Sample records for sawing

  1. Saw palmetto

    MedlinePLUS

    Saw palmetto is a plant. Its ripe fruit is used to make medicine. Saw palmetto is best known for its use in decreasing ... research studies, it is effective for this use. Saw palmetto is used for treating certain types of prostate ...

  2. Saw Palmetto

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy S. Tracy

    Administration of saw palmetto can be effective in treating symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia, and its use may have\\u000a benefit in stimulating hair growth. Adverse effects of saw palmetto therapy are usually mild and its use does not appear to\\u000a result in significant drug interactions.

  3. Saw Palmetto

    MedlinePLUS

    ... E-mail: info@nccih.nih.gov PubMed® A service of the National Library of Medicine (NLM), PubMed® contains publication information and ( ... supporting research, sharing research results, and educating the public. Its resources include publications (such ... Library of Medicine's MedlinePlus Saw Palmetto Listing: www.nlm. ...

  4. See-Saw Jeans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Charlotte D.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the following case: Pete Wilmington, Vice President of Sales for See-Saw Jeans for Kids, has wrapped up a deal with Wal-Mart to carry See-Saw Jeans for Kids in all Wal-Mart stores on a trial basis for the next year. See-Saw Jeans for Kids is a clothing manufacturer with sales of $41 million, but the Wal-Mart account has the…

  5. Saw Blades and Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebl, Michael

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes an inexpensive, classroom experiment that allows students to quantitatively investigate resonance using a hacksaw blade. The blade clamped to the edge of a table forms a cantilever that may vibrate at any of a number of preferred frequencies. A small cylindrical magnet is fixed to the saw blade. An electromagnetic coil powered by a frequency generator causes large-amplitude vibrations of the saw blade at the resonant frequencies. Vibrations of a similar system, a vibrating car antenna, have been discussed by Newburgh and Newburgh. The dramatic increases in the oscillation amplitude are both instructive and fascinating. Analogies may be drawn to systems ranging from a child on a swing to the Tacoma Narrows bridge.

  6. Electric arc saw apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Deichelbohrer, P.R.

    1983-08-08

    A portable, hand-held electric arc saw apparatus comprising a small frame for supporting an electrically conducting rotary blade which serves as an electrode for generating an electric arc between the blade and a workpiece of opposite polarity. Electrically conducting means are provided on said frame for transmitting current to said blade. A pair of freely movable endless belts in the form of crawler treads are employed to facilitate movement of the apparatus relative to the workpiece.

  7. Modeling of SAW Delay Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William C.; Atkinson, Gary M.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated Vehicle Health Monitoring (IVHM) of aerospace vehicles requires rugged sensors having reduced volume, mass, and power that can be used to measure a variety of phenomena. Wireless systems are preferred when retro-fitting sensors onto existing vehicles. Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) devices are capable of sensing: temperature, pressure, strain, chemical species, mass loading, acceleration, and shear stress. SAW technology is low cost, rugged, lightweight, and extremely low power. To aid in the development of SAW sensors for IVHM applications, a first order model of a SAW Delay line has been created.

  8. Rock-salt mine saw

    SciTech Connect

    Staller, G.E.; Wilson, W.C.; Smith, A.R.

    1985-06-01

    A saw has been developed for cutting rock salt at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, NM. This saw uses commercially available hardware in conjuction with Sandia-designed equipment. It has been used to cut rock salt in situ as well as samples removed from the mine.

  9. SAW correlator spread spectrum receiver

    DOEpatents

    Brocato, Robert W

    2014-04-01

    A surface acoustic wave (SAW) correlator spread-spectrum (SS) receiver is disclosed which utilizes a first demodulation stage with a chip length n and a second demodulation stage with a chip length m to decode a transmitted SS signal having a code length l=n.times.m which can be very long (e.g. up to 2000 chips or more). The first demodulation stage utilizes a pair of SAW correlators which demodulate the SS signal to generate an appropriate code sequence at an intermediate frequency which can then be fed into the second demodulation stage which can be formed from another SAW correlator, or by a digital correlator. A compound SAW correlator comprising two input transducers and a single output transducer is also disclosed which can be used to form the SAW correlator SS receiver, or for use in processing long code length signals.

  10. Lunar stone saw

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Tom; Croker, Todd; Hines, Ken; Knight, Mike; Walton, Todd

    1988-01-01

    This project addresses the problem of cutting lunar stones into blocks to be used to construct shelters to protect personnel and equipment from harmful solar radiation. This plant will manufacture 6 in x 1 ft x 2 ft blocks and will be located near the south pole to allow it to be in the shade at all times. This design uses a computer controlled robot, a boulder handler that uses hydraulics for movement, a computer system that used 3-D vision to determine the size of boulders, a polycrystalline diamond tipped saw blade that utilizes radiation for cooling, and a solar tower to collect solar energy. Only two electric motors are used in this plant because of the heavy weight of electric motors and the problem of cooling them. These two motors will be cooled by thermoelectric cooling. All other motors and actuators are to be hydraulic. The architectural design for the building as well as the conceptual design of the machines for cutting the blocks are described.

  11. Two Problems with Table Saws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vautaw, William R.

    2008-01-01

    We solve two problems that arise when constructing picture frames using only a table saw. First, to cut a cove running the length of a board (given the width of the cove and the angle the cove makes with the face of the board) we calculate the height of the blade and the angle the board should be turned as it is passed over the blade. Second, to…

  12. Frequency Domain Modeling of SAW Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, W. C.; Atkinson, G. M.

    2007-01-01

    New SAW sensors for integrated vehicle health monitoring of aerospace vehicles are being investigated. SAW technology is low cost, rugged, lightweight, and extremely low power. However, the lack of design tools for MEMS devices in general, and for Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) devices specifically, has led to the development of tools that will enable integrated design, modeling, simulation, analysis and automatic layout generation of SAW devices. A frequency domain model has been created. The model is mainly first order, but it includes second order effects from triple transit echoes. This paper presents the model and results from the model for a SAW delay line device.

  13. Wireless Passive SAW Identification Marks and Sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elke Mackensen; Leonhard Reindl

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices can be turned into identification and sensor elements, so called SAW transponders. Identification\\u000a elements transmit an individual ID number and sensor elements measure physical quantities such as temperature, pressure, torque,\\u000a acceleration, humidity, etc. The SAW devices do not require any power supply and may be accessed wirelessly.\\u000a \\u000a The complete sensor system consists of such a

  14. Saw palmetto ethanol extract inhibits adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Villaverde, Nicole; Galvis, Adriana; Marcano, Adriana; Priestap, Horacio A; Bennett, Bradley C; Barbieri, M Alejandro

    2013-07-01

    The fruits of saw palmetto have been used for the treatment of a variety of urinary and reproductive system problems. In this study we investigated whether the fruit extracts affect in vitro adipogenesis. Saw palmetto ethanol extract inhibited the lipid droplet accumulation by induction media in a dose-dependent manner, and it also attenuated the protein expressions of C-EBP? and PPAR?. Phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and Akt1 were also decreased by saw palmetto ethanol extract. This report suggests that saw palmetto extracts selectively affect the adipocyte differentiation through the modulation of several key factors that play a critical role during adipogenesis. PMID:23179316

  15. SAW temperature sensor on Quartz.

    PubMed

    Zhgoon, Sergei; Shvetsov, Alexander; Ancev, Ivan; Bogoslovsky, Sergei; Sapozhnikov, Gennadiy; Trokhimets, Konstantin; Derkach, Mikhail

    2015-06-01

    For biomedical applications, narrow temperature range and high sensor accuracy requirements define the need for high temperature sensitivity. Wireless SAW sensors connected to antennas need a reference element to account for changes in electromagnetic coupling between the transmitter and receiver antennas. A pair of sensors with different temperature sensitivities may serve as a self-referenced sensor assembly. This justifies the need for materials with useful SAW resonator properties and with the largest difference between temperature coefficients of frequency (TCF) for a resonator pair on a single substrate. We have identified several cuts of quartz having useful properties with a TCF difference up to 140 ppm/°C for a pair of resonators on a single substrate. As a rule, placing such resonators on a single substrate requires their rotation by up to 90° relative to each other. The limited range of cuts presents a unique opportunity to place both resonators along the X+90° direction with one resonator using Bleustein-Gulyaev-Shimizu (BGS) waves (with electrodes placed along the x-axis) and the other one (with electrodes inclined by about ±10° to the x-axis) using quasi-Rayleigh waves. These cuts are close to the 70°Y cut where a high TCF difference is reached together with acceptable characteristics of the resonators. Resonators were designed for all useful cuts (including the 70°Y cut) and tested. The use of different periods in reflectors and interdigital transducer (IDT) together with individual choice of gaps between reflectors and IDT meant achieving low spurious content in resonator responses. The quality factors reached values up to 3500 at central frequencies around 915 MHz for both BGS and quasi-Rayleigh types of waves. The measured difference of the TCF is about 138 ppm//spl degC on 70°Y cut that is close to the calculated value. PMID:26067041

  16. Comparison between BAW and SAW sensor principles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ewald Benes; M. Groschl; F. Seifert; A. Pohl

    1998-01-01

    A comparison is given between piezoelectrically excited bulk acoustic wave (BAW) and surface acoustic wave (SAW) elements with respect to their primary sensitivity functions and principal capabilities for sensor applications. The importance of mode purity for high dynamic range sensors is emphasized. Characteristic sensor examples are reviewed, and the special demands on the electronics for BAW and SAW elements in

  17. SAW based systems for mobile communications satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peach, R. C.; Miller, N.; Lee, M.

    1993-01-01

    Modern mobile communications satellites, such as INMARSAT 3, EMS, and ARTEMIS, use advanced onboard processing to make efficient use of the available L-band spectrum. In all of these cases, high performance surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices are used. SAW filters can provide high selectivity (100-200 kHz transition widths), combined with flat amplitude and linear phase characteristics; their simple construction and radiation hardness also makes them especially suitable for space applications. An overview of the architectures used in the above systems, describing the technologies employed, and the use of bandwidth switchable SAW filtering (BSSF) is given. The tradeoffs to be considered when specifying a SAW based system are analyzed, using both theoretical and experimental data. Empirical rules for estimating SAW filter performance are given. Achievable performance is illustrated using data from the INMARSAT 3 engineering model (EM) processors.

  18. Parameterizable Library Components for SAW Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William C.; Atkinson, Gary M.

    2006-01-01

    To facilitate quick fabrication of Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensors we have found it necessary to develop a library of parameterizable components. This library is the first module in our strategy towards a design tool that is integrated into existing Electronic Design Automation (EDA) tools. This library is similar to the standard cell libraries found in digital design packages. The library cells allow the user to input the design parameters which automatically generate a detailed layout of the SAW component. This paper presents the results of our development of parameterizable cells for an InterDigitated Transducer (IDT), reflector, SAW delay line, and both one and two port resonators.

  19. SAW Gas sensors with carbon nanotubes films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Penza; R. Rossi; M. Alvisi; P. Aversa; G. Cassano; D. Suriano; M. Benetti; D. Cannata; F. Di Pietrantonio; E. Verona

    2008-01-01

    A surface acoustic wave (SAW) gas sensor with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) layered films as chemically interactive nanomaterial is presented. A SAW two-port resonator integrated on ST-cut quartz substrate has been functionally characterized as oscillator in dual differential mode at the resonant frequency of 433.92 and 915 MHz. Nanocomposite layers based on filler of CNTs, grown by RF-plasma enhanced chemical

  20. Design on semiconductor coupled SAW convolver.

    PubMed

    Hohkawa, Kohji; Suda, Takaya; Aoki, Yusuke; Hong, Chulun; Kaneshiro, Chinami; Koh, Keishin

    2002-04-01

    This paper presents results of a design study on a semiconductor coupled surface acoustic wave (SAW) convolver in which bi-directionally propagating SAWs, on a piezoelectric substrate with a high coupling coefficient, couple with bonded semiconductor diodes through multistrips. To obtain convolution signals with a high efficiency, we adopted a diode-balanced bridge structure for the non-linear operation. We also found that the tapping pitches of the multi-strip electrodes have robustness against operation frequency variation and temperature-dependent variation on the delay of the SAW. We verified the effectiveness of the device in a circuit simulation and an experiment on a test circuit, which was fabricated by using an epitaxial lift-off film-bonding process. PMID:11989702

  1. Time domain analysis of SAW filters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Panasik

    1977-01-01

    A Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) device consists of two transducers with interleaved aluminum fingers on a piezoelectric substrate. The input transducer is implemented with fingers of equal length, while the output transducer has fingers with varied overlap. The filter operates by electrically exciting the input transducer which through the piezoelectric effect causes a surface wave along with other modes to

  2. Patent technology portfolio for SAW filters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Won D. Kim; Kwang R. Lee

    1994-01-01

    Patent portfolio or patent mapping is a basic technology to pursuit research and development. The technology in patents goes 2 to 5 years ahead beyond the current devices and manufacturing technology. We had investigated the patents for the SAW (surface acoustic wave) filter through WPI (world patent index) and PATOLIS (patent on-line information system) database since 1971 through 1994. In

  3. Acceleration sensitivity of SAW and STW devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A. Kosinski; Fort Monmouth

    1995-01-01

    An analysis of the normal acceleration sensitivity of rotated Y-cut quartz SAW (Surface Acoustic Wave) and STW (Surface Transverse Wave) resonators simply supported along rectangular edges is presented. The analysis is based upon the perturbation integral formulation of Tiersten (1978), and makes use of the previously known analytic representation of the substrate deformation for the case considered. An approximate acoustic

  4. Improved Multiple-DOF SAW Piezoelectric Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi; Hull, Anthony; Wright, John

    2003-01-01

    Surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) piezoelectric motors of a proposed type would be capable of operating in multiple degrees of freedom (DOFs) simultaneously and would be amenable to integration into diverse structures and mechanisms. These motors would be compact and structurally simple and would not contain bearings or lead screws. One example of a particularly useful motor of this type would be a two-dimensional- translation stage. Another such example would be a self-actuated spherical joint that could be made to undergo controlled, simultaneous rotations about two orthogonal axes: Such a motor could serve as a mechanism for aiming an "eyeball" camera or as a compact transducer in, and an integral part of, a joint in a robot arm. The multiple-DOF SAW piezoelectric motors as now proposed would be successors to the ones reported in "Multiple-DOF Surface-Acoustic-Wave Piezoelectric Motors" (NPO-20735), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 24, No. 12 (December 2000), page 5b. The basic principle of operation of a multiple-DOF SAW piezoelectric motor is a straightforward extension of that of single-DOF SAW piezoelectric motors, which have been reported in several previous NASA Tech Briefs articles: For example, in the case of a linear SAW piezoelectric motor, piezoelectric transducers at opposite ends of a stator excite surface acoustic waves that travel along the surface of the stator. An object (denoted the slider) is pressed against the stator with sufficient pressure (in practice .300 MPa) that it remains in frictional contact with the stator at all times. The slider rides the crests of the waves and is thereby made to move along the surface of the stator. The direction of motion (forward or backward) is controlled by selecting the relative phase of waves generated by the two piezoelectric transducers. The speed increases with the amplitude of the waves and thus with the magnitude of the voltage applied to the transducers.

  5. 8. GENERAL VIEW OF SHINGLE CUTTING SAWS THAT HANDLE BOLTS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. GENERAL VIEW OF SHINGLE CUTTING SAWS THAT HANDLE BOLTS AFTER DEBARKING; AFTER DEBARKING THE BOLTS ARE SENT TO THE SHINGLE WEAVER FOR SAWING - Lester Shingle Mill, 1602 North Eighteenth Street, Sweet Home, Linn County, OR

  6. SAW 2012 Class and Counselors Multicultural Student Affairs

    E-print Network

    environment Offer programming that meets diverse needs Provide a safe space for cultural expression) are competitive SAW Counselors are unable to work another job during the entire duration of SAW (including

  7. SAW pulse oscillator sensor with optimized PSK waveforms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helmut Stab; Heinz Hofmann

    1998-01-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices have been studied for use as gas microsensors for some time. Chemical SAW sensors are based upon delay-line sine-wave oscillators. In this work an alternative pulse oscillator sensor type is presented which improves SAW gas sensor performance. This sensor type consists of a pulse oscillator with a SAW delay-line, its interdigital transducers (IDT) being designed

  8. Choosing green sawing dimensions for Norway spruce from stochastic simulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nils Lundgren; Mats Ekevad; Jens Flodin

    2011-01-01

    The high accuracy of log positioning and the stability of saw blades in breakdown machinery in modern sawmills have reduced\\u000a the need to add margins for sawing variations. Oversize green sawing dimensions are still needed, but mainly to allow for\\u000a drying shrinkage. This has put a new focus on better adapting green sawing dimensions to the shrinkage behavior of wood.

  9. Teaching video neuroimages: see-saw nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Bassani, Roberto; Marzoli, Stefania Bianchi

    2013-11-19

    A 43-year-old woman experienced a worsening of her usual headache. As a right hemifacial hypoesthesia had appeared, the patient underwent a brain MRI that revealed a giant cavernoma localized at the left meso-diencephalic region (figure, A and B). After the operation, an involuntary ocular oscillation known as see-saw nystagmus developed (video on the Neurology® Web site at www.neurology.org). See-saw nystagmus consists of alternating phases of intorsion of the elevating eye and extorsion of the descending eye.(1) The patient displayed a right head tilt with left hypertropia referred to as "ocular tilt reaction" (figure, C)-a phenomenon related to the imbalance in the graviceptive pathways between vestibular nuclei and the interstitial nucleus of Cajal (figure, D).(2.) PMID:24249795

  10. Saw Palmetto for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Bent; Christopher Kane; Katsuto Shinohara; John Neuhaus; Esther S. Hudes; Harley Goldberg; Andrew L. Avins

    2006-01-01

    In this double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 225 men over the age of 49 years who had moderate-to-severe symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia to one year of treatment with saw palmetto extract (160 mg twice a day) or placebo. The pri- mary outcome measures were changes in the scores on the American Urological Association Symptom Index (AUASI) and the maximal

  11. Free abrasive wire saw machining of ceramics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Y. Hsu; C. S. Chen; C. C. Tsao

    2009-01-01

    Currently, many kinds of ceramics are used in advanced industrial fields due to their superior mechanical properties, such\\u000a as thermal, wear, corrosion resistance, and lightweight features. Wire saw machining ceramic (Al2O3) was investigated by ultrasonic vibration in this study. Taguchi approach is a powerful design tool for high-quality systems.\\u000a Material removal rate, wafer surface roughness, steel wire wear, kerf width,

  12. Coagulopathy induced by saw palmetto: a case report.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Salvador; González, Jenniffer

    2009-01-01

    Saw palmetto is the most popular herbal supplement used to treat symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The safety and efficacy of saw palmetto has been established in the literature. While the majority of studies document the efficacy and safety of saw palmetto, some studies document the adverse side effects, including increased risk of bleeding. There are no reports in the literature about increased prothombin time (PT), partial thromboplastin time (PTT) or international normalized ratio (INR) while using saw palmetto. We present a case of hematuria and coagulopathy in a patient who was using saw palmetto. PMID:20120986

  13. Thermal Imaging of Medical Saw Blades and Guides

    SciTech Connect

    Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton [ORNL; Steffner, Thomas E [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    Better Than New, LLC., has developed a surface treatment to reduce the friction and wear of orthopedic saw blades and guides. The medical saw blades were thermally imaged while sawing through fresh animal bone and an IR camera was used to measure the blade temperature as it exited the bone. The thermal performance of as-manufactured saw blades was compared to surface-treated blades, and a freshly used blade was used for temperature calibration purposes in order to account for any emissivity changes due to organic transfer layers. Thermal imaging indicates that the treated saw blades cut faster and cooler than untreated blades. In orthopedic surgery, saw guides are used to perfectly size the bone to accept a prosthesis. However, binding can occur between the blade and guide because of misalignment. This condition increases the saw blade temperature and may result in tissue damage. Both treated ad untreated saw guides were also studied. The treated saw guide operated at a significantly lower temperature than untreated guide. Saw blades and guides that operate at a cooler temperature are expected to reduce the amount of tissue damage (thermal necrosis) and may reduce the number of post-operative complications.

  14. Noise reduction of a table saw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, John

    2002-05-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is sponsoring a design project to address the noise levels that commonly exist at construction worksites. Through engineering control, the problem of noise emission from a table saw will be addressed. The noise emitting sources will be pinpointed using a sound pressure level meter. With this knowledge, the next step will be to reduce the sound pressure levels at the noise sources. This will be done by using noise reduction techniques such as insulation, and vibration dampening. The goal is to reduce the noise emission to a level between 85 and 90 dB(A).

  15. Automatic saw-mark detection in multicrystalline solar wafer images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei-Chen Li; Du-Ming Tsai

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a method of automatic defect inspection for the photovoltaic industry, with a special focus on multicrystalline solar wafers. It presents a machine vision-based scheme to automatically detect saw-mark defects in solar wafer surfaces. A saw-mark defect is a severe flaw that occurs when a silicon ingot is cut into wafers. Early detection of saw-mark defects in the

  16. Building SAWE Capability as an ANSI Accredited Standards Developer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cerro, Jeffrey A.; Davis, Ed; Peterson, Eric; Griffiths, William T.; Brooks, Andy; Stratton, Bonnie; Attar, Jose

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a 2014 status of the Society of Allied Weight Engineers' process towards becoming an Accredited Standards Developer (ASD) under certification by the United States American National Standards Institute (ANSI). Included is material from the committee's 2013 International presentation, current status, and additional general background material. The document strives to serve as a reference point to assist SAWE Recommended Practice and Standards developers in negotiating United States Standards Strategy, international standards strategy, and the association of SAWE standards and recommended practices to those efforts. Required procedures for SAWE to develop and maintain Recommended Practices and ANSI/SAWE Standards are reviewed.

  17. A new surface acoustic wave (SAW) delay line sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Shashank S.; Yadava, R. D. S.

    2013-06-01

    We propose a new configuration for SAW chemical sensing. A polymer coated SAW delay line device provides the coupling for synchronization of two stable self-sustained limit cycle oscillators. The dependence of synchronization frequency on the SAW delay time has been made the basis for chemical sensing. The analysis has carried out under conditions of weak phase coupling [1]. The dependence of synchronization modes on coupling parameters is analyzed. The sensitivity of a synchronization branch for vapor sorption induced delay perturbations is analyzed. This analysis shows the possibility of realizing high performance SAW sensors by this approach.

  18. A monolithic SAW-charge transfer device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papanicolaou, N. A.; Lin, H. C.

    1978-01-01

    Surface acoustic waves excited in a Si-SiO2-ZnO layered structure can produce a traveling electric field in the silicon substrate. Charges stored in the traveling potential wells can be transferred at high speed and density and with less complexity. The monolithic structure under investigation for the SAW-charge transfer device consists of a silicon substrate, a thin silicon dioxide insulating layer on top of which a ZnO piezoelectric film is deposited by sputtering. The surface acoustic waves are excited by interdigital transducers. The signal charge is injected into traveling potential wells that travel with the velocity of sound. Conditions for the transfer of the charges by the traveling wells are analyzed. A surface acoustic wave program was used to determine the optimum structure dimensions and transducer configuration which will produce the highest coupling in the excitation of the piezoelectric waves.

  19. Current developments in SAW oscillator stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, T. E.

    1977-01-01

    The results reported were obtained with two port delay lines and resonators used in a simple feedback oscillator. The feedback oscillator employed inherently operates with the amplifier in a saturated condition and, therefore, the AM noise is suppressed. Consequently the dominant noise is FM. Generally, it can be concluded that for very narrow-band, or fixed-frequency applications, the resonator-type oscillator will give the best noise performance. For applications where tunability and linearity are important, the delay-line-type oscillator may give the best performance. There have been no significant improvements in oscillator temperature stability. The only two demonstrated materials for temperature stable SAW oscillators are ST-cut quartz and the SiO2/LiTaO3 overlay structure. Aging tests have been going on for the past two-and-a-half years and it has become obvious that the observed aging rates are largely related to cleaning and packaging.

  20. Dual SAW oscillator for low SO2 concentrations measurement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Bodea; I. Blaga; R. Apostolescu; P. Schiopu

    1996-01-01

    A device for surface acoustic wave (SAW) measurements, based on an organic sensitive film, that is triethanolamine (TEA), has been realized. A dual SAW oscillator was used to measure the frequency shift due to gas adsorption in the TEA film. A linear response was obtained in the range 0-100 ppm SO2 and the sensibility was about 80 Hz\\/ppm

  1. A micro rate gyroscope based on the SAW gyroscopic effect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sang Woo Lee; Jae Wook Rhim; Sin Wook Park; Sang Sik Yang

    2007-01-01

    We propose a micro rate gyroscope (MRG) based on the surface acoustic wave (SAW) gyroscopic effect for extremely high-shock military applications. We not only derived theoretically the SAW gyroscopic gain factor in a ST-cut quartz by introducing a wave velocity ratio and the perturbation method, but also verified this gain factor by experiment. The proposed SAWMRG, which consists of two

  2. Impact of gin saw tooth design on textile processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toothed gin saws have been used to separate cotton fiber from the seed for over 200 years. There have been many saw tooth designs developed over the years. Most of these designs were developed by trial and error. A complete and scientific analysis of tooth design has never been done. It is not k...

  3. Extended suicide by use of a chain saw.

    PubMed

    Schyma, Christian; Albalooshi, Younis; Madea, Burkhard

    2013-05-10

    Injuries caused by chain saws are mostly seen due to accidents. Suicides by chain saws are rare, but some cases have already been described. We present the case of homicide on a child by a chain saw followed by the suicide of his father. For the homicide and the suicide chain saws of different sizes were used. Fatal injuries in the homicide and suicide were located on the neck. Cause of death in both cases was fatal haemorrhage with blood aspiration respectively decapitation. Normally, in suicide by use of chain saws individuals suffering from schizophrenia, major depression and alcohol or drug dependence are concerned. In the presented case, the background was a litigation of a divorced couple for child custody. PMID:23540836

  4. Spirit at Work (SAW): fostering a healthy RN workplace.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Joan I J; Gregory, David M

    2015-02-01

    A cross-sectional mixed-method survey explored and measured relationships between spirit at work (SAW) concepts, experience, education, practice context, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment using LISREL 8.80 and 2012 survey data from a random sample of 217 surgical and 158 home care registered nurses (RNs) in western Canada. Qualitative data underwent content analysis using a priori coding categories based on established theory. Final model indices fit the observed data. SAW concepts of engaging work and mystical experience accounted for moderate to large amounts of model variance for both home care and surgical nurses, while significant positive relationships between SAW concepts, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment were also reported. Researchers concluded that SAW contributes to improved job satisfaction and organizational commitment while being sensitive to RN experiences across clinical contexts. As an holistic measure of RN workplace perceptions, SAW contributes essential information directed at creating optimal environments for both health care providers and recipients. PMID:24510970

  5. New developments for SAW channelization for mobile satellite payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peach, R. C.; Mabson, P.

    1995-01-01

    The use of SAW technology in mobile communication payloads is becoming widely accepted by the industry since being pioneered by Inmarsat for its third generation of satellites. This paper presents new developments in this area, including broadband processors of the Inmarsat 3 type, and the use of SAW filters at L-band. It is demonstrated that SAW processors have considerable potential for increasing the capacity of future communications payloads, while allowing fully transparent operation without any restriction on traffic type or modulation format. In addition to the evolutionary development of Inmarsat type processors, new SAW applications have also emerged recently. Therefore, despite the rapid changes in the industry, it is predicted that SAW processing has a strong future in satellite communications.

  6. Fatty acid and phytosterol content of commercial saw palmetto supplements.

    PubMed

    Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L

    2013-09-01

    Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, ?-sitosterol) in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g), individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g), and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g) and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g). Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols. PMID:24067389

  7. Fatty Acid and Phytosterol Content of Commercial Saw Palmetto Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L.

    2013-01-01

    Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, ?-sitosterol) in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g), individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g), and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g) and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g). Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols. PMID:24067389

  8. DNA Barcode Authentication of Saw Palmetto Herbal Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Little, Damon P.; Jeanson, Marc L.

    2013-01-01

    Herbal dietary supplements made from saw palmetto (Serenoa repens; Arecaceae) fruit are commonly consumed to ameliorate benign prostate hyperplasia. A novel DNA mini–barcode assay to accurately identify [specificity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.74–1.00); sensitivity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.66–1.00); n = 31] saw palmetto dietary supplements was designed from a DNA barcode reference library created for this purpose. The mini–barcodes were used to estimate the frequency of mislabeled saw palmetto herbal dietary supplements on the market in the United States of America. Of the 37 supplements examined, amplifiable DNA could be extracted from 34 (92%). Mini–barcode analysis of these supplements demonstrated that 29 (85%) contain saw palmetto and that 2 (6%) supplements contain related species that cannot be legally sold as herbal dietary supplements in the United States of America. The identity of 3 (9%) supplements could not be conclusively determined. PMID:24343362

  9. DNA barcode authentication of saw palmetto herbal dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Little, Damon P; Jeanson, Marc L

    2013-01-01

    Herbal dietary supplements made from saw palmetto (Serenoa repens; Arecaceae) fruit are commonly consumed to ameliorate benign prostate hyperplasia. A novel DNA mini-barcode assay to accurately identify [specificity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.74-1.00); sensitivity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.66-1.00); n = 31] saw palmetto dietary supplements was designed from a DNA barcode reference library created for this purpose. The mini-barcodes were used to estimate the frequency of mislabeled saw palmetto herbal dietary supplements on the market in the United States of America. Of the 37 supplements examined, amplifiable DNA could be extracted from 34 (92%). Mini-barcode analysis of these supplements demonstrated that 29 (85%) contain saw palmetto and that 2 (6%) supplements contain related species that cannot be legally sold as herbal dietary supplements in the United States of America. The identity of 3 (9%) supplements could not be conclusively determined. PMID:24343362

  10. Northern view of inside diameter welding station of the saw ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Northern view of inside diameter welding station of the saw line in bay9 of the main pipe mill building. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Main Pipe Mill Building, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

  11. Uses of saw palmetto ( Serenoa repens , Arecaceae) in Florida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bradley C. Bennett; Judith R. Hicklin

    1998-01-01

    Saw palmetto [Serenoa repens (Bartr.) Small] is the most common native palm in the U.S. and, possibly, the most useful. Cattle and wildlife, especially\\u000a black bears and white-tailed deer, consume the fruits. The flowers are a favorite nectar source for honey bees, and the sprawling,\\u000a shrubby palm provides excellent cover for birds, reptiles, and small animals. Saw palmetto's edible fruits

  12. ``Buzz-saw'' noise: A comparison of measurement with prediction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. McAlpine; M. J. Fisher; B. J. Tester

    2006-01-01

    Accurate prediction of ``buzz-saw'' noise in a turbofan inlet duct necessitates consideration of nonlinear acoustics, modelling a complete fan blade set, modelling an acoustic liner, and calculations at high frequencies. A recent series of papers has described new work concerning the application of one-dimensional propagation models to the prediction of buzz-saw noise. A numerical model, termed the frequency domain numerical

  13. “Buzz-saw” noise: A comparison of measurement with prediction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. McAlpine; M. J. Fisher; B. J. Tester

    2006-01-01

    Accurate prediction of “buzz-saw” noise in a turbofan inlet duct necessitates consideration of nonlinear acoustics, modelling a complete fan blade set, modelling an acoustic liner, and calculations at high frequencies. A recent series of papers has described new work concerning the application of one-dimensional propagation models to the prediction of buzz-saw noise. A numerical model, termed the frequency domain numerical

  14. Notes on SAW Tag Interrogation Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of interrogating a single SAW RFID tag with a known ID and known range in the presence of multiple interfering tags under the following assumptions: (1) The RF propagation environment is well approximated as a simple delay channel with geometric power-decay constant alpha >/= 2. (2) The interfering tag IDs are unknown but well approximated as independent, identically distributed random samples from a probability distribution of tag ID waveforms with known second-order properties, and the tag of interest is drawn independently from the same distribution. (3) The ranges of the interfering tags are unknown but well approximated as independent, identically distributed realizations of a random variable rho with a known probability distribution f(sub rho) , and the tag ranges are independent of the tag ID waveforms. In particular, we model the tag waveforms as random impulse responses from a wide-sense-stationary, uncorrelated-scattering (WSSUS) fading channel with known bandwidth and scattering function. A brief discussion of the properties of such channels and the notation used to describe them in this document is given in the Appendix. Under these assumptions, we derive the expression for the output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for an arbitrary combination of transmitted interrogation signal and linear receiver filter. Based on this expression, we derive the optimal interrogator configuration (i.e., transmitted signal/receiver filter combination) in the two extreme noise/interference regimes, i.e., noise-limited and interference-limited, under the additional assumption that the coherence bandwidth of the tags is much smaller than the total tag bandwidth. Finally, we evaluate the performance of both optimal interrogators over a broad range of operating scenarios using both numerical simulation based on the assumed model and Monte Carlo simulation based on a small sample of measured tag waveforms. The performance evaluation results not only provide guidelines for proper interrogator design, but also provide some insight on the validity of the assumed signal model. It should be noted that the assumption that the impulse response of the tag of interest is known precisely implies that the temperature and range of the tag are also known precisely, which is generally not the case in practice. However, analyzing interrogator performance under this simplifying assumption is much more straightforward and still provides a great deal of insight into the nature of the problem.

  15. A versatile SAW-based sensor system for investigating gas-sensitive coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Falconer

    1995-01-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) technology is an extremely versatile technique for the development of gas sensors because of the SAW device's sensitivity to a wide variety of material properties that can change with gas concentration. In the present work, a SAW sensor oscillator is described, which allows both of the important SAW properties, velocity and attenuation, to be easily measured.

  16. A possible case of saw palmetto-induced pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Wargo, Kurt A; Allman, Elena; Ibrahim, Farrah

    2010-07-01

    A 65-year-old male with a history of diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, gout, Barrett esophagitis, and chronic gastritis developed acute pancreatitis after taking one week of the herbal medicine, saw palmetto, for symptoms related to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Ultrasound and computed tomography ruled out cholelithiasis and obstruction, triglycerides were normal, and he had no recent infection or trauma. He had a history of occasional alcohol consumption, though there was no recent increased intake. The most likely cause of pancreatitis in this case was saw palmetto. Saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) is an herbal medication used primarily in the treatment of symptoms related to BPH. It has a high content of fatty acids and phytosterols which are thought to exert their effects by inhibiting the enzyme 5-alpha-reductase, thereby preventing the conversion of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone (DHT). It has been postulated that saw palmetto directly stimulates estrogenic receptors and inhibits progesterone receptors in the prostate tissue. A previous report implicated the estrogen/antiandrogen properties of saw palmetto as inducing hepatotoxicity in a patient. Additionally, it has also been postulated that stimulation of the estrogenic receptors may lead to increased triglyceride levels or induction of a hypercoagulable state that leads to pancreatic necrosis. Finally, inhibition of cyclooxygenase, a property of saw palmetto, may be linked to acute pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis, a serious and sometimes fatal disorder may occur secondary to medications. Although the mechanism is not fully known, this is the second case of acute pancreatitis that has been documented secondary to the herbal medication saw palmetto. It is important for clinicians to obtain detailed medication histories, including over-the-counter and herbal medications, in order to prevent further complications from occurring. PMID:20531057

  17. A DETAILED SAFETY ASSESSMENT OF A SAW PALMETTO EXTRACT

    PubMed Central

    Avins, Andrew L.; Bent, Stephen; Staccone, Suzanne; Badua, Evelyn; Padula, Amy; Goldberg, Harley; Neuhaus, John; Hudes, Esther; Shinohara, Katusto; Kane, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Background Saw palmetto is commonly used by men for lower urinary tract symptoms. Despite its widespread use, very little is known about the potential toxicity of this dietary supplement. Methods The Saw palmetto for Treatment of Enlarged Prostates (STEP) study was a randomized clinical trial performed among 225 men with moderate-to-severe symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia, comparing a standardized extract of the saw palmetto berry (160mg twice daily) with a placebo over a one-year period. As part of this study, detailed data were collected on serious and non-serious adverse events, sexual functioning, and laboratory tests of blood and urine. Between-group differences were assessed with mixed-effects regression models. Results There were no significant differences observed between the saw palmetto and placebo-allocated participants in the risk of suffering at least one serious adverse event (5.4% vs. 9.7%, respectively; p = 0.31) or non-serious symptomatic adverse event (34.8% vs. 30.1%; p = 0.48). There were few significant between-group differences in sexual functioning or for most laboratory analyses, with only small differences observed in changes over time in total bilirubin (p = 0.001), potassium (p = 0.03), and the incidence of glycosuria (0% in the saw palmetto group vs. 3.7% in the placebo group, p = 0.05). Conclusions Despite careful assessment, no evidence for serious toxicity of saw palmetto was observed in this clinical trial. Given the sample size and length of this study, however, these data do not rule out potential rare adverse effects associated with the use of saw palmetto. PMID:18534327

  18. Ergonomic evaluation of the wood cutting task using chain saw.

    PubMed

    Raghav, Gaurav; Farooq, Mohd; Khan, Abid Ali; Muzammil, Mohammad

    2013-10-01

    Workers whose hands are regularly exposed to hand-arm vibration may suffer from damage to the tissues of the hands and arms, which cause the symptoms collectively known as hand-arm vibration syndrome. However, investigations have shown that vibration hazards can be controlled and risks might be reduced by good design of the task/tools. In the present study, an experiment was conducted for the evaluation of risk in operating chain saw. The evaluation of chain saw ergonomically performed based on four parameters--Discomfort level, EMG activity of seven different forearm muscles (ECRB, ECU, EPB, FCR, FDS, FCU and PT), angular deviation in hand-arm system and the vibration transfer to hand-arm system, while operating the chain saw on a wooden block. Ten male candidates participated for the discomfort level experiment, four participants volunteered for the EMG activity and angular deviation experiment and two participants were involved in vibration transfer recordings. The results showed that ECRB muscle was mostly affected muscle in this task of operating a chain saw. The findings also indicated that the problems were occurred due to the bad design of the rear handle of chain saw in association with the available vibration levels on hand arm system. PMID:25906596

  19. C-SAW: Consortium for Scientific Assistance to Watersheds

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    "The goal for C-SAW is to transfer knowledge and skills to watershed groups or local sponsors thereby helping to build their capacity to plan and conduct watershed assessments, and conduct post-implementation monitoring." Users can learn about the technical assistance provided by C-SAW, including watershed specific assistance, mentoring, and water quality education available to eligible groups in the state of Pennsylvania. Visitors can find the necessary materials to apply for this opportunity. The website also offers links to the program's many partners and other watershed resources and assistance.

  20. Reflection and scattering characteristics of reflectors in SAW tags.

    PubMed

    Han, Tao; Wang, Weibiao; Wu, Haodong; Shui, Yongan

    2008-01-01

    As a foundation of an optimal design for SAW tags,the reflection, scattering, and transmission of the reflector composed of a few electrodes are discussed. A source regeneration method based on Green's function and the finite element method/boundary element method is used to obtain the reflection coefficient and the scattering coefficient for the short-circuited and open circuit reflectors. Examples are presented to show how one can use structure variance to satisfy the requirements for SAW tag design according to the reflection and scattering characteristics. PMID:18599427

  1. A surface acoustic wave /SAW/ charge transfer imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papanicolauo, N. A.; Lin, H. C.

    1981-01-01

    An 80 MHz, 2-microsecond surface acoustic wave charge transfer device (SAW-CTD) has been fabricated in which surface acoustic waves are used to create traveling longitudinal electric fields in the silicon substrate and to replace the multiphase clocks of charge coupled devices. The traveling electric fields create potential wells which will carry along charges that may be stored in the wells; the charges may be injected into the wells by light. An optical application is proposed where the SAW-CTD structure is used in place of a conventional interline transfer design.

  2. Application of RCM for a chipping and sawing mill

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stanley Fore; Thabani Mudavanhu

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This research is focused on the application of reliability-centred maintenance (RCM) in a chipping and sawmill company. The aim of the study was to illustrate the application of RCM in a chipping and sawing mill. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – RCM is a structured process, which develops or optimises maintenance requirements of a physical resource in its operating context in order

  3. Orthogonal Frequency Coded SAW Sensors for Aerospace SHM Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. C. Wilson; D. C. Malocha; N. Kozlovski; D. R. Gallagher; B. Fisher; J. Pavlina; N. Saldanha; D. Puccio; G. M. Atkinson

    2009-01-01

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) aeronautical programs require structural health monitoring (SHM) to ensure the safety of the crew and the vehicles. Future SHM sensors need to be small, lightweight, inexpensive, and wireless. Orthogonal frequency coded (OFC) surface acoustic wave (SAW) reflectors and transducers have been recently introduced for use in communication, as well as in sensor and radio-frequency

  4. A general Green function analysis for SAW devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Peach

    1995-01-01

    Methods for calculating Green functions that can fully characterize the properties of a SAW substrate with respect to both mechanical and electrical excitation are described. The Green function is initially represented as a 4×4 matrix of functions in k (wavenumber) space; it describes the three surface displacement components and the electrical potential in terms of the three surface stress components

  5. Hepatotoxicity potential of Saw Palmetto ( Serenoa repens) in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. N. Singh; A. K. Devkota; D. C. Sneeden; K. K. Singh; F. Halaweish

    2007-01-01

    Saw palmetto (Serenoa repens L.) is an herbal drug used to treat symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). There has been a report that a preparation containing this herb has caused cholestatic hepatitis in one person and some indications exist that it may have the potential to produce liver toxicity. The purpose of this

  6. Dual SAW sensor technique for determining mass and modulus changes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan L. Hietala; Vincent M. Hietala; C. J. Brinker

    2001-01-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors, which are sensitive to a variety of surface changes, have been widely used for chemical and physical sensing. The ability to control or compensate for the many surface forces has been instrumental in collecting valid data. In cases in which it is not possible to neglect certain effects, such as frequency drift with temperature, methods

  7. General view of outside diameter welding stations of the saw ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of outside diameter welding stations of the saw line in bay 8 of the main pipe mill building looking northwest. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Main Pipe Mill Building, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

  8. A time domain diffraction analysis for SAW transducers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Knapp; D. C. Malocha

    1993-01-01

    A time domain diffraction analysis for surface acoustic wave (SAW) transducers was previously developed based on Huygen's principle. The analysis was performed using an approximation to the scalar two dimensional impulse response of an ideal point source which allowed for fast computation of diffraction effects in the time domain. Because the diffraction analysis was performed in the time domain a

  9. A reflective array structure using STW to SAW conversion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. RPINNEKLEIV; H. E. Engan; N. K. Elnegaard

    1992-01-01

    Experiments with a structure consisting of two nondispersive arrays of reflecting grooves on ST-cut quartz are reported. In this folded structure, surface transverse waves (STWs) propagating orthogonally to the crystal X-axis are converted into surface acoustic waves (SAWs) in the first array by a 90° reflection. The STWs are confined to the surface by mechanical loading of a thin aluminum

  10. Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) Resonators for Monitoring Conditioning Film Formation

    PubMed Central

    Hohmann, Siegfried; Kögel, Svea; Brunner, Yvonne; Schmieg, Barbara; Ewald, Christina; Kirschhöfer, Frank; Brenner-Weiß, Gerald; Länge, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    We propose surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators as a complementary tool for conditioning film monitoring. Conditioning films are formed by adsorption of inorganic and organic substances on a substrate the moment this substrate comes into contact with a liquid phase. In the case of implant insertion, for instance, initial protein adsorption is required to start wound healing, but it will also trigger immune reactions leading to inflammatory responses. The control of the initial protein adsorption would allow to promote the healing process and to suppress adverse immune reactions. Methods to investigate these adsorption processes are available, but it remains difficult to translate measurement results into actual protein binding events. Biosensor transducers allow user-friendly investigation of protein adsorption on different surfaces. The combination of several transduction principles leads to complementary results, allowing a more comprehensive characterization of the adsorbing layer. We introduce SAW resonators as a novel complementary tool for time-resolved conditioning film monitoring. SAW resonators were coated with polymers. The adsorption of the plasma proteins human serum albumin (HSA) and fibrinogen onto the polymer-coated surfaces were monitored. Frequency results were compared with quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor measurements, which confirmed the suitability of the SAW resonators for this application. PMID:26007735

  11. 28. MODIFIED CHAIN SAW FOR CUTTING ROCK CORES; BRUNTON COMPASS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. MODIFIED CHAIN SAW FOR CUTTING ROCK CORES; BRUNTON COMPASS STAND FOR DETERMINING CORE'S FIELD ORIENTATION; INSECTICIDE DISPENSER MODIFIED TO LUBRICATE CORE DRILLING PROCESS. - U.S. Geological Survey, Rock Magnetics Laboratory, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, San Mateo County, CA

  12. Fiber properties of saw and roller ginned naturally colored cottons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Naturally colored cottons have economic and environmental appeal because they do not require dyeing, but their fibers are not as long as white cottons. To determine the best ginning process two Upland (/G. hirsutim/) colors were roller and saw ginned following a complete block experimental design. ...

  13. 76 FR 75504 - Table Saw Blade Contact Injuries; Notice of Extension of Time for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ...CPSC-2011-0074] Table Saw Blade Contact Injuries; Notice of Extension of Time...injury associated with table saw blade contact, regulatory alternatives, other possible...including any personal identifiers, contact information, or other personal...

  14. 77 FR 8751 - Table Saw Blade Contact Injuries; Reopening of the Comment Period

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ...CPSC-2011-0074] Table Saw Blade Contact Injuries; Reopening of the Comment Period...injury associated with table saw blade contact, regulatory alternatives, other possible...including any personal identifiers, contact information, or other personal...

  15. Deposition of Ti–C–N coatings onto large-diameter tip saws

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Tamura; T Tokunaga

    1998-01-01

    Some steel pipes can be smoothly cut by using a saw with a tip of diameter of over 0.5 m. But martensite stainless steel is hardly cut by a standard-tip saw because of its hardness. Ti–C–N hard coatings were applied to a tip saw and the cutting performance of the coated tip saw was characterized. For many years hard coatings

  16. Hydrogen-Bond Basic Siloxane Phosphonate Polymers for Surface Acoustic Wave (Saw) Sensors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor coated with a novel hydrogen-bond basic siloxane phosphonate SAW polymer gave excellent initial response and long-term performance when tested against phenol vapor and compared with polyethyleneimine (PEI), a conventional hydrogent-bond basic SAW polymer....

  17. Saw IF Filter on LITaO3 for Color TV Receivers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sadao Takahashi; Hitoshi Hirano; Toshikazu Kodama; Fumio Miyashiro; Bunzo Suzuki; Akira Onoe; Tatsuya Adachi; Koichi Fujinuma

    1978-01-01

    More than eight years have passed since DeVries et al. reported the first attempt at installing SAW (Surface Acoustic Wave) filters in a TV set(1). In Japan, SAW IF filter development has been continued by several companies and TV receivers incorporating SAW filter have been placed on the market since 1977.

  18. Passive hybrid sensing tag with flexible substrate saw device

    DOEpatents

    Skinner, Jack L.; Chu, Eric Y.; Ho, Harvey

    2012-12-25

    The integration of surface acoustic wave (SAW) filters, microfabricated transmission lines, and sensors onto polymer substrates in order to enable a passive wireless sensor platform is described herein. Incident microwave pulses on an integrated antenna are converted to an acoustic wave via a SAW filter and transmitted to an impedance based sensor, which for this work is a photodiode. Changes in the sensor state induce a corresponding change in the impedance of the sensor resulting in a reflectance profile. Data collected at a calibrated receiver is used to infer the state of the sensor. Based on this principal, light levels were passively and wirelessly demonstrated to be sensed at distances of up to about 12 feet.

  19. Saw palmetto extract induces nuclear heterogeneity in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wachareeporn Trinachartvanit; Bettina M. Francis

    2009-01-01

    Saw palmetto (SW), a phytotherapeutic compound used in the treatment of prostate disease, was examined for potential nuclear effects. SW extract was incorporated into a complete casein-based semisynthetic rodent chow at 0%, 0.1% and 1% SW. SW was fed to mice for 6 weeks, after which the mice received a single i\\/p injection of either the known genotoxic agent methyl

  20. Experimental studies of SAW and STW acceleration sensitivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Huynh; R. McGowan; J. A. Kosinski; J. T. Stewart; R. Pierkarz; C. D. Mulford

    1995-01-01

    Comparative studies of the normal acceleration sensitivities of 360 MHz SAW and STW two-port resonators have been performed. The resonators were fabricated on the same ST-cut wafer to insure the clearest comparison. The results show that the normal acceleration sensitivities of both types of devices can easily be improved one order magnitude by selecting the appropriate aspect-ratio of the device

  1. Leptogenesis in unified theories with Type II see-saw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antusch, Stefan; King, Steve F.

    2006-01-01

    In some classes of flavour models based on unified theories with a type I see-saw mechanism, the prediction for the mass of the lightest right-handed neutrino is in conflict with the lower bound from the requirement of successful thermal leptogenesis. We investigate how lifting the absolute neutrino mass scale by adding a type II see-saw contribution proportional to the unit matrix can solve this problem. Generically, lifting the neutrino mass scale increases the prediction for the mass of the lightest right-handed neutrino while the decay asymmetry is enhanced and washout effects are reduced, relaxing the lower bound on the mass of the lightest right-handed neutrino from thermal leptogenesis. For instance in classes of unified theories where the lightest right-handed neutrino dominates the type I see-saw contribution, we find that thermal leptogenesis becomes possible if the neutrino mass scale is larger than about 0.15 eV, making this scenario testable by neutrinoless double beta decay experiments in the near future.

  2. Characterization of graphene oxide nanofilms obtained by the SAW atomization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachova, O. V.; Balashov, S. M.; Kubota, L. T.; Timm, R. A.; Nascimento, P. H.; Pavani Filho, A.; Moshkalev, S.

    2015-03-01

    Due to its ability to absorb water molecules, graphene oxide (GO) is considered a promising material for sensitive coatings in fast surface acoustic wave (SAW) humidity sensors. In this work, we characterize GO films obtained by the SAW atomization technique. It is shown that the atomized submicroliter droplets of aqueous suspension of GO can be deposited onto the surface of Si, LiNbO3 or quartz substrates forming discrete or continuous films of nanometer thickness. The deposited films were examined using AFM and electron microscopy. We discuss the dependence of thickness and structure of the obtained GO films on the parameters of deposition: the number of atomized droplets, a volume of the initial droplet, a distance between the atomizer and the sample, etc. To evaluate the adsorption characteristics of the obtained GO films, we used them as sensitive coatings of the SAW humidity sensors. We found that the adsorption characteristics of the GO films are determined by fast adsorption on the surface of GO sheets and slow adsorption, attributed to limited penetration of water molecules between the sheets, and depend on the number of deposited layers.

  3. 1st Order Modeling of a SAW Delay Line using MathCAD(Registered)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William C.; Atkinson, Gary M.

    2007-01-01

    To aid in the development of SAW sensors for Integrated Vehicle Health Monitoring applications, a first order model of a SAW Delay line has been created using MathCadA. The model implements the Impulse Response method to calculate the frequency response, impedance, and insertion loss. This paper presents the model and the results from the model for a SAW delay line design. Integrated Vehicle Health Monitoring (IVHM) of aerospace vehicles requires rugged sensors having reduced volume, mass, and power that can be used to measure a variety of phenomena. Wireless systems are preferred when retro-fitting sensors onto existing vehicles [1]. Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) devices are capable of sensing: temperature, pressure, strain, chemical species, mass loading, acceleration, and shear stress. SAW technology is low cost, rugged, lightweight, and extremely low power. Passive wireless sensors have been developed using SAW technology. For these reasons new SAW sensors are being investigated for aerospace applications.

  4. Congenital Achiasma and See-Saw Nystagmus in VACTERL Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Saurabh; Dumoulin, Serge; Fischbein, Nancy; Wandell, Brian A.; Liao, Yaping Joyce

    2013-01-01

    A 29-year-old man with vertebral defects, anal atresia, cardiac defects, tracheoesophageal fistula, renal defects, and limb defects (VACTERL) presented with headache, photophobia, and worsening nystagmus. He had near-normal visual acuity and visual fields, absent stereopsis, and see-saw nystagmus. Brain MRI revealed a thin remnant of the optic chiasm but normal-sized optic nerves. Functional MRI during monocular visual stimulation demonstrated non-crossing of the visual evoked responses in the occipital cortex, confirming achiasma. These findings have not previously been reported in VACTERL. PMID:20182207

  5. Impact of micromechanical parameters on wire sawing: a 3D discrete element analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassauer, B.; Kuna, M.

    2015-04-01

    Wire sawing is one of the most prominent technologies for producing solar wafers. In the following paper a numerical model for the simulation of the wire sawing process at microlevel using the discrete element method is presented. The abrasive particles are represented by convex polyhedra. Based on the contact forces on the ingot, local material removal rates are calculated. These local material removal rates are then used to update the shape of the ingot in a stepwise simulation. The model allows for detailed analysis of the influence of different parameters on the micromechanical processes during wire sawing. In particular the influence of wire speed, lapping pressure, particle concentration, particle size, particle shape and debris on the sawing process is investigated. In a post-processing macroscopic process characteristics like kerf width, depth of surface cracks or sawing rate are calculated. Thus, the processes at the microlevel are related to the macroscopic process characteristics, which are of interest when applying wire sawing in practice.

  6. A Passive Wireless Multi-Sensor SAW Technology Device and System Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Malocha, Donald C.; Gallagher, Mark; Fisher, Brian; Humphries, James; Gallagher, Daniel; Kozlovski, Nikolai

    2013-01-01

    This paper will discuss a SAW passive, wireless multi-sensor system under development by our group for the past several years. The device focus is on orthogonal frequency coded (OFC) SAW sensors, which use both frequency diversity and pulse position reflectors to encode the device ID and will be briefly contrasted to other embodiments. A synchronous correlator transceiver is used for the hardware and post processing and correlation techniques of the received signal to extract the sensor information will be presented. Critical device and system parameters addressed include encoding, operational range, SAW device parameters, post-processing, and antenna-SAW device integration. A fully developed 915 MHz OFC SAW multi-sensor system is used to show experimental results. The system is based on a software radio approach that provides great flexibility for future enhancements and diverse sensor applications. Several different sensor types using the OFC SAW platform are shown. PMID:23666124

  7. Modelling Sawing of Metal Tubes Through FEM Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Bort, C. M. Giorgio; Bosetti, P.; Bruschi, S. [Department of Mechanical and Structural Engineering, University of Trento, via Mesiano 77, 38123 Trento (Italy)

    2011-05-04

    The paper presents the development of a numerical model of the sawing process of AISI 304 thin tubes, which is cut through a circular blade with alternating roughing and finishing teeth. The numerical simulation environment is the three-dimensional FEM software Deform v.10.1. The teeth actual trajectories were determined by a blade kinematics analysis developed in Matlab. Due to the manufacturing rolling steps and subsequent welding stage, the tube material is characterized by a gradient of properties along its thickness. Consequently, a simplified cutting test was set up and carried out in order to identify the values of relevant material parameters to be used in the numerical model. The dedicated test was the Orthogonal Tube Cutting test (OTC), which was performed on an instrumented lathe. The proposed numerical model was validated by comparing numerical results and experimental data obtained from sawing tests carried out on an industrial machine. The following outputs were compared: the cutting force, the chip thickness, and the chip contact area.

  8. Modelling Sawing of Metal Tubes Through FEM Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bort, C. M. Giorgio; Bosetti, P.; Bruschi, S.

    2011-05-01

    The paper presents the development of a numerical model of the sawing process of AISI 304 thin tubes, which is cut through a circular blade with alternating roughing and finishing teeth. The numerical simulation environment is the three-dimensional FEM software Deform™ v.10.1. The teeth actual trajectories were determined by a blade kinematics analysis developed in Matlab™. Due to the manufacturing rolling steps and subsequent welding stage, the tube material is characterized by a gradient of properties along its thickness. Consequently, a simplified cutting test was set up and carried out in order to identify the values of relevant material parameters to be used in the numerical model. The dedicated test was the Orthogonal Tube Cutting test (OTC), which was performed on an instrumented lathe. The proposed numerical model was validated by comparing numerical results and experimental data obtained from sawing tests carried out on an industrial machine. The following outputs were compared: the cutting force, the chip thickness, and the chip contact area.

  9. Side radiation of Rayleigh waves from synchronous SAW resonators.

    PubMed

    Holmgren, Olli; Makkonen, Tapani; Knuuttila, Jouni V; Kalo, Mikko; Plessky, Victor P; Steichen, William

    2007-04-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators on lithium tantalate (LiTaO3) and lithium niobate (LiNbO3) are investigated. The amplitude of the acoustic fields in the resonators are measured using a scanning laser interferometer. The amplitude profiles of the surface vibrations reveal the presence of distinct acoustic beams radiated from the transducer region of the SAW resonators and propagating with low attenuation. We suggest that this radiation is generated by the charges accumulating at the tips of the finger electrodes. The periodic system of sources, namely oscillating charges at the fingertips, generates Rayleigh-wave beams in the perpendicular and oblique directions. Green's function theory is used to calculate the coupling strength and slowness of the Rayleigh waves on 42 degrees Y-cut LiTaO3 and Y-cut LiNbO3 substrates as a function of the propagation direction. Furthermore, the propagation angles of the Rayleigh-wave beams as a function of frequency are calculated. The computed angles are compared with the measured ones for both the LiTaO3 and LiNbO3 substrates. PMID:17441596

  10. ``Buzz-saw'' noise: A comparison of modal measurements with an improved prediction method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. McAlpine; M. J. Fisher; B. J. Tester

    2007-01-01

    ``Buzz-saw'' noise is radiated from a turbofan inlet duct when the fan tip speed is supersonic. In a recent article the effect of an acoustic liner on buzz-saw noise has been examined. Spectral measurements in a rigid and an acoustically lined inlet duct have been compared. Also these measurements have been utilized to assess a buzz-saw noise prediction method. The

  11. “Buzz-saw” noise: A comparison of modal measurements with an improved prediction method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. McAlpine; M. J. Fisher; B. J. Tester

    2007-01-01

    “Buzz-saw” noise is radiated from a turbofan inlet duct when the fan tip speed is supersonic. In a recent article the effect of an acoustic liner on buzz-saw noise has been examined. Spectral measurements in a rigid and an acoustically lined inlet duct have been compared. Also these measurements have been utilized to assess a buzz-saw noise prediction method. The

  12. High temperature LGS SAW devices with Pt\\/WO3 and Pd sensing films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Thiele; M. Pereira da Cunha

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports on the fabrication of high temperature LGS SAW devices to be used as gas sensors. SAW resonators and delay lines have been designed, fabricated, and tested up to 750°C. An additional 7dB loss in the transmission coefficient, |S21|, of the two port 167 MHz SAW resonators tested has been observed for operation at 750°C with respect to

  13. Simulation of wireless passive SAW sensors based on FEM\\/BEM model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiuyun Fu; Wei Luo; Yi Wang; Jianling Wang; Dongxiang Zhou

    2008-01-01

    Research on the wireless passive surface acoustic wave (SAW) impedance-loaded sensors has received significant attention in recent years. This paper concentrates on the simulation method of these sensors. In our previous work, the coupling-of-modes (COM) model of impedance-loaded SAW sensors was constructed based on the models of SAW IDT. The accuracy of this model depends on the accuracy of their

  14. An Improved Performance Frequency Estimation Algorithm for Passive Wireless SAW Resonant Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Boquan; Zhang, Chenrui; Ji, Xiaojun; Chen, Jing; Han, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Passive wireless surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonant sensors are suitable for applications in harsh environments. The traditional SAW resonant sensor system requires, however, Fourier transformation (FT) which has a resolution restriction and decreases the accuracy. In order to improve the accuracy and resolution of the measurement, the singular value decomposition (SVD)-based frequency estimation algorithm is applied for wireless SAW resonant sensor responses, which is a combination of a single tone undamped and damped sinusoid signal with the same frequency. Compared with the FT algorithm, the accuracy and the resolution of the method used in the self-developed wireless SAW resonant sensor system are validated. PMID:25429410

  15. Corrosion inhibitors for water-base slurry in multiblade sawing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. P.; Odonnell, T. P.

    1982-01-01

    The use of a water-base slurry instead of the standard PC oil vehicle was proposed for multiblade sawing (MBS) silicon wafering technology. Potential cost savings were considerable; however, significant failures of high-carbon steel blades were observed in limited tests using a water-based slurry during silicon wafering. Failures were attributed to stress corrosion. A specially designed fatigue test of 1095 steel blades in distilled water with various corrosion inhibitor solutions was used to determine the feasibility of using corrosion inhibitors in water-base MBS wafering. Fatigue tests indicate that several corrosion inhibitors have significant potential for use in a water-base MBS operation. Blade samples tested in these specific corrosion-inhibitor solutions exhibited considerably greater lifetime than those blades tested in PC oil.

  16. Testing the See-Saw Mechanism at Collider Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, S. F.; Yanagida, T.

    2005-11-01

    We propose a low energy extension of the Standard Model consisting of an additional gauged U(1)B-L plus three right-handed neutrinos. Although the lightest right-handed neutrinos have TeV scale masses and may be produced at colliders via their couplings to the ZB-L gauge boson, constraints from the out-of-equilibrium condition lead to stringent upper bounds on the right-handed neutrino production cross-sections at colliders. However we find that the mass of the ZB-L gauge boson may be sufficiently light to be discovered at collider energies, providing an indirect test of the see-saw mechanism. We propose a brane-world scenario which motivates such TeV mass right-handed neutrinos. Our analysis opens up the possibility that the mechanism responsible for neutrino mass is testable at colliders such as the LHC or VLHC.

  17. Finite Element Modelling of the Sawing of DC Cast AA2024 Aluminium Alloy Slabs

    SciTech Connect

    Drezet, J.-M. [Computational Materials Laboratory, School of Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Station 12, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Ludwig, O. [Calcom-ESI SA, PSE-A, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Heinrich, B. [Alcan Aluminium Valais SA, CH3960 Sierre (Switzerland)

    2007-04-07

    In the semi-continuous casting of large cross-section rolling sheet ingots of high-strength aluminum alloys (2xxx and 7xxx series), the control of the residual (internal) stresses generated by the non-uniform cooling becomes a necessity. These stresses must be relieved by a thermal treatment before the head and foot of the ingot can be cut. Otherwise, the saw can be caught owing to compressive stresses or cut parts may be ejected thus injuring people or damaging equipment. These high added-value ingots need to be produced in secure conditions. Moreover, a better control of the sawing procedure could allow the suppression of the thermal treatment and therefore save time and energy. By studying the stress build-up during casting and the stress relief during sawing, key parameters for the control and optimization of the processing steps, can be derived. To do so, the direct chill (DC) casting of the AA2024 alloy is modeled with ABAQUS 6.5 with special attention to the thermo-mechanical properties of the alloy. The sawing operation is then simulated by removing mesh elements so as to reproduce the progression of the saw in the ingot. Preliminary results showing the stress relief during sawing accompanied by the risk of saw blocking due to compression or initiating a crack ahead of the saw, are analyzed with an approach based on the rate of strain energy release.

  18. Differential phase shift keying direct sequence spread spectrum single SAW based correlator receiver.

    PubMed

    Moeller, F; Belkerdid, M A; Malocha, D C; Buff, W

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the design and measurement of a SAW device to be used in a correlator receiver for a differential phase shift keying direct sequence spread spectrum (DPSK/DSSS) system. The DPSK modulation format allows noncoherent data demodulation while the SAW device correlator acts as the despreading operator. In a conventional DPSK receiver, the received signal is normally split into a lower and upper path. One of the paths contains a correlator, and the other path contains a one data bit delay element and another correlator. The outputs of both paths are then fed to a noncoherent data demodulator. The device presented in this paper combines both the delay element and the two correlators in a single SAW device; therefore, a better temperature tracking mechanism, simplicity, as well as the elimination of the broadband SAW delay line are achieved. The SAW structure contains a broadband SAW transducer, and two serially coded pseudo noise (PN) DPSK filters. The SAW based correlator was built on lithium tantalate. The center frequency was set to 150 MHz, with a 63 chip PN spreading code and a data rate of 300 Kbps. Experimental measurements of the SAW device autocorrelation results are presented. PMID:18244204

  19. New Color TV Receiver With Composite SAW IF Filter Separating the Sound and Picture Signals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Yamada; M. Uematsu

    1982-01-01

    Numerous researches and developments of Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) TV IF filter have been performed for cost reduction and improvement of reliability of TV circuit. Under these circumstances we reported in 1978 that we had established the design and the fabrication techniques of the SAW IF filter-low noise amplifier system in massproduction size, and put it into the market. This

  20. Effects of burning season and frequency on saw palmetto ( Serenoa repens) flowering and fruiting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary E. Carrington; J. Jeffrey Mullahey

    2006-01-01

    Medicinal use of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) fruits in treating benign prostatic hypertrophy has driven a recent sharp increase in fruit harvesting. At the same time, saw palmetto often is considered a keystone species, serving as habitat or a food source for several hundred mammal, bird, reptile, amphibian and insect species. Due to harvesting pressure on this ecologically important, non-cultivated

  1. THE IMPACT OF SAW DAMAGE ETCHING ON MICROCRACKS IN SOLAR CELL PRODUCTION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hanna Larsson; Jörgen Gustafsson; Hans Jørgen Solheim; Tobias Boström

    Multi-crystalline silicon wafers with micro cracks have been analyzed in a micro crack detection system before and after alkaline and acidic saw damage etching. In addition, a test was performed where saw damage etched wafers with micro cracks were exposed to repeated mechanical stress in a twist test setup. It was found that the length of micro cracks does not

  2. GHz SAW and STW Bandpass Filters Without Submicron Geometries Using Harmonic Group Type Unidirectional Transducers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Hiigli

    1987-01-01

    Most SAW filters for freqJencies abo:7e 1 GHz are made witn submicron electrodes. To reduce photolithographic difficulties in this frequency range, SAW filters can be operated at higher spatial harmonics. But up to now most harlnonic filters have high insertion loss, multiple passbands or bad shape factors. To improve insertion loss, in this approach a group type dnidirectional transducer (GTUDT)

  3. System-in-a-package integration of SAW RF Rx filter stacked on a transceiver chip

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert E. Jones; Chandra Ramiah; T. Kamgaing; S. K. Banerjee; Chi-Taou Tsai; H. G. Hughes; A. P. De Silva; J. Drye; Li Li; W. Blood; Qiang Li; C. R. Vaughan; R. Miglore; D. Penunuri; R. Lucero; D. R. Frear; M. F. Miller

    2005-01-01

    Demands for mobile phones with smaller form factor and lower cost have driven enhanced integration of electronics components. However, surface acoustic wave (SAW) filters must be fabricated on piezoelectric substrates, and so they are difficult to monolithically integrate on semiconductor chips. This paper reports on a compact wafer-scale packaged SAW filter stacked over a transceiver chip in a quad flat-pack

  4. Supercritical extraction of herbs I: Saw Palmetto, St John's Wort, Kava Root, and Echinacea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. J Catchpole; N. B Perry; B. M. T da Silva; J. B Grey; B. M Smallfield

    2002-01-01

    Extract yield and concentration of selected active components are presented for the supercritical extraction of dried Saw Palmetto berries, St John's Wort flowers and stems, Kava root and stems, and aerial portions of Echinacea purpurea using supercritical CO2; and CO2+ethanol mixtures. Whole Saw Palmetto berries were obtained from America, and ground Kava root and stem from Fiji and Vanuatu. St

  5. Fabrication of polymer SAW sensor array to classify chemical warfare agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Byung-Su Joo; Jeung-Soo Huh; Duk-Dong Lee

    2007-01-01

    An array with five SAW sensors using different kinds of polymers was fabricated to detect chemical agents and their gas response characteristics were extensively investigated. The SAW devices with different interdigital transducer (IDT) electrode line widths of 3, 4, 6, 8 and 20?m, which corresponded to the central frequencies of 264, 198, 132, 99 and 39.6MHz, respectively, were designed. The

  6. Heat Generation During Ulnar Osteotomy with Microsagittal Saw Blades

    PubMed Central

    Firoozbakhsh, K; Moneim, MS; Mikola, E; Haltom, S

    2003-01-01

    Ulnar shortening osteotomy is a surgical treatment option for patients with symptomatic ulnar positive variance for a variety of reasons. Delayed healing and nonunion of the osteotomized sites have been reported and present problematic complications of this procedure. Studies have shown nonunion rate with transverse cuts ranging from 8-15%. The goal is to achieve parallel cuts, thus maximizing the contacting bony surface area for a better union rate. The senior surgeon attempted using a custom thick blade to insure parallel cuts. The concern is whether the heat generated during such a cut would contribute to non-union. It is our hypothesis that complications with ulnar shortening osteotomy using a thick blade are secondary to excess heat generation. When generated heat surpasses the threshold temperature of bone tissue, the organic matrix is irreversibly damaged and necrosis of the bony ends may occur. The present study measured the heat generation during ulnar osteotomy using different blade thicknesses. Thirty-five fresh turkey femurs, having similar size and cortical thickness of the human ulna, were used. Loading was done at three different speeds of 0.66, 1.0, and 1.5 mm/second corresponding respectively to 30, 20, and 10 seconds for the complete cut. A general linear statistical model was fitted relating temperature rise to three predictive factors: blade thickness, sensor distance, and initial bone temperature. There was a statistically significant relationship between temperature rise and all three predictor variables at the 99% confidence level. There was no statistically significant relationship between temperature rise and the number of cuts with the same blade up to 10 times. Compared with the single microsagital saw blade, the temperature rise for the double thickness blade was 14% higher and for the triple thickness blade was 23% higher. The temperature rise was inversely related to the speed of the cut. The temperature rise for the bone cut in 30 seconds was 1.5 times higher than the temperature rise when the bone was cut in 10 seconds. Complications with ulnar shortening osteotomy may be secondary to excess heat generation. A new thick saw blade design and the use of proper internal/external irrigation may overcome the problem. PMID:14575249

  7. Multi-Model Diagnosis Method for Lung Cancer based on MOS-SAW Breath Detecting e-Nose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yishan; Yu, Kai; Wang, Di; Zhao, Cong; Wang, Lin; Wang, Ping

    2011-09-01

    MOS-SAW breath detecting e-Nose combines the metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) sensors and the SAW sensor. We introduce a multi-model diagnosis method, which is used to process the signals of the MOS-SAW e-Nose, to establish the diagnosis models, and to detect unknown samples.

  8. Comparative ecology of the Flammulated Owl and Northern Saw-whet Owl during fall migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stock, S.L.; Heglund, P.J.; Kaltenecker, G.S.; Carlisle, J.D.; Leppert, L.

    2006-01-01

    We compared the migration ecology of two owl species that exhibit different migration strategies: the Flammulated Owl (Otus flammeolus) and the Northern Saw-whet Owl (Aegolius acadicus). During fall 1999-2004, we captured 117 Flammulated Owls and 1433 Northern Saw-whet Owls in the southern Boise Mountains of southwestern Idaho. These owl species exhibited contrasting seasonal timing and body condition. Flammulated Owl captures peaked in mid-September and Northern Saw-whet Owl captures peaked in early to mid-October. Flammulated Owls displayed greater body condition than Northern Saw-whet Owls and increasing condition scores during the season, whereas Northern Saw-whet Owls had no apparent seasonal condition patterns. Based on seasonal timing of captures, both species showed unimodal movement patterns characteristic of fall migrants. However, in 1999 both species' capture rates were at least double those in other years of this study. Flammulated Owls' earlier arrival and departure, coupled with superior body condition, were consistent among years and typical of a long-distance migration strategy. In contrast, the Northern Saw-whet Owls' later arrival, more lengthy passage, and variable body condition were more characteristic of a short-distance migrant strategy. Furthermore, Northern Saw-whet Owls' body condition was significantly lower during the irruptive year than during nonirruptive years, supporting the notion that population density affects their migratory condition. ?? 2006 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  9. Analysis and suppression of side radiation in leaky SAW resonators.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Shogo; Tsutsumi, Jun; Matsuda, Takashi; Ueda, Masanori; Ikata, Osamu; Satoh, Yoshio

    2007-08-01

    This paper discusses side acoustic radiation in leaky surface acoustic wave (LSAW) resonators on rotated Y-cut lithium tantalite substrates. The mechanism behind side radiation, which causes a large insertion loss, is analyzed by using the scalar potential theory. This analysis reveals that side radiation occurs when the guiding condition is not satisfied, and the LSAW most strongly radiates at the frequency in which the LSAW velocities in the grating and busbar regions approximately correspond to each other. Based on these results, we propose a "narrow finger structure," which satisfies the guiding condition and drastically suppresses the side radiation. Experiments show that the resonance Q of the proposed structure drastically improves to over 1000 by suppressing the side radiation, which is three times higher than for a conventional structure. Applying the proposed resonators to the ladder-type SAW filters, ultra-low-loss and steep cut-off characteristics are achieved in the range of 800 MHz and 1.9 GHz. PMID:17703674

  10. Method and apparatus for improved wire saw slurry

    DOEpatents

    Costantini, Michael A. (Hudson, NH); Talbott, Jonathan A. (Amherst, NH); Chandra, Mohan (Merrimack, NH); Prasad, Vishwanath (East Setauket, NY); Caster, Allison (Nashua, NH); Gupta, Kedar P. (Merrimack, NH); Leyvraz, Philippe (Nashua, NH)

    2000-09-05

    A slurry recycle process for use in free-abrasive machining operations such as for wire saws used in wafer slicing of ingots, where the used slurry is separated into kerf-rich and abrasive-rich components, and the abrasive-rich component is reconstituted into a makeup slurry. During the process, the average particle size of the makeup slurry is controlled by monitoring the condition of the kerf and abrasive components and making necessary adjustments to the separating force and dwell time of the separator apparatus. Related pre-separator and post separator treatments, and feedback of one or the other separator slurry output components for mixing with incoming used slurry and recirculation through the separator, provide further effectiveness and additional control points in the process. The kerf-rich component is eventually or continually removed; the abrasive-rich component is reconstituted into a makeup slurry with a controlled, average particle size such that the products of the free-abrasive machining method using the recycled slurry process of the invention are of consistent high quality with less TTV deviation from cycle to cycle for a prolonged period or series of machining operations.

  11. Saw palmetto extract induces nuclear heterogeneity in mice.

    PubMed

    Trinachartvanit, Wachareeporn; Francis, Bettina M; Rayburn, A Lane

    2009-01-01

    Saw palmetto (SW), a phytotherapeutic compound used in the treatment of prostate disease, was examined for potential nuclear effects. SW extract was incorporated into a complete casein-based semisynthetic rodent chow at 0%, 0.1% and 1% SW. SW was fed to mice for 6 weeks, after which the mice received a single i/p injection of either the known genotoxic agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) in saline or just saline. Forty-eight hours after injection, blood and bone marrow were collected for flow cytometric analysis. A significant effect of MMS was observed in both male and female mice with respect to: an increase in nuclear heterogeneity in bone marrow cells as measured by the coefficient of variation of the G1 peak in a flow histogram (6.32 versus 4.8 in male mice, 7.0 versus 4.9 in female mice) and an increase in the number of micronucleated blood cells (3.4% versus 0.56% male mice, 3.1% versus 0.6 in female mice) indicating a positive genotoxic response. SW also appears to increase the heterogeneity of bone marrow nuclei in a dose dependent manner (0-5.1%, 0.1-5.5% and 1-5.7% in male mice, 0-5.7%, 0.1-6.0% and 1-6.2% in female mice) without a concomitant increase in blood cell micronuclei. These results indicate that SW is not genotoxic with respect to physical DNA damage and that the changes observed in the bone marrow are due to chromatin conformation modifications in the nuclei of in vivo treated mouse cells. PMID:21783933

  12. Development of a Hydrogen Gas Sensor Using a Double Saw Resonator System at Room Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Yunusa, Zainab; Hamidon, Mohd Nizar; Ismail, Alyani; Isa, Maryam Mohd; Yaacob, Mohd Hanif; Rahmanian, Saeed; Ibrahim, Siti Azlida; Shabaneh, Arafat A.A

    2015-01-01

    A double SAW resonator system was developed as a novel method for gas sensing applications. The proposed system was investigated for hydrogen sensing. Commercial Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) resonators with resonance frequencies of 433.92 MHz and 433.42 MHz were employed in the double SAW resonator system configuration. The advantages of using this configuration include its ability for remote measurements, and insensitivity to vibrations and other external disturbances. The sensitive layer is composed of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes and polyaniline nanofibers which were deposited on pre-patterned platinum metal electrodes fabricated on a piezoelectric substrate. This was mounted into the DSAWR circuit and connected in parallel. The sensor response was measured as the difference between the resonance frequencies of the SAW resonators, which is a measure of the gas concentration. The sensor showed good response towards hydrogen with a minimum detection limit of 1%. PMID:25730480

  13. Slicing of single crystal and polycrystalline silicon ingots using multi-blade saws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    Optimization of the Multi-Blade Slurry wafering technique was evaluated. Several wafering runs were made. Sufficient data necessary for a complete cost analysis of each of the three types of saw utilized are provided.

  14. Reducing kickback of portable combustion chain saws and related injury risks: laboratory tests and deductions.

    PubMed

    D?browski, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Portable chain saws are still very dangerous machines. Reduced prices of these machines mean they are widely available to people who like DIY (do it yourself) and professionals. Kickback of chain saws is extremely dangerous for the operator. This paper discusses the results of laboratory investigations of combustion chain saws. The tests were conducted on a standardized kickback test stand and covered the course of kickback, its energy, angle and duration. The results showed that during the contact of a saw chain with wood, the first to appear was the process of wood cutting, which absorbed 90-95% of the reduced energy of the cutting system. The greater the absorbed energy, the smaller the kickback angle. Wood cutting work is particularly influenced by proper chain tension, the use of chains with anti-kickback links, guide bars with sliding endings and a quickly activated chain brake. PMID:22995138

  15. Noise source identification and control of a contractor grade table saw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleedorn, Kristin; McKee, Matthew; Yarbough, Dale; Yu, Chen; Zechmann, Edward L.; Mann, J. Adin

    2002-05-01

    Sponsored by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) as part of their initiative to explore noise reduction strategies for construction equipment, a team of engineering students at Iowa State University studied a contractor grade table saw. Based on standards, published work, and preliminary tests, a repeatable noise measurement procedure was developed for the table saw operation. The wood-feed rate and force were measured. With the saw operating in a standard and consistent manner, noise sources on the saw were identified using sound intensity measurement techniques and through the application of noise control strategies to individual sources. At this stage, noise control strategies, such as enclosing the motor, are effective for noise source identification but not practical. The effectiveness of both approaches to identifying the noise sources will be discussed. Based on rank ordering the contribution of each noise source to the overall sound levels, permanent noise control strategies are suggested.

  16. See What the Astronauts Saw Check out photographs of Apollo missions to the

    E-print Network

    See What the Astronauts Saw Check out photographs of Apollo missions to the Moon throughout the 1st rock within the wall near the bronze Moon model. It was retrieved by Apollo 15 astronauts. · What does

  17. DESIGN NOTE: A circular saw attachment for use in spark machining

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. E. N. Stone

    1987-01-01

    A circular saw attachment is described that can be fitted to a standard Metals Research spark machine. The device gives speedy deep cutting of metallic samples whilst retaining the advantages of spark erosion.

  18. Method for nondestructive testing of the film coating behavior of surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taslakov, M. A.; Avramov, I. D.

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents a practical non-destructive method for studying the film coating behavior of SAW devices by using a water soluble dielectric film (manitol) deposited on the SAW device surface by resistive evaporation. After measuring the electrical parameters of the film coated SAW device, the film can easily be removed from its surface by water rinsing without causing any damage to it. The SAW device can then be used over and over again in a large number of film depositions. The method was tested on a 1 GHz surface transverse wave (STW) resonator coated with manitol of varying thickness. After each coating and evaluation, the STW device was successfully recovered without significant performance degradation. Data is presented on the electrical changes of the STW device as a result of depositing manitol coatings of various thicknesses.

  19. Noise reduction of circular sawing machines, influence of tooth shape and number of teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, H.; Muenz, U. V.

    1982-03-01

    While cutting, circular sawing machines create a noise level of 97 to 106 dB(A). The tooth geometry and the dimensions of a silent saw are investigated as well as noise damping measurements on the machines. After alteration of tools and machines the noise level measurements were performed. By decrease of tooth height and number of teeth and by damping of machine parts, noise level reductions of about 10 dB(A) were achieved.

  20. Influence of packaging atmospheres on the durability of high-temperature SAW sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jochen Bardong; Gudrun Bruckner; Martin Kraft; R. Fachberger

    2009-01-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices are a technology of choice for passive, radio-interrogable sensor applications operating under extreme conditions. Suitably designed SAW devices can withstand e.g. temperatures exceeding 400°C. At high temperatures (HT), thermal energies reach values corresponding to the activation energies of reactions between gas components and the crystal's substrate elements and\\/or the metallisation elements, respectively. Thus, the atmosphere

  1. SAW propagation in the two domain states of ferroelectric LiNbO3 crystal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaroslav Nosek

    2004-01-01

    We propose a new geometry of ferroelectric LiNbO3 domain systems, which may be useful for SAW applications. Since two domain states of this material differ in elastic coefficients and in signs of piezoelectric constants, different domain geometry influencing the propagation of SAW can be considered. Here we wish to point out that even a simple system of two domains D1

  2. The effects of Saw palmetto on flumethrin-induced lipid peroxidation in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Murat Kanbur; Gökhan Eraslan; Zeynep Soyer Sarica; ?ule Altinordulu

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, 40 male Wistar albino rats were used and divided into 4 groups. The first group served as the control group; the second group was administered Saw palmetto extract at the dose of 20mg\\/kg\\/bw; the third group was administered flumethrin at the dose of 15mg\\/kg\\/bw; and the fourth group was administered a combination of 20mg\\/kg\\/bw Saw palmetto

  3. Growth and SAW properties of rare-earth calcium oxoborate crystals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Nakao; Masahiro Nishida; Takashi Shikida; Hiroyuki Shimizu; Hiroaki Takeda; Tadashi Shiosaki

    2006-01-01

    Rare-earth calcium oxoborate RCa4O(BO3)3 (R, rare-earth elements; RCOB) (R=Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Dy, Ho, Er) bulk single crystals were grown by the Czochralski technique. Their melting temperature increased with a decrement of a rare-earth ion radius in RCOB. Surface acoustic wave (SAW) and pseudo-SAW (PSAW) properties of the RCOB crystal were investigated. The electro mechanical coupling factors k2 values of

  4. AlN-on-Si SAW filters: influence of film thickness, IDT geometry and substrate conductivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Clement; L. Vergara; E. Iborra; A. Sanz-Hervas; J. Olivares; J. Sangrador

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the frequency response of surface acoustic wave (SAW) filters built on (00·2)-oriented AlN films deposited on silicon substrates. The experimental scattering parameters (Sij) of the filters were fitted using our own circuital model that takes into account the theoretical response of the ideal SAW along with all the external and internal parasitic effects. We discuss

  5. SAW velocities in X-cut LiTaO3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Anhorn; H. E. Engan

    1989-01-01

    SAW (surface acoustic wave) devices based on propagation in 112.2° Y-rotated X-cut LiTaO3 were investigated. The SAW propagation velocity in the entire X-surface was characterized by laser-probe measurements. Results obtained include velocities for free and shorted surfaces. The effect of metal loading on velocity has been measured. The results are given as trigonometric expansions with tabulated coefficients

  6. Historical storminess and climate ‘see-saws’ in the North Atlantic region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Dawson; L. Elliott; S. Noone; K. Hickey; T. Holt; P. Wadhams; I. Foster

    2004-01-01

    The existence of a well-defined climate ‘see-saw’ across the North Atlantic region and surrounding areas has been known for over 200 years. The occurrence of severe winters in western Greenland frequently coincides with mild winters in northern Europe. Conversely, mild winters in western Greenland are frequently associated with cold winters across northern Europe. Whereas this ‘see-saw’ is normally discussed in

  7. Direct sequence spread spectrum differential phase shift keying SAW correlator on GaAs.

    PubMed

    Moeller, F; Enderlein, J; Belkerdid, M A; Malocha, D C; Buff, W

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication, and experimental results for a differential phase shift keying (DPSK) single SAW-based correlator on GaAs for direct sequence spread spectrum applications. The DPSK modulation format allows for noncoherent data demodulation; the SAW device correlator acts as the despreader. Unlike the conventional technique of using two parallel correlators and a one data bit delay element, this new system uses two inline correlators. When implemented on SAW devices, this in-line structure has the advantage of an inherent one data bit delay, lower insertion loss, and less signal distortion than the parallel structure. The DPSK correlator is fabricated on a {100} cut GaAs substrate with SAW propagation in the 110 direction, Using this cut, which is widely used in electronics, Rayleigh waves are generated with a piezoelectric coupling coefficient of the same order as ST-cut quartz. The piezoelectric semiconductor GaAs is of great interest because it is the only substrate that can be used to integrate SAW devices directly with electronics on the same chip, resulting in smaller packaging, reduction of packaging parasitics, lower cost, and greater system integration. This paper presents experimental results for SAW in-line correlator structures on GaAs along with their despreading system performances. Experimental measurements in both the time and frequency domains were performed and were found to be in good agreement with theoretical predictions. PMID:18238486

  8. A Reduced Three Dimensional Model for SAW Sensors Using Finite Element Analysis

    PubMed Central

    El Gowini, Mohamed M.; Moussa, Walied A.

    2009-01-01

    A major problem that often arises in modeling Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) such as Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensors using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is the extensive computational capacity required. In this study a new approach is adopted to significantly reduce the computational capacity needed for analyzing the response of a SAW sensor using the finite element (FE) method. The approach is based on the plane wave solution where the properties of the wave vary in two dimensions and are uniform along the thickness of the device. The plane wave solution therefore allows the thickness of the SAW device model to be minimized; the model is referred to as a Reduced 3D Model (R3D). Various configurations of this novel R3D model are developed and compared with theoretical and experimental frequency data and the results show very good agreement. In addition, two-dimensional (2D) models with similar configurations to the R3D are developed for comparison since the 2D approach is widely adopted in the literature as a computationally inexpensive approach to model SAW sensors using the FE method. Results illustrate that the R3D model is capable of capturing the SAW response more accurately than the 2D model; this is demonstrated by comparison of centre frequency and insertion loss values. These results are very encouraging and indicate that the R3D model is capable of capturing the MEMS-based SAW sensor response without being computationally expensive. PMID:22303156

  9. SSBW to PSAW conversion in SAW devices using heavy mechanical loading.

    PubMed

    Fusero, Yann; Ballandras, Sylvain; Desbois, Jean; Hodé, Jean-Michel; Ventura, Pascal

    2002-06-01

    The development of efficient computation tools based on mixed analytical and numerical calculation approaches allows precise descriptions and characterizations of surface acoustic waves (SAW) propagation, taking into account realistic electrical and mechanical boundary conditions. As an example, suppression of the leaky SAW, also called pseudo SAW (PSAW), attenuation has been predicted using such tools allowing to explain experimental occurrences for SAW devices on YX cut lithium niobate and lithium tantalate with thick aluminum strip gratings (6% < h/lambda < 10%). In this work, such a theoretical model is used to analyze the evolution of surface waves on standard YX lithium tantalate cuts versus aluminum strip height. It is shown that the surface skimming bulk wave (SSBW), which accompanies the pseudo SAW on such crystal orientations, may be trapped by the grating, exhibiting then a second pseudo SAW behavior when close to the Bragg condition. A device has been designed and fabricated to check these theoretical predictions. The experimental evidence of the existence of the phenomenon allows one to discuss its consequences on more classical devices built on (Y+36 degrees,X) LiTaO3 substrates. PMID:12075973

  10. Optimal selection of piezoelectric substrates and crystal cuts for SAW-based pressure and temperature sensors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiangwen; Wang, Fei-Yue; Li, Li

    2007-06-01

    In this paper, the perturbation method is used to study the velocity shift of surface acoustic waves (SAW) caused by surface pressure and temperature variations of piezoelectric substrates. Effects of pressures and temperatures on elastic, piezoelectric, and dielectric constants of piezoelectric substrates are fully considered as well as the initial stresses and boundary conditions. First, frequency pressure/temperature coefficients are introduced to reflect the relationship between the SAW resonant frequency and the pressure/temperature of the piezoelectric substrates. Second, delay pressure/temperature coefficients are introduced to reflect the relationship among the SAW delay time/phase and SAW delay line-based sensors' pressure and temperature. An objective function for performance evaluation of piezoelectric substrates is then defined in terms of their effective SAW coupling coefficients, power flow angles (PFA), acoustic propagation losses, and pressure and temperature coefficients. Finally, optimal selections of piezo-electric substrates and crystal cuts for SAW-based pressure, temperature, and pressure/temperature sensors are derived by calculating the corresponding objective function values among the range of X-cut, Y-cut, Z-cut, and rotated Y-cut quartz, lithium niobate, and lithium tantalate crystals in different propagation directions. PMID:17571819

  11. Serenoa repens (saw palmetto): a systematic review of adverse events.

    PubMed

    Agbabiaka, Taofikat B; Pittler, Max H; Wider, Barbara; Ernst, Edzard

    2009-01-01

    Serenoa repens (W. Bartram) Small, also known as saw palmetto, is one of the most widely used herbal preparations for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Although a number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews of the efficacy of S. repens for the treatment of LUTS and BPH have been published, no systematic review on its drug interactions or adverse events currently exists. This review assesses all available human safety data of S. repens monopreparations. Systematic literature searches were conducted from date of inception to February 2008 in five electronic databases; reference lists and our departmental files were checked for further relevant publications. Information was requested from spontaneous reporting schemes of the WHO and national safety bodies. Twenty-four manufacturers/distributors of S. repens preparations and four herbalist organizations were contacted for additional information. No language restrictions were imposed. Only reports of adverse events in humans from monopreparations of S. repens were included. Data from all articles, regardless of study design, reporting adverse events or interactions were independently extracted by the first author and validated by the second. Forty articles (26 randomized controlled trials, 4 non-randomized controlled trials, 6 uncontrolled trials and 4 case reports/series) were included. They suggest that adverse events associated with the use of S. repens are mild and similar to those with placebo. The most frequently reported adverse events are abdominal pain, diarrhoea, nausea, fatigue, headache, decreased libido and rhinitis. More serious adverse events such as death and cerebral haemorrhage are reported in isolated case reports and data from spontaneous reporting schemes, but causality is questionable. No drug interactions were reported. Currently available data suggest that S. repens is well tolerated by most users and is not associated with serious adverse events. The majority of adverse events are mild, infrequent and reversible, and include abdominal pain, diarrhoea, nausea and fatigue, headache, decreased libido and rhinitis. We found no evidence for drug interactions with S. repens. However, higher quality reporting of adverse events is essential if safety assessments are to be improved in future. PMID:19591529

  12. Effect of multiblade slurry saw induced damage on silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daud, T.; Liu, J. K.; Pollock, G. A.; Koliwad, K. M.

    1978-01-01

    A correlation between the optimum etch loss and the depth of damage is established using wafers produced by the Multiblade Slurry (MBS) and the Internal Diameter (ID) saws. The observations are based on the measurement of the performance of solar cells fabricated on these wafers. Sample preparation and test results are described and the following conclusions are made: (1) the amount of silicon removal necessary for optimum solar cell performance coincides with the depth of saw-induced damage; (2) optimization of cell performance is not affected by the method of silicon removal; (3) sawing conditions should be optimized to minimize the extent of saw-induced damage; (4) the MBS saw is found to induce damage to a lesser extent; (5) since the extent of damage in MBS-sawn wafers is in the limit of etch loss required in texture etching, it is possible to achieve optimum improvement in cell performance by merely texture etching the surface of as-sawn wafers.

  13. Metabolomics study of Saw palmetto extracts based on 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    de Combarieu, Eric; Martinelli, Ernesto Marco; Pace, Roberto; Sardone, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    Preparations containing Saw palmetto extracts are used in traditional medicine to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia. According to the European and the American Pharmacopoeias, the extract is obtained from comminuted Saw palmetto berries by a suitable extracting procedure using ethanol or supercritical carbon dioxide or a mixture of n-hexane and methylpentanes. In the present study an approach to metabolomics profiling using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been used as a finger-printing tool to assess the overall composition of the extracts. The phytochemical analysis coupled with principal component analysis (PCA) showed the same composition of the Saw palmetto extracts obtained with carbon dioxide and hexane with minor not significant differences for extracts obtained with ethanol. In fact these differences are anyhow lower than the batch-to-batch variability ascribable to the natural-occurring variability in the Saw palmetto fruits' phytochemical composition. The fingerprinting analysis combined with chemometric method, is a technique, which would provide a tool to comprehensively assess the quality control of Saw palmetto extracts. PMID:25707588

  14. [See-saw nystagmus. Clinical aspects, diagnosis, pathophysiology: observations in 2 patients].

    PubMed

    Endres, M; Heide, W; Kömpf, D

    1996-06-01

    See-saw nystagmus is an uncommon but characteristic kind of nystagmus. Typically there is intorsion and elevation of one eye and simultaneous extorsion and depression of the other eye. The nystagmus can be of pendular-waveform or jerk-waveform. The pendular-waveform see-saw nystagmus is commonly due to a midline meso-diencephalic, bilaterally compressing mass. The jerk-waveform see-saw nystagmus is mostly due to a unilateral lesion in the meso-diencephalic junction. For explanation, a current theory assumes a unilateral lesion of the interstitial nucleus of Cajal sparing the rostral interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fascicle. Another concept suggests a lesion of the vertical vestibulo-ocular-reflex. We report two patients with jerk-waveform see-saw nystagmus. In both patients an internuclear ophthalmoplegia was found additionally. The origin was a unilateral brainstem infarction in both cases. We explain the symptomatology of see-saw nystagmus and discuss the actual theories of its origin. PMID:8767203

  15. Jerk-waveform see-saw nystagmus due to unilateral meso-diencephalic lesion.

    PubMed

    Halmagyi, G M; Aw, S T; Dehaene, I; Curthoys, I S; Todd, M J

    1994-08-01

    See-saw nystagmus is an uncommon but highly characteristic eye movement disorder comprising intorsion and elevation of one eye, with synchronous extorsion and depression of the other. It generally has a pendular waveform and is due to a midline, extrinsic, suprasellar mass lesion compressing or invading the brainstem bilaterally at the meso-diencephalic junction. This report deals with the clinical and MRI findings in three patients (and binocular three-dimensional quantitative oculographic findings in one patient) with a jerk waveform see-saw nystagmus due in each case to a unilateral meso-diencephalic lesion. In each patient the torsional component of the nystagmus fast phases rotated the upper poles of the eyes toward the side of the lesion. Jerk see-saw nystagmus can be clinically indistinguishable from pendular see-saw nystagmus and from the torsional-vertical nystagmus which occurs with medullary lesions. We propose that jerk see-saw nystagmus is due to unilateral inactivation of the torsional eye-velocity integrator, thought to be in the interstitial nucleus of Cajal, with sparing of the torsional fast-phase generator, thought to be in the adjacent rostral interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus. PMID:7922466

  16. A SAW passive wireless sensor system for monitoring temperature of an electric cord connector at long distance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ping Li; Hua Xie; Yumei Wen; Chuan Wang; Shiyuan Huang; Zhiwei Ren; Junjie He; Dang Lu

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a surface acoustic wave (SAW) passive wireless sensor system for monitoring the temperature of the electric cord connectors. The low-loss sensor consists of a temperature-sensing high-Q SAW resonator, a small antenna and a matching circuit. The resonant frequency of the SAW sensor is varied with the temperature. While the interrogational signal is a sinusoidal burst, the response

  17. Assessment of present state-of-the-art sawing technology of large diameter ingots for solar sheet material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoo, H. I.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of this program is to assess the present state-of-the-art sawing technology of large diameter silicon ingots (3 inch and 4 inch diameter) for solar sheet materials. During this period, work has progressed in three areas: (1) slicing of the ingots with the multiblade slurry saw and the I.D. saw, (2) characterization of the sliced wafers, and (3) analysis of direct labor, expendable material costs, and wafer productivity.

  18. Enhanced spectral efficiency using bandwidth switchable SAW filtering for mobile satellite communications systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peach, Robert; Malarky, Alastair

    1990-01-01

    Currently proposed mobile satellite communications systems require a high degree of flexibility in assignment of spectral capacity to different geographic locations. Conventionally this results in poor spectral efficiency which may be overcome by the use of bandwidth switchable filtering. Surface acoustic wave (SAW) technology makes it possible to provide banks of filters whose responses may be contiguously combined to form variable bandwidth filters with constant amplitude and phase responses across the entire band. The high selectivity possible with SAW filters, combined with the variable bandwidth capability, makes it possible to achieve spectral efficiencies over the allocated bandwidths of greater than 90 percent, while retaining full system flexibility. Bandwidth switchable SAW filtering (BSSF) achieves these gains with a negligible increase in hardware complexity.

  19. Precision frequency trimming of SAW and STW resonators using Xe(+) heavy ion bombardment.

    PubMed

    Aliev, V S; Avramov, I D

    1994-01-01

    A method for precision frequency trimming of surface acoustic wave (SAW) and surface transverse wave (STW) based resonant devices using a Xe(+) heavy ion bombardment technique is described. The devices are downtrimmed in frequency in an in-situ monitoring process by means of a Kaufmann type ion source that allows first a rough and then a fine frequency trimming with an accuracy of 1 ppm in a single continuous in-situ monitoring process. An improvement of the device insertion loss and unloaded Q as a result of the trimming process is achieved. Single mode 776 MHz STW resonators can be downtrimmed by more than 5000 ppm without deteriorating their parameters while SAW resonators allow a much lower frequency downshift. The method is simple and can cost effectively be applied to SAW and STW device fabrication. PMID:18263257

  20. Falling beam SoilSaw (trademark), an advanced process for forming underground cutoff walls. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, R.E.; Saugler, R.K.; Carter, E.E.

    1995-08-01

    The Falling Beam SoilSaw is a method for forming a continuous barrier wall at depths between 30 and 120 ft deep. The objective of this project was to fully develop and commercialize SoilSaw technology for use in underseepage control (pre- and postconstruction), slope stabilization, and as a method of containing contaminants at hazardous waste sites. Specifically, the objectives were to install a demonstration wall using the SoilSaw technology, determine the physical dimensions (width and depth) of the wall, and determine the in-place properties (permeability and strength). During the time frame of the CPAR study, several walls were constructed by Halliburton NUS for which USACE visually monitored but not strength or permeability data were supplied. Therefore, the results of the objectives will be based on the CPAR data presented in this report.

  1. Objective classification of performance in the use of a piercing saw in jewellery making.

    PubMed

    Baber, Chris; Gunduz Cengiz, Tulin; Starke, Sandra; Parekh, Manish

    2015-11-01

    Data from 15 jewellery students, in their 1st and 3rd years of training, were analysed to show how data collected from work settings can be used to objectively evaluate performance in the use of tools. Participants were asked to use a piercing saw to cut 5 lines in a piece of metal. Performance was categorised in terms of functional dynamics. Data from strain gauges and a tri-axial accelerometer (built into the handle of the saw) were recorded and thirteen metrics derived from these data. The key question for this paper is which metrics could be used to distinguish levels of ability. Principal Components Analysis identified five components: sawing action; grasp of handle; task completion time; lateral deviation of strokes; and quality of lines cut. Using representative metrics for these components, participants could be ranked in terms of performance (low, medium, high) and statistical analysis showed significant differences between participants on key metrics. PMID:26154220

  2. Maintenance of stellite and tungsten carbide saw tips: respiratory health and exposure-response evaluations.

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, S M; Chan-Yeung, M; Marion, S; Lea, J; Teschke, K

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To study exposure to cobalt and chromium in saw maintenance rooms and test respiratory health among saw filers at lumber mills. Hard-metal lung disease is associated with cobalt in the manufacture of tungsten carbide tools; recently it has also been reported among tool maintenance workers. Lumber mills often use saws tipped with tungsten carbide or with a newer alloy, stellite (containing more cobalt, as well as chromium). METHODS--A cross sectional study of 118 saw filers at eight lumber mills was carried out that included a standardised questionnaire, spirometry, personal air sampling, and examination of tasks every 10 minutes (by observation). Comparison data were from a study of bus mechanics tested with similar methods. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION--Cobalt exposure was associated with tungsten carbide grinding but not with stellite grinding. Chromium exposure was associated mainly with stellite welding. Saw filers had a twofold increase in phlegm and wheeze (P < 0.01) and a threefold increase in cough, phlegm, and wheeze related to work (P < 0.001), but no increase in breathlessness. Stellite welding was associated with a significant increase in nasal symptoms and cough related to work and a small decrease in airflow (forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC%), P < 0.05). Saw filers wet grinding with tungsten carbide had significant reductions in forced expiratory lung volumes (FEV1 and FVC, P < 0.05) and were significantly more likely to have FEV1 and FVC values in the abnormal range. Cobalt exposure (in wet grinding) and duration of work that involved tungsten carbide grinding were both associated with significant reductions in FEV1 and FVC. Average cobalt exposures in this study were about 5 micrograms/m3, well below the currently accepted permissible concentration, which suggests that the current workplace limit for cobalt may be too high. PMID:7735392

  3. What do I tell patients about saw palmetto for benign prostatic hyperplasia?

    PubMed

    Kane, Christopher J; Raheem, Omer A; Bent, Stephen; Avins, Andrew L

    2011-08-01

    Saw palmetto is widely used to treat lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Although there is passionate support for herbal and complementary therapies for LUTS, clinical evidence is mixed. Because there is a well-recognized, profound placebo effect in tests of efficacy for agents treating LUTS, it is imperative that all therapies be tested in placebo-controlled trials. This article reviews evidence of the efficacy and safety of saw palmetto for men with LUTS caused by BPH, with particular emphasis on published randomized clinical trials and the upcoming Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Urologic Symptoms (CAMUS) trial. PMID:21798388

  4. IEEE ULTRASONICS SYMPOSIUM 1998 IN SENDAI, JAPAN 1 Novel optoelectronic signal processing via the combination of SAW

    E-print Network

    Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München

    the combination of SAW and semiconductor heterostructures M. Streibl1 , C. Rocke1 , A.O. Govorov1,2 and A be tai- lored in a semiconductor heterostructure right from the drawing board. The study of Semiconductor Physics, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia Abstract-- The combination of surface acoustic waves (SAWs

  5. Saw Palmetto ( Serenoa repens) in Men with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: Effects on Urodynamic Parameters and Voiding Symptoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glenn S Gerber; Gregory P Zagaja; Gregory T Bales; Gerald W Chodak; Barbara A Contreras

    1998-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the effects of saw palmetto on voiding symptoms and urodynamic parameters in men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) presumed secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).Methods. Fifty men with previously untreated LUTS and a minimum International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) of 10 or greater were treated with a commercially available form of saw palmetto (160 mg twice

  6. SAW propagation on cylindrical parts using laser-ultrasonics: application to crack detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Clorennec; D. Royer; S. Catheline

    2002-01-01

    We applied the laser-ultrasonic technique for detecting surface breaking slots in steel or duraluminurn cylinders. Surface acoustic waves (SAW) are launched by a pulsed YAG laser focused along a line. The radial component of the displacement is measured by a heterodyne optical interferometer. In the first experiment, we study the evolution of Rayleigh waveforms with the angle ? between the

  7. The Income Volatility See-Saw: Implications for School Lunch. ERS Report Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Constance

    2006-01-01

    Income volatility challenges the functioning of the safety net provided by U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) food assistance programs for low-income families in time of need. Low-income families may be on a see-saw of income changes that make it difficult for program administrators to accurately target benefits and to define sensible…

  8. An experimental study of the physiological effects of chain saw operation.

    PubMed Central

    Miyakita, T; Miura, H; Futatsuka, M

    1987-01-01

    This experimental study was designed to determine whether a combination of noise and vibration produced more pronounced changes in temporary shifts of finger skin temperature and temporary threshold shift (TTS) of hearing than those resulting from exposure to either stress alone. Nineteen healthy subjects were exposed to six different combinations of vibration, noise, and handle holding by using a chain saw for a pre-determined time. The mean value of normalised finger skin temperature decreased much more when the subjects operated a chain saw at high speed (exposure 1) than when they operated the chain saw with the noise isolated by double hearing protection (exposure 2). In five of the 14 subjects significantly larger TTS values at 4 kHz were observed in the former condition (exposure 1) compared with the values obtained when they stood beside someone else operating a chain saw (exposure 3). The results of this study suggest that noise may play a part in inducing the constriction of the peripheral vessels seen with local exposure to vibration, and that hand-arm vibration may produce an additive effect on the noise induced TTS. PMID:3814533

  9. Optimal design of wide band low loss SAW filters, using slanted interdigital transducers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Balashov; K. H. Baek

    2000-01-01

    Slanted finger SAW transducers allow one to design wide band filters with excellent characteristics. One of the most interesting modifications of such a filter is the slanted SPUDT. We present an approach to the analysis of such filters based on consistent use of the Y-matrix instead of the conventional P-matrix. Conditions of optimal matching of such SPUDT are obtained and

  10. Influence of receiver noise properties on resolution of passive wireless resonant SAW sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor Kalinin

    2005-01-01

    Resolution of passive wireless resonant SAW sensing system is studied theoretically by means of stochastic simulations. It is shown that phase noise of a local oscillator of an interrogator's receiver plays the main role in limiting the resolution at short distances between the interrogator and the sensor antenna. Additive noise of the receiver typically limits the resolution only at a

  11. Low-Loss Unidirectional SAW Filters Using Integrated Micro-Inductors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuhiko Yamanouchi; Jai krishna Gautam; Toshiyasu Meguro

    1983-01-01

    SAW filters using GUDTs and Three Phase (TP) UDTs for excitation and detection have been described and demonstrated, requiring smaller values of inductors. Use of the new phase shifter eliminates the lossy meander line running t hrough the transducers in case of GUDTs and requires less number of discrete components in case of TPUDTs. A thin film capacitance existing between

  12. Single-atom manipulation mechanisms during a quantum corral construction Saw-Wai Hla*

    E-print Network

    Hla, Saw-Wai

    Single-atom manipulation mechanisms during a quantum corral construction Saw-Wai Hla* Nanoscale.2 Å. The experimental atom manipulation signals reveal remark- ably detailed atom movement behaviors on an atom-by-atom basis. Manipulation with a scanning tunneling microscope STM tip allows engineer- ing

  13. Nobel prize winners saluted Last month saw UEA celebrating the award of

    E-print Network

    Feigon, Brooke

    Nobel prize winners saluted Last month saw UEA celebrating the award of the Nobel Peace Prize to Al institution globally. The news came a day after the announcement of the award of the Nobel Prize with this year's Nobel laureates spanning two of its main areas of expertise ­ literature and climate science

  14. Effect of saw palmetto extract on PI3K cell signaling transduction in human glioma

    PubMed Central

    YANG, YANG; HUI, LV; YUQIN, CHE; JIE, LI; SHUAI, HOU; TIEZHU, ZHOU; WEI, WANG

    2014-01-01

    Saw palmetto extract can induce the apoptosis of prostate cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of saw palmetto extract on the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling transduction pathway in human glioma U87 and U251 cell lines. Suspensions of U87 and U251 cells in a logarithmic growth phase were seeded into six-well plates at a density of 104 cells/well. In the experimental group, 1 ?l/ml saw palmetto extract was added, while the control group was cultured without a drug for 24 h. The expression levels of PI3K, B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL) and p53 were evaluated through western blot analysis. In the experimental group, the U87 and U251 cells exhibited a lower expression level of PI3K protein as compared with the control group (t=6.849; P<0.001). In addition, the two cell lines had a higher expression level of p53 protein in the experimental group as compared with the control group (t=40.810; P<0.001). Protein expression levels of Bcl-xL decreased significantly in the experimental group as compared with the control group (t=19.640; P=0.000). Therefore, saw palmetto extract induces glioma cell growth arrest and apoptosis via decreasing PI3K/Akt signal transduction. PMID:25009620

  15. Pharmacological effects of saw palmetto extract in the lower urinary tract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mayumi Suzuki; Yoshihiko Ito; Tomomi Fujino; Masayuki Abe; Keizo Umegaki; Satomi Onoue; Hiroshi Noguchi; Shizuo Yamada

    2009-01-01

    Saw palmetto extract (SPE), an extract from the ripe berries of the American dwarf palm, has been widely used as a therapeutic remedy for urinary dysfunction due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in Europe. Numerous mechanisms of action have been proposed for SPE, including the inhibition of 5?-reductase. Today, ?1-adrenoceptor antagonists and muscarinic cholinoceptor antagonists are commonly used in the

  16. Effect of saw palmetto extract on PI3K cell signaling transduction in human glioma.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Hui, Lv; Yuqin, Che; Jie, Li; Shuai, Hou; Tiezhu, Zhou; Wei, Wang

    2014-08-01

    Saw palmetto extract can induce the apoptosis of prostate cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of saw palmetto extract on the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling transduction pathway in human glioma U87 and U251 cell lines. Suspensions of U87 and U251 cells in a logarithmic growth phase were seeded into six-well plates at a density of 10(4) cells/well. In the experimental group, 1 ?l/ml saw palmetto extract was added, while the control group was cultured without a drug for 24 h. The expression levels of PI3K, B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL) and p53 were evaluated through western blot analysis. In the experimental group, the U87 and U251 cells exhibited a lower expression level of PI3K protein as compared with the control group (t=6.849; P<0.001). In addition, the two cell lines had a higher expression level of p53 protein in the experimental group as compared with the control group (t=40.810; P<0.001). Protein expression levels of Bcl-xL decreased significantly in the experimental group as compared with the control group (t=19.640; P=0.000). Therefore, saw palmetto extract induces glioma cell growth arrest and apoptosis via decreasing PI3K/Akt signal transduction. PMID:25009620

  17. Seasonal effects of prescribed burning and roller chopping on saw palmetto in flatwoods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emma V. Willcox; William M. Giuliano

    2010-01-01

    Shrub encroachment has become a problem in many rangeland systems across the United States due to a reduction in the disturbances, primarily fire, which historically maintained them. The shrub saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) has become abundant in many habitats of the southeastern Coastal Plain, including Florida. When fire regimes are altered or fires are suppressed, this species can proliferate leading

  18. Characterizing components of the Saw Palmetto Berry Extract (SPBE) on prostate cancer cell growth and traction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carina Scholtysek; Aleksandra A. Krukiewicz; Jose´-Luis Alonso; Karan P. Sharma; Pal C. Sharma; Wolfgang H. Goldmann

    2009-01-01

    Saw Palmetto Berry Extract (SPBE) is applied for prostate health and treatment of urinary tract infections, nonbacterial prostitis and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) in man. An assumption is that SPBE affects tumor cell progression and migration in breast and prostate tissue. In this work, DU-145 cells were used to demonstrate that SPBE and its sterol components, ?-sitosterol and stigmasterol, inhibit

  19. Improving BPH symptoms and sexual dysfunctions with a saw palmetto preparation? Results from a pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Suter, Andreas; Saller, Reinhard; Riedi, Eugen; Heinrich, Michael

    2013-02-01

    In elderly men, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a major risk factor for sexual dysfunctions (SDys). Additionally, the standard treatments for BPH symptoms, alpha blockers and 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors, cause SDys themselves. Preparations from saw palmetto berries are an efficacious and well-tolerated symptomatic treatment for mild to moderate BPH and have traditionally been used to treat SDys. We conducted an open multicentric clinical pilot trial to investigate whether the saw palmetto berry preparation Prostasan® influenced BPH symptoms and SDys. Eighty-two patients participated in the 8-week trial, taking one capsule of 320?mg saw palmetto extract daily. At the end of the treatment, the International Prostate Symptom Score was reduced from 14.4?±?4.7 to 6.9?±?5.2 (p?saw palmetto to show improvement in BPH symptoms and SDys as well. [Corrections made here after initial online publication.] PMID:22522969

  20. VALIDATION OF THE PROPAGATION SAW TEST NEAR WHUMPFS AND AVALANCHES Dave Gauthier*1

    E-print Network

    Jamieson, Bruce

    VALIDATION OF THE PROPAGATION SAW TEST NEAR WHUMPFS AND AVALANCHES Dave Gauthier*1 , Cameron Ross2 to an extent that would lead to avalanche release. We review a recent PST validation study in which fracture present new PST results from 17 whumpf and avalanche sites in the Columbia Mountains of British Columbia

  1. Magnetic domains and magnetization reversal in epitaxial Fe layers patterned by the atomic saw method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Jaffrès; L. Ressier; J. P. Peyrade; A. R. Fert; P. Gogol; A. Thiaville; A. Schuhl; F. Nguyen van Dau

    1998-01-01

    We present a study of the magnetic domains structure and the magnetization reversal in systems of stripes and dots patterned on Fe films by the atomic saw method. Continuous epitaxial 50 and 20 Å Fe films have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy deposition method, then by applying strain on MgO monocrystalline substrate and controlling the dislocation slipping, micronic iron

  2. Design and kinematics analysis of underwater guillotine saw for oil&gas pipe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gong haixia; Zhao jie; Meng qingxin; Li peng; Song Liang

    2009-01-01

    Oil or gas was transferred to one place by pipeline after exploitation of ocean oil&gas resources. When an old pipeline was leaking, it must be repaired. The guillotine saw is a necessary tool for repairing underwater oil&gas pipes, and is used to cut off damaged offshore pipeline. It was composed of sine cutting mechanism, eccentric cam mechanism and spiral feed

  3. Determination of the distribution of nerve conduction velocities in chain saw operators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Araki; K Yokoyama; H Aono; K Murata

    1988-01-01

    By measuring the distribution of conduction velocities (DCV) in sensory fibres of the median nerve, the effects of local vibration on all faster and slower large myelinated nerve fibres were examined in 10 male chain saw operators (three operators had frequent attacks of white finger; the attacks were only occasional in four and negative in three). All parameters of DCV,

  4. Investigation of fiber maturity effect on saw-type lint cleaner fiber damage and yarn properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One-half of plots of two cotton cultivars with similar mature fiber length were harvested after two defoliation treatments (early/late) to get less and more mature cottons. These seed cotton lots were ginned with the same seed cotton cleaning but with 0, 1, or 3 saw-type lint cleaners with low dryi...

  5. Precision frequency trimming of SAW and STW resonators using Xe+ heavy ion bombardment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladimir Shakirovich Aliev; I. D. Avramov

    1994-01-01

    A method for precision frequency trimming of surface acoustic wave (SAW) and surface transverse wave (STW) based resonant devices using a Xe+ heavy ion bombardment technique is described. The devices are downtrimmed in frequency in an in-situ monitoring process by means of a Kaufmann type ion source that allows first a rough and then a fine frequency trimming with an

  6. Langasite SAW Device with Gas-Sensitive Layer Peng Zheng1,2

    E-print Network

    Greve, David.W.

    be operated in wireless mode [1-2]. SAW devices have been extensively studied for sensor ap- plications in a wired configuration up to 650 °C, representing an important step toward future high temperature wireless- ide exhaust suitable for geologic sequestration. Wireless opera- tion is desirable to eliminate power

  7. Vapor phase detection of plastic explosives using a SAW resonator immunosensor array

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sang-Hun Lee; D. D. Stubbs; W. D. Hunt; P. J. Edmonson

    2005-01-01

    We present the results of a series of experiments demonstrating on-the-spot detection of low vapor pressure plastic explosives containing nitro groups such as RDX, TNT, and their analogous substances, facilitated by the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) Lab. A set of antibody coated SAW resonators inside the flow cell detect the presence of the target molecules diffusing from the sample. Monoclonal

  8. Seed Germination Methods and Establishment of Saw-Palmetto, Serenoa Repens, in South Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saw-pametto, Serenoa repens, a native of Florida rangelands, and used medicinally in prostate formulations, was evaluated as an alternative crop for South Texas (USA). Fresh seeds, obtained from the USDA Plant Introduction Station, Miami, Florida on Oct.28, 1999, were sown directly into artificial ...

  9. SAW/GC detection of taggants and other volatile compounds associated with contraband materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staples, Edward J.; Watson, Gary W.; McGuirre, David S.; Williams, Dudley

    1997-02-01

    Research on a Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) Gas Chromatography (GC) non-intrusive inspection system has demonstrated the ability to identify and quantify the presence of non- volatile contraband vapors in less than 10 seconds. The technique can be used to detect volatile compounds associated with the contraband compound as well. This is important because volatile taggants in explosives make them easy to detect and volatile organic compounds are routinely used in the manufacturing of illicit drugs. The results of tests with volatile organic compounds associated with drugs of abuse, and volatile taggants for explosives are presented. The latter materials are particularly useful in detecting plastic explosives and results for Semtex and C-4 spiked with a taggant show that detectability is improved. Similar testing protocols and methods for drugs, currency, organo-phosphate agents, and taggant compounds have also been demonstrated. The SAW/GC method needs no high voltages, utilizes essentially all solid state devices, and involves no radioactive or hazardous materials SAW detection systems have demonstrated dynamic ranges greater than 1,000,000 and the ability to selectively screen for vapors from explosive and drugs of abuse at the part per billion level with little or no interference. Most important for law-enforcement, SAW/GC devices can be produced in small packages at low cost.

  10. Simulation and evaluation of a bone sawing procedure for orthognathic surgery based on an experimental force model.

    PubMed

    Yanping, Lin; Dedong, Yu; Xiaojun, Chen; Xudong, Wang; Guofang, Shen; Chengtao, Wang

    2014-03-01

    Bone sawing is widely used in orthognathic surgery to correct maxillary deformities. Successful execution of bone sawing requires a high level of dexterity and experience. A virtual reality (VR) surgical simulator can provide a safe, cost-effective, and repeatable training method. In this study, we developed a VR training simulator with haptic functions to simulate bone-sawing force, which was generated by the experimental force model. Ten human skulls were obtained in this study for the determination of surgical bone-sawing force. Using a 5-DOF machining center and a micro-reciprocating saw, bone specimens with different bone density were sawed at different feed rates (20, 40, and 60?mm/min) and spindle speeds (9800, 11,200 and 12,600 cycles per minute). The sawing forces were recorded with a piezoelectric dynamometer and a signal acquisition system. Linear correlation analysis of all experimental data indicates that there were significant positive linear correlations between bone-sawing force and bone density and tool feed rate and a moderate negative linear correlation with tool spindle rate. By performing multiple regression analysis, the prediction models for the bone-sawing procedure were determined. By employing Omega.6 as a haptic device, a medical simulator for the Lefort I osteotomy was developed based on an experimental force model. Comparison of the force-time curve acquired through experiments and the curve computed from the simulator indicate that the obtained forces based on the experimental force model and the acquired data had the same trend for the bone-sawing procedure of orthognathic surgery. PMID:24292329

  11. Cell detachment and label-free cell sorting using modulated surface acoustic waves (SAW) in droplet-based microfluidics

    E-print Network

    Bussonnière, Adrien; Baudoin, Michael; Bou-Matar, Olivier; Grandbois, Michel; Charette, Paul; Renaudin, Alan

    2014-01-01

    We present a droplet-based surface acoustic wave (SAW) system designed to viably detach biological cells from a surface and sort cell types based on differences in adhesion strength (adhesion contrast), without the need to label cells with molecular markers. The system uses modulated SAW to generate pulsatile flows in the droplets and efficiently detach the cells, thereby minimizing SAW excitation power and exposure time. As a proof-of-principle, the system is shown to efficiently sort HEK 293 from A7r5 cells based on adhesion contrast. Results are obtained in minutes with sorting purity and efficiency reaching 97 % and 95 %, respectively.

  12. [A case of rhabdomyolysis caused by saw palmetto of healthy foods].

    PubMed

    Hanaka, Minako; Yoshii, Chiharu; Yatera, Kazuhiro; Ito, Chiyo; Chojin, Yasuo; Nagata, Shuya; Yamasaki, Kei; Nishida, Chinatsu; Kawanami, Toshinori; Kawanami, Yukiko; Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Mukae, Hiroshi

    2012-06-01

    An 82-year-old man visited our hospital when he developed a fever of over 38 degrees C after having consumed 5 types of health foods. He had previously been treated for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypertension and hyperuricemia. Blood examination on admission revealed renal dysfunction, marked elevation of C-reactive protein, and an elevated level of serum creatine kinase. According to the laboratory data and his clinical history, rhabdomyolysis complicated by acute renal failure was suspected, but his condition improved and his fever was reduced with fluid infusion. As a drug lymphocyte stimulation test was positive for only saw palmetto in the 5 health foods, we diagnosed the case as rhabdomyolysis induced by saw palmetto. We believe that this is the first case of a health food being the cause of rhabdomyolysis. PMID:22768426

  13. NDE of zinc layer on steel substrate using laser-ultrasonic SAW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenni, Bouzid; Moreau, Andre; Pouliquen, J.

    2002-06-01

    Laser-ultrasound spectroscopy, a non-contact ultrasonic technique was used to characterize the Lame coefficients ((lambda) ,(mu) ) and thickness (h) of a zinc layer on a steel substrate. This characterization is based on fitting the measured velocity dispersion curve of surface acoustic waves (SAW) to the dispersion calculated one using the conjugates gradients algorithm (C.G). A short laser pulse was used to generate a wideband pulse of ultrasound and a laser interferometer was used for its detection. From a large number of echoes we identified the one corresponding to the SAW. Furthermore other useful information were obtained from these data like attenuation and surface skimming longitudinal wave. Measurements of the velocity dispersion of the Rayleigh wave were achieved up to 50 MHz. The evaluation of layer's parameters performed for similar cases, on a pseudo-experimental model, were obtained with accuracy better then 1% for (h, (mu) ) and about 4% to 6% for (lambda) .

  14. Chemical class specificity using self-assembled monolayers on SAW devices

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, R.C.; Ricco, A.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yang, H.C.; Dermody, D.; Crooks, R.M. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-06-01

    We have studied the chemical selectivity and sensitivity of surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors covered by (COO{sup {minus}}){sub 2}/Cu{sup 2+}-terminated interfaces by examining the response of self-assembled monolayer (SAM) films formed from the solution phase for 36, 84, and 180 h adsorption times. These organomercaptan SAMs were prepared on thin-film Au surfaces having variable, controlled grain size. The SAW response from the carboxylate coordinated Cu{sup 2+}-terminated SAM is compared to that from methyl-terminated SAM, as these films interact with a vapor-phase organophosphonate analyte and the vapors of common organic solvents. Results have implications for designing and reliably fabricating chemical sensors that respond to specific organic analytes.

  15. SH-SAW Sensor Platform for Chemical Detection in Aqueous Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Casalnuovo, Steve; Cernosek, Richard; Josse, Fabien; Ricco, Antonio; Zhou, Rongnong

    1999-07-20

    Chemically sensitive polymers coated on delay lines utilizing shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH-SAW) sensors are investigated for the detection of organic analytes in liquid environments. The SH-SAW sensor platform was designed and fabricated on 36{degree} rotated Y-cut LiTaO{sub 3}. By depositing a SiO{sub 2} dielectric layer over the entire device prior to applying the polymer film, partial electrical passivation of the interdigital transducers (IDT) is obtained while increasing the mass sensitivity of the device. Changes in the mechanical properties of the chemically sensitive polymer materials were clearly detectable through a frequency shift at least one order of magnitude larger than that of a coated-quartz crystal resonator (QCR) in a similar experiment.

  16. Pseudo-orthogonal frequency coded wireless SAW RFID temperature sensor tags.

    PubMed

    Saldanha, Nancy; Malocha, Donald C

    2012-08-01

    SAW sensors are ideal for various wireless, passive multi-sensor applications because they are small, rugged, radiation hard, and offer a wide range of material choices for operation over broad temperature ranges. The readable distance of a tag in a multi-sensor environment is dependent on the insertion loss of the device and the processing gain of the system. Single-frequency code division multiple access (CDMA) tags that are used in high-volume commercial applications must have universal coding schemes and large numbers of codes. The use of a large number of bits at the common center frequency to achieve sufficient code diversity in CDMA tags necessitates reflector banks with >30 dB loss. Orthogonal frequency coding is a spread-spectrum approach that employs frequency and time diversity to achieve enhanced tag properties. The use of orthogonal frequency coded (OFC) SAW tags reduces adjacent reflector interactions for low insertion loss, increased range, complex coding, and system processing gain. This work describes a SAW tag-sensor platform that reduces device loss by implementing long reflector banks with optimized spectral coding. This new pseudo-OFC (POFC) coding is defined and contrasted with the previously defined OFC coding scheme. Auto- and cross-correlation properties of the chips and their relation to reflectivity per strip and reflector length are discussed. Results at 250 MHz of 8-chip OFC and POFC SAW tags will be compared. The key parameters of insertion loss, cross-correlation, and autocorrelation of the two types of frequency-coded tags will be analyzed, contrasted, and discussed. It is shown that coded reflector banks can be achieved with near-zero loss and still maintain good coding properties. Experimental results and results predicted by the coupling of modes model are presented for varying reflector designs and codes. A prototype 915-MHz POFC sensor tag is used as a wireless temperature sensor and the results are shown. PMID:22899121

  17. A fully silicon integrated SAW programmable transversal filter with programming\\/read-out circuitry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. van Rhijn; G. W. Lubking; J. C. Haartseii

    1991-01-01

    A new fully silicon integrated SAW programmable transversal filter (PTF) with active piezoelectric junction FET detectors in a layered configuration of ZnO-SiO2-Si is presented. The active detectors are located at the SiO2-Si interface, resulting in a propagation path free of wave-disturbing metal strips. The filter consists of 32 analog controllable active taps, and has two tracks of active detectors. The

  18. Ladder-type SAW filters using thinned density of randomly distributed "hot" electrodes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Che-Uk; Balashov, Sergey M; Plessky, Victor P; Nam, Chang-Woo; Lee, Kyu-Chul

    2010-11-01

    A new method for the design of relatively narrowband ladder-type SAW filters is proposed. It consists of the thinning procedure and consecutive randomization of positions of the remaining transductive periods inside the IDT to suppress undesirable additional passbands. A 0.9% fractional bandwidth filter on LiTaO(3) 42°-cut was designed and manufactured using the proposed approach. PMID:21041145

  19. [Multivariate analysis on subjective symptoms in forestry workers using chain saw].

    PubMed

    Nagase, H; Nakamura, H; Nakamura, H; Nohara, S; Miura, K; Ohnishi, T

    1991-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between the prevalence of subjective symptoms in workers using vibrating tools and the duration of chain saw operation and to examine whether the symptoms were relevant to factors other than the usage of vibrating tools. The statistical model of multivariate analysis was adapted to analyze individual data on the subjective symptoms of 317 chain saw operators. The obtained results were as follows: 1. In analysis of covariance, age-adjusted operating year in workers with peripheral circulatory, peripheral neurological and musculoskeletal disturbances was significantly longer than that without such disturbances. For these disturbances, partial regression coefficients of operating year were significantly high in multiple regression analysis. These results show that these disturbances and age-adjusted operating year are mutually closely related. 2. Multiple regression analysis showed that the partial regression coefficients of both operating year and age were low for nine symptoms, i.e. dulling sense of touch, joint pain, headache, dizziness and/or tinnitus, profuse sweating, discomfort of stomach, palpitation and/or dyspnea, hearing disturbance and lumbago. These results suggest that such symptoms were not related to either age or chain saw operation. 3. The results of principal component analysis were visualized in three-dimensional space in order to evaluate the relationships among the symptoms. The analysis showed that peripheral circulatory and neurological disturbances appeared independently and that general symptoms such as easy fatigability, headache, forgetfulness, vertigo and/or tinnitus, easy irritability, sleep disorder, profuse sweating, discomfort of stomach, palpitation and/or dyspnea, shoulder stiffness, hearing disturbance and lumbago consisted of four independent groups. Each group has no relationship with duration of chain saw operation. This suggests other harmful factors of the groups play a role in the prevalence of the symptoms. PMID:1753444

  20. A SAW-based group demodulator for onboard processing in communications satellites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael D. Shaw; Chun Loo; E. C. W. Wong

    1991-01-01

    An experimental 24-channel multicarrier (64-kb\\/s bit rate for each carrier) group demodulator using surface acoustic wave (SAW) chirp Fourier transform (CFT) processing is described. The demodulated data are combined into a single time division multiplexing (TDM) bit stream at the standard T1 rate of 1.544 Mb\\/s. Measured data on this M unit demonstrate superior performance (40-dB sidelobe suppression, 0.34-dB combined

  1. Development of saw palmetto ( Serenoa repens ) fruit and extract standard reference materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michele M. Schantz; Mary Bedner; Stephen E. Long; John L. Molloy; Karen E. Murphy; Barbara J. Porter; Karsten Putzbach; Catherine A. Rimmer; Katherine E. Sharpless; Jeanice B. Thomas; Stephen A. Wise; Laura J. Wood; James H. Yen; Takashi Yarita; Agnes NguyenPho; Wendy R. Sorenson; Joseph M. Betz

    2008-01-01

    As part of a collaboration with the National Institutes of Health’s Office of Dietary Supplements and the Food and Drug Administration’s\\u000a Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, the National Institute of Standards and Technology has developed two standard reference\\u000a materials (SRMs) representing different forms of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens), SRM 3250 Serenoa repens fruit and SRM 3251 Serenoa repens extract.

  2. Saw palmetto and lower urinary tract symptoms: What is the latest evidence?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew L. Avins; Stephen Bent

    2006-01-01

    The use of dietary supplements for treating a wide range of health conditions has grown rapidly in the United States. In the\\u000a field of men’s health, the most common dietary supplement used is an extract of the berry of the saw palmetto plant, with\\u000a which men commonly selfmedicate in order to treat lower urinary tract symptoms. Throughout the past two

  3. Potency of a novel saw palmetto ethanol extract, SPET-085, for inhibition of 5?-reductase II

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pilar Pais

    2010-01-01

    Introduction  The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent membrane protein 5?-reductase irreversibly catalyses the\\u000a conversion of testosterone to the most potent androgen, 5?-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). In humans, two 5?-reductase isoenyzmes\\u000a are expressed: type I and type II. Type II is found primarily in prostate tissue. Saw palmetto extract (SPE) has been widely\\u000a used for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to

  4. Saw palmetto and lower urinary tract symptoms: what is the latest evidence?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew L. Avins; Stephen Bent

    2006-01-01

    The use of dietary supplements for treating a wide range of health conditions has grown rapidly in the United States. In the\\u000a field of men’s health, the most common dietary supplement used is an extract of the berry of the saw palmetto plant, with\\u000a which men commonly self-medicate in order to treat lower urinary tract symptoms. Throughout the past two

  5. SAW PALMETTO BERRY EXTRACT INHIBITS CELL GROWTH AND COX2 EXPRESSION IN PROSTATIC CANCER CELLS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang H. Goldmann; Amita L. Sharma; Steve J. Currier; Paul D. Johnston; Ajay Rana; C. Pal Sharma

    2001-01-01

    The cytotoxicity of a commonly used material to alleviate the symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), Saw Palmetto Berry Extract (SPBE), was examined as neat oil using a set of prostatic cell lines; 267B-1, BRFF-41T and LNCaP. Proliferation of these prostatic derived cell lines is inhibited to different degrees when dosed for 3 days with SPBE. The amount of SPBE

  6. On the prediction of “buzz-saw” noise in acoustically lined aero-engine inlet ducts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. McAlpine; M. J Fisher

    2003-01-01

    Aero-engines operating with supersonic fan tip speeds generate an acoustic signature containing energy spread over a range of harmonics of the engine shaft rotation frequency. These harmonics are commonly known as the “buzz-saw” tones. The pressure signature attached to a supersonic ducted fan will be a sawtooth waveform. The non-linear propagation of a high-amplitude irregular sawtooth upstream inside the inlet

  7. Medial plantar nerve conduction velocities among patients with vibration syndrome due to chain-saw work

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hirata; H. Sakakibara; S. Yamada; T. Hashiguchi; N. Toibana; H. Koshiyama; H. Hirano

    1999-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined the effect of the vibration syndrome (VS) on the peripheral nervous system in the lower extremities.\\u000a Methods: Thirty-eight patients with VS due to previous exposure to vibration from chain-saw work and 55 age-matched controls were\\u000a examined for sensory nerve conduction velocities in the medial plantar nerve (SCV-P). The patient group was divided into two\\u000a subgroups,

  8. Comparative studies on polymer coated SAW and STW resonators for chemical gas sensor applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. D. Avramov; M. Rapp; A. Voigt; U. Stahl; M. Dirschka

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents and compares experimental data from performance tests on polymer coated 433 MHz surface acoustic wave (SAW) and 1 GHz surface transverse wave (STW) based two-port resonators for chemical gas sensor applications. The acoustic devices were coated with gas sensitive polymer films of different thickness' and viscoelastic properties as parylene C, poly-(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate) (PHEMA) and poly-(n-butyl-methacrylate) (PBMA). Then they

  9. Investigations on plasma-polymer-coated SAW and STW resonators for chemical gas-sensing applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivan D. Avramov; Shigeru Kurosawa; Michael Rapp; Piotr Krawczak; Ekaterina I. Radeva

    2001-01-01

    Results from gas probing with various analyte vapors on high-Q low-loss surface transverse wave (STW) and surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators coated with thin plasma-polymer films of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO), styrene, and allyl alcohol at different polymerization conditions are presented in this paper. At the same acoustic wavelength of 7.22 ?m and identical film thicknesses, HMDSO-coated STW devices feature substantially higher

  10. SAW-based radioisotope-powered wireless RFID\\/RF transponder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven Tin; Amit Lal

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate a microfabricated 63 Ni radioisotope-powered RFID transponder realized with a SAW (surface acoustic wave) device as the transmission frequency selector. The transponder is powered by a 1.5 milli-Ci 63 Ni source which has a half-life of 100 years. We have achieved a 5mW, 10-?s long, 100MHz carrier envelope, RF pulses which occur every 3 minutes, across a 50?

  11. Pseudo-SAW propagation on layered piezo-substrates: experiments and theory including film viscosity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. S. Hickernell; E. L. Adler

    1996-01-01

    The pseudo-SAW (PSAW) characteristics of sputtered glass films on substrates of 41° and 64° Y-X lithium niobate (LiNbO3) and 36° Y-X lithium tantalate (LiTaO3) have been measured from 30 MHz to above 1.0 GHz. Glass films in the 500 nm to 2000 nm thickness range were deposited by RF diode sputtering. Using suitably located thin-film aluminum interdigital electrode patterns at

  12. Temperature compensated LiTaO3\\/sapphire saw substrate for high power applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Miura; T. Matsuda; M. Ueda; Y. Satoh; O. Ikata; Y. Ebata; H. Takagi

    2005-01-01

    A new temperature-compensated SAW substrate for high power applications was developed based on bonded LiTaO3\\/sapphire. Because of its small thermal expansion coefficient, large Young's modulus, and large electric resistivity, sapphire is an ideal material for a support substrate. In addition, the large thermal conductivity of sapphire brings efficient heat dissipation. Surface activated bonding was used and optimized to strongly bond

  13. Auditory Surveys for Northern Saw-whet Owls (Aegolius acadicus) in Southern Wisconsin 1986-1996

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann B. Swengel; Scott R. Swengel

    During auditory surveys with tape playback between 13 February and 27 April during 1986-1996, our detection of calling by Northern Saw-whet Owls (Aegolius acadicus) varied dramatically and regularly in an apparent 4-year cycle: 1986, 1990, and 1994 were significantly high calling years; 1987-1989, 1992-1993, and 1995- 1996 were significantly low; and 1991 was intermediate. Calling was also significantly affected positively

  14. Application of Taguchi robust design method to SAW mass sensing device

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Der Ho Wu; Hsin Hua Chen

    2005-01-01

    It is essential that measurement systems provide an accurate and robust performance over a wide range of input conditions. This paper adopts Taguchi's signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) analysis to develop a robust design for the Rayleigh surface acoustic wave (SAW) gas sensing device operated in a conventional delay-line configuration. The goal of the present Taguchi design activity is to increase the

  15. En bloc petrosectomy using a Gigli saw for petroclival lesions. Technical note.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, T; Taniguchi, M; Suzuki, I; Kirino, T

    1995-09-01

    The authors report a new technique for en bloc petrosectomy using a Gigli saw as an alternative to drilling the petrous bone in the combined supra- and infratentorial approach or the transpetrosal-transtentorial approach. It is simple and easy and avoids postoperative cosmetic deformity. This technique has been performed in 11 petroclival lesions without injuring the semicircular canals, the cochlea, or the facial nerve. PMID:7666237

  16. Recent developments on surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors for harsh conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiopu, Paul; Chilibon, Irinela; Grosu, Neculai; Craciun, Alexandru

    2015-02-01

    The results of research into Surface Acoustic Waves (SAW) devices have been recognized for their efficiency and versatility in the electrical signals processing. Actual progress in the industrial application of piezoelectric materials such as Lithium Niobate (LiNbO3), Langasite (LGS), Lanthanum-Gallium Silicate La3Ga5SiO14 and Gallium Orthophosphate (GaPO4), allows the manufacturing of devices with piezoelectric performances, which overcome the limits obtained with quartz crystals. The single crystal materials have a long term high stability - near to infinite - and moreover, some of these have an excellent behavior with temperature variation. Today, GaPO4 with its properties is by far the best suited piezoelectric material to be used in sensor applications for machine monitoring and pressure measurements, at high temperatures. SAW micro devices based on GaPO4 operate at temperatures of up to 8000C. For a particular case, of harsh-environment applications, additional challenges need to be overcome, relating to substrate integrity and operation, thin film electrode fabrication, device packaging, and sensor interrogation. This paper reviews the novel progres in the area of (SAW) sensors for harsh conditions.

  17. Homologous recombination induced by doxazosin mesylate and saw palmetto in the Drosophila wing-spot test.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Katiane Cella; Dihl, Rafael Rodrigues; Lehmann, Mauricio; Reguly, Maria Luiza; Richter, Marc François; Andrade, Heloisa Helena Rodrigues de

    2013-03-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common tumor in men over 40 years of age. Acute urinary retention (AUR) is regarded as the most serious hazard of untreated BPH. ?-Blockers, such as doxazosin mesylate, and 5-? reductase inhibitors, such as finasteride, are frequently used because they decrease both AUR and the need for BPH-related surgery. An extract of the fruit from American saw palmetto plant has also been used as an alternative treatment for BPH. The paucity of information available concerning the genotoxic action of these compounds led us to assess their activity as inducers of different types of DNA lesions using the somatic mutation and recombination test in Drosophila melanogaster. Finasteride did not induce gene mutation, chromosomal mutation or mitotic recombination, which means it was nongenotoxic in our experimental conditions. On the other hand, doxazosin mesylate and saw palmetto induced significant increases in spot frequencies in trans-heterozygous flies. In order to establish the actual role played by mitotic recombination and by mutation in the genotoxicity observed, the balancer-heterozygous flies were also analyzed, showing no increment in the total spot frequencies in relation to the negative control, for both drugs. Doxazosin mesylate and saw palmetto were classified as specific inducers of homologous recombination in Drosophila proliferative cells, an event linked to the loss of heterozygosity. PMID:22015851

  18. Measurement and FEM/BEM simulation of transverse effects in SAW resonators on lithium tantalate.

    PubMed

    Solal, Marc; Chen, Li; Gratier, Julien

    2013-11-01

    It is well known that transverse effects contribute significantly to the loss of SAW resonators on lithium tantalate. In particular, for frequencies above resonance, the surface wave is not guided inside the transducer and radiates into the busbars. In addition, because bulk modes can also be excited, scalar models are not sufficient to accurately predict transverse effects. It is also known that the layout of a SAW resonator (electrode gaps and dummy electrodes) has a strong impact on the transverse effects. In this paper, a periodic FEM/BEM model is presented and is used to simulate the transverse effects for various SAW resonator layouts. Test devices matching those simulated are fabricated and measured; the measured results are compared with the simulated results and show good agreement. By analyzing the dispersion curves produced from the FEM/BEM model in the different regions of the device, several frequency bands corresponding to different transverse behaviors are identified. These results are consistent with the elastic displacements, also computed by the FEM/BEM model. It is further shown that guided conditions in the gap between the transducer and the busbar occur for a frequency range above resonance. This result is in agreement with measurements showing that resonators with smaller gaps exhibit smaller spurious responses in their admittance. PMID:24158295

  19. A SAW-based commutation signaling modem for broadband indoor wireless communication.

    PubMed

    Kipens, G; Leib, H; Saw, J; Nisbet, J; Dai, J D

    1998-01-01

    Commutation signaling is a bandwidth expanding modulation scheme that is robust to multipath induced intersymbol interference making it suitable for wireless digital communications. By using multipath diversity combining, commutation signaling exploits the time diversity that is inherent in a multipath propagation environment. This paper considers a surface acoustic wave (SAW) implementation of a commutation signaling modem for broadband indoor wireless communication. The modem employs differential encoding and a form of direct sequence spread spectrum modulation with the following specifications: data rate 40 Mb/sec, chip rate 200 MHz, and IF frequency 1 GHz. The differential coherent detector is a key element of a low cost, low complexity commutation signaling modem. A commutation signaling differential coherent detector has been implemented using SAW and RF integrated circuit (RF IC) technologies. The SAW devices have been fabricated on 1280-rotated Y-cut, X-propagating lithium niobate using approximately 1 micron line widths. RF IC technology Is used to implement the high-speed bilinear multipliers needed for differential coherent detection as well as the low-impedance buffers used to drive these multipliers. PMID:18244215

  20. Minimizing the bulk-wave scattering loss in dual-mode SAW devices.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weibiao; Zhang, Xiaodong; Shui, Yongan; Wu, Haodong; Zhang, De; Plessky, Victor P

    2006-01-01

    The losses arising from the scattering of SAW into bulk waves in the nonsynchronous areas of SAW devices are studied numerically using the boundary element method combined with the finite element method. As a reference structure, we use a typical one-port hiccup resonator on 42 degrees Y-LiTaO3. Strong scattering into bulk wave occurs in the central gap due to an abrupt change in periodicity. To reduce the scattering, we replace the gap with electrodes having reduced pitches. We show that it is possible to significantly increase the Q-factor of the resonator while keeping the resonant frequency unchanged. Two types of structures are studied: the "distributed" gap and the "accordion" gap. To minimize the bulk-wave scattering in dual-mode SAW filters, we replace the metallized gaps in the traditional filter with distributed gaps. We find an optimal combination of pitch and metallization ratio in the gaps, reducing the insertion loss by 0.3 dB. PMID:16471446

  1. Chemically sensitive polymer-mediated nanoporous alumina SAW sensors for the detection of vapor-phase analytes 

    E-print Network

    Perez, Gregory Paul

    2005-08-29

    We have investigated the chemical sensitivity of nanoporous (NP) alumina-coated surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices that have been surface-modified with polymeric mediating films. The research in this dissertation covers the refinement of the NP...

  2. Chemically sensitive polymer-mediated nanoporous alumina SAW sensors for the detection of vapor-phase analytes

    E-print Network

    Perez, Gregory Paul

    2005-08-29

    We have investigated the chemical sensitivity of nanoporous (NP) alumina-coated surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices that have been surface-modified with polymeric mediating films. The research in this dissertation covers the refinement of the NP...

  3. Thin, High Lifetime Silicon Wafers with No Sawing; Re-crystallization in a Thin Film Capsule

    SciTech Connect

    Emanuel Sachs

    2013-01-16

    The project fits within the area of renewable energy called photovoltaics (PV), or the generation of electricity directly from sunlight using semiconductor devices. PV has the greatest potential of any renewable energy technology. The vast majority of photovoltaic modules are made on crystalline silicon wafers and these wafers accounts for the largest fraction of the cost of a photovoltaic module. Thus, a method of making high quality, low cost wafers would be extremely beneficial to the PV industry The industry standard technology creates wafers by casting an ingot and then sawing wafers from the ingot. Sawing rendered half of the highly refined silicon feedstock as un-reclaimable dust. Being a brittle material, the sawing is actually a type of grinding operation which is costly both in terms of capital equipment and in terms of consumables costs. The consumables costs associated with the wire sawing technology are particularly burdensome and include the cost of the wire itself (continuously fed, one time use), the abrasive particles, and, waste disposal. The goal of this project was to make wafers directly from molten silicon with no sawing required. The fundamental concept was to create a very low cost (but low quality) wafer of the desired shape and size and then to improve the quality of the wafer by a specialized thermal treatment (called re-crystallization). Others have attempted to create silicon sheet by recrystallization with varying degrees of success. Key among the difficulties encountered by others were: a) difficulty in maintaining the physical shape of the sheet during the recrystallization process and b) difficulty in maintaining the cleanliness of the sheet during recrystallization. Our method solved both of these challenges by encapsulating the preform wafer in a protective capsule prior to recrystallization (see below). The recrystallization method developed in this work was extremely effective at maintaining the shape and the cleanliness of the wafer. In addition, it was found to be suitable for growing very large crystals. The equipment used was simple and inexpensive to operate. Reasonable solar cells were fabricated on re-crystallized material.

  4. Size Estimation of Fatigue Crack Appearing at Bolt Joints of Aluminum Alloy Plates by Synchronized SAW Measurement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Wagle; H. Kato

    2011-01-01

    The synchronized ultrasonic measurement with the surface acoustic wave (SAW) was carried out during the fatigue testing of\\u000a bolted specimens of the aluminum alloy in synchronization with a fatigue cycle. The stationary SAW measurement was also carried\\u000a out in the fatigue testing under pausing the fatigue tester at the mean load. In both measurements, the intensity of the scattered\\u000a wave

  5. INTERNATIONAL UNION OF OPERATING ENGINEERS NATIONAL HAZMAT PROGRAM - PORTER-CABLE CIRCULAR SAW OENHP: 2001-04, VERSION A

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2002-01-01

    Florida International University's (FIU) Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) evaluated five saws for their effectiveness in cutting specially prepared fiberglass-reinforced plywood crates. These crates were built as surrogates for crates that presently hold radioactively contaminated glove boxes at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Los Alamos facility. The Porter-Cable circular saw was assessed on August 15-16, 2001 (Porter-Cable No.1 and

  6. Non-leaky, piezoelectric, quasi-shear-horizontal type SAW on X-cut LiTaO3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken-ya Hashimoto; Masatsune Yamaguchi

    1988-01-01

    It is shown both theoretically and experimentally that, besides a conventional piezoelectric Rayleigh -type surface acoustic wave (R-SAW), there exists a nonleaky , piezoelectric, quasi-shear-horizontal-type surface acoustic wave (SH-SAW) on X-cut LiTaO3. Both of these waves are accompanied by all of the field components. This is very different from the situation on the substrate supporting a Bleustein-Gulyaev-Shimizu wave and a

  7. A layered SAW device based on ZnO\\/LiTaO3 for liquid media sensing applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Powell; Kourosh Kalantar-zadeh; Samuel Ippolito; Wojtek Wlodarski

    2002-01-01

    Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensors comprising a zinc oxide guiding layer deposited on a 36°-YX lithium tantalate substrate were developed. They were found to have greater mass sensitivity than other LiTaO3 based SAW sensors, such as the -SiO2\\/LiTaO3 configuration. In this paper, the fabrication of the ZnO\\/LiTaO3 sensor is described and micro-characterisation of the deposited films is presented. Sensitivity of

  8. An Electronic Nose Based on Hybrid MOS-SAW Sensors for Detection of Different Biomarkers of Lung Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Di; Yu, Kai; Wang, Yishan; Zhao, Cong; Wang, Lin; Wang, Ping

    2011-09-01

    An electronic nose based on hybrid MOS-SAW sensors was proposed for lung cancer diagnosis. The MOS gas sensors are used to detect the VOCs of low molecular weight, and the SAW sensors are adopted for the detection of VOCs of high molecular weight. This novel electronic nose provides a better precision in the diagnosis of lung cancer than the system adopting single detecting method we developed before.

  9. Abrupt climate change, greenhouse gases, and the bipolar see-saw

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kathleen Johnson

    In this activity, students work with paleoclimate proxy data (d18O, CH4, CO2)from the Byrd and GISP2 ice cores to investigate millennial-scale climate changes during the Last Glacial/Deglacial time periods. Students must prepare a publication quality plot of the data and answer several questions about the similarities and differences between the time-series (north-south phasing, amplitude, symmetry) and use this information to assess the bipolar see-saw mechanism for abrupt climate changes. Students are encouraged to read two journal articles for more information and to synthesize their results with other information from lectures and earlier readings.

  10. Degradation characteristics of cotton seed hulls and saw dust in high temperature geothermal brines

    SciTech Connect

    Kandarpa, V.; Vetter, O.J.

    1980-09-01

    Cotton seed hulls and saw dust have been under consideration as possible loss circulation and fluid loss agents in geothermal operations. The decompositions of these materials have been studied in high temperature (up to 450/sup 0/F) brine and deionized water. The decomposed solid residue from the various tests have been examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The liquid products have been analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC). The experimental results of the present work suggest that these materials are suitable loss circulation agents and fluid loss agents for geothermal applications.

  11. Achievable Performance and Effective Interrogator Design for SAW RFID Sensor Tags

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    For many NASA missions, remote sensing is a critical application that supports activities such as environmental monitoring, planetary science, structural shape and health monitoring, non-destructive evaluation, etc. The utility of the remote sensing devices themselves is greatly increased if they are passive that is, they do not require any on-board power supply such as batteries and if they can be identified uniquely during the sensor interrogation process. Additional passive sensor characteristics that enable greater utilization in space applications are small size and weight, long read ranges with low interrogator power, ruggedness, and operability in extreme environments (vacuum, extreme high/low temperature, high radiation, etc.) In this paper, we consider one very promising passive sensor technology, called surface acoustic wave (SAW) radio-frequency identification (RFID), that satisfies all of these criteria. Although SAW RFID tags have great potential for use in numerous space-based remote sensing applications, the limited collision resolution capability of current generation tags limits the performance in a cluttered sensing environment. That is, as more SAW-based sensors are added to the environment, numerous tag responses are superimposed at the receiver and decoding all or even a subset of the telemetry becomes increasingly difficult. Background clutter generated by reflectors other than the sensors themselves is also a problem, as is multipath interference and signal distortion, but the limiting factor in many remote sensing applications can be expected to be tag mutual interference. This problem may be greatly mitigated by proper design of the SAW tag waveform, but that remains an open research problem, and in the meantime, several other related questions remain to be answered including: What are the fundamental relationships between tag parameters such as bit-rate, time-bandwidth-product, SNR, and achievable collision resolution? What are the differences in optimal or near-optimal interrogator designs between noise-limited environments and interference-limited environments? What are the performance characteristics of different interrogator designs in term of parameters such as transmitter power level, range, and number of interfering tags? In this paper, we present the results of a research effort aimed at providing at least partial answers to all of these questions.

  12. Practical Study of Saw-tooth Wobble Addressing by Theoretical and Experimental Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minamino, Jun-ichi; Nakao, Masahito; Kimura, Naohiro; Shouji, Mamoru; Furumiya, Shigeru; Ishibashi, Hiromichi; Ohno, Eiji

    2002-03-01

    We have proposed a new concept of addressing in optical disks, the saw-tooth wobble (STW) groove. In this paper, the practical study of the STW by theoretical and experimental analyses is described. The address information corresponds to an even ordered-harmonic, so the write clock has no jitter factor. A 30 dB of carrier-to-noise ratio is sufficient for achieving 1E-2 of address error. Using a practical detection system, a radial tilt margin of more than ± 0.6 degree is achieved.

  13. The use of onabotulinum toxin A in the treatment of see-saw nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Cestari, Dean M; Chan, Kimberley; Tajouri, Nadja; Rizzo, Joseph F

    2010-01-01

    See-saw nystagmus (SSN) is an uncommon disorder that consists of cycles in which one eye rises and intorts while the other depresses and extorts, followed by reversal of the pattern. It typically causes debilitating symptoms including oscillopsia that interfere with activities of daily living. There are myriad etiologies, including stroke, tumors, trauma, and multiple sclerosis. Treatment options are limited and are often unsatisfactory. The authors report a case in which targeted injections of onabotulinum toxin A were used to decrease the torsional component of SSN and thus significantly improve the subjective symptoms of oscillopsia in a patient with acquired SSN. PMID:21158362

  14. Ten years after : the status of the saw-tooth pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meynadier, L.; Valet, J. P.

    2003-04-01

    One of the most surprising and exciting result emerging from paleomagnetic analyses of long sequences from the ODP Leg 138 in the eastern equatorial Pacific was the asymmetrical saw-toothed shape of the field intensity variations. The curves published ten years ago provided the first continuous record of relative paleointensity which covered the past 4 Ma across a long succession of geomagnetic reversals. Several controversies have been raised up regarding the fact that the field would decrease slowly before reversals and exhibit very fast recovery immediately after the transitions. The first one assumes that cumulative unremoved viscous components would be responsible for the observed decrease during most of the polarity intervals. A second possibility is to envisage a progressive reorientation of the magnetic grains caused by differential compaction. We will review the present status of these scenarii and show that, if the first hypothesis can be reasonably ruled out completely, there is yet no firm and definite observation that allows us to discard the second scenario. Ten years after, there is still no duplicate of the entire ODP sequence, but several individual records restricted to shorter time intervals show a similar saw-toothed pattern while some others do not. Because changes in the amplitude depend also on changes in the reponse function of the sediment (which we do not control) a clearer view should emerge by stacking a large number of records within the same time intervals (e.g. the period encompassing the most recent reversals). Records of paleointensity by other techniques are evidently necessary to validate the observations derived from sediments. All detailed records of absolute paleointensity obtained so far from sequences of overlying lava flows show the existence of weak field intensities before the transitions and very high values accompanying the post-transitional dipole recovery. Unfortunately, uncertainties in chronology do not allow us to compare directly the pattern of the most detailed sequences with the sedimentary records. It is also interesting to attempt a simple comparison between the database of absolute paleointensity for the past 4 Ma and the saw-tooth record. Finally another interesting picture should emerge shortly from the first long records of 10Be production. Whatever the final answer will be as to a geomagnetic or a rock magnetic origin for the saw-tooth, there is no doubt that this will have very important consequences which fully justifies all tracks of investigation.

  15. Treatment Assignment Guesses by Study Participants in a Double-Blind Dose Escalation Clinical Trial of Saw Palmetto

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Page; Kusek, John; Barry, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: This report assesses participant perception of treatment assignment in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of saw palmetto for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BCM). Design: Participants randomized to receive saw palmetto were instructed to take one 320?mg gelcap daily for the first 24 weeks, two 320?mg gelcaps daily for the second 24 weeks, and three 320?mg gelcaps daily for the third 24 weeks. Study participants assigned to placebo were instructed to take the same number of matching placebo gelcaps in each time period. At 24, 48, and 72 weeks postrandomization, the American Urological Association Symptom Index (AUA-SI) was administered and participants were asked to guess their treatment assignment. Settings: The study was conducted at 11 clinical centers in North America. Participants: Study participants were men, 45 years and older, with moderate to low severe BPH symptoms, randomized to saw palmetto (N=151) or placebo (N=155). Outcome measures: Treatment arms were compared with respect to the distribution of participant guesses of treatment assignment. Results: For participants assigned to saw palmetto, 22.5%, 24.7%, and 29.8% correctly thought they were taking saw palmetto, and 37.3%, 40.0%, and 44.4% incorrectly thought they were on placebo at 24, 48, and 72 weeks, respectively. For placebo participants, 21.8%, 27.4%, and 25.2% incorrectly thought they were on saw palmetto, and 41.6%, 39.9%, and 42.6% correctly thought they were on placebo at 24, 48, and 72 weeks, respectively. The treatment arms did not vary with respect to the distributions of participants who guessed they were on saw palmetto (p=0.823) or placebo (p=0.893). Participants who experienced an improvement in AUA-SI were 2.16 times more likely to think they were on saw palmetto. Conclusions: Blinding of treatment assignment was successful in this study. Improvement in BPH-related symptoms was associated with the perception that participants were taking saw palmetto. PMID:23383975

  16. Polymer coating behavior of Rayleigh-SAW resonators with gold electrode structure for gas sensor applications.

    PubMed

    Avramov, Ivan D; Länge, Kerstin; Rupp, Swen; Rapp, Bastian; Rapp, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Results from systematic polymer coating experiments on surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators and coupled resonator filters (CRF) on ST-cut quartz with a corrosion-proof electrode structure entirely made of gold (Au) are presented and compared with data from similar SAW devices using aluminium (Al) electrodes. The recently developed Au devices are intended to replace their earlier Al counterparts in sensor systems operating in highly reactive chemical gas environments. Solid parylene C and soft poly[chlorotrifluoroethylene-co-vinylidene fluoride] (PCFV) polymer films are deposited under identical conditions onto the surface of Al and Au devices. The electrical performance of the Parylene C coated devices is monitored online during film deposition. The PCVF coated devices are evaluated after film deposition. The experimental data show that the Au devices can stand up to 40% thicker solid films for the same amount of loss increase than the Al devices and retain better resonance and phase characteristics. The frequency sensitivities of Au and Al devices to parylene C deposition are nearly identical. After coating with soft PCFV sensing film, the Au devices provide up to two times higher gas sensitivity when probed with cooling agent, octane, or tetrachloroethylene. PMID:17225810

  17. SAW arrays using dendrimers and pattern recognition to detect volatile organics

    SciTech Connect

    Ricco, A.J.; Osbourn, G.C.; Bartholomew, J.W.; Martinez, R.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Crooks, R.M.; Garcia, M.E.; Peez, R. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Spindler, R. [Michigan Molecular Inst., Midland, MI (United States); Kaiser, M.E. [Dendritech, Inc., Midland, MI (United States)

    1998-08-01

    chemical sensor arrays eliminate the need to develop a high-selectivity material for every analyte. The application of pattern recognition to the simultaneous responses of different microsensors enables the identification and quantification of multiple analytes with a small array. Maximum materials diversity is the surest means to create an effective array for many analytes, but using a single material family simplifies coating development. Here the authors report the successful combination of an array of six dendrimer films with mass-sensitive SAW (surface acoustic wave) sensors to correctly identify 18 organic analytes over wide concentration ranges, with 99.5% accuracy. The set of materials for the array is selected and the results evaluated using Sandia`s Visual-Empirical Region of Influence (VERI) pattern recognition (PR) technique. The authors evaluated eight dendrimer films and one self-assembled monolayer (SAM) as potential SAW array coatings. The 18 organic analytes they examined were: cyclohexane, n-hexane, i-octane, kerosene, benzene, toluene, chlorobenzene, carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene, methanol, n-propanol, pinacolyl alcohol, acetone, methyl isobutyl ketone, dimethylmethylphosphate, diisopropylmethylphosphonate, tributylphosphate, and water.

  18. SoilSaw{trademark} demonstration. Final report, September 1992--January 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Saugier, K.; Isaac, R.E.

    1996-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has identified leaking underground storage tanks and buried mixed waste at numerous sites within the DOE complex. Preventing these wastes from entering the environment is a challenging task. One method of preventing waste migration is to isolate the contaminants using subsurface containment barriers. Isolation and containment can be accomplished by both in situ and ex situ methods. This report describes a novel in situ construction method of forming vertical containment barriers (slurry walls) using the SoilSaw{trademark} Barrier System. The SoilSaw{trademark} Barrier System is shown to be a feasible process for constructing subsurface vertical containment barriers to depths of fifty feet. The process is most efficient in sandy soil (including free flowing sand) with barrier construction rates of over 130 square feet per minute. Productivity diminishes to approximately 30 square feet per minute as soils become harder and more cohesive. The present hardware is designed to form a barrier of approximately 12 inch in width. Additional barrier widths can be constructed with this technology by application of wider jet heads. The requirement for a varied arrangement of barrier widths is an increase in hydraulic horse power and additional jet heads.

  19. Comparison of the sensitive property between soman and its simulant DMMP by hydrogen-bond acidic polymer coated SAW sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang; Du, Xiaosong; Long, Yin; Jiang, Yadong

    2014-08-01

    Hydrogen-bond acidic (HBA) polymers are widely used for the detection of dimethyl methyl phosphonate (DMMP, a simulant of real nerve agents) based on surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors. This paper presented an HBA polymer PLF, and subsequently the polymer was dissolved into chloroform and spray-coated on a SAW device to fabricate a gas sensor. Then the sensor was equipped into a SAW test platform to investigate its sensitive property to soman vapor and its simulant DMMP at the concentrations below 20 mg/m3. Results revealed that the sensor showed high sensitivity to the analyte vapors, furthermore, the response of the sensor to soman vapor was relatively smaller and slower than that to DMMP. Tests to some common interference vapors were studied at the concentration of 10 mg/m3, and the results indicated that the sensor showed a good selective property.

  20. Approximate estimates of limiting errors of passive wireless SAW sensing with DPM.

    PubMed

    Shmaliy, Yuriy S; Ibarra-Manzano, Oscar; Andrade-Lucio, Jose; Rojas-Laguna, Roberto

    2005-10-01

    This paper discusses approximate statistical estimates of limiting errors associated with single differential phase measurement of a time delay (phase difference) between two reflectors of the passive surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor. The remote wireless measurement is provided at the ideal coherent receiver using the maximum likelihood function approach. Approximate estimates of the mean error, mean square error, estimate variance, and Cramér-Rao bound are derived along with the error probability to exceed a threshold in a wide range of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) values. The von Mises/Tikhonov distribution is used as an approximation for the phase difference and differential phase diversity. Simulation of the random phase difference and limiting errors also is applied. PMID:16382631

  1. Evaluation of Residual Stresses Using Laser-Generated SAWs on Surface of Laser-Welding Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Li-ming; Li, Jia; Ni, Chen-yin; Shen, Zhong-hua; Ni, Xiao-wu

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, residual stresses in laser-welding plates are studied by both numerical simulation and experiment based on laser ultrasonics. First, a three-dimensional finite-element model is developed to predict temperature distributions and thermo-structure response during the laser-welding process of an aluminum alloy plate, and the residual stresses around the joint are described from structure analysis. After that, experiments based on surface acoustic waves generated by a pulsed laser are carried out to determine the velocity distribution of SAWs around the joint, from which the distribution of main residual stresses are calculated according to acoustoelastic theory. By comparing the thermal-structure model results with the measurements, it is found that the numerical simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  2. Strict Authentication Watermarking with JPEG Compression (SAW-JPEG) for Medical Images

    E-print Network

    Zain, Jasni Mohamad

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a strict authentication watermarking for medical images. In this scheme, we define region of interest (ROI) by taking the smallest rectangle around an image. The watermark is generated from hashing the area of interest. The embedding region is considered to be outside the region of interest as to preserve the area from distortion as a result from watermarking. The strict authentication watermarking is robust to some degree of JPEG compression (SAW-JPEG). JPEG compression will be reviewed. To embed a watermark in the spatial domain, we have to make sure that the embedded watermark will survive JPEG quantization process. The watermarking scheme, including data embedding, extracting and verifying procedure were presented. Experimental results showed that such a scheme could embed and extract the watermark at a high compression rate. The watermark is robust to a high compression rate up to 90.6%. The JPEG image quality threshold is 60 for the least significant bit embedding. The image quality ...

  3. Analysis of the frequency response of a dispersive IDT\\/ZnO\\/sapphire SAW filter using effective permittivity and the coupling of modes model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yung-Yu Chen; Tsung-Tsong Wu; Tsung-Tai Chou

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a modified coupling of modes (COM) approach, which can be used in the practical design of a layered surface acoustic wave (SAW) filter. Unlike the half-space SAW filter, frequency dependences of the COM parameters are included by using the effective permittivity approach of surface waves. Owing to the introduction of the COM model, the effects

  4. Least Squares Approximation As we saw in Chapter 5 we can interpret radial basis function interpolation as a con-

    E-print Network

    Fasshauer, Greg

    saw earlier, the minimum norm interpolant is obtained by solving the interpolation equations alone(xj) - fj)2 . (6.6) The quadratic form controls the smoothness of the fitting function and the least squares a penalized least squares formulation is especially useful if the data fi cannot 63 #12;be completely trusted

  5. Effect of Channel Catfish Ictalurus Punctatus Egg Mass Loading Rate on Performance of the “See-Saw” Incubator

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The “See-Saw” is a vertical-lift incubator that increases water circulation around and through channel catfish egg masses. Baskets in the incubator move up and down on racks in conventional hatchery troughs, raising the rack in one trough while lowering the rack in the adjacent trough. Egg masses ...

  6. STUDY OF ACOUSTICAL AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF ALN FILMS FOR SAW AND BAW DEVICES: CORRELATION BETWEEN THESE PROPERTIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. B. ASSOUAR; O. ELMAZRIA; M. EL HAKIKI; P. ALNOT

    2006-01-01

    Polycrystalline aluminium nitride films were deposited on Si(100) substrates by RF reactive sputtering method. We have carried out experiments to evaluate the effect of stress in AlN thin films on the surface acoustic wave (SAW) velocity by studying AlN films with various thickness (100 nm to 3 ? m). Experimental results show a clear dependence of the residual stress in

  7. The last century saw an explosion in activity in every avenue of materials science. As the understanding

    E-print Network

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    The last century saw an explosion in activity in every avenue of materials science materials chips' by Xiang and Schultz6, and the field of combinatorial materials science still appearsDepartment of Materials Science and Engineering and Center for Superconductivity Research, University

  8. Tissue effects of saw palmetto and finasteride: use of biopsy cores for in situ quantification of prostatic androgens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard S Marks; David L Hess; Frederick J Dorey; Maria Luz Macairan; Paul Bryan Cruz Santos; Varro E Tyler

    2001-01-01

    Objectives. To determine the effects of a saw palmetto herbal blend (SPHB) compared with finasteride on prostatic tissue androgen levels and to evaluate needle biopsies as a source of tissue for such determinations.Methods. Prostate levels of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) were measured on 5 to 10-mg biopsy specimens (18-gauge needle cores) in three groups of men with symptomatic benign prostatic

  9. Saw palmetto alters nuclear measurements reflecting DNA content in men with symptomatic BPH: evidence for a possible molecular mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert W. Veltri; Leonard S. Marks; M. Craig Miller; Wes D. Bales; John Fan; Maria Luz Macairan; Jonathan I. Epstein; Alan W. Partin

    2002-01-01

    ObjectivesTo examine the nuclear chromatin characteristics of epithelial cells, looking for an SPHB-mediated effect on nuclear DNA structure and organization. Saw palmetto herbal blend (SPHB) causes contraction of prostate epithelial cells and suppression of tissue dihydrotestosterone levels in men with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia, but a fundamental mechanism remains unknown.

  10. Development of liquid chromatographic methods for the determination of phytosterols in Standard Reference Materials containing saw palmetto

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Bedner; Michele M. Schantz; Katherine E. Sharpless

    2008-01-01

    Liquid chromatographic (LC) methods using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization\\/mass spectrometric (APCI–MS) detection were developed for the separation and analysis of the phytosterols campesterol, cycloartenol, lupenone, lupeol, ?-sitosterol, and stigmasterol. Brassicasterol and cholesterol were also included for investigation as internal standards. The methods were used to identify and quantify the phytosterols in each of two Serenoa repens (saw palmetto) Standard Reference

  11. Dual SAW sensor technique for determining mass and modulus changes in thin silicate films during gas adsorption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. L. Hietala; V. M. Hietala; C. J. Brinker

    2000-01-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors, which are sensitive to a variety of surface changes, have been widely used for chemical and physical sensing. The ability to control or compensate for the many surface forces has been instrumental in collecting valid data. In cases where it is not possible to neglect certain effects, such as frequency drift with temperature, methods such

  12. Acidbase properties of lignins from the medicinal plants roseroot stonecrop Rhodiola rosea and saw-wort Serratula coronata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. A. Belyi; L. S. Kocheva; A. P. Karmanov; K. G. Bogolitsyn

    2010-01-01

    The acid-base properties of dioxane lignins from the roseroot stonecrop (Rhodiola rosea L.) and the saw-wort (Serratula coronata L.) have been studied by spectrophotometrically determining the ionization constants for phenol hydroxyl groups. A correlation\\u000a between the molecular masses of the fractions of lignins and their acid-base properties has been established.

  13. Theoretical and experimental mass-sensitivity analysis of polymer-coated SAW and STW resonators for gas sensing applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ventzislav M. Yantchev; Vesseline L. Strashilov; Michael Rapp; Ullrich Stahl; I. D. Avramov

    2002-01-01

    Polymer-coated surface transverse waves (STW) resonators have recently been successfully studied for organic gas sensing applications. The first results indicate increased absolute and even relative sensitivity as compared to similar resonators with surface acoustic waves (SAW). However, the gain in sensitivity is accompanied by the adverse effect of an increased attenuation and the advantage frame is difficult to establish quantitatively.

  14. Stabilization of Fundamental-Frequency Microwave Oscillators for Radio-Relay Systems -- Microwave BAW and SAW Oscillators (Panel)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Henaff

    1978-01-01

    High frequency fundamental operation up to 2-3 GHz is possible with both surface acoustic wave (SAW) and bulk acoustic wave (BAW) oscillators. The present characteristics and the estimated future capabilities are described in view of radio-relay communication requirements.

  15. AlN films deposited by dc magnetron sputtering and high power impulse magnetron sputtering for SAW applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ait Aissa, K.; Achour, A.; Elmazria, O.; Simon, Q.; Elhosni, M.; Boulet, P.; Robert, S.; Djouadi, M. A.

    2015-04-01

    In this work, aluminium nitride (AlN) films were deposited on silicon substrates buffered by an epitaxial AlN thin film for surface acoustic wave (SAW) applications. The films were deposited by dc magnetron sputtering (dcMS) and high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) deposition techniques. The structural properties of AlN films were investigated using x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. In both cases of films deposited by dcMS and HiPIMS, the XRD results showed that the obtained films are oriented, with full width at half maximum rocking curves of around 1°. Raman spectroscopy revealed higher residual stress relaxation in the AlN epilayers grown by HiPIMS compared to AlN grown by dcMS, highlighted by a blue shift in the E2(high) Raman mode. The SAW measurements indicated an insertion loss of AlN-SAW devices of about 53 and 35?dB for the AlN films deposited by dcMS and HiPIMS respectively. The relation between the structural properties of AlN and the characteristics of AlN-SAW devices were correlated and discussed.

  16. DNA immobilization and SAW response in ZnO nanotips grown on LiNbO3 substrates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zheng; Emanetoglu, Nuri William; Saraf, Gaurav; Chen, Yimin; Wu, Pan; Zhong, Jian; Lu, Yicheng; Chen, Jingqiu; Mirochnitchenko, Oleg; Inouye, Masayori

    2006-04-01

    DNA immobilization enhancement is demonstrated in a structure consisting of ZnO nanotips on 128 degrees Y-cut LiNbO3. The ZnO nanotips are grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on the top of a SiO2 layer that is deposited and patterned on the LiNbO3 SAW delay path. The effects of ZnO nanotips on the SAW response are investigated. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy are used to analyze the ZnO nanotips, which are of single crystalline quality, and they are uniformly aligned with their c-axis perpendicular to the substrate surface. The photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of the ZnO nanotips shows strong near bandedge transition with insignificant deep level emission, confirming their good optical property. DNA immobilization enhancement is experimentally validated by radioactive labeling tests and SAW response changes. The ZnO nanotips enhance the DNA immobilization by a factor of 200 compared to ZnO film with flat surface. DNA hybridization with complementary and noncomplementary second strand DNA oligonucleotides is used to study the selective binding of the structure. This device structure possesses the advantages of both traditional SAW sensors and ZnO nanostructures. PMID:16615583

  17. JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY, VOL. LT-2, NO.6, DECEMBER 1984 917 Timing Recovery with SAW Transversal

    E-print Network

    Chamzas, Christodoulos

    performanceand thecharacteristics of transversal SAW filters, which have afinite impulse responseand non-minimum the ringing time of a minimum-phase(resonator) filter with thesame 3-dB fractional bandw?dth ("l/Q"). The reasons and the system implications are discussed in Sec- tion IV. Finally, the moderate temperature

  18. Reducing the risk of injury from table saw use: the potential benefits and costs of automatic protection.

    PubMed

    Graham, John D; Chang, Joice

    2015-02-01

    The use of table saws in the United States is associated with approximately 28,000 emergency department (ED) visits and 2,000 cases of finger amputation per year. This article provides a quantitative estimate of the economic benefits of automatic protection systems that could be designed into new table saw products. Benefits are defined as reduced health-care costs, enhanced production at work, and diminished pain and suffering. The present value of the benefits of automatic protection over the life of the table saw are interpreted as the switch-point cost value, the maximum investment in automatic protection that can be justified by benefit-cost comparison. Using two alternative methods for monetizing pain and suffering, the study finds switch-point cost values of $753 and $561 per saw. These point estimates are sensitive to the values of inputs, especially the average cost of injury. The various switch-point cost values are substantially higher than rough estimates of the incremental cost of automatic protection systems. Uncertainties and future research needs are discussed. PMID:25082447

  19. Preventing arcing damage on radio frequency device wafer by controlling ESD resistivity level of water for saw and wash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. A. Dela Cruz; M. L. D. Marcelo; M. A. B. Borlongan

    2007-01-01

    The current electrostatic discharge (ESD) resistivity limit of water during the wafer saw and wash process is found to induce polyimide tribocharging. Accumulated static energy discharges on metal 6 of the Radio Frequency (RF) device, in the form of electrical arcs, cause dielectric passivation layer breakdown and Electrical Overstress (EOS). To solve this problem, an experiment is done to determine

  20. SAW: A Method to Identify Splicing Events from RNA-Seq Data Based on Splicing Fingerprints

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Kang; Fermin, Damian

    2010-01-01

    Splicing event identification is one of the most important issues in the comprehensive analysis of transcription profile. Recent development of next-generation sequencing technology has generated an extensive profile of alternative splicing. However, while many of these splicing events are between exons that are relatively close on genome sequences, reads generated by RNA-Seq are not limited to alternative splicing between close exons but occur in virtually all splicing events. In this work, a novel method, SAW, was proposed for the identification of all splicing events based on short reads from RNA-Seq. It was observed that short reads not in known gene models are actually absent words from known gene sequences. An efficient method to filter and cluster these short reads by fingerprint fragments of splicing events without aligning short reads to genome sequences was developed. Additionally, the possible splicing sites were also determined without alignment against genome sequences. A consensus sequence was then generated for each short read cluster, which was then aligned to the genome sequences. Results demonstrated that this method could identify more than 90% of the known splicing events with a very low false discovery rate, as well as accurately identify, a number of novel splicing events between distant exons. PMID:20706591

  1. Pharmacological effects of saw palmetto extract in the lower urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Mayumi; Ito, Yoshihiko; Fujino, Tomomi; Abe, Masayuki; Umegaki, Keizo; Onoue, Satomi; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Yamada, Shizuo

    2009-03-01

    Saw palmetto extract (SPE), an extract from the ripe berries of the American dwarf palm, has been widely used as a therapeutic remedy for urinary dysfunction due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in Europe. Numerous mechanisms of action have been proposed for SPE, including the inhibition of 5alpha-reductase. Today, alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists and muscarinic cholinoceptor antagonists are commonly used in the treatment of men with voiding symptoms secondary to BPH. The improvement of voiding symptoms in patients taking SPE may arise from its binding to pharmacologically relevant receptors in the lower urinary tract, such as alpha(1)-adrenoceptors, muscarinic cholinoceptors, 1,4-dihyropyridine receptors and vanilloid receptors. Furthermore, oral administration of SPE has been shown to attenuate the up-regulation of alpha(1)-adrenoceptors in the rat prostate induced by testosterone. Thus, SPE at clinically relevant doses may exert a direct effect on the pharmacological receptors in the lower urinary tract, thereby improving urinary dysfunction in patients with BPH and an overactive bladder. SPE does not have interactions with co-administered drugs or serious adverse events in blood biochemical parameters, suggestive of its relative safety, even with long-term intake. Clinical trials (placebo-controlled and active-controlled trials) of SPE conducted in men with BPH were also reviewed. This review should contribute to the understanding of the pharmacological effects of SPE in the treatment of patients with BPH and associated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). PMID:19262550

  2. Isolation and pharmacological characterization of fatty acids from saw palmetto extract.

    PubMed

    Abe, Masayuki; Ito, Yoshihiko; Suzuki, Asahi; Onoue, Satomi; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Yamada, Shizuo

    2009-04-01

    Saw palmetto extract (SPE) has been widely used for the treatment of lower urinary-tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia. The mechanisms of pharmacological effects of SPE include the inhibition of 5alpha-reductase, anti-androgenic effects, anti-proliferative effects, and anti-inflammatory effects. Previously, we showed that SPE bound actively to alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic and 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel (1,4-DHP) receptors in the prostate and bladder of rats, whereas its active constituents have not been fully clarified. The present investigation is aimed to identify the main active components contained in hexane and diethyl ether extracts of SPE with the use of column chromatography and preparative HPLC. Based on the binding activity with alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic, and 1,4-DHP receptors, both isolated oleic and lauric acids were deduced to be active components. Authentic samples of oleic and lauric acids also exhibited similar binding activities to these receptors as the fatty acids isolated from SPE, consistent with our findings. In addition, oleic and lauric acids inhibited 5alpha-reductase, possibly leading to therapeutic effects against benign prostatic hyperplasia and related lower urinary-tract symptoms. PMID:19359798

  3. Characterizing components of the Saw Palmetto Berry Extract (SPBE) on prostate cancer cell growth and traction.

    PubMed

    Scholtysek, Carina; Krukiewicz, Aleksandra A; Alonso, José-Luis; Sharma, Karan P; Sharma, Pal C; Goldmann, Wolfgang H

    2009-02-13

    Saw Palmetto Berry Extract (SPBE) is applied for prostate health and treatment of urinary tract infections, nonbacterial prostitis and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) in man. An assumption is that SPBE affects tumor cell progression and migration in breast and prostate tissue. In this work, DU-145 cells were used to demonstrate that SPBE and its sterol components, beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol, inhibit prostate cancer growth by increasing p53 protein expression and also inhibit carcinoma development by decreasing p21 and p27 protein expression. In the presence of cholesterol, these features are not only reversed but increased significantly. The results show for the first time the potential of SPBE, beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol as potential anti-tumor agents. Since the protein p53 is also regarded as nuclear matrix protein facilitating actin cytoskeletal binding, 2D tractions were measured. The cell adhesion strength in the presence of SPBE, beta-sitosterol and cholesterol and the observation was that the increase in p53 expression triggered an increase in the intracellular force generation. The results suggest a dual function of p53 in cells. PMID:19059205

  4. Characterizing components of the Saw Palmetto Berry Extract (SPBE) on prostate cancer cell growth and traction

    SciTech Connect

    Scholtysek, Carina; Krukiewicz, Aleksandra A. [Center for Medical Physics and Technology, Biophysics Group, Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Henke Str. 91, Erlangen 91052 (Germany); Alonso, Jose-Luis [Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA 02129 (United States); Sharma, Karan P.; Sharma, Pal C. [Boston BioProducts, Inc., Worcester, MA 01604 (United States); Goldmann, Wolfgang H. [Center for Medical Physics and Technology, Biophysics Group, Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Henke Str. 91, Erlangen 91052 (Germany)], E-mail: wgoldmann@biomed.uni-erlangen.de

    2009-02-13

    Saw Palmetto Berry Extract (SPBE) is applied for prostate health and treatment of urinary tract infections, nonbacterial prostitis and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) in man. An assumption is that SPBE affects tumor cell progression and migration in breast and prostate tissue. In this work, DU-145 cells were used to demonstrate that SPBE and its sterol components, {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol, inhibit prostate cancer growth by increasing p53 protein expression and also inhibit carcinoma development by decreasing p21 and p27 protein expression. In the presence of cholesterol, these features are not only reversed but increased significantly. The results show for the first time the potential of SPBE, {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol as potential anti-tumor agents. Since the protein p53 is also regarded as nuclear matrix protein facilitating actin cytoskeletal binding, 2D tractions were measured. The cell adhesion strength in the presence of SPBE, {beta}-sitosterol and cholesterol and the observation was that the increase in p53 expression triggered an increase in the intracellular force generation. The results suggest a dual function of p53 in cells.

  5. Neutrino Masses at LHC: Minimal Lepton Flavour Violation in Type-III See-saw

    E-print Network

    Eboli, O J P; Gonzalez-Garcia, M C

    2011-01-01

    We study the signatures of minimal lepton flavour violation in a simple Type-III see--saw model in which the flavour scale is given by the new fermion triplet mass and it can be naturally light enough to be produced at the LHC. In this model the flavour structure of the couplings of the triplet fermions to the Standard Model leptons can be reconstructed from the neutrino mass matrix and the smallness of the neutrino mass is associated with a tiny violation of total lepton number. Characteristic signatures of this model include suppressed lepton number violation decays of the triplet fermions, absence of displaced vertices in their decays and predictable lepton flavour composition of the states produced in their decays. We study the observability of these signals in the processes $pp\\rightarrow 3\\ell + 2j +\\Sla{E_T}$ and $pp\\rightarrow 2\\ell + 4j$ with $\\ell =e$ or $\\mu$ taking into account the present low energy data on neutrino physics and the corresponding Standard Model backgrounds. Our results indicate th...

  6. Study of flow induced by sine wave and saw tooth plasma actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhifeng; Wang, Lianze; Fu, Song

    2011-11-01

    The effect of plasma actuator that uses saw-tooth or sine-wave shape electrodes on boundary layer flows is experimentally investigated. The measurement results are compared with a corresponding standard configuration (conventional design using two rectangular strip electrodes)—the actuator that produces a nearly two-dimensional horizontal wall jet upon actuation. PIV measurements are used to characterize the actuators in a quiescent chamber. Operating in a steady manner, the new actuators result in the formation of streamwise and spanwise vortices. That is to say, the new actuators render the plasma actuators inducing three-dimensional variations in the shear layer, offering significant flexibility in flow control. The affected flowfield with the new actuators is significantly larger than that with the conventional linear actuators. While the conventional linear actuators affect primarily the boundary layer flow on a scale of about 1 cm above the wall, the new actuators affect the near wall region at a significantly larger scale. This new design broadens the applicability and enhances the flow control effects and it is potentially a more efficient flow control device.

  7. TALSPEAK CURVE: AN ILLUSTRATION OF A SEE-SAW EFFECT IN SEPARATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Zalupski; Leigh Martin

    2010-11-01

    A superbly balanced thermodynamic struggle for metal ion coordination by aqueous aminopolycarboxylate reagent, DTPA, and non-aqueous organophosphorous phase transfer reagent, HDEHP, affords the separation of trivalent actinides from trivalent lanthanides under the umbrella of the Talspeak liquid-liquid distribution process. This thermodynamic relationship has been linked to an analogous “see-saw” behavior, where the balance is distorted when either of the key complexing players is subject to adverse conditions that interfere with their optimal operation. The thermodynamic balance is tipped in favour of HDEHP whenever increased acidity of the aqueous solution out-competes the metal ion complexation by aqueous complexing agent. Also enhanced steric crowding may switch-off efficient coordination of the metal ion. When HDEHP is depolymerised due to the presence of aliphatic alcohol in the organic phase its phase transferring power is diminished. Such complication paves way for DTPA to establish its dominance on the distribution of trivalent metal ions in the 2-phase system. The illustrated sensitivity of the thermodynamic balance between DTPA and HDEHP in Talspeak-type systems may serve as informative tool when studying less-predictable realms of Talspeak chemistry.

  8. Precise design technique for a SAW-resonator-coupled filter on 36° YX-LiTaO3 for use in a GSM SAW duplexer module for satisfying all GSM system specifications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Shibagaki; K. Sakiyama; M. Hikita

    1996-01-01

    A miniature low-loss high-performance surface acoustic wave (SAW) duplexer module consisting of a receiver top filter (R1), transmitter final stage filter (T1), lumped matching-circuit elements and lumped phase-shift circuits has been developed, and its use in the Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) is described as a design example. The complete duplexer module has an insertion loss of less than

  9. Dual SAW sensor technique for determining mass and modulus changes in thin silicate films during gas adsorption

    SciTech Connect

    Hietala, S.L.; Hietala, V.M.; Brinker, C.J.

    2000-01-10

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors, which are sensitive to a variety of surface changes, have been widely used for chemical and physical sensing. The ability to control or compensate for the many surface forces has been instrumental in collecting valid data. In cases where it is not possible to neglect certain effects, such as frequency drift with temperature, methods such as the dual sensor technique have been utilized. This paper describes a novel use of a dual sensor technique, using two sensor materials, Quartz and GaAs, to separate out the contributions of mass and modulus of the frequency change during gas adsorption experiments. The large modulus change in the film calculated using this technique, and predicted by the Gassmann equation, provide a greater understanding of the challenges of SAW sensing.

  10. A forest without trees: Development of high-surface-area materials for enhanced-sensitivity SAW arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Yelton, W.G.; Ricco, A.J.; Staton, A.W.

    1998-08-01

    Chemical sensor arrays are an alternative to the tedious development of highly specific single-analyte detectors. Recent efforts have focused on the chemical and physical diversity of interface materials for SAW sensor arrays. However, the issues of wide dynamic range and high sensitivity must also be addressed for sensor arrays to compete in applications requiring low detection limits. Because SAW devices respond in proportion to change in mass per nominal unit area of the device surface, sensitivity is enhanced by surface modification with high-area, thin-film coating materials: a greater mass of analyte is adsorbed at a given ambient concentration. The authors are exploring several classes of electrochemically prepared high-area films, materials whose formulations and processing are well documented for applications other than chemical sensors. They present results from films formed by anodization, chemical conversion, and electroplating, yielding surface area enhancements as high as 170x.

  11. INTERNATIONAL UNION OF OPERATING ENGINEERS NATIONAL HAZMAT PROGRAM - PORTER-CABLE CIRCULAR SAW OENHP: 2001-04, VERSION A

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-01-15

    Florida International University's (FIU) Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) evaluated five saws for their effectiveness in cutting specially prepared fiberglass-reinforced plywood crates. These crates were built as surrogates for crates that presently hold radioactively contaminated glove boxes at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Los Alamos facility. The Porter-Cable circular saw was assessed on August 15-16, 2001 (Porter-Cable No.1 and Porter-Cable No.2, respectively). During the FIU test of efficacy, a team from the Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program (OENHP) evaluated the occupational safety and health issues associated with this technology. The Porter-Cable saw is a straightforward machine for cutting wood of varying thickness. The blade is fully guarded with a fixed upper and a lower retractable guard. The lower guard retracts as the blade engages the work piece. The unit is operated with an on/off guarded trigger switch and is supported with a handgrip mounted near the front of the saw. The saw is equipped with a directional nozzle, which aims sawdust away from the operator and the line of cut. An optional vacuum system, attached to the directional nozzle, is used to remove and collect dust. During the demonstration of Porter-Cable No.1, personal noise sampling indicated that one worker was under and one was at the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Action Level of 85 decibels (dBA) with time-weighted averages (TWA's) of 82.7 and 84.6 dBA, respectively. During the demonstration of Porter-Cable No.2, however, both workers did exceed the Action Level with TWA's of 89.7 and 90.0 dBA. These data are not entirely representative as they were gathered during a simulation and not at the actual worksite. Additional sampling should be conducted on-site, but the workers should wear hearing protection until it is determined that it is no longer necessary. The total nuisance dust sample for Porter-Cable No.1 was 3.53 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m{sup 3}), which is lower than the OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 15 mg/m{sup 3} and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV) of 10 mg/m{sup 3}. Porter-Cable No.2's nuisance dust results yielded a value of 22.05 mg/m{sup 3}, which is over the PEL and TLV. The fiber analysis for the first demonstration yielded 12.9 fibers per cubic centimeter (f/cc), which is much higher than the PEL of 1 f/cc. Galson Laboratories considered the fiber analysis for the second demonstration void due to the overloading of dust on the filter. Kickback, the sudden reaction to a pinched blade, is possible with this saw and could cause the saw to lift up and out of the work piece and toward the operator. Proper work position and firm control of the saw minimizes the potential for a sprain or strain. Care needs to be exercised to support the work piece properly and to not force the tool.

  12. The 2.2 GHz Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) oscillator development Ku-band frequency source development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Two 2.2 GHz SAW oscillators using aluminum nitride on sapphire (AlN/Al2O3) delay lines were fabricated. The oscillators were electronically temperature compensated and characterized. One of the oscillators was used as the frequency reference for the Ku band source; the second oscillator is available for continued evaluation. A 15 GHz frequency source was designed and fabricated. The 15 GHz source consists of a Ku band FET oscillator which is phase locked to the frequency multiplied (X7) output of the 2.2 GHz SAW reference source. The Ku band source was built using microstrip circuit designs, which are hybrid compatible. Two wafer runs of 2.2 GHz TED devices were fabricated and evaluated. The devices were mounted on microstrip test substrates and evaluated as 15 GHz divide by 7 circuits. The device evaluation indicated that in their present form the TED is not a practical circuit element.

  13. Control of surface mobility for conformal deposition of Mo-Si multilayers on saw-tooth substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronov, D. L.; Anderson, E. H.; Gullikson, E. M.; Salmassi, F.; Warwick, T.; Yashchuk, V. V.; Padmore, H. A.

    2013-11-01

    Multilayer-coated blazed gratings (MBG) are the most promising solution for ultra-high resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy, since they can have very high groove density and provide high-order operation and very high diffraction efficiency. The performance of MBGs however depends critically on the conformal deposition of the multilayer (ML) stack on a saw-tooth substrate and the minimization of roughness. We present an analysis of the roughening and smoothing processes during growth of Mo/Si multilayers deposited over a range of pressures of Ar sputtering gas on flat and saw-tooth substrates. A Linear Continuum Model (LCM) of the film growth was used to understand the interplay between smoothing and roughening of the ML films and to predict the optimum conditions for deposition. The MBG coated under the optimal deposition conditions demonstrated high diffraction efficiency in the EUV and soft X-ray wavelength ranges

  14. INTERNATIONAL UNION OF OPERATING ENGINEERS NATIONAL HAZMAT PROGRAM - EVOLUTION 180 CIRCULAR SAW OENHP: 2001-03, VERSION A

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-01-25

    Florida International University's (FIU) Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) evaluated five saws for their effectiveness in cutting specially prepared fiberglass-reinforced plywood crates. These crates were built as surrogates for crates that presently hold radioactively contaminated gloveboxes at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Los Alamos facility. The Evolution 180 circular saw was assessed on August 14, 2001. During the FIU test of efficacy, a team from the Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program (OENHP) evaluated the occupational safety and health issues associated with this technology. The Evolution 180 is a portable, metal cutting circular saw with a 7-inch diameter blade. The blade is contained within the main housing and has a retractable lower blade guard to prevent operator access to the blade during operation and shutdown. The saw is equipped with a chip collector. The maximum cutting thickness for metal is one-quarter inch and can cut steel tubing and pipe 2 inches in diameter. The unit is operated with an on/off guarded trigger switch and is supported with the hand guide mounted to the side of the saw. An adjustable lever sets the depth of the cut. The machine's circuitry will automatically shut the saw motor off if excessive overload is detected during operation. The one-half hour demonstration involved vertical and horizontal cuts and blade changes. During this process, operators experienced binding of the saw. This caused the blade to become hot, causing the sawdust collected in the chip collector to smoke. Care should be exercised to use the appropriate blade for the application, operator training, and personal protective equipment (PPE). Personal noise sampling indicated that neither worker was over the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Action Level of 85 decibels (dBA) with time-weighted averages (TWA's) of 69.1 and 68.8 dBA. The personal noise sample taken during the special demonstration with the stainless steel plate had a TWA of 69.8 dBA. These data are not entirely representative as they were gathered during a simulation and not at the actual worksite. Additional sampling should be conducted on-site, but the workers should wear hearing protection until it is determined that it is no longer necessary. The total nuisance dust sample for the Evolution 180 circular saw was 3.5 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m{sup 3}), which is lower than the OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 15 mg/m{sup 3} and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV) of 10 mg/m{sup 3}. The fiber analysis yielded 1.74 fibers per cubic centimeter (f/cc), which is above the PEL of 1 f/cc. Although the nuisance dust levels were low, fiberglass dust levels were higher than the PEL. Since fiberglass dust is known to be a strong skin irritant and a possible human carcinogen, the workers should continue to wear appropriate suits and gloves, as well as a full-face air-purifying respirator. The respirator should be equipped with a combination organic vapor and acid gas cartridge in combination with a High Particulate Air (HEPA) filter, since particulate filter, since during the demonstration, the workers complained of an odd smell, which may have been from the breakdown of the fiberglass.

  15. ASsessment of botanical supplementation on human cytochrome P450 phenotype: citrus aurantium, echinacea, milk thistle, saw palmetto

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. J. Gurley; S. F. Gardner; M. A. Hubbard; K. Williams; B. Gentry; J. Carrier; D. Edwards; I. Khan

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: Phytochemical-mediated modulation of cytochrome P-450 activity may underlie many herb-drug interactions. Single time-point, phenotypic metabolic ratios were used to determine if supplementation with citrus aurantium, echinacea, milk thistle, or saw palmetto affected CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, or CYP3A4 activity.Methods: Twelve healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to receive each supplement for 28 days. A 30-day washout period was interposed between each

  16. Gas sensitivity comparison of polymer-coated SAW and stw resonators operating at the same acoustic wave length

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. D. Avramov; M. Rapp; S. Kurosawa; P. Krawczak; E. Radeva

    2001-01-01

    Results from systematic gas sensing experiments on polymer coated surface-transverse-wave- (STW) and surface-acoustic-wave- (SAW) based two-port resonators on rotated Y-cut quartz, operating at the same acoustic wave length of 7.22 ?m, are presented. The acoustic devices are coated with chemosensitive films of different viscoelastic properties and thicknesses, as solid hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO), semisolid styrene (ST) and soft allyl alcohol (AA). The

  17. Gas sensitivity comparison of polymer coated SAW and STW resonators operating at the same acoustic wave length

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivan D. Avramov; Michael Rapp; Shigeru Kurosawa; Piotr Krawczak; Ekaterina Ivanova Radeva

    2002-01-01

    Results from systematic gas sensing experiments on polymer coated surface-transverse-wave (STW) and surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) based two-port resonators on rotated Y-cut quartz, operating at the same acoustic wavelength of 7.22 ?m, are presented. The acoustic devices are coated with chemosensitive films of different viscoelastic properties and thicknesses, such as solid hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO), semisolid styrene (ST), and soft allyl alcohol (AA). The

  18. Contact printing of metallic pattern and its applications on fabricating high-frequency surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yung-Chun Lee; Chun-Hung Chen; Hsueh-Liang Chen; Chin-Hsin Liu; Cheng-Yu Chiu; Hung-Yi Lin

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, two types of contact-printing methods for micro\\/nano-lithography are developed and their application on fabricating high-frequency surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices are investigated. First of all, a light-assisted metal film patterning (LAMP) method which transfers a patterned metal film directly from a silicon mold to a substrate is discussed. The pattern transformation relies on both mechanical contact pressure

  19. Effects of pumpkin seed oil and saw palmetto oil in Korean men with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Hong, Heeok; Kim, Chun-Soo; Maeng, Sungho

    2009-01-01

    This study was to investigate the role of complementary and alternative medicine in the prevention and treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. For this purpose, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed over 12 months on 47 benign prostatic hyperplasia patients with average age of 53.3 years and international prostate symptom score over 8. Subjects received either sweet potato starch (group A, placebo, 320 mg/day), pumpkin seed oil (group B, 320 mg/day), saw palmetto oil (group C, 320 mg/day) or pumpkin seed oil plus saw palmetto oil (group D, each 320 mg/day). International prostate symptom score, quality of life, serum prostate specific antigen, prostate volume and maximal urinary flow rate were measured. In groups B, C and D, the international prostate symptom score were reduced by 3 months. Quality of life score was improved after 6 months in group D, while those of groups B and C were improved after 3 months, compared to the baseline value. Serum prostate specific antigen was reduced only in group D after 3 months, but no difference was observed in prostate volume in all treatment groups. Maximal urinary flow rate were gradually improved in groups B and C, with statistical significance after 6 months in group B and after 12 months in group C. None of the parameters were significantly improved by combined treatment with pumpkin seed oil and saw palmetto oil. From these results, it is suggested that administrations of pumpkin seed oil and saw palmetto oil are clinically safe and may be effective as complementary and alternative medicine treatments for benign prostatic hyperplasia. PMID:20098586

  20. IDT geometry and crystal cut effects on the frequency-temperature curves of a SAW periodic structure of quartz

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y.-K. Yong; Shigeo Kanna

    1998-01-01

    Piezoelectric Lagrangian equations for the frequency-temperature behavior of quartz is presented. A finite element study of these Lagrangian equations is performed for a two-dimensional periodic SAW structure of quartz. Plane strain assumptions are used to enable a two-dimensional analysis of straight crested acoustic waves in the structure. Adaptive finite element meshes are employed to reduce the size of the finite

  1. SAW device implementation of a weighted stepped chirp code signal for direct sequence spread spectrum communications systems.

    PubMed

    Carter, S E; Malocha, D C

    2000-01-01

    This paper introduces a new weighted stepped chirp code signal for direct sequence spread spectrum (DS/SS) communications systems. This code signal uses the truncated cosine series functions as the chip functions, and it is the result of discretizing a continuous wave (CW) chirp that results in enhanced performance versus a pseudonoise (PN) code and equivalent performance and easier implementation than a CW chirp. This code signal will be shown to have improved compression ratio (CR) and peak sidelobe level (PSL) versus a PN code with identical code length and chip length. It also will be shown to have a similar CR and PSL compared to a CW chirp with identical pulse length and frequency deviation. The code signal is implemented on surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices that will be used as the code generator at the transmitter and the correlator at the receiver. The design considerations for the SAW device implementation of the code signal are discussed, including the effects of intersymbol interference. Experimental data is presented and compared to the predicted results for 8 different SAW devices examining the effects of code length (9 or 13 chips), weighting (uniform, cosine-squared, and Hamming), and sampling on the performance of the code signal. PMID:18238631

  2. Extensive clonal spread and extreme longevity in saw palmetto, a foundation clonal plant.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Mizuki K; Horner, Liana M; Kubota, Toshiro; Keller, Nathan A; Abrahamson, Warren G

    2011-09-01

    The lack of effective tools has hampered out ability to assess the size, growth and ages of clonal plants. With Serenoa repens (saw palmetto) as a model, we introduce a novel analytical framework that integrates DNA fingerprinting and mathematical modelling to simulate growth and estimate ages of clonal plants. We also demonstrate the application of such life-history information of clonal plants to provide insight into management plans. Serenoa is an ecologically important foundation species in many Southeastern United States ecosystems; yet, many land managers consider Serenoa a troublesome invasive plant. Accordingly, management plans have been developed to reduce or eliminate Serenoa with little understanding of its life history. Using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms, we genotyped 263 Serenoa and 134 Sabal etonia (a sympatric non-clonal palmetto) samples collected from a 20 × 20 m study plot in Florida scrub. Sabal samples were used to assign small field-unidentifiable palmettos to Serenoa or Sabal and also as a negative control for clone detection. We then mathematically modelled clonal networks to estimate genet ages. Our results suggest that Serenoa predominantly propagate via vegetative sprouts and 10,000-year-old genets may be common, while showing no evidence of clone formation by Sabal. The results of this and our previous studies suggest that: (i) Serenoa has been part of scrub associations for thousands of years, (ii) Serenoa invasion are unlikely and (ii) once Serenoa is eliminated from local communities, its restoration will be difficult. Reevaluation of the current management tools and plans is an urgent task. PMID:21848843

  3. Development of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) fruit and extract standard reference materials.

    PubMed

    Schantz, Michele M; Bedner, Mary; Long, Stephen E; Molloy, John L; Murphy, Karen E; Porter, Barbara J; Putzbach, Karsten; Rimmer, Catherine A; Sander, Lane C; Sharpless, Katherine E; Thomas, Jeanice B; Wise, Stephen A; Wood, Laura J; Yen, James H; Yarita, Takashi; NguyenPho, Agnes; Sorenson, Wendy R; Betz, Joseph M

    2008-10-01

    As part of a collaboration with the National Institutes of Health's Office of Dietary Supplements and the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, the National Institute of Standards and Technology has developed two standard reference materials (SRMs) representing different forms of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens), SRM 3250 Serenoa repens fruit and SRM 3251 Serenoa repens extract. Both of these SRMs have been characterized for their fatty acid and phytosterol content. The fatty acid concentration values are based on results from gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis while the sterol concentration values are based on results from GC-FID and liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry analysis. In addition, SRM 3250 has been characterized for lead content, and SRM 3251 has been characterized for the content of beta-carotene and tocopherols. SRM 3250 (fruit) has certified concentration values for three phytosterols, 14 fatty acids as triglycerides, and lead along with reference concentration values for four fatty acids as triglycerides and 16 free fatty acids. SRM 3251 (extract) has certified concentration values for three phytosterols, 17 fatty acids as triglycerides, beta-carotene, and gamma-tocopherol along with reference concentration values for three fatty acids as triglycerides, 17 fatty acids as free fatty acids, beta-carotene isomers, and delta-tocopherol and information values for two phytosterols. These SRMs will complement other reference materials currently available with concentrations for similar analytes and are part of a series of SRMs being developed for dietary supplements. PMID:18677464

  4. The sub-clinical see-saw nystagmus embedded in infantile nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Dell'Osso, L F; Jacobs, J B; Serra, A

    2007-02-01

    A transient, decompensated vertical phoria in an individual with infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS) resulted in two images that oscillated vertically-a diplopic oscillopsia. Ocular motor studies during the vertical oscillopsia recreated by vertical prisms, led to the identification of a sub-clinical see-saw nystagmus (SSN), present under the prism-induced diplopic condition. Retrospective analysis of ocular motor recordings made prior to the above episode of vertical diplopia revealed the presence of that same sub-clinical SSN. The SSN had not been detected previously despite extensive observations and recordings of this subject's pendular IN over a period of forty years. Three- dimensional search-coil data from fourteen additional INS subjects (with pendular and jerk waveforms) confirmed the existence of sub-clinical SSN embedded within the clinically detectable horizontal-torsional IN in seven of the fifteen and a sub-clinical, conjugate, vertical component in the remaining eight. Unlike the clinically visible SSN found in achiasma, the cause of this sub-clinical SSN is hypothesized to be due to a failure of the forces of the oblique muscles (responsible for the torsional component of the IN) to balance out the associated forces of the vertical recti; the net result is a small, sub-clinical SSN. Thus, so-called "horizontal" IN is actually a horizontal-torsional oscillation with a secondary, sub-clinical SSN or conjugate vertical component. The suppression of oscillopsia by efference copy in INS appears to be accomplished for each eye individually, even in a binocular individual. However, failure to fuse the two images results in oscillopsia of one of them. PMID:17045326

  5. Multiple doses of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) did not alter cytochrome P450 2D6 and 3A4 activity in normal volunteers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John S. Markowitz; Jennifer L. Donovan; C. Lindsay DeVane; Robin M. Taylor; Ying Ruan; Jun-Sheng Wang; Kenneth D. Chavin

    2003-01-01

    Saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) is the most commonly used herbal preparation in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. The objective of this study was to determine whether a characterized saw palmetto product affects the activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 or 3A4 in healthy volunteers (6 men and 6 women). The probe substrates dextromethorphan (CYP2D6 activity) and alprazolam (CYP3A4 activity)

  6. A laser probing system for characterization of SAW propagation on LiNbO3, LiTaO3, and quartz

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Holm; R. Weigel; P. Russer; W. Ruile

    1996-01-01

    A nondestructive high-resolution technique for the optical detection of the phase and amplitude of high-frequency surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices is presented. The setup incorporates a mode-locked ps-laser, harmonic mixing, and coherent detection. Dynamic range and minimum detectable surface displacement were 50 dB and 1 pm\\/?(Hz), respectively. The probing technique allows not only the measurement of the SAW field but

  7. Temperature compensated LiTaO3\\/sapphire bonded SAW substrate with low loss and high coupling factor suitable for US-PCS application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Miura; T. Matsuda; Y. Satoh; M. Ueda; O. Ikata; Y. Ebata; H. Takagi

    2004-01-01

    A novel temperature-compensated SAW substrate was developed based on bonded LiTaO3\\/sapphire. Because of its small TEC (thermal expansion coefficient) and large Young's modulus, sapphire is an ideal material for a support substrate. The frequency and temperature characteristics of the bonded LiTaO3\\/sapphire SAW substrate and its application to a US-PCS duplexer are described.

  8. INTERNATIONAL UNION OF OPERATING ENGINEERS NATIONAL HAZMAT PROGRAM - DEWALT RECIPROCATING SAW OENHP{number_sign}: 2001-01, VERSION A

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-01-31

    Florida International University's (FIU) Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) evaluated five saws for their effectiveness in cutting specially prepared fiberglass-reinforced plywood crates. These crates were built as surrogates for crates that presently hold radioactively contaminated glove boxes at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Los Alamos facility. The DeWalt reciprocating saw was assessed on August 13, 2001. During the FIU test of efficacy, a team from the Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program (OENHP) evaluated the occupational safety and health issues associated with this technology. The DeWalt reciprocating saw is a hand-held industrial tool used for cutting numerous materials, including wood and various types of metals depending upon the chosen blade. Its design allows for cutting close to floors, corners, and other difficult areas. An adjustable shoe sets the cut at three separate depths. During the demonstration for the dismantling of the fiberglass-reinforced plywood crate, the saw was used for extended continuous cutting, over a period of approximately two hours. The dismantling operation involved vertical and horizontal cuts, saw blade changes, and material handling. During this process, operators experienced vibration to the hand and arm in addition to a temperature rise on the handgrip. The blade of the saw is partially exposed during handling and fully exposed during blade changes. Administrative controls, such as duty time of the operators and the machine, operator training, and personal protective equipment (PPE), such as gloves, should be considered when using the saw in this application. Personal noise sampling indicated that both workers were exposed to noise levels exceeding the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Action Level of 85 decibels (dBA) with time-weighted averages (TWA's) of 88.3 and 90.6 dBA. Normally, a worker would be placed in a hearing conservation program if his TWA was greater than the Action Level. In this case, however, monitoring was conducted during a simulation, not during the actual work conducted at the worksite. Additional sampling should be conducted at the worksite to determine the actual noise levels for the workers. Until it is determined that the actual TWA's are less than the Action Level, the workers should use PPE. A training program on the proper use and wearing of the selected PPE should be provided to each worker. Nuisance dust monitoring yielded a concentration of 10.69 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m{sup 3}). Although this is less than the OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 15 mg/m{sup 3}, it is above the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV) of 10 mg/m{sup 3}. Fiberglass dust monitoring yielded a fiber count of 1.7 fibers per cubic centimeter (f/cc). This is above the PEL and the TLV of 1.0 f/cc. Therefore, controls should be implemented (engineering or PPE) to reduce the workers' exposure to the dust. Respirators should be used if engineering controls do not sufficiently control the dust or fiberglass generated. Respirators should be equipped with an organic vapor and acid gas cartridge with a High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter, since during the demonstration, the workers complained of an odd smell, which may have been from the breakdown of the fiberglass.

  9. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from immature embryos of saw palmetto, an important landscape and medicinal plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Gallo-Meagher; J. Green

    2002-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from immature zygotic embryos was achieved for saw palmetto (Serenoa repens (Bartr.) Small). Embryos, isolated from immature fruit of native-grown plants, were cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium plus 0.15% (w\\/v) activated charcoal and supplemented with 452 µM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 14.7 µM N6-(2-isopentenyl)adenine (2iP). Clusters of somatic embryos developed from all immature zygotic

  10. Constructing the large mixing angle MNS matrix in see-saw models with right-handed neutrino dominance

    E-print Network

    S. F. King

    2002-09-11

    Recent SNO results strongly favour the large mixing angle (LMA) MSW solar solution. We argue that there are only two technically natural low energy neutrino mass matrix structures consistent with the LMA MSW solution, corresponding to either a hierarchy or an inverted hierarchy with pseudo-Dirac neutrinos. We first present a model-independent analysis in which we diagonalise each of these two mass matrix structures to leading order in $\\theta_{13}$ and extract the neutrino masses, mixing angles and phases. In this analysis we express the MNS matrix to leading order in the small angle $\\theta_{13}$ including the neutrino {\\em and} charged lepton mixing angles and phases, the latter playing a crucial r\\^{o}le for allowing the inverted hierarchy case to be consistent with the LMA MSW solution. We then consider the see-saw mechanism with right-handed neutrino dominance and show how the successful neutrino mass matrix structures may be constructed with no tuning and with small radiative corrections, leading to a full, partial or inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. In each case we derive approximate analytic relations between the input see-saw parameters and the resulting neutrino masses, mixing angles and phases, which will provide a useful guide for unified model building. For the hierarchical cases the LMA MSW solution gives a soft lower bound $|U_{e3}|\\simgt 0.1$, just below the current CHOOZ limit. Both hierarchical and inverted hierarchical cases predict small $\\beta \\beta_{0\

  11. SAW resonator design and fabrication for 2.0, 2.6 and 3.3 GHz.

    PubMed

    Pendergrass, L L; Studebaker, L G

    1988-01-01

    Direct-write electron-beam lithography has been used to fabricate surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) resonators in quartz at 2.05, 2.60, and 3.30 GHz. Typical 2.05-GHz devices show unloaded Q factors of about 2700 and insertion losses of about 9 dB. The best 2.60-GHz devices have unloaded Q of about 2000 with insertion losses less than 11 dB. Preliminary 3.3-GHz devices have shown unloaded Q of about 1600 and insertion losses of 17 dB. These results are for devices tested in chip form in a 50-Omega system. The fabrication of a fundamental-mode resonator with center frequency exceeding 2.6 GHz is claimed to be unmatched in the literature. These results are due in part to improvements in design and electron-beam direct-write capabilities. Design and fabrication of SAW resonators above 2 GHz are described, test results for several wafers including preliminary phase noise measurements for devices at 2 GHz are reported, and problems associated with testing these devices are discussed. PMID:18290162

  12. Optimization of discharge types and electrode structure in a cylinder discharge reactor with saw-wheel array electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chunyang; Shang, Kefeng; Lu, Na; Li, Jie; Wu, Yan

    2013-03-01

    The application of corona discharge technology in gas purification and wastewater treatment has been received great attention in recent years. The configuration of discharge electrode and the discharge types directly affect the discharge power and the power density, and then affect the generation of active species as well as the removal efficiency of pollutants. A novel cylinder-type discharge reactor with saw-wheel-array electrodes was developed for removal of SO2/NOx from flue gas, and influence factors such as electrode structure (ratio of spacing of saw-wheel slices and discharge distance, herein defined as R) and power supply types (positive DC, negative DC, and pulse power) on discharge characteristics and the output power was discussed. The experimental results show that the current and output power of three types of discharges firstly increased with R increasing from 0.3-1.7, and then tended to a stability from 1.7-2.5 while the power density reached a maximum at the ratio of 1.7.

  13. A method for the study of undecalcified bones and teeth with attached soft tissues. The Säge-Schliff (sawing and grinding) technique.

    PubMed

    Donath, K; Breuner, G

    1982-08-01

    A new sawing-grinding method is described for the histological evaluation of jaw bones with teeth or bones containing implants (ceramic or metallic). The undecalcified bone is embedded in acrylic resin and sawed at 100 to 150 micrometers. The slices are ground automatically by a special machine to a thickness of 5-10 micrometers. The usually employed staining procedures for hard plastic embedded-tissues may be used. Plaque, fillings, crowns, bridges, implants and soft tissues are preserved in situ. Macroscopic and microscopic detail of good quality is preserved for histological and morphometrical evaluation. PMID:6809919

  14. Enhancing chemical identification efficiency by SAW sensor transients through a data enrichment and information fusion strategy—a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Prashant; Yadava, R. D. S.

    2013-05-01

    The paper proposes a new approach for improving the odor recognition efficiency of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) transient sensor system based on a single polymer coating. The vapor identity information is hidden in transient response shapes through dependences on specific vapor solvation and diffusion parameters in the polymer coating. The variations in the vapor exposure and purge durations and the sensor operating frequency have been used to create diversity in transient shapes via termination of the vapor-polymer equilibration process up to different stages. The transient signals were analyzed by the discrete wavelet transform using Daubechies-4 mother wavelet basis. The wavelet approximation coefficients were then processed by principal component analysis for creating feature space. The set of principal components define the vapor identity information. In an attempt to enhance vapor class separability we analyze two types of information fusion methods. In one, the sensor operation frequency is fixed and the sensing and purge durations are varied, and in the second, the sensing and purge durations are fixed and the sensor operating frequency is varied. The fusion is achieved by concatenation of discrete wavelet coefficients corresponding to various transients prior to the principal component analysis. The simulation experiments with polyisobutylene SAW sensor coating for operation frequencies over [55-160] MHz and sensing durations over [5-60] s were analyzed. The target vapors are seven volatile organics: chloroform, chlorobenzene, o-dichlorobenzene, n-heptane, toluene, n-hexane and n-octane whose concentrations were varied over [10-100] ppm. The simulation data were generated using a SAW sensor transient response model that incorporates the viscoelastic effects due to polymer coating and an additive noise source in the output. The analysis reveals that: (i) in single transient analysis the class separability increases with sensing duration for a given frequency of operation, and also with frequency for a given sensing duration, and (ii) the information fusion based on both the multiple sensing cycles and the multiple sensing frequencies enhances the class separability by nearly an order of magnitude.

  15. Staircase and saw-tooth field emission steps from nanopatterned n-type GaSb surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kildemo, M.; Levinsen, Y. Inntjore; Le Roy, S.; Soenderga ring rd, E. [Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), NO-7491 Trondlieim (Norway); Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), NO-7491 Trondlieim, Norway and AB CERN, CH- 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Laboratoire Surface du Verre et Interfaces, UMR 125 Unite Mixte de Recherche CNRS/Saint-Gobain Laboratoire, 39 Quai Lucien Lefranc, F-93303 Aubervilliers Cedex (France)

    2009-09-15

    High resolution field emission experiments from nanopatterned GaSb surfaces consisting of densely packed nanocones prepared by low ion-beam-energy sputtering are presented. Both uncovered and metal-covered nanopatterned surfaces were studied. Surprisingly, the field emission takes place by regular steps in the field emitted current. Depending on the field, the steps are either regular, flat, plateaus, or saw-tooth shaped. To the author's knowledge, this is the first time that such results have been reported. Each discrete jump in the field emission may be understood in terms of resonant tunneling through an extended surface space charge region in an n-type, high aspect ratio, single GaSb nanocone. The staircase shape may be understood from the spatial distribution of the aspect ratio of the cones.

  16. Chemical class specificity using self-assembled monolayers on SAW devices: Effects of adsorption time and substrate grain size

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, R.C.; Ricco, A.J.; DiRubio, C.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Microsensor R and D Dept.; Yang, H.C.; Crooks, R.M. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1997-07-01

    The authors report selectivity and sensitivity for 97-MHz SAW (surface acoustic wave) sensors functionalized with (COO{sup {minus}}){sub 2}/Cu{sup 2+}-terminated, organomercaptan-based, self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). Responses were obtained as a function of SAM formation time on thin Au films of controlled grain size. The authors find that the SAM films (1) preferentially adsorb classes of organic analytes according to simple chemical interaction concepts, (2) reversibly adsorb multilayers of some analytes well below their saturation vapor pressure, (3) adsorb more diisopropylmethylphosphonate (DIMP) at a given partial pressure as SAM solution-phase adsorption time increases, and (4) adsorb more DIMP at a given partial pressure as the grain size of the supporting Au film decreases.

  17. Single-monolayer in situ modulus measurements using a SAW device: Photocrosslinking of a diacetylenic thiol-based monolayer

    SciTech Connect

    Ricco, A.J.; Staton, A.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Crooks, R.M. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Kim, Taisun [Hallym Univ., Kang-Won Do (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemistry

    1997-10-01

    We report direct measurement of the modulus change that accompanies the crosslinking of a single molecular monolayer. We measured a change in elastic modulus of 5 x 10{sup 10} dyn/cm{sup 2} as a result of ultraviolet-induced photocrosslinking of a single surface-confined monolayer of the conjugated diacetylenic thiol HS(CH{sub 2}){sub 10}C{triple_bond}CC{triple_bond}C(CH{sub 2}){sub 10}COOH, designated {open_quotes}DAT{close_quotes} hereafter. The modulus measurement was made on a monolayer of DAT chemisorbed upon a gold film on the surface of a 97-MHz ST-quartz surface acoustic wave delay line. The ratio of the changes recorded in SAW velocity and attenuation, approximately 4:1, suggests that the measured effect is mainly a change in the elastic (real) component of the complex shear modulus, viscous changes playing a lesser role. In relation to typical polymer modulus values, the change of 5 x 10{sup 10} dyn/cm{sup 2} is consistent with a change from a rubbery material (G{prime} {approximately} 10{sup 7} - 10{sup 8} dyn/cm{sup 2}) to a fairly rigid, glassy material (G{prime} {approximately} 10{sup 10} dyn/cm{sup 2}), reasonable for comparison of the monolayer in its as-adsorbed and crosslinked forms. This report of the direct SAW-based measurement of the modulus change associated with the crosslinking of a single molecular monolayer is complementary to and consistent with previous in-situ measurements of this process using thickness-shear mode resonators.

  18. BROWNIAN MOTION OF AEROSOL PARTICLES 415 We saw in Section 9.3 that for t , the particle velocity relaxes to a pseudo-

    E-print Network

    Russell, Lynn

    BROWNIAN MOTION OF AEROSOL PARTICLES 415 We saw in Section 9.3 that for t » , the particle velocity, becomes (9.65) The Brownian motion can be assumed to be isotropic sox2 =y2 =z2 = r2 Thus (9 Diffusion The movement of particles due to Brownian motion can also be viewed as a macroscopic diffusion

  19. Non-radiative complete SAW bandgap of 2D phononic crystals on semi-infinite LiNbO3 substrate

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    acoustic wave (SAW) bandgap on 2D piezoelectric phononic crystals (PC) consisting of finite air hole arrays at wavelength scale thanks to their ability to exhibit phononic (acoustic) bandgap [1,2], range of frequencies-analysis [5], or phoxonic crystals, when combined with optics or photonic crystals [6]. In some phenomena, i

  20. Fatty acid analysis of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) and pygeum (Prunus africanum) in dietary supplements by mass spectrometry in the selected ion monitoring mode

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saw palmetto and pygeum are natural products commonly used in dietary supplements for the treatment of enlarged prostate glands. These plant materials are rich in fatty acids, and the fatty acid compositions of both plants are similar. The goal of this study was to develop a gas chromatography-mass ...

  1. Evaluation of a gas chromatograph with a novel surface acoustic wave detector (SAW GC) for screening of volatile organic compounds in Hanford waste tank samples

    SciTech Connect

    Lockrem, L.L.

    1998-01-12

    A novel instrument, a gas chromatograph with a Surface Acoustic Wave Detector (SAW GC), was evaluated for the screening of organic compounds in Hanford tank headspace vapors. Calibration data were developed for the most common organic compounds, and the accuracy and precision were measured with a certified standard. The instrument was tested with headspace samples collected from seven Hanford waste tanks.

  2. Optimizing the performance of high speed steel circular saw blades machining cupro 107, Inconel 600L and Nimonic PK31 nickel based alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sarwar; S. R. Bradbury; D. B. Lewis

    1996-01-01

    Nickel based alloys are machined by methods similar to those used to cut ferrous materials, however there are additional process requirements due to the poor machinability of these alloys. The current paper reports on work undertaken to optimize the cutting conditions for high speed steel circular saw blades machining materials from three of the principal categories of nickel based alloy.

  3. Approaching sub-50 nanoradian measurements by reducing the saw-tooth deviation of the autocollimator in the Nano-Optic-Measuring Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Shinan; Geckeler, Ralf D.; Just, Andreas; Idir, Mourad; Wu, Xuehui

    2015-06-01

    Since the development of the Nano-Optic-Measuring Machine (NOM), the accuracy of measuring the profile of an optical surface has been enhanced to the 100-nrad rms level or better. However, to update the accuracy of the NOM system to sub-50 nrad rms, the large saw-tooth deviation (269 nrad rms) of an existing electronic autocollimator, the Elcomat 3000/8, must be resolved. We carried out simulations to assess the saw-tooth-like deviation. We developed a method for setting readings to reduce the deviation to sub-50 nrad rms, suitable for testing plane mirrors. With this method, we found that all the tests conducted in a slowly rising section of the saw-tooth show a small deviation of 28.8 to <40 nrad rms. We also developed a dense-measurement method and an integer-period method to lower the saw-tooth deviation during tests of sphere mirrors. Further research is necessary for formulating a precise test for a spherical mirror. We present a series of test results from our experiments that verify the value of the improvements we made.

  4. Standardized evaluation of chemical compositions of LiTaO3 single crystals for SAW devices using the LFB ultrasonic material characterization system.

    PubMed

    Kushibiki, Jun-ichi; Ohashi, Yuji; Ujiie, Takaaki

    2002-04-01

    The line-focus-beam ultrasonic material characterization (LFB-UMC) system is applied to compare and evaluate tolerances provided independently for the Curie temperature T(C) and lattice constant a to evaluate commercial LiTaO3 single crystals by measuring the Rayleigh-type leaky surface acoustic wave (LSAW) velocities V(LSAW). The relationships between V(LSAW), and T(C) and a measured by individual manufacturers were obtained experimentally using 42 degrees Y X-LiTaO3 wafers as specimens from three crystal manufacturers. In addition, the relationship between V(LSAW) and SH-type SAW velocities V(SAW) that are actually used for the SAW device wafers was obtained through calculations, using the chemical composition dependences of the acoustical physical constants for LiTaO3 crystals reported previously. The result of a comparison between the T(C) tolerance of +/-3 degrees C and the a tolerance of +/-0.00002 nm through the common scale of V(LSAW) or V(SAW) demonstrated that the a tolerance is 1.6 times larger than the T(C) tolerance. Furthermore, we performed a standardized comparison of statistical data of T(C) and a for LiTaO3 crystals grown by two manufacturers during 1999 and 2000, using V(LSAW). The results clarified the differences of the average chemical compositions and of the chemical composition distributions among the crystal ingots between the two manufacturers. A guideline for the standardized evaluation procedure has been established for the SAW-device wafer specifications by the LFB-UMC system. PMID:11989701

  5. Fabrication of 0.25-um electrode width SAW filters using x-ray lithography with a laser plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobkowski, Romuald; Li, Yunlei; Fedosejevs, Robert; Broughton, James N.

    1996-05-01

    A process for the fabrication of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices with line widths of 250 nm and less, based on x-ray lithography using a laser-plasma source has been developed. The x-ray lithography process is based on keV x-ray emission from Cu plasma produced by 15 Hz, 50 ps, 248 nm KrF excimer laser pulses. The full structure of a 2 GHz surface acoustic wave filter with interdigital transducers in a split-electrode geometry has been manufactured. The devices require patterning a 150 nm thick aluminum layer on a LiNbO3 substrate with electrodes 250 nm wide. The manufacturing process has two main steps: x-ray mask fabrication employing e-beam lithography and x-ray lithography to obtain the final device. The x-ray masks are fabricated on 1 micrometers thick membranes of Si2N4. The line patterns on the masks are written into PMMA resist using a scanning electron microscope which has been interfaced to a personal computer equipped to control the x and y scan voltages. The opaque regions of the x-ray mask are then formed by electroplating fine grain gold into the open spaces in the etched PMMA. The mask and sample are mounted in an exposure cassette with a fixed spacer of 10 micrometers separating them. The sample consists of a LiNbO3 substrate coated with Shipley XP90104C x-ray resist which has been previously characterized. The x-ray patterning is carried out in an exposure chamber with flowing helium background gas in order to minimize debris deposition on the filters. After etching the x-ray resist, the final patterns are produced using metallization and a standard lift-off technique. The SAW filters are then bonded and packaged onto impedance matching striplines. The resultant devices are tested using Scalar Network Analyzers. The final devices produced had a center frequency of 1.93 GHz with a bandwidth of 98 MHz, close to the expected performance of our simple design.

  6. Co-pyrolysis behaviors of saw dust and Shenfu coal in drop tube furnace and fixed bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuaidan; Chen, Xueli; Wang, Li; Liu, Aibin; Yu, Guangsuo

    2013-11-01

    Co-pyrolysis behaviors of saw dust (SD) and Shenfu bituminous coal (SF) were studied in a drop tube furnace and a fixed bed reactor at different temperatures respectively. Six different biomass/coal ratios (B:C) were used. Compared the results with the calculated value obtained by the additional behavior, CO volume yields were lower while H2, CH4, CO2, volume yields were higher. Blend char yields had a good agreement with the calculated values, and their structures remained similar with SD and SF char's. Synergy effect occurred in gaseous phase, which was mainly caused by the secondary reactions. Compared the blend char yields in the drop tube furnace with those in the fixed bed reactor, the results showed the contacting way of biomass and coal particles had little influence on char yield in co-pyrolysis process. The reactivity index of blend char achieved the minimum at B:C=40:60 and the maximum at B:C=80:20. PMID:24041762

  7. Production of Xylanase from Arthrobacter sp. MTCC 6915 Using Saw Dust As Substrate under Solid State Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Murugan, Sevanan; Arnold, Donna; Pongiya, Uma Devi; Narayanan, P. M.

    2011-01-01

    Saw dust was used as substrate for xylanase production from Arthrobacter sp. MTCC 6915. The study of period of incubation, temperature, pH, carbon, and nitrogen sources for xylanase production was optimized. Xylanase production was found to be optimum at an incubation period of 96?hrs (117.0?U/mL), temperature 30°C (105.0?U/mL), and pH 9.0 (102.9?U/mL). The results showed that the xylanase production was found to be higher in the presence of carboxymethylcellulose (176.4?U/mL) and dextrose (126.0?U/mL). It was also observed that peptone (170.1?U/mL) and beef extract (161.7?U/mL) supported maximum xylanase production.The enzyme was characterized and found to be fairly active at pH 9 (764.4?U/mL) and temperature 60°C (819?U/mL). Even in the present study, a major difference in the production temperature (30°C) and optimal temperature (60°C) of the enzyme activity was observed. However, the pH of the production media and the enzyme activity were found to be the same (pH 9). PMID:22013512

  8. A study of an electronic nose for detection of lung cancer based on a virtual SAW gas sensors array and imaging recognition method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xing Chen; Mingfu Cao; Yi Li; Weijun Hu; Ping Wang; Kejing Ying; Hongming Pan

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an electronic nose for non-invasive detection and diagnosis of lung cancer based on a kind of virtual array of surface acoustic wave (SAW) gas sensors and an imaging recognition method. It includes a gas path constructed from a two-bag system, solid phase micro extraction (SPME) and a capillary column to pre-concentrate and separate volatile organic

  9. Randomized trial of a combination of natural products (cernitin, saw palmetto, B-sitosterol, vitamin E) on symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harry G. Preuss; Charlyn Marcusen; James Regan; Ira W. Klimberg; Timothy A. Welebir; William A. Jones

    2001-01-01

    Because benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is relatively common, it is important to discover safe and effective means to treat this often debilitating perturbation. Accordingly, we examined the effectiveness of a combination of natural products (cernitin, saw palmetto, B-sitosterol, vitamin E) in treating symptoms of BPH. We undertook a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Patients were enrolled from 3 urological practices in

  10. In vivo assessment of botanical supplementation on human cytochrome P450 phenotypes: Citrus aurantium, Echinacea purpurea, milk thistle, and saw palmetto

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bill J. Gurley; Stephanie F. Gardner; Martha A. Hubbard; D. Keith Williams; W. Brooks Gentry; Julie Carrier; Ikhlas A. Khan; David J. Edwards; Amit Shah

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: Phytochemical-mediated modulation of cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity may underlie many herb-drug interactions. Single–time point phenotypic metabolic ratios were used to determine whether long-term supplementation of Citrus aurantium, Echinacea purpurea, milk thistle (Silybum marianum), or saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) extracts affected CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, or CYP3A4 activity.Methods: Twelve healthy volunteers (6 women, 6 men) were randomly assigned to receive C

  11. A Comparison of the Saw Velocity for thin Film Aluminum Nitride on Silicon by Line Focus Beam Acoustic Microscopy and Direct Transducer Measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fred S. Hickernell

    \\u000a Piezoelectric aluminum nitride (A1N) films have been deposited as transducers for the development of bulk acoustic wave (BAW)\\u000a and surface acoustic waves (SAW) components for electronic device applications over the past 30 years. These acoustic wave\\u000a devices, such as filters, resonators, and delay lines in the 100 MHz to 10 GHz region, occupy dimensions that are orders of\\u000a magnitude smaller

  12. A miniaturized 3 × 3-mm SAW antenna duplexer for the US-PCS band with temperature-compensated LiTaO3\\/sapphire substrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Tsutsumi; Shogo Inoue; Yasuhide Iwamoto; Michio Miura; Takashi Matsuda; Yoshio Satoh; Toshio Nishizawa; Masanori Ueda; Osamu Ikata

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a temperature-stable and miniaturized SAW antenna duplexer for the 1.9 GHz US-PCS band that uses a temperature-compensated 42° Y-X:LiTaO3\\/sapphire bonded substrate. In this duplexer, the temperature coefficient of frequency is reduced to half or two-thirds of that of a conventional LiTaO3 substrate. Also, it is shown that our new duplexer has a smaller insertion loss and offers

  13. Interaction of High-Coupling Leaky SAW with Bulk Waves Under Metallic-Grating Structure on 36° YX-LiTaO3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Y. Hashimoto; M. Yamaguchi; H. Kogo

    1985-01-01

    The paper deals with leaky SAW (LSAW) propagating under metallic-grating structure on 36OYX-LiTa03, and its interaction with bulk waves. Theoretical analysis has shown that the attenuation of LSAW unusually changes with frequency about the stopband of the grating: the attenuation is negli- gibly small at frequencies lower than the stopband, whereas it rapidly increases when the frequencies are raised above

  14. Jitter-Tolerance and Blocker-Tolerance of Delta-Sigma Analog-to-Digital Converters for Saw-Less Multi-Standard Receivers

    E-print Network

    Ahmed, Ramy 1981-

    2012-12-05

    JITTER-TOLERANCE AND BLOCKER-TOLERANCE OF DELTA-SIGMA ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL CONVERTERS FOR SAW-LESS MULTI-STANDARD RECEIVERS A Dissertation by RAMY AHMED SAAD AHMED Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... December 2012 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering Copyright 2012 Ramy Ahmed Saad Ahmed ii ABSTRACT The quest for multi-standard and software-defined radio (SDR) receivers calls for high flexibility in the receiver building-blocks so...

  15. Eating with a saw for a jaw: functional morphology of the jaws and tooth-whorl in Helicoprion davisii.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, Jason B; Wilga, Cheryl D; Tapanila, Leif; Pruitt, Jesse; Pradel, Alan; Schlader, Robert; Didier, Dominique A

    2015-01-01

    The recent reexamination of a tooth-whorl fossil of Helicoprion containing intact jaws shows that the symphyseal tooth-whorl occupies the entire length of Meckel's cartilage. Here, we use the morphology of the jaws and tooth-whorl to reconstruct the jaw musculature and develop a biomechanical model of the feeding mechanism in these early Permian predators. The jaw muscles may have generated large bite-forces; however, the mechanics of the jaws and whorl suggest that Helicoprion was better equipped for feeding on soft-bodied prey. Hard shelled prey would tend to slip anteriorly from the closing jaws due to the curvature of the tooth-whorl, lack of cuspate teeth on the palatoquadrate (PQ), and resistance of the prey. When feeding on soft-bodied prey, deformation of the prey traps prey tissue between the two halves of the PQ and the whorl. The curvature of the tooth-whorl and position of the exposed teeth relative to the jaw joint results in multiple tooth functions from anterior to posterior tooth that aid in feeding on soft-bodied prey. Posterior teeth cut and push prey deeper into the oral cavity, while middle teeth pierce and cut, and anterior teeth hook and drag more of the prey into the mouth. Furthermore, the anterior-posterior edges of the teeth facilitate prey cutting with jaw closure and jaw depression. The paths traveled by each tooth during jaw depression are reminiscent of curved pathways used with slashing weaponry such as swords and knifes. Thus, the jaws and tooth-whorl may have formed a multifunctional tool for capturing, processing, and transporting prey by cyclic opening and closing of the lower jaw in a sawing fashion. PMID:25181366

  16. Electric field enhancement due to a saw-tooth asperity in a channel and implications on microscale gas breakdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkattraman, Ayyaswamy

    2014-10-01

    The electric field enhancement due to an isolated saw-tooth asperity in an infinite channel is considered with the goal of providing some inputs to the choice of field enhancement factors used to describe microscale gas breakdown. The Schwarz–Christoffel transformation is used to map the interior of the channel to the upper half of the transformed plane. The expression for the electric field in the transformed plane is then used to determine the electric field distribution in the channel as well as field enhancement near the asperity. The effective field enhancement factor is determined and its dependence on operating and geometrical parameters is studied. While the effective field enhancement factor depends only weakly on the height of the asperity in comparison to the channel, it is influenced significantly by the base angles of the asperity. Due to the strong dependence of field emission current density on electric field, the effective field enhancement factor (?eff) is shown to vary rapidly with the applied electric field irrespective of the geometrical parameters. This variation is included in the analysis of microscale gas breakdown and compared with results obtained using a constant ?eff as is done traditionally. Even though results for a varying ?eff may be approximately reproduced using an equivalent constant ?eff independent of E-field, it might be important for a range of operating conditions. This is confirmed by extracting ?eff from experimental data for breakdown in argon microgaps with plane-parallel cathodes and comparing its dependence on the E-field. While the use of two-dimensional asperities is shown to be a minor disadvantage of the proposed approach in its current form, it can potentially help in developing predictive capabilities as opposed to treating ?eff as a curve-fitting parameter.

  17. VITA.SAW

    E-print Network

    ... Principal Investigator, Assessment of Children's Development of the Concept of Death .... S., "Internal Body Image of Children with Cystic Fibrosis - A Research Report". ... Elinger, C. "The Nature and Scope of Advanced Nursing Practice ? in

  18. Safe Chain Saw Operation. 

    E-print Network

    Nelson, Gary S.

    1982-01-01

    action and prolong chain life. Follow your owner's manual instructions to adjust chain tension. A chain stretches with use. Most of this stretch will occur during the first half hour of operation. A cold chain should be tightened so the chain tie.... If it does not, remove the guide bar and check the chain oil discharge slot. During cold weather, you can dilute the oil with kerosene to insure even lubrication. You will need to lubricate the chain twice as often when using this mixture. When the chain...

  19. Conventional sawing window Earlysawing

    E-print Network

    . · Final set--about when the concrete is hard enough to walk on--occurs before heat energy peaks (before alite [C3 S] reactions begin to slow). · After final set, tensile stresses start to develop due reducing porosity of the system and increasing strength and durability. These reactions are slow and, while

  20. Palaeolimnological evidence for an east-west climate see-saw in the Mediterranean since AD 900

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Neil; Moreno, Ana; Valero-Garcés, Blas L.; Corella, Juan Pablo; Jones, Matthew; Allcock, Samantha; Woodbridge, Jessie; Morellón, Mario; Luterbacher, Juerg; Xoplaki, Elena; Türke?, Murat

    2012-03-01

    During the period of instrumental records, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) has strongly influenced inter-annual precipitation variations in the western Mediterranean, while some eastern parts of the basin have shown an anti-phase relationship in precipitation and atmospheric pressure. Here we explore how the NAO and other atmospheric circulation modes operated over the longer timescales of the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and Little Ice Age (LIA). High-resolution palaeolimnological evidence from opposite ends of the Mediterranean basin, supplemented by other palaeoclimate data, is used to track shifts in regional hydro-climatic conditions. Multiple geochemical, sedimentological, isotopic and palaeoecological proxies from Estanya and Montcortés lakes in northeast Spain and Nar lake in central Turkey have been cross-correlated at decadal time intervals since AD 900. These dryland lakes capture sensitively changes in precipitation/evaporation (P/E) balance by adjustments in water level and salinity, and are especially valuable for reconstructing variability over decadal-centennial timescales. Iberian lakes show lower water levels and higher salinities during the 11th to 13th centuries synchronous with the MCA and generally more humid conditions during the ‘LIA' (15th-19th centuries). This pattern is also clearly evident in tree-ring records from Morocco and from marine cores in the western Mediterranean Sea. In the eastern Mediterranean, palaeoclimatic records from Turkey, Greece and the Levant show generally drier hydro-climatic conditions during the LIA and a wetter phase during the MCA. This implies that a bipolar climate see-saw has operated in the Mediterranean for the last 1100 years. However, while western Mediterranean aridity appears consistent with persistent positive NAO state during the MCA, the pattern is less clear in the eastern Mediterranean. Here the strongest evidence for higher winter season precipitation during the MCA comes from central Turkey in the northeastern sector of the Mediterranean basin. This in turn implies that the LIA/MCA hydro-climatic pattern in the Mediterranean was determined by a combination of different climate modes along with major physical geographical controls, and not by NAO forcing alone, or that the character of the NAO and its teleconnections have been non-stationary.

  1. Randomised Controlled Double-Blind Non-Inferiority Trial of Two Antivenoms for Saw-Scaled or Carpet Viper (Echis ocellatus) Envenoming in Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isa S. Abubakar; Saidu B. Abubakar; Abdulrazaq G. Habib; Abdulsalam Nasidi; Nandul Durfa; Peter O. Yusuf; Solomon Larnyang; John Garnvwa; Elijah Sokomba; Lateef Salako; R. David G Theakston; Ed Juszczak; Nicola Alder; David A. Warrell

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundIn West Africa, envenoming by saw-scaled or carpet vipers (Echis ocellatus) causes great morbidity and mortality, but there is a crisis in supply of effective and affordable antivenom (ISRCTN01257358).MethodsIn a randomised, double-blind, controlled, non-inferiority trial, “EchiTAb Plus-ICP” (ET-Plus) equine antivenom made by Instituto Clodomiro Picado was compared to “EchiTAb G” (ET-G) ovine antivenom made by MicroPharm, which is the standard

  2. Experimental and theoretical investigation for temperature characteristics and propagation losses of SAWs on SiO2\\/Al\\/LiTaO3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Asai; M. Hikita; A. Isobe; K. Sakiyama; T. Tada

    2002-01-01

    Improvement of temperature coefficients of frequency (TCFs) for LiTaO3 substrate was investigated. SAW resonators formed on SiO2\\/Al\\/36°Y-X LiTaO3 substrate with various kinds of SiO2 relative thickness were examined experimentally and theoretically. A zero TCF at fr was obtained for h\\/??0.31, while that at fa was obtained for h\\/??0.36 from experiments. Moreover, the experimental propagation losses revealed also different characteristics between

  3. An evaluation of an aftermarket local exhaust ventilation device for suppressing respirable dust and respirable crystalline silica dust from powered saws.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Alberto; Jones, Erica; Echt, Alan S; Hall, Ronald M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the respirable dust and respirable silica exposures of roofing workers using an electric-powered circular saw with an aftermarket local exhaust ventilation attachment to cut concrete roofing tiles. The study was conducted to determine whether the local exhaust ventilation attachment was able to control respirable dust and respirable silica exposure below occupational exposure limits (OELs). Time-integrated filter samples and direct reading respirable dust concentrations were evaluated. The local exhaust ventilation consisted of a shroud attached to the cutting plane of the saw; the shroud was then connected to a small electric axial fan, which is intended to collect dust at the point of generation. All sampling was conducted with the control in use. Roofers are defined as those individuals who only lay tiles. Cutters/roofers are defined as those workers who operate the powered saw to cut tiles and also lay tiles. Respirable dust from this evaluation ranged from 0.13 to 6.59 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m(3)) with a geometric mean of 0.38 mg/m(3) for roofers and from 0.45 to 3.82 mg/m(3) with a geometric mean of 1.84 mg/m(3) for cutters/roofers. Cutters/roofers usually handle areas close to crevices, edges, or tips of the roof whereas roofers handle areas where complete tiles can be placed. The respirable dust exposures for all cutters/roofers indicated concentrations exceeding the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) for respirable dust containing silica; it was also exceeded for some of the roofers. The respirable silica concentrations ranged from 0.04 to 0.15 mg/m(3) with a geometric mean of 0.09 mg/m(3) for roofers, and from 0.13 to 1.21 mg/m(3) with a geometric mean of 0.48 mg/m(3) for cutters/roofers. As with respirable dust, the respirable silica exposures for cutters/roofers were higher than the exposures for roofers. PMID:25148513

  4. Preclinical and preliminary dose-finding and safety studies to identify candidate antivenoms for treatment of envenoming by saw-scaled or carpet vipers ( Echis ocellatus) in northern Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. B. Abubakar; I. S. Abubakar; A. G. Habib; A. Nasidi; N. Durfa; P. O. Yusuf; S. Larnyang; J. Garnvwa; E. Sokomba; L. Salako; G. D. Laing; R. D. G. Theakston; E. Juszczak; N. Alder; D. A. Warrell

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify candidate antivenoms with specific activity against the venom of the saw-scaled or carpet viper (Echis ocellatus) in northern Nigeria, where bites by this species cause great morbidity and mortality but where effective antivenoms have become scarce and unaffordable. Selected antivenoms were destined to be compared by randomised controlled clinical trials (RCTs). Standard

  5. Saw Palmetto Extract Suppresses Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I Signaling and Induces Stress-Activated Protein Kinase\\/c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Phosphorylation in Human Prostate Epithelial Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TERI L. WADSWORTH; JULIE M. CARROLL; REBECCA A. MALLINSON; CHARLES T. ROBERTS

    2004-01-01

    A common alternative therapy for benign prostatic hyperpla- sia (BPH) is the extract from the fruit of saw palmetto (SPE). BPH is caused by nonmalignant growth of epithelial and stro- mal elements of the prostate. IGF action is important for pros- tate growth and development, and changes in the IGF system have been documented in BPH tissues. The main signaling

  6. Neurotoxicity, haemostatic disturbances and haemolytic anaemia after a bite by a Tunisian saw-scaled or carpet viper (Echis 'pyramidum'-complex): failure of antivenom treatment.

    PubMed

    Gillissen, A; Theakston, R D; Barth, J; May, B; Krieg, M; Warrell, D A

    1994-08-01

    A young man in Germany was bitten by a large captive saw-scaled viper (Echis 'pyramidum'-complex) of Tunisian origin. During the first few hours after the bite he developed evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation and fibrinolysis, and bled spontaneously. Despite being given a total of 310 ml of three different Echis-specific antivenoms (together with large amounts of fresh frozen plasma and concentrated clotting factors), venom antigenaemia (measured by enzyme immunoassay) and coagulopathy persisted for more than 10 days, and he developed a haemolytic anaemia and mild renal dysfunction. Transient bilateral ptosis was attributed to envenoming. The venom of the snake responsible for the bite was immunologically distinct from that of Nigerian E. ocellatus and was clearly not neutralised by the three monospecific antivenoms which had been administered. This case is another illustration of the geographical variation in snake venoms and the need for pooling venoms from snakes from different parts of the geographical range in the preparation of antivenoms. Envenoming by North African Echis species may not be reversible by available antivenoms. PMID:7985198

  7. A saw-less direct conversion long term evolution receiver with 25% duty-cycle LO in 130 nm CMOS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siyuan, He; Changhong, Zhang; Liang, Tao; Weifeng, Zhang; Longyue, Zeng; Wei, Lü; Haijun, Wu

    2013-03-01

    A CMOS long-term evolution (LTE) direct convert receiver that eliminates the interstage SAW filter is presented. The receiver consists of a low noise variable gain transconductance amplifier (TCA), a quadrature passive current commutating mixer with a 25% duty-cycle LO, a trans-impedance amplifier (TIA), a 7th-order Chebyshev filter and programmable gain amplifiers (PGAs). A wide dynamic gain range is allocated in the RF and analog parts. A current commutating passive mixer with a 25% duty-cycle LO improves gain, noise, and linearity. An LPF based on a Tow-Thomas biquad suppresses out-of-band interference. Fabricated in a 0.13 ?m CMOS process, the receiver chain achieves a 107 dB maximum voltage gain, 2.7 dB DSB NF (from PAD port), -11 dBm IIP3, and > +65 dBm IIP2 after calibration, 96 dB dynamic control range with 1 dB steps, less than 2% error vector magnitude (EVM) from 2.3 to 2.7 GHz. The total receiver (total I Q path) draws 89 mA from a 1.2-V LDO on chip supply.

  8. Effects of different levels of wheat bran, rice bran and maize powder supplementation with saw dust on the production of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Singer).

    PubMed

    Moonmoon, Mahbuba; Shelly, Nasrat Jahan; Khan, Md Asaduzzaman; Uddin, Md Nazim; Hossain, Kamal; Tania, Mousumi; Ahmed, Saleh

    2011-10-01

    The cultivation of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) is increasing rapidly in Bangladesh due to its nutritional and medicinal importance with excellent flavor and longer shelf life. With the aim of increased production, we have cultivated L. edodes on saw dust (SD) supplemented with different levels (10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35% and 40%) of wheat bran (WB), rice bran (RB), maize powder (MP) and their combination (WB+RB+MP = 1:1:1) to investigate the growth, yield and quality of this mushroom. Most of the growth, yield and quality parameters varied significantly when mushrooms were cultivated with different levels of supplementation. The yield of mushroom was increased with the level of each supplementation upto a certain level, and then decreased. SD supplemented with 25% WB produced the highest number of fruiting bodies (34.8/500 g packet), highest biological yield (153.3/500 g packet), and biological efficiency (76.6%) of L. edodes. But the yield of the best quality mushroom was observed on SD with 40% WB supplementation; however, the qualities were not always supplementation dose dependent. In this study, we report that 25% WB supplementation with SD may be very effective for higher yield and 40% WB supplementation for better quality of L. edodes. PMID:23961143

  9. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of saw palmetto in men with lower urinary tract symptoms 1 1 The study drug and placebo were provided by Nutraceutical Corp., Ogden, Utah

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glenn S Gerber; Dimitri Kuznetsov; Bernard C Johnson; Jay D Burstein

    2001-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the effects of saw palmetto on urinary symptoms, sexual function, and urinary flow rate in men with lower urinary tract symptoms using a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.Methods. The eligible patients were 45 years of age or older and had an International Prostate Symptom Score of 8 or greater. After a 1-month placebo run-in period, 85 men were

  10. Evaluation of Various Herbicides for Saw Greenbrier [Smilax bona-nox L.] and Southern Dewberry [Rubus trivialis Michx.] Control and Bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] Tolerance and Sharppod Morningglory [Ipomoea trichocarpa var. trichocarpa Ell.] Control in Roundup Ready Flex® and LibertyLink® Cotton Systems

    E-print Network

    Janak, Travis Wayne

    2012-02-14

    EVALUATION OF VARIOUS HERBICIDES FOR SAW GREENBRIER [Smilax bona-nox L.] AND SOUTHERN DEWBERRY [Rubus trivialis Michx.] CONTROL AND BERMUDAGRASS [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] TOLERANCE AND SHARPPOD MORNINGGLORY [Ipomoea trichocarpa var... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2011 Major Subject: Agronomy EVALUATION OF VARIOUS HERBICIDES FOR SAW GREENBRIER [Smilax bona-nox L.] AND SOUTHERN DEWBERRY [Rubus trivialis Michx.] CONTROL AND BERMUDAGRASS [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] TOLERANCE...

  11. Germany as We Saw It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA.

    Close-up studies of German life in the Stuttgart area are reported by participants of Stanford University's 1961 National Defense Education Act second-level institute for secondary school teachers of German, held at Bad Boll, Germany. Topics covered include: (1) religious life, (2) political life, (3) problems of settlement, (4) occupational…

  12. Pharmacologically relevant receptor binding characteristics and 5alpha-reductase inhibitory activity of free Fatty acids contained in saw palmetto extract.

    PubMed

    Abe, Masayuki; Ito, Yoshihiko; Oyunzul, Luvsandorj; Oki-Fujino, Tomomi; Yamada, Shizuo

    2009-04-01

    Saw palmetto extract (SPE), used widely for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has been shown to bind alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic and 1,4-dihydropyridine (1,4-DHP) calcium channel antagonist receptors. Major constituents of SPE are lauric acid, oleic acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid and linoleic acid. The aim of this study was to investigate binding affinities of these fatty acids for pharmacologically relevant (alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic and 1,4-DHP) receptors. The fatty acids inhibited specific [(3)H]prazosin binding in rat brain in a concentration-dependent manner with IC(50) values of 23.8 to 136 microg/ml, and specific (+)-[(3)H]PN 200-110 binding with IC(50) values of 24.5 to 79.5 microg/ml. Also, lauric acid, oleic acid, myristic acid and linoleic acid inhibited specific [(3)H]N-methylscopolamine ([(3)H]NMS) binding in rat brain with IC(50) values of 56.4 to 169 microg/ml. Palmitic acid had no effect on specific [(3)H]NMS binding. The affinity of oleic acid, myristic acid and linoleic acid for each receptor was greater than the affinity of SPE. Scatchard analysis revealed that oleic acid and lauric acid caused a significant decrease in the maximal number of binding sites (B(max)) for [(3)H]prazosin, [(3)H]NMS and (+)-[(3)H]PN 200-110. The results suggest that lauric acid and oleic acid bind noncompetitively to alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic and 1,4-DHP calcium channel antagonist receptors. We developed a novel and convenient method of determining 5alpha-reductase activity using LC/MS. With this method, SPE was shown to inhibit 5alpha-reductase activity in rat liver with an IC(50) of 101 microg/ml. Similarly, all the fatty acids except palmitic acid inhibited 5alpha-reductase activity, with IC(50) values of 42.1 to 67.6 microg/ml. In conclusion, lauric acid, oleic acid, myristic acid, and linoleic acid, major constituents of SPE, exerted binding activities of alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic and 1,4-DHP receptors and inhibited 5alpha-reductase activity. PMID:19336899

  13. An east-west climate see-saw in the Mediterranean during the last 2.6 ka: evidence and mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, C.; Moreno-Caballud, A.; Valero-Garces, B. L.; Luterbacher, J.; Xoplaki, E.; Allcock, S. L.

    2012-12-01

    Global precipitation anomalies during the Common Era show a spatial coherency that appears to be about an order of magnitude lower (i.e. smaller) than for temperature changes, as some areas became wetter while others experienced drought (Seager et al., 2007, Quat. Sci. Rev. 26, 2322-36). The Mediterranean basin (10°W-40°E; 30°-45°N) is influenced by some of the main mechanisms acting upon the global climate system and its regional water resources are sensitive to hydro-climatic variations. Reconstructing the timing, intensity, and patterns of hydrological variability in the Mediterranean is important for testing spatial-temporal coherency in palaeo-precipitation, and for understanding underlying climate forcing mechanisms. The region offers a broad spectrum of documentary information and natural archives which allow high-resolution climate reconstructions (Luterbacher et al., 2012, In: Lionello et al. (eds) The Mediterranean Climate: from past to future. Elsevier, pp. 87-185). During the period of instrumental records, the NAO has strongly influenced inter-annual precipitation variations in the western Mediterranean, while parts of the eastern basin have shown an anti-phase relationship in precipitation and atmospheric pressure. A wide array of proxy-climate data from Iberia and Morocco indicate overall drier conditions during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and a generally wetter climate in the Little Ice Age (LIA)(Moreno et al., 2012, Quat. Sci. Rev. 43, 16-32). This pattern is consistent with strong NAO forcing of western Mediterranean climate over the last 1.1 ka (Trouet et al., 2009; Science 324, 78-80). High-resolution palaeolimnological evidence from central Anatolia exhibit an opposite pattern, implying that an east-west climate see-saw operated in the Mediterranean basin during the LIA and MCA (Roberts et al., 2012; Glob. Planet. Change 84-85, 23-34). However, the strongest evidence for higher (lower) winter season precipitation during the MCA (LIA) does not come from the southeast sector of the Mediterranean basin, as would be expected from the pattern of NAO forcing seen during the instrumental period. Prior to the MCA, many proxy-climate records show changes of significantly larger amplitude than during the last millennium, notably during and after the Roman period. However, absolute chronologies become less precise with dating errors of ±>50 yr (Dermody et al., 2012; Clim. Past 8, 637-651), making correlations less robust. Before 2.6 ka BP, i.e. coincident with the northern European grenzhorizont, proxy-climate records from the Mediterranean show changes which imply a significant shift in atmospheric boundary conditions (e.g. radiative forcing). It is clear that hydro-climatic trends have been non-uniform across the Mediterranean in recent millennia. The contrasting spatio-temporal patterns across the basin appear to have been determined by a combination of different climate modes along with major physical geographical controls, not by NAO forcing alone, and/or the character of the NAO and its teleconnections have been non-stationary.

  14. Pre-clinical and preliminary dose-finding and safety studies to identify candidate antivenoms for treatment of envenoming by saw-scaled or carpet vipers (Echis ocellatus) in northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Abubakar, S B; Abubakar, I S; Habib, A G; Nasidi, A; Durfa, N; Yusuf, P O; Larnyang, S; Garnvwa, J; Sokomba, E; Salako, L; Laing, G D; Theakston, R D G; Juszczak, E; Alder, N; Warrell, D A

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify candidate antivenoms with specific activity against the venom of the saw-scaled or carpet viper (Echis ocellatus) in northern Nigeria, where bites by this species cause great morbidity and mortality but where effective antivenoms have become scarce and unaffordable. Selected antivenoms were destined to be compared by randomised controlled clinical trials (RCTs). Standard pre-clinical neutralisation assays were carried out in rodents. We included two licensed antivenoms of established clinical efficacy and 6 candidate antivenoms. Although 6 of the tested antivenoms showed promising efficacy, all but 3 were excluded from further study because of inadequate pre-clinical efficacy or because they were unavailable or unaffordable for the anticipated RCTs. Median effective doses (ED(50)) of the remaining three candidate antivenoms suggested that the following doses might neutralise the maximum observed venom yield of 24.8 mg (dry weight) of venom milked from captive E. ocellatus: 10 ml of MicroPharm "EchiTAb G" (ET-G) antivenom; 30 ml of Instituto Clodomiro Picado "EchiTAb-Plus-ICP" (ET-Plus) antivenom; 50 ml of VacSera, Cairo "EgyVac" antivenom. A preliminary clinical dose-finding and safety study of these three antivenoms was carried out in 24 patients with incoagulable blood after E. ocellatus bites who were not severely envenomed. A 3+3 dose escalation design was employed. Initial doses of 10 ml ET-G and 30 ml ET-Plus restored blood coagulability in groups of 6 patients with early mild reactions (pruritus only) in not more than one third of them. EgyVac antivenom did not fulfil efficacy or safety criteria in 12 patients. On the basis of these results, ET-G and ET-Plus were selected for comparison in a RCT. PMID:19874841

  15. What Brown saw and you can too

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearle, Philip; Collett, Brian; Bart, Kenneth; Bilderback, David; Newman, Dara; Samuels, Scott

    2010-12-01

    A discussion of Robert Brown's original observations of particles ejected by pollen of the plant Clarkia pulchella undergoing what is now called Brownian motion is given. We consider the nature of those particles and how he misinterpreted the Airy disk of the smallest particles to be universal organic building blocks. Relevant qualitative and quantitative investigations with a modern microscope and with a "homemade" single lens microscope similar to Brown's are presented.

  16. Research equipment: Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) devices

    E-print Network

    Gizeli, Electra

    Scientific Corp.): Atmospheric plasma etching, for surface cleaning, surface treatment and activation-coating of various polymeric films. http://www.scscoatings.com #12;Expanded Plasma Cleaner & PlasmaFloTM (Harrick facilities, hosted by IMBB-FORTH/University of Crete: · Sputter-coater and Ar-plasma etcher · Atomic Force

  17. Research equipment: Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) devices

    E-print Network

    Gizeli, Electra

    plasma etching, for surface cleaning, surface treatment and activation/functionalization. Potential-coating of various polymeric films. Expanded Plasma Cleaner & PlasmaFloTM (Harrick Scientific Corp.): Atmospheric-FORTH/University of Crete: · Sputter-coater and Ar-plasma etcher · Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) · Scanning Electron

  18. The OmniSaw device concept (OmniSAW: Omnidirectional band gap for surface acoustic wave)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdelkrim Khelif; Abdelkrim Choujaa; Jean-yves Rauch; Valérie Pétréni; Hannane Moubchir; Sarah Benchabane; Vincent Laude

    2008-01-01

    We report the theoretical evidence for the occurrence of omnidirectional elastic band gap in one-dimensional phononic crystal structures. The structure is constituted by a periodic layered deposited on a specific substrate that exhibit total reflection of waves for all incident angles and polarizations in a given frequency range the omnidirectional band gap. We present the influence of the nature and

  19. CodeSaw: A Social Visualization of Distributed Software Development

    E-print Network

    Karahalios, Karrie G.

    with a discussion of the results of an online field study with prominent open source de- velopers. The field study. Furthermore, an important de- sign lesson from the field study leads us to introduce a novel interaction that nearly 1.1 million software developers in North America participate in open source development [1]. Major

  20. "I Saw All That": A Lakota Girl's Puberty Ceremony.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bol, Marsha C.; Menard, Nellie Z. Star Boy

    2000-01-01

    Draws on the memoirs of Nellie Menard, Lakota archives, and other published materials to describe the traditional puberty ceremonies held for Lakota girls. Discusses the practice of seclusion, during which an elderly woman instructed the girl in appropriate behavior and women's crafts; the initiate's new social status; the ball-throwing ceremony;…

  1. a New Processing Method for SAW Resonator Torque Response Signal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Xu; Y. Zhang; S. Zhou; X. Zhao

    2011-01-01

    The response signal is of narrow band, high frequency, low SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) and transient attenuation. Torque applied to the shaft can be acquired from changes of the center frequency. The resolution of FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) method is limited by sampling length. MLE (Maximum Likelihood Estimate) or LSE (Least Square Estimate) is time-consuming. In this paper, GA

  2. Temperature and Strain Coefficient of Velocity for Langasite SAW Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, W. C.; Atkinson, G. M.

    2013-01-01

    Surface Acoustic Wave sensors on Langasite substrates are being investigated for aerospace applications. Characterization of the Langasite material properties must be performed before sensors can be installed in research vehicles. The coefficients of velocity for both strain and temperature have been determined. These values have also been used to perform temperature compensation of the strain measurements.

  3. Fiber properties of saw and roller ginned naturally colored cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Naturally colored cottons have economic and environmental appeal because they do not require dyeing. Naturally colored cottons do not have the same fiber length and strength as white cotton cultivars. To determine the optimal ginning process for colored fiber two Upland (G. hirsutim) colors were r...

  4. Germany As We Saw It. Third Edition, 1963.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA.

    Closeup studies of German life in the Stuttgart area are reported here by 79 participants of Stanford University's 1963 National Defense Education Act Second-Level Institute for Elementary and Secondary School Teachers held at Bad Boll, Germany. Elementary and secondary education, work and family life, and housing and housing developments are…

  5. Chop Saw SUCCESS!: "Crash Proofing" a Metalworking Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domermuth, David

    2004-01-01

    The Technology Department at Appalachian State University runs a metals lab to introduce students to basic metalworking processes. Many of the students have never worked with metal before. The class objectives call for teaching students metal properties, processing, and design problem solving. The average student is a 20-year-old junior whom…

  6. Congenital Achiasma and See-Saw Nystagmus in VACTERL Syndrome

    E-print Network

    Dumoulin, Serge O.

    remnant of the optic chiasm but normal-sized optic nerves. Functional MRI during monocular visual stimula chiasm and otherwise normal anatomy, including the size of the optic nerves and optic tracts, pituitary of the optic chiasm by the optic nerves has fascinated anatomists for centuries and continues to be vigorously

  7. Attorney Docket No. 70011-020P01 SAGITTAL SAW

    E-print Network

    Ruina, Andy L.

    to be driven by a motor. The gear assembly includes a thrust shaft driven by the motor, the thrust shaft including an end and a thrust crank protruding from the thrust shaft end so as to extend parallel to and spaced apart from an axial centerline of the thrust shaft. The gear assembly includes a first gear

  8. A tunnel-diode oscillator with an SAW resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kmita, A. M.; Kundin, A. P.; Maltsev, O. A.

    1984-03-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of changes in the bias voltage on the frequency of a tunnel-diode oscillator stabilized by a surface-acoustic-wave resonator. For an oscillator with a parallel resonance frequency of 78.901 MHz, a change in the bias voltage from 0.15 to 0.54 V produces a 4-percent change in the generation frequency. The frequency instability is described by an N-shaped curve, which is attributed to the effect of higher harmonics. However, in the bias voltage range 0.226-0.372, the frequency instability of the oscillator does not exceed 2 x 10 to the -4th.

  9. Acoustic loss mechanisms in leaky SAW resonators on lithium tantalate.

    PubMed

    Koskela, J; Knuuttila, J V; Makkonen, T; Plessky, V P; Salomaa, M M

    2001-11-01

    We discuss acoustic losses in synchronous leaky surface acoustic wave (LSAW) resonators on rotated Y-cut lithium tantalate (LiTaO3) substrates. Laser probe measurements and theoretical models are employed to identify and characterize the radiation of leaky waves into the busbars of the resonator and the excitation of bulk acoustic waves. Escaping LSAWs lead to a significant increase in the conductance, typically occurring in the vicinity of the resonance and in the stopband, but they do not explain the experimentally observed deterioration of the electrical response at the antiresonance. At frequencies above the stop-band, the generation of fast shear bulk acoustic waves is the dominant loss mechanism. PMID:11800113

  10. SAW dispersion measurements for ultrasonic characterization of surface-

    E-print Network

    Nagy, Peter B.

    experimental data obtained on samples that have been surface treated with shot peening, laser shock peening-treated metals. KEYWORDS: Ultrasonic Surface Waves, Spectroscopy, Nondestructive Testing, Shot Peening. #12 be used to nondestructively characterize shot-peened, laser shock-peened, burnished, and otherwise surface

  11. d self-avoiding walk SAW mean square displacement exponent

    E-print Network

    Hattori, Tetsuya

    W0 L(w)=13 W0: SAP on dSG (Self-Avoiding Path) w : Z+ G L(w) = inf{i | w(j) = w(i), j i} W0 = {w, 3: Hattori-Hattori-Kusuoka dSG, d = 2, 3, dSG, d = 4, 5, 6, · · · dSG, d = 2, 3, SAP SAP path dSG SAP SAP #12;( ) (i) (path ) ( ) (ii) (iii) dSG SAP (re- cursion) #12;W(1) (1) S(1)=3 S(2)=0 W(2) (1) S

  12. Chapter 6 -Chain Saw Safety Modern lightweight chains saws have become common on farms, as well as in urban

    E-print Network

    it can cut you. Wearing protective gear will safeguard you from cutting injuries. There are a number. This includes keeping teeth sharp, correct chain tension, proper lubrication, and keeping a properly tuned

  13. Record slowdown, bigger share. While 2009 saw a historic slowing of growth in healthcare spending, its share of GDP saw an unprecedented increase.

    PubMed

    Evans, Melanie

    2011-01-10

    The Great Recession brought a historic slowdown in healthcare spending, but hospitals adjusted to keep their books in order. ThedaCare curbed its spending through efficiency efforts under way since 2003 and concerted efforts to limit hiring during 2009 to essential positions, says John Ross, left, vice president of finance at the Wisconsin system. PMID:21287864

  14. What you see depends on what you saw, and what else you saw: the interactions between motion priming and object priming.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiong; Jiang, Yang; Parasuraman, Raja

    2014-12-01

    Both visual object priming and motion priming have been reported independently, but the interactions between the two are still largely unexplored. Here we investigated this question using a novel type of SFM stimuli, 3-D helixes, and found that the motion direction perception of an ambiguous helix can be biased by the motion direction of a preceding SFM stimulus - a classic motion priming effect. However, the effectiveness of motion priming depends on object priming: a neutral object priming produced a weak motion priming, a congruent object priming led to a strong motion priming, and critically, an incongruent object priming abolished and overpowered the motion priming. In contrast, object priming alone (in the absence of motion overlap) had little effects biasing motion perception. Taken together, these results suggest that there exists an integrated neural representation of motion and structure of 3-D SFM stimuli, and motion priming of 3-D SFM stimuli might happen at an intermediate stage between MT/V5 (which is not shape selective) and LO (lateral occipital, which is not motion selective). This novel type of stimuli, 3-D helixes, along with the prime-target paradigm, thus might offer a unique tool to examine neural bases underlying the perception of 3-D SFM stimuli and perceptual priming. PMID:25281908

  15. '"We Saw Inhumanity Close up." What Is Gained by School Students from Scotland Visiting Auschwitz?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Paula; Maitles, Henry

    2011-01-01

    As the education for citizenship agenda continues to impact on schools in the UK and with the Holocaust Educational Trust (HET) in conjunction with the Scottish Government introducing its Lessons From Auschwitz (LFA) project for students and teachers in Scotland, this article focuses on the Scottish context and investigates the school processes by…

  16. Filter technologies for converged RF-frontend architectures: SAW, BAW and beyond

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Aigner

    2010-01-01

    Multi-band\\/multi-system mobile phones require a complex RF-frontend architecture. Complexity has increased to a point where adding switches and whole signal branches for an additional band is no longer cost effective. Alternative concepts involve `converged' power amplifiers and switching concepts supporting those. Filters and duplexers play a key role in converged architectures and their requirements will be reviewed. Challenges that arise

  17. BOUNDED TIMESTAMPS In Chapter 10, we saw two simulations, one of a multireader register from single

    E-print Network

    Attiya, Hagit

    must support the following two procedures: NewTS: takes no parameters and returns a timestamp. Comp the parameter that was produced more recently by NewTS. More precisely, assuming only a single processor, the generator, invokes NewTS: Timestamp Property: Consider any CompTS execution ct on arguments T 0 and T 1

  18. Veni,Vidi, Suffragi I came,I saw,I voted.

    E-print Network

    Filman, Robert E.

    meanings of "respect for women" that Bill Clinton had with "sex." If they do, well, at least our governor to 4. Socially (and fortunately limited by the Bill of Rights), we in the US believe in the tyranny

  19. In-situ slurry wall formation with the SoilSaw{trademark} barrier system

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, E.E. [Carter Technologies, Sugarland, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This new technology was designed to form high-quality formed-in-place barrier walls in soil in a more continuous and uniform manner than the two-step, excavate and replace, processes of conventional slurry trenching. Soils in the path of the device are pulverized in-situ and liquefied by high-energy jets of a permeability modifying grout. The hardware then passes through the liquefied soil under the pull of gravity. The soil-grout mixture hardens to form a plastic diaphragm wall. Walls can be formed from a variety of materials. The bulk of the energy to cut and mix the soil is transferred to the soil work face hydraulically by the slurry media itself. Massive energy transfer of over 2,000 hydraulic horsepower (1,500 kilowatts) supplied by oil field cement slurry pumps allows dramatic productivity rates. The production rate of the process is significantly reduced in highly cohesive soils. This paper presents an introductory look at a potentially useful new method of construction of large subsurface barriers and contrasts it with conventional methods.

  20. Determination of the exponent gamma for SAWs on the two-dimensional Manhattan lattice

    E-print Network

    Sergio Caracciolo; Maria Serena Causo; Peter Grassberger; Andrea Pelissetto

    1998-12-16

    We present a high-statistics Monte Carlo determination of the exponent gamma for self-avoiding walks on a Manhattan lattice in two dimensions. A conservative estimate is $\\gamma \\gtapprox 1.3425(3)$, in agreement with the universal value 43/32 on regular lattices, but in conflict with predictions from conformal field theory and with a recent estimate from exact enumerations. We find strong corrections to scaling that seem to indicate the presence of a non-analytic exponent Delta < 1. If we assume Delta = 11/16 we find gamma = 1.3436(3), where the error is purely statistical.

  1. Bites by the Saw-scaled or Carpet Viper (Echis carinatus): Trial of Two Specific Antivenoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Warrell; N. McD Davidson; L. D. Omerod; Helen M. Pope; Barbara J. Watkins; B. M. Greenwood; H. A. Ried

    1974-01-01

    Echis carinatus is the most important cause of morbidity and mortality from snake bite in Nigeria and in many other parts of the world. Forty-six patients with systemic poisoning by this snake were given echis antivenom made either by the South African Institute for Medical Research (S.A.I.M.R.) or by Behringwerke (North and West African polyvalent antivenom). A simple test of

  2. Effects of saw projection and seed roll density on the performance of a cottonseed linter 

    E-print Network

    Luedtke, Charles G

    1956-01-01

    8. Arral yai s of Samples Run No. 1 Run No. 2 Run No. Run No. 4 Run No. 5 26 27 29 30 Analysis o Samples Hun No. E 10. Ana. l ye i s o f Sampl e s 1 l. Ar~lysi s of Samples 12. Anal ysi s of' Samples Hun No, Hun No. 10 Hun No. 11 13.... Anal ysi s of Samples Hun No. 12 10. Da, ta Sheet, Run No. 15. Data, Sheet Run No. 2 16. Data Sheet 17. Data Sheet 18. Data Sheet 19. Date. Sheet 20. Data Sheet 21. Data Sheet Run No. 3 Run No. 4 Run No. Run No. 6 Run No. 7 Run No. 8 41...

  3. Quality Comparison of Saw and Roller Ginning Three Mid-South Cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three cultivars; Fibermax 960 BR, Deltapine 147 RF, and Deltapine 164 B2RF; were grown normally at Stoneville, MS and spindle harvested during the 2008 crop year. The cottons were processed with the same precleaning: dryer at 250°F, cylinder cleaner, stick machine, dryer at 240°F, and cylinder clea...

  4. NON-RECIPROCAL SAW DEVICES FOR RF APPLICATIONS M. Rotter, W. Ruile

    E-print Network

    Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München

    of a semiconductor heterostructure and the acoustic properties of strongly piezoelectric crystals yields promising on a LiNbO3 substrate and the free carriers in a semiconductor quantum well can be exploited to result boundary conditions, we use a thin semiconductor layer forming a field effect transistor on top of a LiNbO3

  5. 1966 -2008 This weekend saw the passing of our former student and

    E-print Network

    . With sympathy, John John J. Flynn Chairman and Frick Curator, Division of Paleontology American Museum years course in Geology. He was granted the degree of Master of Paleontology in the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences in 1992, and the Ph. D. in Biology

  6. Atmospheric See-Saw Phenomenon and the Occurrence of Typhoon Storms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wilhelm Krebs

    1907-01-01

    IN January last there was a very noteworthy barometric change agreeing in a high degree with the results of those synodal pressure periods which have been affirmed for European latitudes by the statistical investigations of two German meteorologists, Captain K. Seemann and Dr. G. Meyer. These results require high pressure at the time of the first quarter and low pressure

  7. trans -Perillenal a furanoid monoterpene from pine saw-fly, Neodiprion sertifer (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Göran Ahlgren; Gunnar Bergström; Jan Löfqvist; Anita Jansson; Torbjörn Norin

    1979-01-01

    Volatile constituents present in nanogram quantities in various body parts and glands of the males and females of the speciesNeodiprion sertifer Geoffr. (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae) have been investigated by GC-MS. A significant amount of a volatile constituent was detected in the lateral parts of the integument of abdominal segments II-III. The constituent was identified as the furanoid monoterpenetrans-perillenal (I) previously not

  8. Comparison of Saw Palmetto (extract and whole berry) and Cernitin on prostate growth in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nadeem Talpur; Bobby Echard; Debasis Bagchi; Manashi Bagchi; Harry G. Preuss

    2003-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals such as finasteride and alpha blockers are used to treat symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and are known to cause severe adverse reactions. Accordingly, a search for safer, natural products has been undertaken. Two natural agents (nutraceuticals) have come under recent scrutiny; because natural products, in general, often have evidence of long-term safety. The present study compares the

  9. Saw palmetto and finasteride in the treatment of category III prostatitis\\/chronic pelvic pain syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Yang; Alexis E. Te

    2005-01-01

    Chronic nonbacterial prostatitis\\/chronic pelvic pain syndrome is a common entity for which a standardized management has not\\u000a been established. Patients often have a significant symptom complex and impact on quality of life, but very little is known\\u000a about the efficacy of second- and third-line treatments, such as the use of herbal supplements. Many treatments studied in\\u000a recent literature include antibiotics,

  10. Lepton parameters in the see-saw model extended by one extra Higgs doublet

    E-print Network

    Alejandro Ibarra; Ana Solaguren-Beascoa

    2014-09-17

    We investigate the radiative generation of lepton masses and mixing angles in the Standard Model extended by one right-handed neutrino and one extra Higgs doublet. We assume approximate rank-1 Yukawa couplings at a high energy scale and we calculate the one loop corrected charged lepton and neutrino mass matrices at the low energy scale. We find that quantum effects generate, for typical high energy parameters, a hierarchy between the muon and the tau mass, a hierarchy between the solar and the atmospheric mass splittings, and a pattern of leptonic mixing angles in qualitative agreement with experiments.

  11. Lepton parameters in the see-saw model extended by one extra Higgs doublet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra, Alejandro; Solaguren-Beascoa, Ana

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the radiative generation of lepton masses and mixing angles in the Standard Model extended by one right-handed neutrino and one extra Higgs doublet. We assume approximate rank-1 Yukawa couplings at a high energy scale and we calculate the one loop corrected charged lepton and neutrino mass matrices at the low energy scale. We find that quantum effects generate, for typical high energy parameters, a hierarchy between the muon and the tau mass, a hierarchy between the solar and the atmospheric mass splittings, and a pattern of leptonic mixing angles in qualitative agreement with experiments.

  12. DESIGN OF TEMPERATURE SENSOR ARRAY IN SMART ELECTRIC GRID BASED ON SAW RESONATORS

    E-print Network

    Wang, Ji

    -40°C to +150°C. The thermal parameters of sensor encapsulation are optimized according to the high radiation, the optical fiber and the wireless active sensor, the wireless, pure passive temperature sensor(no need of power in sensors), naturally wireless (high voltage insulation properties) and high immunity

  13. NASA Lewis Helps Develop Advanced Saw Blades for the Lumber Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center's Structures and Material Divisions are centers of excellence in high-temperature alloys for aerospace applications such as advanced aircraft and rocket engines. Lewis' expertise in these fields was enlisted in the development of a new generation of circular sawblades for the lumber industry to use in cutting logs into boards. The U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Forest Products Laboratory and their supplier had succeeded in developing a thinner sawblade by using a nickel-based alloy, but they needed to reduce excessive warping due to residual stresses. They requested assistance from Lewis' experts, who successfully eliminated the residual stress problem and increased blade strength by over 12 percent. They achieved this by developing an innovative heat treatment based on their knowledge of nickel-based superalloys used in aeropropulsion applications.

  14. Characterisation of free-standing polycrystalline CVD diamond films by SAW-based laser ultrasonics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Flannery; M. D. Whitfield; R. B. Jackman

    2000-01-01

    Knowledge of the mechanical and elastic properties of polycrystalline diamond films necessary if one is to use these materials for mechanical, acoustic and sensing purposes. Present there is very little information available about these properties for films greater than a few microns thickness. In this work we inspect free-standing polycrystalline diamond films of thickness in the 100s of microns range

  15. Application of compound matrices to the study of SAW and PSAW propagation in layered structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. I. Fedosov; Yu. V. Gulyaev; I. I. Chusov; M. Benetti; D. Cannata; F. Di Pietrantonio; E. Verona

    2008-01-01

    It was demonstrated in, that the use of compound matrices in the matrix formalism makes it possible to calculate acoustic mode velocities in a layered structure with thick film layers and is an useful tool to derive the analytic expressions for the acoustic mode propagation. The advantages, as well as the weak points related to the use of compound matrices

  16. Versatile materials for use as chemically sensitive interfaces in SAW-based sensor arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Crooks, R.M.; Bergbrieter, D.E.; Bruening, M.L.; Wells, M.; Zhou, Yuefen [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Ricco, A.J.; Osbourn, G.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-07-01

    The primary research objective of the work described here is to design, synthesize, and characterize new materials for use as chemical sensor interfaces, integrate these materials, using appropriate transducers, into sensor arrays, and then develop appropriate mathematical algorithms for interpreting the array response. In this paper, we will discuss two new types of materials we have developed that are ideally suited for use as chemically sensitive interfaces for array-based chemical sensing applications, since they: (1) provide general specificity towards classes of functional groups rather than individual compounds; (2) are intermediate in structure between monolayers and polymers; (3) exhibit both endo- and exo-recognition. The first class of materials is surface-confined dendrimers and the second is hyperbranched polymers.

  17. Electronic nose based on the polymer coated SAW sensors array for the warfare agent simulants classification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Alizadeh; S. Zeynali

    2008-01-01

    A reference and three polymer coated surface acoustic wave sensors making an electronic nose were introduced. This system contained the pre-concentration unit in order for detection of low level warfare agent simulants. Principal component analysis (PCA), artificial neural network (ANN) and the combination of these two methods (PCA-ANN) were used for differentiation between the three classes including nerve and mustard

  18. The Income Volatility See-Saw: Implications for School Lunch. Economic Research Report Number 23

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Constance

    2006-01-01

    Income volatility challenges the effectiveness of the safety net that USDA food assistance programs provide low-income families. This study examines income volatility among households with children and the implications of volatility for eligibility in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP). The results show that income volatility was higher for…

  19. Electroacoustical constants and Rayleigh SAW propagation characteristics of rare-earth calcium oxoborate single crystals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroyuki SHIMIZU; Ayako KONDO; Masahiro NISHIDA; Hiroaki TAKEDA; Takashi NISHIDA; Tadashi SHIOSAKI

    2005-01-01

    Electro-acoustical constants (?ij T , sij E , dij) of the rare- earth calcium oxoborate RCa4O(BO3)3 (R = La, Gd, Y; RCOB) piezoelectric single crystals, which belong to the monoclinic structure with point group m, were evaluated. Their electro- acoustical constants were systematically compared to the ionic radius of the R-site ions. The piezoelectric constants d11, d12, d13, d31, d32

  20. 'I Saw You Disappear with My Own Eyes': Hidden Transcripts of New York Black Isrealite Bricolage

    E-print Network

    Dorman, Jacob S.

    2007-08-01

    , conjuring, Kabbala, and Judaism. The bricoleur is created by the culture he or she creates, and in this sense functions more like a spider on a web than a heroic individual weaver standing apart from her creation on a loom. Just as a spider cre­ ates webs... bricoleur's web would be the anchor lines of the webs of other bricoleurs, not just the material infra­ structure of the city itself. Likewise, the spider is fed by the insects she catches in her web, and so in a very real sense is constituted by the very...

  1. TOWARDS THE CORRELATION OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND SAWING PARAMETERS OF SILICON WAFERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Bidiville; K. Wasmer; J. Michler; C. Ballif; M. Van der Meer; P. M. Nasch

    The price for silicon used in the photovoltaic industry has increased dramatically over the last few years, due primarily to its high purity requirement and limited supply. Thus, for reducing the production costs, it is important to minimise the thickness and the breakage rate of the silicon substrates (\\

  2. PSAW/MicroSWIS [Microminiature Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) based Wirelesss Instrumentation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heermann, Doug; Krug, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This Final Report for the PSAW/MicroSWIS Program is provided in compliance with contract number NAS3-01118. This report documents the overall progress of the program and presents project objectives, work carried out, and results obtained. Program Conceptual Design Package stated the following objectives: To develop a sensor/transceiver network that can support networking operations within spacecraft with sufficient bandwidth so that (1) flight control data, (2) avionics data, (3) payload/experiment data, and (4) prognostic health monitoring sensory information can flow to appropriate locations at frequencies that contain the maximum amount of information content but require minimum interconnect and power: a very high speed, low power, programmable modulation, spread-spectrum radio sensor/transceiver.

  3. NEST Scientific Report 2007-2009 SAW-driven electron dynamics in nanostructures

    E-print Network

    Abbondandolo, Alberto

    -repetition-rate single-photon source [4] and a solid-state Hadamard gate based on a three-terminal Aharonov-Bohm ring acoustoelectric effect is the manifestation of the transport of charge carriers in a piezoelectric semiconductor) devices, this effect gives rise to acoustoelectric current quantization [3]: control over the 1D

  4. The Saw-It-All-Along Effect: Demonstrations of Visual Hindsight Bias

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erin M. Harley; Keri A. Carlsen; Geoffrey R. Loftus

    2004-01-01

    The authors address whether a hindsight bias exists for visual perception tasks. In 3 experiments, participants identified degraded celebrity faces as they resolved to full clarity (Phase 1). Following Phase 1, participants either recalled the level of blur present at the time of Phase 1 identification or predicted the level of blur at which a peer would make an accurate

  5. The "saw-it-all-along" effect: demonstrations of visual hindsight bias.

    PubMed

    Harley, Erin M; Carlsen, Keri A; Loftus, Geoffrey R

    2004-09-01

    The authors address whether a hindsight bias exists for visual perception tasks. In 3 experiments, participants identified degraded celebrity faces as they resolved to full clarity (Phase 1). Following Phase 1, participants either recalled the level of blur present at the time of Phase 1 identification or predicted the level of blur at which a peer would make an accurate identification. In all experiments, participants overestimated identification performance of naive observers. Visual hindsight bias was greater for more familiar faces--those shown in both phases of the experiment--and was not reduced following instructions to participants to avoid the bias. The authors propose a fluency-misattribution theory to account for the bias and discuss implications for medical malpractice litigation and eyewitness testimony. PMID:15355129

  6. We Saw It All Along: Visual Hindsight Bias in Children and Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel M. Bernstein; Cristina Atance; Geoffrey R. Loftus; Andrew Meltzoff

    2004-01-01

    We traced the developmental origins and trajectory of the hindsight bias. Three-, 4-, and 5-year-old children and adults identified gradually clarifying images of degraded com- mon objects on a computer. Half the time, observers did not know in advance what the object would become. The rest of the time, observers knew the object's identity in advance and esti- mated when

  7. We saw it all along: visual hindsight bias in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Daniel M; Atance, Cristina; Loftus, Geoffrey R; Meltzoff, Andrew

    2004-04-01

    We traced the developmental origins and trajectory of the hindsight bias. Three-, 4-, and 5-year-old children and adults identified gradually clarifying images of degraded common objects on a computer. Half the time, observers did not know in advance what the object would become. The rest of the time, observers knew the object's identity in advance and estimated when a naive same-age peer would identify the clarifying object. In two experiments, children and adults demonstrated hindsight bias by using advance knowledge to overestimate their same-age peers' ability to identify the objects. The magnitude of this bias declined across age in one experiment, but remained relatively stable over age in the other experiment. These findings link developmental psychology and adult cognitive science. PMID:15043645

  8. The "Saw-It-All-Along" Effect: Demonstrations of Visual Hindsight Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harley, Erin M.; Carlsen, Keri A.; Loftus, Geoffrey R.

    2004-01-01

    The authors address whether a hindsight bias exists for visual perception tasks. In 3 experiments, participants identified degraded celebrity faces as they resolved to full clarity (Phase 1). Following Phase 1, participants either recalled the level of blur present at the time of Phase 1 identification or predicted the level of blur at which a…

  9. Cloning and characterization of squalene synthase gene from Fusarium fujikuroi (Saw.) Wr

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rui-Yu ZhaoWei; Wei Xiao; Hai-Li Cheng; Ping Zhu; Ke-Di Cheng

    2010-01-01

    The gene encoding squalene synthase (GfSQS) was cloned from Fusarium fujikuroi (Gibberella fujikuroi MP-C) and characterized. The cloned genomic DNA is 3,267 bp in length, including the 5?-untranslated region (UTR), 3?-UTR,\\u000a four exons, and three introns. A noncanonical splice-site (CA-GG, or GC-AG) was found at the first intron. The open reading\\u000a frame of the gene is 1,389 bp in length, corresponding to

  10. "I Saw it in a Different Light": International Learning Experiences in Baccalaureate Nursing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Linda V.; DeJoseph, Jeanne

    2003-01-01

    Ten nursing students and two faculty mentors participated in an immersion experience in Guatemala. Themes from interviews included the experience of being "other," growth as a professional nurse, and expansion of world views. (Contains 16 references.) (SK)

  11. Optimum leaky-SAW cut of LiTaO3 for minimised insertion loss devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken-ya Hashimoto; Masatsune Yamaguchi; S. Mineyoshi; O. Kawachi; M. Ueda; G. Endoh

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes how the propagation loss ? of leaky surface acoustic wave (LSAW) is dependent upon the Al thickness h of grating electrodes and rotation angle ? for rotated Y-X LiTaO3. Since the energy leak of LSAW originates from the coupling of the slow-shear field component with other components through the surface boundary conditions, zero ? can be realised

  12. SAW filters based on parallel-connected coupled resonator filters with offset frequencies.

    PubMed

    Meltaus, Johanna; Plessky, Victor P; Härmä, Sanna; Salomaa, Martti M

    2007-01-01

    The concept of coupled resonators is applied to synthesize surface acoustic wave filters. Employing two parallel-connected filter tracks, with a frequency shift imposed between them, a wide passband with low insertion loss together with well-controlled rejections is achieved. The operation of the two-track device is based on the mutual interaction of the individual transfer functions for the pair of tracks. Each track serves to contribute a part of the passband, enabling a wide band. Outside of the passband, the signals passing through the two channels may cancel each other, thus facilitating efficient control over the rejections. However, obtaining rejection stopbands at just the predetermined frequencies requires precise values for the materials parameters and a reliable fabrication process. Prototype devices fabricated with this approach are demonstrated both on quartz and, for the first time, on 42 degrees-LiTaO3. Results for two-track devices having either two or three transducers per track and operating either single-ended or with a balanced output are presented. The devices are designed employing the coupling-of-modes model and transmission-matrix approach, and the separate tracks are optimized simultaneously and independently. The center frequencies are 868 MHz and 1960 MHz. On quartz, a minimum insertion loss of 4 dB and a passband width of 0.23% are achieved at 868 MHz. On 42 degrees-LiTaO3, the corresponding figures of merit are 1.3 dB for minimum insertion loss and 4.1% bandwidth at 1960 MHz. The filters on 42 degrees-LiTaO3 also have remarkably flat passbands. PMID:17225811

  13. Old Saws and New Materials: A Consideration of Some Ethical Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, John F.

    1968-01-01

    Reports of job-hopping, opportunism, grantsmanship, and wheeling-dealing, based on the availability of federal research funds, by university faculty has created much concern in governmental and educational circles about the ethical problems these activities pose for the academic profession. In 1963, the Office of Science and Technology(OST) and…

  14. June 2014 | 1 ooking back at our 2013, we saw: The first lunar

    E-print Network

    Waliser, Duane E.

    Access, is helping us build the necessary technologies to safely land bigger payloads on Mars at Wallops serving in many and varied capacities. The picture-perfect launch of Orb-1 in early January got us off on the right start. In other rocket news, the Sounding Rocket team added to its list

  15. They saw a movie: Long-term memory for an extended audiovisual narrative

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Orit Furman; Nimrod Dorfman; Uri Hasson; Lila Davachi; Yadin Dudai

    2007-01-01

    We measured long-term memory for a narrative film. During the study session, participants watched a 27-min movie episode, without instructions to remember it. During the test session, administered at a delay ranging fro m3ht o 9 mo after the study session, long-term memory for the movie was probed using a computerized questionnaire that assessed cued recall, recognition, and metamemory of

  16. They Saw a Movie: Long-Term Memory for an Extended Audiovisual Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furman, Orit; Dorfman, Nimrod; Hasson, Uri; Davachi, Lila; Dudai, Yadin

    2007-01-01

    We measured long-term memory for a narrative film. During the study session, participants watched a 27-min movie episode, without instructions to remember it. During the test session, administered at a delay ranging from 3 h to 9 mo after the study session, long-term memory for the movie was probed using a computerized questionnaire that assessed…

  17. THE PROPAGATION SAW TEST (PST): A REVIEW OF ITS DEVELOPMENT, APPLICATIONS, AND RECENT RESEARCH

    E-print Network

    Jamieson, Bruce

    to the initiation and propagation of fracture; its applications to other research problems, such as fracture in 2005 and 2006. It was inspired partly by observations of fracture propagation in earlier cantilever beam tests, and was partly based on notched-specimen tests that are common in fracture mechanics

  18. “I’d Know a False Confession if I Saw One”: A Comparative Study of College Students and Police Investigators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saul M. Kassin; Christian A. Meissner; Rebecca J. Norwick

    2005-01-01

    College students and police investigators watched or listened to 10 prison inmates confessing to crimes. Half the confessions were true accounts; half were false—concocted for the study. Consistent with much recent research, students were generally more accurate than police, and accuracy rates were higher among those presented with audiotaped than videotaped confessions. In addition, investigators were significantly more confident in

  19. "I'd know a false confession if I saw one": a comparative study of college students and police investigators.

    PubMed

    Kassin, Saul M; Meissner, Christian A; Norwick, Rebecca J

    2005-04-01

    College students and police investigators watched or listened to 10 prison inmates confessing to crimes. Half the confessions were true accounts; half were false--concocted for the study. Consistent with much recent research, students were generally more accurate than police, and accuracy rates were higher among those presented with audiotaped than videotaped confessions. In addition, investigators were significantly more confident in their judgments and also prone to judge confessors guilty. To determine if police accuracy would increase if this guilty response bias were neutralized, participants in a second experiment were specifically informed that half the confessions were true and half were false. This manipulation eliminated the investigator response bias, but it did not increase accuracy or lower confidence. These findings are discussed for what they imply about the post-interrogation risks to innocent suspects who confess. PMID:15912725

  20. Manipulation of the Kondo Effect via Two-Dimensional Molecular Assembly Violeta Iancu, Aparna Deshpande, and Saw-Wai Hla*

    E-print Network

    Hla, Saw-Wai

    Manipulation of the Kondo Effect via Two-Dimensional Molecular Assembly Violeta Iancu, Aparna the manipulation of a Kondo resonance originating from the spin-electron interactions between a two of the center molecule inside a hexagonal molecular assembly in a controlled step-by-step manner. The Kondo

  1. TGfU--Would You Know It if You Saw It? Benchmarks from the Tacit Knowledge of the Founders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Joy

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the tacit expert knowledge and understanding about games curriculum and pedagogy of three men, Len Almond, David Bunker, and Rod Thorpe, credited as the founders of the Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) model. The model emerged from teacher practice in the late 1970s and was little theorized at the time, apart from a…

  2. Interfacing low-energy SAW nebulization with Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry for the analysis of biological samples

    PubMed Central

    Tveen-Jensen, Karina; Gesellchen, Frank; Wilson, Rab; Spickett, Corinne M.; Cooper, Jonathan M.; Pitt, Andrew R.

    2015-01-01

    Soft ionization methods for the introduction of labile biomolecules into a mass spectrometer are of fundamental importance to biomolecular analysis. Previously, electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix assisted laser desorption-ionization (MALDI) have been the main ionization methods used. Surface acoustic wave nebulization (SAWN) is a new technique that has been demonstrated to deposit less energy into ions upon ion formation and transfer for detection than other methods for sample introduction into a mass spectrometer (MS). Here we report the optimization and use of SAWN as a nebulization technique for the introduction of samples from a low flow of liquid, and the interfacing of SAWN with liquid chromatographic separation (LC) for the analysis of a protein digest. This demonstrates that SAWN can be a viable, low-energy alternative to ESI for the LC-MS analysis of proteomic samples. PMID:25978651

  3. The First Time Ever I Saw Your Feet: Inversion Effect in Newborns' Sensitivity to Biological Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardi, Lara; Regolin, Lucia; Simion, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Inversion effect in biological motion perception has been recently attributed to an innate sensitivity of the visual system to the gravity-dependent dynamic of the motion. However, the specific cues that determine the inversion effect in naïve subjects were never investigated. In the present study, we have assessed the contribution of the local…

  4. Dynamics of the axisymmetric core-annular flow. II. The less viscous fluid in the core, saw tooth waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouris, Charalampos; Tsamopoulos, John

    2002-03-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of the concentric, two-phase flow of two immiscible fluids in a circular tube is studied when the viscosity ratio of the fluid in the annulus to that in the core of the tube, ?, is larger than or equal to unity. For these values of the viscosity ratio the perfect core-annular flow (CAF) is linearly unstable and it is necessary to keep the ratio of the thickness of the annulus to the radius of the tube small so that the solutions remain uniformly bounded. The simulations are based on a pseudospectral numerical method while special care has been taken in order to minimize as far as possible the effect of the boundary conditions imposed in the axial direction allowing for multiple waves of different lengths to develop and interact. The time integration originates with the analytical solution for the pressure driven, perfect CAF or the perfect CAF seeded with either the most unstable mode or random disturbances. Quite regular wave patterns are predicted in the first two cases, whereas multiple unstable modes grow and remain even after saturation of the instability in the last case. The resulting waves generally travel in the same direction and faster than the undisturbed interface, except for the case with ?=1 for which they are stationary with respect to it. Depending on parameter values, waves move with the same velocity or interact with each other exchanging their amplitudes or merge and split giving rise to either chaotic or organized solutions. For fluids of equal viscosities and densities (?=?=1) and for a Reynolds number, Re(????1R?2?0/??1)=0.0275 and an inverse Weber number, W(?T?/(??1?02R?2))=145.4, both based on the properties of the inner fluid, the tube radius, R?2, and the average flow velocity, ?0, small amplitude waves are predicted. The increase of ? by almost two orders of magnitude does not affect their amplitudes, but increases their temporal period linearly. Varying W by more than three orders of magnitude increases their amplitudes proportionately, while their period increases with the logarithm of W. Similar to that is the effect of increasing Re. The present analysis confirms and extends results based on long wave expansions, which lead to the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation and modifications of it.

  5. Saw palmetto and finasteride in the treatment of category-iii prostatitis\\/chronic pelvic pain syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Yang; Alexis E. Te

    2005-01-01

    Chronic nonbacterial prostatitis\\/chronic pelvic pain syndrome is a common entity for which a standardized management has not\\u000a been established. Patients often have a very little is known about the efficacy of second- and third-line treatments, such\\u000a as the use of herbal supplements. Many treatments studied in recent literature include antibiotics, á-blockade, anti-inflammatory\\u000a agents, and cognitive behavioral interventions such as biofeedback

  6. Inhibition of inflammatory gene expression in keratinocytes using a composition containing carnitine, thioctic Acid and saw palmetto extract.

    PubMed

    Chittur, Sridar; Parr, Brian; Marcovici, Geno

    2011-01-01

    Chronic inflammation of the hair follicle (HF) is considered a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Previously, we clinically tested liposterolic extract of Serenoa repens (LSESr) and its glycoside, ?-sitosterol, in subjects with AGA and showed a highly positive response to treatment. In this study, we sought to determine whether blockade of inflammation using a composition containing LSESr as well as two anti-inflammatory agents (carnitine and thioctic acid) could alter the expression of molecular markers of inflammation in a well-established in vitro system. Using a well-validated assay representative of HF keratinocytes, specifically, stimulation of cultured human keratinocyte cells in vitro, we measured changes in gene expression of a spectrum of well-known inflammatory markers. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) provided an inflammatory stimulus. In particular, we found that the composition effectively suppressed LPS-activated gene expression of chemokines, including CCL17, CXCL6 and LTB(4) associated with pathways involved in inflammation and apoptosis. Our data support the hypothesis that the test compound exhibits anti-inflammatory characteristics in a well-established in vitro assay representing HF keratinocyte gene expression. These findings suggest that 5-alpha reductase inhibitors combined with blockade of inflammatory processes could represent a novel two-pronged approach in the treatment of AGA with improved efficacy over current modalities. PMID:19692448

  7. Inhibition of Inflammatory Gene Expression in Keratinocytes Using a Composition Containing Carnitine, Thioctic Acid and Saw Palmetto Extract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sridar Chittur; Brian Parr; Geno Marcovici

    2009-01-01

    Chronic inflammation of the hair follicle (HF) is considered a contributing factor in the patho- genesis of androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Previously, we clinically tested liposterolic extract of Serenoa repens (LSESr) and its glycoside, b-sitosterol, in subjects with AGA and showed a highly positive response to treatment. In this study, we sought to determine whether blockade of inflammation using a composition

  8. CHAPTER 4. ATMOSPHERIC TRANSPORT We saw in chapter 3 that air motions play a key role in determining

    E-print Network

    Jacob, Daniel J.

    the geostrophic flow. Below 1-km altitude, the horizontal flow is modified by friction with the surface and watching the Earth rotate. From the perspective of the observer, an object fixed to the Earth at latitude the perspective of this observer, the ball has been deflected to the right of the target. Such a deflection

  9. Hybrid method for the precise calculation of the general dyadic Greens functions for SAW and leaky wave substrates.

    SciTech Connect

    Branch, Darren W.

    2008-05-01

    Recently, the generalized method for calculation of the 16-element Green's function for analysis of surface acoustic waves has proven crucial to develop more sophisticated transducers. The generalized Green's function provides a precise relationship between the acoustic stresses and electric displacement on the three mechanical displacements and electric potential. This generalized method is able to account for mass loading effects which is absent in the effective permittivity approach. However, the calculation is numerically intensive and may lead to numerical instabilities when solving for both the eigenvalues and eigenvectors simultaneously. In this work, the general eigenvalue problem was modified to eliminate the numerical instabilities in the solving procedure. An algorithm is also presented to select the proper eigenvalues rapidly to facilitate analysis for all types of acoustic propagation. The 4 x 4 Green's functions and effective permittivities were calculated for materials supporting Rayleigh, leaky, and leaky longitudinal waves as demonstration of the method.

  10. Analysis of SAW properties in ZnO\\/AlxGa1-xN\\/cAl2O3 structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying Chen; Nuri William Emanetoglu; Gaurav Saraf; Pan Wu; Yicheng Lu; Aniruddh Parekh; Vinod Merai; Eric Udovich; Dong Lu; Dong S. Lee; Eric A. Armour; Milan Pophristic

    2005-01-01

    Piezoelectric thin films on high acoustic velocity nonpiezoelectric substrates, such as ZnO, AlN, or GaN deposited on diamond or sapphire substrates, are attractive for high frequency and low-loss surface acoustic wave devices. In this work, ZnO films are deposited on AlxGa1-xN\\/c-Al2O3 (0 ? x ? 1) substrates using the radio frequency (RF) sputtering technique. In comparison with a single AlxGa1-xN

  11. The “See-Saw”: A Vertical-Lift Incubator Designed for Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus Egg Masses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) egg masses are typically incubated in baskets that are suspended within metal troughs with water that is agitated and pushed around the eggs with paddles. A limiting factor in the successful incubation of channel catfish eggs is the absorption of oxygen to the ...

  12. Onset and decay of the 1 + 1 Hawking-Unruh effect: what the derivative-coupling detector saw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juárez-Aubry, Benito A.; Louko, Jorma

    2014-12-01

    We study an Unruh-DeWitt particle detector that is coupled to the proper time derivative of a real scalar field in 1 + 1 spacetime dimensions. Working within first-order perturbation theory, we cast the transition probability into a regulator-free form, and we show that the transition rate remains well defined in the limit of sharp switching. The detector is insensitive to the infrared ambiguity when the field becomes massless, and we verify explicitly the regularity of the massless limit for a static detector in Minkowski half-space. We then consider a massless field for two scenarios of interest for the Hawking-Unruh effect: an inertial detector in Minkowski spacetime with an exponentially receding mirror, and an inertial detector in (1+1)-dimensional Schwarzschild spacetime, in the Hartle-Hawking-Israel and Unruh vacua. In the mirror spacetime the transition rate traces the onset of an energy flux from the mirror, with the expected Planckian late time asymptotics. In the Schwarzschild spacetime the transition rate of a detector that falls in from infinity gradually loses thermality, diverging near the singularity proportionally to {{r}-3/2}.

  13. Characteristics of leaky SAWs on 36-LiTaO3 in periodic structures of heavy electrodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor P. Plessky; Clinton S. Hartmann

    1993-01-01

    Experimental data is presented on leaky surface wave propagation on 36-LiTaO3 with gold and platinum electrodes having a thickness up to 0.04?. Such heavy electrodes induce a very strong mechanical perturbation of the surface such that very large reflection coefficients are obtained. Reflection coefficients greater than 50% per wavelength (that is per 2 electrodes) and corresponding stopbands (up to 17%

  14. Optimal cut for leaky SAW on LiTaO3 for high performance resonators and filters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Osamu Kawachi; Seiji Mineyoshi; Gou Endoh; Masanori Ueda; Osamu Ikata; E. Hashimoto; Masatsune Yamaguchi

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes how the characteristics of leaky surface acoustic wave (LSAW) propagation depend on the thickness of Al grating electrodes on rotated Y-X LiTaO3. It is shown that the propagation loss arising from leaky nature changes parabolically with both the grating electrode thickness and rotation angle and becomes zero when electrode thickness and rotation angle are properly determined. This

  15. Analysis of chain saw lubricating oils commonly used in Thailand's southern border provinces for forensic science purpose.

    PubMed

    Choodum, Aree; Tripuwanard, Kijja; Daeid, Niamh Nic

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, Thailand's southern border provinces (Malay-Muslim-majority border provinces) have become the scene of violence and insurgency. One of the attack patterns is the blocking of roads with perennial plants followed by planned attacks using improvised explosive devices (IEDs) or weapons on first responders. Containers of viscous dark lubricating oil and traces of lubricants on the felled trees were usually found at the scene. These were suspected to be chain oil lubricant from the chainsaws used to cut down the trees used for the roadblock. This work aimed to differentiate the chromatographic patterns of used lubricating oils available in automobile repair shops from various locations across Thailand's southern border provinces. Lubricating oils were analyzed using gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) every two weeks to study their variation in chemical compositions over time. The results obtained from GC/FID were normalized for differentiation. This included four two-stroke, six four-stroke, and three recycled oils. Two lubricating oils found at an incident scene were also analyzed and the results compared with the chain oil from five seized chainsaws. PMID:24875837

  16. Use of the SAW Sensor Electronic Nose for Detecting the Adulteration of Virgin Coconut Oil with RBD Palm Kernel Olein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. MarinaY; Y. B. Che Man; I. Amin

    2010-01-01

    An electronic nose (zNose™) was applied to the detection of adulteration of virgin coconut oil. The system, which is based\\u000a on a surface acoustic wave sensor was used to generate a pattern of volatile compounds present in the samples. Virgin coconut\\u000a oil was mixed with refined, bleached and deodorized palm kernel olein at a level of adulteration from 1 to

  17. Onset and decay of the 1+1 Hawking-Unruh effect: what the derivative-coupling detector saw

    E-print Network

    Benito A. Juárez-Aubry; Jorma Louko

    2014-11-25

    We study an Unruh-DeWitt particle detector that is coupled to the proper time derivative of a real scalar field in 1+1 spacetime dimensions. Working within first-order perturbation theory, we cast the transition probability into a regulator-free form, and we show that the transition rate remains well defined in the limit of sharp switching. The detector is insensitive to the infrared ambiguity when the field becomes massless, and we verify explicitly the regularity of the massless limit for a static detector in Minkowski half-space. We then consider a massless field for two scenarios of interest for the Hawking-Unruh effect: an inertial detector in Minkowski spacetime with an exponentially receding mirror, and an inertial detector in $(1+1)$-dimensional Schwarzschild spacetime, in the Hartle-Hawking-Israel and Unruh vacua. In the mirror spacetime the transition rate traces the onset of an energy flux from the mirror, with the expected Planckian late time asymptotics. In the Schwarzschild spacetime the transition rate of a detector that falls in from infinity gradually loses thermality, diverging near the singularity proportionally to $r^{-3/2}$.

  18. 1. SOL Language Specifications 1. Identify service and SAW information to be specified as inputs to the proof system

    E-print Network

    Davulcu, Hasan

    (functionalities and runtime communication) Figure 1 illustrates our approach to rapid development of AS3 systems Agents AS3 Logic Workflow Scheduler Resource Agents Annotated Workflow Agents AS3 Cal2JSOL Compiler AS3 Execution Monitoring Integration Point (IP) (1) Figure 1. Our Approach to Rapid Development of AS3 Systems

  19. Oviposition Site Preference and Factors InfluencingEgg Mass Characteristics of the Saw-Combed Fishfly (Megaloptera

    E-print Network

    Pennuto, Chris

    history of several species has been well-studied (e.g., Baker and Neuzig 1968, Petersen 1974, Mangan 1992and 1994, Contreras-Ramos 1999). In particular, Mangan (1992) suggested the dobsonfly, Corydalus

  20. The first time I saw Peter Rhoades at work in his sugarhouse was an afternoon in March, in

    E-print Network

    Kunkle, Tom

    barrels and then from a steel tank, a milk tank. The tank was overflowing, due to a sudden run, so Peter there until he left to go to Aunt Margaret's just before dark. Peter fired up the evaporator, for the first evaporating pans came into use. The placement against the bank allowed them to back a truck or tractor

  1. They Know I Saw It: Evaluation Apprehension and Diffusion of Responsibility in Bystander Reactions to a Violent Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Avi; Schwartz, Shalom H.

    Male and female bystanders witnessed a violent theft in the course of a bogus "ESP Experiment." In addition to the subjects' sex, two experimental manipulations were orthogonally crossed. The subject was either the only one to witness the emergency, or witnessed it with an additional participant (diffusion of responsibility), and the subject's…

  2. As we saw in the first two parts of this series, we can apply computer vision and image

    E-print Network

    Published by the IEEE Computer Society Artful Media Dorée Duncan Seligmann Avaya Labs David G. Stork Ricoh- ment, David Stork discusses how shapes can be described. He outlines the challenges in quantifying

  3. Women Saw Large Decrease In Out-Of-Pocket Spending For Contraceptives After ACA Mandate Removed Cost Sharing.

    PubMed

    Becker, Nora V; Polsky, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    The Affordable Care Act mandates that private health insurance plans cover prescription contraceptives with no consumer cost sharing. The positive financial impact of this new provision on consumers who purchase contraceptives could be substantial, but it has not yet been estimated. Using a large administrative claims data set from a national insurer, we estimated out-of-pocket spending before and after the mandate. We found that mean and median per prescription out-of-pocket expenses have decreased for almost all reversible contraceptive methods on the market. The average percentages of out-of-pocket spending for oral contraceptive pill prescriptions and intrauterine device insertions by women using those methods both dropped by 20 percentage points after implementation of the ACA mandate. We estimated average out-of-pocket savings per contraceptive user to be $248 for the intrauterine device and $255 annually for the oral contraceptive pill. Our results suggest that the mandate has led to large reductions in total out-of-pocket spending on contraceptives and that these price changes are likely to be salient for women with private health insurance. PMID:26153316

  4. Dissolution-induced surface modifications and permeability changes associated with fluid flow through an abraded saw-cut in single crystal quartz 

    E-print Network

    Bowman, James Albert

    1992-01-01

    dissolution channel. Each dissolution surface element represents a different stage in the evolution of a dissolving microcrack. Depending upon the initial depth of penetration of the crack, dissolution-modification of a crack follows one of two evolution... scenarios. Cracks penetrating deeper than about 10 )Jm acquire dissolution forms reflecting a crystallographic control on dissolution. Dissolving cracks widen by a combination of parallel retreat and "laying back" of the walls of the dissolution element...

  5. Anomalous elastic properties of RF-sputtered amorphous TeO2+x thin film for temperature-stable SAW device applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Namrata Dewan; Kondepudy Sreenivas; Vinay Gupta

    2008-01-01

    The anomalous elastic properties of TeO2+x thin films deposited by rf diode sputtering on substrates at room temperature have been studied. The deposited films are amorphous, and IR spectroscopy reveals the formation of Te-O bond. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the variation in the stoichiometry of TeO2+x film from x = 0 to 1 with an increase in the oxygen percentage

  6. Conformational analysis of annonaceous acetogenins in liposomal membranes and mono-acylglycerides from the berries of Serenoa repens (saw-palmetto)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroko Shimada

    1998-01-01

    Certain plant species belonging to the family Annonaceae produce Annonaceous acetogenins, which are a unique class of long-chain fatty acid derivatives with potent cytotoxicity. Putative targets of the acetogenins are membrane associated proteins including mitochondrial complex I. Asimicin, parviflorin, and longimicin B (compounds 1-3, respectively) belong to a class of Annonaceous acetogenins containing two tetrahydrofuran (THF) rings with hydrocarbon chains

  7. Comparative venom gland transcriptome surveys of the saw-scaled vipers (Viperidae: Echis) reveal substantial intra-family gene diversity and novel venom transcripts

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Venom variation occurs at all taxonomical levels and can impact significantly upon the clinical manifestations and efficacy of antivenom therapy following snakebite. Variation in snake venom composition is thought to be subject to strong natural selection as a result of adaptation towards specific diets. Members of the medically important genus Echis exhibit considerable variation in venom composition, which has been demonstrated to co-evolve with evolutionary shifts in diet. We adopt a venom gland transcriptome approach in order to investigate the diversity of toxins in the genus and elucidate the mechanisms which result in prey-specific adaptations of venom composition. Results Venom gland transcriptomes were created for E. pyramidum leakeyi, E. coloratus and E. carinatus sochureki by sequencing ~1000 expressed sequence tags from venom gland cDNA libraries. A standardised methodology allowed a comprehensive intra-genus comparison of the venom gland profiles to be undertaken, including the previously described E. ocellatus transcriptome. Blast annotation revealed the presence of snake venom metalloproteinases, C-type lectins, group II phopholipases A2, serine proteases, L-amino oxidases and growth factors in all transcriptomes throughout the genus. Transcripts encoding disintegrins, cysteine-rich secretory proteins and hyaluronidases were obtained from at least one, but not all, species. A representative group of novel venom transcripts exhibiting similarity to lysosomal acid lipase were identified from the E. coloratus transcriptome, whilst novel metallopeptidases exhibiting similarity to neprilysin and dipeptidyl peptidase III were identified from E. p. leakeyi and E. coloratus respectively. Conclusion The comparison of Echis venom gland transcriptomes revealed substantial intrageneric venom variation in representations and cluster numbers of the most abundant venom toxin families. The expression profiles of established toxin groups exhibit little obvious association with venom-related adaptations to diet described from this genus. We suggest therefore that alterations in isoform diversity or transcript expression levels within the major venom protein families are likely to be responsible for prey specificity, rather than differences in the representation of entire toxin families or the recruitment of novel toxin families, although the recruitment of lysosomal acid lipase as a response to vertebrate feeding cannot be excluded. Evidence of marked intrageneric venom variation within the medically important genus Echis strongly advocates further investigations into the medical significance of venom variation in this genus and its impact upon antivenom therapy. PMID:19948012

  8. Chronic bacterial prostatitis: efficacy of short-lasting antibiotic therapy with prulifloxacin (Unidrox®) in association with saw palmetto extract, lactobacillus sporogens and arbutin (Lactorepens®)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bacterial prostatitis (BP) is a common condition accounting responsible for about 5-10% of all prostatitis cases; chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) classified as type II, are less common but is a condition that significantly hampers the quality of life, (QoL) because not only is it a physical condition but also a psychological distress. Commonly patients are treated with antibiotics alone, and in particular fluoroquinolones are suggested by the European Urology guidelines. This approach, although recommended, may not be enough. Thus, a multimodal approach to the prolonged antibiotic therapy may be helpful. Methods 210 patients affected by chronic bacterial prostatitis were enrolled in the study. All patients were positive to Meares-Stamey test and symptoms duration was?>?3 months. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of a long lasting therapy with a fluoroquinolone in association with a nutraceutical supplement (prulifloxacin 600 mg for 21 days and an association of Serenoa repens 320 mg, Lactobacillus Sporogens 200 mg, Arbutin 100 mg for 30 days). Patients were randomized in two groups (A and B) receiving respectively antibiotic alone and an association of antibiotic plus supplement. Results Biological recurrence at 2 months in Group A was observed in 21 patients (27.6%) and in Group B in 6 patients (7.8%). Uropathogens found at the first follow-up were for the majority Gram – (E. coli and Enterobacter spp.). A statistically significant difference was found at the time of the follow-up between Group A and B in the NIH-CPSI questionnaire score, symptoms evidence and serum PSA. Conclusions Broad band, short-lasting antibiotic therapy in association with a nutritional supplement (serenoa repens, lactobacillus sporogens and arbutin) show better control and recurrence rate on patients affected by chronic bacterial prostatitits in comparison with antibiotic treatment alone. Trial registration NCT02130713 Date of trial Registration: 30/04/2014 PMID:25038794

  9. Neutralisation of Local Haemorrhage Induced by the Saw-Scaled Viper Echis carinatus sochureki Venom Using Ethanolic Extract of Hibiscus aethiopicus L.

    PubMed Central

    Hasson, S. S.; Al-Balushi, M. S.; Said, E. A.; Habbal, O.; Idris, M. A.; Mothana, R. A. A.; Sallam, T. A.; Al-Jabri, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate the anti-snake venom activities of a local plant, Hibiscus aethiopicus L. The H. aethiopicus was dried and extracted with ethanol. Different assays were performed according to standard techniques, to evaluate the plant's acute toxicity and its antivenom activities. The results of evaluating the systemic acute toxicity of the H. aethiopicus extract using “oral and intra-peritoneal” route were normal even at the highest dose (24?g/kg) tested. All guinea pigs (n = 3) when treated with venoms E. c. sochureki (75??g) alone induced acute skin haemorrhage. In contrast, all guinea pigs (n = 18) treated with both venom and the plant extract at a concentration between 500 and 1000?mg/kg showed no signs of haemorrhage. Moreover, all guinea pigs (n = 18) treated with venom and the plant extract below 400?mg/kg showed acute skin haemorrhage. All guinea pigs treated with venom E. c. sochureki (75??g) alone induced acute skin haemorrhage after both 24 and 32 hours. In contrast, all guinea pigs treated with both venom and the plant extract (administered independently) at concentrations between 500 and 1000?mg/kg showed no signs of haemorrhage after 32 hours. However, after 24 hours all tested guinea pigs showed less inhibition (<60%) compared to that obtained after 32 hours. The outcome of this study reflects that the extract of H. aethiopicus plant may contain an endogenous inhibitor of venom induced local haemorrhage. PMID:22666294

  10. "i saw puerto rico once": A Review of the Literature on Puerto Rican Families and School Achievement in the United States. Report No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hidalgo, Nitza M.

    Representing part of the first phase of a 5-year ethnographic research project, this report investigates the ways in which Puerto Rican families influence their children's school achievement. The report examines the history of Puerto Rico and the migration of Puerto Ricans to the United States. Puerto Rican community organizations, both local and…

  11. Dissolution-induced surface modifications and permeability changes associated with fluid flow through an abraded saw-cut in single crystal quartz

    E-print Network

    Bowman, James Albert

    1992-01-01

    . . 9 . . 10 . . 13 . . . 16 . 16 . 17 . 17 . 20 . 20 . 21 . . . . . 23 , . . . . 23 . . . . . 23 . . . . . 24 . . . . . 27 29 32 32 32 34 38 41 44 48 48 59 Notches.... . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . 61 Relation Between Cuspate Notches and V-Shaped Notches. . . . . . 61 Dissolution Interval IV, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , 61 MACROSCOPIC CHARACTERISTICS MICROSCOPIC...

  12. MSK SAW tapped delay lines on LiTaO3 with moderate processing gain for CDMA indoor and mobile radio applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Weigell; C. Knorr; K. C. Wagner; L. Reindl; F. Seifert

    1995-01-01

    We report on the design and performance of two SAM MSK Tapped Delay Lines (TDLs) using PN code sequences of length 128 chips, As a substrate, LiTaO3 has been used due to the system requirements of a given CDMA\\/TDMA system. Center frequency, bandwidth of the major lobe, and integration time were 266.66 MHz, 65.7 MHz, and 3 ?s, respectively. TDL

  13. Comparative venom gland transcriptome surveys of the saw-scaled vipers (Viperidae: Echis) reveal substantial intra-family gene diversity and novel venom transcripts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas R Casewell; Robert A Harrison; Wolfgang Wüster; Simon C Wagstaff

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Venom variation occurs at all taxonomical levels and can impact significantly upon the clinical manifestations and efficacy of antivenom therapy following snakebite. Variation in snake venom composition is thought to be subject to strong natural selection as a result of adaptation towards specific diets. Members of the medically important genus Echis exhibit considerable variation in venom composition, which has

  14. ESRP 285 Climate Chart Questions: Your Name _______________________________ You saw Figure 1 in class. It shows estimates of atmospheric CO2 in black, average earth

    E-print Network

    Ford, Andrew

    in class. It shows estimates of atmospheric CO2 in black, average earth temperature in red and sea level be much higher than normal every 100,000 yrs #12;5. Figure 1 shows the average earth temperature

  15. DISTAL PROSODY INFLUENCES LEXICAL INTERPRETATION IN ON-LINE SENTENCE PROCESSING

    E-print Network

    DeAngelis, Gregory

    saw that panda in the city zoo. CONTEXT TARGET CONTINUATION Heidi sometimes saw that panda in the city zoo heidi sometimes saw that panda in the city zoo Heidi sometimes saw that panda in the city zoo heidi sometimes saw that panda in the city zoo Heidi sometimes saw that panda in the city zoo (L H) (L H

  16. 3. Photocopied August 1975 from The Evolution of Modern Band ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopied August 1975 from The Evolution of Modern Band Saw Mills for Sawing Logs, Dewitt Clinton Prescott, 1910. VIEW OF BAND SAW. *NOTE* 4'x 5' NEGATIVE - Meadow River Lumber Company, Highway 60, Rainelle, Greenbrier County, WV

  17. Biosynthetic origin of the saw-toothed profile in delta(13)C and delta(2)H of n-alkanes and systematic isotopic differences between n-, iso- and anteiso-alkanes in leaf waxes of land plants.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Youping; Grice, Kliti; Stuart-Williams, Hilary; Farquhar, Graham D; Hocart, Charles H; Lu, Hong; Liu, Weiguo

    2010-03-01

    The n-fatty acids containing an even number of carbons (ECN-n-FAs) in higher plants are biosynthesised by repetitive addition of a two carbon unit from malonyl-ACP. The n-alkanes containing an odd number of carbon atoms (OCN-n-alkanes) are generally formed by the decarboxylation of ECN-n-FAs, but it is unknown how the less abundant even-carbon-numbered alkanes (ECN-n-alkanes) are biosynthesised in higher plants. There is a distinctive compositional pattern of incorporation of stable carbon ((13)C) and hydrogen ((2)H) isotopes in co-existing ECN- and OCN-n-alkanes in leaves of higher plants, such that the OCN n-alkanes are relatively enriched in (13)C but relatively depleted in (2)H against the ECN-n-alkanes. This is consistent with the OCN-n-fatty acids having a propionate precursor which is derived from reduction of pyruvate. A tentative pathway is presented with propionate produced by enzymatic reduction of pyruvate which is then thio-esterified with CoSH (coenzyme A thiol) in the chloroplast to form the terminal precursor molecule propionyl-CoA. This is then repetitively extended/elongated with the 2-carbon unit from malonyl-ACP to form the long chain OCN-n-fatty acids. The anteiso- and iso-alkanes in Nicotiana tabacum leaf waxes have previously been found to be systematically enriched in (13)C compared with the n-alkanes by Grice et al. (2008). This is consistent with the isotopic composition of their putative respective precursors (pyruvate as precursor for n-alkanes, valine for iso-alkanes and isoleucine for anteiso-alkanes). The current study complements that of Grice et al. (2008) and looks at the distribution of hydrogen isotopes. The n-alkanes were found to be more enriched in deuterium ((2)H) than the iso-alkanes which in turn were more enriched than the anteiso-alkanes. We propose therefore that the depletion of (2)H in the iso-alkanes, relative to the n-alkanes is the consequence of accepting highly (2)H-depleted hydrogen atoms from NADPH during their biosynthesis. The anteiso-alkanes are further depleted again because there are three NADPH-derived hydrogen atoms in their precursor isoleucine, as compared with only one NADPH-derived hydrogen in valine, the precursor of the iso-alkanes. PMID:20056262

  18. Effects of D-004, a lipid extract of the fruit of the Cuban royal palm ( Roystonea regia) or the lipidosterolic extract of saw palmetto ( Serenoa repens) on the sexual activity in male rats: A controlled, experimental study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lilia C. Fernández; Rosa Mas; Julio Fernández; Sarahí Mendoza; Rafael Gámez; Balia Pardo

    2008-01-01

    Background: The etiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is not completely understood, but hormonal changes in aging men seem to be pivotal. Dihydrotestosterone, a potent, active metabolite of testosterone, is formed by the enzymatic action of prostate 5?-reductase and causes cell growth and hyperplasia. Consistent with this action, male sexual dysfunction has been clinically documented to be among the drug-related

  19. About the Issue: Elective Delivery Prior to 39 Weeks of Gestation Between 1990 and 2006, the United States saw a 50% increase in deliveries at 37 to 38 weeks of

    E-print Network

    Rau, Don C.

    . These complications include: -- Breathing, feeding, and temperature problems -- Sepsis5 -- Cerebral palsy6 Babies, allowing the baby to remain in the womb at least 39 weeks is safest for both baby and mother. Non and baby. Key Messages Studies show that long- and short-term adverse outcomes may be avoided if a healthy

  20. Friction measurement on a glass substrate using surface acoustic wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotani, Hiroyuki; Takasaki, Masaya; Mizuno, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    A method to provide human tactile sensation using surface acoustic wave (SAW) was proposed. A stator transducer material (piezoelectric material) of a SAW tactile display, however, had constraint of size and shape. Previously, to solve this problem, a new method was proposed to excite and propagate SAW on a non-piezoelectric material surface. Excitation and propagation of SAW on a non-piezoelectric material is realized by combination of a LiNbO3 plate and a glass substrate. Using the method, the glass substrate SAW tactile display could realize tactile sensation in the same manner as the conventional SAW tactile display. However, a relationship between the friction coefficient and vibration amplitude is unclear in the glass substrate SAW tactile display. To decide and optimize the control parameters of the glass substrate SAW tactile display, the relation is needed. In this research, the friction shifts was experimentally confirmed in the glass substrate SAW tactile display. Additionally, the relation was investigated.

  1. Microfluidic pumping through miniaturized channels driven by ultra-high frequency surface acoustic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Shilton, Richie J., E-mail: richard.shilton@iit.it [Center for Nanotechnology Innovation @ NEST, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Piazza San Silvestro 12, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Travagliati, Marco [Center for Nanotechnology Innovation @ NEST, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Piazza San Silvestro 12, 56127 Pisa (Italy); NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, Piazza San Silvestro 12, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Beltram, Fabio [NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, Piazza San Silvestro 12, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Center for Nanotechnology Innovation @ NEST, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Piazza San Silvestro 12, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Cecchini, Marco, E-mail: marco.cecchini@nano.cnr.it [NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, Piazza San Silvestro 12, 56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2014-08-18

    Surface acoustic waves (SAWs) are an effective means to pump fluids through microchannel arrays within fully portable systems. The SAW-driven acoustic counterflow pumping process relies on a cascade phenomenon consisting of SAW transmission through the microchannel, SAW-driven fluid atomization, and subsequent coalescence. Here, we investigate miniaturization of device design, and study both SAW transmission through microchannels and the onset of SAW-driven atomization up to the ultra-high-frequency regime. Within the frequency range from 47.8 MHz to 754?MHz, we show that the acoustic power required to initiate SAW atomization remains constant, while transmission through microchannels is most effective when the channel widths w???10??, where ? is the SAW wavelength. By exploiting the enhanced SAW transmission through narrower channels at ultra-high frequencies, we discuss the relevant frequency-dependent length scales and demonstrate the scaling down of internal flow patterns and discuss their impact on device miniaturization strategies.

  2. 4. Photocopied August 1975 from The Evolution of Modern Band ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopied August 1975 from The Evolution of Modern Band Saw Mills for Sawing Logs, Dewitt Clinton Prescott, 1910. THREE-BLOCK LOG CARRIAGE. *NOTE* 4'x 5' NEGATIVE - Meadow River Lumber Company, Highway 60, Rainelle, Greenbrier County, WV

  3. STOP: Always work safely around machines. Prepare for a safe job. A variety of machines are used in many campus shops including

    E-print Network

    Rose, Michael R.

    in many campus shops including: · Drill presses · Table saws · Band saws · Grinders · Milling machines disfigurement, and even death. Hazards and risks in a machine shop may include: · Improperly guarded rotating

  4. 7. INTERIOR VIEW, PATTERN MAKING WORK BENCH AREA WEST WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR VIEW, PATTERN MAKING WORK BENCH AREA WEST WALL LOOKING WEST LATHE ON LEFT DELTA BAND SAW LEFT, DELTA 6' JOINTS AND DELTA TABLE SAW ON RIGHT. - Knight Foundry, 13 Eureka Street, Sutter Creek, Amador County, CA

  5. Applicability of Solar Airflow Windows 

    E-print Network

    Hamed, M. S.; Friedrich, K.; Razaqpur, G.; Foo, S.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate prediction of the performance of Solar Air Windows (SAWs) operating in various climates under real conditions has not been investigated. This paper reports the results of numerical simulations of SAWs carried out using ANSYS-CFX considering...

  6. Mission Science Common Supplies Request Advisor______________________________ School________________________

    E-print Network

    Wang, Hai

    Tape, masking Wire, insulated Wire, magnet #12;Mission Science Tools Request Advisor Hack saw Hand saw Hot glue gun Pliers Scissors Soldering Iron Wire strippers Xacto knife #12;Mission Science Supplies or tools Request Advisor______________________________ School

  7. Monitoring the Future 2013 Survey Results

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 1993, 2003, 2013— for marijuana use and the perception of risk (saw great risk in smoking marijuana occasionally) among 12th graders. 1993 Using: 26.0% Perception of risk: 72.5% saw great risk in ...

  8. Non-Fixed Assets Durable nature (nonexpendable) 52xx Useful life >1 year

    E-print Network

    K Lathes, rotary saws, drills, tools, etc. 5286 Maintenance Equipment , engine covers, instrumentation, etc. 5289 Other Equipment stations, etc. 5585 Machine Shop Equipment >5K Lathes, rotary saws, drills, tools, etc. 5586 Maintenance

  9. 78 FR 40705 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Demolition and Construction...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ...electric screw guns, jackhammer, concrete saw, and chop saws) to be utilized...small auger, hand/power tools, and concrete truck. Timeframe--Approximately 12...foundation: Dig/shore foundation, pour concrete, waterproofing, and remove...

  10. 27 CFR 555.208 - Construction of type 2 magazines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... -inch steel hoods constructed so as to prevent sawing or lever action on the locks, hasps, and staples. These requirements... -inch steel hoods constructed so as to prevent sawing or lever action on the locks, hasps, and staples. Indoor...

  11. 27 CFR 555.208 - Construction of type 2 magazines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... -inch steel hoods constructed so as to prevent sawing or lever action on the locks, hasps, and staples. These requirements... -inch steel hoods constructed so as to prevent sawing or lever action on the locks, hasps, and staples. Indoor...

  12. 27 CFR 555.208 - Construction of type 2 magazines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... -inch steel hoods constructed so as to prevent sawing or lever action on the locks, hasps, and staples. These requirements... -inch steel hoods constructed so as to prevent sawing or lever action on the locks, hasps, and staples. Indoor...

  13. Surface acoustic wave humidity sensor using polyvinyl-alcohol film

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Penza; V. I. Anisimkin

    1999-01-01

    A surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor has been fabricated and used to study the hygroscopic properties of the polyvinyl-alcohol (PVA) polymer film as layer chemically sensitive to relative humidity (RH). A 42 MHz SAW device has been configured as delay line onto 128° YX-LiNbO3 substrate with the SAW path totally covered by the spin-coated PVA film. The SAW phase response

  14. BetterBetter kk-best Parsing-best Parsing Liang Huang (Penn)

    E-print Network

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    consequent of a derivation rule) #12;Liang Huang and David Chiang 5IWPT 2005 I saw a boy with a telescope S VPNP I NP a boy v saw NP a telescope prep with PP VP Packed Forest as HypergraphPacked Forest and David Chiang 6IWPT 2005 I saw a boy with a telescope S VPNP I NP a boy v saw NP a telescope prep with PP

  15. Propagation of acoustic surface waves on a phononic surface investigated by transient reflecting grating spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Malfanti; A. Taschin; P. Bartolini; B. Bonello; R. Torre

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of surface acoustic waves (SAW) propagation on a 1D phononic surface (PS) by mean of an heterodyne-detected transient reflecting grating experiment. We excited and detected coherent stationary SAWs characterized by variable wave-vectors. The measured SAW frequencies enables the characterization of the band diagram of this PS sample beyond the first Brillouin zone (BZ). Four different SAW

  16. Surface acoustic wave propagation in graphene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Thalmeier; Balázs Dóra; Klaus Ziegler

    2010-01-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagation is a powerful method to investigate two-dimensional (2D) electron systems. We show how SAW observables are influenced by coupling to the 2D massless Dirac electrons of graphene and argue that Landau oscillations in SAW propagation can be observed as function of gate voltage for constant field. Contrary to other transport measurements, the zero-field SAW propagation

  17. Surface acoustic waves in graphene structures: Response to ambient humidity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. C?iplys; R. Rimeika; V. Chivukula; M. S. Shur; J. H. Kim; J. M. Xu

    2010-01-01

    We report on the response to the ambient air humidity of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) in YZ LiNbO3 substrate with the 200 nm-thick multi-layer graphene sheets deposited by chemical reduction from graphene oxide. With increasing relative humidity (RH), the SAW velocity decreases and the SAW attenuation increases. At humidity values below 60-65%, the SAW velocity linearly depends on RH

  18. Biochemical sensor using polyaniline nanofibers for sensing amino-group type of gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Da-Jeng Yao; Yong-Ruei Yang

    2005-01-01

    Traditionally, polyaniline was used for sensing ammonia (NH3 ) gas due to the change of conductivity. By integrated with surface acoustic wave sensor (SAW) for sensing the amino-group type of gas, a novel bio-chemical sensor had been developed. The mechanism of the SAW sensor is that the change of gravity results in the change of physical characteristics of SAW sensor.

  19. GINNING A COTTON WITH A FRAGILE SEED COAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the interactions of saw and roller ginning with a variety that is known to have fragile seed coats. Three ginning treatments were investigated: 1) standard saw gin stand, 2) experimental saw gin stand with auxiliary rib guides, and 3) standard roller gin sta...

  20. A rate analysis of binominal each Linmin Zhang, NYU // 2013 MACSIM

    E-print Network

    Pylkkänen, Liina

    is the counting quantifier requirement (see Szabolcsi 2010, Ch.8.4). (1a) The boys saw {one / three / *the / *a / *every / *- / *no / *cute} monkey(s) each. (1b) The boys each saw {one / three / the / a / every analysis of a binominal each sentence: The boys saw 3 monkeys each. 1 #12;LF: [(ix) [(viii) the boys [(vii

  1. Surface acoustic wave technique for the characterization of porous properties of microporous silicate thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Leslie Hietala

    1997-01-01

    Features of gas adsorption onto sol-gel derived microporous silicate thin films, for characterization of porous properties, are detailed using a surface acoustic wave (SAW) technique. Mass uptake and film effective modulus changes calculated from the SAW data are investigated in detail. The effects of stress and surface tension on the SAW sensor are calculated and found to be negligible in

  2. Absorption of surface acoustic waves by graphene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. H. Zhang; W. Xu

    2011-01-01

    We present a theoretical study on interactions of electrons in graphene with surface acoustic waves (SAWs). We find that owing to momentum and energy conservation laws, the electronic transition accompanied by the SAW absorption cannot be achieved via inter-band transition channels in graphene. For graphene, strong absorption of SAWs can be observed in a wide frequency range up to terahertz

  3. Modeling of a Surface Acoustic Wave Strain Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, W. C.; Atkinson, Gary M.

    2010-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center is investigating Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensor technology for harsh environments aimed at aerospace applications. To aid in development of sensors a model of a SAW strain sensor has been developed. The new model extends the modified matrix method to include the response of Orthogonal Frequency Coded (OFC) reflectors and the response of SAW devices to strain. These results show that the model accurately captures the strain response of a SAW sensor on a Langasite substrate. The results of the model of a SAW Strain Sensor on Langasite are presented

  4. Amplification and directional emission of surface acoustic waves by a two-dimensional electron gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Lei; Pipe, Kevin P.

    2015-01-01

    Amplification of surface acoustic waves (SAWs) by electron drift in a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) is analyzed analytically and confirmed experimentally. Calculations suggest that peak power gain per SAW radian occurs at a more practical carrier density for a 2DEG than for a bulk material. It is also shown that SAW emission with tunable directionality can be achieved by modulating a 2DEG's carrier density (to effect SAW generation) in the presence of an applied DC field that amplifies SAWs propagating in a particular direction while attenuating those propagating in the opposite direction.

  5. Analysis of excitation and coherent amplitude enhancement of surface acoustic waves by the phase velocity scanning method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, Kazushi; Kolosov, O. V.; Nagata, Yoshihiko; Koda, Toshio; Nishino, Hideo; Tsukahara, Yusuke

    1993-12-01

    We present a general theoretical formulation for the characteristics of surface acoustic waves (SAW) generated by the phase velocity scanning (PVS) method that employs a scanning single laser beam (SSB) or a scanning interference fringes (SIF). In the SSB approach, a broad band SAW pulse is generated and its amplitude is coherently enhanced when the laser scanning velocity V is equal to the phase velocity ?R of the SAW. The amplitude of the SAW follows a resonance curve represented by a sinc function of the scanning velocity V, but different spatial frequency components in the SSB significantly suppress the side lobes of the resonance curve. In the SIF approach, the scanning velocity ?f of the fringes is determined by the intersection angle and the frequency difference ?a of the laser beams. A narrow band tone burst of SAW with frequencies higher than 100 MHz can be excited. The SAW frequency ? depends upon a characteristic time t*, defined as a propagation time of the SAW across the laser beam spot. The SAW frequency ? is identical to the frequency difference ?a when the laser pulse width T is longer than the characteristic time t*. But, the SAW frequency ? is determined as a product kf?R of the wave number of the SIF and the SAW velocity when the laser pulse width is shorter than the characteristic time. Precise frequency measurement provided by the amplitude enhancement effect and the narrow frequency bandwidth in the SIF approach make the PVS method particularly promising for the noncontact SAW velocity measurement.

  6. Quantum Acoustics with Surface Acoustic Waves

    E-print Network

    Thomas Aref; Per Delsing; Maria K. Ekström; Anton Frisk Kockum; Martin V. Gustafsson; Göran Johansson; Peter Leek; Einar Magnusson; Riccardo Manenti

    2015-06-04

    It has recently been demonstrated that surface acoustic waves (SAWs) can interact with superconducting qubits at the quantum level. SAW resonators in the GHz frequency range have also been found to have low loss at temperatures compatible with superconducting quantum circuits. These advances open up new possibilities to use the phonon degree of freedom to carry quantum information. In this paper, we give a description of the basic SAW components needed to develop quantum circuits, where propagating or localized SAW-phonons are used both to study basic physics and to manipulate quantum information. Using phonons instead of photons offers new possibilities which make these quantum acoustic circuits very interesting. We discuss general considerations for SAW experiments at the quantum level and describe experiments both with SAW resonators and with interaction between SAWs and a qubit. We also discuss several potential future developments.

  7. Effect of viscoelastic film for shear horizontal surface acoustic wave on quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Mikihiro; Yatsuda, Hiromi; Kondoh, Jun

    2015-07-01

    A numerical analysis for the mass loading sensitivity of shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH-SAW) immunoassay biosensors on quartz has already been studied. However, the mass loading analysis is insufficient to explain the actual biosensor performance. To understand the SH-SAW biosensor performance, we analyze the effect of a viscoelastic film on SH-SAW biosensors. In this paper, a numerical analysis using a simple viscoelastic model for the SH-SAW biosensors is presented. In the theoretical model, the bioreaction layer on the SH-SAW biosensors can be treated as a viscoelastic film. The velocity changes of the 250 MHz SH-SAWs on quartz substrates, which are covered with bovine serum albumin (BSA) layers of different thicknesses, were measured and compared with the theoretical results obtained using the proposed viscoelastic model. Good agreement of the velocity changes of SH-SAWs versus changes in the viscoelastic film thickness between theoretical and experimental results was obtained.

  8. Evaluation of Various Herbicides for Saw Greenbrier [Smilax bona-nox L.] and Southern Dewberry [Rubus trivialis Michx.] Control and Bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] Tolerance and Sharppod Morningglory [Ipomoea trichocarpa var. trichocarpa Ell.] Control in Roundup Ready Flex® and LibertyLink® Cotton Systems 

    E-print Network

    Janak, Travis Wayne

    2012-02-14

    to decrease Tifton 85 dry matter yield at the first harvest, with no effect observed at the second harvest. In 2007, both broadcast treatments containing triclopyr + fluroxypyr and the IPT treatment of triclopyr decreased dry matter yield at the first harvest...

  9. Reduction of Transverse Surface Acoustic Wave Leakage in Resonator on Al/42° YX-LiTaO3 Substrate for High-Frequency Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, Tomoya; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Nakanishi, Hidekazu; Turunari, Tetsuya; Fujiwara, Joji

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a new structure for reducing the extent of transverse surface acoustic wave (SAW) leakage for the SAW resonator on a 42° YX-LiTaO3 substrate. Such leakage occurs from the interdigital region toward the busbar region in the SAW resonators. The new structure has a Ta2O5 film outside the interdigital region. This structure can make the SAW velocity in the busbar region lower than the velocity in the interdigital region. Therefore, the new structure could reduce the extent of leakage, and contribute to confine the SAW energy in the interdigital region. This structure was applied in SAW resonators and ladder-type SAW filters fabricated on a 42° YX-LiTaO3 substrate. The insertion loss could be improved by suppressing transverse SAW leakage. This technique could be applied to the fabrication of the filters and duplexers using leaky SAW on a 42° YX-LiTaO3 substrate, and the SAW devices could exhibit excellent performance.

  10. Optical Probe Detection of High-Frequency Surface Acoustic Waves Generated by Phase Velocity Scanning of Laser Interference Fringes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishino, Hideo; Tsukahara, Yusuke; Nagata, Yoshihiko; Koda, Toshio; Yamanaka, Kazushi

    1994-05-01

    Laser-generated high-frequency surface acoustic waves (SAWs) and their optical detection for noncontact and nondestructive materials evaluation were presented. Scanning interference fringes (SIF) produced by intersecting two coherent pulsed laser beams on a tested object with different frequencies were used as a thermoelastic source to generate a 110 MHz SAW. The SAW was detected by the optical knife edge method using another continuous wave (CW) laser as a probe beam. Estimation of the SAW amplitude was carried out and the amplitude enhancement effect of the phase velocity scanning (PVS) method was verified. As a result, the SAW amplitude of 1.4 nm was obtained on an aluminum specimen with 0.71 MW/cm2 power density of second-harmonic waves (532 nm) of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. An application to anisotropic SAW velocity measurement on a silicon (100) surface was carried out.

  11. Nanoscale imaging of surface acoustic waves by scanning tunneling microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, R.; Yang, Jianshu

    2005-05-01

    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) has proven to be a powerful technique for probing surface acoustic waves (SAWs) with high spatial resolution. Here we use our ultrahigh-vacuum SAW-STM to investigate a Rayleigh wave excited in LiNbO3 with emphasis laid on the SAW-induced signals at steps that are only a few atomic layers high. Our study reveals that on the length scale of a few nanometer the description of the amplitude and phase contrast by a plain geometrical model fails and a variety of other mechanisms decisively affect the SAW-induced signal. At steps the lateral surface movement due to the SAW may play an important role. For larger step inclination angles also the shape of the STM tip as well as tip-surface interactions become relevant, which may even drive a SAW-induced movement of the tip apex.

  12. Conformal invariance predictions for the three-dimensional self-avoiding walk

    E-print Network

    Tom Kennedy

    2014-12-23

    If the three dimensional self-avoiding walk (SAW) is conformally invariant, then one can compute the hitting densities for the SAW in a half-space and in a sphere. The ensembles of SAW's used to define these hitting densities involve walks of arbitrary lengths, and so these ensembles cannot be directly studied by the pivot Monte Carlo algorithm for the SAW. We show that these mixed length ensembles should have the same scaling limit as certain weighted ensembles that only involve walks with a single length, thus providing a fast method for simulating these ensembles. Preliminary simulations which found good agreement between the predictions and Monte Carlo simulations for the SAW were reported in [14]. In this paper we present more accurate simulations testing the predictions and find even stronger support for the prediction that the SAW is conformally invariant in three dimensions.

  13. Conformal Invariance Predictions for the Three-Dimensional Self-Avoiding Walk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Tom

    2015-03-01

    If the three dimensional self-avoiding walk (SAW) is conformally invariant, then one can compute the hitting densities for the SAW in a half-space and in a sphere (Kennedy in Phys Rev Lett 111: 165703, 2013). The ensembles of SAW's used to define these hitting densities involve walks of arbitrary lengths, and so these ensembles cannot be directly studied by the pivot Monte Carlo algorithm for the SAW. We show that these mixed length ensembles should have the same scaling limit as certain weighted ensembles that only involve walks with a single length, thus providing a fast method for simulating these ensembles. Preliminary simulations which found good agreement between the predictions and Monte Carlo simulations for the SAW were reported in Kennedy (Phys Rev Lett 111: 165703, 2013). In this paper we present more accurate simulations testing the predictions and find even stronger support for the prediction that the SAW is conformally invariant in three dimensions.

  14. Comparison of Transmission Line Methods for Surface Acoustic Wave Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William; Atkinson, Gary

    2009-01-01

    Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) technology is low cost, rugged, lightweight, extremely low power and can be used to develop passive wireless sensors. For these reasons, NASA is investigating the use of SAW technology for Integrated Vehicle Health Monitoring (IVHM) of aerospace structures. To facilitate rapid prototyping of passive SAW sensors for aerospace applications, SAW models have been developed. This paper reports on the comparison of three methods of modeling SAWs. The three models are the Impulse Response Method (a first order model), and two second order matrix methods; the conventional matrix approach, and a modified matrix approach that is extended to include internal finger reflections. The second order models are based upon matrices that were originally developed for analyzing microwave circuits using transmission line theory. Results from the models are presented with measured data from devices. Keywords: Surface Acoustic Wave, SAW, transmission line models, Impulse Response Method.

  15. Spread-spectrum devices cater to new systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colvin, R. D.

    1981-02-01

    Matched filtering spread-spectrum systems are surveyed with a view to their applications with digital correlators, charge-coupled device (CCD) correlators, surface acoustic wave (SAW) tapped-delay lines (TDL), hybrid SAW/CCD devices, SAW convolvers, SAW correlators using chirp filters, acousto-electric (AE) devices, and acoustooptic (AO) devices. The components and a summary of the performance of the devices is given. The SAW convolver offers the best choice for continuously changing codes and high data rates. For lower rates (10 MHz or less), the CCD and SAW programmable tapped-delay correlators are more attractive. The GaAs CCDs and time-integrating correlators hold great potential for the future, but the acoustooptic devices need to be integrated into smaller packages.

  16. Temperature dependence of the acoustoelectric current in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandhu, L.; Nash, G. R.

    2014-12-01

    The acoustoelectric current in graphene has been investigated as a function of temperature, surface acoustic wave (SAW) intensity, and frequency. At high SAW frequencies, the measured acoustoelectric current decreases with decreasing temperature, but remains positive, which corresponds to the transport of holes, over the whole temperature range studied. The current also exhibits a linear dependence on the SAW intensity, consistent with the interaction between the carriers and SAWs being described by a relatively simple classical relaxation model. At low temperatures and SAW frequencies, the measured acoustoelectric current no longer exhibits a simple linear dependence on the SAW intensity, and the direction of the acoustoelectric current is also observed to reverse under certain experimental conditions.

  17. Temperature effect on the characteristics of surface acoustic wave on SiO2 thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chien-Chuan Cheng; Chung-Jen Chang; Ying-Chung Chen; Kuo-Sheng Kao

    2004-01-01

    The surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagation characteristics of a layered structure consisting of a SiO2 thin film on z-cut LiNbO3 substrate in company with temperature dependence of frequency of this structure has been studied experimentally. The temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF) of SAW devices was obtained by a network analyzer. A SAW device on the lithium niobate (LiNbO3) exhibits a

  18. 41. SOUTHEAST ACROSS WOODWORKING SHOP AREA IN NORTHWESTERN QUADRANT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. SOUTHEAST ACROSS WOODWORKING SHOP AREA IN NORTHWESTERN QUADRANT OF FACTORY SHOWING ON LEFT CIRCA 1900 CROSS-CUTOFF CIRCULAR SAW AND ON RIGHT CIRCA 1900 TABLE SAW. BEHIND THE CROSS-CUTOFF SAW IS A CIRCA 1900 SNAG GRINDER. IN THE CENTER BACKGROUND IS THE CIRCA 1900 MICHIGAN MACHINERY MFG. CO. PUNCH PRESS. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  19. Surface acoustic wave characteristics of AlN thin films grown on a polycrystalline 3C-SiC buffer layer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Si-Hong Hoang; Gwiy-Sang Chung

    2009-01-01

    In this study, AlN thin films were deposited on a polycrystalline (poly) 3C-SiC buffer layer for surface acoustic wave (SAW) applications using a pulsed reactive magnetron sputtering system. AFM, XRD and FT-IR were used to analyze structural properties and the morphology of the AlN\\/3C-SiC thin film. Suitability of the film in SAW applications was investigated by comparing the SAW characteristics

  20. Dose-response relation for vascular disorders induced by vibration in the fingers of forestry workers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Bovenzi; A Franzinelli; R Mancini; M G Cannavà; M Maiorano; F Ceccarelli

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To study the relation between the prevalence of vascular disorders (white finger) and vibration exposure in a group of 222 forestry workers, of whom 164 (73.9%) had work experience limited to antivibration (AV) chain saws only and 58 (26.1%) had operated both non-AV and AV chain saws. METHODS--The chain saw operators and 195 control workers never exposed to hand transmitted

  1. Surface acoustic wave propagation in monolayer graphene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Thalmeier; Balázs Dóra; Klaus Ziegler

    2009-01-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagation is a powerful method to investigate\\u000a2D electron systems. We show how SAW observables are influenced by coupling to\\u000athe 2D massless Dirac electrons of graphene and argue that Landau oscillations\\u000acan be observed as function of gate voltage for constant field. Contrary to\\u000aother transport measurements, the zero-field SAW propagation gives the wave\\u000avector

  2. Introduction! Low Cost, High Volume, Scale-up Photovoltaic Manufacturing!

    E-print Network

    Das, Suman

    sawing Weibull plot of fracture strength Bernouli gripper & Stress analysis Scanning Kelvin probe system Design / Analysis Model / Simulation Experiment / Measurements Wafering Single cutting grit XFEM model

  3. MASTER DI SCIENZE COGNITIVE GENOVA 2005

    E-print Network

    Mazzei, Alessandro

    |John|Harry|Anna V1 saw|see V2 swimming #12;Grammar 3 Derivation I NP S SNP VPI VPS NP VP VPV1 S VPV2 NPI|John|Harry|Anna V1 saw|see V2 swimming VP #12;Grammar 3 Derivation I NP S SV1 VP SNP VPI VPI V1 SS NP VP VPV1 S VPV2 NPI|John|Harry|Anna V1 saw|see V2 swimming #12;Grammar 3 Derivation I NP S SV1 VP saw SNP VPI VPI V1

  4. Experimental stress analysis of a sphere under a diametral load 

    E-print Network

    Noyes, Theodore Alvan

    1957-01-01

    indicating the cuts made to obtain these slices. The centerline of the equatorial slice was located and scribed on the sphere before any cutting was done. A sharp hack saw and a band saw were used for cutting. The slices were finished by hand grinding... punch-out boss and tapped until the mold halves separated, and the cast1ng jarred from the mold. The risers were sawed off us- ing a hack saw and the bosses which remained were worked down with a file and emery paper unt11 the correct shape...

  5. Enhanced Sensitivity of Surface Acoustic Wave-Based Rate Sensors Incorporating Metallic Dot Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen; Shao, Xiuting; Liu, Xinlu; Liu, Jiuling; He, Shitang

    2014-01-01

    A new surface acoustic wave (SAW)-based rate sensor pattern incorporating metallic dot arrays was developed in this paper. Two parallel SAW delay lines with a reverse direction and an operation frequency of 80 MHz on a same X-112°Y LiTaO3 wafer are fabricated as the feedback of two SAW oscillators, and mixed oscillation frequency was used to characterize the external rotation. To enhance the Coriolis force effect acting on the SAW propagation, a copper (Cu) dot array was deposited along the SAW propagation path of the SAW devices. The approach of partial-wave analysis in layered media was referred to analyze the response mechanisms of the SAW based rate sensor, resulting in determination of the optimal design parameters. To improve the frequency stability of the oscillator, the single phase unidirectional transducers (SPUDTs) and combed transducer were used to form the SAW device to minimize the insertion loss and accomplish the single mode selection, respectively. Excellent long-term (measured in hours) frequency stability of 0.1 ppm/h was obtained. Using the rate table with high precision, the performance of the developed SAW rate sensor was evaluated experimentally; satisfactory detection sensitivity (16.7 Hz·deg·s?1) and good linearity were observed. PMID:24577520

  6. PALMS Khorsand Rosa & Koptur: Coccothrinax argentata Vol. 53(2) 2009 Preliminary

    E-print Network

    Koptur, Suzanne

    : saw palmetto, Serenoa repens (foreground, left), silver palm, Coccothrinax argentata (background, center), and cabbage palm, Sabal palmetto (foreground, right). #12;been published on the pollination

  7. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 89498966, 2009 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/9/8949/2009/

    E-print Network

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    ponderosa), southern California chamise (Adenostoma fasciculatum), and Florida saw palmetto (Serenoa repens that were emitted from combustion of chamise and palmetto fuels. Light scattering cross sections increased

  8. Development of GaAs-Based Monolithic Surface Acoustic Wave Devices for Chemical Sensing and RF Filter Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, A.G.; Casalnuovo, S.A.; Drummond, T.J.; Frye, G.C.; Heller, E.J.; Hietala, V.M.; Klem, J.F.

    1998-12-24

    Since their invention in the mid-1960's, surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices have become popular for a wide variety of applications. SAW devices represent a low-cost and compact method of achieving a variety of electronic signal processing functions at high frequencies, such as RF filters for TV or mobile wireless communications [1]. SAW devices also provide a convenient platform in chemical sensing applications, achieving extremely high sensitivity to vapor phase analytes in part-per-billion concentrations [2]. Although the SAW acoustic mode can be created on virtually any crystalline substrate, the development of SAW technology has historically focused on the use of piezoelectric materials, such as various orientations of either quartz or lithium niobate, allowing the devices to be fabricated simply and inexpensively. However, the III-V compound semiconductors, and GaAs in particular, are also piezoelectric as a result of their partially covalent bonding and support the SAW acoustic mode, allowing for the convenient fabrication of SAW devices. In addition, GaAs microelectronics has, in the past decade, matured commercially in numerous RF wireless technologies. In fact, GaAs was recognized long ago as a potential candidate for the monolithic integration of SAW devices with microelectronics, to achieve compact RF signal processing functions [3]. The details of design and fabrication of SAW devices can be found in a variety of references [1].

  9. Microfluidic resonant cavities enable acoustophoresis on a disposable superstrate.

    PubMed

    Witte, C; Reboud, J; Wilson, R; Cooper, J M; Neale, S L

    2014-11-01

    We demonstrate surface acoustic wave (SAW) induced microparticle manipulation in a microstructured disposable glass-polymer composite superstrate, positioned on a piezoelectric substrate with a single, slanted SAW transducer. An excited SAW was coupled from the piezoelectric substrate into the superstrate, which acted as a transversal resonator structure. We show that the energy transmitted into the superstrate allowed acoustophoretic particle manipulation, while the wide frequency response of the SAW transducer enabled tuneable pressure distributions confined by the microchannel layout. The configuration provides a significant tolerance in positioning - making assembly easy. PMID:25224539

  10. High sensitivity real-time NVR monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, William D. (Inventor); Chuan, Raymond L. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A real time non-volatile residue (NVR) monitor, which utilizes surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators to detect molecular contamination in a given environment. The SAW resonators operate at a resonant frequency of approximately 200 MHz-2,000 MHz which enables the NVR monitor to detect molecular contamination on the order of 10.sup.-11 g-cm.sup.-2 to 10.sup.-13 g-cm.sup.2. The NVR monitor utilizes active temperature control of (SAW) resonators to achieve a stable resonant frequency. The temperature control system of the NVR monitor is able to directly heat and cool the SAW resonators utilizing a thermoelectric element to maintain the resonators at a present temperature independent of the environmental conditions. In order to enable the direct heating and cooling of the SAW resonators, the SAW resonators are operatively mounted to a heat sink. In one embodiment, the heat sink is located in between the SAW resonators and an electronic circuit board which contains at least a portion of the SAW control electronics. The electrical leads of the SAW resonators are connected through the heat sink to the circuit board via an electronic path which prevents inaccurate frequency measurement.

  11. Polymer Coated Surface Acoustic Wave Biosensor for Living Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Lian; Zhang, Jianping; Dewilde, Abiche; Wang, Gang; Marx, Kenneth; Braunhut, Susan; Therrien, Joel

    2012-02-01

    A shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH-SAW) biosensor is fabricated on quartz wafer for measurement of mechanical properties of living cells. The SAW device was fabricated with a top film of polymer (PMMA, SU-8) to avoid immense attenuation in aqueous media. Several models were designed to operate under different frequencies such as 20MHz, 40MHz and 80MHz and higher in order to identify how frequency affect the sensitivity. A network analyzer was used to capture the resonant frequency of inter-digitated transducers (IDT) of SAW, and it is found that resonant frequency shift is closely correlated to the cell deposition on the sensing area of SAW.

  12. Experimental consideration of droplet manipulation mechanism using surface acoustic wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukaya, Tomohiko; Kondoh, Jun

    2015-07-01

    A longitudinal wave is radiated from a surface acoustic wave (SAW) when a liquid is loaded onto a SAW-propagating surface. Radiated longitudinal wave causes nonlinear phenomena, which is called SAW streaming. The SAW streaming phenomena depend on the applied electrical power. A droplet on the SAW-propagating surface vibrates, moves in the SAW-propagating direction, and ejects small droplets with increasing the applied power. The moving of a droplet is also named droplet manipulation. However, the mechanism of droplet manipulation using SAWs has not been clarified. It is important to understand the manipulation mechanism of droplets using a SAW to enable actual applications. To understand droplet manipulation, measurements of the radiation force in the droplet are necessary. In this study, we first observed streaming in a droplet during manipulation and found that the particles in the droplet accumulated at the front of the droplet. Then, we proposed the use of a flat spring with a strain gage to measure the radiation force in a water vessel. Fundamental characteristics of the force radiated from the SAW device were obtained experimentally.

  13. Integrated microfluidics system using surface acoustic wave and electrowetting on dielectrics technology

    PubMed Central

    Li, Y.; Fu, Y. Q.; Brodie, S. D.; Alghane, M.; Walton, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents integrated microfluidic lab-on-a-chip technology combining surface acoustic wave (SAW) and electro-wetting on dielectric (EWOD). This combination has been designed to provide enhanced microfluidic functionality and the integrated devices have been fabricated using a single mask lithographic process. The integrated technology uses EWOD to guide and precisely position microdroplets which can then be actuated by SAW devices for particle concentration, acoustic streaming, mixing and ejection, as well as for sensing using a shear-horizontal wave SAW device. A SAW induced force has also been employed to enhance the EWOD droplet splitting function. PMID:22662079

  14. An Integrated Surface Acoustic Wave-Based Chemical Microsensor Array for Gas-Phase Chemical Analysis Microsystems

    SciTech Connect

    Casalnuovo, stephen A.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.; Heller, Edwin J.; Hietala, Vincent M.; Kottenstette, Richard J.; Lewis, Patrick R.; Manginell, Ronald P.; Matzke, Carolyn M.

    1999-07-20

    This paper describes preliminary results in the development of an acoustic wave (SAW) microsensor array. The array is based on a novel configuration that allows for three sensors and a phase reference. Two configurations of the integrated array are discussed: a hybrid multichip-module based on a quartz SAW sensor with GaAs microelectronics and a fully monolithic GaAs-based SAW. Preliminary data are also presented for the use of the integrated SAW array in a gas-phase chemical micro system that incorporates microfabricated sample collectors and concentrators along with gas chromatography (GC) columns.

  15. Bendable ZnO thin film surface acoustic wave devices on polyethylene terephthalate substrate

    SciTech Connect

    He, Xingli; Guo, Hongwei; Chen, Jinkai; Wang, Wenbo; Xuan, Weipeng; Xu, Yang, E-mail: yangxu-isee@zju.edu.cn, E-mail: jl2@bolton.ac.uk [Department of Info. Sci. and Electron. Eng., Zhejiang University and Cyrus Tang Center for Sensor Mater. and Appl., 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Luo, Jikui, E-mail: yangxu-isee@zju.edu.cn, E-mail: jl2@bolton.ac.uk [Department of Info. Sci. and Electron. Eng., Zhejiang University and Cyrus Tang Center for Sensor Mater. and Appl., 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Institute of Renew. Energ. and Environ. Tech., University of Bolton, Deane Road, Bolton BL3 5AB (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-26

    Bendable surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices were fabricated using high quality c-axis orientation ZnO films deposited on flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrates at 120?°C. Dual resonance modes, namely, the zero order pseudo asymmetric (A{sub 0}) and symmetric (S{sub 0}) Lamb wave modes, have been obtained from the SAW devices. The SAW devices perform well even after repeated flexion up to 2500??? for 100 times, demonstrating its suitability for flexible electronics application. The SAW devices are also highly sensitive to compressive and tensile strains, exhibiting excellent anti-strain deterioration property, thus, they are particularly suitable for sensing large strains.

  16. Cold Saw Operator (iron & steel) 6-88.651; Cold Sizing Mill Operator (iron & steel) 4-88.315; Decambering Mill Operator (iron & steel) 6-88.346; Flying Cut-Off Machine Operator (iron & steel) 6-88.655; Rotary Straightener Operator (iron & steel) 6-88.346; Straightener Machine Operator (iron & steel) 6-88.354; Tube Straightener Operator (iron & steel) 6-88.346; Welder (iron & steel) 4-88.343; Welder, Assistant (iron & steel) 4-88.344--Technical

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  17. Photon storage and transport by surface acoustic waves in III-V quantum wells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harris Turk

    2002-01-01

    Photon storage and transport devices use the interaction between a SAW (surface acoustic wave) and a quantum well to confine and transport optically excited carriers within the quantum well. The principal interaction is between the piezoelectric field of the SAW and ionized excitons, whose charges segregate into parallel lines of charge that move synchronously with the field. The optically excited

  18. Surface Acoustic Wave Induced Birefringence in In0.21Ga0.79As-GaAs Multiple Quantum Wells for Optical Modulation ?1000 nm under Normal Incidence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Wang; W. Huang; F. Jain

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents observation of quantum Confined Stark effect induced by the surface acoustic waves (SAW) propagating in multiple quantum well (MQW) layers. It also presents the evidence for the first time of SAW induced birefringence under surface normal mode operation in MQWs. MQW layers usually do not exhibit significant birefringence when the light is normally incident. The launching of

  19. 4/15/14 12:09 PMNIDIS Drought and Water Assessment Page 1 of 13http://climate.colostate.edu/~drought/current_assessment.php

    E-print Network

    ://climate.colostate.edu/~drought/current_assessment.php The San Juans in southwest CO received between .25 and 1 inch The lower elevations in the UCRB were a bit saw less than 70% of normal. The higher elevations in Colorado saw near to above normal conditions of March. Areas near the Front Range faired slightly better than the Eastern plains with more near normal

  20. Acoustic phonons for coherent photon control in semiconductor structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Beck; M. M. de Lima Jr.; R. Hey; P. V. Santos

    2007-01-01

    We present a novel concept for acousto-optical modulation in waveguide (WG) structures using coherent phonons in the form of surface acoustic waves (SAWs). Here, a SAW impinging perpendicular to a waveguide structure induces a change in phase of the light propagating through it, which is translated into a transmission intensity modulation by using the WG as an arm of a

  1. Surface acoustic wave microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xiaoyun; Li, Peng; Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Stratton, Zackary S.; Nama, Nitesh; Guo, Feng; Slotcavage, Daniel; Mao, Xiaole; Shi, Jinjie; Costanzo, Francesco; Huang, Tony Jun

    2014-01-01

    The recent introduction of surface acoustic wave (SAW) technology onto lab-on-a-chip platforms has opened a new frontier in microfluidics. The advantages provided by such SAW microfluidics are numerous: simple fabrication, high biocompatibility, fast fluid actuation, versatility, compact and inexpensive devices and accessories, contact-free particle manipulation, and compatibility with other microfluidic components. We believe that these advantages enable SAW microfluidics to play a significant role in a variety of applications in biology, chemistry, engineering, and medicine. In this review article, we discuss the theory underpinning SAWs and their interactions with particles and the contacting fluids in which they are suspended. We then review the SAW-enabled microfluidic devices demonstrated to date, starting with devices that accomplish fluid mixing and transport through the use of travelling SAW; we follow that by reviewing the more recent innovations achieved with standing SAW that enable such actions as particle/cell focusing, sorting, and patterning. Finally, we look forward and appraise where the discipline of SAW microfluidics could go next. PMID:23900527

  2. INTRODUCTION Certain complex linguistic constructions, such as object relatives, require

    E-print Network

    the verb and an earlier part of the sentence to be interpreted: The man saw the boy that the crowd accused of the crime. Interpretation: The crowd accused [the boy] of the crime. The man saw [the boy]. Unimpaired the boy that the crowd at the 1 party accused _ 2_ of the crime 3 . Priming Effect (msec) Position 1

  3. The Effect of Altering the Context Clues in Prose on Reading Rate in a Search Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coke, Esther U.

    1977-01-01

    To determine whether the connectedness of prose passages had any effect on the behavior of readers who searched for information in the passages, the behavior of readers who saw the normal arrangement of a passage was contrasted with the behavior of readers who saw the random arrangement of the passage. (HOD)

  4. Links to the Past: Creating Hypertext Dialogues Drawn from Narrative History Collections. Learning Page Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Colette; Davidson, Steve

    This lesson plan asks students to use documents from "California As I Saw It: First Person Narratives, 1849-1900," in the American Memory Project to create a script depicting the motivations, expectations, fears, and realizations of immigrants who settled California between 1849 and 1900. According to the lesson plan, "California As I Saw It"…

  5. FIELD EVALUATION OF A NEW LINT CLEANER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field study comparing a modern controlled-batt, saw-type lint cleaner to a “new” USDA-developed lint cleaner that combines features of a cylinder cleaner used for seed cotton with the saw, grid bars and doffing brush from a standard lint cleaner but without the controlled-batt feature was conducte...

  6. Back to the Land? Service and Self-Interest in Adult Education in Rural England, 1920-1945.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deacon, Bernard; Thompson, Lynne

    Between the World Wars, a strong current of thought saw "the rural" as a reservoir of the spiritual capital of the nation, a view that stimulated back-to-the-land movements across western Europe. But the inter-war period also saw growing encounters of the urban and rural worlds, one of the interfaces being rural adult education. This paper…

  7. RF filter design using LTCC and thin film BAW technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Penunuri; Kenneth M. Lakin

    2001-01-01

    SAW technology is commonly used to provide RF front-end selectivity in many mobile phones and radios. Their small size, high rejection and low insertion loss gives this technology a significant advantage over competing approaches. However, although photolithographic advances continue to be made which have allowed SAW devices to operate at frequencies beyond several gigahertz, manufacturing progress has been slow. Also

  8. Near-Death Experiences: In or out of the body? Susan Blackmore

    E-print Network

    Pylyshyn, Zenon

    , and psychology; but they are much more interesting than any dream. They seem completely real and can transform, and people flocked to mediums to get in contact with their dead friends and relatives "on the other side. The dying apparently saw other worlds before they died and even saw and spoke to the dead. There were cases

  9. Why is There a Naked Girl on a Horse at the Entrance to Low Rotunda? Draft for CCT Winter 2014-2015

    E-print Network

    Tong, Liang

    of the zodiac, as I am sure many of my readers have as well. There you #12;are, I thought: an octagon of zodiacal signs to prepare you I saw, and I saw a problem: where were the twelve symbols of the zodiac? In

  10. The Theory of Price Controls: John Kenneth Galbraith's Contribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie Laguerodie; Francisco Vergara

    2008-01-01

    Price controls have always aroused controversy. Before the Second World War, most economists saw them as either impossible to implement or unwise. Even during wartime it was widely believed that prices should remain as free as possible. Many economists saw benefits to price controls during the war, but also identified numerous costs to these controls. They also tended to favor

  11. Music Perception 1993 BY THE REGENTS OF THE Fall 199S, Vol. 16, No. 1, 63-78 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

    E-print Network

    ) The policeman saw the boy who the crowd at the party accused of the crime. Address correspondence to David, basic sentences (con- cepts): (1b) The policeman saw the boy and (1c) The crowd at the party accused the boy of the crime. In English, there is a canonical subject-verb-object word order for basic

  12. Relativizer 'illi' in Arabic Dialects

    E-print Network

    Galal, Mohamed

    2004-01-01

    -u Jl rezlan ka-yirlaw saw-they some gazelles indic-graze 'They saw some gazelles grazing.' If Brustad's individuation hypothesis was along the right lines, then we would expect ;7// to occur following Ji rezlan 'some gazelles' as was the case...

  13. 40 CFR 471.101 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...0 at all times. (b) Sizing spent emulsion. Subpart J—BPT Pollutant or pollutant...pollutants. (g) Sawing or grinding spent emulsion. Subpart J—BPT Pollutant or pollutant...metallurgy parts sawed or ground with emulsion Copper 0.035 0.018...

  14. 40 CFR 471.105 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2.12 1.01 (b) Sizing spent emulsions. Subpart J—PSNS Pollutant or pollutant...pollutants. (g) Sawing or grinding spent emulsions. Subpart J—PSNS Pollutant or pollutant...metallurgy parts sawed or ground with emulsions Copper 0.035 0.018...

  15. 40 CFR 471.103 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...0 at all times. (b) Sizing spent emulsions. Subpart J—NSPS Pollutant or pollutant...pollutants. (g) Sawing or grinding spent emulsions. Subpart J—NSPS Pollutant or pollutant...metallurgy parts sawed or ground with emulsions Copper 0.035 0.018...

  16. 40 CFR 471.104 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources (PSES).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2.12 1.01 (b) Sizing spent emulsions. Subpart J—PSES Pollutant or pollutant...pollutants. (g) Sawing or grinding spent emulsions. Subpart J—PSES Pollutant or pollutant...metallurgy parts sawed or ground with emulsions Copper 0.035 0.018...

  17. Written in the Stars

    E-print Network

    Seager, Sara

    I first really saw the stars when I was 10 years old and on my first camping trip, in Ontario. I remember awakening late one night, stepping outside the tent, and looking up. I was completely stunned by what I saw. ...

  18. A tactile display using surface acoustic wave

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masaya Takasaki; Takaaki Nara; Susumu Tachi; Toshiro Higuchi

    2000-01-01

    We propose a novel method to provide human tactile sensation using surface acoustic wave (SAW). A pulse modulated driving voltage excites temporal distribution of shear force or friction shift on the surface of SAW substrates. The force\\/friction distribution can be perceived as tactile sensation at mechanoreceptors in the finger skin. A first prototype could express roughness successfully

  19. A surface-acoustic-wave gyro sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minoru Kurosawa; Yoshimitsu Fukuda; Masaya Takasaki; Toshiro Higuchi

    1998-01-01

    This paper explains two novel methods to detect angular velocity by using a surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) device. In both methods, Coriolis forces, which act on the particles vibrating in the standing wave of a SAW, are applied. A novel gyro sensor is planned based on one of the two methods. For accurate fabrication, the dimensions of the electrodes are designed by

  20. Development of a New Surface Acoustic Wave Based Gyroscope on a X-112°Y LiTaO3 Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen; Liu, Jiuling; Xie, Xiao; Liu, Minghua; He, Shitang

    2011-01-01

    A new micro gyroscope based on the surface acoustic wave (SAW) gyroscopic effect was developed. The SAW gyroscopic effect is investigated by applying the surface effective permittivity method in the regime of small ratios of the rotation velocity and the frequency of the SAW. The theoretical analysis indicates that the larger velocity shift was observed from the rotated X-112°Y LiTaO3 substrate. Then, two SAW delay lines with reverse direction and an operation frequency of 160 MHz are fabricated on a same X-112°Y LiTaO3 chip as the feedback of two SAW oscillators, which act as the sensor element. The single-phase unidirectional transducer (SPUDT) and combed transducers were used to structure the delay lines to improve the frequency stability of the oscillator. The rotation of a piezoelectric medium gives rise to a shift of the propagation velocity of SAW due to the Coriolis force, resulting in the frequency shift of the SAW device, and hence, the evaluation of the sensor performance. Meanwhile, the differential structure was performed to double the sensitivity and compensate for the temperature effects. Using a precise rate table, the performance of the fabricated SAW gyroscope was evaluated experimentally. A sensitivity of 1.332 Hz deg?1 s at angular rates of up to 1,000 deg s?1 and good linearity are observed. PMID:22346678