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Sample records for scalp hair samples

  1. Hair and scalp dermatoscopy.

    PubMed

    Miteva, Mariya; Tosti, Antonella

    2012-11-01

    Dermatoscopy is a noninvasive diagnostic tool that allows the recognition of morphologic structures not visible by the naked eye. Trichoscopy (scalp dermatoscopy and videodermatoscopy) is useful for the diagnosis and follow-up of hair and scalp disorders. However, it is not widely used in the management of hair disorders. This review provides updated information from the literature and our experience on the dermoscopic features of the most common hair and scalp disorders. This will enable dermatologists to make fast diagnoses of tinea capitis and alopecia areata, distinguish early androgenetic alopecia from telogen effluvium, and differentiate scarring from nonscarring alopecia. PMID:22405573

  2. Hair and scalp disorders in blacks.

    PubMed

    Halder, R M

    1983-10-01

    Hair and scalp disorders in blacks and the properties of hair in blacks that make it behave differently are described. Hair disorders commonly seen now are the result of permanent and relaxer damage, heat, and traction alopecias. Presently, the most common scalp disorders in blacks are keloidal folliculitis and dissecting cellulitis of the scalp. Treatment modalities for these disorders are reviewed. PMID:6226494

  3. Hair and scalp evaluation: the trichogram.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Falcón, C; Fernández-Pugnaire, M A; Serrano-Ortega, S

    2013-12-01

    Hair and scalp evaluation techniques can be classified into 3 categories: noninvasive methods (clinical history, general examination, inspection and palpation of the hair and scalp, photography, dermoscopy, etc.); semi-invasive methods (the trichogram); and invasive methods (biopsy). In this article, we provide a practical guide on how to evaluate hair and scalp conditions in the dermatology office. PMID:23871642

  4. Trace Elements in Scalp Hair Samples from Patients with Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Tamburo, Elisa; Varrica, Daniela; Dongarrà, Gaetano; Grimaldi, Luigi Maria Edoardo

    2015-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies have suggested a possible role of trace elements (TE) in the etiology of several neurological diseases including Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Hair analysis provides an easy tool to quantify TE in human subjects, including patients with neurodegenerative diseases. Objective To compare TE levels in scalp hair from patients with MS and healthy controls from the same geographic area (Sicily). Methods ICP-MS was used to determine the concentrations of 21 elements (Ag, Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb, Se, Sr, U, V and Zn) in scalp hair of 48 patients with relapsing–remitting Multiple Sclerosis compared with 51 healthy controls. Results MS patients showed a significantly lower hair concentration of aluminum and rubidium (median values: Al = 3.76 μg/g vs. 4.49 μg/g and Rb = 0.007 μg/g vs. 0.01 μg/g;) and higher hair concentration of U (median values U: 0.014 μg/g vs. 0.007 μg/g) compared to healthy controls. The percentages of MS patients showing hair elemental concentrations greater than the 95th percentile of controls were 20% for Ni, 19% for Ba and U, and 15% for Ag, Mo and Se. Conversely, the percentages of MS patients showing hair elemental concentrations lower than the 5th percentile of healthy controls were 27% for Al, 25% for Rb, 22% for Ag, 19% for Fe, and 16% for Pb. No significant association was found between levels of each TE and age, disease duration or Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score. After stratification by gender, healthy subjects did not show any significant difference in trace element levels, while MS patients showed significant differences (p<0.01) for the concentrations of Ag, Cr, Fe, Ni and Sr. No significant differences were also found, at p<0.01, in relation to the use of cigarettes, consume of water, vegetables and place of living. Conclusion The different distributions of TE in hair of MS patients compared to controls provides an additional indirect evidence of

  5. Evaluation of calcium and magnesium in scalp hair samples of population consuming different drinking water: risk of kidney stone.

    PubMed

    Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Shaikh, Haffeezur Rehman; Arain, Salma Aslam; Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Brahman, Kapil Dev

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) in underground water (UGW), bottled mineral water (BMW), and domestic treated water (DTW) with related to risk of kidney stones. The water samples were collected from different areas of Sindh, Pakistan. The scalp hair samples of both genders, age ranged 30-60 years, consuming different types of water, have or have not kidney disorders, were selected. The Ca and Mg concentrations were determined in scalp hair of study subjects and water by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. The Ca and Mg contents in different types of drinking water, UGW, DTW, and BMW, were found in the range of 79.1-466, 23.7-140, and 45-270 mg/L and 4.43-125, 5.23-39.6, and 7.16-51.3 mg/L, respectively. It was observed that Ca concentration in the scalp hair samples of kidney stone patients consuming different types of drinking water was found to be higher (2,895-4721 μg/g) while Mg level (84.3-101 μg/g) was lower as compare to referents subjects (2,490-2,730 μg/g for Ca, 107-128 μg/g for Mg) in both genders. The positive correlation was found between Ca and Mg levels in water with related to kidney stone formations in population, especially who consumed underground water. A relative risk and odd ratio were calculated; the relative risk had a strong positive association with incidence of kidney stone which depends on types of drinking water. PMID:24218227

  6. Variation in the Levels of Aluminum and Manganese in Scalp Hair Samples of the Patients Having Different Psychiatric Disorders with Related to Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Arain, Mariam S; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Kazi, Atif; Naeemullah; Ali, Jamshed; Arain, Salma Aslam; Panhwar, Abdul Haleem

    2015-11-01

    There is very limited information available on the role of trace elements in psychiatric disorders (PSD). Immense pieces of evidence support the idea that exposure to trace and toxic metals, such as aluminum (Al) and manganese (Mn), may be factors or cofactors in the etiopathogenesis of a variety of psychiatric disorders. The aim of our study was to assess the Al and Mn in scalp hair samples of 102 patients having different types of psychiatric disorder PSD diseases together with 120 referent subjects of male patients in the age group of 45-60 years. The understudy elements in scalp hair samples were assessed by the flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry after microwave-assisted acid digestion method .The validity of methodology was checked by the certified human hair reference material (NCS ZC81002). The recovery of studied elements was found in the range of 98.1-99.2 % of certified reference material. The results of this study showed that the mean values of Al and Mn were significantly higher in scalp hair samples of all types of PSD as compared to referents subjects. The resulted data indicated a significant increase in the contents of Mn and Al in scalp hair samples of psychiatric patients than that of its control counterpart, which may provide prognostic tool for the diagnosis of the mental disorders. However, further work is suggested to examine the exact correlation between trace elements level and the degree of disorder. PMID:25947935

  7. Hair and scalp disorders in ethnic populations.

    PubMed

    Rodney, Ife J; Onwudiwe, Oge C; Callender, Valerie D; Halder, Rebat M

    2013-04-01

    Human hair has been classified into 3 major groups, as determined by ethnic origin. In these populations, significant structural and biochemical variations of the hair follicle and shaft are seen, as well as unique hair grooming practices. These structural variations of the hair are closely linked to the common disorders of the hair and scalp, such as acquired trichorrhexis nodosa, seborrheic dermatitis, traction alopecia, central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia, dissecting cellulitis, frontal fibrosing alopecia, and pseudofolliculitis barbae. PMID:23652889

  8. Sonography in pathologies of scalp and hair

    PubMed Central

    Wortsman, X; Wortsman, J; Matsuoka, L; Saavedra, T; Mardones, F; Saavedra, D; Guerrero, R; Corredoira, Y

    2012-01-01

    Disorders of the scalp often result in severe cosmetic interference with quality of life, creating the need for optimal medical surveillance. We tested the latest generation of ultrasound machines in patients with scalp pathology and prepared a cross-sectional library encompassing a wide assortment of conditions. Normative data on the sonographic anatomy of scalp and human hair, and important methodological considerations, are also included. PMID:22253348

  9. Determination of 33 elements in scalp hair samples from inhabitants of a mountain village of Tonglu city, China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ruxin; Zhuo, Xianyi; Ma, Dong

    2014-06-01

    Hair samples from 190 relatively healthy 20- to 98-year-old volunteers from a mountain village of Tonglu city (Zhejiang province, China) were analyzed to determine the contents of 33 chemical elements (Ag, Al, As, Au, B, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Ga, Hg, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb, Se, Sr, Th, Ti, Tl, U, V, Zn, and Zr) with the aim of assessing preliminary reference values. Mean values, median values, ranges and selected percentiles of all element concentrations in scalp hair are presented. By comparing data from different countries, it was determined that the mean concentrations of the majority of elements in our study clearly differed from the mean levels reported in the literature. The effects of gender and age on element concentrations were also investigated. Significant differences that were correlated with age and gender were determined for certain elements. For example, Fe exhibited a mean value of 11.26mg/kg for males and 4.37mg/kg for females. An age-dependent pattern for Fe was also apparent when the two age subgroups of 20-59 and 60-98 years were compared. PMID:24726931

  10. [Scalp burns due to hair bleach].

    PubMed

    Wagenblast, Lene

    2011-02-28

    We present two cases of scalp burn or possible chemical reaction due to use of hair highlight products. One case was treated with serial excision of the scarred bald area after the burn, and the other case was treated with implantation of expanders and subsequent excision of the bald area. PMID:21362396

  11. Temperature controlled ionic liquid-based dispersive micro-extraction using two ligands, for determination of aluminium in scalp hair samples of Alzheimer's patients: a multivariate study.

    PubMed

    Arain, Mariam S; Arain, Salma A; Kazi, Tasneem G; Afridi, Hassan I; Ali, Jamshaid; Naeemulllah; Arain, Sadaf S; Brahman, Kapil Dev; Mughal, Moina Akhtar

    2015-02-25

    A green and sensitive temperature controlled dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (TIL-DLLME) methodology based on the application of ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, [C4mim][PF6], as an extractant solvent was proposed for the preconcentration of trace levels of aluminium (Al(3+)) in scalp hair samples of Alzheimer's (AD) patients, prior to analyzing by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The Al(3+) was complexed with 8-hydrooxyquinoline (oxine) (L1) and 3,5,7,2'-4' pentahydroxy flavone (morin) (L2) separately and then extracted by IL at temperature (50±2.0°C). Some effective factors that influence the TIL-DLLME efficiency such as pH, ligands concentrations, volume of IL, ionic strength, and incubation time were investigated and optimized by multivariate analysis. In the optimum experimental conditions, the limit of detection (3s) and enhancement factor were 0.56 μg L(-1), 0.64 μg L(-1) and 85, 73 for both ligands, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for six replicate determinations of 100 μg L(-1) Al(3+) complexed with oxine and morin were found to be 3.88% and 4.74%, respectively. The developed method was validated by the analysis of certified reference material of human hair (NCSZC81002).and applied satisfactorily to the determination of Al(3+) in acid digested scalp hair samples of AD patients and healthy controls. The resulted data shows significant higher level in scalp hair samples of AD male patients with related to referents of same age and socioeconomic status. PMID:25280335

  12. Temperature controlled ionic liquid-based dispersive micro-extraction using two ligands, for determination of aluminium in scalp hair samples of Alzheimer's patients: A multivariate study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arain, Mariam S.; Arain, Salma A.; Kazi, Tasneem G.; Afridi, Hassan I.; Ali, Jamshaid; Naeemulllah; Arain, Sadaf S.; Brahman, Kapil Dev; Mughal, Moina Akhtar

    2015-02-01

    A green and sensitive temperature controlled dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (TIL-DLLME) methodology based on the application of ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, [C4mim][PF6], as an extractant solvent was proposed for the preconcentration of trace levels of aluminium (Al3+) in scalp hair samples of Alzheimer's (AD) patients, prior to analyzing by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The Al3+ was complexed with 8-hydrooxyquinoline (oxine) (L1) and 3,5,7,2‧-4‧ pentahydroxy flavone (morin) (L2) separately and then extracted by IL at temperature (50 ± 2.0 °C). Some effective factors that influence the TIL-DLLME efficiency such as pH, ligands concentrations, volume of IL, ionic strength, and incubation time were investigated and optimized by multivariate analysis. In the optimum experimental conditions, the limit of detection (3 s) and enhancement factor were 0.56 μg L-1, 0.64 μg L-1 and 85, 73 for both ligands, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for six replicate determinations of 100 μg L-1 Al3+ complexed with oxine and morin were found to be 3.88% and 4.74%, respectively. The developed method was validated by the analysis of certified reference material of human hair (NCSZC81002).and applied satisfactorily to the determination of Al3+ in acid digested scalp hair samples of AD patients and healthy controls. The resulted data shows significant higher level in scalp hair samples of AD male patients with related to referents of same age and socioeconomic status.

  13. Hair shafts in trichoscopy: clues for diagnosis of hair and scalp diseases.

    PubMed

    Rudnicka, Lidia; Rakowska, Adriana; Kerzeja, Marta; Olszewska, Małgorzata

    2013-10-01

    Trichoscopy (hair and scalp dermoscopy) analyzes the structure and size of growing hair shafts, providing diagnostic clues for inherited and acquired causes of hair loss. Types of hair shaft abnormalities observed include exclamation mark hairs (alopecia areata, trichotillomania, chemotherapy-induced alopecia), Pohl-Pinkus constrictions (alopecia areata, chemotherapy-induced alopecia, blood loss, malnutrition), comma hairs (tinea capitis), corkscrew hairs (tinea capitis), coiled hairs (trichotillomania), flame hairs (trichotillomania), and tulip hairs (in trichotillomania, alopecia areata). Trichoscopy allows differential diagnosis of most genetic hair shaft disorders. This article proposes a classification of hair shaft abnormalities observed by trichoscopy. PMID:24075554

  14. Effects of scalp dermatitis on chemical property of hair keratin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyung Sook; Shin, Min Kyung; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2013-05-01

    The effects of scalp dermatitis (seborrheic dermatitis (SD), psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis (AD)) on chemical properties of hair keratin were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Hairs were collected from lesional regions affected by SD, psoriasis, and AD and non-lesional regions separately. The hairs with SD were taken from patients with ages of 16-80 years. The ages of patients with psoriasis ranged from 8 to 67 years, and all patients exhibited moderate disease. Hairs with AD were taken from the patients with ages of 24-45 years and the average SCORing atopic dermatitis (SCORAD) was 48.75. Hairs from 20 normal adults were collected as a control. The FT-IR absorbance bands were analyzed by the Gaussian model to obtain the center frequency, half width, height, and area of each band. The height and area of all bands in the spectra were normalized to the amide I centered at 1652 cm-1 to quantitatively analyze the chemical composition of keratin. The spectra of hair with scalp dermatitis were different with that of control, the amide A components centered at 3278 cm-1 were smaller than those of the control. The psoriasis hair showed a large difference in the IR absorbance band between lesional and non-lesional hairs indicating good agreement with the morphological changes. The hairs with diseases did not show differences in the content of cystine, which was centered at 1054 cm-1, from the control. The chemical properties of keratin were not significantly different between the hairs affected by SD, psoriasis, and AD. However, the changes induced by scalp dermatitis were different with weathering. Therefore, FT-IR analysis could be used to screen differences between the physiological and pathological conditions of scalp hair.

  15. Pediatric scalp burns: hair today, gone tomorrow?

    PubMed

    Menon, Seema; Jacques, Madeleine; Harvey, John G; Holland, Andrew J A

    2015-01-01

    Scalp burns in the pediatric population appear relatively uncommon, with most reported cases occurring in adults secondary to electrical burns. We reviewed our experience with the management of these injuries in children. A retrospective review was conducted at our institution from March 2004 to July 2011. Scalp burns were defined as any burn crossing over the hairline into the scalp region. During the 7-year 4-month study, there were 107 scalp burns, representing 1.8% of the 6074 burns treated at our institution during that time. The cause was scald in 97, contact in 4, flame in 3, friction in 2, and chemical in 1. The majority (n = 93, 87%) appeared superficial to mid-dermal, with an average time to complete healing of 10.3 days. The remaining 14 cases (13%) were mid-dermal to full thickness, with an average time to complete healing of 50.8 days. Grafting was required in 12 cases (11%). The mean time to grafting was 4 weeks (range, 2 weeks to 2.5 months). The main complication of scalp burns was alopecia, which occurred in all grafted sites as well as in 4 patients treated conservatively. There were no other complications after grafting and no cases of graft loss. In our pediatric series, scalp burns were most commonly caused by scald injuries and were superficial to mid-dermal in depth. These generally healed rapidly but occasionally resulted in alopecia. The management of deep dermal and full-thickness scalp burns remains challenging in children, with the decision to graft often delayed. PMID:24823325

  16. Trace metal contamination study on scalp hair of occupationally exposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    Ashraf, W.; Jaffar, M. ); Mohammad, D. )

    1994-10-01

    Scalp hair is a metabolic end product that incorporates metals into its structure during the growth process. The levels of trace elements in the hair are considered to be influenced in particular by food, air and occupational exposure, and in general by race, age, sex, metabolism, hygienic condition and geographical location of individuals. Recently, trace metal content of human hair has been explored as a tool for monitoring the impact of environmental pollution on the inhabitants of a community. In this respect, the endogenous and exogenous contents of metals in hair are understood to play important role towards exposure assessment. The exogenous metal content of hair reflects exposure to the occupational, domestic and recreational environments, provided the donor is not suffering from heavy metal poisoning and depressed endogenous levels arising from dietary deficiencies. Keeping this in view, the exogenous and endogenous metal contents of scalp hair of occupationally exposed workers from various workshops were determined in the present study, both in unwashed and washed hair samples to assess the extent of metal contamination. All donors, within the age group of 6-45 years, were full-time workers of various autoworkshops situated in the densely populated and industrialized city of Lahore. ICP atomic emission and atomic absorption spectrophotometric methods were used for determining the levels of five non-essential and three essential elements in the scalp hair. 20 refs., 6 tabs.

  17. Can a topical scalp treatment reduce hair bulb extraction?

    PubMed

    Gruber, James V; Bouldin, Lisa; Lou, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    Generally speaking, when people talk about "hair breakage" they are typically referring to the idea that as they comb or brush their hair, the fibers are elongating and snapping at some weak point in the fiber length. It is well established that as people chemically treat their hair, the keratin proteins are degraded further and the hair become more brittle and susceptible to breakage. For the consumer, hair breakage is registered as hair fibers noted in their comb or brush, and in the drain that they see after a cosmetic treatment. However, a fundamental question that needs to be asked is whether or not the hairs that are seen in the drain are really the result of hair breakage (i.e., a fiber snapping) or are they the result of hairs that are actually being extracted from the scalp by their root bulbs. If the bulk of the hair fibers are actually extracted by the bulb, than it seems somewhat superfluous to try and improve hair strength by improving the exterior of the fiber. The fiber is dead and topical treatments can only smooth, and possibly moisten already established fiber structure and integrity. This paper will attempt to address hair strength by looking at the scalp and follicle as the target for treatment, showing that topical application of a product containing a blend of well-known skin active ingredients can demonstrate potential reductions in hair extractions. An in vivo testing protocol in which 15 voluntary participants with at least 12" hair length were professionally shampooed, and then treated, half-head, with a commercial conditioner, or the same conditioner that contained 5% of a mixture of yeast peptides, fruit acids and green tea polyphenols every day for five days will be discussed. At the beginning and end of the treatment period, the number of hairs that either broke along the fiber, or extracted by the bulb were gathered, separated and counted for both the treated and untreated side of the head. The results of this one-week study

  18. The correction of scalp hair defects by tissue expansion.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, A. H.; Dickson, W. A.; Dickson, M. G.; Sharpe, D. T.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the results and complications in the correction of partial scalp alopecia in ten patients using the technique of 'tissue expansion'. The average size of defect that was covered by expanded hair bearing scalp was 45.9 cms2, and the largest defect covered measured 11 X 6 cm. This series indicates that tissue expansion is now one of the most promising methods available for dealing with the difficult problems of partial alopecia which can present to surgeons and physicians in a wide range of specialties. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:3954315

  19. Scalp micropigmentation: a useful treatment for hair loss.

    PubMed

    Rassman, William R; Pak, Jae P; Kim, Jino

    2013-08-01

    Scalp micropigmentation (SMP) is a highly sophisticated medical tattoo process for balding or thinning hair. SMP looks amazingly simple, but this novel technique must be customized for each patient because the skin in each patient differs with regard to how the scalp reacts as it holds on to the tattoo dye. There are many variables involved with performing SMP that makes this process more of an art form than a science. SMP is a very labor-intensive process that could require multiple sessions and up to 20 hours of procedural time to satisfy the patient. This review discusses applications and technical considerations of the SMP process. PMID:24017991

  20. Further evaluation of probabilities in human scalp hair comparisons.

    PubMed

    Wickenheiser, R A; Hepworth, D G

    1990-11-01

    Placing value on associative hair evidence is an integral part of court presentation. A modified repeat of the hair probability study by Gaudette and Keeping has been undertaken, with steps taken to remedy shortcomings of the original work. The results of this study demonstrate that, with the application of rigid selection criteria, the frequency of coincidental matches in forensic science hair comparisons is low. It also demonstrates that routine hair classification is not feasible, because of inconsistency in examiner discrimination. The macroscopic selection of 5 to 13 mutually dissimilar hairs has been shown to be frequently unrepresentative of the microscopic range of features present in a known hair sample. PMID:2262768

  1. Trace elements in the human scalp hair and finger nails as affected by infection with Schistosoma mansoni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Khatib, Ahmed M.; Bahnassy, Ahmed A.; Denton, M.

    1995-01-01

    The concentration of 13 elements has been determined in finger nail and scalp hair of 4 groups representing normal and infected Schistosoma mansoni subjects. Samples were irradiated by thermal neutrons from a Triga Mark III Reactor, for 10 min. Measurements were made using a HPGe detector coupled with ADC and PDP {11}/{34} data processing equipment. The results showed significant increases of Al, Cl, I and Br in both finger nails and scalp hair of bilharzial patients above those of normal subjects while Mg, Ca, V, Mn, Cu, Sr, K, S and Na showed significant decreases. Most of the elements showed a higher concentration in finger nails than in hair.

  2. The use of scalp cooling for chemotherapy-induced hair loss.

    PubMed

    Young, Annie; Arif, Azra

    Chemotherapy-induced hair loss is a common and distressing side effect of cancer therapy and is one of the major unmet challenges in cancer management. Scalp cooling can prevent chemotherapy-induced hair loss in some cancer patients with solid tumours receiving certain chemotherapy regimens. Recent evidence indicates that this technique does not increase the risk of scalp metastasis. A reduction in post-chemotherapy infusion duration of scalp cooling and the advancement in cool cap technology may assist clinicians in promoting scalp cooling to cancer patients. This article discusses recent research, scalp cooling guidelines, products available and implications for nurses and their organisations in providing scalp cooling. It also considers recent advancements in identifying genes associated with chemotherapy-induced hair loss and international research collaborations including a registry and a 'chemotherapy-induced hair loss action group'--all striving to improve the patient experience of chemotherapy-induced hair loss. PMID:27231746

  3. Visualization of Hair Bulbs through the Scalp: A Trichoscopic Feature of Erosive Pustular Dermatitis of the Scalp.

    PubMed

    Starace, Michela; Patrizi, Annalisa; Piraccini, Bianca Maria

    2016-01-01

    Erosive pustular dermatitis of the scalp (EPDS) typically affects elderly people with scarring alopecia. Videodermoscopy (VD) of the scalp has never been assessed in the diagnosis of EPDS. To evaluate the trichoscopy features of EPDS, we carried out a retrospective analysis of VD images obtained in the scalp of ten patients who affected by EPDS and were compared with those obtained from a series of thirty patients who affected by other type of scarring alopecia. The most specific VD feature was thus represented by evident hair bulb in the scarring scalp, observed in all patients. PMID:27601866

  4. Visualization of Hair Bulbs through the Scalp: A Trichoscopic Feature of Erosive Pustular Dermatitis of the Scalp

    PubMed Central

    Starace, Michela; Patrizi, Annalisa; Piraccini, Bianca Maria

    2016-01-01

    Erosive pustular dermatitis of the scalp (EPDS) typically affects elderly people with scarring alopecia. Videodermoscopy (VD) of the scalp has never been assessed in the diagnosis of EPDS. To evaluate the trichoscopy features of EPDS, we carried out a retrospective analysis of VD images obtained in the scalp of ten patients who affected by EPDS and were compared with those obtained from a series of thirty patients who affected by other type of scarring alopecia. The most specific VD feature was thus represented by evident hair bulb in the scarring scalp, observed in all patients.

  5. Erosive pustular dermatosis of the scalp following hair transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Shahmoradi, Zabihollah; Abtahi-Naeini, Bahareh; Pourazizi, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Erosive pustular dermatosis of the scalp (EPDS) is a rare inflammatory disease with unknown etiology that usually occurs in the elderly. It is characterized by multiple sterile pustules, chronic crusted erosions, cicatricial alopecia, and skin atrophy. It typically develops in aged or sun-damaged skin and is most often accompanied by a history of local trauma. Histopathologically, non-specialized change manifests as atrophic epidermis and chronic inflammation. Although this disease mainly occurs in elderly white women, we here report a case of EPDS in a 35-year-old man, following hair transplantation as a local trauma, that was successfully treated with topical steroid. PMID:25250290

  6. Mass imaging of ketamine in a single scalp hair by MALDI-FTMS.

    PubMed

    Shen, Min; Xiang, Ping; Shi, Yan; Pu, Hai; Yan, Hui; Shen, Baohua

    2014-07-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) coupled with mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a rapidly emerging technology that produces distribution maps of small pharmaceutical molecules in situ in tissue sections. Segmental hair analysis provides useful information regarding the state and history of drug use. A preliminary MALDI-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR)-MSI method was developed for direct identification and imaging of ketamine in hair samples. After decontamination, the scalp hair samples from ketamine users were scraped gently and were fixed onto a stainless steel MALDI plate using double-sided adhesive tape. A Bruker 9.4 T solariX FTICR mass spectrometer with continuous accumulation of selected ions function was used in the positive ion mode. Four single hairs from the same drug abuser were analyzed. Three of four single hairs demonstrated ketamine spatial distribution, while only traces of ketamine were identified in the other one. The platform could provide detection power of ketamine down to the 7.7 ng/mg level in hair. MALDI-FTICR-MSI demonstrated the drug distribution over the whole hair length with higher spatial resolution compared with the traditional LC-MS/MS method after scissor cutting. Greater caution is needed in the interpretation of a single hair result because of the considerable variations in the growth rate and sample collection. PMID:24906693

  7. Chlorpromazine in human scalp hair as an index of dosage history: comparison with simultaneously measured haloperidol.

    PubMed

    Sato, H; Uematsu, T; Yamada, K; Nakashima, M

    1993-01-01

    The concentration of chlorpromazine (CPZ) in hair was measured to demonstrate its value as an index of individual dosage history and compliance. An animal study using pigmented rats was conducted to confirm the dose-dependent accumulation of CPZ in hair. The concentration of CPZ in hair, newly regrown on a denuded area of the back after the administration of CPZ for 3 weeks, was 4.6, 8.5 and 16.6 ng.mg-1 hair after daily doses of 1.25, 2.5 and 5 mg.kg-1.day-1, respectively, significantly correlated with the daily dose. The concentration of CPZ in black hairs collected from 23 Japanese patients, who had been taking CPZ in fixed daily doses (30-300 mg/day), ranged from 1.6 to 27.5 ng.mg-1, and was significantly correlated both with the daily dose and with the trough plasma concentration at steady state. Several strands of hair collected from each of 5 patients, whose doses of CPZ had been changed within several months before sampling, were cut into 1-cm pieces successively from the scalp end and the concentration of CPZ in each piece was measured. With the assumption of a hair growth rate of 1 cm per month, the individual history of CPZ doses in all patients could be deduced from the distribution of CPZ along the hair shaft. In 5 patients with grizzled hair the concentration of CPZ in white hairs was much lower (< 10%) than in black hairs, suggesting that the strong affinity of CPZ for hair melanin may explain the accumulation of CPZ in black hair.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8359180

  8. The role of oxidative damage in poor scalp health: ramifications to causality and associated hair growth.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, J R; Henry, J P; Kerr, K M; Mizoguchi, H; Li, L

    2015-12-01

    The oxidative stress element of unhealthy scalp leads to compromised pre-emergent hair formation and poorly formed hair as it grows. Only cosmetic solutions can minimize the impact of unhealthy hair and to achieve healthy looking and feeling hair, the scalp health must be normalized first. The objectives of this research were to both investigate whether oxidative stress was a relevant aetiological element in scalp dandruff and seborrhoeic dermatitis and whether scalp condition affects the quality of hair that grows from it. Further, this research was designed to determine whether an effective anti-dandruff shampoo would repair and protect the scalp and pre-emergent hair from oxidative stress. This study demonstrated that oxidative stress is an aetiological element relevant to the dandruff condition and that a potentiated ZPT shampoo effectively improves scalp condition, including a reduction in oxidative stress. The compromised hair condition associated with dandruff is concomitantly improved when the scalp condition is improved. It appears that there is a direct link between hair quality and scalp health. PMID:26574300

  9. Mercury in scalp hair of healthy Singapore residents.

    PubMed

    Foo, S C; Ngim, C H; Phoon, W O; Lee, J

    1988-06-15

    Two hundred and twenty-five hair samples (150 Chinese, 44 Malays and 31 Indians) from healthy residents not occupationally exposed to mercury were analyzed by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrophotometry to determine their total, inorganic and organic mercury levels. The arithmetic means of total mercury levels in hair were 6.1, 5.2 and 5.4 ppm for the Chinese, Malays and Indians, respectively. Factors contributing to the amount of mercury in hair, including consumption of fish and marine products, use of traditional ethnic medicines, artificial hair waving, age, sex and ethnicity were analyzed. Fish consumption, sex and ethnicity are factors found to contribute significantly (p less than 0.05) to mercury levels in hair. PMID:3406725

  10. Comparison of trace elements in the scalp hair of malignant and benign breast lesions versus healthy women.

    PubMed

    Pasha, Qaisara; Malik, Salman A; Shaheen, Nazia; Shah, Munir H

    2010-05-01

    Trace elements including Al, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sr, and Zn were analyzed in the scalp hair samples of women with malignant breast lesions, women with benign breast lesions, and healthy donors using atomic absorption spectrophotometric method. In the scalp hair of malignant-tumor patients, the highest average concentration was shown by Ca (1,187 microg/g), followed by Na (655 microg/g), Mg (478 microg/g), Zn (391 microg/g), Sr (152 microg/g), Fe (114 microg/g), and K (89.8), while in the case of benign-tumor patients, the average estimated element levels were 1,522, 1,093, 572, 457, 217, 80.4, and 74.7 microg/g, respectively. Most of the elements exhibited non-normal distribution evidenced by large spread, standard error, and skewness values. Mean concentrations of Ca (634 microg/g), Zn (206 microg/g), Mg (162 microg/g), Fe (129 microg/g), and Na (82.1 microg/g) were noteworthy in the scalp hair of healthy women. Average levels of Na, Sr, K, Cd, Co, Pb, Mg, Ca, Zn, Ni, Sb, and Mn were revealed to be significantly higher in the hair of malignant and benign patients compared to the healthy women; however, Fe, Cu, Al, and Cr were not significantly different in the scalp hair of the three groups. The quartile distributions of Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Sr revealed maximum spread in the scalp hair of malignant and benign groups; nevertheless, Al, Cu, Fe, and Zn exhibited almost comparable quartile levels in the three groups. Strong correlation coefficients were found between Fe and Cd, Al and Na, Mn and Sr, Co and Cr, Cd and Cr, Pb and K, Pb and Mn, Cu and Na, and Al and Fe in the scalp hair of malignant-tumor patients, while Fe and K, Cd and Co, Na and Co, and Cr and Pb showed strong correlations in the scalp hair of benign-tumor patients, both of which were significantly different compared with the healthy subjects. Multivariate cluster analysis also revealed divergent clustering of the elements in the scalp hair of

  11. A Review: Hair Health, Concerns of Shampoo Ingredients and Scalp Nourishing Treatments.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chin-Hsien T; Huang, Shu-Hung; Wang, Hui-Min D

    2015-01-01

    Human hair serves a biological purpose of protecting the scalp, as well as physical attractiveness to the perception of beauty. Hair loss, graying of hair, dandruff and other conditions affecting hair conditions can be distressing to patients, as hair condition is often considered important in people's own assessment of physical beauty. Different hair types can benefit from different treatment methods to promote hair health and growth. External factors like exposure to the sun and smoking, dietary factors including malnutrition of essential fatty acids and vitamins, and chemicals applied to the hair and scalp in shampoos and other treatments can all cause damage to existing hair and impair hair growth. Specific chemicals found in many shampoos, including antimicrobial agents, surfactants and preservatives, can all impair different aspects of hair health. In this review, we aim to discuss the main hair issues, such as hair loss, followed by the safety assessments of selected ingredients in shampoo, and possible nourishment for scalp improvement. This review highlights areas of disagreement in the existing literature, and points to new directions for future studies. Key conclusions include the carcinogenic chemicals to avoid, alternatives of such ingredients, and scalp nourishing treatments with micronutrients. PMID:26278532

  12. Profiling Amino Acids of Jordanian Scalp Hair as a Tool for Diabetes Mellitus Diagnosis: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Rashaid, Ayat H B; Harrington, Peter de B; Jackson, Glen P

    2015-07-21

    Hair analysis is an area of increasing interest in the fields of medical and forensic sciences. Human scalp hair has attractive features in clinical studies because hair can be sampled easily and noninvasively from human subjects, and unlike blood and urine samples, it contains a chronological record of medication use. Keratin protein is the major component of scalp hair shaft material and it is composed of 21 amino acids. The method used herein for the amino acid determination in hair included keratin protein acid hydrolysis using 6 M hydrochloric acid (HCl), followed by amino acids derivatization using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA), and the determination of derivatized amino acids by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Amino acid profiles of scalp hair of 27 Jordanian subjects (15 diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2 patients and 12 control subjects) were analyzed. A fuzzy rule-building expert system (FuRES) classified the amino acid profiles into diabetic and control groups based on multivariate analyses of the abundance of 14 amino acids. The sensitivity and specificity were 100% for diabetes detection using leave-one-individual-out cross-validation. The areas under the receiver operative characteristics (ROC) curves were 1.0, which represents a highly sensitive and specific diabetes test. The nonessential amino acids Gly and Glu, and the essential amino acid Ile were more abundant in the scalp hair of diabetic patients compared to the hair of control subjects. The associations between the abundance of amino acids of human hair and health status may have clinical applications in providing diagnostic indicator or predicting other chronic or acute diseases. PMID:26075473

  13. Expanded flap and hair follicle transplantation for reconstruction of postburn scalp alopecia.

    PubMed

    Oh, Suk Joon; Koh, Sung Hoon; Lee, Jong Wook; Jang, Young Chul

    2010-11-01

    The advent of tissue expansion started a new era of aesthetically reconstructed scalp alopecia by providing a large hair-bearing scalp area with acceptable hair density. However, residual scalp alopecia and wide visible scars still raised aesthetic problems. The hair follicle transplantation carries the possibility of producing a more natural scalp because both the desired hair density and the natural direction of the hair can be reproduced using this procedure. Our study group consisted of 62 patients (41 males and 21 females) with a mean age of 26.3 years. The median age of suffering a burn to the scalp was 3 years. The causes of burn resulting to scalp alopecia were flame (n = 28), scald (n = 18), contact (n = 7), and electrical (n = 9) injuries. The first reconstruction for all patients was the expanded flap coverage. Three patients used 2-stage expanded flaps. Five patients underwent hair follicle transplantation after they had undergone the expanded flap coverage. Expanders (n = 86) were placed in 62 patients with a total of 9 major (9.3%) and 3 minor (3.5%) complications. The overall results after expanded flap reconstruction and hair follicle transplantation were excellent (43 patients, 69.4%), good (18 patients, 29%), and bad (1 patient, 1.6%). Postburn scalp alopecia can be reconstructed by 1-stage or multiple-stage expanded flap procedures. The visible remaining alopecia and marginal scar after the procedure, especially on the anterior hairline of the forehead and the sideburns, can be refined by hair follicle transplantation. This report also suggests the possibility that cicatrical scalp alopecia with intact deep tissue can be restored by hair follicle transplantations using hair transplanter. PMID:21119411

  14. Trace elemental distribution in the scalp hair of bipolars using PIXE technique.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, A S; Naga Raju, G J; Sattar, S Abdul; Sarita, P; Prasada Rao, A Durga; Ray, Dinesh Kumar; Reddy, B Seetharami; Reddy, S Bhuloka

    2014-04-01

    Trace metals play a significant role in neurological disorders. There is very limited information available on the role of macro and trace elements in bipolar disorders. The objective of this investigation was to identification, quantification of essential trace elements in the scalp hair samples of the patients and compare with those of normal subjects. We made a hypothesis about the role played by essential trace metals whose concentrations are significantly different to those of normals in the disease process. The analysis was carried out in the scalp hair samples of 26 male and 26 female patients suffering from bipolar disorder (BD) by Particle Induced X-ray Emission Technique (PIXE). The concentration of Cu (p < 0.002) was found to be higher in the hair samples of male bipolar disorder patients while the concentrations of Mn (p < 0.001), Fe (p < 0.005), Zn (p < 0.0001) and Se (p < 0.005) were found to be lower than those in normal subjects. The concentration of Cu (p < 0.0001) was higher in the hair samples of female bipolar patients but depressed levels of Fe (p < 0.005), Ni (p < 0.05), Zn (p < 0.00001) and Se (p < 0.05) were observed compared to controls. Cu/Zn ratio was found to be higher in the hair samples of male and female patients compared with normals. While the imbalance of certain trace elements leads to generation of more free radicals, the imbalance of some other trace elements causes changes in dopamine (neurotransmitter) activity. It is essential to monitor before and periodically during treatment the levels of essential trace elements for effective treatment of bipolar disorder. PMID:24548755

  15. Hair care practices and structural evaluation of scalp and hair shaft parameters in African American and Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Lewallen, Robin; Francis, Shani; Fisher, Brian; Richards, Jeanette; Li, Jim; Dawson, Tom; Swett, Katrina; McMichael, Amy

    2015-09-01

    How African American hair fragility relates to hair care practices and biologic differences between races is not well understood. To assess the differences between perceptions of hair health, hair care practices, and several biologic hair parameters between Caucasian and African American women. A questionnaire on perceptions of hair health and hair care practices was administered. Biological and structural parameters of hair shaft and scalp, including growth, density, diameter, cycle, breakage, and scalp blood flow were also assessed in this case-control study. Significant differences between the Caucasian and African American women were observed in the questionnaire and biologic study data. Regarding self-reported perceptions of hair health, there were differences in the following: hair shaft type (P < 0.001), hair breakage (P = 0.040), and desire to change hair (P = 0.001). Regarding self-reported hair care practices, there were differences in the following: location of haircutting (P = 0.002) and washing (P = 0.010), washing frequency (P < 0.001), chemical relaxer use (P < 0.001), hooded hair dryer use (P < 0.001), and hair shaft conditioner use (P = 0.005). The two groups had similar practices in regard to the use of hair color, frequency of hair color use, chemical curling agents, and handheld blow dryer use. Regarding biological and structural parameters, there were differences in the following: hair growth rate (P < 0.001), density (P = 0.0016), diameter (P = 0.01), number of broken hairs (P < 0.001), and blood flow (P = 0.03). There was no significant difference in hair cycle parameters.The differences in hair care practices and hair fiber morphology among African American women may contribute to clinically observed variation in hair fragility and growth. PMID:26300276

  16. Inter-city comparison of metals in scalp hair collected after the Gulf War 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Sadiq, M.; Mian, A.A. ); AlThagafi, K.M. )

    1992-01-01

    A total of 110 hair samples were collected in March, 1991, from barber shops in Al Hassa, Dhahran, Hafr Al Batin, Jeddah and Riyadh cities. Information on the nationality and age of each donor was collected. All the collected hair samples were thoroughly washed, acid digested and metal concentrations were determined using an inductively coupled argon plasma analyzer. Mercury was determined by the cold vapor technique using a double-beam mercury analyzer. It was found that the mean concentration of aluminum, barium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, vanadium, titanium, copper and molybdenum were higher in the hair samples from Dhahran than any other city that were investigated in this study. The hair samples from Jeddah were found to contain the lowest mean concentration of the above metals. Exceptionally high concentrations of sodium was found in the hair samples from Jeddah. The correlation analysis of all data (combined) revealed three groups of metals. The first group consisted of cadmium, cobalt, chromium, lead, nickel, vanadium, molybdenum, titanium, aluminum and barium. These metals were strongly inter-correlated (P <0.01) suggesting a probable common source or coexisting sources of supply for these metals. Strontium, calcium, magnesium and zinc formulated the second group and were correlated (P <0.05) to each other. The remaining metals (copper, iron, potassium, and sodium) were occasionally correlated. Considering correlation coefficient values as basis, the strongest and the weakest inter-element associations for the first group of metals were observed in hairs from Dhahran and Jeddah, respectively. This suggest that influence of the pollution source for these metals was the maximum at Dhahran and the minimum at Jeddah. Age and nationality of the donors have no significant (P < 0.05) effect on metal concentrations in the scalp hair. 14 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Full-thickness Scalp Injury Due to Hair Braiding and Weave

    PubMed Central

    Grunzweig, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Full-thickness scalp necrosis secondary to hair weave placement is a rare but serious complication of a common hairstyle. The defects can be large and may necessitate complex reconstruction with hair-bearing tissue. We report on the case of a young woman with extensive scalp loss following tight spiral braiding. The case description illustrates this relatively unknown complication, its treatment, and possible preventative measures. PMID:26495190

  18. Characterization of human scalp hairs by optical low-coherence reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. J.; Milner, T. E.; Dhond, R. P.; Sorin, W. V.; Newton, S. A.; Nelson, J. S.

    1995-03-01

    Optical low-coherence reflectometry is used to investigate the internal structure and optical properties of human scalp hair. Regardless of hair color, the refractive index of the cortical region remains within the range of 1.56-1.59. The amplitude of the backscattered infrared light coupled into different-colored hair confirms the relative melanin content. Discontinuities in the refractive index permit identification of distinct structural layers within the hair shaft.

  19. Black women's hair: the main scalp dermatoses and aesthetic practices in women of African ethnicity *

    PubMed Central

    Tanus, Aline; Oliveira, Camila Caberlon Cruz; Villarreal, Delky Johanna Villarreal; Sanchez, Fernando Andres Vargas; Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni

    2015-01-01

    Afro-ethnic hair is different from Caucasian and Asian hair and has unique features. Ethnic hair is more prone to certain conditions or diseases. Such diseases are not only related to the fragile inner structure of the hair, but also to the cultural habits of hairstyles that often exert traction forces upon the pilosebaceous follicle. Women with African hair subject their hair to chemical treatments such as hair straightening and relaxing, and thus modify the structure of their hair shaft, making it more susceptible to damage. For this reason, hair complaints are common among black women and represent a diagnostic challenge to the dermatologist, requiring a thorough clinical examination of the hair and scalp, and a detailed medical history of the patient. The purpose of this review is to warn of the potential side effects and sequelae related to hairstyles and hair treatments used by black women, and to highlight the major diseases that affect this ethnicity. PMID:26375213

  20. Elements concentrations in the scalp hair of methamphetamine abusers.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ruxin; Zhang, Sujing; Xiang, Ping; Shen, Baohua; Zhuo, Xianyi; Ma, Dong

    2015-04-01

    The concentrations of 16 elements (As, Au, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se, Sr and Zn) in the hair of 40 methamphetamine (METH) abusers and control subjects were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Comparisons of the element levels in the hair of properly matched METH abuser and control groups revealed significant imbalances in the concentrations of 6 elements (As, Au, Ca, Cu, Mg and Sr) between the abuser and control groups. Ca (p<0.01), Cu (p<0.05), Mg (p<0.01) and Sr (p<0.01) levels are significantly lower in the hair samples of METH abusers compared to control subjects, whereas the As (p<0.01) and Au (p<0.01) concentrations are higher. The concentration of the remaining elements in the hair of METH abusers was similar to the concentration in the control subjects. The geometric means for each element in hair of METH abuser and control subjects are presented. The cause of these alterations is also discussed. PMID:25682498

  1. Qualitative investigation of fresh human scalp hair with full-field optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Woo June; Pi, Long-Quan; Min, Gihyeon; Lee, Won-Soo; Lee, Byeong Ha

    2012-03-01

    We have investigated depth-resolved cellular structures of unmodified fresh human scalp hairs with ultrahigh-resolution full-field optical coherence tomography (FF-OCT). The Linnik-type white light interference microscope has been home-implemented to observe the micro-internal layers of human hairs in their natural environment. In hair shafts, FF-OCT has qualitatively revealed the cellular hair compartments of cuticle and cortex layers involved in keratin filaments and melanin granules. No significant difference between black and white hair shafts was observed except for absence of only the melanin granules in the white hair, reflecting that the density of the melanin granules directly affects the hair color. Anatomical description of plucked hair bulbs was also obtained with the FF-OCT in three-dimensions. We expect this approach will be useful for evaluating cellular alteration of natural hairs on cosmetic assessment or diagnosis of hair diseases.

  2. Feily's method as new mode of hair grafting in prevention of scalp necrosis even in dense hair transplantation.

    PubMed

    Feily, Amir; Moeineddin, Fatemeh

    2015-07-01

    Hair restoration is a safe procedure and most of its associated complications are preventable by the surgeon and/or the patient. Recipient area necrosis is rare but arises when an increased number of recipient grafts are utilized and de-vascularization of the scalp occurs. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare all cases and pictures reported in main search engines and Iranian centers of hair transplant to find the dangerous zone of necrosis and to provide a new method for prevention of necrosis. Pictorial analysis of this study revealed that the majority of necrosis (14 of 18) occurs in central region of the scalp and is inclined, particularly, to the right parietal aspect of the scalp. Accordingly, a case series was done and a new method for prevention of scalp necrosis even in dense packing transplantation was discussed. PMID:26336624

  3. Lead content in human scalp hair of rural and urban residents in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, P.C.; Saito, S.; Kojima, Y.

    1996-12-01

    In the last three decades, vehicular traffic has increased drastically in Taiwan, from 50 thousand registered motor vehicles in 1967 to over 5 million at present. Although the lead content of leaded gasoline produced in Taiwan was reduced from 0.56 g/L to 0.12 g/L between 1982 and 1988, half of these vehicles still use leaded gasoline. It is one of the major sources of lead contamination in the ambient air and dust in the city. The suitability of hair analysis as a means of screening for heavy metal exposure and heavy-metal poisoning is well documented. Numerous investigations worldwide have shown that hair lead concentrations are strongly correlated with the lead concentrations of other organs in the body. Hair presents an advantage from the sampling point of view because it is easily obtained, stored and analyzed. It also concentrates more lead per unit weight than any other tissue or body fluid. It has been estimated that for healthy persons, the lead concentration in hair may be 2-5 times higher than that in bone, 10-50 times than that of blood and from 100-500 times higher than in urine. The determination of trace elements in human scalp hair has become an accepted adjuvant to the more traditional blood and urine analyses for identifying systemic heavy metal intoxication. In this study, the concentrations of lead were measured in hair from an urban and a rural population in Taiwan. The levels and distributions of lead between rural and urban residents were compared. 17 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Age, gender and caste variations in scalp hair micro-morphological variables among Brahmins and Banias of Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Gaur, Rajan; Angrish, Isha; Bansal, Savita Rani

    2007-06-01

    A cross-sectional sample of 3136 scalp hair drawn from 392 individuals aged 10 to 60 years and belonging to the Bania (n = 201) and Brahmin (n = 191) caste groups of Punjab State of India were examined for diameters of hair shaft and medulla, scale count, medulla type, hair index, medullary index and scale-count index, employing standard procedures. The mean hair shaft diameter, medullary diameter, incidence of medullation and scale-count index was higher in males, while the mean scale count was higher in females. However, with a few exceptions, the gender differences were not statistically significant (p < 0.05). The Brahmins showed significantly (p < 0.05) higher mean values of hair shaft diameter and scale count than the Banias. The mean scale-count index was higher among the Banias. The fragmentary medulla was the most common medullary type among the Banias, while the continuous medulla was the most frequent type of medulla among the Brahmins. The frequency of medullation was significantly more among the Banias. On the average, the hair shaft diameter and diameter of medulla increased up to 30 years. Some age variations in medullation were noticed in both the caste groups. No clear age trend was noticeable in the scale count. By and large, the mean hair shaft diameter of the Banias was less than that of other populations. The mean hair shaft diameter of the Brahmin males was greater than that of the Banias, the Onges, and the Bengalees. The Brahmin females showed greater mean hair shaft diameter than that of the Banias, the Australian Aborigines, the Juangs and the Onges. Human scalp hair shows some age, gender and population variations in micro-morphological variables which have the potential of being useful for anthropological and forensic investigations. PMID:17711148

  5. Elemental concentrations in scalp hair, nutritional status and health-related quality of life in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Ochi, Akinobu; Ishimura, Eiji; Tsujimoto, Yoshihiro; Kakiya, Ryusuke; Tabata, Tsutomu; Mori, Katsuhito; Tahara, Hideki; Shoji, Tetsuo; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Nishizawa, Yoshiki; Inaba, Masaaki

    2012-04-01

    Elemental concentrations in hair from hemodialysis (HD) patients have not been well investigated. We examined the relationships between the elemental concentrations in scalp hair and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and nutritional status in HD patients. Twenty six elemental concentrations were measured in scalp hair samples from 60 male HD patients using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. To evaluate HRQOL, the Short Form 36 item health survey (SF36) was used. As indices of nutritional status, body mass index, serum parameters, and geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) were used. Phosphorus correlated positively with serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), GNRI and the physical domains of the SF36. Zinc correlated positively with serum creatinine, BUN and the physical domains of the SF36. Mercury and arsenic correlated positively with BUN. Cadmium correlated negatively with serum albumin, BUN and GNRI. Copper correlated positively with the physical domains of the SF36. Iodine correlated negatively with the physical domains of the SF36. Selenium correlated negatively with the mental domains of the SF36. In conclusion, phosphorus and zinc concentrations in scalp hair can be additional biomarkers of HRQOL and/or nutritional status in HD patients. Cadmium accumulation correlated with malnutrition. Iodine and selenium accumulation may adversely affect HRQOL. Further investigation is necessary to determine precisely how these elements affect these measures. PMID:22458390

  6. Analysis of trace elements in scalp hair of healthy people, hyperplasia and breast cancer patients with XRF method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolmogorov, Yuriy; Kovaleva, Valentina; Gonchar, Alexandr

    2000-06-01

    The possibilities of using the energy dispersion X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) and synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis (SRXFA) for the control of trace elements (TE) content in the hair of women with mammary hyperplasia and cancer are demonstrated. Ten hair samples were taken from 25- to 60-year-old women who have been operated for mammary cancer and from 23 patients under oncologist's observation on the occasion of hyperplastic process in the mammary gland (fibrocystous mastopathy). The results of the analyses of trace elements content in the hair of 52 practically healthy women were used as control. The results demonstrated that scalp hair of patients with oncological mammary pathology are characterized by the significant decrease of the concentration of selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn), and by the increase of chromium (Cr). The Se deficit was more pronounced in patients with cancer than in those with hyperplasia (fiducial probability p<0.05)

  7. Excess of counterclockwise scalp hair-whorl rotation in homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Klar, Amar J S

    2004-12-01

    While most men prefer women as their sexual partners, some are bisexual and others are homosexuals. It has been debated for a long time whether a person's sexual preference is innate, learned, or due to a combination of both causes. It was recently discovered that the human right-versus-left-hand use preference and the direction of scalp hair-whorl rotation develop from a common genetic mechanism. Such a mechanism controls functional specialization of brain hemispheres. Whether the same mechanism specifying mental makeup influences sexual preference was determined here by comparing hair-whorl rotation in groups enriched with homosexual men with that in males at large. Only a minority of 8.2% (n = 207) unselected 'control' group of males had counterclockwise rotation. In contrast, all three samples enriched with homosexual men exhibited highly significant (P < 0.0001), 3.6-fold excess (29.8%, n = 272) counterclockwise rotation. These results suggest that sexual preference may be influenced in a significant proportion of homosexual men by a biological/genetic factor that also controls direction of hair-whorl rotation. PMID:15689627

  8. Evaluated the levels of lead and cadmium in scalp hair of adolescent boys consuming different smokeless tobacco products with related to controls.

    PubMed

    Arain, Sadaf S; Kazi, Tasneem G; Arain, Asma J; Afridi, Hassan I; Brahman, Kapil D; Naeemullah; Ali, Jamshed; Memon, G Zuhra

    2015-04-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels in the scalp hair samples of adolescent boys age ranged 12-15 years, chewing different smokeless tobacco (SLT) products. For comparative purpose, boys of the same age group who did not consume any SLT products were selected as referents. The concentrations of Cd and Pb in SLT products and the scalp hair samples were measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometer (ETAAS) after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked by certified reference materials (CRMs). The difference between experimental and certified values of both elements was not significant (p > 0.05). The resulted data indicated that the adolescent boys who consumed different SLT products have two- to threefold higher levels of Cd and Pb in the scalp hair samples as compared to the referent boys (p < 0.01). The adolescent chewing different SLT products have 82.2-110 and 60.6-94.5% higher levels of Cd and Pb, respectively, in their scalp hair as related to the referents. PMID:25537077

  9. Standardized Scalp Massage Results in Increased Hair Thickness by Inducing Stretching Forces to Dermal Papilla Cells in the Subcutaneous Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Hama, Takanori; Murakami, Kasumi; Ogawa, Rei

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we evaluated the effect of scalp massage on hair in Japanese males and the effect of stretching forces on human dermal papilla cells in vitro. Methods: Nine healthy men received 4 minutes of standardized scalp massage per day for 24 weeks using a scalp massage device. Total hair number, hair thickness, and hair growth rate were evaluated. The mechanical effect of scalp massage on subcutaneous tissue was analyzed using a finite element method. To evaluate the effect of mechanical forces, human dermal papilla cells were cultured using a 72-hour stretching cycle. Gene expression change was analyzed using DNA microarray analyses. In addition, expression of hair cycle-related genes including IL6, NOGGIN, BMP4, and SMAD4 were evaluated using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results: Standardized scalp massage resulted in increased hair thickness 24 weeks after initiation of massage (0.085 ± 0.003 mm vs 0.092 ± 0.001 mm). Finite element method showed that scalp massage caused z-direction displacement and von Mises stress on subcutaneous tissue. In vitro, DNA microarray showed gene expression change significantly compared with nonstretching human dermal papilla cells. A total of 2655 genes were upregulated and 2823 genes were downregulated. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction demonstrated increased expression of hair cycle–related genes such as NOGGIN, BMP4, SMAD4, and IL6ST and decrease in hair loss–related genes such as IL6. Conclusions: Stretching forces result in changes in gene expression in human dermal papilla cells. Standardized scalp massage is a way to transmit mechanical stress to human dermal papilla cells in subcutaneous tissue. Hair thickness was shown to increase with standardized scalp massage. PMID:26904154

  10. Trichomegaly and scalp hair changes following treatment with erlotinib in pulmonary adenocarcinoma patients: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hua; Zhang, Hongmei; Zhang, Tongmei; Wang, Qunhui; Hu, Fanbin; Li, Baolan

    2016-01-01

    Erlotinib is among the oral EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors used to treat non-small cell lung cancer. The common side effects of erlotinib include acne form rash and diarrhea. Eyelash trichomegaly and alterations of scalp hair are rarely observed symptoms. In the present study, we report changes in eyelash trichomegaly and scalp hair in six cases of pulmonary adenocarcinoma patients that had been administered erlotinib. The symptoms of eyelash trichomegaly include curly, irregular, excessively long and brittle eyelashes, and alterations of scalp hair include curly or straight, brittle, fine or rigid, reduced growth rate and volume. Since these side effects does not substantially impact patient quality of life, no treatments were administered. These changes in eyelashes and scalp hair gradually disappeared after withdrawal of erlotinib. PMID:27588051

  11. A genome-wide association scan in admixed Latin Americans identifies loci influencing facial and scalp hair features

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Kaustubh; Fontanil, Tania; Cal, Santiago; Mendoza-Revilla, Javier; Fuentes-Guajardo, Macarena; Chacón-Duque, Juan-Camilo; Al-Saadi, Farah; Johansson, Jeanette A.; Quinto-Sanchez, Mirsha; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Jaramillo, Claudia; Arias, William; Barquera Lozano, Rodrigo; Macín Pérez, Gastón; Gómez-Valdés, Jorge; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; Hunemeier, Tábita; Ramallo, Virginia; Silva de Cerqueira, Caio C.; Hurtado, Malena; Villegas, Valeria; Granja, Vanessa; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia; Salzano, Francisco M.; Bortolini, Maria-Cátira; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Rothhammer, Francisco; Bedoya, Gabriel; Gonzalez-José, Rolando; Headon, Denis; López-Otín, Carlos; Tobin, Desmond J.; Balding, David; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    We report a genome-wide association scan in over 6,000 Latin Americans for features of scalp hair (shape, colour, greying, balding) and facial hair (beard thickness, monobrow, eyebrow thickness). We found 18 signals of association reaching genome-wide significance (P values 5 × 10−8 to 3 × 10−119), including 10 novel associations. These include novel loci for scalp hair shape and balding, and the first reported loci for hair greying, monobrow, eyebrow and beard thickness. A newly identified locus influencing hair shape includes a Q30R substitution in the Protease Serine S1 family member 53 (PRSS53). We demonstrate that this enzyme is highly expressed in the hair follicle, especially the inner root sheath, and that the Q30R substitution affects enzyme processing and secretion. The genome regions associated with hair features are enriched for signals of selection, consistent with proposals regarding the evolution of human hair. PMID:26926045

  12. A genome-wide association scan in admixed Latin Americans identifies loci influencing facial and scalp hair features.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Kaustubh; Fontanil, Tania; Cal, Santiago; Mendoza-Revilla, Javier; Fuentes-Guajardo, Macarena; Chacón-Duque, Juan-Camilo; Al-Saadi, Farah; Johansson, Jeanette A; Quinto-Sanchez, Mirsha; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Jaramillo, Claudia; Arias, William; Barquera Lozano, Rodrigo; Macín Pérez, Gastón; Gómez-Valdés, Jorge; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; Hunemeier, Tábita; Ramallo, Virginia; Silva de Cerqueira, Caio C; Hurtado, Malena; Villegas, Valeria; Granja, Vanessa; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia; Salzano, Francisco M; Bortolini, Maria-Cátira; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Rothhammer, Francisco; Bedoya, Gabriel; Gonzalez-José, Rolando; Headon, Denis; López-Otín, Carlos; Tobin, Desmond J; Balding, David; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    We report a genome-wide association scan in over 6,000 Latin Americans for features of scalp hair (shape, colour, greying, balding) and facial hair (beard thickness, monobrow, eyebrow thickness). We found 18 signals of association reaching genome-wide significance (P values 5 × 10(-8) to 3 × 10(-119)), including 10 novel associations. These include novel loci for scalp hair shape and balding, and the first reported loci for hair greying, monobrow, eyebrow and beard thickness. A newly identified locus influencing hair shape includes a Q30R substitution in the Protease Serine S1 family member 53 (PRSS53). We demonstrate that this enzyme is highly expressed in the hair follicle, especially the inner root sheath, and that the Q30R substitution affects enzyme processing and secretion. The genome regions associated with hair features are enriched for signals of selection, consistent with proposals regarding the evolution of human hair. PMID:26926045

  13. Brief communication: Choice of washing method of hair samples for trace element analysis in environmental studies.

    PubMed

    Sen, J; Das Chaudhuri, A B

    2001-07-01

    Determination of inseparable exogenous and endogenous levels of toxic trace elements such as lead in human scalp hair has been used to understand and assess population exposure to such elements. For any such analysis, washing of the hair samples to remove superficial contamination is the foremost requirement. However, the use of such washing methods prior to elemental analysis removes minute quantities of trace elements from the hair strands. This degree of loss is dependent on the washing method employed. In the present study, the element lead has been determined in human scalp hair after three methods of hair washing. It is apparent that the nonionic detergent-acetone method is best suited for securing valid lead analysis results in human scalp hair. PMID:11424080

  14. The present mercury contents of scalp hair and clinical symptoms in inhabitants of the Minamata area.

    PubMed

    Harada, M; Nakanishi, J; Konuma, S; Ohno, K; Kimura, T; Yamaguchi, H; Tsuruta, K; Kizaki, T; Ookawara, T; Ohno, H

    1998-05-01

    A total of 191 fishermen and their family (32-82 years) living in some mercury-polluted areas along the Shiranui Sea volunteered for the present study. They made a living by fishery and had formerly eaten the methyl mercury-contaminated fish and shellfish caught there. The questionnaire on subjective symptoms, fish eating habits, and past living history was conducted on the subjects. In addition, they were clinically examined in detail by several neurologists and scalp hair was collected. With six exceptions, all the 185 subjects showed a normal total mercury level in hair (<10 ppm). The ratio of methyl mercury to total mercury was 79-94% on the average for each group examined, suggesting indirect contamination (perhaps through the food chain). Despite their low mercury level in scalp hair, however, the subjects showed various neurological symptoms, particularly, sensory disturbance (such as the glove and stocking type), at a very high rate. Thus, it seems fair to state that, in addition to officially recognized Minamata disease patients, there still exist many people with atypical, slight Minamata disease on the coast of the Shiranui Sea. The current hair mercury level is not necessarily useful as a criterion for diagnosing chronic Minamata disease because of the long lapse of time. PMID:9600809

  15. Accumulation of brominated flame retardants and polychlorinated biphenyls in human breast milk and scalp hair from the Philippines: levels, distribution and profiles.

    PubMed

    Malarvannan, Govindan; Isobe, Tomohiko; Covaci, Adrian; Prudente, Maricar; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-01-01

    Paired human breast milk and scalp hair samples (n=30) were obtained in 2008 from primipara and multipara mothers living in two locations in the Philippines viz., Payatas, a waste dumpsite, and Malate, a non-dumpsite. Samples were analyzed for three groups of organohalogenated compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs). PCBs were the predominantly identified compounds (median: 70 ng/g lipid wt.) in all the breast milk samples. In the human milk, CB-153 was the most dominant PCB congener (17-44% contribution to the sum PCB), closely followed by CB-138 (12-35%), CB-118 (4-12%), CB-180 (2-13%), CB-187 (3-13%), and CB-170 (1.5-10%). Levels of PBDEs (median: 3.0 ng/g lipid wt.) in human milk samples from the Philippines were similar to other Asian or European countries. BDE-47, -99, -100 and -153 were the major PBDE congeners. For HBCDs, the α-isomer was predominant followed by the γ-HBCD isomer in the both locations. PBDE levels in human milk were significantly higher in the dumpsite (3.9 ng/g lipid wt.) than in the non-dump site (2.2 ng/g lipid wt.). PBDE concentrations (including BDE-209) were significantly higher (median: 70 ng/g hair) than those of PCBs (median: 30 ng/g hair) and HBCDs (median: 1.0 ng/g hair) in all the scalp hair samples. To our knowledge, this is the first report on HBCDs in human scalp hair. PBDE congeners in scalp hair were dominated by BDE-209 and BDE-47. On a congener basis, the levels of PBDEs found in scalp hair were higher than those in Spain (children and adults) and China (general people). PCB levels found in scalp hair were higher than those in Greece, Romania and Belgium, but lower than those in China. In this study, there were no significant differences in the concentration of PCBs and HBCDs in human milk; and PCBs, HBCDs and PBDEs in human scalp hair from the two different locations. No significant correlations were observed between PCBs, PBDEs and

  16. Scalp Micropigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Pak, Jae P.; Kim, Jino; Estrin, Norman F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cosmetic deformities, resulting from some dermatologic diseases or deformities caused by hair restoration surgeries, have had few, if any, good, permanent solutions. Most of these patients have learned to live with their problems. Objective: A cosmetic tattoo technique has been developed to address unsightly scalp and hair conditions. Materials and Methods: The technique called scalp micropigmentation uses specialized techniques and conventional cosmetic tattoo instruments and pigments in a stippling pattern on the scalp. Results: A variety of alopecias, refractory to treatment and hair transplant deformities, impact millions of men and women. Many of these deformities can be concealed with scalp micropigmentation, making the deformities minimally detectable. Included are the results of treatment. Patient satisfaction is very high. Conclusion: Scalp micropigmentation offers a good nonsurgical alternative treatment for hair and scalp deformities. This paper demonstrates scalp micropigmentation results and discusses the histology, physiology, and pathology of tattoo pigments in the skin. The regulation of the tattoo process by the United States Food and Drug Administration and state governments is summarized. Unlike medical devices, scalp micropigmentation offers a tattoo-based, non-medical “cover-up” that effectively hides unsightly conditions on the scalp and creates the illusion of thicker hair. The authors believe that scalp micropigmentation is destined to become a standardized offering for physicians specializing in cosmetic office procedures. PMID:25852813

  17. Development and validation of an UPLC-MS/MS method for the quantification of tamoxifen and its main metabolites in human scalp hair.

    PubMed

    Drooger, Jan C; Jager, Agnes; Lam, Mei-Ho; den Boer, Mathilda D; Sleijfer, Stefan; Mathijssen, Ron H J; de Bruijn, Peter

    2015-10-10

    The aim of this study was to validate an earlier developed high-performance highly sensitive ultra performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for quantification of tamoxifen and its three main metabolites (N-desmethyl-tamoxifen, 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen and 4-hydroxy-N-desmethyl-tamoxifen) in scalp hair. This non-invasive method might, by segmental analysis of hair, be useful in the determination of the concentration of drugs and its metabolites over time, which can be used to study a wide variety of clinical relevant questions. Hair samples (150-300 hair strands, cut as close to the scalp as possible from the posterior vertex region of the head) were collected from female patients taking tamoxifen 20mg daily (n=19). The analytes were extracted using a liquid-liquid extraction procedure with carbonate buffer at pH 8.8 and a mixture of n-hexane/isopropranol method, followed by UPLC-MS/MS chromatography, based on an earlier validated method. The calibration curves were linear in the range of 1.00-200 pmol for tamoxifen and N-desmethyl-tamoxifen, with lower limit of quantitation of 1.00 pmol and 0.100-20.0 pmol with lower limit of quantitation of 0.100 pmol for endoxifen and 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen. Assay performance was fair with a within-run and between-run variability less than 9.24 at the three quality control samples and less than 15.7 for the lower limit of quantitation. Importantly, a steep linear decline was observed from distal to proximal hair segments. Probably, this is due to UV exposure as we showed degradation of tamoxifen and its metabolites after exposure to UV-light. Furthermore, higher concentrations of tamoxifen were found in black hair samples compared to blond and brown hair samples. We conclude that measurement of the concentration of tamoxifen and its main metabolites in hair is possible, with the selective, sensitive, accurate and precise UPLC-MS/MS method. However, for tamoxifen, it seems not possible to determine

  18. The growth of human scalp hair in females using visible red light laser and LED sources

    PubMed Central

    Lanzafame, Raymond J; Blanche, Raymond R; Chiacchierini, Richard P; Kazmirek, Eric R; Sklar, Jeffrey A

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Low level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) has been demonstrated to promote hair growth in males. A double-blind randomized controlled trial was undertaken to define the safety and physiologic effects of LLLT on females with androgenic alopecia. Methods Forty-seven females (18–60 years old, Fitzpatrick I–IV, and Ludwig–Savin Baldness Scale I-2, I-3, I-4, II-1, II-2 baldness patterns) were recruited. A transition zone scalp site was selected; hairs were trimmed to 3 mm height; the area was tattooed and photographed. The active group received a “TOPHAT655” unit containing 21, 5 mW diode lasers (655 ± 5 nm) and 30 LEDS (655 ± 20 nm), in a bicycle-helmet like apparatus. The placebo group unit appeared identical, containing incandescent red lights. Patients treated at home every other day × 16 weeks (60 treatments, 67 J/cm2 irradiance/25 minute treatment, 2.9 J dose), with follow up and photography at 16 weeks. A masked 2.85 cm2 photographic area was evaluated by another blinded investigator. The primary endpoint was the percent increase in hair counts from baseline. Results Forty-two patients completed the study (24 active, 18 sham). No adverse events or side effects were reported. Baseline hair counts were 228.2 ± 133.4 (N = 18) in the sham and 209.6 ± 118.5 (N = 24) in the active group (P = 0.642). Post Treatment hair counts were 252.1 ± 143.3 (N = 18) in the sham group and 309.9 ± 166.6 (N = 24) in the active group (P = 0.235). The change in hair counts over baseline was 23.9 ± 30.1 (N = 18) in the sham group and 100.3 ± 53.4 (N = 24) in the active group (P < 0.0001). The percent hair increase over the duration of the study was 11.05 ± 48.30 (N = 18) for the sham group and 48.07 ± 17.61 (N = 24) for the active group (P < 0.001). This demonstrates a 37% increase in hair growth in the active treatment group as compared

  19. NHEXAS PHASE I REGION 5 STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION, STORAGE, AND SHIPMENT OF HAIR SAMPLES FOR TRACE METALS AND ARSENIC (RTI/ACS-209-046)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This protocol describes the procedures for the collection, storage, and shipping of human scalp hair samples for trace metals and arsenic or potential adduct analysis. Scalp hair samples were collected from each participant that agreed to provide the sample. Thinning shears were ...

  20. Hair loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... continual hair pulling or scalp rubbing Radiation therapy Tinea capitis (ringworm of the scalp) Tumor of the ovary or ... a plucked hair Skin biopsy If you have ringworm on the scalp, you may be prescribed an ...

  1. The penetration enhancer SEPA augments stimulation of scalp hair growth by topical minoxidil in the balding stumptail macaque.

    PubMed

    Diani, A R; Shull, K L; Zaya, M J; Brunden, M N

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the penetration enhancer SEPA (2-n-nonyl-1,3-dioxolane) would augment the scalp hair growth effects of topical minoxidil in the balding stumptail macaque. A 1-in2 area on the balding scalp of 40 adult female monkeys (four drug-treated and four vehicle-treated groups of 5 monkeys each) was topically treated 5 days/week, q.d. or b.i.d., with approximately 250 microliters of minoxidil-SEPA (2.5% minoxidil, weight/volume in 10% SEPA, 25% propylene glycol and 65% isopropyl alcohol), Rogaine topical solution (TS, 2% minoxidil, weight/volume in 20% propylene glycol, 60% ethanol and 20% water) or respective vehicles (without drug) for 16 weeks via paintbrush application. Scalp hair was collected by shaving and vacuuming the dosed area at baseline and at 4-week intervals. The shaved hair was filtered, weighed and recorded as the change from baseline. The q.d. and b.i.d. minoxidil-SEPA groups displayed a significant increase in hair weight compared to their respective vehicles at week 4 whereas q.d. and b.i.d. Rogaine TS groups were not active until week 8 and 12, respectively. Both minoxidil-SEPA treatments produced significantly greater cumulative hair weight over the entire 16-week study compared to either of the Rogaine TS treatments. Comparable increases in cumulative hair weight were evident between q.d. and b.i.d. minoxidil-SEPA groups and between q.d. and b.i.d. Rogaine TS groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8527153

  2. Arsenic species determination in human scalp hair by pressurized hot water extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Morado Piñeiro, Andrés; Moreda-Piñeiro, Jorge; Alonso-Rodríguez, Elia; López-Mahía, Purificación; Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad; Prada-Rodríguez, Darío

    2013-02-15

    Analytical methods for the determination of total arsenic and arsenic species (mainly As(III) and As(V)) in human scalp hair have been developed. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to ICP-MS have been used for total arsenic and arsenic species determination, respectively. The proposed methods include a "green", fast, high efficient and automated species leaching procedure by pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE). The operating parameters for PHWE including modifier concentration, extraction temperature, static time, extraction steps, pressure, mean particle size, diatomaceous earth (DE) mass/sample mass ratio and flush volume were studied using design of experiments (Plackett-Burman design PBD). Optimum condition implies a modifier concentration (acetic acid) of 150 mM and powdered hair samples fully mixed with diatomaceous earth (DE) as a dispersing agent at a DE mass/sample mass ratio of 5. The extraction has been carried out at 100°C and at an extraction pressure of 1500 psi for 5 min in four extraction step. Under optimised conditions, limits of quantification of 7.0, 6.3 and 50.3 ng g(-1) for total As, As(III) and As(V), respectively were achieved. Repeatability of the overall procedure (4.4, 7.2 and 2.1% for total As, As(III) and As(V), respectively) was achieved. The analysis of GBW-07601 (human hair) certified reference material was used for validation. The optimised method has been finally applied to several human scalp hair samples. PMID:23598040

  3. Cladosporium scalp infection.

    PubMed

    Sosa, Erwin Eduardo Argueta; Cohen, Philip R; Tschen, Jaime A

    2012-01-01

    An 11-year-old healthy red-haired girl presented with a 3-year history of hair loss and mild pruritus of her scalp. She had previously been diagnosed with trichotillomania. Cutaneous examination showed scant hair loss with neither crusting nor scaly lesions. The scalp hair was diffusely thin, dry, and brittle on the frontal, mid-parietal, and anterior occipital scalp (Figure 1A). A pull test was negative, and a significant number of hair shafts were not detached on repeated traction. Closer examination using a dermatoscope showed follicles with broken hair shafts. The dermatoscopic evaluation also showed frequent pinpoint black dots scattered among the terminal hair shafts at their bases. No scale, scar, or inflammatory changes were seen in the involved areas (Figure 1B). A 20% potassium hydroxide (KOH) preparation of material obtained after gentle scrapping of the black dots on the scalp provided fragments of hair fibers containing aggregates of pigmented yeast forms (Figure 2A) and brown septate hyphae (Figure 2B). Two samples were sent for fungal culture and both showed dark brown colonies on the surface and black coloration when viewed from the reverse side (Figure 3A). Lactophenol cotton blue preparation of the fungal colonies revealed long and septate hyphae with laterally branching conidiophores ending in round-shaped conidia (Figure 3B). The microorganism was identified by the reference laboratory as Cladosporium species. The conidia were usually noted to be single-celled with a distinct dark hilum. They also exhibited prominent attachment scars that caused the cells to appear "shield-shaped." These features were considered to be diagnostic for Cladosporium; however, the reference laboratory could not identify the organism to the species level. The girl's Cladosporium scalp infection was treated with itraconazole at an oral daily dose of 200 mg for 2 months. Upon re-evaluation, she showed significant improvement with not only discontinuation of her alopecia

  4. Scalp Cooler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Composite Consulation Concepts, Inc.'s Chemo-cooler, a scalp cooling system based on NASA space suit technology, prevents hair loss in patients undergoing chemotherapy. A head covering is placed over plastic tubing through which cold water is circulated from a cylinder. A controller monitors time and temperature. With chemo-cooler, 63% of patients lost almost no hair; 9% suffered only moderate hair loss. The technique was commercialized by an ex-NASA employee.

  5. Determination of Cu, Zn and Pb in scalp hair from a selected population in Penang using the XRF method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldroobi, Khalid Saleh Ali; Shukri, A.; Munem, Eid Mahmoud Eid Abdel; Bauk, Sabar; Marashdeh, Mohammad Wasef; Amin, Yahye Abbas

    2012-06-01

    The state of Penang encompasses an industrial region with a potential for the existence of a variety of industrial pollutants. Such pollutants would certainly have a possible impact effect on the environment and the people. The determination of trace elements levels in hair which is well known as a method for environmental exposure monitoring, evaluation of heavy metal poisoning, assessment of nutrient levels and disease diagnoses, is chosen here as the method to determine the possible exposure to possible pollutants in the form of unwanted trace elements. The natural levels of trace elements in hair are hence monitored first as reference values for the assessment of the possible human contamination levels. In this work the concentrations of Cu, Zn and Pb in human scalp hair of 50 residents of Penang were determined using XRF. The results of this study were compared with the results obtained in other cities where such measurements have also been carried out.

  6. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry measurement of climbazole deposition from hair care products onto artificial skin and human scalp.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guoqiang; Hoptroff, Michael; Fei, Xiaoqing; Su, Ya; Janssen, Hans-Gerd

    2013-11-22

    A sensitive and specific ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the measurement of climbazole deposition from hair care products onto artificial skin and human scalp. Deuterated climbazole was used as the internal standard. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) in positive mode was applied for the detection of climbazole. For quantification, multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transition 293.0>69.0 was monitored for climbazole, and MRM transition 296.0>225.1 for the deuterated climbazole. The linear range ran from 4 to 2000 ng mL(-1). The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were 1 ng mL(-1) and 4 ng mL(-1), respectively, which enabled quantification of climbazole on artificial skin and human scalp at ppb level (corresponding to 16 ng cm(-2)). For the sampling of climbazole from human scalp the buffer scrub method using a surfactant-modified phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution was selected based on a performance comparison of tape stripping, the buffer scrub method and solvent extraction in in vitro studies. Using this method, climbazole deposition in in vitro and in vivo studies was successfully quantified. PMID:23958691

  7. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios and mercury concentration in the scalp hair of residents from Taiji, a whaling town.

    PubMed

    Endo, Tetsuya; Hayasaka, Moriaki; Hisamichi, Yohsuke; Kimura, Osamu; Haraguchi, Koichi

    2013-04-15

    We analyzed stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) as well as mercury (Hg) concentration in the scalp hair of Japanese who consumed whale meat and those who did not, and investigated the relationships among the δ(13)C and δ(15)N values and Hg concentration. The average δ(15)N and δ(13)C values of whale meat-eaters (10.11‰ and -18.5‰) were significantly higher than those of non-eaters (9.28‰ and -18.9‰), respectively. The average Hg concentration of whale meat-eaters (20.6 μg/g) was significantly higher than that of non-eaters (2.20 μg/g). Significant positive correlations were found between the δ(13)C and δ(15)N values and between the δ(15)N value and Hg concentration in the hair of whale meat-eaters, while the correlation between the δ(15)N value and Hg concentration was not statistically significant in the non-eaters. The consumption of whale meat may increase Hg concentration as well as δ(15)N and δ(13)C values in scalp hair. PMID:23453817

  8. The role of variations in growth rate and sample collection on interpreting results of segmental analyses of hair.

    PubMed

    LeBeau, Marc A; Montgomery, Madeline A; Brewer, Jason D

    2011-07-15

    Segmental analysis of hair for drugs, metabolites, and poisons has been widely reported in the scientific literature over the past two decades. Two fundamental assumptions in interpreting results of such analyses are (1) an average linear growth rate of head hair of 1cm/month and (2) that sample collections occur with the hair being cut directly next to the scalp. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the variability associated with growth rate of human head hair, as well as the ability to uniformly collect hair next to the scalp. The results were used to determine how these factors affect the interpretation of results generated in segmental analysis of hair. A thorough literature review was conducted to assess the range of linear growth of human head hair from the vertex posterior and occipital regions. The results were compiled to establish the average (1.06cm/month), as well as the range of possible growth rates of head hair. The range was remarkable and suggests that conclusions based on the 1-cm/month growth rate could be significantly skewed. A separate study was undertaken to evaluate collection of hair next to the scalp. Fourteen individuals were provided oral instructions, as well as a written standard collection procedure for head hair. The experience levels among the collectors varied from novice to expert. Each individual collected hair from dolls with short- and long-hair. Immediately following each collection, the sampling area was evaluated to determine how close to the scalp the cuts were made, as well as the variability in the lengths of hair remaining at the sampled area. From our collection study, we determined that 0.8±0.1cm of hair was left on the scalp after cutting. When taking into account the amount of hair left on the scalp after collecting, the use of a growth rate of 1.06cm/month, and the assumption that it takes two weeks for newly formed hair in the follicle to reach the scalp, we find that the first 1-cm segment of hair typically

  9. [Incidence of scalp involvement by Demodex folliculorum Simon ectoparasites in a pathologic-anatomic and forensic medicine autopsy sample].

    PubMed

    Hellerich, U; Metzelder, M

    1994-01-01

    29% of unselected pathological and forensic autopsy cases revealed mites of the species Demodex folliculorum longus and brevis in hair follicles and sebaceous glands of the scalp. The attack by these parasites was equal in male and female subjects and correlated to the number of sebaceous glands but not to the density of hair follicles. However there was a tendency to an increased number of parasites inhabiting the scalp of people of advanced age, dark hair colour or with a bald head. A chronic lymphocytic infiltration of the skin was conspicuous in more than 70% of cases with Demodicosis folliculorum. PMID:7811138

  10. Determination of arsenic and mercury level in scalp hair from a selected population in Penang, Malaysia using XRF technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldroobi, Khalid Saleh Ali; Shukri, A.; Bauk, Sabar; Munem, Eid Mahmoud Abdel; Abuarra, Ali. M. A.

    2013-10-01

    As with many cities all over the world with active industrial developments, the city of Penang in Malaysia has also the potential of being exposed to industrial pollution. Such exposure would certainly have a detrimental impact on the environment and the people. The determination of trace elemental levels in hair which is well known as a method for environmental exposure monitoring, evaluation of heavy metal poisoning, assessment of nutrient levels and disease diagnoses. In this study, it is selected as the method to determine the possible exposure to pollutants in the form of unwanted trace elements. The natural levels of trace elements in hair are hence monitored first as reference values for the assessment of the possible human contamination levels. In this work the concentrations of As and Hg in the human scalp hair of 100 residents of Penang were determined using XRF. The results of this study are compared with the results obtained in other cities where such measurements have also been carried out.

  11. Hair Today; Scalped Tomorrow: Massive Subgaleal Haematoma Following Sudden Hair Pulling in an Adolescent in the Absence of Haematological Abnormality or Skull Fracture.

    PubMed

    Edmondson, Sarah-Jayne; Ramman, Saif; Hachach-Haram, Nadine; Bisarya, Kamal; Fu, Brian; Ong, Juling; Akhavani, Mo

    2016-07-01

    Subgaleal haematoma (SH) is a rare condition, most frequently observed in neonates as a complication of Ventouse-assisted delivery. There have been few patients reported beyond this period. Those that are present within the literature have typically resulted from significant blunt scalp trauma, with or without associated skull fracture. Those resulting secondary to relatively minor trauma, such as hair braiding or hair pulling, are rare but have been reported and are often associated with underlying haematological abnormalities or nonaccidental injury patients. Most patients resolve spontaneously and without complication. The authors report a rare patient of a delayed presentation of a massive SH in an adolescent following a seemingly innocuous episode of hair pulling whilst play-fighting, in the absence of any underlying haematological or anatomical abnormality. Due to the size of the SH and the appearance of large areas of calcification within the haematoma, early liaison with senior neuroradiologists and haematologists, to rule out underlying anatomical and haematological abnormalities, respectively, was essential to guide appropriate management. Our patient highlights the need for an awareness of the possible aetiologies of SH and the necessity of early active multidisciplinary team involvement in the management of such patients, which is critical to ensure optimum patient outcomes. PMID:27258718

  12. Efficacy of Cistanche Tubulosa and Laminaria Japonica Extracts (MK-R7) Supplement in Preventing Patterned Hair Loss and Promoting Scalp Health

    PubMed Central

    Seok, Joon; Kim, Tae Su; Kwon, Hyun Jung; Lee, Sung Pyo; Kang, Myung Hwa; Kim, Myeung Nam

    2015-01-01

    Cistanche tubulosa and Laminaria japonica have been reported to have anti-oxidative, anticoagulant, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties. They are expected to be a promising candidates for promoting hair growth and treating dandruff and scalp inflammation as a consequence. In this double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial, we investigated the efficacy of Cistanche tubulosa extract and Laminaria japonica extract complex (MK-R7) in promoting hair health in patients with mild to moderate patterned hair loss. Using phototrichogram (Folliscope 4.0, LeadM, Seoul, Korea), we compared the density and diameter of hairs in patients receiving a placebo or Cistanche tubulosa extract and Laminaria japonica extract complex (MK-R7) at baseline, 8 and 16 weeks of the study. In order to determine the efficacy of treatment on dandruff and scalp inflammation, investigator's assessment score and patient's subjective score were also performed. We found a statistically significant increase in the hair density of the test group (n = 45, MK-R7 400 mg) after 16 weeks of consuming the MK-R7 (test group: 23.29 n/cm2 ± 24.26, control: 10.35 n/cm2 ± 20.08, p < 0.05). In addition, we found a statistically significant increase in hair diameter in the test group compared to control group at week 16 (test group: 0.018 mm ± 0.015, control: 0.003 mm ± 0.013, p < 0.05). There were also significant outcomes regarding the investigator's visual assessment and patient's subjective score of dandruff and scalp inflammation in the test group compared to those in control group. Based on the results of this clinical study, we conclude that Cistanche tubulosa extract and Laminaria japonica extract complex (MK-R7) are promising substances for promoting health of the scalp and hair. PMID:25954733

  13. Comparative observations on levels of mercury in scalp hair of humans from different Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renzoni, Aristeo

    1992-09-01

    Following the Minamata events, an extraordinary number of studies concerning mercury toxicity and human health have been undertaken. Particular attention has been given to the evaluation of the dose-response relationship, i.e., the body burden at which (evaluated through the mercury analyses in blood or hair) the risk of poisoning begins. The results of a comparative study concerning levels of mercury in the hair of fishermen living in small islands who eat seafood more than four times per week show that in two areas only, and only in a few cases in these areas, the mercury in the hair exceeds the limit at which a possible risk could exist. In fact, the limit of 50 mg/g of total mercury in the hair (indicated as the lower limit above which a possible risk could occur) is surpassed by nine fishermen out of a total of 39 at station 1 and by four fishermen out of a total of 26 at station 3. The average value at station 1 is 36.38 mg/g and that at station 3 is 30.31 mg. Many countries have set legal limits of mercury for seafood, but evidently the system does not offer a true protection for man. Only the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI), as repeatedly suggested by WHO, should be considered the best guideline to prevent possibly harmful consequences.

  14. Hair loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... that is applied to the scalp to stimulate hair growth. Other medicines, such as hormones, may be prescribed to decrease hair loss and promote hair growth. Drugs such as finasteride and dutasteride can be ...

  15. Variation and Heritability in Hair Diameter and Curvature in an Australian Twin Sample.

    PubMed

    Ho, Yvonne Y W; Brims, Mark; McNevin, Dennis; Spector, Timothy D; Martin, Nicholas G; Medland, Sarah E

    2016-08-01

    Hair diameter and curvature are two characteristics of human scalp hair used in forensic contexts. While previous data show that subjective categorization of hair curvature is highly heritable, the heritability of objectively measured curvature and diameter, and variability of hair characteristics within each individual have not yet been studied. The present study measured hair diameter and curvature using an optical fiber diameter analyzer in a sample of 2,332 twins and siblings. Heritability was estimated using maximum likelihood structural equation modeling. Results show sex differences in the magnitude of genetic influence for mean diameter and curvature, with the vast majority of the variance accounted for by genetic effects in males (diameter = 86%, curvature = 53%) and females (diameter = 77%, curvature = 61%). The consistency of diameter (variance within an individual) was also highly heritable, but did not show sex limitation, with 68% of the variance accounted for by genetic factors. Moderate phenotypic correlations were seen between diameter and consistency (r = 0.3) but there was little correlation between diameter and curvature (r = -0.13). A bivariate Cholesky analysis was used to estimate the genetic and environmental correlations between hair diameter and consistency, yielding genetic correlations of r gF = 0.27 for females and r gM = 0.25 for males. PMID:27291867

  16. Trace elements in scalp hair from potentially exposed individuals in the vicinity of the Bayan Obo mine in Baotou, China.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuxue; Li, Haitao

    2015-11-01

    Mining activities including mineral excavation and ore transportation produce and release large amounts of pollutants to the surrounding environment, raising concerns regarding the effects of environmental exposure to pollutants on human health. The concentration of elements in hair can be used as a biomarker of exposure to chemical elements. In the present study, hair samples from 89 relatively healthy volunteers aged 11-77 years old (57 living near Bayan Obo giant REE-Nb-Fe ore deposit and 32 in non-mining areas) from Baotou (Inner Mongolia, China) were analyzed to determine the contents of 25 chemical elements (Ag, Al, As, Ba, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Ga, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Rb, Se, Tl, U, V and Zn) with the aim of gaining insights about the potential exposure to chemical elements of the population living within the Bayan Obo opencast mining area. The effects of gender and living area on element concentrations in hair were also investigated. The results showed that the mean concentrations of the target elements (Ag, Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Li, Mn, Ni, Pb, Tl, V, Cs, Ga, Rb, U, Bi, Mo, As, Ca, Fe, Mg and Zn) in human hair from the mining area (MA) were primarily higher than that in non-mining areas (NMA). The area of residence had an influence on the presence of select trace elements (As, Cd, Mg, Pb, Tl, U and Zn) in human hair. In addition, the hair samples from MA showed statistically significant differences between males and females for a larger number of elements than those in NMA in which only Ag, Bi and Se were significantly different. This result implies a potential influence of mining activities on residents living in the vicinity. These findings confirm the need for competent authorities to act as early as possible and to implement strategies aimed to protect exposed populations and the entire ecosystem. PMID:26407230

  17. Should national guidelines continue to recommend fetal scalp blood sampling during labor?

    PubMed

    Chandraharan, Edwin

    2016-11-01

    Intrapartum fetal scalp blood sampling (FBS) (pH or lactate) has not been shown to reduce emergency cesarean sections or operative vaginal births or improve long-term perinatal outcomes. In contrast, it is associated with rare but potentially very serious complications such as leakage of cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) and perinatal hemorrhagic shock. Therefore, it does not fulfill the "First Do No Harm" principle and its use during labor should be critically re-evaluated. PMID:26762827

  18. Trace metal profiles in hair samples from children in urban and rural regions of the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Hasan, M Y; Kosanovic, M; Fahim, M A; Adem, A; Petroianu, G

    2004-06-01

    Pollution has increased with industrialization and humans are subjected to exposure to heavy metals from different environmental sources. In oil-producing countries heavy metals are considered a major threat to the population. Metals such as lead, aluminum, manganese, nickel and cadmium may impact various organs of the body, and controlling their toxicity is crucial for individuals at risk. Previous studies utilized blood levels for monitoring metal toxicity. The current study was designed to investigate exposure to lead, aluminum, manganese, nickel and cadmium using scalp hair. Hair samples were randomly collected from 42 children (aged 6-18 y) representing rural and urban areas of the United Arab Emirates. The rural regions were defined as at least 50 km away from factories or traffic sites. Immediately after cutting, hairs were stored in plastic bags and attached to a questionnaire with the relevant background information. Samples were dried, weighed and sealed with polyethylene envelopes. Following extraction procedures with nitric acid, ICP-MS was utilized for metals determination. The analytical instrument showed a high degree of sensitivity and revealed significant differences between levels of some metals in hairs from rural and urban areas. Children from rural areas had mean hair lead levels (microg/g) of 0.79 + 0.10 whereas children from urban area had higher hair lead levels (3.47 + 0.47). Measuring metals concentration in scalp hair could be a useful method for studying exposure and assessing environmental pollution. Although the technique has the potential of being an effective tool for evaluating extent of pollution and identifying potentially toxic elements, it cannot yet replace the standard procedures of measuring air, water and soil metal content. PMID:15171485

  19. Relationships among Mercury Concentration, and Stable Isotope Ratios of Carbon and Nitrogen in the Scalp Hair of Residents from Seven Countries: Effects of Marine Fish and C4 Plants Consumption.

    PubMed

    Endo, Tetsuya; Hayasaka, Moriaki; Ogasawra, Hideki; Kimura, Osamu; Kotaki, Yuichi; Haraguchi, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the Hg concentration, and δ¹³C and δ¹⁵N values in the scalp hair of residents from seven countries; Vietnam, New Zealand, Spain, the USA, South Korea, Brazil and Japan. Relationships among the data in each country and among the seven countries were then examined. The highest Hg concentration as well as the highest or higher δ¹⁵N value in each country was found in the hair of a heavy marine fish-eater, whereas the lowest Hg concentration and δ¹⁵N value were found in the hair of a vegetarian or non (marginal)-fish eater. Hg concentrations were positively correlated with the δ¹⁵N values in each country, and increased markedly in samples with δ¹⁵N values exceeding 9.0 ‰, probably due to fish consumption. The highest Hg concentration could be found in sample, with a δ¹³C value between -19 and -18‰, probably reflecting the δ¹³C value of the marine food web. PMID:26065892

  20. Relationships among Mercury Concentration, and Stable Isotope Ratios of Carbon and Nitrogen in the Scalp Hair of Residents from Seven Countries: Effects of Marine Fish and C4 Plants Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Endo, Tetsuya; Hayasaka, Moriaki; Ogasawra, Hideki; Kimura, Osamu; Kotaki, Yuichi; Haraguchi, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the Hg concentration, and δ¹³C and δ15N values in the scalp hair of residents from seven countries; Vietnam, New Zealand, Spain, the USA, South Korea, Brazil and Japan. Relationships among the data in each country and among the seven countries were then examined. The highest Hg concentration as well as the highest or higher δ15N value in each country was found in the hair of a heavy marine fish-eater, whereas the lowest Hg concentration and δ15N value were found in the hair of a vegetarian or non (marginal)-fish eater. Hg concentrations were positively correlated with the δ15N values in each country, and increased markedly in samples with δ15N values exceeding 9.0 ‰, probably due to fish consumption. The highest Hg concentration could be found in sample, with a δ¹³C value between -19 and -18‰, probably reflecting the δ¹³C value of the marine food web. PMID:26065892

  1. Scalp repair using tissue expanders.

    PubMed

    Mangubat, E Antonio

    2013-08-01

    Repair of scalp defects is often challenging, because without careful planning, excision of the defect may leave unsatisfactory cosmesis. Contemporary techniques in hair restoration surgery allow creation of natural and undetectable results, but these techniques are often unsuitable for repairing large scarred areas of hair loss. However, by using older techniques of scalp reduction and tissue expansion, excision of many large scarring defects can be accomplished. Combining older methods with modern hair restoration surgery permits the satisfactory treatment of many previously untreatable conditions. This article focuses on tissue expansion as an adjunct to repairing large scalp defects. PMID:24017990

  2. A quantitative evaluation of two methods for preserving hair samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roon, David A.; Waits, L.P.; Kendall, K.C.

    2003-01-01

    Hair samples are an increasingly important DNA source for wildlife studies, yet optimal storage methods and DNA degradation rates have not been rigorously evaluated. We tested amplification success rates over a one-year storage period for DNA extracted from brown bear (Ursus arctos) hair samples preserved using silica desiccation and -20C freezing. For three nuclear DNA microsatellites, success rates decreased significantly after a six-month time point, regardless of storage method. For a 1000 bp mitochondrial fragment, a similar decrease occurred after a two-week time point. Minimizing delays between collection and DNA extraction will maximize success rates for hair-based noninvasive genetic sampling projects.

  3. Using hair to screen for breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Veronica; Kearsley, John; Irving, Tom; Amemiya, Yoshiyuki; Cookson, David

    1999-03-01

    We have studied hair using fibre X-ray diffraction studies with synchrotron radiation and find that hair from breast-cancer patients has a different intermolecular structure to hair from healthy subjects. These changes are seen in all samples of scalp and pubic hair taken from women diagnosed with breast cancer. All the hair samples from women who tested positive for a mutation of the BRCA1 gene, which is associated with a higher risk of breast cancer, also show these changes. Because our results are so consistent, we propose that such hair analyses may be used as a simple, non-invasive screening method for breast cancer.

  4. The Itchy scalp - scratching for an explanation

    PubMed Central

    saif, Ghada A. Bin; Ericson, Marna E.; Yosipovitch, Gil

    2011-01-01

    Scalp pruritus is a common complaint that is considered a diagnostically and therapeutically challenging situation. Scalp skin has a unique neural structure that contains densely innervated hair follicles and dermal vasculature. In spite of the recent advances in our understanding of itch pathophysiology, scalp itching has not been studied as yet. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the neurobiology of scalp and hair follicles as well as itch mediators and provide a putative mechanism for scalp itch with special emphasis on neuroanatomy and pathophysiology. PMID:22092575

  5. A Norwegian study of the suitability of hair samples in epidemiological research of alcohol, nicotine and drug use.

    PubMed

    Lund, Hilde Marie Erøy; Gjerde, Hallvard; de Courtade, Sandra Monica Bach; Oiestad, Elisabeth Leere; Christophersen, Asbjørg Solberg

    2013-01-01

    A feasibility study was performed to examine the effectiveness of hair testing in determining the prevalence of drug use in a young adult population. The study included 200 randomly selected young adults in Norway. It was designed to make the collection, preparation and analysis of the samples as little resource demaning as possible. Full anonymity was provided for the participants. In total, 23.5% of the samples were positive for one or more substances (14.5%, excluding the nicotine metabolite cotinine). Of the samples, 5% were positive for at least one illegal drug, 9.5% for a medicinal drug, 11.5% for cotinine and 2.5% for the alcohol metabolite ethyl glucuronide. The preliminary findings suggest that the study protocol used to collect and analyze the samples was unable to produce results that could be generalized to the young adult population in Norway. Analysis of hair samples may underestimate the use of cannabis, alcohol, amphetamine and methamphetamine. It may, however, be done to estimate cocaine and general drug use if a sample-collection procedure different from that described in our study is used and includes information about hair length, sample length, length from the scalp, cosmetic treatment, washing and whether the samples always get washed/decontaminated prior to analysis. PMID:23689070

  6. PIXE analysis of elemental concentrations in human hair and nails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paschoa, A. S.; Baptista, G. B.; Mauricio, G. M.; Leite, C. V. Barros; Lerner, Y. B.; Issler, P. F.

    1984-04-01

    The PIXE technique was applied to examine the elemental concentrations in scalp hair and nails collected over several months from three subjects living in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The results were then compared with data taken from the literature, and with the range and average elemental concentrations obtained by analyzing, using the same technique and laboratory conditions, samples of scalp hair taken from 51 men and 50 women living in another region of Latin America.

  7. Sample preparation methods for determination of drugs of abuse in hair samples: A review.

    PubMed

    Vogliardi, Susanna; Tucci, Marianna; Stocchero, Giulia; Ferrara, Santo Davide; Favretto, Donata

    2015-02-01

    Hair analysis has assumed increasing importance in the determination of substances of abuse, both in clinical and forensic toxicology investigations. Hair analysis offers particular advantages over other biological matrices (blood and urine), including a larger window of detection, ease of collection and sample stability. In the present work, an overview of sample preparation techniques for the determination of substances of abuse in hair is provided, specifically regarding the principal steps in hair sample treatment-decontamination, extraction and purification. For this purpose, a survey of publications found in the MEDLINE database from 2000 to date was conducted. The most widely consumed substances of abuse and psychotropic drugs were considered. Trends in simplification of hair sample preparation, washing procedures and cleanup methods are discussed. Alternative sample extraction techniques, such as head-space solid phase microextraction (HS-SPDE), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) are also reported. PMID:25604816

  8. Anatomically-related variations in trace-metal concentrations in hair

    SciTech Connect

    DeAntonio, S.M.; Katz, S.A.; Scheiner, D.M.; Wood, J.D.

    1982-12-01

    Scalp-hair analysis is used as an indicator of trace-metal concentrations in the human body. The major shortcoming of this approach is the inability to differentiate between endogenous and exogenous trace metals. Our analyses show no correlation between the concentrations of calcium, magnesium, copper, iron, or zinc in scalp hair and pubic hair in 67 donor-matched hair samples. We interpret this as a strong indication that exogenous trace metals make a significant contribution to the results for trace metals in human hair.

  9. Cervical dilatation and grade of doctor affects the interval between decision and result of fetal scalp blood sampling in labour.

    PubMed

    Rimmer, Stephanie; Roberts, Stephen A; Heazell, Alexander E P

    2016-08-01

    Fetal scalp blood sampling (FSBS) is used to provide information regarding fetal acid-base status during labour. This study assessed the interval between the decision to perform the procedure and obtaining the result and evaluated whether it is affected by cervical dilatation or the experience of the doctor. The median time for FSBS was 10 min. When cervical dilatation was ≤4 cm samples took approximately 30% longer to obtain. After adjustment for dilation, there were no significant differences between different grades of doctors. FSBS is shorter than previously reported; clinicians should be aware that procedures in early labour take longer to complete. PMID:26399279

  10. Assessment of environmental and occupational exposure to heavy metals in Taranto and other provinces of Southern Italy by means of scalp hair analysis.

    PubMed

    Buononato, Elena Viola; De Luca, Daniela; Galeandro, Innocenzo Cataldo; Congedo, Maria Luisa; Cavone, Domenica; Intranuovo, Graziana; Guastadisegno, Chiara Monica; Corrado, Vincenzo; Ferri, Giovanni Maria

    2016-06-01

    The monitoring of heavy metals in industrialized areas to study their association with different occupational and environmental factors is carried out in different ways. In this study, scalp hair analysis was used for the assessment of exposure to these metals in the industrial city of Taranto, characterized by a severe environmental pollution. The highest median values were observed for aluminum, barium, cadmium, lead, mercury, and uranium. Moreover, in the industrial area of Taranto, high levels of barium, cadmium, lead, mercury, nickel, and silver were observed in comparison with other Apulia areas. The risk odds ratios (ORs) for observing values above the 50th percentile were elevated for mercury and fish consumption, uranium and milk consumption, lead and female sex, and aluminum and mineral water consumption. No significant increased risk was observed for occupational activities. In a dendrogram of a cluster analysis, three clusters were observed for the different areas of Taranto (Borgo, San Vito, and Statte). A scree plot and score variables plot underline the presence of two principal components: the first regarding antimony, lead, tin, aluminum and silver; the second regarding mercury and uranium. The observed clusters (Borgo, San Vito, and Statte) showed that lead, antimony, tin, aluminum, and silver were the main component. The highest values above the 50th percentile of these minerals, especially lead, were observed in the Borgo area. The observed metal concentration in the Borgo area is compatible with the presence in Taranto of a military dockyard and a reported increase of lung cancer risk among residents of that area. PMID:27165601

  11. Hair cosmetics: an overview.

    PubMed

    Gavazzoni Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis

    2015-01-01

    Hair cosmetics are an important tool that helps to increase patient's adhesion to alopecia and scalp treatments. This article reviews the formulations and the mode of action of hair cosmetics: Shampoos, conditioners, hair straightening products, hair dyes and henna; regarding their prescription and safetiness. The dermatologist's knowledge of hair care products, their use, and their possible side effects can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources and help dermatologists to better treat hair and scalp conditions according to the diversity of hair types and ethnicity. PMID:25878443

  12. Hair Cosmetics: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Gavazzoni Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis

    2015-01-01

    Hair cosmetics are an important tool that helps to increase patient's adhesion to alopecia and scalp treatments. This article reviews the formulations and the mode of action of hair cosmetics: Shampoos, conditioners, hair straightening products, hair dyes and henna; regarding their prescription and safetiness. The dermatologist's knowledge of hair care products, their use, and their possible side effects can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources and help dermatologists to better treat hair and scalp conditions according to the diversity of hair types and ethnicity. PMID:25878443

  13. Human scalp permeability to the chemical warfare agent VX.

    PubMed

    Rolland, P; Bolzinger, M-A; Cruz, C; Briançon, S; Josse, D

    2011-12-01

    The use of chemical warfare agents such as VX in terrorism act might lead to contamination of the civilian population. Human scalp decontamination may require appropriate products and procedures. Due to ethical reasons, skin decontamination studies usually involve in vitro skin models, but human scalp skin samples are uncommon and expensive. The purpose of this study was to characterize the in vitro permeability to VX of human scalp, and to compare it with (a) human abdominal skin, and (b) pig skin from two different anatomic sites: ear and skull roof, in order to design a relevant model. Based on the VX skin permeation kinetics and distribution, we demonstrated that (a) human scalp was significantly more permeable to VX than abdominal skin and (b) pig-ear skin was the most relevant model to predict the in vitro human scalp permeability. Our results indicated that the follicular pathway significantly contributed to the skin absorption of VX through human scalp. In addition, the hair follicles and the stratum corneum significantly contributed to the formation of a skin reservoir for VX. PMID:21762776

  14. Foetal scalp blood sampling during labour for pH and lactate measurements.

    PubMed

    Carbonne, Bruno; Pons, Kelly; Maisonneuve, Emeline

    2016-01-01

    Second-line methods of foetal monitoring have been developed in an attempt to reduce unnecessary interventions due to continuous cardiotocography (CTG), and to better identify foetuses that are at risk of intrapartum asphyxia. Very few studies directly compared CTG with foetal scalp blood (FBS) and CTG only. Only one randomised controlled trial (RCT) was published in the 1970s and had limited power to assess neonatal outcome. Direct and indirect comparisons conclude that FBS could reduce the number of caesarean deliveries associated with the use of continuous CTG. The main drawbacks of FBS are its invasive and discontinuous nature and the need for a sufficient volume of foetal blood for analysis, especially for pH measurement, resulting in failure rates reaching 10%. FBS for lactate measurement became popular with the design of test-strip devices, requiring <0.5 mL of foetal blood. RCTs showed similar outcomes with the use of FBS for lactates compared with pH in terms of obstetrical interventions and neonatal outcomes. In conclusion, there is some evidence that FBS reduces the need for operative deliveries. However, the evidence is limited with regard to actual standards, and large RCTs, directly comparing CTG only with CTG with FBS, are still needed. PMID:26253238

  15. Hair care and dyeing.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2015-01-01

    Alopecia can be effectively camouflaged or worsened through the use of hair care techniques and dyeing. Proper hair care, involving hair styling and the use of mild shampoos and body-building conditioners, can amplify thinning scalp hair; however, chemical processing, including hair dyeing, permanent waving, and hair straightening, can encourage further hair loss through breakage. Many patients suffering from alopecia attempt to improve their hair through extensive manipulation, which only increases problems. Frequent haircuts to minimize split ends, accompanied by gentle handling of the fragile fibers, is best. This chapter offers the dermatologist insight into hair care recommendations for the alopecia patient. PMID:26370650

  16. Metals and metalloids in hair samples of children living near the abandoned mine sites of Sulcis-Inglesiente (Sardinia, Italy).

    PubMed

    Varrica, D; Tamburo, E; Milia, N; Vallascas, E; Cortimiglia, V; De Giudici, G; Dongarrà, G; Sanna, E; Monna, F; Losno, R

    2014-10-01

    The Sulcis-Iglesiente district (SW Sardinia, Italy) is one of the oldest and most important polymetallic mining areas in Italy. Large outcrops of sulfide and oxide ores, as well as the products of the long-lasting mining activity, are present throughout the district releasing significant quantities of metals and metalloids into the surrounding environment. Here are reported concentrations of 21 elements determined in scalp hair samples from children (aged 11-13 years) living in different geochemical environments of southwestern Sardinia: Iglesias, hosting several abandoned mines, and the island of Sant׳Antioco, not affected by significant base metal mineralization events. Trace element determinations were performed by ICP-MS. Statistically significant differences (p<0.01) in elemental concentration levels between the two study sites were found. Hair of children from Iglesias exhibited higher concentration values for Ag, Ba, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb, U, V, and Zn. Rubidium, V and U resulted more abundant at Sant׳Antioco. Hair samples from Iglesias showed gender-related differences for a larger number of elements (Ag, Ba, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Sr, U and Zn) than at Sant׳Antioco, where only U was significantly different. The above elemental concentrations in females were always higher than in male donors. Robust Principal Component Analysis operated on log-transformed elemental concentrations showed components indicative of a) sulfides ore minerals (PC1) reflecting the influence of the diffuse mineralization covering the entire study area, b) the presence of some bioavailable As sources (PC2) as As-rich pyrite and Fe-containing sphalerite and c) other sources of metals overlapping the diffuse mineralizations, as carbonate rocks and coal deposits (PC3). The results provided evidence of a potential risk of adverse effects on the health of the exposed population, with children living at Iglesias being greatly exposed to several metals and metalloids originated in mining

  17. North American Virginian Witch Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana): Based Scalp Care and Protection for Sensitive Scalp, Red Scalp, and Scalp Burn-Out

    PubMed Central

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2014-01-01

    Background: A sensitive scalp is a frequent problem in daily clinical practice and often represents a major challenge for dermatologists. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of a Northamerican Virginian Witch Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana)-based shampoo and tonic (Erol® Energy) for treatment of the sensitive scalp. Methods: Retrospective observational study of male and female patients given Erol® Energy products in the period between August 2010 and December 2013 at the Center for Dermatology and Hair Diseases Professor Trüeb to treat irritable scalp conditions or as concomitant treatment to minoxidil therapy for androgenetic alocepia. Results: Shampoo was applied successfully in 1,373 patients (1,233 women and 140 men). Patients reported improvement of subjective manifestations of irritation and rated tolerance of both products as good to excellent. During this period, 369 (26.9%) have received Erol® shampoo more than once. Conclusions: The choice of appropriate hair-care products represents an important aspect in the management of the sensitive scalp and related conditions. With the Erol® Energy hair-care products, the advantages of H. virginiana are available for successful treatment of the scalp, especially in the context of problems associated with red scalp, scalp burn-out, and the use of topical minoxidil for androgenetic alopecia. PMID:25210333

  18. Comparison of molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) with classical solid-phase extraction (SPE) for the detection of benzodiazepines in post-mortem hair samples.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Robert A; Ariffin, Marinah M; Cormack, Peter A G; Miller, Eleanor I

    2008-01-15

    This preliminary study compares the benzodiazepine results for 10 post-mortem scalp hair samples using a classical solid-phase extraction (SPE) and a molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) system. The hair samples selected for testing were from drug-related deaths where a positive benzodiazepine blood result was obtained. Samples were decontaminated with 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate, distilled water and dichloromethane, incubated overnight in methanol/25% aqueous ammonium hydroxide (20:1), extracted by SPE or MISPE and subsequently analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). Both extraction methods detected diazepam, nordiazepam, oxazepam, temazepam and nitrazepam in the samples. Diazepam was detected in a greater number of samples using MISPE due to both its lower limit of detection (LOD) and higher extraction recovery as a result of excellent molecular recognition of the template (diazepam) imparted by the imprinting process. The selective recognition of two diazepam analogues, nordiazepam and oxazepam, was demonstrated using MISPE since they were also detected in a greater number of samples. In contrast, another diazepam analogue, temazepam, was detected in a greater number of samples using SPE since the LOD using this extraction was lower than with MISPE. Nitrazepam was detected in one sample using both extraction methods. Overall the MISPE and SPE hair results were in good qualitative agreement. For the samples, where both extraction methods detected nordiazepam, temazepam and oxazepam, the concentrations were always higher for SPE. This is probably due to the MIP procedure producing extracts with fewer matrix interferences than the extracts produced using the classical SPE method. MISPE could be used as a complementary method to classical SPE for the analysis of benzodiazepine positive hair samples collected from chronic users. PMID:17467213

  19. Flame Hair

    PubMed Central

    Miteva, Mariya; Tosti, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Background ‘Flame hairs’ is a trichoscopic feature described as hair residue from pulling anagen hairs in trichotillomania. Objective: To detect whether flame hairs are present in other hair loss disorders. Methods We retrospectively, independently and blindly reviewed the trichoscopic images of 454 consecutive patients with alopecia areata (99 cases), trichotillomania (n = 20), acute chemotherapy-induced alopecia (n = 6), acute radiotherapy-induced alopecia (n = 2), tinea capitis (n = 13), lichen planopilaris (n = 33), frontal fibrosing alopecia (n = 60), discoid lupus erythematosus (n = 30), dissecting cellulitis (n = 11), central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (n = 94) and traction alopecia (n = 86) for the presence of flame hairs. We prospectively obtained trichoscopy-guided scalp biopsies from flame hairs in trichotillomania, alopecia areata, traction alopecia and central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (1 case each). Results Flame hairs were detected in 100% of the acute chemotherapy- and radiotherapy-induced alopecias, where they were the predominant hair abnormality. They were also found in trichotillomania (55%), alopecia areata (21%), traction alopecia (4%) and central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (3%). On pathology, they corresponded to distorted hair shafts. Conclusion The flame hair is a type of broken hair which can be seen in various hair loss disorders. It results from traumatic pulling of anagen hairs or from anagen arrest due to inflammation or drugs. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel PMID:27171360

  20. Differentiation between consumption and external contamination when testing for cocaine and cannabis in hair samples.

    PubMed

    Tsanaclis, Lolita; Nutt, James; Bagley, Kim; Bevan, Sian; Wicks, John

    2014-06-01

    It is possible for hair to be externally contaminated by drugs like cannabis or cocaine, which are smoked or snorted. Three steps are commonly employed to minimize the chance of external contamination causing misinterpretation of the results of a hair test. The first consists of decontamination of hair samples by washing the hair before analysis, the second is the use of cut-off levels, and the third is the detection of both the parent drugs and appropriate levels of their metabolite(s) in the hair sample. We propose an additional step for the assessment of drug use using hair samples combined with decontamination data. Hair samples from 186 drug users were analyzed along with their wash residues by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The results of the hair analysis of the 140 samples for cocaine showed that 85.5% (N=89) of the samples passed 'cocaine use' criteria for metabolites ratios and 12.5% (N=13) for wash residue criteria (<10% of cocaine in the wash residue) leading to conclusive interpretation. Only two cases (1.9%) had an uncertain conclusion of drug consumption because cocaine levels in the wash residue were >10% of the levels in the hair. The results of the cannabis set of samples (N=46) were not as clear-cut, as a comparatively large number of samples (15.2%) had relatively high levels of THC in the wash residues. To use this approach, it is important that laboratories testing drugs in hair samples can demonstrate that the method utilized does not generate significant levels of the cocaine metabolites. PMID:24817047

  1. Antiretroviral concentrations in small hair samples as a feasible marker of adherence in rural Kenya.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Matthew D; Salmen, Charles R; Tessler, Robert A; Omollo, Dan; Bacchetti, Peter; Magerenge, Richard; Mattah, Brian; Salmen, Marcus R; Zoughbie, Daniel; Fiorella, Kathryn J; Geng, Elvin; Njoroge, Betty; Jin, Chengshi; Huang, Yong; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Cohen, Craig R; Gandhi, Monica

    2014-07-01

    Antiretroviral hair levels objectively quantify drug exposure over time and predict virologic responses. We assessed the acceptability and feasibility of collecting small hair samples in a rural Kenyan cohort. Ninety-five percentage of participants (354/373) donated hair. Although median self-reported adherence was 100% (interquartile range, 96%-100%), a wide range of hair concentrations likely indicates overestimation of self-reported adherence and the advantages of a pharmacologic adherence measure. Higher nevirapine hair concentrations observed in women and older adults require further study to unravel behavioral versus pharmacokinetic contributors. In resource-limited settings, hair antiretroviral levels may serve as a low-cost quantitative biomarker of adherence. PMID:24694932

  2. New trichoscopy findings in trichotillomania: flame hairs, V-sign, hook hairs, hair powder, tulip hairs.

    PubMed

    Rakowska, Adriana; Slowinska, Monika; Olszewska, Malgorzata; Rudnicka, Lidia

    2014-05-01

    Differential diagnosis of trichotillomania is often difficult in clinical practice. Trichoscopy (hair and scalp dermoscopy) effectively supports differential diagnosis of various hair and scalp diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of trichoscopy in diagnosing trichotillomania. The study included 370 patients (44 with trichotillomania, 314 with alopecia areata and 12 with tinea capitis). Statistical analysis revealed that the main and most characteristic trichoscopic findings of trichotillomania are: irregularly broken hairs (44/44; 100% of patients), v-sign (24/44; 57%), flame hairs (11/44; 25%), hair powder (7/44; 16%) and coiled hairs (17/44; 39%). Flame hairs, v-sign, tulip hairs, and hair powder were newly identified in this study. In conclusion, we describe here specific trichoscopy features, which may be applied in quick, non-invasive, in-office differential diagnosis of trichotillomania. PMID:24096547

  3. Biomonitoring of hair samples by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sela, H.; Karpas, Z.; Zoriy, M.; Pickhardt, C.; Becker, J. S.

    2007-03-01

    An analytical method for determining essential elements (Zn, Fe and Cu) and toxic elements (Cr, Pb and U) on single hair strands by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-SFMS) using a double focusing sector field mass spectrometer was developed. Results obtained directly using LA-ICP-SFMS of hair were compared with those measured by inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS) of solutions of digested hair samples and the analytical methods were found to agree well. Different quantification strategies for trace element determination in hair samples such as external calibration, standard addition and isotope dilution were compared and demonstrated for uranium. For uranium determination in powdered hair by LA-ICP-MS solution-based calibration was applied by coupling the laser ablation chamber to an ultrasonic nebulizer. The significance of single hair analysis by LA-ICP-SFMS was demonstrated by a case study of a person who changed living environment. Differences in the uranium content observed along the single hair strand correlated with the changes in the level of uranium in drinking water. The uranium concentration in a single hair decreased from 212 to 18 ng g-1 with a change in the uranium concentration in drinking water from 2000 to 30 ng l-1. In addition, measurements of uranium isotope ratios showed a natural isotopic composition throughout the whole period in the drinking water, as well as in the hair samples. This paper demonstrates the potential use of laser ablation ICP-MS to provide measurements on a single hair strand and its potential to become a very powerful tool in hair analysis for biological monitoring.

  4. HUMAN SCALP HAIR: AN ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE INDEX FOR TRACE ELEMENTS. I. FIFTEEN TRACE ELEMENTS IN NEW YORK, N.Y. (1971-72)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous studies have revealed that hair trace element concentrations can reflect exposure in cases of frank poisoning and deficiency. Correlations have been found also in some populations living in regions where metallurgic processes are conducted. This study reports significant...

  5. Female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Ioannides, Dimitrios; Lazaridou, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Female pattern hair loss, or female pattern androgenetic alopecia, is a nonscarring alopecia with a multi-factorial etiology that mostly affects postmenopausal women and is characterized by a reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp. The clinical picture is characterized by a diffuse rarefaction of scalp hair over the mid-frontal scalp and a more-or-less intact frontal hairline without any signs of inflammation or scarring. Although the disease poses only a cosmetic concern, it is chronic and may have a significant negative psychological impact on the affected person. The aim of treating female pattern hair loss is to reduce hair loss and, to a certain extent, succeed in promoting hair regrowth. Various treatment methods are available, but it remains unclear which are the most effective. Early initiation of treatment and the combination of various modalities seem to be more efficacious than monotherapy. PMID:26370643

  6. Genetic analysis of hair samples attributed to yeti, bigfoot and other anomalous primates

    PubMed Central

    Sykes, Bryan C.; Mullis, Rhettman A.; Hagenmuller, Christophe; Melton, Terry W.; Sartori, Michel

    2014-01-01

    In the first ever systematic genetic survey, we have used rigorous decontamination followed by mitochondrial 12S RNA sequencing to identify the species origin of 30 hair samples attributed to anomalous primates. Two Himalayan samples, one from Ladakh, India, the other from Bhutan, had their closest genetic affinity with a Palaeolithic polar bear, Ursus maritimus. Otherwise the hairs were from a range of known extant mammals. PMID:24990672

  7. Genetic analysis of hair samples attributed to yeti, bigfoot and other anomalous primates.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Bryan C; Mullis, Rhettman A; Hagenmuller, Christophe; Melton, Terry W; Sartori, Michel

    2014-08-22

    In the first ever systematic genetic survey, we have used rigorous decontamination followed by mitochondrial 12S RNA sequencing to identify the species origin of 30 hair samples attributed to anomalous primates. Two Himalayan samples, one from Ladakh, India, the other from Bhutan, had their closest genetic affinity with a Palaeolithic polar bear, Ursus maritimus. Otherwise the hairs were from a range of known extant mammals. PMID:24990672

  8. Extraction and Analysis of Cortisol from Human and Monkey Hair

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Jerrold; Novak, Melinda; Hamel, Amanda; Rosenberg, Kendra

    2014-01-01

    The stress hormone cortisol (CORT) is slowly incorporated into the growing hair shaft of humans, nonhuman primates, and other mammals. We developed and validated a method for CORT extraction and analysis from rhesus monkey hair and subsequently adapted this method for use with human scalp hair. In contrast to CORT "point samples" obtained from plasma or saliva, hair CORT provides an integrated measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system activity, and thus physiological stress, during the period of hormone incorporation. Because human scalp hair grows at an average rate of 1 cm/month, CORT levels obtained from hair segments several cm in length can potentially serve as a biomarker of stress experienced over a number of months. In our method, each hair sample is first washed twice in isopropanol to remove any CORT from the outside of the hair shaft that has been deposited from sweat or sebum. After drying, the sample is ground to a fine powder to break up the hair's protein matrix and increase the surface area for extraction. CORT from the interior of the hair shaft is extracted into methanol, the methanol is evaporated, and the extract is reconstituted in assay buffer. Extracted CORT, along with standards and quality controls, is then analyzed by means of a sensitive and specific commercially available enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kit. Readout from the EIA is converted to pg CORT per mg powdered hair weight. This method has been used in our laboratory to analyze hair CORT in humans, several species of macaque monkeys, marmosets, dogs, and polar bears. Many studies both from our lab and from other research groups have demonstrated the broad applicability of hair CORT for assessing chronic stress exposure in natural as well as laboratory settings. PMID:24513702

  9. Extraction and analysis of cortisol from human and monkey hair.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Jerrold; Novak, Melinda; Hamel, Amanda; Rosenberg, Kendra

    2014-01-01

    The stress hormone cortisol (CORT) is slowly incorporated into the growing hair shaft of humans, nonhuman primates, and other mammals. We developed and validated a method for CORT extraction and analysis from rhesus monkey hair and subsequently adapted this method for use with human scalp hair. In contrast to CORT "point samples" obtained from plasma or saliva, hair CORT provides an integrated measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system activity, and thus physiological stress, during the period of hormone incorporation. Because human scalp hair grows at an average rate of 1 cm/month, CORT levels obtained from hair segments several cm in length can potentially serve as a biomarker of stress experienced over a number of months. In our method, each hair sample is first washed twice in isopropanol to remove any CORT from the outside of the hair shaft that has been deposited from sweat or sebum. After drying, the sample is ground to a fine powder to break up the hair's protein matrix and increase the surface area for extraction. CORT from the interior of the hair shaft is extracted into methanol, the methanol is evaporated, and the extract is reconstituted in assay buffer. Extracted CORT, along with standards and quality controls, is then analyzed by means of a sensitive and specific commercially available enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kit. Readout from the EIA is converted to pg CORT per mg powdered hair weight. This method has been used in our laboratory to analyze hair CORT in humans, several species of macaque monkeys, marmosets, dogs, and polar bears. Many studies both from our lab and from other research groups have demonstrated the broad applicability of hair CORT for assessing chronic stress exposure in natural as well as laboratory settings. PMID:24513702

  10. Massively parallel sequencing of complete mitochondrial genomes from hair shaft samples.

    PubMed

    Parson, Walther; Huber, Gabriela; Moreno, Lilliana; Madel, Maria-Bernadette; Brandhagen, Michael D; Nagl, Simone; Xavier, Catarina; Eduardoff, Mayra; Callaghan, Thomas C; Irwin, Jodi A

    2015-03-01

    Though shed hairs are one of the most commonly encountered evidence types, they are among the most limited in terms of DNA quantity and quality. As a result, DNA testing has historically focused on the recovery of just about 600 base pairs of the mitochondrial DNA control region. Here, we describe our success in recovering complete mitochondrial genome (mtGenome) data (∼16,569bp) from single shed hairs. By employing massively parallel sequencing (MPS), we demonstrate that particular hair samples yield DNA sufficient in quantity and quality to produce 2-3kb mtGenome amplicons and that entire mtGenome data can be recovered from hair extracts even without PCR enrichment. Most importantly, we describe a small amplicon multiplex assay comprised of sixty-two primer sets that can be routinely applied to the compromised hair samples typically encountered in forensic casework. In all samples tested here, the MPS data recovered using any one of the three methods were consistent with the control Sanger sequence data developed from high quality known specimens. Given the recently demonstrated value of complete mtGenome data in terms of discrimination power among randomly sampled individuals, the possibility of recovering mtGenome data from the most compromised and limited evidentiary material is likely to vastly increase the utility of mtDNA testing for hair evidence. PMID:25438934

  11. PIXE analysis of hair samples from artisanal mining communities in the Acupan region, Benguet, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemente, Eligia; Sera, K.; Futatsugawa, S.; Murao, S.

    2004-06-01

    The mountainous regions of Benguet Province in the Philippines is home to some 10,000 small-scale miners who make out a living by extracting gold. In these communities, the method of extraction still involves the use of mercury, via amalgamation. In the separation of gold from mercury the method involves the release of mercury vapor into the atmosphere. This is therefore expected to affect the people living in the nearby areas. This study involves the accumulation of baseline data on the extent of mercury contamination in humans through the analysis of their hair. In 1989, Hursh et al. [Arch. Environ. Health 44 (2) (1989) 120] studied human volunteers and found that uptake of mercury vapor through the skin is only about 1% of the uptake through inhalation [World Health Organization, IPCS, EHC118, Inorganic Mercury, Geneva, 1991, p. 42]. In this light, any residual mercury which might have deposited in human hair is speculated to give an indication of how much mercury vapor the subject could have actually inhaled. A high concentration of mercury in the sample can therefore be indicative of the high rate of intake of the mercury vapor through inhalation. A sampling of the community consisted of both male (83%) and female (17%) subjects who ranged in age from 8 to 66 years old. Hair analysis was done using particle induced X-ray emission at the Iwate Medical University through Dr. Sera. With Zn set as a standard element, the rest of the elements were determined using the standard-free method. In order to obtain the conversion coefficient for hair samples, many hair samples were analyzed by this method and the internal standard method which involves the preparation of the hair samples by chemical ashing. The results obtained were comparable. The PIXE results for these samples showed the analysis of 26 elements but for our purposes, however, only the mercury analysis will be considered. Results of the analysis showed the hair samples to contain 0-27 ppm, with only seven

  12. Today's Hair Style Could Cause Tomorrow's Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158581.html Today's Hair Style Could Cause Tomorrow's Hair Loss Black women who prefer scalp-pulling hairdos ... News) -- Black women who like to wear their hair pulled back tightly may be increasing their risk ...

  13. Today's Hair Style Could Cause Tomorrow's Hair Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158581.html Today's Hair Style Could Cause Tomorrow's Hair Loss Black women who prefer scalp-pulling hairdos ... News) -- Black women who like to wear their hair pulled back tightly may be increasing their risk ...

  14. Quantitative determination of fissionable materials in human hair

    SciTech Connect

    Bentley, K.W.; Wyatt, J.H.

    1980-04-01

    A technique for quantitative neutron-induced autoradiography (NIAR) of human hair samples containing small amounts of plutonium or uranium is described. It requires irradiation of hairs in intimate contact with two thin mica sheets by a suitable dose of thermal neutrons to provide adequate numbers of fission fragments. The technique has been used to examine scalp hair voluntarily provided by 35 humans intermittently exposed to both soluble and insoluble uranium materials. The results indicate that in situations of low intermittent exposure the method is preferable to presently used blood, urine, or whole body monitoring methods. Limitations of the method are discussed.

  15. Clinical, Histological and Trichoscopic Correlations in Scalp Disorders.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Alfredo; Fortuna, Maria Caterina; Pranteda, Giulia; Garelli, Valentina; Di Nunno, Donato; Mari, Elena; Calvieri, Stefano; Carlesimo, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Trichoscopy is the term coined for the dermoscopic imaging of scalp and hair. This diagnostic technique, simple and noninvasive, can be used as a handy bedside tool for the diagnosis and follow-up of hair and scalp disorders. It allows the recognition of morphologic structures not visible by the naked eye and provides the clinician with a range of dermoscopic findings necessary for differential diagnosis. Trichoscopy observation can be broadly grouped as interfollicular patterns and follicular patterns. Recently, a third mixed class, called the follicular plus interfollicular pattern, has been introduced. Some of these features are specific to a certain scalp disease, while others can be found in many hair disorders. Although studies suggest that the use of trichoscopy can improve clinical accuracy, further investigation is needed. This review provides update information on the trichoscopic features of the most common scalp disorders, striving to show a histopathological and clinical correlation. PMID:26160502

  16. Multi-class method for biomonitoring of hair samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Martín, Julia; Möder, Monika; Gaudl, Alexander; Alonso, Esteban; Reemtsma, Thorsten

    2015-11-01

    Currently, non-invasive biomonitoring of human exposure to organic pollutants bases upon the analysis mainly of urine and human breast milk. While mostly persistent organic pollutants are the center of interest, the aim of our study was to develop a method for the determination of different chemical classes of emerging pollutants (organophosphorus flame retardants, plastic additives such as phthalates, bisphenol A, insecticides, antimicrobials, preservatives and musk fragrances) in hair by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The preferred sample preparation included hydrolysis of the hair with trifluoroacetic acid in methanol followed by a liquid-liquid extraction using hexane/ethyl acetate. The validated method is characterized by recoveries higher than 77 % for most analytes, relative standard deviations below 16 % and limits of detection between 2 pg mg(-1) (HHCB) and 292 pg mg(-1) (propylparaben) using 50 mg of dry hair. After respective blank corrections, bis-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and the musk fragrance HHCB were the predominant compounds determined in all hair samples at concentrations between 32 and 59 ng mg(-1) and 0.8-13 ng mg(-1), respectively. The bactericide triclosan and the insect repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) were detected in selected hair samples at 2 and 0.8 ng mg(-1), respectively. PMID:26427497

  17. Hair of the dog: obtaining samples from coyotes and wolves noninvasively

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ausband, David E.; Young, Julie; Fannin, Barbara; Mitchell, Michael S.; Stenglein, Jennifer L.; Waits, Lisette P.; Shivik, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Canids can be difficult to detect and their populations difficult to monitor. We tested whether hair samples could be collected from coyotes (Canis latrans) in Texas, USA and gray wolves (C. lupus) in Montana, USA using lure to elicit rubbing behavior at both man-made and natural collection devices. We used mitochondrial and nuclear DNA to determine whether collected hair samples were from coyote, wolf, or nontarget species. Both coyotes and wolves rubbed on man-made barbed surfaces but coyotes in Texas seldom rubbed on hanging barbed surfaces. Wolves in Montana showed a tendency to rub at stations where natural-material collection devices (sticks and debris) were present. Time to detection was relatively short (5 nights and 4 nights for coyotes and wolves, respectively) with nontarget and unknown species comprising approximately 26% of the detections in both locations. Eliciting rubbing behavior from coyotes and wolves using lures has advantages over opportunistic genetic sampling methods (e.g., scat transects) because it elicits a behavior that deposits a hair sample at a fixed sampling location, thereby increasing the efficiency of sampling for these canids. Hair samples from rub stations could be used to provide estimates of abundance, measures of genetic diversity and health, and detection-nondetection data useful for cost-effective population monitoring.

  18. Light Microscopy of the Hair: A Simple Tool to “Untangle” Hair Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Adya, Keshavmurthy A; Inamadar, Arun C; Palit, Aparna; Shivanna, Ragunatha; Deshmukh, Niranjan S

    2011-01-01

    Light microscopy of the hair forms an important bedside clinical tool for the diagnosis of various disorders affecting the hair. Hair abnormalities can be seen in the primary diseases affecting the hair or as a secondary involvement of hair in diseases affecting the scalp. Hair abnormalities also form a part of various genodermatoses and syndromes. In this review, we have briefly highlighted the light microscopic appearance of various infectious and non-infectious conditions affecting the hair. PMID:21769242

  19. Chemical processing and shampooing impact cortisol measured in human hair

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, M. Camille; Karban, Laura V.; Benitez, Patrick; Goodteacher, Angela; Laudenslager, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The assessment of cortisol in hair has gained popularity as a means to measure retrospective hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in a number of species; however, cortisol levels from human hair subjected to typical chemicals for cosmetic or hygienic purposes may be altered by the chemicals used. The purposed of this study was to determine if exposure of hair to chemical processing or shampooing impacts cortisol values. Methods Human hair not exposed to prior chemical processing was cut from the posterior vertex region of the head of 106 human subjects as close to the scalp as possible. The hair sample was divided into 4-6 full-length clusters depending on quantity of hair available. Each hair sample was processed for baseline (native) cortisol and remaining clusters were exposed to five standard chemical hair treatments (Experiment 1) or were shampooed 15 or 30 times (Experiment 2). Hair was ground and cortisol levels were determined by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Comparisons were made between native hair and processed hair using paired t-tests and Pearson correlation. Results Hair cortisol as assessed by EIA was significantly altered by chemical processing but in somewhat different ways. Exposure to bleach (harshest exposure), demi-perm (least exposure) or 15-30 shampoos resulted in a significant decrease in cortisol level while exposure to varying percentages of peroxides increased cortisol measured. There were no differences in cortisol levels associated with sex, age or tobacco use in the native hair for this particular group. Conclusion Chemical processing and frequent shampooing affect cortisol levels measured in hair. Chemically processed or excessively shampooed hair should be avoided when recruiting subjects for hair cortisol studies. PMID:25090265

  20. Analysis of human hair to assess exposure to organophosphate flame retardants: Influence of hair segments and gender differences.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Lin; Zheng, Xiao-Bo; Zheng, Jing; Lei, Wei-Xiang; Li, Hong-Fang; Wang, Mei-Huan; He, Chun-Tao; Chen, She-Jun; Yuan, Jian-Gang; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Yu, Yun-Jiang; Yang, Zhong-Yi; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2016-07-01

    Hair is a promising, non-invasive, human biomonitoring matrix that can provide insight into retrospective and integral exposure to organic pollutants. In the present study, we measured the concentrations of organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) in hair and serum samples from university students in Guangzhou, China, and compared the PFR concentrations in the female hair segments using paired distal (5~10cm from the root) and proximal (0~5cm from the root) samples. PFRs were not detected in the serum samples. All PFRs except tricresyl phosphate (TMPP) and tri-n-propyl phosphate (TPP) were detected in more than half of all hair samples. The concentrations of total PFRs varied from 10.1 to 604ng/g, with a median of 148ng/g. Tris(chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP) and tri(2-ethylexyl) phosphate (TEHP) were the predominant PFRs in hair. The concentrations of most PFRs in the distal segments were 1.5~8.6 times higher than those in the proximal segments of the hair (t-test, p<0.05), which may be due to the longer exposure time of the distal segments to external sources. The values of log (PFR concentrations-distal/PFR concentrations-proximal) were positively and significantly correlated with log KOA of PFRs (p<0.05, r=0.68), indicating that PFRs with a higher log KOA tend to accumulate in hair at a higher rate than PFRs with a lower log KOA. Using combined segments of female hair, significantly higher PFR concentrations were observed in female hair than in male hair. In contrast, female hair exhibited significantly lower PFR concentrations than male hair when using the same hair position for both genders (0-5cm from the scalp). The controversial results regarding gender differences in PFRs in hair highlight the importance of segmental analysis when using hair as an indicator of human exposure to PFRs. PMID:27078091

  1. Scalp Ringworm (Tinea Capitis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Ringworm, Scalp (Tinea Capitis) A parent's guide to condition and treatment ... fungal infection may be the cause. Overview Scalp ringworm (tinea capitis) is a common mild infection of ...

  2. Buprenorphine detection in hair samples by immunometric screening test: preliminary experience.

    PubMed

    Svaizer, Fiorenza; Lotti, Andrea; Gottardi, Massimo; Miozzo, Maria Pia

    2010-03-20

    The recent introduction of buprenorphine use by the Drug Addiction Services has induced toxicology laboratories to develop new qualitative or semiquantitative screening assay for its determination in hair samples. The aim of this preliminary study was to verify the correlation between the buprenorphine intake and the immunometric screening test results (VMA-T Comedical and buprenorphine CEDIA/Thermo-Fisher/Microgenics reagents) and therefore their comparison with the liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC/MS) results. Hair samples were obtained from 32 subjects without buprenorphine-therapy reported and 17 in treatment. In glass test tube with hermetic cap were weighed 33 mg of 49 finely cut hair samples, washed with 1 mL of SLV-VMA-T washing solution, which is then completely sucked and eliminated. The samples were extracted with 400 microL of VMA-T reagent for an hour at 100 degrees C. The extracts were analysed by immunometric screening test on ILab 650 chemistry analyser, using buprenorphine CEDIA reagent assay. From the 32 non-takers of drug, 30 semiquantitative results were less than 10 pg/mg and 2 were over 10 pg/mg; from the 17 subjects with therapy, all were over 10 pg/mg (range 13-50 pg/mg); no samples were false-negative. Results suggest that exist a good relationship between the administration of buprenorphine and its concentration in hair, detectable through this method and reagents line. PMID:20080369

  3. Pesticide detection in air samples from contrasted houses and in their inhabitants' hair.

    PubMed

    Raeppel, Caroline; Salquèbre, Guillaume; Millet, Maurice; Appenzeller, Brice M R

    2016-02-15

    In order to identify associations between indoor air contamination and human exposure to pesticides, hair samples from 14 persons (9 adults and 5 children below 12 years) were collected simultaneously with the air of their 5 contrasted houses. Three houses were situated in Alsace (France), one in Lorraine (France) and one in Luxembourg (Luxembourg). Houses were located in urban (n=3), semi-urban (n=1) and rural areas (n=1). Twenty five (25) pesticides were detected at least once in indoor air samples and 20 pesticides were detected at least once in hair samples. The comparison between hair and air samples for the same sampling periods shows that pesticides detected in the two matrices were not necessarily associated. Exposure profiles varied from one home to another but also between inhabitants of the same home, suggesting that exposure can be different between inhabitants of the same home. This study demonstrated the usefulness and the complementarity of hair analysis, for the personalized biomonitoring of people exposure to pesticides, and air analysis, for the identification of airborne exposure and house contamination. PMID:26706757

  4. Brominated flame retardants in the hair and serum samples from an e-waste recycling area in southeastern China: the possibility of using hair for biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Liang, Si; Xu, Feng; Tang, Weibiao; Zhang, Zheng; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Lili; Wang, Junxia; Lin, Kuangfei

    2016-08-01

    Hair samples and paired serum samples were collected from e-waste and urban areas in Wenling of Zhejiang Province, China. The PBDE and DBDPE concentrations in hair and serum samples from e-waste workers were significantly higher than those of non-occupational residents and urban residents. BDE209 was the dominating BFRs in hair and serum samples from the e-waste area, while DBDPE was the major BFRs from the urban area. Statistically significant correlations were observed between hair level and serum level for some substances (BDE209, DBDPE, BDE99, BDE47, BDE28, and BDE17), although the PBDE congener profiles in hair were different from those in the serum. A statistically significant positive correlation between the PBDE concentrations and the working age, as well as gender difference, was observed in e-waste workers. Different sources of PBDEs and DBDPE in three groups were identified by principal component analysis and spearman correlation coefficient. Hair is suggested to be a useful matrix for biomonitoring the PBDE exposure in humans. PMID:27072035

  5. Interlaboratory comparison of quantitative determination of amphetamine and related compounds in hair samples.

    PubMed

    Kintz, P; Cirimele, V

    1997-01-17

    Testing human hair for drugs of abuse is a relatively new technique which requires control before being fully accepted in justice applications. Laboratories must be able to demonstrate that they can accurately determine what drugs are present in unknown hair samples and at what levels. To date few exercises have been organized in USA, Germany and France, all devoted to opiates, cocaine and cannabis. However, the number of drugs which can be detected in hair is growing every day. Among them, amphetamine and related compounds, such as MDMA, are of major interest due to increasing abuse. At the initial state of this work, four different preparation procedures were used to test amphetamine, MDA and MDMA. Direct methanol extraction, acid (HCl 0.1 N), alkaline (NaOH 1 N) and enzymatic (beta-glucuronidase/arylsulfatase) hydrolyses were compared. Best recoveries were observed after alkaline hydrolysis. The same hair sample was powdered and sent to 16 laboratories, in USA (4), Germany (6), France (3), Spain (1), Japan (1) and Korea (1) to test amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDA and MDMA. All laboratories returned results within 3 months. Amphetamine tested positive 13 times with concentrations ranging from 3.3 to 17.5 ng/mg. Only 2 laboratories identified methamphetamine, using GC/MS, at low concentration (0.8 and 1.8 ng/mg), which appears to be a false positive. MDA and MDMA both tested positive in 14 cases, with concentrations ranging from 1.8 to 19.5, and 8.9 to 100.0 ng/mg for MDA and MDMA, respectively. These scattered results clearly indicated that new exercises are needed to ensure quality in hair testing. This is one of the major aims of the Society of Hair Testing. PMID:9042720

  6. Microsurgical Replantation of a Two-Segment Total Scalp Avulsion.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weiguo; Henry, Anne-Sophie; Lucas, Camille; Ta, Pierre; Philandrianos, Cécile; Kerfant, Nathalie

    2016-06-01

    Total scalp avulsion is a rare and severe injury that may be life threatening and can result in devastating disfigurement and psychological trauma. Microsurgical hair-bearing scalp replantation is considered the procedure of choice and should be performed by a skilled surgical team. Replantation of a multifragmented scalp is even rarer and shows random results. Only 2 patients have been reported, resulting in partial or total necrosis of implanted fragments. The authors describe the successful replantation of a totally avulsed 2-segment scalp in a 63-year-old woman whose hair was entrapped in the propeller shaft of a ship. The avulsed scalp involved both eyebrows, the frontal region, the upper part of both ears, and most of the occipital portion. After initial management including correction of hemorrhagic shock, the patient underwent emergency scalp replantation by microsurgical anastomosis of 3 arteries and 4 veins and the use of 2 vein grafts.According to authors' experience, multifragmented scalp avulsion imposes emergency relocation using as many microsurgical sutures as possible and implementation of vein grafts to ensure optimal revascularization of the avulsed scalp. PMID:27171945

  7. Feasibility of hair sampling to assess levels of organophosphate metabolites in rural areas of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Knipe, D W; Jayasumana, C; Siribaddana, S; Priyadarshana, C; Pearson, M; Gunnell, D; Metcalfe, C; Tzatzarakis, M N; Tsatsakis, A M

    2016-05-01

    Measuring chronic pesticide exposure is important in order to investigate the associated health effects. Traditional biological samples (blood/urine) are difficult to collect, store and transport in large epidemiological studies in settings such as rural Asia. We assessed the acceptability of collecting hair samples from a rural Sri Lankan population and found that this method of data collection was feasible. We also assessed the level of non-specific metabolites (DAPS) of organophosphate pesticides in the hair samples. The median concentration (pg/mg) of each DAP was: diethyl phosphate: 83.3 (IQI 56.0, 209.4); diethyl thiophosphate: 34.7 (IQI 13.8, 147.9); diethyl dithiophosphate: 34.5 (IQI 23.4, 55.2); and dimethyl phosphate: 3 (IQI 3, 109.7). Total diethylphosphates were recovered in >80% of samples and were positively correlated with self-reported pesticide exposure. PMID:26894816

  8. Feasibility of hair sampling to assess levels of organophosphate metabolites in rural areas of Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Knipe, D.W.; Jayasumana, C.; Siribaddana, S.; Priyadarshana, C.; Pearson, M.; Gunnell, D.; Metcalfe, C.; Tzatzarakis, M.N.; Tsatsakis, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Measuring chronic pesticide exposure is important in order to investigate the associated health effects. Traditional biological samples (blood/urine) are difficult to collect, store and transport in large epidemiological studies in settings such as rural Asia. We assessed the acceptability of collecting hair samples from a rural Sri Lankan population and found that this method of data collection was feasible. We also assessed the level of non-specific metabolites (DAPS) of organophosphate pesticides in the hair samples. The median concentration (pg/mg) of each DAP was: diethyl phosphate: 83.3 (IQI 56.0, 209.4); diethyl thiophosphate: 34.7 (IQI 13.8, 147.9); diethyl dithiophosphate: 34.5 (IQI 23.4, 55.2); and dimethyl phosphate: 3 (IQI 3, 109.7). Total diethylphosphates were recovered in >80% of samples and were positively correlated with self-reported pesticide exposure. PMID:26894816

  9. Ethyl glucuronide findings in hair samples from the mummies of the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo.

    PubMed

    Musshoff, Frank; Brockmann, Christopher; Madea, Burkhard; Rosendahl, Wilfried; Piombino-Mascali, Dario

    2013-10-10

    The Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo contain over 1800 preserved bodies: friars, priests and laypeople including men, women, and children. The bodies were accessible to family members who could visit the deceased and commemorate them through prayers. The "Sicily Mummy Project" analyzed hair samples from 38 mummies to determine the presence of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) using a routine procedure in our accredited laboratory of liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The limit of quantification was 2.3 pg/mg. The hair samples were from 1.5 to 12 cm in length. All samples were analyzed in 2 segments (seg. A 0-3 cm and seg. B the remainder). Samples <4 cm in length were cut in half. In 31 out of 76 segments positive results were obtained for EtG, with concentrations between 2.5 and 531.3 pg/mg (mean 73.8, median 13.3 pg/mg). In 14 cases positive results were obtained for both segments. In one sample a positive result was obtained for segment A but not for segment B and in a further two samples only for segment B. The results indicate that EtG analyses can be performed on mummy hair samples even several hundred years after death to identify evidence for significant alcohol consumption during life. PMID:24053883

  10. Replacing facial hair.

    PubMed

    Straub, Paul M

    2008-11-01

    The face is the second most common area for hair transplantation after the scalp. Areas that are transplanted include eyebrows, eyelashes, moustaches, beards, temples and temporal points, as well as scars either traumatic or the side effect of cosmetic procedures such as rhytidectomies or brow lifts. The hair is harvested from the same area as the hair that is transplanted to the head. For this reason, it grows longer than nongrafted facial hair and must be trimmed regularly. Occasionally, hair lower in the neck region is harvested, which is finer than occipital hair; however, because of movement in the neck area, the scars are often larger. Body hair has been suggested as donor hair but is not recommended because it spends as much as 85% of its time in the telogen phase. PMID:19034820

  11. Aging of hair.

    PubMed

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2005-06-01

    The appearance of hair plays an important role in people's overall physical appearance and self-perception. With today's increasing life expectation, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever. The hair care industry has become aware of this and also more capable to deliver active products that are directed toward meeting this consumer demand. The discovery of pharmacological targets and the development of safe and effective drugs also indicate strategies of the drug industry for maintenance of healthy and beautiful hair. Hair aging comprises weathering of the hair shaft and aging of the hair follicle. The latter manifests as decrease of melanocyte function or graying, and decrease in hair production in androgenetic and senescent alopecia. The scalp is also subject to intrinsic or physiologic aging and extrinsic aging caused by external factors. Intrinsic factors are related to individual genetic and epigenetic mechanisms with interindividual variation. Prototypes are familial premature graying and androgenetic alopecia. Extrinsic factors include ultraviolet radiation and smoking. Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress plays a role in skin and hair aging. Topical anti-aging compounds for hair include humefactants, hair conditioners, photoprotectors, and antioxidants. Current available treatment modalities with proven efficacy for treatment of androgenetic alopecia are topical minoxidil, oral finasteride, and autologous hair transplantation. In the absence of another way to reverse hair graying, hair colorants are the mainstays of recovering lost hair color. Topical liposome targeting for melanins, genes, and proteins selectively to hair follicles are under current investigation. PMID:17166201

  12. Hair shaft videodermoscopy in netherton syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rakowska, Adriana; Kowalska-Oledzka, Elzbieta; Slowinska, Monika; Rosinska, Danuta; Rudnicka, Lidia

    2009-01-01

    Netherton syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder, characterized by ichthyosis, atopic manifestations, and hair shaft abnormalities (trichorrhexis invaginata). The diagnosis of Netherton syndrome may be established on the basis of just one abnormal hair, but it is often difficult to find a hair with pathognomonic features on light microscopic examination. Every attempt requires pulling new hairs. We present the case of an 11-year-old female patient with Netherton syndrome in whom hair and scalp videodermoscopy (trichoscopy) was used to visualize typical bamboo hairs and hairs with golf tee type endings in the scalp hairs and eyebrows. Trichoscopy is a method, which allows noninvasive viewing of hair shafts in many-fold magnification without the need of pulling hair for diagnostic purposes. This case shows that trichoscopy may be employed to significantly improve the chance of establishing the diagnosis of Netherton syndrome in patients. PMID:19706096

  13. Modelling of temperature and perfusion during scalp cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, F. E. M.; Van Leeuwen, G. M. J.; Van Steenhoven, A. A.

    2005-09-01

    Hair loss is a feared side effect of chemotherapy treatment. It may be prevented by cooling the scalp during administration of cytostatics. The supposed mechanism is that by cooling the scalp, both temperature and perfusion are diminished, affecting drug supply and drug uptake in the hair follicle. However, the effect of scalp cooling varies strongly. To gain more insight into the effect of cooling, a computer model has been developed that describes heat transfer in the human head during scalp cooling. Of main interest in this study are the mutual influences of scalp temperature and perfusion during cooling. Results of the standard head model show that the temperature of the scalp skin is reduced from 34.4 °C to 18.3 °C, reducing tissue blood flow to 25%. Based upon variations in both thermal properties and head anatomies found in the literature, a parameter study was performed. The results of this parameter study show that the most important parameters affecting both temperature and perfusion are the perfusion coefficient Q10 and the thermal resistances of both the fat and the hair layer. The variations in the parameter study led to skin temperature ranging from 10.1 °C to 21.8 °C, which in turn reduced relative perfusion to 13% and 33%, respectively.

  14. Mercury concentration change in human hair after the ingestion of canned tuna fish

    SciTech Connect

    Inasmasu, T.; Ogo, A.; Yanagawa, M.; Keshino, M.; Hirakoba, A.; Takahashi, K.; Ishinish, N.

    1986-10-01

    The concentration of mercury in the hair of man has been conveniently used as an indicator of environmental exposure to mercury. In particular, studies concerning the relationship between the concentration of mercury in the hair and the dietary intake of mercury have revealed that the amount of fish consumed significantly affects the mercury concentration in the scalp hair. However, the quantitative relationship between the mercury concentration in the hair and the dietary intake of mercury has been scarcely proven. This is because mercury concentration in hair sampled reflects the degree of exposure from diet in the past, and because the dietary measurements of mercury generally depend on individuals remembering accurately or having recorded their intake of fish in the past. In an attempt to elucidate this problem. The authors assessed the mercury concentration in the hair of human subjects who ingested a certain amount of canned tuna fish.

  15. Time course of nicotine and cotinine incorporation into samples of nonsmokers' beard hair following a single dose of nicotine polacrilex.

    PubMed

    Bernert, John T; Alexander, Joseph R; Sosnoff, Connie S; McGuffey, James E

    2011-01-01

    Hair nicotine and cotinine have been proposed as longer-term markers of exposure to secondhand smoke. In this study, we evaluated the rate and extent of nicotine and cotinine deposition into beard hair among six male nonsmokers following a single exposure to 4 mg of nicotine in Nicorette(®) (nicotine polacrilex) gum. We collected beard hair samples daily for 12 days following exposure and urine samples for 6 days after exposure. Using liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric analysis, we found that both nicotine and cotinine could be detected in beard samples within 24 h of the exposure and reached a maximum of about 71 pg nicotine and 47 pg cotinine/mg hair, respectively, within 1-2 days, followed by a gradual decline. Compared to beard hair concentrations, nicotine, cotinine, and hydroxycotinine were excreted in urine at much higher levels and also peaked on the day after exposure (mean ± SD urine cotinine = 300 ± 183 ng/mL). Our results confirmed that both nicotine and cotinine can be measured in beard hair samples following a single dose of nicotine. However, both the time-course and extent of deposition of these analytes in beard hair in this study differed from the results reported previously from a similar evaluation. PMID:21219696

  16. HEAD LICE IN HAIR SAMPLES FROM YOUTHS, ADULTS AND THE ELDERLY IN MANAUS, AMAZONAS STATE, BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Suellen Cristina Barbosa; Moroni, Raquel Borges; Mendes, Júlio; Justiniano, Sílvia Cássia Brandão; Moroni, Fábio Tonissi

    2015-01-01

    A study of head lice infestations among young people, adults and elderly individuals was conducted from August 2010 to July 2013 in Manaus, AM, Northern Brazil. Hair samples collected from 1,860 individuals in 18 barber shops and beauty parlors were examined for the ectoparasite. The occurrence of pediculosis and its association with factors, such as sex, age, ethnicity, hair characteristics and the socioeconomic profile of salon customers, salon location and seasonal variation were determined. The overall occurrence rate was 2.84%. Occurrence was higher in hair samples from non-blacks and the elderly. Higher occurrence was also observed during kindergarten, elementary and junior education school holidays. The results indicate that the occurrence of head lice among young people, adults and the elderly in Manaus is relatively low compared to that determined in children and in other regions of the country. After children, the elderly were the most affected. The study also indicated the need to adopt additional procedures to improve surveys among the population with low or no purchasing power, which is usually the most affected by this ectoparasitic disease. PMID:26200965

  17. HEAD LICE IN HAIR SAMPLES FROM YOUTHS, ADULTS AND THE ELDERLY IN MANAUS, AMAZONAS STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    NUNES, Suellen Cristina Barbosa; MORONI, Raquel Borges; MENDES, Júlio; JUSTINIANO, Sílvia Cássia Brandão; MORONI, Fábio Tonissi

    2015-01-01

    A study of head lice infestations among young people, adults and elderly individuals was conducted from August 2010 to July 2013 in Manaus, AM, Northern Brazil. Hair samples collected from 1,860 individuals in 18 barber shops and beauty parlors were examined for the ectoparasite. The occurrence of pediculosis and its association with factors, such as sex, age, ethnicity, hair characteristics and the socioeconomic profile of salon customers, salon location and seasonal variation were determined. The overall occurrence rate was 2.84%. Occurrence was higher in hair samples from non-blacks and the elderly. Higher occurrence was also observed during kindergarten, elementary and junior education school holidays. The results indicate that the occurrence of head lice among young people, adults and the elderly in Manaus is relatively low compared to that determined in children and in other regions of the country. After children, the elderly were the most affected. The study also indicated the need to adopt additional procedures to improve surveys among the population with low or no purchasing power, which is usually the most affected by this ectoparasitic disease. PMID:26200965

  18. Effects of Shampoo and Water Washing on Hair Cortisol Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Hamel, Amanda F.; Meyer, Jerrold S.; Henchey, Elizabeth; Dettmer, Amanda M.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Novak, Melinda A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Measurement of cortisol in hair is an emerging biomarker for chronic stress in human and nonhuman primates. Currently unknown, however, is the extent of potential cortisol loss from hair that has been repeatedly exposed to shampoo and/or water. Methods Pooled hair samples from 20 rhesus monkeys were subjected to five treatment conditions: 10, 20, or 30 shampoo washes, 20 water-only washes, or a no-wash control. For each wash, hair was exposed to a dilute shampoo solution or tap water for 45 s, rinsed 4 times with tap water, and rapidly dried. Samples were then processed for cortisol extraction and analysis using previously published methods. Results Hair cortisol levels were significantly reduced by washing, with an inverse relationship between number of shampoo washes and the cortisol concentration. This effect was mainly due to water exposure, as cortisol levels following 20 water-only washes were similar to those following 20 shampoo treatments. Conclusions Repeated exposure to water with or without shampoo appears to leach cortisol from hair, yielding values that underestimate the amount of chronic hormone deposition within the shaft. Collecting samples proximal to the scalp and obtaining hair washing frequency data may be valuable when conducting human hair cortisol studies. PMID:21034727

  19. [Neutron activation analysis of human hair--multivariate analysis of factors influencing on trace element contents in hair-- (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Imahori, A; Fukushima, I

    1980-06-01

    As a part of IAEA research project, "Activation analysis of hair as an indicator of contamination of man by environmental trace element pollutants", a survey was carried out to elucidate the levels of various trace element concentrations in hair of local population in the Tokyo Metropolitan areas, by applying instrumental neutron activation analysis. A total of 202 scalp hair samples were collected from the inhabitants classified by sex and five age classes. Irradiation was made in the Rikkyo University 100 kW TRIGA MARK-II reactor. Using several combinations of irradiation time, cooling time and counting time, forty elements were determined. The relationship between several trace element contents in hair and such factors as sex, age class, hair treatment, smoking habit and dental treatment, was analyzed by using the method of multiple regression. It was shown that (1) Hair treatment had a predominant effect on the contents of bromine, magnesium and calcium in hair, (2) Aging and smoking contributed increasing mercury content in hair, and hair treatment acted reversely. PMID:7208973

  20. Determination of cathinones and other stimulant, psychedelic, and dissociative designer drugs in real hair samples.

    PubMed

    Salomone, Alberto; Gazzilli, Giulia; Di Corcia, Daniele; Gerace, Enrico; Vincenti, Marco

    2016-03-01

    The detection of new psychoactive substances (NPS) in hair proved to provide insight into their current diffusion among the population and the social characteristics of these synthetic drugs' users. Therefore, a UHPLC-MS/MS method was developed in order to determine 31 stimulant and psychedelic substituted phenethylamines, and dissociative drugs in hair samples. The method proved to be simple, fast, specific, and sensitive. The absence of matrix interferents, together with excellent repeatability of both retention times and relative abundances of diagnostic transitions, allowed the correct identification of all analytes tested. The method showed optimal linearity in the interval 10-1000 pg/mg, with correlation coefficient values varying between 0.9981 and 0.9997. Quantitation limits ranged from 1.8 pg/mg for 4-methoxyphencyclidine (4-MeO-PCP) up to 35 pg/mg for 6-(2-aminopropyl)benzofuran (6-APB). The method was applied to (i) 23 real samples taken from proven MDMA and ketamine abusers and (ii) 54 real hair samples which had been previously tested negative during regular drug screening in driver's license recovery. Six samples tested positive for at least one target analyte. Methoxetamine (MXE) was found in three cases (range of concentration 7.7-27 pg/mg); mephedrone (4-MMC) was found in two cases (50-59 pg/mg) while one sample tested positive for methylone at 28 pg/mg. Other positive findings included 4-methylethcathinone (4-MEC), alpha-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP), 4-fluoroamphetamine (4-FA), 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), and diphenidine. The present study confirms the increasing diffusion of new designer drugs with enhanced stimulant activity among the target population of poly-abuse consumers. PMID:26680593

  1. Determination of amphetamines in hair by integrating sample disruption, clean-up and solid phase derivatization.

    PubMed

    Argente-García, A; Moliner-Martínez, Y; Campíns-Falcó, P; Verdú-Andrés, J; Herráez-Hernández, R

    2016-05-20

    The utility of matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) for the direct analysis of amphetamines in hair samples has been evaluated, using liquid chromatography (LC) with fluorescence detection and precolumn derivatization. The proposed approach is based on the employment of MSPD for matrix disruption and clean-up, followed by the derivatization of the analytes onto the dispersant-sample blend. The fluorogenic reagent 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC) has been used for derivatization. Different conditions for MSPD, analyte purification and solid phase derivatization have been tested, using amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (MET), ephedrine (EPE) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) as model compounds. The results have been compared with those achieved by using ultrasound-assisted alkaline digestion and by MSPD combined with conventional solution derivatization. On the basis of the results obtained, a methodology is proposed for the analysis of amphetamines in hair which integrates sample disruption, clean-up and derivatization using a C18 phase. Improved sensitivity is achieved with respect to that obtained by the alkaline digestion or by the MSPD followed by solution derivatization methods. The method can be used for the quantification of the tested amphetamines within the 2.0-20.0ng/mg concentration interval, with limits of detection (LODs) of 0.25-0.75ng/mg. The methodology is very simple and rapid (the preparation of the sample takes less than 15min). PMID:27108048

  2. Ethnic hair disorders.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Scott F; Tosti, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    The management of hair and scalp conditions is difficult in any patient, especially given the emotional and psychological implications of hair loss. This undertaking becomes even more challenging in the ethnic patient. Differences in hair care practices, hair shaft morphology, and follicular architecture add complexity to the task. It is imperative that the physician be knowledgeable about these practices and the phenotypic differences seen in ethnic hair in order to appropriately diagnose and treat these patients. In this chapter, we will discuss cultural practices and morphologic differences and explain how these relate to the specific disorders seen in ethnic populations. We will also review the most prominent of the ethnic hair conditions including acquired trichorrhexis nodosa, traction alopecia, central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia, pseudofolliculitis barbae, dissecting cellulitis, and acne keloidalis nuchae. PMID:26370652

  3. 21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prosthetic hair fibers. 895.101 Section 895.101...) MEDICAL DEVICES BANNED DEVICES Listing of Banned Devices § 895.101 Prosthetic hair fibers. Prosthetic hair fibers are devices intended for implantation into the human scalp to simulate natural hair or...

  4. 21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prosthetic hair fibers. 895.101 Section 895.101...) MEDICAL DEVICES BANNED DEVICES Listing of Banned Devices § 895.101 Prosthetic hair fibers. Prosthetic hair fibers are devices intended for implantation into the human scalp to simulate natural hair or...

  5. 21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prosthetic hair fibers. 895.101 Section 895.101...) MEDICAL DEVICES BANNED DEVICES Listing of Banned Devices § 895.101 Prosthetic hair fibers. Prosthetic hair fibers are devices intended for implantation into the human scalp to simulate natural hair or...

  6. 21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prosthetic hair fibers. 895.101 Section 895.101...) MEDICAL DEVICES BANNED DEVICES Listing of Banned Devices § 895.101 Prosthetic hair fibers. Prosthetic hair fibers are devices intended for implantation into the human scalp to simulate natural hair or...

  7. 21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prosthetic hair fibers. 895.101 Section 895.101...) MEDICAL DEVICES BANNED DEVICES Listing of Banned Devices § 895.101 Prosthetic hair fibers. Prosthetic hair fibers are devices intended for implantation into the human scalp to simulate natural hair or...

  8. Elevated hair cortisol concentrations in endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Skoluda, Nadine; Dettenborn, Lucia; Stalder, Tobias; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2012-05-01

    Engaging in intensive aerobic exercise, specifically endurance sports, is associated with HPA axis activation indicated by elevated cortisol levels. Whether the repeated short-term elevations in cortisol levels result in higher long-term cortisol exposure of endurance athletes has been difficult to examine since traditional methods of cortisol assessments (saliva, blood, urine) reflect only relatively short time periods. Hair segment analysis provides a new method to assess cumulative cortisol secretion over prolonged time periods in a retrospective fashion. The aim of this study was to investigate cumulative cortisol secretion over several months reflecting intensive training and competitive races by examining hair cortisol levels of endurance athletes. Hair samples were obtained from 304 amateur endurance athletes (long-distance runners, triathletes, cyclists) and 70 controls. Cortisol concentrations were determined in the first to third 3-cm hair segments most proximal to the scalp. In addition, self-report measures of training volume were obtained. Endurance athletes exhibited higher cortisol levels in all three hair segments compared to controls (p<.001). Positive correlations between the cortisol concentration in the first hair segment and each indicator of training volume were found (all p<.01). These data suggest that repeated physical stress of intensive training and competitive races among endurance athletes is associated with elevated cortisol exposure over prolonged periods of time. These findings may have important implications with regard to somatic and mental health of athletes which should be investigated in future research. PMID:21944954

  9. Histopathological investigation of clinically non-affected perilesional scalp in alopecias detected unexpected spread of disease activities.

    PubMed

    Watanabe-Okada, Emiko; Amagai, Masayuki; Ohyama, Manabu

    2014-09-01

    Histopathological comparison between clinically affected and intact regions in alopecia patients has been considered to facilitate better understanding of the pathophysiology of ongoing disease. Theoretically, adjacent intact regions should provide ideal controls as they should share close histological characteristics, however, to what extent clinically non-affected neighboring regions maintain their pathological integrity has not been fully assessed. The goal of this study is to delineate histopathological characteristics of clinically intact perilesional regions in the patients with various forms of alopecia. Transverse sections of 4-mm punch biopsy at the levels of isthmus and suprabulbar portion were obtained from seemingly unimpaired perilesional scalp of 50 Japanese alopecia patients (16 alopecia areata [AA] multiplex, 19 scarring alopecia [SA], 15 other conditions) and subject to histopathological investigation. Initial screening detected decrease in anagen (anagen : telogen ratio = 82.4:17.6) when compared with previously reported standard hair counts in normal Asian scalp. This finding prompted further investigation. Unexpectedly, 33 (66%) specimens demonstrated some microscopic abnormalities, 10 (62.5%) AA specimens showed increase in telogen ratio, vellus hair count and miniaturization, while perifollicular inflammatory cell infiltration was detected in 5 (26.3%) SA cases. Exclusion of histologically affected specimens yielded average hair count numbers resembling those reported in Koreans, supporting the pathological integrity of selected samples and, more importantly, indicating normal hair counts in east Asians. These findings indicated a less recognized significance of histopathological investigation of clinically non-affected perilesional scalp in alopecias for better assessment of the spread of disease activities, which should enable better management of hair loss conditions. PMID:25156442

  10. Optical coherent tomography: promising in vivo measurement of hair shaft cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Bartels, Natalie; Stieler, Karola; Richter, Heike; Patzelt, Alexa; Lademann, Jürgen; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike

    2011-09-01

    Variations in hair shaft morphology reflect ethnical diversity, but may also indicate internal diseases, nutritional deficiency, or hair and scalp disorders. The measurement and the follow-up of the hair shaft thickness over a defined period of time would be a valuable diagnostic tool in clinical practice. Standard light microscopy (LM) measurements require the epilation of hair shafts and frequently yield inaccurate values caused by the elliptic geometry of human hair shafts. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive investigation method based on the principles of Michelson interferometry with a detection depth of approximately 1 mm in human skin. Two-dimensional images of the cross sections of tissue samples at a resolution of approximately 10 μm are produced, which allows convenient calculation of hair shaft thickness. To evaluate this new methodology for hair shaft thickness measurements, hair shafts taken from 28 healthy volunteers were analyzed by in vivo OCT and compared to standard in vitro LM measurements of hair shaft thickness. OCT yielded highly reproducible measurements of hair shaft thickness with a distinctly reduced variation compared to standard LM. This technique offers a unique opportunity for in vivo measurement and a follow-up of the kinetics of hair shaft thickness in humans during medical therapy.

  11. Angiosarcoma of the scalp.

    PubMed

    Simon, S I; Sika, J V; Lynfield, Y L

    1980-11-01

    The clinical appearance, histopathology, and fulminating course of an angiosarcoma of the scalp in a 57-year-old man is described. It enlarged rapidly, developed satellite nodules, metastasized to the lungs, and was fatal within five months. PMID:7193220

  12. A missed scalp laceration causing avoidable sequelae

    PubMed Central

    Basyuni, Shadi; Panayi, Andreana; Sharma, Valmiki; Santhanam, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We present the case of an overlooked scalp laceration in an 81-year-old lady who presented with polytrauma following a fall down stairs. Complications that developed required more extensive treatment compared to what would have sufficed with early identification. Presentation of case Imaging on admission to hospital showed multiple vertebrae and rib fractures as well as a large cranial subcutaneous haematoma with no intracerebral bleed. Before the laceration was identified, the patient developed acute anaemia requiring transfusion. Continued reduction in haemoglobin levels called for a more thorough examination of the scalp. Investigation, following copious irrigation, revealed a large laceration. The presence of infection and necrotic tissue necessitated a general anaesthetic for debridement and closure. Disscussion Diagnostic errors are more common in patients presenting with multiple or severe injuries. Initial management in trauma cases should focus on more evident or life threatening injuries However, it is important that reflections and recommendations are continually made to reduce diagnostic errors, which are higher in polytraumatised patients. Various factors including haemodynamic instability and patient positioning added to the elusive nature of this wound. Adequate examination of lacerations requires thorough cleaning as coagulated blood and other material may obscure findings. This is particularly important in scalp lacerations where the overlying hair can form a barrier that is effective at hiding the wound edges. Conclusion This case highlights the importance of a thorough secondary survey; an effective examination technique would have avoided the need for extensive treatment to manage the sequelae of the missed scalp laceration. PMID:27088847

  13. Complications in hair restoration.

    PubMed

    Lam, Samuel M

    2013-11-01

    Hair restoration requires a high level of specialized skill on the part of both the surgeon and the assistant team. Recipient-site problems can manifest from either surgeon or assistant error. The surgeon can create an unnatural hairline due to lack of knowledge of natural hair-loss patterns or badly executed recipient sites. He must also be cognizant of how hairs naturally are angled on the scalp to re-create a pattern that appears natural when making recipient sites. Assistants can also greatly contribute to the success or failure of surgery in their task of graft dissection and graft placement. PMID:24200385

  14. Scalp Medical Tattooing Technique to Camouflage Bifid Parietal Whorls

    PubMed Central

    You, Seung Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background: To the best of the authors’ knowledge, no reports have described cosmetic problems arising from the hair direction around the parietal whorl (PW). This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of scalp medical tattooing technique for camouflaging bifid PWs. Methods: We retrospectively examined the outcomes of scalp medical tattooing in 38 patients who were admitted for camouflage of a bifid PW. Results: All patients’ cosmetic appearance was judged, by both the patients and the surgeon, to be markedly improved. No specific complications occurred, such as infection, hair loss in the operative field, or other problems. Conclusion: Scalp medical tattooing appears to be an effective method that helps to camouflage the see-through appearance of bifid PWs. PMID:27200232

  15. Endovascular Treatment of AVF after Hair Transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Dogan, Sozen; Cinar, Celal; Demirpolat, Gulen; Memis, Ahmet

    2008-07-15

    Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) of the scalp is a very rare complication of hair transplantation. Only 9 cases have been reported in nearly half a century. The diagnosis is clinical but angiography is necessary for defining the angioarchitecture of the lesion. Due to technical developments, endovascular embolization has become the primary treatment for AVF of the scalp.

  16. Scalp Psoriasiform Contact Dermatitis with Acute Telogen Effluvium due to Topical Minoxidil Treatment

    PubMed Central

    La Placa, Michelangelo; Balestri, Riccardo; Bardazzi, Federico; Vincenzi, Colombina

    2016-01-01

    Topical minoxidil, the only approved treatment for female pattern hair loss (FPHL), has been associated with scalp allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). We report the case of 2 female patients who developed ACD from minoxidil solution with severe telogen effluvium and psoriasiform scalp dermatitis. Scalp dermoscopy was useful to identify the psoriasiform vascular pattern, whereas patch testing made it possible to differentiate the cause of sensitization. In one case, minoxidil was the sole cause of scalp dermatitis, while in the other patient it was only the vehicle, thus permitting the patient to continue the treatment for FPHL. PMID:27172052

  17. Scalp Psoriasiform Contact Dermatitis with Acute Telogen Effluvium due to Topical Minoxidil Treatment.

    PubMed

    La Placa, Michelangelo; Balestri, Riccardo; Bardazzi, Federico; Vincenzi, Colombina

    2016-02-01

    Topical minoxidil, the only approved treatment for female pattern hair loss (FPHL), has been associated with scalp allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). We report the case of 2 female patients who developed ACD from minoxidil solution with severe telogen effluvium and psoriasiform scalp dermatitis. Scalp dermoscopy was useful to identify the psoriasiform vascular pattern, whereas patch testing made it possible to differentiate the cause of sensitization. In one case, minoxidil was the sole cause of scalp dermatitis, while in the other patient it was only the vehicle, thus permitting the patient to continue the treatment for FPHL. PMID:27172052

  18. The prostamide-related glaucoma therapy, bimatoprost, offers a novel approach for treating scalp alopecias.

    PubMed

    Khidhir, Karzan G; Woodward, David F; Farjo, Nilofer P; Farjo, Bessam K; Tang, Elaine S; Wang, Jenny W; Picksley, Steven M; Randall, Valerie A

    2013-02-01

    Balding causes widespread psychological distress but is poorly controlled. The commonest treatment, minoxidil, was originally an antihypertensive drug that promoted unwanted hair. We hypothesized that another serendipitous discovery, increased eyelash growth side-effects of prostamide F(2α)-related eyedrops for glaucoma, may be relevant for scalp alopecias. Eyelash hairs and follicles are highly specialized and remain unaffected by androgens that inhibit scalp follicles and stimulate many others. Therefore, we investigated whether non-eyelash follicles could respond to bimatoprost, a prostamide F(2α) analog recently licensed for eyelash hypotrichosis. Bimatoprost, at pharmacologically selective concentrations, increased hair synthesis in scalp follicle organ culture and advanced mouse pelage hair regrowth in vivo compared to vehicle alone. A prostamide receptor antagonist blocked isolated follicle growth, confirming a direct, receptor-mediated mechanism within follicles; RT-PCR analysis identified 3 relevant receptor genes in scalp follicles in vivo. Receptors were located in the key follicle regulator, the dermal papilla, by analyzing individual follicular structures and immunohistochemistry. Thus, bimatoprost stimulates human scalp follicles in culture and rodent pelage follicles in vivo, mirroring eyelash behavior, and scalp follicles contain bimatoprost-sensitive prostamide receptors in vivo. This highlights a new follicular signaling system and confirms that bimatoprost offers a novel, low-risk therapeutic approach for scalp alopecias. PMID:23104985

  19. Simulation of scalp cooling by external devices for prevention of chemotherapy-induced alopecia.

    PubMed

    Pliskow, Bradley; Mitra, Kunal; Kaya, Mehmet

    2016-02-01

    Hypothermia of the scalp tissue during chemotherapy treatment (scalp cooling) has been shown to reduce or prevent chemotherapy-induced hair loss. In this study, numerical models are developed to investigate the interaction between different types of external scalp cooling devices and the human scalp tissue. This work focuses on improving methods of modeling scalp cooling devices as it relates specifically to the prevention of chemotherapy-induced alopecia. First, the cooling power needed for any type of device to achieve therapeutic levels of scalp hypothermia is investigated. Subsequently, two types of scalp cooling devices are simulated: a pre-cooled/frozen cap design and a liquid-cooled cap design. For an average patient, simulations show that 38.5W of heat must be extracted from the scalp tissue for this therapy in order to cool the hair follicle to 22°C. In practice, the cooling power must be greater than this amount to account for thermal losses of the device. Simulations show that pre-cooled and liquid-cooled cap designs result in different tissue temperatures over the course of the procedure. However, it is the temperature of the coolant that largely determines the resulting tissue temperature. Simulations confirm that the thermal resistance of the hair/air layer has a large impact on the resulting tissue temperatures. The results should be correlated with experimental data as an effort to determine the optimal parameter choices for this model. PMID:26857974

  20. Determination of propofol glucuronide from hair sample by using mixed mode anion exchange cartridge and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Hye Kyung; Choe, Sanggil; In, Sangwhan; Pyo, Jae Sung

    2016-03-15

    The main objective of this study was to develop and validate a simpler and less time consuming analytical method for determination of propofol glucuronide from hair sample, by using mixed mode anion exchange cartridge and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The study uses propofol glucuronide, a major metabolite of propofol, as a marker for propofol abuse. The hair sample was digested in sodium hydroxide solution and loaded in mixed-mode anion cartridge for solid phase extraction. Water and ethyl acetate were used as washing solvents to remove interfering substances from the hair sample. Consequently, 2% formic acid in ethyl acetate was employed to elute propofol glucuronide from the sorbent of mixed-mode anion cartridge, and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The method validation parameters such as selectivity, specificity, LOD, LLOQ, accuracy, precision, recovery, and matrix effect were also tested. The linearity of calibration curves showed good correlation, with correlation coefficient 0.998. The LOD and LLOQ of the propofol glucuronide were 0.2 pg/mg and 0.5 pg/mg, respectively. The intra and inter-day precision and accuracy were acceptable within 15%. The mean values of recovery and matrix effect were in the range of 91.7-98.7% and 87.5-90.3%, respectively, signifying that the sample preparation, washing and extraction procedure were efficient, and there was low significant hair matrix effect for the extraction of propofol glucuronide from hair sample on the mixed mode anion cartridge. To evaluate the suitability of method, the hair of propofol administered rat was successfully analyzed with this method. PMID:26946424

  1. Hair cortisol in relation to socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics in a multi-ethnic US sample

    PubMed Central

    Wosu, Adaeze C.; Gelaye, Bizu; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Stalder, Tobias; Shields, Alexandra E.; Williams, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the feasibility of obtaining hair samples from men and women at community-based barbershops and hair salons for analysis of cortisol and assessed socio-demographic and lifestyle correlates of hair cortisol concentrations (HCC). A total of 102 participants completed the study. Methods Research staff interviewed participants using a structured questionnaire and samples of hair were collected. HCC were determined using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Age- and sex-adjusted linear regression models were used to evaluate the association of HCC with covariates. Results Analyses by race/ethnicity showed highest median HCC in Blacks [12.5 (6.9–29.3) pg/mg] followed by Hispanics [10.7 (5.8–14.9) pg/mg], Whites [5.0 (3.8–10.8) pg/mg], and other participants [4.2 (3.3–15.7) pg/mg], p<0.01. Current smokers had significantly higher median HCC [11.7 (8.8–18.9) pg/mg] compared to former smokers [4.6 (3.5–14.6) pg/mg] and those who had never smoked [6.9 (4.7–12.8) pg/mg], p=0.04. After adjustment for age and sex, geometric mean HCC was 0.72 pg/mg lower in dyed hair compared to hair that was not dyed (β=-0.72, SE=0.30, 95% CI:-1.29, -0.15, p=0.02). Conclusions HCC can be assessed in community-based studies. Future HCC studies should consider cosmetic hair treatment, cigarette smoking and the potential role of psychosocial stressors in the association between race/ethnicity and HCC. PMID:25534254

  2. X-Ray Fluorescence to Determine Zn in Bolivian Children using Hair Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Tellería Narvaez, C.A.; Fernández Alcázar, S.; Barrientos Zamora, F.G.; Chungara Castro, J.; Luna Lauracia, I.; Mamani Tola, H.; Mita Peralta, E.; Muñoz Gosálvez, A.O.; Romero Bolaños, L.E.; Ramírez Ávila, G.M.

    2014-06-15

    As a first step in the evaluation of nutritional levels in Bolivian children (8–13 years-old), we carried out X-Ray Fluorescence measurements in hair samples of children belonging to different social classes and living either in rural areas or in cities. The aim of this study is to contribute to health policies tending to improve the global health of children and consequently avoid malnutrition. Our method intends to have maximum reliability and at the same time be as simple as possible from an experimental point of view. Additionally, we use this method to determine some other elements such as Fe, Cu, Pb, As and Hg, the latter three considered as contaminants that could be present in children living in areas which neighbor mines and industries. This work will be complemented by some biological and medical tests.

  3. X-Ray Fluorescence to Determine Zn in Bolivian Children using Hair Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tellería Narvaez, C. A.; Fernández Alcázar, S.; Barrientos Zamora, F. G.; Chungara Castro, J.; Luna Lauracia, I.; Mamani Tola, H.; Mita Peralta, E.; Muñoz Gosálvez, A. O.; Romero Bolaños, L. E.; Ramírez Ávila, G. M.

    2014-06-01

    As a first step in the evaluation of nutritional levels in Bolivian children (8-13 years-old), we carried out X-Ray Fluorescence measurements in hair samples of children belonging to different social classes and living either in rural areas or in cities. The aim of this study is to contribute to health policies tending to improve the global health of children and consequently avoid malnutrition. Our method intends to have maximum reliability and at the same time be as simple as possible from an experimental point of view. Additionally, we use this method to determine some other elements such as Fe, Cu, Pb, As and Hg, the latter three considered as contaminants that could be present in children living in areas which neighbor mines and industries. This work will be complemented by some biological and medical tests.

  4. Use of hair cortisol analysis to detect hypercortisolism during active drinking phases in alcohol-dependent individuals.

    PubMed

    Stalder, Tobias; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Heinze, Kareen; Steudte, Susann; Foley, Paul; Tietze, Antje; Dettenborn, Lucia

    2010-12-01

    The assessment of cortisol levels in human hair has recently been suggested to provide a retrospective index of cumulative cortisol exposure over periods of up to 6 months. The current study examined the utility of hair cortisol analysis to retrospectively detect hypercortisolism during active drinking phases in alcoholics in acute withdrawal (n=23), the normalisation of cortisol output in abstinent alcoholics (n=25) and cortisol levels in age- and gender-matched controls (n=20). Scalp-near 3-cm hair segments were sampled and analysed for cortisol content. Results showed three to fourfold higher cortisol levels in hair samples of alcoholics in acute withdrawal than in those of abstinent alcoholics (p<.001) or controls (p<.001), with no differences between the latter two groups. The current hair cortisol findings closely mirror results of previous research using well-established measures of systemic cortisol secretion and thus provide further validation of this novel method. PMID:20727937

  5. Hair Cortisol, Perceived Stress and Dispositional Optimism: A Pilot Study among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Milam, Joel; Slaughter, Rhona; Verma, Gaurav; McConnell, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Background Psychological stress is often associated with poor health-related outcomes. One potential biomarker for chronic stress, hair cortisol, is minimally invasive compared to other cortisol collection techniques. This pilot study examined the relationships between hair cortisol and self-reported perceived stress, stressful life events, depressive symptoms, and dispositional optimism among adolescents. Methods This cross-sectional study comprised of a convenience sample of 27 adolescents (age: M=14.96, SD=1.63) recruited from a Southern California after-school program. Along with demographic and hair characteristics (e.g., hair color, type, etc.), participants completed the Perceived Stress Scale, Stressful Life Events checklist, CES-D (depressive symptoms), and Life Orientation Test (optimism). Hair cortisol was measured by analyzing hair samples approximately 1 cm from the scalp representing one month of cortisol exposure. Results Hair cortisol had a significant inverse association with dispositional optimism (r=−0.44, p<0.05). Hair cortisol was not significantly associated with self-reported perceived stress, stressful life events, or depressive symptoms. Conclusion Assessment of hair cortisol may prove beneficial as an objective measure in research examining chronic stress-related outcomes among adolescents. Resiliency or protective dispositions, such as optimism, merit attention in relation to this biomarker. PMID:25426491

  6. Does combing the scalp reduce scalp electrode impedances?

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Yatin; McArthur, Genevieve

    2010-05-15

    Electrical activity from the human brain can be recorded via electrodes on the scalp. It is important to reduce the impedance of each electrode to minimize unwanted noise in the recording. Electrode impedance can be improved by abrading the skin to remove dead skin cells. In this experiment, we tested if abrading the skin by combing the scalp leads to a significant reduction in electrode impedance. We compared the mean electrode impedance values of 20 subjects whose scalps were combed prior to electrode cap placement, with 20 subjects whose scalps were not combed. Combing significantly reduced the impedances at central, right, and left areas of the scalp. This finding supports the use of scalp combing to reduce the time and subject discomfort that can be associated with placing scalp electrodes. This is particularly important for experiments testing children. PMID:20211649

  7. Determination of stimulants in a single human hair sample by high-performance liquid chromatographic method with chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Takayama, N; Tanaka, S; Hayakawa, K

    1997-01-01

    Stimulants that are controlled by the Stimulant Drug Control Law of Japan are methamphetamine (MA) and amphetamine (AP). MA is used by most stimulant addicts, and AP is detected as its main metabolite. We have developed a high-performance liquid chromatography method with chemiluminescence detection (CL-HPLC), for determining trace levels of MA and its metabolites in a single human hair sample, in which bis(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl)oxalate and hydrogen peroxide are the postcolumn reagents. After washing a single hair sample with water and methanol, it was cut into pieces, extracted with a mixed solution of methanol and hydrochloric acid for 1 h under ultra-sonication and allowed to stand at room temperature overnight. Then the organic phase was evaporated to dryness. To the residues, 0.1 mL of carbonate buffer and 0.1 mL of dansyl chloride solution were added and the solution was heated at 45 degrees C for 1 h. An aliquot of the reaction mixture was then subjected to HPLC. MA and AP were chemiluminogenically detected as their dansyl derivatives from a sample of only a single hair. The detection limit was about 2 pg in an injected volume (20 microliters), and about 20 pg in a single hair sample. This detection limit was smaller than that by the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (selective ion monitoring) method. Our method was useful as a screening test for stimulant users. PMID:9051212

  8. Practice and Educational Gaps in Dermatology: Disorders of the Hair.

    PubMed

    Colavincenzo, Maria L

    2016-07-01

    Clinical practice gaps exist in the care of hair patients. Attitude gaps include a relative lack of dermatologists interested in caring for patients with hair complaints, a potential underestimation of the effect of hair disorders on the quality of patients' lives, and potential failure to recognize the presentation of body dysmorphic disorder among patients with hair complaints. Knowledge gaps regarding the prevalence and presentation of hair loss disorders may lead to a delay in diagnosis and treatment of hair patients. Skill gaps in physical examination, particularly with dermoscopy of the scalp and hair, may affect the care of hair patients. PMID:27363884

  9. Buprenorphine and nor-buprenorphine levels in head hair samples from former heroin users under Suboxone® treatment.

    PubMed

    Belivanis, Stamatis; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Vakonaki, Elena; Kovatsi, Leda; Mantsi, Mary; Alegakis, Athanasios; Kavvalakis, Matthaios P; Vynias, Dionisios; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2014-06-01

    In the current study, buprenorphine (BUP) and its major metabolite, nor-buprenorphine (NBUP), were determined in hair samples from former heroin users following Suboxone® treatment. Hair samples from 36 subjects were analyzed. The drugs of interest were isolated from hair by solid-liquid extraction with methanol and were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, using an electrospray ionization interface. The analytical parameters of the method (such as linearity, limits of quantification, recovery, accuracy, and precision) were determined. The inter-quartile range of BUP levels was from 11.4 to 37.4 pg/mg (mean value 56.6 pg/mg) for the proximal hair segment, from 5.8 to 43.3 pg/mg for the middle hair segment (mean value 25.3 pg/mg), while a range from 4.3 to 33.9 pg/mg (mean value 105.2 pg/mg) for the distant to the root hair segment was determined. For NBUP the corresponding inter-quartile range was from 27.0 to 147.6 for the proximal segment (mean value 95.4 pg/mg), from 21.5 to 164.7 pg/mg for the middle segment (mean value 102.0 pg/mg) and from 20.4 to 103.6 pg/mg for the distant segment (mean value 156.8 pg/mg). The mean BUP/NBUP concentration ratio was 0.5. The daily dose of Suboxone® correlated significantly with BUP and NBUP levels in hair (p = 0.001 and p = 0.023) as well as with the BUP/NBUP ratio (p = 0.010). No significant correlation was found between the levels of BUP and NBUP and the duration of Suboxone® administration. The developed and validated method was successfully used for the determination of BUP and NBUP in hair samples collected from former heroin users under Suboxone® treatment. PMID:24817054

  10. Factors influencing the effectiveness of scalp cooling in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced alopecia.

    PubMed

    Komen, Manon M C; Smorenburg, Carolien H; van den Hurk, Corina J G; Nortier, Johan W R

    2013-01-01

    The success of scalp cooling in preventing or reducing chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) is highly variable between patients and chemotherapy regimens. The outcome of hair preservation is often unpredictable and depends on various factors. Methods. We performed a structured search of literature published from 1970 to February 2012 for articles that reported on factors influencing the effectiveness of scalp cooling to prevent CIA in patients with cancer. Results. The literature search identified 192 reports, of which 32 studies were considered relevant. Randomized studies on scalp cooling are scarce and there is little information on the determinants of the result. The effectiveness of scalp cooling for hair preservation depends on dose and type of chemotherapy, with less favorable results at higher doses. Temperature seems to be an important determinant. Various studies suggest that a subcutaneous scalp temperature less than 22 °C is required for hair preservation. Conclusions. The effectiveness of scalp cooling for hair preservation varies by chemotherapy type and dose, and probably by the degree and duration of cooling. PMID:23650021

  11. Identification of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in dermal papilla cells of human scalp hair follicles: TCF4 regulates the proliferation and secretory activity of dermal papilla cell.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Ya; Liu, Yi; Song, Zhiqiang; Hao, Fei; Yang, Xichuan

    2014-01-01

    It is clear that the dermal papilla cell (DPC), which is located at the bottom of the hair follicle, is a special mesenchymal component, and it plays a leading role in regulating hair follicle development and periodic regeneration. Recent studies showed that the Wnt signaling pathway through β-catenin (canonical Wnt signaling pathway) is an essential component in maintaining the hair-inducing activity of the dermal papilla and growth of hair papilla cells. However, the intrinsic pathways and regulating mechanism are largely unknown. In the previous work, we constructed a cDNA subtractive library of DPC and first found that the TCF4 gene, as a key factor of Wnt signaling pathway, was expressed as the upregulated gene of the hair follicle in low-passage DPC. This study was to explore the role of TCF4 in regulating the proliferation and secretory activity of DPC. We constructed a pcDNA3.0-TCF4 expression vector and transfected it into DPC to achieve stable expression by bangosome 2000. Furthermore, we used the method of chemosynthesis to synthesize three pairs of TCF4 siRNA and transfected them into DPC. Meanwhile, we compared the transfection group and non-transfection group. We first proposed that there was expression difference in TCF4 in DPC under different biological condition. This study may have a high impact on the molecular mechanism of follicular lesions and provide a new vision for the treatment of clinic diseases. PMID:24354472

  12. Time-course mass spectrometry imaging for depicting drug incorporation into hair.

    PubMed

    Kamata, Tooru; Shima, Noriaki; Sasaki, Keiko; Matsuta, Shuntaro; Takei, Shiori; Katagi, Munehiro; Miki, Akihiro; Zaitsu, Kei; Nakanishi, Toyofumi; Sato, Takako; Suzuki, Koichi; Tsuchihashi, Hitoshi

    2015-06-01

    In order to investigate the incorporation of drugs into hair, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) imaging was performed on the longitudinal sections of single scalp hair shafts sampled from volunteers after a single oral administration of methoxyphenamine (MOP), a noncontrolled analogue of methamphetamine. Hair specimens were collected by plucking out with the roots intact, and these specimens were prepped by an optimized procedure based on freeze-sectioning to detect the drug inside the hair shaft and hair root. Time-course changes in the imaging results, with confirmatory quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis for each 1-mm segment of single hair strands, revealed a substantial concentration of the drug first onto the hair bulbs after ingestion, while only a small portion appeared to be incorporated into the hair matrix, forming a 2-3 mm distinctive drug band with tailing. Comparable amount of the drug also appeared to be incorporated into the keratinized hair shaft in the upper dermis zone, forming another distinct drug band of about 2 mm, which both moved toward the distal side, following the strand's growth rate. These findings provide forensically crucial information: there are two major drug incorporation sites, at least for MOP, which cause overlap of the recordings and deteriorates its chronological resolution down to about 11 days or perhaps longer. PMID:25919888

  13. Hair Breakage in Patients of African Descent: Role of Dermoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Quaresma, Maria Victória; Martinez Velasco, María Abril; Tosti, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Dermoscopy represents a useful technique for the diagnosis and follow-up of hair and scalp disorders. To date, little has been published regarding dermoscopy findings of hair disorders in patients of African descent. This article illustrates how dermoscopy allows fast diagnosis of hair breakage due to intrinsic factors and chemical damage in African descent patients. PMID:27170942

  14. Human hair shaft proteomic profiling: individual differences, site specificity and cuticle analysis.

    PubMed

    Laatsch, Chelsea N; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe P; Rocke, David M; Mukwana, Sophie; Newland, Abby B; Flagler, Michael J; Davis, Michael G; Eigenheer, Richard A; Phinney, Brett S; Rice, Robert H

    2014-01-01

    Hair from different individuals can be distinguished by physical properties. Although some data exist on other species, examination of the individual molecular differences within the human hair shaft has not been thoroughly investigated. Shotgun proteomic analysis revealed considerable variation in profile among samples from Caucasian, African-American, Kenyan and Korean subjects. Within these ethnic groups, prominent keratin proteins served to distinguish individual profiles. Differences between ethnic groups, less marked, relied to a large extent on levels of keratin associated proteins. In samples from Caucasian subjects, hair shafts from axillary, beard, pubic and scalp regions exhibited distinguishable profiles, with the last being most different from the others. Finally, the profile of isolated hair cuticle cells was distinguished from that of total hair shaft by levels of more than 20 proteins, the majority of which were prominent keratins. The cuticle also exhibited relatively high levels of epidermal transglutaminase (TGM3), accounting for its observed low degree of protein extraction by denaturants. In addition to providing insight into hair structure, present findings may lead to improvements in differentiating hair from various ethnic origins and offer an approach to extending use of hair in crime scene evidence for distinguishing among individuals. PMID:25165623

  15. Feasibility of breast cancer screening by PIXE analysis of hair.

    PubMed

    Gholizadeh, N; Kabiri, Z; Kakuee, O; Saleh-Kotahi, M; Changizi, V; Fathollahi, V; Oliaiy, P; Omranipour, R

    2013-06-01

    To reveal the role of key elements present in the hair of breast cancer patients on cancer development, the levels of a number of elements in scalp hair samples of 82 people including healthy individuals, people suffering from benign breast disease, and breast cancer patients were measured by PIXE analysis. Pellets of hair samples were prepared and bombarded by 2.2 MeV proton beam of a 3-MV Van de Graaff accelerator. The number of incident ions hitting the sample was indirectly measured using the RBS spectrum of a thin Ag film placed in the beam path. The concentrations of S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, and Cu in the hair of healthy individuals were in agreement with those observed in the hair of hyperplasia and cancer patients within standard deviations. However, a lower average level of zinc was found in samples from hyperplasia and breast cancer patients. Strong positive correlations were found between iron and potassium as well as between calcium and potassium in the cancer patients. These results could be of significance in the screening for breast cancer. PMID:23625730

  16. Analysis of human hair cross sections from two different population groups by Nuclear Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineda-Vargas, C. A.; Eisa, M. E. M.

    2010-06-01

    Trace element analysis of hair is used as a screening technique to assess body-nutrient levels and/or toxicity due to environmental pollutants. With the aim to compare element content and spatial distribution within scalp hair-shaft cross sections of two distinct human population groups, and to assess possible similarities and/or differences, hair samples from Sudan and South Africa were collected. Proton backscattering and Micro-PIXE were used to determine the matrix composition and content of light and middle transition elements, with beam energies of 1.5 and 3.0 MeV. Mapping analysis showed a relatively similar content distribution for S, Cl, K and Ca within each group. However significant differences, particularly for heavier metals, such as Fe and Zn were also found. Correspondence Analysis of the data showed a clear separation between the two groups when the total content over the hair cross section was considered.

  17. Ancient mitochondrial DNA from Malaysian hair samples: some indications of Southeast Asian population movements.

    PubMed

    Ricaut, François-X; Bellatti, M; Lahr, Marta Mirazon

    2006-01-01

    The late Pleistocene and early Holocene population history of Southeast Asia is not well-known. Our study provides new data on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages of the aboriginal inhabitants of the Malay Peninsula, and through an extensive comparison to the known mtDNA diversity in Southeast and East Asia, provides some new insights into the origins and historical geography of certain mtDNA lineages in the region. We extracted DNA from hair samples (dating back 100 years) preserved in the Duckworth Collection and belonging to two Peninsular Malaysian individuals identified as "Negrito." Ancient DNA was analyzed by sequencing hypervariable region I (HVS-I) of the mtDNA control region and the mtDNA region V length polymorphism. The results show that the maternal lineages of these individuals belong to a recently defined haplogroup B sub-branch called B4c2. A comparison of mitochondrial haplotypes and haplogroups with those of 10,349 East Asian individuals indicates their very restricted geographical distribution (southwestern China, Southeast Asia Peninsula, and Indonesia). Recalculation of the B4c2 age across all of East Asia ( approximately 13,000 years) and in different subregions/populations suggests its rapid diffusion in Southeast Asia between the end of the Last Glacial Maximum and the Neolithic expansion of the Holocene. PMID:16917897

  18. Evaluation of two immunoassay procedures for drug testing in hair samples.

    PubMed

    Musshoff, F; Kirschbaum, K M; Graumann, K; Herzfeld, C; Sachs, H; Madea, B

    2012-02-10

    A preliminary initial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (LUCIO-Direct ELISA kit) and a preliminary DRI enzyme immunoassay were evaluated for drug detection in head hair with respect to lowered cutoff values recommended in Germany for the control of abstinence in cases of re-granting of drivers' licences. Following drug classes were included: cannabinoids, opiates, cocaine like substances, amphetamine, methamphetamine (and methylenedioxyamphetamines), methadone, and benzodiazepines. 759 analyses were performed using LUCIO-Direct ELISA kits and 936 analyses using DRI enzyme immunoassay tests. Sample size for each drug group and immunoassay test reached from 74 to 178. The LUCIO-Direct ELISA kit revealed a sensitivity of 91% for amphetamine up to 98% for methadone (methamphetamine 92%, cocaine 94%, opiates 94%, benzodiazepines 96%) and values of specificity of 72% for methadone up to 89% for amphetamine and benzodiazepines. The test was not useful for a preliminary screening for tetrahydrocannabinol (sensitivity of 65%) in consideration of a suggested cutoff of 0.02 ng/mg. The DRI enzyme immunoassay test was only useful for morphine and cocaine testing at low recommended new cutoff values (0.1 ng/mg) revealing sensitivities of 94% and 99%, respectively. PMID:21601388

  19. U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR LABORATORY ANALYSIS OF HAIR SAMPLES FOR MERCURY (RTI-L-1.0)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this protocol is to provide guidelines for the analysis of hair samples for total mercury by cold vapor atomic fluorescence (CVAFS) spectrometry. This protocol describes the methodology and all other analytical aspects involved in the analysis. Keywords: hair; s...

  20. Body Hair

    MedlinePlus

    ... girlshealth.gov/ Home Body Puberty Body hair Body hair Even before you get your first period , you ... removing pubic hair Ways to get rid of hair top Removing body hair can cause skin irritation, ...

  1. Hair transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... this procedure: Scarring Unnatural-looking tufts of new hair growth It is possible that the transplanted hair will ... Most hair transplants result in excellent hair growth within several ... may be needed to create best results. The replaced hairs are ...

  2. The prostamide-related glaucoma therapy, bimatoprost, offers a novel approach for treating scalp alopecias

    PubMed Central

    Khidhir, Karzan G.; Woodward, David F.; Farjo, Nilofer P.; Farjo, Bessam K.; Tang, Elaine S.; Wang, Jenny W.; Picksley, Steven M.; Randall, Valerie A.

    2013-01-01

    Balding causes widespread psychological distress but is poorly controlled. The commonest treatment, minoxidil, was originally an antihypertensive drug that promoted unwanted hair. We hypothesized that another serendipitous discovery, increased eyelash growth side-effects of prostamide F2α-related eyedrops for glaucoma, may be relevant for scalp alopecias. Eyelash hairs and follicles are highly specialized and remain unaffected by androgens that inhibit scalp follicles and stimulate many others. Therefore, we investigated whether non-eyelash follicles could respond to bimatoprost, a prostamide F2α analog recently licensed for eyelash hypotrichosis. Bimatoprost, at pharmacologically selective concentrations, increased hair synthesis in scalp follicle organ culture and advanced mouse pelage hair regrowth in vivo compared to vehicle alone. A prostamide receptor antagonist blocked isolated follicle growth, confirming a direct, receptor-mediated mechanism within follicles; RT-PCR analysis identified 3 relevant receptor genes in scalp follicles in vivo. Receptors were located in the key follicle regulator, the dermal papilla, by analyzing individual follicular structures and immunohistochemistry. Thus, bimatoprost stimulates human scalp follicles in culture and rodent pelage follicles in vivo, mirroring eyelash behavior, and scalp follicles contain bimatoprost-sensitive prostamide receptors in vivo. This highlights a new follicular signaling system and confirms that bimatoprost offers a novel, low-risk therapeutic approach for scalp alopecias.—Khidhir, K. G., Woodward, D. F., Farjo, N. P., Farjo, B. K., Tang, E. S., Wang, J. W., Picksley, S. M., and Randall, V. A. The prostamide-related glaucoma therapy, bimatoprost, offers a novel approach for treating scalp alopecias. PMID:23104985

  3. A rare case of woolly hair with unusual associations.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, Biju; Verma, Rajesh; Pragasam, Vijendran; Badad, Ambresh

    2013-07-01

    Woolly hair is a congenital abnormality of scalp hair manifesting as short, kinked hair, which may also involve the hair over the other parts of the body. Keratosis pilaris has been a well known association of woolly hair, and can also be a part of the Naxos or Carvajal syndromes. We herein present a case of woolly hair with associated keratosis pilaris, canaliform dystrophy of nails, increased interdental spaces and recurrent bullous impetigo. Although keratosis pilaris and teeth abnormalities have been reported as isolated associations with woolly hair, such a combination of findings as seen in our patient has not been reported before. PMID:23984241

  4. Complications in hair restoration surgery.

    PubMed

    Perez-Meza, David; Niedbalski, Robert

    2009-02-01

    Hair loss affects more than 1.2 billion people worldwide. As the technology and artistry of hair restoration surgery has improved including natural results, so too has the popularity of this procedure. As with any other surgical procedure, complications may occur and this presents a major challenge for the surgeon and the patient. This article provides an overview of the complications most likely to occur during the pre, intra, and postoperative periods with modern hair transplant surgery (single follicular unit or multifollicular unit) including scalp surgery, and discusses their treatment and most importantly their prevention. PMID:19185800

  5. Incidental Syringomas of the Scalp in a Patient with Scarring Alopecia

    PubMed Central

    Deen, Kristyn; Curchin, Claudia; Wu, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Syringomas are benign adnexal neoplasms of eccrine lineage, which occur most commonly in the periorbital region in middle-aged females. These cutaneous lesions rarely occur on the scalp, are typically asymptomatic and are predominantly of cosmetic significance. Involvement of the scalp may be indistinguishable from that of scarring alopecia. We present an unusual case of clinically inapparent syringomas occurring on the scalp of a 56-year-old female with alopecia who was subsequently diagnosed with lichen planopilaris after repeated scalp biopsy. In patients with unexplained hair loss, or in cases that are refractive to treatment, clinicians should perform scalp biopsy to exclude the diagnosis of rare neoplastic lesions like syringomas and to diagnose associated conditions. PMID:26351426

  6. Pharmacologic interventions in aging hair

    PubMed Central

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2006-01-01

    The appearance of hair plays an important role in people’s overall physical appearance and self-perception. With today’s increasing life-expectations, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever. The hair care industry has become aware of this and is delivering active products directed towards meeting this consumer demand. The discovery of pharmacological targets and the development of safe and effective drugs also indicate strategies of the drug industry for maintenance of healthy and beautiful hair. Hair aging comprises weathering of the hair shaft, decrease of melanocyte function, and decrease in hair production. The scalp is subject to intrinsic and extrinsic aging. Intrinsic factors are related to individual genetic and epigenetic mechanisms with interindividual variation: prototypes are familial premature graying, and androgenetic alopecia. Currently available pharmacologic treatment modalities with proven efficacy for treatment of androgenetic alopecia are topical minoxidil and oral finasteride. Extrinsic factors include ultraviolet radiation and air pollution. Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress also plays a role in hair aging. Topical anti-aging compounds include photoprotectors and antioxidants. In the absence of another way to reverse hair graying, hair colorants remain the mainstay of recovering lost hair color. Topical liposome targeting for melanins, genes, and proteins selectively to hair follicles are currently under investigation. PMID:18044109

  7. Pharmacologic interventions in aging hair.

    PubMed

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2006-01-01

    The appearance of hair plays an important role in people's overall physical appearance and self-perception. With today's increasing life-expectations, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever. The hair care industry has become aware of this and is delivering active products directed towards meeting this consumer demand. The discovery of pharmacological targets and the development of safe and effective drugs also indicate strategies of the drug industry for maintenance of healthy and beautiful hair. Hair aging comprises weathering of the hair shaft, decrease of melanocyte function, and decrease in hair production. The scalp is subject to intrinsic and extrinsic aging. Intrinsic factors are related to individual genetic and epigenetic mechanisms with interindividual variation: prototypes are familial premature graying, and androgenetic alopecia. Currently available pharmacologic treatment modalities with proven efficacy for treatment of androgenetic alopecia are topical minoxidil and oral finasteride. Extrinsic factors include ultraviolet radiation and air pollution. Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress also plays a role in hair aging. Topical anti-aging compounds include photoprotectors and antioxidants. In the absence of another way to reverse hair graying, hair colorants remain the mainstay of recovering lost hair color. Topical liposome targeting for melanins, genes, and proteins selectively to hair follicles are currently under investigation. PMID:18044109

  8. An ultrastructural study on corkscrew hairs and cigarette-ash-shaped hairs observed by dermoscopy of tinea capitis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Mao; Ran, Yuping; Dai, Yaling; Lei, Song; Zhang, Chaoliang; Zhuang, Kaiwen; Hu, Wenying

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to explain the formation mechanisms of corkscrew hairs and cigarette-ash-shaped hairs observed by dermoscopy of tinea capitis. In the present work, the ultrastructure of the involved hairs collected from a girl with tinea capitis caused by Trichophyton violaceum was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). SEM observation of the corkscrew hair revealed bent hair shaft and asymmetrically disrupted cuticle layer. TEM findings demonstrated the hair shaft became weak. The corkscrew hairs closely covered by scales on the scalp were observed under dermoscopy. We speculate that the formation of corkscrew hairs is a result of a combination of internal damage due to hair degradation by T. violaceum and external resistance due to scales covering the hair. SEM observation of the cigarette-ash-shaped hair revealed irregularly disrupted and incompact end, which might represent the stump of the broken corkscrew hair after treatment. PMID:26301780

  9. Lead, cadmium and zinc in hair samples: relationship with dietary habits and urban environment.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Reimers, E; Martín-González, C; Galindo-Martín, L; Aleman-Valls, M R; Velasco-Vázquez, J; Arnay-de-la-Rosa, M; Pérez-Hernández, O; Luis, R Hernández

    2014-03-01

    This study was performed in order to analyze the relationships between hair zinc, lead, and cadmium with the kind of diet consumed (by recall of the diet consumed the previous 14 days), living area (urban or rural), tobacco smoking, and body mass index (BMI) among 419 individuals of the Canary Archipelago. Median values and interquartile range were 43 μg/g (18.50-132.50) for zinc, 4.09 μg/g (2.19-8.38) for lead, and 0.128 μg/g (0.05-0.30) for cadmium. We observed that hair zinc was markedly elevated among those consuming fish more frequently and, to a lesser amount, among those who consumed meat frequently, among those living in urban areas, and among those with BMI over 25 kg/m(2), keeping a significant relationship with BMI. Hair lead was also higher among fish consumers, showed a trend to higher values among inhabitants of urban areas, and was lower among obese individuals. Hair cadmium was higher among those who consumed less vegetables and fruits. By multivariate analysis, introducing the variables meat, fish, and vegetable consumption, urban/rural; sex; age; and BMI values, we observed that fish consumption (beta = 0.15) was the only variable independently associated to higher zinc levels; fish consumption (beta = 0.15) and meat consumption (beta = 0.17) were related to high cadmium levels, whereas meat consumption was significantly associated to higher hair lead levels (beta = 0.15). Therefore, we conclude that hair zinc, cadmium, and lead seem to depend more heavily on dietary habits than on tobacco consumption or living in rural or urban areas. PMID:24464602

  10. Preliminary Studies for “Biomedical Analysis of Human Hair Exposed to Long-term Space Flight (Hair)” Project: An Analysis of Trace Elements in the Hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, Riyo; Yamada, Shin; Terada, Masahiro; Aiba, Tatsuya; Ishida, Satoru; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Majima, Hideyuki; Mukai, Chiaki

    The analysis of biospecimens from astronauts reveals considerable important information about their healthcare, but transportation of such samples will become difficult after the retirement of the Space Shuttles. We focused on hair, which is one of the easiest specimens to obtain, store and return, and planned this "Biomedical Analysis of Human Hair Exposed to Long-term Space Flight (Hair)" study. The main objective of the present part is to verify whether changes in mineral metabolism can be detected through analysis of hair shafts from astronauts on the International Space Station.Ground-based studies were performed to establish an optimum methodology for analyzing trace elements (e.g., calcium, sulfur and chlorine) on the cross-sectional surface of a hair shaft. By using Electron Prove Micro Analyzer (EPMA), we could identify the distribution of minerals in human scalp hairs. In another animal study, a centrally distributed concentration of calcium was observed in hairs from the mice exposed to microgravity. In this paper, we will report on the overall research plan and the progress we have made to date.

  11. A Case of Woolly Hair Nevus Associated with Pigmentary Demarcation Lines and Heterochromia Iridis: Coincidence or a New Association?

    PubMed Central

    Kocak, Aslihan Yonca; Kocak, Oguzhan

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of woolly hair nevus with pigmentary demarcation lines and heterochromia iridis. Woolly hair nevus is a rare abnormality of the scalp hair characterized by the patch of hair, which is curlier and light colored than the rest of the scalp hair. Association of woolly hair nevus with some other ectodermal defects effecting skin and eyes has been reported before. Here, woolly hair nevus associated with demarcation lines and heterochromia iridis, to our knowledge, have not been previously reported. PMID:26622156

  12. Simultaneous analysis of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and 11-nor-9-carboxy-tetrahydrocannabinol in hair without different sample preparation and derivatization by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Han, Eunyoung; Park, Yonghoon; Kim, Eunmi; In, Sangwhan; Yang, Wonkyung; Lee, Sooyeun; Choi, Hwakyung; Lee, Sangki; Chung, Heesun; Song, Joon Myong

    2011-07-15

    The present study describes a gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry-negative ion chemical ionization assay (GC/MS/MS-NCI) for simultaneous analysis of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and 11-nor-9-carboxy-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) in hair. Each hair sample, of approximately 20mg, was weighed and the sample was dissolved in 1ml of 1M sodium hydroxide (30min at 85°C) in the presence of THC-d(3) and THCCOOH-d(3). For the analysis of THC, hair samples were extracted with n-hexane:ethyl acetate (9:1) two times; acetic acid and sodium acetate buffer were added for the analysis of THCCOOH, and hair samples were re-extracted with n-hexane:ethyl acetate (9:1) two times. The extracts were then derivatized with pentafluoropropionic anhydride (PFPA) and pentafluoropropanol (PFPOH). This method allowed the analysis of THC and THCCOOH using the GC/MS/MS-NCI assay. This method was also fully validated and applied to hair specimens (n=54) collected from known cannabis users whose urine test results were positive. The concentrations of THC and THCCOOH in hair ranged from 7.52 to 60.41ng/mg and from 0.10 to 11.68pg/mg, respectively. In this paper, we simultaneously measured THC and THCCOOH in human hair using GC/MS/MS-NCI without requiring different sample preparation and derivatization procedures. The analytical sensitivity for THCCOOH in hair was good, while that for THC in hair needs to be improved in further study. PMID:21497038

  13. Comparison between self-report and hair analysis of illicit drug use in a community sample of middle-age men

    PubMed Central

    Ledgerwood, David M.; Goldberger, Bruce A.; Risk, Nathan K.; Lewis, Collins E.; Price, Rumi Kato

    2008-01-01

    Discrepancies between biological assays and self-report of illicit drug use could undermine epidemiological research findings. Two objectives of the present study are to examine the degree of agreement between self-reported illicit drug use and hair analysis in a community sample of middle-aged men, and to identify factors that may predict discrepancies between self-report and hair testing. Male participants followed since 1972 were interviewed about substance use, and hair samples were analyzed for marijuana, cocaine, opiates, phencyclidine (PCP) and methamphetamine using radioimmunoassay and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. Self-report and hair testing generally met good, but not excellent, agreement. Apparent underreporting of recent cocaine use was associated with inpatient hospitalization for the participant's most recent quit attempt, younger age, identifying as African American or other, and not having a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder. The overestimate of marijuana use relative to hair test was associated with frequent use since 1972 and providing an inadequate hair sample. Additional research is needed to identify factors that differentially affect the validity of both hair drug testing and self-report. PMID:18547737

  14. Comparison between self-report and hair analysis of illicit drug use in a community sample of middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Ledgerwood, David M; Goldberger, Bruce A; Risk, Nathan K; Lewis, Collins E; Price, Rumi Kato

    2008-09-01

    Discrepancies between biological assays and self-report of illicit drug use could undermine epidemiological research findings. Two objectives of the present study are to examine the degree of agreement between self-reported illicit drug use and hair analysis in a community sample of middle-aged men, and to identify factors that may predict discrepancies between self-report and hair testing. Male participants followed since 1972 were interviewed about substance use, and hair samples were analyzed for marijuana, cocaine, opiates, phencyclidine (PCP) and methamphetamine using radioimmunoassay and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. Self-report and hair testing generally met good, but not excellent, agreement. Apparent underreporting of recent cocaine use was associated with inpatient hospitalization for the participant's most recent quit attempt, younger age, identifying as African American or other, and not having a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder. The overestimate of marijuana use relative to hair test was associated with frequent use since 1972 and providing an inadequate hair sample. Additional research is needed to identify factors that differentially affect the validity of both hair drug testing and self-report. PMID:18547737

  15. Somatic mutation frequencies in the stamen hairs of Tradescantia grown in soil samples from the Bikini Island.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, S; Ishii, C

    1991-02-01

    Somatic pink mutation frequencies in the stamen hairs of Tradescantia BNL 02 clone grown for 76 days in two soil samples taken from the Bikini Island (where a hydrogen bomb explosion test had been conducted in 1954) were investigated. A significantly high mutation frequency (2.58 +/- 0.17 pink mutant events per 10(3) hairs or 1.34 +/- 0.09 pink mutant events per 10(4) hair-cell divisions) was observed for the plant grown in one of the two Bikini soil samples, as compared to the control plants (1.70 +/- 0.14 or 0.88 +/- 0.07, respectively) grown in the field soil of Saitama University. The soil sample which caused the significant increase in mutation frequency contained 6,880 +/- 330 mBq/g 137Cs, 62.5 +/- 4.4 mBq/g 60Co, and some other nuclides; a 150 microR/hr exposure rate being measured on the surface of the soil sample. The effective cumulative external exposures measured for the inflorescences of the plant grown in this soil sample averaged at most 60.8 mR, being too small to explain the significant elevation in mutation frequency observed. On the other hand, internal exposure due to uptake of radioactive nuclides was estimated to be 125 mrad (1.25 mGy) as an accumulated effective dose, mainly based on a gamma-spectrometrical analysis. However, it seemed highly likely that this value of internal exposure was a considerable underestimate, and the internal exposure was considered to be more significant than the external exposure. PMID:2064800

  16. Adolescent Scalp Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Plaque psoriasis can begin early in life and negatively affect quality of life. Topical agents are generally recommended as first-line therapy for plaque psoriasis. The synergy of a vitamin D analog and a steroid in a topical fixed-combination formulation provides more favorable effectiveness and tolerability as compared with either agent alone. The safety and effectiveness of a once-daily calcipotriene/betamethasone dipropionate topical suspension have been established in children 12 to 17 years of age with scalp plaque psoriasis. Combination topical formulations and once-daily dosing decrease regimen complexity and may increase adherence. Accommodation of vehicle preference may also improve adherence and real-life effectiveness. PMID:26203320

  17. Significance of hair-dye base-induced sensory irritation.

    PubMed

    Fujita, F; Azuma, T; Tajiri, M; Okamoto, H; Sano, M; Tominaga, M

    2010-06-01

    Oxidation hair-dyes, which are the principal hair-dyes, sometimes induce painful sensory irritation of the scalp caused by the combination of highly reactive substances, such as hydrogen peroxide and alkali agents. Although many cases of severe facial and scalp dermatitis have been reported following the use of hair-dyes, sensory irritation caused by contact of the hair-dye with the skin has not been reported clearly. In this study, we used a self-assessment questionnaire to measure the sensory irritation in various regions of the body caused by two model hair-dye bases that contained different amounts of alkali agents without dyes. Moreover, the occipital region was found as an alternative region of the scalp to test for sensory irritation of the hair-dye bases. We used this region to evaluate the relationship of sensitivity with skin properties, such as trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL), stratum corneum water content, sebum amount, surface temperature, current perception threshold (CPT), catalase activities in tape-stripped skin and sensory irritation score with the model hair-dye bases. The hair-dye sensitive group showed higher TEWL, a lower sebum amount, a lower surface temperature and higher catalase activity than the insensitive group, and was similar to that of damaged skin. These results suggest that sensory irritation caused by hair-dye could occur easily on the damaged dry scalp, as that caused by skin cosmetics reported previously. PMID:20557579

  18. Hair analysis of an unusual case of Chloroquine intoxication.

    PubMed

    Imran, Muhammad; Ashiq, Muhammad Zar; Shafi, Humera; Usman, Hafiz Faisal; Wattoo, Sardar Ali; Sarwar, Muhammad; Tahir, Muhammad Ashraf

    2016-03-01

    A dead body of middle aged man was exhumed from 6.5 month earth-grave. Autopsy findings were non-specific as the body was completely putrefied. Deceased's scalp hair and kidney was sent for toxicological analysis. Hair sample (50mg) was incubated with 1M NaOH (2 ml). Chloroquine was detected in hair and kidney during basic drug screen performed on GC/MS. For confirmation and quantitation, chloroquine was extracted using Hypersep verify CX SPE cartridges while mass detector was operated in SIM mode using the ions of m/z 245.0, 290.1, 319.0 for chloroquine while ions of m/z 260 and 455 were monitored for nalorphine (internal standard). Chloroquine was present in high concentration in hair (211 ng/mg) as well as in kidney (37.3mg/kg). Moreover, chloroquine was not detected in the wash solvents, suggesting ingestion of the drug rather than an external contamination of hair. These findings strongly suggested the acute exposure of higher doses of chloroquine to the deceased before death. PMID:26980246

  19. Comparison of scalp and abdomen as split-thickness skin graft donor sites for aural stenosis repair.

    PubMed

    Du, Qiang; Zhang, Tianyu

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate and compare the scalp and the abdomen as split-thickness skin graft donor sites for aural stenosis repair. A total of 34 patients with aural stenosis were included in the study. All the patients underwent meatoplasty using split-thickness skin grafts. Among them, the skin graft donor site was the scalp in 11 patients and the abdomen in the other 23 patients. The surgical team followed the patients in the outpatient department for at least 6 months after surgery. Evaluations concerned healing of the donor site, hair regeneration of the donor site, survival of split-thickness skin grafts, reoccurrence of aural stenosis and hair growth in the ear canal. The incidences of reoccurrence of aural stenosis in the two groups were compared. Subjective scar evaluation of the donor sites was performed using the Patient Scar Assessment Scale (PASA). The scale items were pain, itching, color, stiffness, thickness and irregularity. All the scalp and abdominal donor sites healed well with no sign of infection. Hair regrowth and reepithelialization was observed at all the scalp donor sites. Pink discoloration was observed at the scalp donor sites in six patients 2-3 months after surgery and disappeared 6-9 months after surgery. Scars were observed at the scalp donor sites in two patients 6 months after surgery. No alopecia was observed at the scalp donor sites. The scars and pink discoloration were hidden in the hair. Scars and/or discoloration were observed at all the abdominal donor sites 12 months after surgery. All the scalp and abdominal skin grafts survived with no sign of infection. Hair growth was observed in the ear canals in two patients in the scalp group. The incidences of reoccurrence of aural stenosis were 0 % (0/23) in the abdominal group and 9.1 % (1/11) in the scalp group, respectively (Chi square test, p > 0.05). The PASA values about color, stiffness, thickness and irregularity were higher in the abdominal group than in the scalp group (Mann-Whitney U

  20. Oily hair

    MedlinePlus

    Hair - oily ... are some tips for preventing and treating oily hair: Shampoo your hair every day. Leaving the shampoo on your head ... minutes before rinsing may help. Avoid brushing your hair too often or too vigorously, since the brushing ...

  1. Hair Transplants

    MedlinePlus

    ... How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Hair Transplants What are hair transplants? In punch transplanting, a plug containing hair ... What should first be done before considering a hair transplant? Before the procedure, an ASDS doctor will ...

  2. Hair Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Body Looking and feeling your best Hair care Hair care Short, long, curly, straight, up, down. Hair options can seem endless! Not all of what makes your hair look good comes from the outside, though. Good ...

  3. Normal and aging hair biology and structure 'aging and hair'.

    PubMed

    Goodier, Molly; Hordinsky, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Much like an individual's hairstyle, hair fibers along the scalp see a number of changes over the course of one's lifetime. As the decades pass, the shine and volume synonymous with youthful hair may give way to thin, dull, and brittle hair commonly associated with aging. These changes are a result of a compilation of genetic and environmental elements influencing the cells of the hair follicle, specifically the hair follicle stem cells and melanocytes. Telomere shortening, decrease in cell numbers, and particular transcription factors have all been implicated in this process. In turn, these molecular alterations lead to structural modifications of the hair fiber, decrease in melanin production, and lengthening of the telogen phase of the hair cycle. Despite this inevitable progression with aging, there exists an array of treatments such as light therapy, minoxidil, and finasteride which have been designed to mitigate the effects of aging, particularly balding and thinning hair. Although each works through a different mechanism, all aim to maintain or potentially restore the youthful quality of hair. PMID:26370639

  4. Structural Abnormalities in the Hair of a Patient with a Novel Ribosomopathy.

    PubMed

    Alsop, Richard J; Soomro, Asfia; Zhang, Yuchen; Pieterse, Marc; Fatona, Ayodele; Dej, Kimberly; Rheinstädter, Maikel C

    2016-01-01

    We report the biophysical characterization of hair from a patient with a de novo ribosomopathy. The patient was diagnosed with a mutation on gene RPS23, which codes for a protein which comprises part of the 40S subunit of the ribosome. The patient presents with a number of phenotypes, including hypotonia, autism, extra teeth, elastic skin, and thin/brittle hair. We combined optical microscopy, tensile tests, and X-ray diffraction experiments on hair samples obtained from the scalp of the patient to a multi-scale characterization of the hair from macroscopic to molecular length scales and observe distinct differences in the biophysical properties in the patient's hair when compared to hair from other family members. While no differences were observed in the coiled-coil structure of the keratin proteins or the structure of the intermediate filaments, the patient's hair was 22% thinner, while the Young's modulus remained roughly constant. The X-ray diffraction results give evidence that the amount of lipids in the cell membrane complex is reduced by 20%, which well accounts for the other observations. The pathologies characterized by these techniques may be used to inform the diagnosis of similar de novo mutations in the future. PMID:26982655

  5. Structural Abnormalities in the Hair of a Patient with a Novel Ribosomopathy

    PubMed Central

    Alsop, Richard J.; Soomro, Asfia; Zhang, Yuchen; Pieterse, Marc; Fatona, Ayodele; Dej, Kimberly; Rheinstädter, Maikel C.

    2016-01-01

    We report the biophysical characterization of hair from a patient with a de novo ribosomopathy. The patient was diagnosed with a mutation on gene RPS23, which codes for a protein which comprises part of the 40S subunit of the ribosome. The patient presents with a number of phenotypes, including hypotonia, autism, extra teeth, elastic skin, and thin/brittle hair. We combined optical microscopy, tensile tests, and X-ray diffraction experiments on hair samples obtained from the scalp of the patient to a multi-scale characterization of the hair from macroscopic to molecular length scales and observe distinct differences in the biophysical properties in the patient’s hair when compared to hair from other family members. While no differences were observed in the coiled-coil structure of the keratin proteins or the structure of the intermediate filaments, the patient’s hair was 22% thinner, while the Young’s modulus remained roughly constant. The X-ray diffraction results give evidence that the amount of lipids in the cell membrane complex is reduced by 20%, which well accounts for the other observations. The pathologies characterized by these techniques may be used to inform the diagnosis of similar de novo mutations in the future. PMID:26982655

  6. Heavy Metals and Trace Elements in Hair and Urine of a Sample of Arab Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    BLAUROCK-BUSCH, Eleonor; AMIN, Omnia R.; RABAH, Thanaa

    2011-01-01

    or suspected by their parents as being autistic. All children were attendants to the Child Psychiatric Clinic in Erfan Psychiatric Hospital in Jeddah, KSA. Samples were collected during the period of June 2006 to March 2008. A control group of 25 children without any psychiatric or medical disorders was age-matched and sex-matched. All parents signed informed consent forms. All autistic children were subjected to a full clinical child psychiatric sheet for the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder and exclusion of other psychiatric disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM IV). The severity of autistic symptomatology was measured by the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) and Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC) using the Arabic versions. Both groups were subjected to the Questionnaire on Exposure to Heavy Metals, Physical Symptoms, and Child Development. Hair and baseline urine samples (i.e. unprovoked urine) were taken from both groups and sent to the German clinical and environmental laboratory Micro Trace Minerals Gmbh, for the detection of heavy metals and trace elements levels where metal testing was performed via ICP-MS spectroscopy utilizing cell technique. Results: By comparing the ASD Group to the Control Group, we found a statistically significant difference in the mean hair levels of arsenic, cadmium, barium, cerium and lead (p=0.01, 0.03, 0.003, 0.003, and 0.03 respectively), and in the mean hair levels of magnesium and zinc (p=0.001 and 0.003 respectively). There were also statistically significant differences in the mean urine levels of aluminum, barium, cerium, mercury, and lead (p=0.004, 002, 0.014, 0.006 and 0.004 respectively), and in the mean urine levels of copper and germanium (p=0.049 and 0.02 respectively). An agreement was found in both specimen (hair and urine) for barium and lead. The statistically significant differences in mean hair levels of arsenic, cadmium, and cerium were not

  7. Classifications of Patterned Hair Loss: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Mrinal; Mysore, Venkataram

    2016-01-01

    Patterned hair loss is the most common cause of hair loss seen in both the sexes after puberty. Numerous classification systems have been proposed by various researchers for grading purposes. These systems vary from the simpler systems based on recession of the hairline to the more advanced multifactorial systems based on the morphological and dynamic parameters that affect the scalp and the hair itself. Most of these preexisting systems have certain limitations. Currently, the Hamilton-Norwood classification system for males and the Ludwig system for females are most commonly used to describe patterns of hair loss. In this article, we review the various classification systems for patterned hair loss in both the sexes. Relevant articles were identified through searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE. Search terms included but were not limited to androgenic alopecia classification, patterned hair loss classification, male pattern baldness classification, and female pattern hair loss classification. Further publications were identified from the reference lists of the reviewed articles. PMID:27081243

  8. Classifications of Patterned Hair Loss: A Review.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Mrinal; Mysore, Venkataram

    2016-01-01

    Patterned hair loss is the most common cause of hair loss seen in both the sexes after puberty. Numerous classification systems have been proposed by various researchers for grading purposes. These systems vary from the simpler systems based on recession of the hairline to the more advanced multifactorial systems based on the morphological and dynamic parameters that affect the scalp and the hair itself. Most of these preexisting systems have certain limitations. Currently, the Hamilton-Norwood classification system for males and the Ludwig system for females are most commonly used to describe patterns of hair loss. In this article, we review the various classification systems for patterned hair loss in both the sexes. Relevant articles were identified through searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE. Search terms included but were not limited to androgenic alopecia classification, patterned hair loss classification, male pattern baldness classification, and female pattern hair loss classification. Further publications were identified from the reference lists of the reviewed articles. PMID:27081243

  9. Optical coherence tomography examination of hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Wei; Huang, Zheng; Xu, Jianshu; Yang, Hongqin; Li, Hui; Xie, Shusen

    2014-09-01

    Human hair is a keratinous tissue composed mostly of flexible keratin, which can form a complex architecture consisting of distinct compartments or units (e.g. hair bulb, inner root sheath, shaft). Variations in hair shaft morphology can reflect ethnical diversity, but may also indicate internal diseases, nutritional deficiency, or hair and scalp disorders. Hair shaft abnormalities in cross section and diameter, as well as ultramorphological characterization and follicle shapes, might be visualized non-invasively by high-speed 2D and 3D optical coherence tomography (OCT). In this study, swept source OCT (ThorLabs) was used to examine human hair. Preliminary results showed that the high-speed OCT was a suitable and promising tool for non-invasive analysis of hair conditions.

  10. Current management of scalp psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Guenther, L

    2015-01-01

    The scalp is involved in up to 80% of individuals with psoriasis. Eighty percent of those with scalp psoriasis experience a negative impact on quality of life. Topical treatment with corticosteroids with or without vitamin D3 analogues is the mainstay of treatment. Topical therapy most suitable for the scalp is formulated as a solution, lotion, gel, foam, spray, oil, or shampoo. Twice weekly maintenance in frequent relapsers may decrease the time to first relapse. Intralesional steroids, phototherapy and the excimer laser are occasionally used for resistant cases. In patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis, apremilast, adalimumab and etanercept have been shown to significantly improve scalp psoriasis. They should be considered in patients who have failed topical therapy. PMID:26382557

  11. Minireview: Hair Cortisol: A Novel Biomarker of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Melinda A.

    2012-01-01

    Activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis is commonly assessed by measuring glucocorticoids such as cortisol (CORT). For many years, CORT was obtained primarily from blood plasma or urine, whereas later approaches added saliva and feces for noninvasive monitoring of HPA functioning. Despite the value of all these sample matrices for answering many research questions, they remain limited in the temporal range of assessment. Plasma and saliva are point samples that vary as a function of circadian rhythmicity and are susceptible to confounding by environmental disturbances. Even urine and feces generally assess HPA activity over a period of only 24 h or less. We and others have recently developed and validated methods for measuring the concentration of CORT in the body hair of animals (e.g. rhesus monkeys) and scalp hair of humans. CORT is constantly deposited in the growing hair shaft, as a consequence of which such deposition can serve as a biomarker of integrated HPA activity over weeks and months instead of minutes or hours. Since the advent of this methodological advance, hair CORT has already been used as an index of chronic HPA activity and stress in human clinical and nonclinical populations, in a variety of laboratory-housed and wild-living animal species, and in archival specimens that are many decades or even centuries old. Moreover, because human hair is known to grow at an average rate of about 1 cm/month, several studies suggest that CORT levels in hair segments that differ in proximity to the scalp can, under certain conditions, be used as a retrospective calendar of HPA activity during specific time periods preceding sample collection. PMID:22778226

  12. Preparation of longitudinal sections of hair samples for the analysis of cocaine by MALDI-MS/MS and TOF-SIMS imaging.

    PubMed

    Flinders, Bryn; Cuypers, Eva; Zeijlemaker, Hans; Tytgat, Jan; Heeren, Ron M A

    2015-10-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) for the analysis of intact hair is a powerful tool for the detection of drugs of abuse in toxicology and forensic applications. Here we present a quick, easy, and reproducible method of preparing longitudinal sections of single hairs. This method improves the accessibility of chemicals embedded in the hair matrix for molecular imaging with mass spectrometry. The images obtained from a single, sectioned hair sample show molecular distributions in the exposed medulla, cortex, and a portion of the cuticle observed as a narrow layer surrounding the cortex. Using MALDI-MS/MS imaging, the distribution of cocaine was observed throughout five longitudinally sectioned drug-user hair samples. The images showed the distribution of the product ion at m/z 182, derived from the precursor ion of cocaine at m/z 304. MetA-SIMS images of longitudinally sectioned hair samples showed a more detailed distribution of cocaine at m/z 304, benzoylecgonine the major metabolite of cocaine at m/z 290 and other drugs such as methadone which was observed at m/z 310. Chronological information of drug intake can be obtained more sensitively. The chronological detail is in hours rather than months, which is of great interest in clinical as well as forensic applications. PMID:25981643

  13. Dissecting cellulitis of the scalp.

    PubMed

    Mundi, Jyoti P; Marmon, Shoshana; Fischer, Max; Kamino, Hideko; Patel, Rishi; Shapiro, Jerry

    2012-12-01

    Dissecting cellulitis of the scalp is a chronic, relapsing, inflammatory disease of the scalp that results in scarring alopecia. We present a case of a 32-year-old man with recalcitrant disease who is now responding to treatment with isotretinoin. The pathogenesis, clinical presentation, disease associations, and histopathological findings are reviewed. Treatment can be challenging. The literature on medical and surgical therapeutic options is reviewed. PMID:23286798

  14. Trichoscopic Findings of Hair Loss in Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin; Kim, Joo-Ik; Kim, Han-Uk; Yun, Seok-Kweon

    2015-01-01

    Background Trichoscopic findings of hair loss have been well described for the differential diagnosis of alopecia; however, critical findings were not thoroughly investigated or compared among all ethnic groups, including Asians. Objective We aimed to find any characteristic trichoscopic findings in Korean alopecia patients and to verify whether those findings are closely related to previously reported observations. Methods Three hundred and twenty-seven patients with hair loss of various causes and 160 normal scalps were analyzed. Trichoscopic examination was performed with a polarized-light handheld dermoscope. Results A total of 35 patterns of trichoscopic features were represented, and certain features were significantly common or observed exclusively in a particular type of alopecia as follows: yellow dots, exclamation mark hairs, and proximal tapering hairs (alopecia areata), trichoptilosis and pointed hairs (trichotillomania), corkscrew hairs, septate hyphae hairs, and comma hairs (tinea capitis), diffuse white area, fibrotic white dots, and tufting hairs (primary cicatricial alopecia), hair diameter diversity and peripilar sign (androgenetic alopecia), and short nonvellus hairs (telogen effluvium). Conclusion The characteristic trichoscopic features for the differential diagnosis of alopecia in Koreans, shown as follicular, perifollicular, and hair shaft patterns, are similar to those of Caucasians; however, the frequencies of the pigment patterns are different between Koreans and Caucasians because of the contrast effect of the skin and hair color. Therefore, racial difference should be considered in the trichoscopic evaluation for differential diagnosis. PMID:26512168

  15. Demodex Folliculitis of the Scalp: Clinicopathological Study of an Uncommon Entity.

    PubMed

    Helou, Wissam; Avitan-Hersh, Emily; Bergman, Reuven

    2016-09-01

    Demodex is a saprophytic mite in humans commonly present in the pilosebaceous units, which has been implicated as a pathogen in several skin conditions. The clinical presentation and histopathology of Demodex folliculitis of the scalp have been described in only a few case reports. This study was performed to further elucidate the clinicopathological features of this entity. We have studied 333 consecutively submitted scalp biopsies performed for hair loss and alopecia. All specimens were completely step-sectioned. Biopsies with Demodex mites were further studied histopathologically, and the patients' clinical files were reviewed. There were 17 biopsies (5.1%) with Demodex in at least 1 pilosebaceous unit. Based on the clinical presentation, histopathology, and response to therapy, Demodex was considered to be nonpathogenic in 13 cases. The remaining 4 cases were characterized by hair loss, scalp erythema, scales, and pustules. There were 2 or more pilosebaceous units with Demodex along mononuclear and/or neutrophilic infiltrates around and in the involved follicles and occasionally granulomas. All 4 cases responded completely to metronidazole therapy. In conclusion, Demodex is infrequently found in scalp biopsies for hair loss and alopecia, and, in most cases, it does not seem to be pathogenic. Occasionally, however, it is associated with folliculitis characterized by hair loss, erythema, scales, and pustules clinically; neutrophilic and/or mononuclear-cell folliculitis with occasional granulomas histopathologically; and a prompt response to anti-Demodex therapy. PMID:26959693

  16. Detection of 3-methylmethcathinone and its metabolites 3-methylephedrine and 3-methylnorephedrine in pubic hair samples by liquid chromatography-high resolution/high accuracy Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Frison, Giampietro; Frasson, Samuela; Zancanaro, Flavio; Tedeschi, Gianpaola; Zamengo, Luca

    2016-08-01

    Hair testing is considered to be one of the most efficient tool to investigate drug-related histories, particularly when the period of use needs to be tested back to many days or even months before sampling. High-resolution mass spectrometry represents today one of the most specific and sensitive analytical techniques to detect psychoactive substances in hair samples following single or multiple drug exposures. In this study pubic hair testing, by means of liquid chromatography-high resolution/high accuracy Orbitrap mass spectrometry, was employed to document the potential intake of five new psychoactive substances by a drug dealer. Pubic hair samples were decontaminated and pulverized with a ball mill, and, after the addition of the internal standard 3,4-methylenedioxypropylamphetamine, extracted with methanol:trifluoroacetic acid 9:1 at 45°C for one night. The obtained extracts were analyzed on a Thermo Fisher Scientific Accela 1250 liquid chromatography system coupled to a Thermo Fisher Scientific single-stage Exactive HCD mass spectrometry system. 3-methylmethcathinone (3-MMC) was found to be present at a concentration of 25.8ng/mg in the pubic hair sample, whereas the other four designer drugs were found to be absent. 3-methylephedrines and 3-methylnorephedrines, metabolites of 3-MMC, were identified in the same sample, thereby proving the 3-MMC intake by the drug dealer. PMID:26901638

  17. Heritability and Genome-Wide Association Studies for Hair Color in a Dutch Twin Family Based Sample

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Bochao Danae; Mbarek, Hamdi; Willemsen, Gonneke; Dolan, Conor V.; Fedko, Iryna O.; Abdellaoui, Abdel; de Geus, Eco J.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan

    2015-01-01

    Hair color is one of the most visible and heritable traits in humans. Here, we estimated heritability by structural equation modeling (N = 20,142), and performed a genome wide association (GWA) analysis (N = 7091) and a GCTA study (N = 3340) on hair color within a large cohort of twins, their parents and siblings from the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR). Self-reported hair color was analyzed as five binary phenotypes, namely “blond versus non-blond”, “red versus non-red”, “brown versus non-brown”, “black versus non-black”, and “light versus dark”. The broad-sense heritability of hair color was estimated between 73% and 99% and the genetic component included non-additive genetic variance. Assortative mating for hair color was significant, except for red and black hair color. From GCTA analyses, at most 24.6% of the additive genetic variance in hair color was explained by 1000G well-imputed SNPs. Genome-wide association analysis for each hair color showed that SNPs in the MC1R region were significantly associated with red, brown and black hair, and also with light versus dark hair color. Five other known genes (HERC2, TPCN2, SLC24A4, IRF4, and KITLG) gave genome-wide significant hits for blond, brown and light versus dark hair color. We did not find and replicate any new loci for hair color. PMID:26184321

  18. Heritability and Genome-Wide Association Studies for Hair Color in a Dutch Twin Family Based Sample.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bochao Danae; Mbarek, Hamdi; Willemsen, Gonneke; Dolan, Conor V; Fedko, Iryna O; Abdellaoui, Abdel; de Geus, Eco J; Boomsma, Dorret I; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan

    2015-01-01

    Hair color is one of the most visible and heritable traits in humans. Here, we estimated heritability by structural equation modeling (N = 20,142), and performed a genome wide association (GWA) analysis (N = 7091) and a GCTA study (N = 3340) on hair color within a large cohort of twins, their parents and siblings from the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR). Self-reported hair color was analyzed as five binary phenotypes, namely "blond versus non-blond", "red versus non-red", "brown versus non-brown", "black versus non-black", and "light versus dark". The broad-sense heritability of hair color was estimated between 73% and 99% and the genetic component included non-additive genetic variance. Assortative mating for hair color was significant, except for red and black hair color. From GCTA analyses, at most 24.6% of the additive genetic variance in hair color was explained by 1000G well-imputed SNPs. Genome-wide association analysis for each hair color showed that SNPs in the MC1R region were significantly associated with red, brown and black hair, and also with light versus dark hair color. Five other known genes (HERC2, TPCN2, SLC24A4, IRF4, and KITLG) gave genome-wide significant hits for blond, brown and light versus dark hair color. We did not find and replicate any new loci for hair color. PMID:26184321

  19. A new apparatus for hair regrowth in male-pattern baldness.

    PubMed

    Toshitani, S; Nakayama, J; Yahata, T; Yasuda, M; Urabe, H

    1990-04-01

    A newly devised apparatus (Scalp-Tension-Relaxer, STR) can efficiently promote hair regrowth in patients with male-pattern baldness. When this apparatus is applied, the scalp is pushed up to relieve tension on the vertex. The efficacy rate of hair regrowth in alopecia patients was 40%. An investigation into the basis for the hair regrowth caused by this apparatus was directed toward the changes in hemodynamics and skin temperature of the scalp. During and after use of this apparatus, subjects exhibited an increase both in the cutaneous blood flow rate (as determined by laser Doppler flowmetry) and in the cutaneous temperature (as determined by thermography). PMID:2365903

  20. Evolution of techniques in hair transplantation: a 12-year perspective.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Jeffrey S

    2007-02-01

    Few if any fields of medicine have undergone such dramatic advancements in technique and outcomes as surgical hair restoration over the past 12 years. Not very long ago, the procedure produced results that were, from a cosmetic perspective, acceptable at best; we are now capable of creating results that truly are natural and undetectable in appearance. These developments have clearly resulted in a procedure-follicular unit hair transplanting-far superior in outcome to the once popular other surgical hair restoration procedures of bald scalp reductions and scalp flap surgery, as well as micro- and mini-grafting. PMID:17330774

  1. Angiosarcoma of the scalp.

    PubMed

    del Mar Sáez de Ocariz, M; de la Barreda, F; Angeles, L B

    1999-09-01

    An 82-year-old woman was seen at our Dermatology Department for a plaque on the right parietal scalp that had recently increased in size, and bled. The lesion had been present for 3 months. The patient had a previous diagnosis of chronic bronchitis, noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and hypertension, but no previous history of cancer. Physical examination revealed a 7 x 10 cm plaque, composed of a central necrotic and bleeding surface, surrounded by small purple-red satellite nodules. A biopsy showed an ill-defined infiltrative intradermal mass with a pattern of hypercellular sheets of large cells alternating with areas of dilated, irregular, blood-filled channels, dissecting the collagen bundles. The endothelial cells lining these channels were plump and pleomorphic, surrounded by other spindle-shaped cells with pleomorphic and atypical nuclei. The diagnosis of angiosarcoma was made, and the patient was sent to an oncology center for further evaluation and treatment, where a computed tomography head scan was taken revealing no erosion of the skull. The patient refused surgery, so radiotherapy was proposed. One month later, she developed lymph node enlargement of the left anterior cervical nodes. A needle aspiration biopsy was consistent with sarcoma. Two weeks later, she was started on palliative radiotherapy: a programmed dose of 4500 cGy was proposed of which she only received 3000 cGy because of treatment withdrawal and loss to follow-up. During this time, she showed partial initial response, but despite treatment the disease relentlessly progressed, with hemorrhage and severe pain being the most striking features. PMID:10517688

  2. Occupational exposure of hairdressers to [14C]-para-phenylenediamine-containing oxidative hair dyes: a mass balance study.

    PubMed

    Hueber-Becker, Frédérique; Nohynek, Gerhard J; Dufour, Eric K; Meuling, Wim J A; de Bie, Albertus Th H J; Toutain, Herve; Bolt, Hermann M

    2007-01-01

    We monitored the exposure of hairdressers to oxidative hair dyes for 6 working days under controlled conditions. Eighteen professional hairdressers (3/day) coloured hairdresser's training heads bearing natural human hair (hair length: approximately 30 cm) for 6 h/working day with a dark-shade oxidative hair dye containing 2% [14C]-para-phenylenediamine (PPD). Three separate phases of hair dyeing were monitored: (A) dye preparation/hair dyeing, (B) rinsing/shampooing/conditioning and (C) cutting/drying/styling. Ambient air and personal monitoring samples (vapours and particles), nasal and hand rinses were collected during all study phases. Urine (pre-exposure, quantitative samples for the 0-12, 12-24, 24-48 h periods after start of exposure) and blood samples (blank, 4, 8 or 24 h) were collected from all exposed subjects. Radioactivity was determined in all biological samples and study materials, tools and washing liquids, and a [14C]-mass balance was performed daily. No adverse events were noted during the study. Waste, equipment, gloves and coveralls contained 0.41+/-0.16%, dye mixing bowls 2.88+/-0.54%, hair wash 45.47+/-2.95%, hair+scalp 53.46+/-4.06% of the applied radioactivity, respectively. Plasma levels were below the limit of quantification (10 ng PPDeq/mL). Total urinary 0-48 h excretion of [14C] levels ranged from a total of <2-18 microg PPDeq and was similar in subjects exposed during the different phases of hair dyeing. Minimal air levels at or slightly above the limit of quantification were found in a few personal air monitoring samples during the phases of hair dyeing and hair cutting, but not during the rinsing phase. Air area monitoring samples or nasal rinses contained no measurable radioactivity. Hand residues ranged from 0.006 to 0.15 microg PPDeq/cm2, and were found predominantly after the cutting/drying phase. The mean mass balance of [14C] across the six study days was 102.50+/-2.20%. Overall, the mean, total systemic exposure of hairdressers

  3. Common Hair Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... lice (pediculosis capitis), and fungal infection of scalp ringworm (tinea capitis). Itching and excessive flaking of the scalp ... sites of shaving, skin friction, or rubbing from… Ringworm, Scalp (Tinea Capitis) Scalp ringworm (tinea capitis) is ...

  4. Leptin of dermal adipose tissue is differentially expressed during the hair cycle and contributes to adipocyte-mediated growth inhibition of anagen-phase vibrissa hair.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao-Chun; Sheu, Hamm-Ming; Chung, Pei-Lun; Chang, Chung-Hsing; Tsai, Yau-Sheng; Hughes, Michael W; Tuan, Tai-Lan; Huang, Lynn L H

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue encircles the lower portion of anagen hair follicles and may regulate hair cycle progression. As leptin is a major adipokine, its level of expression from the dermal white adipose tissue during hair cycle progression was studied. The result shows that leptin level is differentially expressed during hair cycle, the lowest in early anagen phase, upregulated in late anagen phase and the highest in the telogen phase. On the other hand, leptin receptor is detected in keratin 15-positive hair bulge epithelium of both anagen- and telogen-phase hair follicles of mice pelage and vibrissa hair, and hair from human scalp. Leptin contributes to adipocyte-mediated growth inhibition of anagen-phase vibrissa hair as demonstrated in organ culture and coculture system. Our data suggest that leptin of dermal white adipose tissue might regulate hair growth and, therefore, hair cycle progression via leptin receptor on the hair follicle epithelium. PMID:25313970

  5. Practical management of hair loss.

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, J.; Wiseman, M.; Lui, H.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe an organized diagnostic approach for both nonscarring and scarring alopecias to help family physicians establish an accurate in-office diagnosis. To explain when ancillary laboratory workup is necessary to confirm the diagnosis. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Current diagnostic and therapeutic interventions for hair loss are based on randomized controlled studies, uncontrolled studies, and case series. MEDLINE was searched from January 1966 to December 1998 with the MeSH words alopecia, hair, and alopecia areata. Articles were selected on the basis of experimental design, with priority given to the most current large multicentre controlled studies. Overall global evidence for therapeutic intervention for hair loss is quite strong. MAIN MESSAGE: The most common forms of nonscarring alopecias are androgenic alopecia, telogen effluvium, and alopecia areata. Other disorders include trichotillomania, traction alopecia, tinea capitis, and hair shaft abnormalities. Scarring alopecia is caused by trauma, infections, discoid lupus erythematosus, or lichen planus. Key to establishing an accurate diagnosis is a detailed history, including medication use, systemic illnesses, endocrine dysfunction, hair-care practices, and family history. All hair-bearing sites should be examined. A 4-mm punch biopsy of the scalp is useful, particularly to diagnose scarring alopecias. Once a diagnosis has been established, specific therapy can be initiated. CONCLUSIONS: Diagnosis and management of hair loss is an interesting challenge for family physicians. An organized approach to recognizing characteristic differential features of hair loss disorders is key to diagnosis and management. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:10925761

  6. Experimental design methodology applied to mercury determination: hair samples as a mercury bioindicator.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Mohammad; Aboufazeli, Forouzan; Zhad, Hamid Reza Lotfi Zadeh; Sadeghi, Omid; Najafi, Ezzatollah

    2015-01-01

    The application of modified magnetic nanoparticles in extraction of trace Hg was investigated. For this purpose, surfaces of magnetic nanoparticles were modified by 2-picolamine and then utilized as a solid-phase sorbent for Hg(II) extraction. A statistical method, based on surface response design, has been used for the optimization of Hg ion elution from the magnetic nanoparticles. The sorbed Hg ions were eluted quantitatively with 5.5 mL of a solution containing 0.8 M HCl and 0.08 M EDTA after 12 min. The recovery value in this method was 98.6% with RSD of 1.4%, and the obtained LOD was 0.01 ng/mL. The preconcentration factor was calculated to be 179. The method was applied to the determination of hair Hg content for biomonitoring purposes. PMID:25857894

  7. Update on autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis: mRNA analysis using hair samples is a powerful tool for genetic diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Kazumitsu; Akiyama, Masashi

    2015-07-01

    Research on the molecular genetics and pathomechanisms of autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) has advanced considerably and several causative genes and molecules underlying the disease have been identified. Three major ARCI phenotypes are harlequin ichthyosis (HI), lamellar ichthyosis (LI), and congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (CIE). Skin barrier defects are involved in the pathogenesis of ARCI. In this review, the causative genes of ARCI and its phenotypes as well as recent advances in the field are summarized. The known causative molecules underlying ARCI include ABCA12, TGM1, ALOXE3, ALOX12B, NIPAL4, CYP4F22, PNPLA1, CERS3, and LIPN. It is important to examine genetic associations and to elucidate the pathomechanisms of ARCI to establish effective therapies and beneficial genetic counseling. Next-generation sequencing is a promising method that enables the detection of causative disease mutations, even in cases of unexpected concomitant genetic diseases. For genetic diagnosis, obtaining mRNA from hair follicle epithelial cells, which are analogous to keratinocytes in the interfollicular epidermis, is convenient and minimally invasive in patients with ARCI. We confirmed that our mRNA analysis method using hair follicle samples can be applied not only to keratinization disorders, but also to other genetic diseases in the dermatology field. Studies that suggest potential next-generation therapies using ARCI model mice are also reviewed. PMID:25982146

  8. Yellow hair following sequential application of bacitracin zinc and selenium sulfide: Report of acquired xanthotrichosis and review of yellow hair discoloration.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Christopher S; Cohen, Philip R

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundAcquired yellow hair (xanthotrichosis) can result from the deposition of pigmented compounds on the hair shaft or from chemical modification of hair pigment and protein molecules.PurposeA white-haired 77-year-old woman who developed xanthotrichosis of her scalp hair following the sequential application of bacitracin zinc ointment and selenium sulfide 2.5% lotion is described and the causes of yellow hair discoloration are reviewed.Materials and methodsThe clinical features of a woman with acquired yellow hair discoloration are presented. Using PubMed and Google Scholar, the following terms were searched and relevant citations were assessed: bacitracin zinc, hair discoloration, selenium sulfide, xanthotrichosis, and yellow hair.ResultsYellow hair was observed on the scalp in areas treated with the following regimen: prior to bedtime, several areas of the scalp were treated with a single application of bacitracin zinc ointment. The next morning, selenium sulfide 2.5% lotion was applied and then rinsed from the scalp during showering. Yellow hair discoloration was apparent in co-treated areas immediately following rinsing; the discoloration gradually faded over 2-5 days with regular shampooing.ConclusionsAcquired yellow hair shaft discoloration has been reported secondary to multiple etiologies, including environmental and occupational exposures, iatrogenic causes (including topical and systemic drugs) and protein-calorie malnutrition. To this list, we add yellow discoloration of white scalp hair due to application of selenium sulfide following topical use of bacitracin zinc in the affected areas as an unexpected adverse effect that may occur in individuals with white hair. PMID:27617598

  9. Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia and Increased Scalp Sweating: Is Neurogenic Inflammation the Common Link?

    PubMed Central

    Harries, Matthew J.; Wong, Sharon; Farrant, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) is an uncommon scarring hair loss disorder that is characterized by a band-like recession of the frontal hair line with eyebrow hair loss. We present a series of patients with FFA and increased sweating predominantly localized to the scalp, and potential explanations for this association are discussed. We hypothesize that the reported increase in sweating seen in our patients may be in part related to the inflammatory process occurring locally within the skin, either inducing a local axonal sweating reflex or through direct modulation of sweat gland secretion by neuropeptides. PMID:27386462

  10. Mimicking hair disorders by genetic manipulation of organ cultured human hair follicles

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiang; Roop, Dennis R.

    2013-01-01

    Human hair follicles can be dissected out of the scalp skin and cultured in vitro in defined growth medium. Hair follicle organ cultures have previously been used to investigate the molecular and cellular mechanisms through which various factors regulate the maintenance and cycling of adult hair follicles. In this issue, Samuelov et al. transfected organ-cultured human hair follicles with siRNA nucleotides and suppressed the expression of the endogenous P-cadherin gene in follicular keratinocytes. Knocking-down the expression of P-cadherin in hair follicles in vitro recapitulated the hair follicle phenotype observed in patients with hypotrichosis with juvenile macular dystrophy (HJMD), and enabled the authors to establish a cause-effect relationship between loss of P-cadherin and suppression of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway and, upregulation of TGFβ2 during the development of the hair abnormalities observed in HJMD patients. PMID:22971919

  11. Prominent follicular mucinosis with diffuse scalp alopecia resembling alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Missall, Tricia A; Hurley, M Yadira; Burkemper, Nicole M

    2013-10-01

    A 56-year-old Caucasian female presented with a 2-month history of alopecia. On examination, she had diffuse hair loss of her scalp with some discrete patches of nonscarring alopecia. Histopathology revealed an inflammatory nonscarring alopecia with prominent follicular mucinosis and findings suggestive of alopecia areata. The patient's alopecia completely resolved with oral prednisone. The histopathologic findings and clinical presentation are most consistent with a diagnosis of alopecia areata with follicular mucinosis, although the differential diagnosis is broad. As follicular mucinosis may be associated with both benign and malignant conditions, it is important to be cautious regarding the clinical diagnosis when this reaction pattern is observed histopathologically. PMID:23962142

  12. Non-invasive methods for express analysis of biological objects based on elemental analysis using synchrotron radiation on hair samples from animals and patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazina, A. A.; Gerasimov, V. S.; Gorbunova, N. P.; Sergienko, P. M.; Shelestov, V. M.; Nesterikhin, Yu. I.; Baryshev, V. B.; Zolotaryov, V. K.; Kulipanov, G. N.; Trunova, V. A.

    1998-02-01

    Non-invasive methods of express analysis for mass monitoring of pathological states of human organism have been developed on the basis of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) elemental analysis of hair, nails, tooth enamel and skin. In addition, methods have been developed for studying sample preparations with the use of a universal X-ray fluorescence spectrometer mounted on a VEPP-3 storage ring. Data have accumulated over several geographical regions (Moscow Region, Chelyabinsk, Middle Asia, Novosibirsk Region, Maritime Region). The data of XRF analysis of hair samples from patients and animals mirror reliably differences in element concentrations. The methods can be useful in clinical medicine.

  13. Hair transplant

    MedlinePlus

    Hair restoration ... MR, Keene SA, Stough DB, Rogers NE. Hair restoration. In: Bolognia JL, Jorizzo JL, Schaffer JV, eds. ... Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 157. Fisher J. Hair restoration. In: Neligan PC, ed. Plastic Surgery . 3rd ed. ...

  14. Dry hair

    MedlinePlus

    Some causes of dry hair are: Anorexia nervosa Excessive hair washing, or using harsh soaps or alcohols Excessive blow-drying Dry air Menkes kinky hair syndrome Malnutrition Underactive parathyroid ( ...

  15. Hair Removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... maintain a steady temperature by providing some insulation. Terminal hair is coarser, darker, and longer than vellus ... hair that grows on your head. Around puberty, terminal hair starts to grow in the armpits and ...

  16. Assessment of selenium and mercury in biological samples of normal and night blindness children of age groups (3-7) and (8-12) years.

    PubMed

    Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Talpur, Farah Naz; Kazi, Atif; Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Arain, Salma Aslam; Brahman, Kapil Dev; Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Khan, Naeemullah; Arain, Mariam Shazadi; Ali, Jamshed

    2015-03-01

    The causes of night blindness in children are multifactorial and particular consideration has been given to childhood nutritional deficiency, which is the most common problem found in underdeveloped countries. Such deficiency can result in physiological and pathological processes that in turn influence biological sample composition. This study was designed to compare the levels of selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) in scalp hair, blood, and urine of night blindness children age ranged (3-7) and (8-12) years of both genders, comparing them to sex- and age-matched controls. A microwave-assisted wet acid digestion procedure was developed as a sample pretreatment for the determination of Se and Hg in biological samples of night blindness children. The proposed method was validated by using conventional wet digestion and certified reference samples of hair, blood, and urine. The Se and Hg in biological samples were measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry, prior to microwave acid digestion, respectively. The concentration of Se was decreased in scalp hair and blood samples of male and female night blindness children while Hg was higher in all biological samples as compared to referent subjects. The Se concentration was inversely associated with the risk of night blindness in both genders. These results add to an increasing body of evidence that Se is a protecting element for night blindness. These data present guidance to clinicians and other professional investigating deficiency of essential micronutrients in biological samples (scalp hair and blood) of night blindness children. PMID:25655123

  17. Biomonitoring of arsenic, cadmium, lead, manganese and mercury in urine and hair of children living near mining and industrial areas.

    PubMed

    Molina-Villalba, Isabel; Lacasaña, Marina; Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; Hernández, Antonio F; Gonzalez-Alzaga, Beatriz; Aguilar-Garduño, Clemente; Gil, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    Huelva (South West Spain) and its surrounding municipalities represent one of the most polluted estuaries in the world owing to the discharge of mining and industrial related pollutants in their proximity. A biomonitoring study was conducted to assess exposure to arsenic and some trace metals (cadmium, mercury, manganese and lead) in urine and scalp hair from a representative sample of children aged 6-9 years (n=261). This is the only study simultaneously analyzing those five metal elements in children urine and hair. The potential contribution of gender, water consumption, residence area and body mass index on urinary and hair metal concentrations was also studied. Urine levels of cadmium and total mercury in a proportion (25-50%) of our children population living near industrial/mining areas might have an impact on health, likely due to environmental exposure to metal pollution. The only significant correlation between urine and hair levels was found for mercury. Children living near agriculture areas showed increased levels of cadmium and manganese (in urine) and arsenic (in hair). In contrast, decreased urine Hg concentrations were observed in children living near mining areas. Girls exhibited significantly higher trace metal concentrations in hair than boys. The greatest urine arsenic concentrations were found in children drinking well/spring water. Although human hair can be a useful tool for biomonitoring temporal changes in metal concentrations, levels are not correlated with those found in urine except for total mercury, thus providing additional information. PMID:25434277

  18. Significant damage of the skin and hair following hair bleaching.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Mi-Sook; Lee, Chang-Moon; Jeong, Won-Ji; Kim, Seong-Jin; Lee, Ki-Young

    2010-10-01

    Scalp burns can be caused by hair bleaching with excess procedures such as unnecessary heating and excessive treatment with bleaching agents. The aim of this study was to investigate the morphological and histological changes of the hair and skin after bleaching. Ammonium persulfate and hydrogen peroxide (6% or 9%) solution mixed at a ratio of 1:2 (weight ratio) were sufficiently applied to human hairs and rat skin. The bleached hairs were brightened up to yellow by increasing the concentration of hydrogen peroxide and time of bleach treatment. After bleaching, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe that the cuticle scales of the hairs were irregular and lifted. The mechanical properties of the bleached hairs, such as tensile strength and elongation, were slightly different than the untreated hairs. The tested rat skin showed severe swelling after treatment of the bleaching agent (9% hydrogen peroxide). The rat skin bleached with 9% hydrogen peroxide exhibited epidermal thinning and subepidermal vesicle formation. The extracellular matrix of the skin was seriously disrupted after bleaching. Therefore, the use of only suitable bleaching procedures is suggested in order to avoid injuries. PMID:20860738

  19. Fast ultrasound-assisted extraction of copper, iron, manganese and zinc from human hair samples prior to flow injection flame atomic absorption spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    Yebra-Biurrun, M C; Cespón-Romero, R M

    2007-06-01

    A dynamic ultrasound-assisted extraction procedure utilizing diluted nitric acid was developed for the determination of copper, iron, manganese and zinc in human hair taken from workers in permanent contact with a polluted environment. The extraction unit of the dynamic ultrasound-assisted extraction system contains a minicolumn into which a specified amount of hair (5-50 mg) is placed. Once inserted into the continuous manifold, trace metals were extracted at 3 mL min(-1) with 3 mol L(-1) nitric acid under the action of ultrasound for 2 min for zinc and 3 min for copper, iron and manganese determination, and using an ultrasonic water-bath temperature of 70 degrees C for zinc and 80 degrees C for copper, iron and manganese determination. The system permits the direct analysis of hair and yields concentrations with relative standard deviations of <3% (n = 11). The applicability of the procedure was verified by analysing human hair samples from workers exposed to welding fumes, and its accuracy was assessed through comparison with a conventional sample dissolution procedure and the use of a certified reference material (BCR 397, human hair). PMID:17404713

  20. Golden Spirals and Scalp Whorls: Nature's Own Design for Rapid Expansion.

    PubMed

    Paul, Sharad P

    2016-01-01

    This paper documents what began as an exercise in curiosity-logarithmic spiral designs abound in nature-in galaxies, flowers, even pinecones, and on human scalps as whorls. Why are humans the only primates to have whorls on the scalp? Is the formation of scalp whorls mechanical or genetic? A mechanical theory has long been postulated- the mechanical theory suggests that hair whorl patterning is determined by the tension on the epidermis during rapid expansion of the cranium while the hair follicle is growing downwards-however, this has never before, to the author's knowledge, been experimentally proven conclusively. We found, that under certain conditions, we were able to experimentally recreate spirals on the scalp to demonstrate that the basis of scalp whorls is indeed mechanical-and that logarithmic spirals may be nature's own design for rapid expansion of organic tissues. Given our experiments only created whorls when certain conditions were satisfied (and not in others), they have given us great insight into the mechanical formation of skin whorls and the physiology of skin stretch. We believe that these findings will lead to many more advances in understanding skin dynamics and indeed the changes that occur in tissue when confronted by stretch. PMID:27583520

  1. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

  2. The lifetime experience of traumatic events is associated with hair cortisol concentrations in community-based children.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Julian G; Badcock, Paul B; Whittle, Sarah L; Byrne, Michelle L; Mundy, Lisa; Patton, George C; Olsson, Craig A; Allen, Nicholas B

    2016-01-01

    Adversity early in life can disrupt the functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) and increase risk for negative health outcomes. Recent research suggests that cortisol in scalp hair represents a promising measure of HPAA function. However, little is known about the relationship between early exposure to traumatic events and hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) in childhood, a critical period of HPAA development. The current study measured HCC in scalp hair samples collected from 70 community-based children (14 males, mean age=9.50) participating in the Imaging Brain Development in the Childhood to Adolescence Transition Study (iCATS). Data were also collected on lifetime exposure to traumatic events and current depressive symptoms. Lifetime exposure to trauma was associated with elevated HCC; however, HCC was not associated with current depressive symptoms. Consistent with some prior work, males were found to have higher HCC than females, although results should be treated with caution due to the small number of males who took part. Our findings suggest that hair cortisol may represent a biomarker of exposure to trauma in this age group; however, further study is necessary with a particular focus on the characterization of trauma and other forms of adversity. PMID:26529051

  3. Clinical and anthropological perspectives on chemical relaxing of afro-textured hair.

    PubMed

    Aryiku, S A; Salam, A; Dadzie, O E; Jablonski, N G

    2015-09-01

    The culturally engrained practice of 'relaxing' afro-textured hair has been linked with hair and scalp disorders. Herein, we discuss the evolution of human hair types, focusing in particular on afro-textured hair. We explore the biological features of this hair type, and discuss the different methods employed to straighten afro-textured hair, focusing in particular on chemical straightening. We also examine clinical, anthropological, and psychological issues associated with this latter practice. Examples of common scalp pathologies associated with chronic hair relaxing, such as alopecia, hair breakage, caustic burns and irritant contact dermatitis, are also highlighted. The data presented herein should enable clinicians to engage in culturally appropriate discussions with their patients about issues of appearance and conformity. PMID:25764359

  4. The impact of oxidative stress on hair.

    PubMed

    Trüeb, R M

    2015-12-01

    Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between the systemic manifestation of reactive oxygen species and a biological system's ability to detoxify the reactive intermediates or to repair the resulting damage. Reactive oxygen species or free radicals are highly reactive molecules that can directly damage lipids, proteins, and DNA. They are generated by a multitude of endogenous and environmental challenges, while the body possesses endogenous defense mechanisms. With age, production of free radicals increases, while the endogenous defense mechanisms decrease. This imbalance leads to progressive damage of cellular structures, presumably resulting in the aging phenotype. While the role of oxidative stress has been widely discussed in skin aging, little focus has been placed on its impact on hair condition. Moreover, most literature on age-related hair changes focuses on alopecia, but it is equally important that the hair fibers that emerge from the scalp exhibit significant age-related changes that have equal impact on the overall cosmetic properties of hair. Sources of oxidative stress with impact on the pre-emerging fiber include: oxidative metabolism, smoking, UVR, and inflammation from microbial, pollutant, or irritant origins. Sources of oxidative stress with impact on the post-emerging fiber include: UVR (enhanced by copper), chemical insults, and oxidized scalp lipids. The role of the dermatologist is recognition and treatment of pre- and post-emerging factors for lifetime scalp and hair health. PMID:26574302

  5. Determination of aromatic amines in hair dye and henna samples by ion-pair extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Akyüz, Mehmet; Ata, Sevket

    2008-05-12

    A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method has been proposed for the determination of carcinogenic and toxic aromatic amines in hair dye, henna and dyed hair samples. The method includes ion-pair extraction of aromatic amines from aqueous samples with bis-2-ethylhexylphosphate (BEHPA) released after solving the samples in acidic solution followed by sonication, derivatisation of compounds with isobutyl chloroformate (IBCF) and their GC-MS analysis in both electron impact (EI) and positive and negative ion chemical ionisation (PNICI) mode as their isobutyloxycarbonyl (isoBOC) derivatives. The obtained recoveries of aromatic amines ranged from 92.2 to 98.4% and the precision of this method, as indicated by the relative standard deviations (RSDs) was within the range of 0.7-4.2%. The detection limits obtained from calculations by using GC-MS results based on signal-to-noise ratio (S/N)=3 were within the range from 0.02 to 0.20 ng/g. In the present study, the commercially available 54 permanent hair dye, 35 modified or natural henna and 15 dyed hair samples were analysed for the aromatic amines by the proposed method and the method was shown to be suitable to determine the aromatic amine ingredients and metabolites of these commercial products. PMID:18280687

  6. Deposition of cannabinoids in hair after long-term use of cannabis.

    PubMed

    Skopp, Gisela; Strohbeck-Kuehner, Peter; Mann, Karl; Hermann, Derik

    2007-07-20

    Hair analysis has shown great potential in the detection and control of drug use. Whether an assay is of quantitative value roughly corresponding to the amount of drug consumed, is still a matter of debate. The present investigation was aimed at a possible relationship between the cannabinoid concentration in hair and the cumulative dose in regular users of cannabis. Hair samples from the vertex region of the scalp were obtained from 12 male regular users of cannabis, and 10 male subjects with no experience of cannabis served as controls. None of the subjects had his hair permed, bleached or colored. Cannabis users provided information on drug use such as the current cannabis dose per day, the cumulative cannabis dose of the last 3 months, as well as the frequency of cannabis use during the last year. The concentration of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabinol (CBN) and cannabidiol (CBD) in hair was determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Cannabinoids were present in any hair sample of cannabis users, but were not detectable in control specimens. An increase in the amount of cannabinoids in hair with increasing dose was evident. The concentration of major cannabinoids (sum of THC, CBD and CBN) was significantly correlated to either the reported cumulative cannabis dose during the last 3 months or to the cannabis use during the last 3 months estimated from the daily dose and the frequency per year (r=0.68 or 0.71, p=0.023 or 0.014). A significant relationship between THC and the amount of cannabis used could not be established. As a conclusion, the sum of major cannabinoids in hair of regular users may provide a better measure of drug use than THC. PMID:17098389

  7. Evaluation and diagnosis of the hair loss patient: part II. Trichoscopic and laboratory evaluations.

    PubMed

    Mubki, Thamer; Rudnicka, Lidia; Olszewska, Malgorzata; Shapiro, Jerry

    2014-09-01

    The use of trichoscopy for evaluating a number of hair and scalp disorders is gaining popularity. It is a simple and noninvasive in vivo tool for visualizing hair shafts and the scalp. Recently, alopecias have been classified according to their trichoscopic findings. The second part of this 2-part continuing medical education article reviews recent advances in this field and describes a systematic approach for using the differential diagnostic findings of trichoscopy in alopecia. PMID:25128119

  8. Hair Evaluation Methods: Merits and Demerits

    PubMed Central

    Dhurat, Rachita; Saraogi, Punit

    2009-01-01

    Various methods are available for evaluation (for diagnosis and/or quantification) of a patient presenting with hair loss. Hair evaluation methods are grouped into three main categories: Non-invasive methods (e.g., questionnaire, daily hair counts, standardized wash test, 60-s hair count, global photographs, dermoscopy, hair weight, contrasting felt examination, phototrichogram, TrichoScan and polarizing and surface electron microscopy), semi-invasive methods (e.g., trichogram and unit area trichogram) and invasive methods (e.g., scalp biopsy). Any single method is neither 'ideal' nor feasible. However, when interpreted with caution, these are valuable tools for patient diagnosis and monitoring. Daily hair counts, wash test, etc. are good methods for primary evaluation of the patient and to get an approximate assessment of the amount of shedding. Some methods like global photography form an important part of any hair clinic. Analytical methods like phototrichogram are usually possible only in the setting of a clinical trial. Many of these methods (like the scalp biopsy) require expertise for both processing and interpreting. We reviewed the available literature in detail in light of merits and demerits of each method. A plethora of newer methods is being introduced, which are relevant to the cosmetic industry/research. Such methods as well as metabolic/hormonal evaluation are not included in this review. PMID:20927232

  9. Lead exposure and hair lead level of workers in a lead refinery industry in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Pirsaraei, Seyed Reza Azimi

    2007-01-01

    This study was carried out on the workers of a lead refinery industry and two control groups in Zanjan city in Iran. The scalp hair samples were collected from 25 workers who were occupationally exposed to lead contamination as a case group and from 25 subjects among the staff of the same industry and 25 subjects among Zanjan citizens as the first and second control groups respectively. A flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer used to determine lead level in all of the samples. The age of all subjects in the three groups was matched. The mean concentrations of hair lead in the workers (case group), the staff (control groupA) and the citizens (control group B) were 131.7±93.4 µgr/gr, 21.1±13.2 µgr/gr and 27.9±14.1 µgr/gr respectively. The mean concentration of hair lead in the case group was more than hair lead of normal range found in humans (0-30 µgr/gr). The mean of hair lead level in the citizens who had used gas vehicles was statistically higher than who had not used it (36.9±12.2 µgr/gr vs. 16.6±4.9 µgr/gr, P<0.001). PMID:21957365

  10. Hair transplantation.

    PubMed

    Avram, Marc R

    2012-12-01

    Hair transplantation is a purely dermatologic surgical procedure that dermatologists should be able to perform in appropriate candidates with hair loss. Hair transplantation techniques performed in the 1960s through the 1990s utilized large grafts that created an unfortunate public image of unnatural-appearing transplanted hair. Over the last 15 years, hair transplantation has been performed using follicular units to create consistently natural-looking transplanted hair in both men and women. This article provides an overview of candidate selection and state-of-the-art techniques for performing hair transplantation. PMID:23409484