Science.gov

Sample records for sber olevi kull

  1. The Kull IMC package

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, N A; Keen,N; Rathkopf, J

    1998-10-01

    We describe the Kull IMC package, and Implicit Monte Carlo Program written for use in A and X division radiation hydro codes. The Kull IMC has been extensively tested. Written in C++ and using genericity via the template feature to allow easy integration into different codes, the Kull IMC currently runs coupled radiation hydrodynamic problems in 2 different 3D codes. A stand-alone version also exists, which has been parallelized with mesh replication. This version has been run on up to 384 processors on ASCI Blue Pacific.

  2. Iceland: Eyjafjallajökull Volcano

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Eyjafjallajökull Volcano Ash Plume Particle Properties     ... satellite flew over Iceland's erupting Eyjafjallajökull volcano on April 19, 2010, its Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) ...

  3. Iceland: Eyjafjallajökull Volcano

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Ash from Eyjafjallajökull Volcano, Iceland Stretches over the North Atlantic   ... that occurred in late March 2010, the Eyjafjallajökull Volcano in Iceland began erupting again on April 14, 2010. The resulting ash ...

  4. A Tensor Hyperviscosity Model in Kull

    SciTech Connect

    Ulitsky, M

    2005-06-28

    A tensor artificial hyper-viscosity model has recently been added to the available list of artificial viscosities that one can chose from when running KULL. This model is based on the theoretical work of A. Cook and B. Cabot, and the numerical results of running the model in the high-order spectral/compact finite difference framework of the Eulerian MIRANDA code. The viscosity model is based on filtering a Laplacian or bi-Laplacian of the strain rate magnitude, and it was desired to investigate whether the formalism that worked so well for the MIRANDA research code could be carried over to an unstructured ALE code like KULL.

  5. Iceland: Eyjafjallajökull Volcano

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... 46-degree forward-viewing cameras of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano and its erupting ash plume. In addition to the main plume, there are ... is necessary to separate out wind and height (see  Volcano Plume Heights ). To view the image in 3-D, use red/blue glasses with ...

  6. Iceland: Eyjafjallajökull Volcano

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... height map   Ash from Iceland's Eyjafjallajökull volcano, viewed here in imagery from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer ... natural-color, nadir (vertical) view of the scene, with the volcano itself located outside the upper left corner of the image. The ash ...

  7. Iceland: Eyjafjallajökull Volcano

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... to capture a series of images of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano and its erupting ash plume. Figure 1 is a view from MISR's nadir ... The companion image, Figure 2, is a stereo anaglyph (see  Volcano Plume Heights Anaglyph ) generated from the nadir and 46-degree ...

  8. KULL Simulations of OMEGA Radiation Flow Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallman, J.; MacLaren, S.; Baker, K.; Amala, P.; Lewis, K.; Zika, M.

    2012-10-01

    The problem of radiation flow in a right circular cylinder is of interest for the verification and validation of radiation codes, which utilize several mechanisms for determining radiation transport (diffusion, discrete ordinates, and Monte Carlo). This flow is analogous to free molecular flow in a similar geometry.footnotetextE. Garelis and T.E. Wainwright. Phys. Fluids. 16, 4 (1973) A series of experiments were conducted on the OMEGA laser in cases with a low-density heated cylindrical wall. The experiments consisted of a 1.6 mm diameter gold hohlraum containing an on-axis 700 μm diameter SiO2 cylinder contained in an 80 μm thick carbon foam tube. Five shots panning three test cases were used: the nominal geometry described above (heated wall), the carbon tube replaced with solid gold, and a gold cap placed on the laser end of the cylinder assembly to block axial radiation flow. Simulations of each experimental target type were run with the KULL radiation code, and were used to compare the different radiation transport packages in KULL by employing synthetic diagnostics to match the experimental DANTE cavity radiation temperature time history and soft x-ray images taken by a streak camera imaging the far end of the hohlraum.

  9. KULL Simulations of OMEGA Radiation Flow Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallman, J.; MacLaren, S.; Baker, K.; Brunner, T.; Lewis, K.; Zika, M.

    2013-10-01

    The problem of radiation flow in a right circular cylinder is of interest for the verification and validation of radiation codes since the flow is analytically analogous to diffusive free molecular flow in a similar geometry. Experiments were conducted on the OMEGA laser utilizing a low-density heated-cylindrical-wall target. The targets consisted of a 1.6 mm diameter gold hohlraum containing an on-axis 700 μm diameter SiO2 cylinder inside an 80 μm thick Ta2O5 aerogel tube. The FY13 targets also feature ``light-pipe'' diagnostics to measure the progression of the radiation front inside the foam. Simulations were run with the KULL multi-physics code, employing a new laser ray-tracing package. Comparisons of synthetic diagnostics derived from code results to x-ray measurements of drive temperature and heat front propagation provide a methodology to constrain simulation models. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  10. KULL: LLNL's ASCI Inertial Confinement Fusion Simulation Code

    SciTech Connect

    Rathkopf, J. A.; Miller, D. S.; Owen, J. M.; Zike, M. R.; Eltgroth, P. G.; Madsen, N. K.; McCandless, K. P.; Nowak, P. F.; Nemanic, M. K.; Gentile, N. A.; Stuart, L. M.; Keen, N. D.; Palmer, T. S.

    2000-01-10

    KULL is a three dimensional, time dependent radiation hydrodynamics simulation code under development at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI), KULL's purpose is to simulate the physical processes in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) targets. The National Ignition Facility, where ICF experiments will be conducted, and ASCI are part of the experimental and computational components of DOE's Stockpile Stewardship Program. This paper provides an overview of ASCI and describes KULL, its hydrodynamic simulation capability and its three methods of simulating radiative transfer. Particular emphasis is given to the parallelization techniques essential to obtain the performance required of the Stockpile Stewardship Program and to exploit the massively parallel processor machines that ASCI is procuring.

  11. Kull ALE: II. Grid Motion on Unstructured Arbitrary Polyhedral Meshes

    SciTech Connect

    Anninos, P

    2002-02-11

    Several classes of mesh motion algorithms are presented for the remap phase of unstructured mesh ALE codes. The methods range from local shape optimization procedures to more complex variational minimization methods applied to arbitrary unstructured polyhedral meshes necessary for the Kull code.

  12. Earthshots: Satellite images of environmental change – Breiðamerkurjökull Glacier, Iceland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adamson, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In these false color Landsat images, vegetated land surfaces appear red. Snow and ice are white. The Vatnajökull glacier is the bright white area in the upper left. Outlet glaciers streak away from it toward the Atlantic Ocean in the lower right. Breiðamerkurjökull is the largest glacial tongue on Vatnajökull and is featured in the center of these images.

  13. Visualizing the Evolution of Eyjafjallajökull Ash Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Realmuto, V. J.; Prata, F.

    2010-12-01

    The closure of European airspace due to Eyjafjallajökull ash clouds provoked strong reactions from the airlines, government officials, travelling public and news media. These reactions underscore the need for effective communication of scientific concepts, data products, and model results. Computer animation techniques are well-suited for the visualization of dynamic three-dimensional phenomena, such as the evolution of Eyjafjallajökull ash clouds over Europe, and a wide variety of animation tools are available to scientists. However, authors have little control over the distribution, modification, and display of animations once they are released to the public. It is incumbent on the scientific community to ensure that the original products strike an optimum balance between scientific accuracy, clarity of message, and artistic license. In this presentation we explore techniques for visualizing changes in the concentrations of ash and height of the Eyjafjallajökull ash clouds on 16 and 17 April 2010. We derived estimates of ash concentration and cloud height from data acquired with the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI), which flies on the geostationary Meteosat-9 satellite. SEVIRI collects full-disk imagery every 15 minutes; and we used these data to track hourly changes in the composition and heights of the clouds. We compare map-based and volumetric visualizations of the Eyjafjallajökull clouds that portray the changes in the extent and configuration of restricted airspace resulting from changes in the guidelines governing the operations of commercial air traffic within volcanic ash clouds. Based on these comparisons, we evaluate the efficacy of these products for communication with technical and non-technical audiences.

  14. Eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull Volcano, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundsson, Magnús T.; Pedersen, Rikke; Vogfjörd, Kristín; Thorbjarnardóttir, Bergthóra; Jakobsdóttir, Steinunn; Roberts, Matthew J.

    2010-05-01

    The April 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano (Figure 1), located on Iceland's southern coast, created unprecedented disruptions to European air traffic during 15-20 April, costing the aviation industry an estimated $250 million per day (see the related news item in this issue). This cost brings into focus how volcanoes can affect communities thousands of miles away. Eyjafjallajökull rises to 1666 meters above sea level and hosts agricultural land on its southern slopes, with farms located as close as 7 kilometers from the summit caldera. In the past 1500 years, Eyjafjallajökull has produced four comparatively small eruptions. The eruption previous to 2010 began in December 1821 and lasted for over a year, with intermittent explosive activity spreading a thin layer of tephra (ash and larger ejected clasts) over the surrounding region. In contrast, the explosive 2010 eruption, sourced within the ice-capped summit of the volcano, so far is larger and characterized by magma of a slightly different composition. This may suggest that deep within the volcano, the 1821 magma source is mixing with new melt, or that residual melt from past intrusive events is being pushed out by new magma.

  15. Surges of outlet glaciers from the Drangajökull ice cap, northwest Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brynjólfsson, Skafti; Schomacker, Anders; Korsgaard, Niels J.; Ingólfsson, Ólafur

    2016-09-01

    Surface elevation and volume changes of the Drangajökull surge-type glaciers, Reykjarfjarðarjökull and Leirufjarðarjökull, were studied by comparing digital elevation models that pre-date and post-date their most recent surges. Annual glacier-frontal measurements were used to estimate average ice velocities during the last surge of the glaciers. The observations show a distinct ice discharge, most of which was from the upper reservoir areas, down to the receiving areas during the surges. The surface draw-down in the reservoir areas was usually 10-30 m during the surges, while the thickening of the receiving areas was significantly more variable, on the order of 10-120 m. Despite a negative geodetic net mass balance derived from the digital elevation models, the reservoir areas have been gaining mass since the surge terminations. This surface thickening along with considerable ablation of the receiving areas will most likely return the glacier surface profiles to the pre-surge stage. Our results indicate that (a) greatest surface thinning in the upper reservoir areas of Drangajökull rather than proximal to the equilibrium line during Vatnajökull surges and (b) development of Drangajökull surges that resembles Svalbard surge-type glaciers rather than Vatnajökull surge-type glaciers. The contrasting surge characteristics could be explained by differences in glacier geometry, topography and substratum of the Drangajökull and Vatnajökull surge-type glaciers.

  16. The Vetter-Sturtevant Shock Tube Problem in KULL

    SciTech Connect

    Ulitsky, M S

    2005-10-06

    The goal of the EZturb mix model in KULL is to predict the turbulent mixing process as it evolves from Rayleigh-Taylor, Richtmyer-Meshkov, or Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. In this report we focus on an example of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (which occurs when a shock hits an interface between fluids of different densities) with the additional complication of reshock. The experiment by Vetter & Sturtevant (VS) [1], involving a Mach 1.50 incident shock striking an air/SF{sub 6} interface, is a good one to model, now that we understand how the model performs for the Benjamin shock tube [2] and a prototypical incompressible Rayleigh-Taylor problem [3]. The x-t diagram for the VS shock tube is quite complicated, since the transmitted shock hits the far wall at {approx}2 millisec, reshocks the mixing zone slightly after 3 millisec (which sets up a release wave that hits the wall at {approx}4 millisec), and then the interface is hit with this expansion wave around 5 millisec. Needless to say, this problem is much more difficult to model than the Bejamin shock tube.

  17. NAME predictions of ash dispersion from Eyjafjallajökull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devenish, B.

    2010-12-01

    NAME (Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment) is the Met Office's operational dispersion model. It is a Lagrangian model which follows fluid particles through realistic flow fields provided by the Met Office's numerical weather prediction model. NAME was initially developed after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. It has evolved considerably since its inception, continues to do so and is now in its third version. Its functionality includes parameterisations of the subgrid variability; a variety of source types including dust and sea salt; sedimentation of solid particles; wet and dry deposition; buoyant plume-rise; chemical reactions; and radioactive decay. Concentration statistics are calculated by averaging over specified grid boxes. NAME is widely used both by the Met Office and other licensed users both operationally and as a research tool for applications ranging from pollution dispersion to the airborne spread of viruses such as bluetongue and foot-and-mouth disease. The Met Office is the London VAAC (Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre) with responsibility for the north-east Atlantic. As such, NAME was used to predict the evolution of the ash cloud from the recent eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland. In this presentation, NAME predictions are compared with a variety of observations including ground-based lidar measurements, aircraft measurements and satellite data. In addition, the results of a number of sensitivity studies will be presented including sensitivity to plume height, source strength, source shape, particle size and subgrid scale diffusion.

  18. New START, Eyjafjallajökull, and Nuclear Winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robock, Alan

    2010-11-01

    On 8 April 2010, U.S. president Barack Obama and Russian president Dmitry Medvedev signed the Treaty Between the United States of America and the Russian Federation on Measures for the Further Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms, committing the United States and Russia to reducing their nuclear arsenals to levels less than 5% of the maximum during the height of the cold war in the 1980s. This treaty is called “New START,” as it is a follow-on to the 1991 Strategic Arms Reductions Treaty (START). On 14 April 2010 the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland began an explosive eruption phase that shut down air traffic in Europe for 6 days and continued to disrupt it for another month. What do these two events have in common? Nuclear weapons, when targeted at cities and industrial areas, would start fires, producing clouds of sooty smoke. Volcanic eruptions emit ash particles and sulfur dioxide (SO2), which forms sulfate aerosols in the atmosphere. Thus, both the use of nuclear weapons and volcanic eruptions produce particles that can be transported large distances from the source and can affect weather and climate.

  19. The Drangajökull ice cap, northwest Iceland, persisted into the early-mid Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schomacker, Anders; Brynjólfsson, Skafti; Andreassen, Julie M.; Gudmundsdóttir, Esther Ruth; Olsen, Jesper; Odgaard, Bent V.; Håkansson, Lena; Ingólfsson, Ólafur; Larsen, Nicolaj K.

    2016-09-01

    Most glaciers and ice caps in Iceland experienced rapid deglaciation in the early Holocene, reaching a minimum extent during the Holocene Thermal Maximum. Here we present evidence of the Holocene glacial history from lake sediment cores retrieved from seven threshold lakes around the Drangajökull ice cap in the Vestfirðir peninsula, NW Iceland. The sediment cores show on/off signals of glacial meltwater activity, as minerogenic material deposited from glacial meltwater alternates with organic-rich material (gyttja) deposited without glacial meltwater. We base the chronology of the sediment cores on 14C ages and geochemical identification of key tephra layers with known ages. A 25-cm thick layer of the Saksunarvatn tephra in Lake Skorarvatn indicates that the northern part of the ice cap had reached a similar size as today or was smaller already by 10.2 cal kyr BP. However, 14C ages of lake sediment cores from the highlands southeast of Drangajökull suggest that this part of the ice cap was larger than today until 7.8-7.2 cal kyr BP. Even today, the Drangajökull ice cap has a different behavior than the main ice caps in Iceland, characterized by a very low glaciation limit. Because palaeoclimatic proxies show an early-mid Holocene temperature optimum in this part of Iceland, we suggest that the persistence of Drangajökull into the early Holocene and, possibly, also the entire Holocene was due to high winter precipitation.

  20. A preliminary geomorphological map from the Múlajökull drumlin field, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonsson, S. A.; Schomacker, A.; Benediktsson; Johnson, M.; Ingolfsson, O.

    2012-12-01

    The drumlin field in front of Múlajökull, a surge-type, outlet glacier from Hofsjökull in Iceland, is the only known active drumlin field (Johnson et al., 2010). The aim of this study is to further explore the distribution and formation of drumlins and drumlin fields in a modern glacial environment. We use data from Digital Elevation Models (DEMs), aerial imagery and field mapping. Here we present a preliminary geomorphological map based on remote sensing and fieldwork in 2010 and 2011. Geomorphological mapping of the drumlin field both with DEMs and ground proofing has revealed over 100 drumlins and a number of drumlinized ridges. The drumlins furthest from the present ice margin are broader and have lower relief than those closer to the ice. We suggest that this reflects an evolution of the drumlin form during recurrent surging. The drumlins farther away from the ice have experienced fewer surges than those that have just been uncovered due to present retreat of the ice margin. During successive surges, the drumlins become narrower and develop a higher relief. Reference: Johnson, M.D., Schomacker, A., Benediktsson, Í. Ö., Geiger, A. J., Ferguson, A. and Ingólfsson, Ó. 2010, Active drumlin field revealed at the margin of Múlajökull, Iceland: A surge-type glacier: Geology v. 38, p. 943-946.

  1. The Eyjabakkajökull glacial landsystem, Iceland: Geomorphic impact of multiple surges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schomacker, Anders; Benediktsson, Ívar Örn; Ingólfsson, Ólafur

    2014-08-01

    A new glacial geomorphological map of the Eyjabakkajökull forefield in Iceland is presented. The map covers c. 60 km2 and is based on high-resolution aerial photographs recorded in August 2008 as well as field checking. Landforms are manually registered in a geographical information system (ArcGIS) based on inspection of orthorectified imagery and digital elevation models of the area. We mapped subglacially streamlined landforms such as flutes and drumlins on the till plain, supraglacial landforms such as ice-cored moraine, pitted outwash, and concertina eskers, and ice-marginal landforms such as the large, multi-crested 1890 surge end moraine and smaller single-crested end moraines. The glaciofluvial landforms are represented by outwash plains, minor outwash fans, and sinuous eskers. Extramarginal sediments were also registered and consist mainly of old sediments in wetlands or locally weathered bedrock. Eyjabakkajökull has behaved as a surge-type glacier for 2200 years; hence, the mapped landforms originate from multiple surges. Landforms such as large glaciotectonic end moraines, hummocky moraine, long flutes, crevasse-fill ridges, and concertina eskers are characteristic for surge-type glaciers. The surging glacier landsystem of Eyjabakkajökull serves as a modern analog to the landsystems of terrestrial paleo-ice streams.

  2. The landscape architecture of the forefield of Eyjabakkajökull, a surge-type glacier in Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schomacker, A.; Benediktsson

    2012-12-01

    A new geomorphological map of the forefield of the Eyjabakkajökull surge-type glacier in Iceland is presented. The map is based on field mapping and aerial photography from 2008 that covers c. 58 km2, including the Eyjabakkajökull glacier tongue and its entire forefield. When viewed in the context of glacial landsystems, the map identifies landforms that can be regarded as characteristic of glacier surging; in particular, crevasse-fill ridges, concertina eskers, long flutings, hummocky and ice-cored moraines, pitted outwash plains, and glaciotectonic end moraines. In addition, landforms that are common for many glacial environments but less typical of surging, were also identified and mapped; specifically, kames, sinuous eskers, sandar, braided channels, and outwash fans. Eyjabakkajökull has experienced surges every 21-40 years during the past 2200 years; hence, the large-scale landscape architecture is likely a result of dozens of surges. However, the glacial sediments and landforms presently identified in the forefield result from the most recent and historically known surges of Eyjabakkajökull in 1890, 1931, 1938 and 1972. The association of sediments and landforms in the Eyjabakkajökull forefield is diagnostic of glacier surging and may serve as a modern analogue in palaeoglaciological reconstructions.

  3. The geomorphology and ground penetrating radar survey results of the Múlajökull and Þjórsárjökull surge-type glaciers, central Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karušs, Jānis; Lamsters, Kristaps; Běrziņš, Dāvids

    2015-04-01

    Múlajökull and Þjórsárjökull are surge-type outlet glaciers of the Hofsjökull ice cap, central Iceland (Björnsson et al., 2003). The forefield of Múlajökull comprises the active drumlin field of more than 110 drumlins (Johnson et al., 2010; Jónsson et al., 2014) and therefore is an excellent area for studies of glacial geomorphology, subglacial topography and ice structures. This work describes preliminary results obtained during the expedition to Múlajökull and Þjórsárjökull glaciers in August, 2014. In the research ground penetrating radar (GPR) Zond 12-e was used. GPR measurements were performed on both outlet glaciers using 38 MHz and 75 MHz antenna systems. During data acquisition 2000 ns time window was used, while length of profiles was determined using GPS device Garmin GPS-76. In total approximately 3 km of GPR profiles were recorded. GPR signals propagation speed in glacier ice was determined using reflections from internal meltwater channels of glacier. In obtained radarogramms it was possible to trace reflections from the glacier bed till depth of approximately 144 m as well as numerous prominent reflections from internal meltwater channels of glacier. In one of the obtained radarogramms possible subglacial channel below Múlajökull glacier was identified. Also feature of subglacial topography that resembles drumlin was identified. The area of abundant infiltrated water was distinguished close to the ice margin in the radarogramm obtained on Þjórsárjökull suggesting successive supraglacial meltwater infiltration towards glacier margin. During the field work numerous radial crevasses, supraglacial channels and moulins were observed in the marginal zone of Múlajökull. The forefield of Múlajökull mainly consist of subglacial landforms (drumlins, flutes and crevasse-fill ridges), end moraines and sandur plains. Flutes and crevasse-fill ridges were found superimposed on drumlins in places. Till macrofabric was measured close to the

  4. Coupling of Activity at Neighbouring Volcanoes in Iceland: Ground Deformation and Activity at the Bárðarbunga-Tungnafellsjökull and Eyjafjallajökull-Katla Volcano Pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parks, M.; Heimisson, E. R.; Sigmundsson, F.; Hooper, A. J.; Ofeigsson, B.; Vogfjord, K. S.; Arnadottir, T.; Dumont, S.; Drouin, V.; Bagnardi, M.; Spaans, K.; Hreinsdottir, S.; Friðriksdóttir, H. M.; Jonsdottir, K.; Guðmundsson, G.; Hensch, M.; Hjaltadottir, S.; Hjartardottir, A. R.; Einarsson, P.; Gudmundsson, M. T.; Hognadottir, T.; Lafemina, P.; Geirsson, H.; Sturkell, E.; Magnússon, E.

    2015-12-01

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) techniques are used to generate a time series of high-resolution deformation measurements, in the vicinity of two pairs of closely spaced volcanoes in Iceland: Bárðarbunga and Tungnafellsjökull, as well as Eyjafjallajökull and Katla. Following the declaration of Icelandic Volcanoes as a Permanent Geohazard Supersite in 2013, a considerable amount of SAR data was made available for both past and future satellite acquisitions, including new X-band images and historic C-band images. InSAR time series have been formed using these data and compared to other geodetic and microseismic measurements to determine the most likely processes responsible for recently observed deformation and/or seismicity. A comprehensive network of seismometers and continuous GPS stations are already deployed at these volcanoes and a series of campaign GPS measurements have been undertaken since 2010. We present an overview of the temporal variation in InSAR observations and these complementary field based measurements at Bárðarbunga and Tungnafellsjökull from 2014-2015 (covering the recent eruption at Holuhraun and contemporaneous slow collapse of the Bárðarbunga caldera), and Eyjafjallajökull and Katla volcanoes from 2010 onwards, after the 2010 explosive eruption of Eyjafjallajökull. We undertake a joint InSAR-GPS inversion using a Markov-chain Monte Carlo approach. The best-fit source geometries responsible for both the inflation of a 50 km long dyke and simultaneous deflation of the Bárðarbunga central volcano during the 2014-2015 unrest and eruption are found. Using these we calculate the stress changes associated with the Bárðarbunga deformation events and compare our results to the location of earthquake swarms in the vicinity of neighbouring Tungnafellsjökull, where seismic activity increased significantly following the onset of unrest at Bárðarbunga in August 2014. We also determine the optimal source parameters for

  5. An extreme wind erosion event of the fresh Eyjafjallajökull 2010 volcanic ash.

    PubMed

    Arnalds, Olafur; Thorarinsdottir, Elin Fjola; Thorsson, Johann; Waldhauserova, Pavla Dagsson; Agustsdottir, Anna Maria

    2013-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions can generate widespread deposits of ash that are subsequently subjected to erosive forces which causes detrimental effects on ecosystems. We measured wind erosion of the freshly deposited Eyjafjallajökull ash at a field site the first summer after the 2010 eruption. Over 30 wind erosion events occurred (June-October) at wind speeds > 10 m s(-1) in each storm with gusts up to 38.7 m s(-1). Surface transport over one m wide transect (surface to 150 cm height) reached > 11,800 kg m(-1) during the most intense storm event with a rate of 1,440 kg m(-1) hr(-1) for about 6½ hrs. This storm is among the most extreme wind erosion events recorded on Earth. The Eyjafjallajökull wind erosion storms caused dust emissions extending several hundred km from the volcano affecting both air quality and ecosystems showing how wind erosion of freshly deposited ash prolongs impacts of volcanic eruptions. PMID:23409248

  6. An extreme wind erosion event of the fresh Eyjafjallajökull 2010 volcanic ash

    PubMed Central

    Arnalds, Olafur; Thorarinsdottir, Elin Fjola; Thorsson, Johann; Waldhauserova, Pavla Dagsson; Agustsdottir, Anna Maria

    2013-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions can generate widespread deposits of ash that are subsequently subjected to erosive forces which causes detrimental effects on ecosystems. We measured wind erosion of the freshly deposited Eyjafjallajökull ash at a field site the first summer after the 2010 eruption. Over 30 wind erosion events occurred (June-October) at wind speeds > 10 m s−1 in each storm with gusts up to 38.7 m s−1. Surface transport over one m wide transect (surface to 150 cm height) reached > 11,800 kg m−1 during the most intense storm event with a rate of 1,440 kg m−1 hr−1 for about 6½ hrs. This storm is among the most extreme wind erosion events recorded on Earth. The Eyjafjallajökull wind erosion storms caused dust emissions extending several hundred km from the volcano affecting both air quality and ecosystems showing how wind erosion of freshly deposited ash prolongs impacts of volcanic eruptions. PMID:23409248

  7. Impact of the Eyjafjallajökull ash cloud: A newspaper perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Andrew J. L.; Gurioli, Lucia; Hughes, Elizabeth E.; Lagreulet, Sandra

    2012-09-01

    We carried out a content analysis of eight national newspapers published during a 10-day period spanning Eyjafjallajökull's 2010 air space closure. Our intent was to understand the amount and type of material published, and the contribution of volcanologists and emergency responders to this material. We selected the best selling broadsheets and tabloids from the UK, France, Italy and USA. A total area of 135,000 cm2 was devoted to Eyjafjallajökull. Of this, 33% dealt with social themes, followed by volcanological (24%), economic (17%), response (13%) and airline (8%) issues. If, however, we examine the sources providing information we find a very different situation. Altogether, 669 sources were cited as giving quotes, of which 33% were credited to the air industry, followed by public (22%), politicians (12%), volcanologists (9%), responders (8%) and economists (2%). We also recorded all word descriptors for the ash cloud and its effects, with a total of 5380 words being logged. Negative words were the most common, with stranded having the highest frequency (180); chaos appearing 57 times. Coverage, thus, tended to feature quotes from the air industry, and carry a negative air; at times being confusing and contradictory. This, coupled with the fact that volcanological pieces tended to be placed well down the reporting order, meant that the message was of a chaotic situation and response, the performance of those who could be ascribed blame, i.e., responsible government agencies, thus likely being perceived in a negative light.

  8. Vatnajökull meltwater discharge variability: a Holocene climate sensor in the Nordic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Striberger, J.; Björck, S.; Ingólfsson, Ó.; Kjær, K.; Sandgren, P.; Snowball, I.

    2009-04-01

    The Holocene glacial history of Vatnajökull and its many outlet glaciers is rather poorly known, even though it is one of the largest ice caps outside Antarctica and Greenland. Vatnajökull is positioned in the centre of the Nordic Seas, the region for North Atlantic Deep Water formation and it is influenced by humid-bearing cyclone systems from the southwest. Thus, it can be regarded as a sensor for a combination of different climatic driven processes. Lake Lögurinn (53 km2, 20 m a.s.l), situated northeast of Vatnajökull, is part of the drainage system of Eyjabakkajökull, one of the most conspicuous surging outlet glaciers of the ice cap. In addition to glacial meltwater, the lake also receives discharge from rivers that drain non-glaciated catchments. The mix of glacial and non-glacial suspension makes the sediments suitable for analyses of how the fluvial regime has varied over time and how this relates to meltwater discharge, fluvial discharge and general changes in climate and hydrology. A total of 17.8 m of sediment was obtained from the central part of the northernmost sub-basin in Lake Lögurinn at water depths of 38 and 16 m, respectively. The sediments are laminated in most parts of the sequence. 137Cs analyses of the surface core have confirmed that the laminated couplets are varves. Tephra horizons have been used as time markers throughout the sediments, and X-ray fluorescence and X-ray analyses as well as visual observations have been used in order to identify varves in the uppermost 3.8 m of the sequence. This section covers the time period AD 1262-2005. The sediment contains 610 varves for the periods AD 1262-1476 and AD 1603-2005 (a total of 618 years). A significant change in sedimentation rate is observed between AD 1477-1602 (from 5.9 mm/yr to 1.2 mm/yr). For this period only 18 varves are found. This abrupt change is likely related to a lower discharge rate, or to more turbulent conditions in the lake. The sedimentation rate of the

  9. Health effects following the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Carlsen, Hanne Krage; Hauksdottir, Arna; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur Anna; Gíslason, Thorarinn; Einarsdottir, Gunnlaug; Runolfsson, Halldor; Briem, Haraldur; Finnbjornsdottir, Ragnhildur Gudrun; Gudmundsson, Sigurdur; Kolbeinsson, Thorir Björn; Thorsteinsson, Throstur; Pétursdóttir, Gudrun

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The study aimed to determine whether exposure to a volcanic eruption was associated with increased prevalence of physical and/or mental symptoms. Design Cohort, with non-exposed control group. Setting Natural disasters like volcanic eruptions constitute a major public-health threat. The Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull exposed residents in southern Iceland to continuous ash fall for more than 5 weeks in spring 2010. This study was conducted during November 2010–March 2011, 6–9 months after the Eyjafjallajökull eruption. Participants Adult (18–80 years of age) eruption-exposed South Icelanders (N=1148) and a control population of residents of Skagafjörður, North Iceland (N=510). The participation rate was 72%. Main outcome measures Physical symptoms in the previous year (chronic), in the previous month (recent), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) measured psychological morbidity. Results The likelihood of having symptoms during the last month was higher in the exposed population, such as; tightness in the chest (OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.1 to 5.8), cough (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.7 to 3.9), phlegm (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.3 to 3.2), eye irritation (OR 2.9; 95% CI 2.0 to 4.1) and psychological morbidity symptoms (OR 1.3; 95% CI 1.0 to 1.7). Respiratory symptoms during the last 12 months were also more common in the exposed population; cough (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.6 to 2.9), dyspnoea (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.1 to 2.3), although the prevalence of underlying asthma and heart disease was similar. Twice as many in the exposed population had two or more symptoms from nose, eyes or upper-respiratory tract (24% vs 13%, p<0.001); these individuals were also more likely to experience psychological morbidity (OR 4.7; 95% CI 3.4 to 6.5) compared with individuals with no symptoms. Most symptoms exhibited a dose–response pattern within the exposed population, corresponding to low, medium and high exposure to the eruption. Conclusions 6–9 months after the Eyjafjallajökull

  10. Dynamic magma mixing revealed by the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmarsson, O.; Vlastelic, I.; Andreasen, R.; Bindeman, I.; Devidal, J.-L.; Moune, S.; Keiding, J. K.; Larsen, G.; Höskuldsson, A.; Thordarson, Th.

    2011-07-01

    Injection of basaltic magmas into silicic crustal holding chambers and subsequent mixing of the two components is a process that has been recognised since the late seventies to have resulted in explosive eruptions. Detailed reconstruction and assessment of the mixing process caused by such intrusion is now possible because of the exceptional time-sequence sample suite available from the tephra fallout of the 2010 summit eruption at Eyjafjallajökull volcano in South Iceland. From 14 to 19 April the tephra contains three glass types of basaltic, intermediate, and silicic compositions recording rapid magma mingling without homogenisation, involving evolved FeTi-basalt and dacite with composition identical to that produced by the 1821-1823 AD Eyjafjallajökull summit eruption. The time-dependent change in the magma composition suggests a binary mixing process with changing end-member compositions and proportions, or dynamic magma mixing. Beginning of May, a new injection of deep-derived basalt was recorded by deep seismicity, appearance of magnesium-rich olivine phenocrysts together with high sulphur output and presence of sulphide crystals. Thus the composition of the basaltic injection became more primitive and hotter with time prowoking changes in the silicic mixing end-member from pre-existing melt to the solid carapace of the magma chamber. Decreasing proportions of the mafic end-member with time in the erupted mixed-magma, demonstrate that injections of Mg-rich basalt was the motor of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull explosive eruption, and that its decreasing inflow terminated the eruption. Significant quantity of silicic magma is thus still present in the interior of the volcano. Our results show that detailed sampling during the entire eruption was essential for deciphering the complex magmatic processes at play, namely the dynamic magma mixing. Finally, the rapid compositional changes in the eruptive products suggest that magma mingling occurs on a timescale of

  11. Remobilization of silicic intrusion by mafic magmas during the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmarsson, O.; Vlastelic, I.; Andreasen, R.; Bindeman, I.; Devidal, J.-L.; Moune, S.; Keiding, J. K.; Larsen, G.; Höskuldsson, A.; Thordarson, Th.

    2011-12-01

    Injection of basaltic magmas into silicic crustal holding chambers and subsequent magma mingling or mixing is a process that has been recognised since the late seventies as resulting in explosive eruptions. Detailed reconstruction and assessment of the mixing process caused by such intrusion is now possible because of the exceptional time-sequence sample suite available from the tephra fallout of the 2010 summit eruption at Eyjafjallajökull volcano in South Iceland. Fallout from 14 to 19 April contains three glass types of basaltic, intermediate, and silicic compositions recording rapid magma mingling without homogenisation, involving evolved FeTi-basalt and silicic melt with composition identical to that produced by the 1821-1823 AD Eyjafjallajökull summit eruption. The time-dependent change in the magma composition suggests a binary mixing process with changing end-member compositions and proportions. Beginning of May, a new injection of primitive basalt was recorded by deep seismicity, appearance of Mg-rich olivine phenocrysts together with high sulphur dioxide output and presence of sulphide crystals. Thus, the composition of the basaltic injection became more magnesian and hotter with time provoking changes in the silicic mixing end-member from pre-existing melt to the solid carapace of the magma chamber. Finally, decreasing proportions of the mafic end-member with time in the erupted mixed-magma demonstrate that injections of Mg-rich basalt was the motor of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull explosive eruption, and that its decreasing inflow terminated the eruption. Significant quantity of silicic magma is thus still present in the interior of the volcano. Our results show that detailed sampling during the entire eruption was essential for deciphering the complex magmatic processes at play, i.e. the dynamics of the magma mingling and mixing. Finally, the rapid compositional changes in the eruptive products suggest that magma mingling occurs on a timescale of a few

  12. Using the Schur Complement to Reduce Runtime in KULL's Magnetic Diffusion Package

    SciTech Connect

    Brunner, T A; Kolev, T V

    2010-12-15

    Recently a Resistive Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) package has been added to the KULL code. In order to be compatible with the underlying hydrodynamics algorithm, a new sub-zonal magnetics discretization was developed that supports arbitrary polygonal and polyhedral zones. This flexibility comes at the cost of many more unknowns per zone - approximately ten times more for a hexahedral mesh. We can eliminate some (or all, depending on the dimensionality) of the extra unknowns from the global matrix during assembly by using a Schur complement approach. This trades expensive global work for cache-friendly local work, while still allowing solution for the full system. Significant improvements in the solution time are observed for several test problems.

  13. Charge mechanism of volcanic lightning revealed during the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arason, P.; Bennett, A. J.

    2010-12-01

    The second phase of the subglacial Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption in Iceland, 14 April - 23 May 2010, may have revealed its charge mechanism of volcanic lightning. During these almost 40 days, the eruption went through a few phases while the conditions of the surrounding atmosphere also changed, but at different times. We have collected various measurements related to volcanic lightning in Iceland during the last volcanic eruptions: Grímsvötn 1998, Hekla 2000, Grímsvötn 2004, and Eyjafjallajökull 2010. The previous three eruptions lasted only a few days each and the main lightning activity only for 1-2 days. Several processes have been proposed to explain the electrification of volcanic plumes, such as a) Magma-water interactions. Submarine and subglacial eruptions lead to magma-water interactions and explosive volcanism. Laboratory experiments show that such processes lead to charge generation with water droplets positively charged and the ash negatively. b) Magma pulveration. The break up or internal friction and collisions of fine grained dry material may lead to charge generation. c) Dirty thunderstorm. Conditions, especially vertical temperature profiles of the atmosphere control at what height the water droplets in the volcanic plume will freeze. Processes related to the freezing of cloud droplets are thought to be responsible for charge generation in meteorological thunderclouds. Such conditions in a volcanic plume may lead to charge generation, and ash in the plume may facilitate such meteorological processes. The most surprising change in the lightning activity during the Eyjafjallajökull eruption occurred on 11 May when there was no obvious change in the physical eruption character or strength. Before 11 May there was no lightning recorded by long range networks, but 11-20 May the lightning activity in the plume was intense, with the highest activity of the entire eruption on 16 May. The change in lightning activity on 11 May coincides with a

  14. Magnetic Fabrics and their Application to Basal Crevasse Fills, Flàajökull, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, W. R., Jr.; Hooyer, T.

    2014-12-01

    Long, linear features consisting of sediment and ice, approximately 100 m long and 20 cm wide, run transverse to the margin of Flàajökull, an outlet glacier of Vatnajökull Ice Cap. These features, interpreted as basal crevasse fills, are thought to have formed by debris and water injected into a void under pure tension or a combination of tension and shear in response to an ice pressure drop at the bed. The debris content of these basal crevasse fills are between 5 to 10% by volume. The formation of these basal crevasse fills is uncertain, because direct observation is difficult. To study these basal crevasse fills, we used the orientation of magnetic grains using anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) to guide us in understanding their kinematics. The AMS technique is superior over other fabric methods because a three-dimensional susceptibility ellipsoid is used to determine strain. We sampled two basal crevasse fills and obtained 86 ice core samples for AMS analyses. We also cut nine blocks of ice to determine the magnetic mineralogy, grain size of the magnetic carrier and c-axis orientation of the ice. The AMS results demonstrate that at one fill, the fabric was most likely formed by a combination of pure shear and simple shear. At the second site the AMS results were not well clustered possibly due to insufficient strain. Hysteresis and high temperature susceptibility tests indicate a magnetite carrier that was silt-sized or smaller. Thin sections used to evaluate c-axis fabrics display several multi-maximums that suggested that the fabric developed through recrystallization during deformation. It is inferred that grain scale processes reveal deformation by grain-boundary migration and grain nucleation. Magnetic particles appear to have behaved as passive markers following the March model (1932). Given this data set, we argue that the crevasse fills were formed by multiple processes including injection of turbid waters followed by in situ-freezing and

  15. Microbial communities in the subglacial waters of the Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland

    PubMed Central

    Thór Marteinsson, Viggó; Rúnarsson, Árni; Stefánsson, Andri; Thorsteinsson, Thorsteinn; Jóhannesson, Tómas; Magnússon, Sveinn H; Reynisson, Eyjólfur; Einarsson, Bergur; Wade, Nicole; Morrison, Hilary G; Gaidos, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Subglacial lakes beneath the Vatnajökull ice cap in Iceland host endemic communities of microorganisms adapted to cold, dark and nutrient-poor waters, but the mechanisms by which these microbes disseminate under the ice and colonize these lakes are unknown. We present new data on this subglacial microbiome generated from samples of two subglacial lakes, a subglacial flood and a lake that was formerly subglacial but now partly exposed to the atmosphere. These data include parallel 16S rRNA gene amplicon libraries constructed using novel primers that span the v3–v5 and v4–v6 hypervariable regions. Archaea were not detected in either subglacial lake, and the communities are dominated by only five bacterial taxa. Our paired libraries are highly concordant for the most abundant taxa, but estimates of diversity (abundance-based coverage estimator) in the v4–v6 libraries are 3–8 times higher than in corresponding v3–v5 libraries. The dominant taxa are closely related to cultivated anaerobes and microaerobes, and may occupy unique metabolic niches in a chemoautolithotrophic ecosystem. The populations of the major taxa in the subglacial lakes are indistinguishable (>99% sequence identity), despite separation by 6 km and an ice divide; one taxon is ubiquitous in our Vatnajökull samples. We propose that the glacial bed is connected through an aquifer in the underlying permeable basalt, and these subglacial lakes are colonized from a deeper, subterranean microbiome. PMID:22975882

  16. Stratigraphy and Morphology of Drumlins within the Múlajökull Active Drumlin Field, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benediktsson, I. O.; Jonsson, S. A.; Schomacker, A.; Johnson, M. D.; Ingolfsson, O.

    2014-12-01

    Our current understanding of drumlin formation is largely based on investigations of individual drumlins either within Pleistocene drumlin fields or within the forefields of contemporary glaciers, showing variable composition and structure resulting in different models for drumlin genesis. The stratigraphy and morphology of drumlins within the active drumlin field at the Múlajökull surge-type piedmont glacier, Iceland, have been studied in order to shed light on their formation. A total of 110 drumlins where mapped and measured and their internal stratigraphy and composition were documented in three exposures. The exposures all revealed several till units where the youngest till truncates the older ones on the flanks of the drumlins and at the proximal side. A geomorphological study shows that drumlins within the 1992 surge end moraine are relatively long and narrow whilst drumlins further away from the current ice margin are wider and slightly shorter. Three models are proposed to explain the stratigraphy and morphological evolution of the drumlins within the Múlajökull drumlin field. Firstly, we suggest that radial crevasses in the glacier terminus lead to spatial differences in normal pressure at the base so that deposition is favoured beneath and erosion in between the crevasses and, consequently, the crevasse pattern of the glacier controls the location of the drumlins. Secondly, sediment accumulating beneath the crevasses acts as an obstacle to the ice, which decreases the ice flow and facilitates sedimentation. Simultaneously and subsequently, the accumulation of sediments is shaped by the ice flow into a drumlin. Thirdly we conclude that the drumlins are evolving from being wide and low to in the distal part to narrow and high in the proximal part. The drumlins are then maintained and their relief increases as the glacier erodes the sides and the proximal end of the drumlin and drapes new till layer over the landform.

  17. Numerical modeling of Drangajökull Ice Cap, NW Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Leif S.; Jarosch, Alexander H.; Flowers, Gwenn E.; Aðalgeirsdóttir, Guðfinna; Magnússon, Eyjólfur; Pálsson, Finnur; Muñoz-Cobo Belart, Joaquín; Þorsteinsson, Þorsteinn; Jóhannesson, Tómas; Sigurðsson, Oddur; Harning, David; Miller, Gifford H.; Geirsdóttir, Áslaug

    2016-04-01

    Over the past century the Arctic has warmed twice as fast as the global average. This discrepancy is likely due to feedbacks inherent to the Arctic climate system. These Arctic climate feedbacks are currently poorly quantified, but are essential to future climate predictions based on global circulation modeling. Constraining the magnitude and timing of past Arctic climate changes allows us to test climate feedback parameterizations at different times with different boundary conditions. Because Holocene Arctic summer temperature changes have been largest in the North Atlantic (Kaufman et al., 2004) we focus on constraining the paleoclimate of Iceland. Glaciers are highly sensitive to changes in temperature and precipitation amount. This sensitivity allows for the estimation of paleoclimate using glacier models, modern glacier mass balance data, and past glacier extents. We apply our model to the Drangajökull ice cap (~150 sq. km) in NW Iceland. Our numerical model is resolved in two-dimensions, conserves mass, and applies the shallow-ice-approximation. The bed DEM used in the model runs was constructed from radio echo data surveyed in spring 2014. We constrain the modern surface mass balance of Drangajökull using: 1) ablation and accumulation stakes; 2) ice surface digital elevation models (DEMs) from satellite, airborne LiDAR, and aerial photographs; and 3) full-stokes model-derived vertical ice velocities. The modeled vertical ice velocities and ice surface DEMs are combined to estimate past surface mass balance. We constrain Holocene glacier geometries using moraines and trimlines (e.g., Brynjolfsson, etal, 2014), proglacial-lake cores, and radiocarbon-dated dead vegetation emerging from under the modern glacier. We present a sensitivity analysis of the model to changes in parameters and show the effect of step changes of temperature and precipitation on glacier extent. Our results are placed in context with local lacustrine and marine climate proxies as well

  18. Intrusion triggering of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull explosive eruption.

    PubMed

    Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Hreinsdóttir, Sigrún; Hooper, Andrew; Arnadóttir, Thóra; Pedersen, Rikke; Roberts, Matthew J; Oskarsson, Níels; Auriac, Amandine; Decriem, Judicael; Einarsson, Páll; Geirsson, Halldór; Hensch, Martin; Ofeigsson, Benedikt G; Sturkell, Erik; Sveinbjörnsson, Hjörleifur; Feigl, Kurt L

    2010-11-18

    Gradual inflation of magma chambers often precedes eruptions at highly active volcanoes. During such eruptions, rapid deflation occurs as magma flows out and pressure is reduced. Less is known about the deformation style at moderately active volcanoes, such as Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland, where an explosive summit eruption of trachyandesite beginning on 14 April 2010 caused exceptional disruption to air traffic, closing airspace over much of Europe for days. This eruption was preceded by an effusive flank eruption of basalt from 20 March to 12 April 2010. The 2010 eruptions are the culmination of 18 years of intermittent volcanic unrest. Here we show that deformation associated with the eruptions was unusual because it did not relate to pressure changes within a single magma chamber. Deformation was rapid before the first eruption (>5 mm per day after 4 March), but negligible during it. Lack of distinct co-eruptive deflation indicates that the net volume of magma drained from shallow depth during this eruption was small; rather, magma flowed from considerable depth. Before the eruption, a ∼0.05 km(3) magmatic intrusion grew over a period of three months, in a temporally and spatially complex manner, as revealed by GPS (Global Positioning System) geodetic measurements and interferometric analysis of satellite radar images. The second eruption occurred within the ice-capped caldera of the volcano, with explosivity amplified by magma-ice interaction. Gradual contraction of a source, distinct from the pre-eruptive inflation sources, is evident from geodetic data. Eyjafjallajökull's behaviour can be attributed to its off-rift setting with a 'cold' subsurface structure and limited magma at shallow depth, as may be typical for moderately active volcanoes. Clear signs of volcanic unrest signals over years to weeks may indicate reawakening of such volcanoes, whereas immediate short-term eruption precursors may be subtle and difficult to detect. PMID:21085177

  19. Spatial distribution of erosion and deposition during a glacier surge: Brúarjökull, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korsgaard, Niels J.; Schomacker, Anders; Benediktsson, Ívar Örn; Larsen, Nicolaj K.; Ingólfsson, Ólafur; Kjær, Kurt H.

    2015-12-01

    Time-series of digital elevation models (DEMs) of the forefield of the Brúarjökull surge-type glacier in Iceland were used to quantify the volume of material that was mobilized by the 1963-1964 surge. The DEMs were produced by stereophotogrammetry on aerial photographs from before the surge (1961) and after (1988 and 2003). The analysis was performed on two DEMs of Difference (DoDs), i.e., a 1961-2003 DoD documenting the impact of the surge and a 1988-2003 DoD documenting the post-surge modification of the juvenile surging glacier landsystem. Combined with a digital geomorphological map, the DoDs allow us to quantify the impact of the surge on a landsystem scale down to individual landforms. A total of 34.2 ± 11.3 × 106 m3 of material was mobilized in the 30.7-km2 study area as a result of the most recent surge event. Of these, 17.4 ± 6.6 × 106 m3 of the material were eroded and 16.8 ± 4.7 × 106 m3 were deposited. More than half of the deposited volume was ice-cored landforms. This study demonstrates that although the total mobilized mass volume is high, the net volume gain of ice and sediment deposited as landforms in the forefield caused by the surge is low. Furthermore, deposition of new dead-ice from the 1963-1964 surge constitutes as much as 64% of the volume gain in the forefield. The 1988-2003 DoD is used to quantify the melt-out of this dead-ice and other paraglacial modification of the recently deglaciated forefield of Brúarjökull.

  20. An analysis of options available for developing a common laser ray tracing package for Ares and Kull code frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Weeratunga, S K

    2008-11-06

    Ares and Kull are mature code frameworks that support ALE hydrodynamics for a variety of HEDP applications at LLNL, using two widely different meshing approaches. While Ares is based on a 2-D/3-D block-structured mesh data base, Kull is designed to support unstructured, arbitrary polygonal/polyhedral meshes. In addition, both frameworks are capable of running applications on large, distributed-memory parallel machines. Currently, both these frameworks separately support assorted collections of physics packages related to HEDP, including one for the energy deposition by laser/ion-beam ray tracing. This study analyzes the options available for developing a common laser/ion-beam ray tracing package that can be easily shared between these two code frameworks and concludes with a set of recommendations for its development.

  1. Observing the Calving Dynamics of Breiðamerkurjökull, Iceland, with Repeat UAV Aerial Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarosch, A. H.

    2014-12-01

    Since the summer of 2014, a cost-effective, fixed-wing UAV platform is used to map changes at the calving front of Breiðamerkurjökull, one of the largest outlet-glaciers of Vatnajökull, Iceland. The utilized wide angle camera (21 mm equivalent) delivers aerial images with a ground pixel resolution of approximately 18 cm, which are subsequently combined to digital elevation models (DEMs) mapping the calving front. Ground control points in the study area, measured with L1 phase GNSS receivers, are used to geo-locate the produced DEMs and ensure high quality co-registration between subsequent data sets. The 2 m wing span UAV platform is capable of 40 - 60 minutes of autonomous flight, guided by an open-source, open-hardware autopilot system (pixhawk.org) and thus can map rather large areas of the calving glacier. I will present results from the 2014 field season during which the calving front of Breiðamerkurjökull has been mapped repeatedly with data acquisition intervals ranging from hours to weeks. A lidar dataset from 2011 of the study region is used to validate the acquired DEM data and accuracy/precision statistics will be presented. I will also detail the UAV platform design, including instrumentation and flight mission planning.

  2. Array observations of seasonal seismic noise variations induced by glacier-fed rapids near Vatnajökull, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möllhoff, Martin; Eibl, Eva P. S.; Bean, Christopher J.; Vogfjörd, Kristin S.

    2016-04-01

    We analyse semi-continuous noise observed in seismic data from an array installed close to Lakagigar southwest of the Vatnajökull ice cap in Iceland. The noise appears in several distinct frequencies bands between 1 and 10 Hz. The bands have different spectral widths suggesting that several sources are acting simultaneously. The back azimuths obtained from array fk-analysis suggest that the observed noise originates mainly from rapids and waterfalls in Hverfisfljot, a glacial river originating from the glacial tongue Sidujökull in the southwest of Vatnajökull. This observation is supported by stream gauge measurements. The seismic noise is only observed between May and September when the water level exceeds a threshold value that lies above the relatively constant lower water level during the winter months. A more detailed analysis of noise back azimuth, noise slowness and the correlation between seismic noise and river level are expected to improve the understanding of water-flow induced seismic noise. This noise source has to be kept in mind when searching for suitable array locations as this overlaps the typical frequency band of e.g. volcanic or flood related tremor. Additionally the observations demonstrate that seismic array data can be useful to infer river states remotely.

  3. The drumlin field and the geomorphology of the Múlajökull surge-type glacier, central Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jónsson, Sverrir Aðalsteinn; Schomacker, Anders; Benediktsson, Ívar Örn; Ingólfsson, Ólafur; Johnson, Mark D.

    2014-02-01

    Here we present a new geomorphological map of the active drumlin field and the forefield of Múlajökull, a surge-type outlet glacier, Iceland. The map is based on aerial photographs taken in 1995 and LiDAR data recorded in 2008. Mapping was done using ArcGIS 10 software on orthorectified imagery, LiDAR data and digital elevation models. The mapped landforms were initially identified on the aerial imagery and LiDAR and then ground-checked in the field. We mapped subglacial, supraglacial, ice-marginal, periglacial, and glaciofluvial landforms. The geomorphology of the Múlajökull forefield is similar to that of the forefields of other surge-type glaciers in Iceland: with a highly streamlined forefield, crevasse-fill ridges, and series of glaciotectonic end moraines. However, the large number (i.e., 110) of drumlins forming the drumlin field is unique for modern Icelandic surge-type glaciers and, as yet, unique for contemporary glaciers in general. Also apparent is that the drumlins are wider and shorter in the distal part of the drumlin field and narrower and longer in the proximal part. Hence, the mapping reveals a development of the drumlins toward a more streamlined shape of the proximal landforms that have experienced more surges. The drumlins in the drumlin field are active, i.e., they form during the modern surges of Múlajökull.

  4. Volcanic ash particulate matter from the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption in dust deposition at Prague, central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navrátil, Tomáš; Hladil, Jindřich; Strnad, Ladislav; Koptíková, Leona; Skála, Roman

    2013-06-01

    Particles originating from the last major Eyjafjallajökull volcano eruption in April 2010 were subsequently found in settled dust samples collected in a suburban area of Prague, Czech Republic. These dust samples contained predominantly non-volcanic particulate matter of super-regional but mainly local origin. The highest proportion of the Eyjafjallajökull material recorded in the Prague daily dust samples reached 12% of the total lithic component mass. Volcanogenic particles, mostly glasses, were concentrated in particle size classes from 2.5 to 25 μm, but rare fragments of volcanic glasses up to 50 μm in diameter were also found. The most effective method for detection and identification of the volcanic ash particles were morpho-textural observations combined with energy dispersive and wavelength dispersive analysis of individual grains and X-ray powder diffraction. Because of the low percentage of volcanic ash particles in the total samples, the geochemical signal was rather weak although detectable in terms of selected trace elements and REE distributions. The mineralogy, particle size distributions, and geochemical compositions of the Prague samples were compared with reference materials sampled near the Eyjafjallajökull volcano.

  5. The impacts of the Öræfajökull eruption in AD 1362 and climate change on cultural landscape dynamics in the province of Öræfi south of Vatnajökull glacier, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigurmundsson, F.; Gísladóttir, G.; Erlendsson, E.

    2013-12-01

    Environmental changes can be attributed to both natural processes and human influences. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of volcanism and climate change on the development of land quality and cultural landscapes in the province of Öræfi in the Austur-Skaftafellssýsla district, south of Vatnajökull glacier, over the last 1100 years. Few areas in Iceland are as vulnerable to climate changes and volcanic eruptions as the region south of Vatnajökull glacier. The region has been repeatedly affected by tephra fallout from explosive eruptions, most notably the Öræfajökull eruption in AD 1362. This research employs historical written sources to investigate changes in the cultural and natural landscape. Historical and palaeoenvironmental data will be accumulated and stored in a database designed for the research, allowing data to be analyzed and presented on maps. Preliminary results show that from the onset of the settlement in the late 9th century until AD 1362 Öræfi was a wealthy, densely populated farming society, with many large farm estates and large number of livestock (cattle and sheep) sustained by the natural vegetation. The farm estates were 40 by the mid 14th century and the churches were four. The first records of land ownership show that the Church had accumulated the most valuable holdings in Öræfi shortly before the Öræfajökull volcanic eruption in AD 1362. Out of the 40 farm estates 12 belonged to the Church and on a national scale the churches in Öræfi were richer in livestock, sacramentals and missals compared to churches in other parts of Iceland. The Öræfajökull volcanic eruption in AD 1362 had devastating long term impact on the settlement and terrestrial ecosystem in Öræfi. The area was abandoned following the eruption and in the early 15th century only eight out of the 40 farm estates prior to the eruption were settled. The values of the estates shrunk dramatically as did the arable land. The number of churches

  6. Distal deposition of tephra from the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 summit eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, J. A.; Loughlin, S.; Rae, C.; Thordarson, T.; Milodowski, A. E.; Gilbert, J. S.; Harangi, S.; LukáCs, R.; HøJgaard, B.; ÁRting, U.; Pyne-O'Donnell, S.; MacLeod, A.; Whitney, B.; Cassidy, M.

    2012-09-01

    The 2010 Eyjafjallajökull lasted 39 days and had 4 different phases, of which the first and third (14-18 April and 5-6 May) were most intense. Most of this period was dominated by winds with a northerly component that carried tephra toward Europe, where it was deposited in a number of locations and was sampled by rain gauges or buckets, surface swabs, sticky-tape samples and air filtering. In the UK, tephra was collected from each of the Phases 1-3 with a combined range of latitudes spanning the length of the country. The modal grain size of tephra in the rain gauge samples was 25 μm, but the largest grains were 100 μm in diameter and highly vesicular. The mass loading was equivalent to 8-218 shards cm-2, which is comparable to tephra layers from much larger past eruptions. Falling tephra was collected on sticky tape in the English Midlands on 19, 20 and 21st April (Phase 2), and was dominated by aggregate clasts (mean diameter 85 μm, component grains <10 μm). SEM-EDS spectra for aggregate grains contained an extra peak for sulphur, when compared to control samples from the volcano, indicating that they were cemented by sulphur-rich minerals e.g. gypsum (CaSO4ṡH2O). Air quality monitoring stations did not record fluctuations in hourly PM10 concentrations outside the normal range of variability during the eruption, but there was a small increase in 24-hour running mean concentration from 21-24 April (Phase 2). Deposition of tephra from Phase 2 in the UK indicates that transport of tephra from Iceland is possible even for small eruption plumes given suitable wind conditions. The presence of relatively coarse grains adds uncertainty to concentration estimates from air quality sensors, which are most sensitive to grain sizes <10 μm. Elsewhere, tephra was collected from roofs and vehicles in the Faroe Islands (mean grain size 40 μm, but 100 μm common), from rainwater in Bergen in Norway (23-91 μm) and in air filters in Budapest, Hungary (2-6 μm). A map is

  7. Network resilience to real-world disasters: Eyjafjallajökull and 9/11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolley, Olivia; Thiemann, Christian; Grady, Daniel; Brockmann, Dirk

    2011-03-01

    We investigate the resilience of the the world-wide air transportation network (WAN) to the 9/11 terrorist attacks and the recent eruption of the volcano Eyjafjallajökull. Although both disasters caused wide-spread disruption, the number of airports that were closed and the volume of interrupted traffic were well below the percolation threshold predicted by the classical theory. In order to quantify and visualize network deformation before breakdown, we introduce a framework based on the increase in shortest-path distance and homogenization of shortest-path structure. These real-world disasters are a new type of disruption because the removal of all vertices (airports) is geographically compact. Our framework incorporates the dual perspective of individual airports and geopolitical regions to capture how the impact interacts with the sub-network structure.We find that real-world events have an impact signature which is qualitatively different from that of random or high-centrality attacks. Furthermore, we find that the network is more resilient to the 9/11 disaster, although it removed more airports and traffic than the volcanic ash-cloud. This is due to the network roles of Europe and North America. We discuss how regional roles influence resilience to a region's removal.

  8. How accurate are volcanic ash simulations of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dacre, Helen; Harvey, Natalie; Webley, Peter; Morton, Don

    2016-04-01

    In the event of a volcanic eruption the decision to close airspace is based on forecast ash maps, produced using volcanic ash transport and dispersion models. In this paper we quantitatively evaluate the spatial skill of volcanic ash simulations using satellite retrievals of ash from the Eyjafjallajökull eruption during the period from 7-16 May 2010. We find that at the start of this period, 7-10 May, the model (FLEXPART) has excellent skill and can predict the spatial distribution of the satellite retrieved ash to within 0.5°× 0.5° lat/lon. However, on the 10 May there is a decrease in the spatial accuracy of the model, to 2.5°× 2.5° lat/lon, and between 11-12 May the simulated ash location errors grow rapidly. On the 11 May ash is located close to a bifurcation point in the atmosphere, resulting in a rapid divergence in the modeled and satellite ash locations. In general, the model skill reduces as the residence time of ash increases. However, the error growth is not always steady. Rapid increases in error growth are linked to critical points in the ash trajectories. Ensemble modeling using perturbed meteorological data would help to represent this uncertainty and assimilation of satellite ash data would help to reduce uncertainty in volcanic ash forecasts.

  9. How accurate are volcanic ash simulations of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dacre, H. F.; Harvey, N. J.; Webley, P. W.; Morton, D.

    2016-04-01

    In the event of a volcanic eruption the decision to close airspace is based on forecast ash maps, produced using volcanic ash transport and dispersion models. In this paper we quantitatively evaluate the spatial skill of volcanic ash simulations using satellite retrievals of ash from the Eyjafjallajökull eruption during the period from 7 to 16 May 2010. We find that at the start of this period, 7-10 May, the model (FLEXible PARTicle) has excellent skill and can predict the spatial distribution of the satellite-retrieved ash to within 0.5° × 0.5° latitude/longitude. However, on 10 May there is a decrease in the spatial accuracy of the model to 2.5°× 2.5° latitude/longitude, and between 11 and 12 May the simulated ash location errors grow rapidly. On 11 May ash is located close to a bifurcation point in the atmosphere, resulting in a rapid divergence in the modeled and satellite ash locations. In general, the model skill reduces as the residence time of ash increases. However, the error growth is not always steady. Rapid increases in error growth are linked to key points in the ash trajectories. Ensemble modeling using perturbed meteorological data would help to represent this uncertainty, and assimilation of satellite ash data would help to reduce uncertainty in volcanic ash forecasts.

  10. Variations in hydration within perlitised rhyolitic lavas—evidence from Torfajökull, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denton, J. S.; Tuffen, H.; Gilbert, J. S.

    2012-04-01

    Perlitic fractures form due to the hydration of glassy, rhyolitic lavas. Perlitised lavas are also an important industrial commodity yet there has been little study on the mechanisms of outcrop perlitisation. Here the fracture populations, perlitisation and volatile concentrations of subglacial rhyolitic glassy facies have been studied adding a quantitative dimension to previous qualitative studies. Samples include hyaloclastite, perlitised and non-perlitised obsidian and microcrystalline rhyolite, which are all present in lava lobes at Torfajökull, Iceland. Fractures formed through cooling increase in spacing with increased distance inwards from the margins of lobes. The size distribution of perlitic beads is shown to follow a log-normal distribution. The degree of perlitisation and the total volatile content (measured using thermogravimetric analysis, TGA) of samples are shown to decrease with distance inwards from lobe margins. In general, increased perlitisation is accompanied by increased hydration although complexity exists within single outcrops. The elevated total volatile content of perlite is shown to be due to hydration by environmental water with the structural location of the water changing as total volatile content increases.

  11. THE 1890 SURGE END MORAINE AT EYJABAKKAJÖKULL, ICELAND: A RE-ASSESSMENT OF A CLASSIC GLACIOTECTONIC LOCALITY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benediktsson, I.; Schomacker, A.; Lokrantz, H.; Ingolfsson, O.

    2009-12-01

    This study reveals the glaciotectonic architecture and sequential evolution of the Eyjabakkajökull 1890 surge end moraines in Iceland. Based on morphological, geological and geophysical data from terrain cross-profiles, cross-sections and ground penetrating radar profiles, we demonstrate that three different models are required to explain the genesis of the Eyjabakkajökull moraines. Firstly, a narrow, single crested moraine ridge at the distal end of a marginal sediment wedge formed in response to decoupling of the subglacial sediment from the bedrock and associated downglacier sediment transport. Secondly, large lobate end-moraine ridges with multiple, closely spaced, narrow asymmetric crests formed by proglacial piggy-back thrusting. Thirdly, a new model shows that moraine ridges with different morphologies may reflect different members of an end-moraine continuum. This is true for the eastern and western parts of the Eyjabakkajökull moraines as they show similar morphological and structural styles which developed to different degrees. The former represents an intermediate member with décollement at 4-5 m depth and 27-33% shortening through multiple open anticlines that are reflected as moderately spaced symmetric crests on the surface. The latter represents an end member with décollement at about 27 m depth and 39% horizontal shortening through multiple high amplitude, overturned and overthrusted anticlines, appearing as broadly spaced symmetric crests. We propose that the opposite end member would be a moraine of multiple symmetric, wide open anticlinal crests of low amplitude. Our data suggest that the glacier coupled to the foreland to initiate the end-moraine formation when it had surged to within 70-190 m of its terminal position. This indicates a time frame of 2-6 days for the formation of the end moraines.

  12. Dynamics of three outlet glaciers on the Vatnajökull ice cap reconstructed through landsystem analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maclachlan, John; Lee, Rebecca; Eyles, Carolyn

    2016-04-01

    Landsystem analysis uses genetically related landform-sediment assemblages, known as landsystem tracts, as evidence in the reconstruction of the geomorphic evolution of a landscape and subsequently provides further insight into the morphogenetic record. When used in conjunction with sedimentological data, results from this methodology are used to inform models of the subglacial conditions through the movement characteristics of the overriding glacier. Ultimately landsystem analysis allows modern systems to be used as analogues for ancient systems, which in turn facilitates more accurate paleoenvironmental reconstruction of ancient glacial sediments. The proglacial till plains, consisting of subglacial, proglacial and supraglacial sediments and landforms of three outlet glaciers of the Vatnajökull Ice Cap in southeast Iceland were explored using a combination of remote sensing techniques, geospatial analysis and field investigations. The three glaciers selected for study (Svínafellsjökull, Skaftafellsjökull and Morsárjökull) are separated by small mountain ridges but lie within close spatial proximity, limiting climatic variability on their behavior but allowing for variability in local influences such as variability in valley morphology. Although the three glaciers are sourced by the same ice cap and are within close proximity there are wide variations in the type, distribution and scale of landforms in the proglacial region including the presence of streamlined features, the relative relief of the landforms, and sediment types. Initial mapping of the proglacial region of each glacier was performed using geospatial software to explore and analyze LiDAR data and aerial imagery obtained from the Icelandic Meteorological Office. A high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of the proglacial region of each glacier was created from these remotely sensed data to illustrate the spatial distribution and scale of landforms. These features were ground-checked using

  13. The magmatic system beneath Torfajökull volcano, Iceland: A combination of radar and seismic interferometric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, J.; Hooper, A. J.; Draganov, D.; Ruigrok, E.; Hanssen, R. F.; White, R. S.; Soosalu, H.

    2013-12-01

    Torfajökull is the largest silicic volcanic centre in Iceland; it erupts infrequently, with only two eruptions in the last 1200 years, the latest of which was over 5 centuries ago. However, ongoing seismicity, deformation and geothermal activity within its large caldera (18x12 km diameter) indicate the continued presence of a long-lasting magma chamber. Using radar interferometry (InSAR) time series we analyse the area covering Torfajökull volcano. In addition to displacements related to the tectonic spreading of the area, we detect a pattern of subsidence in the SW region of Torfajökull's caldera, on-going since at least 1993, at rates of up to ~13 mm yr-1. The data can be fit reasonably well using a model of a NE-SW oriented spheroidal body at ~5 km depth, undergoing a pressure decrease that is uniform in space and time. One potential interpretation for this deformation is therefore that it is due to the presence of a cooling magma chamber. The estimated surface displacements from InSAR can be used to constrain the pressure change. However, because the resolution of the inferred magma chamber is poor and the elastic/rheological properties are not known, we do not have a unique solution. More insight into the geometry and rock properties can be gained using seismic interferometry (SI); cross-correlation of natural signals can be used to generate seismic records that simulate active sources, allowing tomographic analysis. For the SI processing we use seismic data acquired during 2005 at 30 stations sparsely distributed around the Torfajökull area. We divide the ambient noise recorded at two stations in portions of 1h, cross-correlate the corresponding portions and then sum the correlated results. The result is a retrieved surface-wave part of the Green's function between the two stations. This is repeated between all pairs of stations. Careful assessment of the quality of the retrieved Green's functions for small time windows allows analysis of the microseism

  14. On-land distribution and modes of deposition of the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 tephra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, G.; Thordarson, T.; Hoskuldsson, A.; Gudmundsson, M. T.; Sverrisdottir, G.; Oddsson, B.; Oskarsson, B. V.; Jonsdottir, I.; Oladottir, B.; Thorsteinsson, T.; Hartley, M. E.; Meara, R.

    2010-12-01

    The 14 April-22 May 2010 eruption at the Eyjafjallajökull volcano, Iceland, unexpectedly caused widespread disruption to aviation in Europe. The principal reason for this disruption was the large proportion of fine ash generated by the eruption coupled with the atmospheric conditions at the time. Although plume dispersal could be depicted by atmospheric dispersal models, modelling of ash concentration and grain size distribution in the plume was difficult due to poorly defined input (i.e. source) parameters and limited knowledge of atmospheric ash-removal rates. Mapping and sampling of the eruption products is an essential undertaking for quantitative determination of critical eruption parameters (e.g. erupted magma volume, magma discharge) and underpin other research on an eruption. Three main phases are distinguished during the 39 day-long 2010 summit eruption: a) an initial subglacial phase followed by subaerial explosive activity on April 14, lasting about four days and featuring semi-continuous phreatomagmatic explosions; b) a two-week-long (19 April-3 May) phase of weak magmatic explosions and lava emission; and c) a renewed moderately intense, sustained Vulcanian-type activity lasting 21 days. The erupted magma was trachy-andesite. In the initial phase fragmentation was intense, with about 50% of the tephra falling 20-55 km from the vents being ash finer than 63 µm in diameter. This near-field deposition of extremely fine ash was induced by ash aggregation and hail-formation within the plume. In the second phase the tephra fallout was minor, characterized by highly vesicular contorted platy pumices ranging in size from coarse ash to medium lapilli. Phase 3 was marked by renewed generation of extremely fine ash, although significantly less than in the initial phase. The heaviest tephra fall was limited to the Eyjafjallajökull ice cap where maximum measured thickness of the tephra blanket outside of the vent ramparts is close to seven metres. The lowlands

  15. Seismic evidence of magma transport in Eyjafjallajökull during 2009-2010 (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hjaltadottir, S.; Vogfjord, K. S.

    2010-12-01

    The ice-capped central volcano Eyjafjallajökull in South-Iceland erupted in March and April 2010, after nearly 190 years of dormancy. Its last eruption occurred at the summit in 1821-23 and only two other eruptions are known during historic time in Iceland (last 1100 years). However, the volcano had shown signs of repeated magmatic activity since 1992, with the last intrusion episode occurring 10 years before the latest events. We have used relocated earthquakes recorded during 2009-2010 to track magma transport in the volcano during the recent intrusion and eruption episode. Only three major swarms were recorded in Eyjafjallajökull during the last 20 years. These occurred in 1994, 1996 and in 1999-2000. The 1996 swarm occurred at 20-25 km depth, near the Moho with no crustal uplift detected during the swarm, probably due to its great depth. However, the other two swarms occurred in the intermediate and upper crust and were accompanied by uplift centered at the southern flank caused by 4.5-6.5 km deep intrusions. The latest swarm activity began late in March 2009 when several deep earthquakes were recorded near the Moho. The swarm activity continued during June-August and was followed by a southward movement of a close GPS-station which indicated the formation of a new but small intrusion beneath the southern flank. After four quiet months the activity picked up again in late December. Similar to 1994, 1999 and 2009, the main activity was clustered approximately east of the summit at 9-11 km and 2-4 km depth. This pattern changed in late February when the seismicity partly migrated towards SSE, indicating the formation of a series of dykes at 4-9 km depth and again on 3 March with dramatic rise in intensity and the foci forming an E-W trending segment east of the main cluster. On 17 March the seismicity started to ascent towards the surface beneath the ice-cap but on 20 March the magma took a turn in the uppermost 2-3 km towards the first eruption site at the ice

  16. Characterization of Eyjafjallajökull volcanic ash particles and a protocol for rapid risk assessment

    PubMed Central

    Gislason, S. R.; Hassenkam, T.; Nedel, S.; Bovet, N.; Eiriksdottir, E. S.; Alfredsson, H. A.; Hem, C. P.; Balogh, Z. I.; Dideriksen, K.; Oskarsson, N.; Sigfusson, B.; Larsen, G.; Stipp, S. L. S.

    2011-01-01

    On April 14, 2010, when meltwaters from the Eyjafjallajökull glacier mixed with hot magma, an explosive eruption sent unusually fine-grained ash into the jet stream. It quickly dispersed over Europe. Previous airplane encounters with ash resulted in sandblasted windows and particles melted inside jet engines, causing them to fail. Therefore, air traffic was grounded for several days. Concerns also arose about health risks from fallout, because ash can transport acids as well as toxic compounds, such as fluoride, aluminum, and arsenic. Studies on ash are usually made on material collected far from the source, where it could have mixed with other atmospheric particles, or after exposure to water as rain or fog, which would alter surface composition. For this study, a unique set of dry ash samples was collected immediately after the explosive event and compared with fresh ash from a later, more typical eruption. Using nanotechniques, custom-designed for studying natural materials, we explored the physical and chemical nature of the ash to determine if fears about health and safety were justified and we developed a protocol that will serve for assessing risks during a future event. On single particles, we identified the composition of nanometer scale salt coatings and measured the mass of adsorbed salts with picogram resolution. The particles of explosive ash that reached Europe in the jet stream were especially sharp and abrasive over their entire size range, from submillimeter to tens of nanometers. Edges remained sharp even after a couple of weeks of abrasion in stirred water suspensions. PMID:21518890

  17. Atmospheric ice nuclei in the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic ash plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingemer, H.; Klein, H.; Ebert, M.; Haunold, W.; Bundke, U.; Herrmann, T.; Kandler, K.; Müller-Ebert, D.; Weinbruch, S.; Judt, A.; Wéber, A.; Nillius, B.; Ardon-Dryer, K.; Levin, Z.; Curtius, J.

    2012-01-01

    We have sampled atmospheric ice nuclei (IN) and aerosol in Germany and in Israel during spring 2010. IN were analyzed by the static vapor diffusion chamber FRIDGE, as well as by electron microscopy. During the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption of April 2010 we have measured the highest ice nucleus number concentrations (>600 l-1) in our record of 2 yr of daily IN measurements in central Germany. Even in Israel, located about 5000 km away from Iceland, IN were as high as otherwise only during desert dust storms. The fraction of aerosol activated as ice nuclei at -18 °C and 119% rhice and the corresponding area density of ice-active sites per aerosol surface were considerably higher than what we observed during an intense outbreak of Saharan dust over Europe in May 2008. Pure volcanic ash accounts for at least 53-68% of the 239 individual ice nucleating particles that we collected in aerosol samples from the event and analyzed by electron microscopy. Volcanic ash samples that had been collected close to the eruption site were aerosolized in the laboratory and measured by FRIDGE. Our analysis confirms the relatively poor ice nucleating efficiency (at -18 °C and 119% ice-saturation) of such "fresh" volcanic ash, as it had recently been found by other workers. We find that both the fraction of the aerosol that is active as ice nuclei as well as the density of ice-active sites on the aerosol surface are three orders of magnitude larger in the samples collected from ambient air during the volcanic peaks than in the aerosolized samples from the ash collected close to the eruption site. From this we conclude that the ice-nucleating properties of volcanic ash may be altered substantially by aging and processing during long-range transport in the atmosphere, and that global volcanism deserves further attention as a potential source of atmospheric ice nuclei.

  18. SEVIRI 4D-var assimilation analysing the April 2010 Eyjafjallajökull ash dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Anne Caroline; Elbern, Hendrik

    2016-04-01

    We present first results of four dimensional variational (4D-var) data assimilation analysis applying SEVIRI observations to the Eulerian regional chemistry and aerosol transport model EURAD-IM (European Air Pollution Dispersion - Inverse Model). Optimising atmospheric dispersion models in terms of volcanic ash transport predictions by observations is especially essential for the aviation industry and associated interests. Remote sensing satellite observations are instrumental for ash detection and monitoring. We choose volcanic ash column retrievals of the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) because as infrared instrument on the geostationary satellite Meteosat Second Generation it delivers measurements with high temporal resolution during day and night. The retrieval method relies on the reverse absorption effect. In the framework of the national initiative ESKP (Earth System Knowledge Platform) and the European ACTRIS-2 (Aerosol, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure) project, we developed new modules (forward and adjoint) within the EURAD-IM, which are able to process SEVIRI ash column data as observational input to the 4D-var system. The focus of the 4D-var analysis is on initial value optimisation of the volcanic ash clouds that were emitted during the explosive Eyjafjallajökull eruption in April 2010. This eruption caused high public interest because of air traffic closures and it was particularly well observed from many different observation systems all over Europe. Considering multiple observation periods simultaneously in one assimilation window generates a continuous trajectory in the phase space and ensures that past observations are considered within their uncertainties. Results are validated mainly by lidar (LIght Detection And Ranging) observations, both ground and satellite based.

  19. 3D-ambient noise Rayleigh wave tomography of Snæfellsjökull volcano, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obermann, Anne; Lupi, Matteo; Mordret, Aurélien; Jakobsdóttir, Steinunn S.; Miller, Stephen A.

    2016-05-01

    From May to September 2013, 21 seismic stations were deployed around the Snæfellsjökull volcano, Iceland. We cross-correlate the five months of seismic noise and measure the Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion curves to gain more information about the geological structure of the Snæfellsjökull volcano. In particular, we investigate the occurrence of seismic wave anomalies in the first 6 km of crust. We regionalize the group velocity dispersion curves into 2-D velocity maps between 0.9 and 4.8 s. With a neighborhood algorithm we then locally invert the velocity maps to obtain accurate shear-velocity models down to 6 km depth. Our study highlights three seismic wave anomalies. The deepest, located between approximately 3.3 and 5.5 km depth, is a high velocity anomaly, possibly representing a solidified magma chamber. The second anomaly is also a high velocity anomaly east of the central volcano that starts at the surface and reaches approximately 2.5 km depth. It may represent a gabbroic intrusion or a dense swarm of inclined magmatic sheets (similar to the dike swarms found in the ophiolites), typical of Icelandic volcanic systems. The third anomaly is a low velocity anomaly extending up to 1.5 km depth. This anomaly, located directly below the volcanic edifice, may be interpreted either as a shallow magmatic reservoir (typical of Icelandic central volcanoes), or alternatively as a shallow hydrothermal system developed above the cooling magmatic reservoir.

  20. Glacier retreat and projected river regime changes in the hydrologically highly-coupled Virkisjökull catchment, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flett, Verity; Kirkbride, Martin; Black, Andrew; Everest, Jez; MacDonald, Alan

    2016-04-01

    Virkisjökull, an outlet glacier of the Oræfajökull icecap in SE Iceland, currently has 60% glacier cover, though this is reducing due to glacier retreat. Intensive monitoring over the last 4 years includes measurement of measuring ice ablation, proglacial discharge, dye-tracing of flow pathways, and deployment of three automatic weather stations at altitudes up to 880 m. These data calibrate a distributed hydrological model (WaSIM) to project potential river regime during stages of glacier retreat. Results show: (1) glacier hypsometry sensitises the catchment to a disproportionately rapid increase in runoff as the snowline rises onto a gentle ice cap resulting in in a potential annual increase in river discharge of up to 37% (2) a dominantly channelized glacial drainage system in all seasons with a rapid runoff response to melt: englacial flow of 0.58 m s-1 is comparable to the proglacial river velocity; and (3) longer-term, reduced glacier cover and snow storage will lead to a discharge regime dominated by short-term precipitation events in all seasons, and a reduced influence of the seasonal meltwater discharge peak. The study demonstrates the importance of glacier hypsometry above the present ELA as an influence on catchment hydrological response to potential climate warming.

  1. Using data insertion with the NAME model to simulate the 8 May 2010 Eyjafjallajökull volcanic ash cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, K. L.; Watson, I. M.; Kristiansen, N. I.; Webster, H. N.; Thomson, D. J.; Dacre, H. F.; Prata, A. J.

    2016-01-01

    A data insertion method, where a dispersion model is initialized from ash properties derived from a series of satellite observations, is used to model the 8 May 2010 Eyjafjallajökull volcanic ash cloud which extended from Iceland to northern Spain. We also briefly discuss the application of this method to the April 2010 phase of the Eyjafjallajökull eruption and the May 2011 Grímsvötn eruption. An advantage of this method is that very little knowledge about the eruption itself is required because some of the usual eruption source parameters are not used. The method may therefore be useful for remote volcanoes where good satellite observations of the erupted material are available, but little is known about the properties of the actual eruption. It does, however, have a number of limitations related to the quality and availability of the observations. We demonstrate that, using certain configurations, the data insertion method is able to capture the structure of a thin filament of ash extending over northern Spain that is not fully captured by other modeling methods. It also verifies well against the satellite observations according to the quantitative object-based quality metric, SAL—structure, amplitude, location, and the spatial coverage metric, Figure of Merit in Space.

  2. Effects of Eyjafjallajökull Volcanic Ash on Innate Immune System Responses and Bacterial Growth in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Powers, Linda S.; Borcherding, Jennifer A.; Caraballo, Juan C.; Mudunkotuwa, Imali; Peate, David W.; Walters, Katherine; Thompson, Jay M.; Grassian, Vicki H.; Gudmundsson, Gunnar; Comellas, Alejandro P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: On 20 March 2010, the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull erupted for the first time in 190 years. Despite many epidemiological reports showing effects of volcanic ash on the respiratory system, there are limited data evaluating cellular mechanisms involved in the response to ash. Epidemiological studies have observed an increase in respiratory infections in subjects and populations exposed to volcanic eruptions. Methods: We physicochemically characterized volcanic ash, finding various sizes of particles, as well as the presence of several transition metals, including iron. We examined the effect of Eyjafjallajökull ash on primary rat alveolar epithelial cells and human airway epithelial cells (20–100 µg/cm2), primary rat and human alveolar macrophages (5–20 µg/cm2), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1) growth (3 µg/104 bacteria). Results: Volcanic ash had minimal effect on alveolar and airway epithelial cell integrity. In alveolar macrophages, volcanic ash disrupted pathogen-killing and inflammatory responses. In in vitro bacterial growth models, volcanic ash increased bacterial replication and decreased bacterial killing by antimicrobial peptides. Conclusions: These results provide potential biological plausibility for epidemiological data that show an association between air pollution exposure and the development of respiratory infections. These data suggest that volcanic ash exposure, while not seriously compromising lung cell function, may be able to impair innate immunity responses in exposed individuals. PMID:23478268

  3. Geomorphology and the Little Ice Age extent of the Drangajökull ice cap, NW Iceland, with focus on its three surge-type outlets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brynjólfsson, Skafti; Schomacker, Anders; Ingólfsson, Ólafur

    2014-05-01

    Detailed geomorphological maps from the forefields of three surging outlets of the Drangajökull ice cap, northwest Iceland, are presented. The maps are based on field studies in 2011-2013, high resolution orthorectified aerial photographs recorded in 2005-2006, and airborne LiDAR data from 2011. The maps cover an area of about 40-60 km2 each. Furthermore, we present an overview map that covers the area surrounding the Drangajökull ice cap. Landforms and sediments were manually registered in a geographic information system (ESRI ArcGIS 10). We mapped glacial landforms such as flutes, ice-sculpted bedrock, hummocky moraine, kame terraces, and moraines. Fluvial landforms include outwash plains/sandur, pitted sandur, and eskers. In addition raised beaches were mapped. The Little Ice Age (LIA) maximum extent of Drangajökull and its outlet glaciers are fingerprinted by surficial till deposits and freshly glacially scoured bedrock. Sediments distal to the LIA deposits were recorded and consist mainly of late Weichselian and early Holocene sediments and locally weathered bedrock. Periglacial activity is demonstrated by patterned ground, mainly occurring on the 500-700 m high plateaux, and three rock glaciers. At least 3-4 surge events are described from each of the outlet glaciers, occurring over the last three centuries. In contrast to most other surge-type outlets from Icelandic ice caps, the Drangajökull outlets are confined within valleys, which affect the forefield geomorphology. Glaciofluvial landforms, moraines, and a thin sheet of till with numerous boulders are characteristic for the forefields of the Drangajökull outlets.

  4. A 300 Year Surge History of the Drangajökull Ice Cap, Northwest Iceland: Surge Frequency and Little Ice Age Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brynjolfsson, S.; Schomacker, A.; Ingolfsson, O.; Gudmundsdottir, E. R.

    2014-12-01

    Over the last 300 years, each of the three surge-type outlet glaciers of the Drangajökull ice cap in north-west Iceland has surged 2-4 times. There is valuable historical information available on the surge frequencies since the Little Ice Age (LIA) maximum because of the proximity of the surging outlets, Reykjarfjarðarjökull, Leirufjarðarjökull and Kaldalónsjökull to farms and pastures. We have reconstructed the surge history of the Drangajökull ice cap, based on geomorphological mapping, sedimentary studies and review of historical records. Geomorphological mapping of the glacier forefields revealed twice as many end-moraines than previously recognized. This indicates a higher surge frequency than previously perceived. A clear relationship between the surge frequency and climate cannot be established, however, surges were more frequent during the 19th century and the earliest 20th century compared to the cool 18th century and the warmer late part of the 20th century. We have estimated the magnitude of the LIA maximum surge events by reconstruction of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) that can be compared with modern DEMs. As reference points for the digital elevation modelling we used the recently mapped lateral moraines and historical information on the exposure timing of nunataks. During the LIA maximum surge events the outlet glaciers extended 3-3.5 km further down-valley than at present. Their ice volumes were at least 2-2.5 km3 greater than after their most recent surges in the beginning of the 21st century.

  5. Weathering of the Öræfajökull 1362 and the Vatnaöldur 1477 tephra and their impact on soils south of Vatnajökull, SE-Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonatotzky, Theresa; Ottner, Franz; Gísladóttir, Guðrún

    2015-04-01

    Icelandic soils are highly influenced by volcanic activity and most have developed from igneous rocks of basaltic composition. Volcanism has impacted the settlement south of Vatnajökull since the area was colonised in the late 9th century AD. The most devastating eruption occurred in Öræfajökull volcano in 1362. The eruption was explosive and produced large amounts of rhyolitic tephra, which at present can be found in soil profiles as a light coloured layer with thickness of up to tens of cm. Another important tephra layer preserved in the soils of this area is the basaltic tephra from a Vatnaöldur eruption in 1477, within the Bárðarbunga volcanic system. We investigated two wetland sites in Kálfafell (64°10,749'N, 15°53,236'W) and Reynivellir (64°7,731'N, 16°3,245'W) in the lowlands close to the sea, south of Vatnajökull in SE-Iceland. The predominant climate in the study area is humid and mild with cool summers and mild winters with a mean annual temperature of approximately 5°C and a lot of precipitation. The soils can be classified as Histosols with a large quantity of organic matter and show clearly formed tephra layers. This provides a unique opportunity to study not only the weathering of tephra, but also the formation and development of soils originated from these tephra layers. Tephra and soil samples were analysed concerning their chemical properties, mineralogy and a special focus on the clay content. Complementary studies regarding the soil organic matter (SOM) were done and entered into the question of how the organic carbon is bound in the soil. We present the results of the weathering of the two different tephra layers and their contrasting mineralogy. In addition, the weathering and transformation of the minerals in the soils are presented. This approach enables comparison between the weathering behaviour of tephra of different composition and their impact on soil.

  6. Eyjafjallajökull2010 - The activity of the eruption plume during the first 2 weeks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigurősson, Árni; Pálmason, Bolli; Hlíőar Jensen, Esther; Petersen, Gudrun Nina; Björnsson, Halldór; Şorsteinsson, Hróbjartur; Arason, Şórőur

    2010-05-01

    On 14 April 2010 an eruption started in Eyjafjallajökull, in southern Iceland. This was an explosive eruption in the caldera, beneath the glacier. During the first two weeks the eruption went through two phases, an explosive phase with much tephra and ash production and a calmer phase with less productivity and some lava production. During the explosive phase 14-17 April, the plume altititude was about 5-7 km but occasionally increased up to 8 km height, there was lightning activity in the plume and the material produced was mainly ash and tephra. It is estimated that the production was peaked at about 750 tons/s. The local ash fall on 17 April was the worst by far for the local community to the south of the volcano as about a 1 km thick ash cloud flowed almost continuously from the volcano and over the region. During this phase the upper level winds over Iceland were strong, northwesterly 40-50 m/s, and the emitted ash was advected southeastward toward northwestern Europe. This caused major disruption in air traffic. During the second phase 18-29 April there was a reduced net output form the volcano, lava production was estimated as 10-30 tons/s and tephra and ash production of less than 10 tons/s. The height of the plume was estimated as 3-5 km. Local ash fall predictions were made for the areas within a 500 km radius from the eruption site and prediction maps published on the website of the Icelandic Met Office. Information on local ash fall were collected from synoptic weather stations but also from the general public and the media. An internet web registration form was made public and advertised. In 6 days 95 reports of ash fall were made. This information together with other ground observations and remote sense observations are important for validations of ash fall prediction, near field and far field, as well as ensuring that the impact of the volcanic eruption is well understood, in a geological, geophysical and biological sense but also the societal

  7. Reawakening of a volcano: Activity beneath Eyjafjallajökull volcano from 1991 to 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hjaltadóttir, Sigurlaug; Vogfjörd, Kristín S.; Hreinsdóttir, Sigrún; Slunga, Ragnar

    2015-10-01

    The ice-capped Eyjafjallajökull volcano, south Iceland, had been dormant for 170 years when the first signs of reawakening of the volcano were captured by seismic and geodetic measurements in 1994. These were the first clear observed signs of unrest followed by 16 years of intermittent magmatic unrest culminating in 2010 when two eruptions broke out on the flank and at the summit. We analyze seismic data from 1991 through 2008 and GPS data from 1992 to May 2009 to infer magma movements beneath the volcano. The relocated earthquakes reveal an overall pipe-like pattern northeast of the summit crater, sporadically mapping the pathway of magma from the base of the crust towards an intrusion in the upper crust. During the study period, three major seismic swarms were recorded. Two of them, in 1994 and 1999-2000, occurred in the upper and intermediate crust and accompanied crustal deformation centered at the southeastern flank. No uplift was detected during the 19- to 25-km-deep 1996 swarm, near the crust-mantle boundary, but the horizontal, ~ E-W oriented T-axes indicate a period of tension/opening, suggesting magma intruding up into the base of the crust. The GPS measured deformation during 1999-2000 can be modeled as intrusion of a horizontal, circular sill with volume of 0.030 ± 0.007 km3 at 5.0 ± 1.3 km depth. The less constrained 4.5- to 5-km-deep sill model for the 1994 episode indicates a three times smaller intruded volume (0.011 km3) than during 1999-2000. In the years between/following the intrusions, contraction was observed at the southeastern flank. The contraction from 2000.5 to 2009.3 can be fitted by a circular sill model with a volume contraction of - 0.0015 ± 0.0003 km3/year at 5.5 ± 2.0 km depth. The less well constrained model for 1994.7 to 1998.6 gives a volume contraction of -(0.0009-0.0010) km3 at a fixed depth of 5 km. The accumulated volume changes (~- 0.013 km3 for the second period, ~ 0.0037 km3 for the first period) are much larger than

  8. Seismogenic ';trapdoors' during magma intrusion at Eyjafjallajökull volcano, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, R. S.; Tarasewicz, J.; Brandsdottir, B.; Schonnman, C.

    2013-12-01

    Relocated earthquake hypocentres for >1000 microearthquakes that occurred prior to and during the 2010 fissure and summit eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland map out magma conduits from the upper mantle (30 km depth) to the surface. During the two weeks prior to the first, flank eruption, hypocentre locations lie predominantly in horizontally separated clusters at 3-4 km below sea level. They represent the filling with magma of an inflating sill beneath the eastern flank of the volcano, from which feeder dykes propagated laterally and vertically toward the flank eruption site three days prior to the eruption onset. The majority of events within some clusters of up to >100 earthquakes exhibit similar waveforms and identical patterns of P-wave first-motion polarities recorded across the monitoring network. In the clearest example, 104 out of 105 events in a single cluster appear to have the same source mechanism based on P-wave first-motion polarities and waveform similarity. These observations suggest that the clusters of similar events may comprise many earthquakes generated by source processes that have the same orientation of failure, perhaps even on the same rupture plane, in fixed locations that are repeatedly active. The epicentral clustering and similarity of source mechanisms suggest that much of the seismicity was generated at approximately static constrictions to magma flow in an inflating sill. These constrictions may act as a form of pressure valve or ';trapdoor' in the country rock, which ruptures when the melt pressure exceeds a critical level, then reseals after a pulse of melt has passed through. We infer that the magmatic intrusion causing the seismicity was likely to be a laterally inflating sill at 3-4 km depth, with seismogenic pinch-points occurring between aseismic compartments of the sill, or between adjacent magma lobes as they inflate. A second eruption followed from the summit, 8 km west of the first eruption site. During the

  9. A theoretical model of drumlin formation based on observations at Múlajökull, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iverson, Neal R.; McCracken, Reba; Zoet, Lucas; Benediktsson, Ívar; Schomacker, Anders; Johnson, Mark; Finlayson, Andrew; Phillips, Emrys; Everest, Jeremy

    2016-04-01

    Theoretical models of drumlin formation have generally been developed in isolation from observations in modern drumlin forming environments - a major limitation on the empiricism necessary to confidently formulate models and test them. Observations at a rare modern drumlin field exposed by the recession of the Icelandic surge-type glacier, Múlajökull, allow an empirically-grounded and physically-based model of drumlin formation to be formulated and tested. Till fabrics based on anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility and clast orientations, along with stratigraphic observations and results of ground penetrating radar, indicate that drumlin relief results from basal till deposition on drumlins and erosion between them. These data also indicate that surges cause till deposition both on and between drumlins and provide no evidence of the longitudinally compressive or extensional strain in till that would be expected if flux divergence in a deforming bed were significant. Over 2000 measurements of till density, together with consolidation tests on the till, indicate that effective stresses on the bed were higher between drumlins than within them. This observation agrees with evidence that subglacial water drainage during normal flow of the glacier is through channels in low areas between drumlins and that crevasse swarms, which reduce total normal stresses on the bed, are coincident with drumlins. In the new model slip of ice over a bed with a sinusoidal perturbation, crevasse swarms, and flow of subglacial water toward R-channels that bound the bed undulation during periods of normal flow result in effective stresses that increase toward channels and decrease from the stoss to the lee sides of the undulation. This effective-stress pattern causes till entrainment and erosion by regelation infiltration (Rempel, 2008, JGR, 113) that peaks at the heads of incipient drumlins and near R-channels, while bed shear is inhibited by effective stresses too high to allow

  10. Detection and characterization of volcanic ash plumes over Lille during the Eyjafjallajökull eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortier, A.; Goloub, P.; Podvin, T.; Deroo, C.; Chaikovsky, A.; Ajtai, N.; Blarel, L.; Tanre, D.; Derimian, Y.

    2013-04-01

    Routine sun-photometer and micro-lidar measurements were performed in Lille, northern France, in April and May 2010 during the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption. The impact of such an eruption emphasized significance of hazards for human activities and importance of observations of the volcanic aerosol particles. This paper presents the main results of a joint micro-lidar/sun-photometer analysis performed in Lille, where volcanic ash plumes were observed during at least 22 days, whenever weather conditions permitted. Aerosol properties retrieved from automatic sun-photometer measurements (AERONET) were strongly changed during the volcanic aerosol plumes transport over Lille. In most cases, the aerosol optical depth (AOD) increased, whereas Ångström exponent decreased, thus indicating coarse-mode dominance in the volume size distribution. Moreover, the non-spherical fraction retrieved by AERONET significantly increased. The real part of the complex refractive index was up to 1.55 at 440 nm during the eruption, compared to background data of about 1.46 before the eruption. Collocated lidar data revealed that several aerosol layers were present between 2 and 5 km, all originating from the Iceland region as confirmed by backward trajectories. The volcanic ash AOD was derived from lidar extinction profiles and sun-photometer AOD, and its maximum was estimated around 0.37 at 532 nm on 18 April 2010. This value was observed at an altitude of 1700 m and corresponds to an ash mass concentration (AMC) slightly higher than 1000 μg m-3 (±50%). An effective lidar ratio of ash particles of 48 sr was retrieved at 532 nm for 17 April during the early stages of the eruption, a value which agrees with several other studies carried out on this topic. Even though the accuracy of the retrievals is not as high as that obtained from reference multiwavelength lidar systems, this study demonstrates the opportunity of micro-lidar and sun-photometer joint data processing for deriving

  11. Detection and characterization of volcanic ash plumes over Lille during the Eyjafjallajökull eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortier, A.; Goloub, P.; Podvin, T.; Deroo, C.; Chaikovsky, A.; Ajtai, N.; Blarel, L.; Tanre, D.; Derimian, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Routine sun-photometer and micro-LIDAR measurements were performed in Lille, northern France, in April and May 2010 during the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption. The impact of such an eruption emphasized significance of hazards for human activities and importance of observarions of the volcanic aerosol particles. This paper presents the main results of a joint micro-LIDAR/sun-photometer analysis performed in Lille, where volcanic ash plumes were observed during at least 22 days, weather conditions permitting. Aerosol properties retrieved from automatic sun-photometer measurements (AERONET) were strongly changed during the volcanic aerosol plumes transport over Lille. In most cases, the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) was increased whereas Ångström exponent decreased thus indicating coarse mode dominance in the volume size distribution. Moreover, the retrieved by AERONET non spherical fraction was significantly increased. The Real part of the complex refractive index was up to 1.55 at 440 nm during the eruption time while typically was about 1.46 before the eruption. Collocated LIDAR data revealed that several aerosol layers were present between 2 and 5 km, all originating from Iceland region as confirmed by backward-trajectories. The volcanic ash AOD was derived from LIDAR extinction profiles and sun-photometer AOD, and was estimated of around 0.37 at 532 nm on 18 April 2010. This value was observed at an altitude of 1700 m and corresponded to an Ash Mass Concentration (AMC) slightly higher than 1000 μg m3 (±50%). The effective LIDAR Ratio of ash particles was 48 sr for 18 April during the early stages of the eruption, a value which agrees with several other studies carried out on this topic. Even though the accuracy of the retrievals is not as high as that obtained from reference multi-wavelength LIDAR systems, this study demonstrates the opportunity of micro-LIDAR and sun-photometer joint data processing for deriving volcanic AMC. It also outlines the fact that

  12. Ice cauldron formation during the initial phase of the Eyjafjallajökull eruption observed with an airborne SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnusson, E.; Gudmundsson, M. T.; Hognadottir, T.; Hoskuldsson, F.; Oddsson, B.

    2010-12-01

    We present images obtained by the Icelandic Coast Guard with an airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) during the first hours and days of the subglacial eruption in Eyjafjallajökull. Cloud cover obscured the summit from view in the first three days of the eruption. Under these circumstances the SAR, being weather independent and able to see through ash plumes, was a particularly valuable tool. It provided a record of temporal development of ice cauldrons formed in the 200 m thick ice cover in the caldera, the 50-100 m thick ice on the southern slopes and disruption due to flooding in the northward facing outlet glacier Gígjökull. The eruption started 14 April, 2010, at 1:30 AM. The eruption apparently remained subglacial for some hours but a small plume was observed by aircraft around 6 AM. The first SAR radar images were obtained at 8:55 and a record of images obtained until 10:42 reveal the early development of ice cauldrons providing unique detail in how the eruption breaks new holes in the ice surface, allowing accurate estimates of ice melting rates in an explosive eruption. Widening of the cauldron around the most active crater on the first day of the eruption was 20-25 m/hour, indicating that heat transfer from magma to the ice walls of the cauldron was of order 2 x 106 W m-2. This heat transfer rate reduced fast as the cauldrons reached a width of 300-400 m. The eruption site was repeatedly surveyed with the same SAR during the next days. The images demonstrate how the surface cauldrons evolved and how the center of the eruption activity moved during the second day of the eruption. During the first days of the eruption holes formed in the surface of the Gígjökull glacier outlet, where the roof of flood water channels collapsed. The SAR images allows further understanding on the flood water mechanism by revealing that many of these holes were formed by an intensive flash flood on the second day of the eruption, presumably by hydraulic fracturing when

  13. New land, new opportunitites. Vegetation succession and soil formation within the heterogenous moraines formed by the Skaftafellsjökull and Breiðamerkurjökull outlet glaciers in Southeast Iceland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilmundardóttir, Olga K.; Gísladóttir, Guðrún; Lal, Rattan

    2016-04-01

    Retreating glaciers expose heterogenous landscapes where primary vegetation succession becomes active. These glacier forelands are excellent sites to study the effects of landscape on vegetation establishment and the commencing soil formation. Where the location of the glacier terminus is known in time, a chronosequence can be established, thus allowing for assessing the role of time on both vegetation succession and soil development. In Iceland, glaciers have been more or less retreating since the end of the Little Ice Age in ~1890, exposing thick moraines mostly composed of ground basaltic material of volcanic origin. In a research from southeast Iceland, soil formation was studied in front of two outlet glaciers, Skaftafellsjökull and Breiðamerkurjökull, and the developing soil properties analyzed with regards to the age of the surface, vegetation, avifauna and topography. At Skaftafellsjökull, soils were sampled along three moraines of known age. The vegetation was dominated by mosses but dwarf shrubs and shrubs (willows and birch) characterized the older moraines. Vegetation cover and plant group cover was affected by the profile position (summit, shoulder, backslope, footslope, toeslope) and the shape of the topographic features (ridge, slope, depression). The cover was significantly greater in toeslopes and footslopes when compared to the backslopes and featured significantly more shrub cover. The vegetation cover was significantly denser in depressions than on ridges and slopes, predominantly comprising mosses and shrubs. On the other hand, macro-lichens predominated on ridges. The vegetation cover and soil properties showed the strongest relation between total vegetation cover, cover of mosses, macro-lichens and dwarf shrubs. The concentration of SOC, N and ammonium oxalate extractable Al increased significantly with increase in vegetation cover and showed similar trends of increase in the cover by mosses, macro-lichens and dwarf shrubs. Profile

  14. Using a two-step matrix solution to reduce the run time in KULL's magnetic diffusion package

    SciTech Connect

    Brunner, T A; Kolev, T V

    2010-12-17

    Recently a Resistive Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) package has been added to the KULL code. In order to be compatible with the underlying hydrodynamics algorithm, a new sub-zonal magnetics discretization was developed that supports arbitrary polygonal and polyhedral zones. This flexibility comes at the cost of many more unknowns per zone - approximately ten times more for a hexahedral mesh. We can eliminate some (or all, depending on the dimensionality) of the extra unknowns from the global matrix during assembly by using a Schur complement approach. This trades expensive global work for cache-friendly local work, while still allowing solution for the full system. Significant improvements in the solution time are observed for several test problems.

  15. Fractionation and Mobility of Thallium in Volcanic Ashes after Eruption of Eyjafjallajökull (2010) in Iceland.

    PubMed

    Karbowska, Bozena; Zembrzuski, Wlodzimierz

    2016-07-01

    Volcanic ash contains thallium (Tl), which is highly toxic to the biosphere. The aim of this study was to determine the Tl concentration in fractions of volcanic ash samples originating from the Eyjafjallajökull volcano. A sequential extraction scheme allowed for a study of element migration in the environment. Differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry using a flow measuring system was selected as the analytical method to determine Tl content. The highest average content of Tl in volcanic ash was determined in the fraction entrapped in the aluminosilicate matrix (0.329 µg g(-1)), followed by the oxidizable fraction (0.173 µg g(-1)). The lowest content of Tl was found in the water soluble fraction (0.001 µg g(-1)); however, this fraction is important due to the fact that Tl redistribution among all the fractions occurs through the aqueous phase. PMID:27209545

  16. Resolution for a local earthquake arrival time and ambient seismic noise tomography around the Eyjafjallajökull volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benediktsdóttir, Á.; Gudmundsson, Ö.; Tryggvason, A.; Bödvarsson, R.; Brandsdóttir, B.; Vogfjörd; K.; Sigmundsson, F.

    2012-04-01

    The explosive summit eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano from 14 April to end of May 2010 was preceded by an effusive flank eruption of the volcano (at Fimmvörðuháls) March 20th - April 12th. These eruptions culminated 18 years of recurrent volcanic unrest in the area, with extensive seismicity and high deformation rates since beginning of January 2010. A national network of seismic stations in Iceland (the SIL network), operated by he Icelandic Meteorological Office, monitored the precursors and development of the eruptions, in real time. We analyse a seismic dataset available from SIL stations in the vicinity of the eruption area, as well as data from additional portable stations that were deployed during a period of unrest in 1999 and just before and during the eruptions in 2010. The SIL system detected and located 2328 events between early March and late May 2010 in the area around Eyjafjallajökull. Here we present a preliminary evaluation of resolution for a local earthquake arrival time tomography. Adding the portable stations to the pre-existing SIL data set is crucial in order to identify more seismic events and improve the data coverage for tomography. We also present a resolution analysis for Ambient Seismic Noise Tomography (ASNT) in the area. In this method ambient seismic noise, recorded at two seismic stations, is cross-correlated. This band-limited approximation of the Green's function between two stations is used to estimate surface wave velocities. The fundamental assumptions underlying this method is that the noise is constructed from a randomly distributed wavefield, but this may be violated by volcanic tremor during the eruptions. We evaluate the robustness of inter-station correlograms as a function of time during the unrest period as well as their frequency content for evaluation of depth resolution. The results can be compared to constraints on magma movements inside the volcano based on interpretation of crustal deformation and

  17. Clastic injection dynamics during ice front oscillations: A case example from Sólheimajökull (Iceland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravier, Edouard; Buoncristiani, Jean-François; Menzies, John; Guiraud, Michel; Portier, Eric

    2015-06-01

    Soft-sediment deformation structures are being increasingly used as a tool for reconstructing palaeoenvironments and porewater pressure conditions in glacial settings. However, the potential of hydrofractures and clastic injections in the reconstruction of ice dynamics remains poorly constrained. This paper presents the results of a detailed study of a clastic injection network outcropping in the Sólheimajökull forefield (South Iceland). Sedimentological descriptions are combined with microscopic to macroscopic analyses of clastic injection geometries, sediment-fills, and cross-cutting relationships. The 250 m long and 20 m high exposure observed along the east flank of the proglacial braid plain displays alternating glaciofluvial sediments and subglacial tills, illustrating oscillations of the ice margins. These sediments are cross-cut by a dense network of injection composed of dykes propagating upward or downward, sills, and stepped sills. These clastic injections result from processes of hydrofracturing and the sediment-fills in these hydrofractures are generally laminated with an increase of grain-size towards the centre of the injections. These fracture-fill characteristics suggest multiple injection phases within the hydrofractures and an increase of porewater pressure over time. Five main generations of clastic injections showing different senses of propagation and dip directions are determined and are interpreted as forming in different environments. Per descensum clastic dykes dipping down ice demonstrate subglacial hydrofracturing underneath flowing-ice, while sills and per ascensum clastic dykes form in submarginal to marginal environments due to the decrease of ice overburden pressure. The integration of these results with the sedimentological characteristics allows the Holocene ice front oscillations of the Sólheimajökull to be reconstructed. This study demonstrates the importance of hydrofracture systems and their sediment-fills in the

  18. The 2010 Eyjafjallajökull and 2011 Grimsvötn ash plumes as seen by GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grapenthin, R.; Hreinsdottir, S.; Gudmundsson, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    The injection of a volcanic plume introduces a dynamic, localized, short-term heterogeneity in the atmosphere. Satellite-imagery based remote sensing techniques provide good spatial coverage for the detection of such plumes, but slow satellite repeat times (>30 minutes) and cloud cover can delay, if not entirely prevent, the detection. GPS, in turn, provides excellent temporal coverage, but requires favorable satellite-station-geometry such that the signal propagates through the plume if it is to be used for plume detection and analysis. Two methods exist to detect / analyze ash plumes with GPS: (a) Ash-heavy plumes result in signal dispersion and hence a lowered signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). A lowered SNR, recorded by some receivers, can provide useful information about the plume, such as location and velocity of ascent. These data can be evaluated directly as they are recorded by the receiver; without the need of solving for a receiver's position. (b) Wet plumes refract the GPS signals piercing the plume and hence induce a propagation delay. When solving for a receiver position GPS analysis tools do not model this localized phase delay effect and solutions for plume-piercing satellites do not fit the data well. This can be exploited for plume analysis such as the estimation of changes to the atmospheric refractivity index. We analyze GPS data of the ~2 month 2010 Eyafjallajökull erption and the week-long 2011 Grímsvötn eruption to infer a first order estimate of plume geometry and its progression. Using SNR and phase delay information, we evaluate the evolution of the partitioning of wet versus dry parts of the plume. During the GPS processing we iteratively solve for phase-delay and position and fix other parameters, hence reducing the mapping of least-squares misfit into position estimates and other parameters. Nearly continuous webcam imagery provides independent observations of first-order plume characteristics for the Eyafjallajökull event.

  19. Time Scale of Gas Accumulation before the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull Eruption (Iceland) from 210Po Radioactive Excess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmarsson, O.

    2015-12-01

    The 2010 mildly explosive eruption at Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland, produced mingled tephra of benmoreitic and trachytic composition whereas alkali basalt was emitted during preceding flank eruption. Tephra of the first explosive phase are composed of three glass types, alkaline rhyolite, mixed benmoreite, and basalt. The early formed benmoreitic tephra (erupted on 15 and 17 April 2010) had large 210Po in excess of 210Pb [(210Po/210Pb)0= 1.88)] at the time of eruption, and possibly a small 210Pb excess over its parent 226Ra. In contrast, the preceding flank eruption produced basalt with (210Po)0 = 0, upon eruption, and the final trachyte (end of May 2010) had lost most of its 210Po during open-system degassing. The 210Po excess in the first erupted benmoreites is interpreted to result from 210Po degassing of basaltic magma and the accumulation of 210Po-enriched gas, either in the upper part of the basaltic intrusion, below the rhyolite-basalt interface, on in the pre-existing residual rhyolitic magma chamber. A model of radon and polonium accumulation in the rhyolitic reservoir, allows calculating the ratio of mass of basalt magma degassing over mass of magma accumulating excess gas. This ratio decreased from 20 to 15 over 2 days, implying zoned magma reservoir, with the uppermost and gas-richest part erupted first. The duration of pre-eruptive gas accumulation in this model is approximately one year. This corresponds closely to the initiation of a seismic swarm beneath Eyjafjallajökull, early June 2009, which was the first pre-eruptive signal detected. The coincidence between initiation of gas accumulation at relatively shallow depth and deeper seismicity strongly suggests that the excess gas phase originated from a basalt magma batch intruded at depth, and that this gas phase reached the surface approximately a year later.

  20. Profiling of fine and coarse particle mass: case studies of Saharan dust and Eyjafjallajökull/Grimsvötn volcanic plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansmann, A.; Seifert, P.; Tesche, M.; Wandinger, U.

    2012-10-01

    The polarization lidar photometer networking (POLIPHON) method introduced to separate coarse-mode and fine-mode particle properties of Eyjafjallajökull volcanic aerosols in 2010 is extended to cover Saharan dust events as well. Furthermore, new volcanic dust observations performed after the Grimsvötn volcanic eruptions in 2011 are presented. The retrieval of particle mass concentrations requires mass-specific extinction coefficients. Therefore, a review of recently published mass-specific extinction coefficients for Saharan dust and volcanic dust is given. Case studies of four different scenarios corroborate the applicability of the profiling technique: (a) Saharan dust outbreak to central Europe, (b) Saharan dust plume mixed with biomass-burning smoke over Cape Verde, and volcanic aerosol layers originating from (c) the Eyjafjallajökull eruptions in 2010 and (d) the Grimsvötn eruptions in 2011. Strong differences in the vertical aerosol layering, aerosol mixing, and optical properties are observed for the different volcanic events.

  1. Composition and evolution of volcanic aerosol from eruptions of Kasatochi, Sarychev and Eyjafjallajökull in 2008-2010 based on CARIBIC observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, S. M.; Martinsson, B. G.; Friberg, J.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Rauthe-Schöch, A.; Hermann, M.; van Velthoven, P. F. J.; Zahn, A.

    2013-02-01

    Large volcanic eruptions impact significantly on climate and lead to ozone depletion due to injection of particles and gases into the stratosphere where their residence times are long. In this the composition of volcanic aerosol is an important but inadequately studied factor. Samples of volcanically influenced aerosol were collected following the Kasatochi (Alaska), Sarychev (Russia) and also during the Eyjafjallajökull (Iceland) eruptions in the period 2008-2010. Sampling was conducted by the CARIBIC platform during regular flights at an altitude of 10-12 km as well as during dedicated flights through the volcanic clouds from the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in spring 2010. Elemental concentrations of the collected aerosol were obtained by accelerator-based analysis. Aerosol from the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic clouds was identified by high concentrations of sulphur and elements pointing to crustal origin, and confirmed by trajectory analysis. Signatures of volcanic influence were also used to detect volcanic aerosol in stratospheric samples collected following the Sarychev and Kasatochi eruptions. In total it was possible to identify 17 relevant samples collected between 1 and more than 100 days following the eruptions studied. The volcanically influenced aerosol mainly consisted of ash, sulphate and included a carbonaceous component. Samples collected in the volcanic cloud from Eyjafjallajökull were dominated by the ash and sulphate component (∼45% each) while samples collected in the tropopause region and LMS mainly consisted of sulphate (50-77%) and carbon (21-43%). These fractions were increasing/decreasing with the age of the aerosol. Because of the long observation period, it was possible to analyze the evolution of the relationship between the ash and sulphate components of the volcanic aerosol. From this analysis the residence time (1/e) of sulphur dioxide in the studied volcanic cloud was estimated to be 45 ± 22 days.

  2. Post-Little Ice Age (1891-2011 AD) volume loss of Kotárjökull glacier, southeastern Iceland, as established from historical photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundsson, Snaevarr; Hannesdóttir, Hrafnhildur; Björnsson, Helgi

    2013-04-01

    Kotárjökull is one of several outlet glaciers draining the ice-covered central volcano Öræfajökull in SE-Iceland. We estimate the average annual specific mass loss of the glacier, to be 0.22 m (water equivalent)over the post Little Ice Age period 1891-2011. The glacial recession corresponds to an areal decrease of 2.7 km2 (20%) and a volume loss of 0.4 km3 (30%). A surface lowering of 180 m is observed near the snout decreasing to negligible amounts above 1700 m elevation. This minimal surface lowering at high altitudes is supported by a comparison of the elevation of trigonometrical points on Öræfajökull's plateau from the Danish General Staff map of 1904 and a recent LiDAR-based digital elevation model. Our estimates are derived from a) three pairs of photographs from 1891 and 2011, b) geomorphological field evidence delineating the maximum glacier extent at the end of the Little Ice Age, and c) the high-resolution digital elevation model from 2010- 2011. The historical photographs of Frederick W.W. Howell from 1891 were taken at the end of the Little Ice Age in Iceland, thus providing a reference of the maximum glacier extent.

  3. Residents' attitudes and behaviour before and after the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruptions—a case study from southern Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, Deanne K.; Gísladóttir, Guðrún

    2012-08-01

    While the disruption to international air travel caused by the eruption of Iceland's Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010 has been well documented, the significant social impacts on local residents from ash fall to the south and east of the crater are less well-known. These impacts and attitudes of impacted residents and emergency managers are the foci of our present study. Prior to and during the eruption, officials worked to protect the local population from the glacial outburst floods (jökulhlaup) that were of primary concern. The success of these endeavours can in part be attributed to a regional evacuation exercise held in March 2006, an exercise that was carried out with respect to a possible eruption at another volcano, Katla, that is located 25 km to the east of Eyjafjallajökull. Eruptions at either volcano will impact the same communities. Our study here concentrates on Álftaver, a small farming community, located approximately 60 km east-southeast of Eyjafjallajökull and 30 km southeast of Katla. Álftaver has been the subject of longitudinal studies carried out in 2004, 2006, and 2008; these studies highlighted the difficulties that emergency managers face in developing appropriate response strategies acceptable to vulnerable communities. The 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruptions presented an opportunity to re-assess residents' attitudes and behaviour in relation to volcanic risk management in the wake of their first-hand experiences with volcanic hazards. To achieve this, interviews were conducted with residents and emergency management officials and a questionnaire was distributed to residents. This paper presents the results of this survey and examines changes in attitudes towards volcanic risk management. It was apparent that the experience of ash fall from Eyjafjallajökull provided a better perspective of what could be expected from a Katla eruption and that attitudes towards emergency management had evolved accordingly. Importantly, officials

  4. Using the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption as an example of citizen involvement in scientific research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemetti, E. W.

    2010-12-01

    With the dramatic increase in realtime data for volcano monitoring (and many other earth science data) available on the internet, the interest in data analysis and observation by untrained citizens is increasing rapidly. These volcanologic data sources include, but are not limited to, seismic information, webicorders, webcams, GPS, water and gas fluxes. The easy access to these data has allowed not only for the public to see the raw data that volcanologists use to assess and predict activity of a volcanic system, but also to actively participate in the process of volcano monitoring. This can be manifested in activities such observation of the changes in volcanic behavior via webcams to manipulation of seismic data to analyze for changes in the character of the seismicity. However, the biggest challenge for citizen analysis and participation in volcano monitoring is providing guidance and structure for these data as they are presented on the internet. The 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland provided an opportunity to observe and develop a community of “citizen scientists” interested in volcano monitoring on the internet. The readers of the volcano blog Eruptions followed the pre-, during and post-eruptive activity at Eyjafjallajökull while providing observations and data interpretations as time-stamped comments. During the eruption, the blog was viewed over 1,000,000 times and over 3,000 comments were left by readers. Many of these comments contained: (1) detailed descriptions of the current activity of the volcano as observed on the webcams; (2) observations on changes in seismicity as seen in realtime data provided by the Icelandic Meteorological Office and (3); reader-created compilations of various data in the form of images, tables of movies. By moderating the blog comments and providing corrections and insight to their observations, the readers felt that they were participating in an important way to the monitoring and recording of this historic

  5. The 2010 Eyjafjallajökull and 2011 Grímsvötn eruptions: Insights from GPS geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hreinsdottir, S.; Sigmundsson, F.; Roberts, M.; Árnadóttir, P.; Ófeigsson, B.; Grapenthin, R.; Sturkell, E.; Villemin, T.; Bennett, R.; Geirsson, H.

    2012-04-01

    Both the Eyjafjallajökull summit eruption in 2010 and Grímsvötn eruption in 2011 resulted in significant disruption of aviation. Three historic (last 1100 years) eruptions are known in Eyjafjallajökull volcano prior to 2010 (in 920, 1612, and 1821-23). In contrast Grímsvötn volcano is Icelands most active volcano with the last three eruptions in 1983, 1998, and 2004. Both volcanoes have been monitored with continuous GPS measurements in the last few years, revealing different style of deformation leading up to and during the eruption. On March 20 2010 a 300 m long fissure opened up on the east flank of Eyjafjallajökull volcano. The eruption was preceded by three months of unrest with increased seismic activity and surface deformation. The deformation pattern leading up to the eruption was both spatially and temporally variable. In January and February 2010 inflation was observed at GPS sites on the flanks of the volcano indicating formations of sills. From February 20 more distant GPS stations showed a small but distinct change in horizontal velocity. Sites started moving in toward the volcano, suggesting deep pressure changes. In early March seismic activity intensified and rapid deformation leading up to the eruption suggested the upward migration of magma. During the flank eruption deformation almost ceased and the volcano remained at an inflated state. On April 14 2010, a more explosive eruption began at the ice-caped summit of the volcano. Rapid deformation toward the summit and subsidence was observed at GPS sites around the volcano during this eruption. In early May a small but significant inflation signal was observed at the GPS sites closest to the summit suggesting a renewed flux of magma from depth but was followed by a continued deformation toward the summit for a few weeks. Around 19 UTC on May 21, 2011 a phreatomagmatic eruption started at Grímsvötn volcano lasting until the May 28. The Grímsvötn volcano lies beneath the Vatnajökul icecap

  6. Volcanic-Ash Hazards to Aviation—Changes and Challenges since the 2010 Eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guffanti, M.; Tupper, A.; Mastin, L. G.; Lechner, P.

    2012-12-01

    In response to the severe disruptions to civil aviation that resulted from atmospheric transport of ash from the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland in April and May 2010, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) quickly formed the International Volcanic Ash Task Force (IVATF), charging it to support the accelerated development of a global risk-management framework for volcanic-ash hazards to aviation. Recognizing the need for scientifically based advice on best methods to detect ash in the atmosphere and depict zones of hazardous airspace, the IVATF sought input from the global scientific community, primarily by means of the Volcanic Ash Scientific Advisory Group which was established in May 2010 by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics to serve as a scientific resource for ICAO. The IVATF finished its work in June 2012 (see http://www.icao.int/safety/meteorology/ivatf/Pages/default.aspx for a record of its results). A major science-based outcome is that production of charts depicting areas of airspace expected to have specific ash-concentration values (e.g. <0.2, 0.2-2, 2-4, >4 mg/cu. m) will not be required of the world's nine Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers (VAACs). The VAACs are responsible for issuing warning information to the aviation sector regarding ash-cloud position and expected movement. Forecast concentrations in these charts are based primarily on dispersion models that have at least an order of magnitude in uncertainty in their output and therefore do not delineate hazardous airspace with the level of confidence needed by the aviation sector. The recommended approach to improving model-forecast accuracy is to assimilate diverse observations (e.g., satellite thermal-infrared measurements, lidar, radar, direct airborne sampling, visual sightings, etc.) into model simulations; doing that during an eruption in the demanding environment of aviation operations is a substantial

  7. Public and Media Communication of Volcanic Hazard Before and During the 2010 Eruption in Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gylfason, A. G.; Gudmundsson, M. T.; Jakobsdottir, S.; Reynisson, V.

    2010-12-01

    The 39 day long explosive eruption in Eyjafjallajökull was the largest natural hazard event in Iceland for decades. It began with a small flank eruption in March, but the main event was the explosive summit eruption. The flooding that resulted from melting of ice at the eruption site posed considerable danger for the local population, fallout of ash made conditions south of the volcano difficult for several weeks, threatening the future of farming in this rural area, and lead to unprecedented disruption to air traffic in Europe and the North Atlantic. About 800 people were evacuated in a hurry three times during these events because of imminent flood hazard, but fortunately no dwellings were damaged and people could usually return to their homes the same day. These events called for extensive media coverage, both locally and internationally. Some staff at research institutes had for several days to devote their time exclusively to giving interviews to the international media. Scientific communication with the local population was mainly conducted through four channels: (1) the web pages of institutions, (2) the national media; (3) indirectly at meetings on the status of the eruption with local and national officials, and (4) public meetings in the affected areas. In addition the scientific community issued daily status reports to the Department of Civil Protection and Emergency Management, these reports served both national and local Civil Protection officials when preparing their statements on the eruption and answer basic questions from the media. During media communication, it is important to stick to facts, avoid speculation and use plain language without scientific jargon. However, the most critical part of the communication occurred in the years before the eruption through meetings with the local inhabitants. At these meetings the results of a detailed hazard assessment on eruptions in Eyjafjallajökull and the neighboring ice-filled Katla caldera where

  8. Inflation-Deflation Signals at Eyjafjallajökull Volcano, Iceland, During a Period of Intermittent Unrest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hjaltadottir, S.; Hreinsdottir, S.; Vogfjord, K. S.; Sigmundsson, F.; Pedersen, R.

    2014-12-01

    The ice-capped Eyjafjallajökull volcano, south Iceland, had been dormant for 170 years when it first showed signs of a new unrest period in 1994, the third one known during historical time in Iceland (the past 1100 years). It culminated during a flank and summit eruption in 2010. Previous known eruptions at Eyjafjallajökull volcano occurred in year 500 (pre-settlement), in 1612 and 1821-23. The resent unrest period was characterized by intermittent swarm activity and crustal uplift. The first seismic swarm was recorded during 1994 and was accompanied by inflation, suggesting a sill intrusion at ~6.5 km depth beneath the south-eastern flank. A similar but longer episode of seismic swarms and crustal uplift took place again in 1999-2000, also modelled as a sill centered at the south-eastern flank. A deeper swarm was recorded in 1996, near the crust mantle boundary (20-24 km depth) indicating injection of magma from the mantle into the crust. In spring 2009, several deep seismic events were detected again, followed by swarm activity during the summer and a small crustal signal indicating inflation at the southern flank. This was followed by a new period of escalating seismicity and inflation, indicating a complicated pattern of intrusion activity from December 2009 until the two eruptions broke out in March and April 2010. Geodetic and seismic data show that the three-week-long basaltic flank eruption was fed by a deep source (20-30 km). The intrusive activity triggered the more silicic and explosive six-week-long summit eruption. Two weeks into the summit eruption a new swarm of deeper earthquakes and inflation was detected, indicating that a new wave of material was being fed into the system from depth. This changed the phase of the eruption, again to an explosive phase and was repeated at least two more times during the next two weeks. The summit eruption ended in late May but since July 2010 GPS measurements indicate inflation of the volcano. Here, we focus on

  9. Intrusion Triggering of Explosive Eruptions: Lessons Learned from EYJAFJALLAJÖKULL 2010 Eruptions and Crustal Deformation Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmundsson, F.; Hreinsdottir, S.; Hooper, A. J.; Arnadottir, T.; Pedersen, R.; Roberts, M. J.; Oskarsson, N.; Auriac, A.; Decriem, J.; Einarsson, P.; Geirsson, H.; Hensch, M.; Ofeigsson, B. G.; Sturkell, E. C.; Sveinbjornsson, H.; Feigl, K.

    2010-12-01

    Gradual inflation of magma chambers often precedes eruptions at highly active volcanoes. During eruptions, rapid deflation occurs as magma flows out and pressure is reduced. Less is known about the deformation style at moderately active volcanoes, such as Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland, where an explosive summit eruption of trachyandesite beginning on 14 April 2010 caused exceptional disruption to air traffic. This eruption was preceded by an effusive flank eruption of olivine basalt from 20 March - 12 April 2010. Geodetic and seismic observations revealed the growth of an intrusive complex in the roots of the volcano during three months prior to eruptions. After initial horizontal growth, modelling indicates both horizontal and sub-vertical growth in three weeks prior the first eruption. The behaviour is attributed to subsurface variations in crustal stress and strength originating from complicated volcano foundations. A low-density layer may capture magma allowing pressure to build before an intrusion can ascend towards higher levels. The intrusive complex was formed by olivine basalt as erupted on the volcano flank 20 March - 12 April; the intrusive growth halted at the onset of this eruption. Deformation associated with the eruption onset was minor as the dike had reached close to the surface in the days before. Isolated eruptive vents opening on long-dormant volcanoes may represent magma leaking upwards from extensive pre-eruptive intrusions formed at depth. A deflation source activated during the summit eruption of trachyandesite is distinct from, and adjacent to, all documented sources of inflation in the volcano roots. Olivine basalt magma which recharged the volcano appears to have triggered the summit eruption, although the exact mode of triggering is uncertain. Scenarios include stress triggering or propagation of olivine basalt into more evolved magma. The trachyandesite includes crystals that can be remnants of minor recent intrusion of olivine basalt

  10. Origin of the active drumlin field at Múlajökull, Iceland: New insights from till shear and consolidation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCracken, Reba G.; Iverson, Neal R.; Benediktsson, Ívar Ö.; Schomacker, Anders; Zoet, Lucas K.; Johnson, Mark D.; Hooyer, Thomas S.; Ingólfsson, Ólafur

    2016-09-01

    Stratigraphic and morphologic data previously collected from the forefield of Múlajökull, Iceland, suggest that its recent surge cycles are responsible for the formation of drumlins there and that their relief reflects both deposition on drumlins and erosion between them. We have tested these ideas and aspects of leading models of drumlin formation by studying past patterns of bed deformation and effective stress in basal tills of the glacier's forefield. Patterns of till strain indicated by the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) of ∼2300 intact till samples indicate that till was deposited during shear deformation, with shearing azimuths and planes that conform to the drumlin morphology. Thus, till deposition occurred as drumlins grew, in agreement with LiDAR data indicating that the degree of aggradation of the glacier forefield is largest in areas subjected to the most surges. Previously described unconformities on the drumlin flanks, however, indicate that drumlin relief at Múlajökull has resulted, in part, from erosion. Given that the last surge deposited a till layer both on and between drumlins, a reasonable hypothesis is that erosion between drumlins occurred during normal (quiescent) flow of the glacier between surges. Densities of till samples, analyzed in conjunction with laboratory consolidation tests, indicate that effective stresses on the bed during such periods were on the order of 100 kPa larger between drumlins than within them, an observation consistent with subglacial channels at low water pressure occupying interdrumlin areas. Transport of sediment by turbulent flow in these channels or high effective stress adjacent to them causing enhanced till entrainment in ice or increased depths of bed deformation would promote the sediment flux divergence necessary to erode areas between drumlins. The observation that effective stresses were higher between drumlins than within them is the opposite of that presumed in leading models of

  11. Excess 210Po in 2010 Eyjafjallajökull tephra (Iceland): Evidence for pre-eruptive gas accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmarsson, Olgeir; Condomines, Michel; Gauthier, Pierre-Jean

    2015-10-01

    Excess gas phase in magmas erupting explosively is well known worldwide. However, the origin of this gas phase, in excess of what can be dissolved in the erupting magma at depth, and the rate of gas accumulation is less well defined. The 2010 mildly explosive eruption at Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland, produced mingled tephra of benmoreitic and trachytic composition whereas alkali basalt was emitted during preceding flank eruption. Tephra of the first explosive phase are composed of three glass types, alkaline rhyolite, mixed benmoreite, and basalt, which suggests that the basaltic magma intruded a pre-existing rhyolitic magma chamber, and ultimately triggered the eruption. The mixed benmoreitic tephra (erupted on 15 and 17 April 2010) had large 210Po in excess of 210Pb [(210Po /210Pb) 0 = 1.88 ] at the time of eruption, and possibly a small 210Pb excess over its parent 226Ra. In contrast, the preceding flank eruption produced basalt with (210Po) 0 = 0, upon eruption, and the final trachyte had lost most of its 210Po during open-system degassing. The 210Po excess in the first erupted benmoreites is interpreted to result from 210Po degassing of basaltic magma and the accumulation of 210Po-enriched gas, either in the upper part of the basaltic intrusion, below the rhyolite-basalt interface, or in the pre-existing residual rhyolitic magma chamber. From a simple model of radon and polonium accumulation in the rhyolitic reservoir, the ratio of the mass of basalt magma degassing over the mass of magma accumulating the excess gas decreased from 20 to 15 over 2 days, implying zoned magma reservoir, with the uppermost and gas-richest part erupting first. The duration of pre-eruptive gas accumulation in this model is approximately one year. This corresponds closely to the initiation of a seismic swarm beneath Eyjafjallajökull, early June 2009, which was the first pre-eruptive signal detected. The coincidence between initiation of gas accumulation at relatively shallow depth and

  12. Pioneer microbial communities of the Fimmvörðuháls lava flow, Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Laura C; Cockell, Charles S; Thorsteinsson, Thorsteinn; Marteinsson, Viggó; Stevenson, John

    2014-10-01

    Little is understood regarding the phylogeny and metabolic capabilities of the earliest colonists of volcanic rocks, yet these data are essential for understanding how life becomes established in and interacts with the planetary crust, ultimately contributing to critical zone processes and soil formation. Here, we report the use of molecular and culture-dependent methods to determine the composition of pioneer microbial communities colonising the basaltic Fimmvörðuháls lava flow at Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland, formed in 2010. Our data show that 3 to 5 months post eruption, the lava was colonised by a low-diversity microbial community dominated by Betaproteobacteria, primarily taxa related to non-phototrophic diazotrophs such as Herbaspirillum spp. and chemolithotrophs such as Thiobacillus. Although successfully cultured following enrichment, phototrophs were not abundant members of the Fimmvörðuháls communities, as revealed by molecular analysis, and phototrophy is therefore not likely to be a dominant biogeochemical process in these early successional basalt communities. These results contrast with older Icelandic lava of comparable mineralogy, in which phototrophs comprised a significant fraction of microbial communities, and the non-phototrophic community fractions were dominated by Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria. PMID:24863128

  13. Short-term calving processes and ocean-ice interactions at Breidamerkurjökull Glacier, Southeast Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinder, P. C.; Howat, I. M.

    2011-12-01

    While iceberg calving is often the principal source of mass loss for marine-terminating glaciers, these dynamics remain poorly represented in predictions of sea-level rise and large-scale climate models, requiring more robust observational datasets. Breidamerkurjökull glacier functions as a uniquely controlled field setting for obtaining a wide variety of environmental and geodetic measurements in conjunction with monitoring calving flux, making it possible to more carefully constrain the sometimes-contradictory relationships between calving and environmental conditions observed in previous studies. A time-lapse photography camera and water level logger were placed roughly 1/2 km from the glacier ice front to monitor ice loss and iceberg-generated tsunamis from April to September 2011. This record was used to estimate the volume of ice lost by calving during this period and obtain calving rates on hourly, daily, and weekly timescales. Weather, tide, and contemporaneous records of the temperature-salinity structure of the lagoon were used to examine relationships between these factors and calving.

  14. Eyjafjallajökull and 9/11: the impact of large-scale disasters on worldwide mobility.

    PubMed

    Woolley-Meza, Olivia; Grady, Daniel; Thiemann, Christian; Bagrow, James P; Brockmann, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale disasters that interfere with globalized socio-technical infrastructure, such as mobility and transportation networks, trigger high socio-economic costs. Although the origin of such events is often geographically confined, their impact reverberates through entire networks in ways that are poorly understood, difficult to assess, and even more difficult to predict. We investigate how the eruption of volcano Eyjafjallajökull, the September 11th terrorist attacks, and geographical disruptions in general interfere with worldwide mobility. To do this we track changes in effective distance in the worldwide air transportation network from the perspective of individual airports. We find that universal features exist across these events: airport susceptibilities to regional disruptions follow similar, strongly heterogeneous distributions that lack a scale. On the other hand, airports are more uniformly susceptible to attacks that target the most important hubs in the network, exhibiting a well-defined scale. The statistical behavior of susceptibility can be characterized by a single scaling exponent. Using scaling arguments that capture the interplay between individual airport characteristics and the structural properties of routes we can recover the exponent for all types of disruption. We find that the same mechanisms responsible for efficient passenger flow may also keep the system in a vulnerable state. Our approach can be applied to understand the impact of large, correlated disruptions in financial systems, ecosystems and other systems with a complex interaction structure between heterogeneous components. PMID:23950904

  15. Ash generation and distribution from the April-May 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland

    PubMed Central

    Gudmundsson, Magnús T.; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Höskuldsson, Ármann; Larsen, Gudrún; Björnsson, Halldór; Prata, Fred J.; Oddsson, Björn; Magnússon, Eyjólfur; Högnadóttir, Thórdís; Petersen, Guðrún Nína; Hayward, Chris L.; Stevenson, John A.; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg

    2012-01-01

    The 39-day long eruption at the summit of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in April–May 2010 was of modest size but ash was widely dispersed. By combining data from ground surveys and remote sensing we show that the erupted material was 4.8±1.2·1011 kg (benmoreite and trachyte, dense rock equivalent volume 0.18±0.05 km3). About 20% was lava and water-transported tephra, 80% was airborne tephra (bulk volume 0.27 km3) transported by 3–10 km high plumes. The airborne tephra was mostly fine ash (diameter <1000 µm). At least 7·1010 kg (70 Tg) was very fine ash (<28 µm), several times more than previously estimated via satellite retrievals. About 50% of the tephra fell in Iceland with the remainder carried towards south and east, detected over ~7 million km2 in Europe and the North Atlantic. Of order 1010 kg (2%) are considered to have been transported longer than 600–700 km with <108 kg (<0.02%) reaching mainland Europe. PMID:22893851

  16. Eyjafjallajökull and 9/11: The Impact of Large-Scale Disasters on Worldwide Mobility

    PubMed Central

    Woolley-Meza, Olivia; Grady, Daniel; Thiemann, Christian; Bagrow, James P.; Brockmann, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale disasters that interfere with globalized socio-technical infrastructure, such as mobility and transportation networks, trigger high socio-economic costs. Although the origin of such events is often geographically confined, their impact reverberates through entire networks in ways that are poorly understood, difficult to assess, and even more difficult to predict. We investigate how the eruption of volcano Eyjafjallajökull, the September 11th terrorist attacks, and geographical disruptions in general interfere with worldwide mobility. To do this we track changes in effective distance in the worldwide air transportation network from the perspective of individual airports. We find that universal features exist across these events: airport susceptibilities to regional disruptions follow similar, strongly heterogeneous distributions that lack a scale. On the other hand, airports are more uniformly susceptible to attacks that target the most important hubs in the network, exhibiting a well-defined scale. The statistical behavior of susceptibility can be characterized by a single scaling exponent. Using scaling arguments that capture the interplay between individual airport characteristics and the structural properties of routes we can recover the exponent for all types of disruption. We find that the same mechanisms responsible for efficient passenger flow may also keep the system in a vulnerable state. Our approach can be applied to understand the impact of large, correlated disruptions in financial systems, ecosystems and other systems with a complex interaction structure between heterogeneous components. PMID:23950904

  17. Modeling the resuspension of ash deposited during the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in spring 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leadbetter, S. J.; Hort, M. C.; von Löwis, S.; Weber, K.; Witham, C. S.

    2012-10-01

    Eyjafjallajökull, a volcano in southern Iceland, erupted explosively in April and May 2010 depositing ash over a region of more than 3000 km2 to the east and southeast of the volcano. This deposited ash has been frequently remobilized by the wind causing concern for the health of Icelanders living in the region. An investigation was carried out to determine whether it would be possible to produce forecasts of days when high airborne ash concentrations were likely to occur. Information about the spatially varying surface characteristics of the region of deposited ash is not available so in the modeling approach adopted here ash is released from the surface at a rate proportional to the cube of the excess friction velocity (local friction velocity minus a threshold) only when the friction velocity exceeds a threshold. Movement of the resuspended ash is then modeled in a Lagrangian dispersion model. Modeled ash concentrations are compared to observed concentrations from two periods; PM10 observations between 23 May and 2 July 2010 and airborne particle counts between 21 September 2010 and 16 February 2011. More than 66% of the resuspension episodes between May and July are captured by the model and the relative magnitudes of the modeled episodes in this period are in good agreement with the observations. 66% of episodes between October and February are also captured by the model although there is an increase in the false alarm rate which appears to be due to the influence of precipitation.

  18. Ash generation and distribution from the April-May 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland.

    PubMed

    Gudmundsson, Magnús T; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Höskuldsson, Armann; Larsen, Gudrún; Björnsson, Halldór; Prata, Fred J; Oddsson, Björn; Magnússon, Eyjólfur; Högnadóttir, Thórdís; Petersen, Guðrún Nína; Hayward, Chris L; Stevenson, John A; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg

    2012-01-01

    The 39-day long eruption at the summit of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in April-May 2010 was of modest size but ash was widely dispersed. By combining data from ground surveys and remote sensing we show that the erupted material was 4.8±1.2·10¹¹ kg (benmoreite and trachyte, dense rock equivalent volume 0.18±0.05 km³). About 20% was lava and water-transported tephra, 80% was airborne tephra (bulk volume 0.27 km³) transported by 3-10 km high plumes. The airborne tephra was mostly fine ash (diameter <1000 µm). At least 7·10¹⁰ kg (70 Tg) was very fine ash (<28 µm), several times more than previously estimated via satellite retrievals. About 50% of the tephra fell in Iceland with the remainder carried towards south and east, detected over ~7 million km² in Europe and the North Atlantic. Of order 10¹⁰ kg (2%) are considered to have been transported longer than 600-700 km with <10⁸ kg (<0.02%) reaching mainland Europe. PMID:22893851

  19. Untangling a crystal storm through time: how do 500 diffusion stopwatches inform our view of Eyjafjallajökull 2010?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankhurst, M. J.; Morgan, D. J.; Thordarson, T.; Loughlin, S.

    2014-12-01

    A new database of 500+ olivine crystal timescales from samples that encompass the duration of the 2010 Fimmvörðuháls-Eyjafjallajökull eruption is presented. We also integrate new petrologic, thermometric and barometric data to read a 4D narrative of the magmatic processes within this volcanic plumbing system preceding­­- and during- eruption. Using this perspective we can identify and semi-quantify magmatic componentry, detect new magmatic inputs, and 'watch' those crystal chemical populations age. We find that major crystal-liquid disequilibrium events occurred up to several years preceding the eruptions, and inputs fed the plumbing system during the eruption window (days - hours). We place timeframes upon processes including magma-mixing, mush remobilization and erosion, and final-ascent quenching and eruption. Fe-Mg binary diffusion in olivine modelling conducted upon this scale was made possible using new advances -also presented here- in both the gathering and processing of raw data, and extraction of timescale information. We demonstrate that this streamlined workflow can now produce statistically robust timescale data within an integrated petrologic and geochemical context that may be resolved alongside independent geophysical and other remote sensing data into a common dimension - time. Transposing petrologic information (record of past process) and geophysical observation (phenomenological in the present) into a common language is designed to produce new understanding of both active and palaeo- volcanic systems, the implications of which we discuss here using our case study as an example.

  20. Volcanic glass in surface sediments offshore southern Iceland: Can eruptions such as Eyjafjallajökull 2010 be traced in the marine archive?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonanati, Christina; Portnyagin, Maxim; Wehrmann, Heidi; Hoernle, Kaj

    2015-04-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions on Iceland even of small to intermediate magnitude can cause significant economic loss and health risk to humans in the North Atlantic region. This was strikingly revealed by the recent eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull in 2010 and Grímsvötn in 2011, disrupting European and intercontinental air traffic. We are using the North Atlantic marine archive to reconstruct the Icelandic eruption record with the aim to refine and improve the hazard assessment associated with explosive volcanism. Thirteen giant box corers were obtained during RV Poseidon Cruise 457 in August 2013, at < 100 to 1,600 m water depths and distances between 40 and 400 km southwest, south and east of Iceland. Volcanic glass shards from the uppermost 1 cm of the surface sediment were analysed by electron microprobe for their major element composition. Our analytical setup included a spatially systematic approach to facilitate the determination of modal proportions of the different shard populations in two size fractions, <32 µm and >32 µm. In total, ~900 tephra particles were analysed. More than 80 % have mafic compositions. Most of them are derived from the Katla and Veiðivötn-Bárðarbunga volcanic systems as well as Grímsvötn-Lakagígar, where the eruptions of Grímsvötn in 2011 and Laki 1783/84 are the only possible sources. A few particles of felsic to intermediate composition correlate with those of Hekla and Snæfellsjökull volcanoes. The occurrence of tephra particles from the historic rhyolitic eruptions of Askja 1875 and Öræfajökull 1362 displays that the record covers at least the past 650 years and yields information about the tephra distribution and dimension of these eruptions. Unexpectedly, we found only two particles that correlate with the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption, sourced from its trachydacitic portion. According to simple sedimentation chronology, this most recent eruption should be well represented in the surface sediment. Its

  1. Volcanic ash transport integrated in the WRF-Chem model: a description of the application and verification results from the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuefer, Martin; Webley, Peter; Grell, Georg; Freitas, Saulo; Kim, Chang Ki; Egan, Sean

    2013-04-01

    Regional volcanic ash dispersion models are usually offline decoupled from the numerical weather prediction model. Here we describe a new functionality using an integrated modeling system that allows simulating emission, transport, and sedimentation of pollutants released during volcanic activities. A volcanic preprocessor tool has been developed to initialize the Weather Research Forecasting model with coupled Chemistry (WRF-Chem) with volcanic ash and sulphur dioxide emissions. Volcanic ash variables were added into WRF-Chem, and the model was applied to study the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull. We evaluate our results using WRF-Chem with available ash detection data from satellite and airborne sensors, and from ground based Lidar measurements made available through the AeroCom project. The volcanic ash was distributed into 10 different bins according to the particle size ranging from 2 mm to less than 3.9 μm; different particle size distributions derived from historic eruptions were tested. An umbrella shaped initial ash cloud and an empirical relationship between mass eruption rates and eruption heights were used to initialize WRF-Chem. We show WRF-Chem model verification for the Eyjafjallajökull eruptions, which occurred during the months of April and May 2010. The volcanic ash plume dispersed extensively over Europe. Comparisons with satellite remote sensing volcanic ash retrievals showed good agreement during the events, also ground-based LIDAR compared well to the model simulations. The model sensitivity analysis of the Eyjafjallajökull event showed a considerable bias of ass mass concentrations afar from the volcano depending on initial ash size and eruption rate assumptions. However the WRF-Chem model initialized with reliable eruption source parameters produced good quality forecasts, and will be tested for operational volcanic ash transport predictions.

  2. Integrating Terrestrial Time-Lapse Photography with Laser Scanning to Distinguish the Drivers of Movement at Sólheimajökull, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    How, P.; James, M. R.; Wynn, P.

    2014-12-01

    Glacier movement is attributed to a sensitive configuration of driving forces. Here, we present an approach designed to evaluate the drivers of movement at Sólheimajökull, an outlet glacier from the Myrdalsjökull ice cap, Iceland, through combining terrestrial time-lapse photography and laser scanning (TLS). A time-lapse camera (a dSLR with intervalometer and solar-recharged battery power supply) collected hourly data over the summer of 2013. The data are subject to all the difficulties that are usually present in long time-lapse sequences, such as highly variable illumination and visibility conditions, evolving surfaces, and camera instabilities. Feature-tracking software [1] was used to: 1) track regions of static topography (e.g. the skyline) from which camera alignment could be continuously updated throughout the sequence; and 2) track glacial surface features for velocity estimation. Absolute georeferencing of the image sequence was carried out by registering the camera to a TLS survey acquired at the beginning of the monitoring period. A second TLS survey (July 2013) provided an additional 3D surface. By assuming glacial features moved in approximately planimetrically straight lines between the two survey dates, combining the two TLS surfaces with the monoscopic feature tracking allows 3D feature tracks to be derived. Such tracks will enable contributions from different drivers (e.g. surface melting) to be extracted, even in imagery that is acquired not perpendicular to glacier motion. At Sólheimajökull, our aim is to elucidate any volcanic contribution to the observed movement.[1] http://www.lancaster.ac.uk/staff/jamesm/software/pointcatcher.htm

  3. Airborne lidar observations of volcanic ash during the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in Spring 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marenco, F.; Johnson, B.; Turnbull, K.; Haywood, J.; Newman, S.; Webster, H.; Cooke, M.; Dorsey, J.; Ricketts, H.; Clarisse, L.

    2012-04-01

    The London Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), based at the Met Office, provided forecast guidance for the Civil Aviation Authority during the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in April-May 2010. Besides providing daily forecasts using the Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment (NAME), a series of observational activities were carried out by the Met Office, involving ground-based lidars, the exploitation of satellite data, and research flights using the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements BAe-146 research aircraft (FAAM, www.faam.ac.uk), on which this talk is focused. Due to safety restrictions, aircraft sampling has only been performed in areas where ash concentrations where forecasted to be less than 2000 μg/m3. Volcanic ash layers were observed using an elastic backscatter lidar on-board the FAAM aircraft operating at 355 nm, which allowed detailed mapping of the plumes. A flight on 4 May overpassed the ground-based lidar in Aberystwyth a few times. This provided ground truth validation of the on-board lidar and of its data inversion procedure. The ash layer during this flight was found to be in patches of short horizontal extent, but despite the strong horizontal inhomogeneity the two lidars showed excellent qualitative and quantitative agreement. Moreover, radiative transfer computations using the lidar-derived profiles of aerosol extinction led to a good reconstruction of observed radiance spectra with on-board spectrometers. Aircraft in situ measurements of the particle size-distribution permitted the evaluation of a coarse extinction fraction (ranging 0.5-1) and a coarse mode specific extinction (0.6-0.9 m2/g) for six research flights. These quantities were then used to convert the lidar-derived aerosol extinction to ash concentration (with an estimated uncertainty of a factor of two). The combination of lidar and in-situ sampling of aerosol properties has thus offered us the opportunity to compile a dataset of the airborne

  4. Sedimentary and tectonic architecture of a large push moraine: a case study from Hagafellsjökull-Eystri, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Matthew R.; Huddart, David; Waller, Richard I.; Cassidy, Nigel; Tomio, Alexandre; Zukowskyj, Paul; Midgley, Nicholas G.; Cook, Simon J.; Gonzalez, Silvia; Glasser, Neil F.

    2004-12-01

    Using a combination of geological and geophysical techniques (Ground Penetrating Radar), we explore the tectonic architecture of a push moraine formed just after the 1890 Neoglacial ice maximum of Hagafellsjökull-Eystri, in central Iceland. The push moraine formed by a re-advance, perhaps a surge, of the glacier against a moraine bank-delta sometime between 1890 and 1929. Different tectonic architectures exist in two adjacent parts of the same push moraine complex. In one location, the ice advance pushed the delta pro-glacially to form a prominent single-crested push moraine. Deformation occurred along a single listric décollement over which a large nappe moved, as a result of ice-marginal pushing. In an adjacent location, the ice-margin mounted and advanced over the ice-contact delta to create a push moraine at the limit of the advance by subglacial gravity-spreading. In this case, deformation occurred along a series of listric thrusts and by folding within the distal parts of the over-ridden delta. The geomechanical causes of these two contrasting styles of deformation, present in adjacent sectors of the same ice-marginal flow unit, are discussed and a range of possible controls identified. These include variation along the former ice-margin and foreland in: (1) glacier-foreland coupling; (2) foreland shear strength; and (3) the frictional characteristics of the décollement. Some combination of these variables provides the most likely cause. The case study presented in this paper provides an example of the potential for rapid variation in the tectonic architecture of a push moraine along strike.

  5. Simulation of SEVIRI infrared channels: a case study from the Eyjafjallajökull April/May 2010 eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kylling, A.; Buras, R.; Eckhardt, S.; Emde, C.; Mayer, B.; Stohl, A.

    2012-10-01

    Infrared satellite images are widely and successfully used to detect and follow atmospheric ash from erupting volcanoes. We describe a new radiative transfer model framework for the simulation of infrared radiances, which can be compared directly with satellite images. This can be helpful to get insight into the processes that affect the satellite retrievals. As input to the radiative transfer model, the distribution of ash is provided by simulations with the FLEXPART Lagrangian particle dispersion model, meteorological cloud information is adopted from the ECMWF analysis and the radiative transfer modelling is performed with the MYSTIC 3-D radiative transfer model. The model framework is used to study an episode during the Eyjafjallajökull eruption in 2010. It is found that to detect ash by the reverse absorption retrieval technique, accurate representation of the ash particle size distribution is required. Detailed investigation of individual pixels displays the radiative effects of various combinations of ash, liquid water and ice clouds. In order to be clearly detectable, the ash clouds need to be located at some distance above other clouds. If ash clouds are mixed with water clouds or are located only slightly above water clouds, detection of the ash becomes difficult. Simulations were also made using the so-called independent pixel approximation (IPA) instead of the fully 3-D radiative transfer modeling. A comparison between these IPA simulations and the 3-D simulations revealed differences in brightness temperatures of up to ±25 K due to shadow effects. The presented model framework is useful for further studies of the processes that affect satellite imagery and may be used to test both new and existing ash retrieval algorithms.

  6. Simulation of SEVIRI infrared channels: a case study from the Eyjafjallajökull April/May 2010 eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kylling, A.; Buras, R.; Eckhardt, S.; Emde, C.; Mayer, B.; Stohl, A.

    2013-03-01

    Infrared satellite images are widely and successfully used to detect and follow atmospheric ash from erupting volcanoes. We describe a new radiative transfer model framework for the simulation of infrared radiances, which can be compared directly with satellite images. This can be helpful to get insight into the processes that affect the satellite retrievals. As input to the radiative transfer model, the distribution of ash is provided by simulations with the FLEXPART Lagrangian particle dispersion model, meteorological cloud information is adopted from the ECMWF analysis and the radiative transfer modelling is performed with the MYSTIC 3-D radiative transfer model. The model framework is used to study an episode during the Eyjafjallajökull eruption in 2010. It is found that to detect ash by the reverse absorption retrieval technique, accurate representation of the ash particle size distribution is required. Detailed investigation of individual pixels displays the radiative effects of various combinations of ash, liquid water and ice clouds. In order to be clearly detectable, the ash clouds need to be located at some distance above other clouds. If ash clouds are mixed with water clouds or are located only slightly above water clouds, detection of the ash becomes difficult. Simulations were also made using the so-called independent pixel approximation (IPA) instead of the fully 3-D radiative transfer modelling. In the two simulations, different clouds (or different parts of the clouds) or the ground are effectively emitting radiation towards the instrument, thus causing differences in the brightness temperature of up to ± 25 K. The presented model framework is useful for further studies of the processes that affect satellite imagery and may be used to test both new and existing ash retrieval algorithms.

  7. Evaluation of the Physical and Chemical Properties of Eyjafjallajökull Volcanic Plume Using a Cloud-Resolving Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiridonov, Vlado; Curic, Mladjen

    2013-11-01

    The Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption, which occurred on April 14, 2010, caused many environmental, air traffic and health problems. An attempt has been made to demonstrate for the first time that certain improvements could be made in the quantitative prediction of the volcanic ash parameters, and in the accounting of the processes in the immediate vicinity of the volcano, using a cloud-resolving model. This type of explicit modeling by treatment of volcanic ash and sulfate chemistry parameterization, with input of a number parameters describing the volcanic source, is the way forward for understanding the complex processes in plumes and in the future plume dispersion modeling. Results imply that the most significant microphysical processes are those related to accretion of cloud water, cloud ice and rainwater by snow, and accretion of rain and snow by hail. The dominant chemical conversion rates that give a great contribution to the sulfate budget are nucleation and dynamic scavenging and oxidation processes. A three-dimensional numerical experiment has shown a very realistic simulation of volcanic ash and other chemical compounds evolution, with a sloping structure strongly influenced by the meteorological conditions. In-cloud oxidation by H2O2 is the dominant pathway for SO2 oxidation and allows sulfate to be produced within the SO2 source region. The averaged cloud water pH of about 5.8 and rainwater pH of 4.5 over simulation time show quantitatively how the oxidation may strongly influence the sulfate budget and acidity of volcanic cloud. Compared to observations, model results are close in many aspects. Information on the near field volcanic plume behavior is essential for early preparedness and evacuation. This approach demonstrates a potential improvement in quantitative predictions regarding the volcanic plume distribution at different altitudes. It could be a useful tool for modeling volcanic plumes for better emergency measures planning.

  8. Ice-volcano interactions during the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption, as revealed by airborne imaging radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnússon, E.; Gudmundsson, M. T.; Roberts, M. J.; Sigurã°Sson, G.; HöSkuldsson, F.; Oddsson, B.

    2012-07-01

    During the eruption of the ice-covered Eyjafjallajökull volcano, a series of images from an airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) were obtained by the Icelandic Coast Guard. Cloud obscured the summit from view during the first three days of the eruption, making the weather-independent SAR a valuable monitoring resource. Radar images revealed the development of ice cauldrons in a 200 m thick ice cover within the summit caldera, as well as the formation of cauldrons to the immediate south of the caldera. Additionally, radar images were used to document the subglacial and supraglacial passage of floodwater to the north and south of the eruption site. The eruption breached the ice surface about four hours after its onset at about 01:30 UTC on 14 April 2010. The first SAR images, obtained between 08:55 and 10:42 UTC, show signs of limited supraglacial drainage from the eruption site. Floodwater began to drain from the ice cap almost 5.5 h after the beginning of the eruption, implying storage of meltwater at the eruption site due to initially constricted subglacial drainage from the caldera. Heat transfer rates from magma to ice during early stages of cauldron formation were about 1 MW m-2 in the radial direction and about 4 MW m-2 vertically. Meltwater release was characterized by accumulation and drainage with most of the volcanic material in the ice cauldrons being drained in hyperconcentrated floods. After the third day of the eruption, meltwater generation at the eruption site diminished due to an insulating lag of tephra.

  9. Practical depolarization-ratio-based inversion procedure: lidar measurements of the Eyjafjallajökull ash cloud over the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Donovan, David Patrick; Apituley, Arnoud

    2013-04-10

    In this paper we present a technique for estimating optical backscatter and extinction profiles using lidar, which exploits the difference between the observed linear volume depolarization ratio at 355 nm and the corresponding expected aerosol-only depolarization ratio. The technique is specific to situations where a single strongly depolarizing species is present and the associated linear particulate depolarization ratio may be presumed to be known to within a reasonable degree of accuracy (on the order of 10%). The basic principle of the technique is extended to deal with situations where a depolarizing fraction is mixed with nondepolarizing aerosol. In general, since the relative depolarization interchannel calibration is much more stable than the absolute system calibration, the depolarization-based technique is easier to implement than conventional techniques that require a profile-by-profile calibration or, equivalently, an identification of aerosol-free altitude intervals. This in particular allows for unattended data analysis and makes the technique well-suited to be part of a broader (volcanic ash) surveillance system. The technique is demonstrated by applying it to the analysis of aerosol layers resulting from the 2010 eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland. The measurements were made at the Cabauw remote-sensing site in the central Netherlands. By comparing the results of the depolarization-based inversion with a more conventional manual inversion procedure as well as Raman lidar results, it is demonstrated that the technique can be successfully applied to the particular case of 355 nm depolarization lidar volcanic ash soundings, including cases in which the ash is mixed with nondepolarizing aerosol. PMID:23670771

  10. Tephra sedimentation during the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption (Iceland) from deposit, radar, and satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonadonna, C.; Genco, R.; Gouhier, M.; Pistolesi, M.; Cioni, R.; Alfano, F.; Hoskuldsson, A.; Ripepe, M.

    2011-12-01

    The April-May 2010 eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano (Iceland) was characterized by a nearly continuous injection of tephra into the atmosphere that affected various economic sectors in Iceland and caused a global interruption of air traffic. Eruptive activity during 4-8 May 2010 was characterized based on short-duration physical parameters in order to capture transient eruptive behavior of a long-lasting eruption (i.e., total grain-size distribution, erupted mass, and mass eruption rate averaged over 30 min activity). The resulting 30 min total grain-size distribution based on both ground and Meteosat Second Generation-Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (MSG-SEVIRI) satellite measurements is characterized by Mdphi of about 2 ϕ and a fine-ash content of about 30 wt %. The accumulation rate varied by 2 orders of magnitude with an exponential decay away from the vent, whereas Mdphi shows a linear increase until about 18 km from the vent, reaching a plateau of about 4.5 ϕ between 20 and 56 km. The associated mass eruption rate is between 0.6 and 1.2 × 105 kg s-1. In situ sampling showed how fine ash mainly fell as aggregates of various typologies. About 5 to 9 wt % of the erupted mass remained in the cloud up to 1000 km from the vent, suggesting that nearly half of the ash >7ϕ settled as aggregates within the first 60 km. Particle sphericity and shape factor varied between 0.4 and 1 with no clear correlation to the size and distance from vent. Our experiments also demonstrate how satellite retrievals and Doppler radar grain-size detection can provide a real-time description of the source term but for a limited particle-size range.

  11. Complex circular subsidence structures in tephra deposited on large blocks of ice: Varða tuff cone, Öræfajökull, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smellie, J. L.; Walker, A. J.; McGarvie, D. W.; Burgess, R.

    2016-08-01

    Several broadly circular structures up to 16 m in diameter, into which higher strata have sagged and locally collapsed, are present in a tephra outcrop on southwest Öræfajökull, southern Iceland. The tephra was sourced in a nearby basaltic tuff cone at Varða. The structures have not previously been described in tuff cones, and they probably formed by the melting out of large buried blocks of ice emplaced during a preceding jökulhlaup that may have been triggered by a subglacial eruption within the Öræfajökull ice cap. They are named ice-melt subsidence structures, and they are analogous to kettle holes that are commonly found in proglacial sandurs and some lahars sourced in ice-clad volcanoes. The internal structure is better exposed in the Varða examples because of an absence of fluvial infilling and reworking, and erosion of the outcrop to reveal the deeper geometry. The ice-melt subsidence structures at Varða are a proxy for buried ice. They are the only known evidence for a subglacial eruption and associated jökulhlaup that created the ice blocks. The recognition of such structures elsewhere will be useful in reconstructing more complete regional volcanic histories as well as for identifying ice-proximal settings during palaeoenvironmental investigations.

  12. Architecture and structural evolution of an early Little Ice Age terminal moraine at the surge-type glacier Múlajökull, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benediktsson, Ívar &Oum; lrn; Schomacker, Anders; Johnson, Mark D.; Geiger, Alessa J.; Ingólfsson, Ólafur; Gudmundsdóttir, Esther Ruth

    2015-09-01

    The internal architecture and structural evolution of the Arnarfellsmúlar terminal moraine at Múlajökull, a surge-type glacier in central Iceland, is described in order to demonstrate submarginal and proglacial glaciotectonic processes during glacier surging, as well as constraining the age of the maximum extent of the glacier. The moraine is 4-7 m high, 50-100 m wide, and composed of a highly deformed sequence of loess, peat, and tephra that is draped by till up to the crest. The internal architecture is dominated by steep, high-amplitude overturned folds and thrusts in the crest zone but open, low-amplitude folds on the distal slope. Section balancing suggests a basal detachment (décollement) depth of 1.4 m and a total horizontal shortening of around 59%. This implies that the glacier coupled to the foreland about 70 m up glacier from its terminal position to initiate the formation of the moraine. The structural evolution is polyphase in that the formation commenced with low-amplitude open folding of the foreland, followed by overfolding and piggyback thrusting. Radiocarbon dating and analysis of tephra layers, along with historical references, indicate that the most likely time of moraine formation was between A.D. 1717 and 1760, which suggests that Múlajökull had its Little Ice Age maximum and most extensive surge earlier than many other surge-type glaciers in Iceland.

  13. Deep crescentic features caused by subglacial boulder point pressure on jointed rock; an example from Virkisjökull, SE Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krabbendam, M.; Bradwell, T.; Everest, J.

    2012-04-01

    A variety of subglacially formed, erosional crescentic features (e.g. crescentic gouges, lunate fractures) have been widely reported on deglaciated bedrock surfaces. They are characterised by a conchoidal fracture that dips in the same direction as the palaeo-ice flow direction, and a steeper fracture that faces against the ice flow. They are generally interpreted as being formed by point pressure exerted by large boulders entrained in basal ice. They are significant in that they record palaeo-ice flow even if shallower glacial striae are obliterated by post-glacial weathering [1, 2, 3]. This contribution reports on deep scallop-shaped, crescentic depressions observed on abraded surfaces of roche moutonnées and whalebacks recently (<10yrs) exposed beneath the actively retreating Virkisjökull, an outlet glacier of the Oraefajökull ice cap in southeast Iceland. The substrate comprises hard rhyolitic rock (relatively rare in Iceland compared to more common basalt and hyaloclastite) with polygonal, columnar jointing. The crescentic depressions at Virkisjökull are cut into smoothed, abraded surfaces festooned with abundant glacial striae. Differences with previously reported crescentic features are: • The scallop-shaped depressions are considerably deeper (5-20 cm); • The steep fracture facing ice flow coincides in all cases with a pre-existing joint that cuts the entire whaleback. The steep joints developed thus before the conchoidal fracture, whilst in reported crescentic features they develop after the conchoidal fracture. We suggest the following formation mechanism. A boulder encased in basal ice exerts continuous pressure on its contact point as it moves across the ice-bedrock contact. This sets up a stress field in the bedrock that does not necessarily exceed the intact rock strength (other crescentic features are rare to absent at Virkisjökull). However, as the stress field migrates (with the transported boulder) and encounters a subvertical, pre

  14. 35 yr of stratospheric aerosol measurements at Garmisch-Partenkirchen: from Fuego to Eyjafjallajökull, and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trickl, T.; Giehl, H.; Jäger, H.; Vogelmann, H.

    2013-05-01

    Lidar measurements at Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany) have almost continually delivered backscatter coefficients of stratospheric aerosol since 1976. The time series is dominated by signals from the particles injected into or formed in the stratosphere due to major volcanic eruptions, in particular those of El Chichon (Mexico, 1982) and Mt Pinatubo (Philippines, 1991). Here, we focus more on the long-lasting background period since the late 1990s and 2006, in view of processes maintaining a residual lower-stratospheric aerosol layer in absence of major eruptions, as well as the period of moderate volcanic impact afterwards. During the long background period the stratospheric backscatter coefficients reached a level even below that observed in the late 1970s. This suggests that the predicted potential influence of the strongly growing air traffic on the stratospheric aerosol loading is very low. Some correlation may be found with single strong forest-fire events, but the average influence of biomass burning seems to be quite limited. No positive trend in background aerosol can be resolved over a period as long as that observed by lidar at Mauna Loa. We conclude that the increase of our integrated backscatter coefficients starting in 2008 is mostly due to volcanic eruptions with explosivity index 4, penetrating strongly into the stratosphere. Most of them occurred in the mid-latitudes. A key observation for judging the role of eruptions just reaching the tropopause region was that of the plume from the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull above Garmisch-Partenkirchen (April 2010) due to the proximity of that source. The top altitude of the ash above the volcano was reported just as 9.3 km, but the lidar measurements revealed enhanced stratospheric aerosol up to 14.3 km. Our analysis suggests for two or three of the four measurement days the presence of a stratospheric contribution from Iceland related to quasi-horizontal transport, differing from the strong descent

  15. Science in Support of Aviation-Risk Management since the April 2010 Eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guffanti, M.; Mastin, L. G.; Schneider, D. J.; Tupper, A.

    2010-12-01

    The nearly week-long airspace closure over large parts of Europe and the North Atlantic in April 2010 that resulted from dispersion of ash from the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull prompted a shift from the accepted global policy of strict avoidance by aircraft of ash-contaminated airspace to one of allowing flight through zones of dilute ash under some circumstances. This shift was made in a crisis environment of rapidly mounting economic losses and social disruptions extending well beyond the European region. To get the global air transportation system moving again, European aviation authorities and associated meteorological offices created a new type of advisory product depicting forecasted zones of low ash concentrations in Eyjafjallajökull’s clouds that could be transited with expectation of no or minimal risk of aircraft damage, under the condition of more frequent aircraft inspections and enhanced risk management by airlines. Preliminary data of the European Aviation Safety Agency indicate that transit through Eyjafjallajökull’s dilute ash clouds caused some wear (primarily abrasion) to a few aircraft, but not to the severity of degraded engine performance in flight; after inspections the aircraft were returned to service and continued to operate without problems. Following the crisis, recognizing that such a fundamental shift in risk management requires sound scientific and engineering bases, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) formed an International Volcanic Ash Task Force that, in conjunction with the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), will incorporate advice and recommendations from scientific, aviation, and engineering experts worldwide about ways to improve (1) situational awareness to aviation users of impending volcanic eruptions, (2) characterization of critical eruption source parameters for incorporation in forecast modeling, (3) detection and characterization of volcanic clouds, (4) accuracy of volcanic ash transport

  16. Unraveling the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 plumbing system and magma chamber dynamics through high-resolution geochemical investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laeger, Kathrin; Petrelli, Maurizio; Andronico, Daniele; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Cimarelli, Corrado; Misiti, Valeria; del Bello, Elisabetta; Perugini, Diego

    2016-04-01

    The April-May 2010 eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano (EFJ, Iceland) was triggered by an intrusion of fresh magma coming from deeper portions of the crust migrating into shallower depth of 3-6 km in the magmatic system. Here, we present new EMPA and LA-ICP-MS analyses on groundmass glasses of ash particles erupted between 18 and 22 May 2010, the last days of the eruption. The glasses define two well separated groups. The first group is basaltic in composition with SiO2 ranging from 49.98 to 51.76 wt.% and a total alkali content (Na2O + K2O) in the range between 4.63 and 5.17 wt.%. The second group ranges between trachyandesitic and rhyolitic compositions with SiO2 ranging between 57.13 to 70.38 wt.% and a total alkali content from 7.21 to 10.90 wt.%. Least square modelling after Störmer and Nicholls (1978) discriminates best the origin of the basaltic glass by both fractional crystallization of a more primitive basalt or mixing of a basalt and a felsic magma. Furthermore, this model proves that the trachyandesitic range is the result of mixing of trachyandesite and trachyte magma. Magma mixing modeling after Langmuir (1978) and element concentration histograms indicate a probable incomplete magma mixing as the main process forming the great compositional variability observed in the erupted products. Finally, we estimated mixing end-members of intermediate (~59 wt.% SiO2) and felsic composition (~66-68 wt.% SiO2) with a felsic melt-proportion of 0.35-0.47. In the 90s, recorded seismicity and ground deformation indicated intrusions at shallow depth under the EFJ edifice probably forming separated sills. Therefore, the origin of the trachyandesite is presumably to find in a discrete magma batch that generated years before eruption. The rhyolite composition can be considered as the residual melt that remained in the plumbing system of EFJ since the last eruption in 1821-23. We suggest that these different magma batches formed the plumbing system of EFJ and have

  17. 35 years of stratospheric aerosol measurements at Garmisch-Partenkirchen: from Fuego to Eyjafjallajökull, and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trickl, T.; Giehl, H.; Jäger, H.; Vogelmann, H.

    2012-09-01

    The powerful backscatter lidar at Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany) has almost continually delivered backscatter coefficients of the stratospheric aerosol since 1976. The time series is dominated by signals from the particles injected into or formed in the stratosphere due to major volcanic eruptions, in particular those of El Chichon (Mexico, 1982) and Mt. Pinatubo (Philippines, 1991). The volcanic aerosol disappears within about five years, the removal from the stratosphere being modulated by the phase of the quasi-biennial oscillation. Here, we focus more on the long-lasting background period since the late 1990s and 2006, in view of processes maintaining a residual lower-stratospheric aerosol layer in absence of major eruptions, as well as the period of moderate volcanic impact afterwards. During the long background period the stratospheric backscatter coefficients reached a level even below that observed in the late 1970s. This suggests that the predicted potential influence of the strongly growing air traffic on the stratospheric aerosol loading is very low. Some correlation may be found with single strong forest-fire events, but the average influence of biomass burning seems to be quite limited. No positive trend in background aerosol can be resolved over a period as long as that observed by lidar at Mauna Loa or Boulder. This suggests being careful with invoking Asian air pollution as the main source as found in the literature. Rather an impact of previously missed volcanic eruptions on the stratospheric aerosol must be taken into consideration. A key observation in this regard was that of the plume from the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull above Garmisch-Partenkirchen (April 2010) due to the proximity of that source. The top altitude of the ash next to the source was reported just as roughly 9.3 km, but the lidar measurements revealed enhanced stratospheric aerosol up to 14.5 km. Our analysis suggests for two, perhaps three, of the four measurement days

  18. Duration of gas accumulation before the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption constrained by 210Po-210Pb-226Ra disequilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmarsson, Olgeir; Gauthier, Pierre-Jean; Condomines, Michel

    2014-05-01

    Excess gas phase in magmas erupting explosively is well known world-wide. However, the origin of this gas phase, in excess of what can be dissolved in the erupting magma at depth, and the duration of gas accumulation, is less well defined. The 2010 mildly explosive eruption at Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland, produced mingled tephra of benmoreiitic and trachytic composition whereas alkali basalt (MgO > 8 %) was emitted during the preceding flank eruption. The silicic tephra of the first explosive phase is composed of three glass types, alkaline rhyolite, mixed benmoreiite, and evolved basalt (MgO < 5 %). The rhyolitic glass is indistinguishable from tephra glass composition emitted during the penultimate eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in 1821-23 AD (Sigmarsson et al., 2011). Tephra from the first explosive phase, emitted on 15 and 17 April, had large 210Po in excess of 210Pb ((210Po/210Pb)0 as high as 2!) and a small, but significant, 210Pb excess over its parent 226Ra ((210Pb/226Ra)0= 1.05 and 1.04, respectively). These excesses suggest rapid accumulation of Po and Rn together with the major gas species in the residual rhyolitic magma from the 1821-23 eruption. The gas most likely originates from the basalt recharge that eventually provoked the eruption. Basalts emitted a month earlier during the flank eruption at Fimmvörðuháls lost all their Po upon eruption and had (210Po/210Pb)0 equal to 0). From a simple model of radon and polonium degassing and accumulation, the mass of basalt magma degassing over the mass of silicic magma accumulating the excess gas can be calculated. Moreover, the duration of gas accumulation can be shown to be close to 300 days. This duration suggests that gas was liberated from the basaltic magma since June 2009, a month that corresponds to the initial seismic swarm beneath Eyjafjallajökull preceding the explosive eruption of 14 April 2010.

  19. The Effects of Vegetation Succession and Landscape on the Evolution of Soil Properties: A Chronosequence Study Along the Proglacial Area of Skaftafellsjökull Glacier, SE Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilmundardóttir, O. K.; Gísladóttir, G.; Lal, R.

    2014-12-01

    On young soils developing along the recessional path left by the Skaftafellsjökull glacier, SE-Iceland, we investigated the soil development, vegetation succession and landscape representing an age chronosequence of 120 years. In total, 54 sampling sites were distributed along three moraines representing surfaces exposed for 8, 65 and 120 years. For comparison, soil samples were collected from nearby birch woodlands, representing soils in a mature ecosystem likely to establish on the moraines in the future. The youngest moraines were sparsely vegetated with only 10% cover of mosses and grasses. The plant cover increased to 67% after 120 years, and was characterized by mosses (38%), dwarf shrubs (20%) and low growing birch (3.5%). Consequently, the soil formed over 120 years contained 1.1 kg C m-2 in the surface layer (0-10 cm), or about one third of the 3.2 kg C m-2 in soil under the woodlands. The N stock was estimated at 0.06 kg N m-2after 120 yrs, almost one fourth of that under the woodlands. The data suggest that landscape affects vegetation establishment and in turn, both landscape and vegetation affect soil development. Thus, concentrations of soil organic carbon (SOC), N and noncrystalline oxalate extractable Al and Fe were higher within depressions than on ridges and slopes. The comparison of SOC stock in the moraine-derived soils with that under the birch woodlands showed that the young proglacial soils still have a large potential to accrete SOC within the developing pedosphere. With the observed accrual rate of 9.1 g C m-2 yr-1in the top 10 cm, it may take the moraine soils an additional 220 yrs to accrue SOC stocks comparable with those under the birch forest. Given the fact that all Icelandic glaciers are receding, assessing SOC sequestration in new soil formation may be important to off-setting some of anthropogenic emissions. The research is funded by the University of Iceland Doctoral Fund, the University of Iceland Trust Fund, the Landsvirkjun

  20. Production of mildly alkaline basalts at complex ocean ridge settings: Perspectives from basalts emitted during the 2010 eruption at the Eyjafjallajökull volcano, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viccaro, Marco; Nicotra, Eugenio; Urso, Salvatore

    2015-11-01

    The early phase of the 2010 eruption at the Eyjafjallajökull volcano (Iceland) produced poorly evolved mildly alkaline basalts that have a signature more enriched with respect to the typically depleted basalts emitted at ocean ridges. The whole rock geochemistry of these basaltic magmas offers a great opportunity to investigate the mantle source characteristics and reasons leading to this enriched fingerprint in proximity of the ocean ridge system. Some basaltic products of Katla volcano, ∼25 km east of Eyjafjallajökull, have been chosen from the literature, as they display a similar mildly alkaline signature and can be therefore useful to explore the same target. Major and trace element variations of the whole rock suggest a very limited evolutionary degree for the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull products and the selected Katla magmas, highlighting the minor role played by differentiation processes such as fractional crystallization. Nevertheless, effects of the limited fractionation have been erased through re-equilibration of the major and trace element abundances at primary conditions. Concentrations of Th after re-equilibration have been assumed as indexes of the partial melting degree, given the high incompatibility of the element, and enrichment ratios calculated for each trace element. Especially for LILE (Rb, Ba, K, Sr), the pattern of resulting enrichment ratios well matches that obtained from fractional melting of peridotite bearing hydrous phases (amphibole/phlogopite). This put forward the idea that magmas have been generated through partial melting of enriched mantle domains where hydrous minerals have been stabilized as a consequence of metasomatic processes. Refertilization of the mantle has been attributed to intrusion of hydrous silicate melts and fractional crystallization of hydrous cumulates. These refertilizing melts, inherited from an ancient subducted oceanic crust, intruded into a depleted oceanic lithosphere that remained stored for a long time

  1. Applying 3D Dynamic Visualisation to (Palaeo) Geomorphic Reconstruction: Modelling a Tenth Century Jökulhlaup at Sólheimajökull Glacier, South Iceland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, Laura; Isaacs, John

    2014-05-01

    Jökulhlaup (glacial outburst floods) are caused by subglacial geothermal activity melting overlying ice, or by draining of ice-dammed lakes. They pose a recurring hazard along Iceland's south coast where volcano-glacial interactions create often unpredictable, high-magnitude floods. Gathering information about past floods is crucial for projecting findings to present day scenarios and developing future predictions for contemporary flood routes. Understanding the physical setting or surrounding environment is essential in palaeo-flood reconstruction as drainage routes are ultimately defined by local topography and changing ice cover. At Sólheimajökull glacier, which drains the southern portion of Mýrdalsjökull ice cap, field evidence has been collected of a Tenth Century flood, recorded in the Icelander's Landnámabók (Book of Settlements). It was an exceptional event in terms of generation, magnitude and geomorphic impact. Although now fragmented and piecemeal, many of its direct (and indirect) geomorphological and sedimentary markers are still relatively well preserved and have been identified, mapped and dated to unravel the sequence of events played out during this significant episode in the glacial history and complex regional flood chronology. VolcVis, an innovative, bespoke visualisation platform, is developed and applied for the first time in visualising volcanic jökulhlaup. The platform is created using the Microsoft XNA game development framework, which facilitates rapid game engine production by providing a set of tools utilising a managed runtime environment. VolcVis can render large amounts of data efficiently and still provide an extremely high level of interaction with the data being presented, including full freedom of motion. This enables synthesis and presentation of field results from Sólheimajökull in a novel way, creating an interactive, multi-perspective, three-dimensional (3D) prototype model. The platform combines Digital Elevation

  2. Interactions between mafic eruptions and glacial ice or snow: implications of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland, eruption for hazard assessments in the central Oregon Cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, D.; Cashman, K. V.

    2010-12-01

    The 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland, demonstrated the importance of addressing hazards specific to mafic eruptions in regions where interactions with glacial ice or snow are likely. One such region is the central Oregon Cascades, where there are hundreds of mafic vents, many of which are Holocene in age. Here we present field observations and quantitative analyses of tephra deposits from recent eruptions at Sand Mountain, Yapoah Cone, and Collier Cone (all <4 ka). These deposits differ from typical Cascade cinder cone deposits in several ways. Most significantly, the Sand Mountain eruption produced a relatively large tephra blanket (~1 km3) that is unusually fine-grained: average clast size is 0.063 - 0.5 mm, in contrast to tephra from typical Cascade cinder cones, which are dominated by small lapilli-sized clasts rather than ash. The eruption of Eyjafjallajökull earlier this year prompted us to investigate the role that ice or snow may have played in the production of unusually fine-grained tephra during the Sand Mountain eruption. The eruption date of Sand Mountain is not well constrained, but it likely occurred during the Neoglacial phase of ice advance, which lasted from ~2 to 8 ka in the central Oregon Cascades (Marcott et al., 2009). During the Neoglacial, winter snowfall was likely ~23% greater and summer temperatures ~1.4°C cooler than present (Marcott, 2009). Although ice did not advance to the elevation of the Sand Mountain vents during this time, the eruption could have occurred through several meters of snow. We have also seen very fine-grained tephra at Yapoah Cone, which is located at a higher elevation and may have interacted with glacial ice. In addition to being characterized by unusually fine grainsize, the Yapoah tephra blanket is deposited directly on top of hyaloclastite in several locations. Tephra from Collier Cone is not characterized by unusually fine grainsize, but several sections of the deposit exhibit features that suggest

  3. Governing the lithosphere: Insights from Eyjafjallajökull concerning the role of scientists in supporting decision-making on active volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donovan, Amy; Oppenheimer, Clive

    2012-03-01

    The 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano, and the social consequences across the world, demonstrated some key issues in volcanological science and its application. Scientists in several nations were called upon to advise governments, to justify models and to give guidance about likely future activity. This is symptomatic of many other fields: scientists increasingly have a role in governance, and their work may be driven by questions that arise as a result. This article considers the role of scientists in different national contexts and the challenges faced in formulating scientific advice for policymakers. It concludes by assessing future challenges, and the key role that social scientific research can play. While this is a research paper and presents new data, it takes a commentary approach to elucidate some of the challenges involved in governing volcanic hazards.

  4. Profiling of fine and coarse particle mass: case studies of Saharan dust and Eyjafjallajökull/Grimsvötn volcanic plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansmann, A.; Seifert, P.; Tesche, M.; Wandinger, U.

    2012-05-01

    The lidar-photometer method introduced to separate volcanic coarse-mode and fine-mode particle properties is extended to cover Saharan dust events as well. A review of recently published mass-specific extinction coefficients for Saharan dust and volcanic dust is presented. These mass-specific extinction coefficients are required in the retrieval of particle mass concentration profiles. Case studies of four different scenarios corroborate the applicability of the profiling technique: (a) Saharan dust outbreak to Central Europe, (b) Saharan dust plume mixed with biomass-burning smoke over Cape Verde, and volcanic aerosol layers originating from (c) the Eyjafjallajökull eruptions in 2010 and (d) the Grimsvötn eruptions in 2011. Strong differences in the vertical aerosol layering, aerosol mixing, and optical properties are observed for the different volcanic events.

  5. Subglacial lava propagation, ice melting and heat transfer during emplacement of an intermediate lava flow in the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oddsson, Björn; Gudmundsson, Magnús T.; Edwards, Benjamin R.; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Magnússon, Eyjólfur; Sigurðsson, Gunnar

    2016-07-01

    During the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption in South Iceland, a 3.2-km-long benmoreite lava flow was emplaced subglacially during a 17-day effusive-explosive phase from April 18 to May 4. The lava flowed to the north out of the ice-filled summit caldera down the outlet glacier Gígjökull. The flow has a vertical drop of about 700 m, an area of ca. 0.55 km2, the total lava volume is ca. 2.5·107 m3 and it is estimated to have melted 10-13·107 m3 of ice. During the first 8 days, the lava advanced slowly (<100 m day-1), building up to a thickness of 80-100 m under ice that was initially 150-200 m thick. Faster advance (up to 500 m day-1) formed a thinner (10-20 m) lava flow on the slopes outside the caldera where the ice was 60-100 m thick. This subglacial lava flow was emplaced along meltwater tunnels under ice for the entire 3.2 km of the flow field length and constitutes 90 % of the total lava volume. The remaining 10 % belong to subaerial lava that was emplaced on top of the subglacial lava flow in an ice-free environment at the end of effusive activity, forming a 2.7 km long a'a lava field. About 45 % of the thermal energy of the subglacial lava was used for ice melting; 4 % was lost with hot water; about 1 % was released to the atmosphere as steam. Heat was mostly released by forced convection of fast-flowing meltwater with heat fluxes of 125-310 kWm-2.

  6. A survey of early health effects of the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruption in Iceland: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Carlsen, Hanne Krage; Gislason, Thorarinn; Benediktsdottir, Bryndis; Kolbeinsson, Thorir Bjorn; Hauksdottir, Arna; Thorsteinsson, Throstur

    2012-01-01

    Objective To estimate physical and mental health effects of the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption on nearby residents. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting The Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull erupted on 14 April 2010. The eruption lasted for about 6 weeks and was explosive, ejecting some 8 million tons of fine particles into the atmosphere. Due to prevailing winds, the ash spread mostly to the south and south-east, first over the rural region to the south, later over the Atlantic Ocean and Europe, closing European air space for several days. Participants Residents (n=207) of the most ash-exposed rural area south and east of the volcano. Methods The study period was from 31 May to 11 June 2010. Participants were examined by a physician. To ascertain respiratory health, standardised spirometry was performed before and after the use of a bronchodilator. All adult participants answered questionnaires about mental and physical health, their children's health and the use of protective equipment. Results Every other adult participant reported irritation in eyes and upper airway when exposed to volcanic ash. Adults (n=26) and children (n=5) with pre-existing asthma frequently reported worsening of their symptoms. No serious health problems requiring hospitalisation could be attributed to the eruption. The majority of the participants reported no abnormal physical or mental symptoms to the examining physician. Compared to an age- and gender-matched reference group, the ash-exposed participants reported lower smoking rates and were less likely to have ventilation impairment. Less than 10% of the participants reported symptoms of stress, anxiety or depression. Conclusions Short-term ash exposure was associated with upper airway irritation symptoms and exacerbation of pre-existing asthma but did not contribute to serious health problems. The exposure did not impair respiratory function compared to controls. Outdoor use of protective glasses and face masks was

  7. Correlating Ground-Based Lightning Measurements with Ash Cloud Satellite Data from the 2010 Eruption of Eyjafjallajökull Volcano, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, N. D.; Thomas, R. J.; Pavolonis, M. J.; Sieglaff, J.; Aster, R. C.

    2012-12-01

    Airborne volcanic ash is a major aviation hazard. For example, the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland resulted in the largest air-traffic shutdown since World War II. More than 100,000 flights were grounded, stranding passengers in Europe and across the globe, and producing a multi-billion dollar economic impact. Because of the high impact on aviation, sophisticated tools are needed to provide real-time alerts, tracking, and forecasting of volcanic clouds. In an attempt address the 5-minute volcanic cloud warning criteria established by the international aviation community, an automated volcanic cloud alert system for the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite - R Series (GOES-R) built upon the automated ash cloud alert system for the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) is in development. The new system will be capable of identifying ash and SO2 clouds with greater accuracy. One component of GOES-R will be a lightning mapper. To study the temporal, spatial, and physical relationships between ash clouds and lightning, and the utility of lightning detection in a real-time alert system, we analyze data collected by the Lightning Mapping Array, a ground-based lightning detection network, in conjunction with satellite data gathered by the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) instrument aboard Meteosat-9 during in the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano. We correlate lightning characteristics, intensity, and distribution with plume location, height, mass loading, and effective particle radius. Lightning mapping in volcanic ash clouds potentially will allow for better characterization of the ash cloud and aid in forecasting the distribution of ash and its effects on aviation.

  8. Dyke-path formation in relation to the eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull 2010 and Bardarbunga-Holuhraun 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundsson, Agust

    2015-04-01

    Dykes are extension fractures and form when the magmatic overpressure is high enough to rupture (break) the host rock. Their formation is entirely analogous to that of many joints and human-made hydraulic fractures, such as are used to increase permeability in reservoirs. When generating their paths, dykes use existing weaknesses (e.g., cooling joints) in the host rock. The maximum depth of large tension fractures below the surface of a rift zone, however, is mostly less than a few hundred metres. If the fractures extend to greater depths, they must change into closed normal faults which are generally not used as magma paths. There are thus no large tension fractures or wide-open faults at great depths ready to be filled with magma to form a dyke. While magma flow in dykes, as in other fluid-driven fractures, is at any point in various directions dyke segmentation may indicate the overall large-scale flow direction. Thus, dykes composed of large-spaced disconnected segments in lateral sections are primarily formed in vertical magma flow at segmentation depth whereas those composed of large-spaced disconnected segments in vertical sections are primarily formed in lateral magma flow. The far-field displacement and stress fields of segmented dykes are similar to those generated by single, continuous dykes of similar dimensions, particularly when the distances between the nearby tips of the segments become small in comparison with segment lengths. Most dykes become arrested and never supply magma to eruptions. Feeder-dykes normally reach the surface only along parts of their lengths (strike-dimensions). The volumetric flow or effusion rate of magma through a feeder-dyke or volcanic fissure depends on the aperture (opening) of the dyke or fissure in the 3rd power. All these theoretical and observational results are here applied to the dyke emplacements associated with the eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull 2010 and Bardarbunga-Holuhraun 2014. The results make it possible to

  9. Education and the New Disciplinarity: Surveillance, Spectacle, and the Case of SBER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinson, Kevin D.; Ross, E. Wayne

    This paper pursues the evolving relationships between Foucauldian understandings of surveillance (the disciplinary observation of the many by the few) and Debordian notions of spectacle (the disciplinary observation of the few by the many). It argues that education today must be understood according to a setting in which spectacle and surveillance…

  10. The Properties and Distribution of Eyjafjallajökull Volcanic Ash, as Observed with MISR Space-based Multi-angle Imaging, April-May 2010 (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahn, R. A.; Gaitley, B. J.; Nelson, D. L.; Garay, M. J.; Misr Team

    2010-12-01

    Although volcanic eruptions occur about once per week globally, on average, relatively few of them affect the daily lives of millions of people. Significant exceptions were two eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in southern Iceland, which produced ash clouds lasting several weeks during each of April and May 2010. During the first eruption, air traffic over most of Europe was halted, severely affecting international transportation, trade, and economics. For the second ash cloud, space-based and suborbital observations, together with aerosol transport modeling, were used to predict ash plume distribution, making it possible to selectively close only the limited airspace in which there was actual risk of significant ash exposure. These events highlight the immense value of aerosol measurement and modeling capabilities when integrated and applied in emergency response situations. Geosynchronous satellite and continuous, ground-based observations played the most immediate roles in constraining model ash-cloud-extent predictions. However, the rich information content of large-scale though less frequent observations from instruments such as the NASA Earth Observing System’s Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) are key to improving the underlying representations of processes upon which the plume transport models rely. MISR contributes to this pool of information by providing maps of plume height derived from stereo imaging that are independent of knowledge of the temperature structure of the atmosphere or assumptions that the ash cloud is in thermal equilibrium with the environment. Such maps are obtained primarily near-source, where features of the ash cloud can be observed and co-registered in the multi-angle views. A distribution of heights is produced, making it possible to report all-important layer extent rather than just a characteristic plume elevation. Results are derived at 1.1 km horizontal and about 0.5 km vertical resolution. In addition

  11. Inverting for volcanic SO2 flux at high temporal resolution using spaceborne plume imagery and chemistry-transport modelling: the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boichu, M.; Menut, L.; Khvorostyanov, D.; Clarisse, L.; Clerbaux, C.; Turquety, S.; Coheur, P.-F.

    2013-09-01

    Depending on the magnitude of their eruptions, volcanoes impact the atmosphere at various temporal and spatial scales. The volcanic source remains a major unknown to rigorously assess these impacts. At the scale of an eruption, the limited knowledge of source parameters, including time variations of erupted mass flux and emission profile, currently represents the greatest issue that limits the reliability of volcanic cloud forecasts. Today, a growing number of satellite and remote sensing observations of distant plumes are becoming available, bringing indirect information on these source terms. Here, we develop an inverse modelling approach combining satellite observations of the volcanic plume with an Eulerian regional chemistry-transport model (CHIMERE) to characterise the volcanic SO2 emissions during an eruptive crisis. The May 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull is a perfect case study to apply this method as the volcano emitted substantial amounts of SO2 during more than a month. We take advantage of the SO2 column amounts provided by a vast set of IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) satellite images to reconstruct retrospectively the time series of the mid-tropospheric SO2 flux emitted by the volcano with a temporal resolution of ~2 h, spanning the period from 1 to 12 May 2010. We show that no a priori knowledge on the SO2 flux is required for this reconstruction. The initialisation of chemistry-transport modelling with this reconstructed source allows for reliable simulation of the evolution of the long-lived tropospheric SO2 cloud over thousands of kilometres. Heterogeneities within the plume, which mainly result from the temporal variability of the emissions, are correctly tracked over a timescale of a week. The robustness of our approach is also demonstrated by the broad similarities between the SO2 flux history determined by this study and the ash discharge behaviour estimated by other means during the phases of high explosive activity at

  12. Fractures in a trachyandesitic lava at Öræfajökull, Iceland, used to infer subglacial emplacement in 1727-8 eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, A. E. S.; Blake, S.; Tuffen, H.; Wilson, A.

    2014-11-01

    We present detailed field observations of cooling fractures in a small-volume trachyandesitic lava, informally named the Slaga lava, on the south west flank of Öræfajökull volcano, south east Iceland. Columnar joints, pseudopillow fracture systems, and curved platy jointing occur in the lava, whose exposed section is approximately 600 m in length and generally 2-3 m in thickness. Columnar jointing may occur at the base of flow lobes, whereas pseudopillow fracture systems occur throughout the lava in an outer, glassy, fractured carapace, and curved platy fractures occur in the centres of larger flow lobes. Pseudopillow fracture systems, composed of a single master fracture and multiple subsidiary fractures formed normal to the master fracture, are of two types: G-type pseudopillow fracture systems have very narrow striae (chisel marks) on their master fractures, indicative of rapid cooling and brittle fracture; SR-type pseudopillow fracture systems display alternating smooth and rough master fracture surface textures, evidence of alternating brittle and ductile fracture propagation mechanisms. Subsidiary fractures in both types show curved striae on their fracture surfaces, which enable the determination of fracture propagation directions. Pseudopillow fracture systems are thought only to form in the presence of water, including water caused by the melting of ice and snow. The curved platy fractures display prominent river lines and may have resulted from cooling contraction, post-emplacement degassing, flow deflation or shearing in the flow against the outer solid crust of the flow during inflation. Due to recent advances in the understanding of the formation mechanisms of pseudopillow fracture systems they, and the other fractures present in the flow, can be used to reconstruct the cooling environment. The lava is inferred to have been emplaced within subglacial drainage channels incised into or beneath a thin alpine-type glacier, with coolant infiltrating the

  13. Sulphur dioxide as a volcanic ash proxy during the April-May 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull Volcano, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, H. E.; Prata, A. J.

    2011-03-01

    The volcanic ash cloud from the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in April and May 2010 resulted in unprecedented disruption to air traffic in Western Europe causing significant monetary loses and highlighting the importance of efficient volcanic cloud monitoring. The feasibility of using SO2 as a tracer for the ash released during the eruption is investigated here through comparison of ash retrievals from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) with SO2 measurements from a number of infrared and ultraviolet satellite-based sensors. Results demonstrate that the eruption can be divided into an initial ash-rich phase, a lower intensity middle phase and a final phase where considerably greater quantities of both ash and SO2 were released. Comparisons of ash-SO2 dispersion indicate that despite frequent collocation of the two species, there are a number of instances throughout the eruption where separation is observed. This separation occurs vertically due to the more rapid settling rate of ash compared to SO2, horizontally through wind shear and temporally through volcanological controls on eruption style. The potential for the two species to be dispersed independently has consequences in terms of aircraft hazard mitigation and highlights the importance of monitoring both species concurrently.

  14. Simulated volcanic ash imagery: A method to compare NAME ash concentration forecasts with SEVIRI imagery for the Eyjafjallajökull eruption in 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millington, S. C.; Saunders, R. W.; Francis, P. N.; Webster, H. N.

    2012-10-01

    During volcanic eruptions that eject ash into the atmosphere Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers issue statements on the forecast dispersion of the ash so that the aviation industry can manage airspace to avoid aircraft encountering volcanic ash. Observations, such as those from satellites, are compared with the forecasts from an atmospheric dispersion model to assess the quality of the ash forecasts. A method has been developed to enable like-with-like comparison between satellite imagery of volcanic ash and simulated imagery using the forecast ash concentration data from an atmospheric dispersion model. The ash concentration and numerical weather prediction data are used as inputs to a radiative transfer model to simulate radiances. Simulated satellite images are created from these simulated radiances. Here, Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager volcanic ash images based on infrared brightness temperatures for the Eyjafjallajökull eruption in 2010 are simulated. In addition to providing a useful tool for forecasters in a Volcanic Ash Advisory Center, the simulated images can be used to aid the understanding of how the ash affects the satellite imagery and also the physical properties of the ash.

  15. Aerial infrared surveys of Reykjanes and Torfajökull thermal areas, Iceland, with a section on cost of exploration surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pálmason, G.; Friedman, J.D.; Williams, R.S., Jr.; Jónsson, J.; Saemundsson, K.

    1970-01-01

    In 1966 and 1968 aerial infrared surveys were conducted over 10 of 13 high-temperature thermal areas in Iceland. The surveys were made with an airborne scanner system, utilizing radiation in the 4.5–5.5 μm wavelength band. Supplementary ground geological studies were made in the Reykjanes and Torfajökull thermal areas to interpret features depicted on the infrared imagery and to relate zones of high heat flux to tectonic structure. In the Reykjanes area in southwestern Iceland a shallow ground temperature map was prepared for temperatures at a depth of 0.5 meters; comparison of this map with the infrared imagery reveals some striking similarities. It appears that aerial infrared surveys outline the surface thermal patterns of high-temperature areas and aid in relating these patterns to possible geological structures controlling the upflow of hot water. Amplitude-slicing techniques applied to the magnetically taped airborne scanner data permit an estimate to be made of the natural heat output on the basis of size of area and specific radiance. In addition to their value in preliminary studies of high-temperature areas, infrared surveys conducted at regular intervals over thermal area under exploitation can provide valuable data on changes that occur in surface manifestations with time.

  16. Physicochemical and toxicological profiling of ash from the 2010 and 2011 eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull and Grímsvötn volcanoes, Iceland using a rapid respiratory hazard assessment protocol.

    PubMed

    Horwell, C J; Baxter, P J; Hillman, S E; Calkins, J A; Damby, D E; Delmelle, P; Donaldson, K; Dunster, C; Fubini, B; Kelly, F J; Le Blond, J S; Livi, K J T; Murphy, F; Nattrass, C; Sweeney, S; Tetley, T D; Thordarson, T; Tomatis, M

    2013-11-01

    The six week eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010 produced heavy ash fall in a sparsely populated area of southern and south eastern Iceland and disrupted European commercial flights for at least 6 days. We adopted a protocol for the rapid analysis of volcanic ash particles, for the purpose of informing respiratory health risk assessments. Ash collected from deposits underwent a multi-laboratory physicochemical and toxicological investigation of their mineralogical parameters associated with bio-reactivity, and selected in vitro toxicology assays related to pulmonary inflammatory responses. Ash from the eruption of Grímsvötn, Iceland, in 2011 was also studied. The results were benchmarked against ash from Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat, which has been extensively studied since the onset of eruptive activity in 1995. For Eyjafjallajökull, the grain size distributions were variable: 2-13 vol% of the bulk samples were <4 µm, with the most explosive phases of the eruption generating abundant respirable particulate matter. In contrast, the Grímsvötn ash was almost uniformly coarse (<3.5 vol%<4 µm material). Surface area ranged from 0.3 to 7.7 m2 g(-1) for Eyjafjallajökull but was very low for Grímsvötn (<0.6 m2 g(-1)). There were few fibre-like particles (which were unrelated to asbestos) and the crystalline silica content was negligible in both eruptions, whereas Soufrière Hills ash was cristobalite-rich with a known potential to cause silicosis. All samples displayed a low ability to deplete lung antioxidant defences, showed little haemolysis and low acute cytotoxicity in human alveolar type-1 like epithelial cells (TT1). However, cell-free tests showed substantial hydroxyl radical generation in the presence of hydrogen peroxide for Grímsvötn samples, as expected for basaltic, Fe-rich ash. Cellular mediators MCP-1, IL-6, and IL-8 showed chronic pro-inflammatory responses in Eyjafjallajökull, Grímsvötn and Soufrière Hills samples

  17. The Impacts of Advancing Glaciers and Jökulhlaups on the 19th Century Farming Community in the Suðursveit District South of Vatnajökull Glacier, Iceland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigurmundsson, F. S.; Gísladóttir, G.; Erlendsson, E.

    2014-12-01

    Few areas in Iceland were as vulnerable to climate changes during the 19th century as the region south of Vatnajökull glacier. The region was repeatedly affected by glacier advance and jökulhlaups (glacier outburst floods) during the Little Ice Age AD 1300-1900 (LIA). The land area between the glacier and the coast was occupied by farming community. The aim of this research is to quantify and map the size of lost vegetated area in the 19th century during the glacial advance in the climax of the LIA and the impact these events had on the community, land-use, ownership, value of estates and livelihood. This research employs historical written sources to investigate changes in the cultural and natural landscape. Historical data and field observations will be collected and stored in a GIS database designed for the research, allowing data to be analyzed and presented on maps. The first recorded impact on the settlement is from 1794 when the Breiðármerkurjökull outlet glacier advanced and devastated pastures and crofts belonging in west of the district. Seventy five years later, in 1868, the largest estate was completely destroyed by a jökulhlaup. In 1829 a farm site in the middle of the district was moved due to repeated jökulhlaup. The outlet glacier Brókarjökull initiated annual jökulhlaups during 1820 -1870, devastating pastures and hayfields and woodlands of a total of 3 prominent estates in the area (by 1200 ha), causing devaluation of 33-66% on these estates. In the eastern part extensive jökulhlaups changed the glacial river channel causing the river to flow over vast area devastating 80 % of the eastern most estate causing its abandonment in 1892. The climate change and accompanied hazards during the 19th century changed the landscape of the Suðursveit district significantly. By the turn of the 20thcentury the vegetated land in the district had been reduced by 35% and areas of sediments increased by 25% and glaciated area increased by 10%. These

  18. Geodetic mass balance record with rigorous uncertainty estimates deduced from aerial photographs and lidar data - Case study from Drangajökull ice cap, NW Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnússon, E.; Muñoz-Cobo Belart, J.; Pálsson, F.; Ágústsson, H.; Crochet, P.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we describe how recent high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) can be used to extract glacier surface DEMs from old aerial photographs and to evaluate the uncertainty of the mass balance record derived from the DEMs. We present a case study for Drangajökull ice cap, NW Iceland. This ice cap covered an area of 144 km2 when it was surveyed with airborne lidar in 2011. Aerial photographs spanning all or most of the ice cap are available from survey flights in 1946, 1960, 1975, 1985, 1994 and 2005. All ground control points used to constrain the orientation of the aerial photographs were obtained from the high-resolution lidar DEM. The lidar DEM was also used to estimate errors of the extracted photogrammetric DEMs in ice- and snow-free areas, at nunataks and outside the glacier margin. The derived errors of each DEM were used to constrain a spherical semivariogram model, which along with the derived errors in ice- and snow-free areas were used as inputs into 1000 sequential Gaussian simulations (SGSims). The simulations were used to estimate the possible bias in the entire glaciated part of the DEM and the 95 % confidence level of this bias. This results in bias correction varying in magnitude between 0.03 m (in 1975) and 1.66 m (in 1946) and uncertainty values between ±0.21 m (in 2005) and ±1.58 m (in 1946). Error estimation methods based on more simple proxies would typically yield 2-4 times larger error estimates. The aerial photographs used were acquired between late June and early October. An additional seasonal bias correction was therefore estimated using a degree-day model to obtain the volume change between the start of 2 glaciological years (1 October). This correction was largest for the 1960 DEM, corresponding to an average elevation change of -3.5 m or approx. three-quarters of the volume change between the 1960 and the 1975 DEMs. The total uncertainty of the derived mass balance record is dominated by uncertainty in the volume

  19. MODIS-derived albedo changes of Vatnajökull (Iceland) due to tephra deposition from the 2004 Grímsvötn eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, Rebecca; Möller, Marco; Björnsson, Helgi; Guðmundsson, Sverrir; Pálsson, Finnur; Oddsson, Björn; Kukla, Peter A.; Schneider, Christoph

    2014-02-01

    Occasionally, the surface albedo of glaciers may be abruptly altered by deposition of light-absorbing aerosols, which consequently has a sustained impact on their energy- and mass balance. Volcanic eruptions may spread tephra deposits over regional-scale glacierized areas. In November 2004, an explosive, phreatomagmatic eruption of the subglacial Grímsvötn volcano, located in the centre of the Icelandic ice cap Vatnajökull, produced ash fall covering an area of ∼1280 km2 in the northwestern part of the ice cap. This event affected the surface albedo of the glacier over several years after the eruption. We use MODIS surface-albedo data and an ash-dispersal dataset obtained from in situ measurements on the ice cap to develop a novel, empirically based modelling approach to describe the albedo decrease across the glacier surface caused by the deposited tephra. We present analyses of the temporal and spatial variability of the albedo pattern over the post-eruption period from November 2004 to December 2008. The tephra-induced albedo changes were largest and most widely distributed over the glacier surface during the summer season 2005. The observed albedo decrease reached 0.35 when compared to modelled, undisturbed conditions. In the low-lying ablation area, where strong surface melting takes place, the tephra influence on albedo diminished with time and completely faded out within four years after the eruption. In contrast, at the rim of the Grímsvötn caldera surrounding the eruption site the tephra influences on albedo considerably increased with time. Throughout the rest of the high-lying accumulation area, the influences were scattered in both space and time.

  20. Determination of time- and height-resolved volcanic ash emissions and their use for quantitative ash dispersion modeling: the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stohl, A.; Prata, A. J.; Eckhardt, S.; Clarisse, L.; Durant, A.; Henne, S.; Kristiansen, N. I.; Minikin, A.; Schumann, U.; Seibert, P.; Stebel, K.; Thomas, H. E.; Thorsteinsson, T.; Tørseth, K.; Weinzierl, B.

    2011-05-01

    The April-May, 2010 volcanic eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland caused significant economic and social disruption in Europe whilst state of the art measurements and ash dispersion forecasts were heavily criticized by the aviation industry. Here we demonstrate for the first time that large improvements can be made in quantitative predictions of the fate of volcanic ash emissions, by using an inversion scheme that couples a priori source information and the output of a Lagrangian dispersion model with satellite data to estimate the volcanic ash source strength as a function of altitude and time. From the inversion, we obtain a total fine ash emission of the eruption of 8.3 ± 4.2 Tg for particles in the size range of 2.8-28 μm diameter. We evaluate the results of our model results with a posteriori ash emissions using independent ground-based, airborne and space-borne measurements both in case studies and statistically. Subsequently, we estimate the area over Europe affected by volcanic ash above certain concentration thresholds relevant for the aviation industry. We find that during three episodes in April and May, volcanic ash concentrations at some altitude in the atmosphere exceeded the limits for the "Normal" flying zone in up to 14 % (6-16 %), 2 % (1-3 %) and 7 % (4-11 %), respectively, of the European area. For a limit of 2 mg m-3 only two episodes with fractions of 1.5 % (0.2-2.8 %) and 0.9 % (0.1-1.6 %) occurred, while the current "No-Fly" zone criterion of 4 mg m-3 was rarely exceeded. Our results have important ramifications for determining air space closures and for real-time quantitative estimations of ash concentrations. Furthermore, the general nature of our method yields better constraints on the distribution and fate of volcanic ash in the Earth system.

  1. Investigation of the complex dynamics and structure of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull volcanic ash cloud using multispectral images and numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinetti, C.; Barsotti, S.; Neri, A.; Buongiorno, M. F.; Doumaz, F.; Nannipieri, L.

    2013-05-01

    investigated the structure and evolution of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull volcanic cloud and its dispersal over Iceland and Europe integrating satellite multispectral images and numerical simulations. Data acquired by Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) have been analyzed to quantify the cloud extent and composition. The VOL-CALPUFF dispersal code was applied to reconstruct the transient and 3-D evolution of the cloud. Source parameters estimated on the base of available a posteriori volcanological data sets have been used. Quantitative comparisons between satellite retrievals and modeling results were performed for two selected instants of time during the first and third eruptive phases on a regional scale. Sensitivity of the model to initial volcanological conditions has been analyzed at continental scale. Several complex non intuitive features of cloud dynamics have been highlighted and strengths and limitations of the adopted methods identified. The main findings are: the level of quantitative agreement between satellite observations and numerical results depends on ash cloud composition (particle sizes and concentration) with better agreement for smaller particles and higher concentrations; the agreement between observations and modeling outcomes also depends on the temporal stability of volcanological conditions and the complexity of the meteorological wind field; the irregular dispersion of ash, as reconstructed from satellite data and numerical modeling, can be well explained by the different response of particle sizes to strong vertical wind-shear, and by resuspension processes acting at ground level; eruptive source conditions are the main source of uncertainty in modeling, especially during an ongoing crisis and at long-range scales.

  2. Validation of ash optical depth and layer height retrieved from passive satellite sensors using EARLINET and airborne lidar data: the case of the Eyjafjallajökull eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balis, Dimitris; Koukouli, Maria-Elissavet; Siomos, Nikolaos; Dimopoulos, Spyridon; Mona, Lucia; Pappalardo, Gelsomina; Marenco, Franco; Clarisse, Lieven; Ventress, Lucy J.; Carboni, Elisa; Grainger, Roy G.; Wang, Ping; Tilstra, Gijsbert; van der A, Ronald; Theys, Nicolas; Zehner, Claus

    2016-05-01

    The vulnerability of the European airspace to volcanic eruptions was brought to the attention of the public and the scientific community by the 2010 eruptions of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull. As a consequence of this event, ash concentration thresholds replaced the "zero tolerance to ash" rule, drastically changing the requirements on satellite ash retrievals. In response to that, the ESA funded several projects aiming at creating an optimal end-to-end system for volcanic ash plume monitoring and prediction. Two of them, namely the SACS-2 and SMASH projects, developed and improved dedicated satellite-derived ash plume and sulfur dioxide level assessments. The validation of volcanic ash levels and height extracted from the GOME-2 and IASI instruments on board the MetOp-A satellite is presented in this work. EARLINET lidar measurements are compared to different satellite retrievals for two eruptive episodes in April and May 2010. Comparisons were also made between satellite retrievals and aircraft lidar data obtained with the UK's BAe-146-301 Atmospheric Research Aircraft (managed by the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements, FAAM) over the United Kingdom and the surrounding regions. The validation results are promising for most satellite products and are within the estimated uncertainties of each of the comparative data sets, but more collocation scenes would be desirable to perform a comprehensive statistical analysis. The satellite estimates and the validation data sets are better correlated for high ash optical depth values, with correlation coefficients greater than 0.8. The IASI retrievals show a better agreement concerning the ash optical depth and ash layer height when compared with the ground-based and airborne lidar data.

  3. Assessment of hydro-morphodynamic modelling and geomorphological impacts of a sediment-charged jökulhlaup, at Sólheimajökull, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Mingfu; Wright, Nigel G.; Sleigh, P. Andy; Carrivick, Jonathan L.

    2015-11-01

    Understanding of complex flood-riverbed interaction processes in large-scale (field) outburst floods remains incomplete, not least due to a lack of well-constrained field data on hydraulics and sediment transport, but also because consensus on an appropriate model framework has yet to be agreed. This study presents a novel full 2D hydro-morphodynamic model containing both bedload and suspended load capability. Firstly, the model design is presented with an emphasis on its design to simulate rapidly-varied sediment-laden outburst floods and also the associated geomorphological impacts. Secondly, the model is applied to a large-scale (field) glacier outburst flood or 'jökulhlaup' at Sólheimajökull, Iceland. For this real-world event, model scenarios with only water and with inclusion of sediment with different parameter setups were performed. Results indicated that grain size specifications affected resultant geomorphological changes, but that the sensitivity of the simulated riverbed changes to the empirical bedload transport formulae were insignificant. Notably, a positive feedback occurred whereby the jökulhlaup led to significant net erosion of the riverbed, producing an increase in flow conveyance capacity of the river channel. Furthermore, bulking effects of sediment entrainment raised the peak discharge progressively downstream, as well as the flood volume. Effects of geomorphological changes on flood water level and flow velocity were significant. Overall, despite the increased computational effort required with inclusion of sediment transport processes, this study shows that river morphological changes cannot be ignored for events with significant in-channel erosion and deposition, such as during outburst floods.

  4. Determination of time- and height-resolved volcanic ash emissions for quantitative ash dispersion modeling: the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stohl, A.; Prata, A. J.; Eckhardt, S.; Clarisse, L.; Durant, A.; Henne, S.; Kristiansen, N. I.; Minikin, A.; Schumann, U.; Seibert, P.; Stebel, K.; Thomas, H. E.; Thorsteinsson, T.; Tørseth, K.; Weinzierl, B.

    2011-02-01

    The April-May 2010 volcanic eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland caused significant economic and social disruption in Europe whilst state of the art measurements and ash dispersion forecasts were heavily criticized by the aviation industry. Here we demonstrate for the first time that dramatic improvements can be made in quantitative predictions of the fate of volcanic ash emissions, by using an inversion scheme that couples a priori source information and the output of a Lagrangian dispersion model with satellite data to estimate the volcanic ash source strength as a function of altitude and time. From the inversion, we obtain a total fine ash emission of the eruption of 8.3 ± 4.2 Tg for particles in the size range of 2.8-28 μm diameter and extrapolate this to a total ash emission of 11.9 ± 5.9 Tg for the size range of 0.25-250 μm. We evaluate the results of our a posteriori model using independent ground-based, airborne and space-borne measurements both in case studies and statistically. Subsequently, we estimate the area over Europe affected by volcanic ash above certain concentration thresholds relevant for the aviation industry. We find that during three episodes in April and May, volcanic ash concentrations at some altitude in the atmosphere exceeded the limits for the "normal" flying zone in up to 14% (6-16%), 2% (1-3%) and 7% (4-11%), respectively, of the European area. For a limit of 2 mg m-3 only two episodes with fractions of 1.5% (0.2-2.8%) and 0.9% (0.1-1.6%) occurred, while the current "no-fly" zone criterion of 4 mg m-3 was rarely exceeded. Our results have important ramifications for determining air space closures and for real-time quantitative estimations of ash concentrations. Furthermore, the general nature of our method yields better constraints on the distribution and fate of volcanic ash in the Earth system.

  5. Soil carbon accretion along an age chronosequence formed by the retreat of the Skaftafellsjökull glacier, SE-Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilmundardóttir, O. K.; Gísladóttir, G.; Lal, R.

    2015-01-01

    Climate warming has led to glacial retreat worldwide, where surfaces exposed to the atmosphere are subjected to weathering, vegetation colonization and new soil formation. On young soils developing along the recessional path left by the Skaftafellsjökull glacier, SE-Iceland, we investigated the accretion of soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen (N), representing an age chronosequence of 120 years. In total, 54 sampling sites were distributed along three moraines deposited in 1890, 1945, and 2003. For comparison, soil samples were collected from nearby birch woodlands (Betula pubescens Ehrh.), representing soils in a mature ecosystem likely to establish on the moraines in the future. Results show that the average SOC and N concentrations increase with time and at faster rates over the latter part of the chronosequence period investigated (1945-1890). After 120 yrs, the soil contains 1.1 kg C m- 2 in the surface layer (0-10 cm), which is still about one third of the 3.2 kg C m- 2 in soil under the birch woodlands. The N stock estimated at 0.06 kg N m- 2 after 120 yrs is almost one fourth of that under the woodlands. The data suggest that landscape affects vegetation establishment and in turn, both landscape and vegetation affect soil development. Thus, concentrations of SOC, N and noncrystalline oxalate extractable Al and Fe are higher within depressions in the proglacial landscape. The comparison of SOC stock in the moraine soils with that under the birch forest shows that the young proglacial soils still have a large potential to accrete SOC within the developing pedosphere. With the observed accrual rate of 9.1 g C m- 2 yr- 1 in the top at 10 cm, it may take the moraine soils an additional period of 220 yrs to accrue SOC stocks comparable with those under the birch forest. Given the fact that all Icelandic glaciers are receding, assessing SOC accretion in new soil formation may be important to off-setting the greenhouse gas emissions.

  6. Observing the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland, Eruptions with NASA's Earth Observing-1 Spacecraft - Improving Data Flow In a Volcanic Crisis Through Use of Autonomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, S.; Davies, A. G.; Doubleday, J.; Tran, D. Q.; Gudmundsson, M. T.; Jónsdóttir, I.; Hoskuldsson, A.; Thordarson, T.; Jakobsdottir, S.; Wright, R.

    2010-12-01

    Eyjafjallajökull volcano, Iceland, erupted from 20 March to 12 April 2010 (a flank eruption) and again from 14 April to 23 May 2010. The latter eruption heavily impacted air travel across much of northern Europe, and highlighted the need to monitor and quickly react to new eruptions. The NASA Earth Observing 1 spacecraft (EO-1), which is managed by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, obtained over 50 observation pairs with the Hyperion hyperspectral imager and ALI (Advanced Land Imager) multispectral camera. EO-1 is the remote-sensing asset of a globe-spanning Volcano Sensor Web [1], where low spatial resolution data (e.g., MODIS) or alerts of ongoing or possible volcanic activity are used to trigger requests for high resolution EO-1 data. Advanced resource management software, developed in part for flight onboard EO-1 as part of the Autonomous Sciencecraft [2, 3] is now used to task EO-1. This system allowed rapid re-tasking of EO-1 to obtain both day and night data at high temporal resolution (on average every 2 days), unusual for such high spatial resolution imagers (Hyperion and ALI at 30 m/pixel, with an ALI panchromatic band at 10 m/pixel). About 50% of the data were impacted by cloud. Advances in data handling and communications during the last two years means that Hyperion and ALI data are typically on the ground and ready for analysis within a few hours of data acquisition. Automatic data processing systems at the NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory process Hyperion data to (1) correct for atmospheric adsorption; (2) remove the sunlight component in daytime data; (3) identify hot pixels; (4) fit unsaturated data to determine temperature and area of sub-pixel thermal sources; (5) calculate total thermal emission and, from this, an effusion rate; (6) generate geo-located data products. The entire process is autonomous. Data products, as well as images generated, were sent to volcanologists in the field to aid in eruption assessment. The JPL group is now

  7. A new scheme for sulphur dioxide retrieval from IASI measurements: application to the Eyjafjallajökull eruption of April and May 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carboni, E.; Grainger, R.; Walker, J.; Dudhia, A.; Siddans, R.

    2012-12-01

    A new optimal estimation algorithm for the retrieval of sulphur dioxide (SO2) has been developed for the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) using the channels between 1000-1200 and 1300-1410 cm-1. These regions include the two SO2 absorption bands centred at about 8.7 and 7.3 μm (the ν1 and ν3 bands respectively). The retrieval assumes a Gaussian SO2 profile and returns the SO2 column amount in Dobson units and the altitude of the plume in millibars (mb). Forward modelled spectra (against which the measurements are compared) are based on the Radiative Transfer for TOVS (RTTOV) code. In our implementation RTTOV uses atmospheric profiles from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) meteorological data. The retrieval includes a comprehensive error budget for every pixel derived from an error covariance matrix that is based on the SO2-free climatology of the differences between the IASI and forward modelled spectra. The IASI forward model includes the ability to simulate a cloud or ash layer in the atmosphere. This feature is used to illustrate that: (1) the SO2 retrieval is not affected by underlying cloud but is affected if the SO2 is within or below a cloud layer; (2) it is possible to discern if ash (or other atmospheric constituents not considered in the error covariance matrix) affects the retrieval using quality control based on the fit of the measured spectrum by the forward modelled spectrum. In this work, the algorithm is applied to follow the behaviour of SO2 plumes from the Eyjafjallajökull eruption during April and May 2010. From 14 April to 4 May (during Phase I and II of the eruption) the total amount of SO2 present in the atmosphere, estimated by IASI measurements, is generally below 0.02 Tg. During the last part of the eruption (Phase III) the values are an order of magnitude higher, with a maximum of 0.18 Tg measured on the afternoon of 7 May.

  8. Overview of the NAME model and its role as a VAAC atmospheric dispersion model during the Eyjafjallajökull Eruption April 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leadbetter, Susan; Agnew, Paul; Burgin, Laura; Davis, Lucy; Hort, Matthew; Huggett, Lois; Jones, Andrew; Manning, Alistair; Redington, Alsion; Thomson, David; Webster, Helen

    2010-05-01

    The UK Met Office, in its role as one of nine Volcanic Ash Advisory Centres (VAACs) around the world, is responsible for advising international aviation authorities in all impacted countries of the location and movement of clouds of volcanic ash which originate from the London VAAC domain. VAACs only provide advice on extent of ash to the aviation regulators and it is the regulator's decision on whether to restrict air space. The Met Office delivers this capability through a world-leading atmospheric dispersion model, NAME. In addition to its role as an emergency response guidance tool the model is used for routine air quality forecasting and meteorological research activities. NAME is a Lagrangian particle model which calculates the dispersion of pollutants by tracking ‘particles' through a modelled atmosphere. Each model particle has its own characteristics, for example, particles can represent different chemical species and can represent real particulate sizes. NAME has the flexibility to specify sources at any location in the atmosphere. Once emitted, particles move in a manner determined by the meteorology obtained from the Met Office operational numerical weather prediction model, the Unified Model. Particles are advected according to three-dimensional winds with a random component used to represent the effects of atmospheric turbulence and can be removed from the model atmosphere by various processes. For modelling the dispersion of volcanic ash during the Eyjafjallajökull eruption, NAME is configured in the following manner. Material is released between the volcano summit and the plume rise height as estimated from observations taken by the Icelandic Met Office and measurements from radar and satellites. The particles are emitted following a prescribed size distribution with a density of 2300 kg/m3. The material is subjected to gravitational settling, and is deposited due to dry and wet deposition processes. There is no attempt in NAME to model volcano

  9. PS-InSAR measurements at the most active volcanoes in Iceland: role of the GEO supersite initiative in deformation monitoring at Bárðarbunga, Askja, Hekla, Katla and Eyjafjallajökull volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parks, Michelle; Dumont, Stéphanie; Drouin, Vincent; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Spaans, Karsten; Hooper, Andrew; Ófeigsson, Benedikt; Árnadóttir, Þóra; Hreinsdóttir, Sigrún; Michalczewska, Karolina; Hjaltadóttir, Sigurlaug; María Friðriksdóttir, Hildur; Rut Hjartardóttir, Ásta; Magnússon, Eyjólfur; Vogfjörd, Kristín; Jónsdóttir, Kristín; Hensch, Martin; Guðmundsson, Gunnar; Geirsson, Halldór; Sturkell, Erik

    2015-04-01

    Analysis of a time series of ground deformation measurements at active volcanoes can provide an improved understanding of sub-volcanic and sub-aerial processes; including those related to magmatic, hydrothermal and structural development. Interpreting a long time series may also help determine background behavior, and identify any deviations from this, including the migration of new melt. We use Persistent Scatterer Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PS-InSAR) techniques to generate a time series of high-resolution deformation measurements, in the vicinity of the most active volcanoes in Iceland: Bárðarbunga, Askja, Hekla, Katla and Eyjafjallajökull and compare these to other geodetic measurements. A comprehensive network of continuous GPS stations is already deployed at these volcanoes and a series of campaign GPS measurements are routinely undertaken each summer. InSAR observations are complementary to these field based measurements and their high spatial resolution assists in resolving the geometry of the deformation field hence gaining improved constraints on the inferred source. The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites has recently declared Iceland a Permanent Geohazard Supersite, based on its propensity for relatively frequent eruptions and their potentially hazardous, long ranging effects. The recent Supersite award ensures a considerable amount of SAR data is made available for both past and future satellite acquisitions, including new X-band images (acquired by TerraSAR-X and Cosmo-SkyMed satellites), and historic C-band images from ERS and ENVISAT. We present a series of long-term deformation measurements for Hekla, Katla, Eyjafjallajökull and Askja volcanoes, derived using PS-InSAR techniques, and include recent interferograms spanning the 2014 unrest and eruption within the Bárðarbunga volcanic system. InSAR and tilt measurements at Hekla indicate renewed melt supply to a sub-volcanic reservoir after the last eruption in 2000. Recent

  10. Seismic tremor signals from Bárðarbunga, Grímsvötn and other glacier covered volcanoes in Iceland's Vatnajökull ice cap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogfjörd, Kristin S.; Eibl, Eva; Bean, Chris; Roberts, Matthew; Ófeigsson, Benedikt; Jóhannesson, Tómas

    2016-04-01

    Many of Iceland's most active volcanoes, like Grímsvötn and Bárðarbunga are located under glaciers giving rise to a range of volcanic hazards having both local and cross-border effects on humans, infrastructures and aviation. Volcanic eruptions under ice can lead to explosive hydromagmatic volcanism and generate small to catastrophic subglacial floods that may take hours to days to emerge from the glacier edge. Unrest in subglacial hydrothermal systems and the draining of subglacial meltwater can also lead to flood hazards. These processes and magma-ice interactions in general, generate seismic tremor signals that are commonly observed on seismic systems during volcanic unrest and/or eruptions. The tremor signals exhibit certain characteristics in frequency content, amplitude and behavior with time, but their characteristics overlap. Ability to discriminate between the different processes in real-time or near-real time can support early eruption and flood warnings and help mitigate their detrimental effects. One of the goals set forth in the FUTUREVOLC volcano supersite project was in fact to understand and discriminate between the different types of seismic tremor recorded at subglacial volcanoes. In that pursuit, the seismic network was expanded into the Vatnajökull glacier with four permanent stations on rock and in the ice, in addition to three seismic arrays installed at the ice margin, to enable location and possible tracking of the tremor sources. To track subglacial floods with better resolution three GPS receivers were also installed on the ice, one in an ice cauldron above the Skaftárkatlar geothermal melting area and two down glacier, above the track of the expected subglacial flood. During FUTUREVOLC this infrastructure has recorded all the types of process expected: Magmatic dyke intrusion and propagation from Bárðarbunga, subaerial fissure eruption of that magma at Holuhraun, two subglacial floods, one small and one large, draining from the

  11. The erosion and suspended matter/seawater interaction during and after the 1996 outburst flood from the Vatnajökull Glacier, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefánsdóttir, Matthildur B.; Gíslason, Sigurdur R.

    2005-09-01

    The Gjálp subglacial eruption 1996 within the Vatnajökull Glacier, Iceland triggered a catastrophic outburst flood, bringing at least 180 million tonnes of suspended solids to the sea in only 42 h. This amounts to 1% of the total annual global river suspended flux to the oceans. The specific BET-surface area of the suspended solids was measured to be 11.8-18.9 m 2/g, translating to the average total BET-surface area of 2.8 × 10 9 km 2, providing enormous potential for adsorption/desorption and precipitation/dissolution fluxes at the suspended solids-ocean water interface. Altered basalt glass was the major constituent of the suspended matter (80%), secondary minerals such as zeolites and calcite amounted to 11%, but only 5% was fresh volcanic glass. The suspended grains were generally rounded. The glass carried by the flood is different in chemical composition from the glass produced by the Gjálp eruption. The Gjálp material has higher FeO total / TiO 2 and TiO 2 / P 2O 5 ratios than the suspended glass in the flood waters. The majority of the flood samples match the composition of the volcanic system, down stream from the eruption site. The large amount of altered material in the flood and its chemical composition suggests erosion conforming to a 2 m deep, 1000 m wide and 50 000 m long channel in less than 42 h. The behaviour of 28 elements on the surface of the suspended solids exposed to seawater was quantified by experiments in the laboratory. The altered basaltic glass dissolved in seawater, as recorded by the Si release from the glass. The dissolved concentrations of Na, Ca, Si, Ba, Cd, Co, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, and total dissolved inorganic N increased considerably when the suspended solids come into contact with the seawater, but the concentrations of Mg, K, S, Sr, Fe, Pb and Zn decreased. The experimental seawater solutions were supersaturated with respect to calcite, Mg-montmorillonite and amorphous iron-hydroxide. The rate of release (mol/m 2/s) of Si, Mn

  12. Reply to the “Comment by Delmelle et al. (2013) on 'Scavenging of sulfur, halogens and trace metals by volcanic ash: The 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption' by Bagnato et al. (2013)”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagnato, E.; Aiuppa, A.; Bertagnini, A.; Bonadonna, C.; Cioni, R.; Pistolesi, M.; Pedone, M.; Hoskuldsson, A.

    2014-02-01

    With this short communication we address the principal issues raised by Delmelle et al. (2014) in relation to the work of Bagnato et al. (2013) concerning the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland. The principal conclusions of the work of Bagnato et al. (2013) include the observation that protracted gas-aerosol interaction in the plume promotes selective leaching of cation species from ash, with alkalis and Ca (and, among trace elements, Zn and Cu) being more rapidly re-mobilized (and transferred to soluble surface salts) relative to more inert elements (Mg, Ti). They also observed that adsorption onto ash surfaces is a major atmospheric sink of volcanic acidic gases, with 282 tons of elemental sulfur and 605-691 tons of halogens being daily ground deposited via ash over Iceland in early May 2010. Acidic gas adsorption onto ash increases almost linearly with plume aging (e.g., upon increasing in-plume residence times of ash and gases), and is seen to proceed at about 3 time faster rates for HF than for SO2 and HCl. However, Delmelle et al. (2014) criticized our strategies for data acquisition, processing and interpretation. They also raised some objections concerning several key topics explored by Bagnato et al. (2013), with a special focus on the discussion of rates of interaction between ash particles and gases in a volcanic cloud, and the consequent formation of soluble salts on ash surfaces. They also considered incorrect the estimate of depositional fluxes and volatile budget for the Eyjafjallajökull eruption. While we appreciate the in-depth analysis of Delmelle et al. (2014), we show that most of their criticisms derive from a partial and sometimes incorrect understanding of the work of Bagnato et al. (2013), which overall led to unsupported conclusions and misleading analysis of the original results. Here, we present a detailed response to the comments of Delmelle et al. (2014), accompanied by additional explicative material. The principal

  13. Inverting for volcanic SO2 flux at high temporal resolution using spaceborne plume imagery and chemistry-transport modelling: the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption case-study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boichu, M.; Menut, L.; Khvorostyanov, D.; Clarisse, L.; Clerbaux, C.; Turquety, S.; Coheur, P.-F.

    2013-03-01

    Depending on the magnitude of their eruptions, volcanoes impact the atmosphere at various temporal and spatial scales. The volcanic source remains a major unknown to rigorously assess these impacts. At the scale of an eruption, the limited knowledge of source parameters, including time-variations of erupted mass flux and emission profile, currently represents the greatest issue that limits the reliability of volcanic cloud forecasts. Today, a growing number of satellite and remote sensing observations of distant plumes are becoming available, bringing indirect information on these source terms. Here, we develop an inverse modeling approach combining satellite observations of the volcanic plume with an Eulerian regional chemistry-transport model (CHIMERE) to better characterise the volcanic SO2 emissions during an eruptive crisis. The May 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull is a perfect case-study to apply this method as the volcano emitted substantial amounts of SO2 during more than a month. We take advantage of the SO2 column amounts provided by a vast set of IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) satellite images to reconstruct retrospectively the time-series of the mid-tropospheric SO2 flux emitted by the volcano with a temporal resolution of ~2 h, spanning the period from 1 to 12 May 2010. The initialisation of chemistry-transport modelling with this reconstructed source allows for a reliable simulation of the evolution of the long-lived tropospheric SO2 cloud over thousands of kilometres. Heterogeneities within the plume, which mainly result from the temporal variability of the emissions, are correctly tracked over a time scale of a week. The robustness of our approach is also demonstrated by the broad similarities between the SO2 flux history determined by this study and the ash discharge behaviour estimated by other means during the phases of high explosive activity at Eyjafjallajökull in May 2010. Finally, we show how a sequential IASI data

  14. Dynamics of Individual Eruptive Pulses and their Contribution to the Total Mass Flux - Case Study of the 2nd Explosive Phase of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull Eruption (Iceland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dürig, T.; Gudmundsson, M. T.; Karmann, S.; Zimanowski, B.; Dellino, P.; Rietze, M.; Büttner, R.

    2014-12-01

    The 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption was characterized by pulsating activity, where emissions from the vent occurred in frequent but discrete bursts with pulses in the order of seconds that then merged at higher altitude in a sustained eruption column. High resolution near-field video recordings of the vents, taken from a distance of ~850 m from 8 - 10 May (during the second explosive phase), were used as a case study to describe the mechanism of such pulsating eruptions and their contribution to the total mass flux of ash injection in the atmosphere. The dynamics of discrete overpressured jets were quantified during the intial gas thrust stage, i.e. between discharge and the height of transition into a convective buoyant regime (at ~100 m above the vent). By applying a straight-forward volumetrical calculation model, the volume and pressure history of eruptive pulses could be reconstructed. Then the mass flux of individual pulses was determined by exploiting the fact that the pressure at the transition height is known to be at ambient pressure. Based on our results we examine how to link the eruption source parameters of multiple discrete expansive jets to the overall mass eruption rate deduced by "classical" continuous ash plume models (being ~4*104 kg/s). In addition we discuss the implications for a real-time assessment of eruption source parameters by using near-field monitoring systems under pulsatory eruption conditions.

  15. Reply to Comment on “On the recent bimodal magmatic processes and their rates in the Torfajökull-Veidivötn area, Iceland” by K.M. Cooper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, K. H.; Zellmer, G. F.

    2009-04-01

    Cooper [Cooper, K.M., 2009. Comment on "On the recent bimodal magmatic processes and their rates in the Torfajökull-Veidivötn area, Iceland" by K.M. Cooper. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett.] argues that pre-eruptive crustal magma residence times of 1.4-3.2 ka determined from 226Ra- 230Th disequilibrium in co-eruptive Icelandic rhyolites and basalts are erroneous in Zellmer et al. [Zellmer, G.F., Rubin, K.H., Grönvold, K., Jurado-Chichay, Z., 2008. On the recent bimodal magmatic processes and their rates in the Torfajökull-Veidivötn area, Iceland. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 269: 388-398]. The core of Cooper's comment is that our not having applied model parameterizations that predict differences in mineral-melt partitioning of Ra ( DRa) and Ba ( DBa) introduce non-equilibrium conditions yielding inaccurate isochron ages. Yet the actual correction arising from the DRa ≠ DBa model is trivial relative to the DRa = DBa model we employed for the two mineral phases upon which most of our age interpretations are based: magnetite (23 years) and clinopyroxene (2 years). Cooper's correction scheme might have a larger effect on our lone plagioclase separate were it possible to accurately predict what DRa/ DBa to employ (correction with DRa/ DBa = 0.15 proposed by Cooper [op. cit.], results in an impossible age). Yet even using an ad hoc 0.15 < DRa/ DBa < 1 that could generate an allowable age would still not change our interpretation of when mineral formation began in these magmas. 238U, 232Th and Ba abundances in our mineral separates are within the range of literature values for those phases. But Cooper [Ibid.] also argues that these phase separates are highly impure, using non-realistic Th, U and Ba distribution coefficients (particularly for rhyolite phases and basaltic titanomagnetites) to estimate equilibrium concentrations relative to their host magmas. The Cooper comment thus also faults us for not correcting our data for the perceived impurities, using the

  16. Geodetic mass balance record with rigorous uncertainty estimates deduced from aerial photographs and LiDAR data - case study from Drangajökull ice cap, NW-Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnússon, E.; Belart, J. M. C.; Pálsson, F.; Ágústsson, H.; Crochet, P.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we describe how recent high resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) can be used as constraints for extracting glacier surface DEMs from old aerial photographs and to evaluate the uncertainty of the mass balance record derived from the DEMs. We present a case study for Drangajökull ice cap, NW-Iceland. This ice cap covered an area of 144 km2 when it was surveyed with airborne LiDAR in 2011. Aerial photographs spanning all or most of the ice cap are available from survey flights in 1946, 1960, 1975, 1985, 1994 and 2005. All ground control points used to constrain the orientation of the aerial photographs were obtained from the high resolution LiDAR DEM (2 m × 2 m cell size and vertical accuracy < 0.5 m). The LiDAR DEM was also used to estimate errors of the extracted photogrammetric DEMs in ice and snow free areas, at nunataks and outside the glacier margin. The derived errors of each DEM were used to constrain a spherical variogram model, which along with the derived errors in ice and snow free areas were used as inputs into 1000 Sequential Gaussian Simulations (SGSim). The simulations were used to estimate the possible bias in the entire glaciated part of the DEM. The derived bias correction, varying in magnitude between DEMs from 0.03 to 1.66 m (1946 DEM) was then applied. The simulation results were also used to calculate the 95 % confidence level of this bias, resulting in values between ±0.21 m (in 2005) and ±1.58 m (in 1946). Error estimation methods based on more simple proxies would typically yield 2-4 times larger error estimates. The aerial photographs used were acquired between late June and early October. An additional bias correction was therefore estimated using a degree day model to obtain the volume change between the start of two hydrological years (1 October). This correction corresponds to an average elevation change of ~ -3 m in the worst case for 1960, or about ~ 2/3 of volume change between the 1960 and the 1975 DEMs. The

  17. Airborne in-situ investigations of the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic ash plume on Iceland and over north-western Germany with light aircrafts and optical particle counters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, K.; Eliasson, J.; Vogel, A.; Fischer, C.; Pohl, T.; van Haren, G.; Meier, M.; Grobéty, B.; Dahmann, D.

    2012-03-01

    During the time period of the eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull in April/May 2010 the Duesseldorf University of Applied Sciences has performed 14 research flights in situations with and without the volcanic ash plume over Germany. In parallel to the research flights in Germany three measurement flights have been performed by the University of Iceland in May 2010 over the western part of Iceland. During two of these flights the outskirts of the eruption plume were entered directly, delivering most direct measurements within the eruption plume during this eruptive event. For all the measurement flights reported here, light durable piston-motor driven aircrafts were used, which were equipped with optical particle counters for in-situ measurements. Real-time monitoring of the particle concentrations was possible during the flights. As different types of optical particle counters have been used in Iceland and Germany, the optical particle counters have been re-calibrated after the flights to the same standard using gravimetric reference methods and original Eyjafjallajökull volcanic ash samples. In-situ measurement results with high spatial resolution, directly from the eruption plume in Iceland as well as from the dispersed and several days old plume over Germany, are therefore presented here for the first time. They are normalized to the same ash concentration calibration standard. Moreover, airborne particles could be sampled directly out of the eruption plume in Iceland as well as during the flights over Germany. During the research flights over Iceland from 9 May 2011 to 11 May 2011 the ash emitted from the vent of the volcano turned out to be concentrated in a narrow well-defined plume of about 10 km width at a distance of 45-60 km away from the vent. Outside this plume the airborne ash concentrations could be proved to be below 50 μg m -3 over western Iceland. However, by entering the outskirts of the plume directly the research aircraft could

  18. The feeder system for the 2014 fissure eruption at Holuhraun, Bárðarbunga volcanic system, Iceland: Geodetic and seismic constraints on subsurface activity in the area north of the Vatnajökull ice cap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumont, Stéphanie; Parks, Michelle; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Hooper, Andy; Hreinsdóttir, Sigrun; Ófeigsson, Benedikt; Spaans, Karsten; Vogfjörd, Kristin; Jónsdóttir, Kristín; Hensch, Martin; Gudmundsson, Gunnar; Rafn Heimisson, Elias; Drouin, Vincent; Árnadóttir, Thóra; Pedersen, Rikke; Rut Hjartardóttir, Ásta; Magnússon, Eyjólfur

    2015-04-01

    An intense earthquake swarm began on 16 August 2014 at Bárðarbunga volcano under the Vatnajökull ice cap in Central Iceland. It marked the beginning of an intrusive activity, with a dyke propagating over 45 km northward. Such major magmatic activity has not been observed for the last three decades in Iceland, since the Krafla rifting episode 1975-1984. The dyke propagation stopped 15 days after the onset of the seismic activity, with the dyke distal end in the Holuhraun plain north of the Vatnajökull ice cap. A small 4 hour eruption marked the beginning of extrusive activity. A new fissure eruption opened up on 31 August at the northern dyke tip, with lava fountaining and feeding extensive lava flows. In January 2014 the surface covered by the lava had exceeded 80 km2, and the eruption activity does not show significant decline. We have carried out interferometric analysis of SAR data (InSAR) since the onset of the unrest. X-band satellite images from COSMO-SkyMed and TerraSAR-X satellites were acquired and analyzed to map ground surface deformation associated with the dyke emplacement. Despite most of the dyke propagation occurring under several hundreds meters of ice, the last 10 km were outside the ice cap, allowing better characterisation of the dyke-induced deformation. Here we focus on the deformation in the Holuhraun plain, in order to better understand the link between the surface deformation detected in the vicinity of the dyke by InSAR as well as GPS measurements, and the eruptive activity. The regular SAR acquisitions made over the Holuhraun area since the beginning of the unrest offer a unique opportunity to better understand the evolution of the intrusion feeding the fissure eruption. For that purpose, we focus on the faults and fissures forming the graben borders on the glacier as well as in the Holuhraun plain, initially mapped using high-resolution radar images, acquired by airborne radar. We extract movement along and perpendicular to these

  19. Mass eruption rates in pulsating eruptions estimated from video analysis of the gas thrust-buoyancy transition—a case study of the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dürig, Tobias; Gudmundsson, Magnús Tumi; Karmann, Sven; Zimanowski, Bernd; Dellino, Pierfrancesco; Rietze, Martin; Büttner, Ralf

    2015-11-01

    The 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano was characterized by pulsating activity. Discrete ash bursts merged at higher altitude and formed a sustained quasi-continuous eruption column. High-resolution near-field videos were recorded on 8-10 May, during the second explosive phase of the eruption, and supplemented by contemporary aerial observations. In the observed period, pulses occurred at intervals of 0.8 to 23.4 s (average, 4.2 s). On the basis of video analysis, the pulse volume and the velocity of the reversely buoyant jets that initiated each pulse were determined. The expansion history of jets was tracked until the pulses reached the height of transition from a negatively buoyant jet to a convective buoyant plume about 100 m above the vent. Based on the assumption that the density of the gas-solid mixture making up the pulse approximates that of the surrounding air at the level of transition from the jet to the plume, a mass flux ranging between 2.2 and 3.5 · 104 kg/s was calculated. This mass eruption rate is in good agreement with results obtained with simple models relating plume height with mass discharge at the vent. Our findings indicate that near-field measurements of eruption source parameters in a pulsating eruption may prove to be an effective monitoring tool. A comparison of the observed pulses with those generated in calibrated large-scale experiments reveals very similar characteristics and suggests that the analysis of near-field sensors could in the future help to constrain the triggering mechanism of explosive eruptions.

  20. Cosmogenic 36Cl exposure ages reveal a 9.3 ka BP glacier advance and the Late Weichselian-Early Holocene glacial history of the Drangajökull region, northwest Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brynjólfsson, Skafti; Schomacker, Anders; Ingólfsson, Ólafur; Keiding, Jakob K.

    2015-10-01

    We present twenty-four new cosmogenic isotope (36Cl) surface exposure ages from erratic boulders, moraine boulders and glacially eroded bedrock that constrain the late Weichselian to Holocene glacial history of the Drangajökull region, northwest Iceland. The results suggest a topographically controlled ice sheet over the Vestfirðir (Westfjords) peninsula during the last glaciation. Cold based non-erosive sectors of the ice sheet covered most of the mountains while fjords and valleys were occupied with erosive, warm-based ice. Old36Cl exposure ages from highlands and mountain plateaux (L8; 76.5 ka and H1; 41.6 ka) in combination with younger erratic boulders (L7; 26.2 and K1-K4; 15.0-13.8 ka) superimposed on such surfaces suggest the presence of non-erosive ice over uplands and plateaux in the Vestfirðir peninsula during the last glaciation. Glacially scoured terrain and erratic boulders yielding younger exposure ages (L1-L6; 11.3-9.1 ka and R1, R6-R7; 10.6-9.4 ka) in the lowland areas indicate that the valleys and fjords of the Vestfirðir peninsula were occupied by warm-based, dynamic ice during the last glaciation. The deglaciation of mountain Leirufjall by 26.2 ka BP suggests that ice thinning and deglaciation of some mountains and plateaux preceded any significant lateral retreat of the ice sheet. Subsequently this initial ice thinning was followed by break-up of the shelf based ice sheet off Vestfirðir about 15 ka BP. Hence, the new exposure ages suggest a stepwise asynchronous deglaciation on land, following the shelf break-up with some valleys and most of the highlands, ice free by 14-15 ka BP. The outermost moraine at the mouth of Leirufjörður is dated to 9.3 ka BP, and we suggest the moraine to be formed by a glacier re-advance in response to a cooler climate forced by the reduced Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation at around 9.3 ka BP. A system of moraines proximal to the 9.3 ka moraine in Leirufjörður as well as a 9.4 ka deglaciation age

  1. Glacial and climatic evolution from the Little Ice Age last Maximum to the present in Tröllaskagi Peninsula (North Iceland): the case of Gljúlfurárjökull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    María Fernández, Jose; Andres, Nuria; Tanarro, Luis Miguel; Palacios, David

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the evolution of the Gljúlfurárjökull glacier (65°42'48'' N, 18°39'13'' W; 980 m), located at the headwall of the Skiðadalur valley, on the Tröllaskagi peninsula (N. Iceland). This is one of many small glaciers situated on the bottom of the Tröllaskagi valleys. This glacier is one of the few "clean" glaciers, i.e. not covered with boulders, as is the case with most of the glaciers on this peninsula. This makes the glacier especially sensitive to climate change, and it has retreated and advanced many times since its last maximum during the Little Ice Age (LIA) maximum in the mid- 19th century (Caseldine and Stötter, 1993), leaving a large number of moraine ridges. This paper analyses the change in this glacier from the LIA up to the present day, with reference to the variations in the surface, ELA and volume. Lichenometry and geomorphological field analysis were used to establish the exact limits of the glacier during the LIA last maximum. An aerial photo from 1946 and two orthophotos from 2000 and 2013 were also used. Using photointerpretation and Geographical Information Systems (GIS), the aerial photos were georeferenced to delimit the glacier in different years, analyse the surface and volume variations, and calculate the ELA for each date. The ELA analysis was carried out using the method: Accumulation Area Ratio (AAR 0.67). The results obtained with this method are: Little Ice Age Maximum: 945 m a.s.l. (almost the same ELA proposed by Caseldine and Stötter, 1993) 1946: 970 m a.s.l. 2000: 980 m a.s.l. 2013: 990 m a.s.l. The ice volume lost from LIA to 2000 was: 111.68 hm3 Reference Caseldine, C., Stötter, J., 1993. "Little Ice Age" glaciation of Tröllaskagi Peninsula, northern Iceland: Climatic implications for reconstructed equilibrium line altitudes (ELAs). Holocene 3: 357-366. Research funded by Cryocrisis project (CGL2012-35858), Government of Spain, and Nils Mobility projects (EEA GRANTS)

  2. Equation of State Scalings in Kull

    SciTech Connect

    Ulitsky, M S; Zimmerman, G; Renard, P; Tang, N A

    2007-12-10

    In this short report, we consider two types of equation of state (EOS) scalings, which will be referred to as type I (or density scaling) and type II (or Thomas-Fermi scaling). EOS scalings are used to correct for the fact that EOS tables are constructed with a fixed isotopic composition. Even if the isotopics in a computational zone are evolving through chemical or nuclear reactions, the EOS lookups for pressure and energy (and their derivatives with respect to density and temperature) aren't normally cognizant of this fact. The EOS scalings are an attempt to fix this shortcoming. They typically modify the incoming density and/or temperature based on ratios of isotopic quantities (like {sub table}/{sub zone}, {sub table}/{sub zone}), and then modify the table lookup values. In this way, the EOS can dynamically respond to the changing isotopics.

  3. Iceland: Eyjafjallajökull Volcano

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... to the earlier eruption, which began on April 14, 2010, the reaction to the new plume was better informed. Aircraft were diverted as needed ... that also accounts for wind-driven cloud motion during the time between image acquisitions. On the left (Figure 1) is a natural-color, ...

  4. The Eyjafjallajökull ash plume over Leipzig, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattis, Ina; Tesche, Matthias; Seifert, Patric; Hiebsch, Anja; Schmidt, Jörg; Skupin, Annett; Ansmann, Albert; Wandinger, Ulla

    2010-05-01

    After the eruption of the Eyjafjöll volcano in Iceland on April 14, 2010 we observed the evolution of the emitted plume over Leipzig since April 15, 2010 with a multiwavelength Raman lidar and with an AERONET sun photometer. With the lidar we obtain vertical profiles of the particle backscatter coefficient at 355, 532, and 1064 nm, of the particle extinction coefficient at 355 and 532 nm and profiles of the particle depolarization ratio at 532 nm. The volcanic plume arrived over Leipzig on April 16 around noon in about 6km height. The optical depth of this plume was about 0.7 at 500nm. The height of this thick layer rapidly decreased to 3km before the layer vanished at about 18 UT. During the following days we observed ash layer in the free troposphere up to 8 km height with an optical depth at 500nm of about 0.06. On April 19, 2010, The DLR research aircraft Falcon flew over Leipzig. We estimated the particle mass concentration in the volcanic layer to 50µg/m³ from our measured extinction profiles and an extinction-to-mass conversion factor for Saharan dust from the OPAC database. This value is in good agreement with the in-situ observations aboard the Falcon. On April 19-20, 2010, the volcanic particles were mixed into the planetary boundary layer. DOAS measurements at ground level show a decrease in the Angström exponent and an increase in the particle extinction coefficient at the same time. Effective radii were of the order of 0.6 µm. We observed the formation of ice clouds within the volcanic layer at unexpectedly high temperatures of -10 to -15°C.

  5. Eyjafjallajökull's iron-rich ash fertilized North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-04-01

    In about a third of the global ocean, the abundance of life is limited by the amount of biologically available iron. When a region is depleted of this important nutrient, algal productivity can be stimulated by added iron, resulting in a temporary boom in biological activity. For much of the surface ocean, the wind-borne transport of iron-rich dust and the upwelling of nutrient-filled water are the major sources of iron. Another potentially important source is the deposition of the iron-rich ash produced by volcanic eruptions. Though satellite observations and modeling work suggest that volcanic ash could seed life in such a way, there have been only a limited number of direct observations of the effects of ash deposition on surface ocean waters.

  6. French airborne lidar measurements for Eyjafjallajökull ash plume survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chazette, P.; Dabas, A.; Sanak, J.; Lardier, M.; Royer, P.

    2012-03-01

    An Ultra-Violet Rayleigh-Mie lidar has been integrated aboard the French research aircraft Falcon 20 in order to monitor the ash plume emitted by the Eyjafjallajökul volcano in April-May 2010. Three operational flights were carried out on 21 April, 12 and 16 May 2010 inside French, Spanish and British air spaces, respectively. The original purpose of the flights was to provide the French civil aviation authorities with objective information on the presence and location of the ash plume. The present paper presents the results of detailed analyses elaborated after the volcano crisis. They bear on the structure of the ash clouds and their optical properties such as ash extinction coefficient and lidar ratio. Lidar ratios were measured in the range of 33 to 48 sr, in good agreement with the ratios derived from ground-based lidar measurements performed near Paris (France) in April 2010 (∼47 sr). The ash signature in terms of particulate depolarization was consistent around 45 ± 7% during all flights. Such a value seems to be a good identification parameter for ash. Using specific cross-sections between 0.29 and 1.1 m2 g-1, the minimum (maximal) mass concentrations in the ash plumes are derived for the flights on 12 and 16 May. They were 190 (2300) and 270 (1600) μg m-3, respectively. It may be rather less than, or of the order of the critical level of damage (2 mg m-3) for the aircraft engines, but well above the 200 μg m-3 warning level.

  7. A Model of Drumlin Growth at Múlajökull, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iverson, N. R.; McCracken, R. G.; Zoet, L.; Schomacker, A.; Benediktsson, Í. Ö.; Johnson, M. D.; Hooyer, T.

    2015-12-01

    Observations at a rare, modern drumlin field—exposed by the recession of the Icelandic surge-type glacier, Múlajökull—allow a physically based model of drumlin formation to be formulated. These observations include the following: 1) drumlin relief resulted from basal till deposition on drumlins and erosion between them; 2) till deposition occurred during surges; 3) evidence of longitudinally compressive strain in till of the drumlins, as expected from negative flux divergence in a shearing bed, is absent; 4) during quiescent periods till was under higher effective normal stresses between drumlins than within them; 5) crevasse swarms are coincident with drumlins, and 6) water drainage at the glacier margin during the current quiescent state is through channels in low areas between drumlins. In the new model, basal sediment transport is controlled by patterns of effective stress that are different in the quiescent and surging states. During quiescent periods, slip of ice over a sinusoidally perturbed bed, crevasse formation, and flow of subglacial water toward R-channels that lie between drumlins result in effective stresses that increase toward channels and decrease from the stoss to the lee sides of drumlins. This effective-stress pattern causes till entrainment and erosion by regelation infiltration (Rempel, 2008, JGR, 113) that peaks at drumlin heads and near R-channels and is minimized on the lee sides of drumlins, while bed shear is inhibited by effective stresses too high to allow deformation. In contrast, during surges regelation infiltration cannot occur, and high rates of bed shear—assumed to be spatially uniform due to the lack of evidence for till flux divergence—cause basal melt rates sufficient to deposit, by lodgment, till layers of up to ~2.0 m in thickness during a single surge. With multiple surge cycles, drumlins grow in height and migrate downglacier, with resultant stratigraphy in broad agreement with field observations.

  8. French airborne lidar measurements for Eyjafjallajökull ash plume survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chazette, P.; Dabas, A.; Sanak, J.; Lardier, M.; Royer, P.

    2012-08-01

    An Ultra-Violet Rayleigh-Mie lidar has been integrated aboard the French research aircraft Falcon20 in order to monitor the ash plume emitted by the Eyjafjallajökul volcano in April-May 2010. Three operational flights were carried out on 21 April, 12 and 16 May 2010 inside French, Spanish and British air spaces, respectively. The original purpose of the flights was to provide the French civil aviation authorities with objective information on the presence and location of the ash plume. The present paper presents the results of detailed analyses elaborated after the volcano crisis. They bear on the structure of the ash clouds and their optical properties such as the extinction coefficient and the lidar ratio. Lidar ratios were measured in the range of 43 to 50 sr, in good agreement with the ratios derived from ground-based lidar near Paris (France) in April 2010 (~48 sr). The ash signature in terms of particulate depolarization was consistent during all flights (between 34 ± 3 % and 38 ± 3%). Such a value seems to be a good identification parameter for volcanic ash. Using specific cross-sections between 0.19 and 1.1 m2 g-1, the minimum (maximal) mass concentrations in the ash plumes derived for the flights on 12 and 16 May were 140 (2300) and 250 (1500) μg m-3, respectively. It may be rather less than, or of the order of the critical level of damage (2 mg m-3) for the aircraft engines, but well above the 200 μg m-3 warning level.

  9. Physical characteristics of drumlins, with implications for their formation, at an active drumlin field, Múlajökull, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCracken, R. G.; Iverson, N. R.; Benediktsson, Í. Ö.; Schomacker, A.; Johnson, M. D.; Zoet, L.; Hooyer, T.

    2015-12-01

    The forefield of Múlajökull—a warm-based, surge-type glacier in central Iceland—comprises the only known active drumlin field, with drumlins of similar morphometry to their Pleistocene counterparts but formed under better-known glaciological conditions. Study of till magnetic and till fabrics, till densities and preconsolidation stresses, and drumlin stratigraphy indicates that drumlin relief reflects both erosion and deposition: 1) the package of basal tills that constitutes the drumlins thickens where the forefield has experienced more surging, but uniformities are common on drumlin flanks, 2) attitudes of till layers and patterns of deformation within them indicate till deposition occurred on drumlin slopes rather than prior to drumlinization, and 3) past effective stresses during quiescent periods were highest in interdrumlin areas. These data suggest that erosion occurred during quiescence, rather than during surging, with erosion rates that increased under increasing effective stress. Stratigraphic evidence connecting specific till layers to surge moraines (Johnson et al., 2010, Geology 38, 943-6), on the other hand, indicates that deposition occurred during surges. Such deposition could have resulted from negative flux divergence in a shearing bed, but till fabrics provide no evidence for longitudinally compressive strain. A more likely origin for the basal till is that rapid, uniform bed shear during surging—consistent with the low and relatively uniform effective stresses expected during such periods—generated basal melt rates sufficient to release debris from ice and lodge it onto the bed. This conceptual model of alternating erosion and deposition implies drumlins formed by slow flowing ice elsewhere will be dominantly erosional, whereas drumlins with evidence of deposition may have experienced fast ice flow.

  10. Optical properties and radiative forcing of the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic ash layer observed over Lille, France, in 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derimian, Y.; Dubovik, O.; Tanre, D.; Goloub, P.; Lapyonok, T.; Mortier, A.

    2012-10-01

    In this work we characterize optical properties and assess the direct radiative effect of an ash plume observed on April 17, 2010 by AERONET, lidar and broadband solar flux measurements collocated on the roof of the Laboratory of Atmospheric Optics in Lille, northern France. These measurements allowed experimental evaluation of ash radiative impact and validation of simulations. The derived aerosol model of ash is characterized by a bi-modal size distribution dominated by coarse mode centered at a radius of 1.5 μm and by relatively strong absorption at short wavelengths (single scattering albedo of 0.81 ± 0.02 at 440 nm as opposed to 0.92 ± 0.02 at 670, 870 and 1020 nm). Due to relatively low aerosol optical thickness during the ash plume transport (˜0.26 at 440 nm), which is unfavorable for AERONET retrievals, the uncertainties in derived ash aerosol model were additionally evaluated. The complex refractive index of ash was derived assuming that effective refractive index retrieved by AERONET for externally mixed bi-component aerosol can be approximated as an average of refractive indices of two components weighted by their volume concentrations. Evaluation of the accuracy of this approximation showed acceptably small errors in simulations of single scattering albedo and aerosol phase function over the range of scattering angles observed by the AERONET almucantar. Daily average radiative forcing efficiency of ash calculated for a land surface reflectance representing Lille was about -93 ± 12 Wm-2 τ550-1 and -31 ± 2 Wm-2 τ550-1 at the bottom and top of the atmosphere; the values for an ocean surface reflectance are also provided.

  11. Implications of Common Core State Standards on the Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenna, Joshua L.; Russell, William B., III.

    2014-01-01

    Social studies teachers have often been on the outside looking in during much of the era billed as the standards-based educational reform (SBER), but with the adoption and implementation of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS), social studies teachers seem to have been invited back inside. Yet, how will the standards impact social studies…

  12. Evaluating the Surface Conditions of Temperate Ice Cap Hofsjḋ {{o}}kull, Central Iceland, using H/A/barh {α } Decomposition of Fully-Polarimetric UAVSAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minchew, B. M.; Buckley, S. M.; Hensley, S.

    2010-12-01

    Fully-polarimetric SAR offers a means to study the dynamic changes in the near-surface of glaciers. Various decomposition methods can be used to relate the polarimetric signals to some general physical properties of the scattering mechanisms. Further research is needed to define the relationship between these polarimetric radar scattering properties, the radar penetration depth, and the near-surface properties (such as smoothness, contiguity, and moisture content). As a first step in establishing this relationship, we evaluate the scattering mechanisms of the temperate ice cap Hofsjḋokull, located in central Iceland, and compare them to the expected properties of the glacier. We decomposed fully-polarimetric L-band SAR data acquired from JPL's UAVSAR platform over Hofsjḋokull in the early mornings of June 10-12, 2009 using the Cloude-Pottier H/A/barh {α } eigenvector-based decomposition method. The three parameters of this method--entropy (H), anisotropy (A), and the scattering parameter (barh {α })--indicate if a dominant scattering mechanism exists and identify the mechanism of the most dominant scatterer(s)--surface, volumetric, or dihedral. We evaluate the three decomposed parameters as a function of elevation. These results show that the lowest elevation regions have mostly random scatterers in areas with steep topography and pseudo-random scatterers in areas with more moderate topographic slopes. Both terrain types show combinations of surface and volumetric scatterers but the dominant scatterer is indistinguishable. This behavior is consistent with the rough, wet surface of the ablation zone which should have little overlying snow cover in early summer. As the elevation increases towards the accumulation zone, surface scattering dominates. This dominance of surface scattering occurs at 1300-1500 m MSL: an area which has frequent freeze/thaw cycles and orographically-estimated air temperatures between -2 and 0 o C (based on data acquired at the nearby Hveravellir meteorological station at the time of data acquisition). At higher elevations the surface scatterer loses dominance as the probability of a secondary, volumetric scatterer increases. Above 1400 m MSL, both surface and volumetric scattering are present with approximately equivalent probabilities suggesting that the radar penetrates deepest in this area (volumetric scatterers) while being affected by ice lenses and snow layers (surface scatterers). We did not observe dihedral scattering anywhere on the glacier. To support the H/A/barh {α } results, we will present some Pauli decomposition results as well. The Pauli method yields three parameters: one which indicates surface scattering and two which show diplane scattering from scatterers with different corner orientations. The results of the Pauli method are consistent with those from the H/A/barh {α } method.

  13. Geodetic observations of deep re-equilibration of magmatic systems accompanying the Hekla 2000 and Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruptions, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geirsson, Halldor; LaFemina, Peter; Sturkell, Erik; Ofeigsson, Benedikt; Arnadottir, Thora; Hreinsdottir, Sigrun; Hjaltadottir, Sigurlaug; Hooper, Andy; Lund, Bjorn; Schmidt, Peter; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Linde, Alan; Sacks, Selwyn

    2015-04-01

    Volcano geodesy most easily displays deformation from shallow deformation sources. However, with the expansion of geodetic networks and observations systems, there is growing evidence for far-field deformation at some volcanoes, indicating deeper processes within theses magmatic systems. We reflect here on crustal deformation from two recent eruptions in Iceland, the Hekla 2000 and Eyjafjallajokull 2010, which show signs of pressure changes at various crustal depths accompanying the eruptions. These eruptions were of similar eruptive volumes, approximately 0.2 km3, and were accompanied by crustal deformation relating to shallow dike and sill emplacements, in addition to more subtle and widespread crustal deformation caused by magma withdrawal. The crustal deformation associated with the Hekla 2000 eruption was captured by various geodetic methods, including continuous and episodic GPS, dry-tilt (i.e., short leveling lines), borehole strain, and InSAR. Continuous GPS data show deformation at >50 km from Hekla. We derive new deformation estimates from the episodic GPS network, and model the GPS displacements with previously published dry-tilt, InSAR, and borehole strain measurements in a formal joint inversion. While most of our data indicate a deep source of magma withdrawal (~20 km depth for a spherical source, or a pipe-like structure that reaches up to shallower depths), data from the borehole strain station closest to Hekla cannot be readily explained with a deep source. The borehole strain data at Hekla has good short-term resolution but poor long-term resolution, while the GPS, tilt, and InSAR measurements span a longer time interval. Therefore, we suggest the geodetic data from the Hekla 2000 eruption can best be interpreted with spatio-temporal progression of pressure changes in the magmatic system such that the co-eruptive signal was from a shallower (~10 km) source, which was followed by magma transport from deep to shallower depths before, during and after the eruption. For the Eyjafjallajokull 2010 eruption, we observe a wide-spread (>60 km from Eyjafjallajokull) deformation field with motion towards the volcano from an extensive network of episodic and continuous GPS stations. The distant continuous GPS stations clearly show that the time of deformation exceeds the eruptive period by several months, indicating that these stations are recording deep re-equilibration of the magmatic system under Eyjafjallajokull. Both volcanoes indicate a certain time-progression of deformation, where the deeper (>10 km) parts of the magmatic systems re-equilibrate in response to the shallower co-eruptive pressure decrease.

  14. Modeling and measurement of the volcanic ash plume transport from the Eyjafjallajökull volcano towards Central Europe in April 2010-Methods applied and lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wotawa, G.; Kerschbaum, M.

    2010-09-01

    On 14 April 2010, a VEI-4 eruption occurred at the Eyjafjallajoekull volcano in Iceland, which continued for a number of days. Within the first 72 hours, more than 0.1 km3 Tephra were released. Due to the prevailing weather conditions, volcanic ash was rapidly transported from Iceland towards Central Europe. The ash plume reached Southern England on 15 April, crossed Germany on 16 April and reached the Alps in the morning hours of 17 April. As a consequence, European air travel broke down almost completely, and flights were grounded for a number of days. In this presentation, we describe the methods applied by the national weather service of Austria and the Austrian national aviation authorities to handle the situation, taking into account also international response systems and mechanisms. Furthermore, we discuss the model results in combination with available observations, and outline the lessons learned from this event. Based on this analysis, improvements in modeling and enhancement of procedures are proposed.

  15. Bacterial 16S diversity of basal ice, sediment, and the forefront of Svínafellsjökull glacier via isolation chips and classical culturing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toubes-Rodrigo, Mario; Cook, Simon; Elliott, David; Sen, Robin

    2016-04-01

    Sub-glacial microbes are receiving increased attention due to their central roles in storage and release of greenhouse gases, such as methane and CO2. Climate change driven warming and resulting glacier retreat exposes bedrock that can contribute to soil formation in which subglacial-released microorganisms may play a crucial role. Basal ice, which forms in the lowermost part of glaciers in the absence of light is characterised by a high debris concentration that can be regarded as a glacier niche that must be sustained by the utilisation of overridden organic matter or primary production based on chemolithotrophic metabolism. Compared to other glacial ecosystems, subglacial microbial ecology remains poorly understood, due to limited accessibility and difficulties associated with low microbial occupancy. In this study, different defined types of basal ice (cryofacies) were targeted, namely stratified cryofacies (highest sediment content, fine-grained), debris bands (intermediate debris content, coarse-grained) and dispersed cryofacies (low sediment content, polymodal). Debris bands have been suggested to form by the entrainment of sediment due to shearing forces near the bedrock. Internal glacial processes proceed to modify debris bands leading to the formation of dispersed cryofacies. Stratified cryofacies, result from a range of processes that confers high debris content with a characteristically layered appearance. Basal ice is involved in the creation of subglacial tills and therefore in moraine formation. Elemental analysis, using a portable X-ray fluorescence portable analyser (Olympus Delta), confirmed that debris bands and dispersed cryofacies were highly similar, and distinct from stratified cryofacies, which support the dispersed cryofacies formation hypothesis. Bacteria from basal ice, sediment and forefront soil were cultured via inserted isolation chips (ichips) and traditional extraction/dilution plating. Isolated bacteria were subsequently identified following 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetics. Basal ice communities comprised a mix of soil and glacial bacteria, with higher proportion of ice-related bacteria in dispersed cryofacies (Polaromonas sp, Flavobacterium xinjiangense) and a water (Arthrobacter agilis) and soil-related microorganisms (Pseudomonas sp) in the debris bands, similar to sub-glacial sediment. During debris band formation, microorganisms from bedrock and overridden soils can be entrained into the ice matrix and those which have adapted to icy conditions can proliferate, explaining the higher viable bacterial counts on dispersed ice as well as higher proportions of glacial isolated-related microorganisms. Once the subglacial sediment and basal ice are released from the glacier and as soil age increases, increased representation of soil-related microbiota (Arthrobacter alpinus, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila) were identified. The results in this study suggest cultivable communities shift in two directions: firstly, within the basal ice layer from subglacial sediment, dominated by soil and water communities towards dispersed ice with a high proportion of glacial communities. The other shift occurs when subglacial sediment is released into the forefront, where the composition changes towards a soil-like microbiota with increase in soil age.

  16. The role of "slip" boundary conditions on the flow of granular materials - a continuum kinetic theory approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alireza Shirvanian, Pezhman; Calo, Joseph M.

    2002-08-01

    The application of a continuum (Eulerian) formulation to modeling a spouted bed electrolytic reactor (SBER), requires appropriate boundary conditions at the conical bottom cathode where the bed particles are transported back to the draft tube for re-entrainment. A kinetic theory approach, including rolling resistance, particle collisions, and friction between particles and with the inclined surface, was used to address this problem. The resultant formulation is cast into appropriate boundary conditions for the continuum model.

  17. Hydrodynamic Reaction Model of a Spouted Bed Electrolytic Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alireza Shirvanian, Pezhman; Calo, Joseph

    2002-08-01

    An Eulerian model is presented that has been developed to describe the hydrodynamics, mass transfer, and metal ion reduction mass transfer in a cylindrical, spouted bed electrolytic reactor. Appropriate boundary conditions are derived from kinetic theory and reaction kinetics for the hydrodynamics and mass transfer and reaction on the cathodic conical bottom of the reactor, respectively. This study was undertaken as a part of a project focused on the development of a Spouted Bed Electrolytic Reactor (SBER) for metals recovery. The results presented here include the effect of particle loading, inlet jet velocity, Solution pH, and temperature on void fraction distribution, pressure drop, particles recirculation rate, and metal recovery rate.

  18. SPRINGING OF THE ARCH, SOUTH END OF BRIDGE, STATEN ISLAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SPRINGING OF THE ARCH, SOUTH END OF BRIDGE, STATEN ISLAND SIDE (CONTACT PRINT MADE FROM 5 1/4" X 4 1/2" NEGATIVE) - Bayonne Bridge, Spanning Kill Van Kull between Bayonne & Staten Island, Bayonne, Hudson County, NJ

  19. BAYONNE BRIDGE LOOKING EAST, BAYONNE TO THE LEFT (CONTACT PRINT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BAYONNE BRIDGE LOOKING EAST, BAYONNE TO THE LEFT (CONTACT PRINT MADE FROM 5 1/4" X 4 1/2" NEGATIVE) - Bayonne Bridge, Spanning Kill Van Kull between Bayonne & Staten Island, Bayonne, Hudson County, NJ

  20. STUDY OF LAND USE ISSUES CHARACTERIZING THE AMBALAVAO-ANDRINGITRA REGION OF MADAGASCAR

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA Identifier: GF9500572
    Title: Study of Land Use Issues Characterizing the Ambalavao-Andringitra Region of Madagascar
    Fellow (Principal Investigator): Christian Arthur Kull
    Institution: University of Colorado
    EPA Grant Representati...

  1. Comparison of satellite-derived with ground-based measurements of the fluctuations of the margins of Vatnajokull, Iceland, 1973-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, R.S., Jr.; Hall, D.K.; Sigurbsson, O.; Chien, J.Y.L.

    1997-01-01

    Vatnajo??kull, Iceland, is the Earth's most studied ice cap and represents a classical glaciological field site on the basis of S. Pa??lsson's seminal glaciological field research in the late 18th century. Since the 19th century, Vatnajo??kull has been the focus of an array of glaciological studies by scientists from many nations, including many remotesensing investigations since 1951. Landsat-derived positions of the termini of 11 outlet glaciers of Vatnajo??kull were compared with frontal positions of six of these 11 outlet glaciers determined by field observations during the period 1973-92. The largest changes during the 19 year period (1973-92) occurred in the large lobate, surge-type outlet glaciers along the southwestern, western, and northern margins of Vatnajo??kull. Tungnaa??rjo??kull receded - 1413 ?? 112 m (-1380 ?? l m from ground observations), and Bru??arjo??kull receded -1975 ?? 191 m (-2096 ?? 5 m from extrapolated ground observations) between 1973 and 1992. Satellite images can be used to delineate glacier margin changes on a time-lapse basis, if the glacier margin can be spectrally discriminated from terminal moraines and sandur deposits and if the advance/recession is larger than maximum image pixel size. "Local knowledge" of glaciers is critically important, however, in the accurate delineation of glacier margins on Landsat images.

  2. Investigate Methods to Decrease Compilation Time-AX-Program Code Group Computer Science R& D Project

    SciTech Connect

    Cottom, T

    2003-06-11

    Large simulation codes can take on the order of hours to compile from scratch. In Kull, which uses generic programming techniques, a significant portion of the time is spent generating and compiling template instantiations. I would like to investigate methods that would decrease the overall compilation time for large codes. These would be methods which could then be applied, hopefully, as standard practice to any large code. Success is measured by the overall decrease in wall clock time a developer spends waiting for an executable. Analyzing the make system of a slow to build project can benefit all developers on the project. Taking the time to analyze the number of processors used over the life of the build and restructuring the system to maximize the parallelization can significantly reduce build times. Distributing the build across multiple machines with the same configuration can increase the number of available processors for building and can help evenly balance the load. Becoming familiar with compiler options can have its benefits as well. The time improvements of the sum can be significant. Initial compilation time for Kull on OSF1 was {approx} 3 hours. Final time on OSF1 after completion is 16 minutes. Initial compilation time for Kull on AIX was {approx} 2 hours. Final time on AIX after completion is 25 minutes. Developers now spend 3 hours less waiting for a Kull executable on OSF1, and 2 hours less on AIX platforms. In the eyes of many Kull code developers, the project was a huge success.

  3. Surging glaciers in Iceland - research status and future challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingolfsson, Olafur

    2013-04-01

    Twenty six Icelandic outlet glaciers, ranging from 0.5-1.500 km2, are known to surge, with terminal advances ranging from of few tens of meters to about 10 km. The geomorphic signatures of surges vary, from large-scale folded and thrusted end moraine systems, extensive dead-ice fields and drumlinized forefields to drift sheets where fast ice-flow indicators are largely missing. Case studies from the forefields of Brúarjökull, Eyjabakkajökull and Múlajökull surging glaciers will be presented. At Brúarjökull, extremely rapid ice flow during surge was sustained by overpressurized water causing decoupling beneath a thick sediment sequence that was coupled to the glacier. The ice-marginal position of the 1890 surge is marked by a sedimentary wedge formed within five days and a large moraine ridge that formed in about one day ("instantaneous end-moraine"). Three different qualitative and conceptual models are required to explain the genesis of the Eyjabakkajökull moraines: a narrow, single-crested moraine ridge at the distal end of a marginal sediment wedge formed in response to decoupling of the subglacial sediment from the bedrock and associated downglacier sediment transport; large lobate end moraine ridges with multiple, closely spaced, asymmetric crests formed by proglacial piggy-back thrusting; moraine ridges with different morphologies may reflect different members of an end moraine continuum. A parallel study highlighting the surge history of Eyjabakkajökull over the last 4400 years suggests climate control on surge frequencies. The Múlajökull studies concern an active drumlin field (>100 drumlins) that is being exposed as the glacier retreats. The drumlins form through repeated surges, where each surge causes deposition of till bed onto the drumlin while similtaneously eroding the sides. Finally, a new landsystem model for surging North Iceland cirque glaciers will be introduced. References Benediktsson,I. Ö., Schomacker, A., Lokrantz, H. & Ing

  4. Comparison of Four Parallel Algorithms For Domain Decomposed Implicit Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect

    Brunner, T A; Urbatsch, T J; Evans, T M; Gentile, N A

    2004-12-21

    We consider two existing asynchronous parallel algorithms for Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) thermal radiation transport on spatially decomposed meshes. The two algorithms are from the production codes KULL from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Milagro from Los Alamos National Laboratory. Both algorithms were considered and analyzed in an implementation of the KULL IMC package in ALEGRA, a Sandia National Laboratory high energy density physics code. Improvements were made to both algorithms. The improved Milagro algorithm performed the best by scaling nearly perfectly out to 244 processors.

  5. Comparison of four parallel algorithms for domain decomposed implicit Monte Carlo.

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Thomas M.; Urbatsch, Todd J.; Brunner, Thomas A.; Gentile, Nicholas A.

    2005-06-01

    We consider four asynchronous parallel algorithms for Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) thermal radiation transport on spatially decomposed meshes. Two of the algorithms are from the production codes KULL from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Milagro from Los Alamos National Laboratory. Improved versions of each of the existing algorithms are also presented. All algorithms were analyzed in an implementation of the KULL IMC package in ALEGRA, a Sandia National Laboratory high energy density physics code. The improved Milagro algorithm performed the best by scaling almost linearly out to 244 processors for well load balanced problems.

  6. Comparison of four parallel algorithms for domain decomposed implicit Monte Carlo.

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Thomas M. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Urbatsch, Todd J. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Brunner, Thomas A.; Gentile, Nicholas A. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA)

    2004-12-01

    We consider four asynchronous parallel algorithms for Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) thermal radiation transport on spatially decomposed meshes. Two of the algorithms are from the production codes KULL from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Milagro from Los Alamos National Laboratory. Improved versions of each of the existing algorithms are also presented. All algorithms were analyzed in an implementation of the KULL IMC package in ALEGRA, a Sandia National Laboratory high energy density physics code. The improved Milagro algorithm performed the best by scaling almost linearly out to 244 processors for well load balanced problems.

  7. Comparison of four parallel algorithms for domain decomposed implicit Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect

    Brunner, Thomas A. . E-mail: TABRUNN@sandia.gov; Urbatsch, Todd J.; Evans, Thomas M.; Gentile, Nicholas A.

    2006-03-01

    We consider four asynchronous parallel algorithms for Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) thermal radiation transport on spatially decomposed meshes. Two of the algorithms are from the production codes KULL from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Milagro from Los Alamos National Laboratory. Improved versions of each of the existing algorithms are also presented. All algorithms were analyzed in an implementation of the KULL IMC package in ALEGRA, a Sandia National Laboratory high energy density physics code. The improved Milagro algorithm performed the best by scaling almost linearly out to 244 processors for well load balanced problems.

  8. Comparison of Four Parallel Algorithms For Domain Decomposed Implicit Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect

    Brunner, T; Urbatsch, T; Evans, T; Gentile, N

    2004-12-21

    Four different algorithms for domain decomposed Monte Carlo are outlined, and the performance of each is measured. These algorithms are implemented in the KULL IMC package [4] running inside of ALEGRA [1]. This package implements the Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) scheme for thermal radiation transport of Fleck and Cummings [3].

  9. Effects of present-day deglaciation in Iceland on mantle melt production rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, P.; Lund, B.; Hieronymus, C.; Maclennan, J.; Árnadóttir, T.; Pagli, C.

    2013-07-01

    Ongoing deglaciation in Iceland not only causes uplift at the surface but also increases magma production at depth due to decompression of the mantle. Here we study glacially induced decompression melting using 3-D models of glacial isostatic adjustment in Iceland since 1890. We find that the mean glacially induced pressure rate of change in the mantle increases melt production rates by 100-135%, or an additional 0.21-0.23 km3 of magma per year beneath Iceland. Approximately 50% of this melt is produced underneath central Iceland. The greatest volumetric increase is found directly beneath Iceland's largest ice cap, Vatnajökull, colocated with the most productive volcanoes. Our models of the effect of deglaciation on mantle melting predict a significantly larger volumetric response than previous models which only considered the effect of deglaciation of Vatnajökull, and only mantle melting directly below Vatnajökull. Although the ongoing deglaciation significantly increases the melt production rate, the increase in melt supply rate at the base of the lithosphere is delayed and depends on the melt ascent velocity through the mantle. Assuming that 25% of the melt reaches the surface, the upper limit on our deglaciation-induced melt estimates for central Iceland would be equivalent to an eruption the size of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull summit eruption every seventh year.

  10. Application of the Handysurf E-35B electronic profilometer for the study of weathering micro-relief in glacier forelands in SE Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dąbski, Maciej

    2015-09-01

    This article presents the results of weathering micro-roughness measurements performed with the use of a Handy-surf E-35B electronic profilometer, a new tool in geomorphological studies. Measurements were performed on glacially abraded basaltic surfaces within the Little Ice Age (LIA) glacial forelands of Hoffelsjökull, Fláajökull, Skálafellsjökull and Virkisjökull in Iceland. Results show a statistical increase in micro-roughness in a direction from the glacial termini to LIA moraines. However, a major change in the micro-roughness of basaltic surfaces only occurs during the first 80 to 100 years since the onset of subaerial weathering. Increase in rock surface micro-roughness is accompanied by an increase in weathering rind thickness and a decrease in Schmidt hammer R-values. Micro-roughness measurements with the use of the Handysurf E-35B can provide insights into initial rates of rock surface micro-relief development. The use of this instrument as a relative dating technique is limited to fine-grained rocks and decadal time-scales of weathering because of the limited range of measureable micro-relief amplitude.

  11. 78 FR 5471 - Availability of Draft Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Modification of the Bayonne...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ...This notice extends the public comment period on a Draft Environmental Assessment (Draft EA) which examines the reasonably foreseeable environmental impacts and socio-economic impacts of the proposed modification of the historic Bayonne Bridge across the Kill Van Kull between Bayonne, New Jersey and Staten Island, New York. This notice also announces a third public meeting, in Newark, NJ, on......

  12. 78 FR 28873 - Availability of Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ...This notice announces the availability of a Final Environmental Assessment (Final EA) which examines the reasonably foreseeable environmental impacts and socio-economic impacts of the proposed modification of the historic Bayonne Bridge across the Kill Van Kull between Bayonne, New Jersey and Staten Island, New York. This notice also announces the availability of the Finding of No Significant......

  13. Iceland

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... (visible in the lower right), and to several other lakes and geothermal areas. Hofsjökull (the Temple Glacier; 1760 meters) is the third ... the city, the "Bay of Smokes", is testimony to the region's geothermal activity. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion ...

  14. Iceland's Grímsvötn volcano erupts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-05-01

    About 13 months after Iceland's Eyjafjallajökull volcano began erupting on 14 April 2010, which led to extensive air traffic closures over Europe, Grímsvötn volcano in southeastern took its turn. Iceland's most active volcano, which last erupted in 2004 and lies largely beneath the Vatnajökull ice cap, began its eruption activity on 21 May, with the ash plume initially reaching about 20 kilometers in altitude, according to the Icelandic Meteorological Office. Volcanic ash from Grímsvötn has cancelled hundreds of airplane flights and prompted U.S. president Barack Obama to cut short his visit to Ireland. As Eos went to press, activity at the volcano was beginning to subside.

  15. Zircon from historic eruptions in Iceland: Reconstructing storage and evolution of silicic magmas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carley, T.L.; Miller, C.F.; Wooden, J.L.; Bindeman, I.N.; Barth, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    Zoning patterns, U-Th disequilibria ages, and elemental compositions of zircon from eruptions of Askja (1875 AD), Hekla (1158 AD), ??r??faj??kull (1362 AD) and Torfaj??kull (1477 AD, 871 AD, 3100 BP, 7500 BP) provide insights into the complex, extended, histories of silicic magmatic systems in Iceland. Zircon compositions, which are correlated with proximity to the main axial rift, are distinct from those of mid-ocean ridge environments and fall at the low-Hf edge of the range of continental zircon. Morphology, zoning patterns, compositions, and U-Th ages all indicate growth and storage in subvolcanic silicic mushes or recently solidified rock at temperatures above the solidus but lower than that of the erupting magma. The eruptive products were likely ascending magmas that entrained a zircon "cargo" that formed thousands to tens of thousands of years prior to the eruptions. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  16. Colonization of maritime glacier ice by bdelloid Rotifera.

    PubMed

    Shain, Daniel H; Halldórsdóttir, Katrín; Pálsson, Finnur; Aðalgeirsdóttir, Guðfinna; Gunnarsson, Andri; Jónsson, Þorsteinn; Lang, Shirley A; Pálsson, Hlynur Skagfjörð; Steinþórssson, Sveinbjörn; Arnason, Einar

    2016-05-01

    Very few animal taxa are known to reside permanently in glacier ice/snow. Here we report the widespread colonization of Icelandic glaciers and ice fields by species of bdelloid Rotifera. Specimens were collected within the accumulation zones of Langjökull and Vatnajökull ice caps, among the largest European ice masses. Rotifers reached densities up to ∼100 individuals per liter-equivalent of glacier ice/snow, and were freeze-tolerant. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that glacier rotifers are polyphyletic, with independent ancestries occurring within the Pleistocene. Collectively, these data identify a previously undescribed environmental niche for bdelloid rotifers and suggest their presence in comparable habitats worldwide. PMID:26932187

  17. Volcanic ash as an oceanic iron source and sink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogan, Nicholas; Achterberg, Eric P.; Le Moigne, Frédéric A. C.; Marsay, Chris M.; Tagliabue, Alessandro; Williams, Richard G.

    2016-03-01

    Volcanic ash deposition to the ocean forms a natural source of iron (Fe) to surface water microbial communities. Inputs of lithogenic material may also facilitate Fe removal through scavenging. Combining dissolved Fe (dFe) and thorium-234 observations alongside modeling, we investigate scavenging of Fe in the North Atlantic following the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption. Under typical conditions biogenic particles dominate scavenging, whereas ash particles dominate during the eruption. The size of particles is important as smaller scavenging particles can become saturated with surface-associated ions. Model simulations indicate that ash deposition associated with Eyjafjallajökull likely led to net Fe removal. Our model suggests a threefold greater stimulation of biological activity if ash deposition had occurred later in the growing season when the region was Fe limited. The implications of ash particle scavenging, eruption timing, and particle saturation need to be considered when assessing the impact of ash deposition on the ocean Fe cycle and productivity.

  18. Characteristics of recessional moraines at a temperate glacier in SE Iceland: Insights into patterns, rates and drivers of glacier retreat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, Benjamin M. P.; Evans, David J. A.; Roberts, David H.

    2016-03-01

    Icelandic glaciers are sensitive to climate variability on short-term timescales owing to their North Atlantic maritime setting, and have been undergoing ice-marginal retreat since the mid-1990s. Recent patterns, rates and drivers of ice-frontal retreat at Skálafellsjökull, SE Iceland, are examined using small-scale recessional moraines as a geomorphological proxy. These small-scale recessional moraines exhibit distinctive sawtooth planform geometries, and are constructed by a range of genetic processes associated with minor ice-margin re-advance, including (i) combined push/squeeze mechanisms, (ii) bulldozing of pre-existing proglacial material, and (iii) submarginal freeze-on. Remote-sensing investigations and lichenometric dating highlight sequences of annually-formed recessional moraines on the northern and central parts of the foreland. Conversely, moraines are forming on a sub-annual timescale at the southeastern Skálafellsjökull margin. Using annual moraine spacing as a proxy for annual ice-margin retreat rates (IMRRs), we demonstrate that prominent periods of glacier retreat at Skálafellsjökull are coincident with those at other Icelandic outlet glaciers, as well as those identified at Greenlandic outlet glaciers. Analysis of IMRRs and climate data suggests summer air temperature, sea surface temperature and the North Atlantic Oscillation have an influence on IMRRs at Skálafellsjökull, with the glacier appearing to be most sensitive to summer air temperature. On the basis of further climate data analyses, we hypothesise that sea surface temperature may drive air temperature changes in the North Atlantic region, which in turn forces IMRRs. The increase in sea surface temperature over recent decades may link to atmospheric-driven variations in North Atlantic subpolar gyre dynamics.

  19. Navigation study on improvements to existing federal navigation channels Arthur Kill Channel, Howland Hook Marine Terminal, Staten Island, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-06-01

    Improvements to the Arthur Kill Channel from the confluence of the Kill Van Kull Channel, the Arthur Kill Channel, and Newark Bay, along the Arthur Kill to the vicinity of Howland Hook Marine Terminal on Staten Island, New York are proposed. In addition, the study area was extended south from Howland Hook Terminal for approximately one mile in order to serve two oil terminals. The recommended improvements would include deepening to various depths down to 45 feet mean low water (MLW), widening the channel for unrestricted two-way traffic, and the creation of a turning basin. Specifically, a 41-foot MLW deep channel would be dredged in the previously authorized 35-foot MLW project in the Arthur Kill Channel from its confluence with the Newark Bay and Kill Van Kull channels to the Howland Hook Marine Terminal for a distance of approximately 2.1 miles. Also recommended are selected widenings and realignments of the channel at a depth of 41 feet in the interest of navigational safety. Additionally, a 40-foot MLW channel is proposed in the previously authorized 35-foot MLW project in the Arthur Kill Channel from the Howland Hook Marine Terminal to the Exxon Bayway and Gulfport facilities for a distance of approximately one mile. The channel would be selectively realigned to a 40-foot depth for navigational safety. No final determination has been made regarding the disposal of dredged material due to the uncertainty of available upland sites at this time. The turning basin would lie in the Kill Van Kull Channel at Bergen Point, where vessels turn from Kill Van Kull into Arthur Kill and Newark Bay. Total cost of the recommended plan is $49.4 million; the benefit-cost ratio is 4.35. The plan would take 4 years for completion and would have a projected life of 50 years.

  20. Unstructured Polyhedral Mesh Thermal Radiation Diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, T.S.; Zika, M.R.; Madsen, N.K.

    2000-07-27

    Unstructured mesh particle transport and diffusion methods are gaining wider acceptance as mesh generation, scientific visualization and linear solvers improve. This paper describes an algorithm that is currently being used in the KULL code at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to solve the radiative transfer equations. The algorithm employs a point-centered diffusion discretization on arbitrary polyhedral meshes in 3D. We present the results of a few test problems to illustrate the capabilities of the radiation diffusion module.

  1. Modern Multispectral Sensors Help Track Explosive Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, A. J. L.; Valade, S.; Sawyer, G. M.; Donnadieu, F.; Battaglia, J.; Gurioli, L.; Kelfoun, K.; Labazuy, P.; Stachowicz, T.; Bombrun, M.; Barra, V.; Delle Donne, D.; Lacanna, G.

    2013-09-01

    Due to its massive air traffic impact, the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull was felt by millions of people and cost airlines more than U.S. $1.7 billion. The event has, thus, become widely cited in renewed efforts to improve real-time tracking of volcanic plumes, as witnessed by special sections published last year in Journal of Geophysical Research, (117, issues D20 and B9).

  2. Atmospheric temperature changes by volcanic eruptions: GPS radio occultation observations in the 2010 Icelandic and 2011 Chilean cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okazaki, Ikuya; Heki, Kosuke

    2012-11-01

    Volcanic plumes modify atmospheric temperatures. Wang et al. (2009) reported localized temperature changes associated with the Mt Chaiten eruption in May 2008 using the deviation of GPS radio occultation temperature data from the NCEP global forecast system model. On 14 April 2010, a large scale eruption started under the glacier Eyjafjallajökull in Southern Iceland, and Puyehue-Cordón Caulle (Puyehue), in Chile, started eruption on 4 June, 2011. Here we study instantaneous and localized temperature changes with these two eruptions following the method of Wang et al. (2009). Post-eruption negative temperature anomalies at the 250 hPa plane were clearly observed in the Eyjafjallajökull eruption. In the Puyehue eruption, however, such anomalies were not so clear due possibly to insufficient accuracy of the forecast model. By comparing the temperature profiles in the downwind areas of the two eruptions, we found that significant temperature decreases occurred at ~ 10.5 and ~ 11.5 km altitude in the Eyjafjallajökull and the Puyehue cases, respectively. These results generally agree with Wang et al. (2009), but post-eruption temperature changes seem to be influenced by additional factors, e.g. volcanic explosivity and local climatology.

  3. Eyjabakkajokull Glacial Landsystem, Iceland: Geomorphic Impact of Multiple Surges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingolfsson, O.; Schomacker, A.; Benediktsson, I.

    2013-12-01

    A new glacial geomorphological map of the Eyjabakkajökull forefield in Iceland is presented. The map covers c. 60 km2 and is based on high-resolution aerial photographs recorded in August 2008 as well as field checking. Landforms are manually registered in a geographical information system (ArcGIS) based on inspection of orthorectified imagery and digital elevation models of the area. We mapped subglacially streamlined landforms such as flutes and drumlins on the till plain, supraglacial landforms such as ice-cored moraine, pitted outwash, and concertina eskers, and ice-marginal landforms such as the large, multi-crested 1890 surge end moraine and smaller single-crested end moraines. The glaciofluvial landforms are represented by outwash plains, minor outwash fans, and sinuous eskers. Extramarginal sediments were also registered and consist mainly of old sediments in wetlands or locally weathered bedrock. Eyjabakkajökull has behaved as a surge-type glacier for 2200 years; hence, the mapped landforms originate from multiple surges. Landforms such as large glaciotectonic end moraines, hummocky moraine, long flutes, crevasse-fill ridges, and concertina eskers are characteristic for surge-type glaciers. The surging glacier landsystem of Eyjabakkajökull serves as a modern analog to the landsystems of terrestrial paleo-ice streams.

  4. Using A Wireless In Situ Probe To Monitor Subglacial Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, J. K.; Martinez, K.

    2010-12-01

    The Glacsweb system (http://envisense.org/glacsweb/) has been installed in two glaciers; Briksdalsbreen, Norway and Skalafellsjökull, Iceland. These are valley glaciers which show evidence of subglacial deformation in the foreland, with flutes and push moraines. Briksdalsbreen was calving into a glacial lake. This advanced 390m between 1987-1996 and then retreated over 460m between 1996 and 2008. Skalafellsjökull is landbased with a similar (but smaller scale) pattern of recent glacier marginal. Micro-sensors housed within the Glacsweb probes (0.16m long) measured water pressure, probe deformation, resistance, tilt and probe temperature within the ice or till. These data were recorded at a number of times during the day, and transmitted to a base station located on the glacier surface. Probe and meteorological data were sent once a day to a local mains powered computer, where it was forwarded to a web server in the UK. At Briksdalsbreen this operated from August 2004 to August 2006, and at Skalafellsjökull, it operated from August 2008 onwards (with periods when the system was disconnected). We compare the subglacial processes recorded throughout the year at the two sites. In particular, changes in water pressure, case stress, till water contents and till temperatures.

  5. The Consortium of Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) - A Building America Energy Efficient Housing Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Robb Aldrich; Lois Arena; Dianne Griffiths; Srikanth Puttagunta; David Springer

    2010-12-31

    This final report summarizes the work conducted by the Consortium of Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) (http://www.carb-swa.com/), one of the 'Building America Energy Efficient Housing Partnership' Industry Teams, for the period January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2010. The Building America Program (BAP) is part of the Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program (BTP). The long term goal of the BAP is to develop cost effective, production ready systems in five major climate zones that will result in zero energy homes (ZEH) that produce as much energy as they use on an annual basis by 2020. CARB is led by Steven Winter Associates, Inc. with Davis Energy Group, Inc. (DEG), MaGrann Associates, and Johnson Research, LLC as team members. In partnership with our numerous builders and industry partners, work was performed in three primary areas - advanced systems research, prototype home development, and technical support for communities of high performance homes. Our advanced systems research work focuses on developing a better understanding of the installed performance of advanced technology systems when integrated in a whole-house scenario. Technology systems researched included: - High-R Wall Assemblies - Non-Ducted Air-Source Heat Pumps - Low-Load HVAC Systems - Solar Thermal Water Heating - Ventilation Systems - Cold-Climate Ground and Air Source Heat Pumps - Hot/Dry Climate Air-to-Water Heat Pump - Condensing Boilers - Evaporative condensers - Water Heating CARB continued to support several prototype home projects in the design and specification phase. These projects are located in all five program climate regions and most are targeting greater than 50% source energy savings over the Building America Benchmark home. CARB provided technical support and developed builder project case studies to be included in near-term Joule Milestone reports for the following community scale projects: - SBER Overlook at Clipper

  6. Can vesicle size distributions assess eruption intensity during volcanic activity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaRue, A.; Baker, D. R.; Polacci, M.; Allard, P.; Sodini, N.

    2013-10-01

    We studied three-dimensional (3-D) vesicle size distributions by X-ray microtomography in scoria collected during the relatively quiescent Phase II of the April-May 2010 eruption at Eyjafjallajökull volcano, Iceland. Our goal was to compare cumulative vesicle size distributions (VSDs) measured in these samples with those found in Stromboli volcano, Italy. Stromboli was chosen because its VSDs are well-characterized and show a correlation with eruption intensity: typical Strombolian activity produces VSDs with power-law exponents near 1, whereas larger and more energetic vulcanian-type explosions and Plinian eruptions produce VSDs with power-law exponents near 1.5. The first hypothesis to be tested was whether or not the samples studied in this work would contain VSDs similar to normal Strombolian products, display higher power-law exponents, or be described by exponential functions. Before making this comparison, we tested a second hypothesis, which was that the magma-water interactions in the Eyjafjallajökull eruption might have a significant effect on the VSDs. We performed 1 bar bubble-growth experiments in which the samples were inundated with water and compared them to similar control experiments without water inundation. No significant differences between the VSDs of the two sets of experiments were found, and the second hypothesis is not supported by the experimental evidence. The Phase II Eyjafjallajökull VSDs are described by power-law exponents of ~0.8, typical of normal Strombolian eruptions, and support the first hypothesis. The comparable VSDs and behavior of Phase II of the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruption to Stromboli are interpreted to be a reflection of similar conduit systems in both volcanoes that are being constantly fed by the ascent of mingled/mixed magma from depth. Such behavior implies that continued activity during Phase II of the Eyjafjallajökull eruption could be expected and would have been predicted, had our VSDs been measured in

  7. Seismic unrest at Katla Volcano- southern Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    jeddi, zeinab; Tryggvason, Ari; Gudmundsson, Olafur; Bödvarsson, Reynir; SIL Seismology Group

    2014-05-01

    Katla volcano is located on the propagating Eastern Volcanic Zone (EVZ) in South Iceland. It is located beneath Mýrdalsjökull ice-cap which covers an area of almost 600 km2, comprising the summit caldera and the eruption vents. 20 eruptions between 930 and 1918 with intervals of 13-95 years are documented at Katla which is one of the most active subglacial volcanoes in Iceland. Eruptions at Katla are mainly explosive due to the subglacial mode of extrusion and produce high eruption columns and catastrophic melt water floods (jökulhlaups). The present long Volcanic repose (almost 96 years) at Katla, the general unrest since 1955, and the 2010 eruption of the neighbouring Eyjafjallajökull volcano has prompted concerns among geoscientists about an imminent eruption. Thus, the volcano has been densely monitored by seismologists and volcanologists. The seismology group of Uppsala University as a partner in the Volcano Anatomy (VA) project in collaboration with the University of Iceland and the Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) installed 9 temporary seismic stations on and around the Mýrdalsjökull glacier in 2011. Another 10 permanent seismic stations are operated by IMO around Katla. The project's data collection is now finished and temporary stations were pulled down in August 2013. According to seismicity maps of the whole recording period, thousands of microearthquakes have occurred within the caldera region. At least three different source areas are active in Katla: the caldera region, the western Godaland region and a small cluster at the southern rim of Mýrdalsjökull near the glacial stream of Hafursarjökull. Seismicity in the southern flank has basically started after June 2011. The caldera events are mainly volcano-tectonic, while western and southern events are mostly long period (lp) and can be related to glacial or magmatic movement. One motivation of the VA Katla project is to better understand the physical mechanism of these lp events. Changes

  8. Element variations in rhyolitic magma resulting from gas transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlo, K.; Tuffen, H.; Smith, V. C.; Castro, J. M.; Pyle, D. M.; Mather, T. A.; Geraki, K.

    2013-11-01

    Tuffisite veins are glass-filled fractures formed when magma fragments during degassing within the conduit. These veins form transient channels through which exsolved gases can escape from magma. The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which chemical heterogeneity within the melt results from gas transport, and assess how this can be used to study magma degassing. Two tuffisite veins from contrasting rhyolitic eruptions at Torfajökull (Iceland) and Chaitén (Chile) were studied in detail. The tuffisite vein from Torfajökull is from a shallow dissected conduit (∼70 ka) that fed a degassed lava flow, while the sample from Chaitén was a bomb ejected during the waning phases of Plinian activity in May 2008. The results of detailed in situ chemical analyses (synchrotron XRF, FTIR, LA-ICP-MS) show that in both veins larger vesiculated fragments are enriched in volatile elements (Torfajökull: H, Li, Cl; Chaitén: Li, Cl, Cu, Zn, As, Sn, Sb) compared to the host, while the surrounding smaller particles are depleted in the Torfajökull vein (Li, Cl, Zn, Br, Rb, Pb), but enriched in the Chaitén vein (K, Cu, Zn, As, Mo, Sb, Pb). The lifespans of both veins and the fluxes of gas and particles through them can be estimated using diffusion profiles and enrichment factors. The Torfajökull vein had a longer lifespan (∼a day) and low particle velocities (∼cm/s), while the Chaitén vein was shorter lived (<1 h) with a high gas velocity (∼m/s). These differences are consistent with the contrasting eruption mechanisms (effusive vs. explosive). The amount of magma that degassed through the Chaitén vein is more than ten times the volume of the vein itself, requiring the vein to tap into pre-exsolved gas pockets. This study highlights that tuffisite veins are highly efficient gas pathways and thereby impart chemical diversity in volatile elements on the melt.

  9. Can vesicle size distributions predict eruption intensity during volcanic activity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaRue, A.; Baker, D. R.; Polacci, M.; Allard, P.; Sodini, N.

    2013-06-01

    We studied three-dimensional (3-D) vesicle size distributions by X-ray microtomography in scoria collected during the relatively quiescent Phase II of the 2010 eruption at Eyjafjallajökull volcano, Iceland. Our goal was to compare the vesicle size distributions (VSDs) measured in these samples with those found in Stromboli volcano, Italy. Stromboli was chosen because its VSDs are well-characterized and show a correlation with eruption intensity: typical Strombolian activity produces VSDs with power-law exponents near 1, whereas larger and more energetic Vulcanian-type explosions and Plinian eruptions produce VSDs with power-law exponents near 1.5. The hypothesis to be tested was whether or not the samples studied in this work would contain VSDs similar to normal Strombolian products, display higher power-law exponents, or be described by exponential functions. Before making this comparison we tested the hypothesis that the phreatomagmatic nature of the Eyjafjallajökull eruption might have a significant effect on the VSDs. We performed 1 atm bubble-growth experiments in which the samples were inundated with water and compared them to similar, control, experiments without water inundation. No significant differences between the VSDs of the two sets of experiments were found, and the hypothesis is not supported by the experimental evidence; therefore, VSDs of magmatic and phreatomagmatic eruptions can be directly compared. The Phase II Eyjafjallajökull VSDs are described by power law exponents of ~ 0.8, typical of normal Strombolian eruptions. The comparable VSDs and behavior of Phase II of the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruption to Stromboli are interpreted to be a reflection of similar conduit systems in both volcanoes that are being constantly fed by the ascent of deep magma that mixes with resident magma at shallow depths. Such behavior implies that continued activity during Phase II of the Eyjafjallajökull eruption could be expected and would have been predicted

  10. Infrasound network implementation in Iceland - examples of volcano monitoring in an extreme environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jónsdóttir, Kristín; Ripepe, Maurizio; Barsotti, Sara; Björnsson, Halldór; Del Donne, Dario; Vogfjörð, Kristín

    2015-04-01

    The installation of a network of infrasound arrays for volcano monitoring has been initiated in Iceland. In collaboration with the University of Florence (UNIFI), The Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) has been operating infrasound arrays since the Eyjafjallajökull eruption in 2010. An important support came through the 26 partner FP7 FUTUREVOLC project which runs from 2012 - 2016. This project which is relevant to the EU "Supersite concept" for long term monitoring in geologically active regions of Europe, is led by the University of Iceland together with IMO which leads long-term monitoring of geohazards in Iceland and is responsible for maintaining instrument networks for this purpose. As a part of the ground based FUTUREVOLC network, infrasound arrays, are used to monitor volcanic eruptive activity. The arrays are composed of 4 elements with a triangular geometry and an aperture of 120 m where each element has a differential pressure transducer with a sensitivity of 25 mV/Pa in the frequency band 0.001-50 Hz and a noise level of 10-2 Pa. Infrasound is recorded on site at 100 Hz and 24 bits and transmitted via Internet link both to the IMO and UNIFI. Three arrays are installed in South Iceland, one in Gunnarsholt, one in Þjórsárdalur and one in Kirkjubæjarklaustur. These places were chosen with the aim to optimize wind noice reduction (onsite bushes and trees) and close proximity to volcanoes such as Hekla, Katla, Torfajökull, Eyjafjallajökull, Vestmannaeyjar and the Vatnajökull ice cap which covers four central volcanoes known for explosive eruptions. In September 2014, the fourth array was installed a few km north of Vatnajökull glacier, just north of the large effusive eruption in Holuhraun which started on 29 August 2014 and is still ongoing in January 2015. The eruption is associated with the ongoing Bárðarbunga volcanic unrest and caldera collapse which is being monitored closely by the IMO and FUTUREVOLC partners. The new array has the

  11. InSAR Observations and Finite Element Modeling of Crustal Deformation Around a Surging Glacier, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spaans, K.; Auriac, A.; Sigmundsson, F.; Hooper, A. J.; Bjornsson, H.; Pálsson, F.; Pinel, V.; Feigl, K. L.

    2014-12-01

    Icelandic ice caps, covering ~11% of the country, are known to be surging glaciers. Such process implies an important local crustal subsidence due to the large ice mass being transported to the ice edge during the surge in a few months only. In 1993-1995, a glacial surge occurred at four neighboring outlet glaciers in the southwestern part of Vatnajökull ice cap, the largest ice cap in Iceland. We estimated that ~16±1 km3 of ice have been moved during this event while the fronts of some of the outlet glaciers advanced by ~1 km.Surface deformation associated with this surge has been surveyed using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) acquisitions from 1992-2002, providing high resolution ground observations of the study area. The data show about 75 mm subsidence at the ice edge of the outlet glaciers following the transport of the large volume of ice during the surge (Fig. 1). The long time span covered by the InSAR images enabled us to remove ~12 mm/yr of uplift occurring in this area due to glacial isostatic adjustment from the retreat of Vatnajökull ice cap since the end of the Little Ice Age in Iceland. We then used finite element modeling to investigate the elastic Earth response to the surge, as well as confirm that no significant viscoelastic deformation occurred as a consequence of the surge. A statistical approach based on Bayes' rule was used to compare the models to the observations and obtain an estimate of the Young's modulus (E) and Poisson's ratio (v) in Iceland. The best-fitting models are those using a one-kilometer thick top layer with v=0.17 and E between 12.9-15.3 GPa underlain by a layer with v=0.25 and E from 67.3 to 81.9 GPa. Results demonstrate that InSAR data and finite element models can be used successfully to reproduce crustal deformation induced by ice mass variations at Icelandic ice caps.Fig. 1: Interferograms spanning 1993 July 31 to 1995 June 19, showing the surge at Tungnaárjökull (Tu.), Skaftárjökull (Sk.) and Síðujökull

  12. Climate, Ice, and Mud: investigating the relationship between glacier activity and sediment flux using varved lake sediments, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, D. J.; Miller, G. H.; Geirsdottir, A.; Flowers, G. E.; Bjornsson, H.

    2012-12-01

    The worldwide retreat of many glaciers during the 21st century is expected to have profound impacts on local and regional hydrologic cycles. Associated with the forecasted reductions in global ice volume are changes in meltwater runoff and sediment transport in glacially fed drainage systems. Alpine glaciers and small ice caps are particularly sensitive to climate change because their dimensions can respond quickly to changes in glacier mass balance. Records of past glacier fluctuations are important sources of paleoclimate data and also provide a context for current and future changes to glacier hydrologic systems. Annually laminated (varved) sediments from proglacial lake Hvítárvatn, central Iceland, offer a continuous archive of Langjökull ice cap (~925 km2) activity through the late Holocene. A multi-proxy record from this site indicates that Langjökull's size was more variable during the past millennium than during any other multi-centennial interval of the Holocene. Ice growth culminated in the Little Ice Age (LIA), when Langjökull advanced into Hvítárvatn and reached its maximum aerial extent of the past 10 ka. At present, roughly one-third of the ice cap's discharge flows into the lake catchment, constituting ~70% of the total inflow, and lake sedimentation rates are governed by the production and delivery of glacially eroded clastic material transported to the lake by four primary meltwater streams. Glacier fluctuations of the past 1 ka are reconstructed from physical proxies contained in sediment cores retrieved from six locations throughout the main basin. Total sediment yield and distribution during this period are calculated from sediment accumulation rates and from > 100 km of seismic reflection profiles. A tephra-constrained varve chronology provides high chronologic control, with a maximum age uncertainty of ± 10 years. Low and constant sedimentation rates characterize the 11th and 12th centuries, reflecting minimal glacier activity during

  13. Hydrographic measurements in Jökulsárlón lagoon, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandon, M. A.; Hodgkins, R.; Björnsson, H.; Ólaffson, J.

    2013-12-01

    Jökulsárlón lagoon is an enclosed lake bordering the retreating Breidamerkurjökull glacier which flows down from the Vatnajökull ice cap. As the glacier calves most of the ice it releases decays within the lake and the addition of the stored fresh water modifies the water local properties. The lake itself is connected to the North Atlantic Ocean through a narrow channel only ~80 m wide, and all tidal and residual flows in and out of the lake are through this channel. In April 2012 (early spring) we conducted four hydrographic sections from a small boat to determine the early season hydrographic structure of the lake. We conducted two hydrographic sections from the entrance of the channel to sea across the lagoon to the Breidamerkurjökull glacier, one across the centre of the lagoon, and one along, and close to the glacier face. Four months of time series hydrographic data from the channel show that the oceanic tidal pulse into the lagoon is short in duration. The water that enters the lagoon is warm and saline enough to descend rapidly to the greatest depths within the lagoon. With our CTD measurements we have mapped the properties of water across the lake. These reveal the pathway of the Atlantic derived water towards the ice face. The warmest water measured within the lagoon was just below the surface and only adjacent to the glacier face. Whilst this warm water was created from solar input, its location and concentration reveal the complex density driven circulation patterns close to the ice face. Calculated oceanic driven melt rates from the ice face show enhanced oceanographic melting in this near surface layer which contributes to the more substantial deeper melting.

  14. Ambient Noise Surface Wave Tomography of the volcanic systems of eastern Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, R. G.; Priestley, K. F.; White, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    The Vatnajökull region of central-east Iceland lies above the head of the Iceland mantle plume where the crust is thickest due to enhanced melt supply. As a result the region contains a high density of volcanic rift systems, with six large subglacial central volcanoes. Due to the ice cover, the geological structure of the area and the location of past eruptions are poorly known. Imaging of the crustal velocity heterogeneities beneath the ice sheet aims to reveal much in terms of the structure of these volcanic plumbing systems. Mapping of significant velocity changes through time may also be indicative of movement of melt around the central volcanoes; one of which (Bárðarbunga) experienced a major rifting event in August 2014 (Sigmundsson et al. Nature 2015, Green et al. Nature Geosci. 2015). We present results from tomographic imaging of the volcanic systems in the region, using continuous data from a local broadband seismic network in central-east Iceland which provides excellent ray path coverage of the volcanic systems. This is supplemented by data from the HOTSPOT and ICEMELT experiments and the permanent monitoring stations of the Icelandic Meteorological Office. We process the continuous data following Benson et al. 2007 and automatic frequency-time analysis (FTAN) routines are used to extract more than 9000 dispersion measurements. We then generate Rayleigh wave group velocity maps which we present here. We find low velocity regions beneath the Vatnajökull icecap which are bounded by the surface expression of the volcanic rift systems. The lower velocities also extend north-west to the volcanic system under the Hofsjökull ice cap, and northwards towards Askja and the volcanic systems of the northern volcanic zone. We also produce locations and focal mechanisms of earthquakes caused by magmatic and hydrothermal activity to correlate structure with the activity of the volcanic systems.

  15. Real time retrieval of volcanic cloud particles and SO2 by satellite using an improved simplified approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugnaghi, Sergio; Guerrieri, Lorenzo; Corradini, Stefano; Merucci, Luca

    2016-07-01

    Volcanic plume removal (VPR) is a procedure developed to retrieve the ash optical depth, effective radius and mass, and sulfur dioxide mass contained in a volcanic cloud from the thermal radiance at 8.7, 11, and 12 µm. It is based on an estimation of a virtual image representing what the sensor would have seen in a multispectral thermal image if the volcanic cloud were not present. Ash and sulfur dioxide were retrieved by the first version of the VPR using a very simple atmospheric model that ignored the layer above the volcanic cloud. This new version takes into account the layer of atmosphere above the cloud as well as thermal radiance scattering along the line of sight of the sensor. In addition to improved results, the new version also offers an easier and faster preliminary preparation and includes other types of volcanic particles (andesite, obsidian, pumice, ice crystals, and water droplets). As in the previous version, a set of parameters regarding the volcanic area, particle types, and sensor is required to run the procedure. However, in the new version, only the mean plume temperature is required as input data. In this work, a set of parameters to compute the volcanic cloud transmittance in the three quoted bands, for all the aforementioned particles, for both Mt. Etna (Italy) and Eyjafjallajökull (Iceland) volcanoes, and for the Terra and Aqua MODIS instruments is presented. Three types of tests are carried out to verify the results of the improved VPR. The first uses all the radiative transfer simulations performed to estimate the above mentioned parameters. The second one makes use of two synthetic images, one for Mt. Etna and one for Eyjafjallajökull volcanoes. The third one compares VPR and Look-Up Table (LUT) retrievals analyzing the true image of Eyjafjallajökull volcano acquired by MODIS aboard the Aqua satellite on 11 May 2010 at 14:05 GMT.

  16. Satellite Monitoring of Ash and Sulphur Dioxide for the mitigation of Aviation Hazards: Part II. Validation of satellite-derived Volcanic Sulphur Dioxide Levels.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koukouli, MariLiza; Balis, Dimitris; Dimopoulos, Spiros; Clarisse, Lieven; Carboni, Elisa; Hedelt, Pascal; Spinetti, Claudia; Theys, Nicolas; Tampellini, Lucia; Zehner, Claus

    2014-05-01

    The eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull in the spring of 2010 turned the attention of both the public and the scientific community to the susceptibility of the European airspace to the outflows of large volcanic eruptions. The ash-rich plume from Eyjafjallajökull drifted towards Europe and caused major disruptions of European air traffic for several weeks affecting the everyday life of millions of people and with a strong economic impact. This unparalleled situation revealed limitations in the decision making process due to the lack of information on the tolerance to ash of commercial aircraft engines as well as limitations in the ash monitoring and prediction capabilities. The European Space Agency project Satellite Monitoring of Ash and Sulphur Dioxide for the mitigation of Aviation Hazards, was introduced to facilitate the development of an optimal End-to-End System for Volcanic Ash Plume Monitoring and Prediction. This system is based on comprehensive satellite-derived ash plume and sulphur dioxide [SO2] level estimates, as well as a widespread validation using supplementary satellite, aircraft and ground-based measurements. The validation of volcanic SO2 levels extracted from the sensors GOME-2/MetopA and IASI/MetopA are shown here with emphasis on the total column observed right before, during and after the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruptions. Co-located ground-based Brewer Spectrophotometer data extracted from the World Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation Data Centre, WOUDC, were compared to the different satellite estimates. The findings are presented at length, alongside a comprehensive discussion of future scenarios.

  17. A multi-proxy record of Holocene climate and glacier activity from proglacial lake Hvítárvatn, central Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, D. J.; Miller, G. H.; Geirsdottir, A.; Ólafsdóttir, S.

    2010-12-01

    The climatically sensitive location of Iceland, near the boundary between opposing atmospheric and oceanic flows in the North Atlantic, presents a unique opportunity for paleoclimate investigations. Laminated sediments from proglacial lake Hvítárvatn (422 asl), central Iceland, are used to reconstruct regional climate variability and the activity of the Langjökull ice cap for the last ca. 10.2 ka. A continuous, high-resolution (annual to multi-decadal) age model is constructed by splicing a varve chronology of the past 3 ka with a tephra-constrained, paleomagnetic secular variation derived chronology for older sediments. Multiple proxies, including sedimentation rate, bulk density, ice-rafted debris (IRD), TOC, C:N, 13C, and biogenic silica, reveal a dynamic Holocene terrestrial climate. Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM) conditions are achieved shortly after ca. 8 ka and result in the disappearance of Langjökull from the catchment. Subsequently, a broad trend toward cooler summers and ice-cap regrowth and expansion begins by ca. 6 ka, with a notable increase in glacier activity at 4.2 ka. The past millennium is characterized by some of the most unstable conditions of the record, with the abrupt onset of sustained cold periods at ca. 550 and 1250 AD. These periods are separated by a pronounced interval of relative warmth and reduced glacier size from ca. 950 to 1150 AD. The greatest Holocene extent of Langjökull occurs in the nineteenth century AD and is coincident with significant landscape instability in the watershed. Additional periods of notable glacier growth and/or landscape instability are recorded in all proxies at ca. 8.2 ka, ca. 4.2 ka, and ca. 3.0 ka.

  18. Discriminating volcano deformation due to magma movements and variable surface loads: application to Katla subglacial volcano, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinel, V.; Sigmundsson, F.; Sturkell, E.; Geirsson, H.; Einarsson, P.; Gudmundsson, M. T.; Högnadóttir, T.

    2007-04-01

    Surface displacements induced by ice load variation through time are calculated by spatial integration of Green's function for both end-members: an elastic half-space and a thick elastic plate lying over an inviscid mantle. The elastic half-space model allows the consideration of displacements caused by short-term (seasonal) variations. The thick plate model describes the final relaxed state. The transition between these two stages is dominated by an effective relaxation time which depends on mantle viscosity. This behaviour is considered to estimate displacements induced by long-term load changes (ice retreat over decades). We apply these methods to the Mýrdalsjökull ice cap, Iceland, where an annual cycle in ice load occurs as well as a gradual ice retreat as a consequence of climate warming. Seasonal vertical displacements measured from 2000 to 2006 at two continuous GPS stations located near the edge of Mýrdalsjökull ice cap fit well to a model of an elastic response to the annual variation in ice load. A comparison of model displacements and observations provides a minimum value of 29 +/- 5 GPa for the effective static local value of the Young's modulus. We infer long-term displacements induced by ice retreat over the last 115 yr using a combination of the instantaneous elastic response and the final relaxed state. Results are compared to GPS measurements used to monitor the Katla volcano lying beneath the Mýrdalsjökull ice cap. A forward model considering an elastic thickness of 5 km can explain a fraction of the uplift recorded from 1999 to 2004, but it cannot account for the observed horizontal velocities. The study confirms that magma inflow is required to explain observed inflation of the Katla volcano 1999-2004.

  19. Cooling process recorded in subglacially erupted rhyolite glasses: Rapid quenching, thermal buffering, and the formation of meltwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilding, Martin C.; Smellie, John L.; Morgan, Sally; Lesher, C. E.; Wilson, Lionel

    2004-08-01

    The thermal histories of two subglacial rhyolite glasses from Torfajökull complex of south central Iceland have been determined from changes in the relaxation of enthalpy in the calorimetric glass transition interval. Heat capacity measurements of bulk glass samples from Rauðufossafjöll (sample number JS.1.1) and Bláhnúkur (sample number JS.2.1) by differential scanning calorimetry show marked differences in the temperature of the onset of glass transition (Tg) on reheating. The average Tg is 750 K for JS.1.1, whereas it is 850 K for JS.2.1. These differences in the onset of Tg are related to quench rate through considerations of the activation energy and timescales for structural relaxation modeled, using the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watt function. Multiple glass samples from the two Torfajökull locations recover different average values and distributions of a fictive temperature, Tf, which we interpret in terms of differences in the thermal histories of the glasses. In both glass samples the range of fictive temperatures and, by implication, apparent cooling rates, is lower than those estimated for a glass rapidly quenched by contact with cold (glacial melt) water and requires that the glass was annealed at temperatures in the glass transition interval associated with relaxation times of the order of 1000-10,000 s. The complex cooling histories of the Torfajökull samples show that the products of subglacial eruptions may be held at elevated temperatures for several hours and, as a result, may drive vigorous convection in the ice-bound vaults above erupting rhyolite deposits.

  20. Experimental studies of heat transfer at the dynamic magma ice/water interface: Application to subglacially emplaced lava

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oddsson, Björn; Gudmundsson, Magnús T.; Sonder, Ingo; Zimanowski, Bernd; Schmid, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    Experiments simulating processes operating in volcano-ice interactions were carried out to explain and quantify lava thermal properties and processes of heat transfer from pure lava melt to water and ice and from hot crystalline lava to water. The samples used (70-200 g) were obtained from an intermediate lava flow (benmoreite-trachyte) that was emplaced under and within the outlet glacier Gígjökull in the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull. Experiments involved settings with direct contact between ice and lava, and settings where melt and ice were separated by a few centimeters. Direct contact involved melt being emplaced on ice and ice placed on melt. The direct contact experiments provided initial heat flux of up to 900 kW m-2 at an initially lava melt surface temperature of 1100°C, declining to <100 kW m-2 at 200-300°C within 1-2 min, while the experiments without melt-ice contact yielded an initial maximum of 100-180 kW m-2 dropping to 50-80 kW m-2 in 2-3 min. In other experiments, where cubes of hot crystalline lava were subjected to forced convection of water at initial temperature of 20-30°C, initial heat fluxes of 400-770 kW m-2 were followed by fast decline to <100 kW m-2 in 15-35 s, the rate depending on cube size. The hot rock experiments provided thermal conductivity values of 1.2-1.7 W m-1K-1 and diffusivity of about 9 × 10-7 m2s-1. Values for heat flux obtained in these experiments are in the same range as those obtained from field observations of the lava emplacement in the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruption.

  1. Discovery of the Largest Historic Silicic Submarine Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, Rebecca J.; Wysoczanski, Richard; Wunderman, Richard; Jutzeler, Martin

    2014-05-01

    It was likely twice the size of the renowned Mount St. Helens eruption of 1980 and perhaps more than 10 times bigger than the more recent 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption in Iceland. However, unlike those two events, which dominated world news headlines, in 2012 the daylong submarine silicic eruption at Havre volcano in the Kermadec Arc, New Zealand (Figure 1a; ~800 kilometers north of Auckland, New Zealand), passed without fanfare. In fact, for a while no one even knew it had occurred.

  2. Soil evolution in the active enviroment of Öræfi district, S.E Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Þorbjarnarson, Höskuldur; Gísladóttir, Guðrún; Erlendsson, Egill; Mankasingh, Utra

    2015-04-01

    Soil is a resource of critical importance to life on earth. It is the foundation for the growth of vegetation and therefore food production and our existence. Soil also regulates and distributes nutrients and water. Soils of Iceland are in many respects special; they are relatively young and have only been forming since the end of the Pleistocene when glaciers retreated from the land. To this date new soil is continually forming on land where glaciers are retreating or where new land is formed due to volcanic activity. Volcanic soils (andosol/andisol) generated from airborne volcanic ejecta (tephra) are the most common form of soils in Iceland. Windblown material also contributes to their formation. Rapid chemical weathering of tephra hastens soil genesis and the resulting soils tend to be fertile and can act as large carbon sinks. This research focuses on soil evolution, with emphasis on the role of tephra in soil formation, as well as climate and human utilization of the environment in the district of Öræfi in south east Iceland. The study area has been impacted numerous times by explosive volcanic eruptions in neighbouring central volcanoes Such as the Grímsvötn-Bárðarbunga systems and Öræfajökull. Of special importance to this area are the 1362 eruption in Öræfajökull and 1477 eruption in Vatnaöldur 1477 which originated in the Bárðarbunga system. The resulting tephra layers make it possible to ascertain the age of the soil and therefore calculate the soil accumulation rate. Five soil profiles were excavated and sampled at various distances from Öræfajökull glacier. In total 58 horizons were examined. The profiles and horizons were described using physical and chemical methods. Carbon and nitrogen content, bulk density, soil pH (H2O, KCl and NaF), clay content and weathering state were measured to describe soil properties and soil stability. Results show that the devastating eruption in Öræfajökull in 1362 and to a lesser extent the Vatna

  3. Frequency, triggering factors and possible consequences of mass movements on outlet glaciers in Iceland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saemundsson, Thorsteinn; Margeirsson, Guðbjörn

    2016-04-01

    During the last 15 years several mass movements of various size and origin, e.g. rock avalanches, rock slides and debris slides have been observed to have fall on outlet glaciers in Iceland. This should not come as a surprise in this type of glacial environment, but in a way it does. When looking at the history only few mass movements are recorded to have fall on outlet glaciers in Iceland, during the decades before the year 2000 or since 1960. This "lack of mass movements" can be explained by the fact that fewer observations and monitoring were done in the past, but is it so or are we seeing increasing activity? Looking at the distribution of the known mass movements, two activity periods cam be identified. The former one around 1970 and the second one starting around 2000 and is still ongoing. Both of these periods are characterized by warmer climate leading to retreating phases of glaciers. Two larger mass movements are known from these two retreating periods. The former one occurred in January 1967. Then a large rockslide fell on the snout and into the glacial lake of the Steinholtsjökull outlet glacier in the northern side of the Eyjafjallajökull ice cap. The rockslide broke up the snout of the glacier and caused large floodwave bursting down the Steinholtsdalur valley transporting large volume of sediments down its path. The later one occurred in 2007, when a large rockavalanche fell on the Morsárjökull outlet glacier, in the southern side of the Vatnajökull ice cap. The avalanche debris covered around 1/5 of the glacier surface. Today the retreat and thinning of glaciers in Iceland are extremely rapid. The consequences of such a rapid retreat are e.g. unstable valley slopes surrounding the outlet glaciers, both in loose sediments and bedrock, thawing of mountain permafrost and not least formation of glacial lakes in front of the rapid retreating ice margins. Such conditions can become extremely hazardous, as seen by the above mentioned examples, both

  4. Laboratory tests for diagnosis of food allergy: advantages, disadvantages and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Moneret-Vautrin, D A; Kanny, G; Frémont, S

    2003-04-01

    Numerous biological tests point to the diagnosis of food sensitization: detection of specific IgEs by Rast techniques, multi-detection assays, immunoblotting, screening of basophil activation (BAT or FAST), assays for leukotriene LTC4 release (CAST), measurement of plasma histamine, serum tryptase, serum ECP, urinary EDN, completed by mannitol-lactulose test evaluating intestinal permeability, assay of fecal IgEs, Rast for specific IgG4. Primary screening for anti-food IgEs by multi-detection assays seeks justification from insufficient clinical data and false positive tests are common in patients sensitized to pollens or latex, on account of in vitro cross reactivities (CR). Multiple CR explain positive Rast to vegetal food allergens in such patients. Biological tests should not be performed as the first line of diagnosis. In vivo sensitisation is assessed by positive prick-tests, demonstrating the bivalence of allergens, as well as the affinity of specific IgEs, two conditions necessary to bridge membrane bound specific IgEs, leading to the release of mediators. Prick-tests are closer to clinical symptoms than biological tests. However, the diagnosis of food allergy is based on standardised oral challenges. Exceptions are high levels of specific IgEs to egg (> 6 kUl/l), peanut (> 15 kUl/l), fish (> 20 kUl/l) and milk (> 32 kUl/l), reaching a 95% predictive positive value. Rast inhibition tests are useful to identify masked allergens in foods. Research developments will have impact on the development of new diagnostic tools: allergen mixes reinforcing a food extract by associated recombinant major allergens, multiple combination of recombinant allergens (chips) or tests with synthetic epitopes aimed a the prediction of recovery. Laboratory tests take place in the decision free for the diagnosis for the food allergy and the follow-up of the levels specific IgEs is a tool to assess outcome and contributes to predict recovery or persistent allergy. Up to now the

  5. Quantification of Sediment Transport During Glacier Surges and its Impact on Landform Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjaer, K. H.; Schomacker, A.; Korsgaard, N. J.; Benediktsson, I. O.

    2008-12-01

    Multi-temporal DEMs (Digital Elevation Models) of glaciers and ice streams have successfully been used for extraction of changes in ice volume over time. In this study, we analysed DEMs of the Brúarjökull glacier forefield (Iceland) for 1945, prior to the last surge in 1964, and for 2003 in order to assess the effect of the surge on the sediment architecture in the forefield. The pre- and post-surge DEMs allow direct quantification of the sediment volumes that were re-distributed in the forefield by the surging ice mass in 1964. The surge-type glacier Brúarjökull has experienced six surges during the last four centuries; these are the largest surges known to have occurred in Iceland. During the most recent surge in 1963-64, the glacier advanced 8 km over a period of c. 3 months with a maximum ice flow velocity of 5 m/hr, and 700 km3 of ice were moved downglacier. The continued recession of Brúarjökull since the 1963-64 surge reveals a young landscape consisting of widely spaced and elongated bedrock hills interspaced with shallow sedimentary basins. The majority of the forefield is covered with a basal till sheet or glaciofluvial outwash fans. Mapping of the sediment thickness in the glacier forefield shows higher accumulation along ice marginal positions related to wedge formation during extremely rapid ice flow. Fast flow was sustained by overpressurized water causing sediment-bedrock decoupling beneath a thick sediment sequence that was coupled to the glacier. Elevation differences between the terrain surface in 1945 and 2003 confirm this scenario as huge quantities of sediment was eroded, deformed and transported during the last surge event. On the scale of individual landforms, it appears for a drumlin surface that is has been lowered 20 m from 1945-2003. Dead-ice melting can explain roughly 8 m of this lowering. Thus, the drumlin must have experienced 12 m of subglacial erosion during the 1964 surge. The imprint of at least four landform generations is

  6. Assessing hazards to aviation from sulfur dioxide emitted by explosive Icelandic eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Anja; Witham, Claire S.; Theys, Nicolas; Richards, Nigel A. D.; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Szpek, Kate; Feng, Wuhu; Hort, Matthew C.; Woolley, Alan M.; Jones, Andrew R.; Redington, Alison L.; Johnson, Ben T.; Hayward, Chris L.; Carslaw, Kenneth S.

    2014-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions take place in Iceland about once every 3 to 5 years. Ash emissions from these eruptions can cause significant disruption to air traffic over Europe and the North Atlantic as is evident from the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is also emitted by volcanoes, but there are no criteria to define when airspace is considered hazardous or nonhazardous. However, SO2 is a well-known ground-level pollutant that can have detrimental effects on human health. We have used the United Kingdom Met Office's NAME (Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment) model to simulate SO2 mass concentrations that could occur in European and North Atlantic airspace for a range of hypothetical explosive eruptions in Iceland with a probability to occur about once every 3 to 5 years. Model performance was evaluated for the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull summit eruption against SO2 vertical column density retrievals from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument and in situ measurements from the United Kingdom Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements research aircraft. We show that at no time during the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption did SO2 mass concentrations at flight altitudes violate European air quality standards. In contrast, during a hypothetical short-duration explosive eruption similar to Hekla in 2000 (emitting 0.2 Tg of SO2 within 2 h, or an average SO2 release rate 250 times that of Eyjafjallajökull 2010), simulated SO2 concentrations are greater than 1063 µg/m3 for about 48 h in a small area of European and North Atlantic airspace. By calculating the occurrence of aircraft encounters with the volcanic plume of a short-duration eruption, we show that a 15 min or longer exposure of aircraft and passengers to concentrations ≥500 µg/m3 has a probability of about 0.1%. Although exposure of humans to such concentrations may lead to irritations to the eyes, nose and, throat and cause increased airway resistance even in healthy individuals

  7. Vertical acceleration of Icelandic crust measured by continuous GPS geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compton, K. C.; Bennett, R. A.; Hreinsdottir, S.; Adalgeirsdottir, G.

    2013-12-01

    We present current vertical crustal velocity and acceleration fields for Iceland as measured by 62 continuously operating GPS stations. After analyzing available CGPS data from 1995 to present and manually repairing breaks and removing transient earthquake and volcanic deformation signals, we calculate velocities and accelerations by fitting a second order polynomial model consisting of a coordinate offset term and two additional terms representing the time-averaged coordinate velocity and acceleration. Our velocity estimates agree closely with previously published velocity fields and show a broad region of rapid uplift in central Iceland, with near zero uplift observed near coastal regions. The largest vertical velocities occur near the center of the island, between the Vatnajökull and Hofsjökull ice sheets at rates exceeding 20 mm/yr. Velocity uncertainties have a mean of ~0.1mm/yr. The pattern of acceleration mimics that of the velocity field such that the velocity contrast between the interior and coastal regions is being enhanced. Largest positive accelerations of ~1.5 mm/yr2 are observed in central Iceland and acceleration uncertainties have a mean of ~0.2mm/yr2. Previous studies have modeled rapid uplift in Iceland as an isostatic response to loss of ice mass from the central Iceland ice sheets. We propose that the accelerating uplift is a result of accelerating ice mass loss, with possible implications for climate driven glacial retreat and models for ice loss and isostatic adjustment.

  8. Insulation effects of Icelandic dust and volcanic aerosols on snow and ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragosics, Monika; Meinander, Outi; Jónsdóttir, Tinna; Dürig, Tobias; De Leeuw, Gerrit; Pálsson, Finnur; Dagsson-Waldhauserová, Pavla; Thorsteinsson, Throstur

    2016-04-01

    In the Arctic region, Iceland is an important source of dust due to ash production from volcanic eruptions. In addition dust is resuspended from the surface into the atmosphere as several dust storms occur each year. During volcanic eruptions and dust storms, material is deposited on the glaciers where it influences their energy balance. The effects of deposited volcanic ash on ice and snow melt were examined using laboratory and outdoor experiments. These experiments were made during the snow melt period using two different ash grain sizes (1 ϕ and 3.5 ϕ) from the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruption, collected on the glacier. Different amounts of ash were deposited on snow or ice after which the snow properties and melt were measured. The results show that a thin ash layer increases the snow and ice melt but an ash layer exceeding a certain critical thickness caused insulation. Ash with 1 ϕ in grain size insulated the ice below at a thickness of 9-15 mm. For the 3.5 ϕ grain size the insulation thickness is 13 mm. The maximum melt occurred at a thickness of 1 mm for the 1 ϕ and only 1-2 mm for 3.5 ϕ ash. A map of dust concentrations on Vatnajökull that represents the dust deposition during the summer of 2013 is presented with concentrations ranging from 0.2 up to 16.6 g m-2.

  9. A neural network approach for monitoring of volcanic SO2 and cloud height using hyperspectral measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piscini, Alessandro; Carboni, Elisa; Del Frate, Fabio; Grainger, Roy Gordon

    2014-10-01

    In this study two neural networks were implemented in order to emulate a retrieval model and to estimate the sulphur dioxide (SO2) columnar content and cloud height from volcanic eruption. ANNs were trained using all Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) channels in Thermal Infrared (TIR) as inputs, and the corresponding values of SO2 content and height of volcanic cloud obtained using the Oxford SO2 retrievals as target outputs. The retrieval is demonstrated for the eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano (Iceland) occurred in 2010 and to three IASI images of the Grímsvötn volcanic eruption that occurred in May 2011, in order to evaluate the networks for an unknown eruption. The results of validation, both for Eyjafjallajökull independent data-sets, provided root mean square error (RMSE) values between neural network outputs and targets lower than 20 DU for SO2 total column and 200 mb for cloud height, therefore demonstrating the feasibility to estimate SO2 values using a neural network approach, and its importance in near real time monitoring activities, owing to its fast application. Concerning the validation carried out with neural networks on images from the Grímsvötn eruption, the RMSE of the outputs remained lower than the Standard Deviation (STD) of targets, and the neural network underestimated retrieval only where target outputs showed different statistics than those used during the training phase.

  10. Estimation of volcanic ash emissions from satellite data using trajectory-based 4D-Var

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Sha; Lin, Haixiang; Heemink, Arnold; Segers, Arjo; Fu, Guangliang

    2016-04-01

    An accurate determination of emission parameters are crucial to the volcanic ash forecast for aviation, health and climate interests. In this study, we reconstruct the vertical profile of the volcanic ash emission from satellite ash mass loading data using trajectory-based 4D-Var (Trj4DVar) approach with Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruptive event and the corresponding SEVIRI data as a study case. Since the Eyjafjallajökull eruption in April 2010, besides ash mass loadings retrieved from satellite data, the additional information of plume height and mass eruption rate is always available from volcanic ash detections and observations. Modifications is made in Trj4DVar to integrate the additional information into the data assimilation system to improve the estimation of volcanic ash emissions and achieve a better initial condition for quantitative predictions. The modified Trj4DVar has been tested in twin experiments designed based on the study case, and shows significant improvement on straightforward Trj4DVar since it has great correction impact to recognize the injection height and produce more accurate emission estimation and reliable initial field of volcanic ash loading. To apply the approach to the real case with SEVIRI data, two strategies was proposed: observational mask matrix and separate time windows. The results produced a better initial condition and predictive forecast that were more fitter the SEVIRI ash mass loading fields, which showed a great potential of applying the method in practice.

  11. Monitoring presence and streaming patterns of Icelandic volcanic ash during its arrival to Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, F.; Stanič, S.; Bergant, K.; Bolte, T.; Coren, F.; He, T.-Y.; Hrabar, A.; Jerman, J.; Mladenovič, A.; Turšič, J.; Veberič, D.; Iršič Žibert, M.

    2011-08-01

    The eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano starting on 14 April 2010 resulted in the spreading of volcanic ash over most parts of Europe. In Slovenia, the presence of volcanic ash was monitored using ground-based in-situ measurements, lidar-based remote sensing and airborne in-situ measurements. Volcanic origin of the detected aerosols was confirmed by subsequent spectral and chemical analysis of the collected samples. The initial arrival of volcanic ash to Slovenia was first detected through the analysis of precipitation, which occurred on 17 April 2010 at 01:00 UTC and confirmed by satellite-based remote sensing. At this time, the presence of low clouds and occasional precipitation prevented ash monitoring using lidar-based remote sensing. The second arrival of volcanic ash on 20 April 2010 was detected by both lidar-based remote sensing and airborne in-situ measurements, revealing two or more elevated atmospheric aerosol layers. The ash was not seen in satellite images due to lower concentrations. The identification of aerosol samples from ground-based and airborne in-situ measurements based on energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirmed that a fraction of particles were volcanic ash from the Eyjafjallajökull eruption. To explain the history of the air masses bringing volcanic ash to Slovenia, we analyzed airflow trajectories using ECMWF and HYSPLIT models.

  12. Continental crust beneath southeast Iceland.

    PubMed

    Torsvik, Trond H; Amundsen, Hans E F; Trønnes, Reidar G; Doubrovine, Pavel V; Gaina, Carmen; Kusznir, Nick J; Steinberger, Bernhard; Corfu, Fernando; Ashwal, Lewis D; Griffin, William L; Werner, Stephanie C; Jamtveit, Bjørn

    2015-04-14

    The magmatic activity (0-16 Ma) in Iceland is linked to a deep mantle plume that has been active for the past 62 My. Icelandic and northeast Atlantic basalts contain variable proportions of two enriched components, interpreted as recycled oceanic crust supplied by the plume, and subcontinental lithospheric mantle derived from the nearby continental margins. A restricted area in southeast Iceland--and especially the Öræfajökull volcano--is characterized by a unique enriched-mantle component (EM2-like) with elevated (87)Sr/(86)Sr and (207)Pb/(204)Pb. Here, we demonstrate through modeling of Sr-Nd-Pb abundances and isotope ratios that the primitive Öræfajökull melts could have assimilated 2-6% of underlying continental crust before differentiating to more evolved melts. From inversion of gravity anomaly data (crustal thickness), analysis of regional magnetic data, and plate reconstructions, we propose that continental crust beneath southeast Iceland is part of ∼350-km-long and 70-km-wide extension of the Jan Mayen Microcontinent (JMM). The extended JMM was marginal to East Greenland but detached in the Early Eocene (between 52 and 47 Mya); by the Oligocene (27 Mya), all parts of the JMM permanently became part of the Eurasian plate following a westward ridge jump in the direction of the Iceland plume. PMID:25825769

  13. Continental crust beneath southeast Iceland

    PubMed Central

    Torsvik, Trond H.; Amundsen, Hans E. F.; Trønnes, Reidar G.; Doubrovine, Pavel V.; Gaina, Carmen; Kusznir, Nick J.; Steinberger, Bernhard; Corfu, Fernando; Ashwal, Lewis D.; Griffin, William L.; Werner, Stephanie C.; Jamtveit, Bjørn

    2015-01-01

    The magmatic activity (0–16 Ma) in Iceland is linked to a deep mantle plume that has been active for the past 62 My. Icelandic and northeast Atlantic basalts contain variable proportions of two enriched components, interpreted as recycled oceanic crust supplied by the plume, and subcontinental lithospheric mantle derived from the nearby continental margins. A restricted area in southeast Iceland—and especially the Öræfajökull volcano—is characterized by a unique enriched-mantle component (EM2-like) with elevated 87Sr/86Sr and 207Pb/204Pb. Here, we demonstrate through modeling of Sr–Nd–Pb abundances and isotope ratios that the primitive Öræfajökull melts could have assimilated 2–6% of underlying continental crust before differentiating to more evolved melts. From inversion of gravity anomaly data (crustal thickness), analysis of regional magnetic data, and plate reconstructions, we propose that continental crust beneath southeast Iceland is part of ∼350-km-long and 70-km-wide extension of the Jan Mayen Microcontinent (JMM). The extended JMM was marginal to East Greenland but detached in the Early Eocene (between 52 and 47 Mya); by the Oligocene (27 Mya), all parts of the JMM permanently became part of the Eurasian plate following a westward ridge jump in the direction of the Iceland plume. PMID:25825769

  14. Three­dimensional ash cloud observations could help aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2011-04-01

    In the spring of 2010 the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull erupted, sending a towering column of ash floating above the North Atlantic Ocean. The ash cloud shut down air traffic over much of Europe, significantly affecting the European economy. Although Eyjafjallajökull was one of the more recent, prominent displays of the effects of volcanic ash, similar disturbances are felt in the shadows of active volcanoes the world over. To ensure the safety of both planes and passengers, regulators rely on ash cloud dispersal models to forecast areas that might be affected by an active volcano. The models use measurements of meteorological conditions and ground-or satellite-based observations of ash plumes to forecast the expected path and size of the cloud. Unfortunately, the two­dimensional plume observations used as inputs typically lack information that could significantly improve the forecast, such as details of the volcanic cloud's vertical extent. (Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, doi:10.1029/2009JD013162, 2010)

  15. Identification and characterization of individual airborne volcanic ash particles by Raman microspectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ivleva, Natalia P; Huckele, Susanne; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Niessner, Reinhard; Haisch, Christoph; Baumann, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    We present for the first time the Raman microspectroscopic identification and characterization of individual airborne volcanic ash (VA) particles. The particles were collected in April/May 2010 during research aircraft flights, which were performed by Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt in the airspace near the Eyjafjallajökull volcano eruption and over Europe (between Iceland and Southern Germany). In addition, aerosol particles were sampled by an Electrical Low Pressure Impactor in Munich, Germany. As references for the Raman analysis, we used the spectra of VA collected at the ground near the place of eruption, of mineral basaltic rock, and of different minerals from a database. We found significant differences in the spectra of VA and other aerosol particles (e.g., soot, nitrates, sulfates, and clay minerals), which allowed us to identify VA among other atmospheric particulate matter. Furthermore, while the airborne VA shows a characteristic Raman pattern (with broad band from ca. 200 to ca. 700 cm(-1) typical for SiO₂ glasses and additional bands of ferric minerals), the differences between the spectra of aged and fresh particles were observed, suggesting differences in their chemical composition and/or structure. We also analyzed similarities between Eyjafjallajökull VA particles collected at different sampling sites and compared the particles with a large variety of glassy and crystalline minerals. This was done by applying cluster analysis, in order to get information on the composition and structure of volcanic ash. PMID:24121468

  16. Fieldwork report on conditions in the 2014 Holuhraun volcanic eruption Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergsson, Baldur; Ófeigsson, Benedikt; Ingvarsson, Þorgils; Kjartansson, Vilhjálmur; Arngrímsson, Hermann; Yeo, Richard; Bergsson, Bergur; Erlendsson, Pálmi; Stefánsdóttir, Gerður; Sigurðardóttir, Guðmunda; Jónsdóttir, Kristín; Sigurðsson, Gunnar; Ólafsson, Haraldur; Gíslason, Ólafur; Hróðmarsson, Hilmar; Snorrason, Árni

    2015-04-01

    Since the start of the unrest at Bárðarbunga and the 2014 fissure eruption in Holuhraun Iceland, countless hours have been spent doing fieldwork. This presentation will focus on reporting the conditions that have been experienced by staff of the Icelandic Meteorological Office since the beginning of the unrest. The eruption is located north of Vatnajökull glacier on a floodplain. The area is very remote at an elevation of 700 meters, the nearest farm is about 100 km away. The Holuhraun site would be at risk of flooding should the eruption extend to the Vatnajökull ice-cap. The presentation will mainly focus on working conditions experienced during field installations and data gathering at different time stages of the eruption (August - present). Typical problems are mostly weather and gas related but a range of other challenges have been met. The presentation will focus on the following aspects; traveling to the field, glacier installations, working in a desert environment, the hazard of the gas plume, the effect that low temperatures has on equipment and working with helicopters. The aim of this report will be to get an open discussion about fieldwork related problems that may benefit us in the future, be it for the benefit of the presenter or the audience.

  17. Changes in shear-wave splitting before volcanic eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sha; Crampin, Stuart

    2015-04-01

    We have shown that observations of shear-wave splitting (SWS) monitor stress-accumulation and stress-relaxation before earthquakes which allows the time, magnitude, and in some circumstances fault-plane of impending earthquakes to be stress-forecast. (We call this procedure stress-forecasting rather than predicting or forecasting to emphasise the different formalism.) We have stress-forecast these parameters successfully three-days before a 1988 M5 earthquake in SW Iceland, and identified characteristic anomalies retrospectively before ~16 other earthquakes in Iceland and elsewhere. SWS monitors microcrack geometry and shows that microcracks are so closely spaced that they verge on fracturing and earthquakes. Phenomena verging on failure in this way are critical-systems with 'butterfly wings' sensitivity. Such critical-systems are very common. The Earth is an archetypal complex heterogeneous interactive phenomenon and must be expected to be a critical-system. We claim this critical system as a New Geophysics of a critically-microcracked rock mass. Such critical systems impose a range of fundamentally-new properties on conventional sub-critical physics/geophysics, one of which is universality. Consequently it is expected that we observe similar stress-accumulation and stress-relaxation before volcanic eruptions to those before earthquakes. There are three eruptions where appropriate changes in SWS have been observed similar to those observed before earthquakes. These are: the 1996 Gjálp fissure eruption, Vatnajökull, Iceland; a 2001 flank eruption on Mount Etna, Sicily (reported by Francesca Bianco, INGV, Naples); and the 2010 Eyjafjajökull ash-cloud eruption, SW Iceland. These will be presented in the same normalised format as is used before earthquakes. The 1996 Gjálp eruption showed a 2½-month stress-accumulation, and a ~1-year stress-relaxation (attributed to the North Atlantic Ridge adjusting to the magma injection beneath the Vatnajökull Ice Cap). The

  18. Expected Crustal Movements due to the Planned Hálslón Reservoir in Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ófeigsson, B.; Einarsson, P.; Sigmundsson, F.; Sturkell, E.; Ólafsson, H.; Grapenthin, R.; Geirsson, H.

    2006-12-01

    A hydro-power plant (Kárahnjúkavirkjun) is currently under construction in northeastern Iceland. As a part of that project a major water reservoir (Hálslón) will be constructed north of Vatnaj\\ddot{\\textrm{o}}kull ice cap at the eastern edge of the rift zone, at the plate boundary, in North Iceland. Geological observations made during the construction time led to the discovery of Holocene activity on a fault system in the area. Three dams are being built to confine the Hálslón reservoir. The biggest, called Kárahnjúkar-dam, will be 198 m high. When full the area of the reservoir will be 57 km2 and it will contain 2.4 km3 of water. Beginning of filling is planned in September 2006. As a part of a monitoring and research program, an extensive network for crustal deformation research was established in 2005. A total of 35 benchmarks were measured in a GPS-campaign in August, 2005 and remeasured in August, 2006. Four continuously measuring GPS-stations where established in the area for resolving temporal changes in the Hálslón area in real time and monitoring seasonal variations. The first station was established in October, 2004 and the other three in fall 2005. Detected crustal movements in the area are uplift associated with decreasing load of the nearby Vatnaj\\ddot{\\textrm{o}}kull ice cap and seasonal variations due to increased snow load in wintertime. Continuous GPS-measurements show a general uplift velocity of 20 mm/y in the area and 11 mm in seasonal variations. Model calculations taking into account the seasonal snow load on the three largest ice caps in Iceland (Vatnaj\\ddot{\\textrm{o}}kull, Langj\\ddot{\\textrm{o}}kull, Hofsj\\ddot{\\textrm{o}}kull) using a Young's modulus of 30 GPa, fit the observed seasonal variations in the Kárahnjúkar area. The same model applied to the H {a}lslón reservoir gives a maximum expected elastic crustal subsidence of about 0.1 m. Other model calculations have indicated eventual subsidence of 0.3 m

  19. Neural-Network approach to hyperspectral data analysis for volcanic monitoring of sulphur dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piscini, Alessandro; Carboni, Elisa; Grainger, Roy Gordon; Del Frate, Fabio

    2014-05-01

    This study is about an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithm that recognizes volcanic SO2 in the atmosphere using hyperspectral remotely sensed data from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer Instrument (IASI) instrument aboard the METOP-A satellite. The remote sensing of volcanic sulphur dioxide (SO2) is important because it is used as a proxy for volcanic ash which is dangerous to aviation and is generally more difficult to discriminate. The importance of this approach lies in its speed and its application to near real-time volcanic monitoring. In this paper an ANN algorithm is demonstrated on date of the eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano (Iceland) during the months of April and May 2010, and on the Grímsvötn eruption occurring during May 2011. The algorithm consists of a two output neural network classifier trained with a time series consisting of some hyperspectral eruption images collected during Eyjafjallajökul 2010 and eruption and Grímsvötn 2011 eruption. The inputs were all channels (441) in the IASI ν3 band and the target outputs (truth) were the corresponding Oxford retrievals of SO2 amount. The classifier was validated on four independent IASI orbits, two that included observations of the Eyjafjallajökull eruption and two that included observations of the Grímsvötn volcanic eruption that occurred in May 2011. The validation results for the Eyjafjallajökull independent data-sets had an overall accuracy of 100%. The validation of the neural network classifier on images from the Grímsvötn eruption shown lower overall accuracies due to the presence of omission errors. Statistical analysis revealed that those false negatives lie near the detection threshold for discriminating pixels affected by SO2. This demonstrated that the accuracy in classification is strictly related to the sensitivity of the model. Nevertheless results obtained underlined that no commission errors were present at the validation stage (pixels

  20. The Hydration of Subglacial Rhyolite to Form Perlite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denton, J. S.; Tuffen, H.; Gilbert, J. S.

    2009-12-01

    Subglacial rhyolite deposits at Torfajökull, Iceland encountered glacier meltwater as they cooled, leading to variable amounts of hydration. High-temperature lava-meltwater interactions are key to understanding jökulhlaup hazards, perlite formation, cooling rates and, ultimately, soil formation [Denton et al., 2009]. Perlite is a hydrated glass that contains abundant, intersecting, arcuate and gently curved cracks surrounding cores of intact glass. Knowledge of how perlite forms is required for us to better understand the way in which meltwater and lava interact during and after subglacial eruptions. The mechanism for perlite formation is currently poorly understood, it is not known whether cracking leads to hydration or vice versa. Different textural zones from effusively erupted lava lobes from Torfajökull, Iceland [Tuffen et al., 2001] have been studied using a combination of experimental and quantitative textural measurements to examine the processes of hydration and perlite formation. A differential scanning calorimetry - thermogravimetric analyser coupled to a mass spectrometer (DSC-TGA-MS) has been used to quantify the total volatile contents of a number of samples. A novel petrological technique has been used to quantify the concentration of fractures present in a sample which has then been related to the amount of hydration. Water content using infra-red microspectroscopy (FTIR) has been used to study the micro-scale variations of water content and how they relate to fractures in the rhyolitic glasses. The results indicate that progressive perlitisation at the margins of lava bodies is accompanied by an increase in the water content, from ~0.5 wt. % to ~2 wt. %. The speciation of the inwardly diffusing water changes from hydroxyl to molecular water with increasing total volatile content. The temperature of dehydration of samples during TGA experiments decreases with increasing volatile content, consistent with a change in the dominant H2O species from

  1. Volcanic emissions constrained by satellite data: inverse and dispersion modelling of SO2 and fine ash for a few recent eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iren Kristiansen, Nina; Moxnes, Eldbjørg; Stohl, Andreas; Eckhardt, Sabine; Prata, Fred; Clarisse, Lieven

    2014-05-01

    Accurate estimates for the releases of gases and ash from volcanic eruptions are crucial for aiding aviation, for assessing potential climate impacts from large eruptions and other impacts from eruptions such as on air quality. Inverse modelling approaches can provide detailed emission estimates (as a function of height and time) and different techniques are currently being developed specifically for volcanic emissions by several groups worldwide. The core idea is to use satellite data to constrain the emissions by comparing the observations with an ensemble of modelled test emissions. Emission estimates for SO2 and/or fine ash from inverse modelling for the 2007-Jebel at Tair (Red Sea), 2008-Kasatochi (Alaska), 2010-Eyjafjallajökull (Iceland) and 2011-Grimsvötn (Iceland) eruptions will be shown. Dispersion modelling using the estimated emissions show good agreement with other observation data. Some of the key advantages and limitations of the method will be highlighted.

  2. An investigation of active subglacial thrust glaciotectonics and its role in stick-slip motion from Skalafellsjokull, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, J. K.; Rose, K. C.; Edwards, L.; Clayton, A.; Martinez, K.

    2012-12-01

    Glacier basal movement is by sliding, sediment shearing, or sediment shearing at depth. This movement can either be constant, or discontinuous via stick-slip motion. This is controlled by the interrelationship between pore water pressure and till rheology. There have been very few modern observations of subglacial shearing at depth, although glaciotectonic thrust sheets have been commonly reported from Quaternary and modern glacier forelands. Skalafellsjökull, Iceland represents a rare opportunity to study this style of basal movement. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) studies made in 2008 and 2011 showed that thrust slices of till were present beneath the glacier, and the amount of movement of these slices could be measured. Sediments exposed in the foreland also demonstrated that thin slices of till had been glaciotectonically deformed. We use this data combined with a 2 year record from the Glacsweb subglacial wireless probe, and passive seismics to investigate the relationship between subglacial shearing at depth and stick-slip motion.

  3. Volcanic ash cloud forecasting: combining satellite observations and dispersion modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, Kate; Watson, Matthew; Webster, Helen; Thomson, David; Dacre, Helen; Mackie, Shona; Harvey, Natalie

    2014-05-01

    During the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in April and May 2010, the London Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre demonstrated the importance of InfraRed satellite imagery for monitoring volcanic ash in the atmosphere and in validating NAME, the UK Met Office operational model used to forecast ash dispersion and to advise Civil Aviation. Significant effort has gone into researching inversion modelling using NAME and satellite retrievals of volcanic ash to infer an optimal model source term, elements of which are often unknown or highly uncertain. This presentation poses a possible alternative method for combining the two by assimilating satellite observations of downwind ash clouds into the model to create effective, virtual sources in order to constrain some of the uncertainty in the source term.

  4. Multiresolution texture models for brain tumor segmentation in MRI.

    PubMed

    Iftekharuddin, Khan M; Ahmed, Shaheen; Hossen, Jakir

    2011-01-01

    In this study we discuss different types of texture features such as Fractal Dimension (FD) and Multifractional Brownian Motion (mBm) for estimating random structures and varying appearance of brain tissues and tumors in magnetic resonance images (MRI). We use different selection techniques including KullBack - Leibler Divergence (KLD) for ranking different texture and intensity features. We then exploit graph cut, self organizing maps (SOM) and expectation maximization (EM) techniques to fuse selected features for brain tumors segmentation in multimodality T1, T2, and FLAIR MRI. We use different similarity metrics to evaluate quality and robustness of these selected features for tumor segmentation in MRI for real pediatric patients. We also demonstrate a non-patient-specific automated tumor prediction scheme by using improved AdaBoost classification based on these image features. PMID:22255946

  5. A-Train Satellite Observations of Recent Explosive Eruptions in Iceland and Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carn, S. A.; Yang, K.; Prata, A. J.

    2012-04-01

    The past few years have seen remarkable levels of explosive volcanic activity in Iceland and Chile, with four significant eruptions at Chaitén (May 2008), Eyjafjallajökull (April 2010), Grimsvötn (May 2011) and Cordón Caulle (June 2011 - ongoing). The tremendous disruption and economic impact of the Eyjafjallajökull eruption is well known, but each of these events had a significant impact on aviation, sometimes at great distances from the volcano. As of late 2011, volcanic ash from Cordón Caulle was still affecting airports in southern South America, highlighting the potential for extended disruption during long-lived eruptions. Serendipitously, this period of elevated volcanic activity has coincided with an era of unprecedented availability of satellite remote sensing data pertinent to volcanic cloud studies. In particular, NASA's A-Train satellite constellation (including the Aqua, CloudSat, CALIPSO, and Aura satellites) has been flying in formation since 2006, providing synergistic, multi- and hyper-spectral, passive and active observations. Measurements made by A-Train sensors include total column sulfur dioxide (SO2) by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on Aura, upper tropospheric and stratospheric (UTLS) SO2 column by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on Aqua and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on Aura, ash mass loading from AIRS and the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Aqua, UTLS HCl columns and ice water content (IWC) from MLS, aerosol vertical profiles from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) instrument aboard CALIPSO, and hydrometeor profiles from the Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) on CloudSat. The active vertical profiling capability of CALIPSO, CloudSat and MLS sychronized with synoptic passive sensing of trace gases and aerosols by OMI, AIRS and MODIS provides a unique perspective on the structure and composition of volcanic clouds. A-Train observations during the first hours of atmospheric

  6. Spain as an emergency air traffic hub during volcanic air fall events? Evidence of past volcanic ash air fall over Europe during the late Pleistocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardiman, Mark; Lane, Christine; Blockley, Simon P. E.; Moreno, Ana; Valero-Garcés, Blas; Ortiz, José E.; Torres, Trino; Lowe, John J.; Menzies, Martin A.

    2010-05-01

    Past volcanic eruptions often leave visible ash layers in the geological record, for example in marine or lake sedimentary sequences. Recent developments, however, have shown that non-visible volcanic ash layers are also commonly preserved in sedimentary deposits. These augment the record of past volcanic events by demonstrating that past ash dispersals have been more numerous and widely disseminated in Europe than previously appreciated. The dispersal ‘footprints' of some large late Pleistocene European eruptions are examined here in the light of the recent Eyjafjallajökull eruption. For example, the Vedde Ash which was erupted from Iceland around 12 thousand years ago, delivered distal (and non-visible) glass deposits as far south as Switzerland and as far east as the Ural Mountains in Russia, with an overall European distribution remarkably similar to the dominant tracks of the recent Eyjafjallajökull plumes. The Eyjafjallajökull eruption has demonstrated that relatively small amounts of distal volcanic ash in the atmosphere can seriously disrupt aviation activity, with attendant economic and other consequences. It has raised fundamental questions about the likelihood of larger or more prolonged volcanic activity in the near future, and the possibility of even more serious consequences than those experienced recently. Given that there are several other volcanic centres that could cause such disruption in Europe (e.g. Campania and other volcanic centres in Italy; Aegean volcanoes), a key question is whether there are parts of Europe less prone to ash plumes and which could therefore operate as emergency air traffic hubs during times of ash dispersal. Although not generated to answer this question, the recent geological record might provide a basis for seeking the answer. For example, four palaeo-records covering the time frame of 8 - 40 Ka BP that are geographically distributed across Spain have been examined for non-visible distal ash content. All four have

  7. LATIS3D: The Gold Standard for Laser-Tissue-Interaction Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    London, R.A.; Makarewicz, A.M.; Kim, B.M.; Gentile, N.A.; Yang, Y.B.; Brlik, M.; Vincent, L.

    2000-02-29

    The goal of this LDRD project has been to create LATIS3D--the world's premier computer program for laser-tissue interaction modeling. The development was based on recent experience with the 2D LATIS code and the ASCI code, KULL. With LATIS3D, important applications in laser medical therapy were researched including dynamical calculations of tissue emulsification and ablation, photothermal therapy, and photon transport for photodynamic therapy. This project also enhanced LLNL's core competency in laser-matter interactions and high-energy-density physics by pushing simulation codes into new parameter regimes and by attracting external expertise. This will benefit both existing LLNL programs such as ICF and SBSS and emerging programs in medical technology and other laser applications.

  8. Streaked radiography of an irradiated foam sample on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, A. B. R.; Schneider, M. B.; MacLaren, S. A.; Young, P. E.; Hsing, W. W.; Seugling, R.; Foord, M. E.; Sain, J. D.; May, M. J.; Marrs, R. E.; Maddox, B. R.; Lu, K.; Dodson, K.; Smalyuk, V.; Moore, A. S.; Graham, P.; Foster, J. M.; Back, C. A.; Hund, J. F.

    2013-03-15

    Streaked x-ray radiography images of annular patterns in an evolving tantalum oxide foam under the influence of a driven, subsonic radiation wave were obtained on the National Ignition Facility. This is the first successful radiography measurement of the evolution of well-defined foam features under a driven, subsonic wave in the diffusive regime. A continuous record of the evolution was recorded on an x-ray streak camera, using a slot-apertured point-projection backlighter with an 8 ns nickel source (7.9 keV). Radiography images were obtained for four different annular patterns, which were corrected using a source-dependent flat-field image. The evolution of the foam features was well-modeled using the 3D KULL radiation hydrodynamics code. This experimental and modeling platform can be modified for scaled high-energy-density laboratory astrophysics experiments.

  9. Diffusion of Zonal Variables Using Node-Centered Diffusion Solver

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, T B

    2007-08-06

    Tom Kaiser [1] has done some preliminary work to use the node-centered diffusion solver (originally developed by T. Palmer [2]) in Kull for diffusion of zonal variables such as electron temperature. To avoid numerical diffusion, Tom used a scheme developed by Shestakov et al. [3] and found their scheme could, in the vicinity of steep gradients, decouple nearest-neighbor zonal sub-meshes leading to 'alternating-zone' (red-black mode) errors. Tom extended their scheme to couple the sub-meshes with appropriate chosen artificial diffusion and thereby solved the 'alternating-zone' problem. Because the choice of the artificial diffusion coefficient could be very delicate, it is desirable to use a scheme that does not require the artificial diffusion but still able to avoid both numerical diffusion and the 'alternating-zone' problem. In this document we present such a scheme.

  10. Magma types and mantle sources of the Bárðarbunga volcanic system, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halldórsson, Sæmundur; Rubin, Ken; Sverrisdóttir, Guðrún; Sigurðsson, Gylfi

    2015-04-01

    The Bárðarbunga volcanic system (BVS) represents one of the largest volcanic systems in Iceland, extending ~190 km from the northern boundary of Torfajökull in the south to Dyngjufjöll Ytri in the north, and intersecting the largely ice-covered Bárðarbunga volcano. The extensive length of the BVS thus allows sampling of an unusually large section of the mantle underlying Iceland's Eastern rift zone. Perhaps surprisingly, the degree of mantle source heterogeneity beneath the BVS remains poorly known. We have recently undertaken a detailed study of the BVS because such data are fundamental for understanding the magmatic history and magma delivery system beneath of the BVS, including those that led to recent volcanism north of Dyngjujökull. Here, we present major and trace element analyses, as well as high-precision Pb isotope analyses, of several Holocene lava flows from the Dyngjuháls area and from rocks representing the basement, flanks and nunataks of the ice-free part of the Bárðarbunga volcano. We compare these data to those on a suite of recently collected fissure basalts from the Veiðivötn fissure swarm in the south and the new lava north of Dyngjujökull in order to study the geochemical characteristics of the BVS as a whole. The BVS has generated fairly primitive tholeiites (MgO ~6-9 wt.%) throughout the Holocene. Evolved basaltic compositions (MgO ≤6 wt.%) that are often associated with large and mature caldera systems in Iceland (e.g., Krafla and Askja), appear to be notably absent in the BVS within our current sample set (although might still exist in the largely ice-covered Bárðarbunga volcano). Significantly, no highly evolved rocks (dacite, rhyolite) have been associated with the BVS. It is therefore unlikely that a long-lived and relatively shallow (<5 km) magma chamber has existed beneath Bárðarbunga throughout the Holocene, and possibly longer. In Pb-Pb isotope plots, the three sections of the BVS form distinct trends. Notably