Science.gov

Sample records for scale physical effects

  1. Planck scale effects in neutrino physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmedov, E. K.; Senjanovic, G.; Tao, Zhi-Jan; Berezhiani, Z. G.

    1992-08-01

    We study the phenomenology and cosmology of the Majoron (flavon) models of one inert neutrino and three active ones. We pay special attention to the possible (almost) conserved generalization of the Zeldovich-Konopinski-Mahmoud lepton charge. Using Planck scale physics effects, which provide the breaking of the lepton charge, we show how, in this picture, one can incorporate the solutions to some of the central issues in neutrino physics, such as the solar and atmospheric neutrino puzzles, dark matter, and a 17 keV neutrino. These gravitation effects induce tiny Majorana mass terms for neutrinos and considerable masses for flavons. The cosmological demand for the sufficiently fast decay of flavons implies a lower limit on the electron neutrino mass in the range of 0.1-1 eV.

  2. Planck scale effects in neutrino physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmedov, Eugeni Kh.; Berezhiani, Zurab G.; Senjanović, Goran; Tao, Zhijian

    1993-04-01

    We study the phenomenology and cosmology of the Majoron (flavon) models of three active and one inert neutrino paying special attention to the possible (almost) conserved generalization of the Zeldovich-Konopinski-Mahmoud lepton charge. Using Planck scale physics effects which provide the breaking of the lepton charge, we show how in this picture one can incorporate the solutions to some of the central issues in neutrino physics such as the solar and atmospheric neutrino puzzles and the dark matter problem with the possible existence of a heavy (1-10 keV) neutrino. These gravitational effects induce tiny Majorana mass terms for neutrinos and considerable masses for flavons. The cosmological demand for the sufficiently fast decay of flavons implies a lower limit on the electron-neutrino mass in the range of 0.1-1 eV.

  3. Can basin land use effects on physical characteristics of streams be determined at broad geographic scales?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldstein, R.M.; Carlisle, D.M.; Meador, M.R.; Short, T.M.

    2007-01-01

    The environmental setting (e.g., climate, topography, geology) and land use affect stream physical characteristics singly and cumulatively. At broad geographic scales, we determined the importance of environmental setting and land use in explaining variation in stream physical characteristics. We hypothesized that as the spatial scale decreased from national to regional, land use would explain more of the variation in stream physical characteristics because environmental settings become more homogeneous. At a national scale, stepwise linear regression indicated that environmental setting was more important in explaining variability in stream physical characteristics. Although statistically discernible, the amount of variation explained by land use was not remarkable due to low partial correlations. At level II ecoregion spatial scales (southeastern USA plains, central USA plains, and a combination of the western Cordillera and the western interior basins and ranges), environmental setting variables were again more important predictors of stream physical characteristics, however, as the spatial scale decreased from national to regional, the portion of variability in stream physical characteristics explained by basin land use increased. Development of stream habitat indicators of land use will depend upon an understanding of relations between stream physical characteristics and environmental factors at multiple spatial scales. Smaller spatial scales will be necessary to reduce the confounding effects of variable environmental settings before the effects of land use can be reliably assessed. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006.

  4. Can basin land use effects on physical characteristics of streams be determined at broad geographic scales?

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Robert M; Carlisle, Daren M; Meador, Michael R; Short, Terry M

    2007-07-01

    The environmental setting (e.g., climate, topography, geology) and land use affect stream physical characteristics singly and cumulatively. At broad geographic scales, we determined the importance of environmental setting and land use in explaining variation in stream physical characteristics. We hypothesized that as the spatial scale decreased from national to regional, land use would explain more of the variation in stream physical characteristics because environmental settings become more homogeneous. At a national scale, stepwise linear regression indicated that environmental setting was more important in explaining variability in stream physical characteristics. Although statistically discernible, the amount of variation explained by land use was not remarkable due to low partial correlations. At level II ecoregion spatial scales (southeastern USA plains, central USA plains, and a combination of the western Cordillera and the western interior basins and ranges), environmental setting variables were again more important predictors of stream physical characteristics, however, as the spatial scale decreased from national to regional, the portion of variability in stream physical characteristics explained by basin land use increased. Development of stream habitat indicators of land use will depend upon an understanding of relations between stream physical characteristics and environmental factors at multiple spatial scales. Smaller spatial scales will be necessary to reduce the confounding effects of variable environmental settings before the effects of land use can be reliably assessed. PMID:17106774

  5. Upscaling Physics-based Models to Estimate Catchment Scale Effects of Localised Tree Planting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballard, C. E.; Bulygina, N.; McIntyre, N.; Wheater, H. S.

    2010-12-01

    Much of our knowledge about the changes in hydrology related to land use and land management is limited to the very small scale (e.g. changes in water retention properties, interception and runoff processes); however, we are generally most interested in the associated changes in flow regime at the catchment scale. A key methodological challenge is therefore how to upscale information about local scale changes. We present a model upscaling procedure that aims to quantify the changes in peak flows at multiple scales related to localised tree planting. The procedure divides the catchment into a number of hydrological response units, which are each classified based on soil types and land management. For each hydrological response unit, a physics-based model is developed, incorporating our understanding of hydrological processes and properties. The outputs from these physics-based models are used to train simpler “meta-models”, which are then incorporated into a semi-distributed catchment model. In this way, our understanding of local changes in physical properties can be incorporated into a more flexible and computationally efficient catchment scale conceptual model. This procedure previously performed well when supported by a multi-scale monitoring programme for a 12km2 catchment. The applicability of the procedure is now examined for a 260km2 catchment without supporting multi-scale monitoring. Without local data, physics-based models are developed a priori using information from the literature and qualitative field observations. We explore the significance of the uncertainties due to this lack of data and also uncertainties related to the upscaling procedure itself, particularly examining the identifiability of the predicted effects at multiple scales. Based on our findings we comment on the strengths and limitations of physics-based modelling and the upscaling procedure in terms of ability to predict catchment-scale impacts of local land management

  6. Advanced computations of multi-physics, multi-scale effects in beam dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Amundson, J.F.; Macridin, A.; Spentzouris, P.; Stern, E.G.; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    Current state-of-the-art beam dynamics simulations include multiple physical effects and multiple physical length and/or time scales. We present recent developments in Synergia2, an accelerator modeling framework designed for multi-physics, multi-scale simulations. We summarize recent several recent results in multi-physics beam dynamics, including simulations of three Fermilab accelerators: the Tevatron, the Main Injector and the Debuncher. Early accelerator simulations focused on single-particle dynamics. To a first approximation, the forces on the particles in an accelerator beam are dominated by the external fields due to magnets, RF cavities, etc., so the single-particle dynamics are the leading physical effects. Detailed simulations of accelerators must include collective effects such as the space-charge repulsion of the beam particles, the effects of wake fields in the beam pipe walls and beam-beam interactions in colliders. These simulations require the sort of massively parallel computers that have only become available in recent times. We give an overview of the accelerator framework Synergia2, which was designed to take advantage of the capabilities of modern computational resources and enable simulations of multiple physical effects. We also summarize some recent results utilizing Synergia2 and BeamBeam3d, a tool specialized for beam-beam simulations.

  7. Scale problem in wormhole physics

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J. E.; Lee, K.

    1989-07-03

    Wormhole physics from the quantum thoery of gravity coupled to the second-rank antisymmetric tensor or Goldstone-boson fields leads to an effective potential for these fields. The cosmological energy-density bound is shown to put an upper bound on the cosmological constant which wormhole physics can make zero. This upper bound, of order 10/sup 11/ GeV, is far smaller than the Planck scale and barely compatible with the possible cosmological constant arising from grand unified theories. In addition, the effect of wormholes on the axion for the strong /ital CP/ problem is discussed.

  8. Effect of rock fragments on soil physical properties at pore and field scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gargiulo, Laura; Mele, Giacomo; Coppola, Antonio; De Mascellis, Roberto; Di Matteo, Bruno; Terribile, Fabio; Basile, Angelo

    2016-04-01

    Many soils in Mediterranean area contain high amounts of rock fragments as a result of both natural soil forming processes and human activities. Coarse rock fragments have a controversial role in soils. They are often included as a limiting factor in most Land Evaluation and Land Capability schemes throughout the world, but they also protect against soil erosion and soil physical degradation. Some experiments have showed also that, because of the beneficial effect in reducing bulk density and increasing macroporosity in topsoils, field crushing of stones could be considered a better agricultural practice than removing stones from soils. Although many experimental studies have only focused on the effect of (superficial) rock fragments on hydrological properties, direct measurements using soil image analysis allowed to improve the knowledge of the mechanisms of pore formation due to the presence of rock fragments inside the soil profile. In this work, a lab experimental test with two different soils susceptible to compaction was performed. The soils were added with different concentrations of rock fragments and subjected to several wetting/drying cycles, in order to induce formation of soil structure; then hydrological measurement and soil image analysis were performed. The measured changes in soil pore system and hydro-dispersive properties have been following implemented in simulation models in order to predict the effect of such results at field scale on yields of different crops in variable climatic conditions. Therefore, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effect at different scales (pore vs sample vs field) of rock fragment addition on many processes combining hydrological measurements with soil image analysis and modelling. The obtained results showed the usefulness of the use of image analysis to enhance the parameterization of the hydrological models and allowed to observe the role of different soil types in affecting the effect of rock fragment

  9. Space- and time-dependent scaling of numbers in mathematical structures: effects on physical and geometric quantities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benioff, Paul

    2016-03-01

    The relationship between the foundations of mathematics and physics is a topic of of much interest. This paper continues this exploration by examination of the effect of space- and time- dependent number scaling on theoretical descriptions of some physical and geometric quantities. Fiber bundles provide a good framework to introduce a space- and time- or space-time-dependent number scaling field. The effect of the scaling field on a few nonlocal physical and geometric quantities is described. The effect on gauge theories is to introduce a new complex scalar field into the derivatives appearing in Lagrangians. U(1) invariance of Lagrangian terms does not affect the real part of the scaling field. For this field, any mass is possible. The scaling field is also shown to affect quantum wave packets and path lengths, and geodesic equations even on flat space. Scalar fields described so far in physics are possible candidates for the scaling field. The lack of direct evidence for the field in physics restricts the scaling field in that the gradient of the field must be close to zero in a local region of cosmological space and time. There are no restrictions outside the region. It is also seen that the scaling field does not affect comparisons of computation or measurements outputs with one another. However, it does affect the assignment of numerical values to the outputs of computations or measurements. These are needed because theory predictions are in terms of numerical values.

  10. Effects of pore-scale physics on uranium geochemistry in Hanford sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Qinhong; Ewing, Robert P.

    2013-11-25

    Overall, this work examines a key scientific issue, mass transfer limitations at the pore-scale, using both new instruments with high spatial resolution, and new conceptual and modeling paradigms. The complementary laboratory and numerical approaches connect pore-scale physics to macroscopic measurements, providing a previously elusive scale integration. This Exploratory research project produced five peer-reviewed journal publications and eleven scientific presentations. This work provides new scientific understanding, allowing the DOE to better incorporate coupled physical and chemical processes into decision making for environmental remediation and long-term stewardship.

  11. Effects of Land Use, Physical Habitat Type, and Stream Geomorphic Type at Multiple Spatial Scales on Fish Community Diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cianfrani, C. M.; Sullivan, S. P.; Hession, W. C.; Watzin, M. C.

    2006-05-01

    Twenty-five independent stream reaches in northwestern Vermont, USA spanning a range of geomorphic conditions were surveyed to determine the effects of land use and physical habitat on fish community diversity at multiple spatial scales including watershed, local riparian, and in-stream. Watershed-scale parameters were evaluated using a geographic information system (GIS) and the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) watershed modeling software. Riparian vegetation was surveyed and classified in the field. In-stream physical characteristics were assessed using rapid geomorphic and rapid habitat assessments. Detailed in-stream geomorphic surveys and habitat assessments were also completed to provide quantitative data for each site. In-stream physical habitat was classified as having either predominantly pool-riffle type or comprised of multiple channel types. Fish were sampled using a bag seine at three to four locations selected to represent major flow habitats. Three fish community diversity measures were calculated: 1) Species richness (S); Shannon-Weaver Index (H'); and Simpson's Index (1/D). Analysis of variance (ANOVA), principal components analysis (PCA), and multiple regression were used to assess the relative importance of and the relationships between and among land use/physical habitat type and fish community diversity. Watershed scale land use was found to be a significant predictor of fish community diversity. Further, fish community diversity was higher for all three measures in streams with multiple channel types as compared to predominantly pool-riffle streams. Our results suggest that sampling strategies for fish (and potentially other biota) that focus on homogeneous reaches may underestimate diversity. In order to address these issues, comprehensive watershed management and restoration/protection plans should include assessment at multiple scales from a geomorphological, watershed, and ecological perspective.

  12. Scale-free brain dynamics under physical and psychological distress: pre-treatment effects in women diagnosed with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Nathan W; Cimprich, Bernadine; Askren, Mary K; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A; Jung, Mi Sook; Peltier, Scott; Berman, Marc G

    2015-03-01

    Stressful life events are related to negative outcomes, including physical and psychological manifestations of distress, and behavioral deficits. Patients diagnosed with breast cancer report impaired attention and working memory prior to adjuvant therapy, which may be induced by distress. In this article, we examine whether brain dynamics show systematic changes due to the distress associated with cancer diagnosis. We hypothesized that impaired working memory is associated with suppression of "long-memory" neuronal dynamics; we tested this by measuring scale-free ("fractal") brain dynamics, quantified by the Hurst exponent (H). Fractal scaling refers to signals that do not occur at a specific time-scale, possessing a spectral power curve P(f)∝ f(-β); they are "long-memory" processes, with significant autocorrelations. In a BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we scanned three groups during a working memory task: women scheduled to receive chemotherapy or radiotherapy and aged-matched controls. Surprisingly, patients' BOLD signal exhibited greater H with increasing intensity of anticipated treatment. However, an analysis of H and functional connectivity against self-reported measures of psychological distress (Worry, Anxiety, Depression) and physical distress (Fatigue, Sleep problems) revealed significant interactions. The modulation of (Worry, Anxiety) versus (Fatigue, Sleep Problems, Depression) showed the strongest effect, where higher worry and lower fatigue was related to reduced H in regions involved in visuospatial search, attention, and memory processing. This is also linked to decreased functional connectivity in these brain regions. Our results indicate that the distress associated with cancer diagnosis alters BOLD scaling, and H is a sensitive measure of the interaction between psychological versus physical distress. PMID:25388082

  13. Effect of Finite Computational Domain on Turbulence Scaling Law in Both Physical and Spectral Spaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Thomas Y.; Wu, Xiao-Hui; Chen, Shiyi; Zhou, Ye

    1998-01-01

    The well-known translation between the power law of energy spectrum and that of the correlation function or the second order structure function has been widely used in analyzing random data. Here, we show that the translation is valid only in proper scaling regimes. The regimes of valid translation are different for the correlation function and the structure function. Indeed, they do not overlap. Furthermore, in practice, the power laws exist only for a finite range of scales. We show that this finite range makes the translation inexact even in the proper scaling regime. The error depends on the scaling exponent. The current findings are applicable to data analysis in fluid turbulence and other stochastic systems.

  14. Physics at the Planck scale

    SciTech Connect

    Gaillard, M.K. California Univ., Berkeley, CA . Dept. of Physics)

    1990-12-06

    Effective supergravity theories suggested by superstrings can be explored to determine their potential for successfully describing both observed physics at zero temperature and an inflationary cosmology. An important ingredient in this study is the dynamics of gaugino condensation, which has been the subject of recent activity. 33 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Spatial-Scale Effects on Relative Importance of Physical Habitat Predictors of Stream Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frimpong, Emmanuel A.; Sutton, Trent M.; Engel, Bernard A.; Simon, Thomas P.

    2005-12-01

    A common theme in recent landscape studies is the comparison of riparian and watershed land use as predictors of stream health. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of reach-scale habitat and remotely assessed watershed-scale habitat as predictors of stream health over varying spatial extents. Stream health was measured with scores on a fish index of biotic integrity (IBI) using data from 95 stream reaches in the Eastern Corn Belt Plain (ECBP) ecoregion of Indiana. Watersheds hierarchically nested within the ecoregion were used to regroup sampling locations to represent varying spatial extents. Reach habitat was represented by metrics of a qualitative habitat evaluation index, whereas watershed variables were represented by riparian forest, geomorphology, and hydrologic indices. The importance of reach- versus watershed-scale variables was measured by multiple regression model adjusted-R2 and best subset comparisons in the general linear statistical framework. Watershed models had adjusted-R2 ranging from 0.25 to 0.93 and reach models had adjusted-R2 ranging from 0.09 to 0.86. Better-fitting models were associated with smaller spatial extents. Watershed models explained about 15% more variation in IBI scores than reach models on average. Variety of surficial geology contributed to decline in model predictive power. Results should be interpreted bearing in mind that reach habitat was qualitatively measured and only fish assemblages were used to measure stream health. Riparian forest and length-slope (LS) factor were the most important watershed-scale variables and mostly positively correlated with IBI scores, whereas substrate and riffle-pool quality were the important reach-scale variables in the ECBP.

  16. Effect of a physical activity improvement program using the transtheoretical model at a small-scale company.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Atsuko; Nakiri, Makoto; Nagatomi, Kaori; Tsuji, Yoshiyasu; Hoshiko, Michiko; Yamaguchi, Yoshie; Muramoto, Junko; Ishitake, Tatsuya

    2007-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the potential use of the transtheoretical model (TTM) by clarifying the program's effects on workers at a small-scale company. Subjects were 22 male workers at a communication system company. They were divided into two physical activity improvement program groups, the TTM-based assistance group (TTM group, n=12) and the control group (n=10). During the study period each subject was asked to wear a calorie counter and to record daily exercise. Changes in number of steps per day and body weight were measured before, immediately after, and 1 month after the intervention ended. Stage of exercise behavior, health protective behavior, and self-efficacy were also examined by means of self-administered questionnaires. In the control group, the number of steps per day tended to increase immediately after the intervention and then decreased at 1 month after the program ended. In both groups, physical activity peaked during commuting and lunch hours. This peak persisted for 1 month after the intervention in the TTM group, but not in the control group. Moreover, the stage of exercise behavior tended to progress in the TTM group, whereas regression in the stage of exercise behavior was observed in the control group. In the control group, although the exercise self-efficacy score after intervention was higher than that before intervention, the health protective behavior score decreased at 1 month after the program ended. This study suggested that physical activity improvement programs based on TTM may be useful for workers at small-scale companies. However, further study of larger numbers of workers will be needed to confirm the validity and usefulness of these results. PMID:18332591

  17. On physical scales of dark matter halos

    SciTech Connect

    Zemp, Marcel

    2014-09-10

    It is common practice to describe formal size and mass scales of dark matter halos as spherical overdensities with respect to an evolving density threshold. Here, we critically investigate the evolutionary effects of several such commonly used definitions and compare them to the halo evolution within fixed physical scales as well as to the evolution of other intrinsic physical properties of dark matter halos. It is shown that, in general, the traditional way of characterizing sizes and masses of halos dramatically overpredicts the degree of evolution in the last 10 Gyr, especially for low-mass halos. This pseudo-evolution leads to the illusion of growth even though there are no major changes within fixed physical scales. Such formal size definitions also serve as proxies for the virialized region of a halo in the literature. In general, those spherical overdensity scales do not coincide with the virialized region. A physically more precise nomenclature would be to simply characterize them by their very definition instead of calling such formal size and mass definitions 'virial'. In general, we find a discrepancy between the evolution of the underlying physical structure of dark matter halos seen in cosmological structure formation simulations and pseudo-evolving formal virial quantities. We question the importance of the role of formal virial quantities currently ubiquitously used in descriptions, models, and relations that involve properties of dark matter structures. Concepts and relations based on pseudo-evolving formal virial quantities do not properly reflect the actual evolution of dark matter halos and lead to an inaccurate picture of the physical evolution of our universe.

  18. Overview of Icing Physics Relevant to Scaling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David N.; Tsao, Jen-Ching

    2005-01-01

    An understanding of icing physics is required for the development of both scaling methods and ice-accretion prediction codes. This paper gives an overview of our present understanding of the important physical processes and the associated similarity parameters that determine the shape of Appendix C ice accretions. For many years it has been recognized that ice accretion processes depend on flow effects over the model, on droplet trajectories, on the rate of water collection and time of exposure, and, for glaze ice, on a heat balance. For scaling applications, equations describing these events have been based on analyses at the stagnation line of the model and have resulted in the identification of several non-dimensional similarity parameters. The parameters include the modified inertia parameter of the water drop, the accumulation parameter and the freezing fraction. Other parameters dealing with the leading edge heat balance have also been used for convenience. By equating scale expressions for these parameters to the values to be simulated a set of equations is produced which can be solved for the scale test conditions. Studies in the past few years have shown that at least one parameter in addition to those mentioned above is needed to describe surface-water effects, and some of the traditional parameters may not be as significant as once thought. Insight into the importance of each parameter, and the physical processes it represents, can be made by viewing whether ice shapes change, and the extent of the change, when each parameter is varied. Experimental evidence is presented to establish the importance of each of the traditionally used parameters and to identify the possible form of a new similarity parameter to be used for scaling.

  19. Effects of Physical Processes and Sampling Resolution on Fault Displacement Versus Length Scaling: The Case of the Cantarell Complex Oilfield, Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shunshan; Nieto-Samaniego, Angel F.; Murillo-Muñetón, Gustavo; Alaniz-Álvarez, Susana A.; Grajales-Nishimura, José M.; Velasquillo-Martinez, Luis G.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we first review some factors that may alter the fault D max /L ratio and scaling relationship. The three main physical processes are documented as follows: (1) The D max /L ratio increases in an individual segmented fault, whereas it decreases in a fault array consisting of two or more fault segments. This effect occurs at any scale during fault growth and in any type of rock. (2) Vertical restriction decreases the D max /L ratio along the fault strike due to mechanical layers. (3) The D max /L ratio increases or decreases due to fault reactivation depending on the type of reactivation. Thus, using data from the normal faults of the Cantarell oilfield in the southern Gulf of Mexico, we document that the displacement ( D max ) and length ( L) show a weak correlation of linear or power-law scaling, with exponents that are much less than 1 ( n ≈ 0.5). This scaling relation is due to the combination of the physical processes mentioned above, as well as sampling effects, such as technique resolution. These results indicate that sublinear scaling ( n ≈ 0.5) can occur as a result of more than one physical process during faulting in a studied area. In addition to the physical processes associated with brittle deformation in the studied area, the sampling resolution dramatically affects the exponents of the D max - L scaling.

  20. Effect of Home Exercise Program Performance in Patients with Osteoarthritis of the Knee or the Spine on the Visual Analog Scale after Discharge from Physical Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hamilton; Onishi, Kentaro

    2012-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the effect of the frequency of home exercise program (HEP) performance on pain [10-point visual analog scale (VAS)] in patients with osteoarthritis of the spine or knee after more than 6 months discharge from physical therapy (PT). We performed a retrospective chart review of 48 adult patients with a clinical…

  1. Cosmological texture is incompatible with Planck-scale physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Richard; Hsu, Stephen D. H.; Kolb, Edward W.; Watkins, Richard; Widrow, Lawrence M.

    1992-01-01

    Nambu-Goldstone modes are sensitive to the effects of physics at energies comparable to the scale of spontaneous symmetry breaking. We show that as a consequence of this the global texture proposal for structure formation requires rather severe assumptions about the nature of physics at the Planck scale.

  2. Development of Physics Self-Efficacy Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çalişkan, Serap; Selçuk, Gamze S.; Erol, Mustafa

    2007-04-01

    In this article, we describe development of a Physics Self-Efficacy Scale (PSES) that is a self-administered measure to assess physics self-efficacy beliefs regarding one's ability to successfully perform physics tasks in physics classroom. The scale is initially composed of 56 items prepared following a brief scrutiny of relating literature on self-efficacy. It was initially administered 30 physics teacher candidates and was also examined by 6 experts of physics education, then ambiguous or incomprehensible 6 items were dismissed. This PSES was tested on 558 undergraduate students all completed fundamental physics courses. Cronbach's Alpha reliability coefficient of the PSES was calculated as 0.94. The final version of the PSES contained 30 items with 5 dimensions namely, 1. Self-efficacy towards solving physics problems, 2. Self-efficacy towards physics laboratory, 3. Self-efficacy towards learning physics, 4. Self-efficacy towards application of physics knowledge and 5. Self-efficacy towards memorizing physics knowledge.

  3. PRIMUS: The Effect of Physical Scale on the Luminosity Dependence of Galaxy Clustering via Cross-correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, Aaron D.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Skibba, Ramin A.; Blanton, Michael R.; Coil, Alison L.; Cool, Richard J.; Mendez, Alexander J.; Moustakas, John; Zhu, Guangtun

    2015-10-01

    We report small-scale clustering measurements from the PRIsm MUlti-object Survey (PRIMUS) spectroscopic redshift survey as a function of color and luminosity. We measure the real-space cross-correlations between 62,106 primary galaxies with PRIMUS redshifts and a tracer population of ∼545,000 photometric galaxies over redshifts from z = 0.2 to z = 1. We separately fit a power-law model in redshift and luminosity to each of three independent color-selected samples of galaxies. We report clustering amplitudes at fiducial values of z = 0.5 and L=1.5{L}*. The clustering of the red galaxies is ∼ 3 times as strong as that of the blue galaxies and ∼ 1.5 as strong as that of the green galaxies. We also find that the luminosity dependence of the clustering is strongly dependent on physical scale, with greater luminosity dependence being found between r=0.0625 {h}-1 {Mpc} and r=0.25 {h}-1 {Mpc}, compared to the r=0.5 {h}-1 {Mpc} to r=2 {h}-1 {Mpc} range. Moreover, over a range of two orders of magnitude in luminosity, a single power-law fit to the luminosity dependence is not sufficient to explain the increase in clustering at both the bright and faint ends at the smaller scales. We argue that luminosity-dependent clustering at small scales is a necessary component of galaxy-halo occupation models for blue, star-forming galaxies as well as for red, quenched galaxies.

  4. Effect of Repeated Sterilization Cycles on the Physical Properties of Scaling Instruments: A Scanning Electron Microscopy Study

    PubMed Central

    Porto, Alessandra Nogueira; Borges, Álvaro Henrique; Semenoff-Segundo, Alex; Raslan, Suzane A; Pedro, Fábio Luis Miranda; Jorge, Antônio Olavo Cardoso; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Background: Repeated sterilizations cycles cause undesirable alterations in the material properties of the instruments, such as corrosion, alterations in the hardness of the metal and the loss of the cutting sharpness of the instrument. This research examined the effect of repeated dry heat sterilization and autoclaves cycles on carbon steel (CS) and stainless steel (SS) curettes during the scaling and root planning. Materials and Methods: A total of 77 Gracey curettes were used in this study. Of these, 35 were SS and 42 were CS curettes submitted in different process: Dry heat, autoclave, inhibition of corrosion and autoclave, scaling, root planning and dry heat, scaling, root planning, inhibition of corrosion and autoclave. The inhibition of corrosion used on the carbon curettes (prior to sterilization in the autoclave) was sodium nitrite at 2%. The curettes received 10 consecutive cycles of sterilization and after that the cutting edges were examined in the electronic microscope, at 60 and 100 magnification times. Results: The images were evaluated by three independent examiners, who compared the photographs of each group with the control group. Conclusion: The surface corrosion products and a deterioration of the edges were observed and the results showed that the SS curettes suffered little alteration with sterilization, scaling, root planning whereas the CS curettes were visibly affected by sterilization in the autoclave, but when the inhibition of corrosion was used prior to the sterilization, the oxidation was considerably reduced. PMID:26028893

  5. Physical scale experiments on torrential filter structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiari, Michael; Moser, Markus; Trojer, Martin; Hübl, Johannes

    2016-04-01

    In the framework of the INTERREG Project "SedAlp" physical scale model experiments are carried out in the hydraulic laboratory of the Institute of Mountain Risk Engineering at the University of Life Sciences in Vienna in order to optimize torrent protection structures. Two different types of check dams are investigated. A screen-dam with inclined vertical beams is compared with a beam-dam with horizontal beams. The experiments evaluate the variation of sediment transport of these structures including the influence of coarse woody debris. Therefore the distance between the steel elements can be adjusted to show their ability to filter sediment. The physical scale of the experiments is 1:30. All experimental runs are Froude scaled. Both dams are tested in elongated and pear-shaped sediment retention basins in order to investigate the shape effect of the deposition area. For a systematic comparison of the two check dams experiments with fluvial bedload transport are made. First a typical hydrograph for an extreme flood with unlimited sediment supply is modelled. A typical torrential sediment mixture with a wide grain-size distribution is fed by a conveyor belt according the transport capacity of the upstream reach. Then the deposition is scanned with a laser-scan device in order to analyse the deposition pattern and the deposited volume. Afterwards a flood with a lower reoccurrence period without sediment transport from upstream is modelled to investigate the ability of the protection structure for self-emptying. To investigate the influence of driftwood on the deposition behaviour experiments with logs are made. Different log diameters and lengths are added upstream the basin. The results show, that the deposition during the experiments was not controlled by sorting-effects at the location of the dam. The deposition always started from upstream, where the transport capacity was reduced due to the milder slope and the widening of the basin. No grain sorting effects

  6. Small-scale physics of the ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    Progress in research on the small-scale physics of the ocean is reviewed. The contribution of such research to the understanding of the large scales is addressed and compared for various depth ranges of the ocean. The traditional framework for discussing small-scale measurements and turbulence is outlined, and recent research in the area is reviewed, citing references. Evidence for the existence of salt fingering in oceanic mixing is discussed. Factors that might inhibit the growth of salt fingers are assessed, and the influence of differences between laboratory tank and ocean in studying the fingers is discussed. The role of salt fingers in creating intrusions is examined. Instruments and methods used to measure the smallest scales at which there is appreciable variation and the stability of the patch of ocean in which the small-scale motions take place are considered.

  7. The Effects of Visual Magnification and Physical Movement Scale on the Manipulation of a Tool with Indirect Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohan, Michael; McConnell, Daniel S.; Chaparro, Alex; Thompson, Shelby G.

    2010-01-01

    Modern tools often separate the visual and physical aspects of operation, requiring users to manipulate an instrument while viewing the results indirectly on a display. This can pose usability challenges particularly in applications, such as laparoscopic surgery, that require a high degree of movement precision. Magnification used to augment the…

  8. Perspective on TeV-scale physics

    SciTech Connect

    Chanowitz, M.S.

    1989-02-01

    These lectures review theoretical motivations and experimental prospects for the study of TeV-scale physics. Three clues to the importance of TeV physics are discussed: implications of quantum corrections for the masses of a fourth generation quark-lepton family, the gauge hierarchy problem and known solutions, and implications of symmetry and unitarity for the symmetry-breaking sector of the electroweak gauge theory. The experimental prospects are reviewed with emphasis on the multi-TeV pp colliders that may be built in the 1990's. The topics include new phenomena that might occur - e.g., a fourth generation, heavy gauge bosons, composite structure, and supersymmetry - as well as the signals of the unknown SU(2)/sub L/ /times/ U(1)/sub Y/ breaking mechanism that must occur within the TeV domain. 96 refs., 21 figs.

  9. Physical-scale models of engineered log jams in rivers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stream restoration and river engineering projects are employing engineered log jams increasingly for stabilization and in-stream improvements. To further advance the design of these structures and their morphodynamic effects on corridors, the basis for physical-scale models of rivers with engineere...

  10. Effects of Model Resolution and Subgrid-Scale Physics on the Simulation of Daily Precipitation in the Continental United States

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, P B; Iorio, J P; Govindasamy, B; Thompson, S L; Khairoutdinov, M; Randall, D

    2004-07-28

    We analyze simulations of the global climate performed at a range of spatial resolutions to assess the effects of horizontal spatial resolution on the ability to simulate precipitation in the continental United States. The model investigated is the CCM3 general circulation model. We also preliminarily assess the effect of replacing cloud and convective parameterizations in a coarse-resolution (T42) model with an embedded cloud-system resolving model (CSRM). We examine both spatial patterns of seasonal-mean precipitation and daily-timescale temporal variability of precipitation in the continental United States. For DJF and SON, high-resolution simulations produce spatial patterns of seasonal-mean precipitation that agree more closely with observed precipitation patterns than do results from the same model (CCM3) at coarse resolution. However, in JJA and MAM, there is little improvement in spatial patterns of seasonal-mean precipitation with increasing resolution, particularly in the Southeast. This is owed to the dominance of convective (i.e., parameterized) precipitation in these two seasons. We further find that higher-resolution simulations have more realistic daily precipitation statistics. In particular, the well-known tendency at coarse resolution to have too many days with weak precipitation and not enough intense precipitation is partially eliminated in higher-resolution simulations. However, even at the highest resolution examined here (T239), the simulated intensity of the mean and of high-percentile daily precipitation amounts is too low. This is especially true in the Southeast, where the most extreme events occur. A new GCM, in which a cloud-resolving model (CSRM) is embedded in each grid cell and replaces convective and stratiform cloud parameterizations, solves this problem, and actually produces too much precipitation in the form of extreme events. However, in contrast to high-resolution versions of CCM3, this model produces little improvement in

  11. Physical controls of soil moisture variability at multiple scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jana, R. B.; Mohanty, B.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding what factors drive soil hydrological processes at different scales and their variability is very critical to further our ability to model the various components of the hydrologic cycle more accurately. Soil moisture, and, by association, soil hydraulic parameters have been known to be a function of location, and the support scale at which they are measured. Recent increase in remote sensing platforms necessitates increased calibration/validation efforts of their soil moisture products with ground-based measurements. Such cal/val operations require some form of up- or down-scaling process. Understanding the factors that drive soil hydrological processes at different scales, and their variability, is very critical to minimize errors due to this step in the cal/val procedure. Existing literature provides a description of the different sources of soil moisture variability across a range of resolutions from point to continental scales, classified under four categories: soil texture and structure, topography, vegetation, and meteorological forcings. While it is accepted that a dynamic relationship exists between these physical controls and the soil hydraulic properties across spatial scales, the nature of the relationship is not very well understood. In order to formulate better scaling algorithms, it is first necessary to determine the form and amount of influence exerted by the controlling factors on the variability of the soil moisture or hydraulic parameters at each scale of interest. One method to understand the effect of the physical controls is to analyze the covariance or coherence of the physical controls with the soil hydraulic properties across multiple scales and different hydro-climates. Such a study, using wavelet analysis, is presented here. A variety of datasets from multiple platforms across the globe were employed in this study. The AMSR-E soil moisture product was used as the remotely sensed, coarse resolution dataset. Fine resolution

  12. Effective Physics Study Habits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zettili, Nouredine

    2011-04-01

    We discuss the methods of efficient study habits and how they can be used by students to help them improve learning physics. In particular, we deal with ideas pertaining to the most effective techniques needed to help students improve their physics study skills. These ideas were developed as part of Project IMPACTSEED (IMproving Physics And Chemistry Teaching in SEcondary Education), an outreach grant funded by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education. This project is motivated by a major pressing local need: A large number of high school physics teachers teach out of field. In the presentation, focus on topics such as the skills of how to develop long term memory, how to improve concentration power, how to take class notes, how to prepare for and take exams, how to study scientific subjects such as physics. We argue that the student who conscientiously uses the methods of efficient study habits will be able to achieve higher results than the student who does not; moreover, a student equipped with the proper study skills will spend much less time to learn a subject than a student who has no good study habits. The underlying issue here is not the quantity of time allocated to the study efforts by the student, but the efficiency and quality of actions. This work is supported by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education as part of IMPACTSEED grant.

  13. Physical naturalness and dynamical breaking of classical scale invariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heikinheimo, Matti; Racioppi, Antonio; Spethmann, Christian; Raidal, Martti; Tuominen, Kimmo

    2014-05-01

    We propose a model of a confining dark sector, dark technicolor, that communicates with the Standard Model (SM) through the Higgs portal. In this model electroweak (EW) symmetry breaking and dark matter (DM) share a common origin, and the EW scale is generated dynamically. Our motivation to suggest this model is the absence of evidence for new physics from recent Large Hadron Collider (LHC) data. Although the conclusion is far from certain at this point, this lack of evidence may suggest that no mechanism exists at the EW scale to stabilize the Higgs mass against radiative corrections from ultraviolet (UV) physics. The usual reaction to this puzzling situation is to conclude that the stabilizing new physics is either hidden from us by accident, or that it appears at energies that are currently inaccessible, such that nature is indeed fine-tuned. In order to re-examine the arguments that have led to this dichotomy, we review the concept of naturalness in effective field theories, discussing in particular the role of quadratic divergences in relation to different energy scales. This leads us to suggest classical scale invariance as a guideline for model building, implying that explicit mass scales are absent in the underlying theory.

  14. Scale effects in crystal plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padubidri Janardhanachar, Guruprasad

    The goal of this research work is to further the understanding of crystal plasticity, particularly at reduced structural and material length scales. Fundamental understanding of plasticity is central to various challenges facing design and manufacturing of materials for structural and electronic device applications. The development of microstructurally tailored advanced metallic materials with enhanced mechanical properties that can withstand extremes in stress, strain, and temperature, will aid in increasing the efficiency of power generating systems by allowing them to work at higher temperatures and pressures. High specific strength materials can lead to low fuel consumption in transport vehicles. Experiments have shown that enhanced mechanical properties can be obtained in materials by constraining their size, microstructure (e.g. grain size), or both for various applications. For the successful design of these materials, it is necessary to have a thorough understanding of the influence of different length scales and evolving microstructure on the overall behavior. In this study, distinction is made between the effect of structural and material length scale on the mechanical behavior of materials. A length scale associated with an underlying physical mechanism influencing the mechanical behavior can overlap with either structural length scales or material length scales. If it overlaps with structural length scales, then the material is said to be dimensionally constrained. On the other hand, if it overlaps with material length scales, for example grain size, then the material is said to be microstructurally constrained. The objectives of this research work are: (1) to investigate scale and size effects due to dimensional constraints; (2) to investigate size effects due to microstructural constraints; and (3) to develop a size dependent hardening model through coarse graining of dislocation dynamics. A discrete dislocation dynamics (DDD) framework where the

  15. Physics Meets Philosophy at the Planck Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callender, Craig; Huggett, Nick

    2001-04-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction Craig Callendar and Nick Huggett; Part I. Theories of Quantum Gravity and their Philosophical Dimensions: 2. Spacetime and the philosophical challenge of quantum gravity Jeremy Butterfield and Christopher Isham; 3. Naive quantum gravity Steven Weinstein; 4. Quantum spacetime: what do we know? Carlo Rovelli; Part II. Strings: 5. Reflections on the fate of spacetime Edward Witten; 6. A philosopher looks at string theory Robert Weingard; 7. Black holes, dumb holes, and entropy William G. Unruh; Part III. Topological Quantum Field Theory: 8. Higher-dimensional algebra and Planck scale physics John C. Baez; Part IV. Quantum Gravity and the Interpretation of General Relativity: 9. On general covariance and best matching Julian B. Barbour; 10. Pre-Socratic quantum gravity Gordon Belot and John Earman; 11. The origin of the spacetime metric: Bell's 'Lorentzian Pedagogy' and its significance in general relativity Harvey R. Brown and Oliver Pooley; Part IV. Quantum Gravity and the Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics: 12. Quantum spacetime without observers: ontological clarity and the conceptual foundations of quantum gravity Sheldon Goldstein and Stefan Teufel; 13. On gravity's role in quantum state reduction Roger Penrose; 14. Why the quantum must yield to gravity Joy Christian.

  16. Initiation and Detonation Physics on Millimeter Scales

    SciTech Connect

    Philllips, D F; Benterou, J J; May, C A

    2012-03-20

    The LLNL Detonation Science Project has a major interest in understanding the physics of detonation on a millimeter scale. This report summarizes the rate stick experiment results of two high explosives. The GO/NO-GO threshold between varying diameters of ultra-fine TATB (ufTATB) and LX-16 were recorded on an electronic streak camera and analyzed. This report summarizes the failure diameters of rate sticks for ufTATB and LX-16. Failure diameter for the ufTATB explosive, with densities at 1.80 g/cc, begin at 2.34 mm (not maintaining detonation velocity over the entire length of the rate stick). ufTATB rate sticks at the larger 3.18 mm diameter maintain a constant detonation velocity over the complete length. The PETN based and LLNL developed explosive, LX-16, with densities at 1.7 g/cc, shows detonation failure between 0.318 mm and 0.365 mm. Additional tests would be required to narrow this failure diameter further. Many of the tested rate sticks were machined using a femtosecond laser focused into a firing tank - in case of accidental detonation.

  17. Deep inelastic scaling in nuclear and particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    West, G.B.

    1988-01-01

    These lectures are intended to be a pedagogical introduction to some of the ideas and concepts concerning scaling phenomena which arise in nuclear and particle physics. Topics discussed are: classical scaling and dimensional analysis; non-relativistic treatment; dynamics and scaling; y-scaling; and relativistic treatment (QCD). 22 refs., 16 figs. (LSP)

  18. The physics of musical scales: Theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durfee, Dallin S.; Colton, John S.

    2015-10-01

    The theory of musical scales involves mathematical ratios, harmonic resonators, beats, and human perception and provides an interesting application of the physics of waves and sound. We first review the history and physics of musical scales, with an emphasis on four historically important scales: twelve-tone equal temperament, Pythagorean, quarter-comma meantone, and Ptolemaic just intonation. We then present an easy way for students and teachers to directly experience the qualities of different scales using MIDI synthesis.

  19. Reliability and Validity of the Physical Education Activities Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomason, Diane L.; Feng, Du

    2016-01-01

    Background: Measuring adolescent perceptions of physical education (PE) activities is necessary in understanding determinants of school PE activity participation. This study assessed reliability and validity of the Physical Education Activities Scale (PEAS), a 41-item visual analog scale measuring high school adolescent perceptions of school PE…

  20. Development and Validation of the Physics Anxiety Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Mehmet; Caliskan, Serap; Dilek, Ufuk

    2015-01-01

    This study reports the development and validation process for an instrument to measure university students' anxiety in physics courses. The development of the Physics Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS) included the following steps: Generation of scale items, content validation, construct validation, and reliability calculation. The results of construct…

  1. The effects of physical separtation treatment on the removal of uranium from contaminated soils at Fernald: A bench-scale study

    SciTech Connect

    Sadler, K.G.; Krstich, M.A.

    1994-12-31

    A bench-scale treatability study incorporating the use of physical separation techniques and chemical dispersants/extractants was conducted on uranium contaminated soils at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) site. The soils contained approximately 497 and 450 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) of total uranium, respectively. Geotechnical characterization indicated that 77.4 and 74.6 percent of the soil was in the less that 50 micrometer ({mu}m) size fraction for the ID-A and ID-B soils, respectively. An initial characterization effort indicated that uranium was distributed among all particle size fractions. After each soil was dispersed in water, it was noted that the uranium concentrated in the sand and clay fractions for the ID-A soil (1028 and 1475 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively) and the clay fraction for ID-B soil (2710 mg kg{sup -1}). Four 1 millimolar (mM) sodium reagent solutions (sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, and a sodium citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite mixture) and potable water were evaluated for effectiveness in dispersing each soil into single grain separates and extracting total uranium from each of the resulting particle size fractions. Dilute sodium solutions were more effective than water in dispersing the soil. The use of dispersants, as compared to water, on the less than 2 mm size fraction causes a shift in the distribution of uranium out of the sand fraction and into the silt and clay fractions for ID-A soil and into the clay fraction for the ID-B soil. Attrition scrubbing tests were conducted on the less than 2 mm size fraction for the ID-A and ID-B soils using water and three alkaline extraction solutions, sodium pyrophosphate, sodium carbonate/bicarbonate, and ammonium carbonate/bicarbonate. There was little difference among the chemical extractants on their effectiveness in removing uranium from the greater than 53 {mu}m (sand) or less than 53 {mu}m (silt and clay) soil fraction.

  2. Conjecture on the physical implications of the scale anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Christopher T.; /Fermilab

    2005-10-01

    Murray Gell-Mann, after co-inventing QCD, recognized the interplay of the scale anomaly, the renormalization group, and the origin of the strong scale, {Lambda}{sub QCD}. I tell a story, then elaborate this concept, and for the sake of discussion, propose a conjecture that the physical world is scale invariant in the classical, {h_bar}, limit. This principle has implications for the dimensionality of space-time, the cosmological constant, the weak scale, and Planck scale.

  3. The Physical Properties and Effective Temperature Scale of O-Type Stars as a Function of Metallicity. III. More Results From the Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, Philip; Zangari, Amanda M.; Morrell, Nidia I.; Puls, Joachim; DeGioia-Eastwood, Kathleen; Bresolin, Fabio; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter

    2009-02-01

    In order to better determine the physical properties of hot, massive stars as a function of metallicity, we obtained very high signal-to-noise ratio optical spectra of 26 O and early B stars in the Magellanic Clouds. These allow accurate modeling even in cases where the He I λ4471 line has an equivalent width of only a few tens of m Å. The spectra were modeled with FASTWIND, with good fits obtained for 18 stars; the remainder show signatures of being binaries. We include stars in common to recent studies to investigate possible systematic differences. The "automatic" FASTWIND modeling method of Mokiem and collaborators produced temperatures 1100 K hotter on average, presumably due to the different emphasis given to various temperature-sensitive lines. More significant, however, is that the automatic method always produced a "best" result for each star, even ones we identify as composite (binaries). The temperatures found by the TLUSTY/CMFGEN modeling of Bouret, Heap, and collaborators yielded temperatures 1000 K cooler than ours, on average. Significant outliers were due either to real differences in the data (some of the Bouret/Heap data were contaminated by moonlight continua) or the fact that we could detect the He I line needed to better constrain the temperature. Our new data agree well with the effective temperature scale we previously presented. We confirm that the "Of" emission characteristics do not track luminosity classes in exactly the same manner as in Milky Way stars. We revisit the issue of the "mass discrepancy," finding that some of the stars in our sample do have spectroscopic masses that are significantly smaller than those derived from stellar evolutionary models. We do not find that the size of the mass discrepancy is simply related to either effective temperature or surface gravity. This paper is based on data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile, and also on observations made with the NASA

  4. Model of cosmology and particle physics at an intermediate scale

    SciTech Connect

    Bastero-Gil, M.; Di Clemente, V.; King, S. F.

    2005-05-15

    We propose a model of cosmology and particle physics in which all relevant scales arise in a natural way from an intermediate string scale. We are led to assign the string scale to the intermediate scale M{sub *}{approx}10{sup 13} GeV by four independent pieces of physics: electroweak symmetry breaking; the {mu} parameter; the axion scale; and the neutrino mass scale. The model involves hybrid inflation with the waterfall field N being responsible for generating the {mu} term, the right-handed neutrino mass scale, and the Peccei-Quinn symmetry breaking scale. The large scale structure of the Universe is generated by the lightest right-handed sneutrino playing the role of a coupled curvaton. We show that the correct curvature perturbations may be successfully generated providing the lightest right-handed neutrino is weakly coupled in the seesaw mechanism, consistent with sequential dominance.

  5. Cosmological bounds on TeV-scale physics and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afshordi, Niayesh; Nelson, Elliot

    2016-04-01

    We study the influence of the fluctuations of a Lorentz-invariant and conserved vacuum on cosmological metric perturbations, and show that they generically blow up in the IR. We compute this effect using the Källén-Lehmann spectral representation of stress correlators in generic quantum field theories, as well as the holographic bound on their entanglement entropy, both leading to an IR cutoff that scales as the fifth power of the highest UV scale (in Planck units). One may view this as analogous to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, which is imposed on the phase space of gravitational theories by the Einstein constraint equations. The leading effect on cosmological observables comes from anisotropic vacuum stresses which imply: i) any extension of the standard model of particle physics can only have masses (or resonances) ≲24 TeV , and ii) perturbative quantum field theory or quantum gravity become strongly coupled beyond a UV scale of Λ ≲1 PeV . Such a low strong coupling scale is independently motivated by the Higgs hierarchy problem. This result, which we dub the cosmological nonconstant problem, can be viewed as an extension of the cosmological constant (CC) problem, demonstrating the nontrivial UV-IR coupling and (yet another) limitation of effective field theory in gravity. However, it is more severe than the old CC problem, as vacuum fluctuations cannot be tuned to cancel due to the positivity of spectral densities or entropy. We thus predict that future advances in cosmological observations and collider technology will sandwich from above and below, and eventually discover, new (nonperturbative) physics beyond the standard model within the TeV-PeV energy range.

  6. Small-scale physics of the ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Douglas R.

    1987-01-01

    Observations and theoretical models of small-scale phenomena in the oceans are reviewed, with a focus on progress during the period 1983-1986. Topics examined include surface layers, equatorial turbulence, off-equator mixed layers, the scaling of mixing, turbulence concepts, laboratory results, internal waves and mixing, rings, the nature of the bottom layer, double diffusion and intrusions, salt fingers, and biological interactions. Also discussed are developments in instrumentation (fast sampling profilers with upward-profiling capability, deep profilers, ship-motion correction, horizontal samplers, small submersibles, submarines, towed packages, conductivity sensors, dissolved-oxygen sensors, and acoustic Doppler current profilers) and goals for future research.

  7. New physics at the TeV scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakdar, Shreyashi

    The Standard Model of particle physics is assumed to be a low-energy effective theory with new physics theoretically motivated to be around TeV scale. The thesis presents theories with new physics beyond the Standard Model in the TeV scale testable in the colliders. Work done in chapters 2, 3 and 5 in this thesis present some models incorporating different approaches of enlarging the Standard Model gauge group to a grand unified symmetry with each model presenting its unique signatures in the colliders. The study on leptoquarks gauge bosons in reference to TopSU(5) model in chapter 2 showed that their discovery mass range extends up to 1.5 TeV at 14 TeV LHC with luminosity of 100 fb--1. On the other hand, in chapter 3 we studied the collider phenomenology of TeV scale mirror fermions in Left-Right Mirror model finding that the reaches for the mirror quarks goes upto 750 GeV at the 14 TeV LHC with 300 fb--1 luminosity. In chapter 4 we have enlarged the bosonic symmetry to fermi-bose symmetry e.g. supersymmetry and have shown that SUSY with non-universalities in gaugino or scalar masses within high scale SUGRA set up can still be accessible at LHC with 14 TeV. In chapter 5, we performed a study in respect to the e+e-- collider and find that precise measurements of the higgs boson mass splittings up to ˜ 100 MeV may be possible with high luminosity in the International Linear Collider (ILC). In chapter 6 we have shown that the experimental data on neutrino masses and mixings are consistent with the proposed 4/5 parameter Dirac neutrino models yielding a solution for the neutrino masses with inverted mass hierarchy and large CP violating phase delta and thus can be tested experimentally. Chapter 7 of the thesis incorporates a warm dark matter candidate in context of two Higgs doublet model. The model has several testable consequences at colliders with the charged scalar and pseudoscalar being in few hundred GeV mass range. This thesis presents an endeavor to study

  8. ETHOS - An Effective Theory of Structure Formation: Dark matter physics as a possible explanation of the small-scale CDM problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogelsberger, Mark; Zavala, Jesús; Cyr-Racine, Francis-Yan; Pfrommer, Christoph; Bringmann, Torsten; Sigurdson, Kris

    2016-05-01

    We present the first simulations within an effective theory of structure formation (ETHOS), which includes the effect of interactions between dark matter and dark radiation on the linear initial power spectrum and dark matter self-interactions during non-linear structure formation. We simulate a Milky Way-like halo in four different dark matter models and the cold dark matter case. Our highest resolution simulation has a particle mass of 2.8× 10^4{ M_⊙} and a softening length of 72.4 pc. We demonstrate that all alternative models have only a negligible impact on large scale structure formation. On galactic scales, however, the models significantly affect the structure and abundance of subhaloes due to the combined effects of small scale primordial damping in the power spectrum and late time self-interactions. We derive an analytic mapping from the primordial damping scale in the power spectrum to the cutoff scale in the halo mass function and the kinetic decoupling temperature. We demonstrate that certain models within this extended effective framework that can alleviate the too-big-to-fail and missing satellite problems simultaneously, and possibly the core-cusp problem. The primordial power spectrum cutoff of our models naturally creates a diversity in the circular velocity profiles, which is larger than that found for cold dark matter simulations. We show that the parameter space of models can be constrained by contrasting model predictions to astrophysical observations. For example, some models may be challenged by the missing satellite problem if baryonic processes were to be included and even over-solve the too-big-to-fail problem; thus ruling them out.

  9. ETHOS - an effective theory of structure formation: dark matter physics as a possible explanation of the small-scale CDM problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogelsberger, Mark; Zavala, Jesús; Cyr-Racine, Francis-Yan; Pfrommer, Christoph; Bringmann, Torsten; Sigurdson, Kris

    2016-08-01

    We present the first simulations within an effective theory of structure formation (ETHOS), which includes the effect of interactions between dark matter and dark radiation on the linear initial power spectrum and dark matter self-interactions during non-linear structure formation. We simulate a Milky Way-like halo in four different dark matter models and the cold dark matter case. Our highest resolution simulation has a particle mass of 2.8 × 104 M⊙ and a softening length of 72.4 pc. We demonstrate that all alternative models have only a negligible impact on large-scale structure formation. On galactic scales, however, the models significantly affect the structure and abundance of subhaloes due to the combined effects of small-scale primordial damping in the power spectrum and late-time self-interactions. We derive an analytic mapping from the primordial damping scale in the power spectrum to the cutoff scale in the halo mass function and the kinetic decoupling temperature. We demonstrate that certain models within this extended effective framework that can alleviate the too-big-to-fail and missing satellite problems simultaneously, and possibly the core-cusp problem. The primordial power spectrum cutoff of our models naturally creates a diversity in the circular velocity profiles, which is larger than that found for cold dark matter simulations. We show that the parameter space of models can be constrained by contrasting model predictions to astrophysical observations. For example, some models may be challenged by the missing satellite problem if baryonic processes were to be included and even oversolve the too-big-to-fail problem; thus ruling them out.

  10. Psychometric Properties of the Commitment to Physical Activity Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBate, Rita DiGioacchino; Huberty, Jennifer; Pettee, Kelley

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess psychometric properties of the Commitment to Physical Activity Scale (CPAS). Methods: Girls in third to fifth grades (n = 932) completed the CPAS before and after a physical activity intervention. Psychometric measures included internal consistency, factor analysis, and concurrent validity. Results: Three CPAS factors emerged:…

  11. Planck-scale physics and neutrino masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmedov, Evgenii Kh.; Berezhiani, Zurab G.; Senjanovic, Goran

    1992-11-01

    We discuss gravitationally induced masses and mass splittings of Majorana, Zeldovich-Konopinski-Mahmoud, and Dirac neutrinos. Among other implications, these effects can provide a solution of the solar neutrino puzzle. In particular, we show how this may work in the 17 keV neutrino picture.

  12. Scale dependence of effective media properties

    SciTech Connect

    Tidwell, V.C.; VonDoemming, J.D.; Martinez, K.

    1992-12-31

    For problems where media properties are measured at one scale and applied at another, scaling laws or models must be used in order to define effective properties at the scale of interest. The accuracy of such models will play a critical role in predicting flow and transport through the Yucca Mountain Test Site given the sensitivity of these calculations to the input property fields. Therefore, a research programhas been established to gain a fundamental understanding of how properties scale with the aim of developing and testing models that describe scaling behavior in a quantitative-manner. Scaling of constitutive rock properties is investigated through physical experimentation involving the collection of suites of gas permeability data measured over a range of discrete scales. Also, various physical characteristics of property heterogeneity and the means by which the heterogeneity is measured and described are systematically investigated to evaluate their influence on scaling behavior. This paper summarizes the approach that isbeing taken toward this goal and presents the results of a scoping study that was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed research.

  13. Scale Development for Perceived School Climate for Girls’ Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Birnbaum, Amanda S.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Motl, Robert W.; Dishman, Rod K.; Voorhees, Carolyn C.; Sallis, James F.; Elder, John P.; Dowda, Marsha

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To test an original scale assessing perceived school climate for girls’ physical activity in middle school girls. Methods Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM). Results CFA retained 5 of 14 original items. A model with 2 correlated factors, perceptions about teachers’ and boys’ behaviors, respectively, fit the data well in both sixth and eighth graders. SEM detected a positive, significant direct association of the teacher factor, but not the boy factor, with girls’ self-reported physical activity. Conclusions School climate for girls’ physical activity is a measurable construct, and preliminary evidence suggests a relationship with physical activity. PMID:15899688

  14. TEACHING PHYSICS: Capillary effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Dragia; Petrova, Hristina

    2000-07-01

    We examine capillary tubes with a variable cross section, in which there is a column of fully wetting or fully non-wetting liquid. The direction in which the liquid moves when the tubes are placed horizontally is determined by means of Pascal's law. We promote the idea that the conical capillary tube is a hydraulic machine, whose two pistons are the liquid column's free surfaces, which have different radii. We propose a new way of demonstrating the described capillary effects by means of flat models of capillary tubes, constructed from glass plates. The demonstrations are presented in front of a large audience using an overhead projector.

  15. Polymer physics of chromosome large-scale 3D organisation.

    PubMed

    Chiariello, Andrea M; Annunziatella, Carlo; Bianco, Simona; Esposito, Andrea; Nicodemi, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomes have a complex architecture in the cell nucleus, which serves vital functional purposes, yet its structure and folding mechanisms remain still incompletely understood. Here we show that genome-wide chromatin architecture data, as mapped by Hi-C methods across mammalian cell types and chromosomes, are well described by classical scaling concepts of polymer physics, from the sub-Mb to chromosomal scales. Chromatin is a complex mixture of different regions, folded in the conformational classes predicted by polymer thermodynamics. The contact matrix of the Sox9 locus, a region linked to severe human congenital diseases, is derived with high accuracy in mESCs and its molecular determinants identified by the theory; Sox9 self-assembles hierarchically in higher-order domains, involving abundant many-body contacts. Our approach is also applied to the Bmp7 locus. Finally, the model predictions on the effects of mutations on folding are tested against available data on a deletion in the Xist locus. Our results can help progressing new diagnostic tools for diseases linked to chromatin misfolding. PMID:27405443

  16. Polymer physics of chromosome large-scale 3D organisation

    PubMed Central

    Chiariello, Andrea M.; Annunziatella, Carlo; Bianco, Simona; Esposito, Andrea; Nicodemi, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomes have a complex architecture in the cell nucleus, which serves vital functional purposes, yet its structure and folding mechanisms remain still incompletely understood. Here we show that genome-wide chromatin architecture data, as mapped by Hi-C methods across mammalian cell types and chromosomes, are well described by classical scaling concepts of polymer physics, from the sub-Mb to chromosomal scales. Chromatin is a complex mixture of different regions, folded in the conformational classes predicted by polymer thermodynamics. The contact matrix of the Sox9 locus, a region linked to severe human congenital diseases, is derived with high accuracy in mESCs and its molecular determinants identified by the theory; Sox9 self-assembles hierarchically in higher-order domains, involving abundant many-body contacts. Our approach is also applied to the Bmp7 locus. Finally, the model predictions on the effects of mutations on folding are tested against available data on a deletion in the Xist locus. Our results can help progressing new diagnostic tools for diseases linked to chromatin misfolding. PMID:27405443

  17. Polymer physics of chromosome large-scale 3D organisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiariello, Andrea M.; Annunziatella, Carlo; Bianco, Simona; Esposito, Andrea; Nicodemi, Mario

    2016-07-01

    Chromosomes have a complex architecture in the cell nucleus, which serves vital functional purposes, yet its structure and folding mechanisms remain still incompletely understood. Here we show that genome-wide chromatin architecture data, as mapped by Hi-C methods across mammalian cell types and chromosomes, are well described by classical scaling concepts of polymer physics, from the sub-Mb to chromosomal scales. Chromatin is a complex mixture of different regions, folded in the conformational classes predicted by polymer thermodynamics. The contact matrix of the Sox9 locus, a region linked to severe human congenital diseases, is derived with high accuracy in mESCs and its molecular determinants identified by the theory; Sox9 self-assembles hierarchically in higher-order domains, involving abundant many-body contacts. Our approach is also applied to the Bmp7 locus. Finally, the model predictions on the effects of mutations on folding are tested against available data on a deletion in the Xist locus. Our results can help progressing new diagnostic tools for diseases linked to chromatin misfolding.

  18. Scales and scaling in turbulent ocean sciences; physics-biology coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Francois

    2015-04-01

    Geophysical fields possess huge fluctuations over many spatial and temporal scales. In the ocean, such property at smaller scales is closely linked to marine turbulence. The velocity field is varying from large scales to the Kolmogorov scale (mm) and scalar fields from large scales to the Batchelor scale, which is often much smaller. As a consequence, it is not always simple to determine at which scale a process should be considered. The scale question is hence fundamental in marine sciences, especially when dealing with physics-biology coupling. For example, marine dynamical models have typically a grid size of hundred meters or more, which is more than 105 times larger than the smallest turbulence scales (Kolmogorov scale). Such scale is fine for the dynamics of a whale (around 100 m) but for a fish larvae (1 cm) or a copepod (1 mm) a description at smaller scales is needed, due to the nonlinear nature of turbulence. The same is verified also for biogeochemical fields such as passive and actives tracers (oxygen, fluorescence, nutrients, pH, turbidity, temperature, salinity...) In this framework, we will discuss the scale problem in turbulence modeling in the ocean, and the relation of Kolmogorov's and Batchelor's scales of turbulence in the ocean, with the size of marine animals. We will also consider scaling laws for organism-particle Reynolds numbers (from whales to bacteria), and possible scaling laws for organism's accelerations.

  19. Scaling Effect In Trade Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konar, M.; Lin, X.; Rushforth, R.; Ruddell, B. L.; Reimer, J.

    2015-12-01

    Scaling is an important issue in the physical sciences. Economic trade is increasingly of interest to the scientific community due to the natural resources (e.g. water, carbon, nutrients, etc.) embodied in traded commodities. Trade refers to the spatial and temporal redistribution of commodities, and is typically measured annually between countries. However, commodity exchange networks occur at many different scales, though data availability at finer temporal and spatial resolution is rare. Exchange networks may prove an important adaptation measure to cope with future climate and economic shocks. As such, it is essential to understand how commodity exchange networks scale, so that we can understand opportunities and roadblocks to the spatial and temporal redistribution of goods and services. To this end, we present an empirical analysis of trade systems across three spatial scales: global, sub-national in the United States, and county-scale in the United States. We compare and contrast the network properties, the self-sufficiency ratio, and performance of the gravity model of trade for these three exchange systems.

  20. 2D VARIABLY SATURATED FLOWS: PHYSICAL SCALING AND BAYESIAN ESTIMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A novel dimensionless formulation for water flow in two-dimensional variably saturated media is presented. It shows that scaling physical systems requires conservation of the ratio between capillary forces and gravity forces. A direct result of this finding is that for two phys...

  1. Scale Development for Perceived School Climate for Girls' Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnbaum, Amanda S.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Motl, Robert W.; Dishman, Rod K.; Voorhees, Carolyn C.; Sallis, James F.; Elder, John P.; Dowda, Marsha

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To test an original scale assessing perceived school climate for girls' physical activity in middle school girls. Methods: Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM). Results: CFA retained 5 of 14 original items. A model with 2 correlated factors, perceptions about teachers' and boys' behaviors,…

  2. The Basic Psychological Needs in Physical Education Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlachopoulos, Symeon P.; Katartzi, Ermioni S.; Kontou, Maria G.

    2011-01-01

    The present study reported on the modification of the Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale (Vlachopoulos & Michailidou, 2006) to assess students' psychological need fulfillment in elementary school, middle school, and high school compulsory physical education classes. Data were collected from 817 5th and 6th grade students, 862 middle…

  3. Development of the Communication and Physical Environment Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, J. David

    A study developed and tested a communication and physical environment scale (CAPES) that consisted of items formulated from previous theoretical and empirical research. Subjects, 52 workers in a warehouse and its offices, completed questionnaires about information dissemination in their organization, the quality of organizational relationships,…

  4. Reactor Physics Methods and Analysis Capabilities in SCALE

    SciTech Connect

    DeHart, Mark D; Bowman, Stephen M

    2011-01-01

    The TRITON sequence of the SCALE code system provides a powerful, robust, and rigorous approach for performing reactor physics analysis. This paper presents a detailed description of TRITON in terms of its key components used in reactor calculations. The ability to accurately predict the nuclide composition of depleted reactor fuel is important in a wide variety of applications. These applications include, but are not limited to, the design, licensing, and operation of commercial/research reactors and spent-fuel transport/storage systems. New complex design projects such as next-generation power reactors and space reactors require new high-fidelity physics methods, such as those available in SCALE/TRITON, that accurately represent the physics associated with both evolutionary and revolutionary reactor concepts as they depart from traditional and well-understood light water reactor designs.

  5. Reactor Physics Methods and Analysis Capabilities in SCALE

    SciTech Connect

    Mark D. DeHart; Stephen M. Bowman

    2011-05-01

    The TRITON sequence of the SCALE code system provides a powerful, robust, and rigorous approach for performing reactor physics analysis. This paper presents a detailed description of TRITON in terms of its key components used in reactor calculations. The ability to accurately predict the nuclide composition of depleted reactor fuel is important in a wide variety of applications. These applications include, but are not limited to, the design, licensing, and operation of commercial/research reactors and spent-fuel transport/storage systems. New complex design projects such as next-generation power reactors and space reactors require new high-fidelity physics methods, such as those available in SCALE/TRITON, that accurately represent the physics associated with both evolutionary and revolutionary reactor concepts as they depart from traditional and well-understood light water reactor designs.

  6. Physics of Multi-scale Convection In The Earth's Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korenaga, J.; Jordan, T. H.

    We investigate the physics of multi-scale convection in the Earth's mantle, character- ized by the coexistence of large-scale mantle circulation associated plate tectonics and small-scale sublithospheric convection. Several basic scaling laws are derived, using a series of 2-D numerical modeling and 3-D linear stability analyses, for the following three distinct phases of sublithospheric convection: (1) onset of convection, (2) lay- ered convection in the upper mantle, and (3) breakdown of layered convection. First, the onset of convection with temperature-dependent viscosity is studied with 2-D con- vection models. A robust scaling law for onset time is derived by a nonlinear scaling analysis based on the concept of the differential Rayleigh number. Next, the planform of sublithospheric convection is studied by a 3-D linear stability analysis of longitu- dinal rolls in the presence of vertical shear. Finally, the temporal and spatial evolu- tion of sublithospheric convection is studied by 2-D whole-mantle convection models with temperature- and depth-dependent viscosity and an endothermic phase transition. Scaling laws for the breakdown of layered convection as well as the strength of con- vection are derived as a function of viscosity layering, the phase buoyancy parameter, and the thermal Rayleigh number. All of these scaling laws are combined to delineate possible dynamic regimes beneath evolving lithosphere.

  7. A Goddard Multi-Scale Modeling System with Unified Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, W.K.; Anderson, D.; Atlas, R.; Chern, J.; Houser, P.; Hou, A.; Lang, S.; Lau, W.; Peters-Lidard, C.; Kakar, R.; Kumar, S.; Lapenta, W.; Li, X.; Matsui, T.; Rienecker, M.; Shen, B.W.; Shi, J.J.; Simpson, J.; Zeng, X.

    2008-01-01

    Numerical cloud resolving models (CRMs), which are based the non-hydrostatic equations of motion, have been extensively applied to cloud-scale and mesoscale processes during the past four decades. Recent GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS) model comparison projects have indicated that CRMs agree with observations in simulating various types of clouds and cloud systems from different geographic locations. Cloud resolving models now provide statistical information useful for developing more realistic physically based parameterizations for climate models and numerical weather prediction models. It is also expected that Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) and regional scale model can be run in grid size similar to cloud resolving model through nesting technique. Current and future NASA satellite programs can provide cloud, precipitation, aerosol and other data at very fine spatial and temporal scales. It requires a coupled global circulation model (GCM) and cloud-scale model (termed a szrper-parameterization or multi-scale modeling -framework, MMF) to use these satellite data to improve the understanding of the physical processes that are responsible for the variation in global and regional climate and hydrological systems. The use of a GCM will enable global coverage, and the use of a CRM will allow for better and more sophisticated physical parameterization. NASA satellite and field campaign can provide initial conditions as well as validation through utilizing the Earth Satellite simulators. At Goddard, we have developed a multi-scale modeling system with unified physics. The modeling system consists a coupled GCM-CRM (or MMF); a state-of-the-art weather research forecast model (WRF) and a cloud-resolving model (Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model). In these models, the same microphysical schemes (2ICE, several 3ICE), radiation (including explicitly calculated cloud optical properties), and surface models are applied. In addition, a comprehensive unified Earth Satellite

  8. Physically representative atomistic modeling of atomic-scale friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yalin

    Nanotribology is a research field to study friction, adhesion, wear and lubrication occurred between two sliding interfaces at nano scale. This study is motivated by the demanding need of miniaturization mechanical components in Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), improvement of durability in magnetic storage system, and other industrial applications. Overcoming tribological failure and finding ways to control friction at small scale have become keys to commercialize MEMS with sliding components as well as to stimulate the technological innovation associated with the development of MEMS. In addition to the industrial applications, such research is also scientifically fascinating because it opens a door to understand macroscopic friction from the most bottom atomic level, and therefore serves as a bridge between science and engineering. This thesis focuses on solid/solid atomic friction and its associated energy dissipation through theoretical analysis, atomistic simulation, transition state theory, and close collaboration with experimentalists. Reduced-order models have many advantages for its simplification and capacity to simulating long-time event. We will apply Prandtl-Tomlinson models and their extensions to interpret dry atomic-scale friction. We begin with the fundamental equations and build on them step-by-step from the simple quasistatic one-spring, one-mass model for predicting transitions between friction regimes to the two-dimensional and multi-atom models for describing the effect of contact area. Theoretical analysis, numerical implementation, and predicted physical phenomena are all discussed. In the process, we demonstrate the significant potential for this approach to yield new fundamental understanding of atomic-scale friction. Atomistic modeling can never be overemphasized in the investigation of atomic friction, in which each single atom could play a significant role, but is hard to be captured experimentally. In atomic friction, the

  9. Extreme Scale Computing for First-Principles Plasma Physics Research

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Choogn-Seock

    2011-10-12

    World superpowers are in the middle of the “Computnik” race. US Department of Energy (and National Nuclear Security Administration) wishes to launch exascale computer systems into the scientific (and national security) world by 2018. The objective is to solve important scientific problems and to predict the outcomes using the most fundamental scientific laws, which would not be possible otherwise. Being chosen into the next “frontier” group can be of great benefit to a scientific discipline. An extreme scale computer system requires different types of algorithms and programming philosophy from those we have been accustomed to. Only a handful of scientific codes are blessed to be capable of scalable usage of today’s largest computers in operation at petascale (using more than 100,000 cores concurrently). Fortunately, a few magnetic fusion codes are competing well in this race using the “first principles” gyrokinetic equations.These codes are beginning to study the fusion plasma dynamics in full-scale realistic diverted device geometry in natural nonlinear multiscale, including the large scale neoclassical and small scale turbulence physics, but excluding some ultra fast dynamics. In this talk, most of the above mentioned topics will be introduced at executive level. Representative properties of the extreme scale computers, modern programming exercises to take advantage of them, and different philosophies in the data flows and analyses will be presented. Examples of the multi-scale multi-physics scientific discoveries made possible by solving the gyrokinetic equations on extreme scale computers will be described. Future directions into “virtual tokamak experiments” will also be discussed.

  10. Aspects of New Physics at the TeV Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jiayin

    The Standard Model, despite its great success, is generally considered as an incomplete theory and various reasons suggest that new physics may appear around the TeV scale. The LHC discovered a Standard Model like Higgs boson at around 126 GeV, but has not observed any evidence of new physics yet. As the tension is increasing between the expectation of the TeV scale new physics and the lack of experimental discovery, it is helpful to consider new model building directions and new search strategies. In this thesis, we present a few studies on different aspects of new physics at the TeV scale. First, we present a composite Higgs model based on the top seesaw mechanism. We show that with an approximate U(3)L chiral symmetry, associated with a vector-like quark and the (t, b)L doublet, the lightest CP-even neutral state of the composite scalar sector is lighter than the top quark and can be identified as the newly discovered Higgs boson. Second, we present two studies of search strategies of the stop particle, with the first one focusing on the semi-leptonic channel and the second one focusing on the di-leptonic channel with compressed signal spectra. In both cases, we introduce new kinematic variables which can substantially improve the signal significance. We also present a mass measurement method at hadron colliders for a decay chain of two steps, which ends with a missing particle. We show that it is possible to extract all three invisible particle masses with reasonable accuracies, which was previously thought to be impossible. With the upgrade of the LHC and the possibilities of new larger colliders in the future, the search for new physics will continue on, and our studies can help.

  11. Microphysics in Multi-scale Modeling System with Unified Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2012-01-01

    Recently, a multi-scale modeling system with unified physics was developed at NASA Goddard. It consists of (1) a cloud-resolving model (Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model, GCE model), (2) a regional scale model (a NASA unified weather research and forecast, WRF), (3) a coupled CRM and global model (Goddard Multi-scale Modeling Framework, MMF), and (4) a land modeling system. The same microphysical processes, long and short wave radiative transfer and land processes and the explicit cloud-radiation, and cloud-land surface interactive processes are applied in this multi-scale modeling system. This modeling system has been coupled with a multi-satellite simulator to use NASA high-resolution satellite data to identify the strengths and weaknesses of cloud and precipitation processes simulated by the model. In this talk, a review of developments and applications of the multi-scale modeling system will be presented. In particular, the microphysics development and its performance for the multi-scale modeling system will be presented.

  12. Numerical anomalies mimicking physical effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menikoff, R.

    Numerical simulations of flows with shock waves typically use finite-difference shock-capturing algorithms. These algorithms give a shock a numerical width in order to generate the entropy increase that must occur across a shock wave. For algorithms in conservation form, steady-state shock waves are insensitive to the numerical dissipation because of the Hugoniot jump conditions. However, localized numerical errors occur when shock waves interact. Examples are the 'excess wall heating' in the Noh problem (shock reflected from rigid wall), errors when a shock impacts a material interface or an abrupt change in mesh spacing, and the start-up error from initializing a shock as a discontinuity. This class of anomalies can be explained by the entropy generation that occurs in the transient flow when a shock profile is formed or changed. The entropy error is localized spatially but under mesh refinement does not decrease in magnitude. Similar effects have been observed in shock tube experiments with partly dispersed shock waves. In this case, the shock has a physical width due to a relaxation process. An entropy anomaly from a transient shock interaction is inherent in the structure of the conservation equations for fluid flow. The anomaly can be expected to occur whenever heat conduction can be neglected and a shock wave has a non-zero width, whether the width is physical or numerical. Thus, the numerical anomaly from an artificial shock width mimics a real physical effect.

  13. New physics at the weak scale: axigluon models, scale invariance and naturalness, and interacting dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavares, Gustavo Marques

    The Standard Model of particle physics describes all known elementary particles and their interactions. Despite its great experimental success, we know that the Standard Model is not a complete description of Nature and therefore new phenomena should be observed at higher energies. In the coming years the Large Hadron Collider will test the Standard Model by colliding protons with center of mass energies of up to 14 TeV providing some of the most stringent tests on the Standard Model. Experimental searches for Dark Matter provide a complementary program to test physics at the weak scale. In the near future new experimental data coming from direct detection experiments, and from satellites and telescopes will drastically improve our sensitivity to weak scale dark matter. This could lead to the first direct observation of dark matter, and thus of physics beyond the Standard Model. In this thesis I propose different extensions of the Standard Model and discuss their experimental consequences. I first discuss models for Axigluons, which are spin one particles in the adjoint representation of the SU(3) color gauge group. These models were motivated by the measurement of higher than predicted forward-backward asymmetry in top quark pair production at the Tevatron. I study different scenarios for Axigluon models that can explain the Tevatron result and explore their signatures at the Large Hadron Collider. Second I discuss the implications of ultraviolet scale invariance for the Standard Model, which has been advocated as a solution to the hierarchy problem. I show that in order to solve the hierarchy problem with scale invariance, new physics is required not far from the weak scale. In the last part of this thesis I propose a new model for dark matter, in which dark matter is charged under a hidden non-Abelian gauge group. This leads to modifications in the sensitivity of the usual experimental searches for dark matter in addition to distinct signatures in the Cosmic

  14. Future large scale accelerator projects for particle physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksan, R.

    2013-12-01

    The discovery of a new particle, the properties of which are compatible with the expected Brout-Englert-Higgs scalar field in the Standard Model (SM), is the starting point of an intense program for studying its couplings. With this particle, all the components of the SM have now been unraveled. Yet, the existence of dark matter, baryon asymmetry of the Universe and neutrino mass call for new physics at an energy scale, which is not determined so far. Therefore, new large scale accelerators are needed to investigate these mysteries through ultra-high precision measurements and/or the exploration of higher energy frontiers. In the following, we discuss the various accelerator projects aimed at the achievement of the above objectives. The physics reach of these facilities will be briefly described as well as their main technical features and related challenges, highlighting the importance of accelerator R&D not only for the benefit of particle physics but also for other fields of research, and more generally for the society.

  15. Using Rasch modeling to re-evaluate three scales related to physical activity: enjoyment, perceived benefits and perceived barriers.

    PubMed

    Heesch, K C; Mâsse, L C; Dunn, A L

    2006-12-01

    Studies suggest that enjoyment, perceived benefits and perceived barriers may be important mediators of physical activity. However, the psychometric properties of these scales have not been assessed using Rasch modeling. The purpose of this study was to use Rasch modeling to evaluate the properties of three scales commonly used in physical activity studies: the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale, the Benefits of Physical Activity Scale and the Barriers to Physical Activity Scale. The scales were administered to 378 healthy adults, aged 25-75 years (50% women, 62% Whites), at the baseline assessment for a lifestyle physical activity intervention trial. The ConQuest software was used to assess model fit, item difficulty, item functioning and standard error of measurement. For all scales, the partial credit model fit the data. Item content of one scale did not adequately cover all respondents. Response options of each scale were not targeting respondents appropriately, and standard error of measurement varied across the total score continuum of each scale. These findings indicate that each scale's effectiveness at detecting differences among individuals may be limited unless changes in scale content and response format are made. PMID:16849389

  16. Measuring Enjoyment of Physical Activity in Children: Validation of the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to determine the reliability and validity of the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) in elementary school children. The sample consisted of 564 3rd grade students (M age = 8.72 ± .54; 268 male, 296 female) surveyed at the beginning of the fall semester. Results indicated that the PACES displayed good internal consistency and item-total correlations. Confirmatory factor analyses supported a unidimensional factor structure. Scores on the PACES were significantly correlated with task goal orientation (r = .65, p < .01), athletic competence (r = .23, p < .01), physical appearance (r = .20, p < .01), and self-reported physical activity (r = .16, p < .01). However, results of invariance analysis suggested the factor structure is variant across sex. The present findings suggest support for the validity of the PACES as a valid measure of enjoyment of physical activity in children; nevertheless, further research examining the invariance of the factor structure across sex is warranted. PMID:20209028

  17. Soil physical properties of agricultural systems in a large-scale study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A large-scale field study was performed to determine the effects of agricultural management systems on soil physical properties, including their spatial and temporal variations. Replicates were established in 1998 at the Center for Environmental Farming Systems, Goldsboro, North Carolina; replicates...

  18. Physical and computational scaling issues in lattice Boltzmann simulations of binary fluid mixtures.

    PubMed

    Cates, M E; Desplat, J-C; Stansell, P; Wagner, A J; Stratford, K; Adhikari, R; Pagonabarraga, I

    2005-08-15

    We describe some scaling issues that arise when using lattice Boltzmann (LB) methods to simulate binary fluid mixtures--both in the presence and absence of colloidal particles. Two types of scaling problem arise: physical and computational. Physical scaling concerns how to relate simulation parameters to those of the real world. To do this effectively requires careful physics, because (in common with other methods) LB cannot fully resolve the hierarchy of length, energy and time-scales that arise in typical flows of complex fluids. Care is needed in deciding what physics to resolve and what to leave unresolved, particularly when colloidal particles are present in one or both of two fluid phases. This influences steering of simulation parameters such as fluid viscosity and interfacial tension. When the physics is anisotropic (for example, in systems under shear) careful adaptation of the geometry of the simulation box may be needed; an example of this, relating to our study of the effect of colloidal particles on the Rayleigh-Plateau instability of a fluid cylinder, is described. The second and closely related set of scaling issues are computational in nature: how do you scale-up simulations to very large lattice sizes? The problem is acute for systems undergoing shear flow. Here one requires a set of blockwise co-moving frames to the fluid, each connected to the next by a Lees-Edwards like boundary condition. These matching planes lead to small numerical errors whose cumulative effects can become severe; strategies for minimizing such effects are discussed. PMID:16099757

  19. A Multi-Scale Modeling System with Unified Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2008-01-01

    Numerical cloud models, which are based the non-hydrostatic equations of motion, have been extensively applied to cloud-scale and mesoscale processes during the past four decades. Because cloud-scale dynamics are treated explicitly, uncertainties stemming from convection that have to be parameterized in (hydrostatic) large-scale models are obviated, or at least mitigated, in cloud models. Global models will use the non-hydrostatic framework when their horizontal resolution becomes about 10 km, the theoretical limit for the hydrostatic approximation. This juncture will be reached one to two decades from now. In recent years, exponentially increasing computer power has extended cloud-resolving-mode1 integrations from hours to months, the number of computational grid points from less than a thousand to close to ten million. Three-dimensional models are now more prevalent. Much attention is devoted to precipitating cloud systems where the crucial 1-km scales are resolved in horizontal domains as large as 10,000 km in two-dimensions, and 1,000 x 1,000 km2 in three-dimensions. Cloud resolving models now provide statistical information useful for developing more realistic physically based parameterizations for climate models and numerical weather prediction models. It is also expected that NWP and mesoscale model can be run in grid size similar to cloud resolving model through nesting technique.

  20. Role of the subgrid-scale physical processes in supermodelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, J.

    2011-12-01

    The basic ides of supermodelling is in overcoming deficits of existing models by combining them together to improve our ability of climate simulations and prediction. However, in order to exploit this method better, we have to pay special attention to the common defects of the current climate models. Representation of subgrid-scale physical processes is such a particular example. . The present talk presents the author's point of view on representation of subgrid-scale processes in the above general question in mind. The focus of the talk will be on interplay between traditional parameterizations and recently proposed superparameterization (also often called "multiscale modelling"), but it also covers the issues of downscaling as well as possibilities of introducing mesh-refinement approaches into the context of subgrid-scale modelling. The author's main perspective is that the subgrid-scale parameterization should not be considered as a distinguished approach in contrast to explicit (more direct) modelling, such as superparameterization, but a hierarchy of modelling approaches should be constructed by taking various intermediate approaches. The mass-flux convection parameterization is taken as an example in order to make this point. It will be shown that at the most basic level, the mass-flux parameterization is equivalent to a finite-volume numerical approach, though various additional approximations and hypotheses must be introduced in order to arrive at a classical mass-flux parameterization. At the mathematical level, the multiresolution analysis based on wavelet provides a basic source of inspirations for developing this general perspective. From this perspective, the issue of parameterization is considered as "compression" of a full explicit model in the same sense as the wavelet can be used for the image compression. This perspective also leads to a concept of compression of physics. Compression of cloud microphysics would be the most urgent issue

  1. Physical effects in cavitating flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plesset, M. S.

    1974-01-01

    The microscopic and macroscopic aspects of the physical effects of cavitating flows are discussed. The microscopic features are related to the properties of nuclei in liquids and to the moderate tensile strengths which are usually encountered in flows. The macroscopic features are concerned with the growth of vapor or gaseous cavities from a small initial size and with their eventual collapse. Mathematical models are developed to analyze the characteristics of: (1) tensile strength in liquids, (2) growth of vapor bubbles, and (3) collapse of vapor bubbles.

  2. Probing the scale of New Physics at the LHC: The example of Higgs data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichet, Sylvain

    2014-07-01

    We present a technique to determine the scale of New Physics (NP) compatible with any set of data, relying on well-defined credibility intervals. Our approach relies on the statistical view of the effective field theory capturing New Physics at low energy. We introduce formally the notion of testable NP and show that it ensures integrability of the posterior distribution. We apply our method to the Standard Model Higgs sector in light of recent LHC data, considering two generic scenarios. In the scenario of democratic higher-dimensional operators generated at one-loop, we find the testable NP scale to lie within [10,260] TeV at 95% Bayesian credibility level. In the scenario of loop-suppressed field strength-Higgs operators, the testable NP scale is within [28,1200] TeV at 95% Bayesian credibility level. More specific UV models are necessary to allow lower values of the NP scale.

  3. Lattice physics capabilities of the SCALE code system using TRITON

    SciTech Connect

    DeHart, M. D.

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes ongoing calculations used to validate the TRITON depletion module in SCALE for light water reactor (LWR) fuel lattices. TRITON has been developed to provide improved resolution for lattice physics mixed-oxide fuel assemblies as programs to burn such fuel in the United States begin to come online. Results are provided for coupled TRITON/PARCS analyses of an LWR core in which TRITON was employed for generation of appropriately weighted few-group nodal cross-sectional sets for use in core-level calculations using PARCS. Additional results are provided for code-to-code comparisons for TRITON and a suite of other depletion packages in the modeling of a conceptual next-generation boiling water reactor fuel assembly design. Results indicate that the set of SCALE functional modules used within TRITON provide an accurate means for lattice physics calculations. Because the transport solution within TRITON provides a generalized-geometry capability, this capability is extensible to a wide variety of non-traditional and advanced fuel assembly designs. (authors)

  4. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, Richard A.; Wasserman, Harvey

    2010-11-24

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the leading scientific computing facility for the Department of Energy's Office of Science, providing high-performance computing (HPC) resources to more than 3,000 researchers working on about 400 projects. NERSC provides large-scale computing resources and, crucially, the support and expertise needed for scientists to make effective use of them. In November 2009, NERSC, DOE's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), and DOE's Office of High Energy Physics (HEP) held a workshop to characterize the HPC resources needed at NERSC to support HEP research through the next three to five years. The effort is part of NERSC's legacy of anticipating users needs and deploying resources to meet those demands. The workshop revealed several key points, in addition to achieving its goal of collecting and characterizing computing requirements. The chief findings: (1) Science teams need access to a significant increase in computational resources to meet their research goals; (2) Research teams need to be able to read, write, transfer, store online, archive, analyze, and share huge volumes of data; (3) Science teams need guidance and support to implement their codes on future architectures; and (4) Projects need predictable, rapid turnaround of their computational jobs to meet mission-critical time constraints. This report expands upon these key points and includes others. It also presents a number of case studies as representative of the research conducted within HEP. Workshop participants were asked to codify their requirements in this case study format, summarizing their science goals, methods of solution, current and three-to-five year computing requirements, and software and support needs. Participants were also asked to describe their strategy for computing in the highly parallel, multi-core environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years. The report includes

  5. A Goddard Multi-Scale Modeling System with Unified Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2008-01-01

    A multi-scale modeling system with unified physics has been developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The system consists of an MMF, the coupled NASA Goddard finite-volume GCM (fvGCM) and Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model (GCE, a CRM); the state-of-the-art Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) and the stand alone GCE. These models can share the same microphysical schemes, radiation (including explicitly calculated cloud optical properties), and surface models that have been developed, improved and tested for different environments. The following is presented in this report: (1) a brief review of the GCE model and its applications on the impact of aerosols on deep precipitation processes, (2) the Goddard MMF and the major difference between two existing MMFs (CSU MMF and Goddard MMF), and preliminary results (the comparison with traditional GCMs), and (3) a discussion on the Goddard WRF version (its developments and applications).

  6. A Goddard Multi-Scale Modeling System with Unified Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2010-01-01

    A multi-scale modeling system with unified physics has been developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The system consists of an MMF, the coupled NASA Goddard finite-volume GCM (fvGCM) and Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model (GCE, a CRM); the state-of-the-art Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) and the stand alone GCE. These models can share the same microphysical schemes, radiation (including explicitly calculated cloud optical properties), and surface models that have been developed, improved and tested for different environments. In this talk, I will present: (1) A brief review on GCE model and its applications on the impact of the aerosol on deep precipitation processes, (2) The Goddard MMF and the major difference between two existing MMFs (CSU MMF and Goddard MMF), and preliminary results (the comparison with traditional GCMs), and (3) A discussion on the Goddard WRF version (its developments and applications). We are also performing the inline tracer calculation to comprehend the physical processes (i.e., boundary layer and each quadrant in the boundary layer) related to the development and structure of hurricanes and mesoscale convective systems. In addition, high - resolution (spatial. 2km, and temporal, I minute) visualization showing the model results will be presented.

  7. Physical Modeling of Scaled Water Distribution System Networks.

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hern, Timothy J.; Hammond, Glenn Edward; Orear, Leslie ,; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart G.; Paul Molina; Ross Johnson

    2005-10-01

    Threats to water distribution systems include release of contaminants and Denial of Service (DoS) attacks. A better understanding, and validated computational models, of the flow in water distribution systems would enable determination of sensor placement in real water distribution networks, allow source identification, and guide mitigation/minimization efforts. Validation data are needed to evaluate numerical models of network operations. Some data can be acquired in real-world tests, but these are limited by 1) unknown demand, 2) lack of repeatability, 3) too many sources of uncertainty (demand, friction factors, etc.), and 4) expense. In addition, real-world tests have limited numbers of network access points. A scale-model water distribution system was fabricated, and validation data were acquired over a range of flow (demand) conditions. Standard operating variables included system layout, demand at various nodes in the system, and pressure drop across various pipe sections. In addition, the location of contaminant (salt or dye) introduction was varied. Measurements of pressure, flowrate, and concentration at a large number of points, and overall visualization of dye transport through the flow network were completed. Scale-up issues that that were incorporated in the experiment design include Reynolds number, pressure drop across nodes, and pipe friction and roughness. The scale was chosen to be 20:1, so the 10 inch main was modeled with a 0.5 inch pipe in the physical model. Controlled validation tracer tests were run to provide validation to flow and transport models, especially of the degree of mixing at pipe junctions. Results of the pipe mixing experiments showed large deviations from predicted behavior and these have a large impact on standard network operations models.3

  8. Calcium carbonate scale control, effect of material and inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Macadam, J; Parsons, S A

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on developing a reproducible method for reducing calcium carbonate scale formation on heated surfaces where scaling can cause serious problems. It is known that calcium carbonate precipitation is sensitive to impurity ions, such as iron and zinc, even at trace concentration levels. In this paper two sets of experiments are reported. The first experiments were undertaken to investigate the effect of zinc, copper and iron dosing on CaCO3 nucleation and precipitation. Results from the experiments showed that the most effective inhibitor of CaCO3 precipitation was zinc and the effect was linked to dose levels and temperature. Copper and iron had little effect on precipitation in the dose range investigated. The second trial was undertaken to translate the precipitation data to scale formation. These tests were undertaken at 70 degrees C. 5 mg x L(-1) zinc dose reduced the scale formation by 35%. The effect of iron on calcium carbonate scaling rate was not significant. The physical nature of the material on which the scale is formed also influences the scaling. The scaling experiment was also used to investigate the effect of different surface material (stainless steel, copper and aluminium) on CaCO3 scale formation. Copper surface scaled the most. PMID:14982176

  9. Quality physical education: a commentary on effective physical education teaching.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Ben

    2014-06-01

    In my commentary in response to the 3 articles (McKenzie & Lounsbery, 2013; Rink, 2013; Ward, 2013), I focus on 3 areas: (a) content knowledge, (b) a holistic approach to physical education, and (c) policy impact. I use the term quality teaching rather than "teacher effectiveness." Quality teaching is a term with the potential to move our attention beyond a focus merely on issues of effectiveness relating to the achievement of prespecified objectives. I agree with Ward that teacher content knowledge is limited in physical education, and I argue that if the student does not have a connection to or relationship with the content, this will diminish their learning gains. I also argue for a more holistic approach to physical education coming from a broader conception. Physical educators who teach the whole child advocate for a plethora of physical activity, skills, knowledge, and positive attitudes that foster healthy and active playful lifestyles. Play is a valuable educational experience. I also endorse viewing assessment from different perspectives and discuss assessment through a social-critical political lens. The 3 articles also have implications for policy. Physical education is much broader than just physical activity, and we harm the future potential of our field if we adopt a narrow agenda. Looking to the future, I propose that we broaden the kinds of research that we value, support, and appreciate in our field. PMID:25098010

  10. The Physical Character of Small-Scale Interstellar Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauroesch, James T.

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of this program was to obtain FUSE observations of the multiple interstellar absorption lines of H2 toward the members of 3 resolvable binary/multiple star systems to explore the physical conditions in known interstellar small-scale structures. Each of the selected systems was meant to address a different aspect of the models for the origin of these structures: 1) The stars HD 32039/40 were meant to probe a temporally varying component which probed a cloud with an inferred size of tens to a few hundreds of AU. The goal was to see if there was any significant H2 associated with this component; 2) The star HD 36408B and its companion HD 36408A (observed as part of FUSE GTO program P119) show significant spatial and temporal (proper motion induced) Na I column variations in a strong, relatively isolated component, as well as a relatively simple component structure. The key goal here was to identify any differences in H2 or C I excitation between the sightlines, and to measure the physical conditions (primarily density and temperature) in the temporally varying component; 3) The stars HD 206267C and HD 206267D are highly reddened sightlines which showed significant variations in K I and molecular absorption lines in multiple velocity components. Coupled with FUSE GTO observations of HD 206267A (program P116), the goal was to study the variations in H2 along sightlines which are significantly more distant, with larger separations, and with greater extinctions than the other selected binary systems.

  11. The Physical Origin of Galaxy Morphologies and Scaling Laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinmetz, Matthias; Navarro, Julio F.

    2002-01-01

    We propose a numerical study designed to interpret the origin and evolution of galaxy properties revealed by space- and ground-based imaging and spectroscopical surveys. Our aim is to unravel the physical processes responsible for the development of different galaxy morphologies and for the establishment of scaling laws such as the Tully-Fisher relation for spirals and the Fundamental Plane of ellipticals. In particular, we plan to address the following major topics: (1) The morphology and observability of protogalaxies, and in particular the relationship between primordial galaxies and the z approximately 3 'Ly-break' systems identified in the Hubble Deep Field and in ground-based searches; (2) The origin of the disk and spheroidal components in galaxies, the timing and mode of their assembly, the corresponding evolution in galaxy morphologies and its sensitivity to cosmological parameters; (3) The origin and redshift evolution of the scaling laws that link the mass, luminosity size, stellar content, and metal abundances of galaxies of different morphological types. This investigation will use state-of-the-art N-body/gasdynamical codes to provide a spatially resolved description of the galaxy formation process in hierarchically clustering universes. Coupled with population synthesis techniques. our models can be used to provide synthetic 'observations' that can be compared directly with observations of galaxies both nearby and at cosmologically significant distances. This study will thus provide insight into the nature of protogalaxies and into the formation process of galaxies like our own Milky Way. It will also help us to assess the cosmological significance of these observations within the context of hierarchical theories of galaxy formation and will supply a theoretical context within which current and future observations can be interpreted.

  12. The Assessment of Denial and Physical Complaints: The Validity of the Hy Scale and Associated MMPI Signs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Robert E.; O'Malley, W. Brian

    1986-01-01

    Using samples of psychiatric, medical, and chronic pain patients, the effectiveness of the Hysteria scale and of various combinations of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory scales as predictors of the simultaneous occurrence of two characteristics was evaluated: denial of psychological problems and admission of physical problems. The value…

  13. Psychosocial and Physical Effects of Adjuvant Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Hislop, Thomas Gregory; Elwood, J. Mark; Waxler-Morrison, Nancy; Ragaz, Joseph; Skippen, Diane Hazel; Turner, I.D.

    1991-01-01

    Breast cancer patients younger than 55 completed a questionnaire on psychosocial factors and physical side effects shortly after diagnosis and 9 to 15 months after diagnosis. Those who had used adjuvant chemotherapy were more likely than those who had not to report physical side effects; there was little difference in psychosocial factors. Recent users were more likely than ex-users to report physical side effects, difficulties with domestic chores, and improvement in psychosocial factors. PMID:21229020

  14. A Goddard Multi-Scale Modeling System with Unified Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2010-01-01

    A multi-scale modeling system with unified physics has been developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The system consists of an MMF, the coupled NASA Goddard finite-volume GCM (fvGCM) and Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model (GCE, a CRM); the state-of-the-art Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) and the stand alone GCE. These models can share the same microphysical schemes, radiation (including explicitly calculated cloud optical properties), and surface models that have been developed, improved and tested for different environments. In this talk, I will present: (1) A brief review on GCE model and its applications on the impact of the aerosol on deep precipitation processes, (2) The Goddard MMF and the major difference between two existing MMFs (CSU MMF and Goddard MMF), and preliminary results (the comparison with traditional GCMs), and (3) A discussion on the Goddard WRF version (its developments and applications). We are also performing the inline tracer calculation to comprehend the ph ysical processes (i.e., boundary layer and each quadrant in the boundary layer) related to the development and structure of hurricanes and mesoscale convective systems.

  15. Physical essence of the multibody contact-sliding at atomic scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xuesong

    2014-01-01

    Investigation the multibody contact-sliding occurred at atomic discrete contact spot will play an important role in determine the origin of tribology behavior and evaluates the micro-mechanical property of nanomaterials and thus optimizing the design of surface texture. This paper carries out large scale parallel molecular dynamics simulation on contact-sliding at atomic scale to uncover the special physical essence. The research shows that some kind of force field exists between nanodot pair and the interaction can be expressed by the linear combination of exponential function while the effective interaction distance limited in 1 angstrom for nanodot with several tens of nanometer diameter. The variation tendency about the interaction force between nanodot array is almost the same between nanodot pairs and thus the interaction between two nanodot array can be characterized by parallel mechanical spring. Multibody effect which dominates the interaction between atoms or molecules will gradually diminish with the increasing of length scales.

  16. Synthesizing in-stream structure design guidelines from small-scale and field-scale physical experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozarek, J. L.; Hill, C.; Plott, J.; Diplas, P.; Sotiropoulos, F.

    2011-12-01

    Rock vanes, cross vanes, bendway weirs and other similar flow control structures have been studied as part of a multifaceted research program to improve quantitative design guidelines for frequently used stream restoration structures. These structures are typically used in stream restoration projects with the intent of protecting unstable streambanks, preventing undesired lateral migration, or improving aquatic habitat. Despite their frequent use, extensive research-based quantitative design guidelines do not readily exist. As part of this project, a series of small-scale physical model experiments were completed in the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory (SAFL) Tilting Bed Flume measuring 3D flow velocities and sediment scour patterns downstream of stream restoration flow control structures. On a larger scale, similar experiments were completed in the SAFL Outdoor StreamLab (OSL), a near full-scale meandering stream research facility. Two final components of this research program, full-scale field monitoring and computational simulations, provide researchers with a multi-scale dataset. A focal point of the analysis lies on the scour patterns induced by these structures, yet transferring these results into engineering design standards remains a challenge. The issues of dealing with multiple scales of flow control structures, the sediment used in these experiments, and the effects they will have in real-world stream restoration applications is a complex problem. The small-scale flume experiments examined single structures in a straight channel with uniform grain sizes. Large-scale OSL experiments were completed in a specific meandering channel geometry and grain sizes unique to that facility. Field monitoring provides data in complex, real-world environments, yet it is unique to specific locations and at a much lower resolution than available from controlled research facilities. The extensive dataset resulting from this research program provides the means to develop

  17. Quality Physical Education: A Commentary on Effective Physical Education Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyson, Ben

    2014-01-01

    In my commentary in response to the 3 articles (McKenzie & Lounsbery, 2013; Rink, 2013; Ward, 2013), I focus on 3 areas: (a) content knowledge, (b) a holistic approach to physical education, and (c) policy impact. I use the term "quality teaching" rather than "teacher effectiveness." Quality teaching is a term with the…

  18. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Nuclear Physics Research

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, Richard A.; Wasserman, Harvey J.

    2012-03-02

    IThe National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computing center for the DOE Office of Science, serving approximately 4,000 users and hosting some 550 projects that involve nearly 700 codes for a wide variety of scientific disciplines. In addition to large-scale computing resources NERSC provides critical staff support and expertise to help scientists make the most efficient use of these resources to advance the scientific mission of the Office of Science. In May 2011, NERSC, DOE’s Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) and DOE’s Office of Nuclear Physics (NP) held a workshop to characterize HPC requirements for NP research over the next three to five years. The effort is part of NERSC’s continuing involvement in anticipating future user needs and deploying necessary resources to meet these demands. The workshop revealed several key requirements, in addition to achieving its goal of characterizing NP computing. The key requirements include: 1. Larger allocations of computational resources at NERSC; 2. Visualization and analytics support; and 3. Support at NERSC for the unique needs of experimental nuclear physicists. This report expands upon these key points and adds others. The results are based upon representative samples, called “case studies,” of the needs of science teams within NP. The case studies were prepared by NP workshop participants and contain a summary of science goals, methods of solution, current and future computing requirements, and special software and support needs. Participants were also asked to describe their strategy for computing in the highly parallel, “multi-core” environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years. The report also includes a section with NERSC responses to the workshop findings. NERSC has many initiatives already underway that address key workshop findings and all of the action items are aligned with NERSC strategic plans.

  19. Scaling effects in theropod dinosaurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Scott A.

    2014-03-01

    For geometrically similar animals, the length of the leg bones l would scale as the diameter of the leg bone d: d ~ l. In order to maintain the same stresses in the leg bones when standing (i.e., elastic similarity), l3 must scale as d2, yielding d ~ l 3 / 2. Sixty-six femora from more than 30 different species of theropod dinosaurs were studied. Our results yield d ~ l 1 . 16, well below the prediction of elastic similarity. The maximum stresses on the leg bones would have occurred during locomotion when forces on the order of several times the body weight would have been present. Bending and torsional stresses of the femur would have been more likely to break the bone than compression. The ability of the bone to resist bending stresses is given by its section modulus Z. From our data, we find that Z ~ l 3 . 49. The bending torque applied to the femur is expected to scale as roughly l4. Both results indicate that larger theropods had smaller cursorial abilities than smaller theropods, as is observed in extant animals. Assuming that all theropod bones have the same shear modulus, the ability for the femora to resist torsion is given by Q = J/ l where J is the second polar moment of the area. From our data, we find that Q ~ l 3 . 66.

  20. Measuring Teacher Effectiveness in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rink, Judith E.

    2013-01-01

    This article summarizes the research base on teacher effectiveness in physical education from a historical perspective and explores the implications of the recent emphasis on student performance and teacher observation systems to evaluate teachers for physical education. The problems and the potential positive effects of using student performance…

  1. Size scale effect in cavitation erosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, P. V.; Rao, B. C.; Buckley, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    An overview and data analyses pertaining to cavitation erosion size scale effects are presented. The exponents n in the power law relationship are found to vary from 1.7 to 4.9 for venturi and rotating disk devices supporting the values reported in the literature. Suggestions for future studies were made to arrive at further true scale effects.

  2. Scaling up Effects in the Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persson, Anna; Lindstrom, Ulf M.

    2004-01-01

    A simple and effective way of exposing chemistry students to some of the effects of scaling up an organic reaction is described. It gives the student an experience that may encounter in an industrial setting.

  3. Effective field theory in nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Martin J. Savage

    2000-12-12

    I review recent developments in the application of effective field theory to nuclear physics. Emphasis is placed on precision two-body calculations and efforts to formulate the nuclear shell model in terms of an effective field theory.

  4. Space Weather: Physics and Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, W. Jeffrey

    2009-03-01

    With the launching of Sputnik, Explorer 1, and the other early satellites, the new discipline of space physics was born, about 50 years ago. Although earlier ground-based observations had provided strong hints about the nature of our space environment above the upper atmosphere, those early satellites initiated a series of surprises and discoveries, including Van Allen's discovery of the Earth's radiation belts. Young scientists were attracted to this new field, and it grew quickly. When the Journal of Geophysical Research was divided into two sections, in 1964, one section was devoted to space physics. The field explored not only new regions of space but also a new state of matter: the rarefied, fully ionized plasma that fills space and interacts intimately with magnetic fields.

  5. [Development of Autogenic Training Clinical Effectiveness Scale (ATCES)].

    PubMed

    Ikezuki, Makoto; Miyauchi, Yuko; Yamaguchi, Hajime; Koshikawa, Fusako

    2002-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop a scale measuring clinical effectiveness of autogenic training. In Study 1, 167 undergraduates completed a survey of items concerning physical and mental states, which were thought to vary in the course of autogenic training. With item and factor analyses, 20 items were selected, and the resulting scale (ATCES) had high discrimination and clear factor structure. In Study 2, reliability and concurrent and clinical validity of the scale were examined with three groups of respondents: 85 mentally healthy, 31 control, 13 clinical persons. The scale showed a high test-retest correlation (r = .83) and alpha coefficient (alpha = .86). ATCES had a Pearson correlation coefficient of r = .56 with General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), and r = .73 with trait anxiety (STAI-T). And ATCES successfully discriminated the mentally healthy and clinical groups in terms of clinical effectiveness. These results demonstrated high reliability and sufficient concurrent and clinical validity of the new scale. PMID:11977841

  6. Development of scales to assess children's perceptions of friend and parental influences on physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Jago, Russell; Fox, Kenneth R; Page, Angie S; Brockman, Rowan; Thompson, Janice L

    2009-01-01

    Background Many children do not meet physical activity guidelines. Parents and friends are likely to influence children's physical activity but there is a shortage of measures that are able to capture these influences. Methods A new questionnaire with the following three scales was developed: 1) Parental influence on physical activity; 2) Motives for activity with friends scale; and 3) Physical activity and sedentary group normative values. Content for each scale was informed by qualitative work. One hundred and seventy three, 10-11 year old children completed the new questionnaire twice, one week apart. Participants also wore an accelerometer for 5 days and mean minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity, light physical activity and sedentary time per day were obtained. Test-retest reliability of the items was calculated and Principal Component analysis of the scales performed and sub-scales produced. Alphas were calculated for main scales and sub-scales. Correlations were calculated among sub-scales. Correlations between each sub-scale and accelerometer physical activity variables were calculated for all participants and stratified by sex. Results The Parental influence scale yielded four factors which accounted for 67.5% of the variance in the items and had good (α > 0.7) internal consistency. The Motives for physical activity scale yielded four factors that accounted for 66.1% and had good internal consistency. The Physical activity norms scale yielded 4 factors that accounted for 67.4% of the variance, with good internal consistency for the sub-scales and alpha of .642 for the overall scale. Associations between the sub-scales and physical activity differed by sex. Although only 6 of the 11 sub-scales were significantly correlated with physical activity there were a number of associations that were positively correlated >0.15 indicating that these factors may contribute to the explanation of children's physical activity. Conclusion Three scales that

  7. Global scale precipitation from monthly to centennial scales: empirical space-time scaling analysis, anthropogenic effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lima, Isabel; Lovejoy, Shaun

    2016-04-01

    The characterization of precipitation scaling regimes represents a key contribution to the improved understanding of space-time precipitation variability, which is the focus here. We conduct space-time scaling analyses of spectra and Haar fluctuations in precipitation, using three global scale precipitation products (one instrument based, one reanalysis based, one satellite and gauge based), from monthly to centennial scales and planetary down to several hundred kilometers in spatial scale. Results show the presence - similarly to other atmospheric fields - of an intermediate "macroweather" regime between the familiar weather and climate regimes: we characterize systematically the macroweather precipitation temporal and spatial, and joint space-time statistics and variability, and the outer scale limit of temporal scaling. These regimes qualitatively and quantitatively alternate in the way fluctuations vary with scale. In the macroweather regime, the fluctuations diminish with time scale (this is important for seasonal, annual, and decadal forecasts) while anthropogenic effects increase with time scale. Our approach determines the time scale at which the anthropogenic signal can be detected above the natural variability noise: the critical scale is about 20 - 40 yrs (depending on the product, on the spatial scale). This explains for example why studies that use data covering only a few decades do not easily give evidence of anthropogenic changes in precipitation, as a consequence of warming: the period is too short. Overall, while showing that precipitation can be modeled with space-time scaling processes, our results clarify the different precipitation scaling regimes and further allow us to quantify the agreement (and lack of agreement) of the precipitation products as a function of space and time scales. Moreover, this work contributes to clarify a basic problem in hydro-climatology, which is to measure precipitation trends at decadal and longer scales and to

  8. Universality and scaling in the N-body sector of Efimov physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gattobigio, Mario

    2014-05-01

    In this talk I will illustrate the universal behavior that we have found inside the window of Efimov physics for systems made of N <= 6 particles. We have solved the Schrödinger equation of the few-body systems using different potentials, and we have changed the potential parameters in such a way to explore a range of two-body scattering length, a, around the unitary limit, | a | --> ∞ . The ground- (EN0) and excited-state (EN1) energies have been analyzed by means of a recent-developed method which allows to remove finite-range effects. In this way we show that the calculated ground- and excited-state energies collapse over the same universal curve obtained in the zero-range three-body systems. Universality and scaling are reminiscent of critical phenomena; in that framework, the critical point is mapped onto a fixed point of the Renormalization Group (RG) where the system displays scale-invariant (SI) symmetry. A consequence of SI symmetry is the scaling of the observables: for different materials, in the same class of universality, a selected observable can be represented as a function of the control parameter and, provided that both the observable and the control parameter are scaled by some material-dependent factor, all representations collapse onto a single universal curve. Efimov physics is a more recent example of universality, but in this case the physics is governed by a limit cycle on the RG flow with the emergence of a discrete scale invariance (DSI). The scaling of the few-body energies can be interpreted as follow: few-body systems (at least up to N = 6), inside the Efimov window, belong to the same class of universality, which is governed by the limit cycle. These results can be summarized by the following formula ENn/E2 =tan2 ξκNnaB +ΓNn = e- Δ (ξ) / 2s0 cosξ . where the function Δ (ξ) is universal and it is determined by the three-body physics, and s0 = 1 . 00624 . The parameter κNn appears as a scale parameter and the shift ΓnN is a

  9. The Other Hall Effect: College Board Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Keith; Gunning, Amanda M.

    2013-09-01

    Edwin Herbert Hall (1855-1938), discoverer of the Hall effect, was one of the first winners of the AAPT Oersted Medal for his contributions to the teaching of physics. While Hall's role in establishing laboratory work in high schools is widely acknowledged, his position as chair of the physics section of the Committee on College Entrance Requirements was contentious and his involvement in launching College Board Physics, what we call the "other Hall effect," has largely been overlooked. This article details Hall's role in the development of College Board Physics.

  10. Scaling and Single Event Effects (SEE) Sensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oldham, Timothy R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper begins by discussing the potential for scaling down transistors and other components to fit more of them on chips in order to increasing computer processing speed. It also addresses technical challenges to further scaling. Components have been scaled down enough to allow single particles to have an effect, known as a Single Event Effect (SEE). This paper explores the relationship between scaling and the following SEEs: Single Event Upsets (SEU) on DRAMs and SRAMs, Latch-up, Snap-back, Single Event Burnout (SEB), Single Event Gate Rupture (SEGR), and Ion-induced soft breakdown (SBD).

  11. Validation of psychosocial scales for physical activity in university students

    PubMed Central

    Tassitano, Rafael Miranda; de Farias, José Cazuza; Rech, Cassiano Ricardo; Tenório, Maria Cecília Marinho; Cabral, Poliana Coelho; da Silva, Giselia Alves Pontes

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Translate the Patient-centered Assessment and Counseling for Exercise questionnaire, adapt it cross-culturally and identify the psychometric properties of the psychosocial scales for physical activity in young university students. METHODS The Patient-centered Assessment and Counseling for Exercise questionnaire is made up of 39 items divided into constructs based on the social cognitive theory and the transtheoretical model. The analyzed constructs were, as follows: behavior change strategy (15 items), decision-making process (10), self-efficacy (6), support from family (4), and support from friends (4). The validation procedures were conceptual, semantic, operational, and functional equivalences, in addition to the equivalence of the items and of measurements. The conceptual, of items and semantic equivalences were performed by a specialized committee. During measurement equivalence, the instrument was applied to 717 university students. Exploratory factor analysis was used to verify the loading of each item, explained variance and internal consistency of the constructs. Reproducibility was measured by means of intraclass correlation coefficient. RESULTS The two translations were equivalent and back-translation was similar to the original version, with few adaptations. The layout, presentation order of the constructs and items from the original version were kept in the same form as the original instrument. The sample size was adequate and was evaluated by the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin test, with values between 0.72 and 0.91. The correlation matrix of the items presented r < 0.8 (p < 0.05). The factor loadings of the items from all the constructs were satisfactory (> 0.40), varying between 0.43 and 0.80, which explained between 45.4% and 59.0% of the variance. Internal consistency was satisfactory (α ≥ 0.70), with support from friends being 0.70 and 0.92 for self-efficacy. Most items (74.3%) presented values above 0.70 for the reproducibility test

  12. Validation of psychosocial scales for physical activity in university students.

    PubMed

    Tassitano, Rafael Miranda; de Farias Júnior, José Cazuza; Rech, Cassiano Ricardo; Tenório, Maria Cecília Marinho; Cabral, Poliana Coelho; da Silva, Giselia Alves Pontes

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Translate the Patient-centered Assessment and Counseling for Exercise questionnaire, adapt it cross-culturally and identify the psychometric properties of the psychosocial scales for physical activity in young university students. METHODS The Patient-centered Assessment and Counseling for Exercise questionnaire is made up of 39 items divided into constructs based on the social cognitive theory and the transtheoretical model. The analyzed constructs were, as follows: behavior change strategy (15 items), decision-making process (10), self-efficacy (6), support from family (4), and support from friends (4). The validation procedures were conceptual, semantic, operational, and functional equivalences, in addition to the equivalence of the items and of measurements. The conceptual, of items and semantic equivalences were performed by a specialized committee. During measurement equivalence, the instrument was applied to 717 university students. Exploratory factor analysis was used to verify the loading of each item, explained variance and internal consistency of the constructs. Reproducibility was measured by means of intraclass correlation coefficient. RESULTS The two translations were equivalent and back-translation was similar to the original version, with few adaptations. The layout, presentation order of the constructs and items from the original version were kept in the same form as the original instrument. The sample size was adequate and was evaluated by the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin test, with values between 0.72 and 0.91. The correlation matrix of the items presented r < 0.8 (p < 0.05). The factor loadings of the items from all the constructs were satisfactory (> 0.40), varying between 0.43 and 0.80, which explained between 45.4% and 59.0% of the variance. Internal consistency was satisfactory (α ≥ 0.70), with support from friends being 0.70 and 0.92 for self-efficacy. Most items (74.3%) presented values above 0.70 for the reproducibility test

  13. Effect of Velocity in Icing Scaling Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David N.; Bond, Thomas H. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents additional results of a study first published in 1999 to determine the effect of scale velocity on scaled icing test results. Reference tests were made with a 53.3-cm-chord NACA 0012 airfoil model in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel at an airspeed of 67 m/s, an MVD of 40 microns, and an LWC of 0.6 g/cu m. Temperature was varied to provide nominal freezing fractions of 0.8, 0.6, and 0.5. Scale tests used both 35.6- and 27.7-cm-chord 0012 models for 2/3- and 1/2-size scaling. Scale test conditions were found using the modified Ruff (AEDC) scaling method with the scale velocity determined in five ways. Four of the scale velocities were found by matching the scale and reference values of water-film thickness, velocity, Weber number, and Reynolds number. The fifth scale velocity was simply the average of those found by matching the Weber and Reynolds numbers. The resulting scale velocities ranged from 85 to 220 percent of the reference velocity. For a freezing fraction of 0.8, the value of the scale velocity had no effect on how well the scale ice shape simulated the reference shape. For nominal freezing fractions of 0.5 and 0.6, the best simulation of the reference shape was achieved when the scale velocity was the average of the constant-Weber-number and the constant-Reynolds-number velocities.

  14. Global scale, physical models of the F region ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sojka, J. J.

    1989-01-01

    Consideration is given to the development and verification of global computer models of the F-region which simulate the interactions between physical processes in the ionosphere. The limitations of the physical models are discussed, focusing on the inputs to the ionospheric system such as magnetospheric electric field and auroral precipitation. The possibility of coupling ionospheric models with thermospheric and magnetospheric models is examined.

  15. Perturbed effects at radiation physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Külahcı, Fatih; Şen, Zekâi

    2013-09-01

    Perturbation methodology is applied in order to assess the linear attenuation coefficient, mass attenuation coefficient and cross-section behavior with random components in the basic variables such as the radiation amounts frequently used in the radiation physics and chemistry. Additionally, layer attenuation coefficient (LAC) and perturbed LAC (PLAC) are proposed for different contact materials. Perturbation methodology provides opportunity to obtain results with random deviations from the average behavior of each variable that enters the whole mathematical expression. The basic photon intensity variation expression as the inverse exponential power law (as Beer-Lambert's law) is adopted for perturbation method exposition. Perturbed results are presented not only in terms of the mean but additionally the standard deviation and the correlation coefficients. Such perturbation expressions provide one to assess small random variability in basic variables.

  16. Teacher Effectiveness in Physical Education--Consensus?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rink, Judith

    2014-01-01

    This article synthesizes the series of manuscripts on teacher effectiveness in physical education recently published by the "Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport" and highlights both the consensus and points of disagreement. Although there is much agreement as to the mission to develop a physically active lifestyle, there is a great…

  17. The Other Hall Effect: College Board Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Keith; Gunning, Amanda M.

    2013-01-01

    Edwin Herbert Hall (1855-1938), discoverer of the Hall effect, was one of the first winners of the AAPT Oersted Medal for his contributions to the teaching of physics. While Hall's role in establishing laboratory work in high schools is widely acknowledged, his position as chair of the physics section of the Committee on College Entrance…

  18. [Probing Planck-scale Physics with a Ne-21/He-3 Zeeman Maser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Ne-21/He-3 Zeeman maser is a recently developed device which employs co-located ensembles of Ne-21 and He-3 atoms to provide sensitive differential measurements of the noble gas nuclear Zeeman splittings as a function of time, thereby greatly attenuating common-mode systematic effects such as uniform magnetic field variations. The Ne-21 maser will serve as a precision magnetometer to stabilize the system's static magnetic field, while the He-3 maser is used as a sensitive probe for violations of CPT and Lorentz symmetry by searching for small variations in the 3He maser frequency as the spatial orientation of the apparatus changes due to the rotation of the Earth (or placement on a rotating table). In the context of a general extension of the Standard Model of particle physics, the Ne-21/He-3 maser will provide the most sensitive search to date for CPT and Lorentz violation of the neutron: better than 10(exp -32) GeV, an improvement of more than an order of magnitude over past experiments. This exceptional precision will offer a rare opportunity to probe physics at the Planck scale. A future space-based Ne-21/He-3 maser or related device could provide even greater sensitivity to violations of CPT and Lorentz symmetry, and hence to Planck-scale physics, because of isolation from dominant systematic effects associated with ground-based operation, and because of access to different positions in space-time.

  19. A rock-physical modeling method for carbonate reservoirs at seismic scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing-Ye; Chen, Xiao-Hong

    2013-03-01

    Strong heterogeneity and complex pore systems of carbonate reservoir rock make its rock physics model building and fluid substitution difficult and complex. However, rock physics models connect reservoir parameters with seismic parameters and fluid substitution is the most effective tool for reservoir prediction and quantitative characterization. On the basis of analyzing complex carbonate reservoir pore structures and heterogeneity at seismic scale, we use the gridding method to divide carbonate rock into homogeneous blocks with independent rock parameters and calculate the elastic moduli of dry rock units step by step using different rock physics models based on pore origin and structural feature. Then, the elastic moduli of rocks saturated with different fluids are obtained using fluid substitution based on different pore connectivity. Based on the calculated elastic moduli of rock units, the Hashin-Shtrikman-Walpole elastic boundary theory is adopted to calculate the carbonate elastic parameters at seismic scale. The calculation and analysis of carbonate models with different combinations of pore types demonstrate the effects of pore type on rock elastic parameters. The simulated result is consistent with our knowledge of real data.

  20. Physics in space-time with scale-dependent metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balankin, Alexander S.

    2013-10-01

    We construct three-dimensional space Rγ3 with the scale-dependent metric and the corresponding Minkowski space-time Mγ,β4 with the scale-dependent fractal (DH) and spectral (DS) dimensions. The local derivatives based on scale-dependent metrics are defined and differential vector calculus in Rγ3 is developed. We state that Mγ,β4 provides a unified phenomenological framework for dimensional flow observed in quite different models of quantum gravity. Nevertheless, the main attention is focused on the special case of flat space-time M1/3,14 with the scale-dependent Cantor-dust-like distribution of admissible states, such that DH increases from DH=2 on the scale ≪ℓ0 to DH=4 in the infrared limit ≫ℓ0, where ℓ0 is the characteristic length (e.g. the Planck length, or characteristic size of multi-fractal features in heterogeneous medium), whereas DS≡4 in all scales. Possible applications of approach based on the scale-dependent metric to systems of different nature are briefly discussed.

  1. Physical meaning of one-machine and multimachine tokamak scalings

    SciTech Connect

    Dnestrovskij, Yu. N. Danilov, A. V.; Dnestrovskij, A. Yu.; Lysenko, S. E.; Ongena, J.

    2013-04-15

    Specific features of energy confinement scalings constructed using different experimental databases for tokamak plasmas are considered. In the multimachine database, some pairs of engineering variables are collinear; e.g., the current I and the input power P both increase with increasing minor radius a. As a result, scalings derived from this database are reliable only for discharges in which such ratios as I/a{sup 2} or P/a{sup 2} are close to their values averaged over the database. The collinearity of variables allows one to exclude the normalized Debye radius d* from the scaling expressed in a nondimensional form. In one-machine databases, the dimensionless variables are functionally dependent, which allow one to cast a scaling without d*. In a database combined from two devices, the collinearity may be absent, so the Debye radius cannot generally be excluded from the scaling. It is shown that the experiments performed in support of the absence of d* in the two-machine scaling are unconvincing. Transformation expressions are given that allow one to compare experiments for the determination of scaling in any set of independent variables.

  2. The effective field theory of cosmological large scale structures

    SciTech Connect

    Carrasco, John Joseph M.; Hertzberg, Mark P.; Senatore, Leonardo

    2012-09-20

    Large scale structure surveys will likely become the next leading cosmological probe. In our universe, matter perturbations are large on short distances and small at long scales, i.e. strongly coupled in the UV and weakly coupled in the IR. To make precise analytical predictions on large scales, we develop an effective field theory formulated in terms of an IR effective fluid characterized by several parameters, such as speed of sound and viscosity. These parameters, determined by the UV physics described by the Boltzmann equation, are measured from N-body simulations. We find that the speed of sound of the effective fluid is c2s ≈ 10–6c2 and that the viscosity contributions are of the same order. The fluid describes all the relevant physics at long scales k and permits a manifestly convergent perturbative expansion in the size of the matter perturbations δ(k) for all the observables. As an example, we calculate the correction to the power spectrum at order δ(k)4. As a result, the predictions of the effective field theory are found to be in much better agreement with observation than standard cosmological perturbation theory, already reaching percent precision at this order up to a relatively short scale k ≃ 0.24h Mpc–1.

  3. Physical effects in wormholes and time machines

    SciTech Connect

    Frolov, V.P. P. N. Lebedev, Physical Institute, Moscow ); Novikov, I.D. )

    1990-08-15

    Physical effects in a spacetime with a traversable wormhole are considered. It is shown that the interaction of a wormhole with the surrounding matter and with the external gravitational field almost inevitably transforms it into a time machine.

  4. Upward and downward physical appearance comparisons: development of scales and examination of predictive qualities.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Kerry S; Caputi, Peter; Minto, Rona; Peoples, Gregory; Hooper, Carlie; Kell, Sally; Sawley, Elise

    2009-06-01

    Despite good theoretical and empirical rationale for assessing tendencies to make upward and downward physical appearance comparisons no measure for these specific constructs exists. The present work developed and tested the psychometric properties of upward and downward physical appearance comparison scales. The scales were administered to participants (N=224) along with measures of general appearance comparison tendencies, body image, disordered eating, Antifat and Antigay attitudes. The scales displayed good psychometric properties. Importantly, the upward but not downward physical appearance comparison scale predicted lower Appearance Evaluation and higher EAT-26 scores. Conversely, the downward but not upward physical appearance comparison scale predicted higher Appearance Evaluation and greater Antifat Attitudes (Dislike). The scales were unrelated to a nonappearance related construct. These new measures fill a gap in the literature and may be of benefit to researchers interested in body image, appearance concerns, eating disorders, social comparison, and obesity prejudice. PMID:19447692

  5. Developing a Rasch Measurement Physical Fitness Scale for Hong Kong Primary School-Aged Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Zi; Bond, Trevor G.

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to develop a Rasch Measurement Physical Fitness Scale (RMPFS) based on physical fitness indicators routinely used in Hong Kong primary schools. A total of 9,439 records of students' performances on physical fitness indicators, retrieved from the database of a Hong Kong primary school, were used to develop the…

  6. Evolving desiderata for validating engineered-physics systems without full-scale testing

    SciTech Connect

    Langenbrunner, James R; Booker, Jane M; Hemez, Francois M; Ross, Timothy J

    2010-01-01

    Theory and principles of engineered-physics designs do not change over time, but the actual engineered product does evolve. Engineered components are prescient to the physics and change with time. Parts are never produced exactly as designed, assembled as designed, or remain unperturbed over time. For this reason, validation of performance may be regarded as evolving over time. Desired use of products evolves with time. These pragmatic realities require flexibility, understanding, and robustness-to-ignorance. Validation without full-scale testing involves engineering, small-scale experiments, physics theory and full-scale computer-simulation validation. We have previously published an approach to validation without full-scale testing using information integration, small-scale tests, theory and full-scale simulations [Langenbrunner et al. 2008]. This approach adds value, but also adds complexity and uncertainty due to inference. We illustrate a validation example that manages evolving desiderata without full-scale testing.

  7. Impacts of Noah model physics on catchment-scale runoff simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Donghai; Van der Velde, Rogier; Su, Zhongbo; Wen, Jun; Wang, Xin; Booij, Martijn J.; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.; Lv, Shihua; Zhang, Yu; Ek, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    Noah model physics options validated for the source region of the Yellow River (SRYR) are applied to investigate their ability in reproducing runoff at the catchment scale. Three sets of augmentations are implemented affecting descriptions of (i) turbulent and soil heat transport (Noah-H), (ii) soil water flow (Noah-W), and (iii) frozen ground processes (Noah-F). Five numerical experiments are designed with the three augmented versions, a control run with default model physics and a run with all augmentations (Noah-A). Each experiment is set up with vegetation and soil parameters from Weather Research and Forecasting data set, soil organic matter content from China Soil Database, 0.1° atmospheric forcing data from Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research (Chinese Academy of Sciences), and initial equilibrium model states achieved using a single-year recurrent spin-up. In situ heat flux, soil temperature (Ts), and soil moisture (θ) profile measurements are available for point-scale assessment, whereas monthly streamflow is utilized for the catchment-scale evaluation. The comparison with point measurements shows that the augmentations invoked with Noah-H resolve issues with the heat flux and Ts simulation and Noah-W mitigates deficiencies in the θ simulation, while Noah-A yields improvements for both simulated surface energy and water budgets. In contrast, Noah-F has a minor effect. Also, at catchment scale, the best model performance is found for Noah-A leading to a base flow-dominated runoff regime, whereby the surface runoff contribution remains significant. This study highlights the need for a complete description of vertical heat and water exchanges to correctly simulate the runoff in the seasonally frozen and high-altitude SRYR at the catchment scale.

  8. Gravitational bar detectors set limits to Planck-scale physics on macroscopic variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, Francesco; Marino, Francesco; Bonaldi, Michele; Cerdonio, Massimo; Conti, Livia; Falferi, Paolo; Mezzena, Renato; Ortolan, Antonello; Prodi, Giovanni A.; Taffarello, Luca; Vedovato, Gabriele; Vinante, Andrea; Zendri, Jean-Pierre

    2013-02-01

    Different approaches to quantum gravity, such as string theory and loop quantum gravity, as well as doubly special relativity and gedanken experiments in black-hole physics, all indicate the existence of a minimal measurable length of the order of the Planck length, . This observation has motivated the proposal of generalized uncertainty relations, which imply changes in the energy spectrum of quantum systems. As a consequence, quantum gravitational effects could be revealed by experiments able to test deviations from standard quantum mechanics, such as those recently proposed on macroscopic mechanical oscillators. Here we exploit the sub-millikelvin cooling of the normal modes of the ton-scale gravitational wave detector AURIGA, to place an upper limit for possible Planck-scale modifications on the ground-state energy of an oscillator. Our analysis calls for the development of a satisfactory treatment of multi-particle states in the framework of quantum gravity models.

  9. Effective Temperature and Universal Conductivity Scaling in Organic Semiconductors

    PubMed Central

    Abdalla, Hassan; van de Ruit, Kevin; Kemerink, Martijn

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the scalability of the temperature- and electric field-dependence of the conductivity of disordered organic semiconductors to ‘universal’ curves by two different but commonly employed methods; by so-called universal scaling and by using the effective temperature concept. Experimentally both scaling methods were found to be equally applicable to the out-of-plane charge transport in PEDOT:PSS thin films of various compositions. Both methods are shown to be equivalent in terms of functional dependence and to have identical limiting behavior. The experimentally observed scaling behavior can be reproduced by a numerical nearest-neighbor hopping model, accounting for the Coulomb interaction, the high charge carrier concentration and the energetic disorder. The underlying physics can be captured in a simple empirical model, describing the effective temperature of the charge carrier distribution as the outcome of a heat balance between Joule heating and (effective) temperature-dependent energy loss to the lattice. PMID:26581975

  10. Effective Temperature and Universal Conductivity Scaling in Organic Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdalla, Hassan; van de Ruit, Kevin; Kemerink, Martijn

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the scalability of the temperature- and electric field-dependence of the conductivity of disordered organic semiconductors to ‘universal’ curves by two different but commonly employed methods; by so-called universal scaling and by using the effective temperature concept. Experimentally both scaling methods were found to be equally applicable to the out-of-plane charge transport in PEDOT:PSS thin films of various compositions. Both methods are shown to be equivalent in terms of functional dependence and to have identical limiting behavior. The experimentally observed scaling behavior can be reproduced by a numerical nearest-neighbor hopping model, accounting for the Coulomb interaction, the high charge carrier concentration and the energetic disorder. The underlying physics can be captured in a simple empirical model, describing the effective temperature of the charge carrier distribution as the outcome of a heat balance between Joule heating and (effective) temperature-dependent energy loss to the lattice.

  11. Scale effect on unsteady cloud cavitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dular, M.; Khlifa, I.; Fuzier, S.; Adama Maiga, M.; Coutier-Delgosha, O.

    2012-11-01

    No experiment was conducted, yet, to investigate the scale effects on the dynamics of developed cavitating flow with periodical cloud shedding. The present study was motivated by the unclear results obtained from the experiments in a Venturi-type section that was scaled down 10 times for the purpose of measurements by ultra-fast X-ray imaging (Coutier-Delgosha et al. 2009). Cavitation in the original size scale section (Stutz and Reboud in Exp Fluids 23:191-198, 1997, Exp Fluids 29:545-552 2000) always displays unsteady cloud separation. However, when the geometry was scaled down, the cavitation became quasi steady although some oscillations still existed. To investigate this phenomenon more in detail, experiments were conducted in six geometrically similar Venturi test sections where either width or height or both were scaled. Various types of instabilities are obtained, from simple oscillations of the sheet cavity length to large vapor cloud shedding when the size of the test section is increased. It confirms that small scale has a significant influence on cavitation. Especially the height of the test section plays a major role in the dynamics of the re-entrant jet that drives the periodical shedding observed at large scale. Results suggest that the sheet cavity becomes stabile when the section is scaled down to a certain point because re-entrant jet cannot fully develop.

  12. Effective Teaching in Physical Education: Slovenian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pišot, Rado; Plevnik, Matej; Štemberger, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Regular quality physical education (PE) contributes to the harmonized biopsychosocial development of a young person--to relaxation, neutralization of negative effects of sedentary hours, and other unhealthy habits/behaviors. The evaluation approach to PE effectiveness provides important information to PE teachers and also to students. However,…

  13. Fundamental Scalings of Zonal Flows in a Basic Plasma Physics Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Vladimir; Wei, Xiao; Sen, Amiya K.

    2007-11-01

    A basic physics experimental study of zonal flows (ZF) associated with ITG (ion temperature gradient) drift modes has been performed in the Columbia Linear Machine (CLM) and ZF has been definitively identified [1]. However, in contrast to most tokamak experiments, the stabilizing effect of ZF shear to ITG appears to be small in CLM. We now report on the study of important scaling behavior of ZF. First and most importantly, we report on the collisional damping scaling of ZF, which is considered to be its saturation mechanism [2]. By varying the sum of ion-ion and ion-neutral collision frequency over nearly half an order of magnitude, we find no change in the amplitude of ZF. Secondly, we study the scaling of ZF amplitude with ITG amplitude via increasing ITG drive though ηi, as well as feedback (stabilizing / destabilizing). We have observed markedly different scaling near and far above marginal stability. [1] V. Sokolov, X. Wei, A.K. Sen and K. Avinash, Plasma Phys.Controlled Fusion 48, S111 (2006). [2] P.H. Diamond, S.-I. Itoh, K.Itoh and T.S. Hahm, Plasma Phys.Controlled Fusion 47, R35 (2005).

  14. Compact wire array sources: power scaling and implosion physics.

    SciTech Connect

    Serrano, Jason Dimitri; Chuvatin, Alexander S.; Jones, M. C.; Vesey, Roger Alan; Waisman, Eduardo M.; Ivanov, V. V.; Esaulov, Andrey A.; Ampleford, David J.; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Kantsyrev, Victor Leonidovich; Coverdale, Christine Anne; Rudakov, L. I.; Jones, Brent Manley; Safronova, Alla S.; Vigil, Marcelino Patricio

    2008-09-01

    A series of ten shots were performed on the Saturn generator in short pulse mode in order to study planar and small-diameter cylindrical tungsten wire arrays at {approx}5 MA current levels and 50-60 ns implosion times as candidates for compact z-pinch radiation sources. A new vacuum hohlraum configuration has been proposed in which multiple z pinches are driven in parallel by a pulsed power generator. Each pinch resides in a separate return current cage, serving also as a primary hohlraum. A collection of such radiation sources surround a compact secondary hohlraum, which may potentially provide an attractive Planckian radiation source or house an inertial confinement fusion fuel capsule. Prior to studying this concept experimentally or numerically, advanced compact wire array loads must be developed and their scaling behavior understood. The 2008 Saturn planar array experiments extend the data set presented in Ref. [1], which studied planar arrays at {approx}3 MA, 100 ns in Saturn long pulse mode. Planar wire array power and yield scaling studies now include current levels directly applicable to multi-pinch experiments that could be performed on the 25 MA Z machine. A maximum total x-ray power of 15 TW (250 kJ in the main pulse, 330 kJ total yield) was observed with a 12-mm-wide planar array at 5.3 MA, 52 ns. The full data set indicates power scaling that is sub-quadratic with load current, while total and main pulse yields are closer to quadratic; these trends are similar to observations of compact cylindrical tungsten arrays on Z. We continue the investigation of energy coupling in these short pulse Saturn experiments using zero-dimensional-type implosion modeling and pinhole imaging, indicating 16 cm/?s implosion velocity in a 12-mm-wide array. The same phenomena of significant trailing mass and evidence for resistive heating are observed at 5 MA as at 3 MA. 17 kJ of Al K-shell radiation was obtained in one Al planar array fielded at 5.5 MA, 57 ns and we

  15. Effects of a scalar scaling field on quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benioff, Paul

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the effects of a complex scalar scaling field on quantum mechanics. The field origin is an extension of the gauge freedom for basis choice in gauge theories to the underlying scalar field. The extension is based on the idea that the value of a number at one space time point does not determine the value at another point. This, combined with the description of mathematical systems as structures of different types, results in the presence of separate number fields and vector spaces as structures, at different space time locations. Complex number structures and vector spaces at each location are scaled by a complex space time dependent scaling factor. The effect of this scaling factor on several physical and geometric quantities has been described in other work. Here the emphasis is on quantum mechanics of one and two particles, their states and properties. Multiparticle states are also briefly described. The effect shows as a complex, nonunitary, scalar field connection on a fiber bundle description of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. The lack of physical evidence for the presence of this field so far means that the coupling constant of this field to fermions is very small. It also means that the gradient of the field must be very small in a local region of cosmological space and time. Outside this region, there are no restrictions on the field gradient.

  16. Effects of a scalar scaling field on quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benioff, Paul

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the effects of a complex scalar scaling field on quantum mechanics. The field origin is an extension of the gauge freedom for basis choice in gauge theories to the underlying scalar field. The extension is based on the idea that the value of a number at one space time point does not determine the value at another point. This, combined with the description of mathematical systems as structures of different types, results in the presence of separate number fields and vector spaces as structures, at different space time locations. Complex number structures and vector spaces at each location are scaled by a complex space time dependent scaling factor. The effect of this scaling factor on several physical and geometric quantities has been described in other work. Here the emphasis is on quantum mechanics of one and two particles, their states and properties. Multiparticle states are also briefly described. The effect shows as a complex, nonunitary, scalar field connection on a fiber bundle description of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. The lack of physical evidence for the presence of this field so far means that the coupling constant of this field to fermions is very small. It also means that the gradient of the field must be very small in a local region of cosmological space and time. Outside this region, there are no restrictions on the field gradient.

  17. Extending Higgs inflation with TeV scale new physics

    SciTech Connect

    He, Hong-Jian; Xianyu, Zhong-Zhi E-mail: xianyuzhongzhi@gmail.com

    2014-10-01

    Higgs inflation is among the most economical and predictive inflation models, although the original Higgs inflation requires tuning the Higgs or top mass away from its current experimental value by more than 2σ deviations, and generally gives a negligible tensor-to-scalar ratio r ∼ 10{sup -3} (if away from the vicinity of critical point). In this work, we construct a minimal extension of Higgs inflation, by adding only two new weak-singlet particles at TeV scale, a vector-quark T and a real scalar S. The presence of singlets (T, S) significantly impact the renormalization group running of the Higgs boson self-coupling. With this, our model provides a wider range of the tensor-to-scalar ratio r=O(0.1)-O(10{sup -3}), consistent with the favored r values by either BICEP2 or Planck data, while keeping the successful prediction of the spectral index n{sub s} ≅ 0.96. It allows the Higgs and top masses to fully fit the collider measurements. We also discuss implications for searching the predicted TeV-scale vector-quark T and scalar S at the LHC and future high energy pp colliders.

  18. Extending Higgs inflation with TeV scale new physics

    SciTech Connect

    He, Hong-Jian; Xianyu, Zhong-Zhi

    2014-10-10

    Higgs inflation is among the most economical and predictive inflation models, although the original Higgs inflation requires tuning the Higgs or top mass away from its current experimental value by more than 2σ deviations, and generally gives a negligible tensor-to-scalar ratio r∼10{sup −3} (if away from the vicinity of critical point). In this work, we construct a minimal extension of Higgs inflation, by adding only two new weak-singlet particles at TeV scale, a vector-quark T and a real scalar S . The presence of singlets (T, S) significantly impact the renormalization group running of the Higgs boson self-coupling. With this, our model provides a wider range of the tensor-to-scalar ratio r=O(0.1)−O(10{sup −3}) , consistent with the favored r values by either BICEP2 or Planck data, while keeping the successful prediction of the spectral index n{sub s}≃0.96 . It allows the Higgs and top masses to fully fit the collider measurements. We also discuss implications for searching the predicted TeV-scale vector-quark T and scalar S at the LHC and future high energy pp colliders.

  19. Seismic-Scale Rock Physics of Methane Hydrate

    SciTech Connect

    Amos Nur

    2009-01-08

    We quantify natural methane hydrate reservoirs by generating synthetic seismic traces and comparing them to real seismic data: if the synthetic matches the observed data, then the reservoir properties and conditions used in synthetic modeling might be the same as the actual, in-situ reservoir conditions. This approach is model-based: it uses rock physics equations that link the porosity and mineralogy of the host sediment, pressure, and hydrate saturation, and the resulting elastic-wave velocity and density. One result of such seismic forward modeling is a catalogue of seismic reflections of methane hydrate which can serve as a field guide to hydrate identification from real seismic data. We verify this approach using field data from known hydrate deposits.

  20. Technologies for large-scale physical mapping of human chromosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Beugelsdijk, T.J.

    1994-12-01

    Since its inception 6 years ago, the Human Genome Project has made rapid progress towards its ultimate goal of developing the complete sequence of all human chromosomes. This progress has been made possible through the development of automated devices by laboratories throughout the world that aid the molecular biologist in various phases of the project. The initial phase involves the generation of physical and genetic maps of each chromosome. This task is nearing completion at a low resolution level with several instances of very high detailed maps being developed for isolated chromosomes. In support of the initial mapping thrust of this program, the robotics and automation effort at Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed DNA gridding technologies along with associated database and user interface systems. This paper will discuss these systems in detail and focus on the formalism developed for subsystems which allow for facile system integration.

  1. A survey of physically-based catchment-scale modeling over the last half century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paniconi, Claudio; Putti, Mario

    2015-04-01

    Integrated, process-based based numerical models in hydrology and connected disciplines (ecohydrology, hydrometeorology, hydrogeomorphology, biogeochemistry, hydrogeophysics, etc) are rapidly evolving, spurred by advances in computer technology, numerical algorithms, and environmental observation, and by the need to better understand the potential impacts of population, land use, and climate change on water and other natural resources. At the catchment scale, simulation models are commonly based on conservation principles for surface and subsurface water flow and mass transport (e.g., the Richards, St. Venant, and advection-dispersion-reaction equations, and approximations thereof), and need to be resolved by robust numerical techniques for space and time discretization, linearization, interpolation, etc. Model development through the years has continually faced physical and numerical challenges arising from heterogeneity and variability in parameters and state variables; nonlinearities and scale effects in process interactions and interface dynamics; and complex or poorly known boundary conditions and initial system states. We give an historical perspective (past 50 years) on some of the key developments in physically-based hydrological modeling, examining how these various challenges have been addressed and providing some insight on future directions as catchment modeling enters a highly interdisciplinary era.

  2. A physical scaling model for aggregation and disaggregation of field-scale surface soil moisture dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojha, Richa; Govindaraju, Rao S.

    2015-07-01

    Scaling relationships are needed as measurements and desired predictions are often not available at concurrent spatial support volumes or temporal discretizations. Surface soil moisture values of interest to hydrologic studies are estimated using ground based measurement techniques or utilizing remote sensing platforms. Remote sensing based techniques estimate field-scale surface soil moisture values, but are unable to provide the local-scale soil moisture information that is obtained from local measurements. Further, obtaining field-scale surface moisture values using ground-based measurements is exhaustive and time consuming. To bridge this scale mismatch, we develop analytical expressions for surface soil moisture based on sharp-front approximation of the Richards equation and assumed log-normal distribution of the spatial surface saturated hydraulic conductivity field. Analytical expressions for field-scale evolution of surface soil moisture to rainfall events are utilized to obtain aggregated and disaggregated response of surface soil moisture evolution with knowledge of the saturated hydraulic conductivity. The utility of the analytical model is demonstrated through numerical experiments involving 3-D simulations of soil moisture and Monte-Carlo simulations for 1-D renderings—with soil moisture dynamics being represented by the Richards equation in each instance. Results show that the analytical expressions developed here show promise for a principled way of scaling surface soil moisture.

  3. Physical and timing verification of subwavelength-scale designs: I. Lithography impact on MOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pack, Robert C.; Axelrad, Valery; Shibkov, Andrei; Boksha, Victor V.; Huckabay, Judy A.; Salik, Rachid; Staud, Wolfgang; Wang, Ruoping; Grobman, Warren D.

    2003-07-01

    Subwavelength lithography at low contrast, or low-k1 factor, leads to new requirements for design, design analysis, and design verification techniques. These techniques must account for inherent physical circuit feature distortions resulting from layout pattern-dependent design-to-silicon patterning processes in this era. These distortions are unavoidable, even in the presence of sophisticated Resolution Enhancement Technologies (RET), and are a 'fact-of-life" for the designer implementing nanometer-scale designs for the foreseeable low-k1 future. The consequence is that fabricated silicon feature shapes and dimensions are in general printed with far less fidelity in comparison to the designer"s desired layout than in past generations and that the designer must consider design within significantly different margins of geometry tolerance. Traditional (Mead-Conway originated) WYSIWYG (what you see is what you get) design methodologies, assume that the designer"s physical circuit element shapes are accurate in comparison to the corresponding shapes on the real fabricated IC, and uses design rules to verify satisfactory fabrication compliance, as the input for both interconnect parasitic loading calculations and to transistor models used for performance simulation. However, these assumptions are increasingly poor ones as k1 decreases to unprecidented levels -- with concomitant increase in patterned feature distortion and fabrication yield failure modes. This paper explores a new paradigm for nanometer-scale design, one in which more advanced models of critical low-k1 lithographic printing effects are incorporated into the design flow to improve upon yield and performance verification accuracy. We start with an analysis of a complex 32-bit adder block circuit design to determine systematic changes in gate length, width and shape variations for each MOSFET in the circuit due to optical proximity effects. The physical gate dimensions for all, as predicted by the

  4. Estimations of scale effects on blade cavitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amromin, Eduard

    2015-12-01

    Estimations of scale effects on blade cavitation require consideration of multiple models for both water flows and cavities. In particular, distinction of laminar and turbulent boundary layers is very important. A qualitative impact of selection of models is manifested for blade sheet cavitation. Its quantitative impact is shown for vortex cavitation inception.

  5. Developing an Attitude Scale for the Profession of Physical Education Teaching (ASPPET)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unlu, Huseyin

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the development of a Likert-type attitude scale for the profession of physical education teaching (ASPPET) was aimed. The group of the study was consisted of totally 556 pre-service physical education teachers. In order to determine the structural validity of ASPPET, an exploratory and confirmative factor analyses were performed. A…

  6. Measuring Psychological and Physical Abuse of Children with the Conflict Tactics Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straus, Murray A.

    Application of the Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS) to the assessment of child abuse is described. The CTS is a brief instrument designed to measure three aspects of parent-to-child behavior: (1) reasoning; (2) psychological aggression; and (3) physical aggression. The psychological and physical aggression indexes are intended to measure the…

  7. Book Review: Space Weather: Physics and Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, Phil

    2007-11-01

    At 438 pages, Space Weather: Physics and Effects, edited by Volker Bothmer and Ioannis A. Daglis, seems like a daunting read. But its thickness belies its conversational tone, and its content provides a different presentation of material aimed at drawing in a new audience while satisfying the present space weather audience's interest in their subject. I found reading this book a pleasure.

  8. Rotating space elevators: Physics of celestial scale spinning strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudsen, Steven; Golubović, Leonardo

    2014-11-01

    We explore classical and statistical mechanics of a novel dynamical system, the Rotating Space Elevator (RSE) (L. Golubović, S. Knudsen, EPL 86, 34001 (2009)). The RSE is a double rotating floppy string reaching extraterrestrial locations. Objects sliding along the RSE string (climbers) do not require internal engines or propulsion to be transported far away from the Earth's surface. The RSE thus solves a major problem in space elevator science, which is how to supply energy to the climbers moving along space elevator strings. The RSE can be made in various shapes that are stabilized by an approximate equilibrium between the gravitational and inertial forces acting in a double rotating frame associated with the RSE. This dynamical equilibrium is achieved by a special ("magical") form of the RSE mass line density derived in this paper. The RSE exhibits a variety of interesting dynamical phenomena explored here by numerical simulations. Thanks to its special design, the RSE exhibits everlasting double rotating motion. Under some conditions, however, we find that the RSE may undergo a morphological transition to a chaotic state reminiscent of fluctuating directed polymers in the realm of the statistical physics of strings and membranes.

  9. Physical Analysis and Scaling of a Jet and Vortex Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lachowicz, Jason T.; Yao, Chung-Sheng; Joslin, Ronald D.

    2004-01-01

    Our previous studies have shown that the Jet and Vortex Actuator generates free-jet, wall-jet, and near- wall vortex flow fields. That is, the actuator can be operated in different modes by simply varying the driving frequency and/or amplitude. For this study, variations are made in the actuator plate and wide-slot widths and sine/asymmetrical actuator plate input forcing (drivers) to further study the actuator induced flow fields. Laser sheet flow visualization, particle- image velocimetry, and laser velocimetry are used to measure and characterize the actuator induced flow fields. Laser velocimetry measurements indicate that the vortex strength increases with the driver repetition rate for a fixed actuator geometry (wide slot and plate width). For a given driver repetition rate, the vortex strength increases as the plate width decreases provided the wide-slot to plate-width ratio is fixed. Using an asymmetric plate driver, a stronger vortex is generated for the same actuator geometry and a given driver repetition rate. The nondimensional scaling provides the approximate ranges for operating the actuator in the free jet, wall jet, or vortex flow regimes. Finally, phase-locked velocity measurements from particle image velocimetry indicate that the vortex structure is stationary, confirming previous computations. Both the computations and the particle image velocimetry measurements (expectantly) show unsteadiness near the wide-slot opening, which is indicative of mass ejection from the actuator.

  10. The butterfly effect for physics laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claycomb, James R.; Valentine, John H.

    2015-03-01

    A low-cost chaos dynamics lab is developed for quantitative demonstration of the butterfly effect using a magnetic pendulum. Chaotic motion is explored by recording magnetic time series. Students analyze the data in Excel® to investigate the butterfly effect as well as the reconstruction of the strange attractor using time delay plots. The lab exercise is suitable for junior-level modern physics laboratories, or as an extension to traditional first-year laboratories exploring pendulum motion.

  11. Neutrino physics with multi-ton scale liquid xenon detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Baudis, L.; Ferella, A.; Kish, A.; Manalaysay, A.; Undagoitia, T. Marrodán; Schumann, M. E-mail: alfredo.ferella@lngs.infn.it E-mail: aaronm@ucdavis.edu E-mail: marc.schumann@lhep.unibe.ch

    2014-01-01

    We study the sensitivity of large-scale xenon detectors to low-energy solar neutrinos, to coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering and to neutrinoless double beta decay. As a concrete example, we consider the xenon part of the proposed DARWIN (Dark Matter WIMP Search with Noble Liquids) experiment. We perform detailed Monte Carlo simulations of the expected backgrounds, considering realistic energy resolutions and thresholds in the detector. In a low-energy window of 2–30 keV, where the sensitivity to solar pp and {sup 7}Be-neutrinos is highest, an integrated pp-neutrino rate of 5900 events can be reached in a fiducial mass of 14 tons of natural xenon, after 5 years of data. The pp-neutrino flux could thus be measured with a statistical uncertainty around 1%, reaching the precision of solar model predictions. These low-energy solar neutrinos will be the limiting background to the dark matter search channel for WIMP-nucleon cross sections below ∼ 2 × 10{sup −48} cm{sup 2} and WIMP masses around 50 GeV⋅c{sup −2}, for an assumed 99.5% rejection of electronic recoils due to elastic neutrino-electron scatters. Nuclear recoils from coherent scattering of solar neutrinos will limit the sensitivity to WIMP masses below ∼ 6 GeV⋅c{sup −2} to cross sections above ∼ 4 × 10{sup −45}cm{sup 2}. DARWIN could reach a competitive half-life sensitivity of 5.6 × 10{sup 26} y to the neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 136}Xe after 5 years of data, using 6 tons of natural xenon in the central detector region.

  12. African-American college student attitudes toward physics and their effect on achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, Carl Timothy

    The purpose of this study was to investigate factors affecting the attitudes that African-American college students have towards introductory college physics. The population targeted for this study consisted of African-American males and females enrolled in introductory college physics classes at an urban public historical black college or university (HBCU) located in the southeastern United States. Nine of the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitude Scales, modified for physics, were used to analyze the attitudes of the 135 participants enrolled in an introductory college physics class. The nine scales used to measure the students' attitudes were Attitude Toward Success in Physics Scale (AS), The Physics as a Male Domain Scale (MD), The Mother Scale (M), The Father Scale (F), The Teacher Scale (T), The Confidence in Learning Physics Scale (C), The Physics Anxiety Scale (A), The Effectance Motivation Scale in Physics (E), and The Physics Usefulness Scale (U). Hypothesis I states that there is a significant difference in the domain scores of African-American college students in the Fennema-Sherman Math Attitudes Scales adapted for physics. It was found using a repeated measures ANOVA that there was a significant difference between the attitudes of African-Americans on the nine attitude scales of the Fennema-Sherman Math Attitude Scales, F(8,992) = 43.09, p < .001. Hypothesis II states that there is a statistically significant difference in domain scores between African-American males and African-American females in the Fennema-Sherman Attitude Scales. It was found using a MANOVA that there was not a significant difference between the domain scores of African-American males and African-American females, F(8, 116) = .38, p > .05. Hypothesis III states that there is a statistically significant relationship between attitude towards physics and achievement for African-American students. The students with good attitudes toward physics would have a higher level of achievement

  13. Physics of intense, high energy radiation effects.

    SciTech Connect

    Hjalmarson, Harold Paul; Hartman, E. Frederick; Magyar, Rudolph J.; Crozier, Paul Stewart

    2011-02-01

    This document summarizes the work done in our three-year LDRD project titled 'Physics of Intense, High Energy Radiation Effects.' This LDRD is focused on electrical effects of ionizing radiation at high dose-rates. One major thrust throughout the project has been the radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) produced by the ionizing radiation. Another important consideration has been the electrical effect of dose-enhanced radiation. This transient effect can produce an electromagnetic pulse (EMP). The unifying theme of the project has been the dielectric function. This quantity contains much of the physics covered in this project. For example, the work on transient electrical effects in radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) has been a key focus for the work on the EMP effects. This physics in contained in the dielectric function, which can also be expressed as a conductivity. The transient defects created during a radiation event are also contained, in principle. The energy loss lead the hot electrons and holes is given by the stopping power of ionizing radiation. This information is given by the inverse dielectric function. Finally, the short time atomistic phenomena caused by ionizing radiation can also be considered to be contained within the dielectric function. During the LDRD, meetings about the work were held every week. These discussions involved theorists, experimentalists and engineers. These discussions branched out into the work done in other projects. For example, the work on EMP effects had influence on another project focused on such phenomena in gases. Furthermore, the physics of radiation detectors and radiation dosimeters was often discussed, and these discussions had impact on related projects. Some LDRD-related documents are now stored on a sharepoint site (https://sharepoint.sandia.gov/sites/LDRD-REMS/default.aspx). In the remainder of this document the work is described in catergories but there is much overlap between the atomistic calculations, the

  14. Multi-physics and multi-scale characterization of shale anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarout, J.; Nadri, D.; Delle Piane, C.; Esteban, L.; Dewhurst, D.; Clennell, M. B.

    2012-12-01

    Shales are the most abundant sedimentary rock type in the Earth's shallow crust. In the past decade or so, they have attracted increased attention from the petroleum industry as reservoirs, as well as more traditionally for their sealing capacity for hydrocarbon/CO2 traps or underground waste repositories. The effectiveness of both fundamental and applied shale research is currently limited by (i) the extreme variability of physical, mechanical and chemical properties observed for these rocks, and by (ii) the scarce data currently available. The variability in observed properties is poorly understood due to many factors that are often irrelevant for other sedimentary rocks. The relationships between these properties and the petrophysical measurements performed at the field and laboratory scales are not straightforward, translating to a scale dependency typical of shale behaviour. In addition, the complex and often anisotropic micro-/meso-structures of shales give rise to a directional dependency of some of the measured physical properties that are tensorial by nature such as permeability or elastic stiffness. Currently, fundamental understanding of the parameters controlling the directional and scale dependency of shale properties is far from complete. Selected results of a multi-physics laboratory investigation of the directional and scale dependency of some critical shale properties are reported. In particular, anisotropic features of shale micro-/meso-structures are related to the directional-dependency of elastic and fluid transport properties: - Micro-/meso-structure (μm to cm scale) characterization by electron microscopy and X-ray tomography; - Estimation of elastic anisotropy parameters on a single specimen using elastic wave propagation (cm scale); - Estimation of the permeability tensor using the steady-state method on orthogonal specimens (cm scale); - Estimation of the low-frequency diffusivity tensor using NMR method on orthogonal specimens (<

  15. Physical and emotional effects of whistleblowing.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Sally; Ahern, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    This research examined the stress-induced health effects of whistleblowing and non-whistleblowing on nurses in Western Australia. A descriptive survey design was used to explore the physical and emotional problems experienced by nurses who did and did not blow the whistle on misconduct in the workplace. A questionnaire based on Lazarus and Folkman's Model of Stress and Coping was developed and posted anonymously to general and mental health nurses. Ninety-five nurses responded to the questionnaire, and 70 were identified as whistleblowers and 25 were identified as non-whistleblowers. Results indicated that 70% of whistleblowers and 64% of non-whistleblowers experienced stress-induced physical problems from being involved in a whistleblowing situation. The most common physical problems experienced by nurses were restless sleep, fatigue, headaches, insomnia, and increased smoking. In addition, 94% of whistleblowers and 92% of non-whistleblowers suffered stress-related emotional problems, the most frequent being anger, anxiety, and disillusionment. Whistleblowers and non-whistleblowers suffered a similar percentage of physical health problems, whereas non-whistleblowers suffered a higher percentage of emotional health problems, especially feelings of guilt, shame, and unworthiness. These findings suggest that whistleblowing situations are stressful and may cause physical and emotional health problems whether one blows the whistle or not. PMID:11813350

  16. Hidden from view: coupled dark sector physics and small scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elahi, Pascal J.; Lewis, Geraint F.; Power, Chris; Carlesi, Edoardo; Knebe, Alexander

    2015-09-01

    We study cluster mass dark matter (DM) haloes, their progenitors and surroundings in a coupled dark matter-dark energy (DE) model and compare it to quintessence and Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) models with adiabatic zoom simulations. When comparing cosmologies with different expansions histories, growth functions and power spectra, care must be taken to identify unambiguous signatures of alternative cosmologies. Shared cosmological parameters, such as σ8, need not be the same for optimal fits to observational data. We choose to set our parameters to ΛCDM z = 0 values. We find that in coupled models, where DM decays into DE, haloes appear remarkably similar to ΛCDM haloes despite DM experiencing an additional frictional force. Density profiles are not systematically different and the subhalo populations have similar mass, spin, and spatial distributions, although (sub)haloes are less concentrated on average in coupled cosmologies. However, given the scatter in related observables (V_max,R_{V_max}), this difference is unlikely to distinguish between coupled and uncoupled DM. Observations of satellites of Milky Way and M31 indicate a significant subpopulation reside in a plane. Coupled models do produce planar arrangements of satellites of higher statistical significance than ΛCDM models; however, in all models these planes are dynamically unstable. In general, the non-linear dynamics within and near large haloes masks the effects of a coupled dark sector. The sole environmental signature we find is that small haloes residing in the outskirts are more deficient in baryons than their ΛCDM counterparts. The lack of a pronounced signal for a coupled dark sector strongly suggests that such a phenomena would be effectively hidden from view.

  17. Seebeck effect at the atomic scale.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eui-Sup; Cho, Sanghee; Lyeo, Ho-Ki; Kim, Yong-Hyun

    2014-04-01

    The atomic variations of electronic wave functions at the surface and electron scattering near a defect have been detected unprecedentedly by tracing thermoelectric voltages given a temperature bias [Cho et al., Nat. Mater. 12, 913 (2013)]. Because thermoelectricity, or the Seebeck effect, is associated with heat-induced electron diffusion, how the thermoelectric signal is related to the atomic-scale wave functions and what the role of the temperature is at such a length scale remain very unclear. Here we show that coherent electron and heat transport through a pointlike contact produces an atomic Seebeck effect, which is described by the mesoscopic Seebeck coefficient multiplied by an effective temperature drop at the interface. The mesoscopic Seebeck coefficient is approximately proportional to the logarithmic energy derivative of local density of states at the Fermi energy. We deduced that the effective temperature drop at the tip-sample junction could vary at a subangstrom scale depending on atom-to-atom interaction at the interface. A computer-based simulation method of thermoelectric images is proposed, and a point defect in graphene was identified by comparing experiment and the simulation of thermoelectric imaging. PMID:24745445

  18. Psychometric Properties of the Attitudes toward Physical Activity Scale: A Rasch Analysis Based on Data From Five Locations.

    PubMed

    Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Chin, Ming Kai; Chen, Shihui; Emeljanovas, Arunas; Mieziene, Brigita; Bronikowski, Michal; Laudanska-Krzeminska, Ida; Milanovic, Ivana; Pasic, Milan; Balasekaran, Govindasamy; Phua, Kia Wang; Makaza, Daga

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of the Attitudes toward Physical Activity Scale (APAS) to measure the attitudes, beliefs, and self-efficacy toward physical activity by children at the primary school level. The framework included: physical fitness, self-efficacy, personal best goal orientation in physical activity, interest in physical activity, importance of physical activity, benefits of physical activity, contributions of video exercise to learning in school subjects, contributions of video exercise to learning about health and environmental support. The sample comprised of 630 school students between grades 1 and 7 from five countries, namely Lithuania (29%), Poland (26%), Serbia (19%), Singapore (16%) and Zimbabwe (11%). Rasch analysis found empirical evidence in support of measurement validity of the APAS in terms of Rasch item reliabilities, unidimensionality, effectiveness of response categories, and absence of gender differential item functioning (DIF). The validation of the APAS according to the Rasch model meant that a dependable tool was established for gauging programme effectiveness of intervention programs on physical activity of primary school children in classroom settings at various geographical locations globally. PMID:26771567

  19. Scaled-physical-model studies of the steam-drive process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Doscher, T.M.

    1982-11-01

    The main goal of this project was to gain an understanding of the influence of controllable, operating practices and of reservoir parameters on the steam drive. The steam drive, because the chief phenomena of fluid flow and heat flow obey the same laws of diffusion, can be physically scaled. The validity of the results of the scaled models is evidenced by the correspondence of the results with those reported in field operations. In order to conserve on resources, this report is limited to a summary statement of the findings and conclusions of the overall project with separate chapters devoted to an account of specific tasks which came to fruition during the latter part of the project. Summary of results are presented for the following projects: gravitational instability of a steam drive; roles of oil viscosity and steam temperature on the production of crude oil when the steam flow is stratified; extension of the steam drive to tars and bitumens; occurrence of the optimum steam injection rate; emulsification and oil productivity; role of reservoir thickness; cyclic injection of steam in a steam drive; high gravity crudes; partial substitution of inert gas for steam. Two projects completed and described in detail are: effect of oil viscosity on reservoir thickness on the steam drive; and anticipated effect of diurnal injection on steam efficiency.

  20. Social Support and Peer Norms Scales for Physical Activity in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Jiying; Robbins, Lorraine B.; Resnicow, Ken; Bakhoya, Marion

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate psychometric properties of a Social Support and Peer Norms Scale in 5th-7th grade urban girls. Methods Baseline data from 509 girls and test-retest data from another 94 girls in the Midwestern US were used. Results Cronbach's alpha was .83 for the Social Support Scale and .72 for the Peer Norms Scale, whereas test-re-test reliability was .78 for both scales. Exploratory factor analysis suggested a single factor structure for the Social Support Scale, and a 3-factor structure for the Peer Norms Scale. Social support was correlated with accelerometer-measured physical activity (r = .13, p = .006), and peer norms (r = .50, p < .0001). Conclusions Both scales have adequate psychometric properties. PMID:25207514

  1. The effects of the "physical BEMER® vascular therapy", a method for the physical stimulation of the vasomotion of precapillary microvessels in case of impaired microcirculation, on sleep, pain and quality of life of patients with different clinical pictures on the basis of three scientifically validated scales.

    PubMed

    Bohn, Wolfgang; Hess, Lorenzo; Burger, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    As part of the statutory market monitoring of certified medical devices, 658 valid patient questionnaires were evaluated between April 2011 and March 2013. The questions consisted mainly of three scientifically recognized scales for assessing the changes of sleep, pain and quality of life in patients who had used the "physical BEMER® vascular therapy" for different diseases over 6 weeks. The result clearly shows that there are significant improvements in all areas surveyed through the application of this complementary treatment option, regardless of the underlying disease. PMID:23940071

  2. Regionalization of subsurface stormflow parameters of hydrologic models: Up-scaling from physically based numerical simulations at hillslope scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Melkamu; Ye, Sheng; Li, Hong-yi; Huang, Maoyi; Leung, L. Ruby; Fiori, Aldo; Sivapalan, Murugesu

    2014-11-01

    Subsurface stormflow is an important component of the rainfall-runoff response, especially in steep forested regions. However; its contribution is poorly represented in current generation of land surface hydrological models (LSMs) and catchment-scale rainfall-runoff models. The lack of physical basis of common parameterizations precludes a priori estimation (i.e. without calibration), which is a major drawback for prediction in ungauged basins, or for use in global models. This paper is aimed at deriving physically based parameterizations of the storage-discharge relationship relating to subsurface flow. These parameterizations are derived through a two-step up-scaling procedure: firstly, through simulations with a physically based (Darcian) subsurface flow model for idealized three dimensional rectangular hillslopes, accounting for within-hillslope random heterogeneity of soil hydraulic properties, and secondly, through subsequent up-scaling to the catchment scale by accounting for between-hillslope and within-catchment heterogeneity of topographic features (e.g., slope). These theoretical simulation results produced parameterizations of the storage-discharge relationship in terms of soil hydraulic properties, topographic slope and their heterogeneities, which were consistent with results of previous studies. Yet, regionalization of the resulting storage-discharge relations across 50 actual catchments in eastern United States, and a comparison of the regionalized results with equivalent empirical results obtained on the basis of analysis of observed streamflow recession curves, revealed a systematic inconsistency. It was found that the difference between the theoretical and empirically derived results could be explained, to first order, by climate in the form of climatic aridity index. This suggests a possible co-dependence of climate, soils, vegetation and topographic properties, and suggests that subsurface flow parameterization needed for ungauged locations

  3. Regionalization of subsurface stormflow parameters of hydrologic models: Up-scaling from physically based numerical simulations at hillslope scale

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, Melkamu; Ye, Sheng; Li, Hongyi; Huang, Maoyi; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Fiori, Aldo; Sivapalan, Murugesu

    2014-07-19

    Subsurface stormflow is an important component of the rainfall-runoff response, especially in steep forested regions. However; its contribution is poorly represented in current generation of land surface hydrological models (LSMs) and catchment-scale rainfall-runoff models. The lack of physical basis of common parameterizations precludes a priori estimation (i.e. without calibration), which is a major drawback for prediction in ungauged basins, or for use in global models. This paper is aimed at deriving physically based parameterizations of the storage-discharge relationship relating to subsurface flow. These parameterizations are derived through a two-step up-scaling procedure: firstly, through simulations with a physically based (Darcian) subsurface flow model for idealized three dimensional rectangular hillslopes, accounting for within-hillslope random heterogeneity of soil hydraulic properties, and secondly, through subsequent up-scaling to the catchment scale by accounting for between-hillslope and within-catchment heterogeneity of topographic features (e.g., slope). These theoretical simulation results produced parameterizations of the storage-discharge relationship in terms of soil hydraulic properties, topographic slope and their heterogeneities, which were consistent with results of previous studies. Yet, regionalization of the resulting storage-discharge relations across 50 actual catchments in eastern United States, and a comparison of the regionalized results with equivalent empirical results obtained on the basis of analysis of observed streamflow recession curves, revealed a systematic inconsistency. It was found that the difference between the theoretical and empirically derived results could be explained, to first order, by climate in the form of climatic aridity index. This suggests a possible codependence of climate, soils, vegetation and topographic properties, and suggests that subsurface flow parameterization needed for ungauged locations must

  4. The Colorado Haemophilia Paediatric Joint Physical Examination Scale: normal values and interrater reliability.

    PubMed

    Hacker, M R; Funk, S M; Manco-Johnson, M J

    2007-01-01

    Persons with haemophilia often experience their first joint haemorrhage in early childhood. Recurrent bleeding into a joint may lead to significant morbidity, specifically haemophilic arthropathy. Early identification of the onset and progression of joint damage is critical to preserving joint structure and function. Physical examination is the most feasible approach to monitor joint health. Our group developed the Colorado Haemophilia Paediatric Joint Physical Examination Scale to identify earlier signs of joint degeneration and incorporate developmentally appropriate tasks for assessing joint function in young children. This study's objectives were to establish normal ranges for this scale and assess interrater reliability. The ankles, knees and elbows of 72 healthy boys aged 1 through 7 years were evaluated by a physical therapist to establish normal ranges. Exactly 10 boys in each age category from 2 to 7 years were evaluated by a second physical therapist to determine interrater reliability. The original scale was modified to account for the finding that mild angulation in the weight-bearing joints is developmentally normal. The interrater reliability of the scale ranged from fair to good, underscoring the need for physical therapists to have specific training in the orthopaedic assessment of very young children and the measurement error inherent in the goniometer. Modifications to axial alignment scoring will allow the scale to distinguish healthy joints from those suffering frequent haemarthroses. PMID:17212728

  5. Scaling effects for piezoelectric energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, D.; Beeby, S. P.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a fundamental investigation into scaling effects for the mechanical properties and electrical output power of piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters. The mechanical properties investigated in this paper include resonant frequency of the harvester and its frequency tunability, which is essential for the harvester to operate efficiently under broadband excitations. Electrical output power studied includes cases when the harvester is excited under both constant vibration acceleration and constant vibration amplitude. The energy harvester analysed in this paper is based on a cantilever structure, which is typical of most vibration energy harvesters. Both detailed mathematical derivation and simulation are presented. Furthermore, various piezoelectric materials used in MEMS and non-MEMS harvesters are also considered in the scaling analysis.

  6. High response piezoelectric and piezoresistive materials for fast, low voltage switching: simulation and theory of transduction physics at the nanometer-scale.

    PubMed

    Newns, Dennis M; Elmegreen, Bruce G; Liu, Xiao-Hu; Martyna, Glenn J

    2012-07-17

    Field effect transistors are reaching the limits imposed by the scaling of materials and the electrostatic gating physics underlying the device. In this Communication, a new type of switch based on different physics, which combines known piezoelectric and piezoresistive materials, is described and is shown by theory and simulation to achieve gigahertz digital switching at low voltage (0.1 V). PMID:22689473

  7. Physical Methods for Intracellular Delivery: Practical Aspects from Laboratory Use to Industrial-Scale Processing

    PubMed Central

    Meacham, J. Mark; Durvasula, Kiranmai; Degertekin, F. Levent; Fedorov, Andrei G.

    2015-01-01

    Effective intracellular delivery is a significant impediment to research and therapeutic applications at all processing scales. Physical delivery methods have long demonstrated the ability to deliver cargo molecules directly to the cytoplasm or nucleus, and the mechanisms underlying the most common approaches (microinjection, electroporation, and sonoporation) have been extensively investigated. In this review, we discuss established approaches, as well as emerging techniques (magnetofection, optoinjection, and combined modalities). In addition to operating principles and implementation strategies, we address applicability and limitations of various in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo platforms. Importantly, we perform critical assessments regarding (1) treatment efficacy with diverse cell types and delivered cargo molecules, (2) suitability to different processing scales (from single cell to large populations), (3) suitability for automation/integration with existing workflows, and (4) multiplexing potential and flexibility/adaptability to enable rapid changeover between treatments of varied cell types. Existing techniques typically fall short in one or more of these criteria; however, introduction of micro-/nanotechnology concepts, as well as synergistic coupling of complementary method(s), can improve performance and applicability of a particular approach, overcoming barriers to practical implementation. For this reason, we emphasize these strategies in examining recent advances in development of delivery systems. PMID:23813915

  8. Resolving Lyman-alpha Emission On Physical Scales < 270 pc at z > 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayliss, Matthew

    2014-10-01

    We propose ACS-WFC Ramp narrowband imaging of six strongly lensed Lyman-alpha Emitters (LAEs) at z > 4 that will spatially resolve the Lyman-alpha line emitting regions on scales < 270 pc. The best available observations (HST, Spitzer, 10m ground based telescopes) are unable to provide robust measurements of the structure of these galaxies from blank field studies, but strong gravitational lensing provides a unique opportunity to peer into the heart of young star forming galaxies at high redshift and address outstanding questions regarding their morphology and evolution. Strong lensing magnifies each of our target LAEs, increasing the effective spatial resolution of ACS-WFC such that the point spread function will correspond to physical scales < 270 parsecs within all six z > 4 galaxies. Additionally, the boost in flux due to gravitational lensing makes our proposed targets the brightest sources of their kind at these redshifts, in spite of the fact that they are intrinsically ~L* LAEs. The proposed observations will probe the morphological properties of Lyman-alpha and UV continuum emission in typical/representative high-redshift LAEs with signal-to-noise and spatial resolution comparable to studies of Lyman-alpha emitting galaxies in the z ~ 0.1 universe. The resulting data will bridge the gap between deep ground-based studies of blank field LAEs at high redshift, and detailed studies of low-redshift LAEs.

  9. Physical methods for intracellular delivery: practical aspects from laboratory use to industrial-scale processing.

    PubMed

    Meacham, J Mark; Durvasula, Kiranmai; Degertekin, F Levent; Fedorov, Andrei G

    2014-02-01

    Effective intracellular delivery is a significant impediment to research and therapeutic applications at all processing scales. Physical delivery methods have long demonstrated the ability to deliver cargo molecules directly to the cytoplasm or nucleus, and the mechanisms underlying the most common approaches (microinjection, electroporation, and sonoporation) have been extensively investigated. In this review, we discuss established approaches, as well as emerging techniques (magnetofection, optoinjection, and combined modalities). In addition to operating principles and implementation strategies, we address applicability and limitations of various in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo platforms. Importantly, we perform critical assessments regarding (1) treatment efficacy with diverse cell types and delivered cargo molecules, (2) suitability to different processing scales (from single cell to large populations), (3) suitability for automation/integration with existing workflows, and (4) multiplexing potential and flexibility/adaptability to enable rapid changeover between treatments of varied cell types. Existing techniques typically fall short in one or more of these criteria; however, introduction of micro-/nanotechnology concepts, as well as synergistic coupling of complementary method(s), can improve performance and applicability of a particular approach, overcoming barriers to practical implementation. For this reason, we emphasize these strategies in examining recent advances in development of delivery systems. PMID:23813915

  10. Multi-scale/multi-physical modeling in head/disk interface of magnetic data storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Pil Seung; Smith, Robert; Vemuri, Sesha Hari; Jhon, Young In; Tak, Kyungjae; Moon, Il; Biegler, Lorenz T.; Jhon, Myung S.

    2012-04-01

    The model integration of the head-disk interface (HDI) in the hard disk drive system, which includes the hierarchy of highly interactive layers (magnetic layer, carbon overcoat (COC), lubricant, and air bearing system (ABS)), has recently been focused upon to resolve technical barriers and enhance reliability. Heat-assisted magnetic recording especially demands that the model simultaneously incorporates thermal and mechanical phenomena by considering the enormous combinatorial cases of materials and multi-scale/multi-physical phenomena. In this paper, we explore multi-scale/multi-physical simulation methods for HDI, which will holistically integrate magnetic layers, COC, lubricants, and ABS in non-isothermal conditions.

  11. Psychometric Evaluation of the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale in Adults with Functional Limitations.

    PubMed

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Bekhet, Abir; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A

    2016-01-01

    Enjoyment is an important construct for understanding physical activity participation, and it has not been examined in adults with functional limitations. This secondary analysis reported the reliability and validity of the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) in a convenience sample of 40 adults with functional limitations. The participants completed the PACES, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and the Late Life Function and Disability Instrument (LLFDI) prior to beginning a 12-week feasibility dance intervention study. Results indicated reliability as Cronbach's alpha was .95 and mean inter-item correlation was .52. To further support reliability, homogeneity of the instrument was evaluated using item-to-total scale correlations. Homogeneity was supported as all items had corrected item-to-total correlations greater than .30. For validity, the PACES was significantly related to only the Physical Function component of the LLFDI (r = .38, p = .02), but not the CES-D. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 3-factor structure that accounted for 73.76% of the variance. This feasibility intervention dance study represented the first attempt to examine the psychometric properties of the PACES in adults with functional limitations. The findings demonstrate support for the scale's reliability and validity among adults with functional limitations. Results are informative as further psychometric testing of the PACES is recommended using randomized clinical trials with larger sample sizes. Enjoyment for physical activity is an important construct for understanding physical activity participation in adults with functional limitations. PMID:26980666

  12. Probing the scale of new physics by Advanced LIGO/VIRGO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev, P. S. Bhupal; Mazumdar, A.

    2016-05-01

    We show that if the new physics beyond the standard model is associated with a first-order phase transition around 107- 108 GeV , the energy density stored in the resulting stochastic gravitational waves and the corresponding peak frequency are within the projected final sensitivity of the advanced LIGO/VIRGO detectors. We discuss some possible new physics scenarios that could arise at such energies, and in particular, the consequences for Peccei-Quinn and supersymmetry breaking scales.

  13. Sleuth at CDF: A Quasi-model-independent search for new electroweak scale physics

    SciTech Connect

    Choudalakis, Georgios; /MIT, LNS

    2007-10-01

    These proceedings describe Sleuth, a quasi-model-independent search strategy targeting new electroweak scale physics, and its application to 927 pb{sup -1} of CDF II data. Exclusive final states are analyzed for an excess of data beyond the Standard Model prediction at large summed scalar transverse momentum. This analysis of high-pT data represents one of the most encompassing searches so far conducted for new physics at the energy frontier.

  14. Investigation of the physical scaling of sea spray spume droplet production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairall, C. W.; Banner, M. L.; Peirson, W. L.; Asher, W.; Morison, R. P.

    2009-10-01

    In this paper we report on a laboratory study, the Spray Production and Dynamics Experiment (SPANDEX), conducted at the University of New South Wales Water Research Laboratory in Australia. The goals of SPANDEX were to illuminate physical aspects of spume droplet production and dispersion; verify theoretical simplifications used to estimate the source function from ambient droplet concentration measurements; and examine the relationship between the implied source strength and forcing parameters such as wind speed, surface turbulent stress, and wave properties. Observations of droplet profiles give reasonable confirmation of the basic power law profile relationship that is commonly used to relate droplet concentrations to the surface source strength. This essentially confirms that, even in a wind tunnel, there is a near balance between droplet production and removal by gravitational settling. The observations also indicate considerable droplet mass may be present for sizes larger than 1.5 mm diameter. Phase Doppler Anemometry observations revealed significant mean horizontal and vertical slip velocities that were larger closer to the surface. The magnitude seems too large to be an acceleration time scale effect. Scaling of the droplet production surface source strength proved to be difficult. The wind speed forcing varied only 23% and the stress increased a factor of 2.2. Yet, the source strength increased by about a factor of 7. We related this to an estimate of surface wave energy flux through calculations of the standard deviation of small-scale water surface disturbance, a wave-stress parameterization, and numerical wave model simulations. This energy index only increased by a factor of 2.3 with the wind forcing. Nonetheless, a graph of spray mass surface flux versus surface disturbance energy is quasi-linear with a substantial threshold.

  15. Properties of the patient administered questionnaires: new scales measuring physical and psychological symptoms of hip and knee disorders.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Carol A; Ranawat, Amar S; Meftah, Morteza; Koob, Trevor W; Ranawat, Chitranjan S

    2012-04-01

    The Patient Administered Questionnaires (PAQ) incorporate physical and psychological symptoms into one scale and permit more comprehensive self-reports for hip and knee disorders. We tested the psychometric properties of the PAQ-Hip and PAQ-Knee. Correlations between baseline PAQ-Hip and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) were .39 to .72 (n = 102), .39 to .69 for score change (n = 68 post-total hip arthroplasty), and most κ values > .60 (n = 50). Correlations between baseline PAQ-Knee and WOMAC were .35 to .64 (n = 100), .62 to .79 for score change (n = 43 post-total knee arthroplasty), and most κ values >.60 (n = 51). For both scales, effect sizes were higher than for the WOMAC, and there was modest correlation between physical and psychological questions, indicating these concepts are not completely interchangeable. Thus, the PAQ scales have strong psychometric properties and are unique compared with existing scales by including physical and psychological symptoms. PMID:21945079

  16. Psychometric Properties of the “Sport Motivation Scale (SMS)” Adapted to Physical Education

    PubMed Central

    Granero-Gallegos, Antonio; Baena-Extremera, Antonio; Gómez-López, Manuel; Sánchez-Fuentes, José Antonio; Abraldes, J. Arturo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the factor structure of a Spanish version of the Sport Motivation Scale adapted to physical education. A second aim was to test which one of three hypothesized models (three, five and seven-factor) provided best model fit. 758 Spanish high school students completed the Sport Motivation Scale adapted for Physical Education and also completed the Learning and Performance Orientation in Physical Education Classes Questionnaire. We examined the factor structure of each model using confirmatory factor analysis and also assessed internal consistency and convergent validity. The results showed that all three models in Spanish produce good indicators of fitness, but we suggest using the seven-factor model (χ2/gl = 2.73; ECVI = 1.38) as it produces better values when adapted to physical education, that five-factor model (χ2/gl = 2.82; ECVI = 1.44) and three-factor model (χ2/gl = 3.02; ECVI = 1.53). Key Points Physical education research conducted in Spain has used the version of SMS designed to assess motivation in sport, but validity reliability and validity results in physical education have not been reported. Results of the present study lend support to the factorial validity and internal reliability of three alternative factor structures (3, 5, and 7 factors) of SMS adapted to Physical Education in Spanish. Although all three models in Spanish produce good indicators of fitness, but we suggest using the seven-factor model. PMID:25435772

  17. Psychometric Properties of the "Sport Motivation Scale (SMS)" Adapted to Physical Education.

    PubMed

    Granero-Gallegos, Antonio; Baena-Extremera, Antonio; Gómez-López, Manuel; Sánchez-Fuentes, José Antonio; Abraldes, J Arturo

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the factor structure of a Spanish version of the Sport Motivation Scale adapted to physical education. A second aim was to test which one of three hypothesized models (three, five and seven-factor) provided best model fit. 758 Spanish high school students completed the Sport Motivation Scale adapted for Physical Education and also completed the Learning and Performance Orientation in Physical Education Classes Questionnaire. We examined the factor structure of each model using confirmatory factor analysis and also assessed internal consistency and convergent validity. The results showed that all three models in Spanish produce good indicators of fitness, but we suggest using the seven-factor model (χ(2)/gl = 2.73; ECVI = 1.38) as it produces better values when adapted to physical education, that five-factor model (χ(2)/gl = 2.82; ECVI = 1.44) and three-factor model (χ(2)/gl = 3.02; ECVI = 1.53). Key PointsPhysical education research conducted in Spain has used the version of SMS designed to assess motivation in sport, but validity reliability and validity results in physical education have not been reported.Results of the present study lend support to the factorial validity and internal reliability of three alternative factor structures (3, 5, and 7 factors) of SMS adapted to Physical Education in Spanish.Although all three models in Spanish produce good indicators of fitness, but we suggest using the seven-factor model. PMID:25435772

  18. Development of four self-report measures of job stressors and strain: Interpersonal Conflict at Work Scale, Organizational Constraints Scale, Quantitative Workload Inventory, and Physical Symptoms Inventory.

    PubMed

    Spector, P E; Jex, S M

    1998-10-01

    Despite the widespread use of self-report measures of both job-related stressors and strains, relatively few carefully developed scales for which validity data exist are available. In this article, we discuss 3 job stressor scales (Interpersonal Conflict at Work Scale, Organizational Constraints Scale, and Quantitative Workload Inventory) and 1 job strain scale (Physical Symptoms Inventory). Using meta-analysis, we combined the results of 18 studies to provide estimates of relations between our scales and other variables. Data showed moderate convergent validity for the 3 job stressor scales, suggesting some objectively to these self-reports. Norms for each scale are provided. PMID:9805281

  19. The Effect of Physical Education Climates on Elementary Students' Physical Activity Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Danielle D.; Robinson, Leah E.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Gell, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Background: With the growing need for children from underserved populations to be physically active it is imperative to create developmentally appropriate and enjoyable physical education programs that promote physical activity. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of mastery and performance climates on physical activity during…

  20. Monitoring Physical and Biogeochemical Dynamics of Uranium Bioremediation at the Intermediate Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarrell, A. N.; Figueroa, L. A.; Rodriguez, D.; Haas, A.; Revil, A.

    2011-12-01

    Subsurface uranium above desired levels for aquifer use categories exists naturally and from historic mining and milling practices. In situ bioimmobilization offers a cost effective alternative to conventional pump and treat methods by stimulating growth of microorganisms that lead to the reduction and precipitation of uranium. Vital to the long-term success of in situ bioimmobilization is the ability to successfully predict and demonstrate treatment effectiveness to assure that regulatory goals are met. However, successfully monitoring the progress over time is difficult and requires long-term stewardship to ensure effective treatment due to complex physical and biogeochemical heterogeneity. In order to better understand these complexities and the resultant effect on uranium immobilization, innovative systematic monitoring approaches with multiple performance indicators must be investigated. A key issue for uranium bioremediation is the long term stability of solid-phase reduction products. It has been shown that a combination of data from electrode-based monitoring, self-potential monitoring, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), and water level sensors provides insight for identifying and localizing bioremediation activity and can provide better predictions of deleterious biogeochemical change such as pore clogging. In order to test the proof-of-concept of these sensing techniques and to deconvolve redox activity from other electric potential changing events, an intermediate scale 3D tank experiment has been developed. Well-characterized materials will be packed into the tank and an artificial groundwater will flow across the tank through a constant-head boundary. The experiment will utilize these sensing methods to image the electrical current produced by bacteria as well as indications of when and where electrical activity is occurring, such as with the reduction of radionuclides. This work will expand upon current knowledge by exploring the behavior of uranium

  1. A multi-scale approach to the physics of ion beam cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solov'yov, A. V.; Surdutovich, E.; Scifoni, E.; Mishustin, I.; Greiner, W.

    2008-12-01

    We are developing a multi-scale approach to understanding the physics related to ion/proton-beam cancer therapy and the calculation of the probability of DNA damage as a result of irradiation of tumours with energetic ions (up to 430 MeV/u). This approach is inclusive with respect to different scales, starting from the long scale, defined by the ion stopping, followed by a smaller scale, defined by secondary electrons and radicals, and ending with the shortest scale, defined by interactions of secondaries with the DNA. We present calculations of the probabilities of single and double strand breaks of DNA and suggest a way to further elaborate on such calculations.

  2. Local topology, multi-scale interactions and stochasticity in space plasma physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Materassi, M.; Consolini, G.

    2014-12-01

    In space physics very important phenomena, as reconnection, are determined by the local topology of the streamlines and magnetic lines of plasma, and by multi-scale interactions. In this work, an attempt is presented to deal with dynamical variables highlighting both the local topology and the role of space scale. In order to promote local topology to the role of a dynamical variable, use is made of the gradients of the velocity and of the magnetic field, through which the description of the local topology becomes very transparent. Such a formulation, well explored in Hydrodynamics, is extended here to the MHD. The new dynamical variables evolve in a finite scale stochastic dynamics: letting the scale appear explicitly as a variable of the problem helps studying inter-scale processes, while statistical aspects of topological variable dynamics are expected to be extremely relevant in the turbulent regime, where a stochastic field scenario is, in practice, taking place.

  3. Affective Response to Physical Activity: Testing for Measurement Invariance of the Physical Activity Affect Scale across Active and Non-Active Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Laura C.; Tompkins, Sara Anne; Schmiege, Sarah J.; Nilsson, Renea; Bryan, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Affective responses to physical activity are assumed to play a role in exercise initiation and maintenance. The Physical Activity Affect Scale measures four dimensions of an individual's affective response to exercise. Group differences in the interpretation of scale items can impact the interpretability of mean differences, underscoring the need…

  4. The projected effect of scaling up midwifery.

    PubMed

    Homer, Caroline S E; Friberg, Ingrid K; Dias, Marcos Augusto Bastos; ten Hoope-Bender, Petra; Sandall, Jane; Speciale, Anna Maria; Bartlett, Linda A

    2014-09-20

    We used the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) to estimate deaths averted if midwifery was scaled up in 78 countries classified into three tertiles using the Human Development Index (HDI). We selected interventions in LiST to encompass the scope of midwifery practice, including prepregnancy, antenatal, labour, birth, and post-partum care, and family planning. Modest (10%), substantial (25%), or universal (95%) scale-up scenarios from present baseline levels were all found to reduce maternal deaths, stillbirths, and neonatal deaths by 2025 in all countries tested. With universal coverage of midwifery interventions for maternal and newborn health, excluding family planning, for the countries with the lowest HDI, 61% of all maternal, fetal, and neonatal deaths could be prevented. Family planning alone could prevent 57% of all deaths because of reduced fertility and fewer pregnancies. Midwifery with both family planning and interventions for maternal and newborn health could avert a total of 83% of all maternal deaths, stillbirths, and neonatal deaths. The inclusion of specialist care in the scenarios resulted in an increased number of deaths being prevented, meaning that midwifery care has the greatest effect when provided within a functional health system with effective referral and transfer mechanisms to specialist care. PMID:24965814

  5. Cavitation erosion - scale effect and model investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiger, F.; Rutschmann, P.

    2015-12-01

    The experimental works presented in here contribute to the clarification of erosive effects of hydrodynamic cavitation. Comprehensive cavitation erosion test series were conducted for transient cloud cavitation in the shear layer of prismatic bodies. The erosion pattern and erosion rates were determined with a mineral based volume loss technique and with a metal based pit count system competitively. The results clarified the underlying scale effects and revealed a strong non-linear material dependency, which indicated significantly different damage processes for both material types. Furthermore, the size and dynamics of the cavitation clouds have been assessed by optical detection. The fluctuations of the cloud sizes showed a maximum value for those cavitation numbers related to maximum erosive aggressiveness. The finding suggests the suitability of a model approach which relates the erosion process to cavitation cloud dynamics. An enhanced experimental setup is projected to further clarify these issues.

  6. Study of the structure and physical properties of quasicrystals using large scale facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boissieu, Marc

    2012-04-01

    Quasicrystals have been puzzling scientists since their discovery. In this article we review some of the recent advances in this field and show how the use of large scale facilities has brought in decisive information for the understanding of their structure and physical properties.

  7. Psychological and Physical Well-Being in the Elderly: The Perceived Well-Being Scale (PWB).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reker, Gary T.; Wong, Paul T. P.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the development of the Perceived Well-Being Scale (PWB), which allows for separate assessment of psychological and physical well-being. Several studies bearing on the psychometric properties and usefulness of the PWB are presented and the implications of the findings are discussed. (Author/CT)

  8. Retrospective Assessment of Childhood Sexual and Physical Abuse: A Comparison of Scaled and Behaviorally Specific Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiLillo, David; Fortier, Michelle A.; Hayes, Sarah A.; Trask, Emily; Perry, Andrea R.; Messman-Moore, Terri; Fauchier, Angele; Nash, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    This study compared retrospective reports of childhood sexual and physical abuse as assessed by two measures: the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), which uses a Likert-type scaling approach, and the Computer Assisted Maltreatment Inventory (CAMI), which employs a behaviorally specific means of assessment. Participants included 1,195…

  9. Introduction to SCALE-UP: Student-Centered Activities for Large Enrollment University Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beichner, Robert J.; Saul, Jeffery M.; Allain, Rhett J.; Deardorff, Duane L.; Abbott, David S.

    SCALE-UP is an extension of the highly successful IMPEC (Integrated Math, Physics, Engineering, and Chemistry) project, one of North Carolina State's curricular reform efforts undertaken as part of the SUCCEED coalition. The authors utilize the interactive, collaboratively based instruction that worked well in smaller class settings and find ways…

  10. Reliability and Construct Validity of Turkish Version of Physical Education Activities Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memis, Ugur Altay

    2013-01-01

    This research was conducted to examine the reliability and construct validity of Turkish version of physical education activities scale (PEAS) which was developed by Thomason (2008). Participants in this study included 313 secondary and high school students from 7th to 11th grades. To analyse the data, confirmatory factor analysis, post hoc…

  11. Evaluation of Social Cognitive Scaling Response Options in the Physical Activity Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Ryan E.; Matheson, Deborah Hunt; Mark, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the reliability, variability, and predictive validity of two common scaling response formats (semantic differential, Likert-type) and two numbers of response options (5-point, 7-point) in the physical activity domain. Constructs of the theory of planned behavior were chosen in this analysis based on its…

  12. The Psychometric Properties of the Physical Education Lesson Attitude Scale for Preservice Classroom Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oncu, Erman

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Physical Education Attitude Scale for Preservice Classroom Teachers (PEAS-PCT). The study was conducted on 561 Turkish preservice classroom teachers at the end of the 2011-2012 Fall Semester. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to ascertain the…

  13. The Children's Perceived Locus of Causality Scale for Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pannekoek, Linda; Piek, Jan P.; Hagger, Martin S.

    2014-01-01

    A mixed methods design was applied to evaluate the application of the Perceived Locus of Causality scale (PLOC) to preadolescent samples in physical education settings. Subsequent to minor item adaptations to accommodate the assessment of younger samples, qualitative pilot tests were performed (N = 15). Children's reports indicated the need…

  14. The VCOP Scale: A Measure of Overprotection in Parents of Physically Vulnerable Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Logan; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Developed Vulnerable Child/Overprotecting Parent Scale to measure overprotecting versus optimal developmental stimulation tendencies for parents of physically vulnerable children. Items were administered to parents whose parenting techniques had been rated as either highly overprotective or as optimal by group of physicians and other…

  15. Gauge Physics of Spin Hall Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Seng Ghee; Jalil, Mansoor B. A.; Ho, Cong Son; Siu, Zhuobin; Murakami, Shuichi

    2015-12-01

    Spin Hall effect (SHE) has been discussed in the context of Kubo formulation, geometric physics, spin orbit force, and numerous semi-classical treatments. It can be confusing if the different pictures have partial or overlapping claims of contribution to the SHE. In this article, we present a gauge-theoretic, time-momentum elucidation, which provides a general SHE equation of motion, that unifies under one theoretical framework, all contributions of SHE conductivity due to the kinetic, the spin orbit force (Yang-Mills), and the geometric (Murakami-Fujita) effects. Our work puts right an ambiguity surrounding previously partial treatments involving the Kubo, semiclassical, Berry curvatures, or the spin orbit force. Our full treatment shows the Rashba 2DEG SHE conductivity to be instead of -, and Rashba heavy hole instead of -. This renewed treatment suggests a need to re-derive and re-calculate previously studied SHE conductivity.

  16. Gauge Physics of Spin Hall Effect

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Seng Ghee; Jalil, Mansoor B. A.; Ho, Cong Son; Siu, Zhuobin; Murakami, Shuichi

    2015-01-01

    Spin Hall effect (SHE) has been discussed in the context of Kubo formulation, geometric physics, spin orbit force, and numerous semi-classical treatments. It can be confusing if the different pictures have partial or overlapping claims of contribution to the SHE. In this article, we present a gauge-theoretic, time-momentum elucidation, which provides a general SHE equation of motion, that unifies under one theoretical framework, all contributions of SHE conductivity due to the kinetic, the spin orbit force (Yang-Mills), and the geometric (Murakami-Fujita) effects. Our work puts right an ambiguity surrounding previously partial treatments involving the Kubo, semiclassical, Berry curvatures, or the spin orbit force. Our full treatment shows the Rashba 2DEG SHE conductivity to be instead of −, and Rashba heavy hole instead of −. This renewed treatment suggests a need to re-derive and re-calculate previously studied SHE conductivity. PMID:26689260

  17. Physics and Dynamics Coupling Across Scales in the Next Generation CESM. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bacmeister, Julio T.

    2015-06-12

    This project examines physics/dynamics coupling, that is, exchange of meteorological profiles and tendencies between an atmospheric model’s dynamical core and its various physics parameterizations. Most model physics parameterizations seek to represent processes that occur on scales smaller than the smallest scale resolved by the dynamical core. As a consequence a key conceptual aspect of parameterizations is an assumption about the subgrid variability of quantities such as temperature, humidity or vertical wind. Most existing parameterizations of processes such as turbulence, convection, cloud, and gravity wave drag make relatively ad hoc assumptions about this variability and are forced to introduce empirical parameters, i.e., “tuning knobs” to obtain realistic simulations. These knobs make systematic dependences on model grid size difficult to quantify.

  18. Regional scale landslide risk assessment with a dynamic physical model - development, application and uncertainty analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna, Byron Quan; Vidar Vangelsten, Bjørn; Liu, Zhongqiang; Eidsvig, Unni; Nadim, Farrokh

    2013-04-01

    Landslide risk must be assessed at the appropriate scale in order to allow effective risk management. At the moment, few deterministic models exist that can do all the computations required for a complete landslide risk assessment at a regional scale. This arises from the difficulty to precisely define the location and volume of the released mass and from the inability of the models to compute the displacement with a large amount of individual initiation areas (computationally exhaustive). This paper presents a medium-scale, dynamic physical model for rapid mass movements in mountainous and volcanic areas. The deterministic nature of the approach makes it possible to apply it to other sites since it considers the frictional equilibrium conditions for the initiation process, the rheological resistance of the displaced flow for the run-out process and fragility curve that links intensity to economic loss for each building. The model takes into account the triggering effect of an earthquake, intense rainfall and a combination of both (spatial and temporal). The run-out module of the model considers the flow as a 2-D continuum medium solving the equations of mass balance and momentum conservation. The model is embedded in an open source environment geographical information system (GIS), it is computationally efficient and it is transparent (understandable and comprehensible) for the end-user. The model was applied to a virtual region, assessing landslide hazard, vulnerability and risk. A Monte Carlo simulation scheme was applied to quantify, propagate and communicate the effects of uncertainty in input parameters on the final results. In this technique, the input distributions are recreated through sampling and the failure criteria are calculated for each stochastic realisation of the site properties. The model is able to identify the released volumes of the critical slopes and the areas threatened by the run-out intensity. The obtained final outcome is the estimation

  19. The role of physical habitat and sampling effort on estimates of benthic macroinvertebrate taxonomic richness at basin and site scales.

    PubMed

    Silva, Déborah R O; Ligeiro, Raphael; Hughes, Robert M; Callisto, Marcos

    2016-06-01

    Taxonomic richness is one of the most important measures of biological diversity in ecological studies, including those with stream macroinvertebrates. However, it is impractical to measure the true richness of any site directly by sampling. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of sampling effort on estimates of macroinvertebrate family and Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) genera richness at two scales: basin and stream site. In addition, we tried to determine which environmental factors at the site scale most influenced the amount of sampling effort needed. We sampled 39 sites in the Cerrado biome (neotropical savanna). In each site, we obtained 11 equidistant samples of the benthic assemblage and multiple physical habitat measurements. The observed basin-scale richness achieved a consistent estimation from Chao 1, Jack 1, and Jack 2 richness estimators. However, at the site scale, there was a constant increase in the observed number of taxa with increased number of samples. Models that best explained the slope of site-scale sampling curves (representing the necessity of greater sampling effort) included metrics that describe habitat heterogeneity, habitat structure, anthropogenic disturbance, and water quality, for both macroinvertebrate family and EPT genera richness. Our results demonstrate the importance of considering basin- and site-scale sampling effort in ecological surveys and that taxa accumulation curves and richness estimators are good tools for assessing sampling efficiency. The physical habitat explained a significant amount of the sampling effort needed. Therefore, future studies should explore the possible implications of physical habitat characteristics when developing sampling objectives, study designs, and calculating the needed sampling effort. PMID:27165604

  20. Pore-scaling Modeling of Physical Property Changes During CO2 Injection into Sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keehm, Y.; Yoo, G.

    2009-12-01

    Carbon dioxide is a green-house gas and is believed to be an important factor in global warming and climate change. Many countries around the world are working on reducing and sequestrating CO2 to follow international regulations. One of promising area for CO2 sequestration is the storage in geological formation. To accurately determine the performance of geological injection and storage, quantification and monitoring of the physical property changes are essential. In this paper, we are presenting a new approach for the monitoring of CO2 sequestration in sandstone using pore-scale simulation techniques. The method consists of three steps: 1) acquisition of high-resolution pore microstructures by X-ray micro-tomography; 2) CO2 injection simulation using lattice-Boltzmann (LB) two-phase flow simulation; and 3) FEM property simulations (electrical and elastic) at different CO2 saturations during the injection. We use three different sandstone samples: sand-pack, Berea sandstone, and B2 sandstone from offshore of Korea. The porosity of the sand-pack is 42% and that of two sandstone samples is around 17%. The digital pore structures were obtained by X-ray micro-tomography with a spatial resolution of 2 micron. The LB two-phase flow simulation is then conducted by injecting CO2 into fully water-saturated samples and gives a realistic movement of CO2 in the pore structure. At each CO2 saturation, electrical and elastic properties are determined by pore-scale FEM simulation techniques. The electrical conductivity decreases almost linearly as CO2 saturations increases; however, the P-wave velocity decrease more rapidly at the low CO2 saturation (up to 30%), than at higher saturation. S-wave velocity does not show any significant changes. The higher porosity rock shows more sensitivity to saturation changes. The modeling shows that we can have quantitative relations between physical properties and CO2 saturation, which can be used to determine injection performance and

  1. Effects of reservoir heterogeneity on scaling of effective mass transfer coefficient for solute transport.

    PubMed

    Leung, Juliana Y; Srinivasan, Sanjay

    2016-09-01

    Modeling transport process at large scale requires proper scale-up of subsurface heterogeneity and an understanding of its interaction with the underlying transport mechanisms. A technique based on volume averaging is applied to quantitatively assess the scaling characteristics of effective mass transfer coefficient in heterogeneous reservoir models. The effective mass transfer coefficient represents the combined contribution from diffusion and dispersion to the transport of non-reactive solute particles within a fluid phase. Although treatment of transport problems with the volume averaging technique has been published in the past, application to geological systems exhibiting realistic spatial variability remains a challenge. Previously, the authors developed a new procedure where results from a fine-scale numerical flow simulation reflecting the full physics of the transport process albeit over a sub-volume of the reservoir are integrated with the volume averaging technique to provide effective description of transport properties. The procedure is extended such that spatial averaging is performed at the local-heterogeneity scale. In this paper, the transport of a passive (non-reactive) solute is simulated on multiple reservoir models exhibiting different patterns of heterogeneities, and the scaling behavior of effective mass transfer coefficient (Keff) is examined and compared. One such set of models exhibit power-law (fractal) characteristics, and the variability of dispersion and Keff with scale is in good agreement with analytical expressions described in the literature. This work offers an insight into the impacts of heterogeneity on the scaling of effective transport parameters. A key finding is that spatial heterogeneity models with similar univariate and bivariate statistics may exhibit different scaling characteristics because of the influence of higher order statistics. More mixing is observed in the channelized models with higher-order continuity. It

  2. Effects of reservoir heterogeneity on scaling of effective mass transfer coefficient for solute transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Juliana Y.; Srinivasan, Sanjay

    2016-09-01

    Modeling transport process at large scale requires proper scale-up of subsurface heterogeneity and an understanding of its interaction with the underlying transport mechanisms. A technique based on volume averaging is applied to quantitatively assess the scaling characteristics of effective mass transfer coefficient in heterogeneous reservoir models. The effective mass transfer coefficient represents the combined contribution from diffusion and dispersion to the transport of non-reactive solute particles within a fluid phase. Although treatment of transport problems with the volume averaging technique has been published in the past, application to geological systems exhibiting realistic spatial variability remains a challenge. Previously, the authors developed a new procedure where results from a fine-scale numerical flow simulation reflecting the full physics of the transport process albeit over a sub-volume of the reservoir are integrated with the volume averaging technique to provide effective description of transport properties. The procedure is extended such that spatial averaging is performed at the local-heterogeneity scale. In this paper, the transport of a passive (non-reactive) solute is simulated on multiple reservoir models exhibiting different patterns of heterogeneities, and the scaling behavior of effective mass transfer coefficient (Keff) is examined and compared. One such set of models exhibit power-law (fractal) characteristics, and the variability of dispersion and Keff with scale is in good agreement with analytical expressions described in the literature. This work offers an insight into the impacts of heterogeneity on the scaling of effective transport parameters. A key finding is that spatial heterogeneity models with similar univariate and bivariate statistics may exhibit different scaling characteristics because of the influence of higher order statistics. More mixing is observed in the channelized models with higher-order continuity. It

  3. Precision Higgs Physics, Effective Field Theory, and Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henning, Brian Quinn

    The recent discovery of the Higgs boson calls for detailed studies of its properties. As precision measurements are indirect probes of new physics, the appropriate theoretical framework is effective field theory. In the first part of this thesis, we present a practical three-step procedure of using the Standard Model effective field theory (SM EFT) to connect ultraviolet (UV) models of new physics with weak scale precision observables. With this procedure, one can interpret precision measurements as constraints on the UV model concerned. We give a detailed explanation for calculating the effective action up to one-loop order in a manifestly gauge covariant fashion. The covariant derivative expansion dramatically simplifies the process of matching a UV model with the SM EFT, and also makes available a universal formalism that is easy to use for a variety of UV models. A few general aspects of renormalization group running effects and choosing operator bases are discussed. Finally, we provide mapping results between the bosonic sector of the SM EFT and a complete set of precision electroweak and Higgs observables to which present and near future experiments are sensitive. With a detailed understanding of how to use the SM EFT, we then turn to applications and study in detail two well-motivated test cases. The first is singlet scalar field that enables the first-order electroweak phase transition for baryogenesis; the second example is due to scalar tops in the MSSM. We find both Higgs and electroweak measurements are sensitive probes of these cases. The second part of this thesis centers around dark matter, and consists of two studies. In the first, we examine the effects of relic dark matter annihilations on big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). The magnitude of these effects scale simply with the dark matter mass and annihilation cross-section, which we derive. Estimates based on these scaling behaviors indicate that BBN severely constrains hadronic and radiative dark

  4. Sensitivity of the recent methane budget to LMDz sub-grid-scale physical parameterizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Locatelli, R.; Bousquet, P.; Saunois, M.; Chevallier, F.; Cressot, C.

    2015-09-01

    With the densification of surface observing networks and the development of remote sensing of greenhouse gases from space, estimations of methane (CH4) sources and sinks by inverse modeling are gaining additional constraining data but facing new challenges. The chemical transport model (CTM) linking the flux space to methane mixing ratio space must be able to represent these different types of atmospheric constraints for providing consistent flux estimations. Here we quantify the impact of sub-grid-scale physical parameterization errors on the global methane budget inferred by inverse modeling. We use the same inversion setup but different physical parameterizations within one CTM. Two different schemes for vertical diffusion, two others for deep convection, and one additional for thermals in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) are tested. Different atmospheric methane data sets are used as constraints (surface observations or satellite retrievals). At the global scale, methane emissions differ, on average, from 4.1 Tg CH4 per year due to the use of different sub-grid-scale parameterizations. Inversions using satellite total-column mixing ratios retrieved by GOSAT are less impacted, at the global scale, by errors in physical parameterizations. Focusing on large-scale atmospheric transport, we show that inversions using the deep convection scheme of Emanuel (1991) derive smaller interhemispheric gradients in methane emissions, indicating a slower interhemispheric exchange. At regional scale, the use of different sub-grid-scale parameterizations induces uncertainties ranging from 1.2 % (2.7 %) to 9.4 % (14.2 %) of methane emissions when using only surface measurements from a background (or an extended) surface network. Moreover, spatial distribution of methane emissions at regional scale can be very different, depending on both the physical parameterizations used for the modeling of the atmospheric transport and the observation data sets used to constrain the inverse

  5. Teachers' and Students' Perceptions of Effective Physics Teacher Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korur, Fikret; Eryilmaz, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Problem Statement: What do teachers and students in Turkey perceive as the common characteristics of effective physics teachers? Purpose of Study: The first aim was to investigate the common characteristics of effective physics teachers by asking students and teachers about the effects of teacher characteristics on student physics achievement and…

  6. Direct Physical Effects of CO2-Fertilization on Global Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindasamy, B.; Caldeira, K.; Mirin, A.; Wickett, M.

    2005-12-01

    CO2-fertilization affects plant growth, which modifies surface physical properties, altering the surface albedo and latent heat fluxes. Here we investigate how such changes to surface properties via CO2-fertilization, including changes in vegetation distribution, would directly affect the physical climate system. We know of no previous study that has investigated this question. Using a global three-dimensional climate-carbon model that simulates vegetation dynamics, we compare two multi-century simulations: a "Control" simulation with no emissions, and a "Fertilization-noGHG" simulation where the land biosphere is fertilized as a result of prescribed CO2 emissions, but where the climate model sees no additional greenhouse gas forcing. Our simulations indicate that the direct physical effect of CO2-fertilization could be warming over a timescale of a few centuries; we obtain an annual- and global-mean warming of about 0.65 K over 430 years in our model. The average land warming is 1.4 K. We find that this warming is mostly due to the albedo decrease in the Northern Hemisphere boreal forest regions. This albedo-based warming could partially offset the century-scale cooling effect of additional CO2 uptake due to CO2-fertilization. Further study is needed to confirm and better quantify our results.

  7. Effect of physical activity on body composition

    SciTech Connect

    Zanzi, I; Ellis, K J; Aloia, J; Cohn, S H

    1980-01-01

    It has been noted that the deleterious effects on bone calcium of prolonged periods of inactivity, such as bed rest, are halted following resumption of activity. It would seem possible in light of the observations that have been made, that exercise may stimulate bone formation and perhaps counter, to some extent, bone loss as observed in the osteoporosis of aging. The present study was designed to determine the relation between total body calcium, total body potassium and bone mineral content of the radius to the degree of physical activity in a population of normal subjects. Measurement of the calcium was made by in-vivo total body neutron activation analysis. Bone mineral content of the radius and total body potassium, (an index of lean body mass) were measured by photon absorptiometry and the whole body counter, respectively.

  8. A Scale Assessing Music Student Teachers' Rehearsal Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergee, Martin J.

    1992-01-01

    Describes the development of a scale for evaluating music student teachers' rehearsal effectiveness. Includes scale items representing aspects of rehearsal effectiveness for three interpretable factors: conducting technique, teacher-student rapport, and instructional skills. Advises that scaling of rehearsal effectiveness should be only part of a…

  9. Exergames: Increasing Physical Activity through Effective Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudella, Jennifer L.; Butz, Jennifer V.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the growing obesity epidemic in the United States, educators must consider new ways to increase physical activity in an effort to address obesity. There are a variety of ways educators can increase physical activity in the classroom, and exergames--video games that require physical movement in order to play--are a modern-day approach to…

  10. A tomographic physical phantom of the newborn child with real-time dosimetry. II. Scaling factors for calculation of mean organ dose in pediatric radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Staton, Robert J.; Jones, A. Kyle; Lee, Choonik; Hintenlang, David E.; Arreola, Manuel M.; Williams, Jonathon L.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2006-09-15

    Following the recent completion of a tomographic physical newborn dosimetry phantom with incorporated metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimetry system, it was necessary to derive scaling factors in order to calculate organ doses in the physical phantom given point dose measurements via the MOSFET dosimeters (preceding article in this issue). In this study, we present the initial development of scaling factors using projection radiograph data. These point-to-organ dose scaling factors (SF{sub POD}) were calculated using a computational phantom created from the same data set as the physical phantom, but which also includes numerous segmented internal organs and tissues. The creation of these scaling factors is discussed, as well as the errors associated when using only point dose measurements to calculate mean organ doses and effective doses in physical phantoms. Scaling factors for various organs ranged from as low as 0.70 to as high as 1.71. Also, the ability to incorporate improvements in the computational phantom into the physical phantom using scaling factors is discussed. An comprehensive set of SF{sub POD} values is presented in this article for application in pediatric radiography of newborn patients.

  11. Neutrino mass as a signal of TeV scale physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, Rabindra N.

    2016-07-01

    If the origin of neutrino masses is due to physics at the TeV scale, it would be of tremendous interest since it can be probed using ongoing collider as well as low energy rare process searches. So, a key question is: could the new physics behind neutrino masses be near the TeV scale? In this brief overview, I present arguments in favor of this possibility by presenting the example of TeV scale left-right symmetric models (LRSM) for neutrino mass based on type I seesaw paradigm. A particular issue with understanding the small neutrino masses in TeV scale LRSM is to understand the suppression of type II seesaw contribution to neutrino masses, which a priori could be much larger than desired. I discuss how using either D-parity breaking or by using supersymmetry, one can suppress these contributions to the desired level in a natural way. Experimental probes of this hypothesis are briefly touched upon. Constraints of supersymmetry and that of successful leptogenesis on the left-right scale are also emphasized. The former provides an upper limit and the latter, a lower limit on mWR.

  12. SCALE-UP Your Astronomy and Physics Undergraduate Courses to Incorporate Heliophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Rawi, Ahlam N.; Cox, Amanda; Hoshino, Laura; Fitzgerald, Cullen; Cebulka, Rebecca; Rodriguez Garrigues, Alvar; Montgomery, Michele; Velissaris, Chris; Flitsiyan, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Although physics and astronomy courses include heliophysics topics, students still leave these courses without knowing what heliophysics is and how heliophysics relates to their daily lives. To meet goals of NASA's Living With a Star Program of incorporating heliophysics into undergraduate curriculum, UCF Physics has modified courses such as Astronomy (for non-science majors), Astrophysics, and SCALE-UP: Electricity and Magnetism for Engineers and Scientists to incorporate heliophysics topics. In this presentation, we discuss these incorporations and give examples that have been published in NASA Wavelength. In an associated poster, we present data on student learnin

  13. Effects of scale on internal blast measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granholm, R.; Sandusky, H.; Lee, R.

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a comparative study between large and small-scale internal blast experiments with the goal of using the small-scale analog for energetic performance evaluation. In the small-scale experiment, highly confined explosive samples <0.5 g were subjected to the output from a PETN detonator while enclosed in a 3-liter chamber. Large-scale tests up to 23 kg were unconfined and released in a chamber with a factor of 60,000 increase in volume. The comparative metric in these experiments is peak quasi-static overpressure, with the explosive sample expressed as sample energy/chamber volume, which normalizes measured pressures across scale. Small-scale measured pressures were always lower than the large-scale measurements, because of heat-loss to the high confinement inherent in the small-scale apparatus. This heat-loss can be quantified and used to correct the small-scale pressure measurements. In some cases the heat-loss was large enough to quench reaction of lower energy samples. These results suggest that small-scale internal blast tests do correlate with their large-scale counterparts, provided that heat-loss to confinement can be measured, and that less reactive or lower energy samples are not quenched by heat-loss.

  14. Physical aspects of a length scale for the Gulf Stream front

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, T.W.

    1983-07-20

    A discussion is presented of the physical interpretation of the length scale, lambda, introduced in a recent paper by Kao and Cheney (1982) to scale the sea surface height anomaly across the Gulf Stream front. Additional results of sea-surface height anomaly profiles computed from the hydrographic data from Fuglister's GULF STREAM 60 are also included. In all cases the width of the anomaly is spanned rather precisely by 2lambda. The relationship between lambda and the internal Rossby radius of deformation lambda, is discussed.

  15. The effective temperature scale of M dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajpurohit, A. S.; Reylé, C.; Allard, F.; Homeier, D.; Schultheis, M.; Bessell, M. S.; Robin, A. C.

    2013-08-01

    Context. Despite their large number in the Galaxy, M dwarfs remain elusive objects and the modeling of their photosphere has long remained a challenge (molecular opacities, dust cloud formation). Aims: Our objectives are to validate the BT-Settl model atmospheres, update the M dwarf Teff-spectral type relation, and find the atmospheric parameters of the stars in our sample. Methods: We compare two samples of optical spectra covering the whole M dwarf sequence with the most recent BT-Settl synthetic spectra and use a χ2 minimization technique to determine Teff. The first sample consists of 97 low-resolution spectra obtained with New Technology Telescope (NTT) at La Silla Observatory. The second sample contains 55 medium-resolution spectra obtained at the Siding Spring Observatory (SSO). The spectral typing is realized by comparison with already classified M dwarfs. Results: We show that the BT-Settl synthetic spectra reproduce the slope of the spectral energy distribution and most of its features. Only the CaOH band at 5570 Å and AlH and NaH hydrides in the blue part of the spectra are still missing in the models. The Teff scale obtained with the higher resolved SSO 2.3 m spectra is consistent with that obtained with the NTT spectra. We compare our Teff scale with those of other authors and with published isochrones using the BT-Settl colors. We also present relations between effective temperature, spectral type, and colors of the M dwarfs. Tables 1 and 2 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  16. Constraining the geometry, size scale and physical conditions of outflowing broad absorption line regions in quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Sui Chi

    Quasars are known for generating luminosities of up to 1047 erg s--1 in volumes of scales smaller than 2 x 10 15 cm. The optical/UV continuum emission is generally believed to arise from a rotating accretion disk (AD) surrounding a supermassive black hole (SMBH) of ˜ 108 M⊙ . Such emission can be calculated by treating the AD as a multi-temperature blackbody. While the continuum emitting region is well defined, the properties, location and kinematics of the broad emission line regions (BELRs) and broad absorption line regions (BALRs) remain unclear. On one hand, the reverberation mapping technique can give constraints on the location of the BELRs, but not the kinematics. On the other hand, the line-of-sight kinematics of the BALRs is directly observable, but their locations are not well constrained, resulting in a large range of inferred distances, from 0.01 pc to tens of kpc. Therefore, I combined observational results to investigate the geometry, size, and physical conditions of the BELRs and BALRs. I verified that the Lyalpha and CIV BELRs are located at a similar distance. Using these findings, I was able to constrain the size of the Lyalpha BELR and place a lower limit on the size of the N V BALR. I built an empirical model with the optical/UV continuum emission from the AD, the BELR from the chromosphere of the AD, and the outflowing BALR. In the continuum region, I found that over 95 percent of the total flux comes from the region at ~ 125rg, where rg is the gravitational radius of the SMBH. For the BELRs, I computed a disk-wind model with relativistic effects to explain the often-observed single-peaked BEL profiles. However, I show that such a model cannot explain the observed blue asymmetries in the high-ionization BELs or their blueshifted peaks relative to low-ionization BELs. Using results on time variability of BALR gas, and assuming the variability is caused by the gas moving perpendicular across the line-of-sight over a time scale of about a year

  17. Gauge Physics of Spin Hall Effect.

    PubMed

    Tan, Seng Ghee; Jalil, Mansoor B A; Ho, Cong Son; Siu, Zhuobin; Murakami, Shuichi

    2015-01-01

    Spin Hall effect (SHE) has been discussed in the context of Kubo formulation, geometric physics, spin orbit force, and numerous semi-classical treatments. It can be confusing if the different pictures have partial or overlapping claims of contribution to the SHE. In this article, we present a gauge-theoretic, time-momentum elucidation, which provides a general SHE equation of motion, that unifies under one theoretical framework, all contributions of SHE conductivity due to the kinetic, the spin orbit force (Yang-Mills), and the geometric (Murakami-Fujita) effects. Our work puts right an ambiguity surrounding previously partial treatments involving the Kubo, semiclassical, Berry curvatures, or the spin orbit force. Our full treatment shows the Rashba 2DEG SHE conductivity to be [formula in text] instead of [formula in text], and Rashba heavy hole [formula in text] instead of [formula in text]. This renewed treatment suggests a need to re-derive and re-calculate previously studied SHE conductivity. PMID:26689260

  18. Assessment of the physical flood susceptibility of buildings on a large scale - conceptual and methodological frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco-Vogt, A.; Schanze, J.

    2014-08-01

    There are various approaches available for assessing the flood vulnerability and damage to buildings and critical infrastructure. They cover pre- and post-event methods for different scales. However, there can hardly be found any method that allows for a large-scale pre-event assessment of the built structures with a high resolution. To make advancements in this respect, the paper presents, first, a conceptual framework for understanding the physical flood susceptibility of buildings and, second, a methodological framework for its assessment. The latter ranges from semi-automatic extraction of buildings, mainly from remote sensing with a subsequent classification and systematic characterisation, to the assessment of the physical flood susceptibility on the basis of depth-impact functions. The work shows results of the methodology's implementation and testing in a settlement of the city of Magangué, along the Magdalena River in Colombia.

  19. Scaling and correlation of human movements in cyberspace and physical space.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Huang, Zi-Gang; Huang, Liang; Liu, Huan; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the dynamics of human movements is key to issues of significant current interest such as behavioral prediction, recommendation, and control of epidemic spreading. We collect and analyze big data sets of human movements in both cyberspace (through browsing of websites) and physical space (through mobile towers) and find a superlinear scaling relation between the mean frequency of visit 〈f〉 and its fluctuation σ:σ∼〈f〉^{β} with β≈1.2. The probability distribution of the visiting frequency is found to be a stretched exponential function. We develop a model incorporating two essential ingredients, preferential return and exploration, and show that these are necessary for generating the scaling relation extracted from real data. A striking finding is that human movements in cyberspace and physical space are strongly correlated, indicating a distinctive behavioral identifying characteristic and implying that the behaviors in one space can be used to predict those in the other. PMID:25493727

  20. Scaling and correlation of human movements in cyberspace and physical space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Huang, Zi-Gang; Huang, Liang; Liu, Huan; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the dynamics of human movements is key to issues of significant current interest such as behavioral prediction, recommendation, and control of epidemic spreading. We collect and analyze big data sets of human movements in both cyberspace (through browsing of websites) and physical space (through mobile towers) and find a superlinear scaling relation between the mean frequency of visit and its fluctuation σ :σ ˜β with β ≈1.2 . The probability distribution of the visiting frequency is found to be a stretched exponential function. We develop a model incorporating two essential ingredients, preferential return and exploration, and show that these are necessary for generating the scaling relation extracted from real data. A striking finding is that human movements in cyberspace and physical space are strongly correlated, indicating a distinctive behavioral identifying characteristic and implying that the behaviors in one space can be used to predict those in the other.

  1. Microphysics in the Multi-Scale Modeling Systems with Unified Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Chern, J.; Lamg, S.; Matsui, T.; Shen, B.; Zeng, X.; Shi, R.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, exponentially increasing computer power has extended Cloud Resolving Model (CRM) integrations from hours to months, the number of computational grid points from less than a thousand to close to ten million. Three-dimensional models are now more prevalent. Much attention is devoted to precipitating cloud systems where the crucial 1-km scales are resolved in horizontal domains as large as 10,000 km in two-dimensions, and 1,000 x 1,000 km2 in three-dimensions. Cloud resolving models now provide statistical information useful for developing more realistic physically based parameterizations for climate models and numerical weather prediction models. It is also expected that NWP and mesoscale model can be run in grid size similar to cloud resolving model through nesting technique. Recently, a multi-scale modeling system with unified physics was developed at NASA Goddard. It consists of (l) a cloud-resolving model (Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model, GCE model), (2) a regional scale model (a NASA unified weather research and forecast, WRF), (3) a coupled CRM and global model (Goddard Multi-scale Modeling Framework, MMF), and (4) a land modeling system. The same microphysical processes, long and short wave radiative transfer and land processes and the explicit cloud-radiation, and cloud-surface interactive processes are applied in this multi-scale modeling system. This modeling system has been coupled with a multi-satellite simulator to use NASA high-resolution satellite data to identify the strengths and weaknesses of cloud and precipitation processes simulated by the model. In this talk, the microphysics developments of the multi-scale modeling system will be presented. In particular, the results from using multi-scale modeling system to study the heavy precipitation processes will be presented.

  2. Materials Science and Physics at Micro/Nano-Scales. FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Judy Z

    2009-09-07

    The scope of this project is to study nanostructures of semiconductors and superconductors, which have been regarded as promising building blocks for nanoelectronic and nanoelectric devices. The emphasis of this project is on developing novel synthesis approaches for fabrication of nanostructures with desired physical properties. The ultimate goal is to achieve a full control of the nanostructure growth at microscopic scales. The major experimental achievements obtained are summarized

  3. Development and psychometric validation of the Mental, Physical, and Spiritual Well-Being Scale.

    PubMed

    Vella-Brodrick, D A; Allen, F C

    1995-10-01

    Due to the growing interest in holistic health and well-being, the Mental, Physical, and Spiritual Well-being Scale was developed. This well-being scale has 30 items and incorporates mental, physical, and spiritual subscales. An initial set of items was developed and 186 university students responded to these. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted using principal components analysis with varimax rotation (N=100) to reduce the number of items in the scale. Three factors were extracted based on the eigenvalues, loading coefficients exceeding 0.3, and the screen test. Ten items from each of the three factors were selected, reducing the number of items from 66 to 30. Another factor analysis, performed on 129 employees of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation and 229 students from Monash University, indicated three factors were representative of the mental, physical, and spiritual subscales. Test-retest reliabilities over 1 mo. ranged from 0.87 to 0.97 for the three subscales whilst internal consistency ranged from 0.75 to 0.85. Concurrent validity was examined using the General Health Questionnaire and the Spiritual Well-being Scale. The discriminant validity of the MPS was also explored using three activity groups nominated as highly physical (weight training) or highly mental (chess) or highly spiritual (prayer). Out of a total of 88 cases, 77.3% of these were correctly classified into their actual activity group based on their scores. Sample sizes were moderate and testing was of limited samples. More psychometric work is needed but preliminary findings indicate an accurate and reliable test. PMID:8559898

  4. Effects of a Physical Education Supportive Curriculum and Technological Devices on Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clapham, Emily Dean; Sullivan, Eileen C.; Ciccomascolo, Lori E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a physical education supportive curriculum and technological devices, heart rate monitor (HRM) and pedometer (PED), on physical activity. A single-subject ABAB research design was used to examine amount and level of participation in physical activity among 106 suburban fourth and fifth…

  5. The Effects of Exergaming on Physical Activity in a Third-Grade Physical Education Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shayne, Rachel K.; Fogel, Victoria A.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Koehler, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    We compared the effects of exergaming and traditional physical education on physical activity among 4 active children who were not overweight and who had experience with the exergaming activities prior to the study. Results showed that exergaming produced substantially higher percentages of physical activity and opportunity to engage in physical…

  6. Sensitivity of the recent methane budget to LMDz sub-grid scale physical parameterizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Locatelli, R.; Bousquet, P.; Saunois, M.; Chevallier, F.; Cressot, C.

    2015-04-01

    With the densification of surface observing networks and the development of remote sensing of greenhouse gases from space, estimations of methane (CH4) sources and sinks by inverse modelling face new challenges. Indeed, the chemical transport model used to link the flux space with the mixing ratio space must be able to represent these different types of constraints for providing consistent flux estimations. Here we quantify the impact of sub-grid scale physical parameterization errors on the global methane budget inferred by inverse modelling using the same inversion set-up but different physical parameterizations within one chemical-transport model. Two different schemes for vertical diffusion, two others for deep convection, and one additional for thermals in the planetary boundary layer are tested. Different atmospheric methane datasets are used as constraints (surface observations or satellite retrievals). At the global scale, methane emissions differ, on average, from 4.1 Tg CH4 per year due to the use of different sub-grid scale parameterizations. Inversions using satellite total-column retrieved by GOSAT satellite are less impacted, at the global scale, by errors in physical parameterizations. Focusing on large-scale atmospheric transport, we show that inversions using the deep convection scheme of Emanuel (1991) derive smaller interhemispheric gradient in methane emissions. At regional scale, the use of different sub-grid scale parameterizations induces uncertainties ranging from 1.2 (2.7%) to 9.4% (14.2%) of methane emissions in Africa and Eurasia Boreal respectively when using only surface measurements from the background (extended) surface network. When using only satellite data, we show that the small biases found in inversions using GOSAT-CH4 data and a coarser version of the transport model were actually masking a poor representation of the stratosphere-troposphere gradient in the model. Improving the stratosphere-troposphere gradient reveals a larger

  7. Physical and biological controls on reach to catchment scale nutrient retention and streamwater composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covino, T. P.; McGlynn, B. L.; Wohl, E.

    2014-12-01

    Physical and biological processes occurring within fluvial networks can have strong influence on catchment scale retention of water and nutrients. Quantifying the physical (i.e., hydrologic exchange) and biological (i.e., nutrient uptake) contributions to total retention and deciphering how they relate to catchment morphology remains a central challenge in the hydrologic and biogeo-sciences. Here we present examples from our research that highlight the interactions between biology, physical hydrology, and geomorphology and how they combine to influence nutrient retention and streamwater compositions. Biological nutrient uptake in streams can have substantial influence on downstream fluxes and induce nutrient transformation along stream networks. Additionally, hydrologic loss of water and associated nutrients from streams to surrounding groundwater systems can greatly elongate water and nutrient retention times. While in-stream nutrient uptake is often associated with hyporheic exchanges that occur at sub-meter scales, these are nested within a larger framework of fluvial exchanges (100s - 1000s of meters). Larger scale exchanges can lead to strong shifts in streamwater composition over relatively short spatial scales (~1km) and are often very pronounced along geomorphic transitions (e.g., mountain to valley) and/or catchment retention zones (e.g., alluvial aquifers, wetlands, lakes). In fact, 50 - 80% of the water in the channel can be exchanged and replaced by different water (i.e., groundwater) along geomorphic transitions/catchment retention zones that are ~1 km in scale. These features can enhance geochemical processing through extended interactions between water, sediment, and nutrients. Accordingly, we suggest that although catchment retention features may be limited in spatial extent (~1km) and frequency they have the capacity to play a disproportionately large role in controlling catchment retention dynamics and setting fluvial network streamwater

  8. A Scale Analysis of the Effects of US Federal Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandya, Jessica Zacher

    2012-01-01

    In this essay I argue that the effects of federal policy can be examined through a scale analysis that helps deconstruct the effect of the current widespread accountability movement in the US educational system. I first discuss the concept of scale, including its thus-far limited use in educational research. I define scales not only as…

  9. Effect of Graph Scale on Risky Choice: Evidence from Preference and Process in Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yan; Li, Shu; Bonini, Nicolao; Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the effect of graph scale on risky choices. By (de)compressing the scale, we manipulate the relative physical distance between options on a given attribute in a coordinate graphical context. In Experiment 1, the risky choice changes as a function of the scale in the graph. In Experiment 2, we show that the type of graph scale also affects decision times. In Experiment 3, we examine the graph scale effect by using real money among students who have taken statistics courses. Consequently, the scale effects still appear even when we control the variations in calculation ability and increase the gravity with which participants view the consequence of their decisions. This finding is inconsistent with descriptive invariance of preference. The theoretical implications and practical applications of the findings are discussed. PMID:26771530

  10. GenASiS Basics: Object-oriented utilitarian functionality for large-scale physics simulations

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cardall, Christian Y.; Budiardja, Reuben D.

    2015-06-11

    Aside from numerical algorithms and problem setup, large-scale physics simulations on distributed-memory supercomputers require more basic utilitarian functionality, such as physical units and constants; display to the screen or standard output device; message passing; I/O to disk; and runtime parameter management and usage statistics. Here we describe and make available Fortran 2003 classes furnishing extensible object-oriented implementations of this sort of rudimentary functionality, along with individual `unit test' programs and larger example problems demonstrating their use. Lastly, these classes compose the Basics division of our developing astrophysics simulation code GenASiS (General Astrophysical Simulation System), but their fundamental nature makes themmore » useful for physics simulations in many fields.« less

  11. High-Fidelity Lattice Physics Capabilities of the SCALE Code System Using TRITON

    SciTech Connect

    DeHart, Mark D

    2007-01-01

    Increasing complexity in reactor designs suggests a need to reexamine of methods applied in spent-fuel characterization. The ability to accurately predict the nuclide composition of depleted reactor fuel is important in a wide variety of applications. These applications include, but are not limited to, the design, licensing, and operation of commercial/research reactors and spent-fuel transport/storage systems. New complex design projects such as space reactors and Generation IV power reactors also require calculational methods that provide accurate prediction of the isotopic inventory. New high-fidelity physics methods will be required to better understand the physics associated with both evolutionary and revolutionary reactor concepts as they depart from traditional and well-understood light-water reactor designs. The TRITON sequence of the SCALE code system provides a powerful, robust, and rigorous approach for reactor physics analysis. This paper provides a detailed description of TRITON in terms of its key components used in reactor calculations.

  12. GENASIS   Basics: Object-oriented utilitarian functionality for large-scale physics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardall, Christian Y.; Budiardja, Reuben D.

    2015-11-01

    Aside from numerical algorithms and problem setup, large-scale physics simulations on distributed-memory supercomputers require more basic utilitarian functionality, such as physical units and constants; display to the screen or standard output device; message passing; I/O to disk; and runtime parameter management and usage statistics. Here we describe and make available Fortran 2003 classes furnishing extensible object-oriented implementations of this sort of rudimentary functionality, along with individual 'unit test' programs and larger example problems demonstrating their use. These classes compose the Basics division of our developing astrophysics simulation code GENASIS  (General Astrophysical Simulation System), but their fundamental nature makes them useful for physics simulations in many fields.

  13. GenASiS Basics: Object-oriented utilitarian functionality for large-scale physics simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Cardall, Christian Y.; Budiardja, Reuben D.

    2015-06-11

    Aside from numerical algorithms and problem setup, large-scale physics simulations on distributed-memory supercomputers require more basic utilitarian functionality, such as physical units and constants; display to the screen or standard output device; message passing; I/O to disk; and runtime parameter management and usage statistics. Here we describe and make available Fortran 2003 classes furnishing extensible object-oriented implementations of this sort of rudimentary functionality, along with individual `unit test' programs and larger example problems demonstrating their use. Lastly, these classes compose the Basics division of our developing astrophysics simulation code GenASiS (General Astrophysical Simulation System), but their fundamental nature makes them useful for physics simulations in many fields.

  14. Physics-based animation of large-scale splashing liquids, elastoplastic solids, and model-reduced flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerszewski, Daniel James

    Physical simulation has become an essential tool in computer animation. As the use of visual effects increases, the need for simulating real-world materials increases. In this dissertation, we consider three problems in physics-based animation: large-scale splashing liquids, elastoplastic material simulation, and dimensionality reduction techniques for fluid simulation. Fluid simulation has been one of the greatest successes of physics-based animation, generating hundreds of research papers and a great many special effects over the last fifteen years. However, the animation of large-scale, splashing liquids remains challenging. We show that a novel combination of unilateral incompressibility, mass-full FLIP, and blurred boundaries is extremely well-suited to the animation of large-scale, violent, splashing liquids. Materials that incorporate both plastic and elastic deformations, also referred to as elastioplastic materials, are frequently encountered in everyday life. Methods for animating such common real-world materials are useful for effects practitioners and have been successfully employed in films. We describe a point-based method for animating elastoplastic materials. Our primary contribution is a simple method for computing the deformation gradient for each particle in the simulation. Given the deformation gradient, we can apply arbitrary constitutive models and compute the resulting elastic forces. Our method has two primary advantages: we do not store or compare to an initial rest configuration and we work directly with the deformation gradient. The first advantage avoids poor numerical conditioning and the second naturally leads to a multiplicative model of deformation appropriate for finite deformations. One of the most significant drawbacks of physics-based animation is that ever-higher fidelity leads to an explosion in the number of degrees of freedom. This problem leads us to the consideration of dimensionality reduction techniques. We present

  15. Scale and Sampling Effects on Floristic Quality.

    PubMed

    Spyreas, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Floristic Quality Assessment (FQA) is increasingly influential for making land management decisions, for directing conservation policy, and for research. But, the basic ecological properties and limitations of its metrics are ill defined and not well understood-especially those related to sample methods and scale. Nested plot data from a remnant tallgrass prairie sampled annually over a 12-year period, were used to investigate FQA properties associated with species detection rates, species misidentification rates, sample year, and sample grain/area. Plot size had no apparent effect on Mean C (an area's average Floristic Quality level), nor did species detection levels above 65% detection. Simulated species misidentifications only affected Mean C values at greater than 10% in large plots, when the replaced species were randomly drawn from the broader county-wide species pool. Finally, FQA values were stable over the 12-year study, meaning that there was no evidence that the metrics exhibit year effects. The FQA metric Mean C is demonstrated to be robust to varied sample methodologies related to sample intensity (plot size, species detection rate), as well as sample year. These results will make FQA measures even more appealing for informing land-use decisions, policy, and research for two reasons: 1) The sampling effort needed to generate accurate and consistent site assessments with FQA measures is shown to be far lower than what has previously been assumed, and 2) the stable properties and consistent performance of metrics with respect to sample methods will allow for a remarkable level of comparability of FQA values from different sites and datasets compared to other commonly used ecological metrics. PMID:27489959

  16. Scale and Sampling Effects on Floristic Quality

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Floristic Quality Assessment (FQA) is increasingly influential for making land management decisions, for directing conservation policy, and for research. But, the basic ecological properties and limitations of its metrics are ill defined and not well understood–especially those related to sample methods and scale. Nested plot data from a remnant tallgrass prairie sampled annually over a 12-year period, were used to investigate FQA properties associated with species detection rates, species misidentification rates, sample year, and sample grain/area. Plot size had no apparent effect on Mean C (an area’s average Floristic Quality level), nor did species detection levels above 65% detection. Simulated species misidentifications only affected Mean C values at greater than 10% in large plots, when the replaced species were randomly drawn from the broader county-wide species pool. Finally, FQA values were stable over the 12-year study, meaning that there was no evidence that the metrics exhibit year effects. The FQA metric Mean C is demonstrated to be robust to varied sample methodologies related to sample intensity (plot size, species detection rate), as well as sample year. These results will make FQA measures even more appealing for informing land-use decisions, policy, and research for two reasons: 1) The sampling effort needed to generate accurate and consistent site assessments with FQA measures is shown to be far lower than what has previously been assumed, and 2) the stable properties and consistent performance of metrics with respect to sample methods will allow for a remarkable level of comparability of FQA values from different sites and datasets compared to other commonly used ecological metrics. PMID:27489959

  17. Crocodile head scales are not developmental units but emerge from physical cracking.

    PubMed

    Milinkovitch, Michel C; Manukyan, Liana; Debry, Adrien; Di-Poï, Nicolas; Martin, Samuel; Singh, Daljit; Lambert, Dominique; Zwicker, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Various lineages of amniotes display keratinized skin appendages (feathers, hairs, and scales) that differentiate in the embryo from genetically controlled developmental units whose spatial organization is patterned by reaction-diffusion mechanisms (RDMs). We show that, contrary to skin appendages in other amniotes (as well as body scales in crocodiles), face and jaws scales of crocodiles are random polygonal domains of highly keratinized skin, rather than genetically controlled elements, and emerge from a physical self-organizing stochastic process distinct from RDMs: cracking of the developing skin in a stress field. We suggest that the rapid growth of the crocodile embryonic facial and jaw skeleton, combined with the development of a very keratinized skin, generates the mechanical stress that causes cracking. PMID:23196908

  18. Effects of Classroom-Based Energizers on Primary Grade Students' Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Catherine Goffreda; DiPerna, James Clyde

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine the effects of classroom-based exercise breaks (Energizers; Mahar, Kenny, Shields, Scales, & Collins, 2006) on students' physical activity levels during the school day. A multiple baseline design across first grade (N = 3) and second grade (N = 3) classrooms was used to examine the effects of the…

  19. Depressive Symptoms Negate the Beneficial Effects of Physical Activity on Mortality Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Pai-Lin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to: (1) compare the association between various levels of physical activity (PA) and mortality; and (2) examine the potential modifying effect of depressive symptoms on the PA-mortality associations. Previous large scale randomized studies rarely assess the association in conjunction with modifying effects of depressive…

  20. Differential Physical and Psychological Effects of Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilfley, Denise; Kunce, Joseph

    1986-01-01

    Evaluated the physical and psychological benefits of an individualized exercise program for "normal" adults. Differences between program completers and dropouts on persistence, fitness, and physical self-concept are reprinted. A number of special strategies to motivate clients who may benefit most from therapeutic exercise programs as an adjunct…

  1. A Validation and Reliability Study of the Physical Activity and Healthy Food Efficacy Scale for Children (PAHFE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Christina M.; De Ayala, R. J.; Lebow, Ryan; Hayden, Emily

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain validity evidence for the Physical Activity and Healthy Food Efficacy Scale for Children (PAHFE). Construct validity evidence identifies four subscales: Goal-Setting for Physical Activity, Goal-Setting for Healthy Food Choices, Decision-Making for Physical Activity, and Decision-Making for Healthy Food…

  2. [PHYSICAL EXERCISE AFTER STROKE: EFFECTS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND BARRIERS].

    PubMed

    Barak, Sharon; Hutzler, Yeshayahu; Dubnov-Razi, Gal

    2016-06-01

    This review summarizes the knowledge regarding the effects and recommendations for physical training (PTr) post-stroke. In addition, perceived benefits/barriers to PTr post-stroke are reviewed. PTr is an important post-stroke rehabilitation goal. Before beginning a PTr program it is recommended to conduct a physical examination. There is evidence that aerobic training post-stroke has a positive effect on gait and on risk factors for recurrent stroke. Similarly, strength training is also safe and effective. However, this training modality does not improve.gait functions. Neuromuscular training post-stroke is also a recommended training method. In the various studies conducted, there was diversity with regard to duration and frequency of PTr. It is recommended that individuals post-stroke engage in aerobic training 3-5 days a week. During the acute phase, the rating of perceived exertion should be "fairly light" (less or equal to 11 on the Borg scale, which ranges 6-20). In more advanced phases of recovery, one ca exercise at a higher intensity of up to "somewhat hard" (rating of perceived exertion 11-14; 55-80% of maximal heart rate). It is also recommended to conduct strength training (2-3 days per week, 1-3 sets of 10-15 repetitions), and flexibility and neuromuscular training (2-3 days per week). In order to encourage individuals post-stroke to conduct PTr there is a need for social support (from caregivers and family) and to provide PTr consultation. PTr barriers consist of both personal (e.g., depression, knowledge regarding physical activity centers) and environmental (e.g., lack of transportation) factors. PMID:27544993

  3. Large and local-scale influences on physical and chemical characteristics of coastal waters of Western Europe during winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tréguer, Paul; Goberville, Eric; Barrier, Nicolas; L'Helguen, Stéphane; Morin, Pascal; Bozec, Yann; Rimmelin-Maury, Peggy; Czamanski, Marie; Grossteffan, Emilie; Cariou, Thierry; Répécaud, Michel; Quéméner, Loic

    2014-11-01

    There is now a strong scientific consensus that coastal marine systems of Western Europe are highly sensitive to the combined effects of natural climate variability and anthropogenic climate change. However, it still remains challenging to assess the spatial and temporal scales at which climate influence operates. While large-scale hydro-climatic indices, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) or the East Atlantic Pattern (EAP) and the weather regimes such as the Atlantic Ridge (AR), are known to be relevant predictors of physical processes, changes in coastal waters can also be related to local hydro-meteorological and geochemical forcing. Here, we study the temporal variability of physical and chemical characteristics of coastal waters located at about 48°N over the period 1998-2013 using (1) sea surface temperature, (2) sea surface salinity and (3) nutrient concentration observations for two coastal sites located at the outlet of the Bay of Brest and off Roscoff, (4) river discharges of the major tributaries close to these two sites and (5) regional and local precipitation data over the region of interest. Focusing on the winter months, we characterize the physical and chemical variability of these coastal waters and document changes in both precipitation and river runoffs. Our study reveals that variability in coastal waters is connected to the large-scale North Atlantic atmospheric circulation but is also partly explained by local river influences. Indeed, while the NAO is strongly related to changes in sea surface temperature at the Brest and Roscoff sites, the EAP and the AR have a major influence on precipitations, which in turn modulate river discharges that impact sea surface salinity at the scale of the two coastal stations.

  4. Geothermal alteration of Kamchatka rock physical properties: experimental and pore-scale modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanina, Violetta; Gerke, Kirill; Bichkov, Andrey; Korost, Dmitry

    2013-04-01

    X-ray microtomography prior to any alteration and after the experiments. 3D images were used to quantify structural changes and to determine permeability values using a pore-scale modeling approach, as laboratory measurements with through flow are known to have a potential to modify the pore structure. Chemical composition and local mineral formations were investigated using a «Spectroscan Max GV» spectrometer and scanning electron microscope imaging. Our study revealed significant relationships between structure modifications, physical properties and alteration conditions. Main results and conclusions include: 1) initial porosity and its connectivity have substantial effect on alteration dynamics, rocks with higher porosity values and connected pore space exhibit more pronounced alterations; 2) under similar experimental conditions (pressure, temperature, duration) pH plays an important role, acidic conditions result in significant new mineral formation; 3) almost all physical properties, including porosity, permeability, and elastic properties, were seriously modified in the modeled geothermal processes within short (from geological point of view) time frames; 4) X-ray microtomography was found useful for mineral phases distribution and the pore-scale modeling approach was found to be a promising technique to numerically obtain rock properties based on 3D scans; 5) we conclude that alteration and change of reservoir rocks should be taken into account for re-injecting well and geothermal power-plant design.

  5. The effects of exergaming on physical activity among inactive children in a physical education classroom.

    PubMed

    Fogel, Victoria A; Miltenberger, Raymond G; Graves, Rachel; Koehler, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    Childhood obesity, which is due in part to lack of physical activity, is a serious concern that requires the attention of the behavioral community. Although excessive video game play has been noted in the literature as a contributor to childhood obesity, newer video gaming technology, called exergaming, has been designed to capitalize on the reinforcing effects of video games to increase physical activity in children. This study evaluated the effects of exergaming on physical activity among 4 inactive children in a physical education (PE) classroom. Results showed that exergaming produced substantially more minutes of physical activity and more minutes of opportunity to engage in physical activity than did the standard PE program. In addition, exergaming was socially acceptable to both the students and the PE teacher. Exergaming appears to hold promise as a method for increasing physical activity among inactive children and might be a possible intervention for childhood obesity. PMID:21541146

  6. Scaling of Wakefield Effects in Recirculating Linacs

    SciTech Connect

    L. Merminga; G. R. Neil; B. C. Yunn; J. J. Bisognano

    2001-07-01

    Expressions for the induced energy spread and emittance degradation of a single bunch due to the longitudinal and transverse impedance of rf cavities at the end of a linac structure are presented. Scaling of the formulae with rf frequency is derived. Scaling of the threshold current for the multibunch, multipass beam breakup (BBU) instability in recirculating linacs with accelerator and beam parameters is also derived.

  7. Effects of sport participation on the basketball skills and physical self of adolescents with conduct disorders.

    PubMed

    Maïano, Christophe; Ninot, Grégory; Morin, Alexandre J S; Bilard, Jean

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the long-term effects of sport participation on the basketball skills and physical self-concept of adolescents with conduct disorders (CD). Participants were 24 adolescent males with CD, divided equally into three groups: (a) inter-establishment basketball (IEBB), (b) integrated scholastic basketball (ISBB), and (c) control-adapted physical activity (APA). The basketball skills tests and physical self-concept were both administrated 4 times over an 18-month period. Results indicated (a) an improvement in basketball skills in both competitive groups (i.e., ISBB, IEBB), (b) a significant curvilinear trend of physical self-worth scale in the three groups, and (c) no significant changes in physical self-concept in the three groups (ISBB, IEBB, and APA). In conclusion, the integrated and segregated competitive programs did not represent an effective means for improving the physical self-concept of adolescents with CD. PMID:17916916

  8. BOOK REVIEW: Nonequilibrium Physics at Short Time Scales: Formation of Correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peliti, L.

    2005-02-01

    It is a happy situation when similar concepts and theoretical techniques can be applied to widely different physical systems because of a deep similarity in the situations being studied. The book illustrates this well; it focuses on the description of correlations in quantum systems out of equilibrium at very short time scales, prompted by experiments with short laser pulses in semiconductors, and in complex reactions in heavy nuclei. In both cases the experiments are characterized by nonlinear dynamics and by strong correlations out of equilibrium. In some systems there are also important finite-size effects. The book comprises several independent contributions of moderate length, and I sometimes felt that a more intensive effort in cross-coordination of the different contributions could have been of help. It is divided almost equally between theory and experiment. In the theoretical part, there is a thorough discussion both of the kinematic aspects (description of correlations) and the dynamical ones (evaluation of correlations). The experimental part is naturally divided according to the nature of the system: the interaction of pulsed lasers with matter on the one hand, and the correlations in finite-size systems (nanoparticles and nuclei) on the other. There is also a discussion on the dynamics of superconductors, a subject currently of great interest. Although an effort has been made to keep each contribution self-contained, I must admit that reading level is uneven. However, there are a number of thorough and stimulating contributions that make this book a useful introduction to the topic at the level of graduate students or researchers acquainted with quantum statistical mechanics.

  9. Modeling Randomness in Judging Rating Scales with a Random-Effects Rating Scale Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Wilson, Mark; Shih, Ching-Lin

    2006-01-01

    This study presents the random-effects rating scale model (RE-RSM) which takes into account randomness in the thresholds over persons by treating them as random-effects and adding a random variable for each threshold in the rating scale model (RSM) (Andrich, 1978). The RE-RSM turns out to be a special case of the multidimensional random…

  10. Effective Computer Use in Physics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bork, Alfred M.

    1975-01-01

    Illustrates a sample remedial program in mathematics for physics students. Describes two computer games with successful instructional strategies and programs which help mathematically unsophisticated students to grasp the notion of a differential equation. (GH)