Sample records for sawing

  1. Saw Palmetto

    MedlinePLUS

    ... links Read our disclaimer about external links Menu Saw Palmetto Common Names: saw palmetto, American dwarf palm tree, cabbage palm Latin Name: ... Introduction This fact sheet provides basic information about saw palmetto—common names, what the science says, potential side ...

  2. Saw palmetto

    MedlinePLUS

    Saw palmetto is a plant. Its ripe fruit is used to make medicine. Saw palmetto is best known for its use in decreasing ... research studies, it is effective for this use. Saw palmetto is used for treating certain types of prostate ...

  3. Saw Palmetto

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy S. Tracy

    Administration of saw palmetto can be effective in treating symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia, and its use may have\\u000a benefit in stimulating hair growth. Adverse effects of saw palmetto therapy are usually mild and its use does not appear to\\u000a result in significant drug interactions.

  4. Sawing Away

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lawrence Hall of Science

    1982-01-01

    In this outdoor activity, learners saw sections from fallen trees, then count tree rings and look closely at patterns of tree growth. Learners are challenged to find out if the top of a tree is older, younger, or the same age as the bottom. Learners also explore how patterns of tree growth give clues to environmental conditions over the years.

  5. Safe Chain Saw Operation.

    E-print Network

    Nelson, Gary S.

    1982-01-01

    Z TA24S.7 8873 NO.1409 B-1409 SAFE CHAIN SAW OPERATION Gary S. Nelson* A chain saw is a portable power cutting machine. Used properly, it will trim or cut down trees, clear land or cut fireplace wood. Improperly used, a chain saw can...

  6. Gin saw wear test

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most current gin saw manufacturers use a 1074 steel or similar as a basis to manufacture their saw blades. The saw teeth are individually punched on the edges of the blades and then the blade goes through a heat treating process prior to use. There are indications from other industries with similar ...

  7. Electric arc saw apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Deichelbohrer, Paul R [Richland, WA

    1986-01-01

    A portable, hand held electric arc saw has a small frame for supporting an electrically conducting rotary blade which serves as an electrode for generating an electric arc to erode a workpiece. Electric current is supplied to the blade by biased brushes and a slip ring which are mounted in the frame. A pair of freely movable endless belts in the form of crawler treads stretched between two pulleys are used to facilitate movement of the electric arc saw. The pulleys are formed of dielectric material to electrically insulate the crawler treads from the frame.

  8. Rapid SAW Sensor Development Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William C.; Atkinson, Gary M.

    2007-01-01

    The lack of integrated design tools for Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) devices has led us to develop tools for the design, modeling, analysis, and automatic layout generation of SAW devices. These tools enable rapid development of wireless SAW sensors. The tools developed have been designed to integrate into existing Electronic Design Automation (EDA) tools to take advantage of existing 3D modeling, and Finite Element Analysis (FEA). This paper presents the SAW design, modeling, analysis, and automated layout generation tools.

  9. SAW correlator spread spectrum receiver

    DOEpatents

    Brocato, Robert W

    2014-04-01

    A surface acoustic wave (SAW) correlator spread-spectrum (SS) receiver is disclosed which utilizes a first demodulation stage with a chip length n and a second demodulation stage with a chip length m to decode a transmitted SS signal having a code length l=n.times.m which can be very long (e.g. up to 2000 chips or more). The first demodulation stage utilizes a pair of SAW correlators which demodulate the SS signal to generate an appropriate code sequence at an intermediate frequency which can then be fed into the second demodulation stage which can be formed from another SAW correlator, or by a digital correlator. A compound SAW correlator comprising two input transducers and a single output transducer is also disclosed which can be used to form the SAW correlator SS receiver, or for use in processing long code length signals.

  10. 29 CFR 570.65 - Occupations involving the operation of circular saws, band saws, guillotine shears, chain saws...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...or portable machines except machines equipped with full automatic...power-driven fixed or portable machines: (i) Chain saws. ...adjusting, repairing, oiling, or cleaning circular saws, band saws...cutting disc shall mean a machine equipped with a disc...

  11. 29 CFR 570.65 - Occupations involved in the operations of circular saws, band saws, guillotine shears, chain saws...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...or portable machines except machines equipped with full automatic...power-driven fixed or portable machines: (i) Chain saws. ...adjusting, repairing, oiling, or cleaning circular saws, band saws...cutting disc shall mean a machine equipped with a disc...

  12. Lunar stone saw

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Tom; Croker, Todd; Hines, Ken; Knight, Mike; Walton, Todd

    1988-01-01

    This project addresses the problem of cutting lunar stones into blocks to be used to construct shelters to protect personnel and equipment from harmful solar radiation. This plant will manufacture 6 in x 1 ft x 2 ft blocks and will be located near the south pole to allow it to be in the shade at all times. This design uses a computer controlled robot, a boulder handler that uses hydraulics for movement, a computer system that used 3-D vision to determine the size of boulders, a polycrystalline diamond tipped saw blade that utilizes radiation for cooling, and a solar tower to collect solar energy. Only two electric motors are used in this plant because of the heavy weight of electric motors and the problem of cooling them. These two motors will be cooled by thermoelectric cooling. All other motors and actuators are to be hydraulic. The architectural design for the building as well as the conceptual design of the machines for cutting the blocks are described.

  13. UWB communication using SAW correlators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Brocato; Edwin Heller; J. Wendt; J. Blaich; G. Wouters; E. Gurule; G. Omdahl; D. Palmer

    2004-01-01

    A simple approach to ultra-wideband (UWB) communication has been demonstrated using surface acoustic wave (SAW) correlators to provide direct RF-to-baseband conversion. The SAW correlators used are bi-phase shift key (BPSK) coded devices that can directly generate or detect an RF signal. This continuous wave (CW) approach to UWB communication is markedly different from the prevailing pulse-based techniques and offers advantages

  14. SAW-based radio sensor systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonhard M. Reindl; Alfred Pohl; Gerd Scholl; Robert Weigel

    2001-01-01

    Abstract—Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices can be used as identification and sensor elements (SAW transponders) for mea- suring physical quantities such as temperature, pressure, torque, acceleration, humidity, etc., that do not need any power supply and may,be accessed wirelessly. The complete wireless sensor system consists of such a SAW transponder and a local radar transceiver. An RF burst transmitted by

  15. Doubly rotated cut SAW devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D. F.; Cho, F. Y.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this program is the exploratory development of doubly rotated cuts of quartz possessing superior Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) properties for applications involving environmentally hardened devices. The key properties examined and optimized both theoretically and experimentally are: first, second and third order Temperature Coefficients of Delay (TCD), piezoelectric coupling factor, power flow angle, Bulk Acoustic Wave (BAW) inverse velocity surfaces, degeneracies and leaky waves, and sensitivities of the above quantities to misorientations and manufacturing tolerances. The program consists of two major task areas comprising an interactive numerical/experimental approach. Task I involves the numerical computation of the key SAW Properties for doubly rotated quartz substrates for the purpose of locating promising angular ranges with properties superior to the singly rotated cuts now in existence.

  16. Two Problems with Table Saws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vautaw, William R.

    2008-01-01

    We solve two problems that arise when constructing picture frames using only a table saw. First, to cut a cove running the length of a board (given the width of the cove and the angle the cove makes with the face of the board) we calculate the height of the blade and the angle the board should be turned as it is passed over the blade. Second, to…

  17. Frequency Domain Modeling of SAW Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, W. C.; Atkinson, G. M.

    2007-01-01

    New SAW sensors for integrated vehicle health monitoring of aerospace vehicles are being investigated. SAW technology is low cost, rugged, lightweight, and extremely low power. However, the lack of design tools for MEMS devices in general, and for Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) devices specifically, has led to the development of tools that will enable integrated design, modeling, simulation, analysis and automatic layout generation of SAW devices. A frequency domain model has been created. The model is mainly first order, but it includes second order effects from triple transit echoes. This paper presents the model and results from the model for a SAW delay line device.

  18. Saw palmetto ethanol extract inhibits adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Villaverde, Nicole; Galvis, Adriana; Marcano, Adriana; Priestap, Horacio A; Bennett, Bradley C; Barbieri, M Alejandro

    2013-07-01

    The fruits of saw palmetto have been used for the treatment of a variety of urinary and reproductive system problems. In this study we investigated whether the fruit extracts affect in vitro adipogenesis. Saw palmetto ethanol extract inhibited the lipid droplet accumulation by induction media in a dose-dependent manner, and it also attenuated the protein expressions of C-EBP? and PPAR?. Phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and Akt1 were also decreased by saw palmetto ethanol extract. This report suggests that saw palmetto extracts selectively affect the adipocyte differentiation through the modulation of several key factors that play a critical role during adipogenesis. PMID:23179316

  19. Sawing a Local Bedrock Specimen

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity students bring in samples of local rocks for the teacher to cut in half with a diamond saw. Students then analyze and report on the grain relationships within the rock. As a follow-up activity students can exchange rocks, write an analysis of the sawn sample, and compare notes. In cases where disagreements cannot be resolved, the teacher should offer a third analysis of the sample. Also students can take the rocks home and tell their parents what they learned about the particular sample. Or they can set up before-and-after displays showing cut and uncut samples. Enlarged poster-size diagrams of the more interesting samples can be created. The specific details of texture and composition can be labeled with a string or wire running to the appropriate spot on the specimen.

  20. New packaging technology for SAW device

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daizo Ando; Kunihiko Oishi; Tadashi Nakamura; Sinji Umeda; Tetruo Yuzawa

    1995-01-01

    A new hermetic seal package using glass wafers for surface acoustic wave (SAW) device was developed. Two glass wafers are used. Cavity and through hole are formed on each glass wafer by the grinding process. Two glass wafers are combined in atomic level by using the glass direct bonding technique. The SAW device chip is inserted into the cavity. Electrodes

  1. Apparatus for loading a band saw blade

    DOEpatents

    Reeves, Steven R. (49 Williams Ave., West Valley, NY 14171)

    1990-01-01

    A band saw blade is loaded between pairs of guide wheels upon tensioning the blade by guiding the blade between pairs of spaced guide plates which define converging slots that converge toward the guide wheels. The approach is particularly useful in loading blades on underwater band saw machines used to cut radioactive materials.

  2. SAW based systems for mobile communications satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peach, R. C.; Miller, N.; Lee, M.

    1993-01-01

    Modern mobile communications satellites, such as INMARSAT 3, EMS, and ARTEMIS, use advanced onboard processing to make efficient use of the available L-band spectrum. In all of these cases, high performance surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices are used. SAW filters can provide high selectivity (100-200 kHz transition widths), combined with flat amplitude and linear phase characteristics; their simple construction and radiation hardness also makes them especially suitable for space applications. An overview of the architectures used in the above systems, describing the technologies employed, and the use of bandwidth switchable SAW filtering (BSSF) is given. The tradeoffs to be considered when specifying a SAW based system are analyzed, using both theoretical and experimental data. Empirical rules for estimating SAW filter performance are given. Achievable performance is illustrated using data from the INMARSAT 3 engineering model (EM) processors.

  3. Microscopic saw mark analysis: an empirical approach.

    PubMed

    Love, Jennifer C; Derrick, Sharon M; Wiersema, Jason M; Peters, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Microscopic saw mark analysis is a well published and generally accepted qualitative analytical method. However, little research has focused on identifying and mitigating potential sources of error associated with the method. The presented study proposes the use of classification trees and random forest classifiers as an optimal, statistically sound approach to mitigate the potential for error of variability and outcome error in microscopic saw mark analysis. The statistical model was applied to 58 experimental saw marks created with four types of saws. The saw marks were made in fresh human femurs obtained through anatomical gift and were analyzed using a Keyence digital microscope. The statistical approach weighed the variables based on discriminatory value and produced decision trees with an associated outcome error rate of 8.62-17.82%. PMID:25399533

  4. Parameterizable Library Components for SAW Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William C.; Atkinson, Gary M.

    2006-01-01

    To facilitate quick fabrication of Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensors we have found it necessary to develop a library of parameterizable components. This library is the first module in our strategy towards a design tool that is integrated into existing Electronic Design Automation (EDA) tools. This library is similar to the standard cell libraries found in digital design packages. The library cells allow the user to input the design parameters which automatically generate a detailed layout of the SAW component. This paper presents the results of our development of parameterizable cells for an InterDigitated Transducer (IDT), reflector, SAW delay line, and both one and two port resonators.

  5. A SAW oscillator designed for sensor application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jia; Du, Xiaosong; Li, Chuan; Jiang, Yadong

    2012-10-01

    Dual channel surface acoustic wave (SAW) oscillators of two-port SAW resonators were designed for sensor application. A feedback loop were determined by measuring the corresponding open loop and adjusting the point of 0° total phase to exist near to the point of peak gain by variation of coupling inductance value. Two such feedback loops, a mixer and a TTL invertor comprise a dual channel SAW sensor oscillator. To achieve a stable oscillation, incorporation of a power conditioning components and the use of microstrip techniques (50 ? characteristic impedance and the least inductance path for RF return currents) are necessary. The standard deviation of difference frequency stability of the oscillator of 433.92 MHz is about 3.92. Finally, the dual channel SAW sensor oscillator is used to detect dimehylmethylphosphonate (DMMP) vapor.

  6. SAW Sensor for Fastener Failure Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, W. C.; Rogge, M. D.; Fisher, B.; Roller, M. J.; Malocha, D. M.

    2010-01-01

    The proof of concept for using surface acoustic wave (SAW) strain sensors in the detection of aircraft fastener failures is demonstrated. SAW sensors were investigated because they have the potential for the development of passive wireless systems. The SAW devices employed four orthogonal frequency coding (OFC) spread spectrum reflectors in two banks on a high temperature piezoelectric substrate. Three SAW devices were attached to a cantilever panel with removable side stiffeners. Damage in the form of fastener failure was simulated by removal of bolts from the side stiffeners. During testing, three different force conditions were used to simulate static aircraft structural response under loads. The design of the sensor, the panel arrangement and the panel testing results are reported. The results show that the sensors successfully detected single fastener failure at distances up to 54.6 cm from the failure site under loaded conditions.

  7. Passive radio requestable SAW water content sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Reindl; C. C. W. Ruppel; A. Kirmayr; N. Slockhausen; M. A. Hilhorst

    1999-01-01

    Using a SAW reflective delay line, a new passive sensor for a remote measurement of water content in sandy soil was built. The system operates in the European 434 MHz ISM-band and consists of a request unit and a passive sensor connected by a radio link to the request unit. The SAW device is fabricated on LiNbO3, YZ-cut, and mounted

  8. New architectures for feedthrough SAW recursive devices.

    PubMed

    Kalashnikov, Alexander N; Challis, Richard E

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of a new type of feedthrough recursive surface acoustic wave (SAW) device. The device combines a conventional SAW structure with positive feedback in a way that allows use of selective properties of the SAW structure, control of the central frequency and bandwidth, achieving significantly higher quality factors for given dimensions of the structure, and reduction of the sidelobe level. Several possible implementations are discussed from a simple one that uses external circuitry to the most advanced that includes digital supervisory control. Equations are presented that relate the central frequency, bandwidth, and sidelobe level to the parameters of the SAW structure and feedback loop. The simulation results were found to be in good agreement with experimental data. These data show the control of the central frequency within 1%, a 10-fold increase in the quality factor compared to the original SAW structure, and a reduction of the side-lobe level by 20 dB irrespective of the influence of second order effects and random manufacturing fluctuations. PMID:15742568

  9. Passive Wireless SAW Sensors for IVHM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William C.; Perey, Daniel F.; Atkinson, Gary M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    2008-01-01

    NASA aeronautical programs require integrated vehicle health monitoring (IVHM) to ensure the safety of the crew and the vehicles. Future IVHM sensors need to be small, light weight, inexpensive, and wireless. Surface acoustic wave (SAW) technology meets all of these constraints. In addition it operates in harsh environments and over wide temperature ranges, and it is inherently radiation hardened. This paper presents a survey of research opportunities for universities and industry to develop new sensors that address anticipated IVHM needs for aerospace vehicles. Potential applications of passive wireless SAW sensors from ground testing to high altitude aircraft operations are presented, along with some of the challenges and issues of the technology.

  10. Acceleration sensitivity of SAW and STW devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A. Kosinski; Fort Monmouth

    1995-01-01

    An analysis of the normal acceleration sensitivity of rotated Y-cut quartz SAW (Surface Acoustic Wave) and STW (Surface Transverse Wave) resonators simply supported along rectangular edges is presented. The analysis is based upon the perturbation integral formulation of Tiersten (1978), and makes use of the previously known analytic representation of the substrate deformation for the case considered. An approximate acoustic

  11. Measurement and HPT: Sharpening My Old Saw.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, Carl

    2003-01-01

    Confirms that intellectual and professional tools be in good working order, avoid superstition, and refrain from faddish/ineffective interventions. HPT (Human Performance Technology) must keep sharpening its saw based on measured results and set clear and measurable goals/expectations; put the means of measuring progress against those goals in the…

  12. Research on Underwater Diamond Wire Saw

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liwen Cao; Qingxin Meng; Liquan Wang; Wancheng Tong

    2006-01-01

    Diamond wire saw mainly used in stone exploiting and processing, it is also for maintenance and demolish of seabed components and other special fields along with the development of relative technology. Seabed pipeline is a very important device which for offshore oil and gas field's exploit, produce and convey. Seabed pipeline damage occur one after another result from various reasons,

  13. Diamond tools for wire sawing metal components

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. K. Tönshoff; H. Hillmann-Apmann

    2002-01-01

    In the last few years, a wire sawing process has been developed for many applications in the field of natural stone and construction materials, especially for very thick materials or components that are difficult to access. Diamond wire cutting was limited to small carbon-steel shapes, such as pipelines for transporting gas or oil under the sea. In particular, the task

  14. Mixed orthogonal frequency coded SAW RFID tags.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Mark W; Malocha, Donald C

    2013-03-01

    Orthogonal frequency coded (OFC) SAW radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags are currently being explored as a multi-sensor platform because of their passive spread-spectrum operation, low loss, and resilience in harsh environments. Ongoing research continues to search for robust device embodiments that increase the number of identifiable codes, in the presence of intersymbol interference, while maintaining reasonable device lengths. This paper presents a technique that shortens the SAW response length while preserving code diversity and bandwidth by utilizing a multi-track SAW configuration. These new devices allow the time response of multiple OFC chips to overlap and yield a mixed-frequency chip having the sum of the chip bandwidths but shorter overall time response. The theoretical development is presented and examples are discussed for these new mixed orthogonal frequency coded (MOFC) SAW devices. Experimental results for MOFC sensors, fabricated on YZ-LiNbO3, with a 7% fractional bandwidth and five chip frequencies in three cells, provide a good contrast to similar OFC designs. Experimental results are presented for the simultaneous operation of eight wireless temperature sensors--four OFC and four MOFC--in a 915-MHz wireless correlator receiver system, highlighting the ability of these devices to operate in the same system. PMID:23475925

  15. A review of wireless SAW sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfred Pohl

    2000-01-01

    Wireless measurement systems with passive surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors offer new and exciting perspectives for remote monitoring and control of moving parts, even in harsh environments. This review paper gives a comprehensive survey of the present state of the measurement systems and should help a designer to find the parameters required to achieve a specified accuracy or uncertainty of

  16. Research equipment: Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) devices

    E-print Network

    Gizeli, Electra

    plasma etching, for surface cleaning, surface treatment and activation/functionalization. PotentialResearch equipment: Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) devices: Operating frequencies @50MHz, 104MHz, 110). Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR): Reichert SR-7000 optical biosensor for real-time monitoring

  17. Research equipment: Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) devices

    E-print Network

    Gizeli, Electra

    Scientific Corp.): Atmospheric plasma etching, for surface cleaning, surface treatment and activationResearch equipment: Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) devices: Operating frequencies @50MHz, 104MHz, 110 measurements at low frequencies (5-35MHz). http://www.qsense.com Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR): Reichert SR

  18. SAW sensor array for wine discrimination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Santos; M. J. Fernández; J. L. Fontecha; J. Lozano; M. Aleixandre; M. García; J. Gutiérrez; M. C. Horrillo

    2005-01-01

    A surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor array has been developed in order to discriminate Spanish wine coming from different grape varieties and elaboration processes. Sensors were coated with diverse thicknesses of polyepichlorohydrin (PECH), polyetherurethane (PEUT) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Linear techniques as principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and non-linear ones as probabilistic neural networks (PNN) have been

  19. Improved Multiple-DOF SAW Piezoelectric Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi; Hull, Anthony; Wright, John

    2003-01-01

    Surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) piezoelectric motors of a proposed type would be capable of operating in multiple degrees of freedom (DOFs) simultaneously and would be amenable to integration into diverse structures and mechanisms. These motors would be compact and structurally simple and would not contain bearings or lead screws. One example of a particularly useful motor of this type would be a two-dimensional- translation stage. Another such example would be a self-actuated spherical joint that could be made to undergo controlled, simultaneous rotations about two orthogonal axes: Such a motor could serve as a mechanism for aiming an "eyeball" camera or as a compact transducer in, and an integral part of, a joint in a robot arm. The multiple-DOF SAW piezoelectric motors as now proposed would be successors to the ones reported in "Multiple-DOF Surface-Acoustic-Wave Piezoelectric Motors" (NPO-20735), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 24, No. 12 (December 2000), page 5b. The basic principle of operation of a multiple-DOF SAW piezoelectric motor is a straightforward extension of that of single-DOF SAW piezoelectric motors, which have been reported in several previous NASA Tech Briefs articles: For example, in the case of a linear SAW piezoelectric motor, piezoelectric transducers at opposite ends of a stator excite surface acoustic waves that travel along the surface of the stator. An object (denoted the slider) is pressed against the stator with sufficient pressure (in practice .300 MPa) that it remains in frictional contact with the stator at all times. The slider rides the crests of the waves and is thereby made to move along the surface of the stator. The direction of motion (forward or backward) is controlled by selecting the relative phase of waves generated by the two piezoelectric transducers. The speed increases with the amplitude of the waves and thus with the magnitude of the voltage applied to the transducers.

  20. CodeSaw: A Social Visualization of Distributed Software Development

    E-print Network

    Karahalios, Karrie G.

    social spaces [4]. Developers have heated emailed exchanges on the project mailing list about featureCodeSaw: A Social Visualization of Distributed Software Development Eric Gilbert and Karrie. We present CodeSaw, a social visualization of distributed software development. CodeSaw visualizes

  1. Design Features of Intersaw Spacers for Ultrasonic Gang Saw

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. G. Adikov; O. V. Kretinin; V. F. Gordeev

    2007-01-01

    This article is devoted to analysis of different variants intersaw spacers for the ultrasonic gang saw. The influence on longitudinal and bending oscillations of saw blades is shown. The optimum design which secures saw blades resistance to fractures and necessary amplitude of oscillations is offered.

  2. Teaching video neuroimages: see-saw nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Bassani, Roberto; Marzoli, Stefania Bianchi

    2013-11-19

    A 43-year-old woman experienced a worsening of her usual headache. As a right hemifacial hypoesthesia had appeared, the patient underwent a brain MRI that revealed a giant cavernoma localized at the left meso-diencephalic region (figure, A and B). After the operation, an involuntary ocular oscillation known as see-saw nystagmus developed (video on the Neurology® Web site at www.neurology.org). See-saw nystagmus consists of alternating phases of intorsion of the elevating eye and extorsion of the descending eye.(1) The patient displayed a right head tilt with left hypertropia referred to as "ocular tilt reaction" (figure, C)-a phenomenon related to the imbalance in the graviceptive pathways between vestibular nuclei and the interstitial nucleus of Cajal (figure, D).(2.) PMID:24249795

  3. Saw Palmetto for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Bent; Christopher Kane; Katsuto Shinohara; John Neuhaus; Esther S. Hudes; Harley Goldberg; Andrew L. Avins

    2006-01-01

    In this double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 225 men over the age of 49 years who had moderate-to-severe symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia to one year of treatment with saw palmetto extract (160 mg twice a day) or placebo. The pri- mary outcome measures were changes in the scores on the American Urological Association Symptom Index (AUASI) and the maximal

  4. Microsystem packaging of an RF SAW correlator.

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, David A.; Brocato, Robert Wesley; Studor, George F.

    2005-01-01

    An electrically programmable surface acoustic wave (SAW) correlator was recently completed from design through small scale production in support of low power space-based communications for NASA. Three different versions of this RF microsystem were built to satisfy design requirements and overcome packaging and system reliability related issues. Flip-chip packaging and conventional thick film hybrid assembly techniques are compared in the fabrication of this microsystem.

  5. Surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) flow sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Shrinivas G.

    1991-03-01

    The use of a surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) device to measure the rate of gas flow is described. A SAW oscillator heated to a suitable temperature above ambient is placed in the path of a flowing gas. Convective cooling caused by the gas flow results in a change in the oscillator frequency. A 73-MHz oscillator fabricated on 128 deg rotated Y-cut lithium niobate substrate and heated to 55 C above ambient shows a frequency variation greater than 142 kHz for flow-rate variation from 0 to 1000 cu cm/min. The output of the sensor can be calibrated to provide a measurement of volume flow rate, pressure differential across channel ports, or mass flow rate. High sensitivity, wide dynamic range, and direct digital output are among the attractive features of this sensor. Theoretical expressions for the sensitivity and response time of the sensor are derived. It is shown that by using ultrasonic Lamb waves propagating in thin membranes, a flow sensor with faster response than a SAW sensor can be realized.

  6. 29 CFR 570.65 - Occupations involved in the operations of circular saws, band saws, and guillotine shears (Order...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...portable machines except machines equipped with full automatic...repairing, oiling, or cleaning circular saws, band...person who operates a machine covered by this section...power-driven fixed or portable machines: (i) Chain saws...repairing, oiling, or cleaning circular saws,...

  7. Coagulopathy induced by saw palmetto: a case report.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Salvador; González, Jenniffer

    2009-01-01

    Saw palmetto is the most popular herbal supplement used to treat symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The safety and efficacy of saw palmetto has been established in the literature. While the majority of studies document the efficacy and safety of saw palmetto, some studies document the adverse side effects, including increased risk of bleeding. There are no reports in the literature about increased prothombin time (PT), partial thromboplastin time (PTT) or international normalized ratio (INR) while using saw palmetto. We present a case of hematuria and coagulopathy in a patient who was using saw palmetto. PMID:20120986

  8. Sawing performance comparison of brazed and sintered diamond wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Guoqin; Xu, Xipeng

    2013-03-01

    Great attention has been paid on fabricating diamond wire by using the brazing diamond because of its strong chemical bonding strength and controllability of grits distribution. Although several serving performances of brazed diamond wire have been reported, seldom do these studies refer to its process characteristics. Sawing performances of a brazed diamond wire are investigated and compared with those of a sintered diamond wire on a wire saw machine. The surface topographies of beads selected from the two wires are micro observed before sawing. The sawing tests are carried out in constant feed rate feeding(CFF) and constant normal force feeding(CNFF). In CFF test, sawing force, power, and the cut depths of positions on contact curve are measured. Then, coupled with the observations of beads topographies, sawing force and its ratio, relations of power against material removal rate, and contact curve linearity are compared and discussed. In CNFF test, the sawing rates of the two wires are investigated. The results indicate that the brazed wire performs with lower sawing force(less 16% of tangential force and 28% of normal force), more energy efficiency(nearly one-fifth of sawing power is saved), at a higher sawing rate (the rate is doubled) and with better contact curve linearity as compared with the sintered wire. This proposed research experimentally evaluates the sawing performances of brazed diamond wire from the aspect of process parameters, which can provide a basis for popularizing the brazed diamond wire.

  9. Thermal Imaging of Medical Saw Blades and Guides

    SciTech Connect

    Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton [ORNL; Steffner, Thomas E [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    Better Than New, LLC., has developed a surface treatment to reduce the friction and wear of orthopedic saw blades and guides. The medical saw blades were thermally imaged while sawing through fresh animal bone and an IR camera was used to measure the blade temperature as it exited the bone. The thermal performance of as-manufactured saw blades was compared to surface-treated blades, and a freshly used blade was used for temperature calibration purposes in order to account for any emissivity changes due to organic transfer layers. Thermal imaging indicates that the treated saw blades cut faster and cooler than untreated blades. In orthopedic surgery, saw guides are used to perfectly size the bone to accept a prosthesis. However, binding can occur between the blade and guide because of misalignment. This condition increases the saw blade temperature and may result in tissue damage. Both treated ad untreated saw guides were also studied. The treated saw guide operated at a significantly lower temperature than untreated guide. Saw blades and guides that operate at a cooler temperature are expected to reduce the amount of tissue damage (thermal necrosis) and may reduce the number of post-operative complications.

  10. Magnetoacoustic SAW interaction in YIG films.

    PubMed

    Zaitsev, B D; Ermolenko, A V; Fedorenko, V A

    1998-01-01

    The magnetoacoustic SAW interaction has been experimentally investigated for yttrium-iron garnet films placed on gallium gadolinium garnet substrates. In this paper, we propose a new approach to the analysis of hysteresis dependencies which consist of two branches for different directions of magnetic field variation. For each of the branches, even and odd portions were separated. The even portions were shown to be related to magnetostriction and the odd ones to DeltaE-effect and magnetostriction linearized internal magnetic field of domains. PMID:18244187

  11. [Hand injuries caused by circular saw].

    PubMed

    Trybus, Marek; Guzik, Piotr; Lorkowski, Jacek; H?adki, Waldemar; Brongel, Leszek

    2008-01-01

    The investigation was carried out on 1199 patients treated for hand injuries in the II Department of Surgery of the Jagiellonian University between years 1987-2000. There were 225 patients injured while working with circular saw. These injuries were much more severe than others (p < 0.001) and patients with these injuries were more often (p < 0.001) admitted to the clinic. The length of total treatment was considerably longer (p < 0.001) and final results--worse than in other patients (p < 0.001)--permanent hand disability was almost three times larger. Disability pension was given to these patients much more frequently than to others (p < 0.001). The main reason of these injuries seems to be the common use of home-made circular saws without any protection devices and non-conformity to fundamental rules of work security. Patients with extensive multitissular hand injuries should be treated in specialistic centers of hand surgery, where the final results can be improved and the total costs of treatment considerably reduced. PMID:18669109

  12. Building SAWE Capability as an ANSI Accredited Standards Developer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cerro, Jeffrey A.; Davis, Ed; Peterson, Eric; Griffiths, William T.; Brooks, Andy; Stratton, Bonnie; Attar, Jose

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a 2014 status of the Society of Allied Weight Engineers' process towards becoming an Accredited Standards Developer (ASD) under certification by the United States American National Standards Institute (ANSI). Included is material from the committee's 2013 International presentation, current status, and additional general background material. The document strives to serve as a reference point to assist SAWE Recommended Practice and Standards developers in negotiating United States Standards Strategy, international standards strategy, and the association of SAWE standards and recommended practices to those efforts. Required procedures for SAWE to develop and maintain Recommended Practices and ANSI/SAWE Standards are reviewed.

  13. A new surface acoustic wave (SAW) delay line sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Shashank S.; Yadava, R. D. S.

    2013-06-01

    We propose a new configuration for SAW chemical sensing. A polymer coated SAW delay line device provides the coupling for synchronization of two stable self-sustained limit cycle oscillators. The dependence of synchronization frequency on the SAW delay time has been made the basis for chemical sensing. The analysis has carried out under conditions of weak phase coupling [1]. The dependence of synchronization modes on coupling parameters is analyzed. The sensitivity of a synchronization branch for vapor sorption induced delay perturbations is analyzed. This analysis shows the possibility of realizing high performance SAW sensors by this approach.

  14. Programmable SAW development :Sandia/NASA project final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Brocato, Robert Wesley

    2004-10-01

    This report describes a project to develop both fixed and programmable surface acoustic wave (SAW) correlators for use in a low power space communication network. This work was funded by NASA at Sandia National Laboratories for fiscal years 2004, 2003, and the final part of 2002. The role of Sandia was to develop the SAW correlator component, although additional work pertaining to use of the component in a system and system optimization was also done at Sandia. The potential of SAW correlator-based communication systems, the design and fabrication of SAW correlators, and general system utilization of those correlators are discussed here.

  15. Table saw injuries: epidemiology and a proposal for preventive measures

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Kevin C.; Shauver, Melissa J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Table saws are ubiquitous equipment in professional, home, and school woodshops that have the potential to cause severe injuries. Many of these injuries results in finger and thumb tendon, nerve, and vascular damage or amputation. Long-term outcomes of these injuries can include functional and sensory deficits. Table saw manufacturers are required to equip saws with blade guards to prevent blade contact, but despite these measures, table saw injuries are a common occurrence in US emergency departments. Methods We performed a literature search using PubMed and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature to compile epidemiology data relevant to table saw injuries. We also reviewed the US Consumer Product Safety Commission’s briefing package on table saw blade contact injuries. Results Over 30,000 table saw injuries occur annually. Fingers and hands are the most frequently injured body part and lacerations are the most common injury. Individuals suffering from occupational injuries tend to be younger than those injured during amateur woodworking. A small, but important minority of injuries are to students participating in school shop classes. Medical costs for the treatment of table saw injuries are estimated at more than $2 billion every year. Conclusions SawStop technology stops the saw blade when contact with skin is made, resulting in a small cut, rather than a more complicated laceration or amputation. The application of this novel technology in saw designs can prevent serious injuries that deleteriously affect lives at the personal and societal levels. Level of Evidence III PMID:24165629

  16. SAW noise-like anti-collision code study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Y. Kozlovski; D. C. Malocha

    2009-01-01

    CDMA and OFC structures and coding schemes have typical correlation side lobes based on chip lengths, which makes it challenging to select good sets of codes for passive wireless SAW sensor systems. Presented in this paper is a new and novel SAW Noise-Like Reflector (NLR) with Pulse Position Modulation (PPM) for multi sensor systems with good auto- and cross-correlation, and

  17. Multimode bandpass SAW filter using reconfigurable resonance technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neal O. Fenzi; Patrick J. Turner; Balam A. Willemsen; James R. Costa; Edward R. Soares; Silverio Jimenez

    2010-01-01

    The trend to include more frequency bands in mobile phones has so far been addressed by adding more fixed frequency Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) filters and switching the RF path to accommodate each band. As more bands are needed, a reconfigurable SAW filter is of great interest if performance is not compromised. Here we present the results of a new

  18. SAW tapped delay lines for new potential circuit applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William J. Skudera

    1988-01-01

    Two applications for SAW tapped delay lines are discussed. The first uses a SAW differential tapped delay line (TDL) to detect an important property of a single BPSK-type signal, namely, its chirp rate. For this application, differential delay lines are required, since it would be too difficult to build standard delay lines having delay times of the order of 50

  19. Relative humidity sensing by PVA-coated dual resonator SAW oscillator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Penza; G Cassano

    2000-01-01

    A highly sensitive Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensor system for relative humidity (RH) detection using chemically interactive polyvinyl-alcohol (PVA) film with implemented electronic module is described. The system configured as a dual resonator SAW oscillator consists of two SAW resonators, two RF amplifiers, and a mixer. The mixed frequency has been considered as output of the SAW sensor. The SAW

  20. Spirit at Work (SAW): fostering a healthy RN workplace.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Joan I J; Gregory, David M

    2015-02-01

    A cross-sectional mixed-method survey explored and measured relationships between spirit at work (SAW) concepts, experience, education, practice context, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment using LISREL 8.80 and 2012 survey data from a random sample of 217 surgical and 158 home care registered nurses (RNs) in western Canada. Qualitative data underwent content analysis using a priori coding categories based on established theory. Final model indices fit the observed data. SAW concepts of engaging work and mystical experience accounted for moderate to large amounts of model variance for both home care and surgical nurses, while significant positive relationships between SAW concepts, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment were also reported. Researchers concluded that SAW contributes to improved job satisfaction and organizational commitment while being sensitive to RN experiences across clinical contexts. As an holistic measure of RN workplace perceptions, SAW contributes essential information directed at creating optimal environments for both health care providers and recipients. PMID:24510970

  1. New developments for SAW channelization for mobile satellite payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peach, R. C.; Mabson, P.

    1995-01-01

    The use of SAW technology in mobile communication payloads is becoming widely accepted by the industry since being pioneered by Inmarsat for its third generation of satellites. This paper presents new developments in this area, including broadband processors of the Inmarsat 3 type, and the use of SAW filters at L-band. It is demonstrated that SAW processors have considerable potential for increasing the capacity of future communications payloads, while allowing fully transparent operation without any restriction on traffic type or modulation format. In addition to the evolutionary development of Inmarsat type processors, new SAW applications have also emerged recently. Therefore, despite the rapid changes in the industry, it is predicted that SAW processing has a strong future in satellite communications.

  2. Extended suicide by use of a chain saw.

    PubMed

    Schyma, Christian; Albalooshi, Younis; Madea, Burkhard

    2013-05-10

    Injuries caused by chain saws are mostly seen due to accidents. Suicides by chain saws are rare, but some cases have already been described. We present the case of homicide on a child by a chain saw followed by the suicide of his father. For the homicide and the suicide chain saws of different sizes were used. Fatal injuries in the homicide and suicide were located on the neck. Cause of death in both cases was fatal haemorrhage with blood aspiration respectively decapitation. Normally, in suicide by use of chain saws individuals suffering from schizophrenia, major depression and alcohol or drug dependence are concerned. In the presented case, the background was a litigation of a divorced couple for child custody. PMID:23540836

  3. Fatty acid and phytosterol content of commercial saw palmetto supplements.

    PubMed

    Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L

    2013-09-01

    Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, ?-sitosterol) in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g), individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g), and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g) and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g). Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols. PMID:24067389

  4. Fatty Acid and Phytosterol Content of Commercial Saw Palmetto Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L.

    2013-01-01

    Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, ?-sitosterol) in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g), individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g), and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g) and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g). Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols. PMID:24067389

  5. ISS Asset Tracking Using SAW RFID Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schellhase, Amy; Powers, Annie

    2004-01-01

    A team at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is undergoing final preparations to test Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology to track assets aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Currently, almost 10,000 U.S. items onboard the ISS are tracked within a database maintained by both the JSC ground teams and crew onboard the ISS. This barcode-based inventory management system has successfully tracked the location of 97% of the items onboard, but its accuracy is dependant on the crew to report hardware movements, taking valuable time away from science and other activities. With the addition of future modules, the volume of inventory to be tracked is expected to increase significantly. The first test of RFID technology on ISS, which will be conducted by the Expedition 16 crew later this year, will evaluate the ability of RFID technology to track consumable items. These consumables, which include office supplies and clothing, are regularly supplied to ISS and can be tagged on the ground. Automation will eliminate line-of-sight auditing requirements, directly saving crew time. This first step in automating an inventory tracking system will pave the way for future uses of RFID for inventory tracking in space. Not only are there immediate benefits for ISS applications, it is a crucial step to ensure efficient logistics support for future vehicles and exploration missions where resupplies are not readily available. Following a successful initial test, the team plans to execute additional tests for new technology, expanded operations concepts, and increased automation.

  6. 5. View of north elevation, including saw dust collector and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View of north elevation, including saw dust collector and brick addition, looking south east. - General Dynamics Corporation Shipyard, Joiner & Sheet Metal Shops, 97 East Howard Street, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  7. DNA barcode authentication of saw palmetto herbal dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Little, Damon P; Jeanson, Marc L

    2013-01-01

    Herbal dietary supplements made from saw palmetto (Serenoa repens; Arecaceae) fruit are commonly consumed to ameliorate benign prostate hyperplasia. A novel DNA mini-barcode assay to accurately identify [specificity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.74-1.00); sensitivity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.66-1.00); n = 31] saw palmetto dietary supplements was designed from a DNA barcode reference library created for this purpose. The mini-barcodes were used to estimate the frequency of mislabeled saw palmetto herbal dietary supplements on the market in the United States of America. Of the 37 supplements examined, amplifiable DNA could be extracted from 34 (92%). Mini-barcode analysis of these supplements demonstrated that 29 (85%) contain saw palmetto and that 2 (6%) supplements contain related species that cannot be legally sold as herbal dietary supplements in the United States of America. The identity of 3 (9%) supplements could not be conclusively determined. PMID:24343362

  8. DNA Barcode Authentication of Saw Palmetto Herbal Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Little, Damon P.; Jeanson, Marc L.

    2013-01-01

    Herbal dietary supplements made from saw palmetto (Serenoa repens; Arecaceae) fruit are commonly consumed to ameliorate benign prostate hyperplasia. A novel DNA mini–barcode assay to accurately identify [specificity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.74–1.00); sensitivity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.66–1.00); n = 31] saw palmetto dietary supplements was designed from a DNA barcode reference library created for this purpose. The mini–barcodes were used to estimate the frequency of mislabeled saw palmetto herbal dietary supplements on the market in the United States of America. Of the 37 supplements examined, amplifiable DNA could be extracted from 34 (92%). Mini–barcode analysis of these supplements demonstrated that 29 (85%) contain saw palmetto and that 2 (6%) supplements contain related species that cannot be legally sold as herbal dietary supplements in the United States of America. The identity of 3 (9%) supplements could not be conclusively determined. PMID:24343362

  9. 2014 Saw Only 3 Shark Attack Deaths Worldwide

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page, please enable JavaScript. 2014 Saw Only 3 Shark Attack Deaths Worldwide But nonfatal attacks are up ... 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Only three deaths due to shark attacks occurred worldwide in 2014, according to new ...

  10. 19. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. LOWER BAND SAW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. LOWER BAND SAW PULLEYS OF RIGHT-HAND MILL. DRIVE PULLEY IN BELOW TENSION PULLEY. - Meadow River Lumber Company, Highway 60, Rainelle, Greenbrier County, WV

  11. 21. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. EDGER SAWS FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. EDGER SAWS FOR RIPPING BOARD TO VARIOUS WIDTHS. BLADES VISIBLE BEHIND ROLLERS. - Meadow River Lumber Company, Highway 60, Rainelle, Greenbrier County, WV

  12. Study of noise characteristics of baw and SAW quartz resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchinin, A. S.; Korobeinikov, A. V.

    1993-12-01

    The low-frequency noise of bulk- and surface-acoustic-wave (BAW and SAW) resonators at frequencies of from 100 to 600 MHz is studied. It is shown that both SAW and BAW resonators have parameter (resonant-frequency) fluctuations with 1/f power spectra with considerable intensity spreads: approximately 20 dB for SAW and more than 30 dB for BAW resonators. The phase-noise floor of 100-MHz oscillators with BAW resonators is -150 dB/Hz for a 1-kHz offset frequency. The phase-noise level of oscillators with SAW resonators at 400 600 MHz is higher by 5 10 dB (scaled to a 100-MHz carrier frequency).

  13. Radio-requestable passive SAW water-content sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonhard Reindl; Clemens C. W. Ruppel; Alexander Kirmayr; Norbert Stockhausen; Max A. Hilhorst; Jos Balendonck

    2001-01-01

    A new passive sensor for remote measurement of water content in sandy soil was designed, using a surface acoustic wave (SAW) reflective delay line. Information from this sensor can be obtained by an interrogation device via a radio link operating in the European 434-MHz industrial-scientific-medical band. The SAW device, manufactured on the YZ cut of LiNbO3, is mounted and sealed

  14. Uses of saw palmetto ( Serenoa repens , Arecaceae) in Florida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bradley C. Bennett; Judith R. Hicklin

    1998-01-01

    Saw palmetto [Serenoa repens (Bartr.) Small] is the most common native palm in the U.S. and, possibly, the most useful. Cattle and wildlife, especially\\u000a black bears and white-tailed deer, consume the fruits. The flowers are a favorite nectar source for honey bees, and the sprawling,\\u000a shrubby palm provides excellent cover for birds, reptiles, and small animals. Saw palmetto's edible fruits

  15. Polymer Film SAW Sensors for Chemical Agent Detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Byung-Su Joo; Jung-Hoon Lee; Eun-Woo Lee; Kap-Duk Song; Duk-Dong Lee

    SAW sensors using three different kinds of polymers to detect chemical agents (DMMP, CH3CN and CH2Cl2) have been fabricated and their gas response characteristics were extensively investigated. Interdigital transducer (IDT) line width of SAW device is designed to have 3, 4, 6, 8, 20 ? for the corresponding central frequency 264, 198, 132, 99 and 39.6 MHz, respectively. The IDT

  16. See-saw nystagmus and brainstem infarction: MRI findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanter, D. S.; Ruff, R. L.; Leigh, R. J.; Modic, M.

    1987-01-01

    A patient with see-saw nystagmus had a lesion localized by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to the paramedian ventral midbrain with involvement of the right interstitial nucleus of Cajal. This the first MRI study of see-saw nystagmus associated with a presumed brainstem vascular event. Our findings support animal and human studies suggesting that dysfunction of the interstitial nucleus of Cajal or its connections is central in this disorder.

  17. The SawMill Framework for Virtual Memory Diversity Department of Computer Science

    E-print Network

    Elphinstone, Kevin

    The SawMill Framework for Virtual Memory Diversity Mohit Aron Department of Computer Science Rice. In this paper, we present the SawMill VM framework in the context of the L4 microkernel [16, 17]. The SawMill of building and maintaining a variety of custom operating systems [8]. The SawMill VM framework reconciles

  18. SAW RFID enabled multi-functional sensors for food safety applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kang Along; Zhang Chenrui; Zongwei Luo; Lai Xiaozheng; Han Tao

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) RFID enabled sensors for food safety applications. The fundamental principle and applications of SAW RFID are presented. Methodology of developing SAW RFID based sensors are presented for multi-metrics identifications. Multi-sensing functions of SAW RFID enabled sensors are developed and leveraged for monitoring food environment and its logistics networks. Future work relevant to application

  19. Diamond Wire Saw for Precision Machining of Laser Target Components

    SciTech Connect

    Bono, M J; Bennett, D W

    2005-08-08

    The fabrication of precision laser targets requires a wide variety of specialized mesoscale manufacturing techniques. The diamond wire saw developed in this study provides the capability to precisely section meso-scale workpieces mounted on the assembly stations used by the Target Fabrication Group. This new capability greatly simplifies the fabrication of many types of targets and reduces the time and cost required to build the targets. A variety of materials are used to fabricate targets, including metals, plastics with custom designed chemical formulas, and aerogels of various densities. The materials are usually provided in the form of small pieces or cast rods that must be machined to the required shape. Many of these materials, such as metals and some plastics, can be trimmed using a parting tool on a diamond turning machine. However, other materials, such as aerogels and brittle materials, cannot be adequately cut with a parting tool. In addition, the geometry of the parts often requires that the workpieces be held in a special assembly station, which excludes the use of a parting tool. In the past, these materials were sectioned using a small, handheld coping saw that used a diamond-impregnated wire as a blade. This miniature coping saw was effective, but it required several hours to cut through certain materials. Furthermore, the saw was guided by hand and often caused significant damage to fragile aerogels. To solve these problems, the diamond wire saw shown in Figure 1 was developed. The diamond wire saw is designed to machine through materials that are mounted in the Target Fabrication Group's benchtop assembly stations. These assembly stations are the primary means of aligning and assembling target components, and there is often a need to machine materials while they are mounted in the assembly stations. Unfortunately, commercially available saws are designed for very different applications and are far too large to be used with the assembly stations. Therefore, a custom diamond wire saw was designed and constructed. The diamond wire saw cuts through workpieces using a continuous loop of diamond-impregnated wire of length 840 mm. The wire loop runs around several idler pulleys and is driven by a simple geared DC motor that rotates at 17 rpm. The linear speed of the wire is 107 inches/minute. The saw is oriented at an angle of 20{sup o} from horizontal, so the operator can view the wire through the cutout at the front end of the saw. When looking through a microscope or camera with a horizontal line of sight, the operator can clearly see the wire as it cuts through the workpiece, as shown in the right side of Figure 1. The saw is mounted on a two-axis stage that allows the operator to align the wire with the workpiece. To cut through the workpiece, the operator drives the wire through the workpiece by turning the feed micrometer. An image of the interior of the diamond wire saw appears in Figure 2. This picture was taken after removing the protective cover plate from the saw.

  20. A possible case of saw palmetto-induced pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Wargo, Kurt A; Allman, Elena; Ibrahim, Farrah

    2010-07-01

    A 65-year-old male with a history of diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, gout, Barrett esophagitis, and chronic gastritis developed acute pancreatitis after taking one week of the herbal medicine, saw palmetto, for symptoms related to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Ultrasound and computed tomography ruled out cholelithiasis and obstruction, triglycerides were normal, and he had no recent infection or trauma. He had a history of occasional alcohol consumption, though there was no recent increased intake. The most likely cause of pancreatitis in this case was saw palmetto. Saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) is an herbal medication used primarily in the treatment of symptoms related to BPH. It has a high content of fatty acids and phytosterols which are thought to exert their effects by inhibiting the enzyme 5-alpha-reductase, thereby preventing the conversion of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone (DHT). It has been postulated that saw palmetto directly stimulates estrogenic receptors and inhibits progesterone receptors in the prostate tissue. A previous report implicated the estrogen/antiandrogen properties of saw palmetto as inducing hepatotoxicity in a patient. Additionally, it has also been postulated that stimulation of the estrogenic receptors may lead to increased triglyceride levels or induction of a hypercoagulable state that leads to pancreatic necrosis. Finally, inhibition of cyclooxygenase, a property of saw palmetto, may be linked to acute pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis, a serious and sometimes fatal disorder may occur secondary to medications. Although the mechanism is not fully known, this is the second case of acute pancreatitis that has been documented secondary to the herbal medication saw palmetto. It is important for clinicians to obtain detailed medication histories, including over-the-counter and herbal medications, in order to prevent further complications from occurring. PMID:20531057

  1. Sawing hardwoods in five tropical countries. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    Loehnertz, S.P.; Vazquez Cooz, I.; Guerrero, J.

    1994-09-01

    In this study, hardwood sawing technology was identified in five tropical countries: Ghana, Brazil, Venezuela, Indonesia, and Malaysia. The density of wood and presence of silica make it a challenge to saw many tropical hardwoods. The handsaw is the most commonly used machine and is employed in many sizes and configurations. Sawblade parameters and operating procedures vary according to the nature of the species being sawn and are influenced as much by local custom as technical knowledge of the process. The most commonly reported problems include poor saw maintenance, lack of trained personnel, obsolete equipment, and inadequate sawtooth geometry and wear resistance. Some problems can be addressed by technology transfer, others must be addressed by research.

  2. Correspondence - Design of ladder-type SAW/BAW.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hualei; Chen, Jing; Shi, Yu; Omori, Tatsuya; Ahn, Changjun; Hashimoto, Ken-ya

    2012-12-01

    This paper describes the design of RF SAW/ BAW filters with constant group delay. The band-pass LC filter is designed based on the traditional Bessel filter design. Then, LC resonators in the filter are replaced by SAW/BAW resonators with finite capacitance ratio ?. Finite ? generates passband ripples in the group delay. However, it is shown the ripples can be suppressed by optimal design of the SAW/BAW resonators. Norton's first transform is also applied to the designed filter to reduce variation of resonator shunt capacitances. Finally, extremely flat group delay with deviation of 4 ns over the frequency range of ±20 MHz at the center frequency of 1 GHz is theoretically demonstrated. PMID:23221231

  3. A surface acoustic wave /SAW/ charge transfer imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papanicolauo, N. A.; Lin, H. C.

    1981-01-01

    An 80 MHz, 2-microsecond surface acoustic wave charge transfer device (SAW-CTD) has been fabricated in which surface acoustic waves are used to create traveling longitudinal electric fields in the silicon substrate and to replace the multiphase clocks of charge coupled devices. The traveling electric fields create potential wells which will carry along charges that may be stored in the wells; the charges may be injected into the wells by light. An optical application is proposed where the SAW-CTD structure is used in place of a conventional interline transfer design.

  4. High spatial resolution with zoomable saw-tooth refractive lenses?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jark, Werner

    2011-09-01

    Refractive x-ray lenses can be assembled from two opposing saw-tooth structures, when they are inclined with respect to each other and almost touch at one end. An incident plane wave will then traverse a varying number of triangular prisms, which direct the beam towards the optical axis and focus it. Optically speaking the plane wave traverses a parabolic lens profile, which is approximated by trapezoidal segments. The parabolic profile will focus ideally, when a lens can be discussed in the "thin lens" approximation. Now the saw-tooth refractive lens is found to be too "thick". The residual aberrations limit the focusing capability to just submicrometer focusing, significantly above the limit in diffraction limited focusing. It is shown that the aberrations can be removed by introducing a variation into the originally constant saw-tooth angle. After this modification the lens can be operated in the diffraction limited regime. Spot sizes even below 0.1 micrometer are then feasible. This performance in terms of spatial resolution is found to be limited to focusing to microspots and is not available, when the saw-tooth refractive lens is used in an imaging setup. In this case the spatial resolution deteriorates rapidly with increasing off axis distance of the object to be imaged.

  5. A reflective array structure using STW to SAW conversion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. RPINNEKLEIV; H. E. Engan; N. K. Elnegaard

    1992-01-01

    Experiments with a structure consisting of two nondispersive arrays of reflecting grooves on ST-cut quartz are reported. In this folded structure, surface transverse waves (STWs) propagating orthogonally to the crystal X-axis are converted into surface acoustic waves (SAWs) in the first array by a 90° reflection. The STWs are confined to the surface by mechanical loading of a thin aluminum

  6. Hepatotoxicity potential of Saw Palmetto ( Serenoa repens) in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. N. Singh; A. K. Devkota; D. C. Sneeden; K. K. Singh; F. Halaweish

    2007-01-01

    Saw palmetto (Serenoa repens L.) is an herbal drug used to treat symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). There has been a report that a preparation containing this herb has caused cholestatic hepatitis in one person and some indications exist that it may have the potential to produce liver toxicity. The purpose of this

  7. A novel wireless and temperature-compensated SAW vibration sensor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen; Xue, Xufeng; Huang, Yangqing; Liu, Xinlu

    2014-01-01

    A novel wireless and passive surface acoustic wave (SAW) based temperature-compensated vibration sensor utilizing a flexible Y-cut quartz cantilever beam with a relatively substantial proof mass and two one-port resonators is developed. One resonator acts as the sensing device adjacent to the clamped end for maximum strain sensitivity, and the other one is used as the reference located on clamped end for temperature compensation for vibration sensor through the differential approach. Vibration directed to the proof mass flex the cantilever, inducing relative changes in the acoustic propagation characteristics of the SAW travelling along the sensing device, and generated output signal varies in frequency as a function of vibration.  A theoretical mode using the Rayleigh method was established to determine the optimal dimensions of the cantilever beam. Coupling of Modes (COM) model was used to extract the optimal design parameters of the SAW devices prior to fabrication. The performance of the developed SAW sensor attached to an antenna towards applied vibration was evaluated wirelessly by using the precise vibration table, programmable incubator chamber, and reader unit.  High vibration sensitivity of ~10.4 kHz/g, good temperature stability, and excellent linearity were observed in the wireless measurements. PMID:25372617

  8. Non-contact torque sensors based on SAW resonators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Beckley; V. Kalinin; M. Lee; K. Voliansky

    2002-01-01

    A detailed model of an interrogation system performing a continuous tracking of the resonant frequencies of the two SAW resonators is developed and the results of computer simulations are presented. A relationship is established between the amount of noise in the system, the Q-factor of the resonators, parameters of the frequency tracking system and the system bandwidth and the resolution.

  9. Passive wireless strain and temperature sensors based on SAW devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor Kalinin

    2004-01-01

    This work gives an overview of existing approaches to wireless strain and temperature measurements that employ passive sensors based on two types of SAW devices; reflective delay lines and one-port resonators. The performance of these two types of sensors is compared from the point of view of the achieved sensitivity, resolution, read range, interrogation time and power. A quantitative comparison

  10. A Novel Wireless and Temperature-Compensated SAW Vibration Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen; Xue, Xufeng; Huang, Yangqing; Liu, Xinlu

    2014-01-01

    A novel wireless and passive surface acoustic wave (SAW) based temperature-compensated vibration sensor utilizing a flexible Y-cut quartz cantilever beam with a relatively substantial proof mass and two one-port resonators is developed. One resonator acts as the sensing device adjacent to the clamped end for maximum strain sensitivity, and the other one is used as the reference located on clamped end for temperature compensation for vibration sensor through the differential approach. Vibration directed to the proof mass flex the cantilever, inducing relative changes in the acoustic propagation characteristics of the SAW travelling along the sensing device, and generated output signal varies in frequency as a function of vibration. A theoretical mode using the Rayleigh method was established to determine the optimal dimensions of the cantilever beam. Coupling of Modes (COM) model was used to extract the optimal design parameters of the SAW devices prior to fabrication. The performance of the developed SAW sensor attached to an antenna towards applied vibration was evaluated wirelessly by using the precise vibration table, programmable incubator chamber, and reader unit. High vibration sensitivity of ?10.4 kHz/g, good temperature stability, and excellent linearity were observed in the wireless measurements. PMID:25372617

  11. Monitoring and analysis of occupational exposure to chain saw exhausts.

    PubMed

    Bünger, J; Bombosch, F; Mesecke, U; Hallier, E

    1997-10-01

    The extent of inhalation exposure to loggers from two-stroke chain saws was measured and evaluated under various conditions. Carbon monoxide, measured by personal air monitoring and determination of carboxyhemoglobin levels of the loggers, was used as an indicator of exhaust exposure. Video recordings were made to analyze the influence of varying working conditions and the individual handling of the chain saw on the amount of pollutants inhaled. The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists biological exposure index (BEI) for carboxyhemoglobin (3.5%) was exceeded during logging in heavy timber stands. When workers were paid on a piecework basis, carboxyhemoglobinemia increased to its maximum level in the first 2-3 hours of the shift and then declined. After 8 hours carboxyhemoglobin levels were 20-30% lower compared with the maximum. Increased exhaust inhalation with short-term exposures to carbon monoxide up to 400 ppm was observed in the following conditions: (1) felling operations, (2) other operations performed in a leaning of squatting position, (3) limbing in thick tops of coniferous trees, (4) working at low wind velocity, and (5) working in thick forest stands. Maximum allowable blood concentrations for carboxyhemoglobin are exceeded in chain saw operators in logging operations. Blood sampling at the end of the workday is not always suitable for determining the highest carboxyhemoglobin levels in loggers during the shift. The exposure of chain saw operators to exhaust increases under certain conditions. PMID:9342836

  12. SU4228472 Simpson's Neutrino and the Singular SeeSaw

    E-print Network

    Allen, Theodore J.

    SU­4228­472 FTUV/91­18 IFIC/91­15 April 1991 Simpson's Neutrino and the Singular See­Saw T. J is contrasted with the non­singular case. Application is made to Simpson's 17 keV neutrino. # tjallen. Introduction Very recently, the deduction from the measured end point spectrum of nuclear beta decay by Simpson

  13. Wafer Slicing and Wire Saw Manufacturing Technology I. Kao (PI)

    E-print Network

    Kao, Imin

    this abrasive slurry cutting process and to optimize it. As a sequel to this understanding, control tools can applications than the traditional use of the process. An evaluation of wire saw cutting process has shown to cut very thin wafers from large diameter crystalline ingots of semiconductor materials, has emerged

  14. SAW dispersion measurements for ultrasonic characterization of surface-

    E-print Network

    Nagy, Peter B.

    -treated metals. KEYWORDS: Ultrasonic Surface Waves, Spectroscopy, Nondestructive Testing, Shot Peening. #12SAW dispersion measurements for ultrasonic characterization of surface- treated metals Alberto Ruiz complicated by the accompanying surface roughness and cold work. A high-precision laser-ultrasonic technique

  15. Fiber properties of saw and roller ginned naturally colored cottons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Naturally colored cottons have economic and environmental appeal because they do not require dyeing, but their fibers are not as long as white cottons. To determine the best ginning process two Upland (/G. hirsutim/) colors were roller and saw ginned following a complete block experimental design. ...

  16. 28. MODIFIED CHAIN SAW FOR CUTTING ROCK CORES; BRUNTON COMPASS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. MODIFIED CHAIN SAW FOR CUTTING ROCK CORES; BRUNTON COMPASS STAND FOR DETERMINING CORE'S FIELD ORIENTATION; INSECTICIDE DISPENSER MODIFIED TO LUBRICATE CORE DRILLING PROCESS. - U.S. Geological Survey, Rock Magnetics Laboratory, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, San Mateo County, CA

  17. 77 FR 8751 - Table Saw Blade Contact Injuries; Reopening of the Comment Period

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ...CPSC-2011-0074] Table Saw Blade Contact Injuries; Reopening of the Comment Period...injury associated with table saw blade contact, regulatory alternatives, other possible...including any personal identifiers, contact information, or other personal...

  18. 76 FR 75504 - Table Saw Blade Contact Injuries; Notice of Extension of Time for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ...CPSC-2011-0074] Table Saw Blade Contact Injuries; Notice of Extension of Time...injury associated with table saw blade contact, regulatory alternatives, other possible...including any personal identifiers, contact information, or other personal...

  19. Lack of bipolar see-saw in response to Southern Ocean wind reduction A. Levermann,1

    E-print Network

    Levermann, Anders

    Lack of bipolar see-saw in response to Southern Ocean wind reduction A. Levermann,1 J. Schewe,1 `bipolar see-saw' pattern of northern cooling and southern warming in surface air and ocean temperatures: Levermann, A., J. Schewe, and M. Montoya (2007), Lack of bipolar see-saw in response to Southern Ocean wind

  20. Hydrogen-Bond Basic Siloxane Phosphonate Polymers for Surface Acoustic Wave (Saw) Sensors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor coated with a novel hydrogen-bond basic siloxane phosphonate SAW polymer gave excellent initial response and long-term performance when tested against phenol vapor and compared with polyethyleneimine (PEI), a conventional hydrogent-bond basic SAW polymer....

  1. STUDY OF A WIRE BRUSH GRID BAR REPLACEMENT FOR SAW-TYPE LINT CLEANERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saw type lint cleaners are commonly used to improve the overall quality of ginned lint through the removal of non-lint material and short fibers. A standard saw type lint cleaner is made up of several components: the feed works, saws, and grid bars. Slover Manufacturing (Lamesa, TX) has designed an...

  2. Experimental studies of SAW and STW acceleration sensitivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Huynh; R. McGowan; J. A. Kosinski; J. T. Stewart; R. Pierkarz; C. D. Mulford

    1995-01-01

    Comparative studies of the normal acceleration sensitivities of 360 MHz SAW and STW two-port resonators have been performed. The resonators were fabricated on the same ST-cut wafer to insure the clearest comparison. The results show that the normal acceleration sensitivities of both types of devices can easily be improved one order magnitude by selecting the appropriate aspect-ratio of the device

  3. Characterization and Qualification of a Precision Diamond Saw

    SciTech Connect

    Morgenstern, H.A.

    1999-03-04

    A precision diamond saw was characterized and qualified for production using the MCCS Encryption Translator (MET) network. This characterization was performed in three steps. First the equipment was evaluated and characterized, and then a process was developed and characterized to saw cofire networks. Finally, the characterized process was qualified for production using the MET network. During the development of the low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) processes needed to build the MCCS Encryption Translator (MET) network, a problem was uncovered. The laser process planned for scribing and separating was found to weaken the LTCC material by about 30%. A replacement process was needed, and precision diamond sawing was chosen. During the equipment evaluation and characterization, several parameters were investigated. These were cut depth, feed rate, spindle speed, and saw blade thickness. Once these were understood the process was then developed. Initially 24 variables were identified for the process, and eventually 12 of these variables were found to be critical. These variables were then adjusted until a process envelope was found that produced acceptable product. Finally parameters were chosen from the middle of the process envelope for production. With the production process set, the next step was to qualify it for production. Two criteria had to be met: visual acceptability and bending strength. The parts were examined under a microscope and found to be visually acceptable. Parts were then put through a four-point bend test, and the strengths recorded were equivalent to those measured in the past. With the completion of this work and the acceptable results, this process was qualified for production use.

  4. Saw palmetto extract induces nuclear heterogeneity in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wachareeporn Trinachartvanit; Bettina M. Francis

    2009-01-01

    Saw palmetto (SW), a phytotherapeutic compound used in the treatment of prostate disease, was examined for potential nuclear effects. SW extract was incorporated into a complete casein-based semisynthetic rodent chow at 0%, 0.1% and 1% SW. SW was fed to mice for 6 weeks, after which the mice received a single i\\/p injection of either the known genotoxic agent methyl

  5. Influence of Lumber Volume Maximization in Sawing Hardwood Sawlogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip H. Steele; Francis G. Wagner; Philip A. Araman

    Research based on applying volume-maximizing sawing solutions to idealized hardwood log forms has shown that average lumber yield can be increased by 6.3 percent. It is possible, however, that a lumber volume-maximizing solution may result in a decrease in lumber grade and a net reduction in total value of sawn lumber. The objective of this study was to determine the

  6. BAW and SAW sensors for in-situ analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.; Bao, X. Q.; Chang, Z.; Sherrit, S.

    2003-01-01

    In-situ analysis is a major goal in current and future NASA exploration missions. In general in-situ analysis experiments are designed to investigate chmical, biological or geological markers or properties to determine the complex history of the body being studied. In order to expand the number of applicable sensor schemes an investigation into piezoelectric bulk acoustic wave (BAW) and surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators has been initiated.

  7. BAW and SAW sensors for in situ analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu

    2003-07-01

    In-situ planetary sample analysis is a major goal in current and future NASA exploration missions. In general in-situ analysis experiments are designed to investigate chemical, biological or geological markers or properties to determine the complex history of the body being studied or for use as a pre-screening measurement to increase the scientific value of samples selected for sample return. In order to expand the number of applicable sensor schemes and the available capability an investigation into piezoelectric bulk acoustic wave (BAW) and surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators has been initiated with emphasis on applications to future NASA missions. In general, BAW and SAW sensors can be configured to directly measure mass, acoustic impedance, density and elastic property changes. Indirectly they can be designed to measure or monitor pressure, temperature, dew/melting point, curing, adsorption/desorption, and viscosity and be configured with the appropriate reaction layers as chemical sensors or as Immunosensors. The various models used to describe these sensors will be presented and the measurand sensitivity and importance of cross sensitivities will be discussed. Recent advances in passive wireless RF interrogated SAW technology has increased the scope of these sensor systems to remote sensing (10m) and to applications which may have been deemed previously inaccessible. Examples include SAW stress sensors buried in large structures that once assembled are inaccessible for measurement that can be interrogated with wireless RF signals to determine the health of the structure. In addition, this technology has recently been coupled with other sensor technology allowing for an expansion of the possibilities for remote sensing. On the basis of the cost, range, versatility and ease of array fabrication of these sensors offer significant potential for future NASA missions.

  8. Characterization of graphene oxide nanofilms obtained by the SAW atomization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachova, O. V.; Balashov, S. M.; Kubota, L. T.; Timm, R. A.; Nascimento, P. H.; Pavani Filho, A.; Moshkalev, S.

    2015-03-01

    Due to its ability to absorb water molecules, graphene oxide (GO) is considered a promising material for sensitive coatings in fast surface acoustic wave (SAW) humidity sensors. In this work, we characterize GO films obtained by the SAW atomization technique. It is shown that the atomized submicroliter droplets of aqueous suspension of GO can be deposited onto the surface of Si, LiNbO3 or quartz substrates forming discrete or continuous films of nanometer thickness. The deposited films were examined using AFM and electron microscopy. We discuss the dependence of thickness and structure of the obtained GO films on the parameters of deposition: the number of atomized droplets, a volume of the initial droplet, a distance between the atomizer and the sample, etc. To evaluate the adsorption characteristics of the obtained GO films, we used them as sensitive coatings of the SAW humidity sensors. We found that the adsorption characteristics of the GO films are determined by fast adsorption on the surface of GO sheets and slow adsorption, attributed to limited penetration of water molecules between the sheets, and depend on the number of deposited layers.

  9. An Analog Low-Power Frequency Readout ASIC for a SAW Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Shih-Wen; Li, Chen-Han; Tang, Kea-Tiong

    2011-11-01

    A polymer coated surface acoustic wave (SAW) array has potential as a gas sensing material for electronic nose (eNose) applications. But the bulky and costly SAW frequency readout instruments such as spectrum analyzers and frequency counters have made SAW based eNose applications unpopular for portable use. In previous research, SAW interface electronics comprising discrete components have been developed to implement a portable eNose. However, the system consumes considerable dynamic power due to SAW device operating at high center frequencies. This work proposes a low-power analog CMOS frequency readout application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for potential portable applications.

  10. Silicon saw-tooth refractive lens for high-energy X-rays made using a diamond saw.

    PubMed

    Said, A H; Shastri, S D

    2010-05-01

    Silicon is a material well suited for refractive lenses operating at high X-ray energies (>50 keV), particularly if implemented in a single-crystal form to minimize small-angle scattering. A single-crystal silicon saw-tooth refractive lens, fabricated by a dicing process using a thin diamond wheel, was tested with 115 keV X-rays, giving an ideal 17 microm line focus width in a long focal length, 2:1 ratio demagnification geometry, with a source-to-focus distance of 58.5 m. The fabrication is simple, using resources typically available at any synchrotron facility's optics shop. PMID:20400843

  11. A SAW resonator with two-dimensional reflectors.

    PubMed

    Solal, Marc; Gratier, Julien; Kook, Taeho

    2010-01-01

    It is known that a part of the loss of leaky SAW resonators is due to radiation of acoustic energy in the bus-bars. Many researchers are working on so-called phononic crystals. A 2-D grating of very strong reflectors allows these devices to fully reflect, for a given frequency band, any incoming wave. A new device based on the superposition of a regular SAW resonator and a 2-D periodic grating of reflectors is proposed. Several arrangements and geometries of the reflectors were studied and compared experimentally on 48 degrees rotated Y-cut lithium tantalate. In particular, a very narrow aperture (7.5 lambda) resonator was manufactured in the 900 MHz range. Because of its small size, this resonator has a resonance Q of only 575 when using the standard technology, whereas a resonance Q of 1100 was obtained for the new device without degradation of the other characteristics. Because of the narrow aperture, the admittance of the standard resonator showed a very strong parasitic above the resonance frequency, whereas this effect is drastically reduced for the new device. These results demonstrate the feasibility of the new approach. PMID:20040423

  12. Increased bronchial responsiveness in workers sawing Scots pine.

    PubMed

    Malmberg, P O; Rask-Andersen, A; Larsson, K A; Stjernberg, N; Sundblad, B M; Eriksson, K

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to study bronchial responsiveness and pulmonary function in Swedish sawmill workers, who are not exposed to plicatic acid, the sensitizer in red wood cedar asthma. Bronchial responsiveness, transfer factor, spirometry, and precipitating antibodies in serum against sawmill fungi were measured in 164 workers at five sawmills. The results from workers inside the sawing area (sawyers, n=59), in the trimming department (trimmers, n=66), and from other workers in the sawmill (sawyer-referents, n=39) were compared. Sawyers had higher bronchial responsiveness than referents. In 55% of the sawyers FEV1 decreased by 20% or more within the highest dose of methacholine compared with 31% of sawyer-referents and 41% of trimmers (p<0.01, sawyers/referents). Sawyers decreased 74% more in FEV1 per milligram of inhaled methacholine compared with referents (geometric means, p<0.01). The transfer test in never-smokers was 13% lower in sawyers than in trimmers (p<0.01) and 8% lower compared with sawyer-referents (nonsignificant p<0.1). Presence of precipitating antibodies was not associated with changes in pulmonary function. Some agents in the sawing area of sawmills appear to increase bronchial responsiveness and decrease diffusion capacity. PMID:8630578

  13. Modelling Sawing of Metal Tubes Through FEM Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Bort, C. M. Giorgio; Bosetti, P.; Bruschi, S. [Department of Mechanical and Structural Engineering, University of Trento, via Mesiano 77, 38123 Trento (Italy)

    2011-05-04

    The paper presents the development of a numerical model of the sawing process of AISI 304 thin tubes, which is cut through a circular blade with alternating roughing and finishing teeth. The numerical simulation environment is the three-dimensional FEM software Deform v.10.1. The teeth actual trajectories were determined by a blade kinematics analysis developed in Matlab. Due to the manufacturing rolling steps and subsequent welding stage, the tube material is characterized by a gradient of properties along its thickness. Consequently, a simplified cutting test was set up and carried out in order to identify the values of relevant material parameters to be used in the numerical model. The dedicated test was the Orthogonal Tube Cutting test (OTC), which was performed on an instrumented lathe. The proposed numerical model was validated by comparing numerical results and experimental data obtained from sawing tests carried out on an industrial machine. The following outputs were compared: the cutting force, the chip thickness, and the chip contact area.

  14. A Passive Wireless Multi-Sensor SAW Technology Device and System Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Malocha, Donald C.; Gallagher, Mark; Fisher, Brian; Humphries, James; Gallagher, Daniel; Kozlovski, Nikolai

    2013-01-01

    This paper will discuss a SAW passive, wireless multi-sensor system under development by our group for the past several years. The device focus is on orthogonal frequency coded (OFC) SAW sensors, which use both frequency diversity and pulse position reflectors to encode the device ID and will be briefly contrasted to other embodiments. A synchronous correlator transceiver is used for the hardware and post processing and correlation techniques of the received signal to extract the sensor information will be presented. Critical device and system parameters addressed include encoding, operational range, SAW device parameters, post-processing, and antenna-SAW device integration. A fully developed 915 MHz OFC SAW multi-sensor system is used to show experimental results. The system is based on a software radio approach that provides great flexibility for future enhancements and diverse sensor applications. Several different sensor types using the OFC SAW platform are shown. PMID:23666124

  15. SAW-grade SiO2 for advanced microfluidic devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Winkler; Siegfried Menzel; Hagen Schmidt

    2009-01-01

    Acoustoelectronic devices based on surface acoustic wave (SAW) technology are primarily used in radio frequency filters, delay lines, duplexers, amplifiers and RFID tags. Thereby, SAW's are excited at the surface of piezoelectric materials (e.g. Quartz, LiTaO3, LiNbO3) by an RF signal applied via interdigital transducers (IDTs)1. Novel SAW applications that emerged recently in the field of microfluidics such as the

  16. Detecting mustard gas using high Q-value SAW resonator gas sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chuan-zhi Chen; Bo-li Zuo; Jin-yi Ma; Hong-min Jiang

    2008-01-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonator gas sensors have been applied in many fields for the advantages of high Q-value and low insertion loss, but seldom used in chemical warfare agents detection. In this paper, a novel SAW gas sensor with high Q-value for mustard gas (HD, a blister agent) detection was developed. The sensor was a two-port SAW resonator device

  17. An Improved Performance Frequency Estimation Algorithm for Passive Wireless SAW Resonant Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Boquan; Zhang, Chenrui; Ji, Xiaojun; Chen, Jing; Han, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Passive wireless surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonant sensors are suitable for applications in harsh environments. The traditional SAW resonant sensor system requires, however, Fourier transformation (FT) which has a resolution restriction and decreases the accuracy. In order to improve the accuracy and resolution of the measurement, the singular value decomposition (SVD)-based frequency estimation algorithm is applied for wireless SAW resonant sensor responses, which is a combination of a single tone undamped and damped sinusoid signal with the same frequency. Compared with the FT algorithm, the accuracy and the resolution of the method used in the self-developed wireless SAW resonant sensor system are validated. PMID:25429410

  18. Effect of anisotropy on characteristics and behavior of shear horizontal SAWs in resonators using langasite.

    PubMed

    Naumenko, Natalya F

    2012-11-01

    Orientations of langasite (LGS) with Euler angles (0°, ?, 90°) are potentially useful for applications in wireless SAW sensors because of wide variation of their temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF), between -50 and +50 ppm/°C, combined with high values of electromechanical coupling coefficient, especially if thick electrodes are utilized. The nature and characteristics of shear-horizontally polarized SAWs (SHSAWs) propagating in these orientations are investigated using a combination of numerical techniques: analysis of the BAW slowness surface and its effect on the SH-SAW structure; visualization of displacements that follow wave propagation in the grating; calculation of admittance of infinite periodic gratings; and analysis of SAW dispersion in the gratings, including possible interaction between SH-SAWs and parasitic Rayleigh SAWs. The characteristics of SH-SAWs propagating in symmetric cuts (velocities, localization depth, electromechanical coupling, etc.) are supplemented by analysis of propagation directions deviating from the YZ-plane toward the x-axis of LGS, for the temperature compensated cut with Euler angles (0°, 22°, 90°) and one more orientation for comparison. This extended analysis reveals that in actual devices, the anisotropy may be a reason for strong interaction between SH-SAWs and parasitic Rayleigh SAWs and cause degradation of the device's performance. PMID:23192815

  19. GHz SAW and STW Bandpass Filters Without Submicron Geometries Using Harmonic Group Type Unidirectional Transducers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Hiigli

    1987-01-01

    Most SAW filters for freqJencies abo:7e 1 GHz are made witn submicron electrodes. To reduce photolithographic difficulties in this frequency range, SAW filters can be operated at higher spatial harmonics. But up to now most harlnonic filters have high insertion loss, multiple passbands or bad shape factors. To improve insertion loss, in this approach a group type dnidirectional transducer (GTUDT)

  20. Evaluation of SAW chemical sensors for air filter lifetime and performance monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dawn D Dominguez; Russell Chung; Viet Nguyen; David Tevault; R. Andrew McGill

    1998-01-01

    A miniature surface acoustic wave (SAW) chemical sensor has been utilized to monitor the progression and breakthrough of the nerve agent simulant dimethylmethylphosphonate (DMMP) through a porous carbon filter-bed. The SAW sensor was successfully operated in carbon filter-beds under high air flow rates and a variety of humidity conditions with no active temperature control applied to the filter bed or

  1. Integration of a SAW Sensor System into Penetration Cones for In-Situ Soil Gas Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aleksandr Skrypnik; A. Voigt; M. Rapp

    2006-01-01

    In this work we present the first integration of a SAW sensor based sensor system (electronic nose) into a percussion driven penetration cone for in situ soil gas analysis. The new system includes an 8-fold SAW sensor array with different polymers as sensitive coatings, a sampling system with absorbent materials for enrichment of the analyte and de-richment of water vapour,

  2. Effects of burning season and frequency on saw palmetto ( Serenoa repens) flowering and fruiting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary E. Carrington; J. Jeffrey Mullahey

    2006-01-01

    Medicinal use of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) fruits in treating benign prostatic hypertrophy has driven a recent sharp increase in fruit harvesting. At the same time, saw palmetto often is considered a keystone species, serving as habitat or a food source for several hundred mammal, bird, reptile, amphibian and insect species. Due to harvesting pressure on this ecologically important, non-cultivated

  3. Supercritical extraction of herbs I: Saw Palmetto, St John's Wort, Kava Root, and Echinacea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. J Catchpole; N. B Perry; B. M. T da Silva; J. B Grey; B. M Smallfield

    2002-01-01

    Extract yield and concentration of selected active components are presented for the supercritical extraction of dried Saw Palmetto berries, St John's Wort flowers and stems, Kava root and stems, and aerial portions of Echinacea purpurea using supercritical CO2; and CO2+ethanol mixtures. Whole Saw Palmetto berries were obtained from America, and ground Kava root and stem from Fiji and Vanuatu. St

  4. Field portable detection of VOCs using a SAW/GC system

    SciTech Connect

    Staples, E.J.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes research on a fast gas chromatography (GC) vapor analysis system which uses a new type of surface acoustic wave (SAW) detector technology to characterize organic compounds in soils and groundwater. Field testing of GC/SAW was performed at the Savannah River plant.

  5. Is the Norther n Saw-whet Owl ( Aegolius acadicus ) Nomadic? Jeffrey S. Marks1

    E-print Network

    owls, nomadism is best documented in Boreal [Tengmalm's] Owls (Aegolius funereus) that feed on volesIs the Norther n Saw-whet Owl ( Aegolius acadicus ) Nomadic? Jeffrey S. Marks1 Expanded Abstract.--The first r ecorded nesting of a Norther n Saw- whet Owl (Aegolius acadicus) in the Snake River Bir ds

  6. Evaluation on Mass Sensitivity of SAW Sensors for Different Piezoelectric Materials Using Finite Element Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Abdollahi; Zhongwei Jiang; S. A. Arabshahi

    2007-01-01

    The mass sensitivity of the piezoelectric surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors is an important factor in the selection of the best gravimetric sensors for different applications. To determine this value without facing the practical problems and consuming long theoretical calculation time, we have shown that the mass sensitivity of SAW sensors can be calculated by a simple 3D finite element

  7. Impact of gin saw tooth design on fiber and textile processing quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toothed gin saws have been used to separate cotton fiber from the seed for over 200 years. There have been many saw tooth designs developed over the years. Most of these designs were developed by trial and error. A complete and scientific analysis of tooth design has never been done. It is not k...

  8. Fabrication of polymer SAW sensor array to classify chemical warfare agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Byung-Su Joo; Jeung-Soo Huh; Duk-Dong Lee

    2007-01-01

    An array with five SAW sensors using different kinds of polymers was fabricated to detect chemical agents and their gas response characteristics were extensively investigated. The SAW devices with different interdigital transducer (IDT) electrode line widths of 3, 4, 6, 8 and 20?m, which corresponded to the central frequencies of 264, 198, 132, 99 and 39.6MHz, respectively, were designed. The

  9. A Novel Toxic Gases Detection System Based on SAW Resonator Array and Probabilistic Neural Network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen Chuanzhi; Ma Jinyi; Zuo Boli; Jiang Hongmin

    2007-01-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonator array as the key element for analytical sensor system is a very promising technique for toxic gases detection. In this work, a novel analytical system based on high Q-value surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonator array and probabilistic neural network (PNN) was developed to detect toxic gases such as chemical warfare agents or the simulant. The

  10. New Color Television Receiver with Saw if Filter and One-Chip PIf IC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Nabeyama; M. Shimano; K. Hazama; Y. Noro; J. Yamada

    1979-01-01

    For many television engineers, it has long been a dream to develop an all solid-state TV PIF circuit which does not require adjustments on the assembly lines, by replacing a conventional LC filter with a SAW filter. There are several reasons why this dream has not yet been realized ¿the immature level of technology and insufficient cost effectiveness of SAW

  11. Silicon saw-tooth refractive lens for high-energy X-rays made using a diamond saw

    PubMed Central

    Said, A. H.; Shastri, S. D.

    2010-01-01

    Silicon is a material well suited for refractive lenses operating at high X-ray energies (>50?keV), particularly if implemented in a single-crystal form to minimize small-angle scattering. A single-crystal silicon saw-tooth refractive lens, fabricated by a dicing process using a thin diamond wheel, was tested with 115?keV X-rays, giving an ideal 17?µm line focus width in a long focal length, 2:1 ratio demagnification geometry, with a source-to-focus distance of 58.5?m. The fabrication is simple, using resources typically available at any synchrotron facility’s optics shop. PMID:20400843

  12. 76 FR 62678 - Table Saw Blade Contact Injuries; Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking; Request for Comments and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ...CPSC-2011-0074] Table Saw Blade Contact Injuries; Advance Notice of Proposed...injury associated with table saw blade contact, the regulatory alternatives discussed...including any personal identifiers, contact information, or other personal...

  13. Wireless telemetry system for a SAW based microvalve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikka, Ajay C.; Al-Sarawi, Said F.; Jamali, Behnam; Abbott, Derek

    2008-12-01

    Inductively coupled RF telemetry is an optimal method for both power supply and data transmission in long term artificial implants due to small size, high reliability, and extended life span of the device. In this research, we propose the use of the same technique for secure remote interrogation and powering of a human implantable, Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) correlation based, passive microvalve. This is carried out by interrogating the microvalve with a Barker sequence encoded BPSK signal. In this paper we present the development of a FEM model for the derivation of the induced voltage on a miniature (2.5×2.5×1 mm), inductively coupled, biocompatible spiral antenna/coil, interrogated by a 7.5×7.5×0.2 cm spiral antenna/coil in the near field. The amount of power transferred at a 30-160 MHz range was derived using the S21 coupling response when the two antennas are separated by a human body simulant of 5 cm depth. Furthermore, the effect of varying magnetic coupling on the induced voltage, due to the misorientation of coils/antennas is analysed.

  14. A radiation detector design mitigating problems related to sawed edges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurola, A.; Marochkin, V.; Tuuva, T.

    2014-12-01

    In pixelated silicon radiation detectors that are utilized for the detection of UV, visible, and in particular Near Infra-Red (NIR) light it is desirable to utilize a relatively thick fully depleted Back-Side Illuminated (BSI) detector design providing 100% Fill Factor (FF), low Cross-Talk (CT), and high Quantum Efficiency (QE). The optimal thickness of such detectors is typically less than 300?m and above 40?m and thus it is more or less mandatory to thin the detector wafer from the backside after the front side of the detector has been processed and before a conductive layer is formed on the backside. A TAIKO thinning process is optimal for such a thickness range since neither a support substrate on the front side nor lithographic steps on the backside are required. The conductive backside layer should, however, be homogenous throughout the wafer and it should be biased from the front side of the detector. In order to provide good QE for blue and UV light the conductive backside layer should be of opposite doping type than the substrate. The problem with a homogeneous backside layer being of opposite doping type than the substrate is that a lot of leakage current is typically generated at the sawed chip edges, which may increase the dark noise and the power consumption. These problems are substantially mitigated with a proposed detector edge arrangement which 2D simulation results are presented in this paper.

  15. Method and apparatus for improved wire saw slurry

    DOEpatents

    Costantini, Michael A. (Hudson, NH); Talbott, Jonathan A. (Amherst, NH); Chandra, Mohan (Merrimack, NH); Prasad, Vishwanath (East Setauket, NY); Caster, Allison (Nashua, NH); Gupta, Kedar P. (Merrimack, NH); Leyvraz, Philippe (Nashua, NH)

    2000-09-05

    A slurry recycle process for use in free-abrasive machining operations such as for wire saws used in wafer slicing of ingots, where the used slurry is separated into kerf-rich and abrasive-rich components, and the abrasive-rich component is reconstituted into a makeup slurry. During the process, the average particle size of the makeup slurry is controlled by monitoring the condition of the kerf and abrasive components and making necessary adjustments to the separating force and dwell time of the separator apparatus. Related pre-separator and post separator treatments, and feedback of one or the other separator slurry output components for mixing with incoming used slurry and recirculation through the separator, provide further effectiveness and additional control points in the process. The kerf-rich component is eventually or continually removed; the abrasive-rich component is reconstituted into a makeup slurry with a controlled, average particle size such that the products of the free-abrasive machining method using the recycled slurry process of the invention are of consistent high quality with less TTV deviation from cycle to cycle for a prolonged period or series of machining operations.

  16. Laser vibrometer measurements of SAWs for nondestructive testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, Roberto; Vanlanduit, Steve; Guillaume, Patrick

    2006-06-01

    A non-destructive testing (NDT) technique should be able to calculate the position and the size of any defects, in order to measure quality and safety of materials. Complexity is an issue for most NDT tests, requiring specialist knowledge of the technique. This generally means using qualified staff, and omits the possibility of any kind of automation. In this article an experimental methodology for crack detection using Surface Acoustic Waves (SAWs) and optical laser vibrometer measurements will be introduced. The materials under test are a damaged slat track of an Airbus A320 and a steel beam (because in the zone where critical crack propagation occurs the slat track has a beam-like shape) with slots of known depth (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 mm). The goal of this article is to compare these ultrasonic-laser measurements in order to understand how much they are suitable to detect damages and imperfections present on the material itself. For future applications, this methodology can be used to monitor the slat track during a fatigue test, to detect damages in an early stage, before a rapid crack growth.

  17. Comparative ecology of the Flammulated Owl and Northern Saw-whet Owl during fall migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stock, S.L.; Heglund, P.J.; Kaltenecker, G.S.; Carlisle, J.D.; Leppert, L.

    2006-01-01

    We compared the migration ecology of two owl species that exhibit different migration strategies: the Flammulated Owl (Otus flammeolus) and the Northern Saw-whet Owl (Aegolius acadicus). During fall 1999-2004, we captured 117 Flammulated Owls and 1433 Northern Saw-whet Owls in the southern Boise Mountains of southwestern Idaho. These owl species exhibited contrasting seasonal timing and body condition. Flammulated Owl captures peaked in mid-September and Northern Saw-whet Owl captures peaked in early to mid-October. Flammulated Owls displayed greater body condition than Northern Saw-whet Owls and increasing condition scores during the season, whereas Northern Saw-whet Owls had no apparent seasonal condition patterns. Based on seasonal timing of captures, both species showed unimodal movement patterns characteristic of fall migrants. However, in 1999 both species' capture rates were at least double those in other years of this study. Flammulated Owls' earlier arrival and departure, coupled with superior body condition, were consistent among years and typical of a long-distance migration strategy. In contrast, the Northern Saw-whet Owls' later arrival, more lengthy passage, and variable body condition were more characteristic of a short-distance migrant strategy. Furthermore, Northern Saw-whet Owls' body condition was significantly lower during the irruptive year than during nonirruptive years, supporting the notion that population density affects their migratory condition. ?? 2006 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  18. Assessment of Present State-of-the-art Sawing Technology of Large Diameter Ingots for Solar Sheet Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoo, H. I.

    1978-01-01

    Work is reported on: (1) slicing of the ingots with the multiblade slurry saw, the multiwire slurry saw and the I.D. saw, (2) characterization of the sliced wafers, and (3) analysis of add-on slicing cost based on Solar Array Manufacturing Industry Costing Standard.

  19. Effects of saw projection and seed roll density on the performance of a cottonseed linter

    E-print Network

    Luedtke, Charles G

    1956-01-01

    24 Hour s vs. Saw Pro j e ct ion and Weight s on Density Arm (based on 75 percent cellulose content) 15. Tons of Cottonseed per Linter per 24 Hours vs. Saw Projection and Weights on Density Arm 68 16. Kilowatt-Hours per Ton of Cottonseed vs. Saw... per 24 Hours I', Corrected to 75 percent cellulose) 29. Tons of Cottonseed per Linter per 24 Hours 30. KilowattWours per Ton of Cottonseed 31. Pounds of' Seed Hulled per Ton of 72 Cottonseed De l in ted (based on Oil and Protein Content...

  20. The electron and neutron EDM from supersymmetric see-saw thresholds

    E-print Network

    Gian F. Giudice; Paride Paradisi; Alessandro Strumia

    2010-08-07

    We consider the corrections that arise at one loop when integrating out heavy fields in supersymmetric models. We show that, in type-I see-saw models, complex A and B terms of the heavy right-handed neutrino give radiative contributions to the neutron EDM, as well as new dominant contributions to the electron EDM. Type-II and type-III see-saw also predict a pure gauge correction that makes complex the masses of the weak gauginos. All the see-saw models can predict observable EDM for the electron and for the neutron in a peculiar ratio.

  1. Review of saw devices and their signal processing applications in space communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananasso, Fulvio

    1989-11-01

    An increasing number of advanced signal processing techniques are being investigated in satellite communications systems as the ground and space segments require more and more sophisticated, light-weight, low-power-consumption and cost-effective equipment. RF signal processing techniques based on surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices can be suitably exploited in these systems, constituting a valid alternative to digital baseband processing. This paper aims at presenting the most recent applications of SAW devices to RF signal processing in satellite communications systems. They span the frequency range from about 10 MHz to 10 GHz. Interaction of SAWs with laser beams is also illustrated.

  2. Saw palmetto extract induces nuclear heterogeneity in mice.

    PubMed

    Trinachartvanit, Wachareeporn; Francis, Bettina M; Rayburn, A Lane

    2009-01-01

    Saw palmetto (SW), a phytotherapeutic compound used in the treatment of prostate disease, was examined for potential nuclear effects. SW extract was incorporated into a complete casein-based semisynthetic rodent chow at 0%, 0.1% and 1% SW. SW was fed to mice for 6 weeks, after which the mice received a single i/p injection of either the known genotoxic agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) in saline or just saline. Forty-eight hours after injection, blood and bone marrow were collected for flow cytometric analysis. A significant effect of MMS was observed in both male and female mice with respect to: an increase in nuclear heterogeneity in bone marrow cells as measured by the coefficient of variation of the G1 peak in a flow histogram (6.32 versus 4.8 in male mice, 7.0 versus 4.9 in female mice) and an increase in the number of micronucleated blood cells (3.4% versus 0.56% male mice, 3.1% versus 0.6 in female mice) indicating a positive genotoxic response. SW also appears to increase the heterogeneity of bone marrow nuclei in a dose dependent manner (0-5.1%, 0.1-5.5% and 1-5.7% in male mice, 0-5.7%, 0.1-6.0% and 1-6.2% in female mice) without a concomitant increase in blood cell micronuclei. These results indicate that SW is not genotoxic with respect to physical DNA damage and that the changes observed in the bone marrow are due to chromatin conformation modifications in the nuclei of in vivo treated mouse cells. PMID:21783933

  3. Method for nondestructive testing of the film coating behavior of surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taslakov, M. A.; Avramov, I. D.

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents a practical non-destructive method for studying the film coating behavior of SAW devices by using a water soluble dielectric film (manitol) deposited on the SAW device surface by resistive evaporation. After measuring the electrical parameters of the film coated SAW device, the film can easily be removed from its surface by water rinsing without causing any damage to it. The SAW device can then be used over and over again in a large number of film depositions. The method was tested on a 1 GHz surface transverse wave (STW) resonator coated with manitol of varying thickness. After each coating and evaluation, the STW device was successfully recovered without significant performance degradation. Data is presented on the electrical changes of the STW device as a result of depositing manitol coatings of various thicknesses.

  4. 78 FR 31897 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; CPSC Table Saw...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ...PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION [Docket No. CPSC-2011-0074] Agency Information Collection...Proposed Collection; Comment Request; CPSC Table Saw User Survey AGENCY: Consumer...The Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC or Commission) is announcing an...

  5. Reducing kickback of portable combustion chain saws and related injury risks: laboratory tests and deductions.

    PubMed

    D?browski, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Portable chain saws are still very dangerous machines. Reduced prices of these machines mean they are widely available to people who like DIY (do it yourself) and professionals. Kickback of chain saws is extremely dangerous for the operator. This paper discusses the results of laboratory investigations of combustion chain saws. The tests were conducted on a standardized kickback test stand and covered the course of kickback, its energy, angle and duration. The results showed that during the contact of a saw chain with wood, the first to appear was the process of wood cutting, which absorbed 90-95% of the reduced energy of the cutting system. The greater the absorbed energy, the smaller the kickback angle. Wood cutting work is particularly influenced by proper chain tension, the use of chains with anti-kickback links, guide bars with sliding endings and a quickly activated chain brake. PMID:22995138

  6. Mode selection in a multimode SAW oscillator using FM chirp mixing signal injection.

    PubMed

    Saw, C B; Smith, P M; Edmonson, P J; Campbell, C K

    1988-01-01

    Mode-selection control of a multimode surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) oscillator has been obtained using SAW linear FM chirp signal injection. The prototype 60-100-MHz SAW oscillator design employed a single-phase unidirectional transducer (SPUDT) low-loss comb filter in the feedback loop, with minimum insertion loss of approximately 3.7 dB. Mode selection was achieved using an injection signal derived from the mixed output of two 27.5-52.5-MHz up- and down-chirp SAW filters. Mode switching times of less, similar2 mus were obtained. The device could be useful as a local oscillator on frequency-agile radars, where hopping is required over a moderate number of frequencies. PMID:18290165

  7. Modified impedance control for robotic saw cutting: Simulation and implementation in three degrees of freedom

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.M. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Reynolds, D.L.; Carroll, J.J.; Dawson, D.M. (Clemson Univ., SC (United States). School of Electrical and Computer Engineering)

    1993-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) production and decommissioning operations produce solid radioactive transuranic (TRU) waste. This waste must be repackaged and sent to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for permanent disposal. The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) built a test facility to demonstrate simulated waste processing. The test facility use's a CIMCORP multi-axis robot system, a CIMROC[trademark] II robot controller, and an electric circular saw to remotely open and size reduce plywood crates. The robot can either be teleoperated using joysticks or autonomously controlled via the, CIMROC[trademark] II. Both methods are inadequate for circular saw cutting of plywood crates due to frequent saw blade binding. Blade binding results from the current commercial robot controller limitations. The limitations are overcome by incorporating additional sensor information into the existing controller structure. In this paper we utilize a force sensor and a frequency counter to implement a modified impedance controller which prevents saw blade binding.

  8. Modified impedance control for robotic saw cutting: Simulation and implementation in three degrees of freedom

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Reynolds, D.L.; Carroll, J.J.; Dawson, D.M. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). School of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1993-12-31

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) production and decommissioning operations produce solid radioactive transuranic (TRU) waste. This waste must be repackaged and sent to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for permanent disposal. The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) built a test facility to demonstrate simulated waste processing. The test facility use`s a CIMCORP multi-axis robot system, a CIMROC{trademark} II robot controller, and an electric circular saw to remotely open and size reduce plywood crates. The robot can either be teleoperated using joysticks or autonomously controlled via the, CIMROC{trademark} II. Both methods are inadequate for circular saw cutting of plywood crates due to frequent saw blade binding. Blade binding results from the current commercial robot controller limitations. The limitations are overcome by incorporating additional sensor information into the existing controller structure. In this paper we utilize a force sensor and a frequency counter to implement a modified impedance controller which prevents saw blade binding.

  9. [Effect of temperature on compact bone in saw cutting in relation to the conditions of use].

    PubMed

    Fuchsberger, A

    1987-01-01

    The use of reciprocating saw blades in surgery is accompanied by occurrence of high temperatures which may imply the risk of thermal damage to tissue. The severity of such damage was found to depend on temperature level and length of its action, and this, in turn, depends substantially on tool geometry, bone condition, cutting parameters, use of cooling, and attrition of saw blade. Cutting time can be minimised by increasing of revolutions and thrust force, which will lower the temperature acting on the bone. Temperature can be substantively lowered by use of a coolant, however, at the expense of worsening cutting time. The state of attrition of the saw blade used is of crucial importance to avoidance of thermal damage. A tool getting in contact with metal in the process of saw cutting should be discarded for good. PMID:3630453

  10. Study of a high-precision SAW-MOEMS strain sensor with laser optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xinwei; Chen, Shufen; Li, Honglang; Zou, Zhengfeng; Fu, Lei; Meng, Yanbin

    2015-02-01

    A novel structure design of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) micro-optic-electro-mechanical-system (MOEMS) strain sensor with a light readout unit is presented in this paper. By measuring the polarization intensity ratio of the TE/TM mode outputted from the waveguide, the strain produced from an object can be measured precisely. The basic working principle of the SAW MOEMS strain sensor is introduced and the mathematical model of the strain sensor system is established. The SAW characteristics effected by the strain sensor are mathematically deduced. The coupling coefficient between the SAW modes and light modes can be calculated based on the theory of coupling modes. The conversion coefficient of polarized light modes is obtained. Due to the restrictions of the specific parameters of the device, the level of technology and the material characteristics, the sensitivity of the strain sensor system is calculated through simulation as 0.1???, with a dynamic range of 0 ~ ±50???.

  11. The effects of Saw palmetto on flumethrin-induced lipid peroxidation in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Murat Kanbur; Gökhan Eraslan; Zeynep Soyer Sarica; ?ule Altinordulu

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, 40 male Wistar albino rats were used and divided into 4 groups. The first group served as the control group; the second group was administered Saw palmetto extract at the dose of 20mg\\/kg\\/bw; the third group was administered flumethrin at the dose of 15mg\\/kg\\/bw; and the fourth group was administered a combination of 20mg\\/kg\\/bw Saw palmetto

  12. Effect of Increasing Doses of Saw Palmetto on Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Michael J.; Meleth, Sreelatha; Lee, Jeannette Y.; Kreder, Karl J.; Avins, Andrew L.; Nickel, J. Curtis; Roehrborn, Claus G.; Crawford, E. David; Foster, Harris E.; Kaplan, Steven A.; McCullough, Andrew; Andriole, Gerald L.; Naslund, Michael J.; Williams, O. Dale; Kusek, John W.; Meyers, Catherine M.; Betz, Joseph M.; Cantor, Alan; McVary, Kevin T.

    2012-01-01

    Context Saw palmetto fruit extracts are widely used for treating lower urinary tract symptoms attributed to benign prostatic hyperplasia. However, recent clinical trials have questioned their efficacy, at least at standard doses (320 mg daily). Objective To determine the effect of a saw palmetto extract at up to three times the standard dose on lower urinary tract symptoms attributed to benign prostatic hyperplasia. Design Multicenter placebo-controlled randomized trial conducted from June, 2008 through October, 2010. Setting Eleven North American clinical sites. Participants Were men at least 45 years old, with a peak urinary flow rate ? 4 ml/sec, an AUA Symptom Index (AUASI) score ? 8 and ? 24, and no exclusions. Interventions One, two, and then three 320 mg daily doses of saw palmetto extract or placebo, with dose increases at 24 and 48 weeks. Main Outcome Measures Primary outcome was the difference in AUASI score from baseline to 72 weeks. Secondary outcomes were measures of urinary bother; nocturia; uroflow; postvoid residual; prostate-specific antigen; participants’ global assessments; and indices of sexual function, continence, sleep quality, and prostatitis symptoms. Results From baseline to 72 weeks, mean AUASI scores decreased from 14.4 to 12.2 points with saw palmetto and from 14.7 to 11.7 points with placebo. The group mean difference in AUASI score change from baseline to 72 weeks between the saw palmetto and placebo groups was 0.79 points favoring placebo (bound of the 95% confidence interval most favorable to saw palmetto was 1.77 points, one-sided P=0.91). Saw palmetto was no more effective than placebo for any secondary outcome. No attributable side effects were identified. Conclusions Increasing doses of a saw palmetto fruit extract did not reduce lower urinary tract symptoms more than placebo. (CAMUS study number NCT00603304 http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov) PMID:21954478

  13. Design and verification of a SAW based chirp spread spectrum system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Huemer; A. Pohl; W. Gugler; A. Springer; R. Weigel; F. Seifert

    1998-01-01

    We report on the design and performance of a SAW based spread spectrum wireless LAN system which operates in the ISM band at 2.45 GHz. System IF frequency, transmission bandwidth and data rate are 348.8 MHz, 80 MHz, and 2 Mbit\\/s, respectively. Due to the high processing gain of 22 dB-made possible by the use of SAW devices-and the large

  14. Hard inclusions and their detrimental effects on the wire sawing process of multicrystalline silicon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guoping Du; Lang Zhou; Pietro Rossetto; Yuepeng Wan

    2007-01-01

    We studied commercial multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) wafers having wire sawing-related defects on their surfaces. SiC and Si3N4 inclusions were identified in these defected areas, and they were highly localized. SiC inclusions were present in the form of clusters embedded in mc-Si wafer. These inclusions introduced a stress concentration into mc-Si wafer. The wire sawing-related defects on the wafer surfaces are

  15. A Second Generation In-Car Tire Pressure Monitoring System Based on Wireless Passive SAW Sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Dixon; V. Kalinin; J. Beckley; R. Lohr

    2006-01-01

    A complete pre-production in-car tire pressure monitoring system, employing 433 MHz SAW resonators as sensing elements is presented in this paper. The SAW sensing element incorporating three one-port resonators fabricated on a single substrate and connected to an antenna is described, along with calibration models for the sensor. An issue of sensor antenna tuning and sensor matching is investigated. A

  16. [Forensic medical characteristic of sawed injuries inflicted to the long tubular bones by a power jigsaw].

    PubMed

    Nazarov, Iu V; Tolmachev, I A

    2013-01-01

    The main aspects of investigations devoted to forensic medical characteristic of sawed injuries inflicted to the long tubular bones by a power jigsaw are considered. The mathematical model has been developed making it possible to determine the frequency of backward and forward movements of the jigsaw blade from the morphological features of the injuries to long tubular bones of man and to estimate the sawing rate for the further identification of the instrument of crime. PMID:23789407

  17. Evaluation on mass sensitivity of SAW sensors for different piezoelectric materials using finite-element analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amir Abdollahi; Zhongwei Jiang; Sayyed Alireza Arabshahi

    2007-01-01

    The mass sensitivity of the piezoelectric surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors is an important factor in the selection of the best gravimetric sensors for different applications. To determine this value without facing the practical problems and the long theoretical calculation time, we have shown that the mass sensitivity of SAW sensors can be calculated by a simple three-dimensional (3-D) finite-element

  18. The electron and neutron EDM from supersymmetric see-saw thresholds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gian F. Giudice; Paride Paradisi; Alessandro Strumia

    2010-01-01

    We consider the corrections that arise at one loop when integrating out heavy fields in supersymmetric models. We show that, in type-I see-saw models, complex AN- and BN-terms of the heavy right-handed neutrino give radiative contributions to the neutron EDM, as well as new dominant contributions to the electron EDM. Type-II and type-III see-saw also predict a pure gauge correction

  19. Performance of a SAW Tapped Delay Line in an Improved Synchronizing Circuit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Dostert; M. Pandit

    1982-01-01

    The large time-bandwidth products realizable with the aid of surface acoustic wave (SAW) tapped delay lines facilitate the construction of accurate timing circuits which can be employed, e.g., in the p-n signal synchronizing circuit of a spread spectrum system. The performance of such a timing circuit, which employs a 255 chip SAW tapped delay line and a circuit for detecting

  20. Analysis of static and dynamic characteristics of a saw cylinder of a gin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Mukhammadiev; Sh. U. Rakhmatkariev; A. Z. Arifdzhanov

    2009-01-01

    Static and dynamic analysis are performed for the main working head of a saw cylinder of a fiber extracting machine for the\\u000a cotton cleaning industry of Uzbekistan. The investigations were conducted with a computer by the method of finite elements\\u000a in the form of displacements. The bending moments and critical rotational speeds of the saw cylinder were obtained that allowed

  1. Optimal selection of piezoelectric substrates and crystal cuts for SAW-based pressure and temperature sensors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiangwen; Wang, Fei-Yue; Li, Li

    2007-06-01

    In this paper, the perturbation method is used to study the velocity shift of surface acoustic waves (SAW) caused by surface pressure and temperature variations of piezoelectric substrates. Effects of pressures and temperatures on elastic, piezoelectric, and dielectric constants of piezoelectric substrates are fully considered as well as the initial stresses and boundary conditions. First, frequency pressure/temperature coefficients are introduced to reflect the relationship between the SAW resonant frequency and the pressure/temperature of the piezoelectric substrates. Second, delay pressure/temperature coefficients are introduced to reflect the relationship among the SAW delay time/phase and SAW delay line-based sensors' pressure and temperature. An objective function for performance evaluation of piezoelectric substrates is then defined in terms of their effective SAW coupling coefficients, power flow angles (PFA), acoustic propagation losses, and pressure and temperature coefficients. Finally, optimal selections of piezo-electric substrates and crystal cuts for SAW-based pressure, temperature, and pressure/temperature sensors are derived by calculating the corresponding objective function values among the range of X-cut, Y-cut, Z-cut, and rotated Y-cut quartz, lithium niobate, and lithium tantalate crystals in different propagation directions. PMID:17571819

  2. Ultra-wideband communication system prototype using orthogonal frequency coded SAW correlators.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Daniel R; Kozlovski, Nikolai Y; Malocha, Donald C

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents preliminary ultra-wideband (UWB) communication system results utilizing orthogonal frequency coded SAW correlators. Orthogonal frequency coding (OFC) and pseudo-noise (PN) coding provides a means for spread-spectrum UWB. The use of OFC spectrally spreads a PN sequence beyond that of CDMA; allowing for improved correlation gain. The transceiver approach is still very similar to that of the CDMA approach, but provides greater code diversity. Use of SAW correlators eliminates many of the costly components that are typically needed in the intermediate frequency (IF) section in the transmitter and receiver, and greatly reduces the signal processing requirements. Development and results of an experimental prototype system with center frequency of 250 MHz are presented. The prototype system is configured using modular RF components and benchtop pulse generator and frequency source. The SAW correlation filters used in the test setup were designed using 7 chip frequencies within the transducer. The fractional bandwidth of approximately 29% was implemented to exceed the defined UWB specification. Discussion of the filter design and results are presented and are compared with packaged device measurements. A prototype UWB system using OFC SAW correlators is demonstrated in wired and wireless configurations. OFC-coded SAW filters are used for generation of a transmitted spread-spectrum UWB and matched filter correlated reception. Autocorrelation and cross-correlation system outputs are compared. The results demonstrate the feasibility of UWB SAW correlators for use in UWB communication transceivers. PMID:23475929

  3. Serenoa repens (saw palmetto): a systematic review of adverse events.

    PubMed

    Agbabiaka, Taofikat B; Pittler, Max H; Wider, Barbara; Ernst, Edzard

    2009-01-01

    Serenoa repens (W. Bartram) Small, also known as saw palmetto, is one of the most widely used herbal preparations for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Although a number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews of the efficacy of S. repens for the treatment of LUTS and BPH have been published, no systematic review on its drug interactions or adverse events currently exists. This review assesses all available human safety data of S. repens monopreparations. Systematic literature searches were conducted from date of inception to February 2008 in five electronic databases; reference lists and our departmental files were checked for further relevant publications. Information was requested from spontaneous reporting schemes of the WHO and national safety bodies. Twenty-four manufacturers/distributors of S. repens preparations and four herbalist organizations were contacted for additional information. No language restrictions were imposed. Only reports of adverse events in humans from monopreparations of S. repens were included. Data from all articles, regardless of study design, reporting adverse events or interactions were independently extracted by the first author and validated by the second. Forty articles (26 randomized controlled trials, 4 non-randomized controlled trials, 6 uncontrolled trials and 4 case reports/series) were included. They suggest that adverse events associated with the use of S. repens are mild and similar to those with placebo. The most frequently reported adverse events are abdominal pain, diarrhoea, nausea, fatigue, headache, decreased libido and rhinitis. More serious adverse events such as death and cerebral haemorrhage are reported in isolated case reports and data from spontaneous reporting schemes, but causality is questionable. No drug interactions were reported. Currently available data suggest that S. repens is well tolerated by most users and is not associated with serious adverse events. The majority of adverse events are mild, infrequent and reversible, and include abdominal pain, diarrhoea, nausea and fatigue, headache, decreased libido and rhinitis. We found no evidence for drug interactions with S. repens. However, higher quality reporting of adverse events is essential if safety assessments are to be improved in future. PMID:19591529

  4. If you saw Tom Cruise smiling like Jack Nicolson, you would still recognize the person as Tom Cruise. However, if you saw

    E-print Network

    If you saw Tom Cruise smiling like Jack Nicolson, you would still recognize the person as Tom Nicolsons' faces and that face was smiling like Jack Nicolson, you would more likely name this person¨lthoff Could you recognize Jack Nicolson or Tom Cruise by their smiles? Would you realize, if Tom Cruise smiled

  5. Predicting the Performance of Chain Saw Machines Based on Shore Scleroscope Hardness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumac, Deniz

    2014-03-01

    Shore hardness has been used to estimate several physical and mechanical properties of rocks over the last few decades. However, the number of researches correlating Shore hardness with rock cutting performance is quite limited. Also, rather limited researches have been carried out on predicting the performance of chain saw machines. This study differs from the previous investigations in the way that Shore hardness values (SH1, SH2, and deformation coefficient) are used to determine the field performance of chain saw machines. The measured Shore hardness values are correlated with the physical and mechanical properties of natural stone samples, cutting parameters (normal force, cutting force, and specific energy) obtained from linear cutting tests in unrelieved cutting mode, and areal net cutting rate of chain saw machines. Two empirical models developed previously are improved for the prediction of the areal net cutting rate of chain saw machines. The first model is based on a revised chain saw penetration index, which uses SH1, machine weight, and useful arm cutting depth as predictors. The second model is based on the power consumed for only cutting the stone, arm thickness, and specific energy as a function of the deformation coefficient. While cutting force has a strong relationship with Shore hardness values, the normal force has a weak or moderate correlation. Uniaxial compressive strength, Cerchar abrasivity index, and density can also be predicted by Shore hardness values.

  6. Metabolomics study of Saw palmetto extracts based on (1)H NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    de Combarieu, Eric; Martinelli, Ernesto Marco; Pace, Roberto; Sardone, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    Preparations containing Saw palmetto extracts are used in traditional medicine to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia. According to the European and the American Pharmacopoeias, the extract is obtained from comminuted Saw palmetto berries by a suitable extracting procedure using ethanol or supercritical carbon dioxide or a mixture of n-hexane and methylpentanes. In the present study an approach to metabolomics profiling using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been used as a finger-printing tool to assess the overall composition of the extracts. The phytochemical analysis coupled with principal component analysis (PCA) showed the same composition of the Saw palmetto extracts obtained with carbon dioxide and hexane with minor not significant differences for extracts obtained with ethanol. In fact these differences are anyhow lower than the batch-to-batch variability ascribable to the natural-occurring variability in the Saw palmetto fruits' phytochemical composition. The fingerprinting analysis combined with chemometric method, is a technique, which would provide a tool to comprehensively assess the quality control of Saw palmetto extracts. PMID:25707588

  7. Assessment of present state-of-the-art sawing technology of large diameter ingots for solar sheet material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoo, H. I.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of this program is to assess the present state-of-the-art sawing technology of large diameter silicon ingots (3 inch and 4 inch diameter) for solar sheet materials. During this period, work has progressed in three areas: (1) slicing of the ingots with the multiblade slurry saw and the I.D. saw, (2) characterization of the sliced wafers, and (3) analysis of direct labor, expendable material costs, and wafer productivity.

  8. A Portable Electronic Nose Based on Bio-Chemical Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) Array with Multiplexed Oscillator and Readout Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, K. T.; Yao, D. J.; Yang, C. M.; Hao, H. C.; Chao, J. S.; Li, C. H.; Gu, P. S.

    2009-05-01

    We have developed a new portable electronic nose based on a SAW sensor array and its readout electronics. The SAW array is based on 2×2 non-continuously working oscillators for sensors coated with different polymer/mesoporous carbon composite materials. Signals of the SAW array can be obtained by a readout PCB and a microprocessor. Experiments indicate good results for this portable system to perform gas detection and recogntion applications.

  9. Comparison of saw ginning and high-speed roller ginning with different lint cleaners of mid-south grown cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four cotton cultivars were ginned with a saw-gin equipment line and also with a high-speed roller-gin line. The saw-gin line using an air-jet and controlled-batt saw-type lint cleaner was compared to the high-speed roller-gin line using two versions of an experimental lint cleaner, of a basic design...

  10. Enhanced spectral efficiency using bandwidth switchable SAW filtering for mobile satellite communications systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peach, Robert; Malarky, Alastair

    1990-01-01

    Currently proposed mobile satellite communications systems require a high degree of flexibility in assignment of spectral capacity to different geographic locations. Conventionally this results in poor spectral efficiency which may be overcome by the use of bandwidth switchable filtering. Surface acoustic wave (SAW) technology makes it possible to provide banks of filters whose responses may be contiguously combined to form variable bandwidth filters with constant amplitude and phase responses across the entire band. The high selectivity possible with SAW filters, combined with the variable bandwidth capability, makes it possible to achieve spectral efficiencies over the allocated bandwidths of greater than 90 percent, while retaining full system flexibility. Bandwidth switchable SAW filtering (BSSF) achieves these gains with a negligible increase in hardware complexity.

  11. Maintenance of stellite and tungsten carbide saw tips: respiratory health and exposure-response evaluations.

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, S M; Chan-Yeung, M; Marion, S; Lea, J; Teschke, K

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To study exposure to cobalt and chromium in saw maintenance rooms and test respiratory health among saw filers at lumber mills. Hard-metal lung disease is associated with cobalt in the manufacture of tungsten carbide tools; recently it has also been reported among tool maintenance workers. Lumber mills often use saws tipped with tungsten carbide or with a newer alloy, stellite (containing more cobalt, as well as chromium). METHODS--A cross sectional study of 118 saw filers at eight lumber mills was carried out that included a standardised questionnaire, spirometry, personal air sampling, and examination of tasks every 10 minutes (by observation). Comparison data were from a study of bus mechanics tested with similar methods. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION--Cobalt exposure was associated with tungsten carbide grinding but not with stellite grinding. Chromium exposure was associated mainly with stellite welding. Saw filers had a twofold increase in phlegm and wheeze (P < 0.01) and a threefold increase in cough, phlegm, and wheeze related to work (P < 0.001), but no increase in breathlessness. Stellite welding was associated with a significant increase in nasal symptoms and cough related to work and a small decrease in airflow (forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC%), P < 0.05). Saw filers wet grinding with tungsten carbide had significant reductions in forced expiratory lung volumes (FEV1 and FVC, P < 0.05) and were significantly more likely to have FEV1 and FVC values in the abnormal range. Cobalt exposure (in wet grinding) and duration of work that involved tungsten carbide grinding were both associated with significant reductions in FEV1 and FVC. Average cobalt exposures in this study were about 5 micrograms/m3, well below the currently accepted permissible concentration, which suggests that the current workplace limit for cobalt may be too high. PMID:7735392

  12. FEM/BEM impedance and power analysis for measured LGS SH-SAW devices.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Thomas D; Pollard, Thomas B; Berkenpas, Eric; da Cunha, Mauricio Pereira

    2006-02-01

    Pure shear horizontal piezoelectrically active surface and bulk acoustic waves (SH-SAW and SH-BAW) exist along rotated Y-cuts, Euler angles (0 degrees, theta, 90 degrees), of trigonal class 32 group crystals, which include the LGX family of crystals (langasite, langatate, and langanite). In this paper both SH-SAW and SH-BAW generated by finite-length, interdigital transducers (IDTs) on langasite, Euler angles (0 degrees, 22 degrees, 90 degrees), are simulated using combined finite- and boundary-element methods (FEM/BEM). Aluminum and gold IDT electrodes ranging in thickness from 600 A to 2000 A have been simulated, fabricated, and tested, with both free and metalized surfaces outside the IDT regions considered. Around the device's operating frequency, the percent difference between the calculated IDT impedance magnitude using the FEM/BEM model and the measurements is better than 5% for the different metal layers and thicknesses considered. The proportioning of SH-SAW and SH-BAW power is analyzed as a function of the number of IDT electrodes; type of electrode metal; and relative thickness of the electrode film, h/wavelength, where wavelength is the SH-SAW wavelength. Simulation results show that moderate mechanical loading by gold electrodes increases the proportion of input power converted to SH-SAW. For example, with a split-electrode IDT, comprising 238 electrodes with a relative thickness h/wavelength = 0.63% and surrounded by an infinitesimally thin conducting film, nearly 9% more input power is radiated as SH-SAW when gold instead of aluminum electrodes are used. PMID:16529115

  13. Aberrations in saw-tooth refractive lenses in short focal length x-ray focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antimonov, Mikhail A.; Khounsary, Ali M.; Shastri, Sarvjit D.

    2013-10-01

    Saw-tooth refractive lenses (SRL) provide a comparatively attractive option for X-ray focusing for various reasons, including their simple, continuous tunability in energy and focal length. Optimal focusing of a conventional SRL at short focal lengths is limited by the SRL's length in relation to the focal length. Three approaches to overcome this limitation are described. Analytical solutions verified with ray-tracing are presented. These are bending, variation of the saw-tooth tip angles, and variation of the period.

  14. What do I tell patients about saw palmetto for benign prostatic hyperplasia?

    PubMed

    Kane, Christopher J; Raheem, Omer A; Bent, Stephen; Avins, Andrew L

    2011-08-01

    Saw palmetto is widely used to treat lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Although there is passionate support for herbal and complementary therapies for LUTS, clinical evidence is mixed. Because there is a well-recognized, profound placebo effect in tests of efficacy for agents treating LUTS, it is imperative that all therapies be tested in placebo-controlled trials. This article reviews evidence of the efficacy and safety of saw palmetto for men with LUTS caused by BPH, with particular emphasis on published randomized clinical trials and the upcoming Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Urologic Symptoms (CAMUS) trial. PMID:21798388

  15. Optimization of frequency characteristics for SAW device using apodization weighting method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lei; Zhang, Kai-liang; Wang, Fang; Han, Ye-mei; Miao, Yin-ping; Li, Dong-mei; Liang, Sheng-fa

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, the positive influence of apodization weighting method on frequency characteristics of surface acoustic wave (SAW) temperature sensor is investigated. Simulation and experiment results show that side lobe suppression abilities of the sensor can be improved by using apodization weighting which is based on Chebyshev window. Meanwhile, we find that the side lobe of the sensor can be further restrained, when the dummy electrodes are removed. Frequency-temperature characteristics of the devices are independent of the inclusion of dummy electrodes. The apodization weighted SAW temperature sensor shows great application potential in occasions with strong electromagnetic interference.

  16. Formulation and make-up of simulated acidic concentrated water (SAW), high ionic content aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Gdowski, G.

    1996-09-30

    This procedure describes the formulation and make-up of Simulated Acidified Water (SAW), a high-ionic-content water to be used for Activity E-20-50 ''Long-Term Corrosion Studies.'' Acidic solutions at the repository may result as a consequence of microbial activity. In formulating the ionic composition of the SAW, it was attempted to simulate the acidification of high ionic content water contacting a waste package. Therefore, the composition of this water is based on the acidification of the Simulated Concentrated Water (SCW), which is described in TIP-CM-07. The pH of the solution will be controlled at a nominal value of 2.

  17. A multi-resolution wireless force sensing system based upon a passive SAW device.

    PubMed

    Cheng, W; Dong, Y; Feng, G

    2001-09-01

    Referring to the technology of SAW wireless identification systems, a multi-resolution wireless force sensing system, including a passive time-delay SAW device and a specific interrogation unit, is introduced in this paper. Using an IDT, which connects with an antenna, as the force sensing element is a design to transduce the electromagnetic wave into surface acoustic wave and vice versa. Several reflectors are designed to get multi-resolution. Sample/hold devices are used instead of high-speed A/D converter to construct a low-cost interrogation system. Properties of the sensing system are theoretically predicted and experimentally verified. PMID:11570770

  18. Precision frequency trimming of SAW and STW resonators using Xe+ heavy ion bombardment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladimir Shakirovich Aliev; I. D. Avramov

    1994-01-01

    A method for precision frequency trimming of surface acoustic wave (SAW) and surface transverse wave (STW) based resonant devices using a Xe+ heavy ion bombardment technique is described. The devices are downtrimmed in frequency in an in-situ monitoring process by means of a Kaufmann type ion source that allows first a rough and then a fine frequency trimming with an

  19. The saw-tooth sign as a clinical clue for intrathoracic central airway obstruction

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The saw-tooth sign was first described by Sanders et al in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome as one cause of extrathoracic central airway obstruction. The mechanism of the saw-tooth sign has not been conclusively clarified. The sign has also been described in various extrathoracic central airway diseases, such as in burn victims with thermal injury to the upper airways, Parkinson’s disease, tracheobronchomalacia, laryngeal dyskinesia, and pedunculated tumors of the upper airway. Case presentation A 61-year-old man was referred to our hospital with a two-month history of persistent dry cough and dyspnea. He was diagnosed with lung cancer located in an intrathoracic central airway, which was accompanied by the saw-tooth sign on flow-volume loops. This peculiar sign repeatedly improved and deteriorated, in accordance with the waxing and waning of central airway stenosis by anti-cancer treatments. Conclusion This report suggests that the so-called saw-tooth sign may be found even in intrathoracic central airway obstruction due to lung cancer. PMID:22838841

  20. Improving BPH symptoms and sexual dysfunctions with a saw palmetto preparation? Results from a pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Suter, Andreas; Saller, Reinhard; Riedi, Eugen; Heinrich, Michael

    2013-02-01

    In elderly men, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a major risk factor for sexual dysfunctions (SDys). Additionally, the standard treatments for BPH symptoms, alpha blockers and 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors, cause SDys themselves. Preparations from saw palmetto berries are an efficacious and well-tolerated symptomatic treatment for mild to moderate BPH and have traditionally been used to treat SDys. We conducted an open multicentric clinical pilot trial to investigate whether the saw palmetto berry preparation Prostasan® influenced BPH symptoms and SDys. Eighty-two patients participated in the 8-week trial, taking one capsule of 320?mg saw palmetto extract daily. At the end of the treatment, the International Prostate Symptom Score was reduced from 14.4?±?4.7 to 6.9?±?5.2 (p?saw palmetto to show improvement in BPH symptoms and SDys as well. [Corrections made here after initial online publication.] PMID:22522969

  1. Effect of saw palmetto extract on PI3K cell signaling transduction in human glioma

    PubMed Central

    YANG, YANG; HUI, LV; YUQIN, CHE; JIE, LI; SHUAI, HOU; TIEZHU, ZHOU; WEI, WANG

    2014-01-01

    Saw palmetto extract can induce the apoptosis of prostate cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of saw palmetto extract on the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling transduction pathway in human glioma U87 and U251 cell lines. Suspensions of U87 and U251 cells in a logarithmic growth phase were seeded into six-well plates at a density of 104 cells/well. In the experimental group, 1 ?l/ml saw palmetto extract was added, while the control group was cultured without a drug for 24 h. The expression levels of PI3K, B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL) and p53 were evaluated through western blot analysis. In the experimental group, the U87 and U251 cells exhibited a lower expression level of PI3K protein as compared with the control group (t=6.849; P<0.001). In addition, the two cell lines had a higher expression level of p53 protein in the experimental group as compared with the control group (t=40.810; P<0.001). Protein expression levels of Bcl-xL decreased significantly in the experimental group as compared with the control group (t=19.640; P=0.000). Therefore, saw palmetto extract induces glioma cell growth arrest and apoptosis via decreasing PI3K/Akt signal transduction. PMID:25009620

  2. Characterizing components of the Saw Palmetto Berry Extract (SPBE) on prostate cancer cell growth and traction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carina Scholtysek; Aleksandra A. Krukiewicz; Jose´-Luis Alonso; Karan P. Sharma; Pal C. Sharma; Wolfgang H. Goldmann

    2009-01-01

    Saw Palmetto Berry Extract (SPBE) is applied for prostate health and treatment of urinary tract infections, nonbacterial prostitis and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) in man. An assumption is that SPBE affects tumor cell progression and migration in breast and prostate tissue. In this work, DU-145 cells were used to demonstrate that SPBE and its sterol components, ?-sitosterol and stigmasterol, inhibit

  3. Effect of saw palmetto extract on PI3K cell signaling transduction in human glioma.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Hui, Lv; Yuqin, Che; Jie, Li; Shuai, Hou; Tiezhu, Zhou; Wei, Wang

    2014-08-01

    Saw palmetto extract can induce the apoptosis of prostate cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of saw palmetto extract on the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling transduction pathway in human glioma U87 and U251 cell lines. Suspensions of U87 and U251 cells in a logarithmic growth phase were seeded into six-well plates at a density of 10(4) cells/well. In the experimental group, 1 ?l/ml saw palmetto extract was added, while the control group was cultured without a drug for 24 h. The expression levels of PI3K, B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL) and p53 were evaluated through western blot analysis. In the experimental group, the U87 and U251 cells exhibited a lower expression level of PI3K protein as compared with the control group (t=6.849; P<0.001). In addition, the two cell lines had a higher expression level of p53 protein in the experimental group as compared with the control group (t=40.810; P<0.001). Protein expression levels of Bcl-xL decreased significantly in the experimental group as compared with the control group (t=19.640; P=0.000). Therefore, saw palmetto extract induces glioma cell growth arrest and apoptosis via decreasing PI3K/Akt signal transduction. PMID:25009620

  4. Seasonal effects of prescribed burning and roller chopping on saw palmetto in flatwoods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emma V. Willcox; William M. Giuliano

    2010-01-01

    Shrub encroachment has become a problem in many rangeland systems across the United States due to a reduction in the disturbances, primarily fire, which historically maintained them. The shrub saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) has become abundant in many habitats of the southeastern Coastal Plain, including Florida. When fire regimes are altered or fires are suppressed, this species can proliferate leading

  5. Pharmacological effects of saw palmetto extract in the lower urinary tract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mayumi Suzuki; Yoshihiko Ito; Tomomi Fujino; Masayuki Abe; Keizo Umegaki; Satomi Onoue; Hiroshi Noguchi; Shizuo Yamada

    2009-01-01

    Saw palmetto extract (SPE), an extract from the ripe berries of the American dwarf palm, has been widely used as a therapeutic remedy for urinary dysfunction due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in Europe. Numerous mechanisms of action have been proposed for SPE, including the inhibition of 5?-reductase. Today, ?1-adrenoceptor antagonists and muscarinic cholinoceptor antagonists are commonly used in the

  6. SAW/GC detection of taggants and other volatile compounds associated with contraband materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staples, Edward J.; Watson, Gary W.; McGuirre, David S.; Williams, Dudley

    1997-02-01

    Research on a Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) Gas Chromatography (GC) non-intrusive inspection system has demonstrated the ability to identify and quantify the presence of non- volatile contraband vapors in less than 10 seconds. The technique can be used to detect volatile compounds associated with the contraband compound as well. This is important because volatile taggants in explosives make them easy to detect and volatile organic compounds are routinely used in the manufacturing of illicit drugs. The results of tests with volatile organic compounds associated with drugs of abuse, and volatile taggants for explosives are presented. The latter materials are particularly useful in detecting plastic explosives and results for Semtex and C-4 spiked with a taggant show that detectability is improved. Similar testing protocols and methods for drugs, currency, organo-phosphate agents, and taggant compounds have also been demonstrated. The SAW/GC method needs no high voltages, utilizes essentially all solid state devices, and involves no radioactive or hazardous materials SAW detection systems have demonstrated dynamic ranges greater than 1,000,000 and the ability to selectively screen for vapors from explosive and drugs of abuse at the part per billion level with little or no interference. Most important for law-enforcement, SAW/GC devices can be produced in small packages at low cost.

  7. P1K-3 Contactless Torque and Temperature Sensor Based on SAW Resonators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor Kalinin; George Bown; Arthur Leigh

    2006-01-01

    A wireless passive SAW sensor based on three one-port resonators and capable of simultaneous torque and temperature measurement is presented. The sensing element is made on Y+34deg cut quartz substrate and the resonant frequencies are in the range from 433 to 437 MHz. Interrogation of the sensor is performed through an RF rotary coupler by short RF pulses. A microprocessor

  8. Pulsed interrogation of the SAW torque sensor for electrical power assisted steering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor Kalinin; George Bown; John Beckley; Raymond Lohr

    2004-01-01

    A contactless torque sensor, based on four one-port SAW resonators on quartz substrates working in the 430-437 MHz frequency range, is presented in this paper. The design of the sensor allows full compensation of the bending effect. A single stationary interrogation unit is used to measure resonant frequencies of all four resonators attached to the rotating shaft. The interrogation method

  9. Observing the motion of seed coat fragments on a saw-type lint cleaner

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to observe how seed coat fragments (in ginned lint) reacted after colliding with grid bars mounted on a full-size saw-type lint cleaner. A high-speed video camera recorded the collision. A 45° and 105° grid bar were used in the study. The grid bars were labeled to describe t...

  10. Mind your hand during the energy crunch: Functional Outcome of Circular Saw Hand Injuries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias Frank; Juliane Hecht; Matthias Napp; Joern Lange; Rico Grossjohann; Dirk Stengel; Uli Schmucker; Axel Ekkernkamp; Peter Hinz

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although injuries due to circular saws are very common all over the world, there is surprisingly little information available about their functional outcomes. As the socioeconomic impact of these injuries is immense and determined by the casualties' disability and impairment, it is the objective of this study to present data on the functional outcome, disability, and impairment of hand

  11. Single-atom manipulation mechanisms during a quantum corral construction Saw-Wai Hla*

    E-print Network

    Hla, Saw-Wai

    Single-atom manipulation mechanisms during a quantum corral construction Saw-Wai Hla* Nanoscale atoms move on the various potential energy landscapes of an Ag 111 surface during a quantum corral and tip-height to move the Ag atom across the surface are experi- mentally measured as 210 19 k and 1.3 0

  12. Nobel prize winners saluted Last month saw UEA celebrating the award of

    E-print Network

    Feigon, Brooke

    Nobel prize winners saluted Last month saw UEA celebrating the award of the Nobel Peace Prize to Al institution globally. The news came a day after the announcement of the award of the Nobel Prize with this year's Nobel laureates spanning two of its main areas of expertise ­ literature and climate science

  13. The Income Volatility See-Saw: Implications for School Lunch. ERS Report Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Constance

    2006-01-01

    Income volatility challenges the functioning of the safety net provided by U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) food assistance programs for low-income families in time of need. Low-income families may be on a see-saw of income changes that make it difficult for program administrators to accurately target benefits and to define sensible…

  14. Influence of phase position on the chemical response of oscillator driven polymer coated SAW resonators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Rapp; J. Reibel; U. Stahl; S. Stier; A. Voigt

    1998-01-01

    The use of oscillator operated SAW resonators as chemical sensors is widely accepted to have the best sensing properties. However, some important parameters of influence are not sufficient resolved, yet. In general, these are effects arising from the electronic circuitry such as the phase situation on the chemical response of these sensors. We have found that they can be almost

  15. Discrimination of aliphatic homologues and isomers using trap and GC enhanced SAW based electronic noses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicole Barié; Michael Rapp

    2004-01-01

    We present a new electronic nose system for discrimination of chemically related analytes and complex mixtures. The system employs a miniaturized array of eight polymer coated surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors and a small preconcentration unit ('trap'). A GC column with atmospheric pressure air as the carrier gas is implemented as a separation unit. Design considerations are made with particular

  16. A Novel Spread-Spectrum Receiver Synchronization Scheme Using a SAW-Tapped Delay Line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PAUL W. BAIER; KLAUS DOSTERT; MADHUKAR PANDIT

    1982-01-01

    In spread-spectrum communication systems, a basic task which has to be performed is the synchronization of the receiver pseudonoise (PN) signal with the pseudonoise signal contained in the input. In this paper, a synchronization system employing a surface acoustic wave tapped delay line (SAW TDL) matched filter for both initial synchronization (acquisition) and tracking is presented. The periodic correlation peaks

  17. Monochromatic neutrinos generated by dark matter and the see-saw mechanism

    E-print Network

    Emilian Dudas; Yann Mambrini; Keith Olive

    2015-03-04

    We study a minimal extension of the Standard Model where a scalar field is coupled to the right handed neutrino responsible for the see-saw mechanism for neutrino masses. In the absence of other couplings, below 8 TeV the scalar $A$ has a unique decay mode $A \\rightarrow \

  18. SU-4228-472 Simpson's Neutrino and the Singular See-Saw

    E-print Network

    Allen, Theodore J.

    SU-4228-472 FTUV/91-18 IFIC/91-15 April 1991 Simpson's Neutrino and the Singular See-Saw T. J is contrasted with the non-singular case. Application is made to Simpson's 17 keV neutrino. tjallen;1. Introduction Very recently, the deduction from the measured end point spectrum of nuclear beta decay by Simpson

  19. VALIDATION OF THE PROPAGATION SAW TEST NEAR WHUMPFS AND AVALANCHES Dave Gauthier*1

    E-print Network

    Jamieson, Bruce

    VALIDATION OF THE PROPAGATION SAW TEST NEAR WHUMPFS AND AVALANCHES Dave Gauthier*1 , Cameron Ross2 to an extent that would lead to avalanche release. We review a recent PST validation study in which fracture present new PST results from 17 whumpf and avalanche sites in the Columbia Mountains of British Columbia

  20. On the polynomial approximation of the dispersive COM-parameters [SAW device simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. V. Sveshnikov; V. I. Cherednick

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the polynomial approximation of the COM parameters, as functions of multiple variables (including the frequency), is developed to accelerate dramatically fast simulation tools. These tools, based on the widely used COM analysis or matrix (P & T) modeling approaches, are needed to synthesize different kinds of leaky SAW-devices with good accuracy and in the shortest time.

  1. Investigation of fiber maturity effect on saw-type lint cleaner fiber damage and yarn properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One-half of plots of two cotton cultivars with similar mature fiber length were harvested after two defoliation treatments (early/late) to get less and more mature cottons. These seed cotton lots were ginned with the same seed cotton cleaning but with 0, 1, or 3 saw-type lint cleaners with low dryi...

  2. SAW: System-Assisted Wear Leveling on the Write Endurance of NAND Flash Devices

    E-print Network

    Wong, Weng Fai

    @comp.nus.edu.sg} ABSTRACT The write endurance of NAND flash memory adversely im- pacts the lifetime of flash devicesSAW: System-Assisted Wear Leveling on the Write Endurance of NAND Flash Devices Chundong Wang it is economically feasible to utilize NAND flash de- vices for secondary storage in both embedded systems

  3. The see-saw a vertical-lift incubator designed for channel catfish egg masses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish egg masses are typically incubated in baskets that are suspended in water that is agitated with rotating or oscillating paddles. We designed and tested a new vertical-lift incubator (the “See-Saw”) to incubate channel catfish egg masses. Preliminary research in commercial hatcheries...

  4. Seed Germination Methods and Establishment of Saw-Palmetto, Serenoa Repens, in South Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saw-pametto, Serenoa repens, a native of Florida rangelands, and used medicinally in prostate formulations, was evaluated as an alternative crop for South Texas (USA). Fresh seeds, obtained from the USDA Plant Introduction Station, Miami, Florida on Oct.28, 1999, were sown directly into artificial ...

  5. Interpreting the effects of burning on pre-incineration saw marks in bone.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Samantha C; Fairgrieve, Scott I; Oost, Tracy S

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of fire on the features associated with saw marks in bone. Both class and individual characteristics were examined using stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Twenty-four semifleshed Sus scrofa L. tibiae were sawed into three sections with the middle section having deep and shallow false starts. Twelve saw blades of varying age and type were each used to cut two tibiae. In each case, the first tibia was burned in an outdoor open fire to the point of partial calcination. The second tibia, our control, was macerated using a heated enzyme solution. Controls and burned specimens were examined for the following characteristics: breakaway spur, tooth hop, false start, exit chipping, tooth imprint, breakaway notch, pull out striae, kerf flare, and blade drift. In general, there was parity in the observed characteristics in the burned samples using the SEM and the stereomicroscope. SEM observation, however, provided enhanced images, with the addition of observing individual tooth imprints, previously not visible. Therefore, this study recommends using an SEM for the examination of saw cuts in burnt bone. PMID:25088190

  6. Effects of Friction Reduction on Fiber Damage in a Saw-Type Lint Cleaner

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    U.S. cotton is at a competitive disadvantage from a fiber-quality standpoint, because lint cleaning is required for mechanically harvested cotton, and lint cleaning causes fiber damage. Lint-cleaning research has focused mainly on modifying saw-type lint cleaners, but the work reported here focuses...

  7. Saw Palmetto ( Serenoa repens) in Men with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: Effects on Urodynamic Parameters and Voiding Symptoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glenn S Gerber; Gregory P Zagaja; Gregory T Bales; Gerald W Chodak; Barbara A Contreras

    1998-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the effects of saw palmetto on voiding symptoms and urodynamic parameters in men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) presumed secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).Methods. Fifty men with previously untreated LUTS and a minimum International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) of 10 or greater were treated with a commercially available form of saw palmetto (160 mg twice

  8. Identification and characterization of sawC, a whiA-like gene, essential for sporulation in Streptomyces ansochromogenes.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhoujie; Li, Wenli; Tian, Yuqing; Liu, Gang; Tan, Huarong

    2007-12-01

    sawC, encoding a protein homologous to the WhiA sporulation regulator of Streptomyces coelicolor, was cloned from a fairly distantly related species, Streptomyces ansochromogenes. Disruption of sawC led to formation of aerial mycelium much longer than normal spore chains and with somewhat increased coiling, indicating that sawC plays an important role in the cessation of aerial hyphal growth similar to that of whiA, and that it has an effect on cell wall structure. However, complementation of sawC and whiA mutants with the same DNA fragment gave different results, which suggested that there may be some difference in regulation or function of WhiA/SawC between the two strains. S1 nuclease mapping identified one transcription start point of sawC. Using EGFP as a reporter, the spatial expression of sawC was shown to be confined to aerial hyphae. Computer-aided structural prediction analysis of SawC/WhiA proteins revealed the presence of a fold very similar to the endonuclease domain of PI-PfuI, raising the possibility that these proteins may interact with an intermediate in DNA repair or replication. PMID:17639349

  9. Clark, William Isaac. Fixed-Abrasive Diamond Wire Saw Machining. (Under the direction of Dr. Albert Shih)

    E-print Network

    Shih, Albert J.

    saw machining with wood and foam ceramic materials. Fixed abrasive diamond wire saw machining for pine and oak wood materials. Finally, an experiment was designed to machine three types of foam ceramic of Dr. Albert Shih) The goal of this research was to investigate the use of fixed abrasive diamond wire

  10. An approach to accurate measurements of the electrical characteristics of SAW RF filters using neutral test environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Maximilian Pitschi; Jürgen E. Kiwitt; K. C. Wagner; H. Bilzer; P. Schuh; W. Menzel

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses and classifies typical measurement setups used for the precise electrical characterization of surface acoustic wave (SAW) radio frequency (RF) components, such as, e.g., SAW filters and duplexers, in the context of nowadays demand for increased accuracy of measured filter data. The measurement setups are divided into test environments and application environments. By means of a couple of

  11. Determination and experimental verification of high-temperature SAW orientations on langatate.

    PubMed

    Davulis, Peter M; da Cunha, Mauricio Pereira

    2012-02-01

    Langatate (LGT) is a member of the langasite family of crystals appropriate for high-temperature frequency control and sensing applications. This paper identifies multiple LGT SAW orientations for use at high temperature, specifically in the 400°C to 900°C range. Orientations with low sensitivity to temperature are desired for frequency control devices and many sensors, conversely large temperature sensitivity is a benefit for temperature sensors. The LGT SAW temperature behavior has been calculated for orientations sweeping the Euler angles (0°, ?, ?), (90°, ?, ?), and (?, 90°, ?), based on newly identified high-temperature elastic constants and temperature coefficients for this material. The temperature coefficient of delay (TCD) and total frequency change over the temperature range were analyzed from 400°C to 900°C. Multiple SAW orientations were identified with zero-TCD between 400°C and 500°C. Although no orientations that have turn-over temperatures above 500°C were identified, several have low frequency variation with temperature, of the order of -0.8% over the range 400°C to 800°C. Temperature-sensitive orientations with TCD up to 75 ppm/°C at 900°C were identified, with potential for high-temperature sensor applications. The reported predictions are shown to agree with measured behavior of LGT SAW delay lines fabricated along 6 orientations in the (90°, 23°, ?) plane. In addition, this work demonstrates that concurrently operated LGT SAW devices fabricated on the same wafer provide means of temperature sensing. In particular, the measured frequency difference between delay lines oriented along (90°, 23°, 0°) and (90°, 23°, 48°) has fractional temperature sensitivity that ranges from -172 ppm/°C at 25°C to -205 ppm/°C at 900°C. PMID:24626037

  12. Design and use of multiple blade slurry sawing in a production atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynah, F. P., Jr.; Ross, J. B.

    1982-01-01

    The technique and uses of the multiple blade slurry (MBS) saw are considered. Multiple bands of steel are arranged in a frame and the frame is reciprocated with the steel bands to a workpiece, while simultaneously applying abrasive at the point of contact. The blades wear slots in the workpiece and progress through the piece resulting in several parts of wafers. The transition to MBA from diamond slicing is justified by savings resulting from minimized kerf losses, minimized subsurface damage, and improved surface quality off the saw. This allows wafering much closer to finished thickness specifications. The current state of the art MBS technology must be significantly improved if the low cost solar array (LSA) goals are to be attained. It is concluded that although MBS will never be the answer to every wafering requirement, the economical production of wafers to LSA project specifications will be achieved.

  13. [A case of rhabdomyolysis caused by saw palmetto of healthy foods].

    PubMed

    Hanaka, Minako; Yoshii, Chiharu; Yatera, Kazuhiro; Ito, Chiyo; Chojin, Yasuo; Nagata, Shuya; Yamasaki, Kei; Nishida, Chinatsu; Kawanami, Toshinori; Kawanami, Yukiko; Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Mukae, Hiroshi

    2012-06-01

    An 82-year-old man visited our hospital when he developed a fever of over 38 degrees C after having consumed 5 types of health foods. He had previously been treated for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypertension and hyperuricemia. Blood examination on admission revealed renal dysfunction, marked elevation of C-reactive protein, and an elevated level of serum creatine kinase. According to the laboratory data and his clinical history, rhabdomyolysis complicated by acute renal failure was suspected, but his condition improved and his fever was reduced with fluid infusion. As a drug lymphocyte stimulation test was positive for only saw palmetto in the 5 health foods, we diagnosed the case as rhabdomyolysis induced by saw palmetto. We believe that this is the first case of a health food being the cause of rhabdomyolysis. PMID:22768426

  14. Developments towards a surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor for detecting volatiles and its evaluation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Azam; Mohamed, K.; Ranford, S. L.; Zhang, H.

    2009-07-01

    This work presents developments towards sensors with a flexible information management system. Substrates used for engineering passive and wireless surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices with interactive materials were tested for detection of temperature, humidity, carbon dioxide and other volatiles associated with food exports. Testing of new interactive materials was carried out using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) methods. In preparation for testing new interactive materials, SAW devices with dimensions of 4×4 mm2 were fabricated on quartz and lithium niobate (LiNbO3) substrates. To evaluate the devices, a system was developed using a data acquisition tool and human-machine interface developed with LABVIEW software to achieve inter-operability between sensing devices and controlled micro-environments.

  15. Cell detachment and label-free cell sorting using modulated surface acoustic waves (SAW) in droplet-based microfluidics

    E-print Network

    Bussonnière, Adrien; Baudoin, Michael; Bou-Matar, Olivier; Grandbois, Michel; Charette, Paul; Renaudin, Alan

    2014-01-01

    We present a droplet-based surface acoustic wave (SAW) system designed to viably detach biological cells from a surface and sort cell types based on differences in adhesion strength (adhesion contrast), without the need to label cells with molecular markers. The system uses modulated SAW to generate pulsatile flows in the droplets and efficiently detach the cells, thereby minimizing SAW excitation power and exposure time. As a proof-of-principle, the system is shown to efficiently sort HEK 293 from A7r5 cells based on adhesion contrast. Results are obtained in minutes with sorting purity and efficiency reaching 97 % and 95 %, respectively.

  16. Investigations on plasma-polymer-coated SAW and STW resonators for chemical gas-sensing applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivan D. Avramov; Shigeru Kurosawa; Michael Rapp; Piotr Krawczak; Ekaterina I. Radeva

    2001-01-01

    Results from gas probing with various analyte vapors on high-Q low-loss surface transverse wave (STW) and surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators coated with thin plasma-polymer films of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO), styrene, and allyl alcohol at different polymerization conditions are presented in this paper. At the same acoustic wavelength of 7.22 ?m and identical film thicknesses, HMDSO-coated STW devices feature substantially higher

  17. Comparative studies on polymer coated SAW and STW resonators for chemical gas sensor applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. D. Avramov; M. Rapp; A. Voigt; U. Stahl; M. Dirschka

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents and compares experimental data from performance tests on polymer coated 433 MHz surface acoustic wave (SAW) and 1 GHz surface transverse wave (STW) based two-port resonators for chemical gas sensor applications. The acoustic devices were coated with gas sensitive polymer films of different thickness' and viscoelastic properties as parylene C, poly-(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate) (PHEMA) and poly-(n-butyl-methacrylate) (PBMA). Then they

  18. Mind your hand during the energy crunch: Functional Outcome of Circular Saw Hand Injuries

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Although injuries due to circular saws are very common all over the world, there is surprisingly little information available about their functional outcomes. As the socioeconomic impact of these injuries is immense and determined by the casualties' disability and impairment, it is the objective of this study to present data on the functional outcome, disability, and impairment of hand injuries due to electric circular saws. Methods Patients treated from 1999 through 2007 for circular saw-related hand injuries were contacted and asked for clinical follow-up assessment. The clinical follow-up protocol consisted of a physical examination and an assessment of static muscle power (grip and pinch strength). For assessment of the subjective experience of the patients regarding their injury-related disability and impairment, the DASH follow-up questionnaire was used. The occupational impact of these injuries was measured by number of lost working days. Finally, safety-related behaviour of the patients was investigated. Results 114 Patients were followed-up on average 52 months after the injury. Average in-house treatment was 8.8 days. Average time lost from work was 14.8 weeks. A significant reduction of static muscle testing parameters compared with the uninjured hand was revealed for grip strength, tip pinch, key pinch, and palmar pinch. Average DASH score was 17.4 (DASH work 15.8, DASH sports/music 17.7). Most patients had more than ten years experience in using these power tools. Conclusion The everyday occurrence of circular saw-related hand injuries followed by relatively short periods of in-house treatment might distort the real dimension of the patients' remaining disability and impairment. While the trauma surgeon's view is generally confined to the patients' clinical course, the outcome parameters in this follow-up investigation, with loss of working time as the key factor, confirm that the whole socioeconomic burden is much greater than the direct cost of treatment. PMID:20819215

  19. Saw palmetto and lower urinary tract symptoms: what is the latest evidence?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew L. Avins; Stephen Bent

    2006-01-01

    The use of dietary supplements for treating a wide range of health conditions has grown rapidly in the United States. In the\\u000a field of men’s health, the most common dietary supplement used is an extract of the berry of the saw palmetto plant, with\\u000a which men commonly self-medicate in order to treat lower urinary tract symptoms. Throughout the past two

  20. Potency of a novel saw palmetto ethanol extract, SPET-085, for inhibition of 5?-reductase II

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pilar Pais

    2010-01-01

    Introduction  The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent membrane protein 5?-reductase irreversibly catalyses the\\u000a conversion of testosterone to the most potent androgen, 5?-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). In humans, two 5?-reductase isoenyzmes\\u000a are expressed: type I and type II. Type II is found primarily in prostate tissue. Saw palmetto extract (SPE) has been widely\\u000a used for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to

  1. Saw palmetto and lower urinary tract symptoms: What is the latest evidence?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew L. Avins; Stephen Bent

    2006-01-01

    The use of dietary supplements for treating a wide range of health conditions has grown rapidly in the United States. In the\\u000a field of men’s health, the most common dietary supplement used is an extract of the berry of the saw palmetto plant, with\\u000a which men commonly selfmedicate in order to treat lower urinary tract symptoms. Throughout the past two

  2. Development of saw palmetto ( Serenoa repens ) fruit and extract standard reference materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michele M. Schantz; Mary Bedner; Stephen E. Long; John L. Molloy; Karen E. Murphy; Barbara J. Porter; Karsten Putzbach; Catherine A. Rimmer; Katherine E. Sharpless; Jeanice B. Thomas; Stephen A. Wise; Laura J. Wood; James H. Yen; Takashi Yarita; Agnes NguyenPho; Wendy R. Sorenson; Joseph M. Betz

    2008-01-01

    As part of a collaboration with the National Institutes of Health’s Office of Dietary Supplements and the Food and Drug Administration’s\\u000a Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, the National Institute of Standards and Technology has developed two standard reference\\u000a materials (SRMs) representing different forms of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens), SRM 3250 Serenoa repens fruit and SRM 3251 Serenoa repens extract.

  3. SAW PALMETTO BERRY EXTRACT INHIBITS CELL GROWTH AND COX2 EXPRESSION IN PROSTATIC CANCER CELLS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang H. Goldmann; Amita L. Sharma; Steve J. Currier; Paul D. Johnston; Ajay Rana; C. Pal Sharma

    2001-01-01

    The cytotoxicity of a commonly used material to alleviate the symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), Saw Palmetto Berry Extract (SPBE), was examined as neat oil using a set of prostatic cell lines; 267B-1, BRFF-41T and LNCaP. Proliferation of these prostatic derived cell lines is inhibited to different degrees when dosed for 3 days with SPBE. The amount of SPBE

  4. 6: A Second Pumping Theorem The pumping theorem we saw previously was

    E-print Network

    Golin, Mordecai J.

    6: A Second Pumping Theorem The pumping theorem we saw previously was: Theorem 1 Let L â?? 0: We can also prove a stronger pumping theorem (Ex. 2.6.4): Theorem 2 Let M = (K; \\Sigma; ffi; s; F. jxyj Ÿ jKj: 3. y 6= e: 4. 8n â?? 0; xy n z 2 L(M ) This second pumping theorem permits us to prove

  5. A robust ultra broadband wireless communication system using SAW chirped delay lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Springer; A. Pohl; W. Gugler; M. Huemer; L. Reindl; C. C. W. Ruppel; F. Seifert; R. Weigel

    1998-01-01

    Design and performance of SAW chirped delay lines on LiTaO3 -X112rotY for a wireless communication system are presented. Center frequency, bandwidth and chirp rate are 350 MHz, 80 MHz, and ±20 MHz\\/s, respectively. An optimized square-root weighting was chosen to reduce the sidelobes of the compressed pulse to -42 dB compared to the correlation peak. The chirp filters have been

  6. Saw singulation characterization on high profile multi chip module packages with thick leadframe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nazrul Anuar; Amalina Taib

    2004-01-01

    Increasing demand for multi chip module (MCM) power devices in a quad flat nonleaded (QFN) package outline drives the development of the LFCSPs-P (lead frame chip scale package-saw-power). Multi chip module offers host benefit including performance improvements such as shorter interconnect lengths between dies, lower power supply inductance and lower off-chip driver. Besides, it can reduce the manufacturing cost and

  7. Cant sawing log positioning in a sawmill: searching for an optimal solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CB Wessels; J de V du Plessis; NH Smit

    2011-01-01

    Automated three-dimensional log scanning and positioning systems in a sawmill have a limited time available to reach an optimal positioning solution before primary breakdown sawing starts. In this study a search algorithm (tentacle algorithm) was developed for this task and was empirically evaluated in terms of its ability to find an optimal or close-to-optimal positioning solution in a limited number

  8. Some Fundamental Limits on SAW RFID Tag Information Capacity and Collision Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we apply results from multi-user information theory to study the limits of information capacity and collision resolution for SAW RFID tags. In particular, we derive bounds on the achievable data rate per tag as a function of fundamental parameters such as tag time-bandwidth product, tag signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and number of tags in the environment. We also discuss the implications of these bounds for tag waveform design and tag interrogation efficiency

  9. Laboratory and field evaluation of a SAW microsensor array for measuring perchloroethylene in breath.

    PubMed

    Groves, William A; Achutan, Chandran

    2004-12-01

    This article describes the laboratory and field performance evaluation of a small prototype instrument employing an array of six polymer-coated surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors and a thermal desorption preconcentration unit for rapid analysis of perchloroethylene in breath. Laboratory calibrations were performed using breath samples spiked with perchloroethylene to prepare calibration standards spanning a concentration range of 0.1-10 ppm. A sample volume of 250 mL was preconcentrated on 40 mg of Tenax GR at a flow rate of 100 mL/min, followed by a dry air purge and thermal desorption at a temperature of 200 degrees C. The resulting pulse of vapor was passed over the sensor array at a flow rate of 20 mL/min and sensor responses were recorded and displayed using a laptop computer. The total time per analysis was 4.5 min. SAW sensor responses were linear, and the instrument's limit of detection was estimated to be 50 ppb based on the criterion that four of the six sensors show a detectable response. Field performance was evaluated at a commercial dry-cleaning operation by comparing prototype instrument results for breath samples with those of a portable gas chromatograph (NIOSH 3704). Four breath samples were collected from a single subject over the course of the workday and analyzed using the portable gas chromatograph (GC) and SAW instruments. An additional seven spiked breath samples were prepared and analyzed so that a broader range of perchloroethylene concentrations could be examined. Linear regression analysis showed excellent agreement between prototype instrument and portable GC breath sample results with a correlation coefficient of 0.99 and a slope of 1.04. The average error for the prototype instrument over a perchloroethylene breath concentration range of 0.9-7.2 ppm was 2.6% relative to the portable GC. These results demonstrate the field capabilities of SAW microsensor arrays for rapid analysis of organic vapors in breath. PMID:15742707

  10. Designing multilayer perceptrons using a Guided Saw-tooth Evolutionary Programming Algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro Antonio Gutiérrez; César Hervás; Manuel Lozano

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a diversity generating mechanism is proposed for an Evolutionary Programming (EP) algorithm that determines\\u000a the basic structure of Multilayer Perceptron classifiers and simultaneously estimates the coefficients of the models. We apply\\u000a a modified version of a saw-tooth diversity enhancement mechanism recently presented for Genetic Algorithms, which uses a\\u000a variable population size and periodic partial reinitializations of the

  11. SAW ID tag for industrial application with large data capacity and anticollision capability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gudrun Bruckner; Rene Fachberger

    2008-01-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) RFID tags are promising devices for the identification of work pieces in an industrial environment. Their practicality was tested using different types of ID tags operating in the 2.45 GHz ISM band with a code volume of 220- 236. The tags were produced to withstand temperatures up to 350degC. The performance was assessed by measuring the

  12. Influences of magnetic treatment on microstructure densification of diamond saw segments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fu-gang Zhai; Yan-ling Zhang; Juan Li; Qing Zhang

    2008-01-01

    The heated test pieces were treated with alternating magnetic field by self-made experimental facility firstly. And influences\\u000a of magnetic treatment on microstructure densification of Diamond Saw Segments were studied through hardness testing, ultrasonic\\u000a testing, metallurgical structure and fracture pattern analysis by comparative method. The mechanism of magnetic treatment\\u000a is analyzed and discussed in the end. The results show that the

  13. The numerical response of breeding Northern Saw-whet Owls Aegolius acadicus suggests nomadism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeff BowmanDebbie; Debbie S. Badzinski; Ronald J. Brooks

    2010-01-01

    We used a 13-year time series of abundance estimates of breeding Northern Saw-whet Owls (Aegolius acadicus), and of small mammals from central Ontario, Canada, to assess the numerical response of the owls to small-mammal prey species.\\u000a We found that the finite rate of increase of breeding owls was directly related to estimates of red-backed vole (Myodes gapperi) abundance. Thus, it

  14. On aberrations in saw-tooth refractive X-ray lenses and on their removal.

    PubMed

    Jark, Werner

    2011-03-01

    The X-ray lens, which is composed of opposing canted saw-tooth structures, originally assembled from cut-out pieces from long-playing records, is understood by recognizing that an incident plane X-ray wave will traverse a varying number of triangular prisms in them. The refraction will deflect any beam towards the prism tips and the variation of the deflection angle, which grows linearly with the number of traversed prisms, can result in X-ray focusing. The structure offers focusing flexibility by simply changing the taper angle. This report will discuss the aberrations arising in the saw-tooth structure in its simplest form with identical prisms. It is found that the saw-tooth structures in low-Z materials with focal length below 1?m provide less flux density in the focal spot than stacks of one-dimensionally focusing refractive lenses with identical transmission function. This is due to excessive aberrations in the regular structure, which are absent in stacks of concave lenses, and which limit the focusing to spot sizes of just submicrometre dimensions, as measured experimentally for some lenses. It will be shown that this limitation can be overcome by appropriately modifying the prism shape. Then the image size could be reduced by about an order of magnitude to the diffraction limit with competitive numbers even below 0.1?µm. Microfabrication techniques are identified as the appropriate means for producing the structures. PMID:21335906

  15. Homologous recombination induced by doxazosin mesylate and saw palmetto in the Drosophila wing-spot test.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Katiane Cella; Dihl, Rafael Rodrigues; Lehmann, Mauricio; Reguly, Maria Luiza; Richter, Marc François; Andrade, Heloisa Helena Rodrigues de

    2013-03-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common tumor in men over 40 years of age. Acute urinary retention (AUR) is regarded as the most serious hazard of untreated BPH. ?-Blockers, such as doxazosin mesylate, and 5-? reductase inhibitors, such as finasteride, are frequently used because they decrease both AUR and the need for BPH-related surgery. An extract of the fruit from American saw palmetto plant has also been used as an alternative treatment for BPH. The paucity of information available concerning the genotoxic action of these compounds led us to assess their activity as inducers of different types of DNA lesions using the somatic mutation and recombination test in Drosophila melanogaster. Finasteride did not induce gene mutation, chromosomal mutation or mitotic recombination, which means it was nongenotoxic in our experimental conditions. On the other hand, doxazosin mesylate and saw palmetto induced significant increases in spot frequencies in trans-heterozygous flies. In order to establish the actual role played by mitotic recombination and by mutation in the genotoxicity observed, the balancer-heterozygous flies were also analyzed, showing no increment in the total spot frequencies in relation to the negative control, for both drugs. Doxazosin mesylate and saw palmetto were classified as specific inducers of homologous recombination in Drosophila proliferative cells, an event linked to the loss of heterozygosity. PMID:22015851

  16. Thin, High Lifetime Silicon Wafers with No Sawing; Re-crystallization in a Thin Film Capsule

    SciTech Connect

    Emanuel Sachs

    2013-01-16

    The project fits within the area of renewable energy called photovoltaics (PV), or the generation of electricity directly from sunlight using semiconductor devices. PV has the greatest potential of any renewable energy technology. The vast majority of photovoltaic modules are made on crystalline silicon wafers and these wafers accounts for the largest fraction of the cost of a photovoltaic module. Thus, a method of making high quality, low cost wafers would be extremely beneficial to the PV industry The industry standard technology creates wafers by casting an ingot and then sawing wafers from the ingot. Sawing rendered half of the highly refined silicon feedstock as un-reclaimable dust. Being a brittle material, the sawing is actually a type of grinding operation which is costly both in terms of capital equipment and in terms of consumables costs. The consumables costs associated with the wire sawing technology are particularly burdensome and include the cost of the wire itself (continuously fed, one time use), the abrasive particles, and, waste disposal. The goal of this project was to make wafers directly from molten silicon with no sawing required. The fundamental concept was to create a very low cost (but low quality) wafer of the desired shape and size and then to improve the quality of the wafer by a specialized thermal treatment (called re-crystallization). Others have attempted to create silicon sheet by recrystallization with varying degrees of success. Key among the difficulties encountered by others were: a) difficulty in maintaining the physical shape of the sheet during the recrystallization process and b) difficulty in maintaining the cleanliness of the sheet during recrystallization. Our method solved both of these challenges by encapsulating the preform wafer in a protective capsule prior to recrystallization (see below). The recrystallization method developed in this work was extremely effective at maintaining the shape and the cleanliness of the wafer. In addition, it was found to be suitable for growing very large crystals. The equipment used was simple and inexpensive to operate. Reasonable solar cells were fabricated on re-crystallized material.

  17. Detection, Identification, Location, and Remote Sensing Using SAW RFID Sensor Tags

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, Richard J.; Kennedy, Timothy F.; Williams, Robert M.; Fink, Patrick W.; Ngo, Phong H.

    2009-01-01

    The Electromagnetic Systems Branch (EV4) of the Avionic Systems Division at NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX is studying the utility of surface acoustic wave (SAW) radiofrequency identification (RFID) tags for multiple wireless applications including detection, identification, tracking, and remote sensing of objects on the lunar surface, monitoring of environmental test facilities, structural shape and health monitoring, and nondestructive test and evaluation of assets. For all of these applications, it is anticipated that the system utilized to interrogate the SAW RFID tags may need to operate at fairly long range and in the presence of considerable multipath and multiple-access interference. Towards that end, EV4 is developing a prototype SAW RFID wireless interrogation system for use in such environments called the Passive Adaptive RFID Sensor Equipment (PARSED) system. The system utilizes a digitally beam-formed planar receiving antenna array to extend range and provide direction-of-arrival information coupled with an approximate maximum-likelihood signal processing algorithm to provide near-optimal estimation of both range and temperature. The system is capable of forming a large number of beams within the field of view and resolving the information from several tags within each beam. The combination of both spatial and waveform discrimination provides the capability to track and monitor telemetry from a large number of objects appearing simultaneously within the field of view of the receiving array. In this paper, we will consider the application of the PARSEQ system to the problem of simultaneous detection, identification, localization, and temperature estimation for multiple objects. We will summarize the overall design of the PARSEQ system and present a detailed description of the design and performance of the signal detection and estimation algorithms incorporated in the system. The system is currently configured only to measure temperature (jointly with range and tag ID), but future versions will be revised to measure parameters other than temperature as SAW tags capable of interfacing with external sensors become available. It is anticipated that the estimation of arbitrary parameters measured using SAW-based sensors will be based on techniques very similar to the joint range and temperature estimation techniques described in this paper.

  18. INTERNATIONAL UNION OF OPERATING ENGINEERS NATIONAL HAZMAT PROGRAM - ADAMANT CIRCULAR SAW OENHP{number_sign}: 2001-05, VERSION A

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-01-01

    Florida International University's (FIU) Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) evaluated five saws for their effectiveness in cutting up specially prepared fiberglass-reinforced plywood crates. These crates were built as surrogates for crates that presently hold radioactive contaminated glove boxes at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Los Alamos facility. The Adamant circular saw was assessed on August 14, 2001. During the FIU test of efficacy, a team from the Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program (OENHP) evaluated the occupational safety and health issues associated with this technology. The Adamant was only used during a limited ''test'' on a regular plywood crate due to safety considerations of the tool for this application. The Adamant circular saw, a counter-rotating twin-cutter, constructed with blades that work differently than conventional cutting wheels with twin blades, each rotating in opposite directions. It is used to cut wood and metals. Each blade is approximately 8 3/4 inches in diameter with a maximum cutting depth of 2 1/2 inches. The machine has two rotation speeds: 1,900 and 2,900 rotations per minute (rpm). The saw is operated with an interlocked, guarded trigger switch located at the end of the saw opposite the cutting blades. To operate the saw, the safety interlock must be depressed prior to powering the saw with the trigger control. The saw is supported by a handle at the front of the saw near the cutting blades. The top part of the blades is guarded near the handle, with approximately three-fourths of the face of the blades exposed. The Adamant circular saw is an innovative technology used to cut metals and wood. Its safety features include: interlocking switch for powering the saw, overload indicator and shutoff, and an electronic brake that stops the engine immediately when the start button is released. The top part of the blades is guarded near the motor. With approximately three-fourths of the face of the blades open, the operator is exposed to the potential risk of serious and minor cuts and abrasions when using and handling the saw. There is also potential for damage to the blades if the saw is not stored properly. Without guarding on the lower part of the blades, these can be damaged if the saw is dropped or rested on the cutting blades. Based upon the industrial hygiene sampling conducted for the other four saws demonstrated at FIU, noise levels, nuisance dust, and airborne fiberglass may be a problem when using this technology for the cutting of fiberglass-reinforced plywood crates. No industrial hygiene sampling was conducted while the Adamant saw was in use. Engineering controls should be used to eliminate these problems whenever possible. Where this is not possible, administrative controls, training, and proper personal protective equipment (PPE) should be used. Respirators should be used if engineering controls do not sufficiently control the dust or fiberglass generated. Respirators should be equipped with an organic vapor and acid gas cartridge with High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter, since during the demonstration, the workers complained of an odd smell, which may have been the breakdown of the fiberglass.

  19. Chemically sensitive polymer-mediated nanoporous alumina SAW sensors for the detection of vapor-phase analytes

    E-print Network

    Perez, Gregory Paul

    2005-08-29

    devices were fabricated from planar Al SAW devices using an anodization process that yields a high-surface-area transduction platform. Refinement of the anodization process results in a homogeneously porous substrate capable of ~40 times the analyte...

  20. An Electronic Nose Based on Hybrid MOS-SAW Sensors for Detection of Different Biomarkers of Lung Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Di; Yu, Kai; Wang, Yishan; Zhao, Cong; Wang, Lin; Wang, Ping

    2011-09-01

    An electronic nose based on hybrid MOS-SAW sensors was proposed for lung cancer diagnosis. The MOS gas sensors are used to detect the VOCs of low molecular weight, and the SAW sensors are adopted for the detection of VOCs of high molecular weight. This novel electronic nose provides a better precision in the diagnosis of lung cancer than the system adopting single detecting method we developed before.

  1. High-energy X-ray optics with silicon saw-tooth refractive lenses.

    PubMed

    Shastri, S D; Almer, J; Ribbing, C; Cederström, B

    2007-03-01

    Silicon saw-tooth refractive lenses have been in successful use for vertical focusing and collimation of high-energy X-rays (50-100 keV) at the 1-ID undulator beamline of the Advanced Photon Source. In addition to presenting an effectively parabolic thickness profile, as required for aberration-free refractive optics, these devices allow high transmission and continuous tunability in photon energy and focal length. Furthermore, the use of a single-crystal material (i.e. Si) minimizes small-angle scattering background. The focusing performance of such saw-tooth lenses, used in conjunction with the 1-ID beamline's bent double-Laue monochromator, is presented for both short ( approximately 1:0.02) and long ( approximately 1:0.6) focal-length geometries, giving line-foci in the 2 microm-25 microm width range with 81 keV X-rays. In addition, a compound focusing scheme was tested whereby the radiation intercepted by a distant short-focal-length lens is increased by having it receive a collimated beam from a nearer (upstream) lens. The collimation capabilities of Si saw-tooth lenses are also exploited to deliver enhanced throughput of a subsequently placed small-angular-acceptance high-energy-resolution post-monochromator in the 50-80 keV range. The successful use of such lenses in all these configurations establishes an important detail, that the pre-monochromator, despite being comprised of vertically reflecting bent Laue geometry crystals, can be brilliance-preserving to a very high degree. PMID:17317922

  2. Practical Study of Saw-tooth Wobble Addressing by Theoretical and Experimental Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minamino, Jun-ichi; Nakao, Masahito; Kimura, Naohiro; Shouji, Mamoru; Furumiya, Shigeru; Ishibashi, Hiromichi; Ohno, Eiji

    2002-03-01

    We have proposed a new concept of addressing in optical disks, the saw-tooth wobble (STW) groove. In this paper, the practical study of the STW by theoretical and experimental analyses is described. The address information corresponds to an even ordered-harmonic, so the write clock has no jitter factor. A 30 dB of carrier-to-noise ratio is sufficient for achieving 1E-2 of address error. Using a practical detection system, a radial tilt margin of more than ± 0.6 degree is achieved.

  3. Abrupt climate change, greenhouse gases, and the bipolar see-saw

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kathleen Johnson

    In this activity, students work with paleoclimate proxy data (d18O, CH4, CO2)from the Byrd and GISP2 ice cores to investigate millennial-scale climate changes during the Last Glacial/Deglacial time periods. Students must prepare a publication quality plot of the data and answer several questions about the similarities and differences between the time-series (north-south phasing, amplitude, symmetry) and use this information to assess the bipolar see-saw mechanism for abrupt climate changes. Students are encouraged to read two journal articles for more information and to synthesize their results with other information from lectures and earlier readings.

  4. Spectrum shaping SAW filters for high-bit-rate digital radio.

    PubMed

    Ganss-Puchstein, R; Ruppel, C W; Stocker, H R

    1988-01-01

    The structure of a QAM radio system is explained. Some novel designs that demonstrate the current status of spectral shaping SAW (surface acoustic wave) filters are presented. Compensation of second-order effects is discussed. Experimental results for a filter for a 140-Mb/s 16 QAM cochannel system with a roll-off factor of 0.19 are shown. Two other examples of filters for a 140-Mb/s, 64 QAM system with a 35% relative bandwidth are also presented. PMID:18290203

  5. Achievable Performance and Effective Interrogator Design for SAW RFID Sensor Tags

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    For many NASA missions, remote sensing is a critical application that supports activities such as environmental monitoring, planetary science, structural shape and health monitoring, non-destructive evaluation, etc. The utility of the remote sensing devices themselves is greatly increased if they are passive that is, they do not require any on-board power supply such as batteries and if they can be identified uniquely during the sensor interrogation process. Additional passive sensor characteristics that enable greater utilization in space applications are small size and weight, long read ranges with low interrogator power, ruggedness, and operability in extreme environments (vacuum, extreme high/low temperature, high radiation, etc.) In this paper, we consider one very promising passive sensor technology, called surface acoustic wave (SAW) radio-frequency identification (RFID), that satisfies all of these criteria. Although SAW RFID tags have great potential for use in numerous space-based remote sensing applications, the limited collision resolution capability of current generation tags limits the performance in a cluttered sensing environment. That is, as more SAW-based sensors are added to the environment, numerous tag responses are superimposed at the receiver and decoding all or even a subset of the telemetry becomes increasingly difficult. Background clutter generated by reflectors other than the sensors themselves is also a problem, as is multipath interference and signal distortion, but the limiting factor in many remote sensing applications can be expected to be tag mutual interference. This problem may be greatly mitigated by proper design of the SAW tag waveform, but that remains an open research problem, and in the meantime, several other related questions remain to be answered including: What are the fundamental relationships between tag parameters such as bit-rate, time-bandwidth-product, SNR, and achievable collision resolution? What are the differences in optimal or near-optimal interrogator designs between noise-limited environments and interference-limited environments? What are the performance characteristics of different interrogator designs in term of parameters such as transmitter power level, range, and number of interfering tags? In this paper, we present the results of a research effort aimed at providing at least partial answers to all of these questions.

  6. The Effect of Increasing Doses of Saw Palmetto Fruit Extract on Serum PSA Levels: Analysis of the CAMUS Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Andriole, Gerald L.; McCullum-Hill, Christie; Sandhu, Gurdarshan S.; Crawford, E. David; Barry, Michael J.; Cantor, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Saw palmetto extracts are used for treating lower urinary tract symptoms in men despite level I evidence concluding that saw palmetto was ineffective in reducing lower urinary symptoms. We sought to determine whether higher doses of saw palmetto as studied in CAMUS affect serum PSA levels. Materials and Methods The CAMUS trial was a randomized, placebo-controlled double blind multi-centered North American trial conducted between June 5, 2008 and October 10, 2012 in which 369 men >45 years of age with AUA symptom score ? 8 and ? 24 were randomly assigned to placebo or dose escalation saw palmetto, which consisted of 320mg for first 24 weeks to 640mg for next 24 weeks to 960mg for last 24 weeks of this 72 week trial. Serum PSA levels (Beckman-Coulter) were obtained at baseline and at weeks 24, 48 and 72 and were compared between treatment groups using the pooled t and Fisher's exact tests. Results Serum PSA levels were similar at baseline for the placebo (1.93 ± 1.59 ng/ml) and saw palmetto groups (2.20 ± 1.95, p = 0.16). Changes in PSA levels over the course of the study were similar: placebo group mean change 0.16 ± 1.08 ng/ml and saw palmetto group mean change 0.23 ± 0.83 ng/ml (p value 0.50). Additionally, no differential effect on serum PSA levels was observed between treatment arms when groups were stratified by baseline PSA values. Conclusions Saw palmetto extract does not affect serum PSA levels more than placebo even at relatively high doses. PMID:23253958

  7. Treatment Assignment Guesses by Study Participants in a Double-Blind Dose Escalation Clinical Trial of Saw Palmetto

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Page; Kusek, John; Barry, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: This report assesses participant perception of treatment assignment in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of saw palmetto for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BCM). Design: Participants randomized to receive saw palmetto were instructed to take one 320?mg gelcap daily for the first 24 weeks, two 320?mg gelcaps daily for the second 24 weeks, and three 320?mg gelcaps daily for the third 24 weeks. Study participants assigned to placebo were instructed to take the same number of matching placebo gelcaps in each time period. At 24, 48, and 72 weeks postrandomization, the American Urological Association Symptom Index (AUA-SI) was administered and participants were asked to guess their treatment assignment. Settings: The study was conducted at 11 clinical centers in North America. Participants: Study participants were men, 45 years and older, with moderate to low severe BPH symptoms, randomized to saw palmetto (N=151) or placebo (N=155). Outcome measures: Treatment arms were compared with respect to the distribution of participant guesses of treatment assignment. Results: For participants assigned to saw palmetto, 22.5%, 24.7%, and 29.8% correctly thought they were taking saw palmetto, and 37.3%, 40.0%, and 44.4% incorrectly thought they were on placebo at 24, 48, and 72 weeks, respectively. For placebo participants, 21.8%, 27.4%, and 25.2% incorrectly thought they were on saw palmetto, and 41.6%, 39.9%, and 42.6% correctly thought they were on placebo at 24, 48, and 72 weeks, respectively. The treatment arms did not vary with respect to the distributions of participants who guessed they were on saw palmetto (p=0.823) or placebo (p=0.893). Participants who experienced an improvement in AUA-SI were 2.16 times more likely to think they were on saw palmetto. Conclusions: Blinding of treatment assignment was successful in this study. Improvement in BPH-related symptoms was associated with the perception that participants were taking saw palmetto. PMID:23383975

  8. Research on the h-BN films for high frequency SAW devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lian-jie; Chen, Xi-ming

    2011-11-01

    Hexagonal Boron Nitride (h-BN) films For high-frequency SAW devices were deposited on Ti/Al/Si(111) wafers by RF magnetron sputtering. The structure of h-BN films was investigated by fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra. And the surface morphology and piezoelectric properties of h-BN film was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). And the characterization results show that when the RF power is 300w and other experimental parameters were fixed, h-BN films was in high purity and the c-axis oriented, h-BN films was in high purity and the c-axis oriented, and the particles of which are uniform and compact, roughness is 2.63nm with piezoelectric and piezoelectric response even, meet the requirements of high sound propagation speed and excellent piezoelectric for high frequency SAW devices. The studies of piezoelectric test of thin films have shown that PFM test method of atomic force microscopy was suitable for characterization of piezoelectric and properties of the piezoelectric response distribution of nano-structure semiconductor thin film.

  9. SoilSaw{trademark} demonstration. Final report, September 1992--January 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Saugier, K.; Isaac, R.E.

    1996-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has identified leaking underground storage tanks and buried mixed waste at numerous sites within the DOE complex. Preventing these wastes from entering the environment is a challenging task. One method of preventing waste migration is to isolate the contaminants using subsurface containment barriers. Isolation and containment can be accomplished by both in situ and ex situ methods. This report describes a novel in situ construction method of forming vertical containment barriers (slurry walls) using the SoilSaw{trademark} Barrier System. The SoilSaw{trademark} Barrier System is shown to be a feasible process for constructing subsurface vertical containment barriers to depths of fifty feet. The process is most efficient in sandy soil (including free flowing sand) with barrier construction rates of over 130 square feet per minute. Productivity diminishes to approximately 30 square feet per minute as soils become harder and more cohesive. The present hardware is designed to form a barrier of approximately 12 inch in width. Additional barrier widths can be constructed with this technology by application of wider jet heads. The requirement for a varied arrangement of barrier widths is an increase in hydraulic horse power and additional jet heads.

  10. SAW arrays using dendrimers and pattern recognition to detect volatile organics

    SciTech Connect

    Ricco, A.J.; Osbourn, G.C.; Bartholomew, J.W.; Martinez, R.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Crooks, R.M.; Garcia, M.E.; Peez, R. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Spindler, R. [Michigan Molecular Inst., Midland, MI (United States); Kaiser, M.E. [Dendritech, Inc., Midland, MI (United States)

    1998-08-01

    chemical sensor arrays eliminate the need to develop a high-selectivity material for every analyte. The application of pattern recognition to the simultaneous responses of different microsensors enables the identification and quantification of multiple analytes with a small array. Maximum materials diversity is the surest means to create an effective array for many analytes, but using a single material family simplifies coating development. Here the authors report the successful combination of an array of six dendrimer films with mass-sensitive SAW (surface acoustic wave) sensors to correctly identify 18 organic analytes over wide concentration ranges, with 99.5% accuracy. The set of materials for the array is selected and the results evaluated using Sandia`s Visual-Empirical Region of Influence (VERI) pattern recognition (PR) technique. The authors evaluated eight dendrimer films and one self-assembled monolayer (SAM) as potential SAW array coatings. The 18 organic analytes they examined were: cyclohexane, n-hexane, i-octane, kerosene, benzene, toluene, chlorobenzene, carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene, methanol, n-propanol, pinacolyl alcohol, acetone, methyl isobutyl ketone, dimethylmethylphosphate, diisopropylmethylphosphonate, tributylphosphate, and water.

  11. Monolithic integrated SAW filter based on AlN for high-frequency applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaletta, Udo Ch; Santos, Paulo V.; Wolansky, Dirk; Scheit, Alexander; Fraschke, Mirko; Wipf, Christian; Zaumseil, Peter; Wenger, Christian

    2013-06-01

    Integrated AlN/SiO2/Si (1 0 0) delay lines for Rayleigh surface acoustic waves (SAWs) with resonant frequencies up to 3.4 GHz were fabricated using a new CMOS compatible concept. Different thicknesses of textured AlN films with wurtzite structure were deposited on tungsten-based interdigital transducers embedded in a SiO2 layer by reactive pulse dc-sputtering at a temperature of 200 °C. Rocking curves of the films indicate c-axis (0 0 0 1) oriented, textured piezoelectric AlN films with a full-width at half-maximum of 1.88°. The determined propagation loss and coupling factor K2 of these SAW devices are 0.07 dB/? and 0.78%, respectively. Different Rayleigh modes with acoustic velocities up to 5770 m s-1 are observed. By varying the wavelength, number of fingers as well as the length (i.e., the separation between the transducers) of the delay lines, the impact of several physical parameters on the frequency responses (S11, S21) was studied. The influence of the AlN thickness and of the orientation of the delay lines on the silicon (1 0 0) wafers was also investigated. Finite element method simulations were applied to model the resonant frequencies, giving resonant frequencies in reasonable agreement with the experimental data.

  12. SAW/FET programmable transversal filter with 100-Mhz bandwidth and enhanced programmability

    SciTech Connect

    Oates, D.E.; Smythe, D.L.; Green, J.B.

    1985-10-01

    The authors previously reported on a SAW/FET filter that uses air-gap coupling of a LiNbO/sub 3/ SAW delay line to a Si integrated circuit, thus implementing a programmable tapped delay line. The device incorporates edge-bonded transducers for wide bandwidth and short (15 ns) pedestal of delay. Modifications to the Si circuit are reported here, which both increase the programmable RF bandwidth to 100 MHz and provide means of increasing the programmable tap on/off ratio to 30 dB. This filter has 350 metal-oxide-silicon (MOS) analog sampling fingers spanning 1/5 microsec. of delay. The varactor inherent in each sampling finger provides programmable tap weighting; a digital shift register controls programming FETs that connect each MOS varactor tap to a common programming voltage line. The 100-MHz bandwidth results from doubling the number of taps by the addition of a 2-to-1 analog multiplexer to the FET array.

  13. Quantum 1/f Effect in Low-Q SAW and BAW Quartz Resonators.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handel, Peter H.

    1998-03-01

    The Q1/fE is applicable to all high-tech devices and systems, rapidly becoming a universal defining element of the high-tech notion. However, the application of the Q1/fE to bulk acoustic wave (BAW) and surface acoustic wave (SAW) quartz resonators has so far been limited to the case of very high Q resonators in which the phonons are coherent throughout the resonator volume. In this paper the quantum 1/f theory is applied to the general case of an arbitrary coherence length of the phonons, which may be large or small compared with the size of the quartz resonator. This allows to extend the theory for the first time to low-Q resonators in which the phonons are localized in a part of the resonator volume. The result is a simple formula which yields: 1)first a linear increase of the spectral density of fractional frequency fluctuations with the BAW volume or the SAW surface, and 2)after the coherence size is reached, a proportionality with the inverse volume or surface. As usual, this first principle Q1/f theory contains no free parameters. It is also extended to include defect scattering of phonons along with the phonon-phonon scattering case.

  14. Achievable Performance and Effective Interrogator Design for SAW RFID Sensor Tags

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    For many NASA missions, remote sensing is a critical application that supports activities such as environmental monitoring, planetary science, structural shape and health monitoring, non-destructive evaluation, etc. The utility of the remote sensing devices themselves is greatly increased if they are passive V that is, they do not require any on-board power supply such as batteries V and if they can be identified uniquely during the sensor interrogation process. Additional passive sensor characteristics that enable greater utilization in space applications are small size and weight, long read ranges with low interrogator power, ruggedness, and operability in extreme environments (vacuum, extreme high/low temperature, high radiation, etc.) In this paper, we consider one very promising passive sensor technology, called surface acoustic wave (SAW) radio-frequency identification (RFID), that satisfies all of these criteria. In general, RFID is a method of identifying items using radio waves to interrogate tags encoded with a unique identifier that are affixed to the items of interest. In the case of passive tags, only the interrogator, which transmits power to the tags in the form of radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation, requires access to a power supply. Passive RFID technologies are used today in many applications, including asset tracking and management, security and access control, and remote sensing. To date, most of the development and application in RFID technology has focused on either asset/inventory tracking and control or security and access control because these are the largest commercial application areas. Recently however, there has been growing interest in using passive RFID technology for remote sensing applications, and SAW devices are at the forefront of RFID sensing technology development. Although SAW RFID tags have great potential for use in numerous space-based remote sensing applications, the limited collision resolution capability of current generation tags limits the performance in a cluttered sensing environment. That is, as more SAW-based sensors are added to the environment, numerous tag responses are superimposed at the receiver and decoding all or even a subset of the telemetry becomes increasingly difficult. Background clutter generated by reflectors other than the sensors themselves is also a problem, as is multipath interference and signal distortion, but the limiting factor in many remote sensing applications can be expected to be tag mutual interference. This problem may be greatly mitigated by proper design of the SAW tag waveform, but that remains an open research problem, and in the meantime, several other related questions remain to be answered including: (1) What are the fundamental relationships between tag parameters such as bit-rate, time-bandwidth-product, SNR, and achievable collision resolution? (2) What are the differences in optimal or near-optimal interrogator designs between noise-limited environments and interference-limited environments? (3) What are the performance characteristics of different interrogator designs in term of parameters such as transmitter power level, range, and number of interfering tags? In this paper, we will present the results of a research effort aimed at providing at least partial answers to all of these questions.

  15. Comparison of the sensitive property between soman and its simulant DMMP by hydrogen-bond acidic polymer coated SAW sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang; Du, Xiaosong; Long, Yin; Jiang, Yadong

    2014-08-01

    Hydrogen-bond acidic (HBA) polymers are widely used for the detection of dimethyl methyl phosphonate (DMMP, a simulant of real nerve agents) based on surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors. This paper presented an HBA polymer PLF, and subsequently the polymer was dissolved into chloroform and spray-coated on a SAW device to fabricate a gas sensor. Then the sensor was equipped into a SAW test platform to investigate its sensitive property to soman vapor and its simulant DMMP at the concentrations below 20 mg/m3. Results revealed that the sensor showed high sensitivity to the analyte vapors, furthermore, the response of the sensor to soman vapor was relatively smaller and slower than that to DMMP. Tests to some common interference vapors were studied at the concentration of 10 mg/m3, and the results indicated that the sensor showed a good selective property.

  16. Evaluation of Residual Stresses Using Laser-Generated SAWs on Surface of Laser-Welding Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Li-ming; Li, Jia; Ni, Chen-yin; Shen, Zhong-hua; Ni, Xiao-wu

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, residual stresses in laser-welding plates are studied by both numerical simulation and experiment based on laser ultrasonics. First, a three-dimensional finite-element model is developed to predict temperature distributions and thermo-structure response during the laser-welding process of an aluminum alloy plate, and the residual stresses around the joint are described from structure analysis. After that, experiments based on surface acoustic waves generated by a pulsed laser are carried out to determine the velocity distribution of SAWs around the joint, from which the distribution of main residual stresses are calculated according to acoustoelastic theory. By comparing the thermal-structure model results with the measurements, it is found that the numerical simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  17. Los Alamos National Laboratory corregated metal pipe saw facility preliminary safety analysis report. Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1990-09-19

    This Preliminary Safety Analysis Report addresses site assessment, facility design and construction, and design operation of the processing systems in the Corrugated Metal Pipe Saw Facility with respect to normal and abnormal conditions. Potential hazards are identified, credible accidents relative to the operation of the facility and the process systems are analyzed, and the consequences of postulated accidents are presented. The risk associated with normal operations, abnormal operations, and natural phenomena are analyzed. The accident analysis presented shows that the impact of the facility will be acceptable for all foreseeable normal and abnormal conditions of operation. Specifically, under normal conditions the facility will have impacts within the limits posted by applicable DOE guidelines, and in accident conditions the facility will similarly meet or exceed the requirements of all applicable standards. 16 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Shape-Selectivity with Liquid Crystal and Side-Chain Liquid Crystalline Polymer SAW Sensor Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    FRYE-MASON,GREGORY CHARLES; OBORNY,MICHAEL C.; PUGH,COLEEN; RICCO,ANTONIO; THOMAS,ROSS C.; ZELLERS,EDWARD T.; ZHANG,GUO-ZHENG

    1999-09-23

    A liquid crystal (LC) and a side-chain liquid crystalline polymer (SCLCP) were tested as surface acoustic wave (SAW) vapor sensor coatings for discriminating between pairs of isomeric organic vapors. Both exhibit room temperature smectic mesophases. Temperature, electric-field, and pretreatment with self-assembled monolayers comprising either a methyl-terminated or carboxylic acid-terminated alkane thiol anchored to a gold layer in the delay path of the sensor were explored as means of affecting the alignment and selectivity of the LC and SCLCP films. Results for the LC were mixed, while those for the SCLCP showed a consistent preference for the more rod-like isomer of each isomer pair examined.

  19. New chalcanonol glycoside from the seeds of saw palmetto: antiproliferative and antioxidant effects.

    PubMed

    Abdel Bar, Fatma M

    2014-09-18

    A new chalcanonol glycoside dimer, bis-O-[(I-4') ? (II-6')]-?-hydroxyphloretin-2'-O-?-glucoside (1), in addition to six known compounds, namely ( - )-epicatechin (2) and ( - )-epiafzelechin (3), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4), protocatechuic acid (5), methylgallate (6), ?-sitosterol (7) and ?-sitosterol-3-O-glucoside (8), was isolated from the seeds of saw palmetto. The structures of the isolated compounds were established from the analysis of their MS and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. The antiproliferative activities of the isolated compounds towards PC3, the human prostate cancer cells were investigated. Amongst the isolated compounds, the new compound and the sterolic derivatives showed antiproliferative effects. Screening of the antioxidant effects of the isolated compounds by 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical assay revealed that the isolated phenolics were active free radical scavengers. PMID:25230777

  20. SAW RFID-Tags for Mass-Sensitive Detection of Humidity and Vapors

    PubMed Central

    Lieberzeit, Peter A.; Palfinger, Christian; Dickert, Franz L.; Fischerauer, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    One-port surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices with defined reflector patterns give characteristic signal patterns in the time domain making them identifiable and leading to so-called RFID-Tags. Each sensor responds with a burst of signals, their timed positions giving the identification code, while the amplitudes can be related to the analyte concentration. This paper presents the first combination of such a transducer with chemically sensitive layer materials. These include crosslinked polyvinyl alcohol for determining relative humidity and tert-butylcalix[4]arene for detecting solvent vapors coated on the free space between the reflectors. In going from the time domain to the frequency domain by Fourier transformation, changes in frequency and phase lead to sensor responses. Hence, it is possible to measure the concentration of tetrachloroethene in air down to 50 ppm, as well as 1% changes in relative humidity. PMID:22303149

  1. Combining Brillouin spectroscopy and laser-SAW technique for elastic property characterization of thick DLC films.

    PubMed

    Berezina, Sofia; Zinin, Pavel V; Schneider, Dieter; Fei, Dong; Rebinsky, Douglas A

    2004-12-01

    Surface Brillouin spectroscopy (SBS) has been widely used for elastic property characterization of thin films. For films thicker than 500 nm, however, the wavelength of surface acoustic wave in the frequency range available for SBS is smaller than film thickness, and the SBS measures only the Rayleigh wave of the film. The laser-SAW technique, on the other hand, measures only the low-frequency portion of the surface acoustic wave dispersion and can estimate only one elastic modulus of the film (typically Young's modulus). In this work, we have combined the two methods to determine both Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of a diamond-like carbon (DLC) film. It was found that reasonable estimates can be obtained for the longitudinal wave velocity, shear wave velocity, and Young's modulus of the film. The Poisson's ratio, however, still has a relatively large measurement error. PMID:15530982

  2. New Mass Properties Engineers Aerospace Ballasting Challenge Facilitated by the SAWE Community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutright, Amanda; Shaughnessy, Brendan

    2010-01-01

    The discipline of Mass Properties Engineering tends to find the engineers; not typically vice versa. In this case, two engineers quickly found their new responsibilities deep in many aspects of mass properties engineering and required to meet technical challenges in a fast paced environment. As part of NASA's Constellation Program, a series of flight tests will be conducted to evaluate components of the new spacecraft launch vehicles. One of these tests is the Pad Abort 1 (PA-1) flight test which will test the Launch Abort System (LAS), a system designed to provide escape for astronauts in the event of an emergency. The Flight Test Articles (FTA) used in this flight test are required to match mass properties corresponding to the operational vehicle, which has a continually evolving design. Additionally, since the structure and subsystems for the Orion Crew Module (CM) FTA are simplified versions of the final product, thousands of pounds of ballast are necessary to achieve the desired mass properties. These new mass properties engineers are responsible for many mass properties aspects in support of the flight test, including meeting the ballasting challenge for the CM Boilerplate FTA. SAWE expert and experienced mass properties engineers, both those that are directly on the team and many that supported via a variety of Society venues, significantly contributed to facilitating the success of addressing this particular mass properties ballasting challenge, in addition to many other challenges along the way. This paper discusses the details regarding the technical aspects of this particular mass properties challenge, as well as identifies recommendations for new mass properties engineers that were learned from the SAWE community along the way.

  3. Theoretical and experimental mass-sensitivity analysis of polymer-coated SAW and STW resonators for gas sensing applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ventzislav M. Yantchev; Vesseline L. Strashilov; Michael Rapp; Ullrich Stahl; I. D. Avramov

    2002-01-01

    Polymer-coated surface transverse waves (STW) resonators have recently been successfully studied for organic gas sensing applications. The first results indicate increased absolute and even relative sensitivity as compared to similar resonators with surface acoustic waves (SAW). However, the gain in sensitivity is accompanied by the adverse effect of an increased attenuation and the advantage frame is difficult to establish quantitatively.

  4. Tissue effects of saw palmetto and finasteride: use of biopsy cores for in situ quantification of prostatic androgens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard S Marks; David L Hess; Frederick J Dorey; Maria Luz Macairan; Paul Bryan Cruz Santos; Varro E Tyler

    2001-01-01

    Objectives. To determine the effects of a saw palmetto herbal blend (SPHB) compared with finasteride on prostatic tissue androgen levels and to evaluate needle biopsies as a source of tissue for such determinations.Methods. Prostate levels of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) were measured on 5 to 10-mg biopsy specimens (18-gauge needle cores) in three groups of men with symptomatic benign prostatic

  5. Saw palmetto alters nuclear measurements reflecting DNA content in men with symptomatic BPH: evidence for a possible molecular mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert W. Veltri; Leonard S. Marks; M. Craig Miller; Wes D. Bales; John Fan; Maria Luz Macairan; Jonathan I. Epstein; Alan W. Partin

    2002-01-01

    ObjectivesTo examine the nuclear chromatin characteristics of epithelial cells, looking for an SPHB-mediated effect on nuclear DNA structure and organization. Saw palmetto herbal blend (SPHB) causes contraction of prostate epithelial cells and suppression of tissue dihydrotestosterone levels in men with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia, but a fundamental mechanism remains unknown.

  6. Development of liquid chromatographic methods for the determination of phytosterols in Standard Reference Materials containing saw palmetto

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Bedner; Michele M. Schantz; Katherine E. Sharpless

    2008-01-01

    Liquid chromatographic (LC) methods using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization\\/mass spectrometric (APCI–MS) detection were developed for the separation and analysis of the phytosterols campesterol, cycloartenol, lupenone, lupeol, ?-sitosterol, and stigmasterol. Brassicasterol and cholesterol were also included for investigation as internal standards. The methods were used to identify and quantify the phytosterols in each of two Serenoa repens (saw palmetto) Standard Reference

  7. On the Old Saw That Dialogue Is a Socratic but Not an Aristotelian Method of Moral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjánsson, Kristján

    2014-01-01

    Kristján Kristjánsson's aim in this article is to bury the old saw that dialogue is exclusively a Socratic but not an Aristotelian method of education for moral character. Although the truncated discussion in Aristotle's "Nicomachean Ethics" of the character development of the young may indicate that it is merely the result of…

  8. AlN films deposited by dc magnetron sputtering and high power impulse magnetron sputtering for SAW applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ait Aissa, K.; Achour, A.; Elmazria, O.; Simon, Q.; Elhosni, M.; Boulet, P.; Robert, S.; Djouadi, M. A.

    2015-04-01

    In this work, aluminium nitride (AlN) films were deposited on silicon substrates buffered by an epitaxial AlN thin film for surface acoustic wave (SAW) applications. The films were deposited by dc magnetron sputtering (dcMS) and high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) deposition techniques. The structural properties of AlN films were investigated using x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. In both cases of films deposited by dcMS and HiPIMS, the XRD results showed that the obtained films are oriented, with full width at half maximum rocking curves of around 1°. Raman spectroscopy revealed higher residual stress relaxation in the AlN epilayers grown by HiPIMS compared to AlN grown by dcMS, highlighted by a blue shift in the E2(high) Raman mode. The SAW measurements indicated an insertion loss of AlN-SAW devices of about 53 and 35?dB for the AlN films deposited by dcMS and HiPIMS respectively. The relation between the structural properties of AlN and the characteristics of AlN-SAW devices were correlated and discussed.

  9. Channel catfish hatchery production efficiency using a vertical-lift incubator the see-saw at various egg loading densities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish spawns are typically incubated in ¼-in mesh baskets suspended in water that is agitated with paddles positioned between baskets. We tested a new vertical-lift incubator (the “See-Saw”) to incubate channel catfish spawns. Previous research demonstrated that when loaded with spawns at...

  10. Effect of Channel Catfish Ictalurus Punctatus Egg Mass Loading Rate on Performance of the “See-Saw” Incubator

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The “See-Saw” is a vertical-lift incubator that increases water circulation around and through channel catfish egg masses. Baskets in the incubator move up and down on racks in conventional hatchery troughs, raising the rack in one trough while lowering the rack in the adjacent trough. Egg masses ...

  11. A phytochemical comparison of saw palmetto products using gas chromatography and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy metabolomic profiling

    PubMed Central

    Booker, Anthony; Suter, Andy; Krnjic, Ana; Strassel, Brigitte; Zloh, Mire; Said, Mazlina; Heinrich, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Preparations containing saw palmetto berries are used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). There are many products on the market, and relatively little is known about their chemical variability and specifically the composition and quality of different saw palmetto products notwithstanding that in 2000, an international consultation paper from the major urological associations from the five continents on treatments for BPH demanded further research on this topic. Here, we compare two analytical approaches and characterise 57 different saw palmetto products. Methods An established method – gas chromatography – was used for the quantification of nine fatty acids, while a novel approach of metabolomic profiling using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used as a fingerprinting tool to assess the overall composition of the extracts. Key findings The phytochemical analysis determining the fatty acids showed a high level of heterogeneity of the different products in the total amount and of nine single fatty acids. A robust and reproducible 1H NMR spectroscopy method was established, and the results showed that it was possible to statistically differentiate between saw palmetto products that had been extracted under different conditions but not between products that used a similar extraction method. Principal component analysis was able to determine those products that had significantly different metabolites. Conclusions The metabolomic approach developed offers novel opportunities for quality control along the value chain of saw palmetto and needs to be followed further, as with this method, the complexity of a herbal extract can be better assessed than with the analysis of a single group of constituents. PMID:24417505

  12. Predicting the Relationship Between System Vibration with Rock Brittleness Indexes in Rock Sawing Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikaeil, Reza; Ataei, Mohammad; Ghadernejad, Saleh; Sadegheslam, Golsa

    2014-03-01

    The system vibration is a very significant measure of the sawing performance, because it indicates the amount of energy required to saw the rock. The maintenance cost of system is also dependant on system vibration. A few increases in system vibration cause a huge increase in the maintenance cost of the system. In this paper, the vibration of system in terms of RMSa was investigated and models for estimation of vibration by means of rock brittleness indexes and operational specifications were designed via statistical models and multiple curvilinear regression analysis. In this study, the relationships between rock brittleness indexes and operational specifications were investigated by regression analysis in statistical package for social science (SPSS) and the results of determination coefficients have been presented. In the second part, the diagrams show that a point lying on the line indicates an exact estimation. In the plot for model, the points are scattered uniformly about the diagonal line, suggesting that the models are good. It is very useful to evaluate the vibration of system and select the suitable operational characteristics by only some mechanical properties of rock. Drgania uk?adu uwa?ane s? za miernik wydajno?ci procesu urabiania, poniewa? pokazuj? ilo?? energii niezb?dnej do urabiania ska?y. Od poziomu drga? zale?? tak?e koszty eksploatacji systemu. Nieznaczny nawet wzrost poziomu drga? prowadzi do znacznego zwi?kszenia kosztów eksploatacyjnych urz?dzenia. W pracy tej przeprowadzono analiz? drga? (ich warto?ci skutecznych) i opracowano model estymacji poziomu drga? w oparciu o wspó?czynnik krucho?ci ska? i parametry eksploatacyjne urz?dzenia. W pracy wykorzystano modele statystyczne i wielokrotn? analiz? metod? regresji krzywoliniowej. W pracy obecnej zwi?zek pomi?dzy wspó?czynnikiem krucho?ci ska? a parametrami eksploatacyjnymi urz?dzenia badano z wykorzystaniem analizy metod? regresji dost?pnej w statystycznym pakiecie oprogramowania dla nauk spo?ecznych (SPSS) a wyniki podano w postaci wyznaczonych wspó?czynników. W drugiej cz??ci pracy przedstawiono wykres pokazuj?cy, ze punkt le??cy na linii oznacza dok?adne oszacowanie. W wykresie wykonanym dla modelu punkty rozrzucone s? równomiernie wokó? linii przek?tnej, co sugeruje ?e modele s? w?a?ciwe. Okre?lenie poziomu drga? urz?dzenia jest niezwykle korzystnym zabiegiem pozwalaj?cym na dobór parametrów pracy urz?dzenia jedynie w oparciu o mechaniczne w?a?ciwo?ci ska?.

  13. Saw-tooth refractive lens for high energy x-ray focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antimonov, Mikhail A.; Khounsary, Ali M.

    2014-09-01

    Saw-tooth refractive lens (SRL) provides a comparatively attractive option for X-ray focusing. An SRL assembly consists of two parts, each with an array of triangular structures (prisms), set tilted symmetrically with respect to the incoming beam. Its main advantage is a simple, continuous tunability in energy and focal length. SRLs can be used for both long and short focal length focusing. Long focal distance focusing of an SRL can accurately be predicted using simple analytical relations. However, the focus size at short focal distances focusing may deviate appreciably from the expected demagnified source size when: (1) the length of the SRL is comparable with the focusing distance, (2) the incident beam is not monochromatic, and (3) and the distance between adjacent prism tips, the tip step, is large . The first factor was considered in a previous work while the other two are addressed is this paper. This preliminary work is aimed at a better understanding of the SRL lenses for focusing an undulator beamline at the Advanced Photon Source (APS).

  14. Pharmacological effects of saw palmetto extract in the lower urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Mayumi; Ito, Yoshihiko; Fujino, Tomomi; Abe, Masayuki; Umegaki, Keizo; Onoue, Satomi; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Yamada, Shizuo

    2009-03-01

    Saw palmetto extract (SPE), an extract from the ripe berries of the American dwarf palm, has been widely used as a therapeutic remedy for urinary dysfunction due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in Europe. Numerous mechanisms of action have been proposed for SPE, including the inhibition of 5alpha-reductase. Today, alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists and muscarinic cholinoceptor antagonists are commonly used in the treatment of men with voiding symptoms secondary to BPH. The improvement of voiding symptoms in patients taking SPE may arise from its binding to pharmacologically relevant receptors in the lower urinary tract, such as alpha(1)-adrenoceptors, muscarinic cholinoceptors, 1,4-dihyropyridine receptors and vanilloid receptors. Furthermore, oral administration of SPE has been shown to attenuate the up-regulation of alpha(1)-adrenoceptors in the rat prostate induced by testosterone. Thus, SPE at clinically relevant doses may exert a direct effect on the pharmacological receptors in the lower urinary tract, thereby improving urinary dysfunction in patients with BPH and an overactive bladder. SPE does not have interactions with co-administered drugs or serious adverse events in blood biochemical parameters, suggestive of its relative safety, even with long-term intake. Clinical trials (placebo-controlled and active-controlled trials) of SPE conducted in men with BPH were also reviewed. This review should contribute to the understanding of the pharmacological effects of SPE in the treatment of patients with BPH and associated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). PMID:19262550

  15. Isolation and pharmacological characterization of fatty acids from saw palmetto extract.

    PubMed

    Abe, Masayuki; Ito, Yoshihiko; Suzuki, Asahi; Onoue, Satomi; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Yamada, Shizuo

    2009-04-01

    Saw palmetto extract (SPE) has been widely used for the treatment of lower urinary-tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia. The mechanisms of pharmacological effects of SPE include the inhibition of 5alpha-reductase, anti-androgenic effects, anti-proliferative effects, and anti-inflammatory effects. Previously, we showed that SPE bound actively to alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic and 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel (1,4-DHP) receptors in the prostate and bladder of rats, whereas its active constituents have not been fully clarified. The present investigation is aimed to identify the main active components contained in hexane and diethyl ether extracts of SPE with the use of column chromatography and preparative HPLC. Based on the binding activity with alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic, and 1,4-DHP receptors, both isolated oleic and lauric acids were deduced to be active components. Authentic samples of oleic and lauric acids also exhibited similar binding activities to these receptors as the fatty acids isolated from SPE, consistent with our findings. In addition, oleic and lauric acids inhibited 5alpha-reductase, possibly leading to therapeutic effects against benign prostatic hyperplasia and related lower urinary-tract symptoms. PMID:19359798

  16. Characterizing components of the Saw Palmetto Berry Extract (SPBE) on prostate cancer cell growth and traction.

    PubMed

    Scholtysek, Carina; Krukiewicz, Aleksandra A; Alonso, José-Luis; Sharma, Karan P; Sharma, Pal C; Goldmann, Wolfgang H

    2009-02-13

    Saw Palmetto Berry Extract (SPBE) is applied for prostate health and treatment of urinary tract infections, nonbacterial prostitis and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) in man. An assumption is that SPBE affects tumor cell progression and migration in breast and prostate tissue. In this work, DU-145 cells were used to demonstrate that SPBE and its sterol components, beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol, inhibit prostate cancer growth by increasing p53 protein expression and also inhibit carcinoma development by decreasing p21 and p27 protein expression. In the presence of cholesterol, these features are not only reversed but increased significantly. The results show for the first time the potential of SPBE, beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol as potential anti-tumor agents. Since the protein p53 is also regarded as nuclear matrix protein facilitating actin cytoskeletal binding, 2D tractions were measured. The cell adhesion strength in the presence of SPBE, beta-sitosterol and cholesterol and the observation was that the increase in p53 expression triggered an increase in the intracellular force generation. The results suggest a dual function of p53 in cells. PMID:19059205

  17. Characterizing components of the Saw Palmetto Berry Extract (SPBE) on prostate cancer cell growth and traction

    SciTech Connect

    Scholtysek, Carina; Krukiewicz, Aleksandra A. [Center for Medical Physics and Technology, Biophysics Group, Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Henke Str. 91, Erlangen 91052 (Germany); Alonso, Jose-Luis [Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA 02129 (United States); Sharma, Karan P.; Sharma, Pal C. [Boston BioProducts, Inc., Worcester, MA 01604 (United States); Goldmann, Wolfgang H. [Center for Medical Physics and Technology, Biophysics Group, Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Henke Str. 91, Erlangen 91052 (Germany)], E-mail: wgoldmann@biomed.uni-erlangen.de

    2009-02-13

    Saw Palmetto Berry Extract (SPBE) is applied for prostate health and treatment of urinary tract infections, nonbacterial prostitis and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) in man. An assumption is that SPBE affects tumor cell progression and migration in breast and prostate tissue. In this work, DU-145 cells were used to demonstrate that SPBE and its sterol components, {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol, inhibit prostate cancer growth by increasing p53 protein expression and also inhibit carcinoma development by decreasing p21 and p27 protein expression. In the presence of cholesterol, these features are not only reversed but increased significantly. The results show for the first time the potential of SPBE, {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol as potential anti-tumor agents. Since the protein p53 is also regarded as nuclear matrix protein facilitating actin cytoskeletal binding, 2D tractions were measured. The cell adhesion strength in the presence of SPBE, {beta}-sitosterol and cholesterol and the observation was that the increase in p53 expression triggered an increase in the intracellular force generation. The results suggest a dual function of p53 in cells.

  18. TALSPEAK CURVE: AN ILLUSTRATION OF A SEE-SAW EFFECT IN SEPARATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Zalupski; Leigh Martin

    2010-11-01

    A superbly balanced thermodynamic struggle for metal ion coordination by aqueous aminopolycarboxylate reagent, DTPA, and non-aqueous organophosphorous phase transfer reagent, HDEHP, affords the separation of trivalent actinides from trivalent lanthanides under the umbrella of the Talspeak liquid-liquid distribution process. This thermodynamic relationship has been linked to an analogous “see-saw” behavior, where the balance is distorted when either of the key complexing players is subject to adverse conditions that interfere with their optimal operation. The thermodynamic balance is tipped in favour of HDEHP whenever increased acidity of the aqueous solution out-competes the metal ion complexation by aqueous complexing agent. Also enhanced steric crowding may switch-off efficient coordination of the metal ion. When HDEHP is depolymerised due to the presence of aliphatic alcohol in the organic phase its phase transferring power is diminished. Such complication paves way for DTPA to establish its dominance on the distribution of trivalent metal ions in the 2-phase system. The illustrated sensitivity of the thermodynamic balance between DTPA and HDEHP in Talspeak-type systems may serve as informative tool when studying less-predictable realms of Talspeak chemistry.

  19. Saw-tooth refractive x-ray optics with sub-micron resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cederstrom, Bjorn; Ribbing, Carolina; Lundqvist, Mats

    2002-11-01

    Saw-tooth refractive x-ray lenses have been used to focus a synchrotron beam to sub-?m line width. These lenses are free from spherical aberration and work in analogy with 1-D focusing parabolic compound refractive lenses. However, the focal length can be varied by a simple mechanical procedure. Silicon lenses were fabricated by wet anisotropic etching, and epoxy replicas were molded from the silicon masters. Theses lenses provided 1-D intensity gains up to a factor of 40 and the smallest focal line width was 0.74 ?m, very close to the theoretical expectation. Two crossed lenses were put in series to obtain 2-D focusing and the 80 ?m by 275 ?m source was imaged to 1.0 ?m by 5.4 ?m. Beryllium lenses were fabricated using conventional computer-controlled milling. The focal line width was 1.7 ?m, nearly 3 times larger than predicted by theory. This can be attributed to large surface roughness and a bent lens shape.

  20. Chemical quality of the Saw Mill River, Westchester County, New York, 1981-83

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    Surface waters, bottom sediments and coatings formed on artificial substrates (ceramic tiles) were analyzed to evaluate the chemical quality of the Saw Mill River, New York. Heavy metals, nutrients, and organic contaminants were studied. Dissolved orthophosphate concentrations were highest in the lower third of the river. Dissolved manganese was the only metal to exceed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water-quality criteria. Arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc concentrations were highest in waters from the lowest 4 river miles. Concentrations of copper, lead, and zinc in bottom sediments from the lowest 3 river miles were greater than in upstream sediments. Concentrations of nine heavy metals were higher on tiles emplaced below river mile 3 than on tiles upstream. Few organic compounds were detected in the water column; none persisted at all sites. Chlordane, DDD, DDE, DDT, dieldrin, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) were found in bottom sediments throughout the basin. PCB concentrations were highest in the lowest 6 river miles; the other organic compounds exhibited no spatial patterns. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons were most abundant in bottom sediments from the lowest 2 river miles. Collectively the distribution of contaminants indicates that river quality deteriorates in the lower, more heavily urbanized reach. (USGS)

  1. Design of SAW filters in SS-FDMA routers for mobile satellite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananasso, Fulvio; Deacon, John M.

    1989-11-01

    The present paper reports the design of a SAW filter bank consisting of 26 linear phase filters with bandwidths ranging from 60 to 2180 kHz, 0.5/40 dB transition width narrower than 30 kHz, and stopband rejection as high as possible. Passbank amplitude and phase ripple limits are 1 dB and 4 deg peak-to-peak respectively. Three candidate filters of bandwidth 60 kHz, 400 kHz and 2.180 MHz were selected for detailed design, taking into account spurious effects such as acoustic regeneration and diffraction as well as technology limits. The electrical specifications are met by all but the 2180 kHz filter, whose shape factor, for a 30 kHz transition band, would be 1.027 : 1, beyond the state of the art. The filter bank has about 27 dB insertion loss per filter, plus roughly 14 dB (1 : 26) power split loss.

  2. Study of flow induced by sine wave and saw tooth plasma actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhifeng; Wang, Lianze; Fu, Song

    2011-11-01

    The effect of plasma actuator that uses saw-tooth or sine-wave shape electrodes on boundary layer flows is experimentally investigated. The measurement results are compared with a corresponding standard configuration (conventional design using two rectangular strip electrodes)—the actuator that produces a nearly two-dimensional horizontal wall jet upon actuation. PIV measurements are used to characterize the actuators in a quiescent chamber. Operating in a steady manner, the new actuators result in the formation of streamwise and spanwise vortices. That is to say, the new actuators render the plasma actuators inducing three-dimensional variations in the shear layer, offering significant flexibility in flow control. The affected flowfield with the new actuators is significantly larger than that with the conventional linear actuators. While the conventional linear actuators affect primarily the boundary layer flow on a scale of about 1 cm above the wall, the new actuators affect the near wall region at a significantly larger scale. This new design broadens the applicability and enhances the flow control effects and it is potentially a more efficient flow control device.

  3. INTERNATIONAL UNION OF OPERATING ENGINEERS NATIONAL HAZMAT PROGRAM - EVOLUTION 180 CIRCULAR SAW OENHP: 2001-03, VERSION A

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-01-25

    Florida International University's (FIU) Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) evaluated five saws for their effectiveness in cutting specially prepared fiberglass-reinforced plywood crates. These crates were built as surrogates for crates that presently hold radioactively contaminated gloveboxes at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Los Alamos facility. The Evolution 180 circular saw was assessed on August 14, 2001. During the FIU test of efficacy, a team from the Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program (OENHP) evaluated the occupational safety and health issues associated with this technology. The Evolution 180 is a portable, metal cutting circular saw with a 7-inch diameter blade. The blade is contained within the main housing and has a retractable lower blade guard to prevent operator access to the blade during operation and shutdown. The saw is equipped with a chip collector. The maximum cutting thickness for metal is one-quarter inch and can cut steel tubing and pipe 2 inches in diameter. The unit is operated with an on/off guarded trigger switch and is supported with the hand guide mounted to the side of the saw. An adjustable lever sets the depth of the cut. The machine's circuitry will automatically shut the saw motor off if excessive overload is detected during operation. The one-half hour demonstration involved vertical and horizontal cuts and blade changes. During this process, operators experienced binding of the saw. This caused the blade to become hot, causing the sawdust collected in the chip collector to smoke. Care should be exercised to use the appropriate blade for the application, operator training, and personal protective equipment (PPE). Personal noise sampling indicated that neither worker was over the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Action Level of 85 decibels (dBA) with time-weighted averages (TWA's) of 69.1 and 68.8 dBA. The personal noise sample taken during the special demonstration with the stainless steel plate had a TWA of 69.8 dBA. These data are not entirely representative as they were gathered during a simulation and not at the actual worksite. Additional sampling should be conducted on-site, but the workers should wear hearing protection until it is determined that it is no longer necessary. The total nuisance dust sample for the Evolution 180 circular saw was 3.5 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m{sup 3}), which is lower than the OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 15 mg/m{sup 3} and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV) of 10 mg/m{sup 3}. The fiber analysis yielded 1.74 fibers per cubic centimeter (f/cc), which is above the PEL of 1 f/cc. Although the nuisance dust levels were low, fiberglass dust levels were higher than the PEL. Since fiberglass dust is known to be a strong skin irritant and a possible human carcinogen, the workers should continue to wear appropriate suits and gloves, as well as a full-face air-purifying respirator. The respirator should be equipped with a combination organic vapor and acid gas cartridge in combination with a High Particulate Air (HEPA) filter, since particulate filter, since during the demonstration, the workers complained of an odd smell, which may have been from the breakdown of the fiberglass.

  4. INTERNATIONAL UNION OF OPERATING ENGINEERS NATIONAL HAZMAT PROGRAM - PORTER-CABLE CIRCULAR SAW OENHP: 2001-04, VERSION A

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-01-15

    Florida International University's (FIU) Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) evaluated five saws for their effectiveness in cutting specially prepared fiberglass-reinforced plywood crates. These crates were built as surrogates for crates that presently hold radioactively contaminated glove boxes at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Los Alamos facility. The Porter-Cable circular saw was assessed on August 15-16, 2001 (Porter-Cable No.1 and Porter-Cable No.2, respectively). During the FIU test of efficacy, a team from the Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program (OENHP) evaluated the occupational safety and health issues associated with this technology. The Porter-Cable saw is a straightforward machine for cutting wood of varying thickness. The blade is fully guarded with a fixed upper and a lower retractable guard. The lower guard retracts as the blade engages the work piece. The unit is operated with an on/off guarded trigger switch and is supported with a handgrip mounted near the front of the saw. The saw is equipped with a directional nozzle, which aims sawdust away from the operator and the line of cut. An optional vacuum system, attached to the directional nozzle, is used to remove and collect dust. During the demonstration of Porter-Cable No.1, personal noise sampling indicated that one worker was under and one was at the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Action Level of 85 decibels (dBA) with time-weighted averages (TWA's) of 82.7 and 84.6 dBA, respectively. During the demonstration of Porter-Cable No.2, however, both workers did exceed the Action Level with TWA's of 89.7 and 90.0 dBA. These data are not entirely representative as they were gathered during a simulation and not at the actual worksite. Additional sampling should be conducted on-site, but the workers should wear hearing protection until it is determined that it is no longer necessary. The total nuisance dust sample for Porter-Cable No.1 was 3.53 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m{sup 3}), which is lower than the OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 15 mg/m{sup 3} and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV) of 10 mg/m{sup 3}. Porter-Cable No.2's nuisance dust results yielded a value of 22.05 mg/m{sup 3}, which is over the PEL and TLV. The fiber analysis for the first demonstration yielded 12.9 fibers per cubic centimeter (f/cc), which is much higher than the PEL of 1 f/cc. Galson Laboratories considered the fiber analysis for the second demonstration void due to the overloading of dust on the filter. Kickback, the sudden reaction to a pinched blade, is possible with this saw and could cause the saw to lift up and out of the work piece and toward the operator. Proper work position and firm control of the saw minimizes the potential for a sprain or strain. Care needs to be exercised to support the work piece properly and to not force the tool.

  5. Detection of coffee flavour ageing by solid-phase microextraction/surface acoustic wave sensor array technique (SPME/SAW).

    PubMed

    Barié, Nicole; Bücking, Mark; Stahl, Ullrich; Rapp, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The use of polymer coated surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor arrays is a very promising technique for highly sensitive and selective detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). We present new developments to achieve a low cost sensor setup with a sampling method enabling the highly reproducible detection of volatiles even in the ppb range. Since the VOCs of coffee are well known by gas chromatography (GC) research studies, the new sensor array was tested for an easy assessable objective: coffee ageing during storage. As reference method these changes were traced with a standard GC/FID set-up, accompanied by sensory panellists. The evaluation of GC data showed a non-linear characteristic for single compound concentrations as well as for total peak area values, disabling prediction of the coffee age. In contrast, the new SAW sensor array demonstrates a linear dependency, i.e. being capable to show a dependency between volatile concentration and storage time. PMID:25624226

  6. Control of surface mobility for conformal deposition of Mo-Si multilayers on saw-tooth substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronov, D. L.; Anderson, E. H.; Gullikson, E. M.; Salmassi, F.; Warwick, T.; Yashchuk, V. V.; Padmore, H. A.

    2013-11-01

    Multilayer-coated blazed gratings (MBG) are the most promising solution for ultra-high resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy, since they can have very high groove density and provide high-order operation and very high diffraction efficiency. The performance of MBGs however depends critically on the conformal deposition of the multilayer (ML) stack on a saw-tooth substrate and the minimization of roughness. We present an analysis of the roughening and smoothing processes during growth of Mo/Si multilayers deposited over a range of pressures of Ar sputtering gas on flat and saw-tooth substrates. A Linear Continuum Model (LCM) of the film growth was used to understand the interplay between smoothing and roughening of the ML films and to predict the optimum conditions for deposition. The MBG coated under the optimal deposition conditions demonstrated high diffraction efficiency in the EUV and soft X-ray wavelength ranges

  7. Gas sensitivity comparison of polymer-coated SAW and stw resonators operating at the same acoustic wave length

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. D. Avramov; M. Rapp; S. Kurosawa; P. Krawczak; E. Radeva

    2001-01-01

    Results from systematic gas sensing experiments on polymer coated surface-transverse-wave- (STW) and surface-acoustic-wave- (SAW) based two-port resonators on rotated Y-cut quartz, operating at the same acoustic wave length of 7.22 ?m, are presented. The acoustic devices are coated with chemosensitive films of different viscoelastic properties and thicknesses, as solid hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO), semisolid styrene (ST) and soft allyl alcohol (AA). The

  8. Gas sensitivity comparison of polymer coated SAW and STW resonators operating at the same acoustic wave length

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivan D. Avramov; Michael Rapp; Shigeru Kurosawa; Piotr Krawczak; Ekaterina Ivanova Radeva

    2002-01-01

    Results from systematic gas sensing experiments on polymer coated surface-transverse-wave (STW) and surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) based two-port resonators on rotated Y-cut quartz, operating at the same acoustic wavelength of 7.22 ?m, are presented. The acoustic devices are coated with chemosensitive films of different viscoelastic properties and thicknesses, such as solid hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO), semisolid styrene (ST), and soft allyl alcohol (AA). The

  9. ASsessment of botanical supplementation on human cytochrome P450 phenotype: citrus aurantium, echinacea, milk thistle, saw palmetto

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. J. Gurley; S. F. Gardner; M. A. Hubbard; K. Williams; B. Gentry; J. Carrier; D. Edwards; I. Khan

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: Phytochemical-mediated modulation of cytochrome P-450 activity may underlie many herb-drug interactions. Single time-point, phenotypic metabolic ratios were used to determine if supplementation with citrus aurantium, echinacea, milk thistle, or saw palmetto affected CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, or CYP3A4 activity.Methods: Twelve healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to receive each supplement for 28 days. A 30-day washout period was interposed between each

  10. Effects of pumpkin seed oil and saw palmetto oil in Korean men with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Hong, Heeok; Kim, Chun-Soo; Maeng, Sungho

    2009-01-01

    This study was to investigate the role of complementary and alternative medicine in the prevention and treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. For this purpose, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed over 12 months on 47 benign prostatic hyperplasia patients with average age of 53.3 years and international prostate symptom score over 8. Subjects received either sweet potato starch (group A, placebo, 320 mg/day), pumpkin seed oil (group B, 320 mg/day), saw palmetto oil (group C, 320 mg/day) or pumpkin seed oil plus saw palmetto oil (group D, each 320 mg/day). International prostate symptom score, quality of life, serum prostate specific antigen, prostate volume and maximal urinary flow rate were measured. In groups B, C and D, the international prostate symptom score were reduced by 3 months. Quality of life score was improved after 6 months in group D, while those of groups B and C were improved after 3 months, compared to the baseline value. Serum prostate specific antigen was reduced only in group D after 3 months, but no difference was observed in prostate volume in all treatment groups. Maximal urinary flow rate were gradually improved in groups B and C, with statistical significance after 6 months in group B and after 12 months in group C. None of the parameters were significantly improved by combined treatment with pumpkin seed oil and saw palmetto oil. From these results, it is suggested that administrations of pumpkin seed oil and saw palmetto oil are clinically safe and may be effective as complementary and alternative medicine treatments for benign prostatic hyperplasia. PMID:20098586

  11. A SAW-less Dual-Band CDMA Diversity and Simultaneous-GPS Zero-IF Receiver

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bassem Fahs; Philippe Barré; Patrick Ozenne; Eric Chartier; Guillaume Hérault; Sébastien Jacquet; Sébastien Clamagirand

    2009-01-01

    We present a dual-band (Cellular & PCS) dual-path zero-IF receiver for CDMA2000 diversity, monitoring and simultaneous-GPS. The secondary path is a SAW-less diversity CDMA receiver which can be also used for advanced features like monitoring when supported with an additional external VCO. A GPS receiver is integrated with its dedicated VCO allowing simultaneous positioning during a cellular call. The circuit

  12. Achieving optimal flatness and surface roughness properties for novel x-ray optic structures formed by dicing saws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieczorek, Michael; Khachatryan, Ruben; Shvyd'ko, Yuri; Smith, Robert H.; Iwasaki, Kenichi; Miller, Suzanne; Qian, Jun; Huang, Xianrong; Assoufid, Lahsen

    2012-10-01

    Crystal-based x-ray optics are widely used in the synchrotron radiation field. Such optics include monochromators, channel-cut crystals, spectral analyzers, and phase plates that are generally made with standard fabrication tools such as grinders, ultrasonic mills, blade saws, and wire saws. However, modern synchrotron radiation instruments require more complicated and high-precision crystal structures that cannot be fabricated by these conventional tools. Examples include narrow channels and crystal cavities that require smooth and strain-free sidewalls or inner surfaces. Since it is extremely difficult to polish such surfaces by conventional means, specialized cutting tools are required to make the as-cut surfaces as smooth as possible. A possible way to obtain such smooth surfaces is to use a dicing saw as a fabrication tool - a tool typically used in the microelectronics industry to cut or dice semiconductor and other materials. Here we present our studies on the use of dicing saws for cutting innovative, monolithic, x-ray optic devices comprised of tall, narrow-standing, thin crystal-plate arrays. We report cutting parameters that include the rotational speed of the cutting blade (a.k.a. spindle speed), cutting speed (a.k.a. feed rate), number of passes for each cut depth (if required), and diamond grit size for producing the flattest and most smooth side walls. Blade type and construction (sintered, Ni, and resin) also play critical roles in achieving optimum results. The best experimental data obtained produced an average surface roughness of 49 nm and a peak-to-valley flatness of 3625 nm. By achieving these results, we have been able to assist experimenters in the synchrotron radiation field in their efforts to create functional and novel optical devices.

  13. Material property evaluations of bimetallic welds, stainless steel saw fusion lines, and materials affected by dynamic strain aging

    SciTech Connect

    Rudland, D.; Scott, P.; Marschall, C.; Wilkowski, G. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Pipe fracture analyses can often reasonably predict the behavior of flawed piping. However, there are material applications with uncertainties in fracture behavior. This paper summarizes work on three such cases. First, the fracture behavior of bimetallic welds are discussed. The purpose of the study was to determine if current fracture analyses can predict the response of pipe with flaws in bimetallic welds. The weld joined sections of A516 Grade 70 carbon steel to F316 stainless steel. The crack was along the carbon steel base metal to Inconel 182 weld metal fusion line. Material properties from tensile and C(T) specimens were used to predict large pipe response. The major conclusion from the work is that fracture behavior of the weld could be evaluated with reasonable accuracy using properties of the carbon steel pipe and conventional J-estimation analyses. However, results may not be generally true for all bimetallic welds. Second, the toughness of austenitic steel submerged-arc weld (SAW) fusion lines is discussed. During large-scale pipe tests with flaws in the center of the SAW, the crack tended to grow into the fusion line. The fracture toughness of the base metal, the SAW, and the fusion line were determined and compared. The major conclusion reached is that although the fusion line had a higher initiation toughness than the weld metal, the fusion-line J-R curve reached a steady-state value while the SAW J-R curve increased. Last, carbon steel fracture experiments containing circumferential flaws with periods of unstable crack jumps during steady ductile tearing are discussed. These instabilities are believed to be due to dynamic strain aging (DSA). The paper discusses DSA, a screening criteria developed to predict DSA, and the ability of the current J-based methodologies to assess the effect of these crack instabilities. The effect of loading rate on the strength and toughness of several different carbon steel pipes at LWR temperatures is also discussed.

  14. Optimization of SAW sensors with a structure ZnO–SiO 2–Si to detect volatile organic compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Horrillo; M. J. Fernández; J. L. Fontecha; I. Sayago; M. García; M. Aleixandre; J. Gutiérrez; I. Gràcia; C. Cané

    2006-01-01

    Surface acoustic waves (SAW) devices are fabricated on ZnO piezoelectric films by reactive sputtering on SiO2–Si substrates with different O2 concentrations (7.5%, 10%, 15%) in Ar plasma. Crystalline structures and roughness characteristics of the films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements, respectively. Preparation conditions were optimized to obtain films of good quality suitable for

  15. A New Hyphenated ? Trap—GC—Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) Based Electronic Nose For Monitoring Of Coffee Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Mauro; Voigt, Achim; Rapp, Michael

    2009-05-01

    An easy-to-use and versatile analytical method for complex matrix analisis like coffee was developed. The system consists of a microtrap sample preparation, a home made simplified gaschomatographic separation unit and an 8-fold surface acoustic wave based sensors (SAW) array detector. For the coffee quality analysis a successful discrimination of three coffee samples could be achieved. The system would be further developed into a fully automated, low cost version that can be broadly used by the coffee producers.

  16. Cultivation of different strains of king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii) on saw dust and rice straw in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Moonmoon, Mahbuba; Uddin, Md. Nazim; Ahmed, Saleh; Shelly, Nasrat Jahan; Khan, Md. Asaduzzaman

    2010-01-01

    Pleurotus eryngii is a popular mushroom due to its excellent consistency of cap and stem, culinary qualities and longer shelf life. In Bangladesh, where Pleurotus mushrooms are very popular, P. eryngii may take position among the consumers, but currently this mushroom is not cultivated in large scale there. In this study, 3 strains of P. eryngii such as Pe-1 (native to Bangladesh), Pe-2 (germplasm collected from China) and Pe-3 (germplasm collected from Japan) were cultivated on saw dust and rice straw and their growth and yield parameters were investigated. Pe-1 on saw dust showed the highest biological yield and efficiency (73.5%) than other strains. Also, the mycelium run rate and number of fruiting bodies were higher in Pe-1 than other two strains. The quality of mushroom strains was near about similar. On saw dust, the yield and efficiency were better than those cultivated on rice straw, however, on straw; the mushroom fruiting bodies were larger in size. This study shows the prospects of P. eryngii cultivation in Bangladesh and suggests further study in controlled environment for higher yield and production. PMID:23961095

  17. Development of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) fruit and extract standard reference materials.

    PubMed

    Schantz, Michele M; Bedner, Mary; Long, Stephen E; Molloy, John L; Murphy, Karen E; Porter, Barbara J; Putzbach, Karsten; Rimmer, Catherine A; Sander, Lane C; Sharpless, Katherine E; Thomas, Jeanice B; Wise, Stephen A; Wood, Laura J; Yen, James H; Yarita, Takashi; NguyenPho, Agnes; Sorenson, Wendy R; Betz, Joseph M

    2008-10-01

    As part of a collaboration with the National Institutes of Health's Office of Dietary Supplements and the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, the National Institute of Standards and Technology has developed two standard reference materials (SRMs) representing different forms of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens), SRM 3250 Serenoa repens fruit and SRM 3251 Serenoa repens extract. Both of these SRMs have been characterized for their fatty acid and phytosterol content. The fatty acid concentration values are based on results from gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis while the sterol concentration values are based on results from GC-FID and liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry analysis. In addition, SRM 3250 has been characterized for lead content, and SRM 3251 has been characterized for the content of beta-carotene and tocopherols. SRM 3250 (fruit) has certified concentration values for three phytosterols, 14 fatty acids as triglycerides, and lead along with reference concentration values for four fatty acids as triglycerides and 16 free fatty acids. SRM 3251 (extract) has certified concentration values for three phytosterols, 17 fatty acids as triglycerides, beta-carotene, and gamma-tocopherol along with reference concentration values for three fatty acids as triglycerides, 17 fatty acids as free fatty acids, beta-carotene isomers, and delta-tocopherol and information values for two phytosterols. These SRMs will complement other reference materials currently available with concentrations for similar analytes and are part of a series of SRMs being developed for dietary supplements. PMID:18677464

  18. Extensive clonal spread and extreme longevity in saw palmetto, a foundation clonal plant.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Mizuki K; Horner, Liana M; Kubota, Toshiro; Keller, Nathan A; Abrahamson, Warren G

    2011-09-01

    The lack of effective tools has hampered out ability to assess the size, growth and ages of clonal plants. With Serenoa repens (saw palmetto) as a model, we introduce a novel analytical framework that integrates DNA fingerprinting and mathematical modelling to simulate growth and estimate ages of clonal plants. We also demonstrate the application of such life-history information of clonal plants to provide insight into management plans. Serenoa is an ecologically important foundation species in many Southeastern United States ecosystems; yet, many land managers consider Serenoa a troublesome invasive plant. Accordingly, management plans have been developed to reduce or eliminate Serenoa with little understanding of its life history. Using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms, we genotyped 263 Serenoa and 134 Sabal etonia (a sympatric non-clonal palmetto) samples collected from a 20 × 20 m study plot in Florida scrub. Sabal samples were used to assign small field-unidentifiable palmettos to Serenoa or Sabal and also as a negative control for clone detection. We then mathematically modelled clonal networks to estimate genet ages. Our results suggest that Serenoa predominantly propagate via vegetative sprouts and 10,000-year-old genets may be common, while showing no evidence of clone formation by Sabal. The results of this and our previous studies suggest that: (i) Serenoa has been part of scrub associations for thousands of years, (ii) Serenoa invasion are unlikely and (ii) once Serenoa is eliminated from local communities, its restoration will be difficult. Reevaluation of the current management tools and plans is an urgent task. PMID:21848843

  19. Detection, Identification, Location, and Remote Sensing using SAW RFID Sensor Tags

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation, we will consider the problem of simultaneous detection, identification, location estimation, and remote sensing for multiple objects. In particular, we will describe the design and testing of a wireless system capable of simultaneously detecting the presence of multiple objects, identifying each object, and acquiring both a low-resolution estimate of location and a high-resolution estimate of temperature for each object based on wireless interrogation of passive surface acoustic wave (SAW) radiofrequency identification (RFID) sensor tags affixed to each object. The system is being studied for application on the lunar surface as well as for terrestrial remote sensing applications such as pre-launch monitoring and testing of spacecraft on the launch pad and monitoring of test facilities. The system utilizes a digitally beam-formed planar receiving antenna array to extend range and provide direction-of-arrival information coupled with an approximate maximum-likelihood signal processing algorithm to provide near-optimal estimation of both range and temperature. The system is capable of forming a large number of beams within the field of view and resolving the information from several tags within each beam. The combination of both spatial and waveform discrimination provides the capability to track and monitor telemetry from a large number of objects appearing simultaneously within the field of view of the receiving array. In the presentation, we will summarize the system design and illustrate several aspects of the operational characteristics and signal structure. We will examine the theoretical performance characteristics of the system and compare the theoretical results with results obtained from experiments in both controlled laboratory environments and in the field.

  20. Structural Loading on the QCM/SAW Instrument Aboard the ER-2 Used for Atmospheric Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bainum, Peter M.; Jones, Phyllis D.; Irish, Sandra M.; Xing, Guang-Qian

    1998-01-01

    Several experiments have been proposed to capture and evaluate samples of the atmosphere where SST's travel. One means to achieve this is to utilize the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) / surface acoustical wave (SAW) instrument installed aboard the ER-2, formerly the U-2 reconnaissance aircraft. The QCM is a cascade impactor designed to perform in-situ, real-time measurements of aerosols and chemical vapors at an altitude of 60,000-70,000 feet. The primary use of the ER-2 is by NASA for Earth resources to test new sensor systems before being placed aboard satellites. One of the main reasons the ER-2 is used for this flight experiment is its capability to fly approximately twelve miles above the sea level (can reach an altitude of 78,000 feet). Because the ER-2 operates at such a high altitude, it is of special interest to scientists interested in space exploration or supersonic aircraft. The purpose of some of the experiments is to extinct data from the atmosphere around the ER-2. For the current CSTEA flight experiment, the housing of the QCM is in a frame that connects to an outer pod that attaches to the fuselage of the ER-2. Due to the location of the QCM within the housing frame and the location of the pod on the ER-2, the pod and its contents are subject to structural loads. In addition to structural loads, structural vibrations are also of importance because the QCM output data is based on the determination of beat frequencies between a pair of oscillators (one coated, the second uncoated, according to the chemical reaction being monitored). A structural analysis of this system can indicate whether potential resonances may exist between the (higher) structural modal frequencies and the beat frequencies. In addition undesirable deformations may result due to maximum expected static or dynamic loads during typical flight conditions. If the deformations are excessive they may adversely affect the accuracy the instrumentation output.

  1. INTERNATIONAL UNION OF OPERATING ENGINEERS NATIONAL HAZMAT PROGRAM - DEWALT RECIPROCATING SAW OENHP{number_sign}: 2001-01, VERSION A

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-01-31

    Florida International University's (FIU) Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) evaluated five saws for their effectiveness in cutting specially prepared fiberglass-reinforced plywood crates. These crates were built as surrogates for crates that presently hold radioactively contaminated glove boxes at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Los Alamos facility. The DeWalt reciprocating saw was assessed on August 13, 2001. During the FIU test of efficacy, a team from the Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program (OENHP) evaluated the occupational safety and health issues associated with this technology. The DeWalt reciprocating saw is a hand-held industrial tool used for cutting numerous materials, including wood and various types of metals depending upon the chosen blade. Its design allows for cutting close to floors, corners, and other difficult areas. An adjustable shoe sets the cut at three separate depths. During the demonstration for the dismantling of the fiberglass-reinforced plywood crate, the saw was used for extended continuous cutting, over a period of approximately two hours. The dismantling operation involved vertical and horizontal cuts, saw blade changes, and material handling. During this process, operators experienced vibration to the hand and arm in addition to a temperature rise on the handgrip. The blade of the saw is partially exposed during handling and fully exposed during blade changes. Administrative controls, such as duty time of the operators and the machine, operator training, and personal protective equipment (PPE), such as gloves, should be considered when using the saw in this application. Personal noise sampling indicated that both workers were exposed to noise levels exceeding the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Action Level of 85 decibels (dBA) with time-weighted averages (TWA's) of 88.3 and 90.6 dBA. Normally, a worker would be placed in a hearing conservation program if his TWA was greater than the Action Level. In this case, however, monitoring was conducted during a simulation, not during the actual work conducted at the worksite. Additional sampling should be conducted at the worksite to determine the actual noise levels for the workers. Until it is determined that the actual TWA's are less than the Action Level, the workers should use PPE. A training program on the proper use and wearing of the selected PPE should be provided to each worker. Nuisance dust monitoring yielded a concentration of 10.69 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m{sup 3}). Although this is less than the OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 15 mg/m{sup 3}, it is above the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV) of 10 mg/m{sup 3}. Fiberglass dust monitoring yielded a fiber count of 1.7 fibers per cubic centimeter (f/cc). This is above the PEL and the TLV of 1.0 f/cc. Therefore, controls should be implemented (engineering or PPE) to reduce the workers' exposure to the dust. Respirators should be used if engineering controls do not sufficiently control the dust or fiberglass generated. Respirators should be equipped with an organic vapor and acid gas cartridge with a High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter, since during the demonstration, the workers complained of an odd smell, which may have been from the breakdown of the fiberglass.

  2. Multiple doses of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) did not alter cytochrome P450 2D6 and 3A4 activity in normal volunteers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John S. Markowitz; Jennifer L. Donovan; C. Lindsay DeVane; Robin M. Taylor; Ying Ruan; Jun-Sheng Wang; Kenneth D. Chavin

    2003-01-01

    Saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) is the most commonly used herbal preparation in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. The objective of this study was to determine whether a characterized saw palmetto product affects the activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 or 3A4 in healthy volunteers (6 men and 6 women). The probe substrates dextromethorphan (CYP2D6 activity) and alprazolam (CYP3A4 activity)

  3. The effect of curve sawing two-sided cants from small-diameter hardwood sawlogs on lumber and pallet part yields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Hamner; Marshall White; Philip Araman

    Curve sawing is a primary log breakdown process that incorporates gang-saw technology to allow two-sided cants from logs with sweep to be cut parallel to the log surface or log axis. Since curve-sawn logs with sweep are cut along the grain, the potential for producing high quality straight-grain lumber and cants increases, and strength, stiffness, and dimensional stability are maxi-

  4. Application of principal component analysis and artificial neural networks to recognize the individual VOCs of methanol\\/2-propanol in a binary mixture by SAW multi-sensor array

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Penza; G Cassano

    2003-01-01

    This work reports on the performance of a volatile organic compounds (VOCs) identification system based on a surface acoustic wave (SAW) multi-sensor array with four acoustic sensing elements, developed in dual configuration as multiplexed two-port resonator 433.92MHz oscillators and a reference SAW element, in order to recognize the different individual components in a binary mixture of VOCs such as methanol

  5. A SAW-Based Chemical Sensor for Detecting Sulfur-Containing Organophosphorus Compounds Using a Two-Step Self-Assembly and Molecular Imprinting Technology

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yong; Yang, Liu; Mu, Ning; Shao, Shengyu; Wang, Wen; Xie, Xiao; He, Shitang

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new effective approach for the sensitive film deposition of surface acoustic wave (SAW) chemical sensors for detecting organophosphorus compounds such as O-ethyl-S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX) containing sulfur at extremely low concentrations. To improve the adsorptive efficiency, a two-step technology is proposed for the sensitive film preparation on the SAW delay line utilizing gold electrodes. First, mono[6-deoxy-6-[(mercaptodecamethylene)thio

  6. Sensors and Actuators B 111112 (2005) 207212 Highly sensitive layered ZnO/LiNbO3 SAW device with InOx

    E-print Network

    ., with the addition of cobalt oxide or gold to the In2O3 layer [11]. Indium oxide and indium tin oxide films are known of the layered SAW structure with the DC sputtered InOx thin film. The surface of the layered SAW structure. Takada et al. first reported resistive type ozone sensors based on InOx thin films [2,3]. The sensing

  7. A sensitive, rapid and specific technique for the detection of antigen-specific cells on shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH-SAW) sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsu-Chao Hao; Da-Jeng Yao

    2010-01-01

    The current study presents an innovative concept of antigen-specific cells micro-incubator, rapid purification of tumor cells (TCs) on shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH-SAW) sensors. With the specific antibodies conjugated onto the surface of the SH-SAW sensors can be used to specifically recognize the TCs in the clinical body fluids. The novel micro-incubator was developed for incubation process in the

  8. Dynamics of vegetation and soils of oak/saw palmetto scrub after fire: Observations from permanent transects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmalzer, Paul A.; Hinkle, G. Ross

    1991-01-01

    Ten permanent 15 m transects previously established in two oak/saw palmetto scrub stands burned in December 1986, while two transects remained unburned. Vegetation in the greater than 0.5 m and the less than 0.5 m layers on these transects was sampled at 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months postburn and determined structural features of the vegetation (height, percent bare ground, total cover). The vegetation data were analyzed from each sampling by height layer using detrended correspondence analysis ordination. Vegetation data for the greater than 0.5 m layer for the entire time sequence were combined and analyzed using detrended correspondence analysis ordination. Soils were sampled at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months postburn and analyzed for pH, conductivity, organic matter, exchangeable cations (Ca, Mg, K, Na), NO3-N, NH4-N, Al, available metals (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn), and PO4-P. Shrub species recovered at different rates postfire with saw palmetto reestablishing cover greater than 0.5 m within one year, but the scrub oaks had not returned to preburn cover greater than 0.5 m in 3 years after the fire. These differences in growth rates resulted in dominance shifts after the fire with saw palmetto increasing relative to the scrub oaks. Overall changes in species richness were minor, although changes occurred in species richness by height layers due to different growth rates. Soils of well drained and poorly drained sites differed markedly. Soil responses to the fire appeared minor. Soil pH increased at 6 and 12 months postfire; calcium increased at 6 months postburn. Nitrate-nitrogen increased at 12 months postburn. Low values of conductivity, PO4-P, Mg, K, Na, and Fe at 12 months postburn may be related to heavy rainfall the preceding month. Seasonal variability in some soil parameters appeared to occur.

  9. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from immature embryos of saw palmetto, an important landscape and medicinal plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Gallo-Meagher; J. Green

    2002-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from immature zygotic embryos was achieved for saw palmetto (Serenoa repens (Bartr.) Small). Embryos, isolated from immature fruit of native-grown plants, were cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium plus 0.15% (w\\/v) activated charcoal and supplemented with 452 µM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 14.7 µM N6-(2-isopentenyl)adenine (2iP). Clusters of somatic embryos developed from all immature zygotic

  10. Modeling a longitudinally coupled dual-mode leaky-SAW resonator filter with enhanced upper-sideband suppression.

    PubMed

    Campbell, C K; Edmonson, P J

    2001-09-01

    Recently, it has been experimentally reported that enhanced upper-sideband suppression of a longitudinally coupled (first/third) dual-mode leaky SAW (LSAW) resonator filter may be obtained by incorporation of a selectively valued capacitor between input and output terminals. In this paper, coupling-of-modes (COM) and bandstop-filter modeling is applied to realize this enhanced suppression. Tradeoffs are examined between upper and lower side-band suppression levels caused by the ensuing capacitive coupling between input and output terminals. Good agreement is obtained between this theory and reported experimental results for an 800-MHz band cellular filter. PMID:11570754

  11. Laboratory evaluation to reduce respirable crystalline silica dust when cutting concrete roofing tiles using a masonry saw.

    PubMed

    Carlo, Rebecca V; Sheehy, John; Feng, H Amy; Sieber, William K

    2010-04-01

    Respirable crystalline silica dust exposure in residential roofers is a recognized hazard resulting from cutting concrete roofing tiles. Roofers cutting tiles using masonry saws can be exposed to high concentrations of respirable dust. Silica exposures remain a serious threat for nearly two million U.S. construction workers. Although it is well established that respiratory diseases associated with exposure to silica dust are preventable, they continue to occur and cause disability or death. The effectiveness of both a commercially available local exhaust ventilation (LEV) system and a water suppression system in reducing silica dust was evaluated separately. The LEV system exhausted 0.24, 0.13, or 0.12 m(3)/sec of dust laden air, while the water suppression system supplied 0.13, 0.06, 0.03, or 0.02 L/sec of water to the saw blade. Using a randomized block design, implemented under laboratory conditions, the aforementioned conditions were evaluated independently on two types of concrete roofing tiles (s-shape and flat) using the same saw and blade. Each engineering control (LEV or water suppression) was replicated eight times, or four times for each type of tile. Analysis of variance was performed by comparing the mean airborne respirable dust concentrations generated during each run and engineering control treatment. The use of water controls and ventilation controls compared with the "no control" treatment resulted in a statistically significant (p < 0.05) reduction of mean respirable dust concentrations generated per tile cut. The percent reduction for respirable dust concentrations was 99% for the water control and 91% for the LEV. Results suggest that water is an effective method for reducing crystalline silica exposures. However, water damage potential, surface discolorations, cleanup, slip hazards, and other requirements may make the use of water problematic in many situations. Concerns with implementing an LEV system to control silica dust exposures include sufficient capture velocity, additional weight of the saw with the LEV system, electricity connections, and cost of air handling unit. PMID:20169490

  12. A History of one Olivine Crystal: Microsampling Melt Inclusions by Wire Saw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roggensack, K.; Hervig, R. L.

    2003-12-01

    Melt inclusions record magma composition, magma volatiles and magma depth (from volatile saturation pressures), but multiple melt inclusions are difficult to study within a single crystal. Often the sample geometry and preparation requirements (e.g. FTIR wafer) limit sampling density to one melt inclusion per crystal. Thus suites of crystals are studied but the relationship between multiple crystals and their melt inclusions must be inferred. Crystal mass has been used as a temporal constraint for melt inclusions (EPSL 187 p.221), but questions remain about crystal growth mechanisms, growth rates and possible hybridism. This study uses microsampling to investigate the melt inclusion record preserved within a single phenocryst. A large euhedral olivine crystal (2.2 x 4.5 mm) from the 1999 eruption of Cerro Negro volcano, Nicaragua has been sectioned with a wire saw to isolate multiple melt inclusions. The size of the host crystal and the wide spatial distribution of the melt inclusions indicate that inclusion formation occurred repeatedly throughout the crystal's growth history rather than during a single event. The crystal was first photographed to record melt inclusion position and then sectioned to recover 22 individual melt inclusions and several gas inclusions. The host phenocryst is unzoned (Fo82) except for slight zoning at the rim (Fo77). Locally the rim is resorbed or displays unsealed hourglass inclusions. Most melt inclusions have a single vapor bubble and the volume, as percentage of total volume, is lowest near the core of the crystal (1.8%\\ ) and shows an apparent increase outward (3-4%\\ ). All seven identified gas inclusions, containing little or no silicate glass, occur near the outer crystal edge consistent with the observed bubble volume trend in silicate inclusions. Melt inclusion compositions are restricted (all but four 0.18 to 0.26 wt.%\\ K2O, others 0.41 to 0.43 wt.%\\ K2O) relative to those found in more common, small to moderate-size phenocrysts from the same eruptive unit (0.18 to 0.72 wt.%\\ K2O). The melt inclusions with elevated K2O (> 0.40 wt.%\\ ) are located near the core of the crystal and are also distinguished by high S and low Cl relative to melt inclusions in small to moderate-size phenocrysts. This compositional pattern apparently records an early perturbation (decreased K2O, S and moderate Cl increase) followed by relatively stable conditions. The variation can be explained by fractional crystallization and repeated magma recharge. The high K2O and sulfur within interior melt inclusions is interpreted as due to early closed-system enrichment, although low Cl requires previous gas loss. Later recharge events produced relatively constant K2O, sulfur and chlorine. FTIR measurements on microsampled melt inclusions are currently under investigation and will be compared to associated small and moderate-size phenocrysts hosting compositionally similar melt inclusions. It is expected that the results for the large phenocryst will exceed volatile saturation pressures (H2O and CO2) of associated small and moderate-size phenocrysts ( ˜1.5 to 3 kb) indicating deep magma storage and movement prior to the 1999 earthquake and eruption sequence.

  13. INTERNATIONAL UNION OF OPERATING ENGINEERS NATIONAL HAZMAT PROGRAM - MILWAUKEE WORM DRIVE CIRCULAR SAW OENHP{number_sign}: 2001-02, VERSION A

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-01-05

    Florida International University's (FIU) Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) evaluated five saws for their effectiveness in cutting specially prepared fiberglass-reinforced plywood crates. These crates were built as surrogates for crates that presently hold radioactively contaminated glove boxes at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Los Alamos facility. The Milwaukee worm drive circular saw was assessed on August 14, 2001. During the FIU test of efficacy, a team from the Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program (OENHP) evaluated the occupational safety and health issues associated with this technology. The Milwaukee worm drive circular saw is a hand-held tool with a 7 1/4-inch diameter circular blade for cutting wood. The saw contains a fixed upper and a retractable lower blade guard to prevent access to the blade during use. The unit is operated with an on/off guarded trigger switch; and is supported with a handgrip mounted on top of the saw. An adjustable lever sets the depth of cut. The retractable blade guard permits blind or plunge cuts and protects from blade access during shutdown and blade coast. Kickback, the sudden reaction to a pinched blade, is possible when using this saw and could cause the saw to lift up and out of the work piece toward the operator. Proper work position and firm control of the saw minimizes the potential for a sprain or strain. Care needs to be exercised to support the work piece properly and to not force the tool. Personal noise sampling indicated that one worker was near the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Action Level of 85 decibels (dBA) while the other was at the Action Level with time-weighted averages (TWA's) of 82.7 and 84.6 dBA, respectively. These data are not entirely representative as they were gathered during a simulation and not at the actual worksite. Additional sampling should be conducted on-site, but the workers should wear hearing protection until it is determined that it is no longer necessary. Air sampling was performed while the workers dismantled the fiberglass-reinforced crates. The total nuisance dust sample for the Milwaukee circular saw was 36.07 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m{sup 3}), which is much higher than the OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 15 mg/m{sup 3} and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV) of 10 mg/m{sup 3}. Galson Laboratories considered the fiber analysis void due to the overloading of the filter. The PEL for fiberglass is 1 fiber per cubic centimeter (f/cc).

  14. Highly sensitive room-temperature surface acoustic wave (SAW) ammonia sensors based on Co?O?/SiO? composite films.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yong-Liang; Li, Zhi-Jie; Ma, Jin-Yi; Su, Hai-Qiao; Guo, Yuan-Jun; Wang, Lu; Du, Bo; Chen, Jia-Jun; Zhou, Weilie; Yu, Qing-Kai; Zu, Xiao-Tao

    2014-09-15

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors based on Co3O4/SiO2 composite sensing films for ammonia detection were investigated at room temperature. The Co3O4/SiO2 composite films were deposited onto ST-cut quartz SAW resonators by a sol-gel method. SEM and AFM characterizations showed that the films had porous structures. The existence of SiO2 was found to enhance the ammonia sensing property of the sensor significantly. The sensor based on a Co3O4/SiO2 composite film, with 50% Co3O4 loading, which had the highest RMS value (3.72), showed the best sensing property. It exhibited a positive frequency shift of 3500 Hz to 1 ppm ammonia as well as excellent selectivity, stability and reproducibility at room temperature. Moreover, a 37% decrease in the conductance of the composite film as well as a positive frequency shift of 12,500 Hz were observed when the sensor was exposed to 20 ppm ammonia, indicating the positive frequency shift was derived from the decrease in film conductance. PMID:25151235

  15. Effect of saw dust on borate removal from groundwater in bench-scale simulation of permeable reactive barriers including magnesium oxide.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, K; Takamori, H; Moriyama, S; Yoshizaka, H; Hirajima, T

    2011-01-30

    Effective immobilization of boron in groundwater is a major challenge. Permeable reactive barrier (PRB) column tests for removal of borate have been investigated using MgO agglomerates as the primary reactive material over 40 weeks. Additionally, saw dust was also blended with MgO agglomerates to facilitate for borate removal in this system. Boron accumulation was more than 1.6 times greater in the presence of saw dust, although MgO alone performed well. Increased boron accumulation in the presence of saw dust was primarily due to higher porosity of the PRB column, decreasing the impact of secondary Mg(OH)(2) passivating layers and leaving more reactive sites on MgO agglomerates. In addition, Mg(2+) ions released from MgO agglomerates are complexed with carboxylic acids leached from saw dusts. This sequestration prevents the formation of bulky Mg(OH)(2) which is an ineffective sorbent for borate and covers the surfaces and passivating reactive sites on the MgO agglomerates. The morphologies of Mg(OH)(2) precipitated in the PRB column were also significantly affected by the presence of saw dust, with crystallization of needle-like particles of Mg(OH)(2) was prevented by Mg(2+) ions-organic ligand complexation. PMID:21075515

  16. Implementation of wireless battery-free microgyrosensor by utilizing one-port SAW delay line and an antenna with double resonant frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, C.; Elmarzia, O.; Lee, K.

    2014-03-01

    A wireless, battery-free gyroscope was developed by employing a one-port surface acoustic wave (SAW) reflective delay line, a SAW resonator, and an antenna. Two SAW devices with different center frequencies were simultaneously activated by one antenna with double resonant frequencies. During wireless testing, the developed gyroscope showed clear reflection peaks with high S/N ratios in both the time and frequency domains. Upon rotation of the device, large shifts of the reflection peaks were observed owing to a secondary wave interference effect caused by the Coriolis force that depends on the spinning rate. The measured sensitivity and linearity of the developed gyroscope were, respectively, 1.35 deg/(deg/s) and 0.91, which are promising values for our targeted applications. The temperature and vibration/shock effects were also characterized

  17. Enhancing chemical identification efficiency by SAW sensor transients through a data enrichment and information fusion strategy—a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Prashant; Yadava, R. D. S.

    2013-05-01

    The paper proposes a new approach for improving the odor recognition efficiency of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) transient sensor system based on a single polymer coating. The vapor identity information is hidden in transient response shapes through dependences on specific vapor solvation and diffusion parameters in the polymer coating. The variations in the vapor exposure and purge durations and the sensor operating frequency have been used to create diversity in transient shapes via termination of the vapor-polymer equilibration process up to different stages. The transient signals were analyzed by the discrete wavelet transform using Daubechies-4 mother wavelet basis. The wavelet approximation coefficients were then processed by principal component analysis for creating feature space. The set of principal components define the vapor identity information. In an attempt to enhance vapor class separability we analyze two types of information fusion methods. In one, the sensor operation frequency is fixed and the sensing and purge durations are varied, and in the second, the sensing and purge durations are fixed and the sensor operating frequency is varied. The fusion is achieved by concatenation of discrete wavelet coefficients corresponding to various transients prior to the principal component analysis. The simulation experiments with polyisobutylene SAW sensor coating for operation frequencies over [55-160] MHz and sensing durations over [5-60] s were analyzed. The target vapors are seven volatile organics: chloroform, chlorobenzene, o-dichlorobenzene, n-heptane, toluene, n-hexane and n-octane whose concentrations were varied over [10-100] ppm. The simulation data were generated using a SAW sensor transient response model that incorporates the viscoelastic effects due to polymer coating and an additive noise source in the output. The analysis reveals that: (i) in single transient analysis the class separability increases with sensing duration for a given frequency of operation, and also with frequency for a given sensing duration, and (ii) the information fusion based on both the multiple sensing cycles and the multiple sensing frequencies enhances the class separability by nearly an order of magnitude.

  18. Performance analysis and measurement of a saw-based group demodulator for on-board processing in communications satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loo, Chun; Shaw, Michael D.

    1993-10-01

    Future satellites for 'thin route', mobile and portable services will require group demodulators on board the satellite to take advantage of the cost benefits offered with regenerative architectures. The demodulators will translate frequency division multiple access (FDMA) up-links into time division multiplexing (TDM) down-links. This paper describes the measured performance of a 24-channel multi-carrier (64 kb/s quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) for each carrier) group demodulator which uses SAW chirp Fourier transform (CFT) processing. The recovered data are combined into a single TDM bit stream at the standard T1 rate of 1.544 Mb/s. The 40 dB side-lobe suppression obtained in the CFT has resulted in less than 0.35 dB combined inteference degradation achieved with all channels active. The added degradation over Olympus with a saturated up-link amplifier is less than 1 dB.

  19. Single-monolayer in situ modulus measurements using a SAW device: Photocrosslinking of a diacetylenic thiol-based monolayer

    SciTech Connect

    Ricco, A.J.; Staton, A.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Crooks, R.M. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Kim, Taisun [Hallym Univ., Kang-Won Do (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemistry

    1997-10-01

    We report direct measurement of the modulus change that accompanies the crosslinking of a single molecular monolayer. We measured a change in elastic modulus of 5 x 10{sup 10} dyn/cm{sup 2} as a result of ultraviolet-induced photocrosslinking of a single surface-confined monolayer of the conjugated diacetylenic thiol HS(CH{sub 2}){sub 10}C{triple_bond}CC{triple_bond}C(CH{sub 2}){sub 10}COOH, designated {open_quotes}DAT{close_quotes} hereafter. The modulus measurement was made on a monolayer of DAT chemisorbed upon a gold film on the surface of a 97-MHz ST-quartz surface acoustic wave delay line. The ratio of the changes recorded in SAW velocity and attenuation, approximately 4:1, suggests that the measured effect is mainly a change in the elastic (real) component of the complex shear modulus, viscous changes playing a lesser role. In relation to typical polymer modulus values, the change of 5 x 10{sup 10} dyn/cm{sup 2} is consistent with a change from a rubbery material (G{prime} {approximately} 10{sup 7} - 10{sup 8} dyn/cm{sup 2}) to a fairly rigid, glassy material (G{prime} {approximately} 10{sup 10} dyn/cm{sup 2}), reasonable for comparison of the monolayer in its as-adsorbed and crosslinked forms. This report of the direct SAW-based measurement of the modulus change associated with the crosslinking of a single molecular monolayer is complementary to and consistent with previous in-situ measurements of this process using thickness-shear mode resonators.

  20. Fatty acid analysis of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) and pygeum (Prunus africanum) in dietary supplements by mass spectrometry in the selected ion monitoring mode

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saw palmetto and pygeum are natural products commonly used in dietary supplements for the treatment of enlarged prostate glands. These plant materials are rich in fatty acids, and the fatty acid compositions of both plants are similar. The goal of this study was to develop a gas chromatography-mass ...

  1. 4. Categorizing and Tagging Words In the last chapter we dealt with words in their own right. We saw that some distinctions can be

    E-print Network

    Hearst, Marti

    burnt, gone verb: past participle vb 51 make, achieve verb: base form vbd 36 saw, looked verb: simple. For example, wind/nn, as in the wind blew, is pronounced with a short vowel, whereas wind/vb, as in wind

  2. Evaluation of a gas chromatograph with a novel surface acoustic wave detector (SAW GC) for screening of volatile organic compounds in Hanford waste tank samples

    SciTech Connect

    Lockrem, L.L.

    1998-01-12

    A novel instrument, a gas chromatograph with a Surface Acoustic Wave Detector (SAW GC), was evaluated for the screening of organic compounds in Hanford tank headspace vapors. Calibration data were developed for the most common organic compounds, and the accuracy and precision were measured with a certified standard. The instrument was tested with headspace samples collected from seven Hanford waste tanks.

  3. Identification and affinity-quantification of ß-amyloid and ?-synuclein polypeptides using on-line SAW-biosensor-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Slamnoiu, Stefan; Vlad, Camelia; Stumbaum, Mihaela; Moise, Adrian; Lindner, Kathrin; Engel, Nicole; Vilanova, Mar; Diaz, Mireia; Karreman, Christiaan; Leist, Marcel; Ciossek, Thomas; Hengerer, Bastian; Vilaseca, Marta; Przybylski, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Bioaffinity analysis using a variety of biosensors has become an established tool for detection and quantification of biomolecular interactions. Biosensors, however, are generally limited by the lack of chemical structure information of affinity-bound ligands. On-line bioaffinity-mass spectrometry using a surface-acoustic wave biosensor (SAW-MS) is a new combination providing the simultaneous affinity detection, quantification, and mass spectrometric structural characterization of ligands. We describe here an on-line SAW-MS combination for direct identification and affinity determination, using a new interface for MS of the affinity-isolated ligand eluate. Key element of the SAW-MS combination is a microfluidic interface that integrates affinity-isolation on a gold chip, in-situ sample concentration, and desalting with a microcolumn for MS of the ligand eluate from the biosensor. Suitable MS-acquisition software has been developed that provides coupling of the SAW-MS interface to a Bruker Daltonics ion trap-MS, FTICR-MS, and Waters Synapt-QTOF- MS systems. Applications are presented for mass spectrometric identifications and affinity (KD) determinations of the neurodegenerative polypeptides, ß-amyloid (Aß), and pathophysiological and physiological synucleins (?- and ß-synucleins), two key polypeptide systems for Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, respectively. Moreover, first in vivo applications of ?Syn polypeptides from brain homogenate show the feasibility of on-line affinity-MS to the direct analysis of biological material. These results demonstrate on-line SAW-bioaffinity-MS as a powerful tool for structural and quantitative analysis of biopolymer interactions. PMID:24845351

  4. Detection of cellular damage by hydrogen peroxide using SV40-T2 cells on shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH-SAW) sensor.

    PubMed

    Higashiyama, Takumi; Katsuyama, Akihiro; Otori, Hideki; Kamimura, Toru; Uehara, Atsushi; Kainuma, Miho; Takumi, Ryo; Kudo, Yukako; Ebina, Masayuki; Mochitate, Katsumi; Kon, Tasuku; Furuya, Yasubumi; Kikuchi, Hideaki

    2014-08-01

    The rat lung epithelial cell line SV40-T2 was used to develop a cellular biosensing system to assay for environmental toxicants. The novel approach on which this system is based involves direct attachment of cultured rat or human cells onto a cell-adhesive matrix on the device through which shear horizontal surface acoustic waves (SH-SAW) are transmitted using 50 MHz SAW resonator. This novel design enables sensitive monitoring of changes of the electrophysical characteristics of cells, such as their conductivity and relative permittivity. A time-dependent change of phase of SAW and change of insertion loss (change of amplitude) were observed when the cells were treated with 0.5 or 1.0 mM H2O2. The change of insertion loss was biphasic, with an early phase (1-3 h) and a late phase (3-6 h). The late phase coincided with the destruction of cell-cell tight junctions detected by measurement of the transepithelial electrical resistance and paracellular permeability; in contrast, the early phase coincided with the destruction of intracellular actin filaments by H2O2. The early-phase effect of H2O2 on phase shift may be attributable to the change of intracellular permittivity by a change of cellular polarity. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed the disappearance of zonula occludens protein 1 from the region of cell-cell contact. These results suggest the correlation between the change of insertion loss as an SAW parameter and the destruction of tight junctions of the cells on the SH-SAW device in the late phase. PMID:24835005

  5. TeV-scale bileptons, see-saw type II and lepton flavor violation in core-collapse supernova

    E-print Network

    Oleg Lychkovskiy; Sergei Blinnikov; Mikhail Vysotsky

    2010-03-15

    Electrons and electron neutrinos in the inner core of the core-collapse supernova are highly degenerate and therefore numerous during a few seconds of explosion. In contrast, leptons of other flavors are non-degenerate and therefore relatively scarce. This is due to lepton flavor conservation. If this conservation law is broken by some non-standard interactions, electron neutrinos are converted to muon and tau-neutrinos, and electrons - to muons. This affects the supernova dynamics and the supernova neutrino signal. We consider lepton flavor violating interactions mediated by scalar bileptons, i.e. heavy scalars with lepton number 2. It is shown that in case of TeV-mass bileptons the electron fermi gas is equilibrated with non-electron species inside the inner supernova core at a time-scale of order of (1-100) ms. In particular, a scalar triplet which generates neutrino masses through the see-saw type II mechanism is considered. It is found that supernova core is sensitive to yet unprobed values of masses and couplings of the triplet.

  6. Production of Xylanase from Arthrobacter sp. MTCC 6915 Using Saw Dust As Substrate under Solid State Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Murugan, Sevanan; Arnold, Donna; Pongiya, Uma Devi; Narayanan, P. M.

    2011-01-01

    Saw dust was used as substrate for xylanase production from Arthrobacter sp. MTCC 6915. The study of period of incubation, temperature, pH, carbon, and nitrogen sources for xylanase production was optimized. Xylanase production was found to be optimum at an incubation period of 96?hrs (117.0?U/mL), temperature 30°C (105.0?U/mL), and pH 9.0 (102.9?U/mL). The results showed that the xylanase production was found to be higher in the presence of carboxymethylcellulose (176.4?U/mL) and dextrose (126.0?U/mL). It was also observed that peptone (170.1?U/mL) and beef extract (161.7?U/mL) supported maximum xylanase production.The enzyme was characterized and found to be fairly active at pH 9 (764.4?U/mL) and temperature 60°C (819?U/mL). Even in the present study, a major difference in the production temperature (30°C) and optimal temperature (60°C) of the enzyme activity was observed. However, the pH of the production media and the enzyme activity were found to be the same (pH 9). PMID:22013512

  7. Air cavity-based Fabry-Perot interferometer sensor fabricated using a sawing technique for refractive index measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Eun Joo; Lee, Woo-Jin; Kim, Myoung Jin; Hwang, Sung Hwan; Rho, Byung Sup

    2014-01-01

    We have demonstrated a refractive index sensor based on a fiber optic Fabry-Perot (FP) interferometer with an open air cavity fabricated using a one-step mechanical sawing technique. The sensor head consists of a short FP cavity near the fiber patch cord tip, which was assembled by joining a ceramic ferrule and a single-mode fiber together. Owing to the open air cavity in the sensor head, various liquid samples with different refractive index can fill in-line air cavity, which makes the device usable as a refractometer. Moreover, due to the sensor head encircled with the robust ceramic ferrule, the device is attractive for sensing measurement in harsh environments. The sensor was tested in different refractive index solutions. The experimental result shows that the attenuation peak wavelength of the sensor is shifted toward a shorter wavelength with increasing refractive index, and the refractive index sensitivity is ˜92.5 nm/refractive index unit (RIU) and 73.75 dB/RIU. The proposed sensor can be used as an in-line refractometer for many potential applications in the sensing field.

  8. Numerical simulation of operation modes in atmospheric pressure uniform barrier discharge excited by a saw-tooth voltage

    SciTech Connect

    Li Xuechen; Niu Dongying; Yin Zengqian [College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); Fang Tongzhen; Wang Long [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2012-08-15

    The characteristics of dielectric barrier discharge excited by a saw-tooth voltage are simulated in atmospheric pressure helium based on a one-dimensional fluid model. A stepped discharge is obtained per half voltage cycle with gas gap width less than 2 mm by the simulation, which is different to the pulsed discharge excited by a sinusoidal voltage. For the stepped discharge, the plateau duration increases with increasing the voltage amplitude and decreasing the gas gap. Therefore, uniform discharge with high temporal duty ratio can be realized with small gap through increasing the voltage amplitude. The maximal densities of both electron and ion appear near the anode and the electric field is almost uniformly distributed along the gap, which indicates that the stepped discharge belongs to a Townsend mode. In contrast to the stepped discharge with small gas gap, a pulsed discharge can be obtained with large gas gap. Through analyzing the spatial density distributions of electron and ion and the electric field, the pulsed discharge is in a glow mode. The voltage-current (V-I) characteristics are analyzed for the above mentioned discharges under different gas gaps, from which the different discharge modes are verified.

  9. Field portable detection of VOCs using a SAW/GC system. Final report, June 21, 1994--September 21, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, F.; Staples, E.J.

    1998-06-01

    This report describes research on a fast GC vapor analysis system which uses a new type of Surface Acoustic Wave detector technology to characterize organic contamination in soil and groundwater. The project was sponsored by the Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, whose mission, in addition to other goals, is the development of tools and methods for characterization, remediation, and monitoring of underground environmental conditions. The research tasks were to demonstrate detectability and specificity of a Surface Acoustic Wave Gas Chromatograph (SAW/GC) to a representative number of VOC materials followed by field demonstrations of the new technology at a DOE site. All tasks of the project were successfully carried out and a fast vapor analysis system based upon a new type of Surface Acoustic Wave detector technology was developed. The prototype analyzer has the ability to characterize organic contamination in soil and groundwater at the part per billion level in less than 10 seconds. The detector is unique because it utilized an uncoated quartz crystal, contrary to current developments of using coated crystals.

  10. A comparative study of the SSC resistance of a novel welding process IEA with SAW and MIG

    SciTech Connect

    Natividad, C. [Facultad de Quimica, UNAM Circuito interior, C.U., Edificio BC.P. 04510, Mexico, D.F (Mexico)]. E-mail: consnatividad@yahoo.com.mx; Salazar, M. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, San Bartolo Atepehuacan, 07730, Mexico, D.F (Mexico)]. E-mail: salazarm@imp.mx; Espinosa-Medina, M.A. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, San Bartolo Atepehuacan, 07730, Mexico, D.F (Mexico); Perez, R. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, San Bartolo Atepehuacan, 07730, Mexico, D.F (Mexico)

    2007-08-15

    The Stress Sulphide Cracking resistance of X65 weldments produced by Indirect Electric Arc, Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) and Metal Inert Gas (MIG) processes were evaluated in a NACE solution saturated with H{sub 2}S at 25 deg. C, 37 deg. C and 50 deg. C using Slow Strain Rate Tests (SSRT) and electrochemical measurements. Weldments produced by the Indirect Electric Arc presented the best Stress Sulphide Cracking resistance at 25 deg. C. This behavior is attributed to the microstructural modification of the weld bead from ferrite in a needlelike form to a fine grain microstructure, which was not observed at 37 deg. C and 50 deg. C. In addition, the hydrogen permeation flux increased with the temperature, this result is associated with the ferrite phase. The electrochemical results show a decrease of the trapping sites for the atomic hydrogen on this weldment. This behavior has not been observed for the other welding processes due to their microstructure (a typical columnar growth of coarse grain)

  11. A promising method to derive the temperature coefficients of material constants of SAW and BAW materials. first application to LGS.

    PubMed

    Nicolay, Pascal; Aubert, Thierry

    2014-08-01

    Langasite (LGS) is a promising material for SAW applications at high temperature. However, the temperature coefficients of LGS material constants are not accurate enough to perform reliable simulations, and therefore to make good use of available design tools, above 300°C. In the first part of the paper, we describe a new possible way to derive these coefficients in a wider temperature range. The method is based on Simulated Annealing, a well-known optimization algorithm. The algorithm converges toward a set of optimized temperature coefficients of the stiffness constants which are used to perform accurate simulations up to at least 800°C. In the second part, a deeper analysis of the algorithm outputs demonstrates some of its strengths but also some of its main limitations. Possible solutions are described to predict and then improve the accuracy of the optimized coefficient values. In particular, one solution making use of additional BAW target curves is tested. A promising solution to extend the optimization to the temperature coefficients of piezoelectric constants is also discussed. PMID:25073141

  12. Randomized trial of a combination of natural products (cernitin, saw palmetto, B-sitosterol, vitamin E) on symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harry G. Preuss; Charlyn Marcusen; James Regan; Ira W. Klimberg; Timothy A. Welebir; William A. Jones

    2001-01-01

    Because benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is relatively common, it is important to discover safe and effective means to treat this often debilitating perturbation. Accordingly, we examined the effectiveness of a combination of natural products (cernitin, saw palmetto, B-sitosterol, vitamin E) in treating symptoms of BPH. We undertook a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Patients were enrolled from 3 urological practices in

  13. In vivo assessment of botanical supplementation on human cytochrome P450 phenotypes: Citrus aurantium, Echinacea purpurea, milk thistle, and saw palmetto

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bill J. Gurley; Stephanie F. Gardner; Martha A. Hubbard; D. Keith Williams; W. Brooks Gentry; Julie Carrier; Ikhlas A. Khan; David J. Edwards; Amit Shah

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: Phytochemical-mediated modulation of cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity may underlie many herb-drug interactions. Single–time point phenotypic metabolic ratios were used to determine whether long-term supplementation of Citrus aurantium, Echinacea purpurea, milk thistle (Silybum marianum), or saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) extracts affected CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, or CYP3A4 activity.Methods: Twelve healthy volunteers (6 women, 6 men) were randomly assigned to receive C

  14. Draft (1/5/01) The 32nd Northeast Regional Stock Assessment Workshop (32nd SAW): Advisory Report on Stock Status

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2001-01-01

    The Northeast Fisheries Science Center (NEFSC-NOAA) has posted the 32nd Northeast Regional Stock Assessment Workshop (SAW) advisory report. The draft report targets fishery managers and provides scientific advice on the status of the resource (e.g., various fish stocks) via technical summaries. The report (.pdf format) includes stock assessments for Gulf of Maine-Georges Bank American Plaice, Sea Scallop, Silver Hake, and Gulf of Maine Haddock.

  15. Effect of saw dust on borate removal from groundwater in bench-scale simulation of permeable reactive barriers including magnesium oxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Sasaki; H. Takamori; S. Moriyama; H. Yoshizaka; T. Hirajima

    2011-01-01

    Effective immobilization of boron in groundwater is a major challenge. Permeable reactive barrier (PRB) column tests for removal of borate have been investigated using MgO agglomerates as the primary reactive material over 40 weeks. Additionally, saw dust was also blended with MgO agglomerates to facilitate for borate removal in this system. Boron accumulation was more than 1.6 times greater in

  16. An Acoustic Charge Transport Imager for High Definition Television Applications: Low-Voltage SAW Amplifiers on Multilayer GaAs/ZnO Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, W. D.; Brennan, K. F.; Summers, C. J.; Cameron, Thomas P.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis addresses the acoustoelectric issues concerning the amplification of surface acoustic waves (SAWs) and the reflection of SAWs from slanted reflector gratings on GaAs, with application to a novel acoustic charge transport (ACT) device architecture. First a simple model of the SAWAMP was developed, which was subsequently used to define the epitaxially grown material structure necessary to provide simultaneously high resistance and high electron mobility. In addition, a segmented SAWAMP structure was explored with line widths on the order of an acoustic wavelength. This resulted in the demonstration of SAWAMPS with an order of magnitude less voltage and power requirements than previously reported devices. A two-dimensional model was developed to explain the performance of devices with charge confinement layers less then 0.5 mm, which was experimentally verified. This model was extended to predict a greatly increased gain from the addition of a ZnO overlay. These overlays were experimentally attempted, but no working devices were reported due to process incompatibilities. In addition to the SAWAMP research, the reflection of SAWs from slanted gratings on GaAs was also studied and experimentally determined reflection coefficients for both 45 deg grooves and Al stripes on GaAs have been reported for the first time. The SAWAMp and reflector gratings were combined to investigate the integrated ring oscillator for application to the proposed ACT device and design parameters for this device have been provided.

  17. Electric field enhancement due to a saw-tooth asperity in a channel and implications on microscale gas breakdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkattraman, Ayyaswamy

    2014-10-01

    The electric field enhancement due to an isolated saw-tooth asperity in an infinite channel is considered with the goal of providing some inputs to the choice of field enhancement factors used to describe microscale gas breakdown. The Schwarz–Christoffel transformation is used to map the interior of the channel to the upper half of the transformed plane. The expression for the electric field in the transformed plane is then used to determine the electric field distribution in the channel as well as field enhancement near the asperity. The effective field enhancement factor is determined and its dependence on operating and geometrical parameters is studied. While the effective field enhancement factor depends only weakly on the height of the asperity in comparison to the channel, it is influenced significantly by the base angles of the asperity. Due to the strong dependence of field emission current density on electric field, the effective field enhancement factor (?eff) is shown to vary rapidly with the applied electric field irrespective of the geometrical parameters. This variation is included in the analysis of microscale gas breakdown and compared with results obtained using a constant ?eff as is done traditionally. Even though results for a varying ?eff may be approximately reproduced using an equivalent constant ?eff independent of E-field, it might be important for a range of operating conditions. This is confirmed by extracting ?eff from experimental data for breakdown in argon microgaps with plane-parallel cathodes and comparing its dependence on the E-field. While the use of two-dimensional asperities is shown to be a minor disadvantage of the proposed approach in its current form, it can potentially help in developing predictive capabilities as opposed to treating ?eff as a curve-fitting parameter.

  18. What Darwin Never Saw

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Larry Flammer

    This lesson is based on a video of recent field work on a twenty-two year study of finch beaks on a small island in the Galapagos, showing natural selection clearly operating in the wild. The video (which must be purchased) includes vignettes of the life of Darwin, and the Grant family working and living on the island. The lesson includes a video-notes worksheet, which helps to guide viewing for students, and facilitates subsequent discussion.

  19. Randomised Controlled Double-Blind Non-Inferiority Trial of Two Antivenoms for Saw-Scaled or Carpet Viper (Echis ocellatus) Envenoming in Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isa S. Abubakar; Saidu B. Abubakar; Abdulrazaq G. Habib; Abdulsalam Nasidi; Nandul Durfa; Peter O. Yusuf; Solomon Larnyang; John Garnvwa; Elijah Sokomba; Lateef Salako; R. David G Theakston; Ed Juszczak; Nicola Alder; David A. Warrell

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundIn West Africa, envenoming by saw-scaled or carpet vipers (Echis ocellatus) causes great morbidity and mortality, but there is a crisis in supply of effective and affordable antivenom (ISRCTN01257358).MethodsIn a randomised, double-blind, controlled, non-inferiority trial, “EchiTAb Plus-ICP” (ET-Plus) equine antivenom made by Instituto Clodomiro Picado was compared to “EchiTAb G” (ET-G) ovine antivenom made by MicroPharm, which is the standard

  20. The Effect of Intraoperative Sounds of Saw and Hammer on Psychological Condition in Patients with Total Knee Arthroplasty: Prospective Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Kömürcü, Erkam; Kaymaz, Burak; Gölge, Umut Hatay; Nusran, Gürdal; Göksel, Ferdi; ?ahin, Hasan; Ömür, Dilek; Hanc?, Volkan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Surgical procedures are likely to be stressful for patients and their families. Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a major surgical procedure used in the treatment of osteoarthritis. During this procedure the sounds of the saw and hammer may irritate the patient and adversely affect mood. The present study examines the effect of these intraoperative sounds during TKA on postoperative mood and anxiety, by comparing two different anesthetic procedures. Methods. A total of 40 patients who underwent TKA for grade IV gonarthrosis participated in the study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: 20 patients in the general anesthesia group and 20 patients in the spinal anesthesia group. Mood and anxiety changes were evaluated using the Profile of Mood States (POMS) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) instruments, respectively. Results. The postoperative POMS value in the spinal anesthesia group was definitively higher than the general anesthesia group, though the difference in preoperative and postoperative POMS and STAI scores between the two groups was not significant. Conclusion. It would seem that sounds of hammer and saw have no evident negative effect on patient's mood. Regional anesthesia is advisable for TKA patients and appropriate sedation can be administered during the operation if needed.

  1. The effect of intraoperative sounds of saw and hammer on psychological condition in patients with total knee arthroplasty: prospective randomized study.

    PubMed

    Kömürcü, Erkam; Kiraz, Hasan Ali; Kaymaz, Burak; Gölge, Umut Hatay; Nusran, Gürdal; Göksel, Ferdi; ?ahin, Hasan; Ömür, Dilek; Hanc?, Volkan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Surgical procedures are likely to be stressful for patients and their families. Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a major surgical procedure used in the treatment of osteoarthritis. During this procedure the sounds of the saw and hammer may irritate the patient and adversely affect mood. The present study examines the effect of these intraoperative sounds during TKA on postoperative mood and anxiety, by comparing two different anesthetic procedures. Methods. A total of 40 patients who underwent TKA for grade IV gonarthrosis participated in the study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: 20 patients in the general anesthesia group and 20 patients in the spinal anesthesia group. Mood and anxiety changes were evaluated using the Profile of Mood States (POMS) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) instruments, respectively. Results. The postoperative POMS value in the spinal anesthesia group was definitively higher than the general anesthesia group, though the difference in preoperative and postoperative POMS and STAI scores between the two groups was not significant. Conclusion. It would seem that sounds of hammer and saw have no evident negative effect on patient's mood. Regional anesthesia is advisable for TKA patients and appropriate sedation can be administered during the operation if needed. PMID:25793222

  2. Abrasive water jet cutting as a new procedure for cutting cancellous bone--in vitro testing in comparison with the oscillating saw.

    PubMed

    Schwieger, Karsten; Carrero, Volker; Rentzsch, Reemt; Becker, Axel; Bishop, Nick; Hille, Ekkehard; Louis, Hartmut; Morlock, Michael; Honl, Matthias

    2004-11-15

    The quality of bone cuts is assessed by the accuracy and biological potency of the cut surfaces. Conventional tools (such as saws and milling machines) can cause thermal damage to bone tissue. Water jet cutting is nonthermal; that is, it does not generate heat. This study investigates whether the abrasive jet cutting quality in cancellous bone with a biocompatible abrasive is sufficient for the implantation of endoprostheses or for osteotomies. Sixty porcine femoral condyles were cut with an abrasive water jet and with an oscillating saw. alpha-lactose-monohydrate was used as a biocompatible abrasive. Water pressure (pW = 35 and 70 MPa) and abrasive feed rate (m = 0.5, 1, and 2 g/s) were varied. As a measure of the quality of the cut surface the cutting gap angle (delta) and the surface roughness (Ra) were determined. The surface roughness was lowest for an abrasive feed rate of m = 2 g/s (jet direction: 39 +/- 16 microm, advance direction: 54 +/- 22 microm). However, this was still significantly higher than the surface roughness for the saw group (jet direction: 28 +/- 12 microm, advance direction: 36 +/- 19 microm) (p < 0.001 for both directions). At both pressure levels the greatest cutting gap angle was observed for a mass flow rate of m = 1 g/s (pW = 35 MPa: delta = 2.40 +/- 4.67 degrees ; pW = 70 MPa: delta = 4.13 +/- 4.65 degrees), which was greater than for m = 0.5 g/s (pW = 35 MPa: delta = 1.63 +/- 3.89 degrees ; pW = 70 MPa: delta = 0.36 +/- 1.70 degrees) and m = 2 g/s (pW =70 MPa: delta = 0.06 +/- 2.40 degrees). Abrasive water jets are suitable for cutting cancellous bone. The large variation of the cutting gap angle is, however, unfavorable, as the jet direction cannot be adjusted by a predefined value. If it is possible to improve the cutting quality by a further parameter optimization, the abrasive water jet may be the cutting technique of the future for robotic usage. PMID:15382033

  3. Development of methods of producing large areas of silicon sheet by the slicing of silicon ingots using Inside-Diameter (I.D.) saws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aharonyan, P.

    1980-01-01

    Inside diametar wafering equipment, blades and processes were used to develop methods to produce large areas of silicon sheet. Modifications to a 16 inch STC automated saw included: programmable feed system, crystal rotating system, and STC dynatrack blade monitoring and control system. By controlling the plating operation and by grinding of the cutting edge, 16 inch ID blades with a cutting edge thickness of .22 mm can be produced. Crystal rotation mechanism was used to slice 100 mm diameter crystals with a 16 inch blade down to a thickness of .20 mm. Cutting rates with crystal rotation were generally slower than with standard plunge ID slicing techniques. Using programmed feeds and programmed rotation, maximum cutting rates were from 0.3 to 1.0 inches per minute.

  4. Development of methods of producing large areas of silicon sheet by the slicing of silicon ingots using Inside Diameter (I.D.) saws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aharonyan, P.

    1980-01-01

    Modifications to a 16 inch STC automated saw included: a programmable feed system; a crystal rotating system; and a STC dynatrack blade boring and control system. By controlling the plating operation and by grinding the cutting edge, 16 inch I.D. blades were produced with a cutting edge thickness of .22 mm. Crystal rotation mechanism was used to slice 100 mm diameter crystals with a 16 inch blade down to a thickness of .20 mm. Cutting rates with crystal rotation were generally slower than with standard plunge I.D. slicing techniques. Using programmed feeds and programmed rotation, maximum cutting rates were from 0.3 to 1.0 inches per minute.

  5. Saw Palmetto Extract Suppresses Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I Signaling and Induces Stress-Activated Protein Kinase\\/c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Phosphorylation in Human Prostate Epithelial Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TERI L. WADSWORTH; JULIE M. CARROLL; REBECCA A. MALLINSON; CHARLES T. ROBERTS

    2004-01-01

    A common alternative therapy for benign prostatic hyperpla- sia (BPH) is the extract from the fruit of saw palmetto (SPE). BPH is caused by nonmalignant growth of epithelial and stro- mal elements of the prostate. IGF action is important for pros- tate growth and development, and changes in the IGF system have been documented in BPH tissues. The main signaling

  6. Effects of different levels of wheat bran, rice bran and maize powder supplementation with saw dust on the production of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Singer)

    PubMed Central

    Moonmoon, Mahbuba; Shelly, Nasrat Jahan; Khan, Md. Asaduzzaman; Uddin, Md. Nazim; Hossain, Kamal; Tania, Mousumi; Ahmed, Saleh

    2010-01-01

    The cultivation of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) is increasing rapidly in Bangladesh due to its nutritional and medicinal importance with excellent flavor and longer shelf life. With the aim of increased production, we have cultivated L. edodes on saw dust (SD) supplemented with different levels (10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35% and 40%) of wheat bran (WB), rice bran (RB), maize powder (MP) and their combination (WB+RB+MP = 1:1:1) to investigate the growth, yield and quality of this mushroom. Most of the growth, yield and quality parameters varied significantly when mushrooms were cultivated with different levels of supplementation. The yield of mushroom was increased with the level of each supplementation upto a certain level, and then decreased. SD supplemented with 25% WB produced the highest number of fruiting bodies (34.8/500 g packet), highest biological yield (153.3/500 g packet), and biological efficiency (76.6%) of L. edodes. But the yield of the best quality mushroom was observed on SD with 40% WB supplementation; however, the qualities were not always supplementation dose dependent. In this study, we report that 25% WB supplementation with SD may be very effective for higher yield and 40% WB supplementation for better quality of L. edodes. PMID:23961143

  7. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of saw palmetto in men with lower urinary tract symptoms 1 1 The study drug and placebo were provided by Nutraceutical Corp., Ogden, Utah

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glenn S Gerber; Dimitri Kuznetsov; Bernard C Johnson; Jay D Burstein

    2001-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the effects of saw palmetto on urinary symptoms, sexual function, and urinary flow rate in men with lower urinary tract symptoms using a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.Methods. The eligible patients were 45 years of age or older and had an International Prostate Symptom Score of 8 or greater. After a 1-month placebo run-in period, 85 men were

  8. SAWFAST - A SAW diffraction channelizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, J. H.; Stokes, R. B.; Yen, K. H.

    1986-09-01

    One important aspect of modern electronic warfare systems is the ability to sort signals according to their frequency. This paper describes a novel surface acoustic wave channelizer to perform this sorting at IF frequencies. The operating principles are analogous to an optical diffraction grating. Prototype devices that cover a 260 MHz bandwidth with a sidelobe rejection to about 40 dB are described.

  9. VITA.SAW - Purdue University

    E-print Network

    ... B.S.N. 1976 University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Nursing ... Time Perception and Parental Perceptions of Infant Behavior (funded Sigma ... PROFESSIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEES 1976 Search Committee for the Dean ...

  10. Germany as We Saw It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA.

    Close-up studies of German life in the Stuttgart area are reported by participants of Stanford University's 1961 National Defense Education Act second-level institute for secondary school teachers of German, held at Bad Boll, Germany. Topics covered include: (1) religious life, (2) political life, (3) problems of settlement, (4) occupational…

  11. Gilgamesh: He Who Saw All.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Berkeley. Office of Resources for International and Area Studies.

    The historical Gilgamesh was a Sumarian king of Uruk around 2700 B.C. Sumarian fragments of the legend that grew up around him have been found dating back to about 2000 B.C. These lesson plans on Gilgamesh were developed during the Office of Resources for International and Area Studies (ORIAS) summer institute on history through literature, in…

  12. Equivalent networks for SAW gratings.

    PubMed

    Koshiba, M; Mitobe, S

    1988-01-01

    An equivalent-network approach is described for the analysis of surface-acoustic-wave gratings. Circuit parameters can be theoretically determined by applying the finite-element method to an infinite array. In this approach, all of the effects of piezoelectric perturbation, mechanical perturbation, and energy storage are taken into account. To show the validity and usefulness of this approach, examples are computed for groove and metallic gratings. Both short and open circuited metallic gratings are treated. For grooves on isotropic and Y-Z LiNbO(3) substrates, the dependence of reflection characteristics on groove depth is investigated. For aluminum strips on X-112 degrees Y LiTaO(3) 34 degrees Y-X quartz, Y-Z LiNbO(3), and 128 degrees Y -X LiNbO(3) substrates, the dependence on metallization ratio is investigated in detail. PMID:18290184

  13. Evaluation of Various Herbicides for Saw Greenbrier [Smilax bona-nox L.] and Southern Dewberry [Rubus trivialis Michx.] Control and Bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] Tolerance and Sharppod Morningglory [Ipomoea trichocarpa var. trichocarpa Ell.] Control in Roundup Ready Flex® and LibertyLink® Cotton Systems

    E-print Network

    Janak, Travis Wayne

    2012-02-14

    EVALUATION OF VARIOUS HERBICIDES FOR SAW GREENBRIER [Smilax bona-nox L.] AND SOUTHERN DEWBERRY [Rubus trivialis Michx.] CONTROL AND BERMUDAGRASS [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] TOLERANCE AND SHARPPOD MORNINGGLORY [Ipomoea trichocarpa var... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2011 Major Subject: Agronomy EVALUATION OF VARIOUS HERBICIDES FOR SAW GREENBRIER [Smilax bona-nox L.] AND SOUTHERN DEWBERRY [Rubus trivialis Michx.] CONTROL AND BERMUDAGRASS [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] TOLERANCE...

  14. Pharmacologically relevant receptor binding characteristics and 5alpha-reductase inhibitory activity of free Fatty acids contained in saw palmetto extract.

    PubMed

    Abe, Masayuki; Ito, Yoshihiko; Oyunzul, Luvsandorj; Oki-Fujino, Tomomi; Yamada, Shizuo

    2009-04-01

    Saw palmetto extract (SPE), used widely for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has been shown to bind alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic and 1,4-dihydropyridine (1,4-DHP) calcium channel antagonist receptors. Major constituents of SPE are lauric acid, oleic acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid and linoleic acid. The aim of this study was to investigate binding affinities of these fatty acids for pharmacologically relevant (alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic and 1,4-DHP) receptors. The fatty acids inhibited specific [(3)H]prazosin binding in rat brain in a concentration-dependent manner with IC(50) values of 23.8 to 136 microg/ml, and specific (+)-[(3)H]PN 200-110 binding with IC(50) values of 24.5 to 79.5 microg/ml. Also, lauric acid, oleic acid, myristic acid and linoleic acid inhibited specific [(3)H]N-methylscopolamine ([(3)H]NMS) binding in rat brain with IC(50) values of 56.4 to 169 microg/ml. Palmitic acid had no effect on specific [(3)H]NMS binding. The affinity of oleic acid, myristic acid and linoleic acid for each receptor was greater than the affinity of SPE. Scatchard analysis revealed that oleic acid and lauric acid caused a significant decrease in the maximal number of binding sites (B(max)) for [(3)H]prazosin, [(3)H]NMS and (+)-[(3)H]PN 200-110. The results suggest that lauric acid and oleic acid bind noncompetitively to alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic and 1,4-DHP calcium channel antagonist receptors. We developed a novel and convenient method of determining 5alpha-reductase activity using LC/MS. With this method, SPE was shown to inhibit 5alpha-reductase activity in rat liver with an IC(50) of 101 microg/ml. Similarly, all the fatty acids except palmitic acid inhibited 5alpha-reductase activity, with IC(50) values of 42.1 to 67.6 microg/ml. In conclusion, lauric acid, oleic acid, myristic acid, and linoleic acid, major constituents of SPE, exerted binding activities of alpha(1)-adrenergic, muscarinic and 1,4-DHP receptors and inhibited 5alpha-reductase activity. PMID:19336899

  15. See-saw signal processing in pinealocytes involves reciprocal changes in the alpha 1-adrenergic component of the cyclic GMP response and the beta-adrenergic component of the cyclic AMP response.

    PubMed

    Vanecek, J; Sugden, D; Weller, J L; Klein, D C

    1986-09-01

    Pineal cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP are regulated by norepinephrine (NE) acting through alpha 1- and beta-adrenoceptors. beta-Adrenergic stimulation appears to be an absolute requirement and alpha 1-adrenergic activation amplifies beta-adrenergic stimulation of the cyclic AMP response 10-fold and the cyclic GMP response 100-fold, respectively. Chronic deprivation of adrenergic stimulation, due to exposure to constant light (LL) or by surgical denervation, enhances the cyclic AMP response and diminishes the cyclic GMP response as compared to control animals in a 10:14 light/dark (LD) cycle. This phenomenon is termed see-saw signal processing. In the current study we find these changes do not reflect shifts in the time course or Ka of these responses. Dose-response studies indicate the beta-adrenergic component of cyclic AMP stimulation is enhanced and the alpha 1-adrenergic component of cyclic GMP stimulation is diminished in LL pinealocytes. Several observations indicate these changes may reflect alterations in Ca2+-sensitive postreceptor mechanisms. PMID:3016179

  16. 29 CFR 570.65 - Occupations involving the operation of circular saws, band saws, guillotine shears, chain saws...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...chipper disc or drum, and a power plant used to reduce to chips or shred such materials as tree branches, trunk segments, landscape waste, and other materials. (c) Exemptions. This section shall not apply to the employment of apprentices or...

  17. 29 CFR 570.65 - Occupations involving the operation of circular saws, band saws, guillotine shears, chain saws...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...chipper disc or drum, and a power plant used to reduce to chips or shred such materials as tree branches, trunk segments, landscape waste, and other materials. (c) Exemptions. This section shall not apply to the employment of apprentices or...

  18. Cereal Killers What we saw in 2007

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Bill

    strobilurin fungicides for aschochyta control in chickpea (Headlineaschochyta control in chickpea (Headline Field Pea Faba Bean Lentil biology neglectus Anhydrobiosis Chickpea Triticale Safflower Flax Wild Oat Barley Oat Field Pea Faba Bean Variety selection Canola Mustard Chickpea Oat Durum Lentil Triticale

  19. An Economical Touch Panel Using SAW Absorption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Adler; Peter J. Desmares

    1987-01-01

    the waveform corresponding to a specific vertical path across the panel. A finger touch causes an amplitude dip whose timing and depth indicate location and finger pressure. To obtain constant signal amplitude in the absence of touch, the arrays require weighting, with reflectivity increasing strongly from the transducer ends to the far ends. Weighting equations are derived for the cases

  20. What Brown saw and you can too

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearle, Philip; Collett, Brian; Bart, Kenneth; Bilderback, David; Newman, Dara; Samuels, Scott

    2010-12-01

    A discussion of Robert Brown's original observations of particles ejected by pollen of the plant Clarkia pulchella undergoing what is now called Brownian motion is given. We consider the nature of those particles and how he misinterpreted the Airy disk of the smallest particles to be universal organic building blocks. Relevant qualitative and quantitative investigations with a modern microscope and with a "homemade" single lens microscope similar to Brown's are presented.

  1. Men, Women, and Chain Saws: Gender

    E-print Network

    Landweber, Laura

    female heroes and play to male audiences: slasher, occult, and rape-revenge films. Such genres seem--with the suffering, pain, and anguish that the "final girl," as Clover calls the victim-hero, endures before rising

  2. What Brown saw and you can too

    E-print Network

    Pearle, Philip; Bilderback, David; Collett, Brian; Newman, Dara; Samuels, Scott

    2010-01-01

    A discussion is given of Robert Brown's original observations of particles ejected by pollen of the plant \\textit{Clarkia pulchella} undergoing what is now called Brownian motion. We consider the nature of those particles, and how he misinterpreted the Airy disc of the smallest particles to be universal organic building blocks. Relevant qualitative and quantitative investigations with a modern microscope and with a ``homemade" single lens microscope similar to Brown's, are presented.

  3. What Brown saw and you can too

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip Pearle; Brian Collett; Kenneth Bart; David Bilderback; Dara Newman; Scott Samuels

    2010-01-01

    A discussion of Robert Brown's original observations of particles ejected by pollen of the plant Clarkia pulchella undergoing what is now called Brownian motion is given. We consider the nature of those particles and how he misinterpreted the Airy disk of the smallest particles to be universal organic building blocks. Relevant qualitative and quantitative investigations with a modern microscope and

  4. Effects of D-004, a lipid extract of the fruit of the Cuban royal palm (Roystonea regia) or the lipidosterolic extract of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) on the sexual activity in male rats: A controlled, experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Lilia C.; Mas, Rosa; Fernández, Julio; Mendoza, Sarahí; Gámez, Rafael; Pardo, Balia

    2008-01-01

    Background: The etiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is not completely understood, but hormonal changes in aging men seem to be pivotal. Dihydrotestosterone, a potent, active metabolite of testosterone, is formed by the enzymatic action of prostate 5?-reductase and causes cell growth and hyperplasia. Consistent with this action, male sexual dysfunction has been clinically documented to be among the drug-related adverse events associated with 5?-reductase inhibitors. The lipidosterolic extract of saw palmetto (LESP) fruit (Serenoa repens) has been used to treat BPH. D-004, a lipid extract of Roystonea regia Royal palm fruit, has been found to prevent prostatic hyperplasia induced by testoste-rone in rodents and to competitively inhibit prostate 5?-reductase activity in vitro. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of D-004 and LESP, administered as single or repeated doses, on the sexual activity in male rats. Methods: This controlled, experimental study was conducted at the Pharmacology Department, Centre of Natural Products, National Centre for Scientific Research, Havana City, Cuba. Adult male Wistar rats weighing 250 to 300 g were randomized into 5 groups: 2 groups treated orally with D-004 (400 and 800 mg/kg); 2 groups treated orally with LESP (400 and 800 mg/kg); and 1 control group orally administered a water vehicle. Sexual activity behavior (the number of mounts and intromissions, mount latency, and intromission latency) was assessed during 2 observation periods: 90 minutes after the initial dose and at the end of the 30-day treatment. Latency was defined as time elapsed between the first mount and intromission. Results: A total of 50 rats (mean [SD] age, 10 [3] weeks; mean [SD] weight, 295 [10] g) were included in the experiment. There were no significant difterences in the mean number of mounts, intromissions, mount latency, or intromission latency in the groups treated with single or repeated doses of D-004 or LESP (400 and 800 mg/kg) compared with the controls. There was also no between-group difterence in mating behavior among the active treatment groups. All rats survived up to study completion, with normal behavior (weight gain, food intake, daily observations, without any sign of toxicity). There were no observable adverse events during the study. Conclusions: D-004 and LESP administered as a single dose or repeated doses for 30 days did not significantly affect male rat sexual activity behavior compared with a vehicle control group. PMID:24692784

  5. MSK direct sequence spread spectrum system incorporating SAW tapped delay line and SAW shaping filter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Zenzinger; S. Mathiae; P. Russer; L. Reindl; R. Weigel

    1997-01-01

    The present work deals with the IF section of an indoor wireless TDMA\\/CDMA (TCDMA) communication system operating in the 2.45 GHz ISM band. Spreading and despreading is done at the 361 MHz IF with an extremely wide bandwidth of 65 MHz which is greater than the coherence bandwidth of the UHF indoor radio channel. For the modulation of the data

  6. Weighted SAW reflector gratings for orthogonal frequency coded SAW tags and sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puccio, Derek (Inventor); Malocha, Donald (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Weighted surface acoustic wave reflector gratings for coding identification tags and sensors to enable unique sensor operation and identification for a multi-sensor environment. In an embodiment, the weighted reflectors are variable while in another embodiment the reflector gratings are apodized. The weighting technique allows the designer to decrease reflectively and allows for more chips to be implemented in a device and, consequently, more coding diversity. As a result, more tags and sensors can be implemented using a given bandwidth when compared with uniform reflectors. Use of weighted reflector gratings with OFC makes various phase shifting schemes possible, such as in-phase and quadrature implementations of coded waveforms resulting in reduced device size and increased coding.

  7. See Saw Inflation / Dark Matter / Dark Energy / Baryogenesis

    E-print Network

    George F. Smoot

    2014-05-19

    Motivated by BICEP2 results that imply gravitational waves are produced when the universe has an expansion energy of about $Mc^2 \\approx 10^{14}$ GeV and that a natural extension to the Standard Model of Particle physics is a right-handed neutrino that would or could be at $m_{\

  8. Piezoosteotomy in orthognathic surgery versus conventional saw and chisel osteotomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Landes; S. Stübinger; A. Ballon; R. Sader

    2008-01-01

    Introduction  Piezoosteotomy was assessed as alternative osteotomy method in orthognathic surgery regarding handling, time requirement,\\u000a nerve and vessel impairment.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  In this comparative clinical experience, 90 patient’s orthognathic surgery procedures were performed in typical distribution\\u000a prospectively by piezoosteotomy: 34 (38%) monosegment, 47 (52%) segmented LeFortI osteotomies, 94 (52%) sagittal split osteotomies,\\u000a 11 (12%) symphyseal, and 4 (2%) mandibular body osteotomies.

  9. Surface photovoltage measurements and finite element modeling of SAW devices.

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, Christine

    2012-03-01

    Over the course of a Summer 2011 internship with the MEMS department of Sandia National Laboratories, work was completed on two major projects. The first and main project of the summer involved taking surface photovoltage measurements for silicon samples, and using these measurements to determine surface recombination velocities and minority carrier diffusion lengths of the materials. The SPV method was used to fill gaps in the knowledge of material parameters that had not been determined successfully by other characterization methods. The second project involved creating a 2D finite element model of a surface acoustic wave device. A basic form of the model with the expected impedance response curve was completed, and the model is ready to be further developed for analysis of MEMS photonic resonator devices.

  10. The Sun as you never saw it before

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-02-01

    The remarkable images come from SOHO's visible-light coronagraph LASCO. It masks the intense rays from the Sun's surface in order to reveal the much fainter glow of the solar atmosphere, or corona. Operated with its widest field of view, in its C3 instrument, LASCO's unprecedented sensitivity enables it to see the thin ionized gas of the solar wind out to the edges of the picture, 22 million kilometres from the Sun's surface. Many stars are brighter than the gas, and they create the background scene. The results alter human perceptions of the Sun. Nearly 30 years ago, Apollo photographs of the Earth persuaded everyone of what until then they knew only in theory, that we live on a small planet. Similarly the new imagery shows our motion in orbit around the Sun, and depicts it as one star among - yet close enough to fill the sky emanations that engulf us. For many centuries even astrologers knew that the Sun was in Sagittarius in December and drifting towards the next zodiacal constellation, Capricornus. This was a matter of calculation only, because the Sun's own brightness prevented a direct view of the starfield. The SOHO-LASCO movie makes this elementary point of astronomy a matter of direct observation for the first time. The images are achievable only from a vantage point in space, because the blue glow of the Earth's atmosphere hides the stars during the day. A spacial allocation of observing time, and of data tranmission from the SOHO spacecraft, enabled the LASCO team to obtain large numbers of images over the period 22-28 December 1996. Since then, a sustained effort in image processing, frame by frame, has achieved a result of high technical and aesthetic quality. Only now is the leader of the LASCO team, Guenter Brueckner of the US Naval Research Laboratory, satisfied with the product and ready to authorize its release. "I spend my life examining the Sun," Brueckner says, "but this movie is a special thrill. For a moment I forget the years of effort that went into creating LASCO and SOHO, and leave aside the many points of scientific importance in the images, I am happy to marvel at a new impression of the busy star that gives us life, and which affects our environment in many ways that we are only now beginning to understand." Transatlantic cooperation The Solar and Heliospheric Observatory SOHO is a project of international cooperation between ESA and NASA. ESA and the European aerospace industry built the spacecraft, and NASA launched it on 2 December 1995. Operating 1,500,000 kilometres out on the sunward side of the Earth, near the position called Lagrangian point L1, SOHO has an uninterrupted view of the Sun from an undisturbed vantage point, and a precision of pointing which makes delicate observations possible. SOHO carries 12 sets of instruments provided by scientific teams, each led by a European or an American principal investigator. They study the solar interior by helioseismology, the solar atmosphere seen by ultraviolet and visible light, and the solar wind and energetic particles. There is much transatlantic collaboration within the various teams. Besides the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, LASCO involves the Max-Planck-Institüt für Aeronomie at Lindau (Germany), the Unversity of Birmingham (England) and Laboratoire d'Astronomie Spatiale at Marseille (France). Sharing LASCO's electronic systems, and many operations and analyses, is SOHO's extreme ultraviolet imager EIT. This is the responsibility of a team led from Orsay (France) and it observes activity in the Sun's hot atmosphere related to the wider events seen by LASCO. Roger Bonnet, who presides over the multinational effort as ESA's Director of Science, shares the enthusiasm for the Christmas movie. "For the first time we see the Sun clearly among the stars, thanks to SOHO and LASCO," Bonnet comments. "Now when we say that the Sun is a typical star, and a key to understanding the whole Universe, that is no longer a theoretical statement but something everyone can see. The quality of the images c

  11. Germany As We Saw It. Third Edition, 1963.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA.

    Closeup studies of German life in the Stuttgart area are reported here by 79 participants of Stanford University's 1963 National Defense Education Act Second-Level Institute for Elementary and Secondary School Teachers held at Bad Boll, Germany. Elementary and secondary education, work and family life, and housing and housing developments are…

  12. Temperature and Strain Coefficient of Velocity for Langasite SAW Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, W. C.; Atkinson, G. M.

    2013-01-01

    Surface Acoustic Wave sensors on Langasite substrates are being investigated for aerospace applications. Characterization of the Langasite material properties must be performed before sensors can be installed in research vehicles. The coefficients of velocity for both strain and temperature have been determined. These values have also been used to perform temperature compensation of the strain measurements.

  13. See What Galileo Saw---And More! With Online Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steel, S. J.

    2008-11-01

    This presentation introduces the Galileo activity from MicroObservatory, an online robotic telescope network that can deliver images free of charge and within 24 hours to anyone with an email address. I will describe the MicroObservatory network, its free image processing software, and examples of how users can follow in Galileo's footsteps by making their own observations and comparing them both to Galileo's sketches and images from modern space telescopes and planetary missions. I will also describe a new ``Observing with NASA'' portal to MicroObservatory that is being developed for IYA.

  14. See What Galileo Saw - And More! With Online Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steel, Simon J.

    2008-05-01

    This presentation introduces the Galileo activity from MicroObservatory, an online robotic telescope network that can deliver images free of charge and within 24 hours to anyone with an email address. I will describe the MicroObservatory network, its free image processing software, and examples of how users can follow in Galileo's footsteps by making their own observations and comparing them both to Galileo's sketches and images from modern space telescopes and planetary missions. I will also describe a new "Observing with NASA” portal to MicroObservatory that is being developed for IYA.

  15. M-Theory Phenomenology and See-Saw Mechanisms

    E-print Network

    Hirotaka Sugawara

    2004-05-23

    A version of M-theory phenomenology is proposed in which the symmetry is based on the group $SO(10) \\times SO(10) \\times SO(10) \\times U(1) \\times U(1)$. Each SO(10) group acts on a single generation. The $U(1) \\times U(1)$ is regarded as the hidden sector symmetry group. The supersymmetry is broken in the hidden sector by the Fayet-Iliopoulos $D$-term for each group. The $D$-term is needed also to circumvent the powerful non-renormalization theorem since the $SO(10) \\times SO(10) \\times SO(10)$ is broken down to the usual SO(10) by the pair condensation of certain messenger sector multiplets. The exchange of U(1) gauge bosons gives an attractive force for the pair to be created and condensed. The off-diagonal mass matrix elements among the generations in these messenger sector multiplets are the source of the flavor dynamics including the CP violation. The pair condensation of another multiplet in the messenger sector leads to the doublet-triplet splitting. The SO(10) decuplet Higgs couples only to one of the generations. The other couplings should, therefore, be calculated as higher order corrections. We present our preliminary results on the calculation of the mass matrices and the mixing angles for leptons and quarks in this model.

  16. Pulse-mode temperature sensing with langasite SAW devices

    E-print Network

    Greve, David.W.

    and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Email: pengzhen@andrew, USA 2 Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA 3 Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA 4 Department of Civil

  17. Consorting with the Consortium: What the Researcher Saw!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, Julie; Darby, Sue; Campbell, Paul

    Australia's Cairns Consortium of Schools includes four state primary schools in Cairns, North Queensland. It supports provision of quality education characterized by improved student outcomes enhanced by improved teacher competencies. It is based on espoused values of mutual trust and respect. Principals use collaborative decision making processes…

  18. SMALLTOOTH SAWFISHScienti c Name: Pristis pectinata Why Are They Called Saw sh?

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    Species Act. A species is considered endangered when it faces a high risk of becoming extinct in the near water is mixed with seawater. Endangered: An "endangered" species can be a plant or animal that exists as a result of human activity. Endangered Species Act: The U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) is a Federal law

  19. Recurrent traveling waves in a two-dimensional saw-toothed cylinder and their average speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Bendong; Matano, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Ken-Ichi

    We study a curvature-dependent motion of plane curves in a two-dimensional infinite cylinder with spatially undulating boundary. The law of motion is given by V=?+A, where V is the normal velocity of the curve, ? is the curvature, and A is a positive constant. The boundary undulation is assumed to be almost periodic, or, more generally, recurrent in a certain sense. We first introduce the definition of recurrent traveling waves and establish a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of such traveling waves. We then show that the traveling wave is asymptotically stable if it exists. Next we show that a regular traveling wave has a well-defined average speed if the boundary shape is strictly ergodic. Finally we study what we call "virtual pinning", which means that the traveling wave propagates over the entire cylinder with zero average speed. Such a peculiar situation can occur only in non-periodic environments and never occurs if the boundary undulation is periodic.

  20. An eye for vulgarity : how MoMA saw color through Wild Bill's lens

    E-print Network

    Kivlan, Anna Karrer

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is an examination of the 1976 Museum of Modern Art exhibition of color photographs by William Eggleston-the second one-man show of color photography in the museum's history- with particular attention to the ...

  1. Comparison of Saw Palmetto (extract and whole berry) and Cernitin on prostate growth in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nadeem Talpur; Bobby Echard; Debasis Bagchi; Manashi Bagchi; Harry G. Preuss

    2003-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals such as finasteride and alpha blockers are used to treat symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and are known to cause severe adverse reactions. Accordingly, a search for safer, natural products has been undertaken. Two natural agents (nutraceuticals) have come under recent scrutiny; because natural products, in general, often have evidence of long-term safety. The present study compares the

  2. Saw palmetto and finasteride in the treatment of category III prostatitis\\/chronic pelvic pain syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Yang; Alexis E. Te

    2005-01-01

    Chronic nonbacterial prostatitis\\/chronic pelvic pain syndrome is a common entity for which a standardized management has not\\u000a been established. Patients often have a significant symptom complex and impact on quality of life, but very little is known\\u000a about the efficacy of second- and third-line treatments, such as the use of herbal supplements. Many treatments studied in\\u000a recent literature include antibiotics,

  3. Success in Code Pitt Alumnus John Swanson on how he saw

    E-print Network

    Benos, Panayiotis "Takis"

    wanted to be paid." Swanson says he started the company "as myself," providing consulting services, utilizing a computer, he says, which had the ability to process "75 simultaneous equations" at a time. "I initially worked only on main- frame computers that could handle such large and complex processing

  4. What the Butler Saw: Lee Daniels's Studies in Biography and History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    The movie "Lee Daniels' The Butler" is an example of a work that is meant not only to entertain but to convey an important attitude and offer important viewpoints. The movie deals with a deep issue in the history of movies and the history of the country: racial inequality. Three issues are discussed in this article: (a) African…

  5. Lepton parameters in the see-saw model extended by one extra Higgs doublet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra, Alejandro; Solaguren-Beascoa, Ana

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the radiative generation of lepton masses and mixing angles in the Standard Model extended by one right-handed neutrino and one extra Higgs doublet. We assume approximate rank-1 Yukawa couplings at a high energy scale and we calculate the one loop corrected charged lepton and neutrino mass matrices at the low energy scale. We find that quantum effects generate, for typical high energy parameters, a hierarchy between the muon and the tau mass, a hierarchy between the solar and the atmospheric mass splittings, and a pattern of leptonic mixing angles in qualitative agreement with experiments.

  6. The microstructural properties of sputtered zinc oxide SAW transducers F. S. Hickernell

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    an efficient transformation from rf energy to elastic motion within a particular frequency band different levels of transducer efficiency. The ZnO film micro- structure was analysed using X to further delineate the microstructural properties. The low coupling factor films had a low crystalline

  7. Comparison of high-speed roller and saw ginning on Texas high plains cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New high-quality cotton cultivars have been adopted in the Southern High Plains recently and, as a result, interest has grown in finding harvest and ginning practices that better preserve fiber quality. Advancements in roller ginning technology have increased the ginning rate of some roller gins to ...

  8. Interesting differences between CH4 and d18Oatm records of bipolar see-saw activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severinghaus, Jeffrey; Baggenstos, Daniel; Rhodes, Rachael; Brook, Edward

    2014-05-01

    Abrupt changes in atmospheric methane concentration have long been used to infer changes in low-latitude hydrology. A lesser-used tracer is the oxygen-18 content of atmospheric dioxygen (d18Oatm), which is produced by photosynthesis and records the O-18 content of chloroplast water among other variables. Observations from ice core trapped air records suggest that strong Asian monsoons produce dioxygen with a relatively negative d18Oatm, whereas periods of weak Asian monsoon rainfall and strong southern hemisphere monsoons are characterized by relatively positive d18Oatm (Severinghaus et al., 2009, Science). Generally, CH4 and d18Oatm are anticorrelated, with high CH4 and negative d18Oatm during times of northern hemisphere warmth, strong Asian monsoons, and the bipolar seesaw in its "warm north" mode. However, interesting exceptions to this pattern occur during Heinrich Stadials and during the initial phases of the last deglaciation. Here, ice core data suggest episodes in which CH4 rise is not associated with negative d18Oatm, but instead positive d18Oatm. It is suggested that these intervals can be explained as being times of strong southern hemisphere low-latitude rainfall, which creates the positive values in d18Oatm. We hypothesize that dioxygen produced in southern hemisphere locales generally has higher O-18 content, due to the higher O-18 content of chloroplast water and the prevailing precipitation O-18 in those regions. In summary, we hypothesize that d18O of photosynthetic O2 is a more monotonic function of latitude, compared with methane production, which can be bimodally produced in the low latitudes of both hemispheres.

  9. The Year in Review A Summer 2012 saw the opening of Renaissance Remix

    E-print Network

    Portman, Douglas

    the MAG collection as Portrait of a Boy of the Bracciforte Family (detail shown), from 16th-century Italy Art Gallery 100 Years, a commemorative book that explores the Gallery's first century through, explored diverse cultures with music, dance, storytelling and art activities. Four were annual celebrations

  10. A wireless spread-spectrum communication system using SAW chirped delay lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Springer; Wolfgang Gugler; Mario Huemer; Rainer Koller; Robert Weigel

    2001-01-01

    We report on the use of broad-band chirp signals for spread-spectrum communications in indoor and industrial environments. The well-known pulse compression technique associated with chirp signals is exploited to achieve a highly robust communication system. For the generation and compression of the chirp signals, surface acoustic wave delay lines fabricated from an LiTaO3-X112rotY substrate are used. Center frequency, bandwidth, chirp

  11. A robust ultra-broad-band wireless communication system using SAW chirped delay lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Springer; Mario Huemer; Leonhard Reindl; Clemens C. W. Ruppel; Alfred Pohl; Franz Seifert; Wolfgang Gugler; Robert Weigel

    1998-01-01

    Design and performance of a low-cost wireless communication system for indoor and industrial environments are presented. The system is based on chirp-signal transmission to achieve a robust communication link. For the chirp expansion and compression, surface acoustic wave chirped delay lines fabricated from LiTaO3-X112rotY are used. Center frequency, bandwidth, and chirp rate are 348.8 MHz, 80 MHz, and ±40 MHz\\/?s,

  12. ~Provided direct services to 1,269 students ~Saw 9% of the student body

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Bill

    ~Depression ~Relationship Issues ~Identity Development ~Adjustment Issues ~Substance Use CPS staff mental health issues and students who may be in crisis, distressed, or at-risk. This data sheet issues and distressed students. Counseling Statistics 2011-12 Crisis Statistics 2011-12 What our Clients

  13. I saw the sign: the new federal menu-labeling law and lessons from local experience.

    PubMed

    Banker, Michelle I

    2010-01-01

    Following the lead of several state and local governments, Congress recently imposed menu-labeling requirements on chain restaurants as part of the federal health care reform bill signed into law in March 2010. Section 4205 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act requires restaurant chains with 20 or more locations nationwide to display calorie information for standard menu items on menus, menu boards, and drive-thru displays. This paper examines the new federal law in light of existing state and local regulations and considers the arguments for and against mandatory calorie labeling at restaurants as a federal tool for preventing obesity. Specifically, this paper examines the provisions of the new federal law, highlights how it differs from the municipal and state menu-labeling laws already in effect, reviews early studies of the effectiveness of these state and local laws, and considers the propriety of requiring restaurants to disclose calorie information on menus by discussing arguments for and against menu labeling generally and calorie labeling in particular. This paper finds that based on initial studies of state and local menu-labeling regulations, the efficacy of compulsory menu labeling as a tool to combat obesity remains uncertain. Finally, this paper raises practical considerations associated with the new federal law, including implementation issues, potential collateral effects of the law, a survey of legal challenges that may arise, and a discussion of the Food and Drug Administration's competence to enforce a menu-labeling requirement against restaurants. PMID:24479251

  14. PSAW/MicroSWIS [Microminiature Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) based Wirelesss Instrumentation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heermann, Doug; Krug, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This Final Report for the PSAW/MicroSWIS Program is provided in compliance with contract number NAS3-01118. This report documents the overall progress of the program and presents project objectives, work carried out, and results obtained. Program Conceptual Design Package stated the following objectives: To develop a sensor/transceiver network that can support networking operations within spacecraft with sufficient bandwidth so that (1) flight control data, (2) avionics data, (3) payload/experiment data, and (4) prognostic health monitoring sensory information can flow to appropriate locations at frequencies that contain the maximum amount of information content but require minimum interconnect and power: a very high speed, low power, programmable modulation, spread-spectrum radio sensor/transceiver.

  15. SAwSu: an integrated model of associative and reinforcement learning.

    PubMed

    Veksler, Vladislav D; Myers, Christopher W; Gluck, Kevin A

    2014-04-01

    Successfully explaining and replicating the complexity and generality of human and animal learning will require the integration of a variety of learning mechanisms. Here, we introduce a computational model which integrates associative learning (AL) and reinforcement learning (RL). We contrast the integrated model with standalone AL and RL models in three simulation studies. First, a synthetic grid-navigation task is employed to highlight performance advantages for the integrated model in an environment where the reward structure is both diverse and dynamic. The second and third simulations contrast the performances of the three models in behavioral experiments, demonstrating advantages for the integrated model in accounting for behavioral data. PMID:24460979

  16. Cloning and characterization of squalene synthase gene from Fusarium fujikuroi (Saw.) Wr

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rui-Yu ZhaoWei; Wei Xiao; Hai-Li Cheng; Ping Zhu; Ke-Di Cheng

    2010-01-01

    The gene encoding squalene synthase (GfSQS) was cloned from Fusarium fujikuroi (Gibberella fujikuroi MP-C) and characterized. The cloned genomic DNA is 3,267 bp in length, including the 5?-untranslated region (UTR), 3?-UTR,\\u000a four exons, and three introns. A noncanonical splice-site (CA-GG, or GC-AG) was found at the first intron. The open reading\\u000a frame of the gene is 1,389 bp in length, corresponding to

  17. One GHz leaky SAW velocity of metal layers and bilayers evaporated onto fused quartz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walikainen, Dale

    1992-01-01

    An acoustic microscope operating at 1 GHz was used to determine the surface acoustic wave velocities v of thin film metal layers and metal bilayers deposited onto fused quartz. V(0)'s influence was reduced by gating. This produced a calibrated accuracy of 3 percent. A program was constructed from the explicitly solved 6 x 6 theoretical determinant. Single film thicknesses were decided upon by using this theory to produce a v equal to a standard. Since the single film v's were linear with respect to their thickness, half the single film thicknesses were used for the bilayered films. The velocities for these bilayered films agreed with theory. This experimentally confirms the theoretical technique used here to examine bilayered systems, or a prototype composite interphase. No discrepancy was seen for gold films as others have reported. V(z) seemed insensitive to the formation of intermetallics or CuO. Some annealed and unannealed platinum films did not change the v from that of fused quartz. Two platinum films whose v's were in agreement with theory peeled off with the tape test.

  18. 2nd Owl Symposium Autumn Migration of Northern Saw-whet Owls (Aegolius acadicus)

    E-print Network

    frutescens), groundsel bush (Baccharis halimi-folia), scattered red cedar (Juniperus virginiana additional single height nets were located 150 m north between a dense stand of red cedar and a salt marsh

  19. 'I Saw You Disappear with My Own Eyes': Hidden Transcripts of New York Black Isrealite Bricolage

    E-print Network

    Dorman, Jacob S.

    2007-08-01

    To date, scholars have tended to view Black Israelites as mercenary, derivative, or imitative. However, this microhistorical reading of the public, partial, and hidden transcripts of New York Rabbi Wentworth Arthur Matthew's ...

  20. Safety and security monitoring of dams using nano-micromachined-based surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wayne Ross Jr.; Mohamed Saafi; Peter Romine; Zhigang Xiao; Dave Pett

    2006-01-01

    Concerns about the safety of concrete dams have increased during recent years, partly because the population at risk in locations downstream of major dams continues to expand and also because these old dams are experiencing long-term damage and the seismic design concepts used to build them were inadequate. Reliable techniques for continuous monitoring of certain key parameters affecting the dams'

  1. I never saw that before: A deeper view of video analysis in teacher education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann Watts Pailliotet

    1995-01-01

    This article presents a method for observation and analysis of video tapes called “deep viewing.” Deep viewing is a method for observation and analysis of visual information through the use of communal talk, pictures, and writing. It offers a framework for analyzing visual information and for building meaning from it. It may be used by educators, preservice teachers, students, artists,

  2. Langasite SAW temperature and oxygen multi-sensor P. Zheng,1,2

    E-print Network

    Greve, David.W.

    , Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Email: pengzhen@andrew.cmu.edu Abstract--We report here, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA 3 Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA 4 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

  3. Encoding and Decoding at 1 GHz with SAW Tapped Delay Lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PAUL H. CARR; ROGER D. COLVIN; JOSE H. SILVA

    1979-01-01

    Experimental results are compared with theoretical computer modeling for phase-coded tapped delay lines operating at 1 GHz. The spacing between the 15 taps was 5 nsec. A binary phase-code was generated by impulsing one delay line and decoded or correlated with a second device. The acoustic loss through the tap was very much greater than the acoustic attenuation of the

  4. Senate Forum XXV, No. 2 Spring 2010 They Came, They Saw, They Recommended

    E-print Network

    de Lijser, Peter

    for federal grants, for CSUF credits to be transferable, and for CSUF degrees to be recognized. The re, such as reviving Nursing, offering an Ed.D. program, etc.; The physical plant (buildings) has vastly improved since

  5. Old Saws and New Materials: A Consideration of Some Ethical Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, John F.

    1968-01-01

    Reports of job-hopping, opportunism, grantsmanship, and wheeling-dealing, based on the availability of federal research funds, by university faculty has created much concern in governmental and educational circles about the ethical problems these activities pose for the academic profession. In 1963, the Office of Science and Technology(OST) and…

  6. Quality Comparison of Saw and Roller Ginning Three Mid-South Cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three cultivars; Fibermax 960 BR, Deltapine 147 RF, and Deltapine 164 B2RF; were grown normally at Stoneville, MS and spindle harvested during the 2008 crop year. The cottons were processed with the same precleaning: dryer at 250°F, cylinder cleaner, stick machine, dryer at 240°F, and cylinder clea...

  7. ViSAw: Visualizing threat and impact assessment for enhanced situation awareness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Nusinov; Shanchieh Jay Yang; J. Holsopple; M. Sudit

    2009-01-01

    Situation awareness relies on a combined knowledge of the environment, friendly actions and adversaries' actions. Impact assessment applies that knowledge to estimate the consequences of those actions and anticipate plausible futures. In domains such as asymmetric warfare and cyber security, timely and comprehensive impact assessment is critical for human analysts to develop situation awareness and thus make informed decisions. This

  8. fresher, more nutritious, and it simply tastes better. Like a bumper sticker I saw

    E-print Network

    Baltisberger, Jay H.

    upon huge quantities of cheap fossil fuels for its success. As oil prices rise, our food system, and prices for most commodities are near historic lows. As oil prices rise, though, the long crops that sell at low government-subsidized prices. Low commodity prices require high-volume production

  9. As the Europeans Saw Them: The Aleuts of the Eighteenth Century, Social Studies Unit, Book II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnow, Patricia H., Comp.

    This booklet is intended for use as reading material for the social studies unit, The Aleuts of the Eighteenth Century. Excerpts from journals of seven 18th-century explorers or travelers describe the inhabitants of the Aleutian Islands. The accounts have been translated from original notes kept by members of the Russian navy, ship commanders, a…

  10. They Went, They Saw, They Learned: Medical Students' Reflections on Community Clinic Visits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beylefeld, Adriana A.

    2014-01-01

    Medicine has become a profession with increasing accountability to the needs of society. To meet this need, real-world, community-located experiences and reflection are frequently used to promote students' learning and personal growth. This article reports first-year medical students' reflective writing after visiting a primary…

  11. Properdin and Factor H: Opposing Players on the Alternative Complement Pathway “See-Saw

    PubMed Central

    Kouser, Lubna; Abdul-Aziz, Munirah; Nayak, Annapurna; Stover, Cordula M.; Sim, Robert B.; Kishore, Uday

    2013-01-01

    Properdin and factor H are two key regulatory proteins having opposite functions in the alternative complement pathway. Properdin up-regulates the alternative pathway by stabilizing the C3bBb complex, whereas factor H downregulates the pathway by promoting proteolytic degradation of C3b. While factor H is mainly produced in the liver, there are several extrahepatic sources. In addition to the liver, factor H is also synthesized in fetal tubuli, keratinocytes, skin fibroblasts, ocular tissue, adipose tissue, brain, lungs, heart, spleen, pancreas, kidney, muscle, and placenta. Neutrophils are the major source of properdin, and it is also produced by monocytes, T cells and bone marrow progenitor cell line. Properdin is released by neutrophils from intracellular stores following stimulation by N-formyl-methionine-leucine-phenylalanine (fMLP) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?). The HEP G2 cells derived from human liver has been found to produce functional properdin. Endothelial cells also produce properdin when induced by shear stress, thus is a physiological source for plasma properdin. The diverse range of extrahepatic sites for synthesis of these two complement regulators suggests the importance and need for local availability of the proteins. Here, we discuss the significance of the local synthesis of properdin and factor H. This assumes greater importance in view of recently identified unexpected and novel roles of properdin and factor H that are potentially independent of their involvement in complement regulation. PMID:23630525

  12. 2010 saw the publication of some of the most ambitious printed books in the 41-year

    E-print Network

    MacMillan, Andrew

    of the University of Alberta Press (uap). The press was established in 1969 to serve two distinct communities of Alberta Press #12;The First Book Printed in Alberta in june 2010 uap published The Beginning of Print

  13. 75 FR 13543 - Decision To Evaluate a Petition To Designate a Class of Employees for the Simonds Saw and Steel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ...Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000. The initial proposed definition for the class being evaluated, subject to revision as warranted...worked in any area during the applicable covered thorium operational and residual periods. Period of Employment: January...

  14. Manipulation of the Kondo Effect via Two-Dimensional Molecular Assembly Violeta Iancu, Aparna Deshpande, and Saw-Wai Hla*

    E-print Network

    Hla, Saw-Wai

    ­9], quan- tum dots [10], and carbon nanotubes [11]; however, two- dimensional molecular Kondo systems have. For a comparative study, TBrPP-Cu molecules, where the cobalt atom is replaced by a copper atom, were separately

  15. The “See-Saw”: A Vertical-Lift Incubator Designed for Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus Egg Masses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) egg masses are typically incubated in baskets that are suspended within metal troughs with water that is agitated and pushed around the eggs with paddles. A limiting factor in the successful incubation of channel catfish eggs is the absorption of oxygen to the ...

  16. Inhibition of inflammatory gene expression in keratinocytes using a composition containing carnitine, thioctic Acid and saw palmetto extract.

    PubMed

    Chittur, Sridar; Parr, Brian; Marcovici, Geno

    2011-01-01

    Chronic inflammation of the hair follicle (HF) is considered a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Previously, we clinically tested liposterolic extract of Serenoa repens (LSESr) and its glycoside, ?-sitosterol, in subjects with AGA and showed a highly positive response to treatment. In this study, we sought to determine whether blockade of inflammation using a composition containing LSESr as well as two anti-inflammatory agents (carnitine and thioctic acid) could alter the expression of molecular markers of inflammation in a well-established in vitro system. Using a well-validated assay representative of HF keratinocytes, specifically, stimulation of cultured human keratinocyte cells in vitro, we measured changes in gene expression of a spectrum of well-known inflammatory markers. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) provided an inflammatory stimulus. In particular, we found that the composition effectively suppressed LPS-activated gene expression of chemokines, including CCL17, CXCL6 and LTB(4) associated with pathways involved in inflammation and apoptosis. Our data support the hypothesis that the test compound exhibits anti-inflammatory characteristics in a well-established in vitro assay representing HF keratinocyte gene expression. These findings suggest that 5-alpha reductase inhibitors combined with blockade of inflammatory processes could represent a novel two-pronged approach in the treatment of AGA with improved efficacy over current modalities. PMID:19692448

  17. Inhibition of Inflammatory Gene Expression in Keratinocytes Using a Composition Containing Carnitine, Thioctic Acid and Saw Palmetto Extract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sridar Chittur; Brian Parr; Geno Marcovici

    2009-01-01

    Chronic inflammation of the hair follicle (HF) is considered a contributing factor in the patho- genesis of androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Previously, we clinically tested liposterolic extract of Serenoa repens (LSESr) and its glycoside, b-sitosterol, in subjects with AGA and showed a highly positive response to treatment. In this study, we sought to determine whether blockade of inflammation using a composition

  18. The Twentieth century saw fundamental shifts in northern Eurasian political and land-management paradigms, in Russia

    E-print Network

    Brown, Daniel G.

    in primarily forested study sites. Landsat resolved conifer, mixed, deciduous and young forest; cuts, burns during the 1974 to 1990 time period. Deciduous forest increased over both time periods. Agriculture of forest area in the three study sites was likely disturbed prior to 1974. Conifer forest decreased over

  19. Dansgaard-Oeschger Oscillations and the Bi-Polar SeeSaw in a Comprehensive Model of Glacial Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltier, W. R.; Vettoretti, G.

    2013-12-01

    The millennial timescale variability characteristic of Marine Oxygen Isotopic Stage 3 that is observed most clearly in Summit, Greenland ice-cores has never been adequately explained. The mechanism responsible for the bi-polar seesaw relationship between the Polar Regions that accompanies these events has remained similarly enigmatic. This situation has continued to exist in large part as a consequence of the fact that the D-O oscillation has never been shown to arise in a comprehensive coupled model of glacial climate. We will describe a series of very long timescale high resolution integrations of the NCAR CESM1 model under glacial boundary conditions in which the continental ice cover is assumed to be fixed to that of the new ICE-6G (VM5a) model. Greenhouse gases are also fixed to those inferred in the basis of Antarctic ice-core measurements. In order that the equilibrium dynamical state of the ocean not be prejudiced by the initial conditions, the ocean is initialized from a state of rest with modern ocean heat content. The spin-up of the model to statistical equilibrium is characterized by the existence of a series of cooling thresholds which, once crossed, lead the climate system into full glacial cold conditions in which sea ice cover has significantly expanded. In the high spatial resolution version of CESM1, the same resolution employed in CMIP5 experiments, we find that the glacial state is unsteady and characterized by millennium timescale oscillations, each of which has the form of a relaxation oscillation with the fast timescale warming phase of the oscillation caused by a rapid onset of deep water production in the North Atlantic due to convective instability of the water column. The subsequent slow timescale phase of each oscillation is associated with a slow expansion of sea ice cover which leads the system back into stadial conditions. These characteristics accurately mimic the GRIP and NGRIP records of individual D-O oscillations, not only in terms of the period of the individual oscillations but also concerning their amplitude. We compare the model predicted temperature variations for the Summit, Greenland and Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica sites and thereby show that the model replicates the bi-polar seesaw behavior inferred on the basis of the ?18O records from the collocated ice cores. The 'bare' D-O oscillation is thereby shown not to require co-variation of land ice volume for its existence, although negative feedback associated with freshwater forcing during the fast transitions into the interstadial state is expected to be important in sculpting the detailed form of individual Bond cycles.

  20. Matching of single-phase unidirectional SAW transducers and a demonstration using a low-loss EWC\\/SPUDT filter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. P. Abbott; C. S. Hartmann; D. C. Malocha

    1990-01-01

    The authors present the theoretical criterion for calculating the electrical port load required for matching a SPUDT (single-phase unidirectional transducer) and an efficient procedure for tuning a SPUDT filter. The theoretical development identifies a potentially useful class of SPUDTs that requires no matching network to achieve a high degree of triple transit cancellation. The sensitivity of the SPUDT filter's insertion

  1. Inhibition of Inflammatory Gene Expression in Keratinocytes Using a Composition Containing Carnitine, Thioctic Acid and Saw Palmetto Extract

    PubMed Central

    Chittur, Sridar; Parr, Brian; Marcovici, Geno

    2011-01-01

    Chronic inflammation of the hair follicle (HF) is considered a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Previously, we clinically tested liposterolic extract of Serenoa repens (LSESr) and its glycoside, ?-sitosterol, in subjects with AGA and showed a highly positive response to treatment. In this study, we sought to determine whether blockade of inflammation using a composition containing LSESr as well as two anti-inflammatory agents (carnitine and thioctic acid) could alter the expression of molecular markers of inflammation in a well-established in vitro system. Using a well-validated assay representative of HF keratinocytes, specifically, stimulation of cultured human keratinocyte cells in vitro, we measured changes in gene expression of a spectrum of well-known inflammatory markers. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) provided an inflammatory stimulus. In particular, we found that the composition effectively suppressed LPS-activated gene expression of chemokines, including CCL17, CXCL6 and LTB(4) associated with pathways involved in inflammation and apoptosis. Our data support the hypothesis that the test compound exhibits anti-inflammatory characteristics in a well-established in vitro assay representing HF keratinocyte gene expression. These findings suggest that 5-alpha reductase inhibitors combined with blockade of inflammatory processes could represent a novel two-pronged approach in the treatment of AGA with improved efficacy over current modalities. PMID:19692448

  2. Numerical Calculation of SAW Propagation Properties at the x-Cut of Ferroelectric PMN-33%PT Single Crystals

    E-print Network

    Cao, Wenwu

    , such as medical imag- ing transducers, ultrasonic transducers, piezoelectric actuators, etc.[18-20] Relaxor is a kind of material with a low phase velocity and high electrome- chanical coupling coefficient, and the single crystal possesses some cuts with zero power flow angle. The results are based on the material

  3. Blood Coagulation Induced by Iranian Saw-Scaled Viper (Echis Carinatus) Venom: Identification, Purification and Characterization of a Prothrombin Activator

    PubMed Central

    Babaie, Mahdi; Salmanizadeh, Hossein; Zolfagharian, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): Echis carinatus is one of the venomous snakes in Iran. The venom of Iranian Echis carinatus is a rich source of protein with various factors affecting the plasma protein and blood coagulation factor. Some of these proteins exhibit types of enzymatic activities. However, other items are proteins with no enzymatic activity. Materials and Methods: In order to study the mechanism and effect of the venom on human plasma proteins, the present study has evaluated the effect of crude venom and all fractions. A procoagulant factor (prothrombin activator) was isolated from the venom of the Iranian snake Echis carinatus with a combination of gel filtration (Sephadex G-75), ion-exchange chromatography (DEAE- Sepharose) and reverse phase HPLC. Furthermore, proteolytic activity of the crude venom and all fractions on blood coagulation factors such as prothrombin time (PT) was studied. Results: In the present study, the PT test was reduced from 13.4 s to 8.6 s when human plasma was treated with crude venom (concentraion of venom was 1 mg/ml). The purified procoagulant factor revealed a single protein band in SDS polyacrylamide electrophoresis under reducing conditions and its molecular weight was estimated at about 65 kDa. A single-band protein showed fragment patterns similar to those generated by the group A prothrombin activators, which convert prothrombin into meizothrombin independent of the prothrombinase complex. Conclusion: This study showed that the fraction which separated from Iranian snake Echis carinatus venom can be a prothrombin activators. It can be concluded that this fraction is a procoagulant factor. PMID:24494066

  4. “They Saw a Terrorist”—Responses of Jewish-Israeli Viewers to an Interview with a Palestinian Terrorist

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ifat Maoz

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the responses of Jewish-Israeli viewers to an interview broadcast on Israel's national public TV network with a female Palestinian terrorist, caught by Israeli security services on her way to perform a suicide bombing in Israel. Viewers' (N = 47) written accounts of the viewing experience were qualitatively analyzed and found to reflect two conflicting representations of the terrorist in

  5. Habitat Selection of Northern Saw-whet Owls (Aegolius acadicus brooksi) on the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia

    E-print Network

    cedar (Cha- maecyparis nootkatensis (D. Don) )and red alder (Alnus rubra Bongard). Survey Routes We to maximize coverage of different forest types. We detected 61 owls and identified five trees used by singing-30 years old) than sites without owls. Domin- ant tree species at sites did not have an effect on owl

  6. A see-saw of pre-Columbian boom regions in southern Peru, determined by large-scale circulation changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mächtle, B.; Schittek, K.; Forbriger, M.; Schäbitz, F.; Eitel, B.

    2012-04-01

    Environmental changes and cultural transitions during several periods of Peruvian history show a strong coincidence between humid and dry climatic oscillations and the rise and decline of cultures. It is noteworthy, that alternating periods of geo-ecological fragility and stability occurred in time and space between the coastal Nasca region (14.5° S) and the high Andean northern Titicaca basin, just a few hundred kilometers to the east. Based on a multi-proxy palynological and sedimentological approach to reconstruct palaeoenvironmental changes, we found that the Nasca region received a maximum of precipitation during the archaeological boom times of the Early Horizon and the Early Intermediate Period (800 BC - 650 AD, Paracas and Nasca cultures) as well as during the late intermediate period (1150-1450 AD), whereas, in contrast, the Titicaca region further to the south-east experienced drought and cultural depression during that times. During the Middle Horizon (650 - 1150 AD), the Tiwanaku agronomy and culture boomed in the Titicaca region and expanded to the west, contemporaneous with a raised lake level and more humid conditions. In the Nasca region, runoff for irrigation purposes was reduced and less reliable due to drought. Considering a coincidence between environmental and cultural changes, we state that success and decline of civilizations were controlled by hydrological oscillations, triggering fertility as well as a critical loss of natural resources. In response to spatial changing resources, cultural foci were shifted. Therefore, the success of pre-Columbian civilizations was closely coupled to areas of geo-ecological favorability, which were directly controlled by distinct regional impacts of large-scale circulation mechanisms, including El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Changes in the position of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and the Bolivian anticyclone determined meridional shifts in moisture transport across the Andes, which directly triggered human migration to the respective granaries.

  7. Population increases have not slowed down; Colorado saw even greater growth in 2001 and 2002. What is new

    E-print Network

    and on small-acreage parcels from 2 to 35 to even 100 acres. (The term "lot" is often found when looking of the Front Range, providing the landowners with, in their words, "the best of both worlds." For many, however make about building a home, using water, grazing livestock ­ even about taking care of their pets

  8. “I Saw it in the Movies”: Exploring the Link between Product Placement Beliefs and Reported Usage Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia R. Morton; Meredith Friedman

    2002-01-01

    Previous research in the area of product placement in movies has suggested that it may influence brand recognition, recall, attitudes, and acceptance of the placements in general. However, a limited number of studies have attempted to correlate audience beliefs toward product placements with subsequent purchase behaviors. This study presents an exploratory examination of the correlation between beliefs about product placement

  9. As we saw in the first two parts of this series, we can apply computer vision and image

    E-print Network

    Published by the IEEE Computer Society Artful Media Dorée Duncan Seligmann Avaya Labs David G. Stork Ricoh- ment, David Stork discusses how shapes can be described. He outlines the challenges in quantifying

  10. FEM simulation of Rayleigh waves for CMOS compatible SAW devices based on AlN/SiO?/Si(100).

    PubMed

    Kaletta, Udo Christian; Wenger, Christian

    2014-01-01

    A simulation study of Rayleigh wave devices based on a stacked AlN/SiO?/Si(100) device was carried out. Dispersion curves with respect to acoustic phase velocity, reflectivity and electromechanical coupling efficiency for tungsten W and aluminium Al electrodes and different layer thicknesses were quantified by 2D FEM COMSOL simulations. Simulated acoustic mode shapes are presented. The impact of these parameters on the observed Rayleigh wave modes was discussed. High coupling factors of 2% and high velocities up to 5000 m/s were obtained by optimizing the AlN/SiO? thickness ratio. PMID:23684473

  11. APPLICATION 2: NOUN PHRASE COREFERENCE In Chapter 4, we saw how cop-kmeans performed much better than the reg-

    E-print Network

    Wagstaff, Kiri L.

    the text means. For example, the fact that \\Mars" and \\the Red Planet" refer to the same entity by placing them into three separate groups. This document contains 74 #12; 75 [Human exploration] of [Mars [preparations] for [its] [first unmanned expeditions] to [the Red Planet] even before [that nation] launched

  12. The First Time Ever I Saw Your Feet: Inversion Effect in Newborns' Sensitivity to Biological Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardi, Lara; Regolin, Lucia; Simion, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Inversion effect in biological motion perception has been recently attributed to an innate sensitivity of the visual system to the gravity-dependent dynamic of the motion. However, the specific cues that determine the inversion effect in naïve subjects were never investigated. In the present study, we have assessed the contribution of the local…

  13. Defect detection of partially complete SAW and TIG welds using the ultrasonic time-of-flight diffraction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Shaun W.; Bonser, Gary R.

    1998-03-01

    An application of machine vision applied to the analysis of ultrasonic images formed using the time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD) method on incomplete weld geometries is described. The rationale of the work being to identify weld defects as soon as they are produced, thereby reducing the costs of any subsequent repairs. The analysis uses TOFD scans as input to a filtering and 'window' based variance operator for the segmentation of suspect defect areas inside the weld region. A suite of pc based software and a high temperature TOFD data acquisition system have been benchmarked through a series of demonstration trials on both 80mm thick carbon steel submerged arc welded testpieces, and 25mm thick carbon steel tungsten inert gas welded testpieces. The range of intentionally implanted defects, from root cracks to lack of side wall fusion, were detected with an overall accuracy of 79 percent on a data set of 174 defects on scans performed at 10-90 percent weld completion.

  14. Defect detection of partially complete SAW and TIG welds using the ultrasonic time-of-flight diffraction method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaun W. Lawson; Gary R. Bonser

    1998-01-01

    An application of machine vision applied to the analysis of ultrasonic images formed using the time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD) method on incomplete weld geometries is described. The rationale of the work being to identify weld defects as soon as they are produced, thereby reducing the costs of any subsequent repairs. The analysis uses TOFD scans as input to a filtering and

  15. "Such a smoking nation as this I never saw...": smoking, nationalism, and manliness in nineteenth-century Hungary.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco smoking became an important marker of Hungarian national identity during the nineteenth century. this national symbol ultimately had an economic origin: Hungarian tobacco producers resisted the tobacco monopoly of the Habsburg central government, and led an ultimately successful consumer boycott of Austrian products. Tobacco nationalism, however, became a common theme in Hungarian popular culture in its own right, as tobacco use came to symbolize community and fraternity. The use of tobacco was also highly gendered; smoking as a metaphor for membership shows that the Hungarian nation was a gender-exclusive "national brotherhood." PMID:20058399

  16. When was the last time you saw an isosurface with error bars or streamlines with standard devia-

    E-print Network

    Utah, University of

    differences and errors between two 3D visualizations only by printing the visualizations out on transparen, visualiza- tion research has ignored the visual representation of errors and uncertainty for 3D important to represent error and uncertainty in 2D and 3D visualization. The possible detriment caused

  17. The "See-saw" - A High-intensity Catfish Egg Incubator Designed to Save Space and Conserve Water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Catfish spawns (egg masses) have been incubated and hatched in much the same way for nearly a century. Spawns are placed in ¼”-mesh hardware cloth baskets suspended in metal troughs and water is circulated with paddles placed between the baskets. While this practical system has apparently worked wel...

  18. Attractancy to Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.), saw-toothed grain beetle, of extracts of carobs, some triglycerides, and related compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. O'Donnell; J. Chambers; S. M. McFarland

    1983-01-01

    A laboratory method has been devised for testing the attractancy of vapors to adultOryzaephilus surinamensis (L.). Of four solvent extracts prepared from pods of the carob tree [Ceratonia siliqua (L.)], all attractedO. surinamensis, but the least polar extract was the most active. Subdivision of extracts yielded a series of fractions, the most attractive of which contained a mixture of triglycerides

  19. TGfU--Would You Know It if You Saw It? Benchmarks from the Tacit Knowledge of the Founders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Joy

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the tacit expert knowledge and understanding about games curriculum and pedagogy of three men, Len Almond, David Bunker, and Rod Thorpe, credited as the founders of the Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) model. The model emerged from teacher practice in the late 1970s and was little theorized at the time, apart from a…

  20. Comparative Study on Cultivation and Yield Performance of Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) on Different Substrates (Wheat Straw, Leaves, Saw Dust)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2004-01-01

    The research experiment was carried out to investigate the cultivation of Oyster mushroom on different substrates. Mushroom cultivation is a profitable agribusiness. Incorporation of non conventional crops in existing agricultural system can improve the economic status of the farmer. Mushrooms are the source of protein, vitamins and minerals and are anticancerous, anticholesteral, and antitumorous. Sawdust produced highest yield, biological efficiency

  1. Chronic bacterial prostatitis: efficacy of short-lasting antibiotic therapy with prulifloxacin (Unidrox®) in association with saw palmetto extract, lactobacillus sporogens and arbutin (Lactorepens®)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bacterial prostatitis (BP) is a common condition accounting responsible for about 5-10% of all prostatitis cases; chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) classified as type II, are less common but is a condition that significantly hampers the quality of life, (QoL) because not only is it a physical condition but also a psychological distress. Commonly patients are treated with antibiotics alone, and in particular fluoroquinolones are suggested by the European Urology guidelines. This approach, although recommended, may not be enough. Thus, a multimodal approach to the prolonged antibiotic therapy may be helpful. Methods 210 patients affected by chronic bacterial prostatitis were enrolled in the study. All patients were positive to Meares-Stamey test and symptoms duration was?>?3 months. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of a long lasting therapy with a fluoroquinolone in association with a nutraceutical supplement (prulifloxacin 600 mg for 21 days and an association of Serenoa repens 320 mg, Lactobacillus Sporogens 200 mg, Arbutin 100 mg for 30 days). Patients were randomized in two groups (A and B) receiving respectively antibiotic alone and an association of antibiotic plus supplement. Results Biological recurrence at 2 months in Group A was observed in 21 patients (27.6%) and in Group B in 6 patients (7.8%). Uropathogens found at the first follow-up were for the majority Gram – (E. coli and Enterobacter spp.). A statistically significant difference was found at the time of the follow-up between Group A and B in the NIH-CPSI questionnaire score, symptoms evidence and serum PSA. Conclusions Broad band, short-lasting antibiotic therapy in association with a nutritional supplement (serenoa repens, lactobacillus sporogens and arbutin) show better control and recurrence rate on patients affected by chronic bacterial prostatitits in comparison with antibiotic treatment alone. Trial registration NCT02130713 Date of trial Registration: 30/04/2014 PMID:25038794

  2. Conformational analysis of annonaceous acetogenins in liposomal membranes and mono-acylglycerides from the berries of Serenoa repens (saw-palmetto)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroko Shimada

    1998-01-01

    Certain plant species belonging to the family Annonaceae produce Annonaceous acetogenins, which are a unique class of long-chain fatty acid derivatives with potent cytotoxicity. Putative targets of the acetogenins are membrane associated proteins including mitochondrial complex I. Asimicin, parviflorin, and longimicin B (compounds 1-3, respectively) belong to a class of Annonaceous acetogenins containing two tetrahydrofuran (THF) rings with hydrocarbon chains

  3. The Influence of Broadcast Tape-recorded Calls on Captures of Fall Migrant Northern Saw-whet Owls (Aegolius acadicus) and Long-eared Owls (Asio otus)

    E-print Network

    (Aegolius acadicus) and Long-eared Owls (Asio otus) David L. Evans1 Abstract.--Nocturnal netting operations the broadcast sessions, while captures of Long-eared Owls (Asio otus) decreased as much as 24 percent. Broadcast

  4. "We Actually Saw Atoms with Our Own Eyes": Conceptions and Convictions in Using the Scanning Tunneling Microscope in Junior High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margel, Hannah; Eylon, Bat-Sheva; Scherz, Zahava

    2004-01-01

    The feasibility and the potential contribution of the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) in junior high school (JHS) as an instructional tool for learning the particulate nature of matter is described. The use and power of new technologies can probably be demonstrated by the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM).

  5. Sorption of Zn(II) ion onto the surface of activated carbon derived from eucalyptus bark saw dust from industrial wastewater: isotherm, kinetics, mechanistic modeling, and thermodynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vishal Mishra; Chandrajit B. Majumder; Vijay K. Agarwal

    2012-01-01

    The activated carbon was derived from base (0.2?M NaOH)-mediated activation of biomass followed by thermal treatment at 1,123?K. The utmost metal ion uptake capacity and sorption percentage of activated carbon derived from eucalyptus biomass were 1.42?mmol?g and 93.42%, respectively. Freundlich isotherm model proved to be superior with higher linear correlation coefficient R ?=?0.96–0.98. Similarly, it was observed that pseudo-second-order reaction

  6. A review of the bipolar see-saw from synchronized and high resolution ice core water stable isotope records from Greenland and East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landais, A.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Stenni, B.; Selmo, E.; Roche, D. M.; Jouzel, J.; Lambert, F.; Guillevic, M.; Bazin, L.; Arzel, O.; Vinther, B.; Gkinis, V.; Popp, T.

    2015-04-01

    Numerous ice core records are now available that cover the Last Glacial cycle both in Greenland and in Antarctica. Recent developments in coherent ice core chronologies now enable us to depict with a precision of a few centuries the relationship between climate records in Greenland and Antarctica over the millennial scale variability of the Last Glacial period. Stacks of Greenland and Antarctic water isotopic records nicely illustrate a seesaw pattern with the abrupt warming in Greenland being concomitant with the beginning of the cooling in Antarctica at the Antarctic Isotopic Maximum (AIM). In addition, from the precise estimate of chronological error bars and additional high resolution measurements performed on the EDC and TALDICE ice cores, we show that the seesaw pattern does not explain the regional variability in Antarctic records with clear two step structures occurring during the warming phase of AIM 8 and 12. Our Antarctic high resolution data also suggest possible teleconnections between changes in low latitude atmospheric circulation and Antarctic without any Greenland temperature fingerprint.

  7. ESRP 285 Climate Chart Questions: Your Name _______________________________ You saw Figure 1 in class. It shows estimates of atmospheric CO2 in black, average earth

    E-print Network

    Ford, Andrew

    in class. It shows estimates of atmospheric CO2 in black, average earth temperature in red and sea level be much higher than normal every 100,000 yrs #12;5. Figure 1 shows the average earth temperature

  8. Jitter-Tolerance and Blocker-Tolerance of Delta-Sigma Analog-to-Digital Converters for Saw-Less Multi-Standard Receivers

    E-print Network

    Ahmed, Ramy 1981-

    2012-12-05

    . In this context, continuous-time (CT) delta-sigma (??) ADCs show up as an attractive option. CT ?? ADCs have gained significant attention in wideband receivers, owing to their amenability to operate at a higher-speed with lower power consumption compared...

  9. Dissolution-induced surface modifications and permeability changes associated with fluid flow through an abraded saw-cut in single crystal quartz

    E-print Network

    Bowman, James Albert

    1992-01-01

    dissolution channel. Each dissolution surface element represents a different stage in the evolution of a dissolving microcrack. Depending upon the initial depth of penetration of the crack, dissolution-modification of a crack follows one of two evolution... scenarios. Cracks penetrating deeper than about 10 )Jm acquire dissolution forms reflecting a crystallographic control on dissolution. Dissolving cracks widen by a combination of parallel retreat and "laying back" of the walls of the dissolution element...

  10. THE BLACK BOX As many of you saw in the "Talent Champions" video, the Talent Management Panel meetings are a critical and

    E-print Network

    ? Busted! Seriously, there was a fair amount of preparation required before the weeklong panel appreciation of the value of the survey information each senior executive had been asked to provide. Even

  11. MSK SAW tapped delay lines on LiTaO3 with moderate processing gain for CDMA indoor and mobile radio applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Weigell; C. Knorr; K. C. Wagner; L. Reindl; F. Seifert

    1995-01-01

    We report on the design and performance of two SAM MSK Tapped Delay Lines (TDLs) using PN code sequences of length 128 chips, As a substrate, LiTaO3 has been used due to the system requirements of a given CDMA\\/TDMA system. Center frequency, bandwidth of the major lobe, and integration time were 266.66 MHz, 65.7 MHz, and 3 ?s, respectively. TDL

  12. Neutralisation of Local Haemorrhage Induced by the Saw-Scaled Viper Echis carinatus sochureki Venom Using Ethanolic Extract of Hibiscus aethiopicus L.

    PubMed Central

    Hasson, S. S.; Al-Balushi, M. S.; Said, E. A.; Habbal, O.; Idris, M. A.; Mothana, R. A. A.; Sallam, T. A.; Al-Jabri, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate the anti-snake venom activities of a local plant, Hibiscus aethiopicus L. The H. aethiopicus was dried and extracted with ethanol. Different assays were performed according to standard techniques, to evaluate the plant's acute toxicity and its antivenom activities. The results of evaluating the systemic acute toxicity of the H. aethiopicus extract using “oral and intra-peritoneal” route were normal even at the highest dose (24?g/kg) tested. All guinea pigs (n = 3) when treated with venoms E. c. sochureki (75??g) alone induced acute skin haemorrhage. In contrast, all guinea pigs (n = 18) treated with both venom and the plant extract at a concentration between 500 and 1000?mg/kg showed no signs of haemorrhage. Moreover, all guinea pigs (n = 18) treated with venom and the plant extract below 400?mg/kg showed acute skin haemorrhage. All guinea pigs treated with venom E. c. sochureki (75??g) alone induced acute skin haemorrhage after both 24 and 32 hours. In contrast, all guinea pigs treated with both venom and the plant extract (administered independently) at concentrations between 500 and 1000?mg/kg showed no signs of haemorrhage after 32 hours. However, after 24 hours all tested guinea pigs showed less inhibition (<60%) compared to that obtained after 32 hours. The outcome of this study reflects that the extract of H. aethiopicus plant may contain an endogenous inhibitor of venom induced local haemorrhage. PMID:22666294

  13. Hindu nationalism and History of Science: some reflexions Agathe Keller, Laboratoire Sphere, ERC-SAW project, CNRS-Universit Paris 7, Paris, France

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    through Hinduism (which may be thought as a culture or a religion) against all the part of the indian the mark of their time in their will to modernise a revived and reinvented Hinduism with a mix of socialist analyzing quite in detail Breivik's manifesto's relation to Hinduism with a tinge of irony1. These articles

  14. "I Just Saw It as Something that Would Pull You Down, Rather than Lift You Up": Resilience in Never-Smokers with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawn, Sharon; Hersh, Deborah; Ward, Paul R.; Tsourtos, George; Muller, Robert; Winefield, Anthony; Coveney, John

    2011-01-01

    Self ConceptWhy people smoke despite the health risks is an important public health question. Equally important is why and how some people resist smoking in spite of circumstances that clearly place them at high risk of becoming smokers. This study used in-depth interviews to explore the narratives of 12 people diagnosed with mental illness, who…

  15. Comparative venom gland transcriptome surveys of the saw-scaled vipers (Viperidae: Echis) reveal substantial intra-family gene diversity and novel venom transcripts

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Venom variation occurs at all taxonomical levels and can impact significantly upon the clinical manifestations and efficacy of antivenom therapy following snakebite. Variation in snake venom composition is thought to be subject to strong natural selection as a result of adaptation towards specific diets. Members of the medically important genus Echis exhibit considerable variation in venom composition, which has been demonstrated to co-evolve with evolutionary shifts in diet. We adopt a venom gland transcriptome approach in order to investigate the diversity of toxins in the genus and elucidate the mechanisms which result in prey-specific adaptations of venom composition. Results Venom gland transcriptomes were created for E. pyramidum leakeyi, E. coloratus and E. carinatus sochureki by sequencing ~1000 expressed sequence tags from venom gland cDNA libraries. A standardised methodology allowed a comprehensive intra-genus comparison of the venom gland profiles to be undertaken, including the previously described E. ocellatus transcriptome. Blast annotation revealed the presence of snake venom metalloproteinases, C-type lectins, group II phopholipases A2, serine proteases, L-amino oxidases and growth factors in all transcriptomes throughout the genus. Transcripts encoding disintegrins, cysteine-rich secretory proteins and hyaluronidases were obtained from at least one, but not all, species. A representative group of novel venom transcripts exhibiting similarity to lysosomal acid lipase were identified from the E. coloratus transcriptome, whilst novel metallopeptidases exhibiting similarity to neprilysin and dipeptidyl peptidase III were identified from E. p. leakeyi and E. coloratus respectively. Conclusion The comparison of Echis venom gland transcriptomes revealed substantial intrageneric venom variation in representations and cluster numbers of the most abundant venom toxin families. The expression profiles of established toxin groups exhibit little obvious association with venom-related adaptations to diet described from this genus. We suggest therefore that alterations in isoform diversity or transcript expression levels within the major venom protein families are likely to be responsible for prey specificity, rather than differences in the representation of entire toxin families or the recruitment of novel toxin families, although the recruitment of lysosomal acid lipase as a response to vertebrate feeding cannot be excluded. Evidence of marked intrageneric venom variation within the medically important genus Echis strongly advocates further investigations into the medical significance of venom variation in this genus and its impact upon antivenom therapy. PMID:19948012

  16. In 2006 hIstory buffs celebrated the 200th anniversary of the moment when explorer Zebulon Pike first saw the mountain that would later bear his name.

    E-print Network

    Scheiber, Laura L.

    work- ing in the North American High Plains. A meeting ground of different geo- graphic regions of an area tucked between the Rocky Mountains and the vast interior Plains of North America. Here one at a broad scale, archaeologists have recently addressed cultural construction of the landscape as it shapes

  17. 3. Photocopied August 1975 from The Evolution of Modern Band ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopied August 1975 from The Evolution of Modern Band Saw Mills for Sawing Logs, Dewitt Clinton Prescott, 1910. VIEW OF BAND SAW. *NOTE* 4'x 5' NEGATIVE - Meadow River Lumber Company, Highway 60, Rainelle, Greenbrier County, WV

  18. Variable depth core sampler

    DOEpatents

    Bourgeois, Peter M. (Hamburg, NY); Reger, Robert J. (Grand Island, NY)

    1996-01-01

    A variable depth core sampler apparatus comprising a first circular hole saw member, having longitudinal sections that collapses to form a point and capture a sample, and a second circular hole saw member residing inside said first hole saw member to support the longitudinal sections of said first hole saw member and prevent them from collapsing to form a point. The second hole saw member may be raised and lowered inside said first hole saw member.

  19. Variable depth core sampler

    DOEpatents

    Bourgeois, P.M.; Reger, R.J.

    1996-02-20

    A variable depth core sampler apparatus is described comprising a first circular hole saw member, having longitudinal sections that collapses to form a point and capture a sample, and a second circular hole saw member residing inside said first hole saw member to support the longitudinal sections of said first hole saw member and prevent them from collapsing to form a point. The second hole saw member may be raised and lowered inside said first hole saw member. 7 figs.

  20. Effects of D-004, a lipid extract of the fruit of the Cuban royal palm ( Roystonea regia) or the lipidosterolic extract of saw palmetto ( Serenoa repens) on the sexual activity in male rats: A controlled, experimental study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lilia C. Fernández; Rosa Mas; Julio Fernández; Sarahí Mendoza; Rafael Gámez; Balia Pardo

    2008-01-01

    Background: The etiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is not completely understood, but hormonal changes in aging men seem to be pivotal. Dihydrotestosterone, a potent, active metabolite of testosterone, is formed by the enzymatic action of prostate 5?-reductase and causes cell growth and hyperplasia. Consistent with this action, male sexual dysfunction has been clinically documented to be among the drug-related

  1. About the Issue: Elective Delivery Prior to 39 Weeks of Gestation Between 1990 and 2006, the United States saw a 50% increase in deliveries at 37 to 38 weeks of

    E-print Network

    Rau, Don C.

    . American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 203, 124, e1-7.G. 3 4 http://www.marchofdimes.com/pregnancy/getready_atleast39weeks.html National Child and Maternal Health Education Program (NCMHEP). (no date). National Child and Maternal Health Education Program (NCMHEP) continuing medical education (CME) course: Raising awareness

  2. The NAO is a large-scale see-saw in atmospheric mass between the subtropical high located near the Azores and the sub-polar low near Iceland. An index can be

    E-print Network

    the Azores and the sub-polar low near Iceland. An index can be derived that tracks the behavior of the NAO Ocean The NAO is the dominant mode of winter climate variability in the North Atlantic region). The characteristic time scale of atmospheric circulation anomalies are only on the order of weeks. However, the ocean

  3. Extending the Vision: Three Women Who Saw the Future of Music Education--The Example and Words of Three MENC Presidents Can Still Inspire and Rally Our Profession Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freer, Patrick K.; Dansereau, Diana R.

    2007-01-01

    Twelve women have led MENC: The National Association for Music Education, including current president Lynn Brinckmeyer--six of them in the first fifty years of MENC's history. Frances Elliott Clark, known as the "Mother of the Conference," oversaw the founding of the Music Supervisors' National Conference (MSNC) in 1907 at a gathering in Keokuk,…

  4. 2×2 acousto-optical add\\/drop multiplexers utilizing tilted film-loaded strip SiO2 SAW waveguides in Ti:LiNbO3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. S. Jung; C. M. Kang; Y. S. Chung

    2003-01-01

    The implementation of acousto-optic add\\/drop multiplexers using SiO2 film loaded acoustic waveguide with angular offset to the Ti:LiNbO3 waveguide is presented. The 3 dB bandwidth and sidelobe suppression are 1.5 nm and less than -19 dB, respectively.

  5. UCPD Crime Alert Update: Arrests Made in Recent Robbery On 5/18/13 at 4:50pm a UCPD officer on patrol in the area of Rustin Ave. and the Sports Complex, saw a

    E-print Network

    UCPD Crime Alert Update: Arrests Made in Recent Robbery On 5/18/13 at 4:50pm a UCPD officer description in the robbery noted in the Crime Alert below sent on 5/17/13. UCPD officers stopped the vehicle in the area. Original Alert: UCPD Crime Alert- Cell Phone Taken from Victim at the Summer Meadows Apartments

  6. On December 26, 2004 the world saw yet again how strains built up over hundreds of years by slow and almost imperceptible motions of tectonic plates are released with devastating effect. A

    E-print Network

    Stein, Seth

    beneath the Indonesian island of Sumatra generated a massive sea wave that crossed the Indian Ocean in a few hours, wreaking destruction along seacoasts and causing at least 300,000 deaths. Geological Cause a much larger possible area of slow slip (light grey). Star denotes epi- center where rupture started

  7. DISTAL PROSODY INFLUENCES LEXICAL INTERPRETATION IN ON-LINE SENTENCE PROCESSING

    E-print Network

    DeAngelis, Gregory

    prosodic units (pan & da). Initial fixations to the competitor picture upon processing the target word saw that panda in the city zoo. CONTEXT TARGET CONTINUATION Heidi sometimes saw that panda in the city zoo heidi sometimes saw that panda in the city zoo Heidi sometimes saw that panda in the city zoo

  8. INNOVATIVE TECHNIQUE TO EVALUATE LINT CLEANER GRID BAR DESIGNS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Photographic techniques were used to show the path that fibers attached to a gin saw take as they are drawn over a lint cleaner cleaning grid bar. A 1979 study showed that fibers were swept backwards, closer to the saw, as saw speed increased. The angle between the tip of the saw tooth and the fib...

  9. Microfluidic pumping through miniaturized channels driven by ultra-high frequency surface acoustic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Shilton, Richie J., E-mail: richard.shilton@iit.it [Center for Nanotechnology Innovation @ NEST, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Piazza San Silvestro 12, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Travagliati, Marco [Center for Nanotechnology Innovation @ NEST, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Piazza San Silvestro 12, 56127 Pisa (Italy); NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, Piazza San Silvestro 12, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Beltram, Fabio [NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, Piazza San Silvestro 12, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Center for Nanotechnology Innovation @ NEST, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Piazza San Silvestro 12, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Cecchini, Marco, E-mail: marco.cecchini@nano.cnr.it [NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, Piazza San Silvestro 12, 56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2014-08-18

    Surface acoustic waves (SAWs) are an effective means to pump fluids through microchannel arrays within fully portable systems. The SAW-driven acoustic counterflow pumping process relies on a cascade phenomenon consisting of SAW transmission through the microchannel, SAW-driven fluid atomization, and subsequent coalescence. Here, we investigate miniaturization of device design, and study both SAW transmission through microchannels and the onset of SAW-driven atomization up to the ultra-high-frequency regime. Within the frequency range from 47.8 MHz to 754?MHz, we show that the acoustic power required to initiate SAW atomization remains constant, while transmission through microchannels is most effective when the channel widths w???10??, where ? is the SAW wavelength. By exploiting the enhanced SAW transmission through narrower channels at ultra-high frequencies, we discuss the relevant frequency-dependent length scales and demonstrate the scaling down of internal flow patterns and discuss their impact on device miniaturization strategies.

  10. Microfluidic pumping through miniaturized channels driven by ultra-high frequency surface acoustic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shilton, Richie J.; Travagliati, Marco; Beltram, Fabio; Cecchini, Marco

    2014-08-01

    Surface acoustic waves (SAWs) are an effective means to pump fluids through microchannel arrays within fully portable systems. The SAW-driven acoustic counterflow pumping process relies on a cascade phenomenon consisting of SAW transmission through the microchannel, SAW-driven fluid atomization, and subsequent coalescence. Here, we investigate miniaturization of device design, and study both SAW transmission through microchannels and the onset of SAW-driven atomization up to the ultra-high-frequency regime. Within the frequency range from 47.8 MHz to 754 MHz, we show that the acoustic power required to initiate SAW atomization remains constant, while transmission through microchannels is most effective when the channel widths w ? 10 ?, where ? is the SAW wavelength. By exploiting the enhanced SAW transmission through narrower channels at ultra-high frequencies, we discuss the relevant frequency-dependent length scales and demonstrate the scaling down of internal flow patterns and discuss their impact on device miniaturization strategies.

  11. Proceedings of the Low-Cost Solar Array Wafering Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, A. D.

    1982-01-01

    The technology and economics of silicon ingot wafering for low cost solar arrays were discussed. Fixed and free abrasive sawing wire, ID, and multiblade sawing, materials, mechanisms, characterization, and innovative concepts were considered.

  12. 7. INTERIOR VIEW, PATTERN MAKING WORK BENCH AREA WEST WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR VIEW, PATTERN MAKING WORK BENCH AREA WEST WALL LOOKING WEST LATHE ON LEFT DELTA BAND SAW LEFT, DELTA 6' JOINTS AND DELTA TABLE SAW ON RIGHT. - Knight Foundry, 13 Eureka Street, Sutter Creek, Amador County, CA

  13. Being Prepared for an Earthquake

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a Disaster Mold Allergies After a Disaster Preventing Chain Saw Injuries After a Disaster Handwashing Disaster Distress ... Cancer Safety for Workers at Disaster Sites Preventing Chain Saw Injuries During Tree Removal Electrical Safety and ...

  14. Preventing Violence After a Natural Disaster

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a Disaster Mold Allergies After a Disaster Preventing Chain Saw Injuries After a Disaster Handwashing Disaster Distress ... Cancer Safety for Workers at Disaster Sites Preventing Chain Saw Injuries During Tree Removal Electrical Safety and ...

  15. Applicability of Solar Airflow Windows

    E-print Network

    Hamed, M. S.; Friedrich, K.; Razaqpur, G.; Foo, S.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate prediction of the performance of Solar Air Windows (SAWs) operating in various climates under real conditions has not been investigated. This paper reports the results of numerical simulations of SAWs carried out using ANSYS-CFX considering...

  16. These are the steps we used to complete this experiment. Jan. 18, 2002

    E-print Network

    Rosen, I. Gary

    · Hack saw #12;· Screws · Liquid electrical tape · Ring terminals · Clinch terminal blocks Mar. 16 17 26. Cut graphite rods in half using a hack saw 27. Drilled hole, 1/2in in from the edge, using a 5

  17. 7 CFR 1944.405 - Authorized use of grant funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Purchase, lease, or maintenance of power or specialty tools such as a power saw, electric drill, sabre saw, ladders, and scaffolds, which are needed by the participating families. The participating families, however, are expected to provide their...

  18. STRICT INEQUALITIES FOR CONNECTIVE CONSTANTS

    E-print Network

    Grimmett, Geoffrey

    of Kesten's proof of the pattern theorem, see [21] and [25, Sect. 7.2]. Any n-step SAW in the smaller graph of SAWs. Whereas Kesten's proof and subsequent elaborations were directed at certain specific lattices

  19. 4. Photocopied August 1975 from The Evolution of Modern Band ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopied August 1975 from The Evolution of Modern Band Saw Mills for Sawing Logs, Dewitt Clinton Prescott, 1910. THREE-BLOCK LOG CARRIAGE. *NOTE* 4'x 5' NEGATIVE - Meadow River Lumber Company, Highway 60, Rainelle, Greenbrier County, WV

  20. 3-D images 11/17/2008 1 3-D Images.

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Peter

    a scatter of dots but when you relax your eyes in just the right way a 3-D image pops out? Well, the idea who "crossed" their eyes saw everything in front of the page and saw the white flowers as being students who saw it one way were unable see the other. A few could flip back and forth. Then I gave them

  1. A device for fabricating protein chips by using a surface acoustic wave atomizer and electrostatic deposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joon-Wan Kim; Yutaka Yamagata; Masaya Takasaki; Bum-Hwan Lee; Hitoshi Ohmori; Toshiro Higuchi

    2005-01-01

    We propose a new advanced fabrication method for protein chips using a surface acoustic wave atomizer and electrostatic deposition, named SAW-ED. A SAW atomizer is utilized in order to spray extremely small droplets, while the electrostatic force and shadow mask are used for collecting the charged particles onto the deposition substrate with the designed pattern. To estimate the quality of

  2. Influence of grid bar shape on field cleaner performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research has shown that the performance of sling-off type cleaning machines designed to remove foreign matter from harvested seed cotton is influenced by design factors such as grid bar to saw cylinder clearance, grid bar spacing, saw cylinder speeds, and saw cylinder arrangement. However, ...

  3. ENGINEERING & GINNING Feasibility of Applying Seedcotton Cleaning Principles to Lint Cleaning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gino J. Mangialardi Jr; W. Stanley Anthony

    2000-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers are cleaned at gins with saw-type lint cleaners to improve the market value, but the aggressive saws sometimes harm the quality of the fiber. Cleaners for seedcotton are less aggressive than saw-type cleaners. In an attempt to improve fiber quality during ginning, experiments were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of cleaning lint by applying principles

  4. Collection and Characterization of Aerosols from Metal Cutting Techniques Typically Used in Decommissioning Nuclear Facilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GEORGE J. NEWTON; MARK D. HOOVER; EDWARD B. BARR; BRIAN A. WONG; PAUL D. RITTER

    1987-01-01

    This study was designed to collect and characterize aerosols released during metal cutting activities typically used in decommissioning radioactively contaminated facilities. Such information can guide in the selection of appropriate control technologies for these airborne materials. Mechanical cutting tools evaluated included a multi-wheel pipe cutter, reciprocating saw, band saw, chop saw, and large and small grinding wheels. Melting-vaporization cutting techniques

  5. Exploring English Language Learners (ELL) Experiences with Scientific Language and Inquiry within a Real Life Context

    E-print Network

    Algee, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    pH, DO, Nitrates, and Phosphates) 4 Comment: We saw how the waterwater, types of animals we saw, etc) and used the kit to measure pH, DO, Nitrates, and Phosphates)water, types of animals we saw, etc) and used the kit to measure pH, DO, Nitrates, and Phosphates)

  6. Statistical analysis of kerf mark measurements in bone

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yishi; van de Goot, Frank R. W.; Gerretsen, Reza R. R.

    2010-01-01

    Saw marks on bone have been routinely reported in dismemberment cases. When saw blade teeth contact bone and the bone is not completely sawed into two parts, bone fragments are removed forming a channel or kerf. Therefore, kerf width can approximate the thickness of the saw blade. The purpose of this study is to evaluate 100 saw kerf widths in bone produced by ten saw types to determine if a saw can be eliminated based on the kerf width. Five measurements were taken from each of the 100 saw kerfs to establish an average thickness for each kerf mark. Ten cuts were made on 10 sections of bovine bone, five with human-powered saws and five with mechanical-powered saws. The cuts were examined with a stereoscopic microscope utilizing digital camera measuring software. Two statistical cumulative logistic regression models were used to analyze the saw kerf data collected. In order to estimate the prediction error, repeated stratified cross-validation was applied in analyzing the kerf mark data. Based on the two statistical models used, 70–90% of the saws could be eliminated based on kerf width. PMID:20652770

  7. 29 CFR 1926.304 - Woodworking tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...shall cover the saw to the depth of the teeth, except for the minimum arc required...shall cover the saw to the depth of the teeth, except for the minimum arc required...operator from flying splinters, broken saw teeth, etc., and will deflect sawdust...

  8. 29 CFR 1926.304 - Woodworking tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...shall cover the saw to the depth of the teeth, except for the minimum arc required...shall cover the saw to the depth of the teeth, except for the minimum arc required...operator from flying splinters, broken saw teeth, etc., and will deflect sawdust...

  9. GINNING A COTTON WITH A FRAGILE SEED COAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the interactions of saw and roller ginning with a variety that is known to have fragile seed coats. Three ginning treatments were investigated: 1) standard saw gin stand, 2) experimental saw gin stand with auxiliary rib guides, and 3) standard roller gin sta...

  10. Development of an air-bar lint cleaner

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saw-type lint cleaners are now the most common lint cleaners used at gins because of their higher cleaning efficiency. Saw-type lint cleaning improves the grade of the fiber and increases the market value for the farmer. However, during the cleaning process the saw-type lint cleaners damage fiber in...

  11. Teacher-Built Gauge Makes Power Tool Alignment Easy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betterini, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how to build and operate a LED gauge. Having this handy gauge makes checking the alignment on a variety of tools--table saw, band saw, jointer, miter saw--a snap. A parts list is included in this article. (Contains 1 figure and 8 photos.)

  12. Amplification and directional emission of surface acoustic waves by a two-dimensional electron gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Lei; Pipe, Kevin P.

    2015-01-01

    Amplification of surface acoustic waves (SAWs) by electron drift in a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) is analyzed analytically and confirmed experimentally. Calculations suggest that peak power gain per SAW radian occurs at a more practical carrier density for a 2DEG than for a bulk material. It is also shown that SAW emission with tunable directionality can be achieved by modulating a 2DEG's carrier density (to effect SAW generation) in the presence of an applied DC field that amplifies SAWs propagating in a particular direction while attenuating those propagating in the opposite direction.

  13. Modeling of a Surface Acoustic Wave Strain Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, W. C.; Atkinson, Gary M.

    2010-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center is investigating Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensor technology for harsh environments aimed at aerospace applications. To aid in development of sensors a model of a SAW strain sensor has been developed. The new model extends the modified matrix method to include the response of Orthogonal Frequency Coded (OFC) reflectors and the response of SAW devices to strain. These results show that the model accurately captures the strain response of a SAW sensor on a Langasite substrate. The results of the model of a SAW Strain Sensor on Langasite are presented

  14. Fresenius Kabi had an outstanding year in 2008. Once again we saw strong sales and earnings growth. The acquisitions of APP Pharmaceuticals and Dabur Pharma marked two important advances in our progress toward global market leadership in intravenously administered generic drugs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fresenius Kabi; Fresenius Helios; Fresenius Vamed

    2009-01-01

    Fresenius Kabi specializes in the therapy and care of chron- ically and critically ill patients, providing clinical nutrition, infusion therapies, and related medical devices. Our products cover the total range for patient care: emergency cases, dur- ing surgery, intensive care, hospital wards, and outpatient care. For infusion therapy, we provide infusion solutions, blood volume replacement products, and intravenously administered generic

  15. High frequency microfluidic performance of LiNbO3 and ZnO surface acoustic wave devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Y. J.; Lv, H. B.; Li, Y. F.; He, X. L.; Zhou, J.; Luo, J. K.; Zu, X. T.; Walton, A. J.; Fu, Y. Q.

    2014-07-01

    Rayleigh surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices based on 128° YX LiNbO3 and ZnO/Si substrates with different resonant frequencies from ˜62 MHz to ˜275 MHz were fabricated and characterized. Effects of SAW frequency and power on microfluidic performance (including streaming, pumping, and jetting) were investigated. SAW excitation frequency influenced the SAW attenuation length and hence the acoustic energy absorbed by the liquid. At higher frequencies (e.g., above 100 MHz), the SAW dissipated into liquid decays more rapidly with much shorter decay lengths. Increasing the radio frequency (RF) frequencies of the devices resulted in an increased power threshold for streaming, pumping, and especially jetting, which is attributed to an increased absorption rate of acoustic wave energy. ZnO SAW devices could achieve similar streaming, pumping, and jetting effects as well as frequency effect, although the SAW signals are relatively weaker.

  16. Field experience with various slicing methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoo, H. I.

    1982-01-01

    Wafer slicing using internal diameter (ID) saw, multiblade slurry (MBS) saw and multiwire slurry (MWS) saw techniques were evaluated. Wafer parameters such as bow, taper, and roughness which may not be important factors for solar cell fabrication, were considerably better for ID saw than those of the MBS and MWS saw. Analysis of add-on slicing cost indicated that machine productivity seems to be a major limiting factor for ID saw, while expendible material costs are a major factor for both MBS and MWS saw. Slicing experience indicated that the most important factors controling final wafer cost are: (1) silicon cost (wafer thickness + kerf loss); (2) add-on slicing cost, and (3) mechanical yield. There is a very strong interaction between these parameters, suggesting a necessity of optimization of these parameters.

  17. Surface acoustic wave devices on bulk ZnO crystals at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnusson, E. B.; Williams, B. H.; Manenti, R.; Nam, M.-S.; Nersisyan, A.; Peterer, M. J.; Ardavan, A.; Leek, P. J.

    2015-02-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices based on thin films of ZnO are a well established technology. However, SAW devices on bulk ZnO crystals are not practical at room temperature due to the significant damping caused by finite electrical conductivity of the crystal. Here, by operating at low temperatures, we demonstrate effective SAW devices on the (0001) surface of bulk ZnO crystals, including a delay line operating at SAW wavelengths of ? = 4 and 6 ?m and a one-port resonator at a wavelength of ? = 1.6 ?m. We find that the SAW velocity is temperature dependent, reaching v ? 2.68 km/s at 10 mK. Our resonator reaches a maximum quality factor of Qi ? 1.5 × 105, demonstrating that bulk ZnO is highly viable for low temperature SAW applications. The performance of the devices is strongly correlated with the bulk conductivity, which quenches SAW transmission above 200 K.

  18. Reduction of Transverse Surface Acoustic Wave Leakage in Resonator on Al/42° YX-LiTaO3 Substrate for High-Frequency Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, Tomoya; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Nakanishi, Hidekazu; Turunari, Tetsuya; Fujiwara, Joji

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a new structure for reducing the extent of transverse surface acoustic wave (SAW) leakage for the SAW resonator on a 42° YX-LiTaO3 substrate. Such leakage occurs from the interdigital region toward the busbar region in the SAW resonators. The new structure has a Ta2O5 film outside the interdigital region. This structure can make the SAW velocity in the busbar region lower than the velocity in the interdigital region. Therefore, the new structure could reduce the extent of leakage, and contribute to confine the SAW energy in the interdigital region. This structure was applied in SAW resonators and ladder-type SAW filters fabricated on a 42° YX-LiTaO3 substrate. The insertion loss could be improved by suppressing transverse SAW leakage. This technique could be applied to the fabrication of the filters and duplexers using leaky SAW on a 42° YX-LiTaO3 substrate, and the SAW devices could exhibit excellent performance.

  19. Surface Acoustic Waves: A Solution To Frequency Sorting Receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, D. E.; Arneson, S. H.; Hickernell, F. S.

    1981-02-01

    SAW technology is impacting the development of frequency sorting receivers for use in the modern electronic warfare (EW) environment. SAW delay lines and filters can address the typical problems of complexity, cost, size and weight of these receivers while maintaining a high performance level in signal processing. In this paper the application of SAW filters to frequency sorting receivers is discussed and two systems currently under development are described. Each receiver uses contiguous SAW filter banks as the basis for its frequency sorting functions. The two receivers have the common purpose of detecting and analyzing short pulses. They differ in their dynamic range and resolution capabilities. The use of SAW components in these receivers has achieved a high performance level and significantly reduced volume and weight. SAW components give promise of a low-cost, rugged and reliable receiver when manufactured in quantity.

  20. Comparison of Transmission Line Methods for Surface Acoustic Wave Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William; Atkinson, Gary

    2009-01-01

    Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) technology is low cost, rugged, lightweight, extremely low power and can be used to develop passive wireless sensors. For these reasons, NASA is investigating the use of SAW technology for Integrated Vehicle Health Monitoring (IVHM) of aerospace structures. To facilitate rapid prototyping of passive SAW sensors for aerospace applications, SAW models have been developed. This paper reports on the comparison of three methods of modeling SAWs. The three models are the Impulse Response Method (a first order model), and two second order matrix methods; the conventional matrix approach, and a modified matrix approach that is extended to include internal finger reflections. The second order models are based upon matrices that were originally developed for analyzing microwave circuits using transmission line theory. Results from the models are presented with measured data from devices. Keywords: Surface Acoustic Wave, SAW, transmission line models, Impulse Response Method.