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1

SAW Phononic Reflector Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will present theory, analysis and experimental work on SAW phononic reflector structures. The term SAW phononic structures is used since the structures are composed of a-periodic or pseudo-periodic structures that are designed to affect the propagation of surface acoustic waves in a manner similar to the periodic potential in a semiconductor which affects the electron's energy in allowed

N. Y. Kozlovski; D. C. Malocha

2007-01-01

2

Electric arc saw apparatus  

DOEpatents

A portable, hand held electric arc saw has a small frame for supporting an electrically conducting rotary blade which serves as an electrode for generating an electric arc to erode a workpiece. Electric current is supplied to the blade by biased brushes and a slip ring which are mounted in the frame. A pair of freely movable endless belts in the form of crawler treads stretched between two pulleys are used to facilitate movement of the electric arc saw. The pulleys are formed of dielectric material to electrically insulate the crawler treads from the frame.

Deichelbohrer, Paul R [Richland, WA

1986-01-01

3

History of SAW devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives a historical account of the development of Rayleigh-wave, or surface acoustic wave (SAW), devices for applications in electronics. The subject was spurred on initially by the requirements of pulse compression radar, and became a practical reality with the planar interdigital transducer, dating from 1965. The accessibility of the propagation path gave rise to substantial versatility, and a

D. P. Morgan

1998-01-01

4

Switchable low loss SAW filter bank with SAW notch filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and testing of 4 channels switchable low loss SAW filter bank with SAW notch filters is described. Slanted-finger interdigital transducer (SIDT) including EWC\\/SPUDT is adopted to achieve the low insertion loss of individual SAW filter. SAW filters are fabricated on YZ LiNbO3 substrate with the insertion loss of less than 6.5 dB, the stop-band rejection of more than

Jiangsheng Liu; Jiuling Liu; Shunzhou Li; Shitang He; Yong Liang; Honglang Li

2008-01-01

5

Saw Blades and Resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes an inexpensive, classroom experiment that allows students to quantitatively investigate resonance using a hacksaw blade. The blade clamped to the edge of a table forms a cantilever that may vibrate at any of a number of preferred frequencies. A small cylindrical magnet is fixed to the saw blade. An electromagnetic coil powered by a frequency generator causes large-amplitude vibrations of the saw blade at the resonant frequencies. Vibrations of a similar system, a vibrating car antenna, have been discussed by Newburgh and Newburgh.1 The dramatic increases in the oscillation amplitude are both instructive and fascinating. Analogies may be drawn to systems ranging from a child on a swing to the Tacoma Narrows bridge.

Liebl, Michael

2005-05-01

6

Electric arc saw apparatus  

DOEpatents

A portable, hand-held electric arc saw apparatus comprising a small frame for supporting an electrically conducting rotary blade which serves as an electrode for generating an electric arc between the blade and a workpiece of opposite polarity. Electrically conducting means are provided on said frame for transmitting current to said blade. A pair of freely movable endless belts in the form of crawler treads are employed to facilitate movement of the apparatus relative to the workpiece.

Deichelbohrer, P.R.

1983-08-08

7

SAW sensor for fastener failure detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proof of concept for using surface acoustic wave (SAW) strain sensors in the detection of aircraft fastener failures is demonstrated. SAW sensors were investigated because they have the potential for the development of passive wireless systems. The SAW devices employed four orthogonal frequency coding (OFC) spread spectrum reflectors in two banks on a high temperature piezoelectric substrate. Three SAW

W. C. Wilson; M. D. Rogge; B. Fisher; D. C. Malocha; G. M. Atkinson

2010-01-01

8

Body reactions during chain saw work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Body reactions during chain saw work were studied in 14 subjects. The subjects divided into three groups (control, sulpiride, and propranolol) successively cut down logs with a chain saw for seven minutes. The start of the sawing led to a pronounced increase in heart rate which persisted during the sawing. The groups taking sulpiride and propranolol showed a smaller increase

T Matoba; M Chiba; T Sakurai

1985-01-01

9

Review on SAW RFID tags.  

PubMed

SAW tags were invented more than 30 years ago, but only today are the conditions united for mass application of this technology. The devices in the 2.4-GHz ISM band can be routinely produced with optical lithography, high-resolution radar systems can be built up using highly sophisticated, but low-cost RF-chips, and the Internet is available for global access to the tag databases. The "Internet of Things," or I-o-T, will demand trillions of cheap tags and sensors. The SAW tags can overcome semiconductor-based analogs in many aspects: they can be read at a distance of a few meters with readers radiating power levels 2 to 3 orders lower, they are cheap, and they can operate in robust environments. Passive SAW tags are easily combined with sensors. Even the "anti-collision" problem (i.e., the simultaneous reading of many nearby tags) has adequate solutions for many practical applications. In this paper, we discuss the state-of-the-art in the development of SAW tags. The design approaches will be reviewed and optimal tag designs, as well as encoding methods, will be demonstrated. We discuss ways to reduce the size and cost of these devices. A few practical examples of tags using a time-position coding with 10(6) different codes will be demonstrated. Phase-coded devices can additionally increase the number of codes at the expense of a reduction of reading distance. We also discuss new and exciting perspectives of using ultra wide band (UWB) technology for SAW-tag systems. The wide frequency band available for this standard provides a great opportunity for SAW tags to be radically reduced in size to about 1 x 1 mm(2) while keeping a practically infinite number of possible different codes. Finally, the reader technology will be discussed, as well as detailed comparison made between SAW tags and IC-based semiconductor device. PMID:20211785

Plessky, Victor P; Reindl, Leonhard M

2010-03-01

10

29 CFR 570.65 - Occupations involved in the operations of circular saws, band saws, and guillotine shears (Order...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...chain saws, reciprocating saws, wood chippers, and abrasive cutting discs...Reciprocating saws. (iii) Wood chippers. (iv) Abrasive cutting discs...chain saws, reciprocating saws, wood chippers, and abrasive cutting...

2010-07-01

11

Reconstructing see-saw models  

SciTech Connect

In this talk we discuss the prospects to reconstruct the high-energy see-saw Lagrangian from low energy experiments in supersymmetric scenarios. We show that the model with three right-handed neutrinos could be reconstructed in theory, but not in practice. Then, we discuss the prospects to reconstruct the model with two right-handed neutrinos, which is the minimal see-saw model able to accommodate neutrino observations. We identify the relevant processes to achieve this goal, and comment on the sensitivity of future experiments to them. We find the prospects much more promising and we emphasize in particular the importance of the observation of rare lnic decays for the reconstruction of the right-handed neutrino masses.

Ibarra, Alejandro [Instituto de Fisica Teorica, CSIC/UAM, C-XVI, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

2007-01-12

12

Integration of optoelectronics and SAW technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The number of radio frequency surface acoustic wave (SAW) filters produced presently exceeds 3 billion per year. The demand for high-frequency SAW filters for telecommunications and remote sensing, has led to extensive research, focusing on new SAW microdevices. SAW devices have shown compact structures, small size, low cost, high sensitivity and fast response. The need of miniaturized systems, with high sensitivity and low energy has motivated the need to integrate on the same substrate all the structure of SAW device and connecting electronic circuits. As a consequence, many types of methods of both constructive and operating characterization of SAW devices have been developed. This paper provides a short introduction regarding the developed level of SAW microdevices and describes the results of literature investigation research of optoelectronic techniques for constructive characterization of SAW microdevices. Further research will be done into the determination of SAW parameters such as the amplitude of surface wave, the velocity of wave propagation on the surface of the piezoelectric substrate. Substrates of quartz, lithium tantalite (LiTaO3) and lithium niobate (LiNbO3), are piezoelectric materials commonly used in manufacturing of SAW devices, but these materials are not compatible with the integrated circuit (IC) technology. Three optoelectronic measurement techniques are known for detection of surface acoustic waves: diffraction grating technique, the knife-edge technique, and the detection of ultrasonic vibrations using optical interferometry. The research work given in this paper concentrates on describing of optoelectronic techniques used for constructive characterization of SAW microdevices. Finally, we try to draw some conclusion where: optoelectronic techniques are predicted to be one of the fundamental measurement methods for measurement of future SAW microdevices.

Schiopu, Paul; Grosu, Neculai; Manea, Adrian; Craciun, Alexandru

2010-09-01

13

Sawing a Local Bedrock Specimen  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students bring in samples of local rocks for the teacher to cut in half with a diamond saw. Students then analyze and report on the grain relationships within the rock. As a follow-up activity students can exchange rocks, write an analysis of the sawn sample, and compare notes. In cases where disagreements cannot be resolved, the teacher should offer a third analysis of the sample. Also students can take the rocks home and tell their parents what they learned about the particular sample. Or they can set up before-and-after displays showing cut and uncut samples. Enlarged poster-size diagrams of the more interesting samples can be created. The specific details of texture and composition can be labeled with a string or wire running to the appropriate spot on the specimen.

14

Pressure and Temperature Measurements with SAW Sensors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two different SAW-sensors are presented: a pressure-sensor for weak pressure and a SAW-temperature sensor. The pressure sensor is built with a thin diaphragm of quartz-crystal on which two surface elastic waves are propagating in the same direction but at...

D. Hauden S. Rousseau G. Jaillet R. Coquerel

1982-01-01

15

Apparatus for loading a band saw blade  

DOEpatents

A band saw blade is loaded between pairs of guide wheels upon tensioning the blade by guiding the blade between pairs of spaced guide plates which define converging slots that converge toward the guide wheels. The approach is particularly useful in loading blades on underwater band saw machines used to cut radioactive materials.

Reeves, Steven R. (49 Williams Ave., West Valley, NY 14171)

1990-01-01

16

Numerical methods for SAW propagation characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to more and more stringent requirements on SAW filter performance, it is mandatory to precisely characterize the SAW propagation characteristics as a function of manufacturing variations (metal thickness, mark-to-space ratio, etc.). Several authors have already proposed experimental characterizations using sets of test devices. One of the main difficulties of this experimental approach is the accuracy of both the geometrical

P. Ventura; J. M. Hode; M. Solal; J. Desbois; J. Ribbe

1998-01-01

17

Recycling SAW slag proves reliable and repeatable  

Microsoft Academic Search

Submerged arc welding (SAW) slag is recycled by taking the fused part of the slag after welding and processing it in a manner that allows it to be reused for the same SAW operation. This slag recycling process has been around the welding industry for many years, and trial-and-error experimentation through the years has made it a reliable and accepted

H. P. Beck; A. R. Jackson

1996-01-01

18

Future High Volume Applications of SAW Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past 10 years, the world wide SAW market has grown approximately 25% annually and is projected to reach $100 million in 1985. To date, the high volume applications of SAW devices are primarily for TV receivers and video cassette recorders. This paper examines the prospects for continuing market growth during the next 10 years by surveying both RF

Clinton S. Hartmann

1985-01-01

19

Apparatus for loading a band saw blade  

DOEpatents

A band saw blade is loaded between pairs of guide wheels upon tensioning the blade by guiding the blade between pairs of spaced guide plates which define converging slots that converge toward the guide wheels. The approach is particularly useful in loading blades on underwater band saw machines used to cut radioactive materials. 2 figs.

Reeves, S.R.

1990-03-20

20

27. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. TRIMMER SAWS LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

27. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. TRIMMER SAWS LOOKING BACK FROM SORTING DOCK. SAW BLADES ARE HIDDEN BY HINGED PARTITION. SPIRAL ROLLERS CARRY BOARDS FROM SAWS TO HANDLES. - Meadow River Lumber Company, Highway 60, Rainelle, Greenbrier County, WV

21

29 CFR 570.65 - Occupations involving the operation of circular saws, band saws, guillotine shears, chain saws...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Guillotine shear shall mean a machine equipped with a moveable blade operated vertically and used to shear materials. The term...Reciprocating saw shall mean a machine equipped with a moving blade that alternately changes direction on a linear cutting...

2013-07-01

22

Chemically sensitive interfaces on SAW devices  

SciTech Connect

Using surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices, three approaches to the effective use of chemically sensitive interfaces that are not highly chemically selective have been examined: (1) molecular identification from time-resolved permeation transients; (2) using multifrequency SAW devices to determine the frequency dependence of analyte/film interactions; (3) use of an array of SAW devices bearing diverse chemically sensitive interfaces to produce a distinct response pattern for each analyte. In addition to their well-known sensitivity to mass changes (0.0035 monolayer of N{sub 2} can be measured), SAW devices respond to the mechanical and electronic properties of thin films, enhancing response information content but making a thorough understanding of the perturbation critical. Simultaneous measurement of changes in frequency and attenuation, which can provide the information necessary to determine the type of perturbation, are used as part of the above discrimination schemes.

Ricco, A.J.; Martin, S.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Crooks, R.M.; Xu, Chuanjing [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Allred, R.E. [Adherent Technologies, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-11-01

23

ARE NORTHERN SAW-WHET OWLS NOMADIC?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first known nesting of a Northern Saw-whet Owl (Aegolius acadicus) in the Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area occurred in a nest box in 1986, 4 yr after nest boxes were constructed in the study area. Occupancy of nest boxes by Northern Saw-whet Owls varied substantially over the next 13 yr (0-8 nests per yr). The number

JEFFREY S. MARKS; JOHN H. DOREMUS

24

Suppression of the whistling noise in circular saws using “Silentalloy”  

Microsoft Academic Search

To suppress the so-called whistling noise in idling circular saws, a circular saw with slots in the peripheral area of the blade has been widely used. However, the effect of the slots is uncertain because the natural frequencies of saws vary, even among saws even if they were designed to suppress the whistling noise. Therefore, we made two types of

Nobuaki Hattori; Masami Noguchi

1992-01-01

25

Piston temperature measurement with SAW sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this contribution we introduce a new approach for a piston temperature measurement system based on surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators sensitive to temperature. The approach offers a new and competitive way to support the development of pistons and allows the research and improvement in combustion processes.

T. Plum; S. Tourette; M. Loschonsky; M. Robel

2011-01-01

26

Mixed orthogonal frequency coded SAW RFID tags.  

PubMed

Orthogonal frequency coded (OFC) SAW radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags are currently being explored as a multi-sensor platform because of their passive spread-spectrum operation, low loss, and resilience in harsh environments. Ongoing research continues to search for robust device embodiments that increase the number of identifiable codes, in the presence of intersymbol interference, while maintaining reasonable device lengths. This paper presents a technique that shortens the SAW response length while preserving code diversity and bandwidth by utilizing a multi-track SAW configuration. These new devices allow the time response of multiple OFC chips to overlap and yield a mixed-frequency chip having the sum of the chip bandwidths but shorter overall time response. The theoretical development is presented and examples are discussed for these new mixed orthogonal frequency coded (MOFC) SAW devices. Experimental results for MOFC sensors, fabricated on YZ-LiNbO3, with a 7% fractional bandwidth and five chip frequencies in three cells, provide a good contrast to similar OFC designs. Experimental results are presented for the simultaneous operation of eight wireless temperature sensors--four OFC and four MOFC--in a 915-MHz wireless correlator receiver system, highlighting the ability of these devices to operate in the same system. PMID:23475925

Gallagher, Mark W; Malocha, Donald C

2013-03-01

27

Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) Vibration Sensors  

PubMed Central

In the paper a feasibility study on the use of surface acoustic wave (SAW) vibration sensors for electronic warning systems is presented. The system is assembled from concatenated SAW vibration sensors based on a SAW delay line manufactured on a surface of a piezoelectric plate. Vibrations of the plate are transformed into electric signals that allow identification of the sensor and localization of a threat. The theoretical study of sensor vibrations leads us to the simple isotropic model with one degree of freedom. This model allowed an explicit description of the sensor plate movement and identification of the vibrating sensor. Analysis of frequency response of the ST-cut quartz sensor plate and a damping speed of its impulse response has been conducted. The analysis above was the basis to determine the ranges of parameters for vibrating plates to be useful in electronic warning systems. Generally, operation of electronic warning systems with SAW vibration sensors is based on the analysis of signal phase changes at the working frequency of delay line after being transmitted via two circuits of concatenated four-terminal networks. Frequencies of phase changes are equal to resonance frequencies of vibrating plates of sensors. The amplitude of these phase changes is proportional to the amplitude of vibrations of a sensor plate. Both pieces of information may be sent and recorded jointly by a simple electrical unit.

Filipiak, Jerzy; Solarz, Lech; Steczko, Grzegorz

2011-01-01

28

New piezoelectric materials for SAW filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific research of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices had an early start by the end of 1960s and led to the development of high frequency and small size piezo devices. A sustained effort was dedicated for these components to be transformed into many more interesting applications for telecom market. Recently the employment of new piezo materials and crystallographic orientations open new opportunities for SAW filters. New piezoelectric crystals of gallium orthophosphate (GaPO4) provide higher electromechanical coupling than quartz, while maintaining temperature compensated characteristics similar to quartz. Based on this material phase transition of 970°C, development of new piezo devices to operate at higher temperatures up to 800°C can be done. SAW velocities about 30% lower than ST-X quartz, favors smaller and more compact devices. Other advantages of GaPO4 are: stability with high resistance to stress induced twinning, 3~4 times higher electromechanical coupling than quartz and existence of SAW temperature compensated orientations. Another family of new materials of the trigonal 32 class has received much attention recently because of their temperature behavior similar to quartz and the promise of higher electromechanical coupling coefficients. It is the family of langasite (LGS, La3Ga5SiO14), langatate (LGT, La3Ga5.5Ta0.5O14) and langanite (La3Ga5.5Nb0.5O14). Langasite crystals, easier to obtain and with the value of electromechanical coupling coefficient intermediate between quartz and lithium tantalate (k2=0.32% for 0°, 140°, 22.5° orientation and k2=0.38% for 0°, 140°, 25° orientation), enable us to design SAW filters with a relative pass band of 0.3% to 0.85%. Other piezoelectric materials are reviewed for comparison.

Anghelescu, Adrian; Nedelcu, Monica

2010-09-01

29

Shan Zha Jiang Zhi Wan, Yu Quan Wan, Saw Palmetto  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... eliminate side effects from steroids.” In addition ... regulate DHT.” “Saw Palmetto Side Effects Side effects are few ... that support the positive effect of saw ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

30

32. TRIM SAWS IN BACKGROUND, VIEW FROM SOUTH WEST. NOTE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

32. TRIM SAWS IN BACKGROUND, VIEW FROM SOUTH WEST. NOTE WASTE CONVEYOR IN FOREGROUND, CANT ROLL CASE TO BEAM SAW, THEN ROLL CASE FROM EDGER IN MIDDLE GROUND. - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

31

8. GENERAL VIEW OF SHINGLE CUTTING SAWS THAT HANDLE BOLTS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. GENERAL VIEW OF SHINGLE CUTTING SAWS THAT HANDLE BOLTS AFTER DEBARKING; AFTER DEBARKING THE BOLTS ARE SENT TO THE SHINGLE WEAVER FOR SAWING - Lester Shingle Mill, 1602 North Eighteenth Street, Sweet Home, Linn County, OR

32

Orthogonal frequency coded SAW sensors and RFID design principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orthogonal frequency coded (OFC) SAW reflectors and transducers have been recently introduced for use in communication, sensor and RFID tag applications.[1,2] The OFC SAW technology approach has been funded by NASA for possible inclusion in ground, space flight and space exploration sensor applications. In general, SAW technology has advantages over possible competing technologies: passive, wireless, radiation hard, operation from cryogenic

D. C. Malocha; J. Pavlina; D. Gallagher; N. Kozlovski; B. Fisher; N. Saldanha; D. Puccio

2008-01-01

33

Error analysis at the reception of SAW sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses a computational analysis of signal detection errors for identification of remote passive wireless surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors with Barker coding. The SAW sensor signal is considered to be narrowband in the presence of Gaussian noise induced by the receiver that makes the signal envelope Rician. The error probability for the coded SAW sensor is determined via

G. CERDA-VILLAFANA; Y. S. SHMALIY

2011-01-01

34

Low Loss SAW Filter for Antenna Duplexer  

Microsoft Academic Search

low loss SAW filter for use in an antenna duplexer for a portable telephone is dezcribed from initial specifications to realization. To reduce leakage and conductivi'y losses, a new low-loss filter configuration with lateral repetitions is introduced. A very-low-loss filter ( loss as low as 1.2- 2.0 dB at 600 MHz ) is achieved. Reactive characteristics in the stop band

M. Hikita; T. Tabuchi; H. Kojima; A. Nakagoshi; Y. Kinoshita

1983-01-01

35

Liquid crystal coating for SAW sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents results on measurements of surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor, using polymer liquid crystal layer. The sensitivity and response time for different test probes have been studied. The sensitivity of the order of 4 Hz/ppm or higher, towards such compounds as N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA), dimethyl methylphosphonate and dibutyl sulphide, was found. The results show that the very high sensitivity towards DMA results from interaction of DMA with structurally ordered liquid crystalline material.

Jasek, K.; Pasternak, M.; Ganicz, T.; Sta?czyk, W. A.

2008-02-01

36

Laser welding of diamond saw blades  

Microsoft Academic Search

A specially designed folded quasi-sealed-off CO2 laser of 800W and TEMoo mode has been successfully used for welding of smaller diamond saw blades. Process parameters such as the relative position of the focal point to the joint edge are experimentally studied. The metallurgy aspect of the weld is also investigated. The bond strength and the loading capacity of the diamond

Lijun Li; Xiangzhong Jin; Xiaoqiang Shi; Zehong Zhou

1996-01-01

37

Microsystem packaging of an RF SAW correlator.  

SciTech Connect

An electrically programmable surface acoustic wave (SAW) correlator was recently completed from design through small scale production in support of low power space-based communications for NASA. Three different versions of this RF microsystem were built to satisfy design requirements and overcome packaging and system reliability related issues. Flip-chip packaging and conventional thick film hybrid assembly techniques are compared in the fabrication of this microsystem.

Palmer, David A.; Brocato, Robert Wesley; Studor, George F.

2005-01-01

38

Coagulopathy induced by saw palmetto: a case report.  

PubMed

Saw palmetto is the most popular herbal supplement used to treat symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The safety and efficacy of saw palmetto has been established in the literature. While the majority of studies document the efficacy and safety of saw palmetto, some studies document the adverse side effects, including increased risk of bleeding. There are no reports in the literature about increased prothombin time (PT), partial thromboplastin time (PTT) or international normalized ratio (INR) while using saw palmetto. We present a case of hematuria and coagulopathy in a patient who was using saw palmetto. PMID:20120986

Villanueva, Salvador; González, Jenniffer

39

Controlling dust from concrete saw cutting.  

PubMed

Cutting concrete with gas-powered saws is ubiquitous in the construction industry and a source of exposure to respirable crystalline silica. Volunteers from the New England Laborers Training Center were recruited to participate in a field experiment examining dust reductions through the use of water, from a hose and from a sprayer, as a dust control. In four series of tests, reinforced concrete pipe was cut under both "dry" and "wet" control conditions. Overall, the geometric mean respirable dust concentration for "dry" cutting (14.396 mg/m³) exceeded both types of water-based controls by more than tenfold. Wet cutting reduced the respirable dust concentration by 85% compared with dry cutting when comparing tests paired by person and saw blade (n = 79 pairs). Using a respirable cyclone, a total of 178 samples were taken. Due to the high variability in dust exposure found in this and other studies of saw cutting, the data were examined for potential exposure determinants that contribute to that variability. Using mixed models, three fixed effects were statistically significant: control condition, worker experience, and location. A random effect for subject was included in the model to account for repeated measures. When each of the significant fixed effects was included with the random effect, it was apparent that inclusion of worker experience or location reduced the between-worker component of exposure variability, while inclusion of control condition (wet vs. dry) explained a large portion of the within-subject variability. Overall, the fixed effect variable for control condition explained the largest fraction of the total exposure variability. PMID:23252479

Shepherd, Susan; Woskie, Susan

2013-01-01

40

Magnetoacoustic SAW interaction in YIG films.  

PubMed

The magnetoacoustic SAW interaction has been experimentally investigated for yttrium-iron garnet films placed on gallium gadolinium garnet substrates. In this paper, we propose a new approach to the analysis of hysteresis dependencies which consist of two branches for different directions of magnetic field variation. For each of the branches, even and odd portions were separated. The even portions were shown to be related to magnetostriction and the odd ones to DeltaE-effect and magnetostriction linearized internal magnetic field of domains. PMID:18244187

Zaitsev, B D; Ermolenko, A V; Fedorenko, V A

1998-01-01

41

Curved-Line Cutting Using a Flexible Circular Saw  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a flexible circular saw for high-speed cutting of curved lines in carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP). A conventional circular saw is appropriate for straight line cutting, but it cannot be applied to curved line cutting because of the interference between the saw body and the machined surface. To eliminate this problem, the flexible circular saw is deflected into a bowl shape by circular forced displacement, and the cross-section of the saw becomes a circular arc. A curved line can be cut by the bowl-like-deflection. The deflection shape is very important to realize the curved-line cutting without interference. We investigated the deflection of the flexible circular saw by a finite element method (FEM) analysis. Suitable slit shapes for the saw body are also proposed, based on the FEM results regarding stress in the saw body, the minimum radius of curvature, and the effects of cutting force and centrifugal force and eigenvalue. We also conducted a curved-line cutting test on a CFRP plate, and we found that the flexible circular saw can cut curved lines with high accuracy and high speed without interference between the saw body and the machined surface.

Yamada, Yohei; Osumi, Nobuyuki; Takasugi, Akio; Sasahara, Hiroyuki

42

Thermal Imaging of Medical Saw Blades and Guides  

SciTech Connect

Better Than New, LLC., has developed a surface treatment to reduce the friction and wear of orthopedic saw blades and guides. The medical saw blades were thermally imaged while sawing through fresh animal bone and an IR camera was used to measure the blade temperature as it exited the bone. The thermal performance of as-manufactured saw blades was compared to surface-treated blades, and a freshly used blade was used for temperature calibration purposes in order to account for any emissivity changes due to organic transfer layers. Thermal imaging indicates that the treated saw blades cut faster and cooler than untreated blades. In orthopedic surgery, saw guides are used to perfectly size the bone to accept a prosthesis. However, binding can occur between the blade and guide because of misalignment. This condition increases the saw blade temperature and may result in tissue damage. Both treated ad untreated saw guides were also studied. The treated saw guide operated at a significantly lower temperature than untreated guide. Saw blades and guides that operate at a cooler temperature are expected to reduce the amount of tissue damage (thermal necrosis) and may reduce the number of post-operative complications.

Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton [ORNL; Steffner, Thomas E [ORNL

2007-01-01

43

Saw + LMJ: a hybrid semiconductor dicing solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of combining the Laser MicroJet(R) (LMJ) water jet-guided laser with a standard industrial diamond blade saw was first proposed early in 2006. The idea has now been taken a step forward with a joint project between Synova SA and Disco Hi-Tech Europe GmbH. The hybrid machine being developed integrates an LMJ module in place of the second blade saw on a Disco dual-spindle machine. The resulting machine will be fully capable of sequencing the different processes to carry out dicing of complex and layered semiconductors wafer, in any possible combination. It will be possible to program both processes to run independently in parallel or allow sequential operation during the same cutting pass. This extraordinary flexibility, combined with the speed advantages, quality of material cutting and simplification in processing in a fully automatic mode for up to 300 mm wafers, all now available in a single machine, will greatly benefit the manufacturing community. This paper will provide some insight into the design and operation of the hybrid machine and some examples of the improvements gained from its use.

Richerzhagen, Bernold; Plankensteiner, Martin; Kling, Notker U.; Stay, Keith; Brulé, Arnaud

2008-03-01

44

SH-SAW taste sensor based on acoustoelectric interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims at discussing an application of SH-SAW devices on 36° rotated Y cut, X-propagating LiTaO3 to a taste sensor for identifying liquid samples. Theoretical sensor sensitivity for the acoustoelectric interaction with a liquid-loading on the SAW propagation surface was derived. The results strongly suggested that by employing different center frequency SH-SAW devices, the sensor can recognize many liquid

J. Kondoh; S. Shiokawa

1993-01-01

45

Programmable SAW development :Sandia/NASA project final report.  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a project to develop both fixed and programmable surface acoustic wave (SAW) correlators for use in a low power space communication network. This work was funded by NASA at Sandia National Laboratories for fiscal years 2004, 2003, and the final part of 2002. The role of Sandia was to develop the SAW correlator component, although additional work pertaining to use of the component in a system and system optimization was also done at Sandia. The potential of SAW correlator-based communication systems, the design and fabrication of SAW correlators, and general system utilization of those correlators are discussed here.

Brocato, Robert Wesley

2004-10-01

46

Recycling SAW slag proves reliable and repeatable  

SciTech Connect

Submerged arc welding (SAW) slag is recycled by taking the fused part of the slag after welding and processing it in a manner that allows it to be reused for the same SAW operation. This slag recycling process has been around the welding industry for many years, and trial-and-error experimentation through the years has made it a reliable and accepted process. Two major reasons why a welding manufacturer would consider the use of recycled submerged arc welding slag are cost savings and the environment. The cost of processing recycled slag is less than the purchase of new flux from the manufacturer. Many times this can amount to savings of 50% or greater. Savings can also be realized by eliminating the need to collect the slag and have it removed to an approved landfill. Environmentally, recycling slag minimizes the use of nonrenewable resources such as minerals, and it reduces the mass of material that must be sent to a landfill. It should be noted, though, that in most recycling processes there is some loss in weight, and not all the slag is processed into reusable flux. Also, there is magnetic separation during processing in which magnetic impurities are removed and disposed of as waste. An average for this loss is 25% of the total weight processed. To realize all of the advantages of recycling, it is essential that the process is performed properly and according to the standards established by industry. Below are steps required for recycling slag as established by two standards setting organizations.

Beck, H.P.; Jackson, A.R. [Harbert`s Products, Inc., Greencastle, PA (United States)

1996-06-01

47

SAW RFID spread spectrum OFC and TDM technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

SAW based RFID sensors can offer wireless, passive operation over harsh environments, and various device embodiments are used for retrieval of the sensed data. SAW has many unique advantages over possible competing technologies, including the following characteristics: passive, radiation hard, operable over wide temperature ranges, small, rugged, inexpensive, and identifiable. In a multi-sensory environment, it is necessary both to identify

J. M. Pavlina; N. Kozlovski; B. Santos; D. C. Malocha

2009-01-01

48

Trace Chemical Vapor Detection Using SAW Delay Line Oscillators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resonant frequencies of SAW delay line oscillators are shown to be very sensitive to the presence of thin organic films that are deposited onto the delay line surface. Theory suggests that the sensi- tivity of the SAW device to mass loading depends on the square of the resonant frequency. This dependence has been studied experimentally using devices resonating at

HANK WOHLTJEN; ARTHUR W. SNOW; WILLIAM R. BARGER; DAVID S. BALLANTINE

1987-01-01

49

SAW Electromagnetic Transducer Design for Nondestructive Evaluation Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abxrroct-Recent progress in surface acoustic wave (SAW) electromagnetic transducer (EMT) modeling and fabrication techniques have greatly increased EMT versatility for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) applications. Unlike other types of SAW NDE transducers that suffer from variability in manufacture and coupling conditions, virtually identical EMT's can be made that have predictable characteristics. Information is presented for straightforward design on different materials, including

T. L. Szabo; H. M. Frost

1976-01-01

50

Simulation algorithm for error analysis of SAW sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses a verification analysis of signal detection errors for identification of remote passive wireless surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors with Barker coding. In previous articles a threshold to separate the pulse detection from the zero level has been obtained by mathematical formulation. The error probability for the coded SAW sensor is determined via the probability of the sum

G. CERDA-VILLAFANA; Y. S. SHMALIY

2011-01-01

51

Cutting Performance of Chain Saws in Quarries and Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chain saw machines are used for cutting low abrasive soft to medium strength natural stones with such as travertine and marble, in both underground and surface quarries. They can perform both vertical and horizontal cuts and usually used together with diamond wire cutting machines. Using chain saws for dimensional stone production increases the overall performance of the quarries by providing

H. Copur; C. Balci; N. Bilgin; D. Tumac; C. Feridunoglu; T. Dincer; A. Serter

52

Wireless SAW based high-temperature measurement systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper exemplifies the development of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) temperature measurement system, showing the advantages of wireless data transmission and passive sensor operation. It includes results of research on lithium niobate, langasite and gallium-orthophosphate, three piezoelectrica used as substrate crystals for the SAW devices. Critical parameters, limits and prospects of the materials as well as technological issues concerning

R. Fachberger; G. Bruckner; R. Hauser; L. Reindl

2006-01-01

53

Finger and hand protection on circular table and panel saws  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several hundred accidents involving the use of circular saws and resulting in injury, to hands or fingers occur each year in Germany.In the presented project, new approaches for the prevention of hand injuries and for the contactless detection of fingers are being investigated for comprehensive protection on circular saws. The basic principles can be applied to other machines with manual

Dietmar Reinert; Oliver Schwaneberg; Norbert Jung; Sven Ullmann; Wilfried Olbert; Dieter Kamin; Rudolf Kohler

2009-01-01

54

SAW Microsensor Brain Implant for Prediction and Monitoring of Seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

An implantable surface acoustic wave (SAW) microsensor has been developed for early detection and monitoring of seizures based on local temperature changes in the brain's epileptogenic zones that occur prior to and during an epileptic event. Three SAW sensors were designed and fabricated: a 172 MHz filter, a 434 MHz filter, and a 434 MHz delay line. Their temperature sensitivities

Nachappa Gopalsami; Ivan Osorio; Stanislav Kulikov; Sergey Buyko; Andrey Martynov; Apostolos C. Raptis

2007-01-01

55

PS3 Novel Dual Mode SAW-BAW Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper preliminary work on a novel dual mode SAW-BAW, (surface acoustic wave-bulk acoustic wave), device is presented. BAW resonators exhibit very high Q and are ideal in oscillator circuits at lower frequencies, while SAW resonators are generally designed for higher frequency operation. Dual mode BAW resonators are used for highly accurate temperature compensation in OCXO's and TCXO's. In

N. Lobo; D. C. Malocha

2006-01-01

56

Optimizing AQP SAW resonators for reduced vibration sensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

All Quartz Package (AQP) SAW oscillators with low vibration sensitivity are achievable by minimizing the external stresses that might otherwise be transferred to the AQP SAW device. If these external stresses are at their lowest possible level, then frit geometry becomes a factor in limiting just how low the vibration sensitivity may be. Optimizing the frit geometry often involves trade-offs

D. Andres; G. K. Montress; J. A. Greer; T. E. Parker

1995-01-01

57

Monitoring the tire pressure at cars using passive SAW sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our paper we present the application of surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors to the continuous monitoring of the tire pressure in road vehicles. With these, the tire pressure can be read out in every phase of driving. We show the implemented prototype setup for measurement of the tire pressure, the applied SAW sensors, improved versions and the interrogation setup.

Alfred Pohl; G. Ostermayer; L. Reindl; F. Seifert

1997-01-01

58

Optimum Design of Balanced SAW Filters Using Differential Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An optimum design technique of balanced surface acoustic wave (SAW) filters using a differential evolution (DE) is proposed. First of all, in order to evaluate the performance of balanced SAW filters based on the computer simulation, a network model of them is composed by using mixed-mode S-parameters. Then the structural design of balanced SAW filters is formulated as a function optimization problem for improving their performance in both the balance characteristics and the filter characteristics. For solving the function optimization problem, a basic DE is employed. In order to apply the basic DE to the optimization problem effectively, a distorted problem space defined by various design parameters is embedded in a regularized continuous search space. Finally, through the computational experiments conducted on a balanced SAW filter, the usefulness of the proposed optimum design technique is demonstrated. Besides, it is clarified that the non-symmetric structure of SAW filter has a possibility to improve its balance characteristics.

Tagawa, Kiyoharu

59

Wireless SAW sensors for surface and subsurface sensing applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices, used as filters or diplexers, are well established components in communications applications like in mobile handsets or television sets. The characteristics of SAW devices make them also well suitable for the application of wireless sensors or wireless identification tags. A great advantage of SAW sensors is their completely passive operation without the need for additional power supplies. SAW sensors can be designed to sense several physical or chemical quantities like temperature, pressure, stress, or gas concentration. During operation of the wireless sensor the energy delivered from an RF pulse sent by an interrogation unit is picked up by the antenna, stored in the surface acoustic wave, modified by the sensor effect and is finally transmitted back to the interrogation unit. In this paper the basic operating principles of SAW devices are reviewed and two applications, a state-of-the-art tire pressure sensor and a moisture sensor, are presented.

Stelzer, Andreas; Schimetta, Gernot; Reindl, Leonhard; Springer, Andreas; Weigel, Robert

2001-11-01

60

Fatty Acid and Phytosterol Content of Commercial Saw Palmetto Supplements  

PubMed Central

Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, ?-sitosterol) in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g), individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g), and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g) and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g). Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols.

Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L.

2013-01-01

61

Predictive force model for haptic feedback in bone sawing.  

PubMed

Bone sawing simulators with force feedback represent a cost effective means of training orthopedic surgeons in various surgical procedures, such as total knee arthroplasty. To develop a machine with accurate haptic feedback, giving a sensation of both cutting force and rate of material removal, algorithms are required to forecast bone sawing forces based on user input. Presently, studies on forces generated while machining bone are not representative of the high cutting speeds and low depths of cut common to the bone sawing process. The objective of this research was to quantify sawing forces in cortical bone as a function of blade speed and depth of cut. A fixture was developed to simulate linear bone sawing over a range of speeds comparable to surgical reciprocating and oscillating (sagittal) bone saws. A single saw blade tooth was isolated and used to create a slotted cut in bovine cortical bone. Over a range in linear sawing speed from 1700 to 7000mm/s, a t-test (?=0.05) revealed there was no statistically significant effect of blade speed on either cutting or thrust force. However, an increase in depth of cut from 2 to 10?m resulted in a 30% increase in thrust force, while cutting force remained constant. The increase in thrust force with depth of cut was relatively linear, R(2)=0.80. Using a two factor, two level design of experiments approach, regression equations were developed to relate sawing forces to changes in blade speed and depth of cut. These equations can be used to predict forces in a haptic feedback model. PMID:23806417

James, Thomas P; Pearlman, John J; Saigal, Anil

2013-06-24

62

Multi-electrodes in SAW with square wave ac power  

SciTech Connect

Examines the feasibility of using AC square wave power for multi-electrode submerged arc welding (SAW) by arranging 2 power sources for weld test using two-electrode submerged arc welding. Presents figures showing phase relationship between lead arc current and trail arc current for Scott connected multi-electrode SAW, and arc deflection vs. electrical degrees. Suggests that Scott connection is preferred because it balances the primary line draw. Concludes that the multielectrode submerged arc process with constant potential square wave power increases travel speed and deposition rates which can be added to the economies obtained from a narrow groove joint configuration and the SAW process.

Bunker, T.A.

1982-07-01

63

38. BACK CORNER SHOWING BAND SAW WITH WOODEN SAFETY GUARD, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

38. BACK CORNER SHOWING BAND SAW WITH WOODEN SAFETY GUARD, DISK AND VERTICAL SPINDLE SANDER, AND WOODWORKING LATHE-LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - W. A. Young & Sons Foundry & Machine Shop, On Water Street along Monongahela River, Rices Landing, Greene County, PA

64

Surface acoustic wave (SAW) acoustophoresis: now and beyond.  

PubMed

On-chip manipulation of micro-objects has long been sought to facilitate fundamental biological studies and point-of-care diagnostic systems. In recent years, research on surface acoustic wave (SAW) based micro-object manipulation (i.e., SAW acoustophoresis) has gained significant momentum due to its many advantages, such as non-invasiveness, versatility, simple fabrication, easy operation, and convenient integration with other on-chip units. SAW acoustophoresis is especially useful for lab-on-a-chip applications where a compact and non-invasive biomanipulation technique is highly desired. In this Focus article, we discuss recent advancements in SAW acoustophoresis and provide some perspectives on the future development of this dynamic field. PMID:22781941

Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Mao, Xiaole; Huang, Tony Jun

2012-07-10

65

Northern view of inside diameter welding station of the saw ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Northern view of inside diameter welding station of the saw line in bay9 of the main pipe mill building. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Main Pipe Mill Building, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

66

145. WOOD SHOP, LOOKING NORTHEAST AT GRUBER BUILT BAND SAW ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

145. WOOD SHOP, LOOKING NORTHEAST AT GRUBER BUILT BAND SAW AND POT BELLIED STOVE (NOT IN ORIGINAL LOCATION). - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

67

Performance and Cost of the Boreal 20-Inch Circular Saw.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent concerns about shear damage from mechanized logging operations in the South have prompted some logging companies to investigate alternate felling heads. Circular saw designs offer the same advantages as shear-head designs over manual chainsaw felli...

C. Ashmore B. J. Stokes B. L. Lanford

1987-01-01

68

Investigation of Fast Reaction SAW (Surface Acoustic Wave) Accelerometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective is to develp SAW accelerometers with improved bias stability characteristics for moderately accurate inertial navigation. Methods of fabricating dual-resonator crystals with low absolute and differential aging characteristics have been devel...

M. E. Motamedi

1985-01-01

69

An optimized SAW chirp -Z Transform for OFDM systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The OFDM system that can use it combined to the Fourier transform to the OFDM signal for amount of wave of the inverse Fourier transform and received OFDM can have a definite advantage in power consumption, a super-high-speed operation processing performance be possessed, and the SAW chirp-Z transform be applied to high-speed wireless LAN and WAN. As for the SAW

Takaya Watanabe

2009-01-01

70

Effect of critical dimension variation on SAW correlator energy.  

SciTech Connect

The effect of critical dimension (CD) variation and metallization ratio on the efficiency of energy conversion of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) correlator is examined. We find that a 10% variation in the width of finger electrodes predicts only a 1% decrease in the efficiency of energy conversion. Furthermore, our model predicts that a metallization ratio of 0.74 represents an optimum value for energy extraction from the SAW by the interdigitated transducer (IDT).

Skinner, Jack L.

2005-04-01

71

Luke 10.18—Who Saw Satan Fall?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Lk. 10.17-20 Jesus' first statement to the returning missionaries has traditionally been translated, 'I saw Satan fall like lightning from heaven' (10.18). A wide variety of interpretations have been offered, concerning when and how Jesus saw or will see Satan fall: before creation, at the temptations, during the disciples' mission, at the crucifixion, etc. The article proposes that the

Julian V. Hills

1992-01-01

72

High resolution laser-interferometric probing of SAW devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements on the surface-acoustic wave profiles in various SAW devices have been performed with a scanning laser interferometer. SAW profiles at frequencies up to 1 GHz are obtained with our interferometer. Fast automatic computer control enables high-resolution scans with a large number of measuring points at speeds up to 10 000 points\\/hour. Our interferometer can detect below one Angstrom vibrations

J. Knuuttila; P. Tikka; T. Thorvaldsson; K.-Y. Hashimoto; M. M. Salomaa

1998-01-01

73

Development of the RF SAW filters based on PCB substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently produced RF SAW (surface acoustic wave) filters are made using HTCC (high temperature cofired ceramic) with CSP (chip scale package) technology. This paper describes the development of a new 1.4 times 1.1 and 2.0 times 1.4 mm RF SAW filter based on PCB (printed circuit board) substrate instead of HTCC package, which reduces the cost of materials by 40%.

Youngjin Lee; Jongin Im; Seunghee Lee

2006-01-01

74

Development of a Shear Horizontal SAW RFID Biosensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

RFID tags have been used for passive retrieval of information via retransmission of interrogative radio frequency signals. This paper presents the development of a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH-SAW) RFID biosensor. A 220 MHz SAW device was fabricated on LiNbO3 substrate; composed of an interdigitated transducer (IDT), a dummy electrode, reflectors and a bio-sensitive layer. As the RF interrogation

John Kangchun Perng; William D. Hunt; Peter J. Edmonson

2007-01-01

75

Layered SAW hydrogen sensor with modified tungsten trioxide selective layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Layered surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices are investigated for sensing hydrogen (H2) concentrations less than 1% in air. Platinum (Pt) and gold (Au) catalyst activated tungsten trioxide (WO3) selective layers are investigated. The SAW sensors consist of two thin film metal interdigital transducers (IDTs) on a 36°Y-cut, X-propagating LiTaO3 substrate. A ZnO guiding layer is used to confine the acoustic

S. J. Ippolito; S. Kandasamy; K. Kalantar-Zadeh; W. Wlodarski

2005-01-01

76

“Buzz-saw” noise: A comparison of measurement with prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate prediction of “buzz-saw” noise in a turbofan inlet duct necessitates consideration of nonlinear acoustics, modelling a complete fan blade set, modelling an acoustic liner, and calculations at high frequencies. A recent series of papers has described new work concerning the application of one-dimensional propagation models to the prediction of buzz-saw noise. A numerical model, termed the frequency domain numerical

A. McAlpine; M. J. Fisher; B. J. Tester

2006-01-01

77

``Buzz-saw'' noise: A comparison of measurement with prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate prediction of ``buzz-saw'' noise in a turbofan inlet duct necessitates consideration of nonlinear acoustics, modelling a complete fan blade set, modelling an acoustic liner, and calculations at high frequencies. A recent series of papers has described new work concerning the application of one-dimensional propagation models to the prediction of buzz-saw noise. A numerical model, termed the frequency domain numerical

A. McAlpine; M. J. Fisher; B. J. Tester

2006-01-01

78

“Buzz-saw” noise: A comparison of measurement with prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate prediction of “buzz-saw” noise in a turbofan inlet duct necessitates consideration of nonlinear acoustics, modelling a complete fan blade set, modelling an acoustic liner, and calculations at high frequencies. A recent series of papers has described new work concerning the application of one-dimensional propagation models to the prediction of buzz-saw noise. A numerical model, termed the frequency domain numerical solution or FDNS, has been developed. It can be used to calculate the nonlinear propagation of the rotor-alone pressure field in either a rigid or acoustically-lined inlet duct. From this the in-duct noise level of the buzz-saw tones can be determined. In previous work, validation of this method by comparison with in-duct noise measurements has been limited to rigid inlet ducts, because of the lack of availability of suitable measurements from lined ducts. In this article new measurements of buzz-saw noise in an acoustically-lined inlet duct are utilized. A comparison of measurements of buzz-saw noise in a lined inlet duct, and noise predictions from numerical simulations by the FDNS is presented. The detailed measurements reveal the effect of an acoustic liner on buzz-saw noise. The suitability of the numerical model to be used to provide realistic noise predictions for supersonic ducted fans is also examined.

McAlpine, A.; Fisher, M. J.; Tester, B. J.

2006-03-01

79

Diamond Wire Saw for Precision Machining of Laser Target Components  

SciTech Connect

The fabrication of precision laser targets requires a wide variety of specialized mesoscale manufacturing techniques. The diamond wire saw developed in this study provides the capability to precisely section meso-scale workpieces mounted on the assembly stations used by the Target Fabrication Group. This new capability greatly simplifies the fabrication of many types of targets and reduces the time and cost required to build the targets. A variety of materials are used to fabricate targets, including metals, plastics with custom designed chemical formulas, and aerogels of various densities. The materials are usually provided in the form of small pieces or cast rods that must be machined to the required shape. Many of these materials, such as metals and some plastics, can be trimmed using a parting tool on a diamond turning machine. However, other materials, such as aerogels and brittle materials, cannot be adequately cut with a parting tool. In addition, the geometry of the parts often requires that the workpieces be held in a special assembly station, which excludes the use of a parting tool. In the past, these materials were sectioned using a small, handheld coping saw that used a diamond-impregnated wire as a blade. This miniature coping saw was effective, but it required several hours to cut through certain materials. Furthermore, the saw was guided by hand and often caused significant damage to fragile aerogels. To solve these problems, the diamond wire saw shown in Figure 1 was developed. The diamond wire saw is designed to machine through materials that are mounted in the Target Fabrication Group's benchtop assembly stations. These assembly stations are the primary means of aligning and assembling target components, and there is often a need to machine materials while they are mounted in the assembly stations. Unfortunately, commercially available saws are designed for very different applications and are far too large to be used with the assembly stations. Therefore, a custom diamond wire saw was designed and constructed. The diamond wire saw cuts through workpieces using a continuous loop of diamond-impregnated wire of length 840 mm. The wire loop runs around several idler pulleys and is driven by a simple geared DC motor that rotates at 17 rpm. The linear speed of the wire is 107 inches/minute. The saw is oriented at an angle of 20{sup o} from horizontal, so the operator can view the wire through the cutout at the front end of the saw. When looking through a microscope or camera with a horizontal line of sight, the operator can clearly see the wire as it cuts through the workpiece, as shown in the right side of Figure 1. The saw is mounted on a two-axis stage that allows the operator to align the wire with the workpiece. To cut through the workpiece, the operator drives the wire through the workpiece by turning the feed micrometer. An image of the interior of the diamond wire saw appears in Figure 2. This picture was taken after removing the protective cover plate from the saw.

Bono, M J; Bennett, D W

2005-08-08

80

Vibration syndrome in Forestry Commission chain saw operators  

PubMed Central

Taylor, W., Pearson, J., Kell, R. L., and Keighley, G. D. (1971). Brit. J. industr. Med., 28, 83-89. Vibration syndrome in Forestry Commission chain saw operators. A preliminary investigation has been made into the prevalence of the vibration syndrome in the employees of the Forestry Commission (Britain). A questionnaire covered 20 randomly selected employees for each of 40 forests chosen at random, giving a total sample of 800 out of 9 600 employees. Of the 756 employees still with the Forestry Commission, 732 responded (97%). The analyses were confined to the 711 male employees, of whom 142 were chain saw operators. In this number, the prevalence of the vibration syndrome was 44% whereas in men who did not handle the chain saw the prevalence was significantly lower at 18% (0·005 level of significance). A regional difference was found. South England showed the highest rate at 69% compared with North England at 31% and Scotland at 33%. An increase in prevalence with years of chain saw usage was found, starting at around two years with a marked increase (73%) at over eight years. In part, this effect explains the regional differences. Men with the syndrome were significantly more affected by chilling at work, during rest periods, and while sheltering from bad weather, with blanching of the fingers (89%) most affected by the weather, followed by sensory loss (84%). During the survey vibration levels were measured on 18 chain saws. The major vibration component from each saw fell within the 125 Hz octave band and the vibration levels considerably exceeded the criterion of Axelsson (1968). In 16 of the saws the amplitudes were greater on the lower (trigger) handle.

Taylor, W.; Pearson, J.; Kell, R. L.; Keighley, G. D.

1971-01-01

81

Tip stabilizer for a chain saw. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Prior to receiving the grant, Utilitip was faced with an idea that truly worked, however only a very limited line of component parts would fit various types of chain saws on the market. It also suffered from a severe problem when engaged in the ground of soil penetrating the saw chain area, thus eliminating one of the major benefits of keeping the chain sharp. Consequently, the grant funding was directed towards extending the tooling capabilities to produce parts for a much wider variety of chain saws that are on the market, and further by developing an effective flexible soil shield to prevent abrasive soil entry into the saw chain. Utilitip was able to complete a full set of design for a wide variety of large and small chain saws. This incorporated a design and fabrication of a small Utilitip, as well as a small anti-kickback device. In addition, tooling was also further developed for the large Utilitip and the large anti-kickback device. Accordingly, multiple tools are available for all combinations, as well as back-up provisions. Utilitip, Inc. invented a special, flexible attachment to be glued and/or molded to the tip guard. The soil shield prevents abrasive soil from coming into the chain area. In addition, it allows a flexible arrangement to allow the chain saw to be released from brush without binding. Otherwise, a larger, rigid soil shield would hold or restrict the saw in heavy brush. The rubber shield will flex out of the say and reduce, if not eliminate, this harmful binding.

Morabit, V.D.

1993-09-10

82

A preliminary assessment of the identification of saw marks on burned bone.  

PubMed

This study assesses the degree of modification to the saw mark characteristics of dismembered skeletal remains when exposed to a controlled outdoor fire of limited duration. The sample consists of 36 adult pig hind limbs which were dismembered fleshed. Six handsaws and six power saws were used, with three limbs dismembered and burned for each of the saw types. Results indicate that fire exposure affects the visibility and identifiability of saw mark striae. With the handsaws, the bow saw, hacksaw, and keyhole saw were consistently recognizable. In the power saw group, the saw marks of the jigsaw, reciprocating saw, and chainsaw remained identifiable. Although the bone ends exhibited thermal alterations, the false starts were well preserved with minimal damage. Given the parameters of this study, it is possible to identify the class of saw based on the diagnostic characteristics present on the cremated bones. PMID:19368621

Marciniak, Stephanie-Marie

2009-04-02

83

SAW atomization application on inhaled pulmonary drug delivery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pulmonary drug delivery transports the drug formulations directly to the respiratory tract in the form of inhaled particles or droplets. Because of the direct target treatment, it has significant advantages in the treatment of respiratory diseases, for example asthma. However, it is difficult to produce monodispersed particles/droplets in the 1-10 micron range, which is necessary for deposition in the targeted lung area or lower respiratory airways, in a controllable fashion. We demonstrate the use of surface acoustic waves (SAWs) as an efficient method for the generation of monodispersed micron dimension aerosols for the treatment of asthma. SAWs are ten nanometer order amplitude electroacoustic waves generated by applying an oscillating electric field to an interdigital transducer patterned on a piezoelectric substrate. The acoustic energy in the waves induces atomization of the working fluid, which contains a model drug, albuterol. Laser diffraction techniques employed to characterize the aerosols revealed mean diameter of the aerosol was around 3-4 ?m. Parallel experiments employing a one-stage (glass) twin impinger as a lung model demonstrated a nearly 80% of atomized drug aerosol was deposited in the lung. The aerosol size distribution is relatively independent of the SAW frequency, which is consistent with our predictive scaling theory which accounts for the dominant balance between viscous and capillary stresses. Moreover, only 1-3 W powers consumption of SAW atomization suggests that the SAW atomizer can be miniaturized into dimensions commensurate with portable consumer devices.

Qi, Aisha; Friend, James; Yeo, Leslie

2008-12-01

84

Epidemiological, clinical, and forensic aspects of chainsaw, circular saw, and grinding saw injuries in the maxillofacial region.  

PubMed

The aim of this article was the epidemiological, clinical, and forensic evaluation of the chainsaw, circular saw, and grinding saw maxillofacial injuries. A retrospective analysis of the medical records at the Clinic of Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dentistry, University of Belgrade, was performed. A total of 133 patients were treated during a period of 19 years (1989-2008). Grinding saw injuries were more frequent (62%) in comparison to chainsaw and circular saw injuries that were present in 23% and 15% of patients, respectively. All injured individuals were men, and most of them were aged 31 to 40 years. Accident by self injuring was the only mechanism of all the analyzed injuries. There were no suicide or homicide attempts. Isolated injuries of the facial soft tissues, which were mainly lacerations, were present in most patients. Less frequently, soft tissues injuries were compounded with bone fractures of the face and teeth injuries. Surgical debridement, revision, and suturing were performed in all patients where only soft tissues were injured. Patients with compound injuries of the soft tissues, facial bones, and teeth were treated according to the common surgical protocol for the type of the injuries. Most often, these injuries were accidental without fatalities. The number of these injuries increased in the recent years owing to the "do-it-yourselfers" for home hobbies. To avoid these types of injuries, users should be carefully instructed, and attention should be paid to the use of accurately guarded saws and appropriate safety equipment. PMID:20613565

Konstantinovi?, Vitomir S; Puzovi?, Dragana; Anici?, Boban; Jelovac, Drago B

2010-07-01

85

C-SAW: Consortium for Scientific Assistance to Watersheds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"The goal for C-SAW is to transfer knowledge and skills to watershed groups or local sponsors thereby helping to build their capacity to plan and conduct watershed assessments, and conduct post-implementation monitoring." Users can learn about the technical assistance provided by C-SAW, including watershed specific assistance, mentoring, and water quality education available to eligible groups in the state of Pennsylvania. Visitors can find the necessary materials to apply for this opportunity. The website also offers links to the program's many partners and other watershed resources and assistance.

86

Cutting thin-walled tubes with rotary saws  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is found that a high quality cut can be obtained at feed rates up to 1.6 m/s by using clamping devices during the cutting of hot thin walled tubes with saw discs. The analytical function obtained enables the amount of deformation at any distance from the cutting plane to be determined, the rational cutting procedures for observing the diametric shape tolerances to be selected, or the amount of scrap from end cropping to be calculated. The possibility of increasing the feed rate and the greater tooth pitch of the disc during rotary cutting gives a better quality cut than tube cutting with carriage saws.

Kim, Y. E.; Ishchenko, A. A.

1982-12-01

87

Development of SH-SAW sensors for underwater measurement.  

PubMed

We developed SH (shear horizontal) surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors to detect protein molecules in liquid solutions applying a particular antibody thin film on the delay line of transverse SAW devices. The antibody investigated was human-immuno-globulin G (HigG) to hold the antigens (anti-HigG) in the protein solution to be measured. The sensor showed stable response to the mass loading effects of the anti-HigG molecules with the sensitivity up to 10.8 ng/ml/Hz. PMID:15047320

Kwon, Y; Roh, Y

2004-04-01

88

The Arabidopsis BEL1-LIKE HOMEODOMAIN Proteins SAW1 and SAW2 Act Redundantly to Regulate KNOX Expression Spatially in Leaf Margins[W  

PubMed Central

In Arabidopsis thaliana, the BEL1-like TALE homeodomain protein family consists of 13 members that form heterodimeric complexes with the Class 1 KNOX TALE homeodomain proteins, including SHOOTMERISTEMLESS (STM) and BREVIPEDICELLUS (BP). The BEL1-like protein BELLRINGER (BLR) functions together with STM and BP in the shoot apex to regulate meristem identity and function and to promote correct shoot architecture. We have characterized two additional BEL1-LIKE HOMEODOMAIN (BLH) proteins, SAWTOOTH1 (BLH2/SAW1) and SAWTOOTH2 (BLH4/SAW2) that, in contrast with BLR, are expressed in lateral organs and negatively regulate BP expression. saw1 and saw2 single mutants have no obvious phenotype, but the saw1 saw2 double mutant has increased leaf serrations and revolute margins, indicating that SAW1 and SAW2 act redundantly to limit leaf margin growth. Consistent with this hypothesis, overexpression of SAW1 suppresses overall growth of the plant shoot. BP is ectopically expressed in the leaf serrations of saw1 saw2 double mutants. Ectopic expression of Class 1 KNOX genes in leaves has been observed previously in loss-of-function mutants of ASYMMETRIC LEAVES (AS1). Overexpression of SAW1 in an as1 mutant suppresses the as1 leaf phenotype and reduces ectopic BP leaf expression. Taken together, our data suggest that BLH2/SAW1 and BLH4/SAW2 establish leaf shape by repressing growth in specific subdomains of the leaf at least in part by repressing expression of one or more of the KNOX genes.

Kumar, Ravi; Kushalappa, Kumuda; Godt, Dietmute; Pidkowich, Mark S.; Pastorelli, Sandro; Hepworth, Shelley R.; Haughn, George W.

2007-01-01

89

SAW-RFID and temperature monitoring of slide gate plates  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensor system for radio-frequency identification (RFID) and temperature monitoring of slide gate plates was developed and tested at a continuous casting facility in a steel plant. The sensor system, which is based on surface acoustic wave (SAW) technology, was chosen because this technology is well suited to the elevated temperature loads and the harsh production environment. This paper describes

R. Fachberger; A. Binder; A. Erlacher

2009-01-01

90

An unusual suicide attempt using a circular saw.  

PubMed

The case of a suicide attempt of a depressed male using a circular saw is reported and discussed. There was a hesitation injury that is seldom described in this type of power tool suicide. A deviation in the position of the superior sagittal sinus allowed the life of the victim to be saved by a neurosurgical operation. PMID:8038117

Rainov, N G; Burkert, W L

1994-01-01

91

Investigations of new materials, CTGS and CNGS, for SAW applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, SAW material parameters have been reported for CNGS, CTGS, SNGS and STGS. These materials are in the same family as LGS, LGN and LGT but have a lower density, differing coupling coefficients, higher velocity, and differing temperature coefficients. As compared with quartz, these materials have a higher density, lower velocity, higher electromechanical coupling coefficient, and higher temperature of operation

D. Puccio; D. C. Malocha; N. Saldanha

2003-01-01

92

SAW with multiple electrodes achieves high production rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased demands for higher productivity in the production of welded structures dictate the use of new higher-performance welding procedures. Submerged arc welding (SAW) is already one of the highest performing arc welding processes, but with certain improved variants, its performance can be increased. These variants are multiple-head welding, double electrode welding and submerged arc welding with metal powder addition. These

Tusek

1996-01-01

93

General view of outside diameter welding stations of the saw ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General view of outside diameter welding stations of the saw line in bay 8 of the main pipe mill building looking northwest. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Main Pipe Mill Building, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

94

Wireless pressure and temperature measurement using a SAW hybrid sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A passive pressure and temperature sensor unit based on the combination of a SAW reflective delay line with a high-Q capacitive pressure sensor is presented. Due to a symmetric arrangement of the impedance loaded splitfinger interdigital transducer (IDT) between two reference reflectors a temperature corrected evaluation of the pressure signal is enabled. A prototype of a tire pressure sensor unit

G. Schimetta; F. Dollinger; G. Scholl; R. Weigel

2000-01-01

95

Stellite Tipping of Saws for Cutting Softwood Lumber.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the results of two studies. The first study investigated the effectiveness of four wear-resistant alloys - Stellite 12 and 20, Deloro Alloy 50 and 60 - in reducing saw-tooth dulling in cutting unseasoned western red cedar. All four all...

E. Kirbach T. Bonac

1981-01-01

96

Arc sawing of nickel based superalloys in aqueous electrolytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arc sawing (AS) is a non-conventional machining process that utilises an arc to melt and vaporise workpiece material. A low voltage, high current supply is employed to produce a continuous arc in either an electrolyte or in air. Machinability is enhanced with highly conductive electrolytes, such as sodium silicate. The paper details AS machinability work on Inconel 718 and compares

M. A Paul; N. C Hodkinson; D. K Aspinwall

1999-01-01

97

28. MODIFIED CHAIN SAW FOR CUTTING ROCK CORES; BRUNTON COMPASS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. MODIFIED CHAIN SAW FOR CUTTING ROCK CORES; BRUNTON COMPASS STAND FOR DETERMINING CORE'S FIELD ORIENTATION; INSECTICIDE DISPENSER MODIFIED TO LUBRICATE CORE DRILLING PROCESS. - U.S. Geological Survey, Rock Magnetics Laboratory, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, San Mateo County, CA

98

A Comparison of SAW Wrap-Around Delay Line Geometries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to realize long UHF/delays in small packages, it is convenient to use wrap-around surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices. The use of slow velocity (typically 1680 m/sec) bismuth germanium oxide (BGO) further reduces size. In the present paper, three...

A. J. Slobodnik W. J. Kearns J. H. Silva T. F. Fenstermacher

1974-01-01

99

Low-cost surface mount packaging for SAWs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The special challenges of surface mount technology as they apply to the surface acoustic wave (SAW) manufacturer are reviewed. Some possible solutions are offered. The effects of each of the problem areas on the choice of package technology are considered. The technology options include ceramic bases (solder, epoxy, resistance welded, or glass frit sealed), plastic (epoxy sealed), and quartz (glass

J. Gore; B. Horine; J. Phillips; R. Hoffman; J. Dodge

1992-01-01

100

76 FR 75504 - Table Saw Blade Contact Injuries; Notice of Extension of Time for Comments  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CPSC-2011-0074] Table Saw Blade Contact Injuries; Notice of Extension of Time...injury associated with table saw blade contact, regulatory alternatives, other possible...including any personal identifiers, contact information, or other personal...

2011-12-02

101

77 FR 8751 - Table Saw Blade Contact Injuries; Reopening of the Comment Period  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CPSC-2011-0074] Table Saw Blade Contact Injuries; Reopening of the Comment Period...injury associated with table saw blade contact, regulatory alternatives, other possible...including any personal identifiers, contact information, or other personal...

2012-02-15

102

Multiband RF SAW filter for mobile phone using surface mount plastic package  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, multi-band RF SAW filters for mobile phone are strongly required. In this work, as the example of multi-band SAW filters, we report PDC triple-band SAW filter and EGSM \\/DCS dual-band balanced SAW filter using surface mount plastic package. These filters are encapsulated in plastic package and they are made by our new plastic molding technology. The plastic

Susumu Yoshimoto; Yasushi Yamamoto; Yoshihiro Takahashi; Eiichi Otsuka

2002-01-01

103

Development of a SAW duplexer with one-chip isolation circuits.  

PubMed

We propose new structures of one-chip type SAW duplexers where Tx and Rx SAW ladder filters as well as isolation networks are fabricated together on a single 36 degrees LiTaO(3) piezoelectric substrate. The new SAW duplexer can overcome the difficulty in fabrication of conventional SAW duplexers while providing the performance matching that of conventional duplexers. Validity of the structure is verified through numerical simulation and experiments. PMID:15047321

Roh, Yongrae; Lee, Seunghee

2004-04-01

104

Maintenance of stellite and tungsten carbide saw tips: respiratory health and exposure-response evaluations  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To study exposure to cobalt and chromium in saw maintenance rooms and test respiratory health among saw filers at lumber mills. Hard-metal lung disease is associated with cobalt in the manufacture of tungsten carbide tools; recently it has also been reported among tool maintenance workers. Lumber mills often use saws tipped with tungsten carbide or with a newer alloy, stellite

S M Kennedy; M Chan-Yeung; S Marion; J Lea; K Teschke

1995-01-01

105

Monitoring of NH 3 gas by LB polypyrrole-based SAW sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices have been fabricated and tested as sensors of NH3 in gaseous phase. Polypyrrole films, prepared by Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique, have been deposited onto the surface of SAW devices as gas absorbent layers. Simultaneous measurements of SAW phase velocity and attenuation have been carried out in order to investigate the sensing mechanisms. The sensor response shows

M. Penza; E. Milella; V. I. Anisimkin

1998-01-01

106

The development of an automatic post-sawing inspection system using computer vision techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an automated post-sawing inspection system (APSIS) for detecting defects on the wafer. The defect detection includes sawing defects and pad defects. By adopting the reference method, some features extracted from the reference image are used to compare with an inspecting image. The experiment results showed that the recognition rate of sawing defect and pad defect was 99.0%

Jiun-Ming Zhang; Ruey-Ming Lin; Mao-Jiun J Wang

1999-01-01

107

Development of a generalized model to analyze time and frequency responses for SAW sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the research on applications of wireless surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors has focused on the fabrication process. No detailed theoretical models have been developed to illustrate the time and frequency domain characteristics of SAW devices. In this paper, the generalized model of the wireless SAW sensor is established by using the coupling-of-modes (COM) model together with the wave

Meng-Shiun Tsai; Jie-Ting Jeng

2011-01-01

108

Passive hybrid sensing tag with flexible substrate saw device  

SciTech Connect

The integration of surface acoustic wave (SAW) filters, microfabricated transmission lines, and sensors onto polymer substrates in order to enable a passive wireless sensor platform is described herein. Incident microwave pulses on an integrated antenna are converted to an acoustic wave via a SAW filter and transmitted to an impedance based sensor, which for this work is a photodiode. Changes in the sensor state induce a corresponding change in the impedance of the sensor resulting in a reflectance profile. Data collected at a calibrated receiver is used to infer the state of the sensor. Based on this principal, light levels were passively and wirelessly demonstrated to be sensed at distances of up to about 12 feet.

Skinner, Jack L.; Chu, Eric Y.; Ho, Harvey

2012-12-25

109

SAW with multiple electrodes achieves high production rates  

SciTech Connect

Increased demands for higher productivity in the production of welded structures dictate the use of new higher-performance welding procedures. Submerged arc welding (SAW) is already one of the highest performing arc welding processes, but with certain improved variants, its performance can be increased. These variants are multiple-head welding, double electrode welding and submerged arc welding with metal powder addition. These three variations of submerged arc welding have been put into practice and are extensively treated in the welding literature. The application of welding with more than three wires in a joint contact tube is rare, however, and rarely mentioned. The purpose of this article is to show the basic characteristics and eventual applications of SAW using multiple electrodes.

Tusek, J. [Inst. Za Varilstvo, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

1996-08-01

110

SAW parameters on Y-cut langasite structured materials.  

PubMed

This paper presents results and investigations of several new, man-made piezoelectric single crystal, Czochralski-grown substrate materials for surface acoustic waves (SAW) applications. These materials, langanite (LGN), langatate (LGT), Sr3TaGa3Si2O14 (STGS), Sr3NbGa3Si2O14 (SNGS), Ca3TaGa3Si2O14 (CTGS), and Ca3NbGa3Si2O14 (CNGS), have the same structure as langasite (LGS) and are of the same crystal class as quartz. These compounds are denser than quartz, resulting in lower phase velocities. They also have higher coupling. Unlike quartz and lithium niobate, there is no degradation of material properties below the material melting points resulting in the possibility of extreme high-temperature operation (> 1000 degrees C). This paper gives a summary of extracted SAW material parameters for various propagation angles on Y-cut substrates of the six materials. Parameters included are electromechanical coupling, phase velocity, transducer capacitance, metal strip reflectivity, and temperature coefficient of frequency. Using previously published fundamental material constants, extracted parameters are compared with predictions for LGT and LGN. In addition, power flow angle and fractional frequency curvature data are reported for propagation angles on CTGS and CNGS Y-cut substrates that exhibit temperature compensation near room temperature. Detailed descriptions of the SAW parameter extraction techniques are given. A discussion of the results is provided, including a comparison of extracted parameters and an overview of possible SAW applications. PMID:17941393

Puccio, Derek; Malocha, Donald C; Saldanha, Nancy; da Cunha, Mauricio Pereira

2007-09-01

111

A SAW bandpass filter technique using a fanned multistrip coupler  

Microsoft Academic Search

A SAW filter is described which uses multistrip couplers with diferent periodicities in two adjacent tracks in order to transfer a surface wave from one track to the other over a restricted frequency band, i.e., to filter the signal. The principal advantage is good filtering with low insertion loss. Over 30-dB out-of-band rejection with 3-dB loss in the fanned multistrip

Leland P. Solie

1977-01-01

112

The effects of ionizing radiation on SAW resonators  

Microsoft Academic Search

SAW resonators with frequencies ranging from 199 MHz to 746 MHz were fabricated and exposed to sequentially increasing total doses of various types of ionizing radiation, and the effects were observed. The substrates used were air-swept and as-grown (nonswept) 40° Y-rotated quartz, LST-quartz, and nonswept 40° Y-rotated quartz coated with a 400-Å-thick layer of SiOx. The total doses used range

J. H. Hines; W. J. Stapor

1990-01-01

113

Characterization and Qualification of a Precision Diamond Saw  

SciTech Connect

A precision diamond saw was characterized and qualified for production using the MCCS Encryption Translator (MET) network. This characterization was performed in three steps. First the equipment was evaluated and characterized, and then a process was developed and characterized to saw cofire networks. Finally, the characterized process was qualified for production using the MET network. During the development of the low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) processes needed to build the MCCS Encryption Translator (MET) network, a problem was uncovered. The laser process planned for scribing and separating was found to weaken the LTCC material by about 30%. A replacement process was needed, and precision diamond sawing was chosen. During the equipment evaluation and characterization, several parameters were investigated. These were cut depth, feed rate, spindle speed, and saw blade thickness. Once these were understood the process was then developed. Initially 24 variables were identified for the process, and eventually 12 of these variables were found to be critical. These variables were then adjusted until a process envelope was found that produced acceptable product. Finally parameters were chosen from the middle of the process envelope for production. With the production process set, the next step was to qualify it for production. Two criteria had to be met: visual acceptability and bending strength. The parts were examined under a microscope and found to be visually acceptable. Parts were then put through a four-point bend test, and the strengths recorded were equivalent to those measured in the past. With the completion of this work and the acceptable results, this process was qualified for production use.

Morgenstern, H.A.

1999-03-04

114

GHz frequency ZnO\\/Si SAW device  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demand for high-frequency low-loss filters generates intensive research on innovative wave guide solutions. In this work, a GHz SAW device based on a ZnO\\/Si structure was fabricated using classical UV photolithography. The thickness of the piezoelectric thin film was optimized and a specific interdigital transducer structure was used to generate third and fifth harmonic guided waves at 2.5 GHz

L. Le Brizoual; F. Sarry; O. Elrnazria; P. Alnot; S. Ballandras; T. Pastureaud

2008-01-01

115

[Sawing and welding with ultrasonics. Experimental investigation to test the applicability of an apparatus for sawing and welding bone tissue with ultrasonics in orthopedics (author's transl)].  

PubMed

An experimental investigation of a procedure for sawing and welding of bone tissue with ultrasonics in the area of orthopedics was reported. The welding of bone with ultrasonic waves, bone meal and a plastic adhesive did not product satisfactory results in terms of stability and tissue reaction. The applicability of the ultrasonic saw is limited by the thickness of the bone on which the osteotomy is to be performed. We saw no advantages over against the oscillating saws which were available to us. In our opinion, an indication for the application of the ultrasonic apparatus could be the removal of inflammatory, tumerous or necrotic bone processes. PMID:842093

Picht, U; Schumpe, G; Milachowski, K

1977-02-01

116

Orthogonal frequency coding for SAW tagging and sensors.  

PubMed

Surface acoustic wave (SAW)-based sensors can offer wireless, passive operation in numerous environments, and various device embodiments are used for retrieval of the sensed data information. Single sensor systems typically can use a single carrier frequency and a simple device embodiment because tagging is not required. In a multisensor environment, it is necessary to both identify the sensor and retrieve the sensed information. This paper presents the concept of orthogonal frequency coding (OFC) for applications to SAW sensor technology. The OFC offers all advantages inherent to spread spectrum communications, including enhanced processing gain and lower interrogation power spectral density (PSD). It is shown that the time ambiguity in the OFC compressed pulse is significantly reduced as compared with a single frequency tag having the same code length, and additional coding can be added using a pseudo-noise (PN) sequence. The OFC approach is general and should be applicable to many differing SAW sensors for temperature, pressure, liquid, gases, etc. Device embodiments are shown, and a potential transceiver is described. Measured device results are presented and compared with coupling of modes (COM) model predictions to demonstrate performance. Devices then are used in computer simulations of the proposed transceiver design, and the results of an OFC sensor system are discussed. PMID:16529112

Puccio, Derek; Malocha, Donald C; Saldanha, Nancy; Gallagher, Daniel R; Hines, Jacqueline H

2006-02-01

117

Investigation of fast reaction SAW (Surface Acoustic Wave) accelerometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective is to develop surface acoustic wave (SAW) accelerometers with improved bias stability characteristics for moderately accurate inertial navigation. Methods of fabricating dual-resonator crystals with low absolute and differential aging characteristics have been developed. Tests have been performed at 10 Gs acceleration on integrated noise levels for simulated guidance system mission times of up to 20 min. Error rates less than 15 meters per hour in position of accuracy and velocity error less than 0.013 m/s have been achieved. Sensor device has a frequency stability of part in 10 to the 10th power with a dynamic range of 10 to the 6th power. Simulation shows a bit quantization of 0.0013 m/s and frequency scale factor of 770 Hz/m/sq s can be achieved. The concept of SAW accelerometer is based on construction of a SAW resonator on the surface of a piezoelectric quartz cantilever beam. Acceleration loading of the beam induces a surface strain in the resonator areas, resulting in a deviation of the center frequency. This frequency change is proportional to the acceleration input and it provides an inherent direct frequency digital output for the signal processing of the device.

Motamedi, M. E.

1985-11-01

118

Experimental and theoretical investigations of some useful langasite cuts for high-temperature SAW applications.  

PubMed

Passive high-temperature sensors are a most promising area of use for SAW devices. Langasite (La3Ga5SiO14; LGS) has been identified as promising piezoelectric material to meet high-temperature SAW challenges. Because it is necessary to know the material behavior for an accurate device design, the frequency¿temperature behavior of Rayleigh SAW (R-SAW) and shear-horizontal SAW (SH-SAW) LGS cuts is investigated on delay line and resonator test structures up to 700°C by RF characterization. In the range of the 434-MHz ISM band, the (0°, 22°, 90°) SH-SAW cut shows thermal behavior similar to the (0°, 138.5°, 26.7°) R-SAW cut. Associated with the (0°, 22°, 31°) cut, in which SAWs present mixed types of polarization, the (0°, 22°, 90°) SH-SAW orientation might allow differential measurements on a single substrate. In the temperature range of 400 to 500°C, delay line test devices using the SH-SAW cut show a considerable drop of signal. Theoretical analysis indicates that this newly described behavior might be a result of anisotropy effects in this cut, occurring in case of any slight misorientation of electrode alignment. PMID:23549542

Bardong, Jochen; Aubert, Thierry; Naumenko, Natalya; Bruckner, Gudrun; Salzmann, Sabine; Reindl, Leonhard M

2013-04-01

119

Silicon saw-tooth refractive lens for high-energy X-rays made using a diamond saw  

PubMed Central

Silicon is a material well suited for refractive lenses operating at high X-ray energies (>50?keV), particularly if implemented in a single-crystal form to minimize small-angle scattering. A single-crystal silicon saw-tooth refractive lens, fabricated by a dicing process using a thin diamond wheel, was tested with 115?keV X-rays, giving an ideal 17?µm line focus width in a long focal length, 2:1 ratio demagnification geometry, with a source-to-focus distance of 58.5?m. The fabrication is simple, using resources typically available at any synchrotron facility’s optics shop.

Said, A. H.; Shastri, S. D.

2010-01-01

120

Modelling Sawing of Metal Tubes Through FEM Simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents the development of a numerical model of the sawing process of AISI 304 thin tubes, which is cut through a circular blade with alternating roughing and finishing teeth. The numerical simulation environment is the three-dimensional FEM software Deform™ v.10.1. The teeth actual trajectories were determined by a blade kinematics analysis developed in Matlab™. Due to the manufacturing rolling steps and subsequent welding stage, the tube material is characterized by a gradient of properties along its thickness. Consequently, a simplified cutting test was set up and carried out in order to identify the values of relevant material parameters to be used in the numerical model. The dedicated test was the Orthogonal Tube Cutting test (OTC), which was performed on an instrumented lathe. The proposed numerical model was validated by comparing numerical results and experimental data obtained from sawing tests carried out on an industrial machine. The following outputs were compared: the cutting force, the chip thickness, and the chip contact area.

Bort, C. M. Giorgio; Bosetti, P.; Bruschi, S.

2011-05-01

121

Circular saw-associated fatality mimicking gunshot injury.  

PubMed

A 61-year-old man was found dead in the yard of his house with penetrating injury of the trunk. Initial examination of the body revealed a single penetrating injury on his chest with a collar abrasion-the injury pattern that is similar to a gunshot entry wound or shored exit wound. According to witnesses, the man had cut wooden frames from old windows with a circular saw. X-rays of the torso revealed a contrast object resembling a projectile in the left scapular region. The internal examination disclosed an isolated trunk trauma involving the left lung. In the soft tissue, between the inner edge of the left scapula and thoracic spine, the fragment of a metal nail was found. The autopsy confirmed that the wound on the chest was a non-firearm-related injury. The death of deceased was attributed to massive internal hemorrhage. Further investigation revealed that the pseudo-gunshot wound injury of the trunk of the victim was caused by a fast-flying metal object thrown against the man's trunk from a circular saw while cutting the wooden beams of old windows. PMID:23181567

Hejna, Petr; Zátopková, Lenka; Safr, Miroslav; Straka, Lubomír

2012-11-26

122

High temperature LGS SAW devices with Pt\\/WO3 and Pd sensing films  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the fabrication of high temperature LGS SAW devices to be used as gas sensors. SAW resonators and delay lines have been designed, fabricated, and tested up to 750°C. An additional 7dB loss in the transmission coefficient, |S21|, of the two port 167 MHz SAW resonators tested has been observed for operation at 750°C with respect to

J. A. Thiele; M. Pereira da Cunha

2003-01-01

123

“Buzz-saw” noise: A comparison of modal measurements with an improved prediction method  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Buzz-saw” noise is radiated from a turbofan inlet duct when the fan tip speed is supersonic. In a recent article the effect of an acoustic liner on buzz-saw noise has been examined. Spectral measurements in a rigid and an acoustically lined inlet duct have been compared. Also these measurements have been utilized to assess a buzz-saw noise prediction method. The

A. McAlpine; M. J. Fisher; B. J. Tester

2007-01-01

124

``Buzz-saw'' noise: A comparison of modal measurements with an improved prediction method  

Microsoft Academic Search

``Buzz-saw'' noise is radiated from a turbofan inlet duct when the fan tip speed is supersonic. In a recent article the effect of an acoustic liner on buzz-saw noise has been examined. Spectral measurements in a rigid and an acoustically lined inlet duct have been compared. Also these measurements have been utilized to assess a buzz-saw noise prediction method. The

A. McAlpine; M. J. Fisher; B. J. Tester

2007-01-01

125

Effect of anisotropy on characteristics and behavior of shear horizontal SAWs in resonators using langasite.  

PubMed

Orientations of langasite (LGS) with Euler angles (0°, ?, 90°) are potentially useful for applications in wireless SAW sensors because of wide variation of their temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF), between -50 and +50 ppm/°C, combined with high values of electromechanical coupling coefficient, especially if thick electrodes are utilized. The nature and characteristics of shear-horizontally polarized SAWs (SHSAWs) propagating in these orientations are investigated using a combination of numerical techniques: analysis of the BAW slowness surface and its effect on the SH-SAW structure; visualization of displacements that follow wave propagation in the grating; calculation of admittance of infinite periodic gratings; and analysis of SAW dispersion in the gratings, including possible interaction between SH-SAWs and parasitic Rayleigh SAWs. The characteristics of SH-SAWs propagating in symmetric cuts (velocities, localization depth, electromechanical coupling, etc.) are supplemented by analysis of propagation directions deviating from the YZ-plane toward the x-axis of LGS, for the temperature compensated cut with Euler angles (0°, 22°, 90°) and one more orientation for comparison. This extended analysis reveals that in actual devices, the anisotropy may be a reason for strong interaction between SH-SAWs and parasitic Rayleigh SAWs and cause degradation of the device's performance. PMID:23192815

Naumenko, Natalya F

2012-11-01

126

Finite Element Modelling of the Sawing of DC Cast AA2024 Aluminium Alloy Slabs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the semi-continuous casting of large cross-section rolling sheet ingots of high-strength aluminum alloys (2xxx and 7xxx series), the control of the residual (internal) stresses generated by the non-uniform cooling becomes a necessity. These stresses must be relieved by a thermal treatment before the head and foot of the ingot can be cut. Otherwise, the saw can be caught owing to compressive stresses or cut parts may be ejected thus injuring people or damaging equipment. These high added-value ingots need to be produced in secure conditions. Moreover, a better control of the sawing procedure could allow the suppression of the thermal treatment and therefore save time and energy. By studying the stress build-up during casting and the stress relief during sawing, key parameters for the control and optimization of the processing steps, can be derived. To do so, the direct chill (DC) casting of the AA2024 alloy is modeled with ABAQUS 6.5 with special attention to the thermo-mechanical properties of the alloy. The sawing operation is then simulated by removing mesh elements so as to reproduce the progression of the saw in the ingot. Preliminary results showing the stress relief during sawing accompanied by the risk of saw blocking due to compression or initiating a crack ahead of the saw, are analyzed with an approach based on the rate of strain energy release.

Drezet, J.-M.; Ludwig, O.; Heinrich, B.

2007-04-01

127

Radio signals for SAW ID tags and sensors in strong electromagnetic interference  

Microsoft Academic Search

The applicability of wirelessly interrogated passive ID-tag type SAW sensors for measurements of the temperature of disc brakes of moving railway cars is shown. Here, a short radio channel allows relatively simple radio impulse processing by phase evaluation. Further, using elastic convolver measurement in large steel works, we discuss the feasibility of passive SAW sensors in a severely obstructed radio

A. Pohl; F. Seifert; L. Reindl; G. Scholl; T. Ostertag; W. Pietsch

1994-01-01

128

Feasibility of ultra-wideband SAW RFID tags meeting FCC rules  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the feasibility of surface acoustic wave (SAW) radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags that rely on ultra-wideband (UWB) technology. We propose a design of a UWB SAW tag, carry out numerical experiments on the device performance, and study signal processing in the system. We also present experimental results for the proposed device and estimate the potentially achievable reading distance. UWB

S. Harma; V. P. Plessky; Xianyi Li; P. Hartogh

2009-01-01

129

Investigations of STGS, SNGS, CTGS, & CNGS materials for use in saw applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Langasite structure compounds have been the focus of much consideration recently, given their higher electromechanical coupling and similar temperature behavior to that of quartz. Recent investigations have begun on four new materials, STGS, SNGS, CTGS, and CNGS. These langasite structure crystals show great promise for use in SAW applications. In some respects, STGS, SNGS, CTGS, and CNGS exhibit better SAW

D. Puccio; D. C. Malocha; Mitch M. C. Chou

2003-01-01

130

Thresholds for the Identification of Commercial Wireless SAW ID-Tags  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passive Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensors intended to measure different physical quantities are often manufactured to have Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags with time position encoding. The optimum threshold is proposed for the identification of commercial SAW ID-tags. We first find the generic identification error probability for such tags employing the Marcum function of first order and then minimize it

Gustavo Cerda-Villafana; Yuriy S. Shmaliy

2010-01-01

131

Design of control system in bimetal saw strip with laser welding production line  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces the production process and the control system of a bimetal saw strip production line, and describes its control system components, its working principle, and the control flow of the production process. The production line has higher automation and productivity, and lower production costs. The welding strength of bi-metal saw is more than 235Mpa.

Wang Bin; Cai Jun; Li Yuxiang

2010-01-01

132

Finite Element Modelling of the Sawing of DC Cast AA2024 Aluminium Alloy Slabs  

SciTech Connect

In the semi-continuous casting of large cross-section rolling sheet ingots of high-strength aluminum alloys (2xxx and 7xxx series), the control of the residual (internal) stresses generated by the non-uniform cooling becomes a necessity. These stresses must be relieved by a thermal treatment before the head and foot of the ingot can be cut. Otherwise, the saw can be caught owing to compressive stresses or cut parts may be ejected thus injuring people or damaging equipment. These high added-value ingots need to be produced in secure conditions. Moreover, a better control of the sawing procedure could allow the suppression of the thermal treatment and therefore save time and energy. By studying the stress build-up during casting and the stress relief during sawing, key parameters for the control and optimization of the processing steps, can be derived. To do so, the direct chill (DC) casting of the AA2024 alloy is modeled with ABAQUS 6.5 with special attention to the thermo-mechanical properties of the alloy. The sawing operation is then simulated by removing mesh elements so as to reproduce the progression of the saw in the ingot. Preliminary results showing the stress relief during sawing accompanied by the risk of saw blocking due to compression or initiating a crack ahead of the saw, are analyzed with an approach based on the rate of strain energy release.

Drezet, J.-M. [Computational Materials Laboratory, School of Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Station 12, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Ludwig, O. [Calcom-ESI SA, PSE-A, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Heinrich, B. [Alcan Aluminium Valais SA, CH3960 Sierre (Switzerland)

2007-04-07

133

UV crosslinked polysiloxanes as new coating materials for SAW devices with high long-term stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present investigations of ultraviolet (UV) crosslinked polysiloxanes as new coating materials for surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices. Low-loss filters based on horizontal polarized shear waves were used instead of `standard' Rayleigh-type SAW devices since a larger freedom in the choice of coating thickness can be obtained. Polysiloxane coatings show excellent properties for sensor applications; in particular, they promise high

N Barié; M Rapp; H. J Ache

1998-01-01

134

Optimization of resonant frequency measurement algorithm for wireless passive SAW sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper is devoted to reduction of random errors in the wireless measurement of the resonant frequency of a SAW resonant sensor. It is achieved by using weighted averaging of multiple measurement results where the weights depend on the strength of the SAW responses picked up by the interrogation receiver. Optimum weights are found either by analytical method based on

V. Kalinin; B. Dixon; J. Beckley

2009-01-01

135

Remaining fatigue life prediction in the initiation regime using SAW NDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harmonic generation of surface acoustic waves (SAW) is shown to be a useful tool for the detection of the initiation of surface cracks during fatigue of high strength aluminum alloys. A model that relates the length and density of microcracks to the amplitude of a SAW harmonic signal is described, and an associated coefficient of generation efficiency for the second

O. Buck; W. L. Morris; M. R. James

1980-01-01

136

New miniaturized SAW-sensor array for organic gas detection driven by multiplexed oscillators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of sensor arrays with polymer-coated surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices as the key element for analytical sensor systems is a very promising technique for organic gas detection in process or quality control. In this work we present a new improved array of eight SAW sensors showing up reduced size, sampling volume and assembling costs. Moreover, its most important

M Rapp; J Reibel; A Voigt; M Balzer; O Bülow

2000-01-01

137

I.D. Sawing of Silicon Crystal in Different Lubricant Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemomechanical effect of lubricant environments on the I.D. sawing induced surface damage in Si crystal was tested in water and in an aqueous solution of a commercial coolant by applying different potentials on the Si crystal. Variations in thicknesses and surface morphologies of Si wafers sawn in different environments suggested smaller saw blade vibration in the coolant than in water. The density of sawing induced defects and the thickness of the damaged surface layer are also less when sawing is done in the coolant. The application of negative potential on Si crystal during the sawing was found to produce less surface damage than the application of positive potential. These results indicated that the fracture behavior and/or the frictional property of Si surface are environment-sensitive.

Kuan, T. S.; Shih, K. K.; Vechten, J. A. Van; Baum, T.; Westdorp, W. A.

1982-03-01

138

76 FR 62678 - Table Saw Blade Contact Injuries; Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking; Request for Comments and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CPSC-2011-0074] Table Saw Blade Contact Injuries; Advance Notice of Proposed...injury associated with table saw blade contact, the regulatory alternatives discussed...including any personal identifiers, contact information, or other personal...

2011-10-11

139

One chip demodulator using RF front-end SAW correlator for 2.4 GHz asynchronous spread spectrum modem  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new compact 2.4 GHz spread spectrum (SS) modem has been implemented using a surface acoustic wave (SAW) correlator. The authors have designed and fabricated the 2.4 GHz SAW correlator on AlN\\/Al2 O3 combination. Using the SAW correlator and SAW delay line at the RF front-end, the 2.4 GHz SS signal is directly demodulated to baseband data. The PN code

H. Nakase; T. Kasai; Y. Nakamura; K. Masu; K. Tsubouchi

1994-01-01

140

Conformal neutrinos: An alternative to the see-saw mechanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze a scenario where the right-handed neutrinos make part of a strongly coupled conformal field theory and acquire an anomalous dimension ?<1 at a large scale ?. Their Yukawa couplings to the Higgs become irrelevant at the fixed point and they are suppressed at low scales giving rise naturally to a small (sub-meV) Dirac neutrino mass which breaks the conformal invariance. We derive an upper bound on ? from loop-induced flavor changing neutral currents. Neutrino Yukawa couplings can be sizable at electroweak scales and therefore the invisible decay of the Higgs in the neutrino channel can be comparable to the cc¯ and ??¯ modes and predict interesting Higgs phenomenology. If lepton number is violated in the conformal theory an irrelevant Majorana mass operator for right-handed neutrinos appears for ?>1/2 giving rise to an inverse see-saw mechanism. In this case light sterile neutrinos do appear and neutrino oscillation experiments are able to probe our model.

von Gersdorff, Gero; Quirós, Mariano

2009-07-01

141

Heat generation by two different saw blades used for tibial plateau leveling osteotomies.  

PubMed

During tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) the saw blade produces frictional heat. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare heat generated by two TPLO blade designs (Slocum Enterprises [SE] and New Generation Devices [NDG]), with or without irrigation, on cadaveric canine tibias. Thirty-six paired tibias were used to continuously measure bone temperatures during osteotomy through both cortices (i.e., the cis and trans cortices). Each pair was assigned to either an irrigation or nonirrigation group during osteotomy, and each tibia within a pair was osteotomized using a different saw blade design. Saw blade temperatures were recorded and temperatures were compared for all combinations of blade type, cortex, and irrigation. In the cis cortex group, the SE blade generated more bone heat than the NGD blade (P=0.0258). Significant differences in temperature generation between saw blade types were seen only when the osteotomy site was not irrigated (P=0.0156). For all variables measured, bone and saw blade temperature generation was lower with irrigation (P<0.05). None of the osteotomies performed with either saw blade produced a critical duration of damaging temperature ranges in this study. Although saw blade design and irrigation influence heat generation during the TPLO, the potential for bone thermal damage during TPLO is low. The use of the NGD blade with irrigation is recommended. PMID:22267171

Bachelez, Andreas; Martinez, Steven A

2012-01-19

142

Multi-Model Diagnosis Method for Lung Cancer based on MOS-SAW Breath Detecting e-Nose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MOS-SAW breath detecting e-Nose combines the metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) sensors and the SAW sensor. We introduce a multi-model diagnosis method, which is used to process the signals of the MOS-SAW e-Nose, to establish the diagnosis models, and to detect unknown samples.

Wang, Yishan; Yu, Kai; Wang, Di; Zhao, Cong; Wang, Lin; Wang, Ping

2011-09-01

143

Small meandered PIFA associated with SAW passive sensor for monitoring inner temperature of a car exhaust header  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless sensors based on passive surface acoustic wave (SAW) technology serve to accurately determine physical quantities in harsh environments. In this paper, we present a meandered planar inverted-F antenna (PIFA) with a small ground plane designed to be associated with a SAW sensor to monitor the inner temperature of a car exhaust header. The SAW sensor, the design of the

S. Tourette; G. Collin; P. Le Thuc; C. Luxey; R. Staraj

2009-01-01

144

Reducing kickback of portable combustion chain saws and related injury risks: laboratory tests and deductions.  

PubMed

Portable chain saws are still very dangerous machines. Reduced prices of these machines mean they are widely available to people who like DIY (do it yourself) and professionals. Kickback of chain saws is extremely dangerous for the operator. This paper discusses the results of laboratory investigations of combustion chain saws. The tests were conducted on a standardized kickback test stand and covered the course of kickback, its energy, angle and duration. The results showed that during the contact of a saw chain with wood, the first to appear was the process of wood cutting, which absorbed 90-95% of the reduced energy of the cutting system. The greater the absorbed energy, the smaller the kickback angle. Wood cutting work is particularly influenced by proper chain tension, the use of chains with anti-kickback links, guide bars with sliding endings and a quickly activated chain brake. PMID:22995138

D?browski, Andrzej

2012-01-01

145

Resonant Frequency Characteristics of a SAW Device Attached to Resonating Micropillars  

PubMed Central

Recently we reported experimental and simulation results on an increase in resonance frequency of a SAW resonator caused by mass loading of micropillars made of SU-8, attached normal to the surface of the resonator. We concluded that SAW resonator and the SU-8 micropillars in unison form a system of coupled resonators. We have now extended this work and performed a finite element method simulation to study the resonance frequency characteristics of the SAW-based coupled resonator. In this paper we report the effect of the resonance frequency of the micropillars on the resonance frequency of the system of coupled resonators, and observe the coupling of micropillar resonance and the propagating SAW as described in the well known Dybwad system of coupled resonators.

Ramakrishnan, N.; Nemade, Harshal B.; Palathinkal, Roy Paily

2012-01-01

146

Measurement of acoustic properties of liquid using liquid flow SH-SAW sensor system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SH-SAW resonator having narrow bandwidth and higher Q value has been used for sensing the properties in ionic and viscosity of liquid. The surface acoustic waves with the shear horizontal displacement (SH-SAW) are excited on a piezoelectric substrate; 36 rotated Y cut X prop. LiTaO3 (36 YX LiTaO3) and the liquid flow sensing system was constructed by using two-port

T Nomura; A Saitoh; Y Horikoshi

2001-01-01

147

Study of SAW Chirp Z transform for an enhancement of OFDM\\/OFDMA systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface acoustic wave has a definite advantage in the Fourier transform for distribute of OFDM that is converted into the OFDM signal and received in power consumption and has a super-high-speed operation. The operation speed of the SAW Chirp-Z transform processor composed of SAW Down Chirp Filter of bandwidth 100 MHz and N=2,048 becomes 5.5GFLOPS. The condition that the

Takaya Watanabe

2009-01-01

148

Rapid Detection of GLY, L-ARG, L-ASP Using an Saw-Impedance Sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface acoustic wave (SAW)-impedance sensor, which is composed of a 61 MHz SAW resonator and a pair of parallel platinum electrodes, has been successfully applied to rapid detection of glycine (G1y), L-arginine (L-Arg) and L-aspartic acid (L-Asp) and is reported in this paper. Two methods are described — the calibration curve method and the frequencimetric titration method. The effect

Ronghui Wang; Defang Tong; Wei Wei; Lihua Nie; Shouzhuo Yao

1997-01-01

149

Heat treatment of Disk-Saw teeth in an aqueous solution of PK2 polymer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disk saws are used to cut hot-rolled steel, and therefore their strength, durability, and functionality determine the productivity and performance of rolling mills. At OAO NKMK, steel 50 disks (diameter 1450? 1600 mm) are manufactured in a special section and used to cut hot-rolled steel in the rail and beam shop and the bar shop. The disk-saw teeth are heat-treated

G. N. Tarasova; T. N. Oskolkova

2007-01-01

150

[Forensic medical characteristic of sawed injuries inflicted to the long tubular bones by a power jigsaw].  

PubMed

The main aspects of investigations devoted to forensic medical characteristic of sawed injuries inflicted to the long tubular bones by a power jigsaw are considered. The mathematical model has been developed making it possible to determine the frequency of backward and forward movements of the jigsaw blade from the morphological features of the injuries to long tubular bones of man and to estimate the sawing rate for the further identification of the instrument of crime. PMID:23789407

Nazarov, Iu V; Tolmachev, I A

151

Idling noise from circular saws made of metals with different damping capacities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Circular saw construction using materials with high internal damping has been found to be an effective way to suppress whistling\\u000a noise during saw idling. A high-damping alloy called Silentalloy (12Cr-3Al-Fe) was previously shown to be an effective material\\u000a for this purpose. Tests with Silentalloy suggested that a logarithmic decrement of at least 0.07 is needed. Silentalloy does\\u000a have some disadvantages,

Nobuaki Hattori; Tomoharu Iida

1999-01-01

152

Effect of Mo layer on performance of AlN\\/Si SAW filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the effect of Mo thin layer on performance of AIN\\/Si SAW filter. This purpose is done by comparison between AIN\\/Mo\\/Si and AIN\\/Si SAW devices. The texture of AlN film is strongly influenced by the texture and roughness of the Si substrate and by the bottom Mo electrodes. The texture of AlN is evaluated by the full-width at

Trang Hoang; REY Patrice; ROBERT Philippe; BENECH Philippe

2008-01-01

153

Surface study of ion-implanted silicon wafers using SAW convolver  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonlinear space-charge-coupled interaction between a surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagating on a lithium niobate substrate and ion-implanted silicon samples placed in proximity to the SAW propagating surface has been studied. A pulsed dc electric field normal to the surface has been used to bend the surface potential for accumulation and depletion of charge carriers near the surface which in effect

M. E. Motamedi; P. Das; R. Bharat

1977-01-01

154

SAW technology for on-board processing in military satellite communications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Military satellite communications require onboard signal processing and highly directive antennas to reduce the risk of jamming. Elements of signal processing include frequency hopping over wide bandwidths, sophisticated coding, and robust modulation techniques. Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices are ideally suited to carry out some of these onboard processing functions. The work being carried out on low and medium data rate processing for application in the Canadian extremely high frequency SATCOM program is reviewed. It is shown how SAW technology is capable of meeting many requirements for onboard processing in military communications. SAW devices are designed in the time domain and are best described as finite impulse response filters. They have applications as time delay devices, matched filters, and dispersers for frequency discrimination and block demodulation. The block demodulation capability is based on the use of a SAW chirp-Z Fourier transform (CFT), and the CFT response characteristics of SAW devices are noted. Advantages of SAW devices for onboard applications include small size, ruggedness, insensitivity to radiation, stable characteristics over a range of temperatures, and inherent reliability.

Malarky, Alastair; Shaw, Michael

155

UV epoxy bonding for enhanced SAW transmission and microscale acoustofluidic integration.  

PubMed

Surface acoustic waves (SAWs) are appealing as a means to manipulate fluids within lab-on-a-chip systems. However, current acoustofluidic devices almost universally rely on elastomeric materials, especially PDMS, that are inherently ill-suited for conveyance of elastic energy due to their strong attenuation properties. Here, we explore the use of a low-viscosity UV epoxy resin for room temperature bonding of lithium niobate (LiNbO(3)), the most widely used anisotropic piezoelectric substrate used in the generation of SAWs, to standard micromachined superstrates such as Pyrex® and silicon. The bonding methodology is straightforward and allows for reliable production of sub-micron bonds that are capable of enduring the high surface strains and accelerations needed for conveyance of SAWs. Devices prepared with this approach display as much as two orders of magnitude, or 20 dB, improvement in SAW transmission compared to those fabricated using the standard PDMS elastomer. This enhancement enables a broad range of applications in acoustofluidics that are consistent with the low power requirements of portable battery-driven circuits and the development of genuinely portable lab-on-a-chip devices. The method is exemplified in the fabrication of a closed-loop bidirectional SAW pumping concept with applications in micro-scale flow control, and represents the first demonstration of closed channel SAW pumping in a bonded glass/LiNbO(3) device. PMID:22695680

Langelier, Sean M; Yeo, Leslie Y; Friend, James

2012-06-14

156

“Buzz-saw” noise: A comparison of modal measurements with an improved prediction method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

“Buzz-saw” noise is radiated from a turbofan inlet duct when the fan tip speed is supersonic. In a recent article the effect of an acoustic liner on buzz-saw noise has been examined. Spectral measurements in a rigid and an acoustically lined inlet duct have been compared. Also these measurements have been utilized to assess a buzz-saw noise prediction method. The prediction method is based on a one-dimensional nonlinear propagation model. Sound absorption by an acoustic lining can be included in the model. In this article, the buzz-saw noise prediction method is improved by the inclusion in the modelling of the effect of a boundary layer on absorption of sound in a lined duct. Also, modal measurements from a circumferential microphone array have been examined. These show that the principal source of buzz-saw noise is not always the rotor-alone pressure field. Non-rotor-alone scattered tones can be a significant source of buzz-saw noise at low supersonic fan speeds. The numerical simulations, which only predict the rotor-alone tones, have been re-evaluated in light of these new modal measurements.

McAlpine, A.; Fisher, M. J.; Tester, B. J.

2007-10-01

157

A Reduced Three Dimensional Model for SAW Sensors Using Finite Element Analysis  

PubMed Central

A major problem that often arises in modeling Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) such as Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensors using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is the extensive computational capacity required. In this study a new approach is adopted to significantly reduce the computational capacity needed for analyzing the response of a SAW sensor using the finite element (FE) method. The approach is based on the plane wave solution where the properties of the wave vary in two dimensions and are uniform along the thickness of the device. The plane wave solution therefore allows the thickness of the SAW device model to be minimized; the model is referred to as a Reduced 3D Model (R3D). Various configurations of this novel R3D model are developed and compared with theoretical and experimental frequency data and the results show very good agreement. In addition, two-dimensional (2D) models with similar configurations to the R3D are developed for comparison since the 2D approach is widely adopted in the literature as a computationally inexpensive approach to model SAW sensors using the FE method. Results illustrate that the R3D model is capable of capturing the SAW response more accurately than the 2D model; this is demonstrated by comparison of centre frequency and insertion loss values. These results are very encouraging and indicate that the R3D model is capable of capturing the MEMS-based SAW sensor response without being computationally expensive.

El Gowini, Mohamed M.; Moussa, Walied A.

2009-01-01

158

Analysis of interaction between two SAW modes in Pt grating on langasite cut (0°, 138.5°, 26.6°).  

PubMed

The numerical technique based on a previously developed rational approximation of harmonic admittance of a periodic grating was applied to analysis of SAW behavior in platinum grating on langasite cut with Euler angles (0°, 138.5°, 26.6°). The approximation is able to take into account interaction between surface and bulk waves or between two SAW modes. SAW dispersion was calculated at different values of electrode thickness varying between 1% and 4% of wavelength. It was found that with increasing Pt thickness, SAW behavior in the grating is strongly affected by interaction between two SAW modes propagating in the same orientation. An additional stopband, which results from this interaction, occurs at certain detuning from synchronous reflection condition and can cause spurious resonances of the admittance function. Interaction between two SAW modes is also responsible for anomalously slow growth of reflectivity with increasing platinum thickness. PMID:22083770

Naumenko, Natalya F

2011-11-01

159

P2H-1 High Frequency and High Selectivity Balanced Front-End SAW Modules for Handheld Transceivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents new high frequency balanced front-end SAW modules with a wide fractional bandwidth of 1.5-5% for the 240-400 MHz handheld transceivers. The modules contain 2 SAW filters connected across a low-noise amplifier. The 4-pole balanced longitudinally-coupled resonator SAW filters on 42deg YX LiTaO3, 64deg YX and 41deg YX LiNbO3 are used in these modules. The first filter is

Sergei Doberstein

2007-01-01

160

Cubic program structure for multi-device operation and its application in automatic double-electrode SAW  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automatic double-electrode submerged arc welding (SAW) system included two SAW sub-systems and one movement bogie, and each of the SAW sub-system was consisted of a power supply and a wire feeder. These devices were electrically isolated to prevent electrical and magnetic interference. A coordinate controller was needed to make these devices working coordinately and form a better welding seam.

Chaoying Liu; Peng Huang

2008-01-01

161

Accelerated binding kinetics by surface acoustic waves (SAW) micromixing in surface plasmon resonance (SPR) system for biodetection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A design incorporating surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensing and surface acoustic wave (SAW) active microfluidic mixing, integrated on a single LiNbO3 piezoelectric substrate, is presented. Validation experiments show that SAW-mixing (microstreaming) results in accelerated binding kinetics (time-to-saturation) for a standard assay with appropriate SAW excitation parameters. Since both SPR sensors and SAW transducers can be fabricated simultaneously using low-cost microfabrication methods, the proposed design should contribute to improved lab-on-chip devices for detecting and identifying biomolecules of interest with greater accuracy and speed across multiple applications.

Renaudin, Alan; Chabot, Vincent; Grondin, Etienne; Aimez, Vincent; Charette, Paul G.

2011-02-01

162

Multiple-frequency SAW devices for chemical sensing and materials characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors have demonstrated the use of multiple-frequency surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices for chemical detection and characterization of thin film properties. A seven-frequencies SAW device was designed and fabricated with nominal Rayleigh wave center frequencies ranging from 25 to 200 MHz in square root of 2 multiples. For this device, transducer periodicity, finger length, and center-to-center transducer separation all scale with the reciprocal of the center frequency. Coating this device with a thin polymer film allows the study of frequency-dependent changes in the viscoelastic properties of the polymer as a function of temperature and of the concentration of various organic solvents, which in turn provides a means for selectively detecting these compounds. Multifrequency devices provide a means to distinguish the many perturbations affecting SAW propagation from one another.

Ricco, A. J.; Martin, S. J.

163

Design technique for nonlinear phase SAW filters using slanted finger interdigital transducers.  

PubMed

This paper describes a useful design technique to achieve a nonlinear phase SAW filter using slanted finger interdigital transducers (SFITs) or tapered interdigital transducers which are suitable for wide-band filters in intermediate frequency stages. A required nonlinear phase response in the passband can be obtained by changing center-to-center distances between input and output SFITs along an axis perpendicular to the SAW propagation axis. The design is based on a building-block approach in the frequency domain. A nonlinear phase SAW filter with a center frequency of 70 MHz and a fractional bandwidth of about 10% is demonstrated on x-cut 112.2 degrees y-propagating LiTaO(3 ). Because the substrate has a power flow angle of 1.55 degrees, the SFIT pattern is tilted along that angle. Good agreement between theoretical and experimental results is obtained. PMID:18244156

Yatsuda, H

1998-01-01

164

Laser processing quality control by laser-excited SAW with IR detection (LSAW-IRD)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new method of nondestructive remote control of laser processing quality is proposed. The subjects of control are structure, material properties and defects in near surface layers, modified by laser action just after laser processing (welding, heat treatment etc.). The proposed technique includes the laser excitation of surface acoustic waves (SAW) and their scattering in the processing area. For the remote registration of SAW the novel method is proposed. It's based on the detection of IR radiation arising due to temperature variation in SAW. Theoretical foundation of this technique is developed. The estimates show the reliability of LSAW-IRD. The advantage of scheme proposed is the ability to investigate rough surfaces in remote manner, as well as it possible compatibility with laser processing units.

Karabutov, Alexander A.; Kubyshkin, Alexander P.; Panchenko, Vladislav Y.

1996-04-01

165

Maintenance of stellite and tungsten carbide saw tips: respiratory health and exposure-response evaluations.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To study exposure to cobalt and chromium in saw maintenance rooms and test respiratory health among saw filers at lumber mills. Hard-metal lung disease is associated with cobalt in the manufacture of tungsten carbide tools; recently it has also been reported among tool maintenance workers. Lumber mills often use saws tipped with tungsten carbide or with a newer alloy, stellite (containing more cobalt, as well as chromium). METHODS--A cross sectional study of 118 saw filers at eight lumber mills was carried out that included a standardised questionnaire, spirometry, personal air sampling, and examination of tasks every 10 minutes (by observation). Comparison data were from a study of bus mechanics tested with similar methods. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION--Cobalt exposure was associated with tungsten carbide grinding but not with stellite grinding. Chromium exposure was associated mainly with stellite welding. Saw filers had a twofold increase in phlegm and wheeze (P < 0.01) and a threefold increase in cough, phlegm, and wheeze related to work (P < 0.001), but no increase in breathlessness. Stellite welding was associated with a significant increase in nasal symptoms and cough related to work and a small decrease in airflow (forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC%), P < 0.05). Saw filers wet grinding with tungsten carbide had significant reductions in forced expiratory lung volumes (FEV1 and FVC, P < 0.05) and were significantly more likely to have FEV1 and FVC values in the abnormal range. Cobalt exposure (in wet grinding) and duration of work that involved tungsten carbide grinding were both associated with significant reductions in FEV1 and FVC. Average cobalt exposures in this study were about 5 micrograms/m3, well below the currently accepted permissible concentration, which suggests that the current workplace limit for cobalt may be too high.

Kennedy, S M; Chan-Yeung, M; Marion, S; Lea, J; Teschke, K

1995-01-01

166

Modeling and performance analysis of SAW reader systems for delay-line sensors.  

PubMed

In this contribution, we present a comprehensive modeling approach for delay line-based surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor reader systems, which provides valuable insight into the interaction of the individual system parameters. A parametric analysis of signal strength, noise, and quantization effects and consideration of important signal processing parameters, such as data windows and averaging, allows prediction of the achievable statistical measurement accuracy by closed-form solutions. The performance and capabilities of the derived model are verified on system design examples as well as multiple practical measurement scenarios, using a prototype 2.45-GHz frequency-stepped continuous-wave SAW reader system. PMID:19942515

Scheiblhofer, Stefan; Schuster, Stefan; Stelzer, Andreas

2009-10-01

167

Clustering-based pattern recognition applied to chemical recognition using SAW array signals  

SciTech Connect

We present a new patter recognition (PR) technique for chemical identification using arrays of microsensors. The technique relies on a new empirical approach to k-dimensional cluster analysis which incorporates measured human visual perceptions of difficult 2- dimensional clusters. The method can handle nonlinear SAW array data, detects both unexpected (outlier) and unreliable array responses, and has no user-adjustable parameters. We use this technique to guide the development of arrays of thin-film-coated SAW (Surface Acoustic Wave) devices that produce optimal PR performance for distinguishing a variety of volatile organic compounds, organophosphonates and water.

Osbourn, G.C.; Bartholomew, J.W.; Frye, G.C.; Ricco, A.J.

1994-05-01

168

Development of low-loss band-pass filters using SAW resonators for portable telephones  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bandpass filter using surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators in a ladder circuit structure for portable telephone systems is reported. For filter design, a simulation tool is used to consider the effects of electrodes (their apertures, the number of paired elements, thickness, and bulk wave radiation). Filter input and output impedance conditions are designed by the resonator capacitance to match

O. Ikata; T. Miyashita; T. Matsuda; T. Nishihara; Y. Satoh

1992-01-01

169

Mind your hand during the energy crunch: Functional Outcome of Circular Saw Hand Injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although injuries due to circular saws are very common all over the world, there is surprisingly little information available about their functional outcomes. As the socioeconomic impact of these injuries is immense and determined by the casualties' disability and impairment, it is the objective of this study to present data on the functional outcome, disability, and impairment of hand

Matthias Frank; Juliane Hecht; Matthias Napp; Joern Lange; Rico Grossjohann; Dirk Stengel; Uli Schmucker; Axel Ekkernkamp; Peter Hinz

2010-01-01

170

Application of the see-saw method to all refracting optical systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optical see-saw diagram is a method that describes image correction to third-order approximation over a finite field of view in rotationally symmetric systems that employ aspheric surfaces. The aim of this paper is to describe the correction of aberrations caused by plane surfaces in all refracting optical systems in terms of the see-saw diagram. A lens correction algorithm based on the see-saw method is described to correct analytically the Seidel aberrations, primary spherical aberration, coma, astigmatism, and distortion, in such systems. We then apply this lens correction algorithm to the design of equivalent configurations by aspherizing different surfaces of the system, and the high-order aberrations of the equivalent configurations are evaluated by means of transverse-ray-aberration plots. Results indicate that this method gives information on what the contribution must be to the third-order aberrations that each component should provide to the system to give a better balance of high-order aberrations. Examples of the lens correction algorithm applied to lenses with six refracting surfaces and working for both finite and infinite object conjugates are given. aberrations, see-saw method.

Rosete-Aguilar, Martha

1996-04-01

171

What you saw is not what you get: Domain adaptation using asymmetric kernel transforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In real-world applications, “what you saw” during training is often not “what you get” during deployment: the distribution and even the type and dimensionality of features can change from one dataset to the next. In this paper, we address the problem of visual domain adaptation for transferring object models from one dataset or visual domain to another. We introduce ARC-t,

Brian Kulis; Kate Saenko; Trevor Darrell

2011-01-01

172

Improving BPH symptoms and sexual dysfunctions with a saw palmetto preparation? Results from a pilot trial.  

PubMed

In elderly men, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a major risk factor for sexual dysfunctions (SDys). Additionally, the standard treatments for BPH symptoms, alpha blockers and 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors, cause SDys themselves. Preparations from saw palmetto berries are an efficacious and well-tolerated symptomatic treatment for mild to moderate BPH and have traditionally been used to treat SDys. We conducted an open multicentric clinical pilot trial to investigate whether the saw palmetto berry preparation Prostasan® influenced BPH symptoms and SDys. Eighty-two patients participated in the 8-week trial, taking one capsule of 320?mg saw palmetto extract daily. At the end of the treatment, the International Prostate Symptom Score was reduced from 14.4?±?4.7 to 6.9?±?5.2 (p?saw palmetto to show improvement in BPH symptoms and SDys as well. [Corrections made here after initial online publication.] PMID:22522969

Suter, Andreas; Saller, Reinhard; Riedi, Eugen; Heinrich, Michael

2012-04-23

173

An experimental study of the physiological effects of chain saw operation.  

PubMed Central

This experimental study was designed to determine whether a combination of noise and vibration produced more pronounced changes in temporary shifts of finger skin temperature and temporary threshold shift (TTS) of hearing than those resulting from exposure to either stress alone. Nineteen healthy subjects were exposed to six different combinations of vibration, noise, and handle holding by using a chain saw for a pre-determined time. The mean value of normalised finger skin temperature decreased much more when the subjects operated a chain saw at high speed (exposure 1) than when they operated the chain saw with the noise isolated by double hearing protection (exposure 2). In five of the 14 subjects significantly larger TTS values at 4 kHz were observed in the former condition (exposure 1) compared with the values obtained when they stood beside someone else operating a chain saw (exposure 3). The results of this study suggest that noise may play a part in inducing the constriction of the peripheral vessels seen with local exposure to vibration, and that hand-arm vibration may produce an additive effect on the noise induced TTS.

Miyakita, T; Miura, H; Futatsuka, M

1987-01-01

174

A wireless pressure-measurement system based on SAW transponder technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid sensor system for tire pressure measurements is presented. We use a combination of a conventional capacitive pressure sensor together with a passive SAW transponder to build an impedance loaded reflective delay line which can be read out wirelessly. The sensor system together with a transceiver unit achieved a pressure resolution of at least ± 0.15 kPa within a

G. Schimetta; F. Dollinger; A. Springer; R. Weigel

2000-01-01

175

Lack of bipolar see-saw in response to Southern Ocean wind reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cessation of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) significantly reduces northward oceanic heat transport. In response to anomalous freshwater flux, this leads to the classic ‘bipolar see-saw’ pattern of northern cooling and southern warming in surface air and ocean temperatures. By contrast, as shown here in a coupled climate model, both northern and southern cooling are observed for an

A. Levermann; J. Schewe; M. Montoya

2007-01-01

176

Lack of bipolar see-saw in response to Southern Ocean wind reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cessation of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) significantly reduces northward oceanic heat transport. In response to anomalous freshwater flux, this leads to the classic `bipolar see-saw' pattern of northern cooling and southern warming in surface air and ocean temperatures. By contrast, as shown here in a coupled climate model, both northern and southern cooling are observed for an

A. Levermann; J. Schewe; M. Montoya

2007-01-01

177

An attenuation improvement technology for ladder SAW\\/FBAR filters and duplexers employing cancellation circuit  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new method of attenuation improvement at an arbitrary frequency in an RF SAW\\/FBAR filter or duplexer. There are leakage signal paths between terminals of RF filters or duplexers through stray capacitance and inductive coupling. By cancelling the main path by secondary path with proper phase and amplitude, high attenuation can be achieved at an arbitrary frequency.

Masafumi Iwaki; Jun Tsutsumi; Yuki Endo; Hiroshi Nakamura; Yoshio Satoh

2011-01-01

178

Development of Diamond-Tipped Chain Saws for Slot Cutting in Welded Tuff.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the development and performance evaluations of two chain saws, one with a 1.1-m bar and the other with a 2.1-m bar, that were used to cut thin (less than 15 mm) planar slots in a jointed, welded tuff in G-Tunnel on the Nevada Test Sit...

R. M. Zimmerman R. E. Finley R. L. Schuch D. J. Dodds

1987-01-01

179

Development of fuzzy logic system to predict the SAW weldment shape profiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fuzzy model was presented to predict the weldment shape profile of submerged arc welds (SAW) including the shape of heat affected zone (HAZ). The SAW bead-on-plates were welded by following a full factorial design matrix. The design matrix consisted of three levels of input welding process parameters. The welds were cross-sectioned and etched, and the zones were measured. A mapping technique was used to measure the various segments of the weld zones. These mapped zones were used to build a fuzzy logic model. The membership functions of the fuzzy model were chosen for the accurate prediction of the weld zone. The fuzzy model was further tested for a set of test case data. The weld zone predicted by the fuzzy logic model was compared with the experimentally obtained shape profiles and close agreement between the two was noted. The mapping technique developed for the weld zones and the fuzzy logic model can be used for on-line control of the SAW process. From the SAW fuzzy logic model an estimation of the fusion and HAZ can also be developed.

Narang, H. K.; Mahapatra, M. M.; Jha, P. K.; Biswas, P.

2012-09-01

180

Prevention of HAZ cracking in corner joints of high heat input SAW box columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

One-pass submerged-arc welding (SAW) with high heat input is extensively used for the corner welds of box columns, though internal cracking of lamellar tearing type in some cases occurs along the centreline of the flange plate thickness. This paper describes an investigation of weld microstructures, hydrogen concentrations, and residual stresses at the cracking position to clarify the cracking mechanism. Appropriate

T. Wada; T. Terasaki; S. Igi

1998-01-01

181

An efficient algorithmic approach to the design of SAW coupled resonator filters for design automation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design curves have been developed from the previous body of work concerning the design of SAW coupled resonator filters. These curves permit the investigation of design parameters versus filter performance relationships. When introduced into a closed loop design system, these design curves form the core capability of a design automation system. Specifications such as center frequency, insertion loss, bandwidth, group

M. J. McCollister; S. M. Richie

2000-01-01

182

Characterizing components of the Saw Palmetto Berry Extract (SPBE) on prostate cancer cell growth and traction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saw Palmetto Berry Extract (SPBE) is applied for prostate health and treatment of urinary tract infections, nonbacterial prostitis and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) in man. An assumption is that SPBE affects tumor cell progression and migration in breast and prostate tissue. In this work, DU-145 cells were used to demonstrate that SPBE and its sterol components, ?-sitosterol and stigmasterol, inhibit

Carina Scholtysek; Aleksandra A. Krukiewicz; Jose´-Luis Alonso; Karan P. Sharma; Pal C. Sharma; Wolfgang H. Goldmann

2009-01-01

183

Optimal design of wide band low loss SAW filters, using slanted interdigital transducers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slanted finger SAW transducers allow one to design wide band filters with excellent characteristics. One of the most interesting modifications of such a filter is the slanted SPUDT. We present an approach to the analysis of such filters based on consistent use of the Y-matrix instead of the conventional P-matrix. Conditions of optimal matching of such SPUDT are obtained and

S. M. Balashov; K. H. Baek

2000-01-01

184

8 channel and 32 channel low loss switchable SAW filter banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and testing of 8 channels and 32 channels low loss switchable SAW filter bank is described. Both input and output switches are used instead of input interconnection network and output switch to decrease the insertion loss of input interconnection network. In order to decrease the insertion loss, the individual filters used in 8 channels filter bank consists of

Shitang He; Honglang Li; Wen Wang; Shunzhou Li; Yong Liang

2003-01-01

185

A Green's function approach to the reflection behavior of SAW in layered structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Green's function method is used to derive expressions for the mechanical part of complex SAW reflection coefficients for layered structures of any material symmetry with transverse perturbations of arbitrary shape and material symmetry. The computed data are in qualitative agreement with published results that have been derived using the variational principle or the perturbation theory. Deviations arise from quite

M. Weihnacht; H. Matthews; P. H. Carr

1993-01-01

186

The Income Volatility See-Saw: Implications for School Lunch. ERS Report Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Income volatility challenges the functioning of the safety net provided by U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) food assistance programs for low-income families in time of need. Low-income families may be on a see-saw of income changes that make it difficult for program administrators to accurately target benefits and to define sensible…

Newman, Constance

2006-01-01

187

Temperature Compensated SAW Devices Using Bonded LiTaO3/Sapphire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel temperature compensated SAW substrate was developed by using direct bonding techniques. This method has merits to keep the same coupling factor and propagation loss as the original piezoelectric substrate and need not strict control of substrate thickness. Temperature compensating method using direct bonding techniques requires support substrate with small thermal expansion coefficient and large elastic coefficients. Sapphire is one of the ideal materials for the support substrate. Thickness of the piezoelectric substrate has large influence on the temperature characteristics and spurious responses caused by reflection of bulk acoustic wave at the bonding interface. We found appropriate thickness of LiTaO3 with good temperature characteristics and no spurious responses. Using bonded LiTaO3/sapphire SAW substrate, US-PCS SAW duplexer with small temperature coefficient of frequency and good frequency characteristics was developed. Power durability of the duplexer using bonded LiTaO3/sapphire SAW substrate was excellent because of high thermal conductivity of sapphire.

Miura, Michio; Inoue, Shogo; Tsutsumi, Jun; Matsuda, Takashi; Ueda, Masanori; Satoh, Yoshio; Ikata, Osamu; Ebata, Yasuo

188

Production Machine Shop Employment Competencies. Part Two: Saws, Drills, and Grinders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Competencies for production machine shop are provided for the second of four topic areas: saws, drills, and grinders. Each competency appears in a one-page format. It is presented as a goal statement followed by one or more "indicator" statements, which are performance objectives describing an ability that, upon attainment, will establish…

Bishart, Gus; Werner, Claire

189

Identification of SAW ID-tags using an FSCW interrogation unit and model-based evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices are well suited for the application as wireless and completely passive identification (ID)-tag. They operate even under harsh environmental conditions, especially under high temperatures. Interrogation units operate similar to conventional radar systems and therefore, have the same resolution restrictions when an inverse fast Fourier transformation (IFFT) is applied. The application of model-based algorithms to the

Andreas Stelzer; M arkus Pichler; Stefan Scheiblhofer; Stefan Schuster

2004-01-01

190

Vapor phase detection of plastic explosives using a SAW resonator immunosensor array  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the results of a series of experiments demonstrating on-the-spot detection of low vapor pressure plastic explosives containing nitro groups such as RDX, TNT, and their analogous substances, facilitated by the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) Lab. A set of antibody coated SAW resonators inside the flow cell detect the presence of the target molecules diffusing from the sample. Monoclonal

Sang-Hun Lee; D. D. Stubbs; W. D. Hunt; P. J. Edmonson

2005-01-01

191

SAW/GC detection of taggants and other volatile compounds associated with contraband materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research on a Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) Gas Chromatography (GC) non-intrusive inspection system has demonstrated the ability to identify and quantify the presence of non- volatile contraband vapors in less than 10 seconds. The technique can be used to detect volatile compounds associated with the contraband compound as well. This is important because volatile taggants in explosives make them easy to detect and volatile organic compounds are routinely used in the manufacturing of illicit drugs. The results of tests with volatile organic compounds associated with drugs of abuse, and volatile taggants for explosives are presented. The latter materials are particularly useful in detecting plastic explosives and results for Semtex and C-4 spiked with a taggant show that detectability is improved. Similar testing protocols and methods for drugs, currency, organo-phosphate agents, and taggant compounds have also been demonstrated. The SAW/GC method needs no high voltages, utilizes essentially all solid state devices, and involves no radioactive or hazardous materials SAW detection systems have demonstrated dynamic ranges greater than 1,000,000 and the ability to selectively screen for vapors from explosive and drugs of abuse at the part per billion level with little or no interference. Most important for law-enforcement, SAW/GC devices can be produced in small packages at low cost.

Staples, Edward J.; Watson, Gary W.; McGuirre, David S.; Williams, Dudley

1997-02-01

192

Sensitization to saw palmetto and minoxidil in separate topical extemporaneous treatments for androgenetic alopecia.  

PubMed

We report a 24-year-old woman with androgenetic alopecia who became sensitized to topical minoxidil following use of an extemporaneous preparation of minoxidil 4% with retinoic acid in a propylene glycol base. She subsequently also became sensitized to saw palmetto (Serenoa repens), a topical herbal extract commonly promoted for the treatment of hair loss. PMID:12423443

Sinclair, Rodney D; Mallari, Rica S; Tate, Bruce

2002-11-01

193

A new generalized two track RSPUDT structure for SAW filter size reduction: design and performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

High volume communication receivers continue to add features such as multimode operation, voice recognition, and Internet access with shrinking size. These evolutions reduce the available space for the RF and IF filtering functions. For systems such as CDMA and PCS the SAW IF filter is one of the largest components. This trend has lead to the development of DART filters,

Stephane Chamaly; Pierre Dufilie; Pierre Blanc-Benon; Martine Doisy

2000-01-01

194

Production Machine Shop Employment Competencies. Part Two: Saws, Drills, and Grinders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Competencies for production machine shop are provided for the second of four topic areas: saws, drills, and grinders. Each competency appears in a one-page format. It is presented as a goal statement followed by one or more "indicator" statements, which are performance objectives describing an ability that, upon attainment, will establish…

Bishart, Gus; Werner, Claire

195

Pulsed interrogation of the SAW torque sensor for electrical power assisted steering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A contactless torque sensor, based on four one-port SAW resonators on quartz substrates working in the 430-437 MHz frequency range, is presented in this paper. The design of the sensor allows full compensation of the bending effect. A single stationary interrogation unit is used to measure resonant frequencies of all four resonators attached to the rotating shaft. The interrogation method

Victor Kalinin; George Bown; John Beckley; Raymond Lohr

2004-01-01

196

Influences of Temperature Field on the Surface Wave Propagation Behaviors in SAW Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analytical and numerical analyses are carried out for surface wave propagation in the layered PVDF piezoelectric structure under uniform and graded temperature field. Effects of thermo-electro-elastic properties, thermal stress and the temperature gradient on the surface wave propagation behaviors in SAW devices are discussed. Increase of temperature in the uniform temperature field or at the upper surface of the piezoelectric

X. S. Cao; F. Jin; W. G. Liu

2010-01-01

197

A SAW-based commutation signaling modem for broadband indoor wireless communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commutation signaling is a bandwidth expanding modulation scheme that is robust to multipath induced intersymbol interference making it suitable for wireless digital communications. By using multipath diversity combining, commutation signaling exploits the time diversity that is inherent in a multipath propagation environment. This paper considers a surface acoustic wave (SAW) implementation of a commutation signaling modem for broadband indoor wireless

George Kipens; Harry Leib; J. Saw; J. Nisbet; Ji-Dong Dai

1998-01-01

198

Saw-Dry-Rip Improves Quality of Random-Length Yellow-Poplar 2 by 4's.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the study, small 16-ft yellow-poplar logs of 8- to 14-in. diameter were processed by conventional methods and by SDR (Saw-Dry-Rip). Four treatments combining different sawing and drying methods were used in the research: SDR, high-temperature drying (S...

R. R. Maeglin R. S. Boone

1988-01-01

199

Development of a generalized model for analyzing phase characteristics of SAW devices under mass and fluid loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

A generalized model that integrates the Navier- Stokes equation and coupling-of-modes (COM) model for biosensing SAW devices is developed in this paper. The SAW device is separated into three regions: interdigital transducer (IDT), substrate (delay line), and sensing regions. To evaluate the effects of metal thickness, mass loading caused by bioreaction, and different viscous fluid loading, the sensing region is

Meng-Shiun Tsai; Jie-Ting Jeng

2010-01-01

200

Development of a preconcentration unit for a SAW sensor micro array and its use for indoor air quality monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor system for continuous monitoring of air quality was developed. The system employs a miniaturized array of eight polymer coated SAW sensors, a preconcentration unit (‘trap’), and methods of pattern recognition. Care was taken to minimize both the response times of the sensors and the gas volume of the sensor array. Thus, a small

F. Bender; N. Barié; G. Romoudis; A. Voigt; M. Rapp

2003-01-01

201

INTERNATIONAL UNION OF OPERATING ENGINEERS NATIONAL HAZMAT PROGRAM - ADAMANT CIRCULAR SAW OENHP{number_sign}: 2001-05, VERSION A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Florida International University's (FIU) Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) evaluated five saws for their effectiveness in cutting up specially prepared fiberglass-reinforced plywood crates. These crates were built as surrogates for crates that presently hold radioactive contaminated glove boxes at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Los Alamos facility. The Adamant circular saw was assessed on August 14, 2001. During the

2002-01-01

202

“Buzz-saw” noise: Prediction of the rotor-alone pressure field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Public expectations of lower environmental noise levels, and increasingly stringent legislative limits on aircraft noise, result in noise being a critical technical issue in the development of jet engines. Noise at take-off, when the engines are at high-power operating conditions, is a key reference level for engine noise certification. “Buzz-saw” noise is the dominant fan tone noise from modern high-bypass-ratio turbofan aircraft engines during take-off. Rotor-alone tones are the key component of buzz-saw noise. The rotor-alone pressure field is cut-off at subsonic fan tip speeds; buzz-saw noise is associated with supersonic fan tip speeds, or equivalently, high power engine operating conditions. A recent series of papers has described new work concerning the prediction of buzz-saw noise. The prediction method is based on modelling the nonlinear propagation of one-dimensional sawtooth waveforms. A sawtooth waveform is a simplified representation of the rotor-alone pressure field. Previous validation of the prediction method focussed entirely on reproducing the spectral characteristics of buzz-saw noise; this was dictated at that time by the availability of spectral data only for comparison between measurement and prediction. In this paper, full validation of the method by comparing measurement and prediction of the rotor-alone pressure field is published for the first time. It is shown that results from the modelling based on a one-dimensional sawtooth waveform capture the essential features of the rotor-alone pressure field as it propagates upstream inside a hard-walled inlet duct. This verifies that predictions of the buzz-saw noise spectrum, which are in good agreement with the measured data, are based on a model which reproduces the key physics of the noise generation process. Validation results for the rotor-alone pressure field in an acoustically lined inlet duct are also shown. Comparisons of the measured and predicted rotor-alone pressure field are more difficult to interpret because the acoustic lining significantly modifies the sawtooth waveform, but there remains good agreement with the measured spectral data. The buzz-saw noise prediction code used to generate the simulations in this paper has been used by the Rolls-Royce Noise Department since 2004.

McAlpine, A.; Schwaller, P. J. G.; Fisher, M. J.; Tester, B. J.

2012-10-01

203

Finite element calculation of the dispersion relations of infinitely extended SAW structures including bulk wave radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the design procedure of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices simple models like equivalent circuit models or the Coupling of Modes (COM) model are used to achieve short calculation times. Therefore, these models can be used for iterative component optimization. However, they are subject to many simplifications and restrictions. In order to improve the parameters required for the simpler models and to achieve better insight ot the physics of SAW devices analysis tools solving the constitutional partial differential equations are needed. We have developed an efficient calculation scheme based on the finite element method. It makes use of newly established periodic boundary conditions (PBCs) allowing the simulation of an infinitely extended SAW device. This is a good approximation of many SAW devices which show a large number of periodically arranged electrodes. We have developed two different formulations for the PBCs: One leads to a small quadratic eigenvalue problem operating on a larger matrix. These formulations allow the calculation of the complete dispersion relation. Bulk acoustic waves (BAWs) which are generated due to mode conversion at electrode edges are allowed to leave the calculation area nearly without reflection. Therefore, the calculation scheme also considers damping coefficients caused by the conversion of surface waves into bulk waves. This behavior coincides well with real SAW devices in which the substrate thickness is large compared to the used wavelengths and, additionally, the bulk waves are scattered in all directions at the rough substrate bottom. In the paper, a short introduction to the basic theory of the numerical calculation scheme will be given first. The applicability of the calculation scheme will be demonstrated by comparing analytical, measured and simulated results.

Hofer, Manfred; Finger, Norman; Zaglmayr, Sabine; Schoeberl, Joachim; Kovacs, Guenter; Langer, Ulrich; Lerch, Reinhard

2002-07-01

204

NDE of zinc layer on steel substrate using laser-ultrasonic SAW  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser-ultrasound spectroscopy, a non-contact ultrasonic technique was used to characterize the Lame coefficients ((lambda) ,(mu) ) and thickness (h) of a zinc layer on a steel substrate. This characterization is based on fitting the measured velocity dispersion curve of surface acoustic waves (SAW) to the dispersion calculated one using the conjugates gradients algorithm (C.G). A short laser pulse was used to generate a wideband pulse of ultrasound and a laser interferometer was used for its detection. From a large number of echoes we identified the one corresponding to the SAW. Furthermore other useful information were obtained from these data like attenuation and surface skimming longitudinal wave. Measurements of the velocity dispersion of the Rayleigh wave were achieved up to 50 MHz. The evaluation of layer's parameters performed for similar cases, on a pseudo-experimental model, were obtained with accuracy better then 1% for (h, (mu) ) and about 4% to 6% for (lambda) .

Chenni, Bouzid; Moreau, Andre; Pouliquen, J.

2002-06-01

205

SH-SAW Sensor Platform for Chemical Detection in Aqueous Solutions  

SciTech Connect

Chemically sensitive polymers coated on delay lines utilizing shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH-SAW) sensors are investigated for the detection of organic analytes in liquid environments. The SH-SAW sensor platform was designed and fabricated on 36{degree} rotated Y-cut LiTaO{sub 3}. By depositing a SiO{sub 2} dielectric layer over the entire device prior to applying the polymer film, partial electrical passivation of the interdigital transducers (IDT) is obtained while increasing the mass sensitivity of the device. Changes in the mechanical properties of the chemically sensitive polymer materials were clearly detectable through a frequency shift at least one order of magnitude larger than that of a coated-quartz crystal resonator (QCR) in a similar experiment.

Casalnuovo, Steve; Cernosek, Richard; Josse, Fabien; Ricco, Antonio; Zhou, Rongnong

1999-07-20

206

Error probability for RFID SAW tags with pulse position coding and peak-pulse detection.  

PubMed

This paper addresses the code reading error probability (EP) in radio-frequency identification (RFID) SAW tags with pulse position coding (PPC) and peak-pulse detection. EP is found in a most general form, assuming M groups of codes with N slots each and allowing individual SNRs in each slot. The basic case of zero signal in all off-pulses and equal signals in all on-pulses is investigated in detail. We show that if a SAW-tag with PPC is designed such that the spurious responses are attenuated by more than 20 dB below on-pulses, then EP can be achieved at the level of 10(-8) (one false read per 108 readings) with SNR >17 dB for any reasonable M and N. The tag reader range is estimated as a function of the transmitted power and EP. PMID:23192817

Shmaliy, Yuriy S; Plessky, Victor; Cerda-Villafaña, Gustavo; Ibarra-Manzano, Oscar

2012-11-01

207

[A case of rhabdomyolysis caused by saw palmetto of healthy foods].  

PubMed

An 82-year-old man visited our hospital when he developed a fever of over 38 degrees C after having consumed 5 types of health foods. He had previously been treated for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypertension and hyperuricemia. Blood examination on admission revealed renal dysfunction, marked elevation of C-reactive protein, and an elevated level of serum creatine kinase. According to the laboratory data and his clinical history, rhabdomyolysis complicated by acute renal failure was suspected, but his condition improved and his fever was reduced with fluid infusion. As a drug lymphocyte stimulation test was positive for only saw palmetto in the 5 health foods, we diagnosed the case as rhabdomyolysis induced by saw palmetto. We believe that this is the first case of a health food being the cause of rhabdomyolysis. PMID:22768426

Hanaka, Minako; Yoshii, Chiharu; Yatera, Kazuhiro; Ito, Chiyo; Chojin, Yasuo; Nagata, Shuya; Yamasaki, Kei; Nishida, Chinatsu; Kawanami, Toshinori; Kawanami, Yukiko; Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Mukae, Hiroshi

2012-06-01

208

Novel Design for Centrifugal Counter-Current Chromatography: III. Saw Tooth Column  

PubMed Central

The toroidal coil using an equilateral triangular core and zigzag pattern column have improved both retention of the stationary phase and peak resolution of the conventional toroidal coil in centrifugal counter-current chromatography. To further improve the retention of stationary phase and peak resolution, a novel saw tooth column was designed and the performance of the system was evaluated at various flow rates. The results indicated that both retention of the stationary phase and peak resolution were improved as the flow rate was decreased and at a flow rate of 0.005 ml/min the resolution is remarkably increased. Modification of the tubing called flat-twisted tubing further improved the peak resolution without increasing the column pressure. With a decreased column length at a capacity of about 0.2 ml, resolution of the saw tooth column was 1.02.

Yang, Yi; Aisa, Haji Akber; Ito, Yoichiro

2009-01-01

209

Some effects of flux physical properties on weld-bead formation, in the SAW process  

SciTech Connect

The study of fundamental arc-welding process characteristics is important for controlling both the formation of and the mechanical properties in weld metals. Automated and semi-automated welding procedures require accurate knowledge of the effects on weld-bead dimensions of changes in process variables, in order to fill joints rapidly without defects. In the SAW process, one such variable is the type of flux used. Two classes of flux properties are important: flux chemistry and reactivity, which affect weld-metal composition and properties; and flux physical properties, which can be intrinsic, e.g., viscosity and surface tension, or extrinsic, e.g., particle size. Physical properties affect (or allegedly affect) bead dimensions, welding speed, and weldingcurrent capabilities. Much recent work on the SAW process has been concerned with the chemical composition and mechanical properties of weld metals.

Patchett, B.M.

1983-12-01

210

Chemical class specificity using self-assembled monolayers on SAW devices  

SciTech Connect

We have studied the chemical selectivity and sensitivity of surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors covered by (COO{sup {minus}}){sub 2}/Cu{sup 2+}-terminated interfaces by examining the response of self-assembled monolayer (SAM) films formed from the solution phase for 36, 84, and 180 h adsorption times. These organomercaptan SAMs were prepared on thin-film Au surfaces having variable, controlled grain size. The SAW response from the carboxylate coordinated Cu{sup 2+}-terminated SAM is compared to that from methyl-terminated SAM, as these films interact with a vapor-phase organophosphonate analyte and the vapors of common organic solvents. Results have implications for designing and reliably fabricating chemical sensors that respond to specific organic analytes.

Thomas, R.C.; Ricco, A.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yang, H.C.; Dermody, D.; Crooks, R.M. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1996-06-01

211

Design and Fabrication of Passive Wireless SAW Sensor for Pressure Measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper mainly presents the design and fabrication of a TDMA (time division multiple access) passive wireless pressure sensor using 2.45 GHz surface acoustic wave (SAW) delay lines. The SAW pressure sensor consists of two LiNbO3 substrates. The first layer is a pressure-detective thin substrate, on which an interdigital transducer (IDT) and reflectors are fabricated. The second layer is a support substrate, in which a reference pressure cavity is etched. These two substrates are directly bonded. The pressure measurement was successfully demonstrated in a pressure range of 20?280 kPa with good repeatability. In addition, the influence of a tire on the wireless interrogation of the sensor was investigated. Automobile tires have little negative influence on wireless communication, at least if they do not rotate.

Hashimoto, Shuhei; Kuypers, Jan H.; Tanaka, Shuji; Esashi, Masayoshi

212

Attenuation of 618 MHz SAW in multilayer Ni-Cu-Ni thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report on the magnetic field (H) dependence of attenuation ?(H) of 618-MHz SAW (surface acoustic waves) propagating in vacuum-evaporated multilayer Ni-Cu-Ni thin-film samples. Experimental results indicate that the magnetoelastic ?( H) response of ≈200-Å single layers of Ni (?(H)≈22 dB\\/cm) is not affected by the deposition of overlayers of 75 Å and 180 Å of Cu; however, the

R. F. Wiegert; M. Levy

1988-01-01

213

Critical heat flux test on saw-toothed fin duct under one-sided heating conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critical heat flux (CHF) tests on a new type of rectangular cooling tube, ‘saw-toothed fin duct, SFD’ for high heat flux components were performed under one-sided heating conditions. The tube has internal triangle fins at the heating side to enhance the CHF characteristics. Hydraulic conditions were as follows: axial flow velocity ranged from 2 to 12 m\\/s. Local pressure at

K Ezato; S Suzuki; K Sato; M Taniguchi; M Hanada; M Araki; M Akiba

2001-01-01

214

Theoretical investigation of the SAW properties of ferroelectric film composite structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of surface acoustic waves (SAW) propagating on a three-layered structure consisting of a perovskite-type ferroelectric film, a buffer layer and a semiconductor substrate have been studied theoretically. Large coupling coefficients (K2) can be obtained when the interdigital transducer (IDT) is on top of the perovskite-type ferroelectric film, with (type 4) and without (type 3) the floating-plane electrode at

Wen-Ching Shih; Mu-Shiang Wu

1998-01-01

215

Investigations on plasma-polymer-coated SAW and STW resonators for chemical gas-sensing applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results from gas probing with various analyte vapors on high-Q low-loss surface transverse wave (STW) and surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators coated with thin plasma-polymer films of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO), styrene, and allyl alcohol at different polymerization conditions are presented in this paper. At the same acoustic wavelength of 7.22 ?m and identical film thicknesses, HMDSO-coated STW devices feature substantially higher

Ivan D. Avramov; Shigeru Kurosawa; Michael Rapp; Piotr Krawczak; Ekaterina I. Radeva

2001-01-01

216

Ladder-type SAW filters using thinned density of randomly distributed "hot" electrodes.  

PubMed

A new method for the design of relatively narrowband ladder-type SAW filters is proposed. It consists of the thinning procedure and consecutive randomization of positions of the remaining transductive periods inside the IDT to suppress undesirable additional passbands. A 0.9% fractional bandwidth filter on LiTaO(3) 42°-cut was designed and manufactured using the proposed approach. PMID:21041145

Kim, Che-Uk; Balashov, Sergey M; Plessky, Victor P; Nam, Chang-Woo; Lee, Kyu-Chul

2010-11-01

217

Thresholds for the identification of wireless SAW RFID-tags with ASK  

Microsoft Academic Search

The generic identification (ID) error probability and optimum thresholds are found employing the Marcum Q-function of first order for passive wireless surface acoustic wave (SAW) ID-tags with binary amplitude shift keying (BASK). As examples, we find optimal thresholds for the 28-slot pulse-burst and the Barker code-based BASK. It is shown that, under the ideal conditions of equal SNRs of 30

G. Cerda-Villafaña; Yuriy S. Shmaliy

2010-01-01

218

The sensitivity to SO 2 of the SAW gas sensor with triethanolamine modified with boric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitivity to SO2 of the SAW gas sensor coated with triethanolamine (TEA) modified with boric acid (H3BO3) (TEA and H3BO3 were mixed with a mole ratio 3:1) has been investigated. A better stability of the modified TEA film compared with that of TEA film was observed. Both the steady response ?f and the transient response (?f\\/?t)max varied linearly with

Shuji Qin; Zhongjie Wu; Zhongyue Tang; Yilin Song; Fanzhong Zeng; Dong Zhao

2000-01-01

219

Some effects of flux physical properties on weld-bead formation, in the SAW process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of fundamental arc-welding process characteristics is important for controlling both the formation of and the mechanical properties in weld metals. Automated and semi-automated welding procedures require accurate knowledge of the effects on weld-bead dimensions of changes in process variables, in order to fill joints rapidly without defects. In the SAW process, one such variable is the type of

B. M. Patchett

1983-01-01

220

Development Of Diamond-Tipped Chain Saws For Slot Cutting In Welded Tuff  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development and performance evaluations of two chain saws, one with a 1.1-m bar and the other with a 2.1-m bar, that were used to cut thin (less than 15 mm) planar slots in a jointed, welded tuff in G-Tunnel on the Nevada Test Site as part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project. 6 refs.,

Roger Zimmerman; Ray Finley; Robert Schuch; Donald Dodd

1987-01-01

221

Method for the Real-Time Localization of passive SAW-based RFID systems around corners  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a novel real-time localization system (RTLS) based upon 2.45 GHZ surface acoustic wave (SAW) radio frequency identification (RFID) systems. The system utilizes a novel localization method that combines the angular rotation of the RFID readerspsila antenna or read beam with the inherent time-of-flight (TOF) distance measurement capabilities using a csc2 thetas pattern for acquisition of

Darmindra D. Arumugam; Daniel W. Engels; Marlin H. Mickle

2008-01-01

222

Micromachining of the ceramics: Can lasers match the performance of diamond saws?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advent of commercial grade picosecond and femtosecond lasers has opened the way for laser micromachining of metals. There has however been no or little work reported on the ceramics. Use of diamond saws is still the preferred way of cutting the ceramics such as an Al2O3-TiC composite (referred to as N58 hereafter) that is widely used in the manufacture

Daniel Patterson; Gurinder P. Singh

2007-01-01

223

Rapid detection of organophosphate pesticides in aqueous environment using a polysiloxane coated SH-SAW device  

Microsoft Academic Search

The choice of the chemically sensing layer for gas and liquid-phase microsensors greatly influences their sensitivity, selectivity, reversibility, and response time. It has been shown in previous work that poly(epichlorohydrin) (PECH) and polyurethane (PU) coated SH-SAW sensors on 36deg rotated Y-cut LiTaO3 can be used to reversibly detect organophosphate (OP) pesticides (phosmet and parathion) directly in the liquid phase with

A. Mensah-Brown; F. Josse; M. J. Wenzel; E. Yaz; S. Schneider

2008-01-01

224

Liquid-Phase Detection of Organophosphate Pesticides Using Guided SH-SAW Sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been established that a polymer-coated SH-SAW sensor on 36deg rotated Y-cut LiTaO3 is a very sensitive platform for direct liquid-phase chemical sensing. In this work, two partially selective coatings, poly(epichlorohydrin) and polyurethane are investigated for the detection of organophosphate pesticides (phosmet and parathion) in aqueous solutions. Moreover, in order to meet the need for sensitive and selective chemical

A. Mensah-Brown; M. J. Wenzel; F. Josse; E. Yaz; O. Sadik

2007-01-01

225

New low-loss broadband SAW filter using unidirectional IDTs with U-shaped MSCs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new low-loss broadband SAW filter is presented. A new configuration using one pair of electrically connected IDTs with an optimum number of fingers, as well as unidirectional IDTs with U-shaped MSCs, is described. Experimental results with bandwidth as wide as 10 percent and loss as low as 3 dB are achieved. Very accurate computer-aided design of a low-loss filter with MSCs is obtained.

Hikita, M.; Kojima, H.; Tabuchi, T.; Kinoshita, Y.

1984-05-01

226

Study on ZnO\\/Al\\/SiO2\\/Si layered structure SAW RF filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A SAW filter with ZnO\\/Al\\/SiO2\\/Si structure was designed and fabricated. An image-impedance connection electrode structure was adopted to depress the insert loss and improve the stop-band rejection. A ZnO film was deposited by DC magnetron sputtering. The sputtering parameters, such as substrate temperature, sputtering gas pressure and deposition rate were extensively investigated. The film showed good c-axis normal orientation through

Tian-Ling Ren; Lei Yang; Li-Tian Liu; Jian-She Liu

2001-01-01

227

See-saw nystagmus in a patient with clinically definite MS.  

PubMed

See-saw nystagmus (SSN) is a relatively uncommon oculomotor disorder, most often associated with parasellar or chiasmal lesions, although it has also been described in several other conditions. To date, SSN has not been reported in clinically definite multiple sclerosis (MS). We present a patient with clinically definite MS who subsequently developed SSN. Possible mechanisms of SSN are discussed. MS should be considered in the differential diagnosis of SSN. PMID:8082683

Samkoff, L M; Smith, C R

1994-01-01

228

Synthesis and evaluation of a new polysiloxane as SAW sensor coatings for DMMP detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new polysiloxane material, polymethyl[3-(2-hydroxy)phenyl] siloxane (PMPS), was synthesized. The PMPS is a linear polysiloxane polymer functionalized with o-allyl phenol group. The chemoselective polymer was spin-coated on a 434MHz surface acoustic wave (SAW) device for detection of dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) vapor ranging from 5 to 40ppm. It was found that the frequency shifts were linear to the vapor concentrations with

Xiaosong Du; Zhihua Ying; Yadong Jiang; Zhongxiang Liu; Taojun Yang; Guangzhong Xie

2008-01-01

229

SAW integrated modules for 800MHz cellular radio portable telephones with new frequency allocations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several technologies are developed to achieve broader band surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) filters for portable telephones used in an 800-MHz wideband (25-MHz) cellular radio system. The design and realization of a transmitter final stage filter (high-power filter) and a prefilter (high-performance filter) are examined from initial specification to final device operation. An insertion loss of less than 2 dB and a rejection

MITSUTAKA HIKITA; TOYOJI TABUCHI; YOSHIKATSU ISHIDA; KAZUHITO KUROSAWA; KUNIHIRO HAMADA

1989-01-01

230

Freestanding CVD diamond elaborated by pulsed-microwave-plasma for ZnO\\/diamond SAW devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous work, the feasibility of developing high performance AlN\\/diamond surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices has been demonstrated using the unpolished nucleation side of freestanding CVD diamond. This process shows the advantage of avoiding the diamond polishing, which is a tedious and a time-consuming technological step. As alternative, we propose the use of a diamond substrate obtained by two stages

T. Lamara; M. Belmahi; O. Elmazria; L. Le Brizoual; J. Bougdira; M. Rémy; P. Alnot

2004-01-01

231

Measurement and FEM/BEM simulation of transverse effects in SAW resonators on lithium tantalate.  

PubMed

It is well known that transverse effects contribute significantly to the loss of SAW resonators on lithium tantalate. In particular, for frequencies above resonance, the surface wave is not guided inside the transducer and radiates into the busbars. In addition, because bulk modes can also be excited, scalar models are not sufficient to accurately predict transverse effects. It is also known that the layout of a SAW resonator (electrode gaps and dummy electrodes) has a strong impact on the transverse effects. In this paper, a periodic FEM/BEM model is presented and is used to simulate the transverse effects for various SAW resonator layouts. Test devices matching those simulated are fabricated and measured; the measured results are compared with the simulated results and show good agreement. By analyzing the dispersion curves produced from the FEM/BEM model in the different regions of the device, several frequency bands corresponding to different transverse behaviors are identified. These results are consistent with the elastic displacements, also computed by the FEM/BEM model. It is further shown that guided conditions in the gap between the transducer and the busbar occur for a frequency range above resonance. This result is in agreement with measurements showing that resonators with smaller gaps exhibit smaller spurious responses in their admittance. PMID:24158295

2013-11-01

232

Advances in SXFA-Coated SAW Chemical Sensors for Organophosphorous Compound Detection  

PubMed Central

A polymer-coated surface acoustic wave (SAW)-based chemical sensor for organophosphorous compound sensing at extremely low concentrations was developed, in which a dual-delay-line oscillator coated with fluoroalcoholpolysiloxane (SXFA) acted as the sensor element. Response mechanism analysis was performed on the SXFA-coated chemical sensor, resulting in the optimal design parameters. The shear modulus of the SXFA, which is the key parameter for theoretical simulation, was extracted experimentally. New designs were done on the SAW devices to decrease the insertion loss. Referring to the new phase modulation approach, superior short-term frequency stability (±2 Hz in seconds) was achieved from the SAW oscillator using the fabricated 300 MHz delay line as the feedback element. In the sensor experiment on dimethylmethylphosphonate (DMMP) detection, the fabricated SXFA-coated chemical sensor exhibited an excellent threshold detection limit up to 0.004 mg/m3 (0.7 ppb) and good sensitivity (?485 Hz/mg/m3 for a DMMP concentration of 2?14 mg/m3).

Wang, Wen; He, Shitang; Li, Shunzhou; Liu, Minghua; Pan, Yong

2011-01-01

233

A SAW-based commutation signaling modem for broadband indoor wireless communication.  

PubMed

Commutation signaling is a bandwidth expanding modulation scheme that is robust to multipath induced intersymbol interference making it suitable for wireless digital communications. By using multipath diversity combining, commutation signaling exploits the time diversity that is inherent in a multipath propagation environment. This paper considers a surface acoustic wave (SAW) implementation of a commutation signaling modem for broadband indoor wireless communication. The modem employs differential encoding and a form of direct sequence spread spectrum modulation with the following specifications: data rate 40 Mb/sec, chip rate 200 MHz, and IF frequency 1 GHz. The differential coherent detector is a key element of a low cost, low complexity commutation signaling modem. A commutation signaling differential coherent detector has been implemented using SAW and RF integrated circuit (RF IC) technologies. The SAW devices have been fabricated on 1280-rotated Y-cut, X-propagating lithium niobate using approximately 1 micron line widths. RF IC technology Is used to implement the high-speed bilinear multipliers needed for differential coherent detection as well as the low-impedance buffers used to drive these multipliers. PMID:18244215

Kipens, G; Leib, H; Saw, J; Nisbet, J; Dai, J D

1998-01-01

234

International Union of Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program. Porter-Cable Circular Saw OENHP Number: 2001-04, Version A.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Florida International University's (FIU) Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) evaluated five saws for their effectiveness in cutting specially prepared fiberglass-reinforced plywood crates. These crates were built as surrogates for crate...

2002-01-01

235

Extremely Fast 1 ?mol · mol-1 Water-Vapor Measurement by a 1 mm Diameter Spherical SAW Device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a surface acoustic wave (SAW) is excited on a spherical surface, a naturally collimated SAW propagates around the equator hundreds of times. The propagation characteristics such as the velocity and amplitude are affected by adsorbed and/or reacted molecules on the surface, and the changes are accumulated by multiple turns of propagation. This enables highly sensitive detection of adsorbed molecules including water vapor. In this paper, the development and testing of a 1 mm diameter spherical SAW sensor, which is capable of measuring water vapor at concentrations well below 1 ?mol · mol-1H2O in N2, are reported. The rise time from 10% to 90% of the spherical SAW sensor to a step change from dry N2 to 1 ?mol · mol-1H2O in N2 was approximately 15 s.

Takeda, N.; Motozawa, M.

2012-09-01

236

INTERNATIONAL UNION OF OPERATING ENGINEERS NATIONAL HAZMAT PROGRAM - ADAMANT CIRCULAR SAW OENHP{number_sign}: 2001-05, VERSION A  

SciTech Connect

Florida International University's (FIU) Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) evaluated five saws for their effectiveness in cutting up specially prepared fiberglass-reinforced plywood crates. These crates were built as surrogates for crates that presently hold radioactive contaminated glove boxes at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Los Alamos facility. The Adamant circular saw was assessed on August 14, 2001. During the FIU test of efficacy, a team from the Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program (OENHP) evaluated the occupational safety and health issues associated with this technology. The Adamant was only used during a limited ''test'' on a regular plywood crate due to safety considerations of the tool for this application. The Adamant circular saw, a counter-rotating twin-cutter, constructed with blades that work differently than conventional cutting wheels with twin blades, each rotating in opposite directions. It is used to cut wood and metals. Each blade is approximately 8 3/4 inches in diameter with a maximum cutting depth of 2 1/2 inches. The machine has two rotation speeds: 1,900 and 2,900 rotations per minute (rpm). The saw is operated with an interlocked, guarded trigger switch located at the end of the saw opposite the cutting blades. To operate the saw, the safety interlock must be depressed prior to powering the saw with the trigger control. The saw is supported by a handle at the front of the saw near the cutting blades. The top part of the blades is guarded near the handle, with approximately three-fourths of the face of the blades exposed. The Adamant circular saw is an innovative technology used to cut metals and wood. Its safety features include: interlocking switch for powering the saw, overload indicator and shutoff, and an electronic brake that stops the engine immediately when the start button is released. The top part of the blades is guarded near the motor. With approximately three-fourths of the face of the blades open, the operator is exposed to the potential risk of serious and minor cuts and abrasions when using and handling the saw. There is also potential for damage to the blades if the saw is not stored properly. Without guarding on the lower part of the blades, these can be damaged if the saw is dropped or rested on the cutting blades. Based upon the industrial hygiene sampling conducted for the other four saws demonstrated at FIU, noise levels, nuisance dust, and airborne fiberglass may be a problem when using this technology for the cutting of fiberglass-reinforced plywood crates. No industrial hygiene sampling was conducted while the Adamant saw was in use. Engineering controls should be used to eliminate these problems whenever possible. Where this is not possible, administrative controls, training, and proper personal protective equipment (PPE) should be used. Respirators should be used if engineering controls do not sufficiently control the dust or fiberglass generated. Respirators should be equipped with an organic vapor and acid gas cartridge with High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter, since during the demonstration, the workers complained of an odd smell, which may have been the breakdown of the fiberglass.

Unknown

2002-01-01

237

INTERNATIONAL UNION OF OPERATING ENGINEERS NATIONAL HAZMAT PROGRAM - PORTER-CABLE CIRCULAR SAW OENHP: 2001-04, VERSION A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Florida International University's (FIU) Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) evaluated five saws for their effectiveness in cutting specially prepared fiberglass-reinforced plywood crates. These crates were built as surrogates for crates that presently hold radioactively contaminated glove boxes at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Los Alamos facility. The Porter-Cable circular saw was assessed on August 15-16, 2001 (Porter-Cable No.1 and

2002-01-01

238

An Electronic Nose Based on Hybrid MOS-SAW Sensors for Detection of Different Biomarkers of Lung Cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An electronic nose based on hybrid MOS-SAW sensors was proposed for lung cancer diagnosis. The MOS gas sensors are used to detect the VOCs of low molecular weight, and the SAW sensors are adopted for the detection of VOCs of high molecular weight. This novel electronic nose provides a better precision in the diagnosis of lung cancer than the system adopting single detecting method we developed before.

Wang, Di; Yu, Kai; Wang, Yishan; Zhao, Cong; Wang, Lin; Wang, Ping

2011-09-01

239

Correlation between adhesion of diamond-like carbon film on LiTaO 3 substrate and SAW velocity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coating diamond-like carbon (DLC) film to LiTaO3 substrate is theoretically expected to stiffen the substrate surface so as to accelerate the surface acoustic wave (SAW) at the surface due to its high elastic constant and low mass density. However, it has been reported that DLC film on LiTaO3 substrate led to a reduction of SAW velocity probably due to poor

Jingze Tian; Qing Zhang; Q. Zhou; R. Gruenwald; M. Huesgen; S. F. Yoon; J. Ahn

2005-01-01

240

Characterization of ZnO\\/diamond SAW devices elaborated on the smooth nucleation side of MPACVD diamond  

Microsoft Academic Search

We designed a SAW filter in this work by combining the piezoelectric ZnO film with a freestanding double layer diamond film deposited using CH4-H2 pulsed MPACVD process through two growth stages. The AFM measurements on the nucleation side of the diamond film has shown that this side is smooth enough to perform photolithography process in the SAW device elaboration, while

L. Le Brizoual; T. Lamara; F. Sarry; M. Belmahi; O. Elmazria; J. Bougdira; M. Remy; P. Alnot

2005-01-01

241

High-energy X-ray optics with silicon saw-tooth refractive lenses.  

PubMed

Silicon saw-tooth refractive lenses have been in successful use for vertical focusing and collimation of high-energy X-rays (50-100 keV) at the 1-ID undulator beamline of the Advanced Photon Source. In addition to presenting an effectively parabolic thickness profile, as required for aberration-free refractive optics, these devices allow high transmission and continuous tunability in photon energy and focal length. Furthermore, the use of a single-crystal material (i.e. Si) minimizes small-angle scattering background. The focusing performance of such saw-tooth lenses, used in conjunction with the 1-ID beamline's bent double-Laue monochromator, is presented for both short ( approximately 1:0.02) and long ( approximately 1:0.6) focal-length geometries, giving line-foci in the 2 microm-25 microm width range with 81 keV X-rays. In addition, a compound focusing scheme was tested whereby the radiation intercepted by a distant short-focal-length lens is increased by having it receive a collimated beam from a nearer (upstream) lens. The collimation capabilities of Si saw-tooth lenses are also exploited to deliver enhanced throughput of a subsequently placed small-angular-acceptance high-energy-resolution post-monochromator in the 50-80 keV range. The successful use of such lenses in all these configurations establishes an important detail, that the pre-monochromator, despite being comprised of vertically reflecting bent Laue geometry crystals, can be brilliance-preserving to a very high degree. PMID:17317922

Shastri, S D; Almer, J; Ribbing, C; Cederström, B

2007-02-14

242

High-energy x-ray optics with silicon saw-tooth refractive lenses.  

SciTech Connect

Silicon saw-tooth refractive lenses have been in successful use for vertical focusing and collimation of high-energy X-rays (50-100 keV) at the 1-ID undulator beamline of the Advanced Photon Source. In addition to presenting an effectively parabolic thickness profile, as required for aberration-free refractive optics, these devices allow high transmission and continuous tunability in photon energy and focal length. Furthermore, the use of a single-crystal material (i.e. Si) minimizes small-angle scattering background. The focusing performance of such saw-tooth lenses, used in conjunction with the 1-ID beamline's bent double-Laue monochromator, is presented for both short ({approx}1:0.02) and long ({approx}1:0.6) focal-length geometries, giving line-foci in the 2 {micro}m-25 {micro}m width range with 81 keV X-rays. In addition, a compound focusing scheme was tested whereby the radiation intercepted by a distant short-focal-length lens is increased by having it receive a collimated beam from a nearer (upstream) lens. The collimation capabilities of Si saw-tooth lenses are also exploited to deliver enhanced throughput of a subsequently placed small-angular-acceptance high-energy-resolution post-monochromator in the 50-80 keV range. The successful use of such lenses in all these configurations establishes an important detail, that the pre-monochromator, despite being comprised of vertically reflecting bent Laue geometry crystals, can be brilliance-preserving to a very high degree.

Shastri, S. D.; Almer, J. A.; Ribbing, C. R.; Cederstrom, B. C.; X-Ray Science Division; Uppsala Univ.; Royal Inst. of Tech.

2007-01-01

243

Abrupt climate change, greenhouse gases, and the bipolar see-saw  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students work with paleoclimate proxy data (d18O, CH4, CO2)from the Byrd and GISP2 ice cores to investigate millennial-scale climate changes during the Last Glacial/Deglacial time periods. Students must prepare a publication quality plot of the data and answer several questions about the similarities and differences between the time-series (north-south phasing, amplitude, symmetry) and use this information to assess the bipolar see-saw mechanism for abrupt climate changes. Students are encouraged to read two journal articles for more information and to synthesize their results with other information from lectures and earlier readings.

Johnson, Kathleen

244

Coupling coefficient determination based on simulation and experiment for ST-cut quartz saw delay-line response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper used the theoretical calculation to simulate the response of Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) delay-line on quartz substrate and then compared to the experimental results. The coupling coefficients affected by operating frequency as well as aperture length were built up by experimental data analyzing. From these two parameters, the device coupling coefficient was defined. This is our new contribution and has not been mentioned in other document. This contribution helped improve the simulation results and help the analysis process more comprehensive. ST-cut quartz SAW delay-lines with gold inter-digital transducer (IDT) operating at 39.5MHz and 78.9MHz corresponding to 80 micron and 40 micron of the wavelength were developed. The differences of aperture length in IDT designs were investigated to help understand the effects of this parameter on SAW sensor response. The errors between simulation and experimental results are small. The maximum error of operating frequency is 1%; of insertion loss is 4.25% and 3.13% for bandwidth. The larger of the insertion loss error is explained to be the result of mathematical approximation and the quality of quartz substrate. The simulation results agree with the experimental results shows that the simulation method can be used for quartz-based SAW delay-line as well as for other material based SAW delay-line applications; the sensors functioned correctly and can be used. The results help understand more about the parameters which effect the insertion loss, operating frequency and bandwidth. It should be very useful for IDT design in specific, SAW sensor and SAW filter design in general.

Hsu, Yi-Chu; Le, Ngoc-Bich; Jang, Ling-Sheng

2007-06-01

245

SAW arrays using dendrimers and pattern recognition to detect volatile organics  

SciTech Connect

chemical sensor arrays eliminate the need to develop a high-selectivity material for every analyte. The application of pattern recognition to the simultaneous responses of different microsensors enables the identification and quantification of multiple analytes with a small array. Maximum materials diversity is the surest means to create an effective array for many analytes, but using a single material family simplifies coating development. Here the authors report the successful combination of an array of six dendrimer films with mass-sensitive SAW (surface acoustic wave) sensors to correctly identify 18 organic analytes over wide concentration ranges, with 99.5% accuracy. The set of materials for the array is selected and the results evaluated using Sandia`s Visual-Empirical Region of Influence (VERI) pattern recognition (PR) technique. The authors evaluated eight dendrimer films and one self-assembled monolayer (SAM) as potential SAW array coatings. The 18 organic analytes they examined were: cyclohexane, n-hexane, i-octane, kerosene, benzene, toluene, chlorobenzene, carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene, methanol, n-propanol, pinacolyl alcohol, acetone, methyl isobutyl ketone, dimethylmethylphosphate, diisopropylmethylphosphonate, tributylphosphate, and water.

Ricco, A.J.; Osbourn, G.C.; Bartholomew, J.W.; Martinez, R.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Crooks, R.M.; Garcia, M.E.; Peez, R. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Spindler, R. [Michigan Molecular Inst., Midland, MI (United States); Kaiser, M.E. [Dendritech, Inc., Midland, MI (United States)

1998-08-01

246

Buzz-saw noise : propagation of shock waves in aero-engine inlet ducts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For supersonic flows relative to turbo-engine fan blades, measured acoustic spectra near the inlet present tones at fan blade passing frequency (BPF), engine shaft rotation frequency, or Engine Order (EO), and their respective harmonics. The latter are responsible for the Buzz-saw noise and are thus referred to as ``Buzz-saw'' or ``multiple pure'' tones. This work first attempts to reformulate McAlpine and Fisher's frequency domain model (2001) for the propagation of a unidimensional sawtooth waveform spiralling inside a hard-walled cylindrical duct in the presence of a uniform flow. The non-dissipative Burgers equation is solved using a shock fitting method, and modal attenuation and dispersion are added using a split-step computational method. In practice, shocks do not only occur at blade tips but on a significant portion of the blade span. The plane wave hypothesis being no longer valid, a new three dimensional model is required. This model is based on the computation of the axially varying amplitudes of the modal solutions, in order to take into account the nonlinear modal interactions.

Fernando, Rasika; Marchiano, Régis; Coulouvrat, François; Druon, Yann

2008-06-01

247

SAW/FET programmable transversal filter with 100-Mhz bandwidth and enhanced programmability  

SciTech Connect

The authors previously reported on a SAW/FET filter that uses air-gap coupling of a LiNbO/sub 3/ SAW delay line to a Si integrated circuit, thus implementing a programmable tapped delay line. The device incorporates edge-bonded transducers for wide bandwidth and short (15 ns) pedestal of delay. Modifications to the Si circuit are reported here, which both increase the programmable RF bandwidth to 100 MHz and provide means of increasing the programmable tap on/off ratio to 30 dB. This filter has 350 metal-oxide-silicon (MOS) analog sampling fingers spanning 1/5 microsec. of delay. The varactor inherent in each sampling finger provides programmable tap weighting; a digital shift register controls programming FETs that connect each MOS varactor tap to a common programming voltage line. The 100-MHz bandwidth results from doubling the number of taps by the addition of a 2-to-1 analog multiplexer to the FET array.

Oates, D.E.; Smythe, D.L.; Green, J.B.

1985-10-01

248

Arbitrarily oriented SAW gratings: network model and the coupling-of-modes description.  

PubMed

A network model for surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) structures fabricated along arbitrary and hence nonsymmetric orientations, including natural single-phase unidirectional transducer (NSPUDT) directions, is described. From the predictions of this model for SAW gratings. the frequently used coupling of modes (COM) phenomenological description is evaluated. The network model consists of the usual sequence of mismatched transmission lines with susceptance loading at discontinuities to account for energy storage, plus a new additional reactive element calculated using a perturbation formula, to account for the asymmetry that exists for arbitrary orientations. The circuit elements are determined by geometrical and material parameters. It is demonstrated that the incremental COM description can be derived from the unit-cell-based network model, and analytical formulas quoted in the literature for the COM coefficients are compared with the values calculated from the ABCD network model description. An analytically tractable approximation for the network model is also described, from which rather simple explicit formulas for the COM coefficients that predict their dependence on material parameters and on frequency are derived. The analysis and numerical calculations indicate that these formulas may yield results that are valid over almost 30% relative bandwidths. PMID:18267578

Adler, E L; da Cunha, M P; Schwelb, O

1991-01-01

249

Quantum 1/f Effect in Low-Q SAW and BAW Quartz Resonators.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Q1/fE is applicable to all high-tech devices and systems, rapidly becoming a universal defining element of the high-tech notion. However, the application of the Q1/fE to bulk acoustic wave (BAW) and surface acoustic wave (SAW) quartz resonators has so far been limited to the case of very high Q resonators in which the phonons are coherent throughout the resonator volume. In this paper the quantum 1/f theory is applied to the general case of an arbitrary coherence length of the phonons, which may be large or small compared with the size of the quartz resonator. This allows to extend the theory for the first time to low-Q resonators in which the phonons are localized in a part of the resonator volume. The result is a simple formula which yields: 1)first a linear increase of the spectral density of fractional frequency fluctuations with the BAW volume or the SAW surface, and 2)after the coherence size is reached, a proportionality with the inverse volume or surface. As usual, this first principle Q1/f theory contains no free parameters. It is also extended to include defect scattering of phonons along with the phonon-phonon scattering case.

Handel, Peter H.

1998-03-01

250

AES and SIMS investigation of diffusion barriers for copper metallization in power-SAW devices.  

PubMed

Barrier layers for Cu-metallization in surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices were investigated by AES and SIMS depth profiles. Two layered systems on LiNbO(3) substrate have been analyzed after annealing in air up to 400 degrees C. The investigated systems were (A) Ta(20 nm)/Cu(150 nm)/Ti(30 nm), deposited by electron beam evaporation, and (B) Ta(30)Si(18)N(52)(50 nm)/Cu(150 nm)/Ta(30)Si(18)N(52)(50 nm) deposited by magnetron sputtering. In system A the Ta layer shows oxidation in air for T>or=300 degrees C. Ti from the buffer layer diffuses into the Cu at about 100 degrees C, and segregates at the Ta/Cu interface for T>or=200 degrees C. Oxidation of the Ti layer starts at 300 degrees C. But no remarkable amounts of oxygen could be found in the Cu film. The depth profiles show that the TaSiN layer in system B operates as a more effective barrier for the Cu-SAW technology up to more than 300 degrees C. PMID:12707756

Baunack, S; Menzel, S; Pekarcíková, M; Schmidt, H; Albert, M; Wetzig, K

2003-02-13

251

Noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) in saw mill and printing press workers in Akluj Town of Solapur district.  

PubMed

Noise pollution and allied health problems are seen at all ages worldwide. This is due to increase in mechanization in industries, transportation as well as home appliances produce high level of noise. Noise Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL) is common health complaint found in industrial workers. The present research work reveals the NIHL problem in workers related to saw mill and printing press in Akluj town, Solapur district of Maharashatra state. For the present study measurement of noise levels are done in saw mills and printing presses. The standard noise level value is calculated in respective locations. Noise Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL) among the workers is measured by an Audiometer. 420 workers, viz. 250 from ten saw mills and 170 from ten printing presses respectively were investigated to find out NIHL. The average noise levels in printing press and saw mill are 90.2 dB and 79.3 dB respectively. Whereas standard noise level (Leq) in above locations are 101.4 dB and 98.7 dB respectively. The average NIHL are found in 28% saw mill workers and 13% in printing press workers. It is reported that medicine treatments are not very useful for curing NIHL. Today's available tool which prevents NIHL is ear plugs and ear muffs, which are suitable for preventing NIHL problems in industrial workers. PMID:21117433

Dhere, Amar M; Pawar, Chandrasekhar B; Patil, Dhanraj A; Pawar, Janardan A

2009-07-01

252

Life threatening intracerebral haemorrhage following saw- scaled viper (Echis carinatus) envenoming-authenticated case report from Sri Lanka  

PubMed Central

Background Echis carinatus (Saw scaled viper {SSV}) is a venomous snake found in the parts of Middle East and Central Asia. SSV envenoming is characterized by local swelling and coagulopathy. Various bleeding manifestations are commonly seen with SSV envenoming. In contrast to other part of Asia, saw scale viper envenoming has not been reported to cause life threatening haemorrhagic manifestations in Sri Lanka. Case presentation We report a 19 years old healthy boy who developed massive left temporo-parietal intra cerebral haemorrhage following Echis carinatus (Saw scaled viper) bite in Sri Lanka. Conclusion Although subspecies of SSV in Sri Lanka is regarded as a ‘non lethal venomous snake’, the occurrence of rare potentially fatal complications such as intracerebral haemorrhage should be considered in their management. This case report is intended to bring the awareness of this fatal complication of SSV envenoming in Sri Lanka.

2013-01-01

253

A numerical method to derive accurate temperature coefficients of material constants from high-temperature SAW measurements: application to langasite.  

PubMed

The design of wireless SAW sensors for hightemperature applications requires accurate knowledge of the constitutive materials' physical properties in the desired temperature range. In particular, it is crucial to use reliable temperature coefficients of the stiffness, piezoelectric, dielectric, and expansion constants of the propagation medium to achieve correct simulations of the considered devices. Currently, the best-suited piezoelectric material for high-temperature SAW applications is langasite (LGS). Unfortunately, the available coefficients do not allow for precise prediction of the temperature dependence of LGS-based SAW devices above 300°C. A novel method, based on a simulated annealing algorithm coupled with a Rayleigh wave simulation program, was developed to find optimal LGS temperature coefficients. This approach has proven to yield accurate results up to at least 800°C. PMID:24081262

Nicolay, Pascal; Aubert, Thierry

2013-10-01

254

[Dispersion of the nematodes belonging to the Bursaphelenchus xylophilus species group with saw timber in Russian Federation].  

PubMed

Four new records of Bursaphelenchus mucronatus in saw-timbers from the Asian part of Russia (Irkutsk Oblast and Krasnoyarsk Krai, larch, pine and spruce wood) intercepted in St. Petersburg, are described, measured and illustrated. The diagnosis of B. mucronatus is amended and its relationships within species group xylophilus, and especially its differences from a quarantine pests B. xylophilus, are given. The record of the B. mucronatus transition from Asiatic into European part of Russia suggests possible transcontinental way of the xylophilus group penetration with saw-timber. Pest risk analysis of B. xylophilus for the European part of Russia is discussed in scope of the global warming. PMID:20198962

Akhmatovich, N A; Ryss, A Iu

255

Lepton flavor violating ? decays in TeV scale type I see-saw and Higgs triplet models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lepton flavour violating (LFV) ? decays ? ? ( e, ?)? and ? ? 3 ? are investigated in the frameworks of the TeV scale type I see-saw and Higgs Triplet (or type II see-saw) models. Predictions for the rates of these processes are obtained. The implications of the existing stringent experimental upper bounds on the ? ? e + ? and ? ? 3 e decay branching ratios for the predictions of the ? ? ( e, ?)? and ? ? 3 ? decay rates are studied in detail. The possibilities to observe the indicated LFV ? decays in present and future experiments are analysed.

Dinh, D. N.; Petcov, S. T.

2013-09-01

256

Stability of the offset V-osteotomy. Test jig development and saw bone model assessment.  

PubMed

In the offset V-bunionectomy used for hallux valgus repair, both the Kalish and the Vogler variations have a long dorsal arm, but the apex is more distal in the Kalish procedure. This study investigated the effect that pin orientation and location of the osteotomy apex have on weightbearing stability. The authors studied saw bone models that were loaded to failure in an Instron 4201 materials testing machine and, in addition, designed, fabricated, and used a unique jig assembly to help minimize data variability. Statistically significant differences were found between the surgical techniques and pin orientations: the Kalish osteotomy was stronger than the Vogler procedure, and in both osteotomies, the plantarly directed Kirschner wire orientation was stronger than the dorsally directed orientation. PMID:11847259

Gonda, Elizabeth; Bauer, Gary R; Hillstrom, Howard J; Song, Jinsup; Cho, Helen H; Lundberg, Lori A

2002-02-01

257

Automatic computer-aided design of SAW filters using slanted finger interdigital transducers.  

PubMed

This paper describes a design procedure for surface acoustic wave (SAW) filters using slanted finger interdigital transducers (SFIT) that are suitable for mid-band or wideband applications. The SFITs cannot represent the impulse response directly, in contrast to apodized IDTs. A design method for SFITs based on a building-block approach in the frequency domain is described. An automatic computer-aided design tool for SFIT filters has been achieved. The SFIT filters can be designed using a withdrawal weighting for stop-band responses, an aperture weighting for pass-band amplitude responses, and a distance weighting for pass-band phase responses. In addition, a SFIT pattern for photo mask can be automatically designed using this tool. Using this tool, an SFIT filter with a relative bandwidth of 15% was designed on an x-cut 112y-direction LiTaO(3) substrate. PMID:18238525

Yatsuda, H; Yamanouchi, K

2000-01-01

258

Theoretical studies on leaky-SAW properties influenced by layers on anisotropic piezoelectric crystals.  

PubMed

Theoretical studies on the behavior of leaky-SAW (LSAW) properties in layered structures were performed. For these calculations rotYX LiTaO (3) and rotYX LiNbO(3) LSAW crystal cuts were used, assuming different layer materials. For LSAWs both the velocity and the inherent loss due to bulk wave emission into the substrate are strongly influenced by distinct layer parameters. As a result, these layer properties like elastic constants or thickness have shown a strong influence on the crystal cut angle of minimum LSAW loss. Moreover, for soft and stiff layer materials, a different shift of the LSAW loss minimum can occur. Therefore, using double-layer structures, the shift of the LSAW loss minimum can be influenced by appropriate chosen layers and ratios. PMID:18238665

Wallner, P; Ruile, W; Weigel, R

2000-01-01

259

Identification of SAW ID-tags using an FSCW interrogation unit and model-based evaluation.  

PubMed

Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices are well suited for the application as wireless and completely passive identification (ID)-tag. They operate even under harsh environmental conditions, especially under high temperatures. Interrogation units operate similar to conventional radar systems and therefore, have the same resolution restrictions when an inverse fast Fourier transformation (IFFT) is applied. The application of model-based algorithms to the evaluation of identification tags is presented and enhancements in either improved resolution or reduced system bandwidth are shown. Furthermore, optimizations in the coding scheme for reduced tag sizes are discussed, and measured results obtained by a built interrogation unit and fabricated ID-tags for an identification system are shown. PMID:15600084

Stelzer, Andreas; Pichler, Markus; Scheiblhofer, Stefan; Schuster, Stefan

2004-11-01

260

Surface acoustic wave (SAW) device using piezoelectric cellulose EAPap: fabrication and characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novel smart materials have been suggested for various sensor applications such as chemical sensor, bio sensor, wireless communication, and radio frequency identification (RF-ID) devices. It was reported that bio-compatible and as well as bio-degradable, naturally abundant, and flexible piezoelectric cellulose electro-active paper (EAPap) had a great industrial potential due to its piezoelectricity. Here we studied the feasibility of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices using thin piezoelectric cellulose EAPap. The single inter-digit transducer (IDT) pattern with 10 ?m finger width was designed and fabricated on thin piezoelectric EAPap using lift-off technique. The frequency response to different vapor dose of isopropyl alcohol under will be presented.

Kim, Joo-Hyung; Yun, Gyu-Young; Jang, Sang-Dong; Lee, Min-Hee; Kim, Jaehwan

2009-03-01

261

Micro-machining of the ceramics: Can lasers match the performance of diamond saws?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advent of commercial grade picosecond and femtosecond lasers has opened the way for laser micromachining of metals. There has however been no or little work reported on the ceramics. Use of diamond saws is still the preferred way of cutting the ceramics such as an Al2O3-TiC composite (referred to as N58 hereafter) that is widely used in the manufacture of read/write heads for magnetic recording hard disk drives. These read/write heads are commonly referred to as "sliders". We report here attempts to cut rows of sliders using various lasers. The cut length was 0.85 mm and the thickness was 0.23 mm. We found that all the nanosecond pulse range lasers, left slag at the laser input edge of the cut and on the cut wall. In many cases the slag deposit doesn't allow one to cut through the entire thickness as the slag interferes with successive laser pulses. Our best results were obtained with picosecond and femtosecond lasers. We were able to cut through entire thickness of the strip with these lasers. The slag was much less than that from the nanosecond lasers, but not low enough for our application. There were slag deposits or loose-appearing material on the cut walls also. The roughness was at best in the micron range. In all the cases studied the cut quality as measured by cut surface roughness and slag formation as well as the cutting speed was worst than that obtained from the diamond saws currently used in the industry.

Patterson, Daniel; Singh, Gurinder P.

2007-03-01

262

Combination of a SAW-biosensor with MALDI mass spectrometric analysis.  

PubMed

A S-sens K5 surface acoustic wave biosensor was coupled with mass spectrometry (SAW-MS) for the analysis of a protein complex consisting of human blood clotting cascade factor alpha-thrombin and human antithrombin III, a specific blood plasma inhibitor of thrombin. Specific binding of antithrombin III to thrombin was recorded as a function of time with a S-sens K5 biosensor. Two out of five elements of the sensor chip were used as references. To the remaining three elements coated with RNA anti-thrombin aptamers, thrombin and antithrombin III were bound consecutively. The biosensor measures mass changes on the chip surface showing that 20% of about 400fmol/cm2 thrombin formed a complex with the 1.7-times larger antithrombin III. Mass spectrometry (MS) was applied to identify the bound proteins. Sensor chips with aptamer-captured (1) thrombin and (2) thrombin-antithrombin III complex (TAT-complex) were digested with proteases on the sensor element and subsequently identified by peptide mass fingerprint (PMF) with matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-ToF) mass spectrometry. A significant identification of thrombin was achieved by measuring the entire digest with MALDI-ToF MS directly from the sensor chip surface. For the significant identification of both proteins in the TAT-complex, the proteolytic peptides had to be separated by nano-capillary-HPLC prior to MALDI-ToF MS. SAW-MS is applicable to protein interaction analysis as in functional proteomics and to miniaturized diagnostics. PMID:18316185

Treitz, G; Gronewold, T M A; Quandt, E; Zabe-Kühn, M

2008-01-18

263

Evanescent CHOTs for the optical generation and detection of ultrahigh frequency SAWs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of optical gratings for the generation and detection of ultrahigh frequency narrowband surface acoustic waves is well known. Detection of surface acoustic waves (SAWs) using an optical grating, (without an interferometric set-up) relies on diffraction of light from the grating. Cheap Optical Transducers (CHOTs) for SAWs are optical ultrasonic transducers which are designed to optimise the diffraction from such gratings to yield a local interferometer. They have been demonstrated for typical NonDestructive evaluation (NDE) frequencies (0.5 and 100 MHz). In this paper, we discuss how the CHOTs operate and how their detection mechanism breaks down, when the optical diffraction orders from the grating become evanescent upon moving to multi GHz frequency range. We show that it is possible to design devices with enhanced sensitivity, in this range. This is done by adding a thin "background film" underneath grating fingers, in order to optimise and exploit the interaction between the deformation of the grating and the evanescent fields/ resonances involved in such gratings. The result is a novel operating mechanism, based on an energy balance between the 0-order reflection and resistive heating. These novel transducers are called evanescent wave CHOT (eCHOT). We have used Finite Element Method (FEM) modelling to link the physical displacements caused by the elastic waves with the optical behaviour. We demonstrated that the devices show enhanced sensitivity over a wider range of parameters, than possible with a device designed with conventional CHOT specifications, making the eCHOT an ideal candidate for GHz / nano scale ultrasonics. The eCHOT involves highly resistive thin films and yields thin structures advantageous for ultrahigh frequency ultrasonics. The operating mechanism of the eCHOT suggests that more exotic structures could be built to enhance the sensitivity of these devices.

Arca, A.; Stratoudaki, T.; Smith, R.; Clark, M.; Somekh, M. G.

2011-01-01

264

Dual SAW sensor technique for determining mass and modulus changes in thin silicate films during gas adsorption.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors, which are sensitive to a variety of surface changes, have been widely used for chemical and physical sensing. The ability to control or compensate for the many surface forces has been instrumental in collecting valid d...

S. L. Hietala V. M. Hietala C. J. Brinker

2000-01-01

265

Practical System to Monitor and Control the Penetration Depth of Welding by Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) with Multiple Electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

High speed and high performance submerged arc welding (SAW) with multiple electrodes is used for the corner joint welding of box column for the structural steel fabricated in Shimizu Works. The authors have developed a system to control the penetration depth of the welding and its associated system, and have adopted them into commercial projects. It was confirmed that satisfactory

IWATA Shinji; OZAMOTO Daisuke

2009-01-01

266

Analysis of Frequency Response of IDT\\/ZnO\\/Si SAW Filter Using the Coupling of Modes Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A monolithic integration of filters on Si or GaAs substrates is highly desirable to miniaturize the outer dimensions of the cellular phones. But, direct monolithic integration of surface acoustic wave (SAW) filters is impossible with Si, which is nonpiezoelectric, and difficult with GaAs, which is weakly piezoelectric. One alternative is the deposition of a piezoelectric film on the semiconductor substrate.

Etienne Ntagwirumugara; Tadeusz Gryba; Victor Y. Zhang; Elhadj Dogheche; Jean-Etienne Lefebvre

2007-01-01

267

Fabrication of Wire Saw with Patterned Hard Bumps by Electrical Discharge Machining with Powder Suspended in Working Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with a fabrication method of a wire saw by electrical discharge machining (EDM). Hard bumps were discretely patterned on the surface of a thin stainless steel wire by EDM with titanium powder suspended in working oil. With an increase of the machining time, the average of the bump height was increased and no removal was observed. The

Katsushi Furutani; Yasuo Murase

268

Preventing arcing damage on radio frequency device wafer by controlling ESD resistivity level of water for saw and wash  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current electrostatic discharge (ESD) resistivity limit of water during the wafer saw and wash process is found to induce polyimide tribocharging. Accumulated static energy discharges on metal 6 of the Radio Frequency (RF) device, in the form of electrical arcs, cause dielectric passivation layer breakdown and Electrical Overstress (EOS). To solve this problem, an experiment is done to determine

W. A. Dela Cruz; M. L. D. Marcelo; M. A. B. Borlongan

2007-01-01

269

Acoustoelectric Effect on the Responses of SAW Sensors Coated with Electrospun ZnO Nanostructured Thin Film  

PubMed Central

In this study, zinc oxide (ZnO) was a very good candidate for improving the sensitivity of gas sensor technology. The preparation of an electrospun ZnO nanostructured thin film on a 433 MHz Rayleigh wave based Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensor and the investigation of the acoustoelectric effect on the responses of the SAW sensor are reported. We prepared an electrospun ZnO nanostructured thin film on the SAW devices by using an electrospray technique. To investigate the dependency of the sensor response on the structure and the number of the ZnO nanoparticles, SAW sensors were prepared with different coating loads. The coating frequency shifts were adjusted to fall between 100 kHz and 2.4 MHz. The sensor measurements were performed against VOCs such as acetone, trichloroethylene, chloroform, ethanol, n-propanol and methanol vapor. The sensor responses of n-propanol have opposite characteristics to the other VOCs, and we attributed these characteristics to the elastic effect/acoustoelectric effect.

Tasaltin, Cihat; Ebeoglu, Mehmet Ali; Ozturk, Zafer Ziya

2012-01-01

270

Design and simulation of the tire pressure sensor based on the SAW resonator and the tire capacitor impedance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel tire pressure sensor based on the SAW resonator and the tire capacitor impedance was researched, and the sensor can measure the tire pressure wirelessly and passively according to the relation between the tire pressure and the tire capacitor impedance and the relation between the tire capacitor impedance and the resonant frequency of the sensor circuit. The novel sensor

Xiangwen Zhang; Fei-Yue Wang

2009-01-01

271

Focus on Division 17's Committee on Women/Section for the Advancement of Women (SAW) 1970-2030: Achievements and Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents the development, contributions, and future directions of the American Psychological Association, Division 17, Section for the Advancement of Women (SAW). Beginning with the formation of the Division 17 Ad Hoc Committee on Women in 1970, formalized in 1982 as the Division 17 Committee on Women, the SAW was formed in 1996.…

Farmer, Helen S.

2002-01-01

272

Application of an Alternating Phase-Shifting Mask Design Method to Near-Field Photolithography for Fabricating More Than 2 GHz SAW Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use an alternating phase-shifting mask design method (APSMDM) to design and fabricate a specially designed surface acoustic wave (SAW) filter mold that has a linewidth pattern of only 5 mum (not small). A basic SAW filter mold [having a general interdigital transducer (IDT) pattern] also is fabricated for comparison. A near-field phase shift lithographic (NFPSL) process is applied in

Fu-Der Lai; Jui-Ming Hua; Hao-Min Huang

2007-01-01

273

Pseudochaos and anomalous transport: A study on saw-tooth map  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The observation of chaotic dynamics in digital filter in late 1980s propelled the interest in piecewise linear map beyond the border of theoretical electrical engineering. Also, during last two decades, various physical models and phenomena, such as stochastic web and sticky orbits, not only broadened our knowledge of chaos but also urged us to further our understanding of meaning of chaos and randomness. In this dissertation, a piecewise linear kicked oscillator model: saw-tooth map, is studied as an example of pseudochaos. Physically, kicked oscillator model describes one-dimensional harmonic oscillator effected by delta-like kicks from external force source at certain fixed frequency. Starting from a special case of global periodicity, numerical investigations were carefully carried out in two cases that deviate from global periodicity. We observe the appearance of stochastic web structure and accompanying erratic dynamical behavior in the system that can't be fully explained by the classical Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser theorem. Also anomalous transport occurs in both cases. We perform accurate analysis of Poincare recurrences and reconstruct the probability density function of Poincare recurrence times, which suggests a relation between the transport and the Poincare recurrence exponents. Saw-tooth map has non-uniform phase space, in which domains of regular dynamics and domains of chaotic dynamics are intertwined. The large-scale dynamics of the system is hugely impacted by the heterogeneity of the phase space, especially by the existence of hierarchy of periodic islands. We carefully study the characteristics of phase space and numerically compute fractal dimensions of the so-called exceptional set Delta in both cases. Our results suggest that the fractal dimension is strictly less than 2 and that the fractal structures are unifractal rather than multifractal. We present a phenomenological theoretical framework of Fractional Kinetic Equation (FKE) and Renormalization Group of Kinetics (RGK). FKE, which is fractional generalization of the Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equation, adopts the fractality of time and space and serves probabilistic description of chaos in Hamiltonian systems. RGK bridges the self-similar structure in phase space and large-scale behavior of the dynamics, and establishes relationships among fractality, transport and Poincare recurrences.

Fan, Rong

274

Continuous in vivo blood pressure measurements using a fully implantable wireless SAW sensor.  

PubMed

In this paper, the development of a fully implantable wireless sensor able to provide continuous real-time accurate pressure measurements is presented. Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) technology was used to deposit resonators on crystalline quartz wafers; the wafers were then assembled to produce a pressure sensitive device. Excitation and reading via a miniature antenna attached to the pressure sensor enables continuous external interrogation. The main advantages of such a configuration are the long term stability of quartz and the low power necessary for the interrogation, which allows 24/7 interrogation by means of a hand-held, battery powered device. Such data are of vital importance to clinicians monitoring and treating the effects of hypertension and heart failure. A prototype was designed and tested using both a bio-phantom test rig and an animal model. The pressure traces for both compare very well with a commercially available catheter tip pressure transducer. The work presented in this paper is the first known wireless pressure data from the left ventricle of the heart of a living swine. PMID:23559403

Murphy, Olive H; Bahmanyar, Mohammad Reza; Borghi, Alessandro; McLeod, Christopher N; Navaratnarajah, Manoraj; Yacoub, Magdi H; Toumazou, Christofer

2013-10-01

275

TALSPEAK CURVE: AN ILLUSTRATION OF A SEE-SAW EFFECT IN SEPARATIONS  

SciTech Connect

A superbly balanced thermodynamic struggle for metal ion coordination by aqueous aminopolycarboxylate reagent, DTPA, and non-aqueous organophosphorous phase transfer reagent, HDEHP, affords the separation of trivalent actinides from trivalent lanthanides under the umbrella of the Talspeak liquid-liquid distribution process. This thermodynamic relationship has been linked to an analogous “see-saw” behavior, where the balance is distorted when either of the key complexing players is subject to adverse conditions that interfere with their optimal operation. The thermodynamic balance is tipped in favour of HDEHP whenever increased acidity of the aqueous solution out-competes the metal ion complexation by aqueous complexing agent. Also enhanced steric crowding may switch-off efficient coordination of the metal ion. When HDEHP is depolymerised due to the presence of aliphatic alcohol in the organic phase its phase transferring power is diminished. Such complication paves way for DTPA to establish its dominance on the distribution of trivalent metal ions in the 2-phase system. The illustrated sensitivity of the thermodynamic balance between DTPA and HDEHP in Talspeak-type systems may serve as informative tool when studying less-predictable realms of Talspeak chemistry.

Peter Zalupski; Leigh Martin

2010-11-01

276

A forest without trees: Development of high-surface-area materials for enhanced-sensitivity SAW arrays  

SciTech Connect

Chemical sensor arrays are an alternative to the tedious development of highly specific single-analyte detectors. Recent efforts have focused on the chemical and physical diversity of interface materials for SAW sensor arrays. However, the issues of wide dynamic range and high sensitivity must also be addressed for sensor arrays to compete in applications requiring low detection limits. Because SAW devices respond in proportion to change in mass per nominal unit area of the device surface, sensitivity is enhanced by surface modification with high-area, thin-film coating materials: a greater mass of analyte is adsorbed at a given ambient concentration. The authors are exploring several classes of electrochemically prepared high-area films, materials whose formulations and processing are well documented for applications other than chemical sensors. They present results from films formed by anodization, chemical conversion, and electroplating, yielding surface area enhancements as high as 170x.

Yelton, W.G.; Ricco, A.J.; Staton, A.W.

1998-08-01

277

Dual SAW sensor technique for determining mass and modulus changes in thin silicate films during gas adsorption  

SciTech Connect

Surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors, which are sensitive to a variety of surface changes, have been widely used for chemical and physical sensing. The ability to control or compensate for the many surface forces has been instrumental in collecting valid data. In cases where it is not possible to neglect certain effects, such as frequency drift with temperature, methods such as the dual sensor technique have been utilized. This paper describes a novel use of a dual sensor technique, using two sensor materials, Quartz and GaAs, to separate out the contributions of mass and modulus of the frequency change during gas adsorption experiments. The large modulus change in the film calculated using this technique, and predicted by the Gassmann equation, provide a greater understanding of the challenges of SAW sensing.

Hietala, S.L.; Hietala, V.M.; Brinker, C.J.

2000-01-10

278

Performance Prediction of Large-Diameter Circular Saws Based on Surface Hardness Tests for Mugla (Turkey) Marbles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface hardness tests such as Shore hardness (SH) and Schmidt hammer rebound hardness (SR) may provide a quick and inexpensive measure of rock hardness, which may be widely used for estimating the mechanical properties of rock material such as strength, sawability, drillability and cuttability. In the marble industry, circular sawing with diamond sawblades constitutes a major cost in the processing. Therefore, several models based on the relations between hourly slab production ( P hs), rock surface hardness (SH and SR) and mineral grain size ( S cr) were developed using the data obtained from field and laboratory measurements on five different marbles quarried in the Mugla Province of Turkey. The models which include surface hardness and crystal size may as well be used for the prediction of sawability (hourly slab production) of carbonate rocks using large-diameter circular saws.

Güney, Avni

2011-05-01

279

INTERNATIONAL UNION OF OPERATING ENGINEERS NATIONAL HAZMAT PROGRAM - EVOLUTION 180 CIRCULAR SAW OENHP: 2001-03, VERSION A  

SciTech Connect

Florida International University's (FIU) Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) evaluated five saws for their effectiveness in cutting specially prepared fiberglass-reinforced plywood crates. These crates were built as surrogates for crates that presently hold radioactively contaminated gloveboxes at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Los Alamos facility. The Evolution 180 circular saw was assessed on August 14, 2001. During the FIU test of efficacy, a team from the Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program (OENHP) evaluated the occupational safety and health issues associated with this technology. The Evolution 180 is a portable, metal cutting circular saw with a 7-inch diameter blade. The blade is contained within the main housing and has a retractable lower blade guard to prevent operator access to the blade during operation and shutdown. The saw is equipped with a chip collector. The maximum cutting thickness for metal is one-quarter inch and can cut steel tubing and pipe 2 inches in diameter. The unit is operated with an on/off guarded trigger switch and is supported with the hand guide mounted to the side of the saw. An adjustable lever sets the depth of the cut. The machine's circuitry will automatically shut the saw motor off if excessive overload is detected during operation. The one-half hour demonstration involved vertical and horizontal cuts and blade changes. During this process, operators experienced binding of the saw. This caused the blade to become hot, causing the sawdust collected in the chip collector to smoke. Care should be exercised to use the appropriate blade for the application, operator training, and personal protective equipment (PPE). Personal noise sampling indicated that neither worker was over the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Action Level of 85 decibels (dBA) with time-weighted averages (TWA's) of 69.1 and 68.8 dBA. The personal noise sample taken during the special demonstration with the stainless steel plate had a TWA of 69.8 dBA. These data are not entirely representative as they were gathered during a simulation and not at the actual worksite. Additional sampling should be conducted on-site, but the workers should wear hearing protection until it is determined that it is no longer necessary. The total nuisance dust sample for the Evolution 180 circular saw was 3.5 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m{sup 3}), which is lower than the OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 15 mg/m{sup 3} and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV) of 10 mg/m{sup 3}. The fiber analysis yielded 1.74 fibers per cubic centimeter (f/cc), which is above the PEL of 1 f/cc. Although the nuisance dust levels were low, fiberglass dust levels were higher than the PEL. Since fiberglass dust is known to be a strong skin irritant and a possible human carcinogen, the workers should continue to wear appropriate suits and gloves, as well as a full-face air-purifying respirator. The respirator should be equipped with a combination organic vapor and acid gas cartridge in combination with a High Particulate Air (HEPA) filter, since particulate filter, since during the demonstration, the workers complained of an odd smell, which may have been from the breakdown of the fiberglass.

Unknown

2002-01-25

280

INTERNATIONAL UNION OF OPERATING ENGINEERS NATIONAL HAZMAT PROGRAM - PORTER-CABLE CIRCULAR SAW OENHP: 2001-04, VERSION A  

SciTech Connect

Florida International University's (FIU) Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) evaluated five saws for their effectiveness in cutting specially prepared fiberglass-reinforced plywood crates. These crates were built as surrogates for crates that presently hold radioactively contaminated glove boxes at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Los Alamos facility. The Porter-Cable circular saw was assessed on August 15-16, 2001 (Porter-Cable No.1 and Porter-Cable No.2, respectively). During the FIU test of efficacy, a team from the Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program (OENHP) evaluated the occupational safety and health issues associated with this technology. The Porter-Cable saw is a straightforward machine for cutting wood of varying thickness. The blade is fully guarded with a fixed upper and a lower retractable guard. The lower guard retracts as the blade engages the work piece. The unit is operated with an on/off guarded trigger switch and is supported with a handgrip mounted near the front of the saw. The saw is equipped with a directional nozzle, which aims sawdust away from the operator and the line of cut. An optional vacuum system, attached to the directional nozzle, is used to remove and collect dust. During the demonstration of Porter-Cable No.1, personal noise sampling indicated that one worker was under and one was at the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Action Level of 85 decibels (dBA) with time-weighted averages (TWA's) of 82.7 and 84.6 dBA, respectively. During the demonstration of Porter-Cable No.2, however, both workers did exceed the Action Level with TWA's of 89.7 and 90.0 dBA. These data are not entirely representative as they were gathered during a simulation and not at the actual worksite. Additional sampling should be conducted on-site, but the workers should wear hearing protection until it is determined that it is no longer necessary. The total nuisance dust sample for Porter-Cable No.1 was 3.53 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m{sup 3}), which is lower than the OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 15 mg/m{sup 3} and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV) of 10 mg/m{sup 3}. Porter-Cable No.2's nuisance dust results yielded a value of 22.05 mg/m{sup 3}, which is over the PEL and TLV. The fiber analysis for the first demonstration yielded 12.9 fibers per cubic centimeter (f/cc), which is much higher than the PEL of 1 f/cc. Galson Laboratories considered the fiber analysis for the second demonstration void due to the overloading of dust on the filter. Kickback, the sudden reaction to a pinched blade, is possible with this saw and could cause the saw to lift up and out of the work piece and toward the operator. Proper work position and firm control of the saw minimizes the potential for a sprain or strain. Care needs to be exercised to support the work piece properly and to not force the tool.

Unknown

2002-01-15

281

Control of surface mobility for conformal deposition of Mo-Si multilayers on saw-tooth substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multilayer-coated blazed gratings (MBG) are the most promising solution for ultra-high resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy, since they can have very high groove density and provide high-order operation and very high diffraction efficiency. The performance of MBGs however depends critically on the conformal deposition of the multilayer (ML) stack on a saw-tooth substrate and the minimization of roughness. We present an analysis of the roughening and smoothing processes during growth of Mo/Si multilayers deposited over a range of pressures of Ar sputtering gas on flat and saw-tooth substrates. A Linear Continuum Model (LCM) of the film growth was used to understand the interplay between smoothing and roughening of the ML films and to predict the optimum conditions for deposition. The MBG coated under the optimal deposition conditions demonstrated high diffraction efficiency in the EUV and soft X-ray wavelength ranges

Voronov, D. L.; Anderson, E. H.; Gullikson, E. M.; Salmassi, F.; Warwick, T.; Yashchuk, V. V.; Padmore, H. A.

2013-11-01

282

Design of a high-linearity RF front-end with IP2 calibration for SAW-less WCDMA receivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fully integrated receiver RF front-end designed in 0.13µm CMOS that meets the WCDMA system requirements is presented. The receiver RF front-end requires no interstage SAW filter. To handle the stringent linearity requirements in terms of both IP3 and IP2 set for the RF front-end, a current-mode passive mixer constructing a built-in high-Q bandpass filter is adopted to suppress blockers

Song Hu; Weinan Li; Yumei Huang; Zhiliang Hong

2011-01-01

283

Enzymatic assay of acid phosphatase and microanalysis of Cu 2+ and Ag + with a SAW-impedance sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using adenosine-5?-monophosphate (5?-AMP) as a substrate, the surface acoustic wave (SAW)-impedance sensor has been successfully applied to detection of acid phosphatase and microanalysis of Cu2+ and Ag+. The assay of acid phosphatase is based on the change in conductance of the solution caused by enzymatic reaction between 5?-AMP and acid phosphatase. The microanalysis of Cu2+ and Ag+ is based on

Ronghui Wang; Qingyun Cai; Defang Tong; Lihua Nie; Shouzhuo Yao

1998-01-01

284

ASsessment of botanical supplementation on human cytochrome P450 phenotype: citrus aurantium, echinacea, milk thistle, saw palmetto  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Phytochemical-mediated modulation of cytochrome P-450 activity may underlie many herb-drug interactions. Single time-point, phenotypic metabolic ratios were used to determine if supplementation with citrus aurantium, echinacea, milk thistle, or saw palmetto affected CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, or CYP3A4 activity.Methods: Twelve healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to receive each supplement for 28 days. A 30-day washout period was interposed between each

B. J. Gurley; S. F. Gardner; M. A. Hubbard; K. Williams; B. Gentry; J. Carrier; D. Edwards; I. Khan

2004-01-01

285

Fabrication of 0.25-um electrode width SAW filters using x-ray lithography with a laser plasma source  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process for the fabrication of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices with line widths of 250 nm and less, based on x-ray lithography using a laser-plasma source has been developed. The x-ray lithography process is based on keV x-ray emission from Cu plasma produced by 15 Hz, 50 ps, 248 nm KrF excimer laser pulses. The full structure of a

Romuald Bobkowski; Yunlei Li; Robert Fedosejevs; James N. Broughton

1996-01-01

286

Detection of combustible gases by means of a ZnO-on-Si surface acoustic wave (SAW) delay line  

Microsoft Academic Search

ZnO-on-Si surface acoustic wave (SAW) delay lines have been examined as detectors of some combustible gases (CO, NO, H2), reactive gas such as O2 and other gases (CH4, N2, Ar). Measurements have been performed at temperatures of 20–160 °C, operation frequencies of 100–200 MHz and atmospheric pressure. The ZnO thin films have been prepared by reactive r.f. diode sputtering in

V. I Anisimkim; M Penza; A Valentini; F Quaranta; L Vasanelli

1995-01-01

287

Premonitory Acoustic Emissions and Slip Nucleation during Stick Slip Experiments in Naturally and Smooth (Saw-cut) Faulted Westerly Granite  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compare premonitory microcracking and stick slip events for two Westerly granite samples containing a natural and a saw-cut (smooth) fault. The samples were 190.5 mm in length, and 76.2 mm in diameter. Stick slip events were induced by triaxial loading at 150 MPa confining stress, at a constant strain rate of 5 x10-6 s-1. One sample contained a polished

R. P. Young; B. D. Thompson; D. A. Lockner

2005-01-01

288

Performance Prediction of Large-Diameter Circular Saws Based on Surface Hardness Tests for Mugla (Turkey) Marbles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface hardness tests such as Shore hardness (SH) and Schmidt hammer rebound hardness (SR) may provide a quick and inexpensive\\u000a measure of rock hardness, which may be widely used for estimating the mechanical properties of rock material such as strength,\\u000a sawability, drillability and cuttability. In the marble industry, circular sawing with diamond sawblades constitutes a major\\u000a cost in the processing.

Avni Güney

2011-01-01

289

A comparative study of the SSC resistance of a novel welding process IEA with SAW and MIG  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Stress Sulphide Cracking resistance of X65 weldments produced by Indirect Electric Arc, Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) and Metal Inert Gas (MIG) processes were evaluated in a NACE solution saturated with H2S at 25 °C, 37 °C and 50 °C using Slow Strain Rate Tests (SSRT) and electrochemical measurements. Weldments produced by the Indirect Electric Arc presented the best Stress Sulphide Cracking resistance

C.. Natividad; M.. Salazar; M. A. Espinosa-Medina; R. Pérez

2007-01-01

290

A New Hyphenated ? Trap-GC-Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) Based Electronic Nose For Monitoring Of Coffee Quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An easy-to-use and versatile analytical method for complex matrix analisis like coffee was developed. The system consists of a microtrap sample preparation, a home made simplified gaschomatographic separation unit and an 8-fold surface acoustic wave based sensors (SAW) array detector. For the coffee quality analysis a successful discrimination of three coffee samples could be achieved. The system would be further developed into a fully automated, low cost version that can be broadly used by the coffee producers.

Carvalho, Mauro; Voigt, Achim; Rapp, Michael

2009-05-01

291

Atlantic ocean heat piracy and the bipolar climate see-saw during Heinrich and Dansgaard-Oeschger events  

Microsoft Academic Search

The millennial-scale asynchrony of Antarctic and Greenland climate records during the last glacial period implies that the global climate system acts as a bipolar see-saw driven by either high-latitudinal and\\/or near-equatorial sea-surface perturbations. Based on the results of recent modelling of generic Heinrich and Dansgaard-Oeschger scenarios, we discuss the possibility that oscillations of the deep-ocean conveyor may have been sufficient

Dan Seidov; Mark Maslin

2001-01-01

292

Cultivation of different strains of king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii) on saw dust and rice straw in Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Pleurotus eryngii is a popular mushroom due to its excellent consistency of cap and stem, culinary qualities and longer shelf life. In Bangladesh, where Pleurotus mushrooms are very popular, P. eryngii may take position among the consumers, but currently this mushroom is not cultivated in large scale there. In this study, 3 strains of P. eryngii such as Pe-1 (native to Bangladesh), Pe-2 (germplasm collected from China) and Pe-3 (germplasm collected from Japan) were cultivated on saw dust and rice straw and their growth and yield parameters were investigated. Pe-1 on saw dust showed the highest biological yield and efficiency (73.5%) than other strains. Also, the mycelium run rate and number of fruiting bodies were higher in Pe-1 than other two strains. The quality of mushroom strains was near about similar. On saw dust, the yield and efficiency were better than those cultivated on rice straw, however, on straw; the mushroom fruiting bodies were larger in size. This study shows the prospects of P. eryngii cultivation in Bangladesh and suggests further study in controlled environment for higher yield and production.

Moonmoon, Mahbuba; Uddin, Md. Nazim; Ahmed, Saleh; Shelly, Nasrat Jahan; Khan, Md. Asaduzzaman

2010-01-01

293

Cultivation of different strains of king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii) on saw dust and rice straw in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Pleurotus eryngii is a popular mushroom due to its excellent consistency of cap and stem, culinary qualities and longer shelf life. In Bangladesh, where Pleurotus mushrooms are very popular, P. eryngii may take position among the consumers, but currently this mushroom is not cultivated in large scale there. In this study, 3 strains of P. eryngii such as Pe-1 (native to Bangladesh), Pe-2 (germplasm collected from China) and Pe-3 (germplasm collected from Japan) were cultivated on saw dust and rice straw and their growth and yield parameters were investigated. Pe-1 on saw dust showed the highest biological yield and efficiency (73.5%) than other strains. Also, the mycelium run rate and number of fruiting bodies were higher in Pe-1 than other two strains. The quality of mushroom strains was near about similar. On saw dust, the yield and efficiency were better than those cultivated on rice straw, however, on straw; the mushroom fruiting bodies were larger in size. This study shows the prospects of P. eryngii cultivation in Bangladesh and suggests further study in controlled environment for higher yield and production. PMID:23961095

Moonmoon, Mahbuba; Uddin, Md Nazim; Ahmed, Saleh; Shelly, Nasrat Jahan; Khan, Md Asaduzzaman

2010-05-24

294

Characterization of ZnO/diamond SAW devices elaborated on the smooth nucleation side of MPACVD diamond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We designed a SAW filter in this work by combining the piezoelectric ZnO film with a freestanding double layer diamond film deposited using CH4-H2 pulsed MPACVD process through two growth stages. The AFM measurements on the nucleation side of the diamond film has shown that this side is smooth enough to perform photolithography process in the SAW device elaboration, while the good quality of the diamond film produced on this side has been confirmed through Raman spectroscopy.Furthermore, the ZnO films having their c axis perpendicular to the substrate were deposited using reactive magnetron sputtering under the optimal experimental conditions found from XRD measurements. In the SAW device elaboration on this ZnO/bilayer diamond structure, aluminium interdigital transducers (IDTs) were developed by conventional contact UV photolithography on the nucleation side of the freestanding diamond. The frequency response of the device presents harmonics of the acoustic wave modes propagating in the smooth diamond nucleation side. The good agreement obtained between the experimental and theoretical frequency responses attests that the elastic properties of the ZnO and the diamond are similar to those of the single crystal assumed in the theoretical study.

Le Brizoual, L.; Lamara, T.; Sarry, F.; Belmahi, M.; Elmazria, O.; Bougdira, J.; Remy, M.; Alnot, P.

2005-09-01

295

Mechanical comparison of fixation techniques for the offset V osteotomy: a saw bone study.  

PubMed

Four different techniques for the fixation of an offset V bunionectomy were tested on solid-foam saw-bone models for the purpose of determining the strongest form of fixation for the osteotomy. Twenty identical models were placed into 4 different groups. Groups varied as to the placement and caliber of fixation. Models were loaded with a servo-hydraulic testing machine until failure of fixation occurred. Video analysis was used to record the pattern of failure of the fixation. Failure occurred either distal to the first screw, through the first screw hole, between the 2 screws, through the second screw hole, or proximal to the second screw. The mean force to failure of the groups was group 1, 58.1 N; group 2, 59.3 N; group 3, 64.0 N; and group 4, 105.66 N. There was a statistical significant difference between group 4 and the other 3 groups (F(1) = 55.45, P < 0.05). There was no statistical difference between groups 1 to 3. In groups 1 to 3, 87% of the failures were through the distal screw hole, whereas the remaining 13% were through the proximal screw hole. In group 4, 60% of the failures were through the proximal screw hole and 40% were through the distal screw hole. It was concluded that, in this model, the strongest form of fixation for an offset V osteotomy was the 2.7-mm cortical screw placed distally with the proximal point of fixation being a threaded 0.062-inch Kirschner wire. PMID:14688775

Jacobson, Keith; Gough, Adam; Mendicino, Samuel S; Rockett, Matthew S

296

Extensive clonal spread and extreme longevity in saw palmetto, a foundation clonal plant.  

PubMed

The lack of effective tools has hampered out ability to assess the size, growth and ages of clonal plants. With Serenoa repens (saw palmetto) as a model, we introduce a novel analytical framework that integrates DNA fingerprinting and mathematical modelling to simulate growth and estimate ages of clonal plants. We also demonstrate the application of such life-history information of clonal plants to provide insight into management plans. Serenoa is an ecologically important foundation species in many Southeastern United States ecosystems; yet, many land managers consider Serenoa a troublesome invasive plant. Accordingly, management plans have been developed to reduce or eliminate Serenoa with little understanding of its life history. Using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms, we genotyped 263 Serenoa and 134 Sabal etonia (a sympatric non-clonal palmetto) samples collected from a 20 × 20 m study plot in Florida scrub. Sabal samples were used to assign small field-unidentifiable palmettos to Serenoa or Sabal and also as a negative control for clone detection. We then mathematically modelled clonal networks to estimate genet ages. Our results suggest that Serenoa predominantly propagate via vegetative sprouts and 10,000-year-old genets may be common, while showing no evidence of clone formation by Sabal. The results of this and our previous studies suggest that: (i) Serenoa has been part of scrub associations for thousands of years, (ii) Serenoa invasion are unlikely and (ii) once Serenoa is eliminated from local communities, its restoration will be difficult. Reevaluation of the current management tools and plans is an urgent task. PMID:21848843

Takahashi, Mizuki K; Horner, Liana M; Kubota, Toshiro; Keller, Nathan A; Abrahamson, Warren G

2011-08-16

297

Applicability of LiNbO3, langasite and GaPO4 in high temperature SAW sensors operating at radio frequencies.  

PubMed

The applicability of LiNbO3, langasite and GaPO4 for use as crystal substrates in high temperature surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors operating at radio frequencies was investigated. Material properties were determined by the use of SAW test devices processed with conventional lithography. On GaPO4, predominantly surface defects limit the accessible frequencies to values of 1 GHz. Langasite SAW devices could be operated up to 3 GHz; however, high acoustic losses of 20 dB/micros were observed. On LiNbO3, the acoustic losses measured up to 3.5 GHz are one order of magnitude less. Hence, SAW sensors capable of wireless interrogation were designed and processed on YZ-cut LiNbO3. The devices could be successfully operated in the industrial-scientific-medical (ISM) band from 2.40 to 2.4835 GHz up to 400 degrees C. PMID:15600086

Fachberger, René; Bruckner, Gudrun; Knoll, Gernot; Hauser, Robert; Biniasch, Jörg; Reindl, Leonhard

2004-11-01

298

INTERNATIONAL UNION OF OPERATING ENGINEERS NATIONAL HAZMAT PROGRAM - DEWALT RECIPROCATING SAW OENHP{number_sign}: 2001-01, VERSION A  

SciTech Connect

Florida International University's (FIU) Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) evaluated five saws for their effectiveness in cutting specially prepared fiberglass-reinforced plywood crates. These crates were built as surrogates for crates that presently hold radioactively contaminated glove boxes at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Los Alamos facility. The DeWalt reciprocating saw was assessed on August 13, 2001. During the FIU test of efficacy, a team from the Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program (OENHP) evaluated the occupational safety and health issues associated with this technology. The DeWalt reciprocating saw is a hand-held industrial tool used for cutting numerous materials, including wood and various types of metals depending upon the chosen blade. Its design allows for cutting close to floors, corners, and other difficult areas. An adjustable shoe sets the cut at three separate depths. During the demonstration for the dismantling of the fiberglass-reinforced plywood crate, the saw was used for extended continuous cutting, over a period of approximately two hours. The dismantling operation involved vertical and horizontal cuts, saw blade changes, and material handling. During this process, operators experienced vibration to the hand and arm in addition to a temperature rise on the handgrip. The blade of the saw is partially exposed during handling and fully exposed during blade changes. Administrative controls, such as duty time of the operators and the machine, operator training, and personal protective equipment (PPE), such as gloves, should be considered when using the saw in this application. Personal noise sampling indicated that both workers were exposed to noise levels exceeding the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Action Level of 85 decibels (dBA) with time-weighted averages (TWA's) of 88.3 and 90.6 dBA. Normally, a worker would be placed in a hearing conservation program if his TWA was greater than the Action Level. In this case, however, monitoring was conducted during a simulation, not during the actual work conducted at the worksite. Additional sampling should be conducted at the worksite to determine the actual noise levels for the workers. Until it is determined that the actual TWA's are less than the Action Level, the workers should use PPE. A training program on the proper use and wearing of the selected PPE should be provided to each worker. Nuisance dust monitoring yielded a concentration of 10.69 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m{sup 3}). Although this is less than the OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 15 mg/m{sup 3}, it is above the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV) of 10 mg/m{sup 3}. Fiberglass dust monitoring yielded a fiber count of 1.7 fibers per cubic centimeter (f/cc). This is above the PEL and the TLV of 1.0 f/cc. Therefore, controls should be implemented (engineering or PPE) to reduce the workers' exposure to the dust. Respirators should be used if engineering controls do not sufficiently control the dust or fiberglass generated. Respirators should be equipped with an organic vapor and acid gas cartridge with a High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter, since during the demonstration, the workers complained of an odd smell, which may have been from the breakdown of the fiberglass.

Unknown

2002-01-31

299

Analysis of the Detection of Organophosphate Pesticides in Aqueous Solutions Using Hydrogen-Bond Acidic Coating on SH-SAW Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work presented in this paper focuses on the synthesis and characterization of a hybrid organic\\/inorganic chemically sensitive layer for rapid detection and analysis of OPs in aqueous solutions using SH-SAW devices. Coated SH-SAW devices on 36$^{\\\\circ}$ YX-LiTaO$_3$ and 42.75$^{\\\\circ}$ YX-Quartz (ST-90$^{\\\\circ}$ X Quartz), are used to determine the optimum operating conditions for achieving rapid sensor responses with high sensitivity.

Arnold K. Mensah-Brown; Darlington Mlambo; Fabien Josse; Susan C. Schneider

2012-01-01

300

Software for multi-port RF network analysis with a large number of frequency samples and application to 5-port SAW device measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large project for experimentally measuring the properties of several-hundred SAW (surface acoustic wave) SPUDTs (single-phase unidirectional transducers) is discussed. To determine the desired SAW SPUDT properties, it was necessary to measure all elements of the five-port Y-matrix of each test device at a minimum of 8192 frequencies. The measurement was performed using a microwave wafer probe system in conjunction

C. S. Hartmann; R. T. Hartmann

1990-01-01

301

Local heat transfer distribution in a square channel with 90 continuous, 90 saw tooth profiled and 60 broken ribs  

SciTech Connect

Internal channel cooling is employed in advanced gas turbines blade to allow high inlet temperatures so as to achieve high thrust/weight ratios and low specific fuel consumption. The objective of the present study is to measure the local heat transfer distributions in a double wall ribbed square channel with 90 continuous, 90 saw tooth profiled and 60 V-broken ribs. Comparison is made between the 90 continuous ribs (P/e = 7 and 10 for a e/D = 0.15) and 90 saw tooth profiled rib configurations (P/e = 7 for an e/D = 0.15) for the same rib height to the hydraulic diameter ratio (e/D). The effect of pitch to rib height ratio (P/e = 7.5,10 and 12) of 60 V-broken ribbed channel with a constant rib height to hydraulic diameter ratio (e/D) of 0.0625 on the local heat transfer distribution is studied. The Reynolds number based on duct hydraulic diameter is ranging from 10,000 to 30,000. A thin stainless steel foil of 0.05 mm thickness is used as heater and infrared thermography technique is used to obtain the local temperature distribution on the surface. The images are captured in the periodically fully developed region of the channel. It is observed that the heat transfer augmentations in the channel with 90 saw tooth profiled ribs are comparable with those of 90 continuous ribs. The enhancements caused by 60 V-broken ribs are higher than those of 90 continuous ribs. The effect of pitch to the rib height ratio (P/e) is not significant for channel with 60 V-broken ribs for a given rib height to hydraulic diameter ratio (e/D = 0.0625). (author)

Gupta, Abhishek; SriHarsha, V.; Prabhu, S.V.; Vedula, R.P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India)

2008-02-15

302

Atlantic ocean heat piracy and the bipolar climate see-saw during Heinrich and Dansgaard-Oeschger events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The millennial-scale asynchrony of Antarctic and Greenland climate records during the last glacial period implies that the global climate system acts as a bipolar see-saw driven by either high-latitudinal and/or near-equatorial sea-surface perturbations. Based on the results of recent modelling of generic Heinrich and Dansgaard-Oeschger scenarios, we discuss the possibility that oscillations of the deep-ocean conveyor may have been sufficient to cause this bipolar see-saw. The bipolar climate asynchrony in our scenarios is caused by the toggle between North Atlantic heat piracy and South Atlantic counter heat piracy. Ocean circulation has an enhanced sensitivity to the northern deep-water source as the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) cannot enter the Southern Ocean at depths shallower than the bottom of the Drake Passage. Any shoaling of the NADW can, therefore, increase the northward incursion of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW), and trigger an interhemispheric climate oscillation. As hundreds of years are required to warm the respective high latitudes, the observed climate lead and lags between the two hemispheres can be explained entirely by the variability of the meridional overturning and by the corresponding change in the oceanic heat transport. Accordingly, it is entirely feasible for the global climate to work like a pendulum, which theoretically could be controlled by pushing at either of the deep-water sources. Our model scenarios suggest that it is entirely feasible for the bipolar climate see-saw to be controlled solely by variations in NADW formation.

Seidov, Dan; Maslin, Mark

2001-05-01

303

Optimal design of integrated acousto-optic tunable filters based on investigation of SAW in acoustic waveguide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed investigation of surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagating in x-cut y propagation lithium niobate (LiNbO3) for integrated acousto-optic tunable filters (IAOTF) is reported in this paper. With getting curves of velocities, the walk-off angular (the angular between the power-flux vector and the propagation direction) can be obtained by the cubic spline interpolation method. The electromechanical coupling constant curve is given. Now, an optimal configuration of IAOTF has been designed, in which the direction of interdigital transducer should be inclined about 4.18°.

Yang, Jisheng; Xu, Hehua; Wen, Chuanjing; Sun, Changku

2006-09-01

304

INTERNATIONAL UNION OF OPERATING ENGINEERS NATIONAL HAZMAT PROGRAM - MILWAUKEE WORM DRIVE CIRCULAR SAW OENHP{number_sign}: 2001-02, VERSION A  

SciTech Connect

Florida International University's (FIU) Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) evaluated five saws for their effectiveness in cutting specially prepared fiberglass-reinforced plywood crates. These crates were built as surrogates for crates that presently hold radioactively contaminated glove boxes at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Los Alamos facility. The Milwaukee worm drive circular saw was assessed on August 14, 2001. During the FIU test of efficacy, a team from the Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program (OENHP) evaluated the occupational safety and health issues associated with this technology. The Milwaukee worm drive circular saw is a hand-held tool with a 7 1/4-inch diameter circular blade for cutting wood. The saw contains a fixed upper and a retractable lower blade guard to prevent access to the blade during use. The unit is operated with an on/off guarded trigger switch; and is supported with a handgrip mounted on top of the saw. An adjustable lever sets the depth of cut. The retractable blade guard permits blind or plunge cuts and protects from blade access during shutdown and blade coast. Kickback, the sudden reaction to a pinched blade, is possible when using this saw and could cause the saw to lift up and out of the work piece toward the operator. Proper work position and firm control of the saw minimizes the potential for a sprain or strain. Care needs to be exercised to support the work piece properly and to not force the tool. Personal noise sampling indicated that one worker was near the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Action Level of 85 decibels (dBA) while the other was at the Action Level with time-weighted averages (TWA's) of 82.7 and 84.6 dBA, respectively. These data are not entirely representative as they were gathered during a simulation and not at the actual worksite. Additional sampling should be conducted on-site, but the workers should wear hearing protection until it is determined that it is no longer necessary. Air sampling was performed while the workers dismantled the fiberglass-reinforced crates. The total nuisance dust sample for the Milwaukee circular saw was 36.07 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m{sup 3}), which is much higher than the OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 15 mg/m{sup 3} and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV) of 10 mg/m{sup 3}. Galson Laboratories considered the fiber analysis void due to the overloading of the filter. The PEL for fiberglass is 1 fiber per cubic centimeter (f/cc).

Unknown

2002-01-05

305

Rectified cell migration on saw-like micro-elastically patterned hydrogels with asymmetric gradient ratchet teeth.  

PubMed

To control cell motility is one of the essential technologies for biomedical engineering. To establish a methodology of the surface design of elastic substrate to control the long-range cell movements, here we report a sophisticated cell culture hydrogel with a micro-elastically patterned surface that allows long-range durotaxis. This hydrogel has a saw-like pattern with asymmetric gradient ratchet teeth, and rectifies random cell movements. Durotaxis only occurs at boundaries in which the gradient strength of elasticity is above a threshold level. Consequently, in gels with unit teeth patterns, durotaxis should only occur at the sides of the teeth in which the gradient strength of elasticity is above this threshold level. Therefore, such gels are expected to support the long-range biased movement of cells via a mechanism similar to the Feynman-Smoluchowski ratchet, i.e., rectified cell migration. The present study verifies this working hypothesis by using photolithographic microelasticity patterning of photocurable gelatin gels. Gels in which each teeth unit was 100-120 µm wide with a ratio of ascending:descending elasticity gradient of 1:2 and a peak elasticity of ca. 100 kPa supported the efficient rectified migration of 3T3 fibroblast cells. In addition, long-range cell migration was most efficient when soft lanes were introduced perpendicular to the saw-like patterns. This study demonstrates that asymmetric elasticity gradient patterning of cell culture gels is a versatile means of manipulating cell motility. PMID:24147112

Kidoaki, Satoru; Sakashita, Hiroyuki

2013-10-17

306

Rectified Cell Migration on Saw-Like Micro-Elastically Patterned Hydrogels with Asymmetric Gradient Ratchet Teeth  

PubMed Central

To control cell motility is one of the essential technologies for biomedical engineering. To establish a methodology of the surface design of elastic substrate to control the long-range cell movements, here we report a sophisticated cell culture hydrogel with a micro-elastically patterned surface that allows long-range durotaxis. This hydrogel has a saw-like pattern with asymmetric gradient ratchet teeth, and rectifies random cell movements. Durotaxis only occurs at boundaries in which the gradient strength of elasticity is above a threshold level. Consequently, in gels with unit teeth patterns, durotaxis should only occur at the sides of the teeth in which the gradient strength of elasticity is above this threshold level. Therefore, such gels are expected to support the long-range biased movement of cells via a mechanism similar to the Feynman-Smoluchowski ratchet, i.e., rectified cell migration. The present study verifies this working hypothesis by using photolithographic microelasticity patterning of photocurable gelatin gels. Gels in which each teeth unit was 100–120 µm wide with a ratio of ascending:descending elasticity gradient of 1:2 and a peak elasticity of ca. 100 kPa supported the efficient rectified migration of 3T3 fibroblast cells. In addition, long-range cell migration was most efficient when soft lanes were introduced perpendicular to the saw-like patterns. This study demonstrates that asymmetric elasticity gradient patterning of cell culture gels is a versatile means of manipulating cell motility.

Kidoaki, Satoru; Sakashita, Hiroyuki

2013-01-01

307

Premonitory Acoustic Emissions and Slip Nucleation during Stick Slip Experiments in Naturally and Smooth (Saw-cut) Faulted Westerly Granite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compare premonitory microcracking and stick slip events for two Westerly granite samples containing a natural and a saw-cut (smooth) fault. The samples were 190.5 mm in length, and 76.2 mm in diameter. Stick slip events were induced by triaxial loading at 150 MPa confining stress, at a constant strain rate of 5 x10-6 s-1. One sample contained a polished saw-cut fracture (roughened using 220 grit), at 30 degrees to the sample axis. The second contained a natural fracture that had been previously (quasi-statically) induced by triaxial loading. The experiments were monitored using a novel continuous Acoustic Emission (AE) recorder. Three stick slip events were induced on the saw-cut sample, accompanied by fewer than 100 located AEs. Frictional coefficients were 0.48, 0.51, and 0.59 respectively. The first motion of each stick slip was recorded as a large-amplitude AE signal. These located on the saw-cut fault plane, and represent nucleation sites of the stick-slip events. Nucleation location varied between events, probably being controlled by stress heterogeneities or surface conditions on the fault. Prior to the first slip, AE located at the fault tips, with a small amount of premonitory creep. (Approximately 1 cm of each fault tip was removed when the fault was cut and these areas were packed with sand.) AE Source mechanisms were calculated using Moment Tensor inversion, and correspond to compressive sources, consistent with crushing of infill material about the fault tips. Prior to the second and third slips, no premonitory creep was observed. AE locations concentrate on a small patch within the fault plane. Source mechanisms are consistent with double couple events, orientated in agreement with the macro-scale fault plane geometry. For the natural fault, one stick slip event was induced, with a frictional coefficient of 0.72. Over 3000 AE were located. Again, the stick slip event can be located on the fault plane, in an area that had previously been acoustically quiet, presumably locked due to fault topography. Premonitory AE located mainly on the lower portion of the fault plane, and we did not observe an increase in AE rate immediately prior to rupture. Significant post-slip activity was located. b-values are constant at approximately 1.2 in the 100 seconds before slip. For the post-slip sequence there is an instant decrease (0.6) and subsequent recovery (1.0) in b-value. The surface topography generated considerable differences in premonitory, and post slip AE activity. However the ultrasonic signature of the slip events appears similar for both the saw-cut and natural fault. From an analysis of AE location error residuals, the initial nucleation size is estimated to be less than 3 mm in both experiments. However it is unclear whether we are resolving the size of the AE, or just its first particle motion; this depends on whether these AE can be modeled as dynamic or kinematic cracks (the latter refers to instantaneous motion of the whole source).

Young, R. P.; Thompson, B. D.; Lockner, D. A.

2005-12-01

308

Investigation of high power effects on Ti/Al and Ta-Si-N/Cu/Ta-Si-N electrodes for SAW devices.  

PubMed

Damage behavior of two different metallization systems (Ti/Al bilayer and Ta-Si-N/Cu/Ta-Si-N multilayer) as finger electrodes in surface acoustic waves (SAW) devices was investigated. A special test structure was developed for this reason. The samples were loaded with traveling SAWs varying input power and loading time. Simultaneously during these experiments, the electric behavior of the SAW structure was measured and damage development by voids and hillock formation was observed using optical microscopy, too. The damaged structures were investigated by means of different microscopy techniques. Results show that the Cu-based metallization system has a significantly higher acoustomigration resistance and power durability in comparison with the Al thin film system. PMID:16048192

Pekarcíková, Marcela; Hofmann, Matthias; Menzel, Siegfried; Schmidt, Hagen; Gemming, Thomas; Wetzig, Klaus

2005-05-01

309

Enhancing chemical identification efficiency by SAW sensor transients through a data enrichment and information fusion strategy—a simulation study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper proposes a new approach for improving the odor recognition efficiency of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) transient sensor system based on a single polymer coating. The vapor identity information is hidden in transient response shapes through dependences on specific vapor solvation and diffusion parameters in the polymer coating. The variations in the vapor exposure and purge durations and the sensor operating frequency have been used to create diversity in transient shapes via termination of the vapor-polymer equilibration process up to different stages. The transient signals were analyzed by the discrete wavelet transform using Daubechies-4 mother wavelet basis. The wavelet approximation coefficients were then processed by principal component analysis for creating feature space. The set of principal components define the vapor identity information. In an attempt to enhance vapor class separability we analyze two types of information fusion methods. In one, the sensor operation frequency is fixed and the sensing and purge durations are varied, and in the second, the sensing and purge durations are fixed and the sensor operating frequency is varied. The fusion is achieved by concatenation of discrete wavelet coefficients corresponding to various transients prior to the principal component analysis. The simulation experiments with polyisobutylene SAW sensor coating for operation frequencies over [55-160] MHz and sensing durations over [5-60] s were analyzed. The target vapors are seven volatile organics: chloroform, chlorobenzene, o-dichlorobenzene, n-heptane, toluene, n-hexane and n-octane whose concentrations were varied over [10-100] ppm. The simulation data were generated using a SAW sensor transient response model that incorporates the viscoelastic effects due to polymer coating and an additive noise source in the output. The analysis reveals that: (i) in single transient analysis the class separability increases with sensing duration for a given frequency of operation, and also with frequency for a given sensing duration, and (ii) the information fusion based on both the multiple sensing cycles and the multiple sensing frequencies enhances the class separability by nearly an order of magnitude.

Singh, Prashant; Yadava, R. D. S.

2013-05-01

310

Use of superposition principle to derive a general mathematical model to simulate one-to-one, one-to-multi and multi-to-multi saw filter designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explains and summarizes a new attempt to derive a general mathematical model [GMM] to simulate surface acoustic\\u000a wave (SAW) filters, using the superposition principle and delta function model. GMM can be used to simulate One-to-One, One-to-Multi\\u000a and Multi-to-Multi SAW filter devices. The simulation program was written using MATLAB (the language of technical computing).\\u000a Four-design structures (One-to-One, One-to-Two, One-to-Three

M. A. Issa Haitham; Zhu Da-zhong; Qiu Pei-liang

2001-01-01

311

Saw-Scaled Viper Bites in Sri Lanka: Is It a Different Subspecies? Clinical Evidence from an Authenticated Case Series  

PubMed Central

The saw-scaled viper (SSV) (Echis carinatus) is considered to be a highly venomous snake in Sri Lanka despite any published clinical justification. Being a rarity, the clinical profile of SSV bites is not well established in Sri Lanka. We report a series of 48 (n-48) SSV bites from the Northern Province of Sri Lanka. The majority (65%) of victims had evidence of local envenoming at the site of the bite; however, 29% showed spontaneous bleeding and 71% had coagulopathy. There were no deaths in the series. The envenoming was mild in contrast to the mortality and significant morbidity associated with SSV bites in West Africa and some parts of India. These observations need to be further explored with laboratory studies to identify the venom components, study of morphological characteristics, and genetic profiling of the Sri Lankan SSV to see if it is different from the subspecies found elsewhere.

Gnanathasan, Ariaranee; Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Peranantharajah, Thambipillai; Coonghe, Anthonia

2012-01-01

312

Chemical class specificity using self-assembled monolayers on SAW devices: Effects of adsorption time and substrate grain size  

SciTech Connect

The authors report selectivity and sensitivity for 97-MHz SAW (surface acoustic wave) sensors functionalized with (COO{sup {minus}}){sub 2}/Cu{sup 2+}-terminated, organomercaptan-based, self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). Responses were obtained as a function of SAM formation time on thin Au films of controlled grain size. The authors find that the SAM films (1) preferentially adsorb classes of organic analytes according to simple chemical interaction concepts, (2) reversibly adsorb multilayers of some analytes well below their saturation vapor pressure, (3) adsorb more diisopropylmethylphosphonate (DIMP) at a given partial pressure as SAM solution-phase adsorption time increases, and (4) adsorb more DIMP at a given partial pressure as the grain size of the supporting Au film decreases.

Thomas, R.C.; Ricco, A.J.; DiRubio, C.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Microsensor R and D Dept.; Yang, H.C.; Crooks, R.M. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1997-07-01

313

Cloning of a prothrombin activator-like metalloproteinase from the West African saw-scaled viper, Echis ocellatus.  

PubMed

Systemic envenoming by the saw-scaled viper, Echis ocellatus, is responsible for more deaths than any other snake in West Africa. Despite its medical importance, there have been few investigations into the toxin composition of the venom of this viper. Here we describe the isolation of E. ocellatus venom gland cDNAs encoding a protein of 514 amino acids that showed 91% sequence similarity to Ecarin, a prothrombin-activating metalloproteinase from the venom of the East African viper, E. pyramidum leakeyi, that induces severe consumption coagulopathy. Structural similarities between the E. ocellatus metalloproteinase and analogues in venoms of related vipers suggest that antibodies raised to phylogenetically conserved E. ocellatus metalloproteinase domains may have potential for cross-specific and cross-generic neutralisation of analogous venom toxins. PMID:14602118

Hasson, S S; Theakston, R D G; Harrison, R A

2003-11-01

314

Single-monolayer in situ modulus measurements using a SAW device: Photocrosslinking of a diacetylenic thiol-based monolayer  

SciTech Connect

We report direct measurement of the modulus change that accompanies the crosslinking of a single molecular monolayer. We measured a change in elastic modulus of 5 x 10{sup 10} dyn/cm{sup 2} as a result of ultraviolet-induced photocrosslinking of a single surface-confined monolayer of the conjugated diacetylenic thiol HS(CH{sub 2}){sub 10}C{triple_bond}CC{triple_bond}C(CH{sub 2}){sub 10}COOH, designated {open_quotes}DAT{close_quotes} hereafter. The modulus measurement was made on a monolayer of DAT chemisorbed upon a gold film on the surface of a 97-MHz ST-quartz surface acoustic wave delay line. The ratio of the changes recorded in SAW velocity and attenuation, approximately 4:1, suggests that the measured effect is mainly a change in the elastic (real) component of the complex shear modulus, viscous changes playing a lesser role. In relation to typical polymer modulus values, the change of 5 x 10{sup 10} dyn/cm{sup 2} is consistent with a change from a rubbery material (G{prime} {approximately} 10{sup 7} - 10{sup 8} dyn/cm{sup 2}) to a fairly rigid, glassy material (G{prime} {approximately} 10{sup 10} dyn/cm{sup 2}), reasonable for comparison of the monolayer in its as-adsorbed and crosslinked forms. This report of the direct SAW-based measurement of the modulus change associated with the crosslinking of a single molecular monolayer is complementary to and consistent with previous in-situ measurements of this process using thickness-shear mode resonators.

Ricco, A.J.; Staton, A.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Crooks, R.M. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Kim, Taisun [Hallym Univ., Kang-Won Do (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemistry

1997-10-01

315

Thickness driven stabilization of saw-tooth-like domains upon phase transitions in ferroelectric thin films with depletion charges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ionized impurities have nearly always been neglected in discussing the limit of functionality of ferroelectric thin films. One would certainly expect that the thickness limit for functionality would be altered in the presence of ionized impurities, but how this would occur remains unclear. In this article, we analyze the domain structures as well as the phase transition temperatures in films with depletion charges for various film thicknesses. Depletion charges induce a position-dependent built-in field that leads to an inhomogeneous distribution of ferroelectric polarization. Such an inhomogeneity in the polarization results in strong depolarizing fields in films. We show that formation of saw-tooth-type domains is a way to circumvent the depolarizing fields, even in films with ideal electrodes. There is a critical film thickness above which the saw-tooth domains develop. On the other hand, the phase transition of the ultrathin structures with electrodes having a finite screening length, namely real electrodes, is always into the multidomain state during cooling from the paraelectric state, regardless of the presence of depletion charges. An important finding we have is that the transition temperature in films with real electrodes does not depend nearly at all on the depletion charge density unless it is very high (>1026 ionized impurities/m3). Relatively thick films (>8 nm in this work) with real electrodes that have very high depletion charge densities have transition temperatures very similar to those with the same charge density, but with ideal electrodes, making us conclude that thick films with high depletion charge densities will hardly feel the finite screening effects. The results are provided for (001) BaTiO3 films grown on (001) SrTiO3 substrates with pseudomorphic top and bottom metallic electrodes.

Misirlioglu, I. B.; Cologlu, H. N.; Yildiz, M.

2012-03-01

316

Evaluation of cut-off saw exposure control methods for respirable dust and crystalline silica in roadway construction.  

PubMed

Dust reduction equipment adapted for single-person operation was evaluated for gas-powered, commercially available cut-off saws during concrete curb cutting. Cutting was performed without dust control and with two individual exposure control methods: wet suppression and local exhaust ventilation (LEV). The wet suppression system comprised a two-nozzle spray system and a 13.3-L hand-pressurized water supply system with an optimum mean flow rate of 0.83 L/min for 16 min of cutting. The LEV system consisted of a spring-loaded guard, an 18.9-L collection bag, and a centrifugal fan with an estimated exhaust rate of 91 ft(3)/min. Task-based, personal filter samples were obtained for four saw operators during cutting durations of 4 to 16 min on five job sites. Seventeen filter samples were collected without dust control, 14 with wet suppression, and 12 with LEV, yielding a geometric mean respirable dust concentration of 16.4 mg/m(3), 3.60 mg/m(3), and 4.40 mg/m(3), respectively. A dust reduction of 78.0% for wet suppression and 73.2% for LEV was observed vs. no dust control. A statistically significant difference (p < 0.001) was also revealed for wet suppression and LEV when compared with no dust control; however, a significant difference (p = 0.09) was not observed between wet suppression and LEV. Despite these significant dust reductions, workers are still projected to exceed the ACGIH 8-hr time-weighted average threshold limit value for quartz (0.025 mg/m(3)) in less than 1 hr of cutting for both dust control methods. Further research is still needed to improve dust reduction and portability of both control methods, but the current LEV system offers important advantages, including a drier, less slippery work area and year-round functionality in cold weather. PMID:22394370

Middaugh, Beauregard; Hubbard, Bryan; Zimmerman, Neil; McGlothlin, James

2012-01-01

317

Facile synthesis of silver nano/micro-ribbons or saws assisted by polyoxomolybdate as mediator agent and vanadium(IV) as reducing agent.  

PubMed

Original and effective syntheses of crystalline silver wires and saw bundles, using reduced Keggin polyoxomolybdovanadate (POM) as mediator and reducing agent, were performed in acetonitrile at room temperature; several parameters influencing the final silver 1D-structures, with micrometric length and nanometric thickness, were varied: the nature of the POM, silver salts, vanadium(iv) source and the mild conditions. PMID:17851616

Marchal-Roch, Catherine; Mayer, Cédric R; Michel, Aude; Dumas, Eddy; Liu, Feng-Xian; Sécheresse, Francis

2007-07-06

318

Stump Heights and Sprouting of European Aspen, Pubescent and Silver Birches, and Damage to Norway Spruce and Scots Pine Following Mechanical and Brush Saw Cleaning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results of precommercial thinning (cleaning) by brush saw and by a machine-mounted device, consisting of a hydraulically-driven heavy disc with two short steel flails mounted in a journal bearing, are presented. Plots cleaned by machine had a larger numbe...

T. Johansson

1992-01-01

319

Fatty acid analysis of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) and pygeum (Prunus africanum) in dietary supplements by mass spectrometry in the selected ion monitoring mode  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Saw palmetto and pygeum are natural products commonly used in dietary supplements for the treatment of enlarged prostate glands. These plant materials are rich in fatty acids, and the fatty acid compositions of both plants are similar. The goal of this study was to develop a gas chromatography-mass ...

320

Evaluation of a gas chromatograph with a novel surface acoustic wave detector (SAW GC) for screening of volatile organic compounds in Hanford waste tank samples  

SciTech Connect

A novel instrument, a gas chromatograph with a Surface Acoustic Wave Detector (SAW GC), was evaluated for the screening of organic compounds in Hanford tank headspace vapors. Calibration data were developed for the most common organic compounds, and the accuracy and precision were measured with a certified standard. The instrument was tested with headspace samples collected from seven Hanford waste tanks.

Lockrem, L.L.

1998-01-12

321

Low propagation loss in a one-port SAW resonator fabricated on single-crystal diamond for super-high-frequency applications.  

PubMed

Diamond has the highest known SAW phase velocity, sufficient for applications in the gigahertz range. However, although numerous studies have demonstrated SAW devices on polycrystalline diamond thin films, all have had much larger propagation loss than single-crystal materials such as LiNbO3. Hence, in this study, we fabricated and characterized one-port SAW resonators on single-crystal diamond substrates synthesized using a high-pressure and high-temperature method to identify and minimize sources of propagation loss. A series of one-port resonators were fabricated with the interdigital transducer/ AlN/diamond structure and their characteristics were measured. The device with the best performance exhibited a resonance frequency f of 5.3 GHz, and the equivalent circuit model gave a quality factor Q of 5509. Thus, a large fQ product of approximately 2.9 × 10(13) was obtained, and the propagation loss was found to be only 0.006 dB/wavelength. These excellent properties are attributed mainly to the reduction of scattering loss in a substrate using a single-crystal diamond, which originated from the grain boundary of diamond and the surface roughness of the AlN thin film and the diamond substrate. These results show that single-crystal diamond SAW resonators have great potential for use in low-noise super-high-frequency oscillators. PMID:23661133

Fujii, Satoshi; Odawara, Tatsuya; Yamada, Haruya; Omori, Tatsuya; Hashimoto, Ken-Ya; Torii, Hironori; Umezawa, Hitoshi; Shikata, Shinichi

2013-05-01

322

The effect of purification of single-walled carbon nanotube bundles on the alcohol sensitivity of nanocomposite Langmuir Blodgett films for SAW sensing applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HiPco (high-pressure CO dissociation process) single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) bundles containing Fe particles were purified in a two-step purification process by thermal annealing in oxygen and post-treatment in HCl. Nanocomposite films of pristine and purified SWCNTs embedded in an organic matrix of cadmium arachidate (CdA) were prepared by a Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) molecular engineering technique with a fixed weight filler content of 75 wt% onto a surface acoustic wave (SAW) transducer operating as an oscillator at a frequency of 433 MHz. The raw and purified samples were characterized at various stages of the purification process using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), along with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Functional characterizations of the SWCNT-nanocomposite-based SAW sensors were investigated towards methanol, isopropanol and ethanol, and demonstrated high sensitivity, reversibility, fast response and ppm level detection at room temperature. Results indicate that the sensitivity of the SAW sensors based on a nanocomposite film of oxygen-annealed SWCNTs is enhanced to the alcohols tested at room temperature. Purification of the SWCNTs in the nanocomposite film affects the SAW sensitivity to alcohol by modulating the sensing properties. The sensing mechanisms are analysed and discussed.

Penza, M.; Tagliente, M. A.; Aversa, P.; Re, M.; Cassano, G.

2007-05-01

323

The CNC development of the sawing and milling machining center for plastic door and window PVC profile based on Fanuc0  

Microsoft Academic Search

By developing secondly FANUC - OMD system, the control system accorded with requirements of the sawing and milling machining center for plastic door and window PVC (polyvinyl chloride) profile is accomplished. Based on researching the structure, the function, the process of the technologies and the control requirements of the machining center, had implemented the CNC (computer numerical control)system of the

Hui Zhang; Changsheng Ai; Fang Zhao; Xiangbo Ze

2008-01-01

324

A comparative study of the SSC resistance of a novel welding process IEA with SAW and MIG  

SciTech Connect

The Stress Sulphide Cracking resistance of X65 weldments produced by Indirect Electric Arc, Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) and Metal Inert Gas (MIG) processes were evaluated in a NACE solution saturated with H{sub 2}S at 25 deg. C, 37 deg. C and 50 deg. C using Slow Strain Rate Tests (SSRT) and electrochemical measurements. Weldments produced by the Indirect Electric Arc presented the best Stress Sulphide Cracking resistance at 25 deg. C. This behavior is attributed to the microstructural modification of the weld bead from ferrite in a needlelike form to a fine grain microstructure, which was not observed at 37 deg. C and 50 deg. C. In addition, the hydrogen permeation flux increased with the temperature, this result is associated with the ferrite phase. The electrochemical results show a decrease of the trapping sites for the atomic hydrogen on this weldment. This behavior has not been observed for the other welding processes due to their microstructure (a typical columnar growth of coarse grain)

Natividad, C. [Facultad de Quimica, UNAM Circuito interior, C.U., Edificio BC.P. 04510, Mexico, D.F (Mexico)]. E-mail: consnatividad@yahoo.com.mx; Salazar, M. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, San Bartolo Atepehuacan, 07730, Mexico, D.F (Mexico)]. E-mail: salazarm@imp.mx; Espinosa-Medina, M.A. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, San Bartolo Atepehuacan, 07730, Mexico, D.F (Mexico); Perez, R. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, San Bartolo Atepehuacan, 07730, Mexico, D.F (Mexico)

2007-08-15

325

Field portable detection of VOCs using a SAW/GC system. Final report, June 21, 1994--September 21, 1996  

SciTech Connect

This report describes research on a fast GC vapor analysis system which uses a new type of Surface Acoustic Wave detector technology to characterize organic contamination in soil and groundwater. The project was sponsored by the Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, whose mission, in addition to other goals, is the development of tools and methods for characterization, remediation, and monitoring of underground environmental conditions. The research tasks were to demonstrate detectability and specificity of a Surface Acoustic Wave Gas Chromatograph (SAW/GC) to a representative number of VOC materials followed by field demonstrations of the new technology at a DOE site. All tasks of the project were successfully carried out and a fast vapor analysis system based upon a new type of Surface Acoustic Wave detector technology was developed. The prototype analyzer has the ability to characterize organic contamination in soil and groundwater at the part per billion level in less than 10 seconds. The detector is unique because it utilized an uncoated quartz crystal, contrary to current developments of using coated crystals.

Chang, F.; Staples, E.J.

1998-06-01

326

Numerical simulation of operation modes in atmospheric pressure uniform barrier discharge excited by a saw-tooth voltage  

SciTech Connect

The characteristics of dielectric barrier discharge excited by a saw-tooth voltage are simulated in atmospheric pressure helium based on a one-dimensional fluid model. A stepped discharge is obtained per half voltage cycle with gas gap width less than 2 mm by the simulation, which is different to the pulsed discharge excited by a sinusoidal voltage. For the stepped discharge, the plateau duration increases with increasing the voltage amplitude and decreasing the gas gap. Therefore, uniform discharge with high temporal duty ratio can be realized with small gap through increasing the voltage amplitude. The maximal densities of both electron and ion appear near the anode and the electric field is almost uniformly distributed along the gap, which indicates that the stepped discharge belongs to a Townsend mode. In contrast to the stepped discharge with small gas gap, a pulsed discharge can be obtained with large gas gap. Through analyzing the spatial density distributions of electron and ion and the electric field, the pulsed discharge is in a glow mode. The voltage-current (V-I) characteristics are analyzed for the above mentioned discharges under different gas gaps, from which the different discharge modes are verified.

Li Xuechen; Niu Dongying; Yin Zengqian [College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); Fang Tongzhen; Wang Long [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

2012-08-15

327

Numerical simulation of operation modes in atmospheric pressure uniform barrier discharge excited by a saw-tooth voltage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characteristics of dielectric barrier discharge excited by a saw-tooth voltage are simulated in atmospheric pressure helium based on a one-dimensional fluid model. A stepped discharge is obtained per half voltage cycle with gas gap width less than 2 mm by the simulation, which is different to the pulsed discharge excited by a sinusoidal voltage. For the stepped discharge, the plateau duration increases with increasing the voltage amplitude and decreasing the gas gap. Therefore, uniform discharge with high temporal duty ratio can be realized with small gap through increasing the voltage amplitude. The maximal densities of both electron and ion appear near the anode and the electric field is almost uniformly distributed along the gap, which indicates that the stepped discharge belongs to a Townsend mode. In contrast to the stepped discharge with small gas gap, a pulsed discharge can be obtained with large gas gap. Through analyzing the spatial density distributions of electron and ion and the electric field, the pulsed discharge is in a glow mode. The voltage-current (V-I) characteristics are analyzed for the above mentioned discharges under different gas gaps, from which the different discharge modes are verified.

Li, Xuechen; Niu, Dongying; Yin, Zengqian; Fang, Tongzhen; Wang, Long

2012-08-01

328

Co-pyrolysis behaviors of saw dust and Shenfu coal in drop tube furnace and fixed bed reactor.  

PubMed

Co-pyrolysis behaviors of saw dust (SD) and Shenfu bituminous coal (SF) were studied in a drop tube furnace and a fixed bed reactor at different temperatures respectively. Six different biomass/coal ratios (B:C) were used. Compared the results with the calculated value obtained by the additional behavior, CO volume yields were lower while H2, CH4, CO2, volume yields were higher. Blend char yields had a good agreement with the calculated values, and their structures remained similar with SD and SF char's. Synergy effect occurred in gaseous phase, which was mainly caused by the secondary reactions. Compared the blend char yields in the drop tube furnace with those in the fixed bed reactor, the results showed the contacting way of biomass and coal particles had little influence on char yield in co-pyrolysis process. The reactivity index of blend char achieved the minimum at B:C=40:60 and the maximum at B:C=80:20. PMID:24041762

Li, Shuaidan; Chen, Xueli; Wang, Li; Liu, Aibin; Yu, Guangsuo

2013-08-28

329

Noise-induced hearing loss in relation to vibration-induced white finger in chain-saw workers.  

PubMed

From the viewpoint of the etiologies of noise-induced permanent threshold shift (NIPTS) and vibration-induced white finger (VWF), the association between VWF and hearing loss was examined among 499 chain-saw workers who underwent a compulsory health examination for vibration syndrome. They were classified by age, duration of noise and vibration exposure, and the severity of VWF. The severity of VWF was evaluated according to the following criteria: no prior history; VWF history, but symptoms had disappeared; VWF present but appearing rarely; frequent appearance of VWF (more than 20 times per winter season). In three age groups (ie, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69 years) with 5-9 years of exposure, the chainsaw workers with VWF had a significantly greater hearing loss at higher frequencies than those without VWF. However, in the 10- to 14-year exposure groups, a significant difference was not found between the VWF and non-VWF groups, except that the 50- to 59-year age groups showed a significant difference in mean age. It was suggested that interindividual differences in susceptibility to noise and vibration may be the reason for the synergistic effects of noise and vibration. PMID:3576142

Miyakita, T; Miura, H; Futatsuka, M

1987-02-01

330

Studies on pharmacological effects of Russell's viper and Saw-scaled viper venom and its neutralization by chicken egg yolk antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antivenom antibodies were raised in 24-week-old white leghorn chickens against hemotoxic venoms of Russell's viper and Saw-scaled viper snakes. Booster injections of increasing concentrations of venom were given at 14days of time interval to raise the antivenom level in egg yolk. Antibodies were extracted from immunized chicken egg yolk by Polson et al. (Polson A., Von Wechmar M.B., Van Regenmortel

S. Meenatchisundaram; G. Parameswari; A. Michael; S. Ramalingam

2008-01-01

331

In vivo assessment of botanical supplementation on human cytochrome P450 phenotypes: Citrus aurantium, Echinacea purpurea, milk thistle, and saw palmetto  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Phytochemical-mediated modulation of cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity may underlie many herb-drug interactions. Single–time point phenotypic metabolic ratios were used to determine whether long-term supplementation of Citrus aurantium, Echinacea purpurea, milk thistle (Silybum marianum), or saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) extracts affected CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, or CYP3A4 activity.Methods: Twelve healthy volunteers (6 women, 6 men) were randomly assigned to receive C

Bill J. Gurley; Stephanie F. Gardner; Martha A. Hubbard; D. Keith Williams; W. Brooks Gentry; Julie Carrier; Ikhlas A. Khan; David J. Edwards; Amit Shah

2004-01-01

332

Fabrication of high frequency ZnO thin film SAW devices on silicon substrate with a diamond-like carbon buffer layer using RF magnetron sputtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diamond-like carbon (DLC) film is a promising candidate for surface acoustic wave (SAW) device applications because of its higher acoustic velocity. A zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film has been deposited on DLC film\\/Si substrate by RF magnetron sputtering; the optimized parameters for the ZnO sputtering are RF power density of 0.55W\\/cm2, substrate temperature of 380°C, gas flow ratio (Ar\\/O2) of

Wen-Ching Shih; Rei-Ching Huang

2008-01-01

333

A 0.8mm2 all-digital SAW-less polar transmitter in 65nm EDGE SoC  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 0.8 mm2 small-signal polar EDGE TX, part of a 65 nm CMOS SoC, incorporates a fully-digital implementation for the amplitude path meeting the strict emission mask without a SAW filter. Various RF impairments in the AM circuitry are digitally compensated, resulting in 2.5% rms EVM (high-band, HB) and over 8 dB margin with the close-in mask. The TX consumes

J. Mehta; R. B. Staszewski; O. Eliezer; S. Rezeq; K. Waheed; M. Entezari; G. Feygin; S. Vemulapalli; V. Zoicas; Chih-Ming Hung; N. Barton; I. Bashir; K. Maggio; M. Frechette; Meng-Chang Lee; J. Wallberg; P. Cruise; N. Yanduru

2010-01-01

334

Reduction in airborne contamination levels at the 9201-5 Arc Melt sawing operation. A Y-12 Plant 1982 ALARA goal  

SciTech Connect

Lowering the uranium airborne contamination level at the two saws in the 9201-5 Arc Melt Area was chosen as a Y-12 Plant As-Low-As-Reasonably-Achievable (ALARA) goal for 1982. This priority was convincingly communicated to those involving by giving specific instructions to suspend saw operations any time there was evidence of a problem until that problem could be corrected. Using control charts on air flow rates into the saw enclosures and pressure drops across filters in the saw ventilation (Delta Phase I) exhaust system, it was possible to decide when filter changes or other adjustments were necessary to maintain the exhaust flow rates needed for improved airborne contamination control. The keeping of these charts, along with the actions taken on the basis of the data gathered, made it possible to meet the goal of reducing airborne contamination levels in 1982, as compared with 1981, although production in the Arc Melt Area increased significantly. These data also showed that use of one brand of filter in the prefilter system resulted in the need to change filters more frequently than when another brand was used. This fact triggered an investigation which revealed the cause for the shorter useful life of that filter and a request that only specifically approved filters be purchased for use in this system. Use of these control data also made it possible to establish that the exhaust system operated more effectively without the Roto-clone hydrostatic pecipitators because exhaust air flow was increased without reduction in filter life.

Beck, D.E.; West, C.M.

1983-02-01

335

Repositioning of Cranial Bone Flaps Cut with a Diamond-Coated Threadwire Saw: 5-Year Experience with Cosmetic Cranioplasty without Fixation Devices  

PubMed Central

Artificial fixation systems for cranial bone flaps have problems related to their materials and designs. We developed an alternative technique for supratentorial craniotomy that employs a diamond-coated threadwire saw (diamond T-saw), originally developed for spinal surgery, and reduces the bone gap for fitted bone flap fixation. The study subjects were 77 adults undergoing elective supratentorial craniotomy. After placing a burr hole at each corner of the craniotomy, we performed osteotomy between adjacent burr holes to approximately one-third of the length of the osteotomy with a craniotome; this leaves a bony bridge at each corner. The diamond T-saw was introduced between adjacent burr holes through the epidural space and a bridge was cut with reciprocating strokes. On closure, the bridge firmly supports the flap and only sutures are needed for fixation. Successful bone flap fixation was obtained in all followed-up cases. There were no technique-related complications such as dural laceration, flap displacement, or resorption. Our method is ideal for bone cuts in cosmetic cranioplasty; it is easy, safe, and inexpensive and avoids the need for flap fixation with artificial devices.

Shimizu, Satoru; Kondo, Koji; Yamazaki, Tomoya; Nakayama, Kenji; Yamamoto, Isao; Fujii, Kiyotaka

2011-01-01

336

Nonlinear smooth orthogonal decomposition of kinematic features of sawing reconstructs muscle fatigue evolution as indicated by electromyography.  

PubMed

Tracking or predicting physiological fatigue is important for developing more robust training protocols and better energy supplements and/or reducing muscle injuries. Current methodologies are usually impractical and/or invasive and may not be realizable outside of laboratory settings. It was recently demonstrated that smooth orthogonal decomposition (SOD) of phase space warping (PSW) features of motion kinematics can identify fatigue in individual muscle groups. We hypothesize that a nonlinear extension of SOD will identify more optimal fatigue coordinates and provide a lower-dimensional reconstruction of local fatigue dynamics than the linear SOD. Both linear and nonlinear SODs were applied to PSW features estimated from measured kinematics to reconstruct muscle fatigue dynamics in subjects performing a sawing motion. Ten healthy young right-handed subjects pushed a weighted handle back and forth until voluntary exhaustion. Three sets of joint kinematic angles were measured from the right upper extremity in addition to surface electromyography (EMG) recordings. The SOD coordinates of kinematic PSW features were compared against independently measured fatigue markers (i.e., mean and median EMG spectrum frequencies of individual muscle groups). This comparison was based on a least-squares linear fit of a fixed number of the dominant SOD coordinates to the appropriate local fatigue markers. Between subject variability showed that at most four to five nonlinear SOD coordinates were needed to reconstruct fatigue in local muscle groups, while on average 15 coordinates were needed for the linear SOD. Thus, the nonlinear coordinates provided a one-order-of-magnitude improvement over the linear ones. PMID:21303185

Segala, David B; Gates, Deanna H; Dingwell, Jonathan B; Chelidze, David

2011-03-01

337

Direct SAW Frequency Synthesizer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A frequency synthesizer utilizing three elementary direct synthesizers to achieve fast frequency hopping among 219 tones is described. The elementary synthesizers used for the two 9-channel sets of tones consist of a comb generator followed by a surface a...

A. J. Budreau P. H. Carr

1978-01-01

338

Palaeolimnological evidence for an east-west climate see-saw in the Mediterranean since AD 900  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the period of instrumental records, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) has strongly influenced inter-annual precipitation variations in the western Mediterranean, while some eastern parts of the basin have shown an anti-phase relationship in precipitation and atmospheric pressure. Here we explore how the NAO and other atmospheric circulation modes operated over the longer timescales of the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and Little Ice Age (LIA). High-resolution palaeolimnological evidence from opposite ends of the Mediterranean basin, supplemented by other palaeoclimate data, is used to track shifts in regional hydro-climatic conditions. Multiple geochemical, sedimentological, isotopic and palaeoecological proxies from Estanya and Montcortés lakes in northeast Spain and Nar lake in central Turkey have been cross-correlated at decadal time intervals since AD 900. These dryland lakes capture sensitively changes in precipitation/evaporation (P/E) balance by adjustments in water level and salinity, and are especially valuable for reconstructing variability over decadal-centennial timescales. Iberian lakes show lower water levels and higher salinities during the 11th to 13th centuries synchronous with the MCA and generally more humid conditions during the 'LIA' (15th-19th centuries). This pattern is also clearly evident in tree-ring records from Morocco and from marine cores in the western Mediterranean Sea. In the eastern Mediterranean, palaeoclimatic records from Turkey, Greece and the Levant show generally drier hydro-climatic conditions during the LIA and a wetter phase during the MCA. This implies that a bipolar climate see-saw has operated in the Mediterranean for the last 1100 years. However, while western Mediterranean aridity appears consistent with persistent positive NAO state during the MCA, the pattern is less clear in the eastern Mediterranean. Here the strongest evidence for higher winter season precipitation during the MCA comes from central Turkey in the northeastern sector of the Mediterranean basin. This in turn implies that the LIA/MCA hydro-climatic pattern in the Mediterranean was determined by a combination of different climate modes along with major physical geographical controls, and not by NAO forcing alone, or that the character of the NAO and its teleconnections have been non-stationary.

Roberts, Neil; Moreno, Ana; Valero-Garcés, Blas L.; Corella, Juan Pablo; Jones, Matthew; Allcock, Samantha; Woodbridge, Jessie; Morellón, Mario; Luterbacher, Juerg; Xoplaki, Elena; Türke?, Murat

2012-03-01

339

Studies on pharmacological effects of Russell's viper and Saw-scaled viper venom and its neutralization by chicken egg yolk antibodies.  

PubMed

Antivenom antibodies were raised in 24-week-old white leghorn chickens against hemotoxic venoms of Russell's viper and Saw-scaled viper snakes. Booster injections of increasing concentrations of venom were given at 14days of time interval to raise the antivenom level in egg yolk. Antibodies were extracted from immunized chicken egg yolk by Polson et al. (Polson A., Von Wechmar M.B., Van Regenmortel M.H.V. Isolation of viral IgY antibodies from yolks of immunized hens. Immunological Communications 1980; 9:475-493.) and further purified by DEAE cellulose ion exchange column chromatography, which gave pure (180-200kDa) specific antibodies against venom. High titre of more than 1:10,000 antibodies were detected by ELISA at the 135th day of observation. The lethal toxicity and various pharmacological activities like hemorrhagic activity, phospholipase activity, edema and procoagulant activities of venom were carried out by both in vivo and in vitro methods. The effectiveness of antivenom in neutralizing these effects was carried out involving pre-incubation type experiments. The median effective dose (ED50) for Russell's viper venom was 0.96mg/2LD50/18g mice and for Saw-scaled viper venom it was 1.28mg/2LD50/18g mice. One millilitre of specific antivenom was effective in neutralizing 0.110mg of Russell's viper and 0.137mg of Saw-scaled viper venoms respectively (PD50). Antivenom was effective in neutralization assays in a dose dependent manner. The results indicate that antibodies raised in chicken could effectively neutralize the pharmacological effects induced by venoms and chickens therefore present an alternative and cheaper source of specific antibody generation. PMID:18550009

Meenatchisundaram, S; Parameswari, G; Michael, A; Ramalingam, S

2008-04-21

340

Acousto-optical and SAW propagation characteristics of temperature stable multilayered structures based on LiNbO3 and diamond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical studies on the surface acoustic wave (SAW) properties of c-axis oriented LiNbO3/IDT/diamond and diamond/IDT/128° rotated Y-X cut LiNbO3 multilayered structures have been considered. Both layered structures exhibit a positive temperature coefficient of delay (TCD) characteristic, and a zero TCD device is obtained after integrating with an over-layer of either tellurium dioxide (TeO2) or silicon dioxide (SiO2). The presence of a TeO2 over-layer enhanced the electromechanical coupling coefficients of both multilayered structures, which acts as a better temperature compensation layer than SiO2. The temperature stable TeO2/LiNbO3/IDT/diamond layered structure exhibits good electromechanical coefficient and higher phase velocity for SAW device applications. On the other hand, a high acousto-optical (AO) figure of merit (30-37) × 10-15 s3 kg-1 has been obtained for the temperature stable SiO2/diamond/IDT/LiNbO3 layered structure indicating a promising device structure for AO applications.

Shandilya, Swati; Sreenivas, K.; Gupta, Vinay

2008-01-01

341

Evaluation and selection of LiNbO(3) and LiTaO(3) substrates for SAW devices by the LFB ultrasonic material characterization system.  

PubMed

This paper demonstrates the evaluation and selection of commercially available LiNbO(3) and LiTaO(3) single crystals and wafers for surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices using the line-focus-beam ultrasonic material characterization (LFB-UMC) system. This system enables measuring leaky-SAW (LSAW) propagation characteristics precisely and efficiently for a number of specimens. The wafers are prepared from the top, middle, and bottom parts of four 128 degrees YX LiNbO(3) and seven X-112 degrees Y LiTaO(3) single crystals. For both series of crystals, the measured LSAW velocities increase from top to bottom in the crystals and with the increasing crystal growth number. The velocity changes for all wafers are 0.036% for 128 degrees YX LiNbO(3) and 0.035% for X-112 degrees Y LiTaO(3), corresponding to changes of 0.038 mol% and 0.075 mol% in Li(2)O concentration, respectively. Moreover, the inhomogeneity in the first X-112 degrees Y LiTaO(3) single crystal caused by some undesirable wafer fabrication processes can be detected precisely, although it is difficult for the conventional methods to obtain such information. PMID:18238642

Kushibiki, J; Ohashi, Y; Ono, Y

2000-01-01

342

High-energy (100-keV) e-beam lithography applied for fabrication of deep-submicrometer SAW devices on lithium niobate and quartz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fabricating submicron feature size Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) devices on Lithium Niobate and Quartz allows one to take advantage of their unique piezoelectric material properties and operate at higher frequencies. With the recent availability of high performance, high energy e-beam nanowriter tools such as the Leica/Phillips EBPG-HR5 resident at this facility, SAW devices with very narrow line/space transducer gratings can be investigated. Utilizing very high energy (100 keV) direct write electron beam lithography (EBL), allows for processing of deep submicron features with an associated wider process latitude. This is specially desirable when applying EBL to high average Z materials such as lithium niobate. A previously presented paper demonstrated 400 and 500 nm line/space interdigitated transducer fingers on quartz and lithium niobate substrates. E-Beam lithography (30 keV) was used with two and three level, positive and negative tone processes respectively. In this current work a bilevel positive tone process is used by the authors, and involves first spinning a preparation of (1:1) ZEP-320-37 (Nagase Chemical) positive e-beam resist. A commercially available conductive polymer known as TQV-501 (Nitto Chemical) is then spun onto the wafer and serves as a charge removal vehicle. The TQV-501 film is removed by the development procedure. Xylene is used as the developer. Contact pads and interdigitated transducer elements are realized by e-beam metal deposition and lift off process. We will show a direct write positive tone process for the fabrication of deep submicron (400 nM and smaller) interdigitated transducer gratings on Lithium Niobate and Quartz substrates. An improved process dose latitude is seen because of the reduced expected proximity effect at high beam energy.

Kondek, Christine A.; Poli, Louis C.

1995-05-01

343

Use of Classical Least Squares/Partial Least Squares (CLS/PLS) hybrid algorithm for calibration and calibration maintenance of Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) devices.  

SciTech Connect

Many data analysis algorithms that are currently employed in SAW sensors lack the ability to easily maintain calibration models in the presence of unmodeled interferents or sensor drift. The classical least squares/partial least squares (CLS/PLS) hybrid algorithm is tested in this study for its ability to update calibration models for unmodeled interferents and sensor drift with information from only a single recalibration standard. Use of the CLS/PLS hybrid algorithm for calibration and calibration maintenance of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices was investigated for synthetic mixtures of iso-octane-methanol-water and with synthetic mixtures of nerve agent analogs, di-iso-propyl methyl phosphonate (DIMP)-kerosene-water along with a true ternary mixture of dimethyl methyl phosphonate (DMMP)-kerosene-water. Calibration statistics using the hybrid algorithm were found to be as good as those obtained from a standard partial least squares (PLS) analysis. In prediction, the hybrid algorithm models were found to perform equivalently to PLS models in the absence of unmodeled interferents or sensor drift, with an accuracy of 5-10% of the reference values and a high degree of precision. In the case of prediction in the presence of unmodeled interferents and/or sensor drift, PLS models and prediction augmented CLS/PLS (PACLS/PLS) hybrid models were compared using a single standard sample to update each model for prediction. For the cases studied, PACLS/PLS hybrid models were comparable to or outperformed updated PLS models that used subset recalibration or piece-wise direct standardization.

Simonson, Robert Joseph; Rivera, Dion Arledge; Staton, Alan W.; Alam, Mary Kathleen; Yelton, William Graham

2003-06-01

344

COD\\/Kcv correlations in weld deposits in butt joints produced by the MMA, MIG and SAW processes in an HSLA steel with a yield strength of 480 N\\/mm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the Okazaki method, relationships were obtained between the experimental COD values and the COD values calculated from the yield strength, ductile\\/brittle transition temperature and impact energy values for weld deposits made by manual metal arc with coated electrodes, MIG and SAW in the as?welded state and with intermediate and final heat treatments. Average values for these relationships in the

M. A. Roman; E. Ayala

1993-01-01

345

Effects of three novel metalloproteinases from the venom of the West African saw-scaled viper, Echis ocellatus on blood coagulation and platelets.  

PubMed

Two metalloproteinases, a 24-kDa P-I EoVMP1 and a 56-kDa P-III EoVMP2, have recently been isolated from the venom of the West African saw-scaled viper Echis ocellatus. We now reveal a new 65-kDa haemorrhagic group P-III metalloproteinase which we have designated EoVMP3. The aim of this study was to determine whether these three snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) affect platelets and blood coagulation. EoVMP1 had no effect on the aggregation of washed human platelets, whereas EoVMP2 inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation. In contrast, EoVMP3 did not inhibit the aggregation of platelets by collagen but instead activated platelets in the absence of any additional co-factors. All three SVMPs were capable of activating prothrombin to varying degrees and can therefore be described as procoagulants. EoVMP1, EoVMP2 and EoVMP3 share sequence identity with other members of the reprolysin family, but differ greatly in their effects on some of the components that control haemostasis. PMID:15863354

Howes, J-M; Kamiguti, A S; Theakston, R D G; Wilkinson, M C; Laing, G D

2005-04-07

346

A saw-less direct conversion long term evolution receiver with 25% duty-cycle LO in 130 nm CMOS technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A CMOS long-term evolution (LTE) direct convert receiver that eliminates the interstage SAW filter is presented. The receiver consists of a low noise variable gain transconductance amplifier (TCA), a quadrature passive current commutating mixer with a 25% duty-cycle LO, a trans-impedance amplifier (TIA), a 7th-order Chebyshev filter and programmable gain amplifiers (PGAs). A wide dynamic gain range is allocated in the RF and analog parts. A current commutating passive mixer with a 25% duty-cycle LO improves gain, noise, and linearity. An LPF based on a Tow-Thomas biquad suppresses out-of-band interference. Fabricated in a 0.13 ?m CMOS process, the receiver chain achieves a 107 dB maximum voltage gain, 2.7 dB DSB NF (from PAD port), -11 dBm IIP3, and > +65 dBm IIP2 after calibration, 96 dB dynamic control range with 1 dB steps, less than 2% error vector magnitude (EVM) from 2.3 to 2.7 GHz. The total receiver (total I Q path) draws 89 mA from a 1.2-V LDO on chip supply.

Siyuan, He; Changhong, Zhang; Liang, Tao; Weifeng, Zhang; Longyue, Zeng; Wei, Lü; Haijun, Wu

2013-03-01

347

Effects of different levels of wheat bran, rice bran and maize powder supplementation with saw dust on the production of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Singer)  

PubMed Central

The cultivation of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) is increasing rapidly in Bangladesh due to its nutritional and medicinal importance with excellent flavor and longer shelf life. With the aim of increased production, we have cultivated L. edodes on saw dust (SD) supplemented with different levels (10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35% and 40%) of wheat bran (WB), rice bran (RB), maize powder (MP) and their combination (WB+RB+MP = 1:1:1) to investigate the growth, yield and quality of this mushroom. Most of the growth, yield and quality parameters varied significantly when mushrooms were cultivated with different levels of supplementation. The yield of mushroom was increased with the level of each supplementation upto a certain level, and then decreased. SD supplemented with 25% WB produced the highest number of fruiting bodies (34.8/500 g packet), highest biological yield (153.3/500 g packet), and biological efficiency (76.6%) of L. edodes. But the yield of the best quality mushroom was observed on SD with 40% WB supplementation; however, the qualities were not always supplementation dose dependent. In this study, we report that 25% WB supplementation with SD may be very effective for higher yield and 40% WB supplementation for better quality of L. edodes.

Moonmoon, Mahbuba; Shelly, Nasrat Jahan; Khan, Md. Asaduzzaman; Uddin, Md. Nazim; Hossain, Kamal; Tania, Mousumi; Ahmed, Saleh

2010-01-01

348

"We Actually Saw Atoms with Our Own Eyes". Conceptions and Convictions in Using the Scanning Tunneling Microscope in Junior High School  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new avenue of teaching the structure of materials is possible as a result of the development of high-resolution microscopes such as the scanning tunneling microscope (STM), which enables inspection of materials at atomic-level resolution. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the feasibility and potential contribution of using the STM as a learning tool in junior high school (JHS) to support instruction about the particulate nature of matter. Fifteen JHS science teachers and 60 students visited a materials research laboratory. After hearing a short introduction about the functions of the STM and its applications, the teachers and students performed several tasks. The results showed that although the teachers were concerned about possible difficulties in using the STM with JHS students, this activity contributed to the students' understanding of the particulate nature of matter and to their conviction of its existence. Students who demonstrated a particulate conception of matter succeeded in "seeing" atoms, although what they actually saw were bright and dark areas. Students who did not demonstrate a particulate conception of matter before the STM activity, were more convinced about the existence of atoms after the activity.

Margel, Hannah; Eylon, Bat-Sheva; Scherz, Zahava

2004-04-01

349

Influence of mechanical properties and mineral salts in wood species on tool wear of high-speed steels and stellite-tipped tools – Consideration of tool wear of the newly developed tip-inserted band saw  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is the third in a series of work done on a novel technique for bandsawing, which uses a tip-inserted saw, and is\\u000a gaining increasing popularity in Japan. It builds up on previous reports on the novel technique for bandsawing, which considered\\u000a cutting tool hardness, tool wear, accuracy of kerf width, washboarding, and surface profiles of the workpiece. In

Reynolds Okai; Chiaki Tanaka; Yoshihiro Iwasaki

2006-01-01

350

Venom lethality and diet: differential responses of natural prey and model organisms to the venom of the saw-scaled vipers (Echis).  

PubMed

The composition of snake venoms shows a high degree of variation at all taxonomic levels, and natural selection for diet has been implicated as a potential cause. Saw-scaled vipers (Echis) provide a good model for studying this phenomenon. The venoms of arthropod feeding species of Echis are significantly more toxic to natural scorpion prey than those of species which feed predominantly upon vertebrate prey. Although testing venom activity on natural prey is important for our understanding of the evolution of venom, natural prey species are often difficult to obtain in sufficient numbers for toxinological work. In order to test the viability of using cheaper and more easily available model organisms for toxicity assessments in evolutionary research, and the extent to which toxicity of arthropod-eating Echis venoms is increased to arthropods in general or targeted to certain groups, we conducted median lethal dosage (LD(50)) and time to death trials using the desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria) as a model arthropod, rarely consumed by wild Echis. The venoms of arthropod specialist Echis were found to be significantly more toxic to locusts than the venom of a vertebrate feeding outgroup (Bitis arietans), and one arthropod specialist venom was found to be more toxic than those species which feed upon arthropods infrequently or not at all. The venoms of arthropod specialists were also found to cause death and incapacitation faster than the vertebrate feeding outgroup. Despite some similarity of trends, there are considerable differences between the response of natural prey (scorpions) and a model arthropod (locust) to the venoms of Echis species. This suggests that when possible, natural prey rather than convenient model organisms should be used to gain an understanding of the functional significance of variation in venom composition in snakes. PMID:22079297

Richards, D P; Barlow, A; Wüster, W

2011-11-04

351

Understanding processing–microstructure–properties relationships in Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox/Ag round wires and enhanced transport through saw-tooth processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superconducting magnets generating magnetic fields above 25 T are needed for many scientific applications. Due to fundamental limitations in NbTi and Nb3Sn, such high-field superconducting magnets require alternative high-field conductors. One candidate conductor is round wire composites of Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox sheathed in a Ag-alloy matrix (Bi2212/Ag). The performance of such wires is sensitive to the heat treatment, so improvements in the critical current density (Jc) require a thorough understanding of the processing–structure–properties relationships. Here we present a two-part study. In part I, a new heat treatment approach, saw-tooth processing (STP), is introduced based upon previous results showing that Bi2212 nucleation is site-saturation limited. The microstructural evolution of Bi2212 filaments during processing is discussed and results from STP are compared with those from other processes. STP is shown to increase Jc by 120% and 70% relative to partial-melt processing at 5 T and self-field respectively, and by 65% and 34% relative to split-melt processing. Yet STP also complicates the heat treatment by introducing a number of new heat treatment variables that affect the grain morphology, phase assemblage and oxygen content of the Bi2212 filaments and thus the transport properties. In part II, the effects of STP heat treatment parameters on the microstructure and transport properties are discussed. It is shown that wires with the highest transport critical current densities primarily have filaments with two types of microstructures, one comprised primarily of highly textured Bi2212 grains, and another with a noticeable amount of Bi2Sr2CuOx with the Bi2212.

Naderi, Golsa; Liu, Xiaotao; Nachtrab, William; Schwartz, Justin

2013-10-01

352

I ``Saw'' Newton's Three Laws  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Would you like to build an inexpensive, highly visible, quickly assembled device that dramatically illustrates Newton's three laws of motion? This model incorporates sturdiness, high-profile visibility, and a student interest component that is sure to capture and hold their attention.

Shaw, Mike

2012-11-01

353

Germany as We Saw It.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Close-up studies of German life in the Stuttgart area are reported by participants of Stanford University's 1961 National Defense Education Act second-level institute for secondary school teachers of German, held at Bad Boll, Germany. Topics covered include: (1) religious life, (2) political life, (3) problems of settlement, (4) occupational…

Stanford Univ., CA.

354

Galileo SAW Jupiter's Rings, Too  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of better spatial resolution, different phase coverage, and superior signal-to-noise, Galileo's thirteen clear images of Jupiter's ring system taken during a single pass through the planet's shadow improve substantially upon Voyager data. In addition two Adrastea images fortuitously included the rings at phase angles around 83(deg) . By assuming a circular and equatorial main ring, and using the position of a star found in one ansa image, we fix the main ring's outer radius at 128940+/-50 km, slightly less than Voyager's value of 129130+/-100 km, and very close to Adrastea's orbit (128980 km). The ring's halo rises gradually starting near the 3:2 vertical Lorentz resonance at 122733 km. The gossamer ring, discovered in a single Voyager image, is clearly visible out to the frame's edge at 2.3 RJ. The main ring exhibits a marked drop in brightness at 127849+/-50 km, lying almost atop Metis's orbit at 127978 km. The ansa images also show apparent azimuthal structure: longitudinally alternating bright and dim patches. As previously noted in Voyager images, the brightnesses of the near and far arms differ by 10% or more. In contrast to Voyager, Galileo images show the near arm to be brighter. Galileo's shallow viewing angle (0.5(deg) above the ring plane) through the diaphanous ring may play a role in brightness variations. Results will also be presented describing the morphologies of the halo and gossamer ring, as well as phase functions for the ring's components.

Daubar, I. J.; Ockert-Bell, M. E.; Burns, J. A.; Veverka, J. F.; Thomas, P.; Belton, M.; Klaasen, K.; Galileo Imaging Team

1997-07-01

355

Randomised Controlled Double-Blind Non-Inferiority Trial of Two Antivenoms for Saw-Scaled or Carpet Viper (Echis ocellatus) Envenoming in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background In West Africa, envenoming by saw-scaled or carpet vipers (Echis ocellatus) causes great morbidity and mortality, but there is a crisis in supply of effective and affordable antivenom (ISRCTN01257358). Methods In a randomised, double-blind, controlled, non-inferiority trial, “EchiTAb Plus-ICP” (ET-Plus) equine antivenom made by Instituto Clodomiro Picado was compared to “EchiTAb G” (ET-G) ovine antivenom made by MicroPharm, which is the standard of care in Nigeria and was developed from the original EchiTAb-Fab introduced in 1998. Both are caprylic acid purified whole IgG antivenoms. ET-G is monospecific for Echis ocellatus antivenom (initial dose 1 vial) and ET-Plus is polyspecific for E. ocellatus, Naja nigricollis and Bitis arietans (initial dose 3 vials). Both had been screened by pre-clinical and preliminary clinical dose-finding and safety studies. Patients who presented with incoagulable blood, indicative of systemic envenoming by E. ocellatus, were recruited in Kaltungo, north-eastern Nigeria. Those eligible and consenting were randomly allocated with equal probability to receive ET-Plus or ET-G. The primary outcome was permanent restoration of blood coagulability 6 hours after the start of treatment, assessed by a simple whole blood clotting test repeated 6, 12, 18, 24 and 48 hr after treatment. Secondary (safety) outcomes were the incidences of anaphylactic, pyrogenic and late serum sickness-type antivenom reactions. Findings Initial doses permanently restored blood coagulability at 6 hours in 161/194 (83.0%) of ET-Plus and 156/206 (75.7%) of ET-G treated patients (Relative Risk [RR] 1.10 one-sided 95% CI lower limit 1.01; P?=?0.05). ET-Plus caused early reactions on more occasions than did ET-G [50/194 (25.8%) and 39/206 (18.9%) respectively RR (1.36 one-sided 95% CI 1.86 upper limit; P?=?0.06). These reactions were classified as severe in 21 (10.8%) and 11 (5.3%) of patients, respectively. Conclusion At these doses, ET-Plus was slightly more effective but ET-G was slightly safer. Both are recommended for treating E. ocellatus envenoming in Nigeria. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN01257358

Abubakar, Isa S.; Abubakar, Saidu B.; Habib, Abdulrazaq G.; Nasidi, Abdulsalam; Durfa, Nandul; Yusuf, Peter O.; Garnvwa, John; Sokomba, Elijah; Salako, Lateef; Theakston, R. David G; Juszczak, Ed; Alder, Nicola; Warrell, David A.

2010-01-01

356

Development of methods of producing large areas of silicon sheet by the slicing of silicon ingots using inside-diameter (I. D. ) saws. Final report, May 1979-April 1980  

SciTech Connect

I.D. wafering equipment, blades and processes were used to develop methods for producing large areas of silicon sheet. Modifications to a 16 inch STC automated saw included programmable feed system; crystal rotating system; and STC dyna-track blade monitoring and control system. By controlling the plating operation and by grinding of the cutting edge, we were able to produce 16 inch I.D. blades with a cutting edge thickness of .22 mm. Crystal rotation mechanism was used to slice 100 mm diameter crystals with a 16 inch blade down to a thickness of .20 mm. Cutting rates with crystal rotation were generally slower than with standard plunge I.D. slicing techniques. Using programmed feeds and programmed rotation, maximum cutting rates were from 0.3 to 1.0 inches per minute.

Aharonyan, P.

1980-01-01

357

Pre-clinical and preliminary dose-finding and safety studies to identify candidate antivenoms for treatment of envenoming by saw-scaled or carpet vipers (Echis ocellatus) in northern Nigeria.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to identify candidate antivenoms with specific activity against the venom of the saw-scaled or carpet viper (Echis ocellatus) in northern Nigeria, where bites by this species cause great morbidity and mortality but where effective antivenoms have become scarce and unaffordable. Selected antivenoms were destined to be compared by randomised controlled clinical trials (RCTs). Standard pre-clinical neutralisation assays were carried out in rodents. We included two licensed antivenoms of established clinical efficacy and 6 candidate antivenoms. Although 6 of the tested antivenoms showed promising efficacy, all but 3 were excluded from further study because of inadequate pre-clinical efficacy or because they were unavailable or unaffordable for the anticipated RCTs. Median effective doses (ED(50)) of the remaining three candidate antivenoms suggested that the following doses might neutralise the maximum observed venom yield of 24.8 mg (dry weight) of venom milked from captive E. ocellatus: 10 ml of MicroPharm "EchiTAb G" (ET-G) antivenom; 30 ml of Instituto Clodomiro Picado "EchiTAb-Plus-ICP" (ET-Plus) antivenom; 50 ml of VacSera, Cairo "EgyVac" antivenom. A preliminary clinical dose-finding and safety study of these three antivenoms was carried out in 24 patients with incoagulable blood after E. ocellatus bites who were not severely envenomed. A 3+3 dose escalation design was employed. Initial doses of 10 ml ET-G and 30 ml ET-Plus restored blood coagulability in groups of 6 patients with early mild reactions (pruritus only) in not more than one third of them. EgyVac antivenom did not fulfil efficacy or safety criteria in 12 patients. On the basis of these results, ET-G and ET-Plus were selected for comparison in a RCT. PMID:19874841

Abubakar, S B; Abubakar, I S; Habib, A G; Nasidi, A; Durfa, N; Yusuf, P O; Larnyang, S; Garnvwa, J; Sokomba, E; Salako, L; Laing, G D; Theakston, R D G; Juszczak, E; Alder, N; Warrell, D A

2009-10-27

358

What Brown saw and you can too  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A discussion of Robert Brown's original observations of particles ejected by pollen of the plant Clarkia pulchella undergoing what is now called Brownian motion is given. We consider the nature of those particles and how he misinterpreted the Airy disk of the smallest particles to be universal organic building blocks. Relevant qualitative and quantitative investigations with a modern microscope and with a ``homemade'' single lens microscope similar to Brown's are presented.

Pearle, Philip; Collett, Brian; Bart, Kenneth; Bilderback, David; Newman, Dara; Samuels, Scott

2010-12-01

359

What Voyager SAW - Jupiter's dazzling realm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper examines recent findings of the Voyager I and Voyager II satellites, including information concerning Jupiter's moons and their atmospheres. Various illustrations and photographs are presented that indicate intriguing features of Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. Among the discoveries is the witnessing of a volcanic eruption on Io's surface, indicating existing molecular structures.

Gore, R.

1980-01-01

360

Equivalent networks for SAW interdigital transducers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An equivalent network approach is described for the analysis of surface-acoustic-wave interdigital transducers. Circuit parameters can he theoretically determined by applying the finite-element method to an infinite array. In this approach, all the effects of piezoelectric perturbation, mechanical perturbation, and energy storage are taken into account, To show the validity and usefulness of this approach, examples are computed for both

Kiyoshi Inagawa; Masanori Koshiba

1994-01-01

361

Sensors based on SAW and FBAR technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last few years a number of sensing platforms are being investigated for their use in drug development, microanalysis or medical diagnosis. Lab-on-a-chip (LOC) are devices integrating more than one laboratory functions on a single device chip of a very small size, and typically consist of two main components: microfluidic handling systems and sensors. The physical mechanisms that are generally used for microfluidics and sensors are different, hence making the integration of these components difficult and costly. In this work we present a lab-on-a-chip system based on surface acoustic waves (for fluid manipulation) and film bulk acoustic resonators (for sensing). Coupling surface acoustic waves into liquids induces acoustic streaming and motion of micro-droplets, whilst it is well-known that bulk acoustic waves can be used to fabricate microgravimetric sensors. Both technologies offer exceptional sensitivity and can be fabricated from piezoelectric thin films deposited on Si substrates, reducing the fabrication time/cost of the LOC devices.

García-Gancedo, L.; Milne, W. I.; Luo, J. K.; Flewitt, A. J.

2013-08-01

362

The SawMill multiserver approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiserver systems, operating systems composed from a set of hardware-protected servers, initially generated significant interest in the early 1990's. If a monolithic operating system could be decomposed into a set of servers with well-defined interfaces and well-understood protection mechanisms, then the robustness and configurability of operating systems could be improved significantly. However, initial multiserver systems [4, 14] were hampered by

Alain Gefflaut; Trent Jaeger; Jochen Liedtke; Kevin J. Elphinstone; Volkmar Uhlig; Jonathon E. Tidswell; Luke Deller; Lars Reuther

2000-01-01

363

Pulse Compression Acoustic Microscopy Using SAW Filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic principles of surface-acoustic.,wave pulse compression acoustic microscopy is described and demonstrated by re- sults obtained at 60 and 750 MHz. A theoretical analysis discusses the behavior of such a system in terms of the required signal processing and the attainable imaging resolution. advantageous. At sufficiently high intensities, the imaging of the microscope will be affected by harmonic genera-

MEHRDAD NIKOONAHAD; Guang-Qi Yue; E. A. Ash

1985-01-01

364

They Saw a Negotiation: Partisanship and Involvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incompatibility error is the belief that the other party's interests are completely opposed to one's own in a negotiation situation, when in fact, the other party's interests are completely compatible with one's own. In Experiment 1, partisan and nonpartisan observers viewed a negotiation. Nonpartisan observers were more likely to detect compatible interests than the actual negotiators. In Experiment 2,

Leigh Thompson

1995-01-01

365

Imprinted laminate wafer-level packaging for SAW ID-tags and SAW delay line sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a wafer-level packaging solu- tion for surface acoustic wave devices using imprinted dry film resist (DFR). The packaging process involves the preparation of an imprinted dry film resist that is aligned and laminated to the device wafer and requires one additional lithography step to define the package outline. Two commercial dry film solu- tions, SU-8 and TMMF,

Jan H. Kuypers; Shuji Tanaka; Masayoshi Esashi

2011-01-01

366

I Can't Believe I Saw the Whole Thing!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The author explains some of the principles underlying holography, a process by which literally hundreds of images can be stored on a single piece of film and then reproduced, one by one, in three dimension.'' (Editor/AK)|

Asimov, Isaac

1972-01-01

367

Development and application of a SAW Chirp-Z transformer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A development is reported in which the Chirp-z transform algorithm is truncated to perform spectral amplitude analysis. The basic process is described in relation to a unit giving in excess of one hundred resolved spectral lines with a resolution of 50kHz and a total processing time of 50 microseconds per data set. The displayed spectrum covers a dynamic range in

M. B. N. Butler

1978-01-01

368

The Chirp Z transform with CCD and SAW technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chirp Z transform (CZT) is presented as an IF process that makes use of time compression and chirp pulse compression. This allows sampled signals to be stored in CCD memory for milliseconds or more, and Z transformed by the chirp filter in microseconds. A CZT spectrum analyzer therefore has extremely high throughput and the capability to process many channels

D. MacFall; J. Collins; Sclarretta; A. Cappon

1978-01-01

369

Temperature and Strain Coefficient of Velocity for Langasite SAW Devices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Surface Acoustic Wave sensors on Langasite substrates are being investigated for aerospace applications. Characterization of the Langasite material properties must be performed before sensors can be installed in research vehicles. The coefficients of velo...

G. M. Atkinson W. C. Wilson

2013-01-01

370

Performance evaluation of algorithms for SAW-based temperature measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whenever harsh environmental conditions such as high temperatures, accelerations, radiation, etc., prohibit usage of standard temperature sensors, surface acoustic wave-based temperature sensors are the first choice for highly reliable wireless temperature measurement. Interrogation of these sensors is often based on frequency modulated or frequency stepped continuous wave-based radars (FMCW\\/FSCW). We investigate known algorithms regarding their achievable temperature accuracy and their

Stefan Schuster; Stefan Scheiblhofer; Leonhard Reindl; Andreas Stelzer

2006-01-01

371

Two for the See Saw. Broadcast Responsibility and Children's Rights  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Suggests that the commercial broadcasting system is an anomaly in a nation which pledges allegiance to child welfare since it permits even more advertising to young viewers than it sanctions for their parents. (Author/AM)|

Harmonay, Maureen

1975-01-01

372

SAW-based IF Processors for mobile communications satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future generation mobile communications satellite must operate with very limited spectrum allocations and hence require sophisticated on-board processing to provide efficient spectrum management. This paper discusses the use of a complex Surface Acoustic Wave based, IF Processor which will perform the signal processing functions on Inmarsat 3. Comprehensive experimental performance data, obtained from a COM DEV internally funded program has clearly demonstrated the design and implementation to be optimum for the Inmarsat 3 program.

Kovac, Robert; Lee, Mike; Miller, Nigel; Peach, Robert; Swarup, Arvind; van Osch, Brent; Veenstra, Arnold

1991-10-01

373

Germany As We Saw It. Third Edition, 1963.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Closeup studies of German life in the Stuttgart area are reported here by 79 participants of Stanford University's 1963 National Defense Education Act Second-Level Institute for Elementary and Secondary School Teachers held at Bad Boll, Germany. Elementary and secondary education, work and family life, and housing and housing developments are…

Stanford Univ., CA.

374

Low-loss, multimode 5-IDT SAW filter.  

PubMed

Longitudinally coupled resonator filters provide unbalanced-balanced operation with wide bandwidth, low loss, and high suppression levels. However, reducing the insertion loss in the 1.8-2.2 GHz range remains a challenging problem because at high frequencies the resistive losses arising from the relatively wide aperture of the filter may degrade the performance. A 5-interdigital transducer (IDT) filter has six gaps at which the periodicity of the grating is broken, resulting in additional loss due to scattering into the bulk. In this paper, we show that replacing the gaps between the transducers with short transducer sections having their pitch different from that of the main transducers reduces the insertion loss of the device. We present devices with balun operation at 1842 MHz with wide bandwidth of 4.5% and -40 dB suppression, with a minimum insertion loss less than 1 dB in the best devices, and a maximum insertion loss of -1.2 dB in the passband. The passband is quite flat, with <1 dB ripple. We also discuss the layout of the contact pads and the connections, and its effect on the device performance and balance characteristics. PMID:16118982

Meltaus, Johanna; Plessky, Victor P; Härmä, Sanna; Salomaa, Martti M

2005-06-01

375

The Sun as you never saw it before  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The remarkable images come from SOHO's visible-light coronagraph LASCO. It masks the intense rays from the Sun's surface in order to reveal the much fainter glow of the solar atmosphere, or corona. Operated with its widest field of view, in its C3 instrument, LASCO's unprecedented sensitivity enables it to see the thin ionized gas of the solar wind out to the edges of the picture, 22 million kilometres from the Sun's surface. Many stars are brighter than the gas, and they create the background scene. The results alter human perceptions of the Sun. Nearly 30 years ago, Apollo photographs of the Earth persuaded everyone of what until then they knew only in theory, that we live on a small planet. Similarly the new imagery shows our motion in orbit around the Sun, and depicts it as one star among - yet close enough to fill the sky emanations that engulf us. For many centuries even astrologers knew that the Sun was in Sagittarius in December and drifting towards the next zodiacal constellation, Capricornus. This was a matter of calculation only, because the Sun's own brightness prevented a direct view of the starfield. The SOHO-LASCO movie makes this elementary point of astronomy a matter of direct observation for the first time. The images are achievable only from a vantage point in space, because the blue glow of the Earth's atmosphere hides the stars during the day. A spacial allocation of observing time, and of data tranmission from the SOHO spacecraft, enabled the LASCO team to obtain large numbers of images over the period 22-28 December 1996. Since then, a sustained effort in image processing, frame by frame, has achieved a result of high technical and aesthetic quality. Only now is the leader of the LASCO team, Guenter Brueckner of the US Naval Research Laboratory, satisfied with the product and ready to authorize its release. "I spend my life examining the Sun," Brueckner says, "but this movie is a special thrill. For a moment I forget the years of effort that went into creating LASCO and SOHO, and leave aside the many points of scientific importance in the images, I am happy to marvel at a new impression of the busy star that gives us life, and which affects our environment in many ways that we are only now beginning to understand." Transatlantic cooperation The Solar and Heliospheric Observatory SOHO is a project of international cooperation between ESA and NASA. ESA and the European aerospace industry built the spacecraft, and NASA launched it on 2 December 1995. Operating 1,500,000 kilometres out on the sunward side of the Earth, near the position called Lagrangian point L1, SOHO has an uninterrupted view of the Sun from an undisturbed vantage point, and a precision of pointing which makes delicate observations possible. SOHO carries 12 sets of instruments provided by scientific teams, each led by a European or an American principal investigator. They study the solar interior by helioseismology, the solar atmosphere seen by ultraviolet and visible light, and the solar wind and energetic particles. There is much transatlantic collaboration within the various teams. Besides the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, LASCO involves the Max-Planck-Institüt für Aeronomie at Lindau (Germany), the Unversity of Birmingham (England) and Laboratoire d'Astronomie Spatiale at Marseille (France). Sharing LASCO's electronic systems, and many operations and analyses, is SOHO's extreme ultraviolet imager EIT. This is the responsibility of a team led from Orsay (France) and it observes activity in the Sun's hot atmosphere related to the wider events seen by LASCO. Roger Bonnet, who presides over the multinational effort as ESA's Director of Science, shares the enthusiasm for the Christmas movie. "For the first time we see the Sun clearly among the stars, thanks to SOHO and LASCO," Bonnet comments. "Now when we say that the Sun is a typical star, and a key to understanding the whole Universe, that is no longer a theoretical statement but something everyone can see. The quality of the images c

1997-02-01

376

Sharpened of saw blades by electrical discharge machining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical discharge machines have undergone rapid improvements in capability, economical operation, speed and flexibility. In fact, electrical discharge machining (EDM) is now the fourth most popular machining process, selling more than all other processes except milling, turning and grinding. Ninety percent of EDM applications in the world are used to produce molds, stamping dies, extrusion dies, forging dies, tool fixtures

Jesús Doval-Gandoy; Ramón Pasandín; Bernardo Fernández

2005-01-01

377

Would We Know African Cultural Studies If We Saw It?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Ngugi wa Thiong'o is widely acknowledged in Africa as a towering figure of African literature, criticism, and political and social commentary. This review examines Ngugi's work as it relates to African cultural studies and cultural studies in general, noting his search for a common global culture and a world language. (SM)|

Wright, Handel Kashope

1995-01-01

378

Production and costs: chain saw felling in hardwood thinnings  

SciTech Connect

Four overstocked hardwood stands in the mountains of central West Virginia were thinned to 60% stocking density (75% for one stand) by 3-man crews using chainsaws for felling and preparing tree-length logs. Felling cycle times and tree measurement data were recorded for more than 900 trees in the four stands. Productive time per tree included all activities from walking to the tree to lopping tops and slash. Total felling time was the sum of productive time and delay time per tree. Eight reasons for delay were identified and calculated per tree. Production rates were determined from tree volume and felling times per tree for given distances between successively felled trees. Production costs were calculated; the 2 principal costs were feller's wages and benefits and equipment costs. Chainsaw felling costs were $1.43/ton for this study. 3 references.

Sarles, R.L.

1985-01-01

379

Production and costs: chain saw felling in hardwood thinnings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four overstocked hardwood stands in the mountains of central West Virginia were thinned to 60% stocking density (75% for one stand) by 3-man crews using chainsaws for felling and preparing tree-length logs. Felling cycle times and tree measurement data were recorded for more than 900 trees in the four stands. Productive time per tree included all activities from walking to

1985-01-01

380

Friction drive of an SAW Motor. Part I: measurements.  

PubMed

The surface acoustic wave motor in this study utilized transparent lithium niobate for a stator. We then measured the normal and tangential displacements of the frictional surface of the slider via the transparent stator by means of 2 laser Doppler vibrometers. We thoroughly inspected the measurement conditions and indicated that the measured data were reliable and usable for subsequent precise analyses of the friction drive. The driving conditions for the measurements were a driving frequency of 9.61 MHz and a wave vibration amplitude of 20 nm. The start-up transients of the motor for a duration of 10.4 micros were measured. The measurements showed that the frictional surface of the slider displaced in both the normal and tangential directions followed each wave vibration. The displacements increased with the wave's vibration amplitude: they increased to 10 nm in both directions, in response to the transient increase of the wave's vibration amplitude to 20 nm, under the 15 N preload condition. Moreover, the slider surface rotated in the same direction as the wave surface and its trajectories were a tilted elliptical orbit. Since the surface of the wave rotated in an upright elliptical orbit, the result indicated that the tangential displacement of the slider surface was delayed in relation to that of the wave. The delay was in the range from 30 degrees to 60 degrees under the 15 N preload condition. PMID:18986896

Shigematsu, Takashi; Kurosawa, Minoru Kuribayashi

2008-09-01

381

"I Saw the Universe and I Saw the World": Exploring Spiritual Literacy with Young Children in a Primary Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper explores the concept of promoting spiritual literacy as viewed through the eyes of a holistic educator of young children in an inner-city primary classroom. Similar to discussions of spirituality in education, the idea of spiritual literacy is often elusive and can create discomfort and tensions. Drawing on stories of experience, the…

Binder, Marni J.

2011-01-01

382

‘I saw the universe and I saw the world’: exploring spiritual literacy with young children in a primary classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the concept of promoting spiritual literacy as viewed through the eyes of a holistic educator of young children in an inner?city primary classroom. Similar to discussions of spirituality in education, the idea of spiritual literacy is often elusive and can create discomfort and tensions. Drawing on stories of experience, the complexities of what defines spiritual literacy and

Marni J. Binder

2011-01-01

383

'I Saw You': Searching for Lost Love Via Practices of Reading, Writingand Responding  

Microsoft Academic Search

How do emotions move and how do emotions move us? How are feelings and recognitions distributed socio-materially? Based on a multi- site ethnographic study of a 'romantic' correspondance system, this article explores the themes of love, privacy, identity and public displays. Informed by ethnomethodology and actor-network theory its investigations into these 'informal' affairs are somewhat unusual in that much of

Eric Laurier; Angus Whyte

2001-01-01

384

Equations for Total, Wood, and Saw-Log Volume for Thirteen California Hardwoods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Volume equations for thirteen species of California hardwoods were developed from measurements of 766 sample trees from all parts of the state. The species included: bigleaf maple(Acer macrophyllum), Pacific madrone(Arbutus menziesii), giant chinkapin(Cas...

N. H. Pillsbury M. L. Kirkley

1984-01-01

385

THE CAPITAL SEE-SAW: UNDERSTANDING THE RATIONALE FOR THE VICTORIA AND ALFRED REDEVELOPMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper identifies the historical and material processes which precipitated the evolution, decline and eventual redevelopment of Cape Town's Victoria and Alfred (V&A) Dockland. Drawing on the theories of capital accumulation and uneven development (especially as espoused by David Harvey and Neil Smith), the paper explores the underlying forces which initiated and directed the evolution of the Table Bay port

DARRYLL KILIAN; D. R. BELINDA DODSON

1995-01-01

386

The "saw-it-all-along" effect: demonstrations of visual hindsight bias.  

PubMed

The authors address whether a hindsight bias exists for visual perception tasks. In 3 experiments, participants identified degraded celebrity faces as they resolved to full clarity (Phase 1). Following Phase 1, participants either recalled the level of blur present at the time of Phase 1 identification or predicted the level of blur at which a peer would make an accurate identification. In all experiments, participants overestimated identification performance of naive observers. Visual hindsight bias was greater for more familiar faces--those shown in both phases of the experiment--and was not reduced following instructions to participants to avoid the bias. The authors propose a fluency-misattribution theory to account for the bias and discuss implications for medical malpractice litigation and eyewitness testimony. PMID:15355129

Harley, Erin M; Carlsen, Keri A; Loftus, Geoffrey R

2004-09-01

387

Supporting Professionalism: See-Saw Politics and the Paradox of Deregulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|How can one capture the good practice within the further education sector and identify how best to develop the workforce? This conundrum has taxed government and professionals within the sector for decades. The introduction of Preparing to Teach in the Lifelong Learning Sector (PTLLS), the Certificate (CTLLS) and Diploma (DTLLS) in 2007 was the…

Hillier, Yvonne; Appleby, Yvon

2012-01-01

388

"I Saw it in a Different Light": International Learning Experiences in Baccalaureate Nursing Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ten nursing students and two faculty mentors participated in an immersion experience in Guatemala. Themes from interviews included the experience of being "other," growth as a professional nurse, and expansion of world views. (Contains 16 references.) (SK)

Walsh, Linda V.; DeJoseph, Jeanne

2003-01-01

389

First cornea transplants meant blind WW I veterans saw first sights in 40 years.  

PubMed Central

Eddie Baker, who was blinded during WW I, played a key role in the founding of the Canadian National Institute for the Blind and Canada's first Eye Bank. The latter development meant that some soldiers blinded between 1914 and 1918 had their sight restored in 1956, when the bank opened. Images p1326-a

Wilton, P

1996-01-01

390

I never saw that before: A deeper view of video analysis in teacher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a method for observation and analysis of video tapes called “deep viewing.” Deep viewing is a method for observation and analysis of visual information through the use of communal talk, pictures, and writing. It offers a framework for analyzing visual information and for building meaning from it. It may be used by educators, preservice teachers, students, artists,

Ann Watts Pailliotet

1995-01-01

391

I Saw the "Real" Father Christmas! Children's Everyday Uses of the Words "Real", "Really", and "Pretend"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The words "real", "really" and "pretend" are used in developmental research paradigms to reflect both the notions of 'authenticity' (in pretense-reality and appearance-reality research) and 'existence' (in fantasy-reality research). The current study explored whether children also expressed these notions in their everyday uses of "real",…

Bunce, Louise; Harris, Margaret

2008-01-01

392

IDT, SAW, and MEMS sensors for measuring deflection, acceleration, and ice detection of aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Smart MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical Systems) in the form of integrated sensors and actuators offer significant potential for many rotorcraft applications. Sensing of flex beam deflection and acceleration, ice formation and deicing are major candidate areas where smart conformal MEMS based sensors can be exploited by the rotorcraft community. The major technical barrier of the present day smart structures technology is the need for wired communication between sensors and actuators in the rotating system and controllers, data storage units,a nd cockpit avionics. Many proposed sensors and actuators are commonly distributed either along the blade length or, in the active flap devices, out near the 75% blade radial station. Also they are not conformed to the airfoil shape of the rotor blades. The communication between rotating and fixed systems is typically accomplished using complex slip ring assemblies transferring electronic information down through the rotor shaft. Although advances have been made in wired communication, these complex assemblies are essentially similar to test hardware and present numerous reliability and maintainability limitations when implemented on a production scale. Considering these limitations, development of a wireless means of communication through a new generation of conformal sensors with built-in antenna, akin to telemetry, could have a dramatic beneficial payoff for rotorcraft applications.

Varadan, Vijay K.; Varadan, Vasundara V.; Bao, Xiao-Qi

1997-06-01

393

As the Europeans Saw Them: The Aleuts of the Eighteenth Century, Social Studies Unit, Book II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is intended for use as reading material for the social studies unit, The Aleuts of the Eighteenth Century. Excerpts from journals of seven 18th-century explorers or travelers describe the inhabitants of the Aleutian Islands. The accounts have been translated from original notes kept by members of the Russian navy, ship commanders, a…

Partnow, Patricia H., Comp.

394

Comparison between SAW and laser welding processes applied to duplex structures for bridges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the project ‘Bridgeplex’, partly supported by the European Research Fund for Coal and Steel, was to explore the suitability of austenitic-ferritic (duplex) stainless steel for the construction of large welded bridges. Using duplex stainless steels for bridge decks would be a major step forward in providing durable, low maintenance structures, exploiting both their corrosion resistance and high

S. Sorrentino; M. Fersini; G. Zilli

2009-01-01

395

Soldering Process and Cutting Performance of Micro SAW Wire Bonded with Diamond Grains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper will demonstrate that diamond grains can be bonded to W micro-wires (AD wires) with a specially developed metal solder in a continuous process capable of producing the wire of 1000 m in length. Cutting experiments using a specially designed cutting machine have been conducted. We will demonstrate that AD wire can cut WC (HV2500) and that AD wire performs superior compared to other commercial cutting wires bonded with diamond grains using either Ni plating or resin type. It has also been found that for wire diameter less than 100 µm cutting life of the wire was short and failed in a torsion fracture mode. This will be explained by comparing the friction induced torsion to the twist strength of the wire.

Kamiya, Osamu; Miyano, Yasuyuki; Takahashi, Mamoru; Oga, Yuichi; Chen, Zhan Wen; Funaoka, Kennji

396

Trinification with sin2?W=3/8 and see-saw neutrino mass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We realize a supersymmetric trinification model with three families of (27tri+27tri+27tri) by the Z3 orbifold compactification with two Wilson lines. It is possible to break the trinification group to the supersymmetric standard model. This model has several interesting features: the hypercharge quantization, sin2?W0=3/8, naturally light neutrino masses, and introduction of R-parity. The hypercharge quantization is realized by the choice of the vacuum, naturally leading toward a supersymmetric standard model.

Kim, Jihn E.

2004-07-01

397

Saw palmetto and finasteride in the treatment of category III prostatitis\\/chronic pelvic pain syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic nonbacterial prostatitis\\/chronic pelvic pain syndrome is a common entity for which a standardized management has not\\u000a been established. Patients often have a significant symptom complex and impact on quality of life, but very little is known\\u000a about the efficacy of second- and third-line treatments, such as the use of herbal supplements. Many treatments studied in\\u000a recent literature include antibiotics,

Jennifer Yang; Alexis E. Te

2005-01-01

398

Saw-tooth instability studies in the Stanford Linear Collider damping rings  

SciTech Connect

Experimental results of the instability studies are being reported. The system built gives a BPM-derived single bunch `instability signal`. The signal was recorded simultaneously with the longitudinal density bunch profiles obtained from the synchrotron light with the high resolution Hamamatsu streak camera. Correlation of the instability signal with the streak camera profiles has been found. For the strongly developed instability state the dominant mode structure was obtained.

Podobedov, B.V.; Siemann, R.H.

1997-05-01

399

Supporting Professionalism: See-Saw Politics and the Paradox of Deregulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How can one capture the good practice within the further education sector and identify how best to develop the workforce? This conundrum has taxed government and professionals within the sector for decades. The introduction of Preparing to Teach in the Lifelong Learning Sector (PTLLS), the Certificate (CTLLS) and Diploma (DTLLS) in 2007 was the…

Hillier, Yvonne; Appleby, Yvon

2012-01-01

400

Threshold-based identification of wireless SAW RFID-tags with pulse position encoding  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent decades, there have been designed and developed passive surface acoustic wave radio frequency identification tags with time position encoding in groups of slots. For such tags identified when the received pulse-burst exceeds a threshold, we specify the generic identification (ID) error probability and optimize the threshold employing the Marcum Q-function of first order. As examples, we estimate the

Gustavo Cerda-Villafaña; Yuriy S. Shmaliy

2011-01-01

401

Monitoring the submerged-arc welding (SAW) process using current and voltage transducers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusion welding is one of the most common techniques for joining materials in manufacturing. Due to the increased application of this welding process and the demand for higher quality welding deposits, such welding processes are suitable for improvement of their instrumentation and control. Any improvement to control technique will have a positive effect on welding quality and productivity. Some of

G. Barrera; M. Velez; M. A. Espinosa; O. Santos; E. Barrera; G. Gomez

1997-01-01

402

Olfactory display using a miniaturized pump and a SAW atomizer for presenting low-volatile scents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the research on olfactory display for incorporating the sense of smell into virtual reality has gradually expanded. To present odors with a vivid sense of smell, an ability to generate a variety of odors with efficient speed is indispensible. In this paper, we developed a new type of olfactory display, composed of a miniaturized electroosmotic pump and a surface

Yossiri Ariyakul; Takamichi Nakamoto

2011-01-01

403

Old Saws and New Materials: A Consideration of Some Ethical Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reports of job-hopping, opportunism, grantsmanship, and wheeling-dealing, based on the availability of federal research funds, by university faculty has created much concern in governmental and educational circles about the ethical problems these activities pose for the academic profession. In 1963, the Office of Science and Technology(OST) and…

Morse, John F.

1968-01-01

404

Correlation of specific energy of cutting saws and drilling bits with rock brittleness and destruction energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this study is to statistically evaluate the correlations between brittleness, destruction specific energy (SEdes), and both cut-ability and drillability using the optimum data obtained from the experimental works. Applying regression analyses, the predictive models of cutting specific energy (SEcut) and the drilling specific energy (SEdrill) were developed based on the rock brittleness and rock destruction energy data.

U. Atici; A. Ersoy

2009-01-01

405

Quantitative proteomic analysis of secretome of microbial consortium during saw dust utilization.  

PubMed

Proteomics analysis of lignocellulolytic proteins by lignocellulosic biomass degrading microbes and compatible microbial consortium is a promising approach that offers a new means to enzyme discovery. The abundance of proteins in complex secretome by microbial communities would highlight key lignocellulolytic proteins for lignocellulosic biorefinery. In this study, lignocellulolytic enzymes of potent lignin degrading basidiomycota and effective cellulolytic ascomycota fungal strains, and their co-cultures were analyzed using high throughput isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) technique using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Protein abundances in the iTRAQ-multiplexed samples were determined by integrating relative quantitation and exponentially modified protein abundance index (emPAI). The functional classification of the secretory proteins by individual culture and co-culture demonstrated 36.77% cellulolytic proteins, 13.06% hemicellulases, 14.09% ligninolytic proteins, 19.59% proteolytic enzymes. 7.22% hypothetical proteins and 6.87% cell morphogenesis proteins. The abundance of the proteins by individual cultures and co-cultured fungal consortium revealed that co-culturing of Phanerochaete chrysosporium with Trichoderma reesei QM6a and Trichoderma reesei Rut C30 induced the production of cellulolytic proteins and stimulated expression of hemicellulolytic enzymes. The hierarchical clustering of proteins in secretome of fungal strains and their co-cultures elucidated differential expressions of lignocellulolytic proteins by the microbial consortium. PMID:22992538

Adav, Sunil S; Ravindran, Anita; Cheow, Esther Sok Hwee; Sze, Siu Kwan

2012-08-23

406

I Saw It on the Radio: The Allocation of Attention to High-Imagery Radio Advertisements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to explore how the level of imagery in a radio ad- vertisement affects the allocation of cognitive resources to encoding the mes- sage into memory. A within-subjects experiment was conducted in which par- ticipants listened to 24, 60-second radio advertisements that had been coded as either high- or low-imagery messages. Secondary-task reaction time was obtained during

Paul D. Bolls; Annie Lang

2003-01-01

407

Influence of saw fluxes on low-carbon steel weld microstructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of submergedarc flux composition on the inclusion morphology and weld metal microstructures of low carbon steels\\u000a is investigated. Systematic weld oxygen variations and changes in inclusion shape and size are obtained by changing the welding\\u000a flux composition. The influence of inclusion content, morphology, and distribution on achieving specific types of weld metal\\u000a ferrite is described.

J. W. Jang; S. Shah; J. E. Indacochea

1987-01-01

408

Utility Theory for Evaluation of Optimal Process Condition of SAW: A Multi-Response Optimization Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-objective optimization problem has been solved in order to estimate an optimal process environment consisting of optimal parametric combination to achieve desired quality indicators (related to bead geometry) of submerged arc weld of mild steel. The quality indicators selected in the study were bead height, penetration depth, bead width and percentage dilution. Taguchi method followed by utility concept has been adopted to evaluate the optimal process condition achieving multiple objective requirements of the desired quality weld.

Datta, Saurav; Biswas, Ajay; Bhaumik, Swapan; Majumdar, Gautam

2011-01-01

409

Influence of macrostructure on tensile properties of multipass SAW C-Mn steel deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blocks of 'all weld' metal were prepared by a multipass submerged arc process, using a C-Mn filler wire, at different welding currents and speeds by keeping the arc voltage constant. The variation in welding parameters was found to alter the macrostructure primarily by influencing its co-axial dendrite content. The chemical composition and hardness of the dendritic and the heat affected regions were affected little by the welding parameters. A dendrite content up to 37%, had no significant effect on the tensile properties. However an increase in it beyond 37% was found to enhance the UTS and YS and reduce percent elongation. The tensile strength was found to be a maximum in the L orientation and a minimum in the S direction. The use of post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) at 873 K caused spheroidization of cementite there by somewhat reducing the hardness and strength. The treatment while not affecting the basic dendritic morphology reduced the observed difference in tensile properties along the L, T and S directions. Implications of the data vis-a-vis industrial applications have been discussed.

Yongyuth, P.; Ghosh, P. K.; Gupta, P. C.; Patwardhan, A. K.; Prakash, Satya

1993-06-01

410

Effect of beam alignment on laser welding quality of diamond saw blade  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diamond impregnated segments and steel core were welded by a high power laser in horizontal arrangement to achieve the very high bond strength.The theoretical and experimental study show that the beam alignment or beam shift will significantly effect the welding quality,such as the pore density in seams,microstructure,composition distribution of the seams.It is proved that the 0.1mm beam shift to

Xia Jinhua; Yin Sheng; Yie Hongyu; Hu Enliang

2004-01-01

411

Defect detection in partially completed SAW and TIG welds using online radioscopy and image processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An application of machine vision applied to the analysis of radioscopic images of incomplete weld geometries is described. The rationale of the work is to identify weld defects as soon as they are produced, thereby reducing the costs of any subsequent repairs. Existing methods of weld and defect identification are compared, leading to the development of filtering and 'window' based variance operator for segmentation of suspect defect areas inside the weld region is described. The software and radioscopic imaging system have been benchmarked through a series of demonstration trials on both 80 mm thick carbon steel submerged arc welded testpieces, and 25mm thick carbon steel tungsten inert gas welded testpieces. The range of intentionally implanted defects, from root cracks to lack of side wall fusion, were detected with an overall accuracy of 87 percent, and classified in terms of defect size, shape, and position within the weld region.

Bonser, Gary R.; Lawson, Shaun W.

1998-03-01

412

Defect detection in partially completed SAW and TIG welds using online radioscopy and image processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

An application of machine vision applied to the analysis of radioscopic images of incomplete weld geometries is described. The rationale of the work is to identify weld defects as soon as they are produced, thereby reducing the costs of any subsequent repairs. Existing methods of weld and defect identification are compared, leading to the development of filtering and 'window' based

Gary R. Bonser; Shaun W. Lawson

1998-01-01

413

Elastic electrode polarization in a spatial harmonic field and the natural Boundary Element Method [SAW transducers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polarization of an elastic electrode under the influence of electrical and mechanical displacement fields being harmonic in space is treated analytically. The known exact analytic solutions of the electrostatic problem for periodic electrode structures and of the mechanical problem for a rectangular elastic strip are used to find surface charge and surface mechanical stress distributions induced by the spatial

Sergey V. Biryukov; Manfred Weihnacht

2001-01-01

414

‘We saw inhumanity close up’. What is gained by school students from Scotland visiting Auschwitz?  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the education for citizenship agenda continues to impact on schools in the UK and with the Holocaust Educational Trust (HET) in conjunction with the Scottish Government introducing its Lessons From Auschwitz (LFA) project for students and teachers in Scotland, this article focuses on the Scottish context and investigates the school processes by which students are chosen to participate in

Paula Cowan; Henry Maitles

2011-01-01

415

The Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) chemisensor. Part 1: A literature review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The state of the art of microtransducers for chemical signals is presented. The sensors are grouped according to their operation mode, (semiconductor, optical fiber sensing, and piezoelectric crystal detection). Properties such as response time, sensitivity (detection limit), selectivity, reversibility, and durability are indicated. None of the chemisensors meets all the requirements for measuring equipment. Piezoelectric crystal sensors offer the best perspectives, followed by chemfets and optical waveguide sensors.

Klous, Z.; Barendsz, A. W.; Venema, A.

1984-04-01

416

Bites by the Saw-scaled or Carpet Viper (Echis carinatus): Trial of Two Specific Antivenoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Echis carinatus is the most important cause of morbidity and mortality from snake bite in Nigeria and in many other parts of the world. Forty-six patients with systemic poisoning by this snake were given echis antivenom made either by the South African Institute for Medical Research (S.A.I.M.R.) or by Behringwerke (North and West African polyvalent antivenom). A simple test of

D. A. Warrell; N. McD Davidson; L. D. Omerod; Helen M. Pope; Barbara J. Watkins; B. M. Greenwood; H. A. Ried

1974-01-01

417

They saw a movie: Long-term memory for an extended audiovisual narrative  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured long-term memory for a narrative film. During the study session, participants watched a 27-min movie episode, without instructions to remember it. During the test session, administered at a delay ranging fro m3ht o 9 mo after the study session, long-term memory for the movie was probed using a computerized questionnaire that assessed cued recall, recognition, and metamemory of

Orit Furman; Nimrod Dorfman; Uri Hasson; Lila Davachi; Yadin Dudai

2007-01-01

418

IDT, SAW, and MEMS sensors for measuring deflection, acceleration, and ice detection of aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smart MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical Systems) in the form of integrated sensors and actuators offer significant potential for many rotorcraft applications. Sensing of flex beam deflection and acceleration, ice formation and deicing are major candidate areas where smart conformal MEMS based sensors can be exploited by the rotorcraft community. The major technical barrier of the present day smart structures technology is the

Vijay K. Varadan; Vasundara V. Varadan; Xiao-Qi Bao

1997-01-01

419

Surface acoustic wave (SAW) microsensor array for measuring VOCs in drinking water.  

PubMed

Exposure to volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in drinking water has been linked to a number of adverse health effects including cancer, liver, and kidney damage. However, the large number of potential contaminants and the cost and complexity of existing analytical methods limits the extent to which water quality is routinely characterized. This project focused on the laboratory development and evaluation of an instrument for field analysis of VOCs in drinking water. The instrument is based on an array of six polymer-coated surface-acoustic-wave microsensors. A test-set consisting of dichloromethane, chloroform, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, perchloroethylene, and m-xylene was used in a series of experiments designed to optimize the purge-trap preconcentration system, calibrate the instrument over the concentration range of 0.2-2 times the USEPA maximum contaminant levels (MCLs), and compare results to those of a reference laboratory. The primary goal was to develop a cost-effective alternative for on-site evaluation of VOCs in water. Calibration and evaluation test results for spiked water samples demonstrate adequate sensitivity for 19 of the 21 regulated VOCs considered using a ten minute sampling and analysis cycle. Monte Carlo simulations characterized the performance of trained artificial neural networks (ANNs) which had correct classification rates of 99%, 90%, and 80% for the five individual test-set vapors and their binary and ternary mixtures, respectively. These results demonstrate the excellent potential of this technology for addressing the need for improved VOC field-screening methods for water supplies. PMID:16951753

Groves, W A; Grey, A B; O'Shaughnessy, P T

2006-06-30

420

All I saw was the cake. Hunger effects on attentional capture by visual food cues  

Microsoft Academic Search

While effects of hunger on motivation and food reward value are well-established, far less is known about the effects of hunger on cognitive processes. Here, we deployed the emotional blink of attention paradigm to investigate the impact of visual food cues on attentional capture under conditions of hunger and satiety. Participants were asked to detect targets which appeared in a

Richard M. Piech; Michael T. Pastorino; David H. Zald

2010-01-01

421

The Income Volatility See-Saw: Implications for School Lunch. Economic Research Report Number 23  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Income volatility challenges the effectiveness of the safety net that USDA food assistance programs provide low-income families. This study examines income volatility among households with children and the implications of volatility for eligibility in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP). The results show that income volatility was higher for…

Newman, Constance

2006-01-01

422

SAW filter solutions to the needs of 3G cellular phones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Services based on third-generation (3G) cellular phone standards like W-CDMA or cdma-2000 will be launched in the very near future. They will bring together mobile telephony and applications such as internet communication, digital picture transmission or video conferencing that require high data rates. This objective and other provisions in the new standards lead to significantly changed requirements on the surface

Gerhard Fischerauer; Thomas Ebner; Peter Kruck; Kazuhiko Morozumi; Ralf Thomas; Maximilian Pitschi

2001-01-01

423

The "Saw-It-All-Along" Effect: Demonstrations of Visual Hindsight Bias  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors address whether a hindsight bias exists for visual perception tasks. In 3 experiments, participants identified degraded celebrity faces as they resolved to full clarity (Phase 1). Following Phase 1, participants either recalled the level of blur present at the time of Phase 1 identification or predicted the level of blur at which a…

Harley, Erin M.; Carlsen, Keri A.; Loftus, Geoffrey R.

2004-01-01

424

Photolithographic techniques for Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) devices. Volume 5: Quality assurance plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hughes Aircraft Company Ground Systems Group Quality System is designed to meet and implement the requirements outlined in MIL-Q-9858A, Quality Program Requirements. Procedures described establish effective organizations, programs and practices to assure timely and economic implementation of company quality objectives and attainment of product quality consistent with contractual quality commitments. A description is given of the procedure to be

A. W. Dozier

1978-01-01

425

Low-loss ZnO optical waveguides for SAW-AO applications.  

PubMed

Acoustooptic Bragg deflectors (ABDs) with high diffraction efficiencies were fabricated using ZnO thin films deposited on sapphire, glass, and Si substrates by an RF magnetron sputtering system. Optical waveguide losses of the ZnO films were about 0.5 dBcm(-1). Diffraction efficiencies of 95 and 98% for the TE(0) mode beam (at 632.8 nm) were accomplished by acoustic powers of 90 mW in a ZnO film on glass and 80 mW in a ZnO film on Si, respectively. The diffraction efficiencies of the ABD using a ZnO film on sapphire with interdigital transducers of different Q values and with the surface-acoustic-wave propagating along and perpendicular to the c -axis of the ZnO film were also determined. PMID:18285004

Wu, M S; Azuma, A; Shiosaki, T; Kawabata, A

1989-01-01

426

Contractor selection for construction works by applying saw?g and topsis grey techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accuracy of performance measures in common multicriteria methods is usually assumed to be accurate. Grey theory is a new technique for performing prediction, relational analysis and decision?making in many areas. This paper presents applicability of grey theory techniques for defining the utility of an alternative. Proposed assessment model covers well known method of TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by

Edmundas Kazimieras Zavadskas; Tatjana Vilutiene; Zenonas Turskis; Jolanta Tamosaitiene

2010-01-01

427

Prime-time criminal justice: If all we know is what we saw on television  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image and dialogue content of three purposively selected entertainment-based television justice programs (Law and Order, The Practice , and NYPD Blue) and one reality-based ( COPS) justice program were descriptively analyzed using quantitative and qualitative content analyses in order to determine the way in which crime and criminal justice are portrayed by contemporary prime-time television. Previous content analyses of prime-time

Danielle Marie Soulliere

2001-01-01

428

'"We Saw Inhumanity Close up." What Is Gained by School Students from Scotland Visiting Auschwitz?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the education for citizenship agenda continues to impact on schools in the UK and with the Holocaust Educational Trust (HET) in conjunction with the Scottish Government introducing its Lessons From Auschwitz (LFA) project for students and teachers in Scotland, this article focuses on the Scottish context and investigates the school processes by…

Cowan, Paula; Maitles, Henry

2011-01-01

429

They Saw a Movie: Long-Term Memory for an Extended Audiovisual Narrative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We measured long-term memory for a narrative film. During the study session, participants watched a 27-min movie episode, without instructions to remember it. During the test session, administered at a delay ranging from 3 h to 9 mo after the study session, long-term memory for the movie was probed using a computerized questionnaire that assessed…

Furman, Orit; Dorfman, Nimrod; Hasson, Uri; Davachi, Lila; Dudai, Yadin

2007-01-01

430

Monolithic integration of GaAs SAW chemical microsensor arrays and detection electronics  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe the integration of an array of surface acoustic wave delay line chemical sensors with the associated RF microelectronics such that the resulting device operates in a DC in/DC out mode. The microelectronics design for on-chip RF generation and detection is presented. Both hybrid and monolithic approaches are discussed. This approach improves system performance, simplifies packaging and assembly, and significantly reduces overall system size. The array design can be readily scaled to include a large number of sensors.

CASALNUOVO,STEPHEN A.; HIETALA,VINCENT M.; HELLER,EDWIN J.; ASON,GREGORY CHARLES; BACA,ALBERT G.

2000-04-17

431

Experimental and predicted TCF and SAW parameters on LGT [0° 132° ?] substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent investigations of LGT have shown that it has several attractive properties in comparison to quartz, such as higher electromechanical coupling, lower phase velocity and possibility of operating at higher temperatures. It has been previously shown that LGT with Euler angles (0 o , 132 o , 31 o ) has a turnover temperature of approximately 135 o C

N. Saldanha; D. Puccio; D. C. Malocha; M. P. da Cunha

2005-01-01

432

Longitudinal and Bending Stresses in a Beam with Saw Cut Edge Cracks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Griffith-Irwin theory of brittle fracture of elastic solids predicts the propagation of cracks on the basis of the energy release rate. This depends upon the stress intensity factors for a given crack configuration. The present paper provides these informations for the problem of an infinite number of periodic, non-coplanar, parallel edge cracks in a strip. Two types of crack

Shyam N. Prasad; Sailendra N. Chatterjee

1974-01-01

433

"I Saw it in a Different Light": International Learning Experiences in Baccalaureate Nursing Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Ten nursing students and two faculty mentors participated in an immersion experience in Guatemala. Themes from interviews included the experience of being "other," growth as a professional nurse, and expansion of world views. (Contains 16 references.) (SK)|

Walsh, Linda V.; DeJoseph, Jeanne

2003-01-01

434

Versatile materials for use as chemically sensitive interfaces in SAW-based sensor arrays  

SciTech Connect

The primary research objective of the work described here is to design, synthesize, and characterize new materials for use as chemical sensor interfaces, integrate these materials, using appropriate transducers, into sensor arrays, and then develop appropriate mathematical algorithms for interpreting the array response. In this paper, we will discuss two new types of materials we have developed that are ideally suited for use as chemically sensitive interfaces for array-based chemical sensing applications, since they: (1) provide general specificity towards classes of functional groups rather than individual compounds; (2) are intermediate in structure between monolayers and polymers; (3) exhibit both endo- and exo-recognition. The first class of materials is surface-confined dendrimers and the second is hyperbranched polymers.

Crooks, R.M.; Bergbrieter, D.E.; Bruening, M.L.; Wells, M.; Zhou, Yuefen [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Ricco, A.J.; Osbourn, G.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-07-01

435

They saw a movie: Long-term memory for an extended audiovisual narrative  

PubMed Central

We measured long-term memory for a narrative film. During the study session, participants watched a 27-min movie episode, without instructions to remember it. During the test session, administered at a delay ranging from 3 h to 9 mo after the study session, long-term memory for the movie was probed using a computerized questionnaire that assessed cued recall, recognition, and metamemory of movie events sampled ?20 sec apart. The performance of each group of participants was measured at a single time point only. The participants remembered many events in the movie even months after watching it. Analysis of performance, using multiple measures, indicates differences between recent (weeks) and remote (months) memory. While high-confidence recognition performance was a reliable index of memory throughout the measured time span, cued recall accuracy was higher for relatively recent information. Analysis of different content elements in the movie revealed differential memory performance profiles according to time since encoding. We also used the data to propose lower limits on the capacity of long-term memory. This experimental paradigm is useful not only for the analysis of behavioral performance that results from encoding episodes in a continuous real-life-like situation, but is also suitable for studying brain substrates and processes of real-life memory using functional brain imaging.

Furman, Orit; Dorfman, Nimrod; Hasson, Uri; Davachi, Lila; Dudai, Yadin

2007-01-01

436

The "Saw-It-All-Along" Effect: Demonstrations of Visual Hindsight Bias  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors address whether a hindsight bias exists for visual perception tasks. In 3 experiments, participants identified degraded celebrity faces as they resolved to full clarity (Phase 1). Following Phase 1, participants either recalled the level of blur present at the time of Phase 1 identification or predicted the level of blur at which a…

Harley, Erin M.; Carlsen, Keri A.; Loftus, Geoffrey R.

2004-01-01

437

Measuring coupling forces woodcutters exert on saws in real working conditions.  

PubMed

Prolonged exposure to hand-arm vibration (HAV) generated by chainsaws can cause HAV syndrome, i.e., disorders in the upper extremities of forestry workers. Progress of HAV syndrome depends on the intensity of mechanical vibration transmitted throughout the body, which is directly proportional to coupling forces applied by the woodcutter to a vibrating tool. This study aimed to establish a method of measuring coupling forces exerted by chainsaw workers in real working conditions. Coupling forces exerted by workers with their right and left hands were measured with a hydro-electronic force meter. Wood hardness, the type of chainsaw and the kind of forest operation, i.e., felling, cross-cutting or limbing, were considered. PMID:22429531

Malinowska-Borowska, Jolanta; Harazin, Barbara; Zieli?ski, Grzegorz

2012-01-01

438

The “intelligent tire” utilizing passive SAW sensors measurement of tire friction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term “intelligent tire” describes tires equipped with sensor systems to monitor thermal and mechanical parameters while driving. Information about temperature, tire pressure, tread wear, etc., is collected and used for car operation and maintenance support. The contact between tire and road surface is a key parameter when characterizing the ability to accelerate, decelerate and steer a vehicle, therefore making

Alfred Pohl; Reinhard Steindl; Leonhard Reindl

1999-01-01

439

SH-SAW propagation in layered functionally graded piezoelectric material structures loaded with viscous liquid  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the properties of shear horizontal surface acoustic wave propagation in layered functionally graded piezoelectric\\u000a material structures loaded with viscous liquid. The piezoelectric material is polarized in the z-direction and the material properties change gradually along the thickness of the layer. Interfacial mechanical conditions\\u000a are continuity of particle velocity and stress components at the interface. We here assume that

Jianke Du; Kai Xian; Yook-Kong Yong; Ji Wang

2010-01-01

440

Non-Destructive Detection of Rebar Buried in a Reinforced Concrete Wall with Wireless Passive SAW Sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to reduce the damage to the old reinforced concrete walls and work out the best construction scheme during the renovation of old buildings, it is often required to detect the position of rebar buried in concrete walls. In this paper, we propose a non-destructive method to detect the buried rebar by self-inductive sensor combined with surface acoustic wave resonator (SAWR). The proposed method has the advantages of wireless, passive and convenient operations. In our new design, the sensing element of self-inductance coil was made as a component of SAWR matching network. The distribution of rebar could be measured according to the system resonant frequency, using a signal demodulation device set. The depth of buried rebar and the deviation of output resonant frequency from inherent frequency of SAWR have an inverse relation. Finally, the validity of the method was verified in theoretical calculation and simulation.

Fan, Yanping; Ji, Xiaojun; Cai, Ping; Lu, Qianhui

2013-01-01

441

A 45nm low-power SAW-less WCDMA transmit modulator using direct quadrature voltage modulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To address the low-noise low-power requirement of the WCDMA transmitter this paper describes an innovative approach using direct quadrature voltage modulation via a passive voltage mixer driven by a 25%-duty-cycle LO. As shown in Fig. 6.5.2, first the IF l\\/Q voltage inputs are filtered by the passive LPF to lower the far-out noise. By switching on\\/off the transistors M1 to

Xin He; Jan van Sinderen

2009-01-01

442

NTC Scorpions': SAWE/MILES II, (Simulated Area Weapons Effects/Multiple-Integrated Laser Engagement System II).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

MILES clearly rules the battlefield at the National Training Center. If units are proficient with MILES gunnery, they stand a superb chance of defeating the OPFOR. To assist units with their training, the Scorpion Mechanized Infantry Task Force Trainers a...

1998-01-01

443

Saw palmetto and finasteride in the treatment of category-iii prostatitis\\/chronic pelvic pain syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic nonbacterial prostatitis\\/chronic pelvic pain syndrome is a common entity for which a standardized management has not\\u000a been established. Patients often have a very little is known about the efficacy of second- and third-line treatments, such\\u000a as the use of herbal supplements. Many treatments studied in recent literature include antibiotics, á-blockade, anti-inflammatory\\u000a agents, and cognitive behavioral interventions such as biofeedback

Jennifer Yang; Alexis E. Te

2005-01-01

444

A 1.2-V CMOS front-end for LTE direct conversion SAW-less receiver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A CMOS RF front-end for the long-term evolution (LTE) direct conversion receiver is presented. With a low noise transconductance amplifier (LNA), current commutating passive mixer and transimpedance operational amplifier (TIA), the RF front-end structure enables high-integration, high linearity and simple frequency planning for LTE multi-band applications. Large variable gain is achieved using current-steering transconductance stages. A current commutating passive mixer with 25% duty-cycle LO improves gain, noise and linearity. A direct coupled current-input filter (DCF) is employed to suppress the out-of-band interferer. Fabricated in a 0.13-?m CMOS process, the RF front-end achieves a 45 dB conversion voltage gain, 2.7 dB NF, -7 dBm IIP3, and +60 dBm IIP2 with calibration from 2.3 to 2.7 GHz. The total RF front end with divider draws 40 mA from a single 1.2-V supply.

Riyan, Wang; Jiwei, Huang; Zhengping, Li; Weifeng, Zhang; Longyue, Zeng

2012-03-01

445

FEM simulation of Rayleigh waves for CMOS compatible SAW devices based on AlN/SiO2/Si(100).  

PubMed

A simulation study of Rayleigh wave devices based on a stacked AlN/SiO2/Si(100) device was carried out. Dispersion curves with respect to acoustic phase velocity, reflectivity and electromechanical coupling efficiency for tungsten W and aluminium Al electrodes and different layer thicknesses were quantified by 2D FEM COMSOL simulations. Simulated acoustic mode shapes are presented. The impact of these parameters on the observed Rayleigh wave modes was discussed. High coupling factors of 2% and high velocities up to 5000m/s were obtained by optimizing the AlN/SiO2 thickness ratio. PMID:23684473

Kaletta, Udo Christian; Wenger, Christian

2013-04-18

446

They Know I Saw It: Evaluation Apprehension and Diffusion of Responsibility in Bystander Reactions to a Violent Crime.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Male and female bystanders witnessed a violent theft in the course of a bogus "ESP Experiment." In addition to the subjects' sex, two experimental manipulations were orthogonally crossed. The subject was either the only one to witness the emergency, or witnessed it with an additional participant (diffusion of responsibility), and the subject's…

Gottlieb, Avi; Schwartz, Shalom H.

447

The mechanical properties of 2. 25Cr-1Mo weld metals deposited by the SAW-NG process  

SciTech Connect

A series of narrow gap welds were prepared in 2.25Cr-1Mo steel plate using the submerged arc, narrow gap process with a Miller square wave ac 1000 power source. The notch toughness properties were assessed in the PWHT condition and after a temperembrittlement step-cooling treatment. Optimum notch toughness properties (>54 J at -40C) were achieved in the PWHT condition in welds with a low oxygen and sulfur content (total <0.035 pct), a fine bainitic microstructure, and a high (approx. =80 pct) proportion of recrystallized structure. For welds subject to the temper-embrittlement step-cooling treatment, the upward shift in Charpy transition temperature was of the order of 20 to 25C, irrespective of the levels of impurity elements, P, Sn, Sb, and As.

Chandel, R.; Gianetto, R.F.; Knight, R.F.; McGrath, J.A.; Orr, R.F.

1985-09-01

448

Defect detection of partially complete SAW and TIG welds using the ultrasonic time-of-flight diffraction method  

Microsoft Academic Search

An application of machine vision applied to the analysis of ultrasonic images formed using the time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD) method on incomplete weld geometries is described. The rationale of the work being to identify weld defects as soon as they are produced, thereby reducing the costs of any subsequent repairs. The analysis uses TOFD scans as input to a filtering and

Shaun W. Lawson; Gary R. Bonser

1998-01-01

449

Defect detection of partially complete SAW and TIG welds using the ultrasonic time-of-flight diffraction method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An application of machine vision applied to the analysis of ultrasonic images formed using the time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD) method on incomplete weld geometries is described. The rationale of the work being to identify weld defects as soon as they are produced, thereby reducing the costs of any subsequent repairs. The analysis uses TOFD scans as input to a filtering and 'window' based variance operator for the segmentation of suspect defect areas inside the weld region. A suite of pc based software and a high temperature TOFD data acquisition system have been benchmarked through a series of demonstration trials on both 80mm thick carbon steel submerged arc welded testpieces, and 25mm thick carbon steel tungsten inert gas welded testpieces. The range of intentionally implanted defects, from root cracks to lack of side wall fusion, were detected with an overall accuracy of 79 percent on a data set of 174 defects on scans performed at 10-90 percent weld completion.

Lawson, Shaun W.; Bonser, Gary R.

1998-03-01

450

Attractancy to Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.), saw-toothed grain beetle, of extracts of carobs, some triglycerides, and related compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory method has been devised for testing the attractancy of vapors to adultOryzaephilus surinamensis (L.). Of four solvent extracts prepared from pods of the carob tree [Ceratonia siliqua (L.)], all attractedO. surinamensis, but the least polar extract was the most active. Subdivision of extracts yielded a series of fractions, the most attractive of which contained a mixture of triglycerides

M. J. O'Donnell; J. Chambers; S. M. McFarland

1983-01-01

451

Observer-Based Tuning of Two-Inertia ServoDrive Systems With Integrated SAW Torque Transducers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes controller design and tuning methodologies that facilitate the rejection of periodic load-side disturbances applied to a torsional mechanical system while simultaneously compensating for the observer's inherent phase delay. This facilitates the use of lower-bandwidth practically realizable disturbance observers. The merits of implementing fulland reduced-order observers are investigated, with the latter being implemented with a new low-cost servo-machine-integrated

Timothy M. O'Sullivan; Christopher M. Bingham; Nigel Schofield

2007-01-01

452

Constructing the large mixing angle MNS matrix in see-saw models with right-handed neutrino dominance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent SNO results strongly favour the large mixing angle (LMA) MSW solar solution. We argue that there are only two technically natural low energy neutrino mass matrix structures consistent with the LMA MSW solution, corresponding to either a hierarchy or an inverted hierarchy with pseudo-Dirac neutrinos. We construct the MNS matrix to leading order in the small angle ?13 including

Stephen F. King

2002-01-01

453

I Know I Know It, I Know I Saw It: The Stability of the Confidence–Accuracy Relationship Across Domains  

Microsoft Academic Search

If the relationship between confidence and accuracy extended across domains, then one could assess performance in a known domain and use it to estimate performance in another domain. The stability of the confidence–accuracy relationship across the domains of eyewitness memory and general knowledge was investigated. The major findings of Experiment 1 were that in both domains participants were overconfident, yet

Brian H. Bornstein; Douglas J. Zickafoose

1999-01-01

454

"Such a smoking nation as this I never saw...": smoking, nationalism, and manliness in nineteenth-century Hungary.  

PubMed

Tobacco smoking became an important marker of Hungarian national identity during the nineteenth century. this national symbol ultimately had an economic origin: Hungarian tobacco producers resisted the tobacco monopoly of the Habsburg central government, and led an ultimately successful consumer boycott of Austrian products. Tobacco nationalism, however, became a common theme in Hungarian popular culture in its own right, as tobacco use came to symbolize community and fraternity. The use of tobacco was also highly gendered; smoking as a metaphor for membership shows that the Hungarian nation was a gender-exclusive "national brotherhood." PMID:20058399

Maxwell, Alexander

2006-01-01

455

“They Saw a Terrorist”—Responses of Jewish-Israeli Viewers to an Interview with a Palestinian Terrorist  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the responses of Jewish-Israeli viewers to an interview broadcast on Israel's national public TV network with a female Palestinian terrorist, caught by Israeli security services on her way to perform a suicide bombing in Israel. Viewers' (N = 47) written accounts of the viewing experience were qualitatively analyzed and found to reflect two conflicting representations of the terrorist in

Ifat Maoz

2008-01-01

456

Rapid detection of organophosphates in aqueous solution using a hybrid organic\\/inorganic coating on SH-SAW devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid detection of organophosphates pesticides (OPs) in groundwater is necessary to allow for real-time monitoring and cleanup. Detection of OPs in the liquid phase has already been demonstrated using poly(epichlorohydrin) [PECH] and polyurethane as the sensing layer. However, the response times are relatively long, on the order of hours. In this work, a hybrid organic\\/inorganic chemically sensitive layer [bisphenol A-hexamethyltrisiloxane

Arnold K. Mensah-Brown; Darlington Mlambo; Fabien Josse; Jeanne Hossenlopp

2010-01-01

457

Handarm vibration syndrome with use of anti-vibration chain saws: 19-year follow-up study of forestry workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) consists of vascular and neurological component. Musculoskeletal component has not been delineated yet. In the present follow-up study, we evaluated the prevalence of HAVS and the cumulative exposure to vibration among a cohort of forestry workers. Special interest was given to numbness and musculoskeletal disorders of upper extremity and neck in forestry workers. Methods: A

Päivi Sutinen; Esko Toppila; Jukka Starck; Anthony Brammer; Jing Zou; Ilmari Pyykkö

2006-01-01

458

Liability for malfunction of medical expert systems—why an expert system is like a power saw (abstract only)  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the pervasive presence of computers has come a variety of legal questions arising from the use of this technology. Although a number of these have been addressed both by commentators and the courts, one area has so far received little attention: liability for misdiagnosis by a computerized expert system. We adopt the view that because of the nature of

Elizabeth S. Adams; Mary W. Gray

1987-01-01

459

The mechanical properties of 2.25Cr-lMo weld metals deposited by the SAW-NG process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of narrow gap welds were prepared in 2.25Cr-1Mo steel plate using the submerged arc, narrow gap process with a Miller\\u000a square wave ac 1000 power source. The notch toughness properties were assessed in the PWHT condition and after a temperembrittlement\\u000a step-cooling treatment. Optimum notch toughness properties (>54 J at ?40 °C) were achieved in the PWHT condition in

R. Chandel; R. F. Orr; J. A. Gianetto; J. T. McGrath; R. F. Knight

1985-01-01

460

A see-saw of pre-Columbian boom regions in southern Peru, determined by large-scale circulation changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental changes and cultural transitions during several periods of Peruvian history show a strong coincidence between humid and dry climatic oscillations and the rise and decline of cultures. It is noteworthy, that alternating periods of geo-ecological fragility and stability occurred in time and space between the coastal Nasca region (14.5° S) and the high Andean northern Titicaca basin, just a few hundred kilometers to the east. Based on a multi-proxy palynological and sedimentological approach to reconstruct palaeoenvironmental changes, we found that the Nasca region received a maximum of precipitation during the archaeological boom times of the Early Horizon and the Early Intermediate Period (800 BC - 650 AD, Paracas and Nasca cultures) as well as during the late intermediate period (1150-1450 AD), whereas, in contrast, the Titicaca region further to the south-east experienced drought and cultural depression during that times. During the Middle Horizon (650 - 1150 AD), the Tiwanaku agronomy and culture boomed in the Titicaca region and expanded to the west, contemporaneous with a raised lake level and more humid conditions. In the Nasca region, runoff for irrigation purposes was reduced and less reliable due to drought. Considering a coincidence between environmental and cultural changes, we state that success and decline of civilizations were controlled by hydrological oscillations, triggering fertility as well as a critical loss of natural resources. In response to spatial changing resources, cultural foci were shifted. Therefore, the success of pre-Columbian civilizations was closely coupled to areas of geo-ecological favorability, which were directly controlled by distinct regional impacts of large-scale circulation mechanisms, including El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Changes in the position of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and the Bolivian anticyclone determined meridional shifts in moisture transport across the Andes, which directly triggered human migration to the respective granaries.

Mächtle, B.; Schittek, K.; Forbriger, M.; Schäbitz, F.; Eitel, B.

2012-04-01

461

SAW-CTD (Surface Acoustic Wave-Charge Trasfer Devices) Serial to Parallel Imager and Waveform Recorder.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A device for the high speed recording of photon images and nonrepetitive electrical waveforms which comprises a waveform recorder wherein surface acoustic waves excited in a can be GaAs, not layered piezoelectric-insulator-semiconductor layered structure ...

R. R. Whitlock N. A. Papanicolaou

1985-01-01

462

Inhibition of Inflammatory Gene Expression in Keratinocytes Using a Composition Containing Carnitine, Thioctic Acid and Saw Palmetto Extract  

PubMed Central

Chronic inflammation of the hair follicle (HF) is considered a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Previously, we clinically tested liposterolic extract of Serenoa repens (LSESr) and its glycoside, ?-sitosterol, in subjects with AGA and showed a highly positive response to treatment. In this study, we sought to determine whether blockade of inflammation using a composition containing LSESr as well as two anti-inflammatory agents (carnitine and thioctic acid) could alter the expression of molecular markers of inflammation in a well-established in vitro system. Using a well-validated assay representative of HF keratinocytes, specifically, stimulation of cultured human keratinocyte cells in vitro, we measured changes in gene expression of a spectrum of well-known inflammatory markers. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) provided an inflammatory stimulus. In particular, we found that the composition effectively suppressed LPS-activated gene expression of chemokines, including CCL17, CXCL6 and LTB(4) associated with pathways involved in inflammation and apoptosis. Our data support the hypothesis that the test compound exhibits anti-inflammatory characteristics in a well-established in vitro assay representing HF keratinocyte gene expression. These findings suggest that 5-alpha reductase inhibitors combined with blockade of inflammatory processes could represent a novel two-pronged approach in the treatment of AGA with improved efficacy over current modalities.

Chittur, Sridar; Parr, Brian; Marcovici, Geno

2011-01-01

463

Inhibition of inflammatory gene expression in keratinocytes using a composition containing carnitine, thioctic Acid and saw palmetto extract.  

PubMed

Chronic inflammation of the hair follicle (HF) is considered a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Previously, we clinically tested liposterolic extract of Serenoa repens (LSESr) and its glycoside, ?-sitosterol, in subjects with AGA and showed a highly positive response to treatment. In this study, we sought to determine whether blockade of inflammation using a composition containing LSESr as well as two anti-inflammatory agents (carnitine and thioctic acid) could alter the expression of molecular markers of inflammation in a well-established in vitro system. Using a well-validated assay representative of HF keratinocytes, specifically, stimulation of cultured human keratinocyte cells in vitro, we measured changes in gene expression of a spectrum of well-known inflammatory markers. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) provided an inflammatory stimulus. In particular, we found that the composition effectively suppressed LPS-activated gene expression of chemokines, including CCL17, CXCL6 and LTB(4) associated with pathways involved in inflammation and apoptosis. Our data support the hypothesis that the test compound exhibits anti-inflammatory characteristics in a well-established in vitro assay representing HF keratinocyte gene expression. These findings suggest that 5-alpha reductase inhibitors combined with blockade of inflammatory processes could represent a novel two-pronged approach in the treatment of AGA with improved efficacy over current modalities. PMID:19692448

Chittur, Sridar; Parr, Brian; Marcovici, Geno

2011-06-08

464

Inhibition of Inflammatory Gene Expression in Keratinocytes Using a Composition Containing Carnitine, Thioctic Acid and Saw Palmetto Extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic inflammation of the hair follicle (HF) is considered a contributing factor in the patho- genesis of androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Previously, we clinically tested liposterolic extract of Serenoa repens (LSESr) and its glycoside, b-sitosterol, in subjects with AGA and showed a highly positive response to treatment. In this study, we sought to determine whether blockade of inflammation using a composition

Sridar Chittur; Brian Parr; Geno Marcovici

2009-01-01

465

‘Dear diary I saw an angel, she looked like heaven on earth’: Sex talk and sex education  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we highlight and address some of the problems involved in teaching HIV\\/AIDS education in southern and eastern Africa, and especially in generating open discussion among pupils about sex and sexuality. The paper draws on the findings of a UNICEF-funded study, in which we were involved, as research consultants (2001). The study focused on ‘young people, gender, sexuality

Rob Pattman; Fatuma Chege

2003-01-01

466

I know your face but not where I saw you: Context memory is impaired for other-race faces  

Microsoft Academic Search

People are more likely to falsely identify a face of another race than a face of their own race. When witnesses make identifications,\\u000a they often need to remember where they have previously encountered a face. Failure to remember the context of an encounter\\u000a can result in unconscious transference and lead to misidentifications. Forty-five White participants were shown White and\\u000a Black

Ruth Horry; Daniel B. Wright

2008-01-01

467

Use of the SAW Sensor Electronic Nose for Detecting the Adulteration of Virgin Coconut Oil with RBD Palm Kernel Olein  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electronic nose (zNose™) was applied to the detection of adulteration of virgin coconut oil. The system, which is based\\u000a on a surface acoustic wave sensor was used to generate a pattern of volatile compounds present in the samples. Virgin coconut\\u000a oil was mixed with refined, bleached and deodorized palm kernel olein at a level of adulteration from 1 to

A. M. MarinaY; Y. B. Che Man; I. Amin

2010-01-01

468

The Legal See-Saw: The Rights of the Sex Offender v. The Perception of a Safe Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question of how to safely deal with convicted sex offenders upon release from incarceration has been an ongoing hotly-debated topic within American society for decades, with one of the earliest approaches to dealing with these criminals dating back to the 1930s (Petrunik 486). Although it is universally acknowledged that sex crimes are deemed wrong from both the criminal and

Brittany E Kane

2009-01-01

469

29 CFR 1910.265 - Sawmills.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Resaw. The term resaw means band, circular, or sash gang saws...another cut. (37) Sorting gaps. The term sorting gaps means...operations. (2) Head saws â(i) Band head saws. (a ) Band head saws shall not be...

2012-07-01

470

The role of titanium in the non-metallic inclusions which nucleate acicular ferrite in the Submerged ARC Weld (Saw) fusion zones of Navy HY-100 steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origin of acicular ferrite in the weld metal of submerged arc weldments on high strength steels is very complex and depends upon the chemical composition for the steel base plate and filler wire, the composition of the flux used during welding and the cooling rate of the weld metal during the transformation of the undercooled metastable austenite. The strength

A. G. Fox; D. G. Brothers

1995-01-01

471

Clay Swelling and Particle Redistribution in a Saw-Cut Fracture in the Paintbrush Nonwelded Unit of the Topopah Spring Tuff  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flow through the altered nonwelded tuffs of the Paintbrush unit (PTn) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is thought to be primarily through the highly porous rock matrix. Due to matrix flow and the sloping structure of the unit, the PTn is thought to divert downward-flowing water laterally. However, large fractures and faults in the PTn may also provide pathways for flow

T. J. Kneafsey; C. M. Oldenburg; R. Salve

2001-01-01

472

The effect of purification of single-walled carbon nanotube bundles on the alcohol sensitivity of nanocomposite Langmuir Blodgett films for SAW sensing applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

HiPco (high-pressure CO dissociation process) single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) bundles containing Fe particles were purified in a two-step purification process by thermal annealing in oxygen and post-treatment in HCl. Nanocomposite films of pristine and purified SWCNTs embedded in an organic matrix of cadmium arachidate (CdA) were prepared by a Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) molecular engineering technique with a fixed weight filler content

M. Penza; M. A. Tagliente; P. Aversa; M. Re; G. Cassano

2007-01-01

473

Comparative venom gland transcriptome surveys of the saw-scaled vipers (Viperidae: Echis) reveal substantial intra-family gene diversity and novel venom transcripts  

PubMed Central

Background Venom variation occurs at all taxonomical levels and can impact significantly upon the clinical manifestations and efficacy of antivenom therapy following snakebite. Variation in snake venom composition is thought to be subject to strong natural selection as a result of adaptation towards specific diets. Members of the medically important genus Echis exhibit considerable variation in venom composition, which has been demonstrated to co-evolve with evolutionary shifts in diet. We adopt a venom gland transcriptome approach in order to investigate the diversity of toxins in the genus and elucidate the mechanisms which result in prey-specific adaptations of venom composition. Results Venom gland transcriptomes were created for E. pyramidum leakeyi, E. coloratus and E. carinatus sochureki by sequencing ~1000 expressed sequence tags from venom gland cDNA libraries. A standardised methodology allowed a comprehensive intra-genus comparison of the venom gland profiles to be undertaken, including the previously described E. ocellatus transcriptome. Blast annotation revealed the presence of snake venom metalloproteinases, C-type lectins, group II phopholipases A2, serine proteases, L-amino oxidases and growth factors in all transcriptomes throughout the genus. Transcripts encoding disintegrins, cysteine-rich secretory proteins and hyaluronidases were obtained from at least one, but not all, species. A representative group of novel venom transcripts exhibiting similarity to lysosomal acid lipase were identified from the E. coloratus transcriptome, whilst novel metallopeptidases exhibiting similarity to neprilysin and dipeptidyl peptidase III were identified from E. p. leakeyi and E. coloratus respectively. Conclusion The comparison of Echis venom gland transcriptomes revealed substantial intrageneric venom variation in representations and cluster numbers of the most abundant venom toxin families. The expression profiles of established toxin groups exhibit little obvious association with venom-related adaptations to diet described from this genus. We suggest therefore that alterations in isoform diversity or transcript expression levels within the major venom protein families are likely to be responsible for prey specificity, rather than differences in the representation of entire toxin families or the recruitment of novel toxin families, although the recruitment of lysosomal acid lipase as a response to vertebrate feeding cannot be excluded. Evidence of marked intrageneric venom variation within the medically important genus Echis strongly advocates further investigations into the medical significance of venom variation in this genus and its impact upon antivenom therapy.

2009-01-01

474

"I Just Saw It as Something that Would Pull You Down, Rather than Lift You Up": Resilience in Never-Smokers with Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self ConceptWhy people smoke despite the health risks is an important public health question. Equally important is why and how some people resist smoking in spite of circumstances that clearly place them at high risk of becoming smokers. This study used in-depth interviews to explore the narratives of 12 people diagnosed with mental illness, who…

Lawn, Sharon; Hersh, Deborah; Ward, Paul R.; Tsourtos, George; Muller, Robert; Winefield, Anthony; Coveney, John

2011-01-01

475

‘They saw our people dressed up and they just … escaped!’ Mark Wallis in interview about the development of professional live history in Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contribution is an annotated interview with Mark Wallis, founder and director of the UK's most established professional live history company. Its main purpose is to provide insights into the practice of first-person interpretation and to explore the potential of this practice for historical understanding. Beyond this, it has a particular interest in the way in which professional live historians

Eva Ulrike Pirker

2011-01-01

476

Identification and characterization of a phospholipase A2 from the venom of the Saw-scaled viper: Novel bactericidal and membrane damaging activities.  

PubMed

Phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)), a common toxic component of snake venom, has been implicated in various pharmacological effects. In this study, a basic myotoxic PLA(2), named EcTx-I was isolated from Echis carinatus snake venom by using gel filtration on Superdex G-75, and reverse phase HPLC on C18 and C8 Sepharose columns. PLA(2), EcTx-I was 13,861.72 molecular weight as estimated by MALDI-TOF (15 kD by SDS-PAGE), and consisted of 121 amino acid residues cross-linked by seven disulfide bonds. The N-terminal sequences revealed significant homology with basic myotoxic PLA(2)s from other snake venoms. The purified PLA(2) EcTx-I was evaluated (250 ?g/ml) for bactericidal activity of a wide variety of human pathogens against Burkholderia pseudomallei (KHW&TES), Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. EcTx-I showed strong antibacterial activity against B. pseudomallei (KHW) and E. aerogenes among the tested bacteria. Other Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria showed only a moderate effect. However, the Gram-positive bacterium E. aerogenes failed to show any effect on EcTx-I protein at tested doses. The most significant bacteriostatic and bactericidal effect of EcTx-I was observed at MICs of >15 ?g/ml against (B. pseudomallei, KHW) and MICs >30 ?g/ml against E. aerogenes. Mechanisms of bactericidal and membrane damaging effects were proved by ultra-structural analysis. EcTx-I was able to induce cytotoxicity on THP-1 cells in vitro as well as lethality in BALB/c mice. EcTx-I also induced mild myotoxic effects on mouse skin, but was devoid of hemolytic effects on human erythrocytes up to 500 ?g/ml. It is shown that the toxic effect induced by E. carinatus venom is due to the presence of myotoxic PLA(2) (EcTx-I). The result also corroborates the hypothesis of an association between toxic and enzymatic domains. In conclusion, EcTx-I displays a heparin binding C-terminal region, which is probably responsible for the cytotoxic and bactericidal effects. PMID:20723574

Perumal Samy, Ramar; Gopalakrishnakone, P; Bow, Ho; Puspharaj, Peter N; Chow, Vincent T K

2010-08-17

477

"We Actually Saw Atoms with Our Own Eyes": Conceptions and Convictions in Using the Scanning Tunneling Microscope in Junior High School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The feasibility and the potential contribution of the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) in junior high school (JHS) as an instructional tool for learning the particulate nature of matter is described. The use and power of new technologies can probably be demonstrated by the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM).|

Margel, Hannah; Eylon, Bat-Sheva; Scherz, Zahava

2004-01-01

478

"I Just Saw It as Something that Would Pull You Down, Rather than Lift You Up": Resilience in Never-Smokers with Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Self ConceptWhy people smoke despite the health risks is an important public health question. Equally important is why and how some people resist smoking in spite of circumstances that clearly place them at high risk of becoming smokers. This study used in-depth interviews to explore the narratives of 12 people diagnosed with mental illness, who…

Lawn, Sharon; Hersh, Deborah; Ward, Paul R.; Tsourtos, George; Muller, Robert; Winefield, Anthony; Coveney, John

2011-01-01

479

The role of titanium in the non-metallic inclusions which nucleate acicular ferrite in the submerged arc weld (SAW) fusion zones of Navy HY-100 steel  

SciTech Connect

The origin of acicular ferrite in the weld metal of submerged arc weldments on high strength steels is very complex and depends upon the chemical composition for the steel base plate and filler wire, the composition of the flux used during welding and the cooling rate of the weld metal during the transformation of the undercooled metastable austenite. The strength and toughness of weld metal improves as the amount of acicular ferrite increases due its fine basket weave microstructure and so it is important to understand the mechanism of its formation so that the volume fraction of acicular ferrite can be maximized in steel weld metal. The chemical composition of the filler wire mostly determines the final composition of the weld metal although the composition of the base plate is important because of dilution effects. In high strength steels the alloying elements such as carbon, nickel, chromium, copper nd niobium are present to achieve the required strength levels and a fortuitous outcome of this is a continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram with features that mean that bainite is the major transformation product during the arc welding of these steels provided a suitable weld power and preheat/interpass temperature is chosen during multi-run welding. Once a suitable weld-metal hardenability and cooling rate has been established the amount of acicular ferrite nucleated will depend on the size, number, distribution and chemical composition of the non-metallic inclusions. Suitable inclusions appear to be in the size range 0.2--2.0 micrometers with a mean size of 0.5 micrometers being about an optimum value. These inclusions usually contain manganese, silicon, aluminum and titanium as their major constituents and do not appear to be exactly spherical but have a faceted or slightly angular appearance.

Fox, A.G.; Brothers, D.G. [Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (United States)

1995-04-01

480

Seismic event distributions and off-fault damage during frictional sliding of saw-cut surfaces with pre-defined roughness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The motion along upper crustal faults in response to tectonic loading is controlled by both loading stresses and surface properties, for example, roughness. Fault roughness influences earthquake slip distributions, stress-drops and possible transitions from stable to unstable sliding which is connected to the radiation of seismic energy. The relationship between fault roughness and seismic event distributions is insufficiently understood, in particular, the underlying mechanisms of off-fault seismicity creation in the proximity of rough faults are debated. Here, we investigate the connection between roughness and acoustic emission (AE) density with increasing fault-normal distance during loading of surfaces with pre-defined roughness. We test the influence of fault roughness and normal stress variations on the characteristics of AE off-fault distributions. To this end, two sets of experiments were conducted: one to investigate the influence of initial surface roughness at constant confining pressure, and the other to investigate the influence of fault-normal stresses at constant roughness. Our experiments reveal a power-law decay of AE density with distance from the slip surface. The power-law exponents are sensitive to both fault roughness and normal stress variations so that larger normal stresses and increased roughness lead to slower AE density decay with fault-normal distance. This emphasizes that both roughness and stress have to be considered when trying to understand microseismic event distributions in the proximity of fault zones. Our results are largely in agreement with theoretical studies and observations of across-fault seismicity distributions in California suggesting a connection between off-fault seismicity and fault roughness over a wide range of scales. Seismicity analysis including a possible mapping between off-fault activity exponents, fault stresses and roughness, can be an important tool in understanding the mechanics of faults and their seismic hazard potential.

Goebel, T. H. W.; Candela, T.; Sammis, C. G.; Becker, T. W.; Dresen, G.; Schorlemmer, D.

2013-10-01