranean Sea). Between April 2006 to November 2011, 777 specimens of 10 fish species (Engraulis encrasicolus, Merluccius merluccius, Micromesistius poutassou, Phycis blennoides, Sardina pilchardus, Sardinella aurita, Scomber colias, Sphyraena viridensis, Trachurus mediterraneus, Trachurus trachurus) were examined for Anisakis sp. larvae. A total of 1286 larvae were found in 218 fish. The great majority of larvae were located in the body cavity, and only a small part (60, 4.7%) in the muscle. All the Type I larvae (1272) were identified as Anisakis pegreffii and all the Type II (14) as Anisakis physeteris, confirming that A. pegreffii is the dominant species and the most important agent of human anisakiasis in the western Mediterranean Sea. PMID:24630706

Piras, M C; Tedde, T; Garippa, G; Virgilio, S; Sanna, D; Farjallah, S; Merella, P

2014-06-16

96

Using AQUACROP to model the impacts of future climates on crop production and possible adaptation strategies in Sardinia and Tunisia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A work package in the FP-7 funded CLIMB Project - Climate Induced Changes on the Hydrology of Mediterranean Basins Reducing Uncertainty and Quantifying Risk through an Integrated Monitoring and Modeling System had the goal of assessing socioeconomic vulnerability in two super-sites in future climates (2040-2070). The work package had deliverables to describe of agricultural adaptation measures appropriate to each site under future water availability scenarios and assess the risk of income losses due to water shortages in agriculture. The FAO model AQUACROP was used to estimate losses of agricultural productivity and indicate possible adaptation strategies. The presentation will focus on two interesting crops which show extreme vulnerability to expected changes in climate; irrigated lettuce in Sardinia and irrigated tomatoes in Tunisia. Modelling methodology, results and possible adaptation strategies will be presented.

Bird, Neil; Benabdallah, Sihem; Gouda, Nadine; Hummel, Franz; La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Meyer, Swen; Soddu, Antonino; Woess-Gallasch, Susanne

2014-05-01

97

ODP Leg 107 results from continental margin east of Sardinia (Mediterranean Sea): a transect across a very young passive margin  

SciTech Connect

A 200-km wide zone east of Sardinia, characterized by thin continental crust with tilted, listric(.)-fault-bounded blocks, has been interpreted as a passive continental margin formed during back-arc opening of the Tyrrhenian Sea. Leg 107 of the Ocean Drilling Project drilled a transect of four sites across this margin plus three sites in the basaltic basin. Site 654, closest to Sardinia, recovered a transgressive sequence attributed to basin subsidence: coarse-grained, iron-oxide rich, subaerial conglomerates underlie oyster-bearing sands followed upsection by open-water Tortonian marine marls. The synrift sequence, as inferred from seismic reflection profiles, correlates with sediments of Tortonian to Messinian age. Farther east the synrift sediments are younger: site 652, near the continental/oceanic transition, recovered an inferred synrift sequence of Messinian to early Pliocene age. The pan-Mediterranean Messinian desiccation event is represented at the western two sites (654 and 653) by a basinal facies including laminated gypsum, whereas at the eastern two sites the Messinian facies are terrestrial (lacustrine at 652 and subaerial at 656). They therefore infer that subsidence was more advanced at the western sites than at the eastern sites as of 5 Ma. Leg 107 results suggest that subsidence and stretching were diachronous across the passive margin, beginning and ending several million years earlier in the west than in the east. This asynchroneity may result from the inherent asymmetry of back-arc basin opening, or it may be a common characteristic of passive margins which has been revealed by the unusually precise time resolution of this data set.

Kastens, K.A.; Mascle, J.; Auroux, C.; Bonatti, E.; Broglia, C.; Channell, J.; Curzi, P.; Emeis, K.; Glacon, G.; Hasegawa, S.; Hieke, W.

1987-05-01

98

Metals and metalloids in hair samples of children living near the abandoned mine sites of Sulcis-Inglesiente (Sardinia, Italy).  

PubMed

The Sulcis-Iglesiente district (SW Sardinia, Italy) is one of the oldest and most important polymetallic mining areas in Italy. Large outcrops of sulfide and oxide ores, as well as the products of the long-lasting mining activity, are present throughout the district releasing significant quantities of metals and metalloids into the surrounding environment. Here are reported concentrations of 21 elements determined in scalp hair samples from children (aged 11-13 years) living in different geochemical environments of southwestern Sardinia: Iglesias, hosting several abandoned mines, and the island of Sant?Antioco, not affected by significant base metal mineralization events. Trace element determinations were performed by ICP-MS. Statistically significant differences (p<0.01) in elemental concentration levels between the two study sites were found. Hair of children from Iglesias exhibited higher concentration values for Ag, Ba, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb, U, V, and Zn. Rubidium, V and U resulted more abundant at Sant?Antioco. Hair samples from Iglesias showed gender-related differences for a larger number of elements (Ag, Ba, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Sr, U and Zn) than at Sant?Antioco, where only U was significantly different. The above elemental concentrations in females were always higher than in male donors. Robust Principal Component Analysis operated on log-transformed elemental concentrations showed components indicative of a) sulfides ore minerals (PC1) reflecting the influence of the diffuse mineralization covering the entire study area, b) the presence of some bioavailable As sources (PC2) as As-rich pyrite and Fe-containing sphalerite and c) other sources of metals overlapping the diffuse mineralizations, as carbonate rocks and coal deposits (PC3). The results provided evidence of a potential risk of adverse effects on the health of the exposed population, with children living at Iglesias being greatly exposed to several metals and metalloids originated in mining tailings, enriched soils, waters and food. PMID:25212264

Varrica, D; Tamburo, E; Milia, N; Vallascas, E; Cortimiglia, V; De Giudici, G; Dongarrà, G; Sanna, E; Monna, F; Losno, R

2014-10-01

99

Carbon loss and greenhouse gas emission from extreme fire events occurred in Sardinia, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is widely recognized that biomass burning is a significant driver of CO2 cycling and a source of greenhouse gases, aerosol particles, and other chemically reactive atmospheric gases. The large amounts of carbon that fires release into the atmosphere could approach levels of anthropogenic carbon emissions, especially in years of extreme fire activity. CO2 emissions from 2007 forest fires in Greece were in the range of 4.5 Mt, representing about the 4% of the total annual CO2 emissions of that country (http://effis.jrc.it/). Barbosa et al. (2006) reported a similar percentage of fire emissions to total emissions of CO2 in Portugal during the extreme fire seasons of 2003 and 2005. Currently, inventory methods for biomass burning emission use the equation first proposed by Seiler and Crutzen (1980), taking into account the area burned, the amount of biomass burned, and the emission factors associated with each specific chemical species. However, several errors and uncertainties can affect the emission assessment, due to the estimate consistency of the various parameters involved in the equation, including flaming and smoldering combustion periods, appropriate fuel load evaluations and gaseous emission factors for different fuel fractions and fire types. In this context, model approaching can contribute to better appraise fuel consumption and the resultant emissions. In addition, more comprehensive and accurate data inputs would be of valuable help for predicting and quantifying the source and the composition of fire emissions. The purpose of this work is to explore the impacts of extreme fire events occurred in Sardinia Island (Italy) using an integrated approach combining modelling fire emissions, field observations and remotely-sensed data. In order to achieve realistic fire emission estimates, we used the FOFEM model, due to the necessity to use a consistent modeling methodology across source categories, the input required, and its ability to estimate flaming and smoldering emissions. FOFEM input fuel load data were surveyed to represent those combusted, and fuel availability was obtained from supervised classification of remotely-sensed images. Data relative to fire perimeters, fire weather data, and fire behaviour were gathered by the Sardinian Forestry Corps (CFVA). Consumptions and emissions for each fuel types were estimated through FOFEM. Finally, all the data were assembled into a Geographical Information System (GIS) to facilitate manipulation and display of the data. The results showed the crucial role of appropriate fuel, fire, and weather data and maps to attain reasonable simulations of fuel consumption and smoke emissions. Carbon emission estimates are sensitive to pre-fire fuel loads, so the method used to establish initial fuel conditions is crucial. The FOFEM outputs and the derived smoke emission maps are useful for several applications including emissions inventories, air quality management plans, and emission source models coupled with dispersion models and decision support systems.

Bacciu, V. M.; Salis, M.; Pellizzaro, G.; Arca, B.; Duce, P.; Spano, D.

2011-12-01

100

Molecular evidence for the occurrence of Contracaecum rudolphii A (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in shag Phalacrocorax aristotelis (Linnaeus) (Aves: Phalacrocoracidae) from Sardinia (western Mediterranean Sea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specimens of Contracaecum rudolphii Hartwich, 1964 (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from Phalacrocorax aristotelis (Linnaeus) from the Archipelago of La Maddalena (Sardinia, western Mediterranean Sea) were characterised genetically and compared with C. rudolphii A sensu D’Amelio et al. 1990 and C. rudolphii B sensu D’Amelio et al. 1990 from Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis (Blumenbach) from north-eastern Italy, and with C. rudolphii C sensu D’Amelio

Sarra Farjallah; Paolo Merella; Sofia Ingrosso; Andrea Rotta; Badreddine Ben Slimane; Giovanni Garippa; Khaled Said; Marina Busi

2008-01-01

101

Sea-level change during the Holocene in Sardinia and in the northeastern Adriatic (central Mediterranean Sea) from archaeological and geomorphological data  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide new data on relative sea-level change from the late Holocene for two locations in the central Mediterranean: Sardinia and NE Adriatico. They are based on precise measures of submerged archaeological and tide notch markers that are good indicators of past sea-level elevation. Twelve submerged archaeological sites were studied: six, aged between 2.5 and 1.6 ka BP, located along

F. Antoniolia; M. Anzideib; R. Auriemmad Lambeckc; D. Gaddie; E. Solinash Orrug; A. Gasparii; S. Karinjaj; V. Kovacick; L. Suracel

102

Understanding biological conservation strategies: a molecular-genetic approach to the case of myrtle ( Myrtus communis L.) in two Italian regions: Sardinia and Calabria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myrtle (Myrtus communis L.), a shrub widespread in the Mediterranean area, is the only species belonging to the Myrtaceae family growing in Europe.\\u000a The pharmacological and aromatic properties of myrtle have caused a growing interest in this plant. The use of myrtle as an\\u000a aromatic plant is traditionally established in the Italian regions of Sardinia and Calabria, where it is

Caterina Agrimonti; Roberto Bianchi; Alberto Bianchi; Mauro Ballero; Ferruccio Poli; Nelson Marmiroli

2007-01-01

103

Foodborne viruses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Testing for human pathogenic viruses in foods represents a formidable task requiring the extraction, concentration, and assay of a host of viruses from a wide range of food matrices. The enteric viruses, particularly genogroup I and II (GI and GII) noroviruses and hepatitis A virus, are the princip...

104

Quantifying biomineralization of zinc in the Rio Naracauli (Sardinia, Italy), using a tracer injection and synoptic sampling  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Streams draining mined areas throughout the world commonly have high concentrations of Zn. Because Zn is not easily removed from stream water and because it can be toxic to aquatic organisms, its presence is a persistent problem. The discovery of biomineralization of Zn-bearing solids in the mine drainage of Rio Naracauli, in Sardinia, Italy, provides insights into strategies for removing Zn and improving water quality in streams affected by mine drainage. Until now, the transport and attenuation of Zn has not been quantified in this stream setting. A continuous tracer injection experiment was conducted to quantify the biomineralization process and to identify the loading of constituents that causes a change from precipitation of hydrozincite [Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6] in the upstream reach to precipitation of a Zn-silicate phase downstream. Based on the mass-load calculations derived from the tracer experiment, about 1.2 kg/day of Zn is sequestered in hydrozincite. This biomineralization represents nearly 90% removal of Zn. Other elements such as Pb and Cd also are sequestered, either in the hydrozincite, or in a separate phase that forms simultaneously. In the lower 600 m of the stream, where the Zn-silicate forms, as much as 0.7 kg/day Zn are sequestered in this solid, but additions of Zn to the stream from groundwater discharge lead to an overall increase in load in that portion of the Rio Naracauli.

De Giudici, Giovanni; Wanty, Richard B.; Podda, F.; Kimball, Briant A.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Lattanzi, P.; Cidu, R.; Medas, D.

2014-01-01

105

GC-ITMS analysis of PAH contamination levels in the marine sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus in Sardinia.  

PubMed

This paper describes the results of a two-year monitoring study examining the pollution of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Sardinia. GC-ITMS analysis of sea urchin gonads showed the presence of 11 and 12 PAHs in the samples of Capo Pecora, and Capitana, respectively. Fluorene, naphthalene and its two degradation products, 1-methyl-naphthalene, and 2-methyl-naphthalene, were detected in all samples analyzed. The ?PAH residues showed a similar trend over the two-year sampling period. Furthermore, the residues in the first year were slightly higher than in the second year. The information obtained by the multivariate statistical analysis PLS-DA allowed for the determination of samples based on field site and varying habitat types (rocky reef, and Posidonia seabed). The results of this study showed that Posidonia sea urchins are contaminated by high molecular weight PAHs and that Capitana samples are more contaminated due to a higher level of human activity in the area. PMID:24703809

Angioni, Alberto; Cau, Alessandro; Secci, Marco; Addis, Piero

2014-05-15

106

Uptake of heavy metals by native species growing in a mining area in Sardinia, Italy: discovering native flora for phytoremediation.  

PubMed

This study assessed the distribution and availability of plant uptake of Zn, Pb, and Cd present in an abandoned mine at Ingurtosu, Sardinia (Italy). Geological matrix samples (sediments, tailings, and soil from a nearby pasture site) and samples of the predominant plant species growing on sediments and tailings were collected. Mean values of total Zn, Pb and Cd were respectively (mg kg(-1)) 7400, 1800, and 56 in tailings, 31000, 2900, and 100 in sediments, and 400, 200, and 8 in the pasture soil. The metal concentration values were high even in the mobile fractions evaluated by simplified sequential extraction (Zn 7485-103, Pb 1015-101, Cd 47-4 mg kg(-1)). Predominant native species were identified and analyzed for heavy metal content in various tissues. Among the plant species investigated Inula viscosa, Euphorbia dendroides, and Poa annua showed the highest metal concentration in aboveground biomass (mean average of Zn: 1680, 1020, 1400; Pb: 420, 240, 80; Cd: 28, 7, 19 mg kg(-1), respectively). The above mentioned species and A. donax could be good candidates for a phytoextraction procedure. Cistus salvifolius and Helichrysum italicus generally showed behavior more suitable for a phytostabilizer. PMID:21972566

Barbafieri, M; Dadea, C; Tassi, E; Bretzel, F; Fanfani, L

2011-01-01

107

Are changes in body dimensions of adult females from Italy (Sardinia and Latium) related to secular trend?  

PubMed

This paper presents secular changes in height, weight, sitting height, relative sitting height, BMI and estimated lower limb length in two samples of Italian adult females from Sardinia (Cagliari) and Latium (Rieti). The samples consist of 579 healthy women from the province of Cagliari and 138 from the town of Rieti, aged 20.0-39.9 years, measured in the period 2003-2006. The women were divided into four 5-year age groups. The anthropometric variables were considered according to different socioeconomic status (SES) in the Cagliari sample, while the Rieti sample was considered as a whole, as the SES was homogeneous. ANOVA results suggest that the secular trend was very slow or had come to a halt in the Rieti sample but continues in the Cagliari sample, as shown by the statistically significant differences for estimated lower limb length (p

Sanna, Emanuele; Danubio, Maria Enrica

2009-01-01

108

High Differentiation among Eight Villages in a Secluded Area of Sardinia Revealed by Genome-Wide High Density SNPs Analysis  

PubMed Central

To better design association studies for complex traits in isolated populations it's important to understand how history and isolation moulded the genetic features of different communities. Population isolates should not “a priori” be considered homogeneous, even if the communities are not distant and part of a small region. We studied a particular area of Sardinia called Ogliastra, characterized by the presence of several distinct villages that display different history, immigration events and population size. Cultural and geographic isolation characterized the history of these communities. We determined LD parameters in 8 villages and defined population structure through high density SNPs (about 360 K) on 360 unrelated people (45 selected samples from each village). These isolates showed differences in LD values and LD map length. Five of these villages show high LD values probably due to their reduced population size and extreme isolation. High genetic differentiation among villages was detected. Moreover population structure analysis revealed a high correlation between genetic and geographic distances. Our study indicates that history, geography and biodemography have influenced the genetic features of Ogliastra communities producing differences in LD and population structure. All these data demonstrate that we can consider each village an isolate with specific characteristics. We suggest that, in order to optimize the study design of complex traits, a thorough characterization of genetic features is useful to identify the presence of sub-populations and stratification within genetic isolates. PMID:19247500

Pirastu, Nicola; Persico, Ivana; Sassu, Alessandro; Picciau, Andrea; Prodi, Dionigio; Fraumene, Cristina; Mocci, Evelina; Manias, Maria Teresa; Atzeni, Rossano; Cosso, Massimiliano; Pirastu, Mario

2009-01-01

109

Prevalence of KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA somatic mutations in patients with colorectal carcinoma may vary in the same population: clues from Sardinia  

PubMed Central

Background Role of KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA mutations in pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC) has been recently investigated worldwide. In this population-based study, we evaluated the incidence rates and distribution of such somatic mutations in genetically isolated population from Sardinia. Methods From April 2009 to July 2011, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues (N?=?478) were prospectively collected from Sardinian CRC patients at clinics across the entire island. Genomic DNA was isolated from tissue sections and screened for mutations in KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA genes by automated DNA sequencing. Results Overall, KRAS tumour mutation rate was 30% (145/478 positive cases). Distribution of mutation carriers was surprisingly different within the island: 87/204 (43%) in North Sardinia vs. 58/274 (21%) in Middle-South Sardinia (p<0.001). Among 384 CRC cases whose DNA was available, only one (0.3%) patient carried a mutation in BRAF gene; PIK3CA was found mutated in 67 (17%) patients. A significant inverse distribution of PIK3CA mutation rates was observed within Sardinian population: 19/183 (10%) cases from northern vs. 48/201 (24%) cases from central-southern island (p<0.001). This heterogeneity in frequencies of KRAS/PIK3CA somatic mutations is consistent with already-reported discrepancies in distribution of germline mutations for other malignancies within Sardinian population. Preliminary clinical evaluation of 118 KRAS wild-type patients undergoing anti-EGFR-based treatment indicated lack of role for PIK3CA in predicting response to therapy. Conclusions Our findings support the hypothesis that differences in patients’ origins and related genetic backgrounds may contribute to even determine the incidence rate of somatic mutations in candidate cancer genes. PMID:22931052

2012-01-01

110

Hepadna viruses  

SciTech Connect

This book examines the molecular biology, disease pathogenesis, epidemiology, and clinical features of hepadna and other viruses with hepatic tropism and outlines future directions and approaches for their management. The volume's six sections provide a review of the various features, mechanisms, and functions of these viruses, ranging from hepadna virus replication and regulation of gene expression to the structure and function of hepadna-virus gene products.

Robinson, W.; Koike, K.; Will, H.

1987-01-01

111

Quantification of hydrologic impacts of climate change in a Mediterranean basin in Sardinia, Italy, through high-resolution simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future climate projections robustly indicate that the Mediterranean region will experience a significant decrease of mean annual precipitation and an increase in temperature. These changes are expected to seriously affect the hydrologic regime, with a limitation of water availability and an intensification of hydrologic extremes, and to negatively impact local economies. In this study, we quantify the hydrologic impacts of climate change in the Rio Mannu basin (RMB), an agricultural watershed of 472.5 km2 in Sardinia, Italy. To simulate the wide range of runoff generation mechanisms typical of Mediterranean basins, we adopted a physically-based, distributed hydrologic model. The high-resolution forcings in reference and future conditions (30-year records for each period) were provided by four combinations of global and regional climate models, bias-corrected and downscaled in space and time (from ~25 km, 24 h to 5 km, 1 h) through statistical tools. The analysis of the hydrologic model outputs indicates that the RMB is expected to be severely impacted by future climate change. The range of simulations consistently predict: (i) a significant diminution of mean annual runoff at the basin outlet, mainly due to a decreasing contribution of the runoff generation mechanisms depending on water available in the soil; (ii) modest variations in mean annual runoff and intensification of mean annual discharge maxima in flatter sub-basins with clay and loamy soils, likely due to a higher occurrence of infiltration excess runoff; (iii) reduction of soil water content and real evapotranspiration in most areas of the basin; and (iv) a drop in the groundwater table. Results of this study are useful to support the adoption of adaptive strategies for management and planning of agricultural activities and water resources in the region.

Piras, M.; Mascaro, G.; Deidda, R.; Vivoni, E. R.

2014-07-01

112

Quantification of hydrologic impacts of climate change in a Mediterranean basin in Sardinia, Italy, through high-resolution simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future climate projections robustly indicate that the Mediterranean region will experience a significant decrease of mean annual precipitation and an increase in temperature. These changes are expected to seriously affect the hydrologic regime, with a limitation of water availability and an intensification of hydrologic extremes, and to negatively impact local economies. In this study, we quantify the hydrologic impacts of climate change in the Rio Mannu basin (RMB), an agricultural watershed of 472.5 km2 in Sardinia, Italy. To simulate the wide range of runoff generation mechanisms typical of Mediterranean basins, we adopted a physically based, distributed hydrologic model. The high-resolution forcings in reference and future conditions (30-year records for each period) were provided by four combinations of global and regional climate models, bias-corrected and downscaled in space and time (from ~25 km, 24 h to 5 km, 1 h) through statistical tools. The analysis of the hydrologic model outputs indicates that the RMB is expected to be severely impacted by future climate change. The range of simulations consistently predict (i) a significant diminution of mean annual runoff at the basin outlet, mainly due to a decreasing contribution of the runoff generation mechanisms depending on water available in the soil; (ii) modest variations in mean annual runoff and intensification of mean annual discharge maxima in flatter sub-basins with clay and loamy soils, likely due to a higher occurrence of infiltration excess runoff; (iii) reduction of soil water content and actual evapotranspiration in most areas of the basin; and (iv) a drop in the groundwater table. Results of this study are useful to support the adoption of adaptive strategies for management and planning of agricultural activities and water resources in the region.

Piras, M.; Mascaro, G.; Deidda, R.; Vivoni, E. R.

2014-12-01

113

Integrated stratigraphic reconstruction for the last 80 kyr in a deep sector of the Sardinia Channel (Western Mediterranean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A quantitative analysis of planktonic foraminifera, coupled with petrophysical and paleomagnetic measurements and 14C-AMS calibrations, was carried out on a deep core recovered in the Sardinia Channel (Western Mediterranean Sea), during the CIESM Sub2 survey, providing an integrated stratigraphic time-framework over the last 80 kyr. Significant changes in the quantitative distribution of planktonic foraminifera allowed the identification of several eco-bioevents useful to accurately mark the boundaries of the eco-biozones widely recognized in the Western Mediterranean records and used for large-scale correlations. Namely, 10 eco-biozones were identified based on the relative abundance of selected climate-sensitive planktonic foraminiferal species. Sixteen codified eco-bioevents were correlated with Alboran Sea planktonic foraminiferal data and several climatic global events (Sapropel S1, Younger Dryas, Greenland Isotope Interstadial 1, Greenland Isotope Stadial 2, Heinrich event H1-H6) were recognized. The eco-bioevents together with the 14C-AMS calibrations allowed us to define an accurate age model, spanning between 2 and 83 kyr. The reliability of the age model was confirmed by comparing the colour reflectance (550 nm%) data of the studied record with the astronomically tuned record from the Ionian Sea (ODP-Site 964). A mean sedimentation rate of about 7 cm/kyr included three turbidite event beds that were chronologically constrained within the relative low stand and regressive sea-level phases of MIS 4 and 3. The deep-sea sedimentary record includes a distinct tephra occurring at the base of the core that dates 78 ka cal. BP. The paleomagnetic data provide a well-defined record of the characteristic remanent magnetization that may be used to reconstruct the geomagnetic paleosecular variation for the Mediterranean back to 83 kyr.

Budillon, F.; Lirer, F.; Iorio, M.; Macrì, P.; Sagnotti, L.; Vallefuoco, M.; Ferraro, L.; Garziglia, S.; Innangi, S.; Sahabi, M.; Tonielli, R.

2009-05-01

114

ECHO virus  

MedlinePLUS

Enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses that lead to gastrointestinal infection and skin rashes. ... Echovirus is one of several families of viruses that affect the ... are common. In the US, they are most common in the summer and ...

115

Virus World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the Institute for Molecular Virology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, this Web site offers high quality virus images that may be used for seminar presentations or any other noncommercial use. Users can choose from American Society for Virology conference poster images, enhanced EM pictures, and images of virology-related book and journal covers. Images may be searched by virus name; the results page will provide links to summary information from the Protein Data Bank and to the Scripps Research Institute's Virus Particle Explorer. Movie animations and relevant links are provided for some of the virus images. Users can also access tutorials on virus structure and other topics.

2005-12-14

116

A frequent A gamma-hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin in northern Sardinia: its molecular basis and hematologic phenotype in heterozygotes and compound heterozygotes with beta-thalassemia.  

PubMed

A survey of hemoglobinopathies in northern Sardinia revealed a high frequency (0.3%) of carriers of a hematologic condition characterized by increased expression of fetal hemoglobin during adult life (hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin or HPFH). In spite of a normal hematologic phenotype, the heterozygous carriers for this condition display about 12% HbF, almost exclusively of the A gamma type; compound heterozygotes with beta-thalassemia have 20%-26% HbF and run a very mild clinical course. The sequence analysis of the cloned A gamma gene linked to the HPFH determinant revealed the presence of a G----A substitution at position -117 of the A gamma-globin gene promoter; the same mutation occurs also in Greek HPFH, although associated with different restriction polymorphisms. Another hereditary condition characterized by increased HbF (alpha 2 A gamma 2) level and a mild thalassemia phenotype in Sardinia is associated with the -196C----T substitution in the A gamma-globin gene promoter (Sardinian delta beta-thalassemia). Population studies using oligonucleotides complementary both to the -117 G----A and -196C----T mutations and the corresponding normal sequences confirm the presence of these mutations only in HPFH and delta beta-thalassemia chromosomes and exclude these changes being common DNA polymorphisms. PMID:2452784

Ottolenghi, S; Camaschella, C; Comi, P; Giglioni, B; Longinotti, M; Oggiano, L; Dore, F; Sciarratta, G; Ivaldi, G; Saglio, G

1988-05-01

117

A new eco-hydrological distributed model for the analysis of the climate change impact on water resources of Mediterranean ecosystems: the Flumendosa basin case study in Sardinia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last three decades, climate change and human activities increased desertification process in Mediterranean regions, with dramatic consequences for agriculture and water availability. For instance in the Flumendosa reservoir system in Sardinia the average annual runoff in the latter part of the 20th century was less than half the historic average rate, while the precipitation over the Flumendosa basin has decreased, but not at such a drastic rate as the discharge, suggesting a marked non-linear response of discharge to precipitation changes. With the objective of analyzing and looking for the reasons of the historical runoff decrease a new ecohydrological model is developed and tested for the main basin of the Sardinia island, the Flumendosa basin. The eco-hydrological model developed couples a distributed hydrological model and a vegetation dynamic model (VDM). The hydrological model estimates the soil water balance of each basin cell using the force-restore method and the Philips model for runoff estimate. Then it computes runoff propagation along the river network through a modified version of the Muskingum -Cunge method (Mancini et al., 2000; Montaldo et al., 2004). The VDM evaluates the changes in biomass over time from the difference between the rates of biomass production (photosynthesis) and loss (respiration and senescence), and provides LAI, which is then used by the hydrological model for evapotranspiration and rainfall interception estimates. Case study is the Flumendosa basin (Sardinia, basin area of about 1700 km2), which is characterized by a reservoir system that supplies water to the main city of Sardinia, Cagliari. Data are from 42 rain stations (1922-2008 period) over the entire basin and data of runoff are available for the same period. The model has been successfully calibrated for the 1922 - 2008 period for which rain, meteorological data and discharge data are available. We demonstrate that the hystorical strong decrease of runoff is due to a change of rainfall regime, with a decrease of rainfall during the winter months, and a little increase of rainfall during spring-summer months. Indeed, the higher Spring rainfall produced an increase of transpiration mainly, whithout any impact on runoff. Instead the decrease of rainfall in winter months produces a strong decrease of runoff. This trend impacts significantly on monthly runoff production, and, more important, on yearly runoff production, because most of the yearly runoff contribution comes from the winter months. Yearly runoff is more important in Sardinia water resources systems, because runoff is accumulated in dam reservoirs, and is the main water resources of the island. Hence, due to the change of rainfall regime in last decades we are observing a dramatic decrease of runoff, which is reaching to impact on the water availability of the Sardinian major city, Cagliari.

Sarigu, Alessio; Cortis, Clorinda; Montaldo, Nicola

2014-05-01

118

The Permian volcanism of Sardinia revisited: new geochronological and geochemical data as a key for geodynamic evolution of the western Peri-Tethian sector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies have confirmed the important role played by magmatism affecting Sardinian basins during the latest Carboniferous and Permian age (Cortesogno et al. 1998; Buzzi et al., 2008; Casini et al., 2012). To-date, most of the geochronological analysis performed on the Permian volcanic events in the island are methodologically overcome and frequently not in tune with the stratigraphy. In the north-western and central-southeastern Sardinian basins (Nurra, Perdasdefogu, Seui-Seulo and Escalaplano), the late-post Variscan tectonic collapse favored the emplacement of a calc-alkaline products not only in the form of generally shallow intrusions but also volcanism within intramontane strike-slip basins. This magmatism is expressed both as pyroclastic rocks-lava flows filling small half-graben basins and hypabyssal intrusions (lava-domes and dykes). These volcano-sedimentary troughs generally include both external and internal igneous eruptions as well as the detrital products eroded from the surrounding structural highs. Rhyolites, andesites and dacites are the main rock types while trachydacites and trachyandesites are less represented. Our goal is to couple the petrographic and geochemical features of 17 selected samples stratigraphically constrained and new U-Pb ages data on zircons from the post-Variscan effusive rocks in Sardinia. The whole-rock and REE geochemical features confirm a progressive evolution in the post-Variscan extensional, trans-tensile regime in with and fits an origin in a stacking of nappes associated with thermal re-equilibration of lithospheric mantle and telescopic partial melting of the thickened crust. The process is dominated by AFC. As far as the geochronological analysis is concerned, a preliminary cathodoluminescence study has been performed on all mounted crystals in order to select the precise location of the shot points. Each crystal has been analyzed for U, Th and Pb in the epoxy mount by laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA ICP-MS) at the Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources IGG-CNR of Pavia. The time lag of Permian ages recorded along the Sardinia cross section is significant in the modeling of the post- Variscan tectonic, sedimentary evolution and in the perspective of the geodynamic evolution of Southern Variscides. REFERENCES Casini L., Cuccuru S., Maino M., Oggiano G., Tiepolo M 2012. Emplacement of the Arzachena Pluton (Corsica-Sardinia Batholith) and the geodynamics of incoming Pangaea. Tectonophysics 544-545 (2012) 31-49. Buzzi L., Gaggero L., Oggiano G. 2008. The Santa Giusta ignimbrite (NW Sardinia): a clue for the magmatic, structural and sedimentary evolution of a Variscan segment between Early Permian and Triassic. Italian Journal of Geoscience 127(3), 683-695. Cortesogno L., Cassinis G., Dallagiovanna G., Gaggero L., Oggiano G., Ronchi A., Seno S., Vanossi M. 1998. The Variscan post-collisional volcanism in Late Carboniferous-Permian sequences of Ligurian Alps, Southern Alps and Sardinia (Italy): a synthesis. Lithos 45, 305-328.

Gaggero, Laura; Gretter, Nicola; Lago, Marceliano; Langone, Antonio; Oggiano, Giacomo; Ronchi, Ausonio

2014-05-01

119

CHLORELLA VIRUSES  

PubMed Central

Chlorella viruses or chloroviruses are large, icosahedral, plaque?forming, double?stranded?DNA—containing viruses that replicate in certain strains of the unicellular green alga Chlorella. DNA sequence analysis of the 330?kbp genome of Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV?1), the prototype of this virus family (Phycodnaviridae), predict ?366 protein?encoding genes and 11 tRNA genes. The predicted gene products of ?50% of these genes resemble proteins of known function, including many that are completely unexpected for a virus. In addition, the chlorella viruses have several features and encode many gene products that distinguish them from most viruses. These products include: (1) multiple DNA methyltransferases and DNA site?specific endonucleases, (2) the enzymes required to glycosylate their proteins and synthesize polysaccharides such as hyaluronan and chitin, (3) a virus?encoded K+ channel (called Kcv) located in the internal membrane of the virions, (4) a SET domain containing protein (referred to as vSET) that dimethylates Lys27 in histone 3, and (5) PBCV?1 has three types of introns; a self?splicing intron, a spliceosomal processed intron, and a small tRNA intron. Accumulating evidence indicates that the chlorella viruses have a very long evolutionary history. This review mainly deals with research on the virion structure, genome rearrangements, gene expression, cell wall degradation, polysaccharide synthesis, and evolution of PBCV?1 as well as other related viruses. PMID:16877063

Yamada, Takashi; Onimatsu, Hideki; Van Etten, James L.

2007-01-01

120

On the estimate of the Vegetation effects on the surface runoff through a plot scale rainfall simulator in Sardinia, Italy.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In semi-arid regions with the Mediterranean climate of cool, wet winters and hot, dry summers, precipitation timing and amount, vegetation growth, and surface runoff are tightly intertwined. In the experimental site of Sardinia, the main source of water is surface reservoirs that are recharged by surface runoff in the rainy winter season. However, changes in climate are expected to bring both an overall decrease in winter precipitation and increased interannual variability of precipitation to this region. These changes may affect characteristics of the water-limited vegetation growth such as timing and production, and consequently change the amount of overland flow and reservoir recharge. Currently, there is little research on the combination of these effects; therefore, the goal of this research is to assess the runoff response of the land surface with varying vegetation states to ultimately predict how changes in the climate of Mediterranean watersheds may affect the needs of water resource management. A 4 m by 4 m rainfall simulator was designed, constructed, and tested as the first stage of this research. The rainfall simulator consisted of four independent lines of low-cost pressure washing nozzles operated at a pressure of 80 mbar, with the number of nozzles determining the rainfall intensity delivered to the plot. The rainfall intensity of the simulator varies from approximately 26 to 52 mm/h with a coefficient of uniformity ranging from 0.40 to 0.59. Measurements taken include surface runoff using a tipping bucket flow meter and soil moisture throughout the plot. Literature models for surface runoff predictions (Philips, Horton, Green Ampt, Soil conservation Service model, bucket model) are widely tested highlighting the typical hortonian behavior of this soil. The simulator was used to monitor changes in the surface runoff throughout the seasons (July 2010, August 2010, June 2011, July 2011, December 2011, January 2012) as the vegetation changes. Results shows the great impact of changes in vegetation cover on soil runoff processes: the increase of LAI from values of 0 to 1.5 produces a decrease of surface runoff of the 50%.

Corona, R.; Montaldo, N.; Cortis, C.; Albertson, J. D.

2012-04-01

121

Obesity Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Obesity has many causes, but there is growing evidence that common viruses may contribute to the condition in some people. Recently, Nikhil Dhurandhar and his colleagues at the Pennington Biomedical Research Center infected human stem cells with Ad-36, a common virus known to be associated with obesity in humans. They found that the cells they exposed to the virus accumulated a much higher amount of fat than uninfected cells.

Science Update (AAAS;)

2007-06-12

122

Virus Crystallography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crystallography provides a means of visualizing intact virus particles as well as their isolated constituent proteins and enzymes (1-3) at near-atomic resolution, and is thus an extraordinarily powerful tool in the pursuit of a fuller understanding of the functioning of these simple biological systems. We have already expanded our knowledge of virus evolution, assembly, antigenic variation, and host-cell interactions; further studies will no doubt reveal much more. Although the rewards are enormous, an intact virus structure determination is not a trivial undertaking and entails a significant scaling up in terms of time and resources through all stages of data collection and processing compared to a traditional protein crystallographic structure determination. It is the methodology required for such studies that will be the focus of this chapter. The computational requirements were satisfied in the late 1970s, and when combined with the introduction of phase improvement techniques utilizing the virus symmetry (4,5), the application of crystallography to these massive macromolecular assemblies became feasible. This led to the determination of the first virus structure (the small RNA plant virus, tomato bushy stunt virus), by Harrison and coworkers in 1978 (6). The structures of two other plant viruses followed rapidly (7,8). In the 1980s, a major focus of attention was a family of animal RNA viruses; the Picornaviridae.

Fry, Elizabeth; Logan, Derek; Stuart, David

123

Heterogeneity of West Nile virus genotype 1a in Italy, 2011.  

PubMed

West Nile virus (WNV) is currently circulating in several European countries and, over recent decades, concomitantly with enhanced surveillance studies and improved diagnostic capabilities, an increase in the geographical distribution and in the number of cases in Europe has been documented. In Italy in 2011, 14 human cases of WNV neuroinvasive infections due to lineage 1 strains were registered in several Italian regions. Here we report WNV partial sequences obtained from serum samples of two patients living in different regions of Italy (Veneto and Sardinia). Phylogenetic analysis, performed on a fragment (566 nt) of the envelope gene, showed that WNV strains circulating in Italy in 2011 belong to lineage 1a, but are different from lineage 1a strains isolated in 2008-2009.The data reported here are consistent with the hypothesis of multiple recent introductions of WNV lineage 1a strains into Italy. PMID:23136369

Rossini, Giada; Carletti, Fabrizio; Rigoli, Roberto; Piga, Sandro; Bagnarelli, Patrizia; Gaibani, Paolo; Pierro, Anna; Costa, Alessandro Nanni; Grossi, Paolo; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Landini, Maria Paola; Di Caro, Antonino; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria; Sambri, Vittorio

2013-02-01

124

The emergence of Schmallenberg virus across Culicoides communities and ecosystems in Europe.  

PubMed

Schmallenberg virus (SBV), a novel arboviral pathogen, has emerged and spread across Europe since 2011 inflicting congenital deformities in the offspring of infected adult ruminants. Several species of Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) have been implicated in the transmission of SBV through studies conducted in northern Europe. In this study Culicoides from SBV outbreak areas of mainland France and Italy (Sardinia) were screened for viral RNA. The role of both C. obsoletus and the Obsoletus complex (C. obsoletus and C. scoticus) in transmission of SBV were confirmed in France and SBV was also discovered in a pool of C. nubeculosus for the first time, implicating this species as a potential vector. While collections in Sardinia were dominated by C. imicola, only relatively small quantities of SBV RNA were detected in pools of this species and conclusive evidence of its potential role in transmission is required. In addition to these field-based studies, infection rates in colony-derived individuals of C. nubeculosus and field-collected C. scoticus are also examined in the laboratory. Rates of infection in C. nubeculosus were low, confirming previous studies, while preliminary examination of C. scoticus demonstrated that while this species can replicate SBV to a potentially transmissible level, further work is required to fully define comparative competence between species in the region. Finally, the oral competence for SBV of two abundant and widespread mosquito vector species in the laboratory is assessed. Neither Aedes albopictus nor Culex pipiens were demonstrated to replicate SBV to transmissible levels and appear unlikely to play a major role in transmission. Other vector competence data produced from studies across Europe to date is then comprehensively reviewed and compared with that generated previously for bluetongue virus. PMID:24698329

Balenghien, Thomas; Pagès, Nonito; Goffredo, Maria; Carpenter, Simon; Augot, Denis; Jacquier, Elisabeth; Talavera, Sandra; Monaco, Federica; Depaquit, Jérôme; Grillet, Colette; Pujols, Joan; Satta, Giuseppe; Kasbari, Mohamed; Setier-Rio, Marie-Laure; Izzo, Francesca; Alkan, Cigdem; Delécolle, Jean-Claude; Quaglia, Michela; Charrel, Rémi; Polci, Andrea; Bréard, Emmanuel; Federici, Valentina; Cêtre-Sossah, Catherine; Garros, Claire

2014-10-15

125

The impact of commercial and recreational harvesting for Paracentrotus lividus on shallow rocky reef sea urchin communities in North-western Sardinia, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fishery for the edible sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus is of great importance to many European regions, although in some of them this species has shown a wide scale decline in recent years. This paper reports on direct (on P. lividus) and indirect (on the co-occurring but not fished echinoid, Arbacia lixula) effects of sea urchin harvesting in shallow rocky reefs in North-western Sardinia (Italy, central-western Mediterranean Sea), where this activity is intensively practised. Density, size (test diameter), and biomass of both species were assessed in autumn 2004 at two locations impacted by P. lividus fishery, and at two controls within an adjacent Marine Protected Area. Density of P. lividus and A. lixula was significantly greater at the controls than at the exploited locations. The average test diameter of P. lividus was also significantly larger at the controls, where large-sized specimens (i.e. >5 cm) were notably more abundant. The average size of A. lixula did not significantly differ between the impacted locations and the controls. The average biomass of P. lividus was significantly greater at the controls than at the exploited locations, whereas no differences were detected for A. lixula. These results reveal the existence of a heavy fishing impact on P. lividus in North-western Sardinia and the need for regulation of its harvesting to prevent severe direct effects on its populations. Since no indirect effects on A. lixula have been detected, it could be hypothesized that this species did not benefit from P. lividus fishery due to an only moderate competition for habitat and resources between these two echinoids. Implications for management of edible sea urchin fishery are also discussed.

Pais, Antonio; Chessa, Lorenzo A.; Serra, Simone; Ruiu, Alberto; Meloni, Gianni; Donno, Yuri

2007-07-01

126

Antimony in the soil-water-plant system at the Su Suergiu abandoned mine (Sardinia, Italy): strategies to mitigate contamination.  

PubMed

This study was aimed to implement the understanding of the Sb behavior in near-surface environments, as a contribution to address appropriate mitigation actions at contaminated sites. For this purpose, geochemical data of soil (8 sites), water (29 sites), and plant (12 sites) samples were collected. The study area is located at Su Suergiu and surroundings in Sardinia (Italy), an abandoned mine area heavily contaminated with Sb, with relevant impact on water bodies that supply water for agriculture and domestic uses. Antimony in the soil horizons ranged from 19 to 4400 mg kg(-1), with highest concentrations in soils located close to the mining-related wastes, and concentrations in the topsoil much higher than in the bedrock. The Sb readily available fraction was about 2% of the total Sb in the soil. Antimony in the pore water ranged from 23 to 1700 ?g L(-1), with highest values in the Sb-rich soils. The waters showed neutral to slightly alkaline pH, redox potential values indicating oxidizing conditions, electrical conductivity in the range of 0.2 to 3.7 mS cm(-1), and dissolved organic carbon ?2 mg L(-1). The waters collected upstream of the mine have Ca-bicarbonate dominant composition, and median concentration of Sb(tot) of 1.7 ?g L(-1) (that is total antimony determined in waters filtered through 0.45 ?m), a value relatively high as compared with the background value (?0.5 ?g L(-1) Sb) estimated for Sardinian waters, but below the limits established by the European Union and the World Health Organization for drinking water (5 ?g L(-1) Sb and 20 ?g L(-1) Sb, respectively). The waters flowing in the mine area are characterized by Ca-sulfate dominant composition, and median concentrations of 7000 ?g L(-1) Sb(tot). Extreme concentrations, up to 30,000 ?g L(-1) Sb(tot), were observed in waters flowing out of the slag materials derived from the processing of Sb-ore. The Sb(III) was in the range of 0.8 to 760 ?g L(-1) and represented up to 6% of Sb(tot). In the waters collected downstream of the mine, median Sb(tot) concentrations decreased as distance from the mine area increases: 1300 ?g L(-1) Sb(tot) in the stream Rio Ciurixeda at 3 km distance, and 25 ?g L(-1) Sb(tot) in the main River Flumendosa 15 km further downstream. Attenuation of Sb contamination was mainly due to dilution. Results of modeling, carried out by both EQ3 and Visual MINTEQ computer programs, suggest that sorption of dissolved Sb onto solid phases, and/or precipitation of Sb-bearing minerals, likely give a minor contribution to attenuation of Sb contamination. The slightly alkaline pH and oxidizing conditions might favor the persistence of inorganic Sb(V)-bearing species at long distance in the studied waters. Concentrations of Sb in the plants Pistacia lentiscus and Asparagus ranged from 0.1 to 22 mg kg(-1), with maximum values in plants growing very close to the mining-related wastes. The P. lentiscus grows well on the soils highly contaminated with Sb at Su Suergiu and might be used for revegetation of the Sb-rich heaps, thus contributing to reduce the dispersion of contaminated materials. Major effects of contamination were observed on the water bodies located downstream of the Su Suergiu abandoned mine. The maximum load (16.6 kg Sb per day) to the Flumendosa, the main aquatic recipient, was observed after heavy rain events. Therefore, priorities of mitigation actions should be focused on minimizing the contact of rain and runoff waters on the heaps of mining wastes. PMID:25137381

Cidu, Rosa; Biddau, Riccardo; Dore, Elisabetta; Vacca, Andrea; Marini, Luigi

2014-11-01

127

Hendra virus.  

PubMed

Hendra virus infection of horses occurred sporadically between 1994 and 2010 as a result of spill-over from the viral reservoir in Australian mainland flying-foxes, and occasional onward transmission to people also followed from exposure to affected horses. An unprecedented number of outbreaks were recorded in 2011 leading to heightened community concern. Release of an inactivated subunit vaccine for horses against Hendra virus represents the first commercially available product that is focused on mitigating the impact of a Biosafety Level 4 pathogen. Through preventing the development of acute Hendra virus disease in horses, vaccine use is also expected to reduce the risk of transmission of infection to people. PMID:25281398

Middleton, Deborah

2014-12-01

128

Computer viruses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The worm, Trojan horse, bacterium, and virus are destructive programs that attack information stored in a computer's memory. Virus programs, which propagate by incorporating copies of themselves into other programs, are a growing menace in the late-1980s world of unprotected, networked workstations and personal computers. Limited immunity is offered by memory protection hardware, digitally authenticated object programs,and antibody programs that kill specific viruses. Additional immunity can be gained from the practice of digital hygiene, primarily the refusal to use software from untrusted sources. Full immunity requires attention in a social dimension, the accountability of programmers.

Denning, Peter J.

1988-01-01

129

West Nile Virus  

MedlinePLUS

... virus is a virus that can infect humans, birds, horses and mosquitoes. Infection from this virus is ... spread by mosquitoes. Mosquitoes become infected by biting birds that carry the virus. People can get West ...

130

Computer Viruses. Technology Update.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides general information on computer viruses, how to help protect a computer network from them, measures to take if a computer becomes infected. Highlights include the origins of computer viruses; virus contraction; a description of some common virus types (File Virus, Boot Sector/Partition Table Viruses, Trojan Horses, and…

Ponder, Tim, Comp.; Ropog, Marty, Comp.; Keating, Joseph, Comp.

131

The role of lower continental crust and lithospheric mantle in the genesis of Plio-Pleistocene volcanic rocks from Sardinia (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first comprehensive chemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data set of Plio-Pleistocene tholeiitic and alkaline volcanic rocks cropping out in Sardinia (Italy) is presented here. These rocks are alkali basalts, hawaiites, basanites, tholeiitic basalts and basaltic andesites, and were divided into two groups with distinct isotopic compositions. The vast majority of lavas have relatively high 87Sr/ 86Sr (0.7043-0.7051), low 143Nd/ 144Nd (0.5124-0.5126), and are characterised by the least radiogenic Pb isotopic composition so far recorded in Italian (and European) Neogene-to-Recent mafic volcanic rocks ( 206Pb/ 204Pb=17.55-18.01) (unradiogenic Pb volcanic rocks, UPV); these rocks crop out in central and northern Sardinia. Lavas of more limited areal extent have chemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic ratios indicative of a markedly different source ( 87Sr/ 86Sr=0.7031-0.7040; 143Nd/ 144Nd=0.5127-0.5129; 206Pb/ 204Pb=18.8-19.4) (radiogenic Pb volcanic rocks, RPV), and crop out only in the southern part of the island. The isotopic ratios of these latter rocks match the values found in the roughly coeval anorogenic (i.e. not related to recent subduction events in space and time) mafic volcanic rocks of Italy (i.e. Mt. Etna, Hyblean Mts., Pantelleria, Linosa), and Cenozoic European volcanic rocks. The mafic rocks of the two Sardinian rock groups also show distinct trace element contents and ratios (e.g. Ba/Nb>14, Ce/Pb=8-25 and Nb/U=29-38 for the UPV; Ba/Nb<9, Ce/Pb=24-28 and Nb/U=46-54 for the RPV). The sources of the UPV could have been stabilised in the Precambrian after low amounts of lower crustal input (about 3%), or later, during the Hercynian Orogeny, after input of Precambrian lower crust in the source region, whereas the sources of the RPV could be related to processes that occurred in the late Palaeozoic-early Mesozoic, possibly via recycling of proto-Tethys oceanic lithosphere by subduction.

Lustrino, Michele; Melluso, Leone; Morra, Vincenzo

2000-08-01

132

Virus Information Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Symantec Corporation's AntiVirus Research Center has recently released a virus information database that includes over 10,000 computer viruses. The searchable and browseable database can include information about aliases for each virus, infection length, area of infection, likelihood of infection, region reported, characteristics, target platform and target date, in addition to a brief description of how the virus works. The site also provides a basic tutorial on viruses. Symantec, under the Norton name, produces several anti-virus products.

133

Virus and Spam Protection Virus Protection  

E-print Network

Virus and Spam Protection Virus Protection On November 14, 2002, we installed software that detects and protects our I-Mail from viruses. This software works in the following way: If someone sends a piece, for some reason, actually wants the quarantined file we will make this (virus infected) file available

California at Santa Barbara, University of

134

Molecular evidence for the occurrence of Contracaecum rudolphii A (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in shag Phalacrocorax aristotelis (Linnaeus) (Aves: Phalacrocoracidae) from Sardinia (western Mediterranean Sea).  

PubMed

Specimens of Contracaecum rudolphii Hartwich, 1964 (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from Phalacrocorax aristotelis (Linnaeus) from the Archipelago of La Maddalena (Sardinia, western Mediterranean Sea) were characterised genetically and compared with C. rudolphii A sensu D'Amelio et al. 1990 and C. rudolphii B sensu D'Amelio et al. 1990 from Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis (Blumenbach) from north-eastern Italy, and with C. rudolphii C sensu D'Amelio et al. 2007 from Phalacrocorax auritus (Lesson) from west-central Florida, USA. The sequencing of the small subunit of the mitochondrial ribosomal RNA gene (rrnS) and by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the same gene and of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) allowed the identification of all specimens of C. rudolphii from P. aristotelis as C. rudolphii A. The results confirmed that the definition of genetic markers, following the analysis of nuclear ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA, provides quick and practical diagnostic tools for the detection of the 3 sibling species of C. rudolphii. The occurrence of C. rudolphii in P. aristotelis is reported for the first time from the Mediterranean area, improving the picture of the dispersal patterns of the populations of these piscivorous birds, and confirming the existence of different and isolated populations between the North and South European waters. PMID:18571974

Farjallah, Sarra; Merella, Paolo; Ingrosso, Sofia; Rotta, Andrea; Slimane, Badreddine Ben; Garippa, Giovanni; Said, Khaled; Busi, Marina

2008-12-01

135

Chemical composition and biological activity of the essential oil from Helichrysum microphyllum Cambess. ssp. tyrrhenicum Bacch., Brullo e Giusso growing in La Maddalena Archipelago, Sardinia.  

PubMed

Helichrysum microphyllum Cambess. subsp. tyrrhenicum Bacch., Brullo e Giusso (Asteraceae), previously known as Helichrysum italicum ssp. microphyllum (Willd.) Nyman, is one of the many endemic species growing in Sardinia, Corsica and Balearic Islands. In the present work the composition of the essential oil obtained from a population of H. microphyllum ssp. thyrrenicum growing in a littoral location of La Maddalena Archipelago was investigated by GC-FID and CG-MS. The major compounds of the oil were the monoterpene ester neryl acetate (18.2%), the oxygenated sesquiterpene 5-eudesmen-11-ol (rosifoliol, 11.3%), the sequiterpene hydrocarbons ?-cadinene (8.4%) and ?-cadinene (6.7%), showing a peculiar composition in comparison with other Sardinian populations. The oil was tested for cytotoxicity on three human tumor cell lines (MDA-MB 231, HCT116 and A375) by MTT assay showing a strong inhibitory activity on human malignant melanoma cells A375 (IC50 of 16 µg/ml). In addition the oil was assessed for antioxidant activity by DPPH and ABTS assay. PMID:25492232

Ornano, Luigi; Venditti, Alessandro; Sanna, Cinzia; Ballero, Mauro; Maggi, Filippo; Lupidi, Giulio; Bramucci, Massimo; Quassinti, Luana; Bianco, Armandodoriano

2014-12-10

136

Petrological, geochemical and isotopic characteristics of the lithospheric mantle beneath Sardinia (Italy) as indicated by ultramafic xenoliths enclosed in alkaline lavas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mantle xenoliths hosted in Miocene-Quaternary mafic alkaline volcanic rocks from Sardinia have been investigated with electron microprobe, laser ablation microprobe-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and thermal ionization mass spectrometry techniques. The xenoliths are anhydrous clinopyroxene-poor lherzolites and harzburgites, plus very rare websterites and olivine-websterites. Glassy pods having thin subhedral to euhedral microlites of olivine, clinopyroxene and spinel have been found in harzburgites and websterites. Clinopyroxene shows trace element variability, with values of (La/Yb)N ranging from sub-chondritic (0.01) to supra-chondritic (8.6). The Sr-Nd isotopic ratios of the clinopyroxenes fall mostly in the field of the European lithospheric mantle xenoliths (87Sr/86Sr from 0.70385 to 0.70568 and 143Nd/144Nd ranging from 0.512557 to 0.512953). The geochemical characteristics of the Sardinian xenoliths testify to the variable degrees of earlier partial melt extraction, followed by metasomatic modification by alkaline melts or fluids. Websterites are considered to represent small lenses or veins of cumulitic (i.e. magmatic) origin within the mantle peridotite.

Rocco, Ivana; Lustrino, Michele; Morra, Vincenzo; Melluso, Leone

2012-07-01

137

The Geometry of Viruses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is an activity in which students make models of viruses, which allows them to visualize the shape of these microorganisms. Included are some background on viruses, the biology and geometry of viruses, directions for building viruses, a comparison of cells and viruses, and questions for students. (KR)

Case, Christine L.

1991-01-01

138

Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Images of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Disease.  Vesicular stomatitis viruses (VSV) are in the family Rhabdoviridae and the genus Vesiculovirus and are enveloped viruses with bullet-shaped capsids.

American Society For Microbiology;

2007-01-09

139

Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV)  

MedlinePLUS

... Caribbean Countries with reported local transmission of chikungunya virus (as of July 2014) The mosquitoes • Aedes species mosquitoes transmit chikungunya virus • These same types of mosquitoes transmit dengue virus • ...

140

Computer Viruses: An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the early history and current proliferation of computer viruses that occur on Macintosh and DOS personal computers, mentions virus detection programs, and offers suggestions for how libraries can protect themselves and their users from damage by computer viruses. (LRW)

Marmion, Dan

1990-01-01

141

Measles virus.  

PubMed

Measles was an inevitable infection during the human development with substantial degree of morbidity and mortality. The severity of measles virus (MV) infection was largely contained by the development of a live attenuated vaccine that was introduced into the vaccination programs. However, all efforts to eradicate the disease failed and continued to annually result in significant deaths. The development of molecular biology techniques allowed the rescue of MV from cDNA that enabled important insights into a variety of aspects of the biology of the virus and its pathogenesis. Subsequently these technologies facilitated the development of novel vaccine candidates that induce immunity against measles and other pathogens. Based on the promising prospective, the use of MV as a recombinant vaccine and a therapeutic vector is addressed. PMID:25483511

Naim, Hussein Y

2015-01-01

142

Operational setup of a diagnostic chain, implemented within the Proterina-C project, to include weather measures in the RISICO system for dynamic wildfire risk evaluation in Sardinia (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the Operational Project "PROTERINA-C" (a forecast and prevention system for climate change impacts on risk variability for wildlands and urban areas), co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) under the Italy-France Maritime Program, methods and strategies, already in use in the regions of Sardinia, Liguria and Corsica, for the predictions of wildlands fires have been developed and adapted; RISICO System, by CIMA Foundation which plays the role of technical and scientific support for the region of Liguria, used by the Italian National Civil Protection Department, is one of them. In such a prediction model of risk of wildlands fires it is arranged the integration, on a regional scale, of products related to the main meteorological, diagnostics and prognostics forcing measured by ground stations, weather radar and advanced limited area weather prediction models. With the aim to improve prediction of wildlands fires in Sardinia, an operational chain to insert in RISICO weather data provided in near-real time by the meteorological monitoring network has been designed and developed. In fact, the forecast errors can be reduced by conditioning the initial state of dynamic models of fuel moisture on the information obtained from sensors on land, at every time interval at which the fields of meteorological variables of interest are available. A dataset of wildlands fires occurred in Sardinia has been considered in order to valuate the system effectiveness; for these cases the developed setup has improved the fires risk assessment to respect a version of RISICO initialised only by a mesoscale numerical weather prediction model. In the present work the system setup, the configuration of the network of meteorological stations and some preliminary analysis results are argued.

Dessy, C.; Di Carlo, L.; Fois, G.; Fiorucci, P.; d'Andrea, M.; Trasforini, E.

2012-04-01

143

Virus Movement Maintains Local Virus Population Diversity  

SciTech Connect

Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material.

J. Snyder; B. Wiedenheft; M. Lavin; F. Roberto; J. Spuhler; A. Ortmann; T. Douglas; M. Young

2007-11-01

144

Crystallization of viruses and virus proteins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methods for crystallizing six isometric plant and insect viruses are presented. Procedures developed for modifying, purifying and crystallizing coat protein subunits isolated from a virus forming asymmetric, spheroidal particles, stabilized almost exclusively by protein-RNA interactions, are also discussed. The tertiary and quaternary structures of small RNA viruses are compared.

Sehnke, Paul C.; Harrington, Melissa; Hosur, M. V.; Li, Yunge; Usha, R.; Craig Tucker, R.; Bomu, Wu; Stauffacher, Cynthia V.; Johnson, John E.

1988-07-01

145

Virus entry by macropinocytosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

As obligatory intracellular parasites, viruses rely on host-cell functions for most aspects of their replication cycle. This is born out during entry, when most viruses that infect vertebrate and insect cells exploit the endocytic activities of the host cell to move into the cytoplasm. Viruses belonging to vaccinia, adeno, picorna and other virus families have been reported to take advantage

Jason Mercer; Ari Helenius

2009-01-01

146

The Tobacco Mosaic Virus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how the tobacco mosaic virus can be used to study virology. Presents facts about the virus, procedures to handle the virus in the laboratory, and four laboratory exercises involving the viruses' survival under inactivating conditions, dilution end point, filterability, and microscopy. (MDH)

Sulzinski, Michael A.

1992-01-01

147

West Nile Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The West Nile virus (WNV) belongs to the genus Flavivirus (family Flaviviridae) and was previously classified as a group B\\u000a arbovirus. These disease-causing pathogens are spread to humans by insects, usually mosquitoes. Other flaviviruses include\\u000a the Yellow fever virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, dengue virus, and the Saint Louis encephalitis virus (see sections on\\u000a flaviviruses in Chapters 19 and 23). The

Vassil St. Georgiev

148

Virus-Vectored Influenza Virus Vaccines  

PubMed Central

Despite the availability of an inactivated vaccine that has been licensed for >50 years, the influenza virus continues to cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. Constant evolution of circulating influenza virus strains and the emergence of new strains diminishes the effectiveness of annual vaccines that rely on a match with circulating influenza strains. Thus, there is a continued need for new, efficacious vaccines conferring cross-clade protection to avoid the need for biannual reformulation of seasonal influenza vaccines. Recombinant virus-vectored vaccines are an appealing alternative to classical inactivated vaccines because virus vectors enable native expression of influenza antigens, even from virulent influenza viruses, while expressed in the context of the vector that can improve immunogenicity. In addition, a vectored vaccine often enables delivery of the vaccine to sites of inductive immunity such as the respiratory tract enabling protection from influenza virus infection. Moreover, the ability to readily manipulate virus vectors to produce novel influenza vaccines may provide the quickest path toward a universal vaccine protecting against all influenza viruses. This review will discuss experimental virus-vectored vaccines for use in humans, comparing them to licensed vaccines and the hurdles faced for licensure of these next-generation influenza virus vaccines. PMID:25105278

Tripp, Ralph A.; Tompkins, S. Mark

2014-01-01

149

Viruses Infecting Reptiles  

PubMed Central

A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch’s postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions. PMID:22163336

Marschang, Rachel E.

2011-01-01

150

Malondialdehyde–deoxyguanosine and bulky DNA adducts in schoolchildren resident in the proximity of the Sarroch industrial estate on Sardinia Island, Italy  

PubMed Central

Air quality is a primary environmental concern in highly industrialised areas, with potential health effects in children residing nearby. The Sarroch industrial estate in Cagliari province, Sardinia Island, Italy, hosts the world’s largest power plant and the second largest European oil refinery and petrochemical park. This industrial estate produces a complex mixture of air pollutants, including benzene, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Thus, we conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the prevalence of malondialdehyde–deoxyguanosine adducts in the nasal epithelium of 75 representative children, aged 6–14 years, attending primary and secondary schools in Sarroch in comparison with 73 rural controls. Additionally, the levels of bulky DNA adducts were analysed in a subset of 62 study children. DNA damage was measured by 32P-postlabelling methodologies. The air concentrations of benzene and ethyl benzene were measured in the school gardens of Sarroch and a rural village by diffusive samplers. Outdoor measurements were also performed in other Sarroch areas and in the proximity of the industrial estate. The outdoor levels of benzene and ethyl benzene were significantly higher in the school gardens of Sarroch than in the rural village. Higher concentrations were also found in other Sarroch areas and in the vicinity of the industrial park. The mean levels of malondialdehyde–deoxyguanosine adducts per 108 normal nucleotides ± standard error (SE) were 74.6±9.1 and 34.1±4.4 in the children from Sarroch and the rural village, respectively. The mean ratio was 2.53, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.71–2.89, P < 0.001, versus rural controls. Similarly, the levels of bulky DNA adducts per 108 normal nucleotides ± SE were 2.9±0.4 and 1.6±0.2 in the schoolchildren from Sarroch and the rural village, respectively. The means ratio was 1.90, 95% CI: 1.25–2.89, P = 0.003 versus rural controls. Our study indicates that children residing near the industrial estate have a significant increment of DNA damage. PMID:23446175

Peluso, Marco

2013-01-01

151

Malondialdehyde-deoxyguanosine and bulky DNA adducts in schoolchildren resident in the proximity of the Sarroch industrial estate on Sardinia Island, Italy.  

PubMed

Air quality is a primary environmental concern in highly industrialised areas, with potential health effects in children residing nearby. The Sarroch industrial estate in Cagliari province, Sardinia Island, Italy, hosts the world's largest power plant and the second largest European oil refinery and petrochemical park. This industrial estate produces a complex mixture of air pollutants, including benzene, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Thus, we conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the prevalence of malondialdehyde-deoxyguanosine adducts in the nasal epithelium of 75 representative children, aged 6-14 years, attending primary and secondary schools in Sarroch in comparison with 73 rural controls. Additionally, the levels of bulky DNA adducts were analysed in a subset of 62 study children. DNA damage was measured by (32)P-postlabelling methodologies. The air concentrations of benzene and ethyl benzene were measured in the school gardens of Sarroch and a rural village by diffusive samplers. Outdoor measurements were also performed in other Sarroch areas and in the proximity of the industrial estate. The outdoor levels of benzene and ethyl benzene were significantly higher in the school gardens of Sarroch than in the rural village. Higher concentrations were also found in other Sarroch areas and in the vicinity of the industrial park. The mean levels of malondialdehyde-deoxyguanosine adducts per 10(8) normal nucleotides ± standard error (SE) were 74.6±9.1 and 34.1±4.4 in the children from Sarroch and the rural village, respectively. The mean ratio was 2.53, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.71-2.89, P < 0.001, versus rural controls. Similarly, the levels of bulky DNA adducts per 10(8) normal nucleotides ± SE were 2.9±0.4 and 1.6±0.2 in the schoolchildren from Sarroch and the rural village, respectively. The means ratio was 1.90, 95% CI: 1.25-2.89, P = 0.003 versus rural controls. Our study indicates that children residing near the industrial estate have a significant increment of DNA damage. PMID:23446175

Peluso, Marco; Munnia, Armelle; Ceppi, Marcello; Giese, Roger W; Catelan, Dolores; Rusconi, Franca; Godschalk, Roger W L; Biggeri, Annibale

2013-05-01

152

Epstein-Barr Virus (Mononucleosis)  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... person becomes infected with a virus, their immune system defends their body against the virus. The immune system stops the ... person becomes infected with a virus, their immune system defends their body against the virus. This is why most people ...

153

MFR PAPER 1338 Viruses and Virus Diseases of  

E-print Network

MFR PAPER 1338 Viruses and Virus Diseases of Salmonid Fishes Phillip E. McAllister is with the Na (IPN) virus, infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) virus, viral hemorrhagic septicemia (YHS) virus, and Herpesvirus salmonis- cause disease among salmonid fishes. In addition, a virus may be the cause

154

Tumorigenic DNA viruses  

SciTech Connect

The eighth volume of Advances in Viral Oncology focuses on the three major DNA virus groups with a postulated or proven tumorigenic potential: papillomaviruses, animal hepatitis viruses, and the Epstein-Bar virus. In the opening chapters, the contributors analyze the evidence that papillomaviruses and animal hepatitis viruses are involved in tumorigenesis and describe the mechanisms that trigger virus-host cell interactions. A detailed section on the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) - comprising more than half the book - examines the transcription and mRNA processing patterns of the virus genome; the mechanisms by which EBV infects lymphoid and epithelial cells; the immunological aspects of the virus; the actions of EBV in hosts with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome; and the involvement of EBV in the etiology of Burkitt's lymphoma.

Klein, G.

1989-01-01

155

SOLENOPSIS INVICTA VIRUSES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Unique Solenopsis invicta viruses (SINV) have been identified and their genome sequenced. Oligonucleotide primers have been developed using the isolated nucleic acid sequences of the SINV. The viruses are used as a biocontrol agent for control of fire ants....

156

Human Parainfluenza Viruses  

MedlinePLUS

... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Share Compartir Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) commonly cause respiratory illnesses in ...

157

Virus Assembly and Maturation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use two techniques to look at three-dimensional virus structure: electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) and X-ray crystallography. Figure 1 is a gallery of virus particles whose structures Timothy Baker, one of my former colleagues at Purdue University, used cryoEM to determine. It illustrates the variety of sizes of icosahedral virus particles. The largest virus particle on this slide is the Herpes simplex virus, around 1200Å in diameter; the smallest we examined was around 250Å in diameter. Viruses bear their genomic information either as positive-sense DNA and RNA, double-strand DNA, double-strand RNA, or negative-strand RNA. Viruses utilize the various structure and function "tactics" seen throughout cell biology to replicate at high levels. Many of the biological principles that we consider general were in fact discovered in the context of viruses ...

Johnson, John E.

2004-03-01

158

Computer Virus Protection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computer virus is a program--a piece of executable code--that has the unique ability to replicate. Like biological viruses, computer viruses can spread quickly and are often difficult to eradicate. They can attach themselves to just about any type of file, and are spread by replicating and being sent from one individual to another. Simply having…

Rajala, Judith B.

2004-01-01

159

Ecology of prokaryotic viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The finding that total viral abundance is higher than total prokaryotic abundance and that a significant fraction of the prokaryotic community is infected with phages in aquatic systems has stimulated research on the ecology of prokaryotic viruses and their role in ecosystems. This review treats the ecology of prokaryotic viruses (`phages') in marine, freshwater and soil systems from a `virus

Markus G Weinbauer

2004-01-01

160

MAIZE FINE STREAK VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The report outlines the salient features of maize fine streak virus (MFSV) including a general description of the causal virus species, virion properties, genome description, the relationship of the virus to other taxa, biological properties of the disease and agronomic aspects of the disease. Maize...

161

Tobacco mosaic virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource demonstrates how the Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) provides an excellent model for teaching students about properties of a plant virus and the relationship between a virus and its host plant. Four activities geared toward grades 9-12 are described. Teaching tips, troubleshooting help and sources of materials information is also included.

Rosemary Ford (Washington College; )

2003-05-28

162

VIRUSES IN WASTEWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Viruses of animals, plants, and bacteria abound in sewage and receiving waters. Their ecological impact has, for the most part, gone unheeded except as it relates to viruses from human sources. Viruses present at levels infective to man have been recovered from waters used for re...

163

Hanta virus (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Hanta virus is a distant cousin of Ebola virus, but is found worldwide. The virus is spread by human contact with rodent waste. Dangerous respiratory illness develops. Effective treatment is not yet available and over 50% of cases end in fatality.

164

GHG emissions quantification at high spatial and temporal resolution at urban scale: the case of the town of Sassari (NW Sardinia - Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Union has set as priorities the fight against climate change related to greenhouse gas releases. The largest source of these emissions comes from human activities in urban areas that account for more than 70% of the world's emissions and several local governments intend to support the European strategic policies in understanding which crucial sectors drive GHG emissions in their city. Planning for mitigation actions at the community scale starts with the compilation of a GHG inventories that, among a wide range of measurement tools, provide information on the current status of GHG emissions across a specific jurisdiction. In the framework of a regional project for quantitative estimate of the net exchange of CO2 (emissions and sinks) at the municipal level in Sardinia, the town of Sassari represents a pilot site where a spatial and temporal high resolution GHG emissions inventory is built in line with European and international standard protocols to establish a baseline for tracking emission trends. The specific purpose of this accurate accounting is to obtain an appropriate allocation of CO2 and other GHG emissions at the fine building and hourly scale. The aim is to test the direct measurements needed to enable the construction of future scenarios of these emissions and for assessing possible strategies to reduce their impact. The key element of the methodologies used to construct this GHG emissions inventory is the Global Protocol for Community-Scale Greenhouse Gas Emissions (GPC) (March 2012) that identifies four main types of emission sources: (i) Stationary Units, (ii) Mobile Units, (iii) Waste, and (iv) Industrial Process and Product Use Emissions. The development of the GHG emissions account in Sassari consists in the collection of a range of alternative data sources (primary data, IPCC emission factors, national and local statistic, etc.) selected on the base on relevance and completeness criteria performed for 2010, as baseline year, using top-down, bottom-up or mixed approaches. GPC protocol also defines three standard scopes for downscaling emissions from the national to the community level, that allow to handle the attribution of releases that occur outside the community boundary as a result of activity or consumption within it. The procedures for data processing have simple and concise structure, applicable in different communities that led to the possibility to compare the results with other national contexts. An appropriate GHG emissions allocation over detailed spatial and temporal scales has been achieved on the basis of specific indicators (population, industrial employees, amount of product, etc.) and of geo-location and size of all buildings, using appropriate models, that enable to properly georeference them respect to their uses. The main advantage of neighborhood-level quantification consists in the identification of the main productive sources and emissive activities within the urban boundaries that mostly contribute to the current GHG emissions and then focus the efforts on possible mitigation.

Sanna, Laura; Ferrara, Roberto; Zara, Pierpaolo; Duce, Pierpaolo

2014-05-01

165

Large Human Outbreak of West Nile Virus Infection in North-Eastern Italy in 2012  

PubMed Central

Human cases of West Nile virus (WNV) disease have been reported in Italy since 2008. So far, most cases have been identified in north-eastern Italy, where, in 2012, the largest outbreak of WNV infection ever recorded in Italy occurred. Most cases of the 2012 outbreak were identified in the Veneto region, where a special surveillance plan for West Nile fever was in place. In this outbreak, 25 cases of West Nile neuroinvasive disease and 17 cases of fever were confirmed. In addition, 14 WNV RNA-positive blood donors were identified by screening of blood and organ donations and two cases of asymptomatic infection were diagnosed by active surveillance of subjects at risk of WNV exposure. Two cases of death due to WNND were reported. Molecular testing demonstrated the presence of WNV lineage 1 in all WNV RNA-positive patients and, in 15 cases, infection by the novel Livenza strain was ascertained. Surveillance in other Italian regions notified one case of neuroinvasive disease in the south of Italy and two cases in Sardinia. Integrated surveillance for WNV infection remains a public health priority in Italy and vector control activities have been strengthened in areas of WNV circulation. PMID:24284876

Barzon, Luisa; Pacenti, Monia; Franchin, Elisa; Pagni, Silvana; Lavezzo, Enrico; Squarzon, Laura; Martello, Thomas; Russo, Francesca; Nicoletti, Loredana; Rezza, Giovanni; Castilletti, Concetta; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria; Salcuni, Pasquale; Cattai, Margherita; Cusinato, Riccardo; Palù, Giorgio

2013-01-01

166

METHODOLOGY Open Access Virus replicon particle based Chikungunya virus  

E-print Network

METHODOLOGY Open Access Virus replicon particle based Chikungunya virus neutralization assay using Mareike Kümmerer1* Abstract Background: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has been responsible for large epidemic antibodies without the need of using infectious CHIKV. Keywords: Chikungunya virus, Virus replicon particles

Boyer, Edmond

167

Review article PRRSV, the virus  

E-print Network

Review article PRRSV, the virus Janneke J.M. MEULENBERG Department of Virology, Institute Abstract ­ Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a positive-strand RNA virusDNA clone Résumé ­ Syndrome dysgénésique et respiratoire porcin, le virus. Le virus du syndrome dys

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

168

RNA Viruses Infecting Pest Insects  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

RNA viruses are viruses whose genetic material is ribonucleic acid (RNA). RNA viruses may be double or single-stranded based on the type of RNA they contain. Single-stranded RNA viruses can be further grouped into negative sense or positive-sense viruses according to the polarity of their RNA. Fur...

169

[The great virus comeback].  

PubMed

Viruses have been considered for a long time as by-products of biological evolution. This view is changing now as a result of several recent discoveries. Viral ecologists have shown that viral particles are the most abundant biological entities on our planet, whereas metagenomic analyses have revealed an unexpected abundance and diversity of viral genes in the biosphere. Comparative genomics have highlighted the uniqueness of viral sequences, in contradiction with the traditional view of viruses as pickpockets of cellular genes. On the contrary, cellular genomes, especially eukaryotic ones, turned out to be full of genes derived from viruses or related elements (plasmids, transposons, retroelements and so on). The discovery of unusual viruses infecting archaea has shown that the viral world is much more diverse than previously thought, ruining the traditional dichotomy between bacteriophages and viruses. Finally, the discovery of giant viruses has blurred the traditional image of viruses as small entities. Furthermore, essential clues on virus history have been obtained in the last ten years. In particular, structural analyses of capsid proteins have uncovered deeply rooted homologies between viruses infecting different cellular domains, suggesting that viruses originated before the last universal common ancestor (LUCA). These studies have shown that several lineages of viruses originated independently, i.e., viruses are polyphyletic. From the time of LUCA, viruses have coevolved with their hosts, and viral lineages can be viewed as lianas wrapping around the trunk, branches and leaves of the tree of life. Although viruses are very diverse, with genomes encoding from one to more than one thousand proteins, they can all be simply defined as organisms producing virions. Virions themselves can be defined as infectious particles made of at least one protein associated with the viral nucleic acid, endowed with the capability to protect the viral genome and ensure its delivery to the infected cell. These definitions, which clearly distinguish viruses from plasmids, suggest that infectious RNA molecules that only encode an RNA replicase presently classified among viruses by the ICTV (International Committee for the Taxonomy of Viruses) into families of Endornaviridae and Hypoviridae are in fact RNA plasmids. Since a viral genome should encode for at least one structural protein, these definitions also imply that viruses originated after the emergence of the ribosome in an RNA-protein cellular world. Although virions are the hallmarks of viruses, viruses and virions should not be confused. The infection transforms the ribocell (cell encoding ribosomes and dividing by binary fission) into a virocell (cell producing virions) or ribovirocell (cell that produces virions but can still divide by binary fission). In the ribovirocell, two different organisms, defined by their distinct evolutionary histories, coexist in symbiosis in the same cell. The virocells or ribovirocells are the living forms of the virus, which can be in fine considered to be a living organism. In the virocell, the metabolism is reorganized for the production of virions, while the ability to capture and store free energy is retained, as in other cellular organisms. In the virocell, viral genomes replicate, recombine and evolve, leading to the emergence of new viral proteins and potentially novel functions. Some of these new functions can be later on transferred to the cell, explaining how viruses can play a major (often underestimated) role in the evolution of cellular organisms. The virocell concept thus helps to understand recent hypotheses suggesting that viruses played a critical role in major evolutionary transitions, such as the origin of DNA genomes or else the origin of the eukaryotic nucleus. Finally, it is more and more recognized that viruses are the major source of variation and selection in living organisms (both viruses and cells), the two pillars of darwinism. One can thus conclude that the continuous interaction between viruses and cells, all along

Forterre, Patrick

2013-01-01

170

Lifestyles of plant viruses.  

PubMed

The vast majority of well-characterized eukaryotic viruses are those that cause acute or chronic infections in humans and domestic plants and animals. However, asymptomatic persistent viruses have been described in animals, and are thought to be sources for emerging acute viruses. Although not previously described in these terms, there are also many viruses of plants that maintain a persistent lifestyle. They have been largely ignored because they do not generally cause disease. The persistent viruses in plants belong to the family Partitiviridae or the genus Endornavirus. These groups also have members that infect fungi. Phylogenetic analysis of the partitivirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase genes suggests that these viruses have been transmitted between plants and fungi. Additional families of viruses traditionally thought to be fungal viruses are also found frequently in plants, and may represent a similar scenario of persistent lifestyles, and some acute or chronic viruses of crop plants may maintain a persistent lifestyle in wild plants. Persistent, chronic and acute lifestyles of plant viruses are contrasted from both a functional and evolutionary perspective, and the potential role of these lifestyles in host evolution is discussed. PMID:20478885

Roossinck, Marilyn J

2010-06-27

171

Lifestyles of plant viruses  

PubMed Central

The vast majority of well-characterized eukaryotic viruses are those that cause acute or chronic infections in humans and domestic plants and animals. However, asymptomatic persistent viruses have been described in animals, and are thought to be sources for emerging acute viruses. Although not previously described in these terms, there are also many viruses of plants that maintain a persistent lifestyle. They have been largely ignored because they do not generally cause disease. The persistent viruses in plants belong to the family Partitiviridae or the genus Endornavirus. These groups also have members that infect fungi. Phylogenetic analysis of the partitivirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase genes suggests that these viruses have been transmitted between plants and fungi. Additional families of viruses traditionally thought to be fungal viruses are also found frequently in plants, and may represent a similar scenario of persistent lifestyles, and some acute or chronic viruses of crop plants may maintain a persistent lifestyle in wild plants. Persistent, chronic and acute lifestyles of plant viruses are contrasted from both a functional and evolutionary perspective, and the potential role of these lifestyles in host evolution is discussed. PMID:20478885

Roossinck, Marilyn J.

2010-01-01

172

Viruses of botrytis.  

PubMed

Botrytis cinerea (gray mold) is one of the most widespread and destructive fungal diseases of horticultural crops. Propagation and dispersal is usually by asexual conidia but the sexual stage (Botryotinia fuckeliana (de Bary) Whetzel) also occurs in nature. DsRNAs, indicative of virus infection, are common in B. cinerea, but only four viruses (Botrytis virus F (BVF), Botrytis virus X (BVX), Botrytis cinerea mitovirus 1 (BcMV1), and Botrytis porri RNA virus) have been sequenced. BVF and BVX are unusual mycoviruses being ssRNA flexous rods and have been designated the type species of the genera Mycoflexivirus and Botrexvirus (family Betaflexivirdae), respectively. The reported effects of viruses on Botrytis range from negligible to severe, with Botrytis cinerea mitovirus 1 causing hypovirulence. Little is currently known about the effects of viruses on Botrytis metabolism but recent complete sequencing of the B. cinerea genome now provides an opportunity to investigate the host-pathogen interactions at the molecular level. There is interest in the possible use of mycoviruses as biological controls for Botrytis because of the common problem of fungicide resistance. Unfortunately, hyphal anastomosis is the only known mechanism of horizontal virus transmission and the large number of vegetative incompatibility groups in Botrytis is a potential constraint on the spread of an introduced virus. Although some Botrytis viruses, such as BVF and BVX, are known to have international distribution, there is a distinct lack of epidemiological data and the means of spread are unknown. PMID:23498909

Pearson, Michael N; Bailey, Andrew M

2013-01-01

173

Manufacture of measles viruses.  

PubMed

Measles viruses have shown potent oncolytic activity as a therapeutic against a variety of human cancers in animal models and are currently being tested in clinical trials in patients. In contrast to using measles virus as a vaccine, oncolytic activity depends on high concentrations of infectious virus. For use in humans, the high-titer measles virus preparations must also be purified to remove significant levels of cellular proteins and nucleic acid resulting from the cytolytic products of measles virus replication and release. Pleomorphic measles virus must be treated as >1-?m particles that are extremely shear sensitive to maximize recoveries and retain infectivity. Therefore, to maximize the recovery of sterile, high titer infectious measles viruses, the entire production and purification process must be done using gentle conditions and aseptic processing. Here we describe a procedure applicable to the production of small (a few liters) to large (50-60 L) batches of measles virus amplified in Vero cells adapted to serum-free growth. Cell culture supernatant containing the measles virus is clarified by filtration to remove intact Vero cells and other debris, and then treated with Benzonase(®) in the presence of magnesium chloride to digest contaminating nucleic acid. The measles virus in the treated cell culture supernatant is then concentrated and purified using tangential flow filtration (TFF) and diafiltration. The concentrated and diafiltered measles virus is passed through a final clarifying filter prior to final vialing and storage at <-65°C. An infectivity assay to quantify infectious measles virus concentration based on the TCID(50) method is also described. This procedure can be readily adapted to the production and purification of measles viruses using good manufacturing practices (GMP). PMID:21590404

Langfield, Kirsten K; Walker, Henry J; Gregory, Linda C; Federspiel, Mark J

2011-01-01

174

Emergence of West Nile Virus Lineage 2 in Europe: A Review on the Introduction and Spread of a Mosquito-Borne Disease  

PubMed Central

West Nile virus (WNV) is transmitted by mosquitoes and causes fever and encephalitis in humans, equines, and occasionally wild birds. The virus was first isolated in sub-Saharan Africa where it is endemic. WNV lineage 1 has been responsible for repeated disease outbreaks in the countries of the Mediterranean basin over the past 50?years. This lineage was also introduced into North America in 1999 causing widespread human, equine, and avian mortality. WNV lineage 2, the first WNV lineage to be isolated, was believed to be restricted to sub-Saharan Africa causing a relatively mild fever in humans. However, in 2004, an investigation in Hungary of a case of encephalitis in a wild goshawk (Accipiter gentiles) resulted in the isolation of WNV lineage 2. During the summer of 2004, and in subsequent years, the virus appeared to spread locally throughout Hungary and into neighboring Austria. Subsequently, WNV lineage 2 emerged in Greece in 2010 and in Italy in 2011, involving outbreaks on the Italian mainland and Sardinia. Further spread through the Balkan countries is also suspected. Whole genome sequencing has confirmed that the virus responsible for the outbreaks in Greece and Italy was almost identical to that isolated in Hungary. However, unlike the outbreaks in Hungary, the burden of disease in Mediterranean countries has fallen upon the human population with numerous cases of West Nile fever and a relatively higher mortality rate than in previous outbreaks. The emergence of WNV lineage 2 in Europe, its over-wintering and subsequent spread over large distances illustrates the repeated threat of emerging mosquito-borne diseases. This article will review the emergence of WNV lineage 2 in Europe; consider the pathways for virus spread and the public health implications for the continent. PMID:25538937

Hernández-Triana, Luis M.; Jeffries, Claire L.; Mansfield, Karen L.; Carnell, George; Fooks, Anthony R.; Johnson, Nicholas

2014-01-01

175

Water system virus detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of a waste water reclamation system is monitored by introducing a non-pathogenic marker virus, bacteriophage F2, into the waste-water prior to treatment and, thereafter, testing the reclaimed water for the presence of the marker virus. A test sample is first concentrated by absorbing any marker virus onto a cellulose acetate filter in the presence of a trivalent cation at low pH and then flushing the filter with a limited quantity of a glycine buffer solution to desorb any marker virus present on the filter. Photo-optical detection of indirect passive immune agglutination by polystyrene beads indicates the performance of the water reclamation system in removing the marker virus. A closed system provides for concentrating any marker virus, initiating and monitoring the passive immune agglutination reaction, and then flushing the system to prepare for another sample.

Fraser, A. S.; Wells, A. F.; Tenoso, H. J. (inventors)

1978-01-01

176

Viruses in Antarctic lakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water samples collected from four perennially ice-covered Antarctic lakes during the austral summer of 1996-1997 contained high densities of extracellular viruses. Many of these viruses were found to be morphologically similar to double-stranded DNA viruses that are known to infect algae and protozoa. These constitute the first observations of viruses in perennially ice-covered polar lakes. The abundance of planktonic viruses and data suggesting substantial production potential (relative to bacteria] secondary and photosynthetic primary production) indicate that viral lysis may be a major factor in the regulation of microbial populations in these extreme environments. Furthermore, we suggest that Antarctic lakes may be a reservoir of previously undescribed viruses that possess novel biological and biochemical characteristics.

Kepner, R. L. Jr; Wharton, R. A. Jr; Suttle, C. A.; Wharton RA, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

1998-01-01

177

DNA Virus Replication Compartments  

PubMed Central

Viruses employ a variety of strategies to usurp and control cellular activities through the orchestrated recruitment of macromolecules to specific cytoplasmic or nuclear compartments. Formation of such specialized virus-induced cellular microenvironments, which have been termed viroplasms, virus factories, or virus replication centers, complexes, or compartments, depends on molecular interactions between viral and cellular factors that participate in viral genome expression and replication and are in some cases associated with sites of virion assembly. These virus-induced compartments function not only to recruit and concentrate factors required for essential steps of the viral replication cycle but also to control the cellular mechanisms of antiviral defense. In this review, we summarize characteristic features of viral replication compartments from different virus families and discuss similarities in the viral and cellular activities that are associated with their assembly and the functions they facilitate for viral replication. PMID:24257611

Schmid, Melanie; Speiseder, Thomas; Dobner, Thomas

2014-01-01

178

Biological Nanomachines: Viruses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although nanotechnology is a new and emerging field, nanoscale structures are not new. Small molecules such as water, large molecules such as proteins, and larger, more complex objects such as viruses and nanotubes are naturally occurring and exist all around us. Viruses are particularly interesting nanoscale objects because of their precise geometrical shape, their self-assembling capability, and their fascinating ability to invade cells and alter their function. Nanoscale science researchers are studying virus properties with the aim of developing new treatments for human disease. The virus is also being studied as a model for how to make materials and engineer products at the nanoscsale through a process called "self-assembly." In this investigation, students create an icosahedral virus model and consider how virus structure and behavior could be mimicked in nanotechnology applications. This free selection includes the Table of Contents, Acknowledgments, a Dedication page, and an Introduction.

Taylor, Amy R.; Broadwell, Bethany P.; Jones, M. G.; Falvo, Michael R.

2007-01-01

179

The human oncogenic viruses  

SciTech Connect

This book contains eight selections. The titles are: Cytogenetics of the Leukemias and Lymphomas; Cytogenetics of Solid Tumors: Renal Cell Carcinoma, Malignant Melanoma, Retinoblastoma, and Wilms' Tumor; Elucidation of a Normal Function for a Human Proto-Oncogene; Detection of HSV-2 Genes and Gene Products in Cervical Neoplasia; Papillomaviruses in Anogennital Neoplasms; Human Epstein-Barr Virus and Cancer; Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatocellular Carcinoma; and Kaposi's Sarcoma: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Associated Viruses.

Luderer, A.A.; Weetall, H.H

1986-01-01

180

Water system virus detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A monitoring system developed to test the capability of a water recovery system to reject the passage of viruses into the recovered water is described. A nonpathogenic marker virus, bacteriophage F2, is fed into the process stream before the recovery unit and the reclaimed water is assayed for its presence. Detection of the marker virus consists of two major components, concentration and isolation of the marker virus, and detection of the marker virus. The concentration system involves adsorption of virus to cellulose acetate filters in the presence of trivalent cations and low pH with subsequent desorption of the virus using volumes of high pH buffer. The detection of the virus is performed by a passive immune agglutination test utilizing specially prepared polystyrene particles. An engineering preliminary design was performed as a parallel effort to the laboratory development of the marker virus test system. Engineering schematics and drawings of a fully functional laboratory prototype capable of zero-G operation are presented. The instrument consists of reagent pump/metering system, reagent storage containers, a filter concentrator, an incubation/detector system, and an electronic readout and control system.

Fraser, A. S.; Wells, A. F.; Tenoso, H. J.

1975-01-01

181

Papaya ringspot virus (Potyviridae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya ringspot virus, a member of the family Potyviridae, is single stranded RNA plant virus with a monocistronic genome of about 10,326 nucleotides that is expressed via a large polyprotein subsequently cleaved into functional proteins. It causes severe damage on cucurbit crops such as squash and...

182

Human Papilloma Virus Infections  

PubMed Central

Genital warts are believed to be caused by human papilloma viruses and to be sexually transmitted. The viruses are classified by DNA types, which appear to cause different types of disease. The choice of treatment, and usually its success rate, vary according to the type of disease and its location. PMID:21248973

Wright, V. Cecil

1989-01-01

183

Lettuce Necrotic Yellows Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A DESTRUCTIVE virus disease of lettuce, causing extensive crop losses sometimes as high as 100 per cent, was recognized in Victoria in 1954 as being distinct from the lettuce mosaic disease. Until 1959, however, all attempts to transmit the virus to lettuce with aphids which commonly infest lettuce, with thrips, leaf-hoppers and sap inoculation methods were unsuccessful. In that year

L. L. Stubbs; R. G. GROGAN

1963-01-01

184

Densonucleosis Virus Structural Proteins  

PubMed Central

The protein coats of two densonucleosis viruses (types 1 and 2) were examined by a variety of biophysical, biochemical, and serological techniques. The viruses were 24 nm in diameter, contained at least four polypeptides, were remarkably stable to extremes of pH and denaturing agents, and were serologically closely related. The two viruses could, however, be distinguished serologically and by differences in migration of their structural polypeptides. For each virus the “top component” (i.e., the protein coat minus DNA, found occurring naturally in infections) appeared to have a composition identical to that of the coat of the virus and was a more stable structure. Electrometric titration curves of the virus particles and top components demonstrated that the DNA phosphate in densonucleosis virus particles was neutralized by cations other than basic amino acid side chains of the protein coat. Circular dichroism studies showed that there was a conformational difference between the protein coats of top components and virus particles. Images PMID:16789202

Kelly, D. C.; Moore, N. F.; Spilling, C. R.; Barwise, A. H.; Walker, I. O.

1980-01-01

185

Positive reinforcement for viruses  

PubMed Central

Summary Virus-cell membrane fusion requires a critical transition from positive to negative membrane curvature. St. Vincent et al., in PNAS (St Vincent, et al., 2010), designed a class of antivirals that targets this transition. These Rigid Amphipathic Fusion Inhibitors are active against an array of enveloped viruses. PMID:21035726

Vigant, Frederic; Jung, Michael; Lee, Benhur

2010-01-01

186

Recombination in AIDS viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombination contributes to the generation of genetic diversity in human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) but can only occur between viruses replicating within the same cell. Since individuals have not been found to be simultaneously coinfected with multiple divergent strains of HIV-1 or HIV-2, recombination events have been thought to be restricted to the rather closely related members of the quasispecies that

David L. Robertson; Beatrice H. Hahn; Paul M. Sharp

1995-01-01

187

What is a Virus?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page is part of a web site that was created as a tutorial for an introductory virology class for college level microbiology students. It includes links to definitions of virus, virions, other virus-like-agents, and organisms, as well as the "definition of life".

Rybicki, Ed

2010-03-23

188

Cutthroat Trout Virus  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Electron micrograph of the cutthroat trout virus (CTV) showing the small, round virions of approximately 30 nanometers in diameter containing a single-stranded RNA genome. CTV, whose genome was first characterized by USGS researchers, is being used in research into the human virus Hepatitis E....

189

Virus separation using membranes.  

PubMed

Industrial manufacturing of cell culture-derived viruses or virus-like particles for gene therapy or vaccine production are complex multistep processes. In addition to the bioreactor, such processes require a multitude of downstream unit operations for product separation, concentration, or purification. Similarly, before a biopharmaceutical product can enter the market, removal or inactivation of potential viral contamination has to be demonstrated. Given the complexity of biological solutions and the high standards on composition and purity of biopharmaceuticals, downstream processing is the bottleneck in many biotechnological production trains. Membrane-based filtration can be an economically attractive and efficient technology for virus separation. Viral clearance, for instance, of up to seven orders of magnitude has been reported for state of the art polymeric membranes under best conditions.This chapter summarizes the fundamentals of virus ultrafiltration, diafiltration, or purification with adsorptive membranes. In lieu of an impractical universally applicable protocol for virus filtration, application of these principles is demonstrated with two examples. The chapter provides detailed methods for production, concentration, purification, and removal of a rod-shaped baculovirus (Autographa californica M nucleopolyhedrovirus, about 40 × 300 nm in size, a potential vector for gene therapy, and an industrially important protein expression system) or a spherical parvovirus (minute virus of mice, 22-26 nm in size, a model virus for virus clearance validation studies). PMID:24297430

Grein, Tanja A; Michalsky, Ronald; Czermak, Peter

2014-01-01

190

Grapevine Leafroll Associated Viruses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This book chapter reviews recent advances in molecular characterization of grapevine leafroll associated viruses (GLRaV), and the development and application of molecular techniques for a timely and sensitive detection of nine viruses that are associated with the leafroll disease on grapevine. To d...

191

The hepatitis B virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA recombinant technology has radically changed hepatitis B virus (HBV) virology. The genetic organization, transcription and replication of the virus are basically understood, structures of integrated HBV sequences in hepatocellular carcinoma have been characterized, and new vaccines produced by recombinant DNA technique are being developed.

Pierre Tiollais; Christine Pourcel; Anne Dejean

1985-01-01

192

PATHOLOGIE VGTALE Interactions entre virus ou entre virus et leurs  

E-print Network

PATHOLOGIE V�G�TALE SYNTH�SE Interactions entre virus ou entre virus et leurs satellites chez un 84140 Montfavet R�SUM� Deux ou plusieurs virus, apparentés ou non, peuvent se multiplier ensemble dans une même plante et également dans une même cellule. Les interactions entre virus qui en résultent

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

193

Whitepox virus isolated from hamsters inoculated with monkeypox virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

SINCE the eradication of smallpox in Equatorial Africa several `new' pox viruses have been isolated in our laboratory from materials collected by WHO field workers-monkeypox virus from an affected individual and the `whitepox' viruses from apparently healthy monkeys and rodents. Monkeypox virus is not widespread but occasionally infects man and has caused death: 33 such cases have occurred in Africa,

S. S. Marennikova; E. M. Shelukhina

1978-01-01

194

Nipah virus encephalitis.  

PubMed

Nipah virus was first discovered in 1999, after a severe outbreak of viral encephalitis among pig farm workers in Malaysia. The disease is thought to spread from Pteropus bats to pigs and then to humans following close contact. The reported mortality rate in this outbreak was 40%. The main necropsy finding in patients with Nipah virus encephalitis was disseminated microinfarction associated with vasculitis and direct neuronal involvement. Relapse of encephalitis was seen in 10% of those who survived the initial illness. Since that initial report, recurrent outbreaks of Nipah virus encephalitis have been seen in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India. These outbreaks occurred between January and May, with Pteropus giganteus as a reservoir of the virus. In Bangladesh, the virus probably spread directly from bats to humans-with human to human spread as another important mode of infection-and the mortality rate was 70%. PMID:18765105

Tan, Chong-Tin; Chua, Kaw-Bing

2008-07-01

195

Tobacco Mosaic Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this four-part laboratory exercise, learners investigate properties of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) including (1) symptoms induced by the virus in susceptible plants at the macroscopic and microscopic levels, (2) its stability at high temperatures, and (3) its small size. Learners first propagate tomato and pinto bean plants, and then inoculate their dried leaves with TMV. Learners observe the TMV-infected leaves as well as use a heat treatment to inactivate the virus. Learners also filter the infected sap with a bacteria-proof filter to investigate size. This lesson guide includes background information, tips for educators, and discussion questions with answers. Adult supervision is recommended. Note: The Tobacco mosaic virus is available from biological suppliers, but approval for shipping of the virus across state lines must be obtained from the USDA prior to shipment.

Rosemary Ford

2011-01-01

196

Influenza A virus reassortment.  

PubMed

Reassortment is the process by which influenza viruses swap gene segments. This genetic exchange is possible due to the segmented nature of the viral genome and occurs when two differing influenza viruses co-infect a cell. The viral diversity generated through reassortment is vast and plays an important role in the evolution of influenza viruses. Herein we review recent insights into the contribution of reassortment to the natural history and epidemiology of influenza A viruses, gained through population scale phylogenic analyses. We describe methods currently used to study reassortment in the laboratory, and we summarize recent progress made using these experimental approaches to further our understanding of influenza virus reassortment and the contexts in which it occurs. PMID:25007845

Steel, John; Lowen, Anice C

2014-01-01

197

Semliki Forest virus and Sindbis virus vectors.  

PubMed

Semliki Forest virus (SFV) and Sindbis virus (SIN) are two, positive-strand RNA viruses of the alphavirus genus. Vectors for both have been developed to express high levels of foreign genes in vitro and in vivo. Basic Protocol 1 describes the preparation of packaged SFV and SIN replicons by co-electroporation of helper and vector RNA into baby hamster kidney (BHK)-21 cells. Basic Protocol 2 describes the activation of packaged SFV replicons with a-chymotrypsin. Basic Protocol 3 provides a method for the infection of hippocampal slices. Basic Protocol 4 is a technique for the infection of primary cultures of dispersed neurons with infectious SFV and SIN replicons. The Alternate Protocol describes a method for the cotransfection of in vitro-transcribed vector and helper RNA into BHK-21 cells. Support Protocol 1 describes determining the titers of infectious SFV and SIN replicon stocks, and Support Protocol 2 for metabolic labeling of infected cells. PMID:18428324

Ehrengruber, Markus U; Lundstrom, Kenneth

2002-08-01

198

Pacui Virus, Rio Preto da Eva Virus, and Tapirape Virus, Three Distinct Viruses within the Family Bunyaviridae  

PubMed Central

Nearly complete genome sequences for three ungrouped viruses, Pacui virus (BEAN27326), Rio Preto da Eva virus (BEAR540870), and Tapirape virus (BEAN767592) isolated in the Amazon region are reported here. All three genomic segments (small, medium and large RNA) were recovered and were similar to members of the genus Orthobunyavirus. PMID:25395627

Medeiros, Daniele Barbosa de Almeida; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Martins, Livia Caricio; de Lima, Clayton Pereira Silva; de Oliveira, Layanna Freitas; de Vasconcelos, Janaina Mota; Da Silva, Daisy Elaine; Cardoso, Jedson Ferreira; da Silva, Sandro Patroca; Vianez-Júnior, João Lídio da Silva Gonçalves; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

2014-01-01

199

Realms of the Viruses Online  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Viruses have evolved strategies for infecting all taxa, but most viruses are highly specific about their cellular host. In humans, viruses cause diverse diseases, from chronic but benign warts, to acute and deadly hemorrhagic fever. Viruses have entertaining names like Zucchini Yellow Mosaic, Semliki Forest, Coxsackie, and the original terminator,…

Liu, Dennis

2007-01-01

200

Computer Viruses: Pathology and Detection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how computer viruses were originally created, how a computer can become infected by a virus, how viruses operate, symptoms that indicate a computer is infected, how to detect and remove viruses, and how to prevent a reinfection. A sidebar lists eight antivirus resources. (four references) (LRW)

Maxwell, John R.; Lamon, William E.

1992-01-01

201

Viruses isolated from Panamanian sloths.  

PubMed

Seven virus strains were isolated in Vero cells from whole blood samples from 80 wild-caught sloths, Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni, from Central Panamá. Four strains of at least two different serotypes are related to Changuinola virus; two of these were associated with prolonged or recrudescent viremias. One strain is an antigenic subtype of Punta Toro virus, and another, described here as Bradypus-4 virus, is a new, antigenically ungrouped virus. A second new virus from sloths, Utive virus, forms an antigenic complex within the Simbu serogroup with Utinga and Pintupo viruses. Tests on sequential plasma samples from radio-marked free-ranging sloths and from recently captured animals maintained in captivity showed that both species develop neutralizing antibodies following naturally acquired virus infections. Antibodies against the Changuinola and Simbu serogroup viruses are widespread in both sloth species and are especially prevalent in Choloepus, but are virtually absent in all other wild vertebrate species tested. PMID:6316795

Seymour, C; Peralta, P H; Montgomery, G G

1983-11-01

202

Ocular Tropism of Respiratory Viruses  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Respiratory viruses (including adenovirus, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, and rhinovirus) cause a broad spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from mild influenza-like symptoms to acute respiratory failure. While species D adenoviruses and subtype H7 influenza viruses are known to possess an ocular tropism, documented human ocular disease has been reported following infection with all principal respiratory viruses. In this review, we describe the anatomical proximity and cellular receptor distribution between ocular and respiratory tissues. All major respiratory viruses and their association with human ocular disease are discussed. Research utilizing in vitro and in vivo models to study the ability of respiratory viruses to use the eye as a portal of entry as well as a primary site of virus replication is highlighted. Identification of shared receptor-binding preferences, host responses, and laboratory modeling protocols among these viruses provides a needed bridge between clinical and laboratory studies of virus tropism. PMID:23471620

Rota, Paul A.; Tumpey, Terrence M.

2013-01-01

203

Enteric hepatitis viruses  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis viruses are infectious agents that can infect liver and cause inflammation. The infection triggers immune response against infected cells that leads to the destruction of hepatic cells. This destruction has two consequences: leaking ALT and AST liver enzymes which increases during the course of disease and accumulation of bilirubin- a red pigmented compound released from dead red cells- which causes the yellow coloration of eyes and skin. These viruses transmit through diverse routes i.e. blood transfusion, sexual contacts and consuming water or food contaminated by feces. Enteric hepatitis viruses use the latter route for transmission; hence their outbreaks are more common in underdeveloped countries. There are currently two distinguished enteric hepatitis viruses, hepatitis A and hepatitis E. These viruses belong to different family of viruses and their epidemiological characteristics are different. These infections can be diagnosed by an ELISA for IgM antibody. A vaccine has been developed in last decade of twentieth century for hepatitis A virus, which is administered mostly in the developed world i.e. U.S and Japan. Treatment for these infections is mostly supportive; however, in the case of fulminant hepatitis the liver transplantation might be necessary. PMID:24834192

Tahaei, Seyed Mohammad Ebrahim; Zali, Mohammad Reza

2012-01-01

204

[Grapevine viruses in Tunisia].  

PubMed

Tunisian grapevine culture is affected by many viruses caused by some phytovirus belonging to nepovirus, closterovirus and trichovirus groups. The present work deal with the economically important viroses identified in tunisian grapevines. We present here the development methods to detect these viruses in propagating material. The important viruses biologically, biochemically, serologically and using molecular techniques, characterised are: GFLV, GLRaV3 and GVB. The genetic polymorphism analysis was also carried and tunisian isolates were compared to previously described ones in literature. PMID:14666749

Acheche, H; Fattouch, S; M'Hirsi, S; Marzouki, N; Marrakchi, M

1998-01-01

205

Viruses in reptiles  

PubMed Central

The etiology of reptilian viral diseases can be attributed to a wide range of viruses occurring across different genera and families. Thirty to forty years ago, studies of viruses in reptiles focused mainly on the zoonotic potential of arboviruses in reptiles and much effort went into surveys and challenge trials of a range of reptiles with eastern and western equine encephalitis as well as Japanese encephalitis viruses. In the past decade, outbreaks of infection with West Nile virus in human populations and in farmed alligators in the USA has seen the research emphasis placed on the issue of reptiles, particularly crocodiles and alligators, being susceptible to, and reservoirs for, this serious zoonotic disease. Although there are many recognised reptilian viruses, the evidence for those being primary pathogens is relatively limited. Transmission studies establishing pathogenicity and cofactors are likewise scarce, possibly due to the relatively low commercial importance of reptiles, difficulties with the availability of animals and permits for statistically sound experiments, difficulties with housing of reptiles in an experimental setting or the inability to propagate some viruses in cell culture to sufficient titres for transmission studies. Viruses as causes of direct loss of threatened species, such as the chelonid fibropapilloma associated herpesvirus and ranaviruses in farmed and wild tortoises and turtles, have re-focused attention back to the characterisation of the viruses as well as diagnosis and pathogenesis in the host itself. 1. Introduction 2. Methods for working with reptilian viruses 3. Reptilian viruses described by virus families 3.1. Herpesviridae 3.2. Iridoviridae 3.2.1 Ranavirus 3.2.2 Erythrocytic virus 3.2.3 Iridovirus 3.3. Poxviridae 3.4. Adenoviridae 3.5. Papillomaviridae 3.6. Parvoviridae 3.7. Reoviridae 3.8. Retroviridae and inclusion body disease of Boid snakes 3.9. Arboviruses 3.9.1. Flaviviridae 3.9.2. Togaviridae 3.10. Caliciviridae 3.11. Picornaviridae 3.12. Paramyxoviridae 4. Summary 5. Acknowledgements 6. Competing interests 7. References PMID:21933449

2011-01-01

206

Rapid Detection and Quantification of RNA of Ebola and Marburg Viruses, Lassa Virus, Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Rift Valley Fever Virus, Dengue Virus, and Yellow Fever Virus by Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are acute infections with high case fatality rates. Important VHF agents are Ebola and Marburg viruses (MBGV\\/EBOV), Lassa virus (LASV), Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), dengue virus (DENV), and yellow fever virus (YFV). VHFs are clinically difficult to diagnose and to distinguish; a rapid and reliable laboratory diagnosis is required in

Christian Drosten; Stephan Göttig; Stefan Schilling; Marcel Asper; Marcus Panning; Herbert Schmitz; Stephan Günther

2002-01-01

207

Simian hemorrhagic fever virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This book chapter describes the taxonomic classification of Simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV). Included are: host, genome, classification, morphology, physicochemical and physical properties, nucleic acid, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, geographic range, phylogenetic properties, biological pro...

208

VIRUS instrument enclosures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument will be installed at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope† in the near future. The instrument will be housed in two enclosures that are mounted adjacent to the telescope, via the VIRUS Support Structure (VSS). We have designed the enclosures to support and protect the instrument, to enable servicing of the instrument, and to cool the instrument appropriately while not adversely affecting the dome environment. The system uses simple HVAC air handling techniques in conjunction with thermoelectric and standard glycol heat exchangers to provide efficient heat removal. The enclosures also provide power and data transfer to and from each VIRUS unit, liquid nitrogen cooling to the detectors, and environmental monitoring of the instrument and dome environments. In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication of the VIRUS enclosures and their subsystems.

Prochaska, T.; Allen, R.; Mondrik, N.; Rheault, J. P.; Sauseda, M.; Boster, E.; James, M.; Rodriguez-Patino, M.; Torres, G.; Ham, J.; Cook, E.; Baker, D.; DePoy, Darren L.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Hill, G. J.; Perry, D.; Savage, R. D.; Good, J. M.; Vattiat, Brian L.

2014-08-01

209

Powassan (POW) Virus Basics  

MedlinePLUS

... in northern parts of North America and northeast Asia. Laboratory testing has found blacklegged ticks infected with POW virus in parts of north-central, east-central, and southeast Minnesota, areas highly endemic ...

210

The dengue viruses.  

PubMed Central

Dengue, a major public health problem throughout subtropical and tropical regions, is an acute infectious disease characterized by biphasic fever, headache, pain in various parts of the body, prostration, rash, lymphadenopathy, and leukopenia. In more severe or complicated dengue, patients present with a severe febrile illness characterized by abnormalities of hemostasis and increased vascular permeability, which in some instances results in a hypovolemic shock. Four distinct serotypes of the dengue virus (dengue-1, dengue-2, dengue-3, and dengue-4) exist, with numerous virus strains found worldwide. Molecular cloning methods have led to a greater understanding of the structure of the RNA genome and definition of virus-specific structural and nonstructural proteins. Progress towards producing safe, effective dengue virus vaccines, a goal for over 45 years, has been made. Images PMID:2224837

Henchal, E A; Putnak, J R

1990-01-01

211

Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) A parent's guide to condition and treatment information A A A Though more common near the lips, grouped blisters (vesicles) can occur anywhere in herpes infections. Overview The first eruption of skin or ...

212

Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV)  

MedlinePLUS

... 7 days after being bitten by an infected mosquito • The most common symptoms are fever and severe ... to prevent chikungunya virus infection or disease • Reduce mosquito exposure o Use air conditioning or window/door ...

213

Virus Ultra Structure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Linda Stannard of the University of Capetown, South Africa, has composed a page which, although it was intended to serve as an introductory manual for students of virology, can be appreciated by a wide audience. A section on the principles of virus architecture uses text and outstanding graphics to provide an introduction to why viruses look the way they do. Other parts of the site emphasize how virus shapes and structures are "seen" and recorded with sections on negative staining and electron microscopy of DNA- and RNA-containing viruses. This site's success relies on the use of well-chosen graphics and the inclusion of interesting factoids such as the following: "The head of a dress-maker's pin can provide seating accommodation for five hundred million rhinoviruses (cause of the common cold)!".

214

Virus Chapter: Iflaviridae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The iflaviruses comprise viruses isolated from arthropod species of agricultural importance. All members of iflaviruses have a genome arrangement similar to the picornaviruses, ootyviruses, and secoviruses. However, phylogenetic analysis using the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase region showed that th...

215

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)  

MedlinePLUS

... RSV often spreads quickly in crowded households and day care centers. The virus can live for a half ... The following increase the risk for RSV: Attending day care Being near tobacco smoke Having school-aged brothers ...

216

Hepatitis G virus  

PubMed Central

A number of new hepatitis viruses (G, TT, SEN) were discovered late in the past century. We review the data available in the literature and our own findings suggesting that the new hepatitis G virus (HGV), disclosed in the late 1990s, has been rather well studied. Analysis of many studies dealing with HGV mainly suggests the lymphotropicity of this virus. HGV or GBV-C has been ascertained to influence course and prognosis in the HIV-infected patient. Until now, the frequent presence of GBV-C in coinfections, hematological diseases, and biliary pathology gives no grounds to determine it as an “accidental tourist” that is of no significance. The similarity in properties of GBV-C and hepatitis C virus (HCV) offers the possibility of using HGV, and its induced experimental infection, as a model to study hepatitis C and to develop a hepatitis C vaccine. PMID:18720531

Reshetnyak, Vasiliy Ivanovich; Karlovich, Tatiana Igorevna; Ilchenko, Ljudmila Urievna

2008-01-01

217

West nile virus encephalitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

West Nile virus (WNV) is a small RNA virus. It was first isolated in the blood of a febrile woman in the West Nile district\\u000a of Uganda in 1937. Although WNV has caused human disease in Africa and Europe since its identification, the first documented\\u000a human infections occurred in the United States in 1999. Wild birds are the reservoir for

James L. Dean; Brandon J. Palermo

2005-01-01

218

AVG Anti-Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Those who wish for an antivirus program that is both versatile and reliable should definitely consider this latest iteration of the AVG Anti-Virus program. With this program, visitors can be assured that AVG will look for new virus definitions on a daily basis and that it will also create an effective rescue disk in case a dire situation emerges. This website features a number of archived versions of the AVG software for users to choose from.

2008-01-01

219

Proteins of Norwalk virus.  

PubMed Central

The proteins of the Norwalk virus were studied by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Highly purified specifically immunoprecipitated virions appeared to contain a single primary structural protein with a molecular weight of 59,000. In addition, a soluble Norwalk viral protein with a molecular weight of 30,000 was identified in fecal specimens containing Norwalk virus. The protein structure of the virion is similar to that of the Calciviridae family. Images PMID:6785451

Greenberg, H B; Valdesuso, J R; Kalica, A R; Wyatt, R G; McAuliffe, V J; Kapikian, A Z; Chanock, R M

1981-01-01

220

Origins of Viruses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page is part of a site created as a supplement for an introduction to virology course for second year microbiology students. It includes discussions on the origins of viruses as well as how they might have evolved. There are several links to pertinent conceptial matter such as basics on the different types of viruses as well as a link to the course home page.

Rybicki, Ed; Town, University O.

221

Smaller Fleas: Viruses of Microorganisms  

PubMed Central

Life forms can be roughly differentiated into those that are microscopic versus those that are not as well as those that are multicellular and those that, instead, are unicellular. Cellular organisms seem generally able to host viruses, and this propensity carries over to those that are both microscopic and less than truly multicellular. These viruses of microorganisms, or VoMs, in fact exist as the world's most abundant somewhat autonomous genetic entities and include the viruses of domain Bacteria (bacteriophages), the viruses of domain Archaea (archaeal viruses), the viruses of protists, the viruses of microscopic fungi such as yeasts (mycoviruses), and even the viruses of other viruses (satellite viruses). In this paper we provide an introduction to the concept of viruses of microorganisms, a.k.a., viruses of microbes. We provide broad discussion particularly of VoM diversity. VoM diversity currently spans, in total, at least three-dozen virus families. This is roughly ten families per category—bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and protist—with some virus families infecting more than one of these microorganism major taxa. Such estimations, however, will vary with further discovery and taxon assignment and also are dependent upon what forms of life one includes among microorganisms. PMID:24278736

Hyman, Paul; Abedon, Stephen T.

2012-01-01

222

Cell Biology of Virus Entry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part 1 of this lecture will discuss ways in which viruses bind to the surface of host cells. Simian Virus 40 which binds to specific cell surface glycolipids, and Human Papilloma Virus-16 which binds to sites on filoipodia, are examples of different binding mechanisms. Attachment of viruses to the plasma membrane activates cell signaling resulting in endocytosis of the viral particles.In the second lecture, the next steps in viral infection are described. Part 3 focuses on a single virus, the Vaccinia virus, as a model for cell binding, signaling and endocytosis.

Ari Helenius (Insitute of Biochemistry, ETH Zurich, Switzerland;)

2009-02-01

223

Properties of an encephalitogenic canine parainfluenza virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary An isolate of canine parainfluenza (CPI) virus from the cerebrospinal fluid of a dog with neurological dysfunction was characterizedin vitro in comparison to a prototype strain of CPI virus, D008. The virus, designated 78–238 was found to be antigenically related to CPI virus (Manhatten strain) and simian virus 5 (SV5), but not to mumps virus (Enders strain). Ultrastructural observation

J. F. Evermann; S. Krakowka; A. J. McKeirnan; W. Baumgärtner

1981-01-01

224

Recombinant Vaccinia Virus: Immunization against Multiple Pathogens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coding sequences for the hepatitis B virus surface antigen, the herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D, and the influenza virus hemagglutinin were inserted into a single vaccinia virus genome. Rabbits inoculated intravenously or intradermally with this polyvalent vaccinia virus recombinant produced antibodies reactive to all three authentic foreign antigens. In addition, the feasibility of multiple rounds of vaccination with recombinant vaccinia virus was demonstrated.

Perkus, Marion E.; Piccini, Antonia; Lipinskas, Bernard R.; Paoletti, Enzo

1985-09-01

225

Glycyrrhizic acid inhibits virus growth and inactivates virus particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Screening investigations in antiviral action of plant extracts have revealed that a component of Glycyrrhiza glabra roots, found to be glycyrrhizic acid, is active against viruses. We report here that this drug inhibits growth and cytopathology of several unrelated DNA and RNA viruses, while not affecting cell activity and ability to replicate. In addition, glycyrrhizic acid inactivates herpes simplex virus

Raffaello Pompei; Ornella Flore; Maria Antonietta Marccialis; Alessandra Pani; Bernardo Loddo

1979-01-01

226

Immunology of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 500 million people worldwide are persistently infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and\\/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) and are at risk of developing chronic liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite many common features in the pathogenesis of HBV- and HCV-related liver disease, these viruses markedly differ in their virological properties and in their immune escape and

Michelina Nascimbeni; Barbara Rehermann

2005-01-01

227

Monkeypox Virus as a Source of Whitepox Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Monkeypox virus cloning and isolation of the so-called ‘white’ clones from white pocks which this virus forms on the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) were carried out. The isolated clones were stable and differed considerably from the parental strain. By their properties, they were identical to whitepox viruses formerly isolated from wildlife monkeys and rodents in Equatorial Africa. Besides stable ‘white’

Svetlana S. Marennikova; Emma M. Shelukhina; Nelly N. Maltseva; Gennadiy R. Matsevich

1979-01-01

228

About Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs)  

MedlinePLUS

... Diagnosis HPIV Seasons Resources & References About Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) Share Compartir Overview Describes HPIVs, who is at risk, symptoms, how the viruses spread... Symptoms & Illnesses Lists symptoms and illnesses caused ...

229

Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus  

MedlinePLUS

... incisions made in the mother’s abdomen and uterus. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): A virus that attacks certain cells of the body’s immune system and causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Immune System: ...

230

Engineered plant virus resistance.  

PubMed

Virus diseases are among the key limiting factors that cause significant yield loss and continuously threaten crop production. Resistant cultivars coupled with pesticide application are commonly used to circumvent these threats. One of the limitations of the reliance on resistant cultivars is the inevitable breakdown of resistance due to the multitude of variable virus populations. Similarly, chemical applications to control virus transmitting insect vectors are costly to the farmers, cause adverse health and environmental consequences, and often result in the emergence of resistant vector strains. Thus, exploiting strategies that provide durable and broad-spectrum resistance over diverse environments are of paramount importance. The development of plant gene transfer systems has allowed for the introgression of alien genes into plant genomes for novel disease control strategies, thus providing a mechanism for broadening the genetic resources available to plant breeders. Genetic engineering offers various options for introducing transgenic virus resistance into crop plants to provide a wide range of resistance to viral pathogens. This review examines the current strategies of developing virus resistant transgenic plants. PMID:25438782

Galvez, Leny C; Banerjee, Joydeep; Pinar, Hasan; Mitra, Amitava

2014-11-01

231

Dissecting virus entry via endocytosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous virus families utilize endocytosis to infect host cells, mediating virus internalization as well as trafficking to the site of replication. Recent research has demonstrated that viruses employ the full endocytic capabilities of the cell. The endocytic pathways utilized include clathrin-mediated endocytosis, caveolae, macropinocytosis and novel non-clathrin, non-caveolae pathways. The tools to study endocytosis and, consequently, virus entry are becoming

Sara B. Sieczkarski; Gary R. Whittaker

2002-01-01

232

Endosomes, exosomes and Trojan viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retroviruses are enveloped viruses that are generally assumed to bud at the plasma membrane of infected cells. Recently it has become apparent that some of these viruses use the endocytic pathway to coordinate their assembly and release. In addition, these and some other enveloped viruses exploit the machinery that generates the internal membranes of multivesicular bodies (MVB). These observations and

Annegret Pelchen-Matthews; Graça Raposo; Mark Marsh

2004-01-01

233

Epstein-Barr virus test  

MedlinePLUS

Epstein-Barr virus test is a blood test to detect antibodies to the Epstein-Barr virus ( EBV ) antigens. See also: Monospot test ... specialist looks for antibodies to the Epstein-Barr virus. In the first stages of an illness, little ...

234

Protecting Your Computer from Viruses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computer virus is defined as a software program capable of reproducing itself and usually capable of causing great harm to files or other programs on the same computer. The existence of computer viruses--or the necessity of avoiding viruses--is part of using a computer. With the advent of the Internet, the door was opened wide for these…

Descy, Don E.

2006-01-01

235

RNA viruses in the sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viruses are ubiquitous in the sea and appear to outnumber all other forms of marine life by at least an order of magnitude. Through selective infection, viruses influence nutrient cycling, community structure, and evolution in the ocean. Over the past 20 years we have learned a great deal about the diversity and ecology of the viruses that constitute the marine

Andrew S. Lang; Matthew L. Rise; Alexander I. Culley; Grieg F. Steward

2009-01-01

236

Reemergence of Dengue Virus Type  

E-print Network

Reemergence of Dengue Virus Type 4, French Antilles and French Guiana, 2004­2005 Philippe Dussart After 10 years of absence, dengue virus type 4 (DENV- 4) has recently reemerged in Martinique is a viral disease transmitted by mosquitoes. It is caused by any of the 4 viral serotypes of dengue virus

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

237

Computer Bytes, Viruses and Vaccines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a history of computer viruses, explains various types of viruses and how they affect software or computer operating systems, and describes examples of specific viruses. Available vaccines are explained, and precautions for protecting programs and disks are given. (nine references) (LRW)

Palmore, Teddy B.

1989-01-01

238

Novel avian influenza virus vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Current vaccines against avian influenza (AI) virus infections are primarily based on classical inactivated whole-virus preparations. Although administration of these vaccines can protect poultry from clinical disease, sterile immunity is not achieved under field conditions, allowing for undetected virus spread and evolution under immune cover. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a robust and reliable system of differentiation

W. Fuchs; A. Römer-Oberdörfer; J. Veits; T. C. Mettenleiter

2009-01-01

239

The biology of influenza viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influenza viruses are characterized by segmented, negative-strand RNA genomes requiring an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of viral origin for replication. The particular structure of the influenza virus genome and function of its viral proteins enable antigenic drift and antigenic shift. These processes result in viruses able to evade the long-term adaptive immune responses in many hosts.

Nicole M. Bouvier; Peter Palese

2008-01-01

240

Molecular evolution of influenza viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are two different mechanisms by which influenza viruses might evolve: (1) Because the RNA genome of influenza viruses is segmented, new strains can suddenly be produced by reassortment, as happens, for example, during antigenic shift, creating new pandemic strains. (2) New viruses evolve relatively slowly by stepwise mutation and selection, for example, during antigenic or genetic drift. Influenza A

Christoph Scholtissek

1995-01-01

241

Deformed wing virus.  

PubMed

Deformed wing virus (DWV; Iflaviridae) is one of many viruses infecting honeybees and one of the most heavily investigated due to its close association with honeybee colony collapse induced by Varroadestructor. In the absence of V.destructor DWV infection does not result in visible symptoms or any apparent negative impact on host fitness. However, for reasons that are still not fully understood, the transmission of DWV by V.destructor to the developing pupae causes clinical symptoms, including pupal death and adult bees emerging with deformed wings, a bloated, shortened abdomen and discolouration. These bees are not viable and die soon after emergence. In this review we will summarize the historical and recent data on DWV and its relatives, covering the genetics, pathobiology, and transmission of this important viral honeybee pathogen, and discuss these within the wider theoretical concepts relating to the genetic variability and population structure of RNA viruses, the evolution of virulence and the development of disease symptoms. PMID:19909976

de Miranda, Joachim R; Genersch, Elke

2010-01-01

242

Virus resistance in orchids.  

PubMed

Orchid plants, Phalaenopsis and Dendrobium in particular, are commercially valuable ornamental plants sold worldwide. Unfortunately, orchid plants are highly susceptible to viral infection by Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV) and Odotoglossum ringspot virus (ORSV), posing a major threat and serious economic loss to the orchid industry worldwide. A major challenge is to generate an effective method to overcome plant viral infection. With the development of optimized orchid transformation biotechnological techniques and the establishment of concepts of pathogen-derived resistance (PDR), the generation of plants resistant to viral infection has been achieved. The PDR concept involves introducing genes that is(are) derived from the virus into the host plant to induce RNA- or protein-mediated resistance. We here review the fundamental mechanism of the PDR concept, and illustrate its application in protecting against viral infection of orchid plants. PMID:25438783

Koh, Kah Wee; Lu, Hsiang-Chia; Chan, Ming-Tsair

2014-11-01

243

Viruses in water  

PubMed Central

Attention is drawn in this paper to the increasing problem of viral contamination of water and shellfish, particularly since growing demands for available water resources by a rising world population and expanding industry will make the recycling of wastewater almost inevitable in the future. The problem of eliminating viruses pathogenic for man from water is considered in the light of present water treatment procedures, which are often inadequate for that purpose. Man may be exposed to waterborne viruses through the consumption of contaminated water, shellfish, or crops, as a result of recreational activities involving water, or from aerosols following the spraying of crops with liquid wastes. Physical and chemical methods of eliminating viruses from water are discussed. PMID:310357

Melnick, Joseph L.; Gerba, Charles P.; Wallis, Craig

1978-01-01

244

Fragg Virus - Kinetic City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Fragg Virus is a learning module centered learning the importance of systems; it is a part of the Kinetic City-Mission to Vearth site. In general this module is concerned with how different parts work within a system. The Fragg Virus module is equipped with a computer simulation mind game, creative writing exercises for independent study, and art-centered exercises, as well as lesson plans for hands on games and activities designed for a group. The focus of the activities is evolution and the features of an animal that helps the animal survive in its environment. Certain features explored are the giraffes neck, polar bears fir, and a birds beak.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)

2008-04-17

245

Viruses and viral proteins.  

PubMed

For more than 30 years X-ray crystallography has been by far the most powerful approach for determining the structures of viruses and viral proteins at atomic resolution. The information provided by these structures, which covers many important aspects of the viral life cycle such as cell-receptor recognition, viral entry, nucleic acid transfer and genome replication, has extensively enriched our vision of the virus world. Many of the structures available correspond to potential targets for antiviral drugs against important human pathogens. This article provides an overview of the current knowledge of different structural aspects of the above-mentioned processes. PMID:25485129

Verdaguer, Nuria; Ferrero, Diego; Murthy, Mathur R N

2014-11-01

246

Viruses and viral proteins  

PubMed Central

For more than 30 years X-ray crystallography has been by far the most powerful approach for determining the structures of viruses and viral proteins at atomic resolution. The information provided by these structures, which covers many important aspects of the viral life cycle such as cell-receptor recognition, viral entry, nucleic acid transfer and genome replication, has extensively enriched our vision of the virus world. Many of the structures available correspond to potential targets for antiviral drugs against important human pathogens. This article provides an overview of the current knowledge of different structural aspects of the above-mentioned processes. PMID:25485129

Verdaguer, Nuria; Ferrero, Diego; Murthy, Mathur R. N.

2014-01-01

247

Additional hosts of alfalfa mosaic virus, cucumber mosaic virus, and tobacco mosaic virus in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

In New Zealand, alfalfa mosaic virus is recorded on three new field crop hosts, Cajanus cajan (L.) Huth, Coriandrum sativum L., and Wasabia japonica (Miquel) Matsum. Cucumber mosaic virus is recorded on the weeds Cirsium vulgare L. and Veronica persica Poiret and on the ornamental perennial Gentiana sp. Tobacco mosaic virus is recorded on sunflower Helianthus annuus L.

J. D. Fletcher

1989-01-01

248

The games plant viruses play.  

PubMed

Mixed virus infections in plants are common in nature. The outcome of such virus-virus interactions ranges from cooperation and coexistence (synergism) to mutual exclusion (antagonism). A priori, the outcome of mixed infections is hard to predict. To date, the analyses of plant virus mixed infections were limited to reports of emerging symptoms and/or to qualitative, at best quantitative, descriptions of the accumulation of both viruses. Here, we show that evolutionary game theory provides an adequate theoretical framework to analyze mixed viral infections and to predict the long-term evolution of the mixed populations. PMID:25062019

Elena, Santiago F; Bernet, Guillermo P; Carrasco, José L

2014-10-01

249

RNA viruses in the sea.  

PubMed

Viruses are ubiquitous in the sea and appear to outnumber all other forms of marine life by at least an order of magnitude. Through selective infection, viruses influence nutrient cycling, community structure, and evolution in the ocean. Over the past 20 years we have learned a great deal about the diversity and ecology of the viruses that constitute the marine virioplankton, but until recently the emphasis has been on DNA viruses. Along with expanding knowledge about RNA viruses that infect important marine animals, recent isolations of RNA viruses that infect single-celled eukaryotes and molecular analyses of the RNA virioplankton have revealed that marine RNA viruses are novel, widespread, and genetically diverse. Discoveries in marine RNA virology are broadening our understanding of the biology, ecology, and evolution of viruses, and the epidemiology of viral diseases, but there is still much that we need to learn about the ecology and diversity of RNA viruses before we can fully appreciate their contributions to the dynamics of marine ecosystems. As a step toward making sense of how RNA viruses contribute to the extraordinary viral diversity in the sea, we summarize in this review what is currently known about RNA viruses that infect marine organisms. PMID:19243445

Lang, Andrew S; Rise, Matthew L; Culley, Alexander I; Steward, Grieg F

2009-03-01

250

Bat Flight and Zoonotic Viruses  

PubMed Central

Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host–virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts. PMID:24750692

Cryan, Paul M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hayman, David T.S.; Luis, Angela D.; Peel, Alison J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Wood, James L.N.

2014-01-01

251

Bat flight and zoonotic viruses  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host–virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts.

O'Shea, Thomas; Cryan, Paul M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hayman, David T.S.; Luis, Angela D.; Peel, Alison J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Wood, James L.N.

2014-01-01

252

Virus membrane fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane fusion of enveloped viruses with cellular membranes is mediated by viral glycoproteins (GP). Interaction of GP with cellular receptors alone or coupled to exposure to the acidic environment of endosomes induces extensive conformational changes in the fusion protein which pull two membranes into close enough proximity to trigger bilayer fusion. The refolding process provides the energy for fusion and

Winfried Weissenhorn; Andreas Hinz; Yves Gaudin

2007-01-01

253

Turnip Yellow Mosaic Virus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The bumpy exterior of the turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) protein coat, or capsid, was defined in detail by Dr. Alexander McPherson of the University of California, Irvin using proteins crystallized in space for analysis on Earth. TYMV is an icosahedral virus constructed from 180 copies of the same protein arranged into 12 clusters of five proteins (pentamers), and 20 clusters of six proteins (hexamers). The final TYMV structure led to the unexpected hypothesis that the virus releases its RNA by essentially chemical-mechanical means. Most viruses have fairly flat coats, but in TYNV, the fold in each protein, called the jellyroll, is clustered at the points where the protein pentamers and hexamers join. The jellyrolls are almost standing on end, producing a bumpy surface with knobs at all of the pentamers and hexamers. At the inside surface of the pentamers is a void that is not present at the hexamers. The coating had been seen in early stuties of TYMV, but McPherson's atomic structure shows much more detail. The inside surface is strikingly, and unexpectedly, different than the outside. While the pentamers contain a central void on the inside, the hexameric units contain peptides linked to each other, forming a ring or, more accurately, rings to fill the void. Credit: Dr. Alexander McPherson, University of California, Irvine

2000-01-01

254

Hepatitis C virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary HepCV is the major cause of NANB PT hepatitis and is also implicated as the cause in a large proportion of sporadic cases of NANBH. Chronic infection with HepCV has also been linked to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Chimpanzees and marmosets are the only animals found to be experimentally infectable and the virus has not been propagated in

P. G. W. Plagemann

1991-01-01

255

Human Viruses and Cancer  

PubMed Central

The first human tumor virus was discovered in the middle of the last century by Anthony Epstein, Bert Achong and Yvonne Barr in African pediatric patients with Burkitt’s lymphoma. To date, seven viruses -EBV, KSHV, high-risk HPV, MCPV, HBV, HCV and HTLV1- have been consistently linked to different types of human cancer, and infections are estimated to account for up to 20% of all cancer cases worldwide. Viral oncogenic mechanisms generally include: generation of genomic instability, increase in the rate of cell proliferation, resistance to apoptosis, alterations in DNA repair mechanisms and cell polarity changes, which often coexist with evasion mechanisms of the antiviral immune response. Viral agents also indirectly contribute to the development of cancer mainly through immunosuppression or chronic inflammation, but also through chronic antigenic stimulation. There is also evidence that viruses can modulate the malignant properties of an established tumor. In the present work, causation criteria for viruses and cancer will be described, as well as the viral agents that comply with these criteria in human tumors, their epidemiological and biological characteristics, the molecular mechanisms by which they induce cellular transformation and their associated cancers. PMID:25341666

Morales-Sánchez, Abigail; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M.

2014-01-01

256

BLUEBERRY SCORCH VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Blueberry scorch disease was first described in the state of Washington in the USA by Martin and Bristow in 1988 and it was later determined that Sheep Pen Hill disease, described previously in New Jersey, USA was also caused by Blueberry scorch virus (BlScV). BlScV has flexuous, rod-shaped particl...

257

From Shakespeare to Viruses  

SciTech Connect

Berkeley Lab scientists have created a unique new tool for analyzing and comparing long sets of data, be it the genomes of mammals or viruses, or the works of Shakespeare. The results of the Shakespeare analysis surprised scholars with their accuracy

Sung-Hou Kim

2009-02-09

258

Cold Facts about Viruses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides ways for students to demonstrate their understanding of scientific concepts and skills. Describes a mini-unit around the cold in which students can relate humans to viruses. Includes activities and a modified simulation that provides questions to guide students. Discusses ways that allows students to apply prior knowledge, take ownership…

Pea, Celeste; Sterling, Donna R.

2002-01-01

259

From Shakespeare to Viruses  

SciTech Connect

Berkeley Lab scientists have created a unique new tool for analyzing and comparing long sets of data, be it the genomes of mammals or viruses, or the works of Shakespeare. The results of the Shakespeare analysis surprised scholars with their accuracy.

Kim, Sung-Hou

2009-01-01

260

Apple mosaic virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Apple mosaic virus (ApMV), a member of the ilarvirus group, naturally infects Betula, Aesculus, Humulus, and several crop genera in the family Rosaceae (Malus, Prunus, Rosa and Rubus). ApMV was first reported in Rubus in several blackberry and raspberry cultivars in the United States and subsequentl...

261

Viruses of Haloarchaea  

PubMed Central

In hypersaline environments, haloarchaea (halophilic members of the Archaea) are the dominant organisms, and the viruses that infect them, haloarchaeoviruses are at least ten times more abundant. Since their discovery in 1974, described haloarchaeoviruses include head-tailed, pleomorphic, spherical and spindle-shaped morphologies, representing Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae, Pleolipoviridae, Sphaerolipoviridae and Fuselloviridae families. This review overviews current knowledge of haloarchaeoviruses, providing information about classification, morphotypes, macromolecules, life cycles, genetic manipulation and gene regulation, and host-virus responses. In so doing, the review incorporates knowledge from laboratory studies of isolated viruses, field-based studies of environmental samples, and both genomic and metagenomic analyses of haloarchaeoviruses. What emerges is that some haloarchaeoviruses possess unique morphological and life cycle properties, while others share features with other viruses (e.g., bacteriophages). Their interactions with hosts influence community structure and evolution of populations that exist in hypersaline environments as diverse as seawater evaporation ponds, to hot desert or Antarctic lakes. The discoveries of their wide-ranging and important roles in the ecology and evolution of hypersaline communities serves as a strong motivator for future investigations of both laboratory-model and environmental systems. PMID:25402735

Luk, Alison W. S.; Williams, Timothy J.; Erdmann, Susanne; Papke, R. Thane; Cavicchioli, Ricardo

2014-01-01

262

Tomato ringspot virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV) causes a nematode-vectored disease of highbush blueberry in New York, Oregon, Pennsylvania and Washington in the United States but has not been reported elsewhere in the world on this crop or on other Vaccinium spp. The occurrence and intensity of symptoms vary among b...

263

Antibodies, viruses and vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutralizing antibodies are crucial for vaccine-mediated protection against viral diseases. They probably act, in most cases, by blunting the infection, which is then resolved by cellular immunity. The protective effects of neutralizing antibodies can be achieved not only by neutralization of free virus particles, but also by several activities directed against infected cells. In certain instances, non-neutralizing antibodies contribute to

Dennis R. Burton

2002-01-01

264

From Shakespeare to Viruses  

ScienceCinema

Berkeley Lab scientists have created a unique new tool for analyzing and comparing long sets of data, be it the genomes of mammals or viruses, or the works of Shakespeare. The results of the Shakespeare analysis surprised scholars with their accuracy.

Kim, Sung-Hou

2013-05-29

265

Viruses of haloarchaea.  

PubMed

In hypersaline environments, haloarchaea (halophilic members of the Archaea) are the dominant organisms, and the viruses that infect them, haloarchaeoviruses are at least ten times more abundant. Since their discovery in 1974, described haloarchaeoviruses include head-tailed, pleomorphic, spherical and spindle-shaped morphologies, representing Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae, Pleolipoviridae, Sphaerolipoviridae and Fuselloviridae families. This review overviews current knowledge of haloarchaeoviruses, providing information about classification, morphotypes, macromolecules, life cycles, genetic manipulation and gene regulation, and host-virus responses. In so doing, the review incorporates knowledge from laboratory studies of isolated viruses, field-based studies of environmental samples, and both genomic and metagenomic analyses of haloarchaeoviruses. What emerges is that some haloarchaeoviruses possess unique morphological and life cycle properties, while others share features with other viruses (e.g., bacteriophages). Their interactions with hosts influence community structure and evolution of populations that exist in hypersaline environments as diverse as seawater evaporation ponds, to hot desert or Antarctic lakes. The discoveries of their wide-ranging and important roles in the ecology and evolution of hypersaline communities serves as a strong motivator for future investigations of both laboratory-model and environmental systems. PMID:25402735

Luk, Alison W S; Williams, Timothy J; Erdmann, Susanne; Papke, R Thane; Cavicchioli, Ricardo

2014-01-01

266

Giant viruses: conflicts in revisiting the virus concept.  

PubMed

The current paradigm on the nature of viruses is based on early work of the 'phage group' (the pro-phage concept) and molecular biologists working on tumour viruses (the proto-oncogene concept). It posits that viruses evolved from either prokaryotic or eukaryotic cellular genes that became infectious via their association with capsid genes. In this view, after their emergence viruses continued to evolve by stealing cellular genes (the escape model). This paradigm has been challenged recently by scientists who propose that viruses pre-dated modern cells. In particular, the discovery of Mimivirus has stimulated a lot of discussions on the nature of viruses. There are two major schools of thought, those who defend the escape model, suggesting that giant viruses are giant pickpockets (chimera), and those who emphasize their uniqueness and ancient origin. Comparative genomics of Mimivirus and related viruses (nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses) have produced a lot of data that have been interpreted according to the prejudices of the authors and thus failed until now to generate a consensus. I briefly review here the history of these debates and how they lead to new proposals, such as the definition of viruses as capsid-encoding organisms or else the recognition of their fundamentally cellular nature, the virocell concept. PMID:20551688

Forterre, Patrick

2010-01-01

267

Molecular epidemiology of respiratory viruses in virus-induced asthma  

PubMed Central

Acute respiratory illness (ARI) due to various viruses is not only the most common cause of upper respiratory infection in humans but is also a major cause of morbidity and mortality, leading to diseases such as bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Previous studies have shown that respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human rhinovirus (HRV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), human parainfluenza virus (HPIV), and human enterovirus infections may be associated with virus-induced asthma. For example, it has been suggested that HRV infection is detected in the acute exacerbation of asthma and infection is prolonged. Thus it is believed that the main etiological cause of asthma is ARI viruses. Furthermore, the number of asthma patients in most industrial countries has greatly increased, resulting in a morbidity rate of around 10-15% of the population. However, the relationships between viral infections, host immune response, and host factors in the pathophysiology of asthma remain unclear. To gain a better understanding of the epidemiology of virus-induced asthma, it is important to assess both the characteristics of the viruses and the host defense mechanisms. Molecular epidemiology enables us to understand the pathogenesis of microorganisms by identifying specific pathways, molecules, and genes that influence the risk of developing a disease. However, the epidemiology of various respiratory viruses associated with virus-induced asthma is not fully understood. Therefore, in this article, we review molecular epidemiological studies of RSV, HRV, HPIV, and HMPV infection associated with virus-induced asthma. PMID:24062735

Ishioka, Taisei; Noda, Masahiro; Kozawa, Kunihisa; Kimura, Hirokazu

2013-01-01

268

A vaccinia virus renaissance  

PubMed Central

In 1796, Edward Jenner introduced the concept of vaccination with cowpox virus, an Orthopoxvirus within the family Poxviridae that elicits cross protective immunity against related orthopoxviruses, including smallpox virus (variola virus). Over time, vaccinia virus (VACV) replaced cowpox virus as the smallpox vaccine, and vaccination efforts eventually led to the successful global eradication of smallpox in 1979. VACV has many characteristics that make it an excellent vaccine and that were crucial for the successful eradication of smallpox, including (1) its exceptional thermal stability (a very important but uncommon characteristic in live vaccines), (2) its ability to elicit strong humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, (3) the fact that it is easy to propagate, and (4) that it is not oncogenic, given that VACV replication occurs exclusively within the host cell cytoplasm and there is no evidence that the viral genome integrates into the host genome. Since the eradication of smallpox, VACV has experienced a renaissance of interest as a viral vector for the development of recombinant vaccines, immunotherapies, and oncolytic therapies, as well as the development of next-generation smallpox vaccines. This revival is mainly due to the successful use and extensive characterization of VACV as a vaccine during the smallpox eradication campaign, along with the ability to genetically manipulate its large dsDNA genome while retaining infectivity and immunogenicity, its wide mammalian host range, and its natural tropism for tumor cells that allows its use as an oncolytic vector. This review provides an overview of new uses of VACV that are currently being explored for the development of vaccines, immunotherapeutics, and oncolytic virotherapies. PMID:22777090

Verardi, Paulo H.; Titong, Allison; Hagen, Caitlin J.

2012-01-01

269

Viruses and neurodegeneration  

PubMed Central

Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) are chronic degenerative diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), which affect 37 million people worldwide. As the lifespan increases, the NDs are the fourth leading cause of death in the developed countries and becoming increasingly prevalent in developing countries. Despite considerable research, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Although the large majority of studies do not show support for the involvement of pathogenic aetiology in classical NDs, a number of emerging studies show support for possible association of viruses with classical neurodegenerative diseases in humans. Space does not permit for extensive details to be discussed here on non-viral-induced neurodegenerative diseases in humans, as they are well described in literature. Viruses induce alterations and degenerations of neurons both directly and indirectly. Their ability to attack the host immune system, regions of nervous tissue implies that they can interfere with the same pathways involved in classical NDs in humans. Supporting this, many similarities between classical NDs and virus-mediated neurodegeneration (non-classical) have been shown at the anatomic, sub-cellular, genomic and proteomic levels suggesting that viruses can explain neurodegenerative disorders mechanistically. The main objective of this review is to provide readers a detailed snapshot of similarities viral and non-viral neurodegenerative diseases share, so that mechanistic pathways of neurodegeneration in human NDs can be clearly understood. Viruses can guide us to unveil these pathways in human NDs. This will further stimulate the birth of new concepts in the biological research, which is needed for gaining deeper insights into the treatment of human NDs and delineate mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration. PMID:23724961

2013-01-01

270

Marine Viruses: Truth or Dare Mya Breitbart  

E-print Network

Marine Viruses: Truth or Dare Mya Breitbart College of Marine Science, University of South Florida million viruses per milliliter of surface seawater, viruses are the most abundant biological entities in the oceans. The majority of these viruses are phages (viruses that infect bacteria). Through lysing

Saleska, Scott

271

Virus movement within grafted watermelon plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Watermelon production in Florida is impacted by several viruses including whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus and Cucurbit leaf crumple virus, and aphid-transmitted Papaya ringspot virus type W (PRSV-W). While germplasm resistant to some...

272

How Hepatitis D Virus Can Hinder the Control of Hepatitis B Virus  

E-print Network

How Hepatitis D Virus Can Hinder the Control of Hepatitis B Virus Maria Xiridou1 *, Barbara Borkent) virus is a defective virus that relies on hepatitis B virus (HBV) for transmission; infection of the bond between the two viruses, control measures for HBV may have also affected the spread of hepatitis D

Hulshof, Joost

273

Hepatitis C Virus and other Flaviviridae Viruses Enter Cells via Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endocytosis of the Flaviviridae viruses, hepatitis C virus, GB virus C\\/hepatitis G virus, and bovine viral diarrheal virus (BVDV) was shown to be mediated by low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors on cultured cells by several lines of evidence: by the demonstration that endocytosis of these virus correlated with LDL receptor activity, by complete inhibition of detectable endocytosis by anti-LDL receptor

Vincent Agnello; Gyorgy Abel; Mutasim Elfahal; Glenn B. Knight; Qing-Xiu Zhang

1999-01-01

274

Heparan Sulfate-Mediated Binding of Infectious Dengue Virus Type 2 and Yellow Fever Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dengue virus type 2 and Yellow fever virus are arthropod-borne flaviviruses causing hemorrhagic fever in humans. Identification of virus receptors is important in understanding flavivirus pathogenesis. The aim of this work was to study the role of cellular heparan sulfate in the adsorption of infectious Yellow fever and Dengue type 2 viruses. Virus attachment was assessed by adsorbing virus to

Raphaële Germi; Jean-Marc Crance; Daniel Garin; Josette Guimet; Hugues Lortat-Jacob; Rob W. H. Ruigrok; Jean-Pierre Zarski; Emmanuel Drouet

2002-01-01

275

Measles virus for cancer therapy  

PubMed Central

Measles virus offers an ideal platform from which to build a new generation of safe, effective oncolytic viruses. Occasional "spontaneous" tumor regressions have occurred during natural measles infections, but common tumors do not express SLAM, the wild-type MV receptor, and are therefore not susceptible to the virus. Serendipitously, attenuated vaccine strains of measles virus have adapted to use CD46, a regulator of complement activation that is expressed in higher abundance on human tumor cells than on their non transformed counterparts. For this reason, attenuated measles viruses are potent and selective oncolytic agents showing impressive antitumor activity in mouse xenograft models. The viruses can be engineered to enhance their tumor specificity, increase their antitumor potency and facilitate noninvasive in vivo monitoring of their spread. A major impediment to the successful deployment of oncolytic measles viruses as anticancer agents is the high prevalence of pre-existing anti measles immunity, which impedes bloodstream delivery and curtails intratumoral virus spread. It is hoped that these problems can be addressed by delivering the virus inside measles-infected cell carriers and/or by concomitant administration of immunosuppressive drugs. From a safety perspective, population immunity provides an excellent defense against measles spread from patient to carers and, in fifty years of human experience, reversion of attenuated measles to a wild type pathogenic phenotype has not been observed. Clinical trials testing oncolytic measles viruses as an experimental cancer therapy are currently underway. PMID:19203112

Russell, Stephen J.; Whye Peng, Kah

2014-01-01

276

Single Virus Genomics: A New Tool for Virus Discovery  

PubMed Central

Whole genome amplification and sequencing of single microbial cells has significantly influenced genomics and microbial ecology by facilitating direct recovery of reference genome data. However, viral genomics continues to suffer due to difficulties related to the isolation and characterization of uncultivated viruses. We report here on a new approach called ‘Single Virus Genomics’, which enabled the isolation and complete genome sequencing of the first single virus particle. A mixed assemblage comprised of two known viruses; E. coli bacteriophages lambda and T4, were sorted using flow cytometric methods and subsequently immobilized in an agarose matrix. Genome amplification was then achieved in situ via multiple displacement amplification (MDA). The complete lambda phage genome was recovered with an average depth of coverage of approximately 437X. The isolation and genome sequencing of uncultivated viruses using Single Virus Genomics approaches will enable researchers to address questions about viral diversity, evolution, adaptation and ecology that were previously unattainable. PMID:21436882

Allen, Lisa Zeigler; Ishoey, Thomas; Novotny, Mark A.; McLean, Jeffrey S.; Lasken, Roger S.; Williamson, Shannon J.

2011-01-01

277

Environmental control on concretion-forming processes: Examples from Paleozoic terrigenous sediments of the North Gondwana margin, Armorican Massif (Middle Ordovician and Middle Devonian) and SW Sardinia (Late Ordovician)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concretions of various compositions are common in the Paleozoic terrigenous successions of the north Gondwana margin. This study focuses on phosphatic (P) and siliceous (Si) concretions present in some successions of the Armorican Massif (NW France) and SW Sardinia (W Italy). It shows that they consist of mudstones, fine- to very fine-grained sandstones or shellbeds with a more or less abundant P-cement and form a continuum between a phosphatic end-member and a siliceous biogenic end-member. The P2O5 contents are ranging from 0.26% to 21.5% and are related to apatite. The SiO2 contents vary from 25% to 82% and are linked both to a terrigenous phase and to a biogenic silica phase. Concretions showing the lower P-contents (P2O5 < 1.5%) are often enriched in biogenic silica (SiO2/Al2O3 > 5). Comparison with the surrounding sediments shows that all the concretions are enriched in chlorite and in Middle Rare Earth Elements (Las/Gds: 0.12-0.72) and some of them in Y (up to 974 ppm), Rare Earth Elements (more than 300 ppm) and Sr (260-880 ppm). The concretions with highest biogenic silica concentrations are contained in the outer shelf sediments whereas the other concretions are present from the proximal part of the inner shelf to the outer shelf. A genetic model in two stages is proposed. During early diagenesis, the dissolution of shells and degradation of organic matter progressively enrich the pore water in dissolved Si, Ca and P. When the suboxic zone is reached, P-precipitation begins, leading to the formation of protoconcretions. In shallow environments, the relative permeability of sediments and the winnowing or reworking of the upper few centimetres by bottom currents allow for suboxic conditions to be maintained, leading to P-rich concretion formation. In deeper environments, the anoxic zone is reached more rapidly, thereby preventing extensive phosphogenesis. Nevertheless in the protoconcretions the early P-cement preserves pore spaces from compaction. In the presence of biogenic siliceous particles, the fluids are enriched in dissolved silica and diffuse towards the protoconcretions. Silica precipitation can thus occur later in the intergranular spaces.

Dabard, Marie-Pierre; Loi, Alfredo

2012-08-01

278

Viruses from extreme thermal environments  

PubMed Central

Viruses of extreme thermophiles are of great interest because they serve as model systems for understanding the biochemistry and molecular biology required for life at high temperatures. In this work, we report the discovery, isolation, and preliminary characterization of viruses and virus-like particles from extreme thermal acidic environments (70–92°C, pH 1.0–4.5) found in Yellowstone National Park. Six unique particle morphologies were found in Sulfolobus enrichment cultures. Three of the particle morphologies are similar to viruses previously isolated from Sulfolobus species from Iceland and/or Japan. Sequence analysis of their viral genomes suggests that they are related to the Icelandic and Japanese isolates. In addition, three virus particle morphologies that had not been previously observed from thermal environments were found. These viruses appear to be completely novel in nature. PMID:11606757

Rice, George; Stedman, Kenneth; Snyder, Jamie; Wiedenheft, Blake; Willits, Debbie; Brumfield, Susan; McDermott, Timothy; Young, Mark J.

2001-01-01

279

Principles of Virus Structural Organization  

PubMed Central

Viruses, the molecular nanomachines infecting hosts ranging from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, come in different sizes, shapes and symmetries. Questions such as what principles govern their structural organization, what factors guide their assembly, how these viruses integrate multifarious functions into one unique structure have enamored researchers for years. In the last five decades, following Caspar and Klug's elegant conceptualization of how viruses are constructed, high resolution structural studies using X-ray crystallography and more recently cryo-EM techniques have provided a wealth of information on structures of variety of viruses. These studies have significantly furthered our understanding of the principles that underlie structural organization in viruses. Such an understanding has practical impact in providing a rational basis for the design and development of antiviral strategies. In this chapter, we review principles underlying capsid formation in a variety of viruses, emphasizing the recent developments along with some historical perspective. PMID:22297509

Prasad, B.V. Venkataram; Schmid, Michael F

2013-01-01

280

Screening for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)  

MedlinePLUS

... FINAL | 1 Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) The U.S. Preventive Services Task ... transmit the virus to her baby. Facts About Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection Nearly 1.2 million ...

281

NATIONAL RESPIRATORY AND ENTERIC VIRUS SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System is a lab based system which monitors temporal and geographic patterns associated with the detection of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV), respiratory and enteric adenoviruses, and r...

282

Variant (Swine Origin) Influenza Viruses in Humans  

MedlinePLUS

... Submit Button Variant (Swine Origin) Influenza Viruses in Humans Language: English Español Share Compartir On this Page Background Reporting Additional Information Key Facts about Human Infections with Variant Viruses (Swine Origin Influenza Viruses ...

283

Antigenic determinants in influenza virus hemagglutinin.  

PubMed Central

Three antigenic determinants were revealed in H3 hemagglutinin of influenza A viruses isolated from 1968 to 1975. One of them was common for all viruses, and two others specified differences between the viruses possessing H3 hemagglutinin. PMID:89090

Rovnova, Z I; Kosyakov, P N; Berezina, O N; Isayeva, E I; Zhdanov, V M

1979-01-01

284

Introducing Virological Concepts Using an Insect Virus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A technique is presented which utilizes wax moth larvae in a laboratory investigation of an insect virus. Describes how an insect virus can be used to introduce undergraduate biology students to laboratory work on viruses and several virological concepts. (SA)

Sheppard, Roger F.

1980-01-01

285

DETECTING UNDETECTABLE COMPUTER VIRUSES A Project Report  

E-print Network

DETECTING UNDETECTABLE COMPUTER VIRUSES A Project Report Presented to The Faculty of the Department Titled DETECTING UNDETECTABLE COMPUTER VIRUSES by Sujandharan Venkatachalam on patterns present in viruses and provides a relatively simple and efficient method for detecting known

Stamp, Mark

286

FAQ: West Nile Virus and Dead Birds  

MedlinePLUS

... Virus Share Compartir FAQ: West Nile Virus & Dead Birds How do birds get infected with West Nile ... dead bird sightings to local authorities. How do birds get infected with West Nile virus? West Nile ...

287

Mechanisms of virus assembly  

E-print Network

Viruses are nanoscale entities containing a nucleic acid genome encased in a protein shell called a capsid, and in some cases surrounded by a lipid bilayer membrane. This review summarizes the physics that govern the processes by which capsids assembles within their host cells and in vitro. We describe the thermodynamics and kinetics for assembly of protein subunits into icosahedral capsid shells, and how these are modified in cases where the capsid assembles around a nucleic acid or on a lipid bilayer. We present experimental and theoretical techniques that have been used to characterize capsid assembly, and we highlight aspects of virus assembly which are likely to receive significant attention in the near future.

Jason D Perlmutter; Michael F Hagan

2014-07-15

288

The encephalomyocarditis virus  

PubMed Central

The encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) is a small non-enveloped single-strand RNA virus, the causative agent of not only myocarditis and encephalitis, but also neurological diseases, reproductive disorders and diabetes in many mammalian species. EMCV pathogenesis appears to be viral strain- and host-specific, and a better understanding of EMCV virulence factors is increasingly required. Indeed, EMCV is often used as a model for diabetes and viral myocarditis, and is also widely used in immunology as a double-stranded RNA stimulus in the study of Toll-like as well as cytosolic receptors. However, EMCV virulence and properties have often been neglected. Moreover, EMCV is able to infect humans albeit with a low morbidity. Progress on xenografts, such as pig heart transplantation in humans, has raised safety concerns that need to be explored. In this review we will highlight the biology of EMCV and all known and potential virulence factors. PMID:22722247

Carocci, Margot; Bakkali-Kassimi, Labib

2012-01-01

289

Reverse Genetics with Animal Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

New strategies to genetically manipulate the genomes of several important animal pathogens have been established in recent\\u000a years. This article focuses on the reverse genetics techniques, which enables genetic manipulation of the genomes of non-segmented\\u000a negative-sense RNA viruses. Recovery of a negative-sense RNA virus entirely from cDNA was first achieved for rabies virus\\u000a in 1994. Since then, reverse genetic systems

Teshome Mebatsion

290

Viruses manipulate the marine environment.  

PubMed

Marine viruses affect Bacteria, Archaea and eukaryotic organisms and are major components of the marine food web. Most studies have focused on their role as predators and parasites, but many of the interactions between marine viruses and their hosts are much more complicated. A series of recent studies has shown that viruses have the ability to manipulate the life histories and evolution of their hosts in remarkable ways, challenging our understanding of this almost invisible world. PMID:19444207

Rohwer, Forest; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

2009-05-14

291

Virus Interference. I. The Interferon  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a study of the interference produced by heat-inactivated influenza virus with the growth of live virus in fragments of chick chorio-allantoic membrane it was found that following incubation of heated virus with membrane a new factor was released. This factor, recognized by its ability to induce interference in fresh pieces of chorio-allantoic membrane, was called interferon. Following a lag

A. Isaacs; J. Lindenmann

1957-01-01

292

VIRUS instrument collimator assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Visual Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument is a baseline array 150 identical fiber fed optical spectrographs designed to support observations for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). The collimator subassemblies of the instrument have been assembled in a production line and are now complete. Here we review the design choices and assembly practices used to produce a suite of identical low-cost spectrographs in a timely fashion using primarily unskilled labor.

Marshall, Jennifer L.; DePoy, Darren L.; Prochaska, Travis; Allen, Richard D.; Williams, Patrick; Rheault, Jean-Philippe; Li, Ting; Nagasawa, Daniel Q.; Akers, Christopher; Baker, David; Boster, Emily; Campbell, Caitlin; Cook, Erika; Elder, Alison; Gary, Alex; Glover, Joseph; James, Michael; Martin, Emily; Meador, Will; Mondrik, Nicholas; Rodriguez-Patino, Marisela; Villanueva, Steven; Hill, Gary J.; Tuttle, Sarah; Vattiat, Brian; Lee, Hanshin; Chonis, Taylor S.; Dalton, Gavin B.; Tacon, Mike

2014-07-01

293

Genus Orthopoxvirus: Cowpox virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cowpox virus (CPXV) is distinguished from other orthopoxvirus (OPV) species by producing cytoplasmic A-type inclusion bodies and flattened\\u000a pocks with a hemorrhagic center on the chorioallantoic membrane. CPXV is endemic to Western Eurasia and naturally infects\\u000a a broad range of host species including domestic animals, and zoo animals, as well as humans. Infections in humans seem to\\u000a increase in importance

Sandra Essbauer; Hermann Meyer

294

Rubella virus perturbs autophagy.  

PubMed

Autophagy is a cellular catabolic process implicated in numerous physiological processes and pathological conditions, including infections. Viruses have evolved different strategies to modulate the autophagic process. Since the effects of rubella virus (RV) on autophagy have not yet been reported, we evaluated the autophagic activity in the Statens Seruminstitut Rabbit Cornea cell line infected with the To336 strain of RV. Our results showed that RV lowered the levels of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 B-II (LC3B-II) and the autophagy-related gene 12-autophagy-related gene 5 conjugate, inhibited the autophagic flux, suppressed the intracellular redistribution of LC3B, decreased both the average number and the size of autophagosomes per cell and impeded the formation of acidic vesicular organelles. Induction of autophagy by using rapamycin decreased both the viral yields and the apoptotic rates of infected cultures. Besides its cytoprotective effects, autophagy furnishes an important antiviral mechanism, inhibition of which may reorchestrate intracellular environment so as to better serve the unique requirements of RV replication. Together, our observations suggest that RV utilizes a totally different strategy to cope with autophagy than that evolved by other positive-stranded RNA viruses, and there is considerable heterogeneity among the members of the Togaviridae family in terms of their effects on the cellular autophagic cascade. PMID:24824868

Pásztor, Kata; Orosz, László; Seprényi, György; Megyeri, Klára

2014-10-01

295

Reemergence of chikungunya virus.  

PubMed

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes acute fever and acute and chronic musculoskeletal pain in humans. Since 2004, CHIKV has caused millions of cases of disease in the Indian Ocean region and has emerged in new areas, including Europe, the Middle East, and the Pacific region. The mosquito vectors for this virus are globally distributed in tropical and temperate zones, providing the opportunity for CHIKV to continue to expand into new geographic regions. In October 2013, locally acquired cases of CHIKV infection were identified on the Caribbean island of Saint Martin, signaling the arrival of the virus in the Western Hemisphere. In just 9 months, CHIKV has spread to 22 countries in the Caribbean and Central and South America, resulting in hundreds of thousands of cases. CHIKV disease can be highly debilitating, and large epidemics have severe economic consequences. Thus, there is an urgent need for continued research into the epidemiology, pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of these infections. PMID:25078691

Morrison, Thomas E

2014-10-01

296

Nonintegrating Foamy Virus Vectors?  

PubMed Central

Foamy viruses (FVs), or spumaviruses, are integrating retroviruses that have been developed as vectors. Here we generated nonintegrating foamy virus (NIFV) vectors by introducing point mutations into the highly conserved DD35E catalytic core motif of the foamy virus integrase sequence. NIFV vectors produced high-titer stocks, transduced dividing cells, and did not integrate. Cells infected with NIFV vectors contained episomal vector genomes that consisted of linear, 1-long-terminal-repeat (1-LTR), and 2-LTR circular DNAs. These episomes expressed transgenes, were stable, and became progressively diluted in the dividing cell population. 1-LTR circles but not 2-LTR circles were found in all vector stocks prior to infection. Residual integration of NIFV vectors occurred at a frequency 4 logs lower than that of integrase-proficient FV vectors. Cre recombinase expressed from a NIFV vector mediated excision of both an integrated, floxed FV vector and a gene-targeted neo expression cassette, demonstrating the utility of these episomal vectors. The broad host range and large packaging capacity of NIFV vectors should make them useful for a variety of applications requiring transient gene expression. PMID:20592072

Deyle, David R.; Li, Yi; Olson, Erik M.; Russell, David W.

2010-01-01

297

RECOVIR Software for Identifying Viruses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses mutate rapidly to generate a large number of strains with highly divergent capsid sequences. Determining the capsid residues or nucleotides that uniquely characterize these strains is critical in understanding the strain diversity of these viruses. RECOVIR (an acronym for "recognize viruses") software predicts the strains of some ssRNA viruses from their limited sequence data. Novel phylogenetic-tree-based databases of protein or nucleic acid residues that uniquely characterize these virus strains are created. Strains of input virus sequences (partial or complete) are predicted through residue-wise comparisons with the databases. RECOVIR uses unique characterizing residues to identify automatically strains of partial or complete capsid sequences of picorna and caliciviruses, two of the most highly diverse ssRNA virus families. Partition-wise comparisons of the database residues with the corresponding residues of more than 300 complete and partial sequences of these viruses resulted in correct strain identification for all of these sequences. This study shows the feasibility of creating databases of hitherto unknown residues uniquely characterizing the capsid sequences of two of the most highly divergent ssRNA virus families. These databases enable automated strain identification from partial or complete capsid sequences of these human and animal pathogens.

Chakravarty, Sugoto; Fox, George E.; Zhu, Dianhui

2013-01-01

298

Limits in virus filtration capability? Impact of virus quality and spike level on virus removal with xenotropic murine leukemia virus.  

PubMed

Virus filtration (VF) is a key step in an overall viral clearance process since it has been demonstrated to effectively clear a wide range of mammalian viruses with a log reduction value (LRV)?>?4. The potential to achieve higher LRV from virus retentive filters has historically been examined using bacteriophage surrogates, which commonly demonstrated a potential of?>?9 LRV when using high titer spikes (e.g. 10(10) PFU/mL). However, as the filter loading increases, one typically experiences significant decreases in performance and LRV. The 9 LRV value is markedly higher than the current expected range of 4-5 LRV when utilizing mammalian retroviruses on virus removal filters (Miesegaes et al., Dev Biol (Basel) 2010;133:3-101). Recent values have been reported in the literature (Stuckey et al., Biotech Progr 2014;30:79-85) of LRV in excess of 6 for PPV and XMuLV although this result appears to be atypical. LRV for VF with therapeutic proteins could be limited by several factors including process limits (flux decay, load matrix), virus spike level and the analytical methods used for virus detection (i.e. the Limits of Quantitation), as well as the virus spike quality. Research was conducted using the Xenotropic-Murine Leukemia Virus (XMuLV) for its direct relevance to the most commonly cited document, the International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) Q5A (International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use, Geneva, Switzerland, 1999) for viral safety evaluations. A unique aspect of this work is the independent evaluation of the impact of retrovirus quality and virus spike level on VF performance and LRV. The VF studies used XMuLV preparations purified by either ultracentrifugation (Ultra 1) or by chromatographic processes that yielded a more highly purified virus stock (Ultra 2). Two monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) with markedly different filtration characteristics and with similar levels of aggregate (<1.5%) were evaluated with the Ultra 1 and Ultra 2 virus preparations utilizing the Planova 20 N, a small virus removal filter. Impurities in the virus preparation ultimately limited filter loading as measured by determining the volumetric loading condition where 75% flux decay is observed versus initial conditions (V75 ). This observation occurred with both Mabs with the difference in virus purity more pronounced when very high spike levels were used (>5 vol/vol %). Significant differences were seen for the process performance over a number of lots of the less-pure Ultra 1 virus preparations. Experiments utilizing a developmental lot of the chromatographic purified XMuLV (Ultra 2 Development lot) that had elevated levels of host cell residuals (vs. the final Ultra 2 preparations) suggest that these contaminant residuals can impact virus filter fouling, even if the virus prep is essentially monodisperse. Process studies utilizing an Ultra 2 virus with substantially less host cell residuals and highly monodispersed virus particles demonstrated superior performance and an LRV in excess of 7.7 log10 . A model was constructed demonstrating the linear dependence of filtration flux versus filter loading which can be used to predict the V75 for a range of virus spike levels conditions using this highly purified virus. Fine tuning the virus spike level with this model can ultimately maximize the LRV for the virus filter step, essentially adding the LRV equivalent of another process step (i.e. protein A or CEX chromatography). © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2014. PMID:25395156

Roush, David J; Myrold, Adam; Burnham, Michael S; And, Joseph V; Hughes, Joseph V

2014-11-14

299

Computer virus information update CIAC-2301  

SciTech Connect

While CIAC periodically issues bulletins about specific computer viruses, these bulletins do not cover all the computer viruses that affect desktop computers. The purpose of this document is to identify most of the known viruses for the MS-DOS and Macintosh platforms and give an overview of the effects of each virus. The authors also include information on some windows, Atari, and Amiga viruses. This document is revised periodically as new virus information becomes available. This document replaces all earlier versions of the CIAC Computer virus Information Update. The date on the front cover indicates date on which the information in this document was extracted from CIAC`s Virus database.

Orvis, W.J.

1994-01-15

300

McAfee's Virus Information Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

McAfee, the well-known anti-virus software company, offers this free library, containing information on over 40,000 known PC viruses. Virus details include their source, how they infect your computer, and how to remove them. Users can search for viruses by keyword or browse by category. The site also lists new viruses, the year's top ten, and hoax viruses. Although in most cases the instructions for virus removal include the use of a McAfee product, the site is still an excellent source of virus information.

301

Structure of Flexible Filamentous Plant Viruses  

SciTech Connect

Flexible filamentous viruses make up a large fraction of the known plant viruses, but in comparison with those of other viruses, very little is known about their structures. We have used fiber diffraction, cryo-electron microscopy, and scanning transmission electron microscopy to determine the symmetry of a potyvirus, soybean mosaic virus; to confirm the symmetry of a potexvirus, potato virus X; and to determine the low-resolution structures of both viruses. We conclude that these viruses and, by implication, most or all flexible filamentous plant viruses share a common coat protein fold and helical symmetry, with slightly less than 9 subunits per helical turn.

Kendall, Amy; McDonald, Michele; Bian, Wen; Bowles, Timothy; Baumgarten, Sarah C.; Shi, Jian; Stewart, Phoebe L.; Bullitt, Esther; Gore, David; Irving, Thomas C.; Havens, Wendy M.; Ghabrial, Said A.; Wall, Joseph S.; Stubbs, Gerald (IIT); (BU-M); (Vanderbilt); (Kentucky); (BNL)

2008-10-23

302

Human viruses: discovery and emergence  

PubMed Central

There are 219 virus species that are known to be able to infect humans. The first of these to be discovered was yellow fever virus in 1901, and three to four new species are still being found every year. Extrapolation of the discovery curve suggests that there is still a substantial pool of undiscovered human virus species, although an apparent slow-down in the rate of discovery of species from different families may indicate bounds to the potential range of diversity. More than two-thirds of human viruses can also infect non-human hosts, mainly mammals, and sometimes birds. Many specialist human viruses also have mammalian or avian origins. Indeed, a substantial proportion of mammalian viruses may be capable of crossing the species barrier into humans, although only around half of these are capable of being transmitted by humans and around half again of transmitting well enough to cause major outbreaks. A few possible predictors of species jumps can be identified, including the use of phylogenetically conserved cell receptors. It seems almost inevitable that new human viruses will continue to emerge, mainly from other mammals and birds, for the foreseeable future. For this reason, an effective global surveillance system for novel viruses is needed. PMID:22966141

Woolhouse, Mark; Scott, Fiona; Hudson, Zoe; Howey, Richard; Chase-Topping, Margo

2012-01-01

303

INTERACTIONS OF VIRUS AND HOST  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an ubiquitous pathogen of ruminants, found worldwide that is often associated with severe economic losses. Understanding these viruses, particularly at the cellular and molecular levels, is important to develop new vaccination and treatment strategies for produc...

304

Defining life: the virus viewpoint.  

PubMed

Are viruses alive? Until very recently, answering this question was often negative and viruses were not considered in discussions on the origin and definition of life. This situation is rapidly changing, following several discoveries that have modified our vision of viruses. It has been recognized that viruses have played (and still play) a major innovative role in the evolution of cellular organisms. New definitions of viruses have been proposed and their position in the universal tree of life is actively discussed. Viruses are no more confused with their virions, but can be viewed as complex living entities that transform the infected cell into a novel organism-the virus-producing virions. I suggest here to define life (an historical process) as the mode of existence of ribosome encoding organisms (cells) and capsid encoding organisms (viruses) and their ancestors. I propose to define an organism as an ensemble of integrated organs (molecular or cellular) producing individuals evolving through natural selection. The origin of life on our planet would correspond to the establishment of the first organism corresponding to this definition. PMID:20198436

Forterre, Patrick

2010-04-01

305

Lagos Bat Virus, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Three more isolates of Lagos bat virus were recently recovered from fruit bats in South Africa after an apparent absence of this virus for 13 years. The sporadic occurrence of cases is likely due to inadequate surveillance programs for lyssavirus infections among bat populations in Africa. PMID:16704795

Markotter, Wanda; Randles, Jenny; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Sabeta, Claude T.; Taylor, Peter J.; Wandeler, Alex I.

2006-01-01

306

Oropouche Virus Isolation, Southeast Brazil  

PubMed Central

An Oropouche virus strain was isolated from a novel host (Callithrix sp.) in Arinos, Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. The virus was identified by complement fixation test and confirmed by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenetic analysis identified this strain as a genotype III isolate previously recognized only in Panama. PMID:16318707

Martins, Lívia Carício; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Chiang, Jannifer Oliveira; Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro da Silva; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P.A.; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

2005-01-01

307

Virioplankton: viruses in aquatic ecosystems.  

PubMed

The discovery that viruses may be the most abundant organisms in natural waters, surpassing the number of bacteria by an order of magnitude, has inspired a resurgence of interest in viruses in the aquatic environment. Surprisingly little was known of the interaction of viruses and their hosts in nature. In the decade since the reports of extraordinarily large virus populations were published, enumeration of viruses in aquatic environments has demonstrated that the virioplankton are dynamic components of the plankton, changing dramatically in number with geographical location and season. The evidence to date suggests that virioplankton communities are composed principally of bacteriophages and, to a lesser extent, eukaryotic algal viruses. The influence of viral infection and lysis on bacterial and phytoplankton host communities was measurable after new methods were developed and prior knowledge of bacteriophage biology was incorporated into concepts of parasite and host community interactions. The new methods have yielded data showing that viral infection can have a significant impact on bacteria and unicellular algae populations and supporting the hypothesis that viruses play a significant role in microbial food webs. Besides predation limiting bacteria and phytoplankton populations, the specific nature of virus-host interaction raises the intriguing possibility that viral infection influences the structure and diversity of aquatic microbial communities. Novel applications of molecular genetic techniques have provided good evidence that viral infection can significantly influence the composition and diversity of aquatic microbial communities. PMID:10704475

Wommack, K E; Colwell, R R

2000-03-01

308

Swine Influenza Virus: Emerging Understandings  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Introduction: In March-April 2009, a novel pandemic H1N1 emerged in the human population in North America [1]. The gene constellation of the emerging virus was demonstrated to be a combination of genes from swine influenza A viruses (SIV) of North American and Eurasian lineages that had never before...

309

Respiratory viruses and cot death  

Microsoft Academic Search

Respiratory viruses and histological appearances of the lung were studied prospectively in an unselected series of 104 children who died between 1 week and 2 years of age. Thirty-one of the cases were cot deaths. Seven of these showed evidence of active virus infection in the lower respiratory tract. Similar evidence was found in two children who died from known

D J Scott; P S Gardner; J McQuillin; A N Stanton; M A Downham

1978-01-01

310

Virioplankton: Viruses in Aquatic Ecosystems†  

PubMed Central

The discovery that viruses may be the most abundant organisms in natural waters, surpassing the number of bacteria by an order of magnitude, has inspired a resurgence of interest in viruses in the aquatic environment. Surprisingly little was known of the interaction of viruses and their hosts in nature. In the decade since the reports of extraordinarily large virus populations were published, enumeration of viruses in aquatic environments has demonstrated that the virioplankton are dynamic components of the plankton, changing dramatically in number with geographical location and season. The evidence to date suggests that virioplankton communities are composed principally of bacteriophages and, to a lesser extent, eukaryotic algal viruses. The influence of viral infection and lysis on bacterial and phytoplankton host communities was measurable after new methods were developed and prior knowledge of bacteriophage biology was incorporated into concepts of parasite and host community interactions. The new methods have yielded data showing that viral infection can have a significant impact on bacteria and unicellular algae populations and supporting the hypothesis that viruses play a significant role in microbial food webs. Besides predation limiting bacteria and phytoplankton populations, the specific nature of virus-host interaction raises the intriguing possibility that viral infection influences the structure and diversity of aquatic microbial communities. Novel applications of molecular genetic techniques have provided good evidence that viral infection can significantly influence the composition and diversity of aquatic microbial communities. PMID:10704475

Wommack, K. Eric; Colwell, Rita R.

2000-01-01

311

Herpes viruses hedge their bets.  

PubMed

Static latency is the hallmark of all herpes viruses. The varicella zoster virus, for instance, causes varicella (chickenpox), and after a latent phase of between 5 and 40 years, it can give rise to herpes zoster (shingles). This latency and the subsequent reactivation has intrigued and puzzled virologists. Although several factors have been suggested, it is unknown what triggers reactivation. However, latency can be explained with a simple evolutionary model. Here, we demonstrate that a simple, yet efficient, bet-hedging strategy might have evolved in a number of viruses, especially those belonging to the herpes virus family and most importantly in varicella zoster virus. We show that the evolution of latency can be explained by the population dynamics of infectious diseases in fluctuating host populations. PMID:12409612

Stumpf, Michael P H; Laidlaw, Zoe; Jansen, Vincent A A

2002-11-12

312

Do viruses require the cytoskeleton?  

PubMed Central

Background It is generally thought that viruses require the cytoskeleton during their replication cycle. However, recent experiments in our laboratory with rubella virus, a member of the family Togaviridae (genus rubivirus), revealed that replication proceeded in the presence of drugs that inhibit microtubules. This study was done to expand on this observation. Findings The replication of three diverse viruses, Sindbis virus (SINV; family Togaviridae family), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV; family Rhabdoviridae), and Herpes simplex virus (family Herpesviridae), was quantified by the titer (plaque forming units/ml; pfu/ml) produced in cells treated with one of three anti-microtubule drugs (colchicine, noscapine, or paclitaxel) or the anti-actin filament drug, cytochalasin D. None of these drugs affected the replication these viruses. Specific steps in the SINV infection cycle were examined during drug treatment to determine if alterations in specific steps in the virus replication cycle in the absence of a functional cytoskeletal system could be detected, i.e. redistribution of viral proteins and replication complexes or increases/decreases in their abundance. These investigations revealed that the observable impacts were a colchicine-mediated fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus and concomitant intracellular redistribution of the virion structural proteins, along with a reduction in viral genome and sub-genome RNA levels, but not double-stranded RNA or protein levels. Conclusions The failure of poisons affecting the cytoskeleton to inhibit the replication of a diverse set of viruses strongly suggests that viruses do not require a functional cytoskeletal system for replication, either because they do not utilize it or are able to utilize alternate pathways when it is not available. PMID:23597412

2013-01-01

313

Expression of envelope glycoproteins of human immunodeficiency virus by an insect virus vector.  

PubMed Central

The envelope gene of human immunodeficiency virus was inserted into the genome of an insect virus vector (Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus). Upon infection of tissue culture cells, this recombinant virus produced immunoreactive polypeptides related to the envelope glycoproteins of human immunodeficiency virus. Serological survey indicates such polypeptides would be of value as antigens in diagnostics for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Images PMID:3312636

Hu, S I; Kosowski, S G; Schaaf, K F

1987-01-01

314

Complete Genome Sequence of Le Blanc Virus, a Third Caenorhabditis Nematode-Infecting Virus  

E-print Network

Complete Genome Sequence of Le Blanc Virus, a Third Caenorhabditis Nematode-Infecting Virus Carl J,a and Institute of Biology of the Ecole Normale Supérieure (IBENS), Paris, Franceb Orsay virus and Santeuil virus, the first known viruses capable of naturally infecting the nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans

Wang, David

315

Comportement de deux virus filamenteux (Carnation Vein Mottle Virus, Carnation Streak  

E-print Network

Comportement de deux virus filamenteux (Carnation Vein Mottle Virus, Carnation Streak Virus) dans Botanique et de Pathologie végétale, Villa Thuret, B.P. 78, 06602 Antibes Cedex. R�SUM� Virus filamenteux, Dosage, Spectrophotométrie, OEillet. L'évolution de la teneur en virus de la Marbrure des Nervures de l

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

316

Co-infections with Chikungunya Virus and Dengue Virus in Delhi, India  

PubMed Central

Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are common vectors for dengue virus and chikungunya virus. In areas where both viruses cocirculate, they can be transmitted together. During a dengue outbreak in Delhi in 2006, 17 of 69 serum samples were positive for chikungunya virus by reverse transcription–PCR; 6 samples were positive for both viruses. PMID:19624923

Chahar, Harendra S.; Bharaj, Preeti; Dar, Lalit; Guleria, Randeep; Kabra, Sushil K.

2009-01-01

317

Infectious vaccinia virus recombinants that express hepatitis B virus surface antigen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Potential live vaccines against hepatitis B virus have been produced. The coding sequence for hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) has been inserted into the vaccinia virus genome under control of vaccinia virus early promoters. Cells infected with these vaccinia virus recombinants synthesize and excrete HBsAg and vaccinated rabbits rapidly produce antibodies to HBsAg.

Smith, Geoffrey L.; Mackett, Michael; Moss, Bernard

1983-04-01

318

The Acute bee paralysis virus-Kashmir bee virus-Israeli acute paralysis virus complex.  

PubMed

Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV) and Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) are part of a complex of closely related viruses from the Family Dicistroviridae. These viruses have a widespread prevalence in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies and a predominantly sub-clinical etiology that contrasts sharply with the extremely virulent pathology encountered at elevated titres, either artificially induced or encountered naturally. These viruses are frequently implicated in honey bee colony losses, especially when the colonies are infested with the parasitic mite Varroa destructor. Here we review the historical and recent literature of this virus complex, covering history and origins; the geographic, host and tissue distribution; pathology and transmission; genetics and variation; diagnostics, and discuss these within the context of the molecular and biological similarities and differences between the viruses. We also briefly discuss three recent developments relating specifically to IAPV, concerning its association with Colony Collapse Disorder, treatment of IAPV infection with siRNA and possible honey bee resistance to IAPV. PMID:19909972

de Miranda, Joachim R; Cordoni, Guido; Budge, Giles

2010-01-01

319

Virus Evolution: Insights from an Experimental  

E-print Network

Virus Evolution: Insights from an Experimental Approach Santiago F. Elena and Rafael Sanju Viruses represent a serious problem faced by human and veterinary medicine and agronomy. New viruses indicates that the evolution of viruses is determined mainly by key features such as their small genomes

Elena, Santiago F.

320

Virus Versus Mankind Aviezri S. Fraenkel  

E-print Network

Virus Versus Mankind Aviezri S. Fraenkel Department of Computer Science and Applied Mathematics://www.wisdom.weizmann.ac.il/~fraenkel Humanity is but a passing episode in the eternal life of the virus Abstract. We define a two­player virus game played on a finite cyclic digraph G = (V; E). Each vertex is either occupied by a single virus

Fraenkel, Aviezri

321

Label-Free Chemiresistive Immunosensors for Viruses  

E-print Network

Label-Free Chemiresistive Immunosensors for Viruses D H A M M A N A N D J . S H I R A L E , M A N of viruses. Bacteriophages T7 and MS2 were used as safe models for viruses for demonstration. Ppy nanowires, and affordable detection of bioagents/pathogens. Introduction Detection of viruses is central to human health

Chen, Wilfred

322

Safe Computing: An Overview of Viruses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computer virus is a program that replicates itself, in conjunction with an additional program that can harm a computer system. Common viruses include boot-sector, macro, companion, overwriting, and multipartite. Viruses can be fast, slow, stealthy, and polymorphic. Anti-virus products are described. (MLH)

Wodarz, Nan

2001-01-01

323

Hepatitis E Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a worldwide disease. An improved understanding of the natural history of HEV infection has been achieved within the last decade. Several reservoirs and transmission modes have been identified. Hepatitis E is an underdiagnosed disease, in part due to the use of serological assays with low sensitivity. However, diagnostic tools, including nucleic acid-based tests, have been improved. The epidemiology and clinical features of hepatitis E differ between developing and developed countries. HEV infection is usually an acute self-limiting disease, but in developed countries it causes chronic infection with rapidly progressive cirrhosis in organ transplant recipients, patients with hematological malignancy requiring chemotherapy, and individuals with HIV. HEV also causes extrahepatic manifestations, including a number of neurological syndromes and renal injury. Acute infection usually requires no treatment, but chronic infection should be treated by reducing immunosuppression in transplant patients and/or the use of antiviral therapy. In this comprehensive review, we summarize the current knowledge about the virus itself, as well as the epidemiology, diagnostics, natural history, and management of HEV infection in developing and developed countries. PMID:24396139

Dalton, Harry R.; Abravanel, Florence; Izopet, Jacques

2014-01-01

324

Virus interactions with human signal transduction pathways  

PubMed Central

Viruses depend on their hosts at every stage of their life cycles and must therefore communicate with them via Protein-Protein Interactions (PPIs). To investigate the mechanisms of communication by different viruses, we overlay reported pairwise human-virus PPIs on human signalling pathways. Of 671 pathways obtained from NCI and Reactome databases, 355 are potentially targeted by at least one virus. The majority of pathways are linked to more than one virus. We find evidence supporting the hypothesis that viruses often interact with different proteins depending on the targeted pathway. Pathway analysis indicates overrepresentation of some pathways targeted by viruses. The merged network of the most statistically significant pathways shows several centrally located proteins, which are also hub proteins. Generally, hub proteins are targeted more frequently by viruses. Numerous proteins in virus-targeted pathways are known drug targets, suggesting that these might be exploited as potential new approaches to treatments against multiple viruses. PMID:21330695

Zhao, Zhongming; Xia, Junfeng; Tastan, Oznur; Singh, Irtisha; Kshirsagar, Meghana; Carbonell, Jaime; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith

2011-01-01

325

Transmitting Plant Viruses Using Whiteflies  

PubMed Central

Whiteflies, Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, Bemisia tabaci, a complex of morphologically indistinquishable species5, are vectors of many plant viruses. Several genera of these whitefly-transmitted plant viruses (Begomovirus, Carlavirus, Crinivirus, Ipomovirus, Torradovirus) include several hundred species of emerging and economically significant pathogens of important food and fiber crops (reviewed by9,10,16). These viruses do not replicate in their vector but nevertheless are moved readily from plant to plant by the adult whitefly by various means (reviewed by2,6,7,9,10,11,17). For most of these viruses whitefly feeding is required for acquisition and inoculation, while for others only probing is required. Many of these viruses are unable or cannot be easily transmitted by other means. Therefore maintenance of virus cultures, biological and molecular characterization (identification of host range and symptoms)3,13, ecology2,12, require that the viruses be transmitted to experimental hosts using the whitefly vector. In addition the development of new approaches to management, such as evaluation of new chemicals14 or compounds15, new cultural approaches1,4,19, or the selection and development of resistant cultivars7,8,18, requires the use of whiteflies for virus transmission. The use of whitefly transmission of plant viruses for the selection and development of resistant cultivars in breeding programs is particularly challenging7. Effective selection and screening for resistance employs large numbers of plants and there is a need for 100% of the plants to be inoculated in order to find the few genotypes which possess resistance genes. These studies use very large numbers of viruliferous whiteflies, often several times per year. Whitefly maintenance described here can generate hundreds or thousands of adult whiteflies on plants each week, year round, without the contamination of other plant viruses. Plants free of both whiteflies and virus must be produced to introduce into the whitefly colony each week. Whitefly cultures must be kept free of whitefly pathogens, parasites, and parasitoids that can reduce whitefly populations and/or reduce the transmission efficiency of the virus. Colonies produced in the manner described can be quickly scaled to increase or decrease population numbers as needed, and can be adjusted to accommodate the feeding preferences of the whitefly based on the plant host of the virus. There are two basic types of whitefly colonies that can be maintained: a nonviruliferous and a viruliferous whitefly colony. The nonviruliferous colony is composed of whiteflies reared on virus-free plants and allows the weekly availability of whiteflies which can be used to transmit viruses from different cultures. The viruliferous whitefly colony, composed of whiteflies reared on virus-infected plants, allows weekly availability of whiteflies which have acquired the virus thus omitting one step in the virus transmission process. PMID:24300175

Polston, Jane E.; Capobianco, H.

2013-01-01

326

21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. 866.3240...866.3240 Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents are...

2010-04-01

327

21 CFR 866.3360 - Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. 866.3360 Section...866.3360 Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents are devices...

2010-04-01

328

21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. 866.3240...866.3240 Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents are...

2014-04-01

329

21 CFR 866.3360 - Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. 866.3360 Section...866.3360 Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents are devices...

2013-04-01

330

21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. 866.3240...866.3240 Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents are...

2011-04-01

331

21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. 866.3240...866.3240 Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents are...

2012-04-01

332

21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. 866.3240...866.3240 Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents are...

2013-04-01

333

21 CFR 866.3360 - Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. 866.3360 Section...866.3360 Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents are devices...

2011-04-01

334

21 CFR 866.3360 - Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. 866.3360 Section...866.3360 Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents are devices...

2014-04-01

335

21 CFR 866.3360 - Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. 866.3360 Section...866.3360 Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents are devices...

2012-04-01

336

9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.215 Section 113.215 Animals and...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS;...

2010-01-01

337

Polymerase Activity of Pichinde Virus  

PubMed Central

Pichinde virus, a member of the arenavirus group, was examined for polymerase activity. Purified virus was found to contain RNA-dependent RNA polymerase but not RNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity. Since RNase but neither DNase nor actinomycin D inhibited the endogenous polymerase reaction, RNA of the virus appeared to be used as the template. The divalent cations Mg2+ and Mn2+ were required for optimal reactivity. The RNA product was partially resistant to RNase and the resistant portion had a sedimentation coefficient of 22 to 26S in sucrose gradients. PMID:4132669

Carter, Michael F.; Biswal, Nilambar; Rawls, William E.

1974-01-01

338

Phylogenetic Relationship of the Complete Rauscher Murine Leukemia Virus Genome with Other Murine Leukemia Virus Genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of Rauscher murine leukemia virus (R-MuLV), the replication-competent helper virus present in the Rauscher virus complex, and its phylogenetic relationship with other murine leukemia virus genomes. An overall sequence identity of 97.6% was found between R-MuLV and the Friend helper virus (F-MuLV), and the two viruses were closely related on the

Anis H Khimani; Michael Lim; Thomas G Graf; Temple F Smith; Ruth M Ruprecht

1997-01-01

339

Rubella Virus Replication Complexes Are Virus-Modified Lysosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Replication complexes are membrane-bound cytoplasmic vacuoles involved in rubella virus (RV) replication. These structures can be identified by their characteristic morphology at the electron microscopy (EM) level and by their association with double-stranded (ds) RNA in immunogold labeling EM studies. Although these virus-induced structures bear some resemblance to lysosomes, their exact nature and origin are unknown. In this study, the

Dianna Magliano; John A. Marshall; D. Scott Bowden; Nicholas Vardaxis; Jayesh Meanger; Jia-Yee Lee

1998-01-01

340

Grapevine fleck virus-like viruses in Vitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?Two sets of degenerate primers for the specific amplification of 572–575?nt and 386?nt segments of the methyltransferase\\u000a and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase cistrons of members of the genera Tymovirus and Marafivirus and of the unassigned virus Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV) were designed on the basis of available sequences. These primers\\u000a were used for amplifying and subsequent cloning and sequencing part of

S. Sabanadzovic; N. Abou-Ghanem; M. A. Castellano; M. Digiaro; G. P. Martelli

2000-01-01

341

RATIOS OF VACCINIA VIRUS PARTICLES TO VIRUS INFECTIOUS UNITS  

PubMed Central

Total virus particle counts, infectivity titrations and the ratios between particles and infective units have been determined for vaccinia virus infected tissues. Growth curves of vaccinia in the chorioallantoic membrane are characterized by relatively low ratios from 1 to 4 days after inoculation and a marked rise in the ratio at more prolonged intervals. Ratio determinations of vaccinia virus passages in the egg, rabbit skin, and guinea pig skin have been made to study the phenomenon of adaptation in different hosts. The embryonated egg chorioallantoic membrane shows no variation in the ratio of particles to infectious units during passage and it is concluded that this host is completely susceptible to vaccinia. During adaptive passages on the skin of rabbits and guinea pigs relatively large amounts of non-infective virus appear as indicated by a rise in the particle-infectivity ratios. The extent of ratio increase appears related to the general resistance of the host to the virus. Finally, treatment of crude tissue extracts with sonic vibration is described as an aid in dispersing the virus particles for quantitative particle counts. PMID:14429524

Overman, John R.; Sharp, D. Gordon

1959-01-01

342

Human immunodeficiency virus endocrinopathy  

PubMed Central

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) endocrinopathy encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders. Almost all the endocrine organs are virtually affected by HIV infection. HIV can directly alter glandular function. More commonly secondary endocrine dysfunction occurs due to opportunistic infections and neoplasms in immunocompromised state. The complex interaction between HIV infection and endocrine system may be manifested as subtle biochemical and hormonal perturbation to overt glandular failure. Antiretroviral therapy as well as other essential medications often result in adverse endocrinal consequences. Apart from adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadism, diabetes and bone loss, AIDS wasting syndrome and HIV lipodystrophy need special reference. Endocrinal evaluation should proceed as in other patients with suspected endocrine dysfunction. Available treatment options have been shown to improve quality of life and long-term mortality in AIDS patients. PMID:22028995

Sinha, Uma; Sengupta, Nilanjan; Mukhopadhyay, Prasanta; Roy, Keshab Sinha

2011-01-01

343

Bronchiolitis and Respiratory Syncytial Virus  

MedlinePLUS

ADVICE FOR PATIENTS Bronchiolitis and Respiratory Syncytial Virus B ronchiolitis is an infection that affects the lungs and breathing passages; the name “bronchiolitis” means inflammation of the small airways in the ...

344

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV): Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... enabling JavaScript. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Symptoms Most children ... that can be heard High fever Cough with green or yellow mucus back to top Last Updated ...

345

Foodborne viruses: an emerging problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several groups of viruses may infect persons after ingestion and then are shed via stool. Of these, the norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) are currently recognised as the most important human foodborne pathogens with regard to the number of outbreaks and people affected in the Western world.NoV and HAV are highly infectious and may lead to widespread outbreaks.

Marion Koopmans; Erwin Duizer

2004-01-01

346

Simian Varicella Virus: Molecular Virology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Simian varicella virus (SVV) is a primate herpesvirus that is closely related to varicella-zoster virus (VZV), the causative\\u000a agent of varicella (chickenpox) and herpes zoster (shingles). Epizootics of simian varicella occur sporadically in facilities\\u000a housing Old World monkeys. This review summarizes the molecular properties of SVV. The SVV and VZV genomes are similar in\\u000a size, structure, and gene arrangement. The

Wayne L. Gray

347

Movement of Viruses between Biomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viruses are abundant in all known ecosystems. In the present study, we tested the possibility that viruses from one biome can successfully propagate in another. Viral concentrates were prepared from different near-shore marine sites, lake water, marine sediments, and soil. The concentrates were added to microcosms containing dissolved organic matter as a food source (after filtration to allow 100-kDa particles

Emiko Sano; Suzanne Carlson; Linda Wegley; Forest Rohwer

2004-01-01

348

Stability of Hepatitis A Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The stabilities of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and of poliovirus type 2 were compared under strictly controlled, identical conditions of pH value, temperature, and salt concentration. Although the resistance of the viruses proved to be the same from pH 3 to 11, the temperature at which 50% of poliovirus particles became disintegrated during heating at pH 7.0 for 10

Günter Siegl; Manfred Weitz; Gertrud Kronauer

1984-01-01

349

Major tomato viruses in the Mediterranean basin.  

PubMed

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) originated in South America and was brought to Europe by the Spaniards in the sixteenth century following their colonization of Mexico. From Europe, tomato was introduced to North America in the eighteenth century. Tomato plants show a wide climatic tolerance and are grown in both tropical and temperate regions around the world. The climatic conditions in the Mediterranean basin favor tomato cultivation, where it is traditionally produced as an open-field plant. However, viral diseases are responsible for heavy yield losses and are one of the reasons that tomato production has shifted to greenhouses. The major tomato viruses endemic to the Mediterranean basin are described in this chapter. These viruses include Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, Tomato torrado virus, Tomato spotted wilt virus, Tomato infectious chlorosis virus, Tomato chlorosis virus, Pepino mosaic virus, and a few minor viruses as well. PMID:22682165

Hanssen, Inge M; Lapidot, Moshe

2012-01-01

350

9 CFR 113.209 - Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.209 Section...REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.209 Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. Rabies Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall be prepared...

2010-01-01

351

Viruses in Turing's Garden by Jean-Yves Marion  

E-print Network

Viruses in Turing's Garden by Jean-Yves Marion Cohen and his supervisor Adleman defined a virus as follows: "A virus is a program security community as a foundational definition. Thus, a virus is a self

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

352

Another Really, Really Big Virus  

PubMed Central

Viruses with genomes larger than 300 kb and up to 1.2 Mb, which encode hundreds of proteins, are being discovered and characterized with increasing frequency. Most, but not all, of these large viruses (often referred to as giruses) infect protists that live in aqueous environments. Bioinformatic analyses of metagenomes of aqueous samples indicate that large DNA viruses are quite common in nature and await discovery. One issue that is perhaps not appreciated by the virology community is that large viruses, even those classified in the same family, can differ significantly in morphology, lifestyle, and gene complement. This brief commentary, which will mention some of these unique properties, was stimulated by the characterization of the newest member of this club, virus CroV (Fischer, M.G.; Allen, M.J.; Wilson, W.H.; Suttle, C.A. Giant virus with a remarkable complement of genes infects marine zooplankton. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2010, 107, 19508–19513 [1]). CroV has a 730 kb genome (with ?544 protein-encoding genes) and infects the marine microzooplankton Cafeteria roenbergensis producing a lytic infection. PMID:21994725

Van Etten, James L.

2011-01-01

353

NOVA: Reviving the 1918 Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video with accompanying interactive activity puts learners in the role of active decision-makers regarding the ethics of a recent experiment to revive the deadly 1918 influenza virus. In 2005, researchers sequenced the germ's genome and published the data on a public database. Other researchers used the genome to bring the long-vanished killer virus back to life. Was the experiment justified, or should dead viruses be left alone? After watching the 10-minute video, an interactive activity allows learners to explore arguments from both sides, then vote online. They will consider the following: 1) Does the knowledge gained outweigh the risks? 2) What if terrorists recreated the virus? 3) What if the virus accidentally leaked into the environment, like the SARS virus in 2004? 4) Should scientists publish genome sequences of potentially deadly organisms? Editor's Note: This resource will help students see that scientists must consider the implications of their work, and whether it is responsible to freely publish all findings. Allow 50 minutes.

2010-10-21

354

A DNA Virus of Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the viruses infecting most species. Even in groups as well-studied as Drosophila, only a handful of viruses have been well-characterized. A viral metagenomic approach was used to explore viral diversity in 83 wild-caught Drosophila innubila, a mushroom feeding member of the quinaria group. A single fly that was injected with, and died from, Drosophila C Virus (DCV) was added to the sample as a control. Two-thirds of reads in the infected sample had DCV as the best BLAST hit, suggesting that the protocol developed is highly sensitive. In addition to the DCV hits, several sequences had Oryctes rhinoceros Nudivirus, a double-stranded DNA virus, as a best BLAST hit. The virus associated with these sequences was termed Drosophila innubila Nudivirus (DiNV). PCR screens of natural populations showed that DiNV was both common and widespread taxonomically and geographically. Electron microscopy confirms the presence of virions in fly fecal material similar in structure to other described Nudiviruses. In 2 species, D. innubila and D. falleni, the virus is associated with a severe (?80–90%) loss of fecundity and significantly decreased lifespan. PMID:22053195

Unckless, Robert L.

2011-01-01

355

Functional Murine Leukemia Virus Vectors Pseudotyped with the Visna Virus Envelope Show Expanded Visna Virus Cell Tropism  

PubMed Central

Pseudotype virus vectors serve as a powerful tool for the study of virus receptor usage and entry. We describe the development of murine leukemia virus (MuLV) particles pseudotyped with the visna virus envelope glycoprotein and encoding a green fluorescent protein reporter as a tool to study the expression of the visna virus receptor. Functional MuLV/visna virus pseudotypes were obtained when the cytoplasmic tail of the visna virus envelope TM protein was truncated to 3, 7, or 11 amino acids in length. MuLV/visna virus particles were used to transduce a panel of cell types from various organisms, including sheep, goat, human, hamster, mouse, monkey, and quail. The majority of the cells examined were susceptible to MuLV/visna pseudotype viruses, supporting the notion that the visna virus cellular receptor is a widely expressed protein found in many species. Of 16 different cell types tested, only mouse embryo fibroblast NIH 3T3 cells, hamster ovary CHO cells, and the human promonocyte cell line U937 cells were not susceptible to transduction by the pseudotyped virus. The production of functional MuLV/visna virus pseudotypes has provided a sensitive, biologically relevant system to study visna virus cell entry and envelope-receptor interactions. PMID:11689628

Bruett, Linda; Clements, Janice E.

2001-01-01

356

Unusual Influenza A Viruses in Bats  

PubMed Central

Influenza A viruses infect a remarkably diverse number of hosts. Two completely new influenza A virus subtypes were recently discovered in bats, dramatically expanding the host range of the virus. These bat viruses are extremely divergent from all other known strains and likely have unique replication cycles. Phylogenetic analysis indicates long-term, isolated evolution in bats. This is supported by a high seroprevalence in sampled bat populations. As bats represent ~20% of all classified mammals, these findings suggests the presence of a massive cryptic reservoir of poorly characterized influenza A viruses. Here, we review the exciting progress made on understanding these newly discovered viruses, and discuss their zoonotic potential. PMID:25256392

Mehle, Andrew

2014-01-01

357

40 CFR 174.514 - Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance...174.514 Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus;...

2012-07-01

358

40 CFR 174.514 - Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance...174.514 Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus;...

2013-07-01

359

40 CFR 174.514 - Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance...174.514 Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus;...

2010-07-01

360

40 CFR 174.514 - Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance...174.514 Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus;...

2014-07-01

361

40 CFR 174.514 - Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus; exemption from the requirement for a tolerance...174.514 Coat Protein of Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2 and Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus;...

2011-07-01

362

Immunological Memory after Exposure to Variola Virus, Monkeypox Virus, and Vaccinia Virus  

PubMed Central

We compared cellular and humoral immunity to vaccinia virus (VV) in individuals exposed to 3 different orthopoxviruses: 154 individuals previously vaccinated with VV, 7 individuals with a history of monkeypox virus infection, and 8 individuals with a history of variola virus infection. Among individuals vaccinated >20 years prior, 9 (14%) of 66 individuals demonstrated VV-specific interferon (IFN)-? enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay responses; 21 (50%) of 42 had lymphoproliferative (LP) responses, and 29 (97%) of 30 had VV-specific neutralizing antibodies. One year after monkeypox virus infection, 6 of 7 individuals had IFN-? ELISPOT responses, all had VV-specific LP responses, and 3 of 7 had VV-specific neutralizing antibodies. Of 8 individuals with a history of variola virus infection, 1 had a VV-specific IFN-? ELISPOT response, 4 had LP responses against whole VV, 7 had LP responses against heat-denatured vaccinia antigen, and 7 had VV-specific neutralizing antibodies. Survivors of variola virus infection demonstrated VV-specific CD4 memory cell responses and neutralizing antibodies >40 years after infection. PMID:17357051

Sivapalasingam, Sumathi; Kennedy, Jeffrey S.; Borkowsky, William; Valentine, Fred; Zhan, Ming-Xia; Pazoles, Pamela; Paolino, Anna; Ennis, Francis A.; Steigbigel, Neal H.

2007-01-01

363

Emerging and re-emerging swine viruses.  

PubMed

In the past two decades or so, a number of viruses have emerged in the global swine population. Some, such as porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), cause economically important diseases in pigs, whereas others such as porcine torque teno virus (TTV), now known as Torque teno sus virus (TTSuV), porcine bocavirus (PBoV) and related novel parvoviruses, porcine kobuvirus, porcine toroviruses (PToV) and porcine lymphotropic herpesviruses (PLHV), are mostly subclinical in swine herds. Although some emerging swine viruses such as swine hepatitis E virus (swine HEV), porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) and porcine sapovirus (porcine SaV) may have a limited clinical implication in swine health, they do pose a potential public health concern in humans due to zoonotic (swine HEV) or potential zoonotic (porcine SaV) and xenozoonotic (PERV, PLHV) risks. Other emerging viruses such as Nipah virus, Bungowannah virus and Menangle virus not only cause diseases in pigs but some also pose important zoonotic threat to humans. This article focuses on emerging and re-emerging swine viruses that have a limited or uncertain clinical and economic impact on pig health. The transmission, epidemiology and pathogenic potential of these viruses are discussed. In addition, the two economically important emerging viruses, PRRSV and PCV2, are also briefly discussed to identify important knowledge gaps. PMID:22225855

Meng, X J

2012-03-01

364

Viruses and viruslike particles of eukaryotic algae.  

PubMed Central

Until recently there was little interest or information on viruses and viruslike particles of eukaryotic algae. However, this situation is changing. In the past decade many large double-stranded DNA-containing viruses that infect two culturable, unicellular, eukaryotic green algae have been discovered. These viruses can be produced in large quantities, assayed by plaque formation, and analyzed by standard bacteriophage techniques. The viruses are structurally similar to animal iridoviruses, their genomes are similar to but larger (greater than 300 kbp) than that of poxviruses, and their infection process resembles that of bacteriophages. Some of the viruses have DNAs with low levels of methylated bases, whereas others have DNAs with high concentrations of 5-methylcytosine and N6-methyladenine. Virus-encoded DNA methyltransferases are associated with the methylation and are accompanied by virus-encoded DNA site-specific (restriction) endonucleases. Some of these enzymes have sequence specificities identical to those of known bacterial enzymes, and others have previously unrecognized specificities. A separate rod-shaped RNA-containing algal virus has structural and nucleotide sequence affinities to higher plant viruses. Quite recently, viruses have been associated with rapid changes in marine algal populations. In the next decade we envision the discovery of new algal viruses, clarification of their role in various ecosystems, discovery of commercially useful genes in these viruses, and exploitation of algal virus genetic elements in plant and algal biotechnology. Images PMID:1779928

Van Etten, J L; Lane, L C; Meints, R H

1991-01-01

365

Plasmodesmata: channels for viruses on the move.  

PubMed

The symplastic communication network established by plasmodesmata (PD) and connected phloem provides an essential pathway for spatiotemporal intercellular signaling in plant development but is also exploited by viruses for moving their genomes between cells in order to infect plants systemically. Virus movement depends on virus-encoded movement proteins (MPs) that target PD and therefore represent important keys to the cellular mechanisms underlying the intercellular trafficking of viruses and other macromolecules. Viruses and their MPs have evolved different mechanisms for intracellular transport and interaction with PD. Some viruses move from cell to cell by interacting with cellular mechanisms that control the size exclusion limit of PD whereas other viruses alter the PD architecture through assembly of specialized transport structures within the channel. Some viruses move between cells in the form of assembled virus particles whereas other viruses may interact with nucleic acid transport mechanisms to move their genomes in a non-encapsidated form. Moreover, whereas several viruses rely on the secretory pathway to target PD, other viruses interact with the cortical endoplasmic reticulum and associated cytoskeleton to spread infection. This chapter provides an introduction into viruses and their role in studying the diverse cellular mechanisms involved in intercellular PD-mediated macromolecular trafficking. PMID:25287194

Heinlein, Manfred

2015-01-01

366

Cytotoxic T-cell abundance and virus load in human immunode ciency virus type 1  

E-print Network

Cytotoxic T-cell abundance and virus load in human immunode ciency virus type 1 and human T-cell leukaemia virus type 1 Dominik Wodarz1 {, Sarah E. Hall2 {, Koichiro Usuku3,4 , Mitsuhiro Osame4 , Graham S OX3 9DU, UK The correlation between virus load and speci¢c cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) frequency

Nowak, Martin A.

367

Guidelines for Anti-Virus Protection Recommended processes to prevent virus problems  

E-print Network

Guidelines for Anti-Virus Protection COE­AVP­01 Recommended processes to prevent virus problems: · Always run either the current University site licensed anti-virus software, which is available from the University download site or through ECS, or other reputable anti-virus software. · Download and run

Demirel, Melik C.

368

Analysis of in vivo dynamics of influenza virus infection in mice using a GFP reporter virus  

E-print Network

Analysis of in vivo dynamics of influenza virus infection in mice using a GFP reporter virus Balaji for review December 30, 2009) Influenza A virus is being extensively studied because of its major impact on human and animal health. However, the dynamics of influenza virus infection and the cell types infected

369

Virus-host protein interactions in RNA viruses Pierre-Olivier Vidalain*, Frederic Tangy*  

E-print Network

Review Virus-host protein interactions in RNA viruses Pierre-Olivier Vidalain*, Fre´de´ric Tangy RNA viruses exhibit small-sized genomes that only encode a limited number of viral proteins, but still that aim at understanding general features of RNA virus infection networks at the protein level. � 2010

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

370

Trafficking of Hepatitis C Virus Core Protein during Virus Particle Assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein is directed to the surface of lipid droplets (LD), a step that is essential for infectious virus production. However, the process by which core is recruited from LD into nascent virus particles is not well understood. To investigate the kinetics of core trafficking, we developed methods to image functional core protein in live, virus-producing

Natalie A. Counihan; Stephen M. Rawlinson; Brett D. Lindenbach

2011-01-01

371

RNA Viruses in Hymenopteran Pollinators: Evidence of Inter-Taxa Virus Transmission via Pollen and Potential  

E-print Network

RNA Viruses in Hymenopteran Pollinators: Evidence of Inter-Taxa Virus Transmission via Pollen in the agricultural community. Among honey bee pathogens, RNA viruses are emerging as a serious threat a possible wider environmental spread of these viruses with potential broader impact. It is therefore vital

dePamphilis, Claude

372

Viruses in freshwater ecosystems: an introduction to the exploration of viruses in new aquatic habitats  

E-print Network

Viruses in freshwater ecosystems: an introduction to the exploration of viruses in new aquatic SUMMARY 1. Viruses have become widely recognized as the most abundant biological entities and important focussed on marine viruses, especially in pelagic environments. 2. Here we introduce a special issue

Jacquet, Stéphan

373

Sexual transmission of hepatitis C virus and its relation with hepatitis B virus and HIV  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To determine the extent of transmission of hepatitis C virus in sexual partners of intravenous drug misusers and to examine the relation between the prevalences of HIV, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus infections in homosexual men and intravenous drug misusers and their sexual partners. DESIGN--Serum samples collected between 1984 and 1988 were tested for hepatitis B virus markers

J Tor; J M Llibre; M Carbonell; R Muga; A Ribera; V Soriano; B Clotet; M Sabriá; M Foz

1990-01-01

374

Research Projects in Ly's & Liang's Labs How virus-host interactions affect Lassa and Influenza virus  

E-print Network

Guanarito (BSL4) Sabia (BSL4) Chapare (BSL4) Lujo (BSL4) Rift Valley Fever (BSL3) (BSL4) Yellow Fever (BSL and Influenza virus replication, virulence and pathogenesis? I fl iLassa fever virus Influenza virus #12;Lassa Virus Causes Lethal Hemorrhagic Fever · Severe multisystem syndrome · Damage to overall vascular system

Blanchette, Robert A.

375

Giant viruses in the oceans : the 4th Algal Virus Workshop  

E-print Network

Giant viruses in the oceans : the 4th Algal Virus Workshop Jean-Michel Claverie Structural viruses (such as record breaking Acanthamoeba polyphaga Mimivirus), with particle sizes of 0.2 to 0.6 µm mystery. They challenge the common vision of viruses, traditionally seen as highly streamlined genomes

Boyer, Edmond

376

Coping with Computer Viruses: General Discussion and Review of Symantec Anti-Virus for the Macintosh.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses computer viruses that attack the Macintosh and describes Symantec AntiVirus for Macintosh (SAM), a commercial program designed to detect and eliminate viruses; sample screen displays are included. SAM is recommended for use in library settings as well as two public domain virus protection programs. (four references) (MES)

Primich, Tracy

1992-01-01

377

Defective interfering RNAs and defective viruses associated with multipartite RNA viruses of plants  

E-print Network

Defective interfering RNAs and defective viruses associated with multipartite RNA viruses of plants Michael V. Graves*, Judit Pogany and Javier Romero Defective interfering (DI) RNAs and defective viruses have been described for a variety of multipartite RNA viruses of plants. At present, the DI RNAs

Graves, Michael V.

378

Structure of the hepatitis E virus-like particle suggests mechanisms for virus assembly  

E-print Network

Structure of the hepatitis E virus-like particle suggests mechanisms for virus assembly (received for review May 1, 2009) Hepatitis E virus (HEV), a small, non-enveloped RNA virus in the family Hepeviridae, is associated with endemic and epidemic acute viral hepatitis in developing countries. Our 3.5-Ã?

Tao, Yizhi Jane

379

Full Genome Sequencing and Genetic Characterization of Eubenangee Viruses Identify Pata Virus as a Distinct Species within the Genus Orbivirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eubenangee virus has previously been identified as the cause of Tammar sudden death syndrome (TSDS). Eubenangee virus (EUBV), Tilligery virus (TILV), Pata virus (PATAV) and Ngoupe virus (NGOV) are currently all classified within the Eubenangee virus species of the genus Orbivirus, family Reoviridae. Full genome sequencing confirmed that EUBV and TILV (both of which are from Australia) show high levels

Manjunatha N. Belaganahalli; Sushila Maan; Narender S. Maan; Kyriaki Nomikou; Ian Pritchard; Ross Lunt; Peter D. Kirkland; Houssam Attoui; Joe Brownlie; Peter P. C. Mertens

2012-01-01

380

Rare Virus Discovered in Common Tick  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Rare Virus Discovered in Common Tick Scientists not yet sure ... FRIDAY, Jan. 16, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- A rare virus has been found in ticks that are common ...

381

About Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)  

MedlinePLUS

... Providers Laboratory Testing References & Resources About Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Share Compartir On this Page Symptoms Transmission Diagnosis Prevention & Treatment Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), also known as human herpesvirus 4, is ...

382

NIAID's Role in Addressing West Nile Virus  

MedlinePLUS

... about to begin feeding on a human host. Credit: CDC West Nile virus (WNV) first emerged in ... Cause Transmission electron micrograph of West Nile virus. Credit: CDC West Nile fever is caused by a ...

383

Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Viruses  

MedlinePLUS

... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Information on Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Viruses Language: English Español ... pigs and variant influenza virus infections in humans. Swine Flu in Swine (pigs) Swine Flu in Swine ( ...

384

Recombination Promoted by DNA Viruses: Phage ? to Herpes Simplex Virus  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this review is to explore recombination strategies in DNA viruses. Homologous recombination is a universal genetic process that plays multiple roles in the biology of all organisms, including viruses. Recombination and DNA replication are interconnected, with recombination being essential for repairing DNA damage and supporting replication of the viral genome. Recombination also creates genetic diversity, and viral recombination mechanisms have important implications for understanding viral origins as well as the dynamic nature of viral-host interactions. Both bacteriophage ? and herpes simplex virus (HSV) display high rates of recombination, both utilizing their own proteins and commandeering cellular proteins to promote recombination reactions. We focus primarily on ? and HSV, as they have proven amenable to both genetic and biochemical analysis and have recently been shown to exhibit some surprising similarities that will guide future studies. PMID:25002096

Weller, Sandra K.; Sawitzke, James A.

2015-01-01

385

Autophagic machinery activated by dengue virus enhances virus replication  

SciTech Connect

Autophagy is a cellular response against stresses which include the infection of viruses and bacteria. We unravel that Dengue virus-2 (DV2) can trigger autophagic process in various infected cell lines demonstrated by GFP-LC3 dot formation and increased LC3-II formation. Autophagosome formation was also observed under the transmission electron microscope. DV2-induced autophagy further enhances the titers of extracellular and intracellular viruses indicating that autophagy can promote viral replication in the infected cells. Moreover, our data show that ATG5 protein is required to execute DV2-induced autophagy. All together, we are the first to demonstrate that DV can activate autophagic machinery that is favorable for viral replication.

Lee, Y.-R. [Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lei, H.-Y. [Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Liu, M.-T. [Tainan Hospital, Department of Health, Executive Yuan, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Wang, J.-R. [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chen, S.-H. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Jiang-Shieh, Y.-F. [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lin, Y.-S. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Yeh, T.-M. [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Liu, C.-C. [Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Liu, H.-S. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: a713@mail.ncku.edu.tw

2008-05-10

386

Electrical detection of single viruses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report direct, real-time electrical detection of single virus particles with high selectivity by using nanowire field effect transistors. Measurements made with nanowire arrays modified with antibodies for influenza A showed discrete conductance changes characteristic of binding and unbinding in the presence of influenza A but not paramyxovirus or adenovirus. Simultaneous electrical and optical measurements using fluorescently labeled influenza A were used to demonstrate conclusively that the conductance changes correspond to binding/unbinding of single viruses at the surface of nanowire devices. pH-dependent studies further show that the detection mechanism is caused by a field effect, and that the nanowire devices can be used to determine rapidly isoelectric points and variations in receptor-virus binding kinetics for different conditions. Lastly, studies of nanowire devices modified with antibodies specific for either influenza or adenovirus show that multiple viruses can be selectively detected in parallel. The possibility of large-scale integration of these nanowire devices suggests potential for simultaneous detection of a large number of distinct viral threats at the single virus level.

Patolsky, Fernando; Zheng, Gengfeng; Hayden, Oliver; Lakadamyali, Melike; Zhuang, Xiaowei; Lieber, Charles M.

2004-09-01

387

Electrical detection of single viruses  

PubMed Central

We report direct, real-time electrical detection of single virus particles with high selectivity by using nanowire field effect transistors. Measurements made with nanowire arrays modified with antibodies for influenza A showed discrete conductance changes characteristic of binding and unbinding in the presence of influenza A but not paramyxovirus or adenovirus. Simultaneous electrical and optical measurements using fluorescently labeled influenza A were used to demonstrate conclusively that the conductance changes correspond to binding/unbinding of single viruses at the surface of nanowire devices. pH-dependent studies further show that the detection mechanism is caused by a field effect, and that the nanowire devices can be used to determine rapidly isoelectric points and variations in receptor-virus binding kinetics for different conditions. Lastly, studies of nanowire devices modified with antibodies specific for either influenza or adenovirus show that multiple viruses can be selectively detected in parallel. The possibility of large-scale integration of these nanowire devices suggests potential for simultaneous detection of a large number of distinct viral threats at the single virus level. PMID:15365183

Patolsky, Fernando; Zheng, Gengfeng; Hayden, Oliver; Lakadamyali, Melike; Zhuang, Xiaowei; Lieber, Charles M.

2004-01-01

388

Why genes overlap in viruses  

PubMed Central

The genomes of most virus species have overlapping genes—two or more proteins coded for by the same nucleotide sequence. Several explanations have been proposed for the evolution of this phenomenon, and we test these by comparing the amount of gene overlap in all known virus species. We conclude that gene overlap is unlikely to have evolved as a way of compressing the genome in response to the harmful effect of mutation because RNA viruses, despite having generally higher mutation rates, have less gene overlap on average than DNA viruses of comparable genome length. However, we do find a negative relationship between overlap proportion and genome length among viruses with icosahedral capsids, but not among those with other capsid types that we consider easier to enlarge in size. Our interpretation is that a physical constraint on genome length by the capsid has led to gene overlap evolving as a mechanism for producing more proteins from the same genome length. We consider that these patterns cannot be explained by other factors, namely the possible roles of overlap in transcription regulation, generating more divergent proteins and the relationship between gene length and genome length. PMID:20610432

Chirico, Nicola; Vianelli, Alberto; Belshaw, Robert

2010-01-01

389

Control of viruses infecting grapevine.  

PubMed

Grapevine is a high value vegetatively propagated fruit crop that suffers from numerous viruses, including some that seriously affect the profitability of vineyards. Nowadays, 64 viruses belonging to different genera and families have been reported in grapevines and new virus species will likely be described in the future. Three viral diseases namely leafroll, rugose wood, and infectious degeneration are of major economic importance worldwide. The viruses associated with these diseases are transmitted by mealybugs, scale and soft scale insects, or dagger nematodes. Here, we review control measures of the major grapevine viral diseases. More specifically, emphasis is laid on (i) approaches for the production of clean stocks and propagative material through effective sanitation, robust diagnosis, as well as local and regional certification efforts, (ii) the management of vectors of viruses using cultural, biological, and chemical methods, and (iii) the production of resistant grapevines mainly through the application of genetic engineering. The benefits and limitations of the different control measures are discussed with regard to accomplishments and future research directions. PMID:25591880

Maliogka, Varvara I; Martelli, Giovanni P; Fuchs, Marc; Katis, Nikolaos I

2015-01-01

390

Characteristics of Filoviridae: Marburg and Ebola Viruses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Filoviruses are enveloped, nonsegmented negative-stranded RNA viruses. The two species, Marburg and Ebola virus, are serologically, biochemically, and genetically distinct. Marburg virus was first isolated during an outbreak in Europe in 1967, and Ebola virus emerged in 1976 as the causative agent of two simultaneous outbreaks in southern Sudan and northern Zaire. Although the main route of infection is known to be person-to-person transmission by intimate contact, the natural reservoir for filoviruses still remains a mystery.

Beer, Brigitte; Kurth, Reinhard; Bukreyev, Alexander

391

Historical review: viruses, crystals and geodesic domes.  

PubMed

In the mid 1950s, Francis Crick and James Watson attempted to explain the structure of spherical viruses. They hypothesized that spherical viruses consist of 60 identical equivalently situated subunits. Such an arrangement has icosahedral symmetry. Subsequent biophysical and electron micrographic data suggested that many viruses had >60 subunits. Drawing inspiration from architecture, Donald Caspar and Aaron Klug discovered a solution to the problem - they proposed that spherical viruses were structured like miniature geodesic domes. PMID:12575996

Morgan, Gregory J

2003-02-01

392

Number of Virus Particles in Insects and Plants Infected with Wound Tumor Virus  

PubMed Central

A new procedure for counting virus particles was employed to measure the concentration of wound tumor virus in purified virus preparations, in plant tumors, and in the insect vector. Partially purified wound tumor virus was used to establish the quantitative features of the method. A 1-g amount of plant tumor tissue contained an average of 5 × 1010 virus particles and 1 g of insect tissue contained 2 × 1010 particles. Images PMID:5742043

Streissle, Gert; Bystricky, Vojtech; Granados, Robert R.; Strohmaier, Karl

1968-01-01

393

Cooperation between the Hemagglutinin of Avian Viruses and the Matrix Protein of Human Influenza A Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

To analyze the compatibility of avian influenza A virus hemagglutinins (HAs) and human influenza A virus matrix (M) proteins M1 and M2, we doubly infected Madin-Darby canine kidney cells with amantadine (1-aminoadamantane hydrochloride)-resistant human viruses and amantadine-sensitive avian strains. By using antisera against the human virus HAs and amantadine, we selected reassortants containing the human virus M gene and the

Christoph Scholtissek; Jürgen Stech; Scott Krauss; Robert G. Webster

2002-01-01

394

Optimization of network protection against virus spread  

E-print Network

Optimization of network protection against virus spread Eric Gourdin Orange Labs, Issy Abstract--The effect of virus spreading in a telecommunication network, where a certain curing strategy in nature, to name a few: the spread of viruses and worms in the Internet, as well as social engineering

Van Mieghem, Piet

395

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Primary Infection  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Primary Infection Information for adults A A A When HIV is first contracted, there may be ... 1–6 weeks following exposure to HIV (the human immunodeficiency virus). Chronic infection with this virus can ...

396

Advanced Review Viruses and the cellular RNA  

E-print Network

Advanced Review Viruses and the cellular RNA decay machinery Marta Maria Gaglia and Britt A interactions between the eukaryotic RNA turnover machinery and a wide variety of viruses. Interestingly, in many cases viruses have evolved mechanisms not only to evade eradication by these pathways, but also

397

Ecological dynamics of emerging bat virus spillover.  

PubMed

Viruses that originate in bats may be the most notorious emerging zoonoses that spill over from wildlife into domestic animals and humans. Understanding how these infections filter through ecological systems to cause disease in humans is of profound importance to public health. Transmission of viruses from bats to humans requires a hierarchy of enabling conditions that connect the distribution of reservoir hosts, viral infection within these hosts, and exposure and susceptibility of recipient hosts. For many emerging bat viruses, spillover also requires viral shedding from bats, and survival of the virus in the environment. Focusing on Hendra virus, but also addressing Nipah virus, Ebola virus, Marburg virus and coronaviruses, we delineate this cross-species spillover dynamic from the within-host processes that drive virus excretion to land-use changes that increase interaction among species. We describe how land-use changes may affect co-occurrence and contact between bats and recipient hosts. Two hypotheses may explain temporal and spatial pulses of virus shedding in bat populations: episodic shedding from persistently infected bats or transient epidemics that occur as virus is transmitted among bat populations. Management of livestock also may affect the probability of exposure and disease. Interventions to decrease the probability of virus spillover can be implemented at multiple levels from targeting the reservoir host to managing recipient host exposure and susceptibility. PMID:25392474

Plowright, Raina K; Eby, Peggy; Hudson, Peter J; Smith, Ina L; Westcott, David; Bryden, Wayne L; Middleton, Deborah; Reid, Peter A; McFarlane, Rosemary A; Martin, Gerardo; Tabor, Gary M; Skerratt, Lee F; Anderson, Dale L; Crameri, Gary; Quammen, David; Jordan, David; Freeman, Paul; Wang, Lin-Fa; Epstein, Jonathan H; Marsh, Glenn A; Kung, Nina Y; McCallum, Hamish

2015-01-01

398

The greasy response to virus infections.  

PubMed

Virus replication requires lipid metabolism, but how lipids mediate virus infection remains obscure. In this issue, Amini-Bavil-Olyaee et al. (2013) reveal that IFITM proteins disturb cholesterol homeostasis to block virus entry. Previously, in Cell, Morita and colleagues (2013) showed the antiviral potency of the lipid mediator protectin D1. PMID:23601099

Tanner, Lukas Bahati; Lee, Benhur

2013-04-17

399

Variation and evolution of plant virus populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last 15 years, interest in plant virus evolution has re-emerged, as shown by the increasing number of papers published on this subject. In recent times, research in plant virus evolution has been viewed from a molecular, rather than populational, standpoint, and there is a need for work aimed at understanding the processes involved in plant virus evolution. However, accumulated

Fernando García-Arenal; Aurora Fraile; José M. Malpica

2003-01-01

400

Ecological dynamics of emerging bat virus spillover  

PubMed Central

Viruses that originate in bats may be the most notorious emerging zoonoses that spill over from wildlife into domestic animals and humans. Understanding how these infections filter through ecological systems to cause disease in humans is of profound importance to public health. Transmission of viruses from bats to humans requires a hierarchy of enabling conditions that connect the distribution of reservoir hosts, viral infection within these hosts, and exposure and susceptibility of recipient hosts. For many emerging bat viruses, spillover also requires viral shedding from bats, and survival of the virus in the environment. Focusing on Hendra virus, but also addressing Nipah virus, Ebola virus, Marburg virus and coronaviruses, we delineate this cross-species spillover dynamic from the within-host processes that drive virus excretion to land-use changes that increase interaction among species. We describe how land-use changes may affect co-occurrence and contact between bats and recipient hosts. Two hypotheses may explain temporal and spatial pulses of virus shedding in bat populations: episodic shedding from persistently infected bats or transient epidemics that occur as virus is transmitted among bat populations. Management of livestock also may affect the probability of exposure and disease. Interventions to decrease the probability of virus spillover can be implemented at multiple levels from targeting the reservoir host to managing recipient host exposure and susceptibility. PMID:25392474

Plowright, Raina K.; Eby, Peggy; Hudson, Peter J.; Smith, Ina L.; Westcott, David; Bryden, Wayne L.; Middleton, Deborah; Reid, Peter A.; McFarlane, Rosemary A.; Martin, Gerardo; Tabor, Gary M.; Skerratt, Lee F.; Anderson, Dale L.; Crameri, Gary; Quammen, David; Jordan, David; Freeman, Paul; Wang, Lin-Fa; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Marsh, Glenn A.; Kung, Nina Y.; McCallum, Hamish

2015-01-01

401

MODEL OF VIRUS TRANSPORT IN UNSATURATED SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

As a result of the recently-proposed mandatory ground-water disinfection requirements to inactivate viruses in potable water supplies, there has been increasing interest in virus fate and transport in the subsurface. everal models have been developed to predict the fate of viruse...

402

Citrus tristeza virus-host interactions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a phloem-limited virus whose natural host range is restricted to citrus and related species. Although the virus has killed millions of trees, almost destroying whole industries, and continually limits production in many citrus growing areas, most isolates are mild or s...

403

Metamorphic Virus: Analysis and Evgenios Konstantinou  

E-print Network

Metamorphic Virus: Analysis and Detection Evgenios Konstantinou Supervisor: Dr. Stephen Wolthusen://www.rhul.ac.uk/mathematics/techreports #12;Abstract Metamorphic viruses transform their code as they propagate, thus evading detection, by altering their behavior. To achieve this, metamorphic viruses use several metamor- phic transformations

Dent, Alexander W.

404

METAMORPHIC VIRUSES WITH BUILT BUFFER OVERFLOW  

E-print Network

METAMORPHIC VIRUSES WITH BUILT BUFFER OVERFLOW The Faculty of the Department of Computer Science of the Requirements for the Degree METAMORPHIC VIRUSES WITH BUILT BUFFER OVERFLOW A Research Project Presented of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Computer Science by Ronak Shah Spring 2010 METAMORPHIC VIRUSES WITH BUILT

Stamp, Mark

405

Detecting Metamorphic Computer Viruses using Supercompilation  

E-print Network

Detecting Metamorphic Computer Viruses using Supercompilation Alexei Lisitsa and Matt Webster In this paper we present a novel approach to detection of metamorphic computer viruses by proving program. This is of relevance for detecting metamorphic computer viruses, which use a variety of semantics-preserving, syntax

Fisher, Michael

406

VideoLab:Virus Spreads Fourfold Faster  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Viruses are thought to infect cells cyclically: infect, replicate, release, repeat. However, the vaccinia virus can spread four times faster than this iterative process allows (first movie clip). To explain this incredible speed, Doceul et al. found that as soon as this virus infects a cell, it directs the cell to make two crucial surface proteins.

Virginie Doceul (Imperial College London, St MaryâÂÂs Campus;Department of Virology, Faculty of Medicine); Michael Hollinshead (Imperial College London, St MaryâÂÂs Campus;Department of Virology, Faculty of Medicine); Lonneke Van der Linden (Imperial College London, St MaryâÂÂs Campus;Department of Virology, Faculty of Medicine); Geoffrey L. Smith (Imperial College London, St MaryâÂÂs Campus;Department of Virology, Faculty of Medicine)

2010-02-12

407

killed-virus influenza vaccine Polio vaccine  

E-print Network

killed-virus influenza vaccine Polio vaccine FluMist Thomas Francis, Jr. National Institutes of Health live-virus influenza vaccine Hunein Maassab Jonas Salk Type-A virus trivalent cold that Maassab's innovative, trivalent, cold- adapted influenza vaccine, FluMist, which uses live but weakened

Shyy, Wei

408

Computer Viruses and Safe Educational Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This discussion of computer viruses explains how these viruses may be transmitted, describes their effects on data and/or computer application programs, and identifies three groups that propagate them. Ten major viruses are listed and described, and measures to deal with them are discussed. Nineteen antiviral programs are also listed and…

Azarmsa, Reza

1991-01-01

409

Practical Detection of Metamorphic Computer Viruses  

E-print Network

Practical Detection of Metamorphic Computer Viruses A Writing Project Presented to The Faculty play-time with me. #12;Abstract Metamorphic virus employs code obfuscation techniques to mutate itself model (HMM) can detect such viruses with high probability. HMM is a state machine where each state

Stamp, Mark

410

ANALYSIS AND DETECTION OF METAMORPHIC COMPUTER VIRUSES  

E-print Network

ANALYSIS AND DETECTION OF METAMORPHIC COMPUTER VIRUSES A Writing Project Presented to The Faculty of the project topic. Dr. Robert Chun suggested the comparison between our approach and commercial virus scanners want to thank Yue Wang for performing the virus scanning, and Peter Hey for repairing my hard disk

Stamp, Mark

411

Virus Diseases of Blackberry and Raspberries  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two viruses have been associated with Blackberry yellow vein disease (BYVD). One of these viruses, Blackberry yellow vein associated virus (BYVaV) is a member of the genus Crinivirus and has been identified in blackberries exhibiting the BYVD in several states in the southeastern United States. If ...

412

Virus detection and quantification using electrical parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we identify and quantitate two similar viruses, human and feline immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and FIV), suspended in a liquid medium without labeling, using a semiconductor technique. The virus count was estimated by calculating the impurities inside a defined volume by observing the change in electrical parameters. Empirically, the virus count was similar to the absolute value of the ratio of the change of the virus suspension dopant concentration relative to the mock dopant over the change in virus suspension Debye volume relative to mock Debye volume. The virus type was identified by constructing a concentration-mobility relationship which is unique for each kind of virus, allowing for a fast (within minutes) and label-free virus quantification and identification. For validation, the HIV and FIV virus preparations were further quantified by a biochemical technique and the results obtained by both approaches corroborated well. We further demonstrate that the electrical technique could be applied to accurately measure and characterize silica nanoparticles that resemble the virus particles in size. Based on these results, we anticipate our present approach to be a starting point towards establishing the foundation for label-free electrical-based identification and quantification of an unlimited number of viruses and other nano-sized particles.

Ahmad, Mahmoud Al; Mustafa, Farah; Ali, Lizna M.; Rizvi, Tahir A.

2014-10-01

413

Packaging of actin into Ebola virus VLPs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The actin cytoskeleton has been implicated in playing an important role assembly and budding of several RNA virus families including retroviruses and paramyxoviruses. In this report, we sought to determine whether actin is incorporated into Ebola VLPs, and thus may play a role in assembly and\\/or budding of Ebola virus. Our results indicated that actin and Ebola virus VP40 strongly

Ziying Han; Ronald N Harty

2005-01-01

414

GENETIC VARIABILITY IN MAIZE CHLOROTIC DWARF VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maize chlorotic dwarf virus (MCDV) (genus Waikavirus; family Sequiviridae) is a picorna-like virus transmitted by the black-faced leafhopper, Graminella nigrifrons, in a semi-persistent manner using a virus-encoded helper protein. The MCDV genome contains one large open reading frame encoding a poly...

415

Ultrastructure of lymphocystis disease virus (LDV) as compared to frog virus 3 (FV 3 ) and chilo iridescent virus (CIV): effects of enzymatic digestions and detergent degradations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Ultrastructure of fish lymphocystis disease virus (LDV), the largest of all known icosahedral viruses, has been studied under electron microscopy using enzymatic digestions and detergent degradations. LDV structure appeared roughly the same as those of frog virus 3 (FV3) and chilo iridescent virus (CIV), two other well known viruses of the familyIridoviridae, although the great flexibility of its capsid

J. Heppell; L. Berthiaume

1992-01-01

416

Redefining viruses: lessons from Mimivirus.  

PubMed

Viruses are the most abundant living entities and probably had a major role in the evolution of life, but are still defined using negative criteria. Here, we propose to divide biological entities into two groups of organisms: ribosome-encoding organisms, which include eukaryotic, archaeal and bacterial organisms, and capsid-encoding organisms, which include viruses. Other replicons (for example, plasmids and viroids) can be termed 'orphan replicons'. Based on this suggested classification system, we propose a new definition for a virus--a capsid-encoding organism that is composed of proteins and nucleic acids, self-assembles in a nucleocapsid and uses a ribosome-encoding organism for the completion of its life cycle. PMID:18311164

Raoult, Didier; Forterre, Patrick

2008-04-01

417

Lagos Bat Virus in Kenya?  

PubMed Central

During lyssavirus surveillance, 1,221 bats of at least 30 species were collected from 25 locations in Kenya. One isolate of Lagos bat virus (LBV) was obtained from a dead Eidolon helvum fruit bat. The virus was most similar phylogenetically to LBV isolates from Senegal (1985) and from France (imported from Togo or Egypt; 1999), sharing with these viruses 100% nucleoprotein identity and 99.8 to 100% glycoprotein identity. This genome conservancy across space and time suggests that LBV is well adapted to its natural host species and that populations of reservoir hosts in eastern and western Africa have sufficient interactions to share pathogens. High virus concentrations, in addition to being detected in the brain, were detected in the salivary glands and tongue and in an oral swab, suggesting that LBV is transmitted in the saliva. In other extraneural organs, the virus was generally associated with innervations and ganglia. The presence of infectious virus in the reproductive tract and in a vaginal swab implies an alternative opportunity for transmission. The isolate was pathogenic for laboratory mice by the intracerebral and intramuscular routes. Serologic screening demonstrated the presence of LBV-neutralizing antibodies in E. helvum and Rousettus aegyptiacus fruit bats. In different colonies the seroprevalence ranged from 40 to 67% and 29 to 46% for E. helvum and R. aegyptiacus, respectively. Nested reverse transcription-PCR did not reveal the presence of viral RNA in oral swabs of bats in the absence of brain infection. Several large bat roosts were identified in areas of dense human populations, raising public health concerns for the potential of lyssavirus infection. PMID:18305130

Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Niezgoda, Michael; Franka, Richard; Agwanda, Bernard; Markotter, Wanda; Beagley, Janet C.; Urazova, Olga Y.; Breiman, Robert F.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

2008-01-01

418

Dominant resistance against plant viruses  

PubMed Central

To establish a successful infection plant viruses have to overcome a defense system composed of several layers. This review will overview the various strategies plants employ to combat viral infections with main emphasis on the current status of single dominant resistance (R) genes identified against plant viruses and the corresponding avirulence (Avr) genes identified so far. The most common models to explain the mode of action of dominant R genes will be presented. Finally, in brief the hypersensitive response (HR) and extreme resistance (ER), and the functional and structural similarity of R genes to sensors of innate immunity in mammalian cell systems will be described. PMID:25018765

de Ronde, Dryas; Butterbach, Patrick; Kormelink, Richard

2014-01-01

419

Bovine viral diarrhea virus: characteristics of the virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This paper reviews the history of research on bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) from their discovery in the 1940's to the design of current BVDV eradication programs. The physiochemical characteristics of BVDV are discussed and well as classification of BVDV into biotypes and genotypes. The trans...

420

Genome of Invertebrate Iridescent Virus Type 3 (Mosquito Iridescent Virus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iridoviruses (IVs) are classified into five genera: Iridovirus and Chloriridovirus, whose members infect invertebrates, and Ranavirus, Lymphocystivirus, and Megalocytivirus, whose members infect vertebrates. Until now, Chloriridovirus was the only IV genus for which a representative and complete genomic sequence was not available. Here, we report the genome sequence and comparative analysis of a field isolate of Invertebrate iridescent virus type

Gustavo A. Delhon; Edan R. Tulman; Claudio L. Afonso; Zhiqiang Lu; James J. Becnel; Bettina A. Moser; Gerald F. Kutish; Daniel L. Rock

2006-01-01

421

Resistance to curly top viruses through virus induced gene silencing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Curly top disease, caused by viruses of the genus Curtovirus, and transmitted by the beet leafhopper (Circulifer tenellus), has resulted in losses for western U.S. agriculture for over a century. No control methods have been developed that economically, effectively and reliably prevent losses in tom...

422

Expression of rabies virus glycoprotein from a recombinant vaccinia virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rabies is one of the oldest diseases known to man, but its successful control has remained elusive. Although effective vaccines of tissue culture origin against rabies do exist1, such preparations are expensive. Live vaccinia virus (VV) recombinants expressing influenza or hepatitis B antigens have recently been used to immunize against these diseases2-4. We have now used this approach to produce

M. P. Kieny; R. Lathe; R. Drillien; D. Spehner; S. Skory; D. Schmitt; T. Wiktor; H. Koprowski; J. P. Lecocq

1984-01-01

423

Divergent Roles of Autophagy in Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

Viruses have played an important role in human evolution and have evolved diverse strategies to co-exist with their hosts. As obligate intracellular pathogens, viruses exploit and manipulate different host cell processes, including cellular trafficking, metabolism and immunity-related functions, for their own survival. In this article, we review evidence for how autophagy, a highly conserved cellular degradative pathway, serves either as an antiviral defense mechanism or, alternatively, as a pro-viral process during virus infection. Furthermore, we highlight recent reports concerning the role of selective autophagy in virus infection and how viruses manipulate autophagy to evade lysosomal capture and degradation. PMID:24709646

Chiramel, Abhilash I.; Brady, Nathan R.; Bartenschlager, Ralf

2013-01-01

424

Halting viruses in scale-free networks  

E-print Network

The vanishing epidemic threshold for viruses spreading on scale-free networks indicate that traditional methods, aiming to decrease a virus' spreading rate cannot succeed in eradicating an epidemic. We demonstrate that policies that discriminate between the nodes, curing mostly the highly connected nodes, can restore a finite epidemic threshold and potentially eradicate a virus. We find that the more biased a policy is towards the hubs, the more chance it has to bring the epidemic threshold above the virus' spreading rate. Furthermore, such biased policies are more cost effective, requiring less cures to eradicate the virus.

Zoltan Dezso; Albert-Laszlo Barabasi

2002-03-24

425

Viruses - from pathogens to vaccine carriers.  

PubMed

Vaccination is mankind's greatest public health success story. By now vaccines to many of the viruses that once caused fatal childhood diseases are routinely used throughout the world. Traditional methods of vaccine development through inactivation or attenuation of viruses have failed for some of the most deadly human pathogens, necessitating new approaches. Genetic modification of viruses not only allows for their attenuation but also for incorporation of sequences from other viruses, turning one pathogen into a vaccine carrier for another. Recombinant viruses have pros and cons as vaccine carriers, as discussed below using vectors based on adenovirus, herpesvirus, flavivirus, and rhabdovirus as examples. PMID:22003377

Small, Juliana C; Ertl, Hildegund C J

2011-10-01

426

Repository of Eurasian influenza virus hemagglutinin and neuraminidase reverse genetics vectors and recombinant viruses  

PubMed Central

Reverse genetics can be used to produce recombinant influenza A viruses containing virtually every desired combination of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes using the virus backbone of choice. Here, a repository of plasmids and recombinant viruses representing all contemporary Eurasian HA and NA subtypes, H1–H16 and N1–N9, was established. HA and NA genes were selected based on sequence analyses of influenza virus genes available from public databases. Prototype Eurasian HA and NA genes were cloned in bidirectional reverse genetics plasmids. Recombinant viruses based on the virus backbone of A/PR/8/34, and containing a variety of HA and NA genes were produced in 293T cells. Virus stocks were produced in MDCK cells and embryonated chicken eggs. These plasmids and viruses may be useful for numerous purposes, including influenza virus research projects, vaccination studies, and to serve as reference reagents in diagnostic settings. PMID:20600474

Keawcharoen, J.; Spronken, M.I.J; Vuong, O.; Bestebroer, T.M.; Munster, V.J.; Osterhaus, A.D.M.E; Rimmelzwaan, G.F; Fouchier, R.A.M.

2010-01-01

427

Tanay virus, a new species of virus isolated from mosquitoes in the Philippines.  

PubMed

In 2005, we isolated a new species of virus from mosquitoes in the Philippines. The virion was elliptical in shape and had a short single projection. The virus was named Tanay virus (TANAV) after the locality in which it was found. TANAV genomic RNA was a 9562 nt+poly-A positive strand, and polycistronic. The longest ORF contained putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP); however, conserved short motifs in the RdRP were permuted. TANAV was phylogenetically close to Negevirus, a recently proposed taxon of viruses isolated from haemophagic insects, and to some plant viruses, such as citrus leprosis virus C, hibiscus green spot virus and blueberry necrotic ring blotch virus. In this paper, we describe TANAV and the permuted structure of its RdRP, and discuss its phylogeny together with those of plant viruses and negevirus. PMID:24646751

Nabeshima, Takeshi; Inoue, Shingo; Okamoto, Kenta; Posadas-Herrera, Guillermo; Yu, Fuxun; Uchida, Leo; Ichinose, Akitoyo; Sakaguchi, Miako; Sunahara, Toshihiko; Buerano, Corazon C; Tadena, Florencio P; Orbita, Ildefonso B; Natividad, Filipinas F; Morita, Kouichi

2014-06-01

428

Psoralen inactivation of influenza and herpes simplex viruses and of virus-infected cells  

SciTech Connect

Psoralen compounds covalently bind to nucleic acids when irradiated with long-wavelength ultraviolet light. This treatment can destroy the infectivity of deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid viruses. Two psoralen compounds, 4'-hydroxymethyltrioxsalen and 4'-aminomethyltrioxsalen, were used with long-wavelength ultraviolet light to inactivate cell-free herpes simplex and influenza viruses and to render virus-infected cells noninfectious. This method of inactivation was compared with germicidal (short-wavelength) ultraviolet light irradiation. The antigenicity of the treated, virus-infected, antigen-bearing cells was examined by immunofluorescence and radioimmunoassay and by measuring the capacity of the herpes simplex virus-infected cells to stimulate virus-specific lymphocyte proliferation. The infectivity of the virus-infected cells could be totally eliminated without altering their viral antigenicity. The use of psoralen plus long-wavelength ultraviolet light is well suited to the preparation of noninfectious virus antigens and virus antigen-bearing cells for immunological assays.

Redfield, D.C.; Richman, D.D.; Oxman, M.N.; Kronenberg, L.H.

1981-06-01

429

Systems analysis of West Nile virus infection.  

PubMed

Emerging and re-emerging mosquito-borne viruses continue to pose a significant threat to human health throughout the world. Over the past decade, West Nile virus (WNV), Dengue virus (DENV), and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), have caused annual epidemics of virus-induced encephalitis, hemorrhagic fever\\shock syndromes, and arthritis, respectively. Currently, no specific antiviral therapies or vaccines exist for use in humans to combat or prevent these viral infections. Thus, there is a pressing need to define the virus-host interactions that govern immunity and infection outcome. Recent technological breakthroughs in 'omics' resources and high-throughput based assays are beginning to accelerate antiviral drug discovery and improve on current strategies for vaccine design. In this review, we highlight studies with WNV and discuss how traditional and systems biological approaches are being used to rapidly identify novel host targets for therapeutic intervention and develop a deeper conceptual understanding of the host response to virus infection. PMID:24851811

Suthar, Mehul S; Pulendran, Bali

2014-06-01

430

Evolution of Avian Tumor Viruses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Virus-induced neoplastic diseases of poultry, namely Marek’s disease (MD), induced by a herpesvirus, and the avian leukosis and reticuloendotheliosis induced by retroviruses, can cause significant economic losses from tumor mortality as well as poor performance. Successful control of MD is and has ...

431

Mayaro fever virus, Brazilian Amazon.  

PubMed

In February 2008, a Mayaro fever virus (MAYV) outbreak occurred in a settlement in Santa Barbara municipality, northern Brazil. Patients had rash, fever, and severe arthralgia lasting up to 7 days. Immunoglobulin M against MAYV was detected by ELISA in 36 persons; 3 MAYV isolates sequenced were characterized as genotype D. PMID:19891877

Azevedo, Raimunda S S; Silva, Eliana V P; Carvalho, Valéria L; Rodrigues, Sueli G; Nunes-Neto, Joaquim P; Monteiro, Hamilton; Peixoto, Victor S; Chiang, Jannifer O; Nunes, Márcio R T; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C

2009-11-01

432

Viruses Associated with Human Cancer  

PubMed Central

It is estimated that viral infections contribute to 15–20% of all human cancers. As obligatory intracellular parasites, viruses encode proteins that reprogram host cellular signaling pathways that control proliferation, differentiation, cell death, genomic integrity, and recognition by the immune system. These cellular processes are governed by complex and redundant regulatory networks and are surveyed by sentinel mechanisms that ensure that aberrant cells are removed from the proliferative pool. Given that the genome size of a virus is highly restricted to ensure packaging within an infectious structure, viruses must target cellular regulatory nodes with limited redundancy and need to inactivate surveillance mechanisms that would normally recognize and extinguish such abnormal cells. In many cases, key proteins in these same regulatory networks are subject to mutation in non-virally associated diseases and cancers. Oncogenic viruses have thus served as important experimental models to identify and molecularly investigate such cellular networks. These include the discovery of oncogenes and tumor suppressors, identification of regulatory networks that are critical for maintenance of genomic integrity, and processes that govern immune surveillance. PMID:18201576

McLaughlin-Drubin, Margaret E.; Munger, Karl

2008-01-01

433

Iridescent virus type 22 DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Double stranded DNA extracted from iridescent virus type (IV22) was characterized by its buoyant density in CsCl, thermal denaturation profile and guanine plus cytosine content. The DNA was linear with a molecular weight of 130–143 × 106 determined by reassociation kinetics, contour length measurements and restriction endonuclease analysis.

Jill A. Hibbin; D. C. Kelly

1981-01-01

434

New vaccines against influenza virus  

PubMed Central

Vaccination is one of the most effective and cost-benefit interventions that prevent the mortality and reduce morbidity from infectious pathogens. However, the licensed influenza vaccine induces strain-specific immunity and must be updated annually based on predicted strains that will circulate in the upcoming season. Influenza virus still causes significant health problems worldwide due to the low vaccine efficacy from unexpected outbreaks of next epidemic strains or the emergence of pandemic viruses. Current influenza vaccines are based on immunity to the hemagglutinin antigen that is highly variable among different influenza viruses circulating in humans and animals. Several scientific advances have been endeavored to develop universal vaccines that will induce broad protection. Universal vaccines have been focused on regions of viral proteins that are highly conserved across different virus subtypes. The strategies of universal vaccines include the matrix 2 protein, the hemagglutinin HA2 stalk domain, and T cell-based multivalent antigens. Supplemented and/or adjuvanted vaccination in combination with universal target antigenic vaccines would have much promise. This review summarizes encouraging scientific advances in the field with a focus on novel vaccine designs. PMID:24427759

Lee, Young-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hye; Ko, Eun-Ju; Lee, Yu-Na; Kim, Min-Chul; Kwon, Young-Man; Tang, Yinghua; Cho, Min-Kyoung; Lee, Youn-Jeong

2014-01-01

435

Turnip Yellow Mosaic Virus Structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The bumpy exterior of the turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) protein coat, or capsid, was defined in detail by Dr. Alexander McPherson of the University of California, Irvin using protein crystallized in space for analysis on Earth. TYMV is an icosahedral virus constructed from 180 copies of the same protein arranged into 12 clusters of five proteins (pentamers), and 20 clusters of six proteins (hexamers). The final TYMV structure led to the enexpected hypothesis that the virus release its RNA by essentially chemical-mechanical means. Most viruses have farly flat coats, but in TYMV, the fold in each protein, called the jellyroll, is clustered at the points where the protein pentamers and hexamers join. The jellyrolls are almost standing on end, producing a bumpy surface with knobs at all of the pentamers and hexamers. At the inside surface of the pentamers is a void that is not present at the hexamers. The coating had been seen in early studies of TYMV, but McPhereson's atomic structure shows much more detail. The inside surface is strikingly, and unexpectedly, different than the outside. While the pentamers contain a central viod on the inside, the hexameric units contain peptides liked to each other, forming a ring or, more accurately, rings to fill the voild. Credit: Dr. Alexander McPherson, University of California, Irvine.

2000-01-01

436

Antigenic variants of rabies virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rabies viruses isolated from different animal species in various parts of the world were in the past considered to be antigenically closely related. Only when the antibodies produced in animals immunized with whole virions or viral components were assayed by the plaque reduction method, were some minor differences detected in the antigenic composition of various rabies strains (1). On the

T. J. WIKTOR; H. KOPROWSKI

1980-01-01

437

Evaluating the protective efficacy of a trivalent vaccine containing Akabane virus, Aino virus and Chuzan virus against Schmallenberg virus infection  

PubMed Central

Schmallenberg virus (SBV), an arthropod borne pathogen, spread rapidly throughout the majority of Europe since 2011. It can cause a febrile disease, milk drop, diarrhea, and fetal malformation in ruminants. SBV, a member of the Simbu serogroup within the genus Orthobunyavirus, is closely related to Akabane virus (AKAV) and Aino virus (AINOV) among others. In the present study, 4 Holstein-Friesian calves were immunized twice four weeks apart with a multivalent, inactivated vaccine against AKAV and AINOV. Another 4 calves were kept as unvaccinated controls. All animals were clinically, serologically and virologically examined before and after challenge infection with SBV. AKAV- and AINOV-specific neutralizing antibodies were detected one week before challenge infection, while SBV-specific antibodies were detectable only thereafter. SBV genome was detected in all vaccinated animals and 3 out of 4 controls in serum samples taken after challenge infection. In conclusion, the investigated vaccine was not able to prevent an SBV-infection. Thus, vaccines for other related Simbu serogroup viruses can not substitute SBV-specific vaccines as an instrument for disease control. PMID:24313924

2013-01-01

438

Oncolytic Viruses as Anticancer Vaccines  

PubMed Central

Oncolytic virotherapy has shown impressive results in preclinical studies and first promising therapeutic outcomes in clinical trials as well. Since viruses are known for a long time as excellent vaccination agents, oncolytic viruses are now designed as novel anticancer agents combining the aspect of lysis-dependent cytoreductive activity with concomitant induction of antitumoral immune responses. Antitumoral immune activation by oncolytic virus infection of tumor tissue comprises both, immediate effects of innate immunity and also adaptive responses for long lasting antitumoral activity, which is regarded as the most prominent challenge in clinical oncology. To date, the complex effects of a viral tumor infection on the tumor microenvironment and the consequences for the tumor-infiltrating immune cell compartment are poorly understood. However, there is more and more evidence that a tumor infection by an oncolytic virus opens up a number of options for further immunomodulating interventions such as systemic chemotherapy, generic immunostimulating strategies, dendritic cell-based vaccines, and antigenic libraries to further support clinical efficacy of oncolytic virotherapy. PMID:25101244

Woller, Norman; Gürlevik, Engin; Ureche, Cristina-Ileana; Schumacher, Anja; Kühnel, Florian

2014-01-01

439

Who Let the Virus In?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fifty-second monthly installment of our "What A Year!" website project, introducing life science breakthroughs to middle and high school students and their teachers. Respiratory syncytial virus, RSV for short, is so common that almost every child in the United States under two years of age has been infected once, and that half of children under three have been infected at least twice.

2011-11-01

440

Full Genome Characterization of the Culicoides-Borne Marsupial Orbiviruses: Wallal Virus, Mudjinbarry Virus and Warrego Viruses  

PubMed Central

Viruses belonging to the species Wallal virus and Warrego virus of the genus Orbivirus were identified as causative agents of blindness in marsupials in Australia during 1994/5. Recent comparisons of nucleotide (nt) and amino acid (aa) sequences have provided a basis for the grouping and classification of orbivirus isolates. However, full-genome sequence data are not available for representatives of all Orbivirus species. We report full-genome sequence data for three additional orbiviruses: Wallal virus (WALV); Mudjinabarry virus (MUDV) and Warrego virus (WARV). Comparisons of conserved polymerase (Pol), sub-core-shell ‘T2’ and core-surface ‘T13’ proteins show that these viruses group with other Culicoides borne orbiviruses, clustering with Eubenangee virus (EUBV), another orbivirus infecting marsupials. WARV shares <70% aa identity in all three conserved proteins (Pol, T2 and T13) with other orbiviruses, consistent with its classification within a distinct Orbivirus species. Although WALV and MUDV share <72.86%/67.93% aa/nt identity with other orbiviruses in Pol, T2 and T13, they share >99%/90% aa/nt identities with each other (consistent with membership of the same virus species - Wallal virus). However, WALV and MUDV share <68% aa identity in their larger outer capsid protein VP2(OC1), consistent with membership of different serotypes within the species - WALV-1 and WALV-2 respectively. PMID:25299687

Belaganahalli, Manjunatha N.; Maan, Sushila; Maan, Narender S.; Pritchard, Ian; Kirkland, Peter D.; Brownlie, Joe; Attoui, Houssam; Mertens, Peter P. C.

2014-01-01

441

Clarification and guidance on the proper usage of virus and virus species names  

PubMed Central

A pivotal step in the development of a consistent nomenclature for virus classification was the introduction of the virus species concept by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) in 1991. Yet, almost two decades later, many virologists still are unable to differentiate between virus species and actual viruses. Here we attempt to explain the origin of this confusion, clarify the difference between taxa and physical entities, and suggest simple measures that could be implemented by ICTV Study Groups to make virus taxonomy and nomenclature more accessible to laboratory virologists. PMID:20204430

Jahrling, Peter B.

2010-01-01

442

Review article Foot-and-mouth disease virus  

E-print Network

Review article Foot-and-mouth disease virus: a long known virus, but a current threat Francisco; accepted 12 September 2000) Abstract ­ Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) was the first animal virus of information on its structure, biology and vaccinology has been obtained. However, the disease that this virus

Boyer, Edmond

443

IFITMs restrict the replication of multiple pathogenic viruses.  

PubMed

The interferon-inducible transmembrane protein (IFITM) family inhibits a growing number of pathogenic viruses, among them influenza A virus, dengue virus, hepatitis C virus, and Ebola virus. This review covers recent developments in our understanding of the IFITM's molecular determinants, potential mechanisms of action, and impact on pathogenesis. PMID:24076421

Perreira, Jill M; Chin, Christopher R; Feeley, Eric M; Brass, Abraham L

2013-12-13

444

IFITMs restrict the replication of multiple pathogenic viruses  

PubMed Central

The IFITM family of proteins inhibit a growing number of pathogenic viruses, among them influenza A virus, dengue virus, hepatitis C virus, and Ebola virus. This review covers recent developments in our understanding of the IFITM’s molecular determinants, potential mechanisms of action, and impact on pathogenesis. PMID:24076421

Perreira, Jill M.; Chin, Christopher R.; Feeley, Eric M.; Brass, Abraham L.

2014-01-01

445

Reemergence of Vaccinia Virus during Zoonotic Outbreak, Pará State, Brazil  

PubMed Central

In 2010, vaccinia virus caused an outbreak of bovine vaccinia that affected dairy cattle and rural workers in Pará State, Brazil. Genetic analyses identified the virus as distinct from BeAn58058 vaccinia virus (identified in 1960s) and from smallpox vaccine virus strains. These findings suggest spread of autochthonous group 1 vaccinia virus in this region. PMID:24274374

de Assis, Felipe L.; Vinhote, Wagner M.; Barbosa, José D.; de Oliveira, Cairo H.S.; de Oliveira, Carlos M.G.; Campos, Karinny F.; Silva, Natália S.; Trindade, Giliane de Souza

2013-01-01

446

Studies on Beauregard sweetpotato clones naturally infected with viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of clonal sweetpotato naturally infected with viruses was investigated. Analyses included yield, canopy biomass, and root colour on twelve virus infected (V?+?) clones and corresponding virus-tested (V?) mericlones (clones derived from meristem-tip culture) of ‘Beauregard’ sweetpotato. All V?+ clones tested positive for Sweet potato feathery mottle virus and some clones additionally tested positive for Sweet potato virus G

Heather W Carroll; Arthur Q Villordon; Christopher A Clark; Don R La Bonte; Mary W Hoy

2004-01-01

447

Approaches and strategies for the treatment of influenza virus infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influenza A and B viruses belong to the Orthomyxoviridae family of viruses. These virus- es are responsible for severe morbidity and sig- nificant excess mortality each year. Infection with influenza viruses usually leads to respiratory involvement and can result in pneumonia and secondary bacterial infections. Vaccine approach- es to the prophy-laxis of influenza virus infec- tions have been problematic owing

Joseph M Colacino; Kirk A Staschke; W Graeme Laver

448

Detection of Multiple Potato Viruses in the Field Suggests Synergistic Interactions among Potato Viruses in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Viral diseases have been a major limiting factor threating sustainable potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production in Pakistan. Surveys were conducted to serologically quantify the incidence of RNA viruses infecting potato; Potato virus X (PVX), Potato virus Y (PVY), Potato virus S (PVS), Potato virus A (PVA), Potato virus M (PVM) and Potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) in two major potato cultivars (Desiree and Cardinal). The results suggest the prevalence of multiple viruses in all surveyed areas with PVY, PVS and PVX dominantly widespread with infection levels of up to 50% in some regions. Co-infections were detected with the highest incidence (15.5%) for PVX and PVS. Additionally the data showed a positive correlation between co-infecting viruses with significant increase in absorbance value (virus titre) for at least one of the virus in an infected plant and suggested a synergistic interaction. To test this hypothesis, glasshouse grown potato plants were challenged with multiple viruses and analyzed for systemic infections and symptomology studies. The results obtained conclude that multiple viral infections dramatically increase disease epidemics as compared to single infection and an effective resistance strategy in targeting multiple RNA viruses is required to save potato crop. PMID:25506305

Hameed, Amir; Iqbal, Zafar; Asad, Shaheen; Mansoor, Shahid

2014-01-01

449

Antigenic relationships among several simian varicella-like viruses and varicella-zoster virus.  

PubMed Central

Cross-neutralization and complement fixation tests demonstrated the immunological identity of the Delta herpesvirus, the 592S virus, the Liverpool vervet monkey virus, the herpesvirus of patas monkeys, and the Medical Lake macaque virus. These viruses were isolated from diverse outbreaks of varicella-like disease in simians and from various simian species. All of the simian viruses were shown to be related to human varicella-zoster (V-Z) virus, as evidenced by the fact that immunization of monkeys with each of the simian viruses elicited the production of both neutralizing and complement-fixing antibodies to V-Z virus. However, cross-complement fixation tests indicated that the simian viruses are not so closely related to V-Z virus as they are to one another. Varicella or zoster infections in humans produced neutralizing and complement-fixing antibody responses to each of the simian viruses; the responses were more marked in zoster infections than in varicella infections but, in most patients, antibody levels produced to the simian viruses were much lower than those to the homologous V-Z virus. PMID:192676

Felsenfeld, A D; Schmidt, N J

1977-01-01

450

Detection of Multiple Potato Viruses in the Field Suggests Synergistic Interactions among Potato Viruses in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Viral diseases have been a major limiting factor threating sustainable potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production in Pakistan. Surveys were conducted to serologically quantify the incidence of RNA viruses infecting potato; Potato virus X (PVX), Potato virus Y (PVY), Potato virus S (PVS), Potato virus A (PVA), Potato virus M (PVM) and Potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) in two major potato cultivars (Desiree and Cardinal). The results suggest the prevalence of multiple viruses in all surveyed areas with PVY, PVS and PVX dominantly widespread with infection levels of up to 50% in some regions. Co-infections were detected with the highest incidence (15.5%) for PVX and PVS. Additionally the data showed a positive correlation between co-infecting viruses with significant increase in absorbance value (virus titre) for at least one of the virus in an infected plant and suggested a synergistic interaction. To test this hypothesis, glasshouse grown potato plants were challenged with multiple viruses and analyzed for systemic infections and symptomology studies. The results obtained conclude that multiple viral infections dramatically increase disease epidemics as compared to single infection and an effective resistance strategy in targeting multiple RNA viruses is required to save potato crop. PMID:25506305

Hameed, Amir; Iqbal, Zafar; Asad, Shaheen; Mansoor, Shahid

2014-12-01

451

The modulation of apoptosis by oncogenic viruses  

PubMed Central

Transforming viruses can change a normal cell into a cancer cell during their normal life cycle. Persistent infections with these viruses have been recognized to cause some types of cancer. These viruses have been implicated in the modulation of various biological processes, such as proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. The study of infections caused by oncogenic viruses had helped in our understanding of several mechanisms that regulate cell growth, as well as the molecular alterations leading to cancer. Therefore, transforming viruses provide models of study that have enabled the advances in cancer research. Viruses with transforming abilities, include different members of the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) family, Hepatitis C virus (HCV), Human T-cell Leukemia virus (HTLV-1), Epstein Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi’s Sarcoma Herpesvirus (KSHV). Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is a tightly regulated process that plays an important role in development and homeostasis. Additionally, it functions as an antiviral defense mechanism. The deregulation of apoptosis has been implicated in the etiology of diverse diseases, including cancer. Oncogenic viruses employ different mechanisms to inhibit the apoptotic process, allowing the propagation of infected and damaged cells. During this process, some viral proteins are able to evade the immune system, while others can directly interact with the caspases involved in apoptotic signaling. In some instances, viral proteins can also promote apoptosis, which may be necessary for an accurate regulation of the initial stages of infection. PMID:23741982

2013-01-01

452

Pharmacological Inhibition of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV)  

PubMed Central

Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a member of the retroviridae family of viruses and causes an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in domestic and non-domestic cats worldwide. Genome organization of FIV and clinical characteristics of the disease caused by the virus are similar to those of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Both viruses infect T lymphocytes, monocytes and macrophages, and their replication cycle in infected cells is analogous. Due to marked similarity in genomic organization, virus structure, virus replication and disease pathogenesis of FIV and HIV, infection of cats with FIV is a useful tool to study and develop novel drugs and vaccines for HIV. Anti-retroviral drugs studied extensively in HIV infection have targeted different steps of the virus replication cycle: (1) inhibition of virus entry into susceptible cells at the level of attachment to host cell surface receptors and co-receptors; (2) inhibition of fusion of the virus membrane with the cell membrane; (3) blockade of reverse transcription of viral genomic RNA; (4) interruption of nuclear translocation and viral DNA integration into host genomes; (5) prevention of viral transcript processing and nuclear export; and (6) inhibition of virion assembly and maturation. Despite much success of anti-retroviral therapy slowing disease progression in people, similar therapy has not been thoroughly investigated in cats. In this article we review current pharmacological approaches and novel targets for anti-lentiviral therapy, and critically assess potentially suitable applications against FIV infection in cats. PMID:22754645

Mohammadi, Hakimeh; Bienzle, Dorothee

2012-01-01

453

Chemical Modification of Viruses and Virus-Like Particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein capsids derived from viruses may be modified by methods, generated, isolated, and purified on large scales with relative\\u000a ease. In recent years, methods for their chemical derivatization have been employed to broaden the properties and functions\\u000a accessible to investigators desiring monodisperse, atomic-resolution structures on the nanometer scale. Here we review the\\u000a reactions and methods used in these endeavors, including

E. Strable; M. G. Finn

454

Genome of invertebrate iridescent virus type 3 (mosquito iridescent virus).  

PubMed

Iridoviruses (IVs) are classified into five genera: Iridovirus and Chloriridovirus, whose members infect invertebrates, and Ranavirus, Lymphocystivirus, and Megalocytivirus, whose members infect vertebrates. Until now, Chloriridovirus was the only IV genus for which a representative and complete genomic sequence was not available. Here, we report the genome sequence and comparative analysis of a field isolate of Invertebrate iridescent virus type 3 (IIV-3), also known as mosquito iridescent virus, currently the sole member of the genus Chloriridovirus. Approximately 20% of the 190-kbp IIV-3 genome was repetitive DNA, with DNA repeats localized in 15 apparently noncoding regions. Of the 126 predicted IIV-3 genes, 27 had homologues in all currently sequenced IVs, suggesting a genetic core for the family Iridoviridae. Fifty-two IIV-3 genes, including those encoding DNA topoisomerase II, NAD-dependent DNA ligase, SF1 helicase, IAP, and BRO protein, are present in IIV-6 (Chilo iridescent virus, prototype species of the genus Iridovirus) but not in vertebrate IVs, likely reflecting distinct evolutionary histories for vertebrate and invertebrate IVs and potentially indicative of genes that function in aspects of virus-invertebrate host interactions. Thirty-three IIV-3 genes lack homologues in other IVs. Most of these encode proteins of unknown function but also encode IIV3-053L, a protein with similarity to DNA-dependent RNA polymerase subunit 7; IIV3-044L, a putative serine/threonine protein kinase; and IIV3-080R, a protein with similarity to poxvirus MutT-like proteins. The absence of genes present in other IVs, including IIV-6; the lack of obvious colinearity with any sequenced IV; the low levels of amino acid identity of predicted proteins to IV homologues; and phylogenetic analyses of conserved proteins indicate that IIV-3 is distantly related to other IV genera. PMID:16912294

Delhon, Gustavo; Tulman, Edan R; Afonso, Claudio L; Lu, Zhiqiang; Becnel, James J; Moser, Bettina A; Kutish, Gerald F; Rock, Daniel L

2006-09-01

455

Malsoor virus, a novel bat phlebovirus, is closely related to severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus and heartland virus.  

PubMed

During a survey in the year 2010, a novel phlebovirus was isolated from the Rousettus leschenaultii species of bats in western India. The virus was identified by electron microscopy from infected Vero E6 cells. Phylogenic analysis of the complete genome showed its close relation to severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) and Heartland viruses, which makes it imperative to further study its natural ecology and potential as a novel emerging zoonotic virus. PMID:24390329

Mourya, D T; Yadav, P D; Basu, A; Shete, A; Patil, D Y; Zawar, D; Majumdar, T D; Kokate, P; Sarkale, P; Raut, C G; Jadhav, S M

2014-03-01

456

Malsoor Virus, a Novel Bat Phlebovirus, Is Closely Related to Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus and Heartland Virus  

PubMed Central

During a survey in the year 2010, a novel phlebovirus was isolated from the Rousettus leschenaultii species of bats in western India. The virus was identified by electron microscopy from infected Vero E6 cells. Phylogenic analysis of the complete genome showed its close relation to severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) and Heartland viruses, which makes it imperative to further study its natural ecology and potential as a novel emerging zoonotic virus. PMID:24390329

Yadav, P. D.; Basu, A.; Shete, A.; Patil, D. Y.; Zawar, D.; Majumdar, T. D.; Kokate, P.; Sarkale, P.; Raut, C. G.; Jadhav, S. M.

2014-01-01

457

A Pathogenic Threshold of Virus Load Defined in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus or Simian-Human Immunodeficiency VirusInfected Macaques  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine if a specific pathogenic threshold of plasma viral RNA could be defined irrespective of virus strain, RNA levels in the plasma of more than 50 infected rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were measured. Animals were inoculated intravenously with either simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) or simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) strains of known pathogenic potential (SIV8980, SIVsmm-3, SIVmac32H\\/J5, SIVmac32H\\/1XC, reverse transcriptase-SHIV,

PETER TEN HAAFT; BABS VERSTREPEN; KLAUS UBERLA; BRIGITTE ROSENWIRTH; JONATHAN HEENEY

1998-01-01

458

Identification of Novel Viruses Using VirusHunter -- an Automated Data Analysis Pipeline  

PubMed Central

Quick and accurate identification of microbial pathogens is essential for both diagnosis and response to emerging infectious diseases. The advent of next-generation sequencing technology offers an unprecedented platform for rapid sequencing-based identification of novel viruses. We have developed a customized bioinformatics data analysis pipeline, VirusHunter, for the analysis of Roche/454 and other long read Next generation sequencing platform data. To illustrate the utility of VirusHunter, we performed Roche/454 GS FLX titanium sequencing on two unclassified virus isolates from the World Reference Center for Emerging Viruses and Arboviruses (WRCEVA). VirusHunter identified sequences derived from a novel bunyavirus and a novel reovirus in the two samples respectively. Further sequence analysis demonstrated that the viruses were novel members of the Phlebovirus and Orbivirus genera. Both Phlebovirus and Orbivirus genera include many economic important viruses or serious human pathogens. PMID:24167629

Zhao, Guoyan; Krishnamurthy, Siddharth; Cai, Zhengqiu; Popov, Vsevolod L.; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P.; Guzman, Hilda; Cao, Song; Virgin, Herbert W.; Tesh, Robert B.; Wang, David

2013-01-01

459

9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...second dose shall be given according to the interval recommended on the label. (iv) Fourteen days or more after the last vaccination, blood samples shall be drawn and the individual serum samples inactivated and tested for bovine virus diarrhea virus...

2013-01-01

460

9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...second dose shall be given according to the interval recommended on the label. (iv) Fourteen days or more after the last vaccination, blood samples shall be drawn and the individual serum samples inactivated and tested for bovine virus diarrhea virus...

2011-01-01