Science.gov

Sample records for saving time analisis

  1. Saving Time with Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullen, Kristine; Zimmerman, Holly

    2013-01-01

    In order to help teachers envision digital products in action in classrooms, the authors look at three examples of how teachers they know enhance learning time by employing technology efficiently. The examples include: (1) a social studies teacher who begins each class period with a three-question formative assessment using the website…

  2. Centralized Copying Saves Time and Money.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Paul

    1996-01-01

    Describes how Deer Park School District, Long Island, New York, is saving money while boosting efficiency by centralizing its high-volume printing and duplicating operations. The new arrangement saves space, time, and expenses. (LMI)

  3. Save the World on Your Own Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Stanley

    2008-01-01

    What should be the role of our institutions of higher education? To promote good moral character? To bring an end to racism, sexism, economic oppression, and other social ills? To foster diversity and democracy and produce responsible citizens? In "Save the World On Your Own Time", Stanley Fish argues that, however laudable these goals might be,…

  4. Measuring radiology's value in time saved.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christoph I; Enzmann, Dieter R

    2012-10-01

    Because radiology has historically not measured its added value to patient care and thus not communicated it in easily understood terms to all stakeholders, the specialty must correct this to prepare for the eventual transition from the current fee-for-service payment schedule to new value-based reimbursement systems. Given the increasing risk for marginalization, radiologists need to engage clinicians and managers to map the processes and associated costs of episodes of patient care to identify areas for providing and improving integrated diagnostic information and to measure the value thereof. In such time-driven, activity-based costing practices, radiologists should highlight how proper investments in the information generated by imaging and how radiologists' associated consultative and coordination of services can save greater resources downstream, especially in the nonrenewable resource of physician time, an increasingly scarce health care resource. Using physician time in the most efficient way will be a key element for decreasing health care costs at the aggregate level. Therefore, expressing radiology's contribution in terms of downstream physician time saved is a metric that can be easily understood by all stakeholders. In a conceptual framework centered on value, the specialty of radiology must focus more on its most important product, actionable information, rather than on imaging technologies themselves. Information, unlike imaging technologies, does not depreciate with time but rather increases in value the more it is used. PMID:23025865

  5. Advisory Systems Save Time, Fuel for Airlines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    Heinz Erzberger never thought the sky was falling, but he knew it could benefit from enhanced traffic control. Throughout the 1990s, Erzberger led a team at Ames Research Center to develop a suite of automated tools to reduce restrictions and improve the efficiency of air traffic control operations. Called CTAS, or Center-TRACON (Terminal Radar Approach Control) Automation System, the software won NASA s Software of the Year award in 1998, and one of the tools in the suite - the traffic management advisor - was adopted by the Federal Aviation Administration and implemented at traffic control centers across the United States. Another one of the tools, Direct-To, has followed a different path. The idea behind Direct-To, explains Erzberger, a senior scientist at Ames, was that airlines could save fuel and money by shortening the routes they flew between take-off and landing. Aircraft are often limited to following established airways comprised of inefficient route segments. The routes are not easily adjusted because neither the pilot nor the aircraft controller can anticipate the constantly changing air traffic situation. To make the routes more direct while in flight, Erzberger came up with an idea for a software algorithm that could automatically examine air traffic in real-time, check to see if a shortcut was available, and then check for conflicts. If there were no conflicts and the shortcut saved more than 1 minute of flight time, the controller could be notified. "I was trying to figure out what goes on in the pilot and controller s minds when they decide to guide the aircraft in a certain way. That resulted in a different kind analysis," Erzberger says. As the engineer s idea went from theory to practice, in 2001, NASA demonstrated Direct-To in the airspace of Dallas-Ft. Worth. Estimations based on the demonstration found the technology was capable of saving 900 flying minutes per day for the aircraft in the test area.

  6. Do You Automate? Saving Time and Dollars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, Christine H.

    2010-01-01

    An automated workforce management strategy can help schools save jobs, improve the job satisfaction of teachers and staff, and free up precious budget dollars for investments in critical learning resources. Automated workforce management systems can help schools control labor costs, minimize compliance risk, and improve employee satisfaction.…

  7. Valuation of travel time savings in viewpoint of WTA.

    PubMed

    Shao, Chang-Qiao; Liu, Yang; Liu, Xiao-Ming

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the issues in measurement of value of travel time savings (VTTS), the willingness-to-accept (WTA) for the private car owner is studied by using surveyed data. It is convincing that trip purpose, trip length, time savings, cost savings, income, and allowance from employee have effects on the WTA. Moreover, influences of these variables are not the same for different trip purposes. For commuting trips, effects of income and allowance from employee are significant while time savings and cost savings are dominated for leisure and shopping trips. It is also found that WTA is much higher than expected which implies that there are a group of drivers who are not prone to switching to other trip modes other than passenger car. PMID:25530751

  8. Valuation of Travel Time Savings in Viewpoint of WTA

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Chang-qiao; Liu, Yang; Liu, Xiao-ming

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the issues in measurement of value of travel time savings (VTTS), the willingness-to-accept (WTA) for the private car owner is studied by using surveyed data. It is convincing that trip purpose, trip length, time savings, cost savings, income, and allowance from employee have effects on the WTA. Moreover, influences of these variables are not the same for different trip purposes. For commuting trips, effects of income and allowance from employee are significant while time savings and cost savings are dominated for leisure and shopping trips. It is also found that WTA is much higher than expected which implies that there are a group of drivers who are not prone to switching to other trip modes other than passenger car. PMID:25530751

  9. Effects of saving and spending patterns on holding time distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, N.; Xi, N.; Wang, Y.

    2003-11-01

    The effects of saving and spending patterns on holding time distribution of money are investigated based on the ideal gas-like models. We show the steady-state distribution obeys an exponential law when the saving factor is set uniformly, and a power law when the saving factor is set diversely. The power distribution can also be obtained by proposing a new model where the preferential spending behavior is considered. The association of the distribution with the probability of money to be exchanged has also been discussed.

  10. Smoothing the Transition to Daylight Saving Time

    MedlinePlus

    ... he said, offering the following suggestions: Adults should wake up 15 minutes earlier than usual on each of ... them for a bedtime that might otherwise feel too early. If young children go to bed late because of the time change, let them get ...

  11. Outsourcing of Domestic Tasks and Time-Saving Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Lippe, Tanja; Tijdens, Kea; de Ruijter, Esther

    2004-01-01

    The increased participation of women in paid labor has changed the organization of domestic work. This article deals with a strategy to cope with remaining domestic duties; to what extent are domestic tasks outsourced, what are the main determinants, and does it indeed save time spent on housework? Five outsourcing options are investigated:…

  12. Time-Saving Tips for Teachers. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wachter, Joanne C.; Carhart, Clare

    This book presents suggestions to help teachers save time without diminishing educational quality. The list of tips focus on: working smarter; communicating effectively; managing materials; planning the week ahead; assessing students' work and keeping track of progress; learning to say no; handling printed mail; handling e-mail; using the Internet…

  13. Save Time and Money through Chemistry (by Ken Carpenter)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazari, Al

    1998-01-01

    Useful Chemistry Publishing: Dayton, OH, 1997. 261 pp. Figs. and tables. ISBN: 0965566714. $24.95 (soft cover only). Would you like to learn about the 5 W's of everyday chemistry and chemicals? Who(m) should you see to learn to identify and appraise jewelry? What should you eat for breakfast? When should you get up from your sleep? Where is cholesterol in the human body? Why do pool owners add hydrochloric acid? Then read Save Time and Money through Chemistry, by Ken Carpenter. This book is loaded with practical and useful chemistry information that every person who took chemistry in high school or college wishes he or she had been introduced or exposed to. I know I do.

  14. Impact of Extended Daylight Saving Time on National Energy Consumption Report to Congress

    SciTech Connect

    Belzer, D. B.; Hadley, S. W.; Chin, S-M.

    2008-10-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (Pub. L. No. 109-58; EPAct 2005) amended the Uniform Time Act of 1966 (Pub. L. No. 89-387) to increase the portion of the year that is subject to Daylight Saving Time. (15 U.S.C. 260a note) EPAct 2005 extended the duration of Daylight Saving Time in the spring by changing its start date from the first Sunday in April to the second Sunday in March, and in the fall by changing its end date from the last Sunday in October to the first Sunday in November. (15 U.S.C. 260a note) EPAct 2005 also called for the Department of Energy to evaluate the impact of Extended Daylight Saving Time on energy consumption in the United States and to submit a report to Congress. (15 U.S.C. 260a note) This report presents the results of impacts of Extended Daylight Saving Time on the national energy consumption in the United States. The key findings are: (1) The total electricity savings of Extended Daylight Saving Time were about 1.3 Tera Watt-hour (TWh). This corresponds to 0.5 percent per each day of Extended Daylight Saving Time, or 0.03 percent of electricity consumption over the year. In reference, the total 2007 electricity consumption in the United States was 3,900 TWh. (2) In terms of national primary energy consumption, the electricity savings translate to a reduction of 17 Trillion Btu (TBtu) over the spring and fall Extended Daylight Saving Time periods, or roughly 0.02 percent of total U.S. energy consumption during 2007 of 101,000 TBtu. (3) During Extended Daylight Saving Time, electricity savings generally occurred over a three- to five-hour period in the evening with small increases in usage during the early-morning hours. On a daily percentage basis, electricity savings were slightly greater during the March (spring) extension of Extended Daylight Saving Time than the November (fall) extension. On a regional basis, some southern portions of the United States exhibited slightly smaller impacts of Extended Daylight Saving Time on energy savings

  15. A properly adjusted forage harvester can save time and money

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A properly adjusted forage harvester can save fuel and increase the realizable milk per ton of your silage. This article details the adjustments necessary to minimize energy while maximizing productivity and forage quality....

  16. Thin, Light, Flexible Heaters Save Time and Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Icing Branch at NASA's Glenn Research Center uses the Center's Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) and Icing Research Aircraft to research methods for evaluating and simulating the growth of ice on aircraft, the effects that ice may have on aircraft in flight, and the development and effectiveness of various ice protection and detection systems. EGC Enterprises Inc. (EGC), of Chardon, Ohio, used the IRT to develop thermoelectric thin-film heater technology to address in-flight icing on aircraft wings. Working with researchers at Glenn and the original equipment manufacturers of aircraft parts, the company tested various thin, flexible, durable, lightweight, and efficient heaters. Development yielded a thin-film heater technology that can be used in many applications in addition to being an effective deicer for aircraft. This new thermoelectric heater was dubbed the QoFoil Rapid Response Thin-Film Heater, or QoFoil, for short. The product meets all criteria for in-flight use and promises great advances in thin-film, rapid response heater technology for a broad range of industrial applications. Primary advantages include time savings, increased efficiency, and improved temperature uniformity. In addition to wing deicing, EGC has begun looking at the material's usefulness for applications including cooking griddles, small cabinet heaters, and several laboratory uses.

  17. Precautionary Saving and Consumption Smoothing Across Time and Possibilities

    PubMed Central

    Kimball, Miles; Weil, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines how aversion to risk and aversion to intertemporal substitution determine the strength of the precautionary saving motive in a two-period model with Selden/Kreps-Porteus preferences. For small risks, we derive a measure of the strength of the precautionary saving motive which generalizes the concept of “prudence” introduced by Kimball (1990b). For large risks, we show that decreasing absolute risk aversion guarantees that the precautionary saving motive is stronger than risk aversion, regardless of the elasticity of intertemporal substitution. Holding risk preferences fixed, the extent to which the precautionary saving motive is stronger than risk aversion increases with the elasticity of intertemporal substitution. We derive sufficient conditions for a change in risk preferences alone to increase the strength of the precautionary saving motive and for the strength of the precautionary saving motive to decline with wealth. Within the class of constant elasticity of intertemporal substitution, constant-relative risk aversion utility functions, these conditions are also necessary. PMID:20676240

  18. Forest fire risk estimation from time series analisys of NOAA NDVI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabban, Andrea; Liberta, Giorgio; San-Miguel-Ayanz, Jesus; Barbosa, Paulo

    2004-02-01

    The values of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index obtained from NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) have often been used for forestry application, including the assessment of fire risk. Forest fire risk estimates were based mainly on the decrease of NDVI values during the summer in areas subject to summer drought. However, the inter-annual variability of the vegetation response has never been extensively taken into account. The present work was based on the assumption that Mediterranean vegetation is adapted to summer drought and one possible estimator of the vegetation stress was the inter-annual variability of the vegetation status, as reflected by NDVI values. This article presents a novel methodology for the assessment of fire risk based on the comparison of the current NDVI values, on a given area, with the historical values along a time series of 13 years. The first part of the study is focused on the characterization of the Minimum and Maximum long term daily images. The second part is centered on the best method to compare the long term Maximum and Minimum with the current NDVI. A statistical index, Dynamic Relative Greenness, DRG, was tested on as a novel potential fire risk indicator.

  19. Speeding in urban environments: Are the time savings worth the risk?

    PubMed

    Ellison, Adrian B; Greaves, Stephen P

    2015-12-01

    Perceived time savings by travelling faster is often cited as a motivation for drivers' speeding behaviour. These time savings, however, come at a cost of significant road injuries and fatalities. While it is known that drivers tend to overestimate the time savings attributable to speeding there is little empirical evidence on how much time drivers genuinely save during day-to-day urban driving and how this relates to speeding-related crashes. The current paper reports on a study to address the lack of empirical evidence on this issue using naturalistic driving data collected from 106 drivers over a period of five weeks. The results show that the average driver saves 26s/day or 2min/week by speeding. More importantly, the cost of these time savings is one fatality for every 24,450h saved by the population on 100km/h roads in dry conditions and one injury for every 2458h saved on the same roads. Full speed compliance - and consequently a dramatic reduction in the road toll - could be achieved through almost imperceptible increases in travel time by each driver. PMID:26476194

  20. Women's Time, Labour-Saving Devices and Rural Development in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Hazel R.; Browne, Angela W.

    1994-01-01

    Introduction of cereal mills in Gambian villages affected the lives of women and their communities in terms of women's access to the technology, the time and energy it saves, its sustainability, and their level of control. The energy saved enabled greater participation in the community, but they were still constrained by illiteracy and poverty.…

  1. An energy saving mechanism of EPON networks for real time video transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chien-Ping; Wu, Ho-Ting; Chiang, Yun-Ting; Chien, Shieh-Chieh; Ke, Kai-Wei

    2015-07-01

    Modern access networks are constructed widely by passive optical networks (PONs) to meet the growing bandwidth demand. However, higher bandwidth means more energy consumption. To save energy, a few research works propose the dual-mode energy saving mechanism that allows the ONU to operate between active and sleep modes periodically. However, such dual-mode energy saving design may induce unnecessary power consumption or packet delay increase in the case where only downstream data exist for most of the time. In this paper, we propose a new tri-mode energy saving scheme for Ethernet PON (EPON). The new tri-mode energy saving design, combining the dual-mode saving mechanism with the doze mode, allows the ONU to switch among these three modes alternatively. In the doze mode, the ONU may receive downstream data while keeping its transmitter close. Such scenario is often observed for real time video downstream transmission. Furthermore, the low packet delay of high priority upstream data can be attained through the use of early wake-up mechanism employed in both energy saving modes. The energy saving and system efficiency can thus be achieved jointly while maintaining the differentiated QoS for data with various priorities. Performance results via simulation have demonstrated the effectiveness of such mechanism.

  2. Automation and crew time saving in the space experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsumoto, Kohtaro; Suzuki, Tsuyoshi; Funaya, Kouichi; Kawamura, Takeya; Sonobe, Masayoshi

    1994-01-01

    We describe preliminary results of the feasibility study of automation and crew workload saving in space experiments on the space station. Some functions have been studied that can be automated within a single rack and without major impact to the development process and costs. In addition, we assume the following premises: (1) applicable as the second generation apparatuses; (2) maximum reduction of the crew workload; and (3) automation between racks including storage. Four apparatuses have been selected as the study case; results for three are summarized.

  3. Saving the NHS one blood test at a time

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Waqas; Chung, Yooyun

    2014-01-01

    As a team of junior doctors our aim has been to save costs in day to day work so that money can be reallocated to improving nursing staff levels on our wards. Stem cell units have regular blood collection schedules in order to monitor organ response to chemotherapy and to look for complications in immunocompromised patients. We set out to reduce the number of biochemical investigations to a minimum that would be clinically indicated. We designed a new blood collection proforma for nursing staff to follow and audited all blood tests taken during a 2 week period before and after its introduction. The number of inappropriate blood tests were recorded as those that were not clinically indicated or not present on the collection schedule. After the introduction of the change the number of inappropriate tests were reduced by 937 over the 2 week period, with a cost saving of £1,478.42. Similar strategies for reducing unnecessary investigations and focusing on tests that will change management could help the NHS cope with a difficult financial future and provide continued safe staffing levels and quality care. PMID:26734249

  4. Time horizon for AFV emission savings under Tier 2

    SciTech Connect

    Saricks, C. L.

    2000-03-20

    Implementation of the Federal Tier 2 vehicular emission standards according to the schedule presented in the December, 1999 Final Rule will result in substantial reductions of NMHC, CO, NO{sub x}, and fine particle emissions from motor vehicles. Currently, when compared to Tier 1 and even NLEV certification requirements, the emissions performance of automobiles and light-duty trucks powered by non-petroleum (especially, gaseous) fuels (i.e., vehicles collectively termed AFVs) enjoy measurable advantage over their gasoline- and diesel-fueled counterparts over the full Federal Test Procedure and, especially, in Bag 1 (cold start). For the lighter end of these vehicle classes, this advantage may disappear shortly after 2004 under the new standards, but should continue for a longer period (perhaps beyond 2008) for the heavier end as well as for heavy-duty vehicles relative to diesel-fueled counterparts. Because of the continuing commitment of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities coalitions to the acquisition and operation of AFVs of many types and size classes, it is important for them to know in which classes their acquisitions will remain clear relative to the petroleum-fueled counterparts they might otherwise procure. This paper provides an approximate timeline for and expected magnitude of such savings, assuming that full implementation of the Tier 2 standards covering both vehicular emissions and fuel sulfur limits proceeds on schedule. The pollutants of interest are primary ozone precursors and fine particulate matter from fuel combustion.

  5. Freespan analysis, correction method saves time on North Sea project

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, D.; Ingram, J. ); Galbraith, D.N.; Davies, R. )

    1994-02-21

    A new procedure for assessing and rectifying subsea pipeline free-spans was successfully used in 1992 in Mobil North Sea Ltd.'s Beryl field and the Scottish Areas Gas Evacuation (SAGE) pipeline. The span-assessment methods is in two parts, each part having two stages, and consists of preliminary stress and vibration-frequency checks followed by detailed strain and fatigue-life checks where appropriate. Comprehensive software, automatically linked to an inspection data base, has been written to allow efficient use of the methodology. Results from the freespan assessment indicate that the assessment procedure, and in particular the strain-based and fatigue analyses, gave significant savings in terms of reduced number of free-spans for rectification. Critical freespans were stabilized by grout bags positioned by an ROV. The ROV-based system enabled both risks and costs to be reduced in a normally hazardous and costly environment, and utilized technology already on board a pipeline-inspection vessel. The overall freespan assessment and rectification program represents a significant step forward for Mobil North Sea in terms of reducing costs, while simultaneously improving the speed and simplicity of free-span assessment.

  6. Operating Room Time Savings with the Use of Splint Packs: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Tyler A.; Bluman, Eric M.; Palms, David; Smith, Jeremy T.; Chiodo, Christopher P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The most expensive variable in the operating room (OR) is time. Lean Process Management is being used in the medical field to improve efficiency in the OR. Streamlining individual processes within the OR is crucial to a comprehensive time saving and cost-cutting health care strategy. At our institution, one hour of OR time costs approximately $500, exclusive of supply and personnel costs. Commercially prepared splint packs (SP) contain all components necessary for plaster-of-Paris short-leg splint application and have the potential to decrease splint application time and overall costs by making it a more lean process. We conducted a randomized controlled trial comparing OR time savings between SP use and bulk supply (BS) splint application. Methods: Fifty consecutive adult operative patients on whom post-operative short-leg splint immobilization was indicated were randomized to either a control group using BS or an experimental group using SP. One orthopaedic surgeon (EMB) prepared and applied all of the splints in a standardized fashion. Retrieval time, preparation time, splint application time, and total splinting time for both groups were measured and statistically analyzed. Results: The retrieval time, preparation time and total splinting time were significantly less (p<0.001) in the SP group compared with the BS group. There was no significant difference in application time between the SP group and BS group. Conclusion: The use of SP made the process of splinting more lean. This has resulted in an average of 2 minutes 52 seconds saved in total splinting time compared to BS, making it an effective cost-cutting and time saving technique. For high volume ORs, use of splint packs may contribute to substantial time and cost savings without impacting patient safety. PMID:26894212

  7. Saving Space and Time: The Tractor That Einstein Built

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    In 1984, NASA initiated the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) program to test two unverified predictions of Albert Einstein s theory of general relativity, hypotheses about the ways space, time, light, and gravity relate to each other. To test these predictions, the Space Agency and researchers at Stanford University developed an experiment that would check, with extreme precision, tiny changes in the spin direction of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth satellite orbiting at a 400-mile altitude directly over the Earth s poles. When the program first began, the researchers assessed using Global Positioning System (GPS) technology to control the attitude of the GP-B spacecraft accurately. At that time, the best GPS receivers could only provide accuracy to nearly 1 meter, but the GP-B spacecraft required a system 100 times more accurate. To address this concern, researchers at Stanford designed high-performance, attitude-determining hardware that used GPS signals, perfecting a high-precision form of GPS called Carrier-Phase Differential GPS that could provide continuous real-time position, velocity, time, and attitude sensor information for all axes of a vehicle. The researchers came to the realization that controlling the GP-B spacecraft with this new system was essentially no different than controlling an airplane. Their thinking took a new direction: If this technology proved successful, the airlines and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) were ready commercial markets. They set out to test the new technology, the "Integrity Beacon Landing System," using it to automatically land a commercial Boeing 737 over 100 times successfully through Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) GPS technology. The thinking of the researchers shifted again, from automatically landing aircraft, to automating precision farming and construction equipment.

  8. Electronic transfers save time and money for FGD project

    SciTech Connect

    Kindig, R.A. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that in order to support the numerous construction projects that PSI Energy is currently engaged in, particularly the FGD (Flue Gas Desulfurization) Project at Gibson, it was decided to establish hardware, software, and procedures that would help shorten the project completion time. This would be accomplished by reducing the review times at PSI Energy for drawings and specifications received from the architect/engineer. The FGD Project, which uses Chicago-based Sargent and Lundy (S and L) as the primary architect/engineer and which involves construction at the Gibson Generating Station, was to be the pilot project for putting this system in place.

  9. Detect Nosema parasite in time to save bee colonies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nosema is an intracellular pathogenic fungus that causes infection in adult honey bees. In contrast with N. apis, nosemosis produced by N. ceranae is not readily detectable and often goes unnoticed for long periods of time. Here we describe production of a new genomic antibody (Ab) developed against...

  10. Saving time: New methods and instrumentation for radio variability studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitler, Laura Grace

    My thesis describes new instrumentation and signal processing techniques developed for time-domain studies of the radio sky and applies these techniques to a variety of radio astronomical data. Time-domain algorithms were developed for the SERENDIP V survey, a commensal SETI survey operating at the Arecibo Observatory. Along with collaborators at the University of California at Berkeley, I helped develop the high frequency resolution digital FFT spectrometers used to collected the data. No signal with the characteristics of being from an extraterrestrial intelligence was observed. A method for automatically classifying broadband and narrowband signals in raw frequency-time data is presented. It uses both the first and second moments of a spectrum to characterize the how broad or narrowband a signal is. Our applications of this technique to real data show that this algorithm is an effective tool for radio frequency interference excision. A survey for rare, bright radio transients was undertaken with a 3.8 m radio telescope on the roof of the Space Sciences Building on Cornell's campus. This survey involved the end-to-end development of the hardware, software, and data analysis. The data were searched from single, dispersed pulses, but none were found. Multi-frequency observations of the eclipsing, binary white dwarf system J0651 were conducted at the Arecibo Observatory to search for variable emission, both short-duration, "burst-like" and periodic emission. The system has an orbital period of only 12.75 min, and this fast rotation may generate radio emission if the stars are magnetic, but no emission was seen. Five new pulsars, including three Rotating Radio Transients (RRATs), were discovered in a single pulse analysis of 23 months of Pulsar ALFA (PALFA) data collected with the Mock spectrometers. We expanded the existing pipeline to include several new algorithms, including the spectral modulation index and a single pulse rating. In addition to the new

  11. Innovative site characterization demonstration saves time and money

    SciTech Connect

    Floran, R.J.; Bujewski, G.E.; Johnson, R.L.

    1995-02-01

    A technology demonstration that optimizes sampling strategies and real-time data collection was carried out at the Kirtland Air Force Base RB-11 Radioactive Burial Site, Albuquerque, New Mexico in August 1994. The project, which was funded by the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), involved the application of a geostatistical-based {open_quotes}smart sampling{close_quotes} methodology and software with on-site field screening of soils for radiation, organic compounds and metals. The software, known as Plume{trademark}, was developed at Argonne National Laboratory as part of the DOE/OTD-funded Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID). The objective of the investigation was to compare an innovative Adaptive Sampling approach that stressed real-time decision-making with a conventional RCRA-driven site characterization carried out by the Air Force. The latter investigation used a standard drilling and sampling plan as mandated by the EPA. To make the comparison realistic, the same contractors and sampling equipment (Geoprobe{reg_sign} soil samplers) were used. In both investigations, soil samples were collected at several depths at numerous locations adjacent to burial trenches that contain low-level radioactive waste and animal carcasses. Neither study revealed the presence of contaminants appreciably above risk based action levels, indicating that minimal to no migration has occurred away from the trenches. The combination of Adaptive Sampling with field screening achieved a similar level of confidence compared to the RCRA investigation regarding the potential migration of contaminants at the site. By comparison, the Adaptive Sampling program drilled 28 locations (vs. 36 for the conventional investigation), collected 81 samples (vs. 163), and sent 15 samples (vs. 163) off-site for laboratory analysis. In addition, the field work took 3 1/2 days compared to 13 days for the RCRA investigation.

  12. Change in the Classroom Deportment of Children Following Change From Daylight Saving Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Robert A.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The deportment of each student in a third-grade classroom was rated by the teacher before and after the fall change from daylight savings time, to see if this disruption in circadian rhythms alters behavior. The deportment of boys improved significantly while the deportment of girls was significantly disrupted. (Author/SJL)

  13. Assessing Your Assets: Systems for Tracking and Managing IT Assets Can Save Time and Dollars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holub, Patricia A.

    2007-01-01

    The average school district loses more than $80,000 per year because of lost or damaged IT assets, according to a QED survey cosponsored by Follett Software Company. And many districts--59 percent--still use manual systems to track assets. Enter asset management systems. Software for managing assets, when implemented properly, can save time,…

  14. Evidence-based medicine designed to save physicians time, energy, FPs told

    PubMed Central

    OReilly, M

    1997-01-01

    Although not all physicians welcome the current move toward evidence-based medicine, Dr. Warren McIsaac, a member of the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences in Ontario, says it is designed to save them time and energy. He made the comments during a meeting of family physicians in Ontario. PMID:9164410

  15. Estimating the Value of Life, Injury, and Travel Time Saved Using a Stated Preference Framework.

    PubMed

    Niroomand, Naghmeh; Jenkins, Glenn P

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of fatality over the period 2010-2014 from automobile accidents in North Cyprus is 2.75 times greater than the average for the EU. With the prospect of North Cyprus entering the EU, many investments will need to be undertaken to improve road safety in order to reach EU benchmarks. The objective of this study is to provide local estimates of the value of a statistical life and injury along with the value of time savings. These are among the parameter values needed for the evaluation of the change in the expected incidence of automotive accidents and time savings brought about by such projects. In this study we conducted a stated choice experiment to identify the preferences and tradeoffs of automobile drivers in North Cyprus for improved travel times, travel costs, and safety. The choice of route was examined using mixed logit models to obtain the marginal utilities associated with each attribute of the routes that consumers choose. These estimates were used to assess the individuals' willingness to pay (WTP) to avoid fatalities and injuries and to save travel time. We then used the results to obtain community-wide estimates of the value of a statistical life (VSL) saved, the value of injury (VI) prevented, and the value per hour of travel time saved. The estimates for the VSL range from €315,293 to €1,117,856 and the estimates of VI from € 5,603 to € 28,186. These values are consistent, after adjusting for differences in incomes, with the median results of similar studies done for EU countries. PMID:27015226

  16. I-SAVE: AN INTERACTIVE REAL-TIME MONITOR AND CONTROLLER TO INFLUENCE ENERGY CONSERVATION BEHAVIOR BY IMPULSE SAVING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Simulation-based model to explore the benefits of monitoring and control to energy saving opportunities in residential homes; an adaptive algorithm to predict the type of electrical loads; a prototype user friendly interface monitoring and control device to save energy; a p...

  17. Simple, time saving pulsed-field gel electrophoresis protocol for the typing of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.

    PubMed

    Shueh, Chong Seng; Neela, Vasanthakumari; Hussin, Salasawati; Hamat, Rukman Awang

    2013-08-01

    We developed a time-saving and cost-efficient Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) method for the typing of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia by modifying the conventional procedures. Our modifications related to the cell suspension preparation, lysis of bacterial cells in plugs, washing steps, and consumption of restriction enzyme. Although few rapid PFGE protocols on Gram-negative bacteria are available, the use of comparatively large amounts of costly reagents prompted us to look for other alternative. Hence, by considering the speed, simplicity, and relatively low cost, the modified protocol may be of more practical value than other established protocols in investigating S. maltophilia nosocomial outbreaks. PMID:23756145

  18. Implement a site management strategy to save money and achieve timely closure

    SciTech Connect

    Buratovich-Collins, J.

    1996-12-31

    Federal regulatory standards for remediation of contaminated groundwater have been technically impossible to meet within reasonable time frames and budgets. A site management strategy (SMS) defending alternate cleanup levels (ACLs) or technical impracticability (TI) waivers and characterizing risk, managing site data, and implementing a practical site remediation approach can be very effective in saving time and money at contaminated sites. The engineering and scientific communities have been looking for practical solutions to groundwater cleanup at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) sites. Records of Decisions (RODs) and Corrective Measures Implementation Plans have historically specified cleanup standards for contaminated groundwater that are technically impossible to meet within reasonable time frames (such as drinking water standards). Restoration of drinking water standards was the cleanup goal for groundwater in 270 of approximately 300 Superfund RODs issued between 1987 and 1991. These statistics notwithstanding, very few sites contaminated with organic chemicals have been remediated to numerical groundwater standards.

  19. Analysis of Trade-Off Between Power Saving and Response Time in Disk Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Otoo, Ekow J; Rotem, Doron; Tsao, Shih-Chiang

    2009-02-03

    It is anticipated that in the near future disk storage systems will surpass application servers and will become the primary consumer of power in the data centers. Shutting down of inactive disks is one of the more widespread solutions to save power consumption of disk systems. This solution involves spinning down or completely shutting off disks that exhibit long periods of inactivity and placing them in standby mode. A file request from a disk in standby mode will incur an I/O cost penalty as it takes time to spin up the disk before it can serve the file. In this paper, we address the problem of designing and implementing file allocation strategies on disk storage that save energy while meeting performance requirements of file retrievals. We present an algorithm for solving this problem with guaranteed bounds from the optimal solution. Our algorithm runs in O(nlogn) time where n is the number of files allocated. Detailed simulation results and experiments with real life workloads are also presented.

  20. Referral Finder: Saving Time and Improving The Quality of In-hospital Referrals

    PubMed Central

    Cathcart, Jennifer; Cowan, Neil; Tully, Vicki

    2016-01-01

    Making referrals to other hospital specialties is one of the key duties of the foundation doctor, which can be difficult and time consuming. In Ninewells hospital, Scotland, in our experience the effectiveness of referrals is limited by contact details not being readily accessible and foundation doctors not knowing what information is relevant to each specialty. We surveyed foundation doctors on their experience of the existing referral process to identify where we needed to focus to improve the process. The doctors reported significant delays in obtaining contact details from the operator, and found they did not know the specific information needed in each referral. To increase the information available to foundation doctors, we set up a page on the staff intranet called ‘Referral Finder’. This page includes contact details, guidelines for referral, and links to relevant protocols for each specialty. By making this information readily accessible our objective was to increase the speed and quality of referrals. When surveyed two months after the web page was established, foundation doctors reported a reduction in calls to operator from baseline and reported achieving more effective referrals. When asked to comment, many doctors asked if the page could include details for other hospitals in our health board and provide more specialty specific information. This feedback prompted us to extend the scope of the page to include the district general hospital in our region, and update many of the existing details. Doctors were then surveyed after the updates, 100% agreed that the website saved time and there was a 49.3% reduction in doctors who reported not knowing the specific information needed for a referral. Having adequate information improved referrals and resulted in time saved. This would allow more time for patient care. The quality improvement project was praised among doctors as a useful, innovative and replicable project. PMID:27158494

  1. Referral Finder: Saving Time and Improving The Quality of In-hospital Referrals.

    PubMed

    Cathcart, Jennifer; Cowan, Neil; Tully, Vicki

    2016-01-01

    Making referrals to other hospital specialties is one of the key duties of the foundation doctor, which can be difficult and time consuming. In Ninewells hospital, Scotland, in our experience the effectiveness of referrals is limited by contact details not being readily accessible and foundation doctors not knowing what information is relevant to each specialty. We surveyed foundation doctors on their experience of the existing referral process to identify where we needed to focus to improve the process. The doctors reported significant delays in obtaining contact details from the operator, and found they did not know the specific information needed in each referral. To increase the information available to foundation doctors, we set up a page on the staff intranet called 'Referral Finder'. This page includes contact details, guidelines for referral, and links to relevant protocols for each specialty. By making this information readily accessible our objective was to increase the speed and quality of referrals. When surveyed two months after the web page was established, foundation doctors reported a reduction in calls to operator from baseline and reported achieving more effective referrals. When asked to comment, many doctors asked if the page could include details for other hospitals in our health board and provide more specialty specific information. This feedback prompted us to extend the scope of the page to include the district general hospital in our region, and update many of the existing details. Doctors were then surveyed after the updates, 100% agreed that the website saved time and there was a 49.3% reduction in doctors who reported not knowing the specific information needed for a referral. Having adequate information improved referrals and resulted in time saved. This would allow more time for patient care. The quality improvement project was praised among doctors as a useful, innovative and replicable project. PMID:27158494

  2. Adverse Effects of Daylight Saving Time on Adolescents' Sleep and Vigilance

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Diana; Ebben, Matthew; Milrad, Sara; Atkinson, Brianna; Krieger, Ana C.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Daylight saving time (DST) has been established with the intent to reduce energy expenditure, however unintentional effects on sleep and vigilance have not been consistently measured. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that DST adversely affects high school students' sleep and vigilance on the school days following its implementation. Methods: A natural experiment design was used to assess baseline and post-DST differences in objective and subjective measures of sleep and vigilance by actigraphy, sleep diary, sleepiness scale, and psychomotor vigilance testing (PVT). Students were tested during school days immediately preceding and following DST. Results: A total of 40 high school students were enrolled in this study; 35 completed the protocol. Sleep duration declined by an average of 32 minutes on the weeknights post-DST, reflecting a cumulative sleep loss of 2 h 42 min as compared to the baseline week (p = 0.001). This finding was confirmed by sleep diary analyses, reflecting an average sleep loss of 27 min/night (p = 0.004) post-DST. Vigilance significantly deteriorated, with a decline in PVT performance post-DST, resulting in longer reaction times (p < 0.001) and increased lapses (p < 0.001). Increased daytime sleepiness was also demonstrated (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The early March DST onset adversely affected sleep and vigilance in high school students resulting in increased daytime sleepiness. Larger scale evaluations of sleep impairments related to DST are needed to further quantify this problem in the population. If confirmed, measures to attenuate sleep loss post-DST should be implemented. Citation: Medina D, Ebben M, Milrad S, Atkinson B, Krieger AC. Adverse effects of daylight saving time on adolescents' sleep and vigilance. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(8):879–884. PMID:25979095

  3. Lost sleep and cyberloafing: Evidence from the laboratory and a daylight saving time quasi-experiment.

    PubMed

    Wagner, David T; Barnes, Christopher M; Lim, Vivien K G; Ferris, D Lance

    2012-09-01

    The Internet is a powerful tool that has changed the way people work. However, the ubiquity of the Internet has led to a new workplace threat to productivity-cyberloafing. Building on the ego depletion model of self-regulation, we examine how lost and low-quality sleep influence employee cyberloafing behaviors and how individual differences in conscientiousness moderate these effects. We also demonstrate that the shift to Daylight Saving Time (DST) results in a dramatic increase in cyberloafing behavior at the national level. We first tested the DST-cyberloafing relation through a national quasi-experiment, then directly tested the relation between sleep and cyberloafing in a closely controlled laboratory setting. We discuss the implications of our findings for theory, practice, and future research. PMID:22369272

  4. Time Savings with Rituximab Subcutaneous Injection versus Rituximab Intravenous Infusion: A Time and Motion Study in Eight Countries

    PubMed Central

    De Cock, Erwin; Kritikou, Persefoni; Sandoval, Mariana; Tao, Sunning; Wiesner, Christof; Carella, Angelo Michele; Ngoh, Charles; Waterboer, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Background Rituximab is a standard treatment for non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The SABRINA trial (NCT01200758) showed that a subcutaneous (SC) rituximab formulation did not compromise efficacy or safety compared with intravenous (IV) infusion. We aimed to quantify active healthcare professional (HCP) time and patient chair time for rituximab SC and IV, including potential time savings. Methods This non-interventional time and motion study was run in eight countries and 30 day oncology units. Rituximab SC data were collected alongside the MabCute trial (NCT01461928); IV data were collected per routine real-world practice. Trained observers recorded active HCP time for pre-specified tasks (stopwatch) and chair time (time of day). A random intercept model was used to analyze active HCP time (by task and for all tasks combined) in the treatment room and drug preparation area, drug administration duration, chair time and patient treatment room time by country and/or across countries. Active HCP and chair time were extrapolated to a patient’s first year of treatment (11 rituximab sessions). Results Mean active HCP time was 35.0 and 23.7 minutes for IV and SC process, respectively (-32%, p <0.0001). By country, relative reduction in time was 27–58%. Absolute reduction in extrapolated active HCP time (first year of treatment) was 1.1–5.2 hours. Mean chair time was 262.1 minutes for IV, including 180.9 minutes infusion duration, vs. 67.3 minutes for SC, including 8.3 minutes SC injection administration (-74%, p <0.0001). By country, relative reduction was 53–91%. Absolute reduction in extrapolated chair time for the first year of treatment was 3.1–5.5 eight-hour days. Conclusions Compared with rituximab IV, rituximab SC was associated with reduced chair time and active HCP time. The latter could be invested in other activities, whereas the former may lead to more available appointments, reducing waiting lists and increasing the efficiency of day oncology units. Trial

  5. Time Savings and Surgery Task Load Reduction in Open Intraperitoneal Onlay Mesh Fixation Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Sanjoy; Hammond, Jeffrey; Panish, Jessica; Shnoda, Pullen; Savidge, Sandy; Wilson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study assessed the reduction in surgeon stress associated with savings in procedure time for mechanical fixation of an intraperitoneal onlay mesh (IPOM) compared to a traditional suture fixation in open ventral hernia repair. Study Design. Nine general surgeons performed 36 open IPOM fixation procedures in porcine model. Each surgeon conducted two mechanical (using ETHICON SECURESTRAPTM Open) and two suture fixation procedures. Fixation time was measured using a stopwatch, and related surgeon stress was assessed using the validated SURG-TLX questionnaire. T-tests were used to compare between-group differences, and a two-sided 95% confidence interval for the difference in stress levels was established using nonparametric methodology. Results. The mechanical fixation group demonstrated an 89.1% mean reduction in fixation time, as compared to the suture group (p < 0.00001). Surgeon stress scores measured using SURG-TLX were 55.5% lower in the mechanical compared to the suture fixation group (p < 0.001). Scores in five of the six sources of stress were significantly lower for mechanical fixation. Conclusions. Mechanical fixation with ETHICON SECURESTRAPTM Open demonstrated a significant reduction in fixation time and surgeon stress, which may translate into improved operating efficiency, improved performance, improved surgeon quality of life, and reduced overall costs of the procedure. PMID:26240834

  6. Sharing knowledge, saving time: an online toolbox to aid junior doctors.

    PubMed

    Houston, James; Barker, William; Clarke, Jonathan; Mew, Ed

    2014-01-01

    Junior doctors are too often frustrated by not being able to quickly find information for how to make referrals, book investigations and contact other professionals at hospital. To make matters worse, much of the knowledge gained by doctors throughout the year is lost during the August rotation. There is an unmet need for retaining such knowledge, in order to facilitate a smoother and safer handover. We set up the "Doctors Directory" at our trust; a website run by junior doctors, providing specific, up-to-date information relevant to other junior doctors within the trust. Whilst providing day-to-day information, it also contains a "survival guide" for each hospital firm. We surveyed junior doctors before and after the implementation of this site. 81% of FY1s surveyed have used the site. Of the doctors that had used the site, 94% found it helpful with a mean self reported time saving of 39 minutes a day. Whilst still in its infancy, the site now has mobile access, and has an average of 60 hits a day. Quality improvement projects such as this are readily scalable to other hospitals and have enabled junior doctors to waste less time finding how to do jobs and more time actually getting them done. PMID:26734232

  7. Sharing knowledge, saving time: an online toolbox to aid junior doctors

    PubMed Central

    Houston, James; Barker, William; Clarke, Jonathan; Mew, Ed

    2014-01-01

    Junior doctors are too often frustrated by not being able to quickly find information for how to make referrals, book investigations and contact other professionals at hospital. To make matters worse, much of the knowledge gained by doctors throughout the year is lost during the August rotation. There is an unmet need for retaining such knowledge, in order to facilitate a smoother and safer handover. We set up the “Doctors Directory” at our trust; a website run by junior doctors, providing specific, up-to-date information relevant to other junior doctors within the trust. Whilst providing day-to-day information, it also contains a “survival guide” for each hospital firm. We surveyed junior doctors before and after the implementation of this site. 81% of FY1s surveyed have used the site. Of the doctors that had used the site, 94% found it helpful with a mean self reported time saving of 39 minutes a day. Whilst still in its infancy, the site now has mobile access, and has an average of 60 hits a day. Quality improvement projects such as this are readily scalable to other hospitals and have enabled junior doctors to waste less time finding how to do jobs and more time actually getting them done. PMID:26734232

  8. Looking at IT through a New Lens: Achieving Cost Savings in a Fiscally Challenging Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claffey, George F., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Information technology (IT) departments must cut costs and justify expenditures in the face of shrinking budgets. To promote greater cost savings, it is important to look at IT through a new "lens." This article discusses four broad categories that can be evaluated to determine if IT resource alignment is appropriate and if savings can be achieved…

  9. Real-time data collection technologies: Enhanced decision-making and cost savings January, 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Rust, T.L.; Vu, H.Q.

    2006-07-01

    Hand-held computers, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), and wireless communication devices are rapidly replacing traditional methods for field monitoring and data collection. Although pencil and paper remain important means of data transcription, field technicians can now use Personal Digital Assistants (PDA) to record their field notes and monitoring data. As data are uploaded wirelessly from the field, decision-makers can view realtime reports and maps that identify sample locations and monitoring results. The combination of PDAs, wireless communications, and web-based GIS provides field personnel and decision-makers many benefits throughout the life cycle of a project, including improved data consistency, real-time transfer of data from field locations to centralized databases, input validation, elimination of transcription errors, and cost savings. Concerns have been expressed however, about investing in hardware, software, and training for a new technology. This paper, based on several years of experience using wireless technologies for dozens of projects, is focused specifically on two case studies. The first case study is a large lead removal site in the Midwest at which real-time data collection technologies were used throughout the project to collect thousands of data points. The second is the Hurricane Katrina/Rita emergency response requiring rapid data collection under extraordinary circumstances. At both sites, the use of real-time data collection technologies significantly improved the data management process which reduced overall costs and increased efficiency. These results could not have been achieved using traditional data collection procedures. The oral presentation will focus on the advantages and disadvantages of the real-time data collection technologies, lessons learned, and planning considerations. A live demonstration, following a typical data collection scenario in which data are collected and plotted on a GIS map in near real-time

  10. Radiometer Calibrations: Saving Time by Automating the Gathering and Analysis Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadino, Jeffrey L.

    2005-01-01

    Mr. Abtahi custom-designs radiometers for Mr. Hook's research group. Inherently, when the radiometers report the temperature of arbitrary surfaces, the results are affected by errors in accuracy. This problem can be reduced if the errors can be accounted for in a polynomial. This is achieved by pointing the radiometer at a constant-temperature surface. We have been using a Hartford Scientific WaterBath. The measurements from the radiometer are collected at many different temperatures and compared to the measurements made by a Hartford Chubb thermometer with a four-decimal point resolution. The data is analyzed and fit to a fifth-order polynomial. This formula is then uploaded into the radiometer software, enabling accurate data gathering. Traditionally, Mr. Abtahi has done this by hand, spending several hours of his time setting the temperature, waiting for stabilization, taking measurements, and then repeating for other temperatures. My program, written in the Python language, has enabled the data gathering and analysis process to be handed off to a less-senior member of the team. Simply by entering several initial settings, the program will simultaneously control all three instruments and organize the data suitable for computer analyses, thus giving the desired fifth-order polynomial. This will save time, allow for a more complete calibration data set, and allow for base calibrations to be developed. The program is expandable to simultaneously take any type of measurement from up to nine distinct instruments.

  11. Linking databases to plant drawings saves time and money in process hazard analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Lancaster, C. )

    1993-07-01

    Part of OSHA regulation 29 CFR 1910.119 requires process hazards analyses (PHAs) to be performed for certain chemical operations. A PHA -- also known as a hazardous operations analysis, or HAZOP -- is an organized, systematic effort to identify and analyze the significance of potential hazards associated with processing or handling highly hazardous chemicals. The problem is, most chemical and petrochemical plants have been designed using manual drafting methods. In many cases, these paper drawings are deteriorating with age, and their information is outdated. Thus, many companies updating their drawings to satisfy PHA requirements are converting to computer-aided plant engineering methods. The latest generation of PC-based, computer-aided plant engineering systems links information databases and adds them to drawings in minimal time. This method creates a self-documenting plant, and saves time when performing the PHA and generating other safety- or efficiency-related information. While the computer-aided capability has been available for years on mainframe computers, only recently has it migrated to the more cost-effective PC level.

  12. Use of staged mill and mechanical whipstock saves sidetrack time and cost by up to 50%

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkwood, Y.S.; Pritchard, M.D.

    1995-12-31

    Due to the current marginal economic status of the petroleum industry, drilling a new well is more difficult to justify than ever before. Many operators have adjusted by recompleting old wells whenever possible. While the use of old wells reduces up front capital investment and alleviates some environmental concerns, the risk of formation damage can be much higher than drilling a new well. Although there are many methods of recompleting old wells, the experience at Mt. Poso indicates that none can provide a cleaner wellbore than a sidetrack completion. This paper discusses sidetrack operations using redesigned staged mill and mechanical whipstock. These sidetracks were performed in 1,800 ft. wells located at the Mt. Poso field, CA. The staged mill and mechanical whipstock system, called the Sidewinder, and is jointly invented by B and G Machine and Welding shop and Shell Western E and P Inc. The sidewinder is an enhanced version of the existing whipstock and staged mill technology that is currently overshadowed by the casing section mill. The initial result indicates the new method can reduce both time and cost by as much as 50% over the conventional casing section mill method. The margin of savings is even greater in wells with multiple casing strings.

  13. Quality Saving Mechanisms of Mitochondria during Aging in a Fully Time-Dependent Computational Biophysical Model.

    PubMed

    Mellem, Daniel; Fischer, Frank; Jaspers, Sören; Wenck, Horst; Rübhausen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are essential for the energy production of eukaryotic cells. During aging mitochondria run through various processes which change their quality in terms of activity, health and metabolic supply. In recent years, many of these processes such as fission and fusion of mitochondria, mitophagy, mitochondrial biogenesis and energy consumption have been subject of research. Based on numerous experimental insights, it was possible to qualify mitochondrial behaviour in computational simulations. Here, we present a new biophysical model based on the approach of Figge et al. in 2012. We introduce exponential decay and growth laws for each mitochondrial process to derive its time-dependent probability during the aging of cells. All mitochondrial processes of the original model are mathematically and biophysically redefined and additional processes are implemented: Mitochondrial fission and fusion is separated into a metabolic outer-membrane part and a protein-related inner-membrane part, a quality-dependent threshold for mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis is introduced and processes for activity-dependent internal oxidative stress as well as mitochondrial repair mechanisms are newly included. Our findings reveal a decrease of mitochondrial quality and a fragmentation of the mitochondrial network during aging. Additionally, the model discloses a quality increasing mechanism due to the interplay of the mitophagy and biogenesis cycle and the fission and fusion cycle of mitochondria. It is revealed that decreased mitochondrial repair can be a quality saving process in aged cells. Furthermore, the model finds strategies to sustain the quality of the mitochondrial network in cells with high production rates of reactive oxygen species due to large energy demands. Hence, the model adds new insights to biophysical mechanisms of mitochondrial aging and provides novel understandings of the interdependency of mitochondrial processes. PMID:26771181

  14. Quality Saving Mechanisms of Mitochondria during Aging in a Fully Time-Dependent Computational Biophysical Model

    PubMed Central

    Mellem, Daniel; Fischer, Frank; Jaspers, Sören; Wenck, Horst; Rübhausen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are essential for the energy production of eukaryotic cells. During aging mitochondria run through various processes which change their quality in terms of activity, health and metabolic supply. In recent years, many of these processes such as fission and fusion of mitochondria, mitophagy, mitochondrial biogenesis and energy consumption have been subject of research. Based on numerous experimental insights, it was possible to qualify mitochondrial behaviour in computational simulations. Here, we present a new biophysical model based on the approach of Figge et al. in 2012. We introduce exponential decay and growth laws for each mitochondrial process to derive its time-dependent probability during the aging of cells. All mitochondrial processes of the original model are mathematically and biophysically redefined and additional processes are implemented: Mitochondrial fission and fusion is separated into a metabolic outer-membrane part and a protein-related inner-membrane part, a quality-dependent threshold for mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis is introduced and processes for activity-dependent internal oxidative stress as well as mitochondrial repair mechanisms are newly included. Our findings reveal a decrease of mitochondrial quality and a fragmentation of the mitochondrial network during aging. Additionally, the model discloses a quality increasing mechanism due to the interplay of the mitophagy and biogenesis cycle and the fission and fusion cycle of mitochondria. It is revealed that decreased mitochondrial repair can be a quality saving process in aged cells. Furthermore, the model finds strategies to sustain the quality of the mitochondrial network in cells with high production rates of reactive oxygen species due to large energy demands. Hence, the model adds new insights to biophysical mechanisms of mitochondrial aging and provides novel understandings of the interdependency of mitochondrial processes. PMID:26771181

  15. Design-Construct Method Saves Time and Money in New School Building

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Schools, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Describes the Lottie M. Schmidt Elementary School in New Baltimore, Michigan, completed in 154 days. Designed to a price rather than priced to a design, the school was built at considerable savings over modular approaches -- and the modest price also covered furniture, electric heating/cooling, carpeting, full masonry construction, concrete slab…

  16. Computer simulation of the thermal environment of large-scale integrated circuits - Computer time-saving techniques.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, R. R.; Blum, H. A.

    1971-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the computer costs for both the steady-state and transient thermal responses of large-scale integrated circuits (LSI) when metal is present within the substrate. For the more cost-sensitive transient case, an extrapolation technique for computer time savings is compared with the accuracy loss in this study. This approach could be useful for design-cost planning.

  17. Effects of daylight-saving time changes on stock market returns and stock market volatility: rebuttal.

    PubMed

    Kamstra, Mark J; Kramer, Lisa A; Levi, Maurice D

    2013-02-01

    In a 2011 reply to our 2010 comment in this journal, Berument and Dogen maintained their challenge to the existence of the negative daylight-saving effect in stock returns reported by Kamstra, Kramer, and Levi in 2000. Unfortunately, in their reply, Berument and Dogen ignored all of the points raised in the comment, failing even to cite the Kamstra, et al. comment. Berument and Dogen continued to use inappropriate estimation techniques, over-parameterized models, and low-power tests and perhaps most surprisingly even failed to replicate results they themselves reported in their previous paper, written by Berument, Dogen, and Onar in 2010. The findings reported by Berument and Dogen, as well as by Berument, Dogen, and Onar, are neither well-supported nor well-reasoned. We maintain our original objections to their analysis, highlight new serious empirical and theoretical problems, and emphasize that there remains statistically significant evidence of an economically large negative daylight-saving effect in U.S. stock returns. The issues raised in this rebuttal extend beyond the daylight-saving effect itself, touching on methodological points that arise more generally when deciding how to model financial returns data. PMID:23654029

  18. Association of daylight saving time transitions with incidence and in-hospital mortality of myocardial infarction in Finland.

    PubMed

    Sipilä, Jussi O T; Rautava, Päivi; Kytö, Ville

    2016-02-01

    Introduction Circadian rhythm disturbance increases cardiovascular risk but the effects of daylight saving time (DST) transitions on the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) are unclear. Methods We studied association of DST transitions in 2001-2009 with incidence and in-hospital mortality of MI admissions nationwide in Finland. Incidence rations (IR) of observed incidences on seven days following DST transition were compared to expected incidences. Results Incidence of MI increased on Wednesday (IR 1.16; CI 1.01-1.34) after spring transition (6298 patients' cohort). After autumn transition (8161 patients' cohort), MI incidence decreased on Monday (IR 0.85; CI 0.74-0.97) but increased on Thursday (IR 1.15; CI 1.02-1.30). The overall incidence of MI during the week after each DST transition did not differ from control weeks. Patient age or gender, type of MI or in-hospital mortality were not associated with transitions. Renal insufficiency was more common among MI patients after spring transition (OR 1.81; CI 1.06-3.09; p < 0.05). Diabetes was less common after spring transition (OR 0.71; CI 0.55-0.91; p = 0.007), but more common after autumn transition (OR 1.21; 1.00-1.46; p < 0.05). Conclusions DST transitions are followed by changes in the temporal pattern but not the overall rate of MI incidence. Comorbidities may modulate the effects DST transitions. KEY MESSAGES Both spring and autumn daylight saving time transitions changed the temporal occurrence pattern but not the overall incidence of myocardial infarction occurrence on the week following the clock shift. The age or gender distribution of patients, ratio of different types of myocardial infarctions or in-hospital mortality were not affected by clock shifts. The effect of daylight saving time transitions on MI incidence may be modified by the presence of diabetes. PMID:26679065

  19. Advanced manpower and time saving testing concept for development, production, and maintenance of electro-optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabib, Dario; Buckwald, R. A.; Nirkin, Shimon; Lavi, Moshe; Neria, Oded; Ben Yaakov, Claudia; Tzafrir, Efraim; Blau, Moshe; Dolev, Jacob

    2006-05-01

    In all stages of an electro-optics system's life, development, production, and periodic maintenance, a large amount of manpower and time is devoted to testing. Each subsystem separately as well as the system as a whole are tested by a PC controlled test system, which consists of hardware for creation of the appropriate stimuli, and software for tests management and control. A very considerable portion of this manpower and time is devoted by the system manufacturer to configure the test routines, to manually input certain parameter values of the Unit Under Test (UUT) at predefined test nodes, and to reconfigure these routines from time to time, as the needs change during the system's life time. CI has developed the CTE (CI Test Executive), a software package which is a breakthrough in saving manpower and time devoted to electro-optics system testing. The new concept is based on: 1. The CTE can communicate directly with any UUT able to communicate with the outside world through a known protocol, to automatically set the UUT parameters before testing, 2. The user can more easily reconfigure the communication with the UUT through a provided special Excel file, without the help of the test system manufacturer, 3. The interface screen is automatically reconfigured every time the Excel file is changed to build the new test routine, 4. The CTE can simulate the test system stimuli with error injection capability, and simultaneously monitor communication and other hardware functions, 5. Test "verification" signals are provided on-line for the convenience and time saving of the test operator.

  20. Simple time-saving method for iron determination based on fluorescence quenching of an azaflavanon-3-ol compound.

    PubMed

    Başoğlu, Aysel; Tosun, Gonca; Ocak, Miraç; Alp, Hakan; Yaylı, Nurettin; Ocak, Ümmühan

    2015-03-18

    A simple and time-saving spectrofluorometric method developed using an azaflavanon-3-ol compound was used for the determination of iron in various food samples. Nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide were used for digestion of samples in a closed microwave system. The method was validated by analyzing two certified reference materials (CRM-SA-C Sandy Soil C and Mixed Polish Herbs INCT-MPH-2). Measurements were carried out using a modified standard addition method. The standard addition graph was linear until 21.6 mg/L in the determination of iron(III). Detection and quantification limits were 0.81 and 2.4 mg/L, respectively. Satisfactory accuracy was obtained for spinach, dill, mint, purslane, rocket, red lentils, dry beans, and two iron medicinal tablets. High recoveries were found for streamwater samples fortified at three different concentrations. The method is simple, time-saving, cost-effective, and suitable for the determination of the iron content of foods. PMID:25723252

  1. Immunity-Based Optimal Estimation Approach for a New Real Time Group Elevator Dynamic Control Application for Energy and Time Saving

    PubMed Central

    Baygin, Mehmet; Karakose, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, the increasing use of group elevator control systems owing to increasing building heights makes the development of high-performance algorithms necessary in terms of time and energy saving. Although there are many studies in the literature about this topic, they are still not effective enough because they are not able to evaluate all features of system. In this paper, a new approach of immune system-based optimal estimate is studied for dynamic control of group elevator systems. The method is mainly based on estimation of optimal way by optimizing all calls with genetic, immune system and DNA computing algorithms, and it is evaluated with a fuzzy system. The system has a dynamic feature in terms of the situation of calls and the option of the most appropriate algorithm, and it also adaptively works in terms of parameters such as the number of floors and cabins. This new approach which provides both time and energy saving was carried out in real time. The experimental results comparatively demonstrate the effects of method. With dynamic and adaptive control approach in this study carried out, a significant progress on group elevator control systems has been achieved in terms of time and energy efficiency according to traditional methods. PMID:23935433

  2. The effects of season, daylight saving and time of sunrise on serum cortisol in a large population.

    PubMed

    Hadlow, Narelle C; Brown, Suzanne; Wardrop, Robert; Henley, David

    2014-03-01

    Cortisol is critical for maintenance of health and homeostasis and factors affecting cortisol levels are of clinical importance. There is conflicting information about the effects of season on morning cortisol and little information on the effects of sunlight on population cortisol assessment. The aim of this study was to assess whether changes in median serum cortisol occurred in a population in conjunction with changing seasons, daylight saving time (DST) or time of sunrise. We analysed serum cortisol results (n = 27,569) from a single large laboratory over a 13-year period. Subjects with confounding medications or medical conditions were excluded and data analysed in 15-minute intervals. We assessed the influence of traditional seasons, seasons determined by equinox/solstice, DST and time of sunrise on median cortisol. The median time of cortisol collection did not vary significantly between seasons. Using traditional seasons, median cortisol was lowest in summer (386 nmol/L) and spring (384 nmol/L) with higher cortisol in autumn (406 nmol/L) and winter (414 nmol/L). Median cortisol was lowest in the summer solstice quarter with significant comparative increases in the spring equinox quarter (3.1%), the autumn equinox quarter (4.5%) and the winter solstice quarter (8.6%). When cortisol was modelled against time, with adjustment for actual sunrise time on day of collection, for each hour delay in sunrise there was a 4.8% increase in median cortisol (95% CI: 3.9-5.7%). In modelling to explain the variation in cortisol over the morning, sunrise time was better than season in explaining seasonal effects. A subtle cyclic pattern in median cortisol also occurred throughout the months of the year. A 3-year trial of DST allowed comparison of cortisol in DST and non DST periods, when clock time differed by one hour. There was modest evidence of a difference in acrophase between DST and non DST cortisol (p = 0.038), with DST peak cortisol estimated to

  3. Superfund investigation at a DOD site: Focus on remediation over investigation saves time and money

    SciTech Connect

    Kiger, G.W.; Mangold, D.

    1995-12-31

    Marine Corps Air Station Yuma, Arizona, placed on the NPL in 1990, was faced in 1993 with a two year slippage in the FFA investigation schedule. An aggressive and innovative program was developed to achieve schedule recovery and focus on remediation over investigation. The remedial investigation was designed to rapidly evaluate the environmental condition of 18 sites and identify those sites that warrant remediation. The Navy, in partnership with the US EPA and Arizona Department of Environmental Quality, developed a strategy that eliminated the phased sampling approach and integrated CPT soil sample collection techniques, on-site mobile laboratory analysis, and geostatistical modeling to accelerate decision making during the field investigation. Soil samples were collected and rapidly analyzed by the on-site laboratory to determine the concentrations of selected classes of chemicals. The on-site laboratory analytical results were constantly monitored to coordinate the collection of additional samples as necessary to complete a generalized definition of contaminant plumes. Results were modeled geostatistically to predict the location of contaminant ``hot spots``. Evaluation of the ``hot spot`` data was conducted to determine if the concentrations represent an unacceptable level of risk that warrants remediation. The successful implementation of this investigation program resulted in: (1) recovery of over 20 months of schedule slippage; (2) a savings of an estimated $5 million in investigation funds; and (3) the ability to accelerate planning and implementation of remedial actions.

  4. Inhalation anesthesia in experimental radiotherapy: a reliable and time-saving system for multifractionation studies in a clinical department

    SciTech Connect

    Ang, K.K.; Van Der Kogel, A.J.; Van Der Schueren, E.

    1982-01-01

    An inhalation anesthesia system has been employed to overcome several of the limitations associated with the use of sodium pentobarbital and other i.p. administered anesthetics in experimental radiotherapy. The described method is reliable and time-saving. The depth and duration of anesthesia are easily controllable. Only 4 deaths have occurred with more than 6000 animal exposures. The use of polystyrene jigs is shown to provide adequate thermal isolation. Oxygen as a carrier of the anesthetic agent is expected to prevent a reduced tissue oxygenation and its radiobiological consequences. The whole system is constructed as a mobile unit in which up to 16 mice or rats can be anesthetized simultaneously and irradiated in a single field with clinical treatment equipment during short time intervals between patient irradiations. The described advantages of this method make it specially suited for experiments with protracted fractionation schedules.

  5. A time-saving method to assess power output at lactate threshold in well-trained and elite cyclists.

    PubMed

    Støren, Øyvind; Rønnestad, Bent R; Sunde, Arnstein; Hansen, Joar; Ellefsen, Stian; Helgerud, Jan

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between lactate threshold (LT) as a percentage of maximal oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max) and power output at LT (LTW) and also to investigate to what extent V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, oxygen cost of cycling (CC), and maximal aerobic power (MAP) determine LTW in cycling to develop a new time-saving model for testing LTW. To do this, 108 male competitive cyclists with an average V[Combining Dot Above]O2max of 65.2 ± 7.4 ml·kg·min and an average LTW of 274 ± 43 W were tested for V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, LT %V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, LTW, MAP, and CC on a test ergometer cycle. The product of MAP and individual LT in %V[Combining Dot Above]O2max was found to be a good determinant of LTW (R = 0.98, p < 0.0001). However, LT in %V[Combining Dot Above]O2max was found to be a poor determinant of LTW (R = 0.39, p < 0.0001). Based on these findings, we have suggested a new time-saving method for calculating LTW in well-trained cyclists. The benefits from this model come both from tracking LTW during training interventions and from regularly assessing training status in competitive cyclists. Briefly, this method is based on the present findings that LTW depends on LT in %V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, and CC and may after an initial test session reduce the time for the subsequent testing of LTW by as much as 50% without the need for blood samples. PMID:23942166

  6. Reducing time delay in the thrombolysis of myocardial infarction: an internal quality improvement project. ARIAM Project Group. Analisis del Retraso en Infarto Agudo de Miocardio.

    PubMed

    Saturno, P J; Felices, F; Segura, J; Vera, A; Rodriguez, J J

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to improve thrombolytic therapy in acute myocardial infarction by reducing the "door-to-needle" time in a 285-bed university hospital in Spain. A quality management approach was used involving all the relevant staff. Target standard was set at 35 minutes. Baseline data, intervention effect, and continuous monitoring were analyzed using x control charts. Analysis of baseline data showed a wide out-of-control variation and 72 minutes' average delay. Cause analysis revealed organizational and clinical problems that were subjected to intervention. Postintervention data showed a stable process, with an average of 30 minutes. Continuous monitoring showed further improvement in average time and predictable variation. The template of the current control chart has an average of 26 minutes. Quality management methods, particularly staff involvement in problem analysis and intervention design, and the use of control charts were useful to understand, solve, and continuously monitor an important clinical problem whose existence was evident only after it was measured. PMID:10872258

  7. Optimal Time Advance In Terminal Area Arrivals: Throughput vs. Fuel Savings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadovsky, Alexander V .; Swenson, Harry N.; Haskell, William B.; Rakas, Jasenka

    2011-01-01

    The current operational practice in scheduling air traffic arriving at an airport is to adjust flight schedules by delay, i.e. a postponement of an aircrafts arrival at a scheduled location, to manage safely the FAA-mandated separation constraints between aircraft. To meet the observed and forecast growth in traffic demand, however, the practice of time advance (speeding up an aircraft toward a scheduled location) is envisioned for future operations as a practice additional to delay. Time advance has two potential advantages. The first is the capability to minimize, or at least reduce, the excess separation (the distances between pairs of aircraft immediately in-trail) and thereby to increase the throughput of the arriving traffic. The second is to reduce the total traffic delay when the traffic sample is below saturation density. A cost associated with time advance is the fuel expenditure required by an aircraft to speed up. We present an optimal control model of air traffic arriving in a terminal area and solve it using the Pontryagin Maximum Principle. The admissible controls allow time advance, as well as delay, some of the way. The cost function reflects the trade-off between minimizing two competing objectives: excess separation (negatively correlated with throughput) and fuel burn. A number of instances are solved using three different methods, to demonstrate consistency of solutions.

  8. Tech Tips for Campus Leaders: How to Save Time and Stay on Top of New Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Scott

    2008-01-01

    The complexity of an academic dean's job means that time is at a premium. Yet most campus leaders also realize that they need to lead their institutions into the technology-suffused 21st century. In this article, the author offers some technology-related activities that deans can integrate into their busy schedules quickly and fairly easily.

  9. Save Time and Increase Social Media Reach by Using IFTTT--If This, Then That

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skrabut, Stan

    2014-01-01

    Extension educators, staff, and specialists are finding that social media tools such as Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and blogs are powerful ways to disseminate educational content, announce events, and promote Extension services. The challenge to using all of these various tools is the lack of time. Tools such as IFTTT (If This, Then That) can help…

  10. Engaging science communication that are time-saving for scientists using new online technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilja Bye, Bente

    2016-04-01

    Science communication is a time consuming and challenging task. Communicating scientific results comes on top of doing science itself and the administrative work the modern day scientists have to cope with. The competition on peoples time and attention is also fierce. In order to get peoples attention and interest, it is today often required that there is a two-way communication. The audience needs and wants to be engaged, even in real-time. The skills and times required to do that is normally not included in the university curricula. In this presentation we will look at new technologies that can help scientists overcome some of those skills and time challenges. The new online technologies that has been tested and developed in other societal areas, can be of great use for research and the important science communication. We will illustrate this through an example from biodiversity, wetlands and these fields use of Earth observations. Both the scientists themselves representing different fields of research and the general public are being engaged effectively and efficiently through specifically designed online events/seminars/workshops. The scientists are able to learn from each other while also engaging in live dialogues with the audience. A cooperation between the Group of Earth Observations and the Ramsar Convention of Wetlands will be used to illustrate the method. Within the global Earth observation community, where this example comes from, there is a great potential for efficient capacity building, targeting both experts, decision-makers and the general public. The method presented is demonstrating one way of tapping into that potential using new online technologies and it can easily be transferred to other fields of geoscience and science in general.

  11. Save Energy: Save Money!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eccli, Eugene; And Others

    This publication is a collection of inexpensive energy saving tips and home improvements for home owners, particularly in low-income areas or in older homes. Section titles are: (1) Keeping Warm; (2) Getting Heat Where You Need It; (3) Using the Sun; (4) Furnaces, Stoves, and Fireplaces; (5) Insulation and Other Energy Needs; (6) Do-It-Yourself…

  12. Taking stock of a money-saving system. Now may be the time for just-in-time.

    PubMed

    Threlfall, R G

    1989-11-01

    The urgent need to trim costs is apparent in hospitals across the country. One target for internal belt-tightening is business forms. Pick-and-pack programs are computerized just-in-time storage and delivery systems developed specifically to reduce a facility's administrative costs for forms. Under pick-and-pack, business forms are stored in a central location, which is connected to either the facility's or a vendor's computer system. Forms are shipped directly to the requesting user as needed. The result is substantial reduction in labor, inventory investment, and storage space. The system provides all the information necessary to keep inventory at optimum levels, while meeting stocking needs and minimizing inventory investment. Better yet, pick-and-pack provides a monthly summary billing, significantly reducing administrative processing costs. Of additional help to the hospital is a report that allocates charges by cost center and includes important data for budgeting and cost control. PMID:10295923

  13. Is Advanced Real-Time Energy Metering Sufficient to Persuade People to Save Energy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, L.; Leite, H.; Ponce de Leão, T.

    2012-10-01

    In order to promote a low-carbon economy, EU citizens may soon be able to check their electricity consumption from smart meter. It is hoped that smart meter can, by providing real-time consumption and pricing information to residential users, help reducing demand for electricity. It is argued in this paper that, according the Elaborative Likelihood Model (ELM), these methods are most likely to be effective when consumers perceive the issue of energy conservation relevant to their lives. Nevertheless, some fundamental characteristics of these methods result in limited amount of perceived personal relevance; for instance, energy expenditure expense may be relatively small comparing to other household expenditure like mortgage and consumption information does not enhance interpersonal trust. In this paper, it is suggested that smart meter can apply the "nudge" approaches which respond to ELM as the use of simple rules to make decision, which include the change of feedback delivery and device design.

  14. Low-priced, time-saving, reliable and stable LR-115 counting system.

    PubMed

    Tchorz-Trzeciakiewicz, D E

    2015-06-01

    Nuclear alpha particles leave etches (tracks) when they hit the surface of a LR-115 detector. The density of these tracks is used to measure radon concentration. Counting these tracks by human sense is tedious and time-consuming procedure and may introduce counting error, whereas most available automatic and semiautomatic counting systems are expensive or complex. An uncomplicated, robust, reliable and stable counting system using freely available on the Internet software as Digimizer™ and PhotoScape was developed and proposed. The effectiveness of the proposed procedure was evaluated by comparing the amount of tracks counted by software with the amount of tracks counted manually for 223 detectors. The percentage error for each analysed detector was obtained as a difference between automatic and manual counts divided by manual count. For more than 97% of detectors, the percentage errors oscillated between -3% and 3%. PMID:25867705

  15. Real Time Voltage and Current Phase Shift Analyzer for Power Saving Applications

    PubMed Central

    Krejcar, Ondrej; Frischer, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, high importance is given to low energy devices (such as refrigerators, deep-freezers, washing machines, pumps, etc.) that are able to produce reactive power in power lines which can be optimized (reduced). Reactive power is the main component which overloads power lines and brings excessive thermal stress to conductors. If the reactive power is optimized, it can significantly lower the electricity consumption (from 10 to 30%—varies between countries). This paper will examine and discuss the development of a measuring device for analyzing reactive power. However, the main problem is the precise real time measurement of the input and output voltage and current. Such quality measurement is needed to allow adequate action intervention (feedback which reduces or fully compensates reactive power). Several other issues, such as the accuracy and measurement speed, must be examined while designing this device. The price and the size of the final product need to remain low as they are the two important parameters of this solution. PMID:23112662

  16. Rapid assembly and use of robotic systems: Saving time and money in new applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, P.C.

    1995-10-01

    High costs and low productivity of manual operations in radiation, chemical, explosive and other hazardous environments have mandated the use of remote means to accomplish many tasks. However, traditional remote operations have proven to have very low productivity when compared with unencumbered humans. To improve the performance of these systems, computer models augmented by sensors, and modular computing environments are being utilized to automate many unstructured hazardous tasks. Establishment of a common structure for developments of modules such as the Generic Intelligent System Controller (GISC), have allowed many independent groups to develop specialized components that can be rapidly integrated into purpose-built robotic systems. The drawback in using this systems is that the equipment investments for such robotic systems can be substantial. In a resource-competitive environment, the ability to readily and reliably reconfigure and reuse assets operated by other industries, universities, research labs, government entities, etc., is proving to be a crucial advantage. Timely and efficient collaboration between entities has become increasingly important as monetary resources of government programs and entire industries expand or contract in response to rapid changes in production demand, dissolution of political barriers, and adoption of stringent environmental and commercial legislation. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed the System Composer, Virtual Collaborative Environment (VCE) and A{sup primed} technologies described in this paper that demonstrate an environment for flexible and efficient integration, interaction, and information exchange between disparate entities.

  17. Instrumental modification intended to save time, and volumes of sample and reagent solutions, in the atomic fluorescence spectrometric determination of mercury.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sirvent, Carmen; Martínez-Sánchez, María J; García-Lorenzo, Mariluz; López-García, Ignacio; Hernández-Córdoba, Manuel

    2007-05-01

    Use of small membrane pumps, instead of peristaltic pumps, to introduce sample and reagent solutions into the spectrometer has several advantages in atomic fluorescence spectrometric determination of mercury. This simple modification results in a substantial saving in the time required for the measurements and so 90% of reagent solution volumes and 95% of sample solution volumes are saved, with a consequent decrease in the volume of waste generated. The sampling frequency is almost tripled, with no deterioration in sensitivity, which is similar to that obtained by use of peristaltic pumps. The relative standard deviation for ten consecutive measurements of a 1 microg L-1 mercury solution was approximately 2%. PMID:17351707

  18. Saving energy during hard times: energetic adaptations of Shetland pony mares.

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, Lea; Gerken, Martina; Hambly, Catherine; Speakman, John R; Riek, Alexander

    2014-12-15

    Recent results suggest that wild Northern herbivores reduce their metabolism during times of low ambient temperature and food shortage in order to reduce their energetic needs. It is, however, not known whether domesticated animals are also able to reduce their energy expenditure. We exposed 10 Shetland pony mares to different environmental conditions (summer and winter) and to two food quantities (60% and 100% of maintenance energy requirement) during low winter temperatures to examine energetic and behavioural responses. In summer, ponies showed a considerably higher field metabolic rate (FMR; 63.4±15.0 MJ day(-1)) compared with food-restricted and control animals in winter (24.6±7.8 and 15.0±1.1 MJ day(-1), respectively). During summer, locomotor activity, resting heart rate and total water turnover were considerably elevated (P<0.001) compared with winter. Animals on a restricted diet (N=5) compensated for the decreased energy supply by reducing their FMR by 26% compared with control animals (N=5). Furthermore, resting heart rate, body mass and body condition score were lower (29.2±2.7 beats min(-1), 140±22 kg and 3.0±1.0 points, respectively) than in control animals (36.8±41 beats min(-1), 165±31 kg, 4.4±0.7 points; P<0.05). While the observed behaviour did not change, nocturnal hypothermia was elevated. We conclude that ponies acclimatize to different climatic conditions by changing their metabolic rate, behaviour and some physiological parameters. When exposed to energy challenges, ponies, like wild herbivores, exhibited hypometabolism and nocturnal hypothermia. PMID:25359931

  19. Save Babies through Screening Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... screenable disorders. More Practitioners Save Babies Videos Newborn screening saves babies, one foot at a time. For ... disease that could have been treated had newborn screening taken place before the baby left the hospital. ...

  20. The feasibility, time savings and economic impact of a designated time appointment system at a busy HIV care clinic in Kenya: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Kwena, Zachary A; Njoroge, Betty W; Cohen, Craig R; Oyaro, Patrick; Shikari, Rosemary; Kibaara, Charles K; Bukusi, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction As efforts are made to reach universal access to ART in Kenya, the problem of congestion at HIV care clinics is likely to worsen. We evaluated the feasibility and the economic benefits of a designated time appointment system as a solution to decongest HIV care clinics. Methods This was an explanatory two-arm open-label randomized controlled trial that enrolled 354 consenting participants during their normal clinic days and followed-up at subsequent clinic appointments for up to nine months. Intervention arm participants were given specific dates and times to arrive at the clinic for their next appointment while those in the control arm were only given the date and had the discretion to decide on the time to arrive as is the standard practice. At follow-up visits, we recorded arrival and departure times and asked the monetary value of work participants engaged in before and after clinic. We conducted multiple imputation to replace missing data in our primary outcome variables to allow for intention-to-treat analysis; and analyzed the data using Mann–Whitney U test. Results Overall, 72.1% of the intervention participants arrived on time, 13.3% arrived ahead of time and 14.6% arrived past scheduled time. Intervention arm participants spent a median of 65 [interquartile range (IQR), 52–87] minutes at the clinic compared to 197 (IQR, 173–225) minutes for control participants (p<0.01). Furthermore, intervention arm participants were more productively engaged on their clinic days valuing their cumulative work at a median of USD 10.5 (IQR, 60.0–16.8) compared to participants enrolled in the control arm who valued their work at USD 8.3 (IQR, 5.5–12.9; p=0.02). Conclusions A designated time appointment system is feasible and provides substantial time savings associated with greater economic productivity for HIV patients attending a busy HIV care clinic. PMID:26163505

  1. Cost Savings Realized by Implementation of Routine Microbiological Identification by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Alby, Kevin; Kerr, Alan; Jones, Melissa; Gilligan, Peter H.

    2015-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) is an emerging technology for rapid identification of bacterial and fungal isolates. In comparison to conventional methods, this technology is much less labor intensive and can provide accurate and reliable results in minutes from a single isolated colony. We compared the cost of performing the bioMérieux Vitek MALDI-TOF MS with conventional microbiological methods to determine the amount saved by the laboratory by converting to the new technology. Identification costs for 21,930 isolates collected between April 1, 2013, and March 31, 2014, were directly compared for MALDI-TOF MS and conventional methodologies. These isolates were composed of commonly isolated organisms, including commonly encountered aerobic and facultative bacteria and yeast but excluding anaerobes and filamentous fungi. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and rapidly growing mycobacteria were also evaluated for a 5-month period during the study. Reagent costs and a total cost analysis that included technologist time in addition to reagent expenses and maintenance service agreement costs were analyzed as part of this study. The use of MALDI-TOF MS equated to a net savings of $69,108.61, or 87.8%, in reagent costs annually compared to traditional methods. When total costs are calculated to include technologist time and maintenance costs, traditional identification would have cost $142,532.69, versus $68,886.51 with the MALDI-TOF MS method, resulting in a laboratory savings of $73,646.18, or 51.7%, annually by adopting the new technology. The initial cost of the instrument at our usage level would be offset in about 3 years. MALDI-TOF MS not only represents an innovative technology for the rapid and accurate identification of bacterial and fungal isolates, it also provides a significant cost savings for the laboratory. PMID:25994167

  2. Cost Savings Realized by Implementation of Routine Microbiological Identification by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tran, Anthony; Alby, Kevin; Kerr, Alan; Jones, Melissa; Gilligan, Peter H

    2015-08-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) is an emerging technology for rapid identification of bacterial and fungal isolates. In comparison to conventional methods, this technology is much less labor intensive and can provide accurate and reliable results in minutes from a single isolated colony. We compared the cost of performing the bioMérieux Vitek MALDI-TOF MS with conventional microbiological methods to determine the amount saved by the laboratory by converting to the new technology. Identification costs for 21,930 isolates collected between April 1, 2013, and March 31, 2014, were directly compared for MALDI-TOF MS and conventional methodologies. These isolates were composed of commonly isolated organisms, including commonly encountered aerobic and facultative bacteria and yeast but excluding anaerobes and filamentous fungi. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and rapidly growing mycobacteria were also evaluated for a 5-month period during the study. Reagent costs and a total cost analysis that included technologist time in addition to reagent expenses and maintenance service agreement costs were analyzed as part of this study. The use of MALDI-TOF MS equated to a net savings of $69,108.61, or 87.8%, in reagent costs annually compared to traditional methods. When total costs are calculated to include technologist time and maintenance costs, traditional identification would have cost $142,532.69, versus $68,886.51 with the MALDI-TOF MS method, resulting in a laboratory savings of $73,646.18, or 51.7%, annually by adopting the new technology. The initial cost of the instrument at our usage level would be offset in about 3 years. MALDI-TOF MS not only represents an innovative technology for the rapid and accurate identification of bacterial and fungal isolates, it also provides a significant cost savings for the laboratory. PMID:25994167

  3. A real-time regional adaptive exposure method for saving dose-area product in x-ray fluoroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Burion, Steve; Funk, Tobias; Speidel, Michael A.

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: Reduction of radiation dose in x-ray imaging has been recognized as a high priority in the medical community. Here the authors show that a regional adaptive exposure method can reduce dose-area product (DAP) in x-ray fluoroscopy. The authors' method is particularly geared toward providing dose savings for the pediatric population. Methods: The scanning beam digital x-ray system uses a large-area x-ray source with 8000 focal spots in combination with a small photon-counting detector. An imaging frame is obtained by acquiring and reconstructing up to 8000 detector images, each viewing only a small portion of the patient. Regional adaptive exposure was implemented by varying the exposure of the detector images depending on the local opacity of the object. A family of phantoms ranging in size from infant to obese adult was imaged in anteroposterior view with and without adaptive exposure. The DAP delivered to each phantom was measured in each case, and noise performance was compared by generating noise arrays to represent regional noise in the images. These noise arrays were generated by dividing the image into regions of about 6 mm{sup 2}, calculating the relative noise in each region, and placing the relative noise value of each region in a one-dimensional array (noise array) sorted from highest to lowest. Dose-area product savings were calculated as the difference between the ratio of DAP with adaptive exposure to DAP without adaptive exposure. The authors modified this value by a correction factor that matches the noise arrays where relative noise is the highest to report a final dose-area product savings. Results: The average dose-area product saving across the phantom family was (42 {+-} 8)% with the highest dose-area product saving in the child-sized phantom (50%) and the lowest in the phantom mimicking an obese adult (23%). Conclusions: Phantom measurements indicate that a regional adaptive exposure method can produce large DAP savings without

  4. A real-time regional adaptive exposure method for saving dose-area product in x-ray fluoroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Burion, Steve; Speidel, Michael A.; Funk, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Reduction of radiation dose in x-ray imaging has been recognized as a high priority in the medical community. Here the authors show that a regional adaptive exposure method can reduce dose-area product (DAP) in x-ray fluoroscopy. The authors' method is particularly geared toward providing dose savings for the pediatric population. Methods: The scanning beam digital x-ray system uses a large-area x-ray source with 8000 focal spots in combination with a small photon-counting detector. An imaging frame is obtained by acquiring and reconstructing up to 8000 detector images, each viewing only a small portion of the patient. Regional adaptive exposure was implemented by varying the exposure of the detector images depending on the local opacity of the object. A family of phantoms ranging in size from infant to obese adult was imaged in anteroposterior view with and without adaptive exposure. The DAP delivered to each phantom was measured in each case, and noise performance was compared by generating noise arrays to represent regional noise in the images. These noise arrays were generated by dividing the image into regions of about 6 mm2, calculating the relative noise in each region, and placing the relative noise value of each region in a one-dimensional array (noise array) sorted from highest to lowest. Dose-area product savings were calculated as the difference between the ratio of DAP with adaptive exposure to DAP without adaptive exposure. The authors modified this value by a correction factor that matches the noise arrays where relative noise is the highest to report a final dose-area product savings. Results: The average dose-area product saving across the phantom family was (42 ± 8)% with the highest dose-area product saving in the child-sized phantom (50%) and the lowest in the phantom mimicking an obese adult (23%). Conclusions: Phantom measurements indicate that a regional adaptive exposure method can produce large DAP savings without compromising the

  5. Remanufacturing and energy savings.

    PubMed

    Gutowski, Timothy G; Sahni, Sahil; Boustani, Avid; Graves, Stephen C

    2011-05-15

    Remanufactured products that can substitute for new products are generally claimed to save energy. These claims are made from studies that look mainly at the differences in materials production and manufacturing. However, when the use phase is included, the situation can change radically. In this Article, 25 case studies for eight different product categories were studied, including: (1) furniture, (2) clothing, (3) computers, (4) electric motors, (5) tires, (6) appliances, (7) engines, and (8) toner cartridges. For most of these products, the use phase energy dominates that for materials production and manufacturing combined. As a result, small changes in use phase efficiency can overwhelm the claimed savings from materials production and manufacturing. These use phase energy changes are primarily due to efficiency improvements in new products, and efficiency degradation in remanufactured products. For those products with no, or an unchanging, use phase energy requirement, remanufacturing can save energy. For the 25 cases, we found that 8 cases clearly saved energy, 6 did not, and 11 were too close to call. In some cases, we could examine how the energy savings potential of remanufacturing has changed over time. Specifically, during times of significant improvements in energy efficiency, remanufacturing would often not save energy. A general design trend seems to be to add power to a previously unpowered product, and then to improve on the energy efficiency of the product over time. These trends tend to undermine the energy savings potential of remanufacturing. PMID:21513286

  6. Saving Water Saves Energy

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, James E.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Biermayer, Peter

    2006-06-15

    Hot water use in households, for showers and baths as wellas for washing clothes and dishes, is a major driver of household energyconsumption. Other household uses of water (such as irrigatinglandscaping) require additional energy in other sectors to transport andtreat the water before use, and to treat wastewater. In California, 19percent of total electricity for all sectors combined and 32 percent ofnatural gas consumption is related to water. There is a criticalinterdependence between energy and water systems: thermal power plantsrequire cooling water, and water pumping and treatment require energy.Energy efficiency can be increased by a number of means, includingmore-efficient appliances (e.g., clothes washers or dishwashers that useless total water and less heated water), water-conserving plumbingfixtures and fittings (e.g., showerheads, faucets, toilets) and changesin consumer behavior (e.g., lower temperature set points for storagewater heaters, shorter showers). Water- and energy-conserving activitiescan help offset the stress imposed on limited water (and energy) suppliesfrom increasing population in some areas, particularly in drought years,or increased consumption (e.g., some new shower systems) as a result ofincreased wealth. This paper explores the connections between householdwater use and energy, and suggests options for increased efficiencies inboth individual technologies and systems. Studies indicate that urbanwater use can be reduced cost-effectively by up to 30 percent withcommercially available products. The energy savings associated with watersavings may represent a large additional and largely untappedcost-effective opportunity.

  7. Analysis on factors affecting household customers decision in using electricity at peak time and its correlation towards saving electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasasa, Linus; Marbun, Parlin; Mariza, Ita

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study and analyse the factors affecting customer decisions in using electricity at peak-load hours (between 17.00 to 22.00 WIB) and their behaviors towards electricity conservation in Indonesian household. The underlying rationale is to influence a reduction in energy consumption by stimulating energy saving behaviors, thereby reducing the impact of energy use on the environment. How is the correlation between the decisions in using electricity during peak load hours with the household customer's behavior towards saving electricity? The primary data is obtained by distributing questionnaires to customers of PT. PLN Jakarta Raya and Tangerang Distribution from Household segment. The data is analysed using the Structural Equation Model (SEM) and AMOS Software. The research is finding that all factors (Personal, Social, PLN Services, Psychological, and Cultural) are positively influence customer decision in using electricity at peak load hours. There is a correlation between the decisions in using electricity during peak load hours with the household customer's behavior towards saving electricity.

  8. Inhalation anesthesia in experimental radiotherapy: a reliable and time-saving system for multifractionation studies in a clinical department. [Rats; Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ang, K.K.; Van Der Kogel, A.J.; Van Der Schueren, E.

    1982-01-01

    An inhalation anesthesia system has been employed to overcome several of the limitations associated wih the use of sodium pentobarbital and other i.p. administered anesthetics in experimental radiotherapy. The described method is reliable and time-saving. The depth and duration of anesthesia are easily controllable. Only 4 deaths have occurred with more than 6000 animal exposures. The use of polystyrene jigs is shown to provide adequate thermal isolation. Oxygen as a carrier of the anesthetic agent is expected to prevent a reduced tissue oxygenation and its radiobiologial consequences. The whole system is constructed as a mobile unit in which up to 16 mice or rats can be anesthetized simultaneously and irradiated in a single field with clinical treatment equipment during short time intervals between patient irradiations. The described advantages of this method make it specially suited for experiments with protracted fractionation schedules.

  9. Saving Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Advises schools on how to establish an automated external defibrillator (AED) program. These laptop-size devices can save victims of sudden cardiac arrest by delivering an electrical shock to return the heartbeat to normal. Discusses establishing standards, developing a strategy, step-by-step advice towards establishing an AED program, and school…

  10. A simple, accurate, time-saving and green method for the determination of 15 sulfonamides and metabolites in serum samples by ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Zhou, Wei-E; Li, Shao-Hui; Ren, Zhi-Qin; Li, Wei-Qing; Zhou, Yu; Feng, Xue-Song; Wu, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Feng

    2016-02-01

    An analytical method based on ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography (UHPSFC) with photo-diode array detection (PDA) has been developed to quantify 15 sulfonamides and their N4-acetylation metabolites in serum. Under the optimized gradient elution conditions, it took only 7min to separate all 15 sulfonamides and the critical pairs of each parent drug and metabolite were completely separated. Variables affecting the UHPSFC were optimized to get a better separation. The performance of the developed method was evaluated. The UHPSFC method allowed the baseline separation and determination of 15 sulfonamides and metabolites with limit of detection ranging from 0.15 to 0.35μg/mL. Recoveries between 90.1 and 102.2% were obtained with satisfactory precision since relative standard deviations were always below 3%. The proposed method is simple, accurate, time-saving and green, it is applicable to a variety of sulfonamides detection in serum samples. PMID:26780846

  11. Saving in cycles: how to get people to save more money.

    PubMed

    Tam, Leona; Dholakia, Utpal

    2014-02-01

    Low personal savings rates are an important social issue in the United States. We propose and test one particular method to get people to save more money that is based on the cyclical time orientation. In contrast to conventional, popular methods that encourage individuals to ignore past mistakes, focus on the future, and set goals to save money, our proposed method frames the savings task in cyclical terms, emphasizing the present. Across the studies, individuals who used our proposed cyclical savings method, compared with individuals who used a linear savings method, provided an average of 74% higher savings estimates and saved an average of 78% more money. We also found that the cyclical savings method was more efficacious because it increased implementation planning and lowered future optimism regarding saving money. PMID:24357616

  12. Shorter Door-to-Balloon Time in ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Saves Insurance Payments: A Single Hospital Experience in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Chieh-Min; Lai, Chao-Lun; Li, Ai-Hsien; Chung, Kuo-Piao; Yang, Ming-Chin

    2015-01-01

    Background The relationship between quality of care and cost of medical services is a popular topic. In this study, we examined whether a reduced door-to-balloon (D2B) time led to cost savings, benefitted insurance payers, and improved patient outcomes. Methods We retrospectively enrolled consecutive patients who presented with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and received primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) between Feb. 1, 2007, and Jul. 31, 2009, at a tertiary hospital in Taiwan. The patient data were collected by chart review. We utilized claims data from the hospital financial system as the proxy for insurance payer costs. We only included the claims data, regardless of whether patients were inpatients or outpatients, associated with the first three cardiovascular related ICD-9 codes. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the relationships between the D2B time, in-hospital mortality and one-year cardiovascular readmission. We utilized a multivariable linear regression to test the relationships between the D2B time, hospitalization cost and one-year cardiovascular-related cost. Results The D2B time did not influence the in-hospital mortality rate, but a D2B time greater than 90 min increased the probability of one-year cardiovascular readmission (p = 0.018). The D2B time did not increase the index hospitalization cost, but patients with a D2B time above 90 min had 14.6% higher one-year cardiovascular- related costs. Conclusions Our study shows that the D2B time in patients with STEMI could impact the one-year cardiovascular readmission and one-year cardiovascular-related health cost. These results suggest that the pursuit of high-quality care not only leads to better outcomes, but also reduces costs. PMID:27122859

  13. Adaptive Budgeting: Thirty-Four Ideas for Raising Revenues, Cutting Costs, Retaining Students, and Saving Jobs in Hard Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Facione, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    The great majority of institutions, public and private, are looking toward 2009-10 and beyond, in anticipation of the deepest budget cuts in more than a generation--and certainly deeper than at any time in the memory of most current campus leaders. In the current recession, even financially well-positioned independents with substantial numbers of…

  14. Telecardiology application in jordan: its impact on diagnosis and disease management, patients' quality of life, and time- and cost-savings.

    PubMed

    Khader, Yousef Saleh; Jarrah, Mohamad Ismail; Al-Shudifat, Abde-Ellah M; Shdaifat, Amjad; Aljanabi, Husham; Al-Fakeh, Shadwan Ismeil; Turk, Elias Emil; Zayed, Khaled Ali; Al Quran, Hanadi A; Ellauzi, Ziad Mohd; Al Tahan, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the impact of live interactive telecardiology on diagnosis and disease management, patients' quality of life, and time- and cost-savings. Methods. All consecutive patients who attended or were referred to the teleclinics for suspected cardiac problems in two hospitals in remote areas of Jordan during the study period were included in the study. Patients were interviewed for relevant information and their quality of life was assessed during the first visit and 8 weeks after the last visit. Results. A total of 76 patients were included in this study. Final diagnosis and treatment plan were established as part of the telecardiology consultations in 71.1% and 77.3% of patients, respectively. Patients' travel was avoided for 38 (50.0%) who were managed locally. The majority of patients perceived that the visit to the telecardiology clinic results in less travel time (96.1%), less waiting time (98.1%), and lower cost (100.0%). Telecardiology consultations resulted in an improvement in the quality of life after two months of the first visit. Conclusions. Telecardiology care in remote areas of Jordan would improve the access to health care, help to reach proper diagnosis and establish the treatment plan, and improve the quality of life. PMID:25400661

  15. Selection of population controls for a Salmonella case-control study in the UK using a market research panel and web-survey provides time and resource savings.

    PubMed

    Mook, P; Kanagarajah, S; Maguire, H; Adak, G K; Dabrera, G; Waldram, A; Freeman, R; Charlett, A; Oliver, I

    2016-04-01

    Timely recruitment of population controls in infectious disease outbreak investigations is challenging. We evaluated the timeliness and cost of using a market research panel as a sampling frame for recruiting controls in a case-control study during an outbreak of Salmonella Mikawasima in the UK in 2013. We deployed a web-survey by email to targeted members of a market research panel (panel controls) in parallel to the outbreak control team interviewing randomly selected public health staff by telephone and completing paper-based questionnaires (staff controls). Recruitment and completion of exposure history web-surveys for panel controls (n = 123) took 14 h compared to 15 days for staff controls (n = 82). The average staff-time cost per questionnaire for staff controls was £13·13 compared to an invoiced cost of £3·60 per panel control. Differences in the distribution of some exposures existed between these control groups but case-control studies using each group found that illness was associated with consumption of chicken outside of the home and chicken from local butchers. Recruiting market research panel controls offers time and resource savings. More rapid investigations would enable more prompt implementation of control measures. We recommend that this method of recruiting controls is considered in future investigations and assessed further to better understand strengths and limitations. PMID:26493476

  16. Telecardiology Application in Jordan: Its Impact on Diagnosis and Disease Management, Patients' Quality of Life, and Time- and Cost-Savings

    PubMed Central

    Khader, Yousef Saleh; Jarrah, Mohamad Ismail; Al-Shudifat, Abde-Ellah M.; Shdaifat, Amjad; Aljanabi, Husham; Al-Fakeh, Shadwan Ismeil; Turk, Elias Emil; Zayed, Khaled Ali; Al Quran, Hanadi A.; Ellauzi, Ziad Mohd; Al Tahan, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the impact of live interactive telecardiology on diagnosis and disease management, patients' quality of life, and time- and cost-savings. Methods. All consecutive patients who attended or were referred to the teleclinics for suspected cardiac problems in two hospitals in remote areas of Jordan during the study period were included in the study. Patients were interviewed for relevant information and their quality of life was assessed during the first visit and 8 weeks after the last visit. Results. A total of 76 patients were included in this study. Final diagnosis and treatment plan were established as part of the telecardiology consultations in 71.1% and 77.3% of patients, respectively. Patients' travel was avoided for 38 (50.0%) who were managed locally. The majority of patients perceived that the visit to the telecardiology clinic results in less travel time (96.1%), less waiting time (98.1%), and lower cost (100.0%). Telecardiology consultations resulted in an improvement in the quality of life after two months of the first visit. Conclusions. Telecardiology care in remote areas of Jordan would improve the access to health care, help to reach proper diagnosis and establish the treatment plan, and improve the quality of life. PMID:25400661

  17. Pushed for time or saving on fuel: fine-scale energy budgets shed light on currencies in a diving bird

    PubMed Central

    Shepard, Emily L. C.; Wilson, Rory P.; Quintana, Flavio; Gómez Laich, Agustina; Forman, Dan W.

    2009-01-01

    Animals may forage using different currencies depending on whether time minimization or energy maximization is more pertinent at the time. Assessment of net energy acquisition requires detailed information on instantaneous activity-specific power use, which varies according to animal performance, being influenced, for example, by speed and prey loading, and which has not been measured before in wild animals. We used a new proxy for instantaneous energy expenditure (overall dynamic body acceleration), to quantify foraging effort in a model species, the imperial shag Phalacrocorax atriceps, during diving. Power costs varied nonlinearly with depth exploited owing to depth-related buoyancy. Consequently, solutions for maximizing the gross rate of gain and energetic efficiency differed for dives to any given depth. Dive effort in free-ranging imperial shags measured during the breeding season was consistent with a strategy to maximize the gross rate of energy gain. We suggest that the divergence of time and energy costs with dive depth has implications for the measurement of dive efficiency across diverse diving taxa. PMID:19515661

  18. Remote monitoring of implantable cardioverter defibrillator patients: a safe, time-saving, and cost-effective means for follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Raatikainen, M.J. Pekka; Uusimaa, Paavo; van Ginneken, Mireille M.E.; Janssen, Jacques P.G.; Linnaluoto, Markku

    2008-01-01

    Aims The purpose of this prospective study was to investigate whether internet-based remote monitoring offers a safe, practical, and cost-effective alternative to the in-office follow-up visits of patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). Methods and results Forty-one patients (62 ± 10 years, range 41–76, 83% male) with previously implanted ICD were followed for 9 months. One-hundred and nineteen scheduled and 18 unscheduled data transmissions were performed. There were no device-related adverse events. Over 90% of the patients found the system easy to use. Physicians reported the system as being ‘very easy’ or ‘easy’ to use and found the data comparable to traditional device interrogation in 99% of the cases. They were able to address all unscheduled data transmissions remotely. Compared with the in-office visits, remote monitoring required less time from patients (6.9 ± 5.0 vs. 182 ± 148 min, P < 0.001) and physicians (8.4 ± 4.5 vs. 25.8 ± 17.0 min, P < 0.001) to complete the follow-up. Substitution of two routine in-office visits during the study by remote monitoring reduced the overall cost of routine ICD follow-up by 524€ per patient (41%). Conclusion Remote monitoring offers a safe, feasible, time-saving, and cost-effective solution to ICD follow-up. PMID:18703585

  19. Design and development of an F/A-18 inlet distortion rake: A cost and time saving solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuhas, Andrew J.; Ray, Ronald J.; Burley, Richard R.; Steenken, William G.; Lechtenberg, Leon; Thornton, Don

    1994-01-01

    An innovative inlet total-pressure distortion measurement rake has been designed and developed for the F/A-18 A/B/C/D aircraft inlet. The design was conceived by NASA and General Electric Aircraft Engines (Evendale, Ohio). This rake has been flight qualified and flown in the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. The rake's eight-legged, one-piece wagon wheel design was developed at a reduced cost and offers reduced installation time compared with traditional designs. The rake features 40 dual measurement ports for both low- and high-frequency pressure measurements with the high-frequency transducer mounted at the port. The high-frequency transducer offers direct absolute pressure measurements from low frequency to the highest frequency of interest, thereby allowing the rake to be used during highly dynamic aircraft maneuvers. Outstanding structural characteristics are inherent to the design through its construction and use of lightweight materials.

  20. Design and development of an F/A-18 inlet distortion rake: A cost and time saving solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuhas, Andrew J.; Ray, Ronald J.; Burley, Richard R.; Steenken, William G.; Lechtenberg, Leon; Thornton, Don

    1995-01-01

    An innovative inlet total pressure distortion measurement rake has been designed and developed for the F/A-18 A/B/C/D aircraft inlet. The design was conceived by NASA and General Electric Aircraft Engines personnel. This rake has been flight qualified and flown in the F/A-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The eight-legged, one-piece, wagon wheel design of the rake was developed at a reduced cost and offered reduced installation time compared to traditional designs. The rake features 40 dual-measurement ports for low- and high-frequency pressure measurements with the high-frequency transducer mounted at the port. This high-frequency transducer offers direct absolute pressure measurements from low to high frequencies of interest, thereby allowing the rake to be used during highly dynamic aircraft maneuvers. Outstanding structural characteristics are inherent to the design through its construction and use of lightweight materials.

  1. Indoor solar thermal energy saving time with phase change material in a horizontal shell and finned-tube heat exchanger.

    PubMed

    Paria, S; Sarhan, A A D; Goodarzi, M S; Baradaran, S; Rahmanian, B; Yarmand, H; Alavi, M A; Kazi, S N; Metselaar, H S C

    2015-01-01

    An experimental as well as numerical investigation was conducted on the melting/solidification processes of a stationary phase change material (PCM) in a shell around a finned-tube heat exchanger system. The PCM was stored in the horizontal annular space between a shell and finned-tube where distilled water was employed as the heat transfer fluid (HTF). The focus of this study was on the behavior of PCM for storage (charging or melting) and removal (discharging or solidification), as well as the effect of flow rate on the charged and discharged solar thermal energy. The impact of the Reynolds number was determined and the results were compared with each other to reveal the changes in amount of stored thermal energy with the variation of heat transfer fluid flow rates. The results showed that, by increasing the Reynolds number from 1000 to 2000, the total melting time decreases by 58%. The process of solidification also will speed up with increasing Reynolds number in the discharging process. The results also indicated that the fluctuation of gradient temperature decreased and became smooth with increasing Reynolds number. As a result, by increasing the Reynolds number in the charging process, the theoretical efficiency rises. PMID:25879052

  2. Indoor Solar Thermal Energy Saving Time with Phase Change Material in a Horizontal Shell and Finned-Tube Heat Exchanger

    PubMed Central

    Paria, S.; Sarhan, A. A. D.; Goodarzi, M. S.; Baradaran, S.; Rahmanian, B.; Yarmand, H.; Alavi, M. A.; Kazi, S. N.; Metselaar, H. S. C.

    2015-01-01

    An experimental as well as numerical investigation was conducted on the melting/solidification processes of a stationary phase change material (PCM) in a shell around a finned-tube heat exchanger system. The PCM was stored in the horizontal annular space between a shell and finned-tube where distilled water was employed as the heat transfer fluid (HTF). The focus of this study was on the behavior of PCM for storage (charging or melting) and removal (discharging or solidification), as well as the effect of flow rate on the charged and discharged solar thermal energy. The impact of the Reynolds number was determined and the results were compared with each other to reveal the changes in amount of stored thermal energy with the variation of heat transfer fluid flow rates. The results showed that, by increasing the Reynolds number from 1000 to 2000, the total melting time decreases by 58%. The process of solidification also will speed up with increasing Reynolds number in the discharging process. The results also indicated that the fluctuation of gradient temperature decreased and became smooth with increasing Reynolds number. As a result, by increasing the Reynolds number in the charging process, the theoretical efficiency rises. PMID:25879052

  3. Save Energy Now

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-01-01

    This DOE Industrial Technologies Program brochure informs industrial audiences about Save Energy Now, part of ''Easy Ways to Save Energy'', a national campaign to save energy and ensure energy security.

  4. Columbus Saves: Saving Money in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shockey, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The "Columbus Saves" educational program is a broad-based community coalition made up of more than 40 local organizations from the education, nonprofit, government, faith-based, and private sectors. Common goals of partners in reaching Columbus, Ohio's 1.5 million residents are to: (a) promote increased savings through education and social service…

  5. Retirement plans, personal saving, and saving adequacy.

    PubMed

    Yakoboski, P

    2000-03-01

    This Issue Brief addresses three questions raised by recent trends in personal saving: How are national savings measured and what is the meaning of the trends in measured personal saving rates, given what is included and what is not included in those measures? What is the effect of retirement saving programs--in particular, 401(k) plans and individual retirement accounts (IRAs)--on personal saving levels? What are the implications of existing saving behavior for the retirement income security of today's workers? The National Income and Product Accounts (NIPA), the most commonly referenced gauge of personal saving, is a widely misunderstood measure. One could argue that a complete measure of saving would include increases in wealth through capital gains, but NIPA does not factor accrued and realized capital gains on stocks and other assets into the saving rate. By one measure, accounting for capital gains results in an aggregate personal saving rate of 33 percent--more than double the rate of four decades ago. A major policy question is the impact of tax-qualified retirement saving plans (i.e., IRAs and 401(k) plans) on personal saving rates. Empirical analysis of this issue is extremely challenging and findings have been contradictory. These programs now represent an enormous store of retirement-earmarked wealth in tax-deferred vehicles: Combined, such tax-deferred retirement accounts currently have assets of about $4 trillion. Ninety percent of IRA contributions are now the result of "rollovers" as employees leave employer plans, like 401(k) plans. While leakage from the system remains a challenge, the majority of the assets in the system can be expected to be available to fund workers' retirements. One could argue that, from a retirement income security perspective, workers in general are better off because IRA and 401(k) programs exist. Surely, many of the dollars in these programs would have been saved even without the programs; but they would not necessarily

  6. Testing an Asset-Building Approach for Young People: Early Access to Savings Predicts Later Savings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedline, Terri; Elliott, William; Chowa, Gina A. N.

    2013-01-01

    A major hypothesis of asset-building is that early access to savings accounts leads to continued and improved educational and economic outcomes over time. This study asks whether or not young adults (ages 18-22) in 2007, particularly among lower income households, are significantly more likely to own savings accounts and to accumulate more savings…

  7. Household water saving: Evidence from Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aisa, Rosa; Larramona, Gemma

    2012-12-01

    This article focuses on household water use in Spain by analyzing the influence of a detailed set of factors. We find that, although the presence of both water-saving equipment and water-conservation habits leads to water savings, the factors that influence each are not the same. In particular, our results show that those individuals most committed to the adoption of water-saving equipment and, at the same time, less committed to water-conservation habits tend to have higher incomes.

  8. Plugging into Energy Savings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrigan, Merrilee

    1999-01-01

    The nonprofit Alliance to Save Energy has been helping schools reduce energy consumption through a combination of retrofits, classroom instruction, and behavior. Lists eight small steps to big energy savings, among them: involve the whole school, stop leaks, turn off computers, and recycle. (MLF)

  9. Incentives for Tuition Savings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Scott E.

    The role of the federal government in authorizing tuition savings plans and the relationship of these incentives to more traditional student aid programs are examined. Most of the recent proposals to provide incentives for families to save for their children's education would allow tax breaks. For example, the Reagan administration proposal would…

  10. Save Energy, Save Dollars. Information Bulletin 125.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Ithaca. Coll. of Human Ecology at Cornell Univ.

    This cooperative extension publication from Cornell University is a guide for energy conservation in homes, apartments, and transportation. Written in non-technical language, this guide provides the layperson with information about weatherization, home appliance use, recreation and transportation practices to conserve energy and, thus, save money.…

  11. How to Save Money by Saving Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet presents energy conservation tips to help consumers save money. Conservation measures suggested here cover topics such as: (1) insulation; (2) space heating and cooling; (3) hot water heating; (4) cooking; (5) laundry; (6) lighting; (7) electrical appliances; (8) buying or building a home; and (9) buying, maintaining and driving a…

  12. Simplification and Saving.

    PubMed

    Beshears, John; Choi, James J; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C

    2013-11-01

    The daunting complexity of important financial decisions can lead to procrastination. We evaluate a low-cost intervention that substantially simplifies the retirement savings plan participation decision. Individuals received an opportunity to enroll in a retirement savings plan at a pre-selected contribution rate and asset allocation, allowing them to collapse a multidimensional problem into a binary choice between the status quo and the pre-selected alternative. The intervention increases plan enrollment rates by 10 to 20 percentage points. We find that a similar intervention can be used to increase contribution rates among employees who are already participating in a savings plan. PMID:24443619

  13. Qualified Tuition Savings Programs: The Impact on Household Saving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coronado, Julia Lynn; McIntosh, Susan Hume

    This study analyzed the impact tuition savings plans are likely to have on household savings. State-sponsored college savings programs rely mainly on tax incentives to motivate parents to save for their children's education in earmarked accounts. The first such programs were prepaid tuition plans, and other types of qualified tuition savings…

  14. Save Energy Now Resources

    SciTech Connect

    2008-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provides information resources to industrial energy users and partnering organizations to help the nation’s industrial sector save energy and improve productivity.

  15. Ideas To Save Electricity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, John C.

    1974-01-01

    Significant energy savings can be effected through stopping obvious waste of water, electricity, and heat; purchasing equipment with the correct voltage and horsepower; equipment maintenance; and redesigning or replacing obsolete or inefficient equipment. (Author/MF)

  16. Thermostatistics: Proven Energy Savings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwasnoski, John

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus simulating residential thermostat control was developed to test claim that lowering house thermostats saves energy and to give students a better understanding of how thermostats work. The apparatus (includes diagram of same) and student activity are described. (JN)

  17. Fewer children equals increased savings.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    Although the precise mechanisms by which population growth affects economic development are very complex, it appears that slower growth is associated with higher savings and investment ratios, as well as income growth. A study prepared for the US's National Research Council revealed that among 70 countries, a shift from a high to a low fertility was associated with a 50& increase in the net national savings rate. In 38 countries with slower population growth during the 1980s, savings ratios averaged 18.5% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 1989, compared to savings rations averaging only 12% in 38 countries with higher population growth. At the same time, investment was 18% of GDP in the countries with higher population growth, compared to 21% in countries with slower population growth. from 1965-80, a period favorable to economic growth, 36 countries saw their per capita GDP grow by more than 3% a year. 17 of these countries had population growth rates of 2.5% or under, while 19 had growth rates above 2.5%. During these prosperous years, the average growth rate of incomes between the 2 sets of countries were nearly identical. But with the harsher economic climate of the 1980s, the fortunes of the countries diverged. Among the 19 countries with high growth rates, only 10 achieved any positive income growth in the 1980s -- and only 5 achieved annual income growth above 0.5% By contrast, among the 17 countries with slower population growth rates, 15 achieved positive income growth of a least 0.8% a year during the 1980s. The only 2 countries in this group that experienced declines in per capita income were Nigeria and Trinidad and Tobago, which suffered from declining oil prices. PMID:12285240

  18. Chinese hotel general managers' perspectives on energy-saving practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yidan

    As hotels' concern about sustainability and budget-control is growing steadily, energy-saving issues have become one of the important management concerns hospitality industry face. By executing proper energy-saving practices, previous scholars believed that hotel operation costs can decrease dramatically. Moreover, they believed that conducting energy-saving practices may eventually help the hotel to gain other benefits such as an improved reputation and stronger competitive advantage. The energy-saving issue also has become a critical management problem for the hotel industry in China. Previous research has not investigated energy-saving in China's hotel segment. To achieve a better understanding of the importance of energy-saving, this document attempts to present some insights into China's energy-saving practices in the tourist accommodations sector. Results of the study show the Chinese general managers' attitudes toward energy-saving issues and the differences among the diverse hotel managers who responded to the study. Study results indicate that in China, most of the hotels' energy bills decrease due to the implementation of energy-saving equipments. General managers of hotels in operation for a shorter period of time are typically responsible for making decisions about energy-saving issues; older hotels are used to choosing corporate level concerning to this issue. Larger Chinese hotels generally have official energy-saving usage training sessions for employees, but smaller Chinese hotels sometimes overlook the importance of employee training. The study also found that for the Chinese hospitality industry, energy-saving practices related to electricity are the most efficient and common way to save energy, but older hotels also should pay attention to other ways of saving energy such as water conservation or heating/cooling system.

  19. Lighting Control Energy Savings

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1985-01-01

    CONTROLITE 1.0 is a lighting energy analysis program designed to calculate the energy savings and cost benefits obtainable using lighting controls in buildings. The program can compute the lighting energy reductions that result from using daylighting, scheduling, and other control strategies. When modeling daylight control systems, the program uses QUICKLITE to compute the daylight illuminances at specified points 5 times a day, 12 days a year (the 21st of each month), and for two skymore » conditions (clear and overcast skies). Fourier series techniques are used to fit a continuous curve through the computed illuminance points. The energy use for each of the 12 days is then computed given user-specified power-in/light-out characteristics of the modeled control system. The monthly and annual energy usage for overcast and clear conditions are found separately by fitting two long-term Fourier series curves to the energy use computed for each of the 12 days. Finally, the monthly energy use is calculated by taking a weighted average for the monthly energy use computed for the overcast and clear sky conditions. The program only treats the energy use directly attributable to lighting. The impact of lighting control strategies on building thermal loads is not computed. The program allows input of different control schedules (i.e., on/off times for the lighting system) for each day of the week, but every week of the year is treated the same; thus, holidays cannot be modeled explicitly. When used for daylighting purposes, CONTROLITE1.0 understands only clear and overcast conditions. User-supplied values for the proportion of clear and overcast hours for each month of the year are required to accommodate different climatic conditions.« less

  20. Quantitative thin layer chromatography for the analysis of skin surface lipids. A time-saving method using a new TLC plate.

    PubMed

    Weissmann, A

    1979-07-30

    Recently a new thin layer chromatography plate (Whatman LK 6D) became available which is extremely easy to handle and permits highly reproducible qualitative and quantitative analysis. This plate proved to be of great value for the investigation of skin surface lipids. The use of a fatty acid methyl ester as an internal standard makes it unnecessary to employ additional gravimetrical or photometrical methods for quanitative lipid analysis. The method presented in this paper is simpler and requires much less time than alternative procedures and allows a large number of lipid samples to be processed simultaneously. PMID:475450

  1. Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation in Helicopter Emergency Medical Services Saves Time and Oxygen and Improves Patient and Mission Safety: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Garrote, Jose Ignacio; Aylagas, Diego; Gutierrez, Jose M; Sinisterra, Juan A; Gowran, Brian Mc; Medina, Alberto; Díaz-Tendero, Javier; Gómez-Calcerrada, Pablo; Crespo, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) is used increasingly in patients with severe respiratory distress and has clear benefits over standard medical therapy (SMT) in terms of patient safety. NIMV is particularly useful in cardiogenic acute pulmonary edema and in exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, both of which are frequent reasons for an emergency medical services dispatch. Early use of NIMV avoids complications in these patients in many cases. To date, the use of noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation in the air medical environment has been minimally researched. We evaluated NIMV versus SMT in the helicopter emergency medical services environment in patients with cardiogenic acute pulmonary edema and exacerbated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The parameters assessed were stabilization time, tolerance, safety, clinical response, and oxygen consumption. Bilevel noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation was the ventilatory mode used for all patients. The technique of NIMV in medical air transport is useful, easy to operate, and safe. It offers increased patient safety, reducing the need for invasive mechanical ventilation and its complications; better intervention times (35.8 minutes [NIMV] vs. 57.65 minutes [SMT], P < .05); improvement in aircraft operability; and a reduction in oxygen consumption (6.2 L/min vs. 9.8 L/min, P < .05), contributing to mission operability and safety. PMID:26206548

  2. A simple, time-saving chairside device for radiographic diagnosis of vertical bone height and soft tissue thickness for implant placement--clinical report.

    PubMed

    Kharade, Pankaj; Banerjee, Ardhendu; Gupta, Tapas

    2012-01-01

    A diagnostic radiograph of the posterior regions of the jaws is mandatory if implant placement is considered at these sites. The goal is to avoid damage to important anatomical structures such as the inferior alveolar canal and maxillary sinus. Using radiographs to evaluate the remaining bone height available for implant insertion is a common procedure. Many articles have evaluated the success rates of fixed prostheses supported by osseointegrated implants, indicating high rates of success for prostheses 5-10 years in function. However, if an orthopantomogram machine is not readily available, periapical radiographs can be used for vertical bone height assessment. The familiar procedure of incorporating a metal ball of known diameter into an acrylic template is the method of choice. This is a relatively tedious and expensive procedure involving multiple steps, including impression taking, creation of a study model, and manufacture of a metal ball-bearing acrylic template. A further disadvantage for the patient is that a diagnostic radiograph can be taken only at the next appointment. This paper describes a quick and simple method to obtain a radiographic evaluation of remaining alveolar bone height and soft tissue thickness prior to implant placement with help of a metal ball device to avoid template fabrication and time consumption. Soft tissue thickness is measured nonsurgically. PMID:22313989

  3. New Savings through Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battise, Laura

    2011-01-01

    After three years of budget cuts, California school district leaders are hard-pressed to find ways to make further reductions without impacting educational quality. However, some seasoned leaders have turned to broad sustainability strategies to find new sources of savings and revenue. This article presents case studies in which three district…

  4. Driver Education Saves Gas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Automobile Association, Falls Church, VA. Traffic Engineering and Safety Dept.

    The argument that driver education should be dropped because driver education cars use gas is shortsighted. High school driver education is an excellent vehicle for teaching concepts of energy conservation. A small investment in fuel now can result in major savings of gasoline over a student's lifetime. In addition good driver education courses…

  5. Life Saving Rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    By 1870, American and British inventors had found other ways to use rockets. For example, the Congreve rocket was capable of carrying a line over 1,000 feet to a stranded ship. In 1914, an estimated 1,000 lives were saved by this technique.

  6. Lighting up Savings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryerson, Charles

    1996-01-01

    Suggests group relamping in educational facilities as a more efficient method than spot replacement of failed lamps. It can reduce operating costs, improve lighting quality, and help with federal and state regulations compliance. The implementation of group relamping is discussed in terms of planning, energy savings, and environmental issues. (RE)

  7. Save Our Water Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, Albert W.

    The purpose of this booklet, developed as part of Project SOAR (Save Our American Resources), is to give Scout leaders some facts about the world's resources, the sources of water pollution, and how people can help in obtaining solutions. Among the topics discussed are the world's water resources, the water cycle, water quality, sources of water…

  8. Save It! A Practical Family Kit on Saving Resources, Saving Money, and...Saving the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environment Canada, Edmonton (Alberta). Public Affairs.

    Suggestions and practical advice are offered for all members of a family in this guide on environmental stewardship. This publication contains information on a variety of home and work related environmental concerns. The environmental consequences of daily activities are discussed and specific recommendations are offered for saving energy,…

  9. Saving Natural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchinger, Maria

    This manual serves as a handbook for those involved in the art of land saving. The various topics in the booklet are dealt with in great detail since little has been published on the preservation of natural areas in international publications. Most of the document is derived from articles, books, and publications published by, or describing the…

  10. Image toggling saves time in mammography.

    PubMed

    Drew, Trafton; Aizenman, Avi M; Thompson, Matthew B; Kovacs, Mark D; Trambert, Michael; Reicher, Murray A; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2016-01-01

    When two images are perfectly aligned, even subtle differences are readily detected when the images are "toggled" back and forth in the same location. However, substantial changes between two photographs can be missed if the images are misaligned ("change blindness"). Nevertheless, recent work from our lab, testing nonradiologists, suggests that toggling misaligned photographs leads to superior performance compared to side-by-side viewing (SBS). In order to determine if a benefit of toggling misaligned images may be observed in clinical mammography, we developed an image toggling technique where pairs of new and prior breast imaging exam images could be efficiently toggled back and forth. Twenty-three radiologists read 10 mammograms evenly divided in toggle and SBS modes. The toggle mode led to a 6-s benefit in reaching a decision [[Formula: see text], [Formula: see text

  11. Mine cost generators save time and tedium

    SciTech Connect

    Loy, M.D.

    1983-08-01

    The economic evaluation of any mining project requires detailed analysis of many factors. This paper shows how computers can facilitate this operation and provides examples of a discounted cash flow analysis for a coal property and a combined risk and sensitivity analysis of a mining operation.

  12. Saving Time with Automated Account Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Business Affairs, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Thanks to intelligent solutions, schools, colleges, and universities no longer need to manage user account life cycles by using scripts or tedious manual procedures. The solutions house the scripts and manual procedures. Accounts can be automatically created, modified, or deleted in all applications within the school. This article describes how an…

  13. Saving time and fuel during tillage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As with any farm operation, the value of tillage must be weighed against its cost. The first costs to consider are labor, fuel, and machinery. These costs are estimated to range from $9 to $19 per acre, depending on the field operation and equipment used. Additionally, tillage can increase costs of ...

  14. Save Searching Time with Google Shortcuts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Holly

    2005-01-01

    One can obtain definitions and perform calculations, conversions, and a variety of other tasks on the Google search bar. The most useful shortcut for most Web searchers is Google's definitions. The ability to obtain definitions from Google without reaching for a dictionary or searching a dictionary web site is very helpful when reading technical…

  15. Finding Savings in Community Use of Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandy, Julia

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the growing challenge of managing community groups using educational facilities for meetings, athletics, and special events. It describes how, by using an online scheduling software program, one school district was able to track payments and save time and money with its event and facility scheduling process.

  16. Opinion: Composition Studies Saves the World!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bizzell, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Stanley Fish in his new book ["Save the World on Your Own Time" (New York: Oxford UP,2008)] says that composition studies presents "the clearest example" of what is desperately wrong in the academy, because in writing classrooms, he says, "more often than not anthologies of provocative readings take center stage and the actual teaching of writing…

  17. 12 CFR 583.21 - Savings association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Savings association. 583.21 Section 583.21... AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.21 Savings association. The term savings association means a Federal savings and loan association or a Federal savings bank chartered under section 5 of...

  18. 12 CFR 583.21 - Savings association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Savings association. 583.21 Section 583.21... AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.21 Savings association. The term savings association means a Federal savings and loan association or a Federal savings bank chartered under section 5 of...

  19. Roof Savings Calculator Suite

    SciTech Connect

    New, Joshua R; Garrett, Aaron; Erdem, Ender; Huang, Yu

    2013-11-22

    The software options currently supported by the simulation engine can be seen/experienced at www.roofcalc.com. It defaults all values to national averages with options to test a base-case (residential or commercial) building versus a comparison building with inputs for building type, location, building vintage, conditioned area, number of floors, and window-to-wall ratio, cooling system efficiency, type of heating, heating system efficiency, duct location, roof/ceiling insulation level, above-sheathing ventilation, radiant barrier, roof thermal mass, roof solar reflectance, roof thermal emittance, utility costs, roof pitch. The Roof Savings Caculator Suite adds utilities and website/web service and the integration of AtticSim with DOE-2.1E, with the end-result being Roof Savings Calculator.

  20. Roof Savings Calculator Suite

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-11-22

    The software options currently supported by the simulation engine can be seen/experienced at www.roofcalc.com. It defaults all values to national averages with options to test a base-case (residential or commercial) building versus a comparison building with inputs for building type, location, building vintage, conditioned area, number of floors, and window-to-wall ratio, cooling system efficiency, type of heating, heating system efficiency, duct location, roof/ceiling insulation level, above-sheathing ventilation, radiant barrier, roof thermal mass, roof solar reflectance,more » roof thermal emittance, utility costs, roof pitch. The Roof Savings Caculator Suite adds utilities and website/web service and the integration of AtticSim with DOE-2.1E, with the end-result being Roof Savings Calculator.« less

  1. Learning about saving energy

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    This fact sheet for use in primary and junior high school classes describes what energy is, how people use energy, and how energy can be conserved. This last section lists ways to save energy in heating and cooling, electric appliances, automobiles, and in manufacturing. A list of activities are suggested and resources for further information, both groups and books, are listed. A glossary is also included.

  2. Time?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoroso, Richard L.

    2013-09-01

    The concept of time in the `clockwork' Newtonian world was irrelevant; and has generally been ignored until recently by several generations of physicists since the implementation of quantum mechanics. We will set aside the utility of time as a property relating to physical calculations of events relating to a metrics line element or as an aspect of the transformation of a particles motion/interaction in a coordinate system or in relation to thermodynamics etc., i.e. we will discard all the usual uses of time as a concept used to circularly define physical parameters in terms of other physical parameters; concentrating instead on time as an aspect of the fundamental cosmic topology of our virtual reality especially as it inseparably relates to the nature and role of the observer in natural science.

  3. Future of Fuel Savings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, David

    2004-01-01

    Using automation to free up controllers for more strategic management of air traffic is one approach being studied by NASA as it seeks to boost airspace system capacity and efficiency, thereby saving fuel. Heinz Erzberger, a NASA Ames Research Center senior scientist, says the Advanced Airspace Concept (AAC) has been studied for several years. It could increase efficiency 15% by providing optimal routes that cut airlines direct operating costs. A 25% increase in landings on existing runways could follow an important benefit. AAC is one of the efforts to be reviewed by the Joint Planning and Development Organization, an FAA-led initiative by six federal agencies to redesign the U.S. air transportation system by 2025. The main goal is to triple air traffic capacity within 20 years to avert the sort of gridlock that would make fuel consumption only one of many travel nightmares. The automated system approach would allow aircraft to fly optimal trajectories. A trajectory would be defined in the standard three dimensions and eventually include the fourth, time. The management of air traffic by the data-linked exchange of trajectories would start at high altitude and eventually move down to lower altitudes. The automated concept is an outgrowth of the type of tools developed by NASA for use by FAA controllers in managing traffic flows over the years, including ones that optimize routings for the best fuel burn. But AAC would push automation further to reduce workload so controllers can focus on "solving strategic control problems, managing traffic flow during changing weather and ... other unusal events." One key component, the automated trajectory server (ATS), is a ground systems that would rely on software to manage flight path requests from aircrews and controllers. But, Erzberger acknowledges, "The FAA's current plan for upgrades to air traffic services does not include [allowing] the future ground system to issue separation-critical clearances of trajectory changes

  4. What is your savings personality? The 1998 Retirement Confidence Survey.

    PubMed

    Yakoboski, P; Ostuw, P; Hicks, J

    1998-08-01

    This Issue Brief presents the findings of the 1998 Retirement Confidence Survey (RCS). The survey tracks Americans' retirement planning and saving behavior and their confidence regarding various aspects of their retirement. It also categorizes workers and retirees into six distinct groups, based on their very different views on retirement, retirement planning, and saving. The six personality types identified in the RCS are Deniers (10 percent of the population), Strugglers (9 percent), Impulsives (20 percent), Cautious Savers (21 percent), Planners (23 percent), and Retiring Savers (17 percent). The survey shows that working Americans have become more focused on retirement; 45 percent have tried to determine how much they need to save before they retire, up from 32 percent in 1996. Americans' growing attention to their retirement has not increased their retirement income confidence. Since 1993, the portion of working Americans who are very confident that they will have enough money to live comfortably throughout retirement has consistently ranged from 20 percent to 25 percent. Sixty-three percent of Americans have begun to save for retirement. Fifty-five percent of those not saving for retirement say it is reasonably possible for them to save $20 per week (over $1,000 per year). In addition, 57 percent of workers who have begun to save say that it is reasonably possible for them to save an additional $20 per week. The findings demonstrate the continuing need for broad-based educational efforts designed to make retirement savings a priority for individuals. The good news is the evidence that education can have a real impact at the individual level. For the first time the 1998 RCS examined retirement planning, saving, and attitudes across ethnic groups (African-Americans, Hispanic-Americans, Asian-Americans, and whites). African-Americans are the least confident that they will have enough money to live comfortably in retirement. African-Americans and Hispanic

  5. Water Saving for Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharias, Ierotheos

    2013-04-01

    The project "Water Saving for Development (WaS4D)" is financed by European Territorial Cooperational Programme, Greece-Italy 2007-2013, and aims at developing issues on water saving related to improvement of individual behaviors and implementing innovative actions and facilities in order to harmonize policies and start concrete actions for a sustainable water management, making also people and stakeholders awake to water as a vital resource, strategic for quality of life and territory competitiveness. Drinkable water saving culture & behavior, limited water resources, water supply optimization, water resources and demand management, water e-service & educational e-tools are the key words of WaS4D. In this frame the project objectives are: • Definition of water need for domestic and other than domestic purposes: regional and territorial hydro-balance; • promotion of locally available resources not currently being used - water recycling or reuse and rainwater harvesting; • scientific data implementation into Informative Territorial System and publication of geo-referred maps into the institutional web sites, to share information for water protection; • participated review of the regulatory framework for the promotion of water-efficient devices and practices by means of the definition of Action Plans, with defined targets up to brief (2015) and medium (2020) term; • building up water e-services, front-office for all the water issues in building agricultural, industrial and touristic sectors, to share information, procedures and instruments for the water management; • creation and publication of a user friendly software, a game, to promote sustainability for houses also addressed to young people; • creation of water info point into physical spaces called "Water House" to promote education, training, events and new advisory services to assist professionals involved in water uses and consumers; • implementation of participatory approach & networking for a

  6. Fuel saving device

    SciTech Connect

    Imbert, J. C.

    1984-01-10

    The present invention relates to a fuel saving device adaptable to all types of carburetors, petrol engines and domestic or industrial burners, constituted by a solenoid generating a magnetic field which has an influence on the air-fuel mixture. Said solenoid has a red copper coil, has its axis oriented in parallel to the axis of the engine, and, periodically, in a first pre-determined direction, during the moon phase which goes from the full moon to the new moon, and in a second, opposite, direction, during the moon phase going from the new moon to the full moon. The invention finds an application in motor engine of low consumption.

  7. Saving all the bits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1990-01-01

    The scientific tradition of saving all the data from experiments for independent validation and for further investigation is under profound challenge by modern satellite data collectors and by supercomputers. The volume of data is beyond the capacity to store, transmit, and comprehend the data. A promising line of study is discovery machines that study the data at the collection site and transmit statistical summaries of patterns observed. Examples of discovery machines are the Autoclass system and the genetic memory system of NASA-Ames, and the proposal for knowbots by Kahn and Cerf.

  8. Life saving surgery in polytrauma patients.

    PubMed

    Broos, P L; Janzing, H M; Vandermeeren, L A; Klockaerts, K S

    2000-01-01

    Life saving surgery is the surgery which has to be performed during the acute or reanimation period (1 to 3 h) and during the primary or stabilisation period (first day surgery). During the reanimation period lifethreatening conditions are identified and management is begun simultaneously. Many trauma surgeons talk about the first "golden hours" as the time interval starting immediately after the injury when rapid intervention will save lives and a lack of intervention will result in life loss. Most common, these critical conditions are exsanguinating hemorrhage, acute pump failure, obstruction of airways, mechanical failure of ventilation or severe brain damage with tentorial herniation. During this period, the following acts are necessary: surgical access to live support systems (airway, veins), life saving decompression of body cavities, resuscitative thoracotomy, control of exsanguinating external hemorrhage and control of exsanguinating hemorrhage into the body cavities. The primary or stabilisation period starts when vital functions stabilise. This period consists of further diagnostic procedures and treatment of injuries that are not directly life-threatening, but which may become life endangering or severely disabling if not treated promptly. The priorities of the surgical treatment are: brain injuries, eye- and facial injuries, progressive compression of the spinal cord, visceral injuries, musculoskeletal injuries. By improving prehospital care, rapid transport and last but not least immediate life saving surgical treatment preventable deaths can be reduced from 20-30% to 2-9% (5). PMID:11202271

  9. 12 CFR 561.43 - Savings association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Savings association. 561.43 Section 561.43... AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.43 Savings association. The term savings association means a savings association as defined in section 3 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, the deposits of...

  10. 12 CFR 561.43 - Savings association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Savings association. 561.43 Section 561.43... AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.43 Savings association. The term savings association means a savings association as defined in section 3 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, the deposits of...

  11. Four Steps to Energy Savings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stellar, Arthur

    2000-01-01

    An upstate New York district's energy-conservation measures over the past 19 months have saved $376,000 that can be invested in academic and additional energy-saving programs. The district advises developing people-oriented strategies; updating structures, systems, and equipment; finding appropriate resources; and investing in the future. (MLH)

  12. Energy Control Systems: Energy Savings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Business Affairs, 1980

    1980-01-01

    The installation of proper control systems is estimated as saving up to 25 percent of the energy used in schools. Other potential energy-saving areas are transmission (heat loss or gain through walls, especially ceilings); internal load (heat from students, lights, and machinery); ventilation; and equipment maintenance. (Author/MLF)

  13. Prescription Program Provides Significant Savings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowan, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Most school districts today are looking for ways to save money without decreasing services to its staff. Retired pharmacist Tim Sylvester, a lifelong resident of Alpena Public Schools in Alpena, Michigan, presented the district with a pharmaceuticals plan that would save the district money without raising employee co-pays for prescriptions. The…

  14. Saving Money Through Energy Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presley, Michael H.; And Others

    This publication is an introduction to personal energy conservation. The first chapter presents a rationale for conserving energy and points out that private citizens control about one third of this country's energy consumption. Chapters two and three show how to save money by saving energy. Chapter two discusses energy conservation methods in the…

  15. How Trees Can Save Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazio, James R., Ed.

    1991-01-01

    This document might easily have been called "How To Use Trees To Save Energy". It presents the energy saving advantages of landscaping the home and community with trees. The discussion includes: (1) landscaping advice to obtain the benefits of tree shade; (2) the heat island phenomenon in cities; (3) how and where to properly plant trees for…

  16. Electrical energy and demand savings from a geothermal heat pump energy savings performance contract at Ft. Polk, LA

    SciTech Connect

    Shonder, J.A.; Hughes, P.J.

    1997-06-01

    At Fort Polk, LA the space conditioning systems of an entire city (4,003 military family housing units) have been converted to geothermal heat pumps (GHP) under an energy savings performance contract. At the same time, other efficiency measures such as compact fluorescent lights (CFLs), low-flow hot water outlets, and attic insulation were installed. Pre- and post-retrofit data were taken at 15-minute intervals on energy flows through the electrical distribution feeders that serve the family housing areas of the post. 15-minute interval data was also taken on energy use from a sample of the residences. This paper summarizes the electrical energy and demand savings observed in this data. Analysis of feeder-level data shows that for a typical year, the project will result in a 25.6 million kWh savings in electrical energy use, or 32.4% of the pre-retrofit electrical consumption in family housing. Results from analysis of building-level data compare well with this figure. Analysis of feeder-level data also shows that the project has resulted in a reduction of peak electrical demand of 6,541 kW, which is 39.6% of the pre-retrofit peak electrical demand. In addition to these electrical savings, the facility is also saving an estimated 260,000 therms per year of natural gas. It should be noted that the energy savings presented in this document are the apparent energy savings observed in the monitored data, and are not to be confused with the contracted energy savings used as the basis for payments. To determine the contracted energy savings, the apparent energy savings may require adjustments for such things as changes in indoor temperature performance criteria, additions of ceiling fans, and other factors.

  17. Small investments, huge savings.

    PubMed

    Rose, Ewen

    2015-03-01

    Writing on behalf of the Building & Engineering Services Association (B&ES), Ewen Rose, an experienced journalist specialising in building engineering services, reports on a number of presentations at October's IHEEM Healthcare Estates 2014 conference where the focus was very much on how healthcare estates and facilities and healthcare engineering teams can save energy and cut carbon emissions through more efficient monitoring, and, if necessary, subsequent adjustment, of key HVAC plant. Among the key conclusions were that basic energy efficiency measures could 'shave millions of pounds from NHS estates' running costs', and that hospitals and other healthcare buildings face both 'an air-conditioning legal crisis', and a growing threat from outdoor air pollution. PMID:26268023

  18. Six steps to preventative savings for payment processing.

    PubMed

    Tanker, Scott

    2011-01-01

    There are more than 1 billion credit and debit cards used each day to make purchases. Many of these purchases happen in medical offices nationwide. Understanding whether to take a debit or credit charge from a patient could translate into great savings over time for a medial practice. The article below will address the six steps to preventative savings in medical offices when it comes to payment processing. PMID:21506466

  19. Ice storage systems spark air conditioning savings

    SciTech Connect

    Kohlenberger, C.R.

    1981-03-01

    Thermal storage systems similar to giant storage batteries are explained by means of storing energy (either hot or cold) during these off-peak times for use at the more convenient time when the actual load is impressed on to the system. This load shifting, of course, does not actually save energy. It merely shifts the load to a time when the electric utility can more conveniently handle that load. In fact, more actual KW hours may be utilized by this shift, but with the resulting cost to the consumer being reduced. System concepts are described and energy cost comparisons are made. Various methods of ice making systems are presented and analyzed.

  20. Savannah River Remediation Cost Savings Initiative - 12339

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Neil R.

    2012-07-01

    Savannah River enjoyed two years of increased funding as a result of the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act and Department of Energy (DOE) directed scope additions. Moving into FY2012, a much lower funding level is anticipated. In the past, the first response to a reduced funding scenario was to defer scope and slow down the program. This time, Savannah River decided that a better process was needed to try to maximize value to the government. This approach was named the Cost Savings Initiative (CSI). The CSI process is similar to a zero-based budget concept. Every element of work scope was screened to eliminate everything that was not directly related to safety and regulatory compliance. Then the schedules for the regulatory-driven scope were deferred such that the regulatory milestones were achieved just in time with no acceleration. This resulted in a strategy that met regulatory requirements in FY2012-13 with some remaining funding but not in FY2014-15. The remaining funding was then invested in cost savings initiatives in FY2012-13 to reduce the future cost of doing business in the FY2014-15 timeframe and beyond. This resulted in a Strategy that: - Meets all regulatory commitments; - Meets some regulatory commitments early; and - Preserves most of the life cycle savings that were built in to the baseline plan The CSI process used at Savannah River may be considered for application elsewhere in the DOE Complex. (authors)

  1. About "Save the Children Committee (India)".

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    This article describes the activity among charitable committees to provide education and shelter to orphans and homeless children in India. "Save The Children Committee" of the All India Women's Conference began operations during the Bengal famine of 1943 by providing shelter to children who were homeless or did not know where their parents were. The Bengal Relief Committee also provided shelters, which later became Children's Homes, which were operated by the Save The Children Committee. Funding support for the homes came from individual donors and organizations. The Bengal government provided Rs.25/month/child for 450 children. Children's homes were set up in Phola, Mymensingh, and Brahmanberia, in the present day Bangladesh, and in Bankura. The Committee took over homes in Mahishadal, Khagda, and Belbeni. After 1948, the Children's Homes in East Pakistan were transferred to India. In 1952, several Children's Committees merged. Funds were supplied by international organizations. Government support levels varied over time. Schools for orphans changed from an emphasis on self-reliance and work to ordinary schooling. Brief descriptions are provided for homes at Pifa, Mangalgunge in Bongaon Subdivision, Thakurpukur in 24-Parganas, and Khagda in Midnapore district. For example, the home at Khagda was begun by the Bengal Relief Committee at the time of the famine of 1944. Save The Children Committee took over its operations in 1946. It is now a home for 21 boys. The boys have access to a good high school, have achieved academically, and received respect from the community. PMID:12179427

  2. Weight Saving Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The airplane shown below is the Beech Super King Air, an executive transport built by Beech Aircraft corporation, Wichita, Kansas. Its development was aided by the NASA computer program known as NASTRAN(Registered TradeMark) (NASA Structural Analysis), which electronically analyzes a computerized design and predicts how it will react to many different conditions of stress and strain. In this instance the program was employed in analysis of the airplane's structure and engine mounts. NASTRAN was similarly used in development of other Beech planes, such as the T-34C military trainer and the new single-engine Skipper light-plane, which is making its debut this year. At its Boulder, Colorado facility, Beech has used NASTRAN in analysis of fuel tanks for space vehicles. The company reports it has achieved cost savings and improved its design/analysis capabilities through use of the NASA program. NASTRAN and other government-generated computer programs are made available to industry through NASA's Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC)(Registered TradeMark) at the University of Georgia.

  3. Desiccant systems save money

    SciTech Connect

    Kister, P.

    1996-10-01

    Desiccant systems can save the Navy money through lower utility bills. Traditional vapor compression air conditioning systems are required to remove both sensible heat and latent heat (humidity) by cooling the outside air below the dewpoint in order to condense out water vapor. In some cases the air is then required to be reheated to a comfortable level. This requires large amounts of electricity at peak billing rates. Desiccant systems, on the other hand, use a desiccant to remove moisture from the outside air prior to cooling the air using traditional chillers. The desiccant is then reactivated using natural gas heat. This will shift up to 40 percent of the cooling load of the building to natural gas which in many areas of the country is cheaper than electricity, especially during the peak hours in the summer. It also eliminates inefficient reheating and in most cases the temperature of the building can be raised since dry air is more comfortable at higher temperatures than humid air. Many buildings also require special humidity control which is most effectively and efficiently met using a desiccant system. These buildings include hospitals, commissaries, avionics rooms, BOQ`s and BEQ`s, etc.

  4. Long-Run Savings and Investment Strategy Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Gerrard, Russell; Guillén, Montserrat; Pérez-Marín, Ana M.

    2014-01-01

    We focus on automatic strategies to optimize life cycle savings and investment. Classical optimal savings theory establishes that, given the level of risk aversion, a saver would keep the same relative amount invested in risky assets at any given time. We show that, when optimizing lifecycle investment, performance and risk assessment have to take into account the investor's risk aversion and the maximum amount the investor could lose, simultaneously. When risk aversion and maximum possible loss are considered jointly, an optimal savings strategy is obtained, which follows from constant rather than relative absolute risk aversion. This result is fundamental to prove that if risk aversion and the maximum possible loss are both high, then holding a constant amount invested in the risky asset is optimal for a standard lifetime saving/pension process and outperforms some other simple strategies. Performance comparisons are based on downside risk-adjusted equivalence that is used in our illustration. PMID:24711728

  5. South Jersey School Saves Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Schools, 1976

    1976-01-01

    At West Deptford High School in New Jersey, a group of students led by their teacher have developed a number of sound energy-conserving techniques that add up to substantial savings for the school budget. (Author/MLF)

  6. Saved By A Weather Satellite

    NASA Video Gallery

    This is a story about an incredibly challenging rescue that took place on Jan. 2, 2010, 250 miles off the shore of North Carolina. Dennis Clements was saved thanks to a distress signal sent from hi...

  7. FY 1995 cost savings report

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews-Smith, K.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-21

    Fiscal Year (FY) 1995 challenged us to dramatically reduce costs at Hanford. We began the year with an 8 percent reduction in our Environmental Management budget but at the same time were tasked with accomplishing additional workscope. This resulted in a Productivity Challenge whereby we took on more work at the beginning of the year than we had funding to complete. During the year, the Productivity Challenge actually grew to 23 percent because of recissions, Congressional budget reductions, and DOE Headquarters actions. We successfully met our FY 1995 Productivity Challenge through an aggressive cost reduction program that identified and eliminated unnecessary workscope and found ways to be more efficient. We reduced the size of the workforce, cut overhead expenses, eliminated paperwork, cancelled construction of new facilities, and reengineered our processes. We are proving we can get the job done better and for less money at Hanford. DOE`s drive to do it ``better, faster, cheaper`` has led us to look for more and larger partnerships with the private sector. The biggest will be privatization of Hanford`s Tank Waste Remediation System, which will turn liquid tank waste into glass logs for eventual disposal. We will also save millions of dollars and avoid the cost of replacing aging steam plants by contracting Hanford`s energy needs to a private company. Other privatization successes include the Hanford Mail Service, a spinoff of advanced technical training, low level mixed waste thermal treatment, and transfer of the Hanford Museums of Science and history to a private non-profit organization. Despite the rough roads and uncertainty we faced in FY 1995, less than 3 percent of our work fell behind schedule, while the work that was performed was completed with an 8.6 percent cost under-run. We not only met the FY 1995 productivity challenge, we also met our FY 1995-1998 savings commitments and accelerated some critical cleanup milestones. The challenges continue

  8. 12 CFR 561.42 - Savings account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Savings account. 561.42 Section 561.42 Banks... AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.42 Savings account. The term savings account means any withdrawable account, except a demand account as defined in § 561.16 of this chapter, a tax and loan account, a...

  9. 12 CFR 561.42 - Savings account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Savings account. 561.42 Section 561.42 Banks... AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.42 Savings account. The term savings account means any withdrawable account, except a demand account as defined in § 561.16 of this chapter, a tax and loan account, a...

  10. Going Online to Save Data Safely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsbourough, Reid

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of saving data safely. Suggestions include making backup copies of all important computer documents; frequently hitting the Ctrl-S keys to save current documents to the hard disk; periodically save a backup copy to a floppy disk; periodically saving a copy through the Internet to an offsite backup disk; and…

  11. [Saving motives in young, middle-aged, and older adults. Preliminary results of a new inventory for exploring lifespan saving motives].

    PubMed

    Rager, B; Lang, F R; Wagner, G G

    2012-12-01

    There is some research on personal reasons for saving money in the economic sciences. However, not much is known about the age differences of saving motives. In this vein, the future time perspective (FTP) is known to play a critical role for motivation across the life span. In this study, we introduce a new Saving Motive Inventory (SMI), which also covers saving goals after retirement. Furthermore, it is argued that additional saving motives that are not based on economic models of life-cycle saving also exist. In accordance with the socio-emotional selectivity theory, we explored age differences in an online survey with 496 participants from young (19-44 years), middle-aged (45-64 years), and older (65-86 years) adulthood, who completed a questionnaire on saving motives, personality, and future-related thinking (e.g., Future Time Perspective Scale, Life Orientation Test). Results of the explorative Factor Analysis (EFA) are consistent with the theoretical expectations. The factors are generativity, educational investment, consumption, indifference, and provision for death and dying. Together these five factors account for 67% of the variance. In general, the inventory is reliable and valid with respect to the expected internal and external criteria. It contributes to better understanding of saving motives over the lifespan, especially with respect to effects of the future time perspective. PMID:22538787

  12. 13 Things That Saved Apollo 13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodfill, Jared

    2012-01-01

    Perhaps, the most exciting rescue, terrestrial or extra-terrestrial, is the successful return of the Apollo 13 crew to Earth in April of 1970. The mission s warning system engineer, Jerry Woodfill, who remains a NASA employee after 47 years of government service has examined facets of the rescue for the past 42 years. He will present "13 Things That Saved Apollo 13" from the perspective of his real time experience as well as two score years of study. Many are recent discoveries never before published in mission reports, popular books or documentary and Hollywood movies depicting the rescue.

  13. Saving Electricity and Demand Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki

    A lot of people lost their lives in the tremendous earthquake in Tohoku region on March 11. A large capacity of electric power plants in TEPCO area was also damaged and large scale power shortage in this summer is predicted. In this situation, electricity customers are making great effort to save electricity to avoid planned outage. Customers take actions not only by their selves but also by some customers' cooperative movements. All actions taken actually are based on responses to request form the government or voluntary decision. On the other hand, demand response based on a financial stimulus is not observed as an actual behavior. Saving electricity by this demand response only discussed in the newspapers. In this commentary, the events regarding electricity-saving measure after this disaster are described and the discussions on demand response, especially a raise in power rate, are put into shapes in the context of this electricity supply-demand gap.

  14. Energy Savings Measure Packages: Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, S.; Booten, C.

    2011-11-01

    This document presents the most cost effective Energy Savings Measure Packages (ESMP) for existing mixed-fuel and all electric homes to achieve 15% and 30% savings for each BetterBuildings grantee location across the US. These packages are optimized for minimum cost to homeowners for given source energy savings given the local climate and prevalent building characteristics (i.e. foundation types). Maximum cost savings are typically found between 30% and 50% energy savings over the reference home. The dollar value of the maximum annual savings varies significantly by location but typically amounts to $300 - $700/year.

  15. Energy-saving thermostat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, R. N.

    1980-01-01

    Thermostat for two-stage heating system adjusts turn-on time and thermostat setpoint so that reserve resistance electrical heaters are not activated in morning warm up. Thermostat monitors outside temperature and turns on heat earlier in cold weather so that room will be at desired temperature by specified time. Mechanical, electrical, electronic, pneumatic, or microprocessor versions of device are possible. Correctional factors can be included where second-stage operation is more cost-effective than prolonged first-stage operation.

  16. Mass savings domain of plasma propulsion for LEO to GEO transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Choueiri, E.Y.; Kelly, A.J.; Jahn, R.G. )

    1993-01-20

    A parametric model is used to study the mass savings of plasma propulsion over advanced chemical propulsion for lower earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous orbit (GEO) transfer. Such savings are characterized by stringent requirements of massive payloads (O(10) metric tons) and high power levels (O(100) kW). Mass savings on the order of the payload mass are possible but at the expense of longer transfer times (8--20 months). Typical of the savings domain is the case of a self-field magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster running quasi-steadily, at an [ital I][sub [ital s

  17. Pressure Regulators as Valves for Saving Compressed Air and their Influence on System Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvořák, Lukáš; Fojtášek, Kamil

    2015-05-01

    Pressure regulators in the field of pneumatic mechanisms can be used as valves for saving compressed air. For example it can be used to reduce the pressure when the piston rod is retracting unloaded and thus it is possible to save some energy. However the problem is that saving valve can significantly affect the dynamics of the pneumatic system. The lower pressure in the piston rod chamber causes extension of time for retraction of the piston rod. This article compare the air consumption experimentally determined and calculated, measured curves of pressure in cylinder chambers and piston speed when saving valve is set up differently.

  18. Ambient-temperature regression analysis for estimating retrofit savings in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Kissock, J.K.; Reddy, T.A.; Claridge, D.E.

    1998-08-01

    This paper describes a procedure for estimating weather-adjusted retrofit savings in commercial buildings using ambient-temperature regression models. The selection of ambient temperature as the sole independent regression variable is discussed. An approximate method for determining the uncertainty of savings and a method for identifying the data time scale which minimizes the uncertainty of savings ar developed. The appropriate users of both linear and change-point models for estimating savings based on expected heating and cooling relationships for common HVAC systems are described. A case study example illustrates the procedure.

  19. SAVE IT! Easy Environmental Tips To Save the Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corporation for Public Broadcasting, Washington, DC.

    Everyone has the opportunity to make a difference in turning around the mounting environmental crisis. The purpose of this document is to outline choices a person can make and actions people can take to save the earth from continuing environmental deterioration. This booklet contains concise explanations of environmental problems and tips that…

  20. What is the point: will screening mammography save my life?

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background We analyzed the claim "mammography saves lives" by calculating the life-saving absolute benefit of screening mammography in reducing breast cancer mortality in women ages 40 to 65. Methods To calculate the absolute benefit, we first estimated the screen-free absolute death risk from breast cancer by adjusting the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program 15-year cumulative breast cancer mortality to account for the separate effects of screening mammography and improved therapy. We calculated the absolute risk reduction (reduction in absolute death risk), the number needed to screen assuming repeated screening, and the survival percentages without and with screening. We varied the relative risk reduction from 10%–30% based on the randomized trials of screening mammography. We developed additional variations of the absolute risk reduction for a screening intervention, including the average benefit of a single screen, as well as the life-saving proportion among patients with earlier cancer detection. Results Because the screen-free absolute death risk is approximately 1% overall but rises with age, the relative risk reduction from repeated screening mammography is about 100 times the absolute risk reduction between the starting ages of 50 and 60. Assuming a base case 20% relative risk reduction, repeated screening starting at age 50 saves about 1.8 (overall range, 0.9–2.7) lives over 15 years for every 1000 women screened. The number needed to screen repeatedly is 1000/1.8, or 570. The survival percentage is 99.12% without and 99.29% with screening. The average benefit of a single screening mammogram is 0.034%, or 2970 women must be screened once to save one life. Mammography saves 4.3% of screen-detectable cancer patients' lives starting at age 50. This means 23 cancers must be found starting at age 50, or 27 cancers at age 40 and 21 cancers at age 65, to save one life. Conclusion The life-saving absolute benefit of screening mammography

  1. 31 CFR 363.171 - How do I redeem a converted savings bond?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Direct account. The non-converting coowner may redeem the converted savings bond at any time prior to... bond? 363.171 Section 363.171 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... SECURITIES HELD IN TREASURYDIRECT Conversion of a Definitive Savings Bond § 363.171 How do I redeem...

  2. 31 CFR 363.171 - How do I redeem a converted savings bond?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Direct account. The non-converting coowner may redeem the converted savings bond at any time prior to... bond? 363.171 Section 363.171 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... SECURITIES HELD IN TREASURYDIRECT Conversion of a Definitive Savings Bond § 363.171 How do I redeem...

  3. 31 CFR 363.171 - How do I redeem a converted savings bond?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Direct account. The non-converting coowner may redeem the converted savings bond at any time prior to... bond? 363.171 Section 363.171 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... SECURITIES HELD IN TREASURYDIRECT Conversion of a Definitive Savings Bond § 363.171 How do I redeem...

  4. 31 CFR 363.171 - How do I redeem a converted savings bond?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Direct account. The non-converting coowner may redeem the converted savings bond at any time prior to... bond? 363.171 Section 363.171 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... SECURITIES HELD IN TREASURYDIRECT Conversion of a Definitive Savings Bond § 363.171 How do I redeem...

  5. 31 CFR 363.171 - How do I redeem a converted savings bond?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Direct account. The non-converting coowner may redeem the converted savings bond at any time prior to... bond? 363.171 Section 363.171 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... SECURITIES HELD IN TREASURYDIRECT Conversion of a Definitive Savings Bond § 363.171 How do I redeem...

  6. Save Our History: Our Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Libby Haight; Gordon, Sarah; Suisman, David

    2003-01-01

    The Fall 2003 Idea Book features: "Save Our History Study Guide: Our Documents"; "History International Study Guide: Pyramids"; "The History Channel Study Guide: Lewis and Clark" (Ideas from Our Teachers Contest Rules; Ideas from Our Teachers Context Winners); "A&E Classroom Study Guide: Post Impressionists"; and "The Biography Channel Study…

  7. Shining a Light on Savings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how schools and universities can save energy and money by evaluating lighting systems and changing behaviors. Retrofitting older buildings with better lighting technology and use of natural light are examined. An example of an energy conservation education program to reduce energy waste is highlighted. (GR)

  8. Saving Green on Energy Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tacke, Diane L.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, colleges and universities have begun efforts to reduce their energy costs, an initiative that can not only save an institution money, but also strengthen relationships across campus. Board leadership has been central to this endeavor in setting goals, prioritizing projects, and financing those projects. Using her experiences with…

  9. Save Our Streams and Waterways.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis. Center for School Improvement and Performance.

    Protection of existing water supplies is critical to ensuring good health for people and animals alike. This program is aligned with the Izaak Walton League of American's Save Our Streams program which is based on the concept that students can greatly improve the quality of a nearby stream, pond, or river by regular visits and monitoring. The…

  10. Saving Schoolhouse Energy. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudy, John; And Others

    The objective of the Saving Schoolhouse Energy Program was to generate information that school administrators and federal energy/education decision makers could use to identify ways of implementing specific, economical remedies to reduce energy waste in schools. This program was designed to have five phases: (1) Conduct an energy audit of ten…

  11. Do the Rich Save More?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dynan, Karen E.; Skinner, Jonathan; Zeldes, Stephen P.

    2004-01-01

    The question of whether higher-lifetime income households save a larger fraction of their income was the subject of much debate in the 1950s and 1960s, and while not resolved, it remains central to the evaluation of tax and macroeconomic policies. We resolve this longstanding question using new empirical methods applied to the Panel Study of…

  12. Save the Boulders Beach Penguins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheerer, Katherine; Schnittka, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Maybe it's the peculiar way they walk or their cute little suits, but students of all ages are drawn to penguins. To meet younger students' curiosity, the authors adapted a middle-school level, penguin-themed curriculum unit called Save the Penguins (Schnittka, Bell, and Richards 2010) for third-grade students. The students loved learning about…

  13. Water saving technologies flagship program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Flagship Project on Water Saving Technologies was formed under the protocol between the USDA and Ministry of Science and Technology of the People's Republic of China. Joint work in this flagship project was reported at the 13th Joint Working Group Meeting on Agricultural Science and Technology in ...

  14. Saving Money with Menu Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, David

    1998-01-01

    Menu alternatives are substitute meals, whereas menu additions are dishes that complement the main meal. Both should be vegetarian dishes that are less expensive than the main offering and attractive to 20-40% of the camp population. By offering alternatives and additions, one can eliminate complaints, save money, and change eating patterns.…

  15. Can Education Save the Economy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Noy, Michelle; Zeidenberg, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    The recent global economic downturn is causing U.S. workers and employers to look to the educational system for skills that will allow them to thrive when the economy recovers. Education alone cannot save the economy. Much larger forces are at work, such as international equity and debt markets, the banking crisis, and the deflation of consumer …

  16. Fast approach for toner saving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safonov, Ilia V.; Kurilin, Ilya V.; Rychagov, Michael N.; Lee, Hokeun; Kim, Sangho; Choi, Donchul

    2011-01-01

    Reducing toner consumption is an important task in modern printing devices and has a significant positive ecological impact. Existing toner saving approaches have two main drawbacks: appearance of hardcopy in toner saving mode is worse in comparison with normal mode; processing of whole rendered page bitmap requires significant computational costs. We propose to add small holes of various shapes and sizes to random places inside a character bitmap stored in font cache. Such random perforation scheme is based on processing pipeline in RIP of standard printer languages Postscript and PCL. Processing of text characters only, and moreover, processing of each character for given font and size alone, is an extremely fast procedure. The approach does not deteriorate halftoned bitmap and business graphics and provide toner saving for typical office documents up to 15-20%. Rate of toner saving is adjustable. Alteration of resulted characters' appearance is almost indistinguishable in comparison with solid black text due to random placement of small holes inside the character regions. The suggested method automatically skips small fonts to preserve its quality. Readability of text processed by proposed method is fine. OCR programs process that scanned hardcopy successfully too.

  17. 5 CFR 9701.614 - Savings provision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....614 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Adverse Actions Savings Provision § 9701.614 Savings provision. This...

  18. Save Social Security Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. McCotter, Thaddeus G. [R-MI-11

    2011-09-12

    09/19/2011 Referred for a period ending not later than September 19, 2011, (or for a later time if the Chairman so designates) to the Subcommittee on Social Security, in each case for consideration of such provisions as fall within the jurisdiction of the subcommittee concerned. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. 12 CFR 562.4 - Audit of savings associations and savings association holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Audit of savings associations and savings association holding companies. 562.4 Section 562.4 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATORY REPORTING STANDARDS § 562.4 Audit of savings associations and savings association holding companies. (a) General....

  20. 76 FR 31680 - General Reporting and Recordkeeping by Savings Associations and Savings and Loan Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision General Reporting and Recordkeeping by Savings Associations and Savings and.... Title of Proposal: General Reporting and Recordkeeping by Savings Associations and Savings and Loan..., federal stock associations), 12 CFR 545.96(c) (agency business records, Federal stock associations),...

  1. Hidden Savings from a Cleaner America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Thomas L.

    1972-01-01

    Need for air and water cleanup campaigns are advocated, allowing taxpayers/consumers financial savings on pollution damages. Estimates show $113./year/family saved on air cleanup by 1976 and $87./year/family saved on water cleanup by 1980. (BL)

  2. 5 CFR 731.601 - Savings provision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Savings provision. 731.601 Section 731.601 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) SUITABILITY Savings Provision § 731.601 Savings provision. No provision of the regulations in this part is to be applied in such a way as...

  3. 5 CFR 731.601 - Savings provision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Savings provision. 731.601 Section 731.601 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) SUITABILITY Savings Provision § 731.601 Savings provision. No provision of the regulations in this part is to be applied in such a way as...

  4. 5 CFR 731.601 - Savings provision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Savings provision. 731.601 Section 731.601 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) SUITABILITY Savings Provision § 731.601 Savings provision. No provision of the regulations...

  5. 5 CFR 731.601 - Savings provision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Savings provision. 731.601 Section 731.601 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) SUITABILITY Savings Provision § 731.601 Savings provision. No provision of the regulations...

  6. Consumer behaviours: Teaching children to save energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grønhøj, Alice

    2016-08-01

    Energy-saving programmes are increasingly targeted at children to encourage household energy conservation. A study involving the assignment of energy-saving interventions to Girl Scouts shows that a child-focused intervention can improve energy-saving behaviours among children and their parents.

  7. 10 CFR 436.20 - Net savings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Net savings. 436.20 Section 436.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.20 Net savings. For a retrofit project, net savings may be found...

  8. 10 CFR 436.20 - Net savings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Net savings. 436.20 Section 436.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.20 Net savings. For a retrofit project, net savings may be found...

  9. 10 CFR 436.20 - Net savings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Net savings. 436.20 Section 436.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.20 Net savings. For a retrofit project, net savings may be found...

  10. 10 CFR 436.20 - Net savings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Net savings. 436.20 Section 436.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.20 Net savings. For a retrofit project, net savings may be found...

  11. 10 CFR 436.20 - Net savings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Net savings. 436.20 Section 436.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.20 Net savings. For a retrofit project, net savings may be found...

  12. Consumer Socialization: Children's Saving and Spending.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Stewart

    1994-01-01

    Provides examples of age-appropriate saving and spending activities that teachers can encourage in students to help them develop wise consumer behaviors. Suggests that younger children can save money in piggy banks or savings accounts, and older students can utilize checking accounts and mutual funds. All students can donate unneeded possessions…

  13. Does Need-Based Student Aid Discourage Saving for College?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Karl E.; McPherson, Michael S.

    The question of whether the availability of need-based student financial aid reduces the applicant families' incentives to save and work was assessed. Changes in the need-based aid system are also suggested. Need-based aid systems compute a family's ability to pay for college from information on the family's income and assets at the time a student…

  14. College Savings Plans: Second Generation Progress and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivas, Michael A.

    College savings plans, which operate in 20 states, work on a simple premise: parents or grandparents place a lump sum in a contract or make monthly payments that guarantees the money will be sufficient for an equivalent of tuition and fees in a set period of time in the future. The state can guarantee the return by virtue of pooled assets. States…

  15. Savings Education: Learning the Value of Self-Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutton, Patricia A.; Holmes, James M.

    2005-01-01

    This article proposes a funded school-based allowance and savings program targeted at economically disadvantaged students with poor educational outcomes to help poor children develop less present-biased time preference patterns so as to increase student effort and skills acquisition, avoid the pitfalls that pave the path of adolescence and move…

  16. Water Conservation Checklist for the Home. Save Water, Save Energy, Save Money. Program Aid No. 1192.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pifer, Glenda; And Others

    Few people realize that the average person uses about 60 gallons of water each day. Water shortages are already occurring on a regional scale; someday they may become a national problem. Accordingly, this checklist is designed to help house and apartment dwellers determine how efficiently they use water and identify additional ways to save it.…

  17. A Power-Saving Technique for the OSGi Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kuo-Yi; Lin, Chin-Yang; Ma, Tien-Yan; Hou, Ting-Wei

    With more digital home appliances and network devices having OSGi as the software management platform, the power-saving capability of the OSGi platform has become a critical issue. This paper is aimed at improving the power-efficiency of the OSGi platform, i.e. reducing the energy consumption with minimum performance degradation. The key to this study is an efficient power-saving technique which exploits the runtime information already available in a Java virtual machine (JVM), the base software of the OSGi platform, to best determine the timing of performing DVFS (Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling). This, technically, involves a phase detection scheme that identifies the memory phase of the OSGi-enabled device/server in a correct and almost effortless way. The overhead of the power-saving procedure is thus minimized, and the system performance is well maintained. We have implemented and evaluated the proposed power-saving approach on an OSGi server, where the Apache Felix OSGi implementation and the DaCapo benchmarks were applied. The results show that this approach can achieve real power-efficiency for the OSGi platform, in which the power consumption is significantly reduced and the performance remains highly competitive, compared with the other power-saving techniques.

  18. VO2 thermochromic smart window for energy savings and generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jiadong; Gao, Yanfeng; Zhang, Zongtao; Luo, Hongjie; Cao, Chuanxiang; Chen, Zhang; Dai, Lei; Liu, Xinling

    2013-10-01

    The ability to achieve energy saving in architectures and optimal solar energy utilisation affects the sustainable development of the human race. Traditional smart windows and solar cells cannot be combined into one device for energy saving and electricity generation. A VO2 film can respond to the environmental temperature to intelligently regulate infrared transmittance while maintaining visible transparency, and can be applied as a thermochromic smart window. Herein, we report for the first time a novel VO2-based smart window that partially utilises light scattering to solar cells around the glass panel for electricity generation. This smart window combines energy-saving and generation in one device, and offers potential to intelligently regulate and utilise solar radiation in an efficient manner.

  19. VO2 thermochromic smart window for energy savings and generation

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiadong; Gao, Yanfeng; Zhang, Zongtao; Luo, Hongjie; Cao, Chuanxiang; Chen, Zhang; Dai, Lei; Liu, Xinling

    2013-01-01

    The ability to achieve energy saving in architectures and optimal solar energy utilisation affects the sustainable development of the human race. Traditional smart windows and solar cells cannot be combined into one device for energy saving and electricity generation. A VO2 film can respond to the environmental temperature to intelligently regulate infrared transmittance while maintaining visible transparency, and can be applied as a thermochromic smart window. Herein, we report for the first time a novel VO2-based smart window that partially utilises light scattering to solar cells around the glass panel for electricity generation. This smart window combines energy-saving and generation in one device, and offers potential to intelligently regulate and utilise solar radiation in an efficient manner. PMID:24157625

  20. VO₂ thermochromic smart window for energy savings and generation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiadong; Gao, Yanfeng; Zhang, Zongtao; Luo, Hongjie; Cao, Chuanxiang; Chen, Zhang; Dai, Lei; Liu, Xinling

    2013-01-01

    The ability to achieve energy saving in architectures and optimal solar energy utilisation affects the sustainable development of the human race. Traditional smart windows and solar cells cannot be combined into one device for energy saving and electricity generation. A VO2 film can respond to the environmental temperature to intelligently regulate infrared transmittance while maintaining visible transparency, and can be applied as a thermochromic smart window. Herein, we report for the first time a novel VO2-based smart window that partially utilises light scattering to solar cells around the glass panel for electricity generation. This smart window combines energy-saving and generation in one device, and offers potential to intelligently regulate and utilise solar radiation in an efficient manner. PMID:24157625

  1. Quick, save the ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, J.

    1993-05-17

    Last December, after an all-out, nearly $500 million development effort, an Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) plant in Louisiana was the first world-scale US facility to start pumping out HFC 134a, an alternative to CFC12, the chemical that accounts for more than 50% of CFC use. The saga of 134a is an object lesson in how a global crisis can compel governments and companies to transform technology far faster than either thought possible. With deadlines for phasing out CFCs closing in, ICI and its rivals, Du Pont and Elf, developed technology speedily by constructing factories even while their choice molecules were still being tested. ICI slashed the time it takes to commercialize a technology from the industry norm of more than a decade to only five years. If companies are forced to act on environmental issues, they do it.

  2. 12 CFR 541.19 - Interim state savings association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interim state savings association. 541.19... REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.19 Interim state savings association. The term interim state savings association means a savings association, other than a Federal savings...

  3. 12 CFR 541.11 - Federal savings association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal savings association. 541.11 Section 541... REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.11 Federal savings association. The term Federal savings association means a Federal savings association or Federal savings bank chartered under section...

  4. 12 CFR 541.11 - Federal savings association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Federal savings association. 541.11 Section 541... REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.11 Federal savings association. The term Federal savings association means a Federal savings association or Federal savings bank chartered under section...

  5. 12 CFR 541.19 - Interim state savings association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interim state savings association. 541.19... REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.19 Interim state savings association. The term interim state savings association means a savings association, other than a Federal savings...

  6. Energy Savings Measure Packages. Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Sean; Booten, Chuck

    2011-11-01

    This document presents the most cost effective Energy Savings Measure Packages (ESMP) for existing mixed-fuel and all electric homes to achieve 15% and 30% savings for each BetterBuildings grantee location across the United States. These packages are optimized for minimum cost to homeowners for source energy savings given the local climate and prevalent building characteristics (i.e. foundation types). Maximum cost savings are typically found between 30% and 50% energy savings over the reference home; this typically amounts to $300 - $700/year.

  7. Save the Lightcurves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Brian D.; Stephens, Robert D.; Harris, Alan W.

    2011-07-01

    The lack of a central repository for asteroid time-series (lightcurve) photometry has put large amounts of data at risk of being forever lost as computers crash and the original researchers pass on. These data are vital to critical current work on theories regarding the origin and evolution of the asteroid population as a whole and of specific families/groups or types of asteroids. A first step toward creating such a repository is defining a minimum set of data and format for submitting current and future observations. The Asteroid Lightcurve Data Exchange Format (ALCDEF) has been proposed by the authors for this first step. In a recent development, the Minor Planet Center, long the recognized central repository for asteroid astrometry data, has agreed to host a site where researchers can upload and download asteroid photometry using the ALCDEF standard. We outline other steps that have been taken to have the ALCDEF standard generally accepted as well as describe a new gateway web site that leads to the ALCDEF pages as well as the Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link (CALL) site commonly used by many asteroid photometrists.

  8. Achieving calibration cost savings through data analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shull, A.H.; Clark, J.P.

    1993-12-31

    Air displacement type pipettes have been used effectively at the Savannah River Site (SRS) since the mid-1980`s when they replaced expensive glass microliter pipettes. A paper presented at the 1987 INMM Annual Meeting by John P. Clark detailed the implementation at SRS. At that time, calibration frequency and required documentation were established according to regulatory and standard practice requirements. Pipettes are still being used at SRS in compliance with NQA-1-12, ``Control of Measuring and Test Equipment (M and TE)`` requirements, which includes defined calibration intervals and 5-year calibration record retention. A recent analysis of the pipette calibration historical data indicated that pipettes were rarely out of calibration when they were checked. In other words, calibration checks were being performed too frequently. As a result, pipette calibration frequencies were decreased, with the potential accompanying annual cost savings of over $30,000 in reduced labor and materials. Concurrently, the number of calibration check replicates was increased to prevent statistical errors in calibration check decision making. The benefits derived in the pipette calibration example are applicable to any M and TE where calibration history data are maintained and where analysis indicates excessive calibration checks. Details of the data analysis and cost savings are presented in the paper.

  9. Federal Aviation Administration retained savings program proposal

    SciTech Connect

    Hostick, D.J.; Larson, L.L.; Hostick, C.J.

    1998-03-01

    Federal legislation allows federal agencies to retain up to 50% of the savings associated with implementing energy efficiency and water conservation measures and practices. Given budget pressures to reduce expenditures, the use of retained savings to fund additional projects represents a source of funds outside of the traditional budget cycle. The Southwest Region Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has tasked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop a model retained savings program for Southwest Region FAA use and as a prototype for consideration by the FAA. PNNL recommends the following steps be taken in developing a Southwest Region FAA retained savings program: Establish a retained savings mechanism. Determine the level at which the retained savings should be consolidated into a fund. The preliminary recommendation is to establish a revolving efficiency loan fund at the regional level. Such a mechanism allows some consolidation of savings to fund larger projects, while maintaining a sense of facility ownership in that the funds will remain within the region.

  10. FY 1997 cost savings report

    SciTech Connect

    Sellards, J.B.

    1998-06-01

    With the end of the cold war, funding for the Environmental Management program increased rapidly as nuclear weapons production facilities were shut down, cleanup responsibilities increased, and facilities were transferred to the cleanup program. As funding for the Environmental Management (EM) program began to level off in response to Administration and Congressional efforts to balance the Federal budget, the program redoubled its efforts to increase efficiency and get more productivity out of every dollar. Cost savings and enhanced performance are an integral pair of Hanford Site operations. FY1997 was the third year of a cost savings program that was initially defined in FY 1995. The definitions and process remained virtually the same as those used in FY 1996.

  11. Energy savings in Polish buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Markel, L.C.; Gula, A.; Reeves, G.

    1995-12-31

    A demonstration of low-cost insulation and weatherization techniques was a part of phase 1 of the Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficient Project. The objectives were to identify a cost-effective set of measures to reduce energy used for space heating, determine how much energy could be saved, and foster widespread implementation of those measures. The demonstration project focused on 4 11-story buildings in a Krakow housing cooperative. Energy savings of over 20% were obtained. Most important, the procedures and materials implemented in the demonstration project have been adapted to Polish conditions and applied to other housing cooperatives, schools, and hospitals. Additional projects are being planned, in Krakow and other cities, under the direction of FEWE-Krakow, the Polish Energie Cities Network, and Biuro Rozwoju Krakowa.

  12. Save Energy Now Assessments Results 2008 Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Anthony L; Martin, Michaela A; Nimbalkar, Sachin U; Quinn, James; Glatt, Ms. Sandy; Orthwein, Mr. Bill

    2010-09-01

    assessment process at the company's other facilities. Another important element of the Save Energy Now assessment process is the follow-up process used to identify how many of the recommended savings opportunities from individual assessments have been implemented in the industrial plants. Plant personnel involved with the Save Energy Now assessments are contacted 6 months, 12 months, and 24 months after individual assessments are completed to determine implementation results. A total of 260 Save Energy Now assessments were successfully completed in calendar year 2008. This means that a total of 718 assessments were completed in 2006, 2007, and 2008. As of July 2009, we have received a total of 239 summary reports from the ESAs that were conducted in year 2008. Hence, at the time that this report was prepared, 680 final assessment reports were completed (200 from year 2006, 241 from year 2007, and 239 from year 2008). The total identified potential cost savings from these 680 assessments is $1.1 billion per year, including natural gas savings of about 98 TBtu per year. These results, if fully implemented, could reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by about 8.9 million metric tons annually. When this report was prepared, data on implementation of recommended energy and cost savings measures from 488 Save Energy Now assessments were available. For these 488 plants, measures saving a total of $147 million per year have been implemented, measures that will save $169 million per year are in the process of being implemented, and plants are planning implementation of measures that will save another $239 million per year. The implemented recommendations are already achieving total CO{sub 2} reductions of about 1.8 million metric tons per year. This report provides a summary of the key results for the Save Energy Now assessments completed in 2008; details of the 6-month, 12-month, and 24-month implementation results obtained to date; and an evaluation of these implementation results. This

  13. Save Energy Now Assessments Results 2008 Detailed Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Anthony L; Martin, Michaela A; Nimbalkar, Sachin U; Quinn, James; Glatt, Ms. Sandy; Orthwein, Mr. Bill

    2010-09-01

    assessment process at the company's other facilities. Another important element of the Save Energy Now assessment process is the follow-up process used to identify how many of the recommended savings opportunities from individual assessments have been implemented in the industrial plants. Plant personnel involved with the Save Energy Now assessments are contacted 6 months, 12 months, and 24 months after individual assessments are completed to determine implementation results. A total of 260 Save Energy Now assessments were successfully completed in calendar year 2008. This means that a total of 718 assessments were completed in 2006, 2007, and 2008. As of July 2009, we have received a total of 239 summary reports from the ESAs that were conducted in year 2008. Hence, at the time that this report was prepared, 680 final assessment reports were completed (200 from year 2006, 241 from year 2007, and 239 from year 2008). The total identified potential cost savings from these 680 assessments is $1.1 billion per year, including natural gas savings of about 98 TBtu per year. These results, if fully implemented, could reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by about 8.9 million metric tons annually. When this report was prepared, data on implementation of recommended energy and cost savings measures from 488 Save Energy Now assessments were available. For these 488 plants, measures saving a total of $147 million per year have been implemented, measures that will save $169 million per year are in the process of being implemented, and plants are planning implementation of measures that will save another $239 million per year. The implemented recommendations are already achieving total CO{sub 2} reductions of about 1.8 million metric tons per year. This report provides a summary of the key results for the Save Energy Now assessments completed in 2008; details of the 6-month, 12-month, and 24-month implementation results obtained to date; and an evaluation of these implementation results. This

  14. Mission aware energy saving strategies for Army ground vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dattathreya, Macam S.

    Fuel energy is a basic necessity for this planet and the modern technology to perform many activities on earth. On the other hand, quadrupled automotive vehicle usage by the commercial industry and military has increased fuel consumption. Military readiness of Army ground vehicles is very important for a country to protect its people and resources. Fuel energy is a major requirement for Army ground vehicles. According to a report, a department of defense has spent nearly $13.6 billion on fuel and electricity to conduct ground missions. On the contrary, energy availability on this plant is slowly decreasing. Therefore, saving energy in Army ground vehicles is very important. Army ground vehicles are embedded with numerous electronic systems to conduct missions such as silent and normal stationary surveillance missions. Increasing electrical energy consumption of these systems is influencing higher fuel consumption of the vehicle. To save energy, the vehicles can use any of the existing techniques, but they require complex, expensive, and time consuming implementations. Therefore, cheaper and simpler approaches are required. In addition, the solutions have to save energy according to mission needs and also overcome size and weight constraints of the vehicle. Existing research in the current literature do not have any mission aware approaches to save energy. This dissertation research proposes mission aware online energy saving strategies for stationary Army ground vehicles to save energy as well as to meet the electrical needs of the vehicle during surveillance missions. The research also proposes theoretical models of surveillance missions, fuzzy logic models of engine and alternator efficiency data, and fuzzy logic algorithms. Based on these models, two energy saving strategies are proposed for silent and normal surveillance type of missions. During silent mission, the engine is on and batteries power the systems. During normal surveillance mission, the engine is

  15. Saving every drop of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinyu, J.

    2012-04-01

    Since the beginning of 2011 there has been extremely low rainfall, which has resulted in drought conditions that have affected several provinces in China. The situation of the acute water shortage requires people to make many changes in the little things they do in their daily life. Saving every drop of water and forming good habits of using water is of the utmost importance. Based on this need, our students, organized by our teachers, reached out into to the communities. By visiting, observing and issuing questionnaires, the students identified unreasonable water usage in the communities. The results of the research showed that the ratio of secondary treatment of domestic waste is very low, especially the ratio of collecting wastewater from washing, greywater, to flush the toilet. In order to solve this problem, students themselves designed a set of water saving facilities by collecting greywater to flush the toilet. They successfully installed these facilities in residential houses in the XiYinLi community, which achieved satisfactory results regarding saving water.

  16. An Analysis of Energy Savings Possible Through Advances in Automotive Tooling Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Rick Schmoyer, RLS

    2004-12-03

    The use of lightweight and highly formable advanced materials in automobile and truck manufacturing has the potential to save fuel. Advances in tooling technology would promote the use of these materials. This report describes an energy savings analysis performed to approximate the potential fuel savings and consequential carbon-emission reductions that would be possible because of advances in tooling in the manufacturing of, in particular, non-powertrain components of passenger cars and heavy trucks. Separate energy analyses are performed for cars and heavy trucks. Heavy trucks are considered to be Class 7 and 8 trucks (trucks rated over 26,000 lbs gross vehicle weight). A critical input to the analysis is a set of estimates of the percentage reductions in weight and drag that could be achieved by the implementation of advanced materials, as a consequence of improved tooling technology, which were obtained by surveying tooling industry experts who attended a DOE Workshop, Tooling Technology for Low-Volume Vehicle Production, held in Seattle and Detroit in October and November 2003. The analysis is also based on 2001 fuel consumption totals and on energy-audit component proportions of fuel use due to drag, rolling resistance, and braking. The consumption proportions are assumed constant over time, but an allowance is made for fleet growth. The savings for a particular component is then the product of total fuel consumption, the percentage reduction of the component, and the energy audit component proportion. Fuel savings estimates for trucks also account for weight-limited versus volume-limited operations. Energy savings are assumed to be of two types: (1) direct energy savings incurred through reduced forces that must be overcome to move the vehicle or to slow it down in braking. and (2) indirect energy savings through reductions in the required engine power, the production and transmission of which incur thermodynamic losses, internal friction, and other

  17. Saving orphan drug legislations: misconceptions and clarifications.

    PubMed

    Hyry, Hanna I; Cox, Timothy M; Roos, Jonathan C P

    2016-01-01

    Orphan-drug sales are rocketing, with revenue expected to total $176 billion annually by 2020. As a share of the industry, orphan drugs now account for close to 15% of all prescription revenue globally (excluding generics) and the sector is set to grow at more than twice the rate (10.5%) of the overall prescription market (4.3%). But this success also equates to costs--borne by individual patients and cash-strapped health systems. Prices for orphan drugs can be 19 times higher than for other medications, hampering access for patients, many of whom are children. With ever more such expensive drugs reaching the market, the situation is becoming unsustainable and putting the survival of the orphan drug legislation itself at risk. Here the authors consider why there has been an increase in orphan drug designations, how orphan drug prices are set and regulated, before discussing proposals for how changes which could save the legislation. PMID:26768506

  18. Energy savings from operation and maintenance training for apartment boiler heating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tooze, David

    1992-02-01

    The Portland Energy Office provided operation and maintenance (O M) training to the operators of boiler heating systems for ten low-income apartment complexes in the Fall of 1990. This study tracked energy usage before and after O M training to see if savings occurred. Training was provided on both weatherized and non-weatherized apartments to find out if weatherization impacted the amount of O M savings to be obtained. Also, energy savings from the O M training and building shell weatherization are compared. The O M training averaged about four hours per building. Content was adjusted at each site to match needs of the boiler and operator. The Energy Office also provided a boiler tune-up by a service technician. The training stressed low-cost and no-cost measures which operators could either do themselves or hire service help to implement. It also emphasized boiler safety. Nine of the ten apartment complexes in the study used less energy per heating degree-day after the O M help. Average savings were 10%. Four apartments chosen randomly as controls had negative savings; they used slightly more energy during the same post-O M time frame. Weatherized and unweatherized apartments showed similar savings after the O M help, 10% and 11% percent respectively. Savings from weatherization of six of the apartments in the winter of 1988--1989 were also measured. A low average of only 4% was observed, reflecting negative savings in two buildings.

  19. Goodyear Tire Plant Gains Traction on Energy Savings After Completing Save Energy Now Assessment (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-04-01

    This DOE Save Energy Now case study describes how the Goodyear Tire Plant saves approx. 93,000 MMBtu and $875,000 annually after increasing steam system energy efficiency in the Union City, TN, plant.

  20. Goodyear Tire Plant Gains Traction on Energy Savings After Completing Save Energy Now Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    2008-04-01

    This DOE Save Energy Now case study describes how the Goodyear Tire Plant saves approx. 93,000 MMBtu and $875,000 annually after increasing steam system energy efficiency in the Union City, TN, plant.

  1. Freshwater savings from marine protein consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gephart, Jessica A.; Pace, Michael L.; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Marine fisheries provide an essential source of protein for many people around the world. Unlike alternative terrestrial sources of protein, marine fish production requires little to no freshwater inputs. Consuming marine fish protein instead of terrestrial protein therefore represents freshwater savings (equivalent to an avoided water cost) and contributes to a low water footprint diet. These water savings are realized by the producers of alternative protein sources, rather than the consumers of marine protein. This study quantifies freshwater savings from marine fish consumption around the world by estimating the water footprint of replacing marine fish with terrestrial protein based on current consumption patterns. An estimated 7 600 km3 yr-1 of water is used for human food production. Replacing marine protein with terrestrial protein would require an additional 350 km3 yr-1 of water, meaning that marine protein provides current water savings of 4.6%. The importance of these freshwater savings is highly uneven around the globe, with savings ranging from as little as 0 to as much as 50%. The largest savings as a per cent of current water footprints occur in Asia, Oceania, and several coastal African nations. The greatest national water savings from marine fish protein occur in Southeast Asia and the United States. As the human population increases, future water savings from marine fish consumption will be increasingly important to food and water security and depend on sustainable harvest of capture fisheries and low water footprint growth of marine aquaculture.

  2. “A fine needle aspiration cytology in time saves nine” — cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala jeanselmei in a renal transplant patient: Diagnosis by fine needle aspiration cytology

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Prashant; Agarwal, Shipra; Singh, Geetika; Xess, Immaculata; Bhowmik, Dipankar

    2016-01-01

    Infections by dematiaceous fungi are an emerging group of infectious diseases worldwide with a variety of clinical presentations. Though generally localized, they can disseminate in immunocompromised settings, therefore, early diagnosis and prompt therapy can prevent significant morbidity and mortality in these patients. Fungi of genus Exophiala are common causative organisms; however, Exophiala jeanselmei (E. jeanselmei) has not yet been reported from environmental sources in India. We present here the case of a renal transplant recipient who presented with an innocuous lesion on the foot, diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) as phaeohyphomycosis, and promptly treated with excision and antifungal therapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report from India of E. jeanselmei causing phaeohyphomycosis in a transplant recipient and highlights the role a cytopathologist can play in the timely management of such cases. PMID:27011447

  3. Light Pipe Energy Savings Calculator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Erin; Behringer, Ernest R.

    2009-04-01

    Dependence on fossil fuels is unsustainable and therefore a shift to renewable energy sources such as sunlight is required. Light pipes provide a way to utilize sunlight for interior lighting, and can reduce the need for fossil fuel-generated electrical energy. Because consumers considering light pipe installation may be more strongly motivated by cost considerations than by sustainability arguments, an easy means to examine the corresponding costs and benefits is needed to facilitate informed decision-making. The purpose of this American Physical Society Physics and Society Fellowship project is to create a Web-based calculator to allow users to quantify the possible cost savings for their specific light pipe application. Initial calculations show that the illumination provided by light pipes can replace electric light use during the day, and in many cases can supply greater illumination levels than those typically given by electric lighting. While the installation cost of a light pipe is significantly greater than the avoided cost of electricity over the lifetime of the light pipe at current prices, savings may be realized if electricity prices increase.

  4. I Do... Want to Save: Marriage and Retirement Savings in Young Households

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoll, Melissa A. Z.; Tamborini, Christopher R.; Whitman, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Increased policy and academic attention has been placed on promoting retirement savings early in the life course. This study investigates the extent to which retirement savings behavior among young persons, a population for which retirement savings is important but typically low, differs by marital status. We draw national survey data on young…

  5. 12 CFR 562.4 - Audit of savings associations and savings association holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., savings and loan holding company, or affiliate (as defined by 12 CFR 563.41) by qualified independent... association, savings and loan holding company, or affiliate (as defined by 12 CFR 563.41) obtains an... company controls savings association subsidiary(ies) with aggregate consolidated assets of $500 million...

  6. 12 CFR 562.4 - Audit of savings associations and savings association holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., savings and loan holding company, or affiliate (as defined by 12 CFR 563.41) by qualified independent... association, savings and loan holding company, or affiliate (as defined by 12 CFR 563.41) obtains an... company controls savings association subsidiary(ies) with aggregate consolidated assets of $500 million...

  7. 12 CFR 562.4 - Audit of savings associations and savings association holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., savings and loan holding company, or affiliate (as defined by 12 CFR 563.41) by qualified independent... association, savings and loan holding company, or affiliate (as defined by 12 CFR 563.41) obtains an... company controls savings association subsidiary(ies) with aggregate consolidated assets of $500 million...

  8. 12 CFR 562.4 - Audit of savings associations and savings association holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., savings and loan holding company, or affiliate (as defined by 12 CFR 563.41) by qualified independent... association, savings and loan holding company, or affiliate (as defined by 12 CFR 563.41) obtains an... company controls savings association subsidiary(ies) with aggregate consolidated assets of $500 million...

  9. Perceived Barriers to Savings among Low- to Moderate-Income Households that Do Not Save Regularly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauldin, Teresa; Bowen, Cathy Faulcon; Cheang, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The study reported here examined the differences in barriers to savings among low- to moderate-income households who do not save regularly. Characteristics associated with individuals who perceived they could and could not save included age, presence of child under 18 years of age, and gender. Having no money left over, being late on bills and/or…

  10. The Myth About Saving Money: "IT Investments Will Save The Institution Money"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Brian L.; Oblinger, Diana G.

    2005-01-01

    Claims that investing in information technology will save money for a college or university have rarely proven true. In fact, realizing the promised dollar savings is so rare in higher education that the credibility of many IT professionals has been jeopardized by making the claim. Not producing promised savings only exacerbates the sense, among…