Science.gov

Sample records for scanning probe spectroscopy

  1. Scanning Probe Microscopy and Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesendanger, Roland

    1994-09-01

    Preface; List of acronyms; Introduction; Part I. Experimental Methods and Theoretical Background of Scanning Probe Microscopy and Spectroscopy: 1. Scanning tunnelling microscopy; 2. Scanning force microscopy; 3. Related scanning probe techniques; Part II. Applications of Scanning Probe Microscopy and Spectroscopy: 4. Condensed matter physics; 5. Chemistry; 6. Organic materials; 7. Metrology and standards; 8. Nanotechnology; References; Index.

  2. Scanning-probe Single-electron Capacitance Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Kathleen A.; Romanowich, Megan E.; Gasseller, Morewell; Kuljanishvili, Irma; Ashoori, Raymond; Tessmer, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    The integration of low-temperature scanning-probe techniques and single-electron capacitance spectroscopy represents a powerful tool to study the electronic quantum structure of small systems - including individual atomic dopants in semiconductors. Here we present a capacitance-based method, known as Subsurface Charge Accumulation (SCA) imaging, which is capable of resolving single-electron charging while achieving sufficient spatial resolution to image individual atomic dopants. The use of a capacitance technique enables observation of subsurface features, such as dopants buried many nanometers beneath the surface of a semiconductor material1,2,3. In principle, this technique can be applied to any system to resolve electron motion below an insulating surface. As in other electric-field-sensitive scanned-probe techniques4, the lateral spatial resolution of the measurement depends in part on the radius of curvature of the probe tip. Using tips with a small radius of curvature can enable spatial resolution of a few tens of nanometers. This fine spatial resolution allows investigations of small numbers (down to one) of subsurface dopants1,2. The charge resolution depends greatly on the sensitivity of the charge detection circuitry; using high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) in such circuits at cryogenic temperatures enables a sensitivity of approximately 0.01 electrons/Hz½ at 0.3 K 5. PMID:23929222

  3. Charge trapping in polymer transistors probed by terahertz spectroscopy and scanning probe potentiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd-Hughes, J.; Richards, T.; Sirringhaus, H.; Castro-Camus, E.; Herz, L. M.; Johnston, M. B.

    2006-09-01

    Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and scanning probe potentiometry were used to investigate charge trapping in polymer field-effect transistors fabricated on a silicon gate. The hole density in the transistor channel was determined from the reduction in the transmitted terahertz radiation under an applied gate voltage. Prolonged device operation creates an exponential decay in the differential terahertz transmission, compatible with an increase in the density of trapped holes in the polymer channel. Taken in combination with scanning probe potentionmetry measurements, these results indicate that device degradation is largely a consequence of hole trapping, rather than of changes to the mobility of free holes in the polymer.

  4. Probing Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Monolayers and Heterostructures by Optical Spectroscopy and Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Heather M.

    Atomically thin two-dimensional materials, such as graphene and semiconductor transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), exhibit remarkable and desirable optical and electronic properties. This dissertation focuses on the excitonic properties of monolayer TMDCs taken first in isolation and then in contact with another material. We begin with a study of the exciton binding energy in two monolayer TMDCs, WS2 and MoS2. We observe excited states of the exciton by two dierent optical spectroscopy techniques: reflectance contrast and photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectroscopy. We fit a hydrogenic model to the energies associated with the excited states and infer a binding energy, which is an order of magnitude higher than the bulk material. In the second half of this work, we study two types of two-dimensional vertical heterostructures. First, we investigate heterostructures composed of monolayer WS2 partially capped with graphene one to four layers thick. Using reflectance contrast to measure the spectral broadening of the excitonic features, we measure the decrease in the coherence lifetime of the exciton in WS2 due to charge and energy transfer when in contact with graphene. We then compare our results with the exciton lifetime in MoS 2/WS2 and MoSe2/WSe2 heterostructures. In TMDC/TMDC heterostructures, the decrease in exciton lifetime is twice that in WS2/graphene heterostructures and due predominantly to charge transfer between the layers. Finally, we probe the band alignment in MoS2/WS2 heterostructures using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy (STS). We confirm the monolayer band gaps and the predicted type II band alignment in the heterostructure. Drawing from all the research presented, we arrive at a favorable conclusion about the viability of TMDC based devices.

  5. Electron spin resonance scanning probe spectroscopy for ultrasensitive biochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Jason P; Ryan, Jason T; Shrestha, Pragya R; Liu, Zhanglong; Vaz, Canute; Kim, Ji-Hong; Georgiou, Vasileia; Cheung, Kin P

    2015-01-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy's affinity for detecting paramagnetic free radicals, or spins, has been increasingly employed to examine a large variety of biochemical interactions. Such paramagnetic species are broadly found in nature and can be intrinsic (defects in solid-state materials systems, electron/hole pairs, stable radicals in proteins) or, more often, purposefully introduced into the material of interest (doping/attachment of paramagnetic spin labels to biomolecules of interest). Using ESR to trace the reactionary path of paramagnetic spins or spin-active proxy molecules provides detailed information about the reaction's transient species and the label's local environment. For many biochemical systems, like those involving membrane proteins, synthesizing the necessary quantity of spin-labeled biomolecules (typically 50 pmol to 100 pmol) is quite challenging and often limits the possible biochemical reactions available for investigation. Quite simply, ESR is too insensitive. Here, we demonstrate an innovative approach that greatly enhances ESR's sensitivity (>20000× improvement) by developing a near-field, nonresonant, X-band ESR spectrometric method. Sensitivity improvement is confirmed via measurement of 140 amol of the most common nitroxide spin label in a ≈593 fL liquid cell at ambient temperature and pressure. This experimental approach eliminates many of the typical ESR sample restrictions imposed by conventional resonator-based ESR detection and renders the technique feasible for spatially resolved measurements on a wider variety of biochemical samples. Thus, our approach broadens the pool of possible biochemical and structural biology studies, as well as greatly enhances the analytical power of existing ESR applications. PMID:25867553

  6. ZnO(0001) surfaces probed by scanning tunneling spectroscopy: Evidence for an inhomogeneous electronic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumont, J.; Hackens, B.; Faniel, S.; Mouthuy, P.-O.; Sporken, R.; Melinte, S.

    2009-09-01

    The stability of the polar Zn-terminated ZnO surface is probed by low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS). Surface states in the bandgap of ZnO are evidenced by STS and their presence is correlated with the local surface corrugation. Very defective surface regions are characterized by a bulk electronic structure showing a wide bandgap while nanometer-scale defect free regions exhibit a narrower bandgap and surface states. We also image atomically resolved (√3 ×√3 )R30° reconstructions on the defect-free areas.

  7. Ultrafast scanning probe microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Botkin, D.; Weiss, S.; Ogletree, D.F.; Salmeron, M.; Chemla, D.S.

    1994-01-01

    The authors have developed a general technique which combines the temporal resolution of ultrafast laser spectroscopy with the spatial resolution of scanned probe microscopy (SPM). Using this technique with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), they have obtained simultaneous 2 ps time resolution and 50 {angstrom} spatial resolution. This improves the time resolution currently attainable with STM by nine orders of magnitude. The potential of this powerful technique for studying ultrafast dynamical phenomena on surfaces with atomic resolution is discussed.

  8. Probing plasmons in three dimensions by combining complementary spectroscopies in a scanning transmission electron microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachtel, J. A.; Marvinney, C.; Mouti, A.; Mayo, D.; Mu, R.; Pennycook, S. J.; Lupini, A. R.; Chisholm, M. F.; Haglund, R. F.; Pantelides, S. T.

    2016-04-01

    The nanoscale optical response of surface plasmons in three-dimensional metallic nanostructures plays an important role in many nanotechnology applications, where precise spatial and spectral characteristics of plasmonic elements control device performance. Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and cathodoluminescence (CL) within a scanning transmission electron microscope have proven to be valuable tools for studying plasmonics at the nanoscale. Each technique has been used separately, producing three-dimensional reconstructions through tomography, often aided by simulations for complete characterization. Here we demonstrate that the complementary nature of the two techniques, namely that EELS probes beam-induced electronic excitations while CL probes radiative decay, allows us to directly obtain a spatially- and spectrally-resolved picture of the plasmonic characteristics of nanostructures in three dimensions. The approach enables nanoparticle-by-nanoparticle plasmonic analysis in three dimensions to aid in the design of diverse nanoplasmonic applications.

  9. Probing plasmons in three dimensions by combining complementary spectroscopies in a scanning transmission electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Hachtel, J A; Marvinney, C; Mouti, A; Mayo, D; Mu, R; Pennycook, S J; Lupini, A R; Chisholm, M F; Haglund, R F; Pantelides, S T

    2016-04-15

    The nanoscale optical response of surface plasmons in three-dimensional metallic nanostructures plays an important role in many nanotechnology applications, where precise spatial and spectral characteristics of plasmonic elements control device performance. Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and cathodoluminescence (CL) within a scanning transmission electron microscope have proven to be valuable tools for studying plasmonics at the nanoscale. Each technique has been used separately, producing three-dimensional reconstructions through tomography, often aided by simulations for complete characterization. Here we demonstrate that the complementary nature of the two techniques, namely that EELS probes beam-induced electronic excitations while CL probes radiative decay, allows us to directly obtain a spatially- and spectrally-resolved picture of the plasmonic characteristics of nanostructures in three dimensions. The approach enables nanoparticle-by-nanoparticle plasmonic analysis in three dimensions to aid in the design of diverse nanoplasmonic applications. PMID:26934391

  10. Imaging via complete cantilever dynamic detection: general dynamic mode imaging and spectroscopy in scanning probe microscopy.

    PubMed

    Somnath, Suhas; Collins, Liam; Matheson, Michael A; Sukumar, Sreenivas R; Kalinin, Sergei V; Jesse, Stephen

    2016-10-14

    We develop and implement a multifrequency spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging mode, referred to as general dynamic mode (GDM), that captures the complete spatially- and stimulus dependent information on nonlinear cantilever dynamics in scanning probe microscopy (SPM). GDM acquires the cantilever response including harmonics and mode mixing products across the entire broadband cantilever spectrum as a function of excitation frequency. GDM spectra substitute the classical measurements in SPM, e.g. amplitude and phase in lock-in detection. Here, GDM is used to investigate the response of a purely capacitively driven cantilever. We use information theory techniques to mine the data and verify the findings with governing equations and classical lock-in based approaches. We explore the dependence of the cantilever dynamics on the tip-sample distance, AC and DC driving bias. This approach can be applied to investigate the dynamic behavior of other systems within and beyond dynamic SPM. GDM is expected to be useful for separating the contribution of different physical phenomena in the cantilever response and understanding the role of cantilever dynamics in dynamic AFM techniques. PMID:27607339

  11. Imaging via complete cantilever dynamic detection: General dynamic mode imaging and spectroscopy in scanning probe microscopy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Somnath, Suhas; Collins, Liam; Matheson, Michael A.; Sukumar, Sreenivas R.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Jesse, Stephen

    2016-09-08

    We develop and implement a multifrequency spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging mode, referred to as general dynamic mode (GDM), that captures the complete spatially- and stimulus dependent information on nonlinear cantilever dynamics in scanning probe microscopy (SPM). GDM acquires the cantilever response including harmonics and mode mixing products across the entire broadband cantilever spectrum as a function of excitation frequency. GDM spectra substitute the classical measurements in SPM, e.g. amplitude and phase in lock-in detection. Here, GDM is used to investigate the response of a purely capacitively driven cantilever. We use information theory techniques to mine the data and verify themore » findings with governing equations and classical lock-in based approaches. We explore the dependence of the cantilever dynamics on the tip–sample distance, AC and DC driving bias. This approach can be applied to investigate the dynamic behavior of other systems within and beyond dynamic SPM. In conclusion, GDM is expected to be useful for separating the contribution of different physical phenomena in the cantilever response and understanding the role of cantilever dynamics in dynamic AFM techniques.« less

  12. Topographical and chemical microanalysis of surfaces with a scanning probe microscope and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    PubMed

    Kossakovski; Beauchamp

    2000-10-01

    Spatially resolved chemical imaging is achieved by combining a fiber-optic scanning probe microscope with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in a single instrument, TOPOLIBS. Elemental composition of surfaces can be mapped and correlated with topographical data. The experiment is conducted in air with minimal sample preparation. In a typical experiment, surface topography is analyzed by scanning a sharp fiber-optic probe across the sample using shear force feedback. The probe is then positioned over a feature of interest and pulsed radiation is delivered to the surface using a nitrogen laser. The pulse vaporizes material from the surface and generates a localized plasma plume. Optical emission from the plume is analyzed with a compact UV/visible spectrometer. Ablation crater size is controlled by the amount of laser power coupled into the probe. Sampling areas with submicrometer dimensions are achieved by using reduced laser power. PMID:11028639

  13. Ultrafast scanning probe microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Shimon; Chemla, Daniel S.; Ogletree, D. Frank; Botkin, David

    1995-01-01

    An ultrafast scanning probe microscopy method for achieving subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of an observation sample. In one embodiment of the present claimed invention, a single short optical pulse is generated and is split into first and second pulses. One of the pulses is delayed using variable time delay means. The first pulse is then directed at an observation sample located proximate to the probe of a scanning probe microscope. The scanning probe microscope produces probe-sample signals indicative of the response of the probe to characteristics of the sample. The second pulse is used to modulate the probe of the scanning probe microscope. The time delay between the first and second pulses is then varied. The probe-sample response signal is recorded at each of the various time delays created between the first and second pulses. The probe-sample response signal is then plotted as a function of time delay to produce a cross-correlation of the probe sample response. In so doing, the present invention provides simultaneous subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of the sample.

  14. Ultrafast scanning probe microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, S.; Chemla, D.S.; Ogletree, D.F.; Botkin, D.

    1995-05-16

    An ultrafast scanning probe microscopy method is described for achieving subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of an observation sample. In one embodiment of the present claimed invention, a single short optical pulse is generated and is split into first and second pulses. One of the pulses is delayed using variable time delay means. The first pulse is then directed at an observation sample located proximate to the probe of a scanning probe microscope. The scanning probe microscope produces probe-sample signals indicative of the response of the probe to characteristics of the sample. The second pulse is used to modulate the probe of the scanning probe microscope. The time delay between the first and second pulses is then varied. The probe-sample response signal is recorded at each of the various time delays created between the first and second pulses. The probe-sample response signal is then plotted as a function of time delay to produce a cross-correlation of the probe sample response. In so doing, the present invention provides simultaneous subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of the sample. 6 Figs.

  15. Adsorbate-induced quantum Hall system probed by scanning tunneling spectroscopy combined with transport measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Masutomi, Ryuichi Okamoto, Tohru

    2015-06-22

    An adsorbate-induced quantum Hall system at the cleaved InSb surfaces is investigated in magnetic fields up to 14 T using low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy combined with transport measurements. We show that an enhanced Zeeman splitting in the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations is explained by an exchange enhancement of spin splitting and potential disorder, both of which are obtained from the spatially averaged density of states (DOS). Moreover, the Altshuler–Aronov correlation gap is observed in the spatially averaged DOS at 0 T.

  16. Adaptive scanning probe microscopies

    SciTech Connect

    Swartzentruber, B.S.; Bouchard, A.M.; Osbourn, G.C.

    1997-02-01

    This work is comprised of two major sections. In the first section the authors develop multivariate image classification techniques to distinguish and identify surface electronic species directly from multiple-bias scanning tunneling microscope (STM) images. Multiple measurements at each site are used to distinguish and categorize inequivalent electronic or atomic species on the surface via a computerized classification algorithm. Then, comparison with theory or other suitably chosen experimental data enables the identification of each class. They demonstrate the technique by analyzing dual-polarity constant-current topographs of the Ge(111) surface. Just two measurements, negative- and positive-bias topography height, permit pixels to be separated into seven different classes. Labeling four of the classes as adatoms, first-layer atoms, and two inequivalent rest-atom sites, they find excellent agreement with the c(2 x 8) structure. The remaining classes are associated with structural defects and contaminants. This work represents a first step toward developing a general electronic/chemical classification and identification tool for multivariate scanning probe microscopy imagery. In the second section they report measurements of the diffusion of Si dimers on the Si(001) surface at temperatures between room temperature and 128 C using a novel atom-tracking technique that can resolve every diffusion event. The atom tracker employs lateral-positioning feedback to lock the STM probe tip into position above selected atoms with sub-Angstrom precision. Once locked the STM tracks the position of the atoms as they migrate over the crystal surface. By tracking individual atoms directly, the ability of the instrument to measure dynamic events is increased by a factor of {approximately} 1,000 over conventional STM imaging techniques.

  17. Fast photodynamics of azobenzene probed by scanning excited-state potential energy surfaces using slow spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Eric M. M.; Amirjalayer, Saeed; Smolarek, Szymon; Vdovin, Alexander; Zerbetto, Francesco; Buma, Wybren Jan

    2015-01-01

    Azobenzene, a versatile and polymorphic molecule, has been extensively and successfully used for photoswitching applications. The debate over its photoisomerization mechanism leveraged on the computational scrutiny with ever-increasing levels of theory. However, the most resolved absorption spectrum for the transition to S1(nπ*) has not followed the computational advances and is more than half a century old. Here, using jet-cooled molecular beam and multiphoton ionization techniques we report the first high-resolution spectra of S1(nπ*) and S2(ππ*). The photophysical characterization reveals directly the structural changes upon excitation and the timescales of dynamical processes. For S1(nπ*), we find that changes in the hybridization of the nitrogen atoms are the driving force that triggers isomerization. In combination with quantum chemical calculations we conclude that photoisomerization occurs along an inversion-assisted torsional pathway with a barrier of ~2 kcal mol−1. This methodology can be extended to photoresponsive molecular systems so far deemed non-accessible to high-resolution spectroscopy. PMID:25562840

  18. Fast photodynamics of azobenzene probed by scanning excited-state potential energy surfaces using slow spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tan, Eric M M; Amirjalayer, Saeed; Smolarek, Szymon; Vdovin, Alexander; Zerbetto, Francesco; Buma, Wybren Jan

    2015-01-01

    Azobenzene, a versatile and polymorphic molecule, has been extensively and successfully used for photoswitching applications. The debate over its photoisomerization mechanism leveraged on the computational scrutiny with ever-increasing levels of theory. However, the most resolved absorption spectrum for the transition to S1(nπ*) has not followed the computational advances and is more than half a century old. Here, using jet-cooled molecular beam and multiphoton ionization techniques we report the first high-resolution spectra of S1(nπ*) and S2(ππ*). The photophysical characterization reveals directly the structural changes upon excitation and the timescales of dynamical processes. For S1(nπ*), we find that changes in the hybridization of the nitrogen atoms are the driving force that triggers isomerization. In combination with quantum chemical calculations we conclude that photoisomerization occurs along an inversion-assisted torsional pathway with a barrier of ~2 kcal mol(-1). This methodology can be extended to photoresponsive molecular systems so far deemed non-accessible to high-resolution spectroscopy. PMID:25562840

  19. Scanning probe nanoimprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinelli, F.; Menozzi, C.; Baschieri, P.; Facci, P.; Pingue, P.

    2010-02-01

    The present paper reports on a novel lithographic approach at the nanoscale level, which is based on scanning probe microscopy (SPM) and nanoimprint lithography (NIL). The experimental set-up consists of an atomic force microscope (AFM) operated via software specifically developed for the purpose. In particular, this software allows one to apply a predefined external load for a given lapse of time while monitoring in real-time the relative distance between the tip and the sample as well as the normal and lateral force during the embossing process. Additionally, we have employed AFM tips sculptured by means of focused ion beam in order to create indenting tools of the desired shape. Anti-sticking layers can also be used to functionalize the tips if one needs to investigate the effects of different treatments on the indentation and de-molding processes. The lithographic capabilities of this set-up are demonstrated on a polystyrene NIL-patterned sample, where imprinted features have been obtained upon using different normal load values for increasing time intervals, and on a thermoplastic polymer film, where the imprint process has been monitored in real-time.

  20. Functional probes for scanning probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Yukio; Akiyama, Kotone; Hamada, Masayuki; Eguchi, Toyoaki; An, Toshu; Fujikawa, Yasunori; Sakurai, Toshio

    2008-03-01

    Inspite of importance of the probe in scanning probe microscopy (SPM), little attention was paid for the SPM probes for most of the measurements of SPM. We developed sharp metal-tip cantilevers with a typical curvature radius better than 5nm using focused ion beam (FIB) suitable for Kelvin probe force microscopy (KFM)^1. We obtained atomically resolved KFM images with an energy resolution less than 3meV with the probe^2. We also developed a glass-coated tungsten tip for synchrotron radiation-scanning tunneling microscopy with the FIB method^3 and obtained elementally resolved images in a resolution less than 20nm^4. We are now developing a precise atomic force microscope (AFM) lithography^5 with the FIB-milled tip attached to a quartz tuning fork controlled by noncontact AFM. We will present recent results of our AFM lithography, such as an Au line with a width of 20˜30 nm and characters drawn with Au nano dots on a Si surface. 1 K. Akiyama et al., RSI 76, 033705 (2005) 2 T. Eguchi, K. Akiyama et al., PRL 93, 266102 (2004) 3 K. Akiyama et al., RSI 76, 083711 (2005) 4 T. Eguchi, K. Akiyama et al., APL 89, 243119 (2006) 5 K. Akiyama et al., JP 61, 22 (2007).

  1. Band Alignment in MoS2/WS2 Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Heterostructures Probed by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hill, Heather M; Rigosi, Albert F; Rim, Kwang Taeg; Flynn, George W; Heinz, Tony F

    2016-08-10

    Using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS), we examine the electronic structure of transition metal dichalcogenide heterostructures (TMDCHs) composed of monolayers of MoS2 and WS2. STS data are obtained for heterostructures of varying stacking configuration as well as the individual monolayers. Analysis of the tunneling spectra includes the influence of finite sample temperature, yield information about the quasi-particle bandgaps, and the band alignment of MoS2 and WS2. We report the band gaps of MoS2 (2.16 ± 0.04 eV) and WS2 (2.38 ± 0.06 eV) in the materials as measured on the heterostructure regions and the general type II band alignment for the heterostructure, which shows an interfacial band gap of 1.45 ± 0.06 eV. PMID:27298270

  2. Functional Probes for Scanning Probe Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, Kotone; Eguchi, Toyoaki; An, Toshu; Fujikawa, Yasunori; Hasegawa, Yukio; Sakurai, Toshio

    2007-03-01

    For superior performance of scanning probe microscopy, we are working to fabricate functional probes. For Kelvin probe force microscopy, we fabricated a metal-tip cantilever by attaching a thin metal wire to a regular Si cantilever and milling it by focused ion beam (FIB)^1. By using the W tip with a curvature radius of 3.5 nm, we obtained the potential profile of Ge/Si(105) surface in atomic resolution with the energy resolution better than 3 meV^2. For synchrotron-radiation-light-irradiated scanning tunneling microscopy which aims at atomically resolved elemental analysis, we fabricated a glass-coated W tip using FIB^3. It is found that the glass coating blocks the unwanted secondary electrons, which come from large area of the sample, by a factor of 40 with respect to the case no coating. Using the tip to detect the electrons emitted just below the tip, we obtained element specific images with a spatial resolution better than 20 nm under the photo irradiation whose energy is just above the adsorption edge of the element^4. 1 K. Akiyama et al., RSI 76, 033705 (2005) 2 T. Eguchi, K. Akiyama et al., PRL 93, 266102 (2004) 3 K. Akiyama et al., RSI 76, 083711 (2005) 4 T. Eguchi, K. Akiyama et al., APL, in press

  3. On the pH-responsive, charge-selective, polymer-brush-mediated transport probed by traditional and scanning fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Daniels, C R; Tauzin, L J; Foster, E; Advincula, R C; Landes, C F

    2013-04-25

    The complete and reversible charge-selective sequestration of fluorophores by a weak polyelectrolyte brush, poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethylmethacrylate) (PDMAEMA) was demonstrated using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). The chemistry and thickness of the weak polyelectrolyte PDMAEMA was tuned reversibly between neutral and cationic polymer forms. Thus, by switching the pH successively, the brush architecture was tuned to selectively trap and release anionic dye probes while continuously excluding cationic molecules. In addition, line-scan FCS was implemented and applied for the first time to a synthetic polymer system and used to identify a new, slower diffusion time on the order of seconds for the sequestered anionic probe under acidic conditions. These results, which quantify the selective sequestration properties of the PDMAEMA brush, are important because they enable a better understanding of transport in polymers and establish a spectroscopic means of evaluating materials with proposed applications in separations science, charge storage/release, and environmental remediation. PMID:23092304

  4. On the pH Responsive, Charge Selective, Polymer Brush-Mediated Transport Probed by Traditional and Scanning Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, C. R.; Tauzin, L. J.; Foster, E.; Advincula, R. C.; Landes, C. F.

    2013-01-01

    The complete and reversible charge-selective sequestration of fluorophores by a weak polyelectrolyte brush, poly(2-(dimethylamino) ethyl-methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) was demonstrated using Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS). The chemistry and thickness of the weak polyelectrolyte PDMAEMA was tuned reversibly between neutral and cationic polymer forms. Thus, by switching the pH successively, the brush architecture was tuned to selectively trap and release anionic dye probes, while continuously excluding cationic molecules. In addition, line-scan FCS was implemented and applied for the first time to a synthetic polymer system, and used to identify a new, slower diffusion time on the order of seconds for the sequestered anionic probe under acidic conditions. These results, which quantify the selective sequestration properties of the PDMAEMA brush, are important because they enable a better understanding of transport in polymers, and establish a spectroscopic means of evaluating materials with proposed applications in separations science, charge storage/release and environmental remediation. PMID:23092304

  5. The Effect of Electrode Coupling on Single Molecule Device Characteristics: An X-Ray Spectroscopy and Scanning Probe Microscopy Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batra, Arunabh

    This thesis studies electronic properties of molecular devices in the limiting cases of strong and weak electrode-molecule coupling. In these two limits, we use the complementary techniques of X-Ray spectroscopy and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) to understand the mechanisms for electrode-molecule bond formation, the energy level realignment due to metal-molecule bonds, the effect of coupling strength on single-molecule conductance in low-bias measurements, and the effect of coupling on transport under high-bias. We also introduce molecular designs with inherent asymmetries, and develop an analytical method to determine the effect of these features on high-bias conductance. This understanding of the role of electrode-molecule coupling in high-bias regimes enables us to develop a series of functional electronic devices whose properties can be predictably tuned through chemical design. First, we explore the weak electrode-molecule coupling regime by studing the interaction of two types of paracyclophane derivates that are coupled 'through-space' to underlying gold substrates. The two paracyclophane derivatives differ in the strength of their intramolecular through-space coupling. X-Ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and Near-Edge X-ray Absorbance Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy allows us to determine the orientation of both molecules; Resonant Photoemission Spectroscopy (RPES) then allows us to measure charge transfer time from molecule to metal for both molecules. This study provides a quantititative measure of charge transfer time as a function of through-space coupling strength. Next we use this understanding in STM based single-molecule current-voltage measurements of a series of molecules that couple through-space to one electrode, and through-bond to the other. We find that in the high-bias regime, these molecules respond differently depending on the direction of the applied field. This asymmetric response to electric field direction results in

  6. Ion Implantation with Scanning Probe Alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Persaud, A.; Liddle, J.A.; Schenkel, T.; Bokor, J.; Ivanov, Tzv.; Rangelow, I.W.

    2005-07-12

    We describe a scanning probe instrument which integrates ion beams with the imaging and alignment function of a piezo-resistive scanning probe in high vacuum. The beam passes through several apertures and is finally collimated by a hole in the cantilever of the scanning probe. The ion beam spot size is limited by the size of the last aperture. Highly charged ions are used to show hits of single ions in resist, and we discuss the issues for implantation of single ions.

  7. Integration of scanning probes and ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Persaud, A.; Park, S.J.; Liddle, J.A.; Schenkel, T.; Bokor, J.; Rangelow, I.

    2005-03-30

    We report the integration of a scanning force microscope with ion beams. The scanning probe images surface structures non-invasively and aligns the ion beam to regions of interest. The ion beam is transported through a hole in the scanning probe tip. Piezoresistive force sensors allow placement of micromachined cantilevers close to the ion beam lens. Scanning probe imaging and alignment is demonstrated in a vacuum chamber coupled to the ion beam line. Dot arrays are formed by ion implantation in resist layers on silicon samples with dot diameters limited by the hole size in the probe tips of a few hundred nm.

  8. Dopant Diffusion and Activation in Silicon Nanowires Fabricated by ex Situ Doping: A Correlative Study via Atom-Probe Tomography and Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhiyuan; Hazut, Ori; Huang, Bo-Chao; Chiu, Ya-Ping; Chang, Chia-Seng; Yerushalmi, Roie; Lauhon, Lincoln J; Seidman, David N

    2016-07-13

    Dopants play a critical role in modulating the electric properties of semiconducting materials, ranging from bulk to nanoscale semiconductors, nanowires, and quantum dots. The application of traditional doping methods developed for bulk materials involves additional considerations for nanoscale semiconductors because of the influence of surfaces and stochastic fluctuations, which may become significant at the nanometer-scale level. Monolayer doping is an ex situ doping method that permits the post growth doping of nanowires. Herein, using atom-probe tomography (APT) with subnanometer spatial resolution and atomic-ppm detection limit, we study the distributions of boron and phosphorus in ex situ doped silicon nanowires with accurate control. A highly phosphorus doped outer region and a uniformly boron doped interior are observed, which are not predicted by criteria based on bulk silicon. These phenomena are explained by fast interfacial diffusion of phosphorus and enhanced bulk diffusion of boron, respectively. The APT results are compared with scanning tunneling spectroscopy data, which yields information concerning the electrically active dopants. Overall, comparing the information obtained by the two methods permits us to evaluate the diffusivities of each different dopant type at the nanowire oxide, interface, and core regions. The combined data sets permit us to evaluate the electrical activation and compensation of the dopants in different regions of the nanowires and understand the details that lead to the sharp p-i-n junctions formed across the nanowire for the ex situ doping process. PMID:27351447

  9. Scanning Josephson spectroscopy on the atomic scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randeria, Mallika T.; Feldman, Benjamin E.; Drozdov, Ilya K.; Yazdani, Ali

    2016-04-01

    The Josephson effect provides a direct method to probe the strength of the pairing interaction in superconductors. By measuring the phase fluctuating Josephson current between a superconducting tip of a scanning tunneling microscope and a BCS superconductor with isolated magnetic adatoms on its surface, we demonstrate that the spatial variation of the pairing order parameter can be characterized on the atomic scale. This system provides an example where the local pairing potential suppression is not directly reflected in the spectra measured via quasiparticle tunneling. Spectroscopy with such superconducting tips also shows signatures of previously unexplored Andreev processes through individual impurity-bound Shiba states. The atomic resolution achieved here establishes scanning Josephson spectroscopy as a promising technique for the study of novel superconducting phases.

  10. Probe microscopy: Scanning below the cell surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahin, Ozgur

    2008-08-01

    Conventional atomic force microscopy probes only the surface of specimens. A related technique called scanning near-field ultrasonic holography can now image nanoparticles buried below the surfaces of cells, which could prove useful in nanotoxicology.

  11. Open Source Scanning Probe Microscopy Control Software Package Gxsm

    SciTech Connect

    Zahl P.; Wagner, T.; Moller, R.; Klust, A.

    2009-08-10

    Gxsm is a full featured and modern scanning probe microscopy (SPM) software. It can be used for powerful multidimensional image/data processing, analysis, and visualization. Connected toan instrument, it is operating many different avors of SPM, e.g., scanning tunneling microscopy(STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) or in general two-dimensional multi channel data acquisition instruments. The Gxsm core can handle different data types, e.g., integer and oating point numbers. An easily extendable plug-in architecture provides many image analysis and manipulation functions. A digital signal processor (DSP) subsystem runs the feedback loop, generates the scanning signals and acquires the data during SPM measurements. The programmable Gxsm vector probe engine performs virtually any thinkable spectroscopy and manipulation task, such as scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) or tip formation. The Gxsm software is released under the GNU general public license (GPL) and can be obtained via the Internet.

  12. Creating and Probing Graphene Electron Optics with Local Scanning Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroscio, Joseph

    Ballistic propagation and the light-like dispersion of graphene charge carriers make graphene an attractive platform for optics-inspired graphene electronics where gate tunable potentials can control electron refraction and transmission. In analogy to optical wave propagation in lenses, mirrors and metamaterials, gate potentials can be used to create a negative index of refraction for Veselago lensing and Fabry-Pérot interferometers. In circular geometries, gate potentials can induce whispering gallery modes (WGM), similar to optical and acoustic whispering galleries albeit on a much smaller length scale. Klein scattering of Dirac carriers plays a central role in determining the coherent propagation of electron waves in these resonators. In this talk, I examine the probing of electron resonators in graphene confined by linear and circular gate potentials with the scanning tunneling microscope (STM). The tip in the STM tunnel junction serves both as a tunable local gate potential, and as a probe of the graphene states through tunneling spectroscopy. A combination of a back gate potential, Vg, and tip potential, Vb, creates and controls a circular pn junction that confines the WGM graphene states. The resonances are observed in two separate channels in the tunneling spectroscopy experiment: first, by directly tunneling into the state at the bias energy eVb, and, second, by tunneling from the resonance at the Fermi level as the state is gated by the tip potential. The second channel produces a fan-like set of WGM peaks, reminiscent of the fringes seen in planar geometries by transport measurements. The WGM resonances split in a small applied magnetic field, with a large energy splitting approaching the WGM spacing at 0.5 T. These results agree well with recent theory on Klein scattering in graphene electron resonators. This work is done in collaboration with Y. Zhao, J. Wyrick, F.D. Natterer, J. F. Rodriquez-Nieva, C. Lewandoswski, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, N. B

  13. Soft stylus probes for scanning electrochemical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Salazar, Fernando; Träuble, Markus; Li, Fei; Busnel, Jean-Marc; Gassner, Anne-Laure; Hojeij, Mohamad; Wittstock, Gunther; Girault, Hubert H

    2009-08-15

    A soft stylus microelectrode probe has been developed to carry out scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) of rough, tilted, and large substrates in contact mode. It is fabricated by first ablating a microchannel in a polyethylene terephthalate thin film and filling it with a conductive carbon ink. After curing the carbon track and lamination with a polymer film, the V-shaped stylus was cut thereby forming a probe, with the cross section of the carbon track at the tip being exposed either by UV-photoablation machining or by blade cutting followed by polishing to produce a crescent moon-shaped carbon microelectrode. The probe properties have been assessed by cyclic voltammetry, approach curves, and line scans over electrochemically active and inactive substrates of different roughness. The influence of probe bending on contact mode imaging was then characterized using simple patterns. Boundary element method simulations were employed to rationalize the distance-dependent electrochemical response of the soft stylus probes. PMID:19630394

  14. Scanning Probe Microscopy of Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tautz, Pamela

    2011-10-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy has been used to study the unusual electronic properties of graphene. In an effort to support the graphene with minimal interaction with the substrate, we used a hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) substrate. To minimize contaminants between the CVD graphene and boron nitride, the graphene samples were cleaned with distilled water and isopropanol prior to transfer to hBN substrate. We have also examined the growth of graphene flakes by chemical vapor deposition. In particular, we examined the relationship between the orientations of the first and second layer of CVD grown graphene. We found the growth mechanism preferentially resulted in rotations of 9^o or less indicating flakes with first and second layers aligned.

  15. Scanning probe image wizard: A toolbox for automated scanning probe microscopy data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stirling, Julian; Woolley, Richard A. J.; Moriarty, Philip

    2013-11-01

    We describe SPIW (scanning probe image wizard), a new image processing toolbox for SPM (scanning probe microscope) images. SPIW can be used to automate many aspects of SPM data analysis, even for images with surface contamination and step edges present. Specialised routines are available for images with atomic or molecular resolution to improve image visualisation and generate statistical data on surface structure.

  16. Probing many body effects using Fourier Transform Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy: Can spin-orbit splitting in dispersion be observed in q-space?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahi, Gelareh; UBC Labortory for Atomic Imaging Research (LAIR)) Team

    Well studied surface systems such as Ag and Cu provide a safe platform to test novel spectroscopy methods that can have extended applications in near future. Our current focus is given to Fourier Transform Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy (FT-STS) that allows us to study scattering effects (quasiparticle interactions - namely QPI) of CO and Co on Cu(111) surface. Magnetic Co adatoms are expected to generate a spin-orbit split in dispersion in QPI(q) space, the existence of which is confirmed by the k-space angle-resolved photo-emission spectroscopy (ARPES) of Cu(111) surface in the recent years. Hence the previously observed electron-phonon kink and spin-orbit splitting of the dispersion, as well as the scattering properties of CO molecules and Co adatoms, should also be observable in QPI space via FT-STS of Cu(111), and compatible with previous studies on similar systems. We are using a low temperature (4.2 K) commercial Scanning Tunneling Microscope (CREATEC STM) that operates using Nanonis electronic controllers and software which allows us to perform FT-STS as well as topological imaging.

  17. An interchangeable scanning Hall probe/scanning SQUID microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Chiu-Chun; Lin, Hui-Ting; Wu, Sing-Lin; Chen, Tse-Jun; Wang, M. J.; Ling, D. C.; Chi, C. C.; Chen, Jeng-Chung

    2014-08-15

    We have constructed a scanning probe microscope for magnetic imaging, which can function as a scanning Hall probe microscope (SHPM) and as a scanning SQUID microscope (SSM). The scanning scheme, applicable to SHPM and SSM, consists of a mechanical positioning (sub) micron-XY stage and a flexible direct contact to the sample without a feedback control system for the Z-axis. With the interchangeable capability of operating two distinct scanning modes, our microscope can incorporate the advantageous functionalities of the SHPM and SSM with large scan range up to millimeter, high spatial resolution (⩽4 μm), and high field sensitivity in a wide range of temperature (4.2 K-300 K) and magnetic field (10{sup −7} T-1 T). To demonstrate the capabilities of the system, we present magnetic images scanned with SHPM and SSM, including a RbFeB magnet and a nickel grid pattern at room temperature, surface magnetic domain structures of a La{sub 2/3}Ca{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3} thin film at 77 K, and superconducting vortices in a striped niobium film at 4.2 K.

  18. Nanotubes as nanoprobes in scanning probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Hongjie; Hafner, Jason H.; Rinzler, Andrew G.; Colbert, Daniel T.; Smalley, Richard E.

    1996-11-01

    SINCE the invention of the scanning tunnelling microscope1, the value of establishing a physical connection between the macroscopic world and individual nanometre-scale objects has become increasingly evident, both for probing these objects2-4 and for direct manipulation5-7 and fabrication8-10 at the nanometre scale. While good progress has been made in controlling the position of the macroscopic probe of such devices to sub-ångström accuracy, and in designing sensitive detection schemes, less has been done to improve the probe tip itself4. Ideally the tip should be as precisely defined as the object under investigation, and should maintain its integrity after repeated use not only in high vacuum but also in air and water. The best tips currently used for scanning probe microscopy do sometimes achieve sub-nanometre resolution, but they seldom survive a 'tip crash' with the surface, and it is rarely clear what the atomic configuration of the tip is during imaging. Here we show that carbon nanotubes11,12 might constitute well defined tips for scanning probe microscopy. We have attached individual nanotubes several micrometres in length to the silicon cantilevers of conventional atomic force microscopes. Because of their flexibility, the tips are resistant to damage from tip crashes, while their slenderness permits imaging of sharp recesses in surface topography. We have also been able to exploit the electrical conductivity of nanotubes by using them for scanning tunnelling microscopy.

  19. High-resolution scanning hall probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, Clifford; Luan, Lan; Hendrik Bluhm, J.; Moler, Kathryn; Guikema, Janice; Zeldov, Eli; Shtrikman, Hadas

    2006-03-01

    Scanning hall sensors can be used to directly image magnetic fields at surfaces. They offer high resolution, high sensitivity, operability over a broad temperature range, and linearity. We have fabricated hall sensors on GaAs / Al0.35Ga0.65As and GaAs / Al0.3Ga0.7As heterostructures containing 2D electron gases 40, 39 and 140nm beneath the surface. The sensitive areas of our probes range from microns to 85nm on a side. We report on the field sensitivities of probes of various sizes and their spatial resolution in a scanning configuration.

  20. Development and Application of Multiple-Probe Scanning Probe Microscopes

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, T.; Kubo, O.; Shingaya, Y.; Higuchi, S.; Hasegawa, T.; Jiang, C. S.; Okuda, T.; Kuwahara, Y.; Takami, K.; Aono, M.

    2012-04-03

    the research of advanced materials based on nanoscience and nanotechnology, it is often desirable to measure nanoscale local electrical conductivity at a designated position of a given sample. For this purpose, multiple-probe scanning probe microscopes (MP-SPMs), in which two, three or four scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or atomic force microscope (AFM) probes are operated independently, have been developed. Each probe in an MP-SPM is used not only for observing high-resolution STM or AFM images but also for forming an electrical contact enabling nanoscale local electrical conductivity measurement. The world's first double-probe STM (DP-STM) developed by the authors, which was subsequently modified to a triple-probe STM (TP-STM), has been used to measure the conductivities of one-dimensional metal nanowires and carbon nanotubes and also two-dimensional molecular films. A quadruple-probe STM (QP-STM) has also been developed and used to measure the conductivity of two-dimensional molecular films without the ambiguity of contact resistance between the probe and sample. Moreover, a quadruple-probe AFM (QP-AFM) with four conductive tuning-fork-type self-detection force sensing probes has been developed to measure the conductivity of a nanostructure on an insulating substrate. A general-purpose computer software to control four probes at the same time has also been developed and used in the operation of the QP-AFM. These developments and applications of MP-SPMs are reviewed in this paper.

  1. Vertically aligned nanostructure scanning probe microscope tips

    SciTech Connect

    Guillorn, Michael A.; Ilic, Bojan; Melechko, Anatoli V.; Merkulov, Vladimir I.; Lowndes, Douglas H.; Simpson, Michael L.

    2006-12-19

    Methods and apparatus are described for cantilever structures that include a vertically aligned nanostructure, especially vertically aligned carbon nanofiber scanning probe microscope tips. An apparatus includes a cantilever structure including a substrate including a cantilever body, that optionally includes a doped layer, and a vertically aligned nanostructure coupled to the cantilever body.

  2. Scanning probe microscopy on new dental alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reusch, B.; Geis-Gerstorfer, J.; Ziegler, C.

    Surface analytical methods such as scanning force microscopy (SFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to determine the surface properties of amalgam substitutes as tooth filling materials. In particular the corrosion and the passivation behavior of new gallium restorative materials were studied. To give relevant practical data, the measurements were performed with and without the alloys being stored in artificial saliva to simulate physiological oral conditions.

  3. Improved controlled atmosphere high temperature scanning probe microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, K. V.; Wu, Y.; Jacobsen, T.; Mogensen, M. B.; Theil Kuhn, L.

    2013-07-01

    To locally access electrochemical active surfaces and interfaces in operando at the sub-micron scale at high temperatures in a reactive gas atmosphere is of great importance to understand the basic mechanisms in new functional materials, for instance, for energy technologies, such as solid oxide fuel cells and electrolyzer cells. Here, we report on advanced improvements of our original controlled atmosphere high temperature scanning probe microscope, CAHT-SPM. The new microscope can employ a broad range of the scanning probe techniques including tapping mode, scanning tunneling microscopy, scanning tunneling spectroscopy, conductive atomic force microscopy, and Kelvin probe force microscopy. The temperature of the sample can be as high as 850 °C. Both reducing and oxidizing gases such as oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen can be added in the sample chamber and the oxygen partial pressure (pO2) is monitored by an oxygen sensor. We present here some examples of its capabilities demonstrated by high temperature topography with simultaneously ac electrical conductance measurements during atmosphere changes, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy at various temperatures, and measurements of the surface potential. The improved CAHT-SPM, therefore, holds a great potential for local sub-micron analysis of high-temperature and gas induced changes of a wide range of materials.

  4. High-resolution scanning hall probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, C. W.; Guikema, J. W.; Zeldov, E.

    2005-03-01

    Scanning hall sensors can be used to directly image magnetic fields at surfaces. They offer high resolution, high sensitivity, operability from cryogenic to room temperature, and linearity. We have fabricated hall sensors on GaAs / Al0.35Ga0.65As and GaAs / Al0.3Ga0.7As heterostructures, one containing a 2D electron gas 40 nanometers below the surface and another 140nm below the surface, as well as an In0.5Al0.5As / GaSb / AlSb / InAs heterostructure containing a 2DEG 21nm below the surface. The sensitive areas of our probes range from microns to 60nm on a side. We report on the field sensitivities of the probes and their spatial resolution in a scanning configuration.

  5. Intermittent contact hydration scanning probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloisi, G.; Bacci, F.; Carlà, M.; Dolci, D.

    2010-07-01

    Hydration scanning probe microscopy is a technique similar to scanning tunneling microscopy, in which the probe current, sustained by the slight surface conduction of a thin hydration layer covering an insulating support surface, is essentially electrochemical in nature instead of electronic tunneling. Such a technique allows the imaging of a great variety of samples, including insulators, provided that they are hydrophilic, as well as the study of molecular samples of biological interest (such as DNA) fixed on a suitable supporting surface. The main problem to obtain stable and reproducible images comes from the very critical determination of the operating conditions under which the probe-hydration layer interaction does not lead to the formation of a relatively large water meniscus. It has been suggested that this issue can be removed by adding a high frequency oscillation to the probe movement, as in tapping atomic force microscopy. Meniscus formation and breakup have been investigated in order to determine the best values for the amplitude and the frequency of the oscillation. Results obtained in this mode are discussed in comparison with the usual continuous contact mode.

  6. "Un-annealed and Annealed Pd Ultra-Thin Film on SiC Characterized by Scanning Probe Microscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, W. J.; Shi, D. T.; Elshot, K.; Bryant, E.; Lafate, K.; Chen, H.; Burger, A.; Collins, W. E.

    1998-01-01

    Pd/SiC has been used as a hydrogen and a hydrocarbon gas sensor operated at high temperature. UHV (Ultra High Vacuum)-Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) techniques were applied to study the relationship between the morphology and chemical compositions for Pd ultra-thin films on SiC (less than 30 angstroms) at different annealing temperatures. Pd ultra-thin film on 6H-SiC was prepared by the RF sputtering method. The morphology from UHV-STM and AFM shows that the Pd thin film was well deposited on SiC substrate, and the Pd was partially aggregated to round shaped participates at an annealing temperature of 300 C. At 400 C, the amount of surface participates decreases, and some strap shape participates appear. From XPS, Pd2Si was formed on the surface after annealing at 300 C, and all Pd reacted with SiC to form Pd2Si after annealing at 400 C. The intensity of the XPS Pd peak decreases enormously at 400 C. The Pd film diffused into SiC, and the Schottky barrier height has almost no changes. The work shows the Pd sicilides/SiC have the same electronic properties with Pd/SiC, and explains why the Pd/SiC sensor still responds to hydrogen at high operating temperatures.

  7. Band excitation method applicable to scanning probe microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Jesse, Stephen [Knoxville, TN; Kalinin, Sergei V [Knoxville, TN

    2010-08-17

    Methods and apparatus are described for scanning probe microscopy. A method includes generating a band excitation (BE) signal having finite and predefined amplitude and phase spectrum in at least a first predefined frequency band; exciting a probe using the band excitation signal; obtaining data by measuring a response of the probe in at least a second predefined frequency band; and extracting at least one relevant dynamic parameter of the response of the probe in a predefined range including analyzing the obtained data. The BE signal can be synthesized prior to imaging (static band excitation), or adjusted at each pixel or spectroscopy step to accommodate changes in sample properties (adaptive band excitation). An apparatus includes a band excitation signal generator; a probe coupled to the band excitation signal generator; a detector coupled to the probe; and a relevant dynamic parameter extractor component coupled to the detector, the relevant dynamic parameter extractor including a processor that performs a mathematical transform selected from the group consisting of an integral transform and a discrete transform.

  8. Band excitation method applicable to scanning probe microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2013-05-28

    Methods and apparatus are described for scanning probe microscopy. A method includes generating a band excitation (BE) signal having finite and predefined amplitude and phase spectrum in at least a first predefined frequency band; exciting a probe using the band excitation signal; obtaining data by measuring a response of the probe in at least a second predefined frequency band; and extracting at least one relevant dynamic parameter of the response of the probe in a predefined range including analyzing the obtained data. The BE signal can be synthesized prior to imaging (static band excitation), or adjusted at each pixel or spectroscopy step to accommodate changes in sample properties (adaptive band excitation). An apparatus includes a band excitation signal generator; a probe coupled to the band excitation signal generator; a detector coupled to the probe; and a relevant dynamic parameter extractor component coupled to the detector, the relevant dynamic parameter extractor including a processor that performs a mathematical transform selected from the group consisting of an integral transform and a discrete transform.

  9. Piezoresistive sensors for scanning probe microscopy

    PubMed

    Gotszalk; Grabiec; Rangelow

    2000-02-01

    In this article we summarize the efforts devoted to the realization of our ideas of the development of piezoresistive sensor family used in scanning probe microscopy. All the sensors described here are fabricated based on advanced silicon micromachining and standard CMOS processing. The fabrication scenario presented in this article allows for the production of different sensors with the same tip deflection piezoresistive detection scheme. In this way we designed and fabricated, as a basic sensor, piezoresistive cantilever for atomic force microscopy, which enables surface topography measurements with a resolution of 0.1 nm. Next, by introducing a conductive tip isolated from the beam we obtained a microprobe for scanning capacitance microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy. With this microprobe we measured capacitance between the microtip and the surface in the range of 10(-22) F. Furthermore, a modification of the piezoresistors placement, based on the finite element method (FEM) simulation permits fabrication of the multipurpose sensor for lateral force microscopy, which enables measurements of friction forces with a resolution of 1 nN. Finally, using the same basic device idea and only slightly modified process sequence we manufactured femtocalorimeter for the detection of heat energy in the range of 50 pJ. PMID:10741650

  10. Low cost PC based scanning Kelvin probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baikie, I. D.; Estrup, P. J.

    1998-11-01

    We have developed a novel, low cost, scanning Kelvin probe (SKP) system that can measure work function (wf) and surface potential (sp) topographies to within 1 meV energy resolution. The control and measurement subcomponents are PC based and incorporate a flexible user interface, permitting software control of major parameters and allowing easy user implementation via automatic setup and scanning procedures. We review the mode of operation and design features of the SKP including the digital oscillator, the compact ambient voice-coil head-stage, and signal processing techniques. This system offers unique tip-to-sample spacing control (to within 40 nm) which provides a method of simultaneously imaging sample height topographies and is essential to avoid spurious or "apparent" wf changes due to scanning-induced spacing changes. We illustrate SKP operation in generating high resolution wf/sp profiles of metal interfaces (as a tip characterization procedure) and operational electronic devices. The SKP potentially has a very wide range of applications ranging from semiconductor quality control thin film and surface analyses to corrosion and biopotential imaging.

  11. Scanning Probe Microscopy of Organic Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Obadiah G.

    Nanostructured composites of organic semiconductors are a promising class of materials for the manufacture of low-cost solar cells. Understanding how the nanoscale morphology of these materials affects their efficiency as solar energy harvesters is crucial to their eventual potential for large-scale deployment for primary power generation. In this thesis we describe the use of optoelectronic scanning-probe based microscopy methods to study this efficiency-structure relationship with nanoscale resolution. In particular, our objective is to make spatially resolved measurements of each step in the power conversion process from photons to an electric current, including charge generation, transport, and recombination processes, and correlate them with local device structure. We have achieved two aims in this work: first, to develop and apply novel electrically sensitive scanning probe microscopy experiments to study the optoelectronic materials and processes discussed above; and second, to deepen our understanding of the physics underpinning our experimental techniques. In the first case, we have applied conductive-, and photoconductive atomic force (cAFM & pcAFM) microscopy to measure both local photocurrent collection and dark charge transport properties in a variety of model and novel organic solar cell composites, including polymer/fullerene blends, and polymer-nanowire/fullerene blends, finding that local heterogeneity is the rule, and that improvements in the uniformity of specific beneficial nanostructures could lead to large increases in efficiency. We have used scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM) and time resolved-electrostatic force microscopy (trEFM) to characterize all-polymer blends, quantifying their sensitivity to photochemical degradation and the subsequent formation of local charge traps. We find that while trEFM provides a sensitive measure of local quantum efficiency, SKPM is generally unsuited to measurements of efficiency, less sensitive than tr

  12. Band Excitation in Scanning Probe Microscopy: Recognition and Functional Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Jesse, Stephen; Vasudevan, Dr. Rama; Collins, Liam; Strelcov, Evgheni; Okatan, Mahmut B; Belianinov, Alex; Baddorf, Arthur P; Proksch, Roger; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2014-01-01

    Field confinement at the junction between a biased scanning probe microscope s (SPM) tip and solid surface enables local probing of various bias-induced transformations such as polarization switching, ionic motion, or electrochemical reactions to name a few. The nanoscale size of the biased region is smaller or comparable to features like grain boundaries and dislocations, potentially allows for the study of kinetics and thermodynamics at the level of a single defect. In contrast to classical statistically averaged approaches, this allows one to link structure to functionality and deterministically decipher associated mesoscopic and atomistic mechanisms. Furthermore, this type of information can serve as a fingerprint of local material functionality, allowing for local recognition imaging. Here, current progress in multidimensional SPM techniques based on band-excitation time and voltage spectroscopies is illustrated, including discussions on data acquisition, dimensionality reduction, and visualization along with future challenges and opportunities for the field.

  13. Scanned probe characterization of semiconductor nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, James Jeremy Macdonald

    Advances in the synthesis of materials and device structures have accentuated the need to understand nanoscale electronic structure and its implications. Scanning probe microscopy offers a rich variety of highly spatially accurate techniques that can further our understanding of the interactions that occur in nanoscale semiconductor materials and devices. The promising nitride semiconductor materials system suffers from perturbations in local electronic structure due to crystallographic defects. Understanding the electronic properties and physical origin of these defects can be invaluable in mitigating their impacts or eliminating them all together. In the second chapter of this dissertation, scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) is used to characterize local electronic structure in alpha-plane n-type gallium nitride. Analysis reveals the presence of a linear, positively charged feature aligned along the [1¯100] direction which likely corresponds to a partial dislocation at the edge of a stacking fault. In the third chapter, conductive atomic force microscopy is used to determine the effects of Ga/N flux on the conductive behavior of reverse-bias leakage paths in gallium nitride grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Our data reveal a band of fluxes near Ga/N ≈ 1 for which these pathways cease to be observable. These observations suggest a method for controlling the primary source of reverse-bias Schottky contact leakage in n-type GaN grown by MBE. A deeper understanding of the interaction between macro-scale objects and nanoscale electronic properties is required to bring the exciting new possibilities that semiconductor nanowires offer to fruition. In the fourth chapter, SCM is used to examine the effects of micron-scale metal contacts on carrier modulation and electrostatic behavior in indium arsenide semiconductor nanowires. We interpret a pronounced dependence of capacitance spectra on distance between the probe tip and nanowire contact as a consequence of

  14. Time-resolved multiple probe spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Greetham, G. M.; Sole, D.; Clark, I. P.; Parker, A. W.; Pollard, M. R.; Towrie, M.

    2012-10-15

    Time-resolved multiple probe spectroscopy combines optical, electronic, and data acquisition capabilities to enable measurement of picosecond to millisecond time-resolved spectra within a single experiment, using a single activation pulse. This technology enables a wide range of dynamic processes to be studied on a single laser and sample system. The technique includes a 1 kHz pump, 10 kHz probe flash photolysis-like mode of acquisition (pump-probe-probe-probe, etc.), increasing the amount of information from each experiment. We demonstrate the capability of the instrument by measuring the photolysis of tungsten hexacarbonyl (W(CO){sub 6}) monitored by IR absorption spectroscopy, following picosecond vibrational cooling of product formation through to slower bimolecular diffusion reactions on the microsecond time scale.

  15. Complete information acquisition in scanning probe microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Belianinov, Alex; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Jesse, Stephen

    2015-03-13

    In the last three decades, scanning probe microscopy (SPM) has emerged as a primary tool for exploring and controlling the nanoworld. A critical part of the SPM measurements is the information transfer from the tip-surface junction to a macroscopic measurement system. This process reduces the many degrees of freedom of a vibrating cantilever to relatively few parameters recorded as images. Similarly, the details of dynamic cantilever response at sub-microsecond time scales of transients, higher-order eigenmodes and harmonics are averaged out by transitioning to millisecond time scale of pixel acquisition. Hence, the amount of information available to the external observer is severely limited, and its selection is biased by the chosen data processing method. Here, we report a fundamentally new approach for SPM imaging based on information theory-type analysis of the data stream from the detector. This approach allows full exploration of complex tip-surface interactions, spatial mapping of multidimensional variability of material s properties and their mutual interactions, and SPM imaging at the information channel capacity limit.

  16. Complete information acquisition in scanning probe microscopy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Belianinov, Alex; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Jesse, Stephen

    2015-03-13

    In the last three decades, scanning probe microscopy (SPM) has emerged as a primary tool for exploring and controlling the nanoworld. A critical part of the SPM measurements is the information transfer from the tip-surface junction to a macroscopic measurement system. This process reduces the many degrees of freedom of a vibrating cantilever to relatively few parameters recorded as images. Similarly, the details of dynamic cantilever response at sub-microsecond time scales of transients, higher-order eigenmodes and harmonics are averaged out by transitioning to millisecond time scale of pixel acquisition. Hence, the amount of information available to the external observer ismore » severely limited, and its selection is biased by the chosen data processing method. Here, we report a fundamentally new approach for SPM imaging based on information theory-type analysis of the data stream from the detector. This approach allows full exploration of complex tip-surface interactions, spatial mapping of multidimensional variability of material s properties and their mutual interactions, and SPM imaging at the information channel capacity limit.« less

  17. The Scanning Theremin Microscope: A Model Scanning Probe Instrument for Hands-On Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quardokus, Rebecca C.; Wasio, Natalie A.; Kandel, S. Alex

    2014-01-01

    A model scanning probe microscope, designed using similar principles of operation to research instruments, is described. Proximity sensing is done using a capacitance probe, and a mechanical linkage is used to scan this probe across surfaces. The signal is transduced as an audio tone using a heterodyne detection circuit analogous to that used in…

  18. EDITORIAL: Scanning probe microscopy: a visionary development Scanning probe microscopy: a visionary development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2013-07-01

    The development of scanning probe microscopy repositioned modern physics. When Rohrer and Binnig first used electronic tunnelling effects to image atoms and quantum states they did more than pin down theoretical hypotheses to real-world observables; the scanning tunnelling microscope fed imaginations, prompting researchers to consider new directions and possibilities [1]. As Rohrer once commented, 'We could show that you can easily manipulate or position something small in space with an accuracy of 10 pm.... When you can do that, you simply have ideas of what you can do' [2]. The development heralded a cavalry of scanning probe techniques—such as atomic force microscopy (AFM) [3-5], scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) [6-8] and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) [9, 10]—that still continue to bring nanomaterials and nanoscale phenomena into fresh focus. Not long after the development of scanning tunnelling microscopy, Binnig, Quate and Gerber collaborating in California in the US published work on a new type of microscope also capable of atomic level resolution [3]. The original concept behind scanning tunnelling microscopy uses electrical conductance, which places substantial limitations on the systems that it can image. Binnig, Quate and Gerber developed the AFM to 'feel' the topology of surfaces like the needle of an old fashioned vinyl player. In this way insulators could be imaged as well. The development of a force modulation mode AFM extended the tool's reach to soft materials making images of biological samples accessible with the technique [4]. There have now been a number of demonstrations of image capture at rates that allow dynamics at the nanoscale to be tracked in real time, opening further possibilities in applications of the AFM as described in a recent review by Toshio Ando at Kanazawa University [5]. Researchers also found a way to retrieve optical information at 'super-resolution' [6, 7]. Optical microscopy provides spectral

  19. Analysis of scanning probe microscope images using wavelets.

    PubMed

    Gackenheimer, C; Cayon, L; Reifenberger, R

    2006-03-01

    The utility of wavelet transforms for analysis of scanning probe images is investigated. Simulated scanning probe images are analyzed using wavelet transforms and compared to a parallel analysis using more conventional Fourier transform techniques. The wavelet method introduced in this paper is particularly useful as an image recognition algorithm to enhance nanoscale objects of a specific scale that may be present in scanning probe images. In its present form, the applied wavelet is optimal for detecting objects with rotational symmetry. The wavelet scheme is applied to the analysis of scanning probe data to better illustrate the advantages that this new analysis tool offers. The wavelet algorithm developed for analysis of scanning probe microscope (SPM) images has been incorporated into the WSxM software which is a versatile freeware SPM analysis package. PMID:16439061

  20. Band excitation method applicable to scanning probe microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2015-08-04

    Scanning probe microscopy may include a method for generating a band excitation (BE) signal and simultaneously exciting a probe at a plurality of frequencies within a predetermined frequency band based on the excitation signal. A response of the probe is measured across a subset of frequencies of the predetermined frequency band and the excitation signal is adjusted based on the measured response.

  1. Position-Sensitive Scanning Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Joseph P.; Chen, Yan; Müller, Joachim D.

    2005-01-01

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) uses a stationary laser beam to illuminate a small sample volume and analyze the temporal behavior of the fluorescence fluctuations within the stationary observation volume. In contrast, scanning FCS (SFCS) collects the fluorescence signal from a moving observation volume by scanning the laser beam. The fluctuations now contain both temporal and spatial information about the sample. To access the spatial information we synchronize scanning and data acquisition. Synchronization allows us to evaluate correlations for every position along the scanned trajectory. We use a circular scan trajectory in this study. Because the scan radius is constant, the phase angle is sufficient to characterize the position of the beam. We introduce position-sensitive SFCS (PSFCS), where correlations are calculated as a function of lag time and phase. We present the theory of PSFCS and derive expressions for diffusion, diffusion in the presence of flow, and for immobilization. To test PSFCS we compare experimental data with theory. We determine the direction and speed of a flowing dye solution and the position of an immobilized particle. To demonstrate the feasibility of the technique for applications in living cells we present data of enhanced green fluorescent protein measured in the nucleus of COS cells. PMID:15894645

  2. Scanning probe microscope simulator for the assessment of noise in scanning probe microscopy controllers

    SciTech Connect

    Wutscher, T.; Niebauer, J.; Giessibl, F. J.

    2013-07-15

    We present an electronic circuit that allows to calibrate and troubleshoot scanning probe microscopy (SPM) controllers with respect to their noise performance. The control signal in an SPM is typically highly nonlinear—the tunneling current in scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) varies exponentially with distance. The exponential current-versus-voltage characteristics of diodes allow to model the current dependence in STM. Additional inputs allow to simulate the effects of external perturbations and the reactions of the control electronics. We characterized the noise performance of the feedback controller using the apparent topography roughness of recorded images. For a comparison of different STM controllers, an optimal gain parameter was determined by exploring settling times through a rectangular perturbation signal. We used the circuit to directly compare the performance of two types of SPM controllers used in our laboratory.

  3. Scanning probe microscope simulator for the assessment of noise in scanning probe microscopy controllers.

    PubMed

    Wutscher, T; Niebauer, J; Giessibl, F J

    2013-07-01

    We present an electronic circuit that allows to calibrate and troubleshoot scanning probe microscopy (SPM) controllers with respect to their noise performance. The control signal in an SPM is typically highly nonlinear-the tunneling current in scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) varies exponentially with distance. The exponential current-versus-voltage characteristics of diodes allow to model the current dependence in STM. Additional inputs allow to simulate the effects of external perturbations and the reactions of the control electronics. We characterized the noise performance of the feedback controller using the apparent topography roughness of recorded images. For a comparison of different STM controllers, an optimal gain parameter was determined by exploring settling times through a rectangular perturbation signal. We used the circuit to directly compare the performance of two types of SPM controllers used in our laboratory. PMID:23902073

  4. Scanned probe microscopy for thin film superconductor development

    SciTech Connect

    Moreland, J.

    1996-12-31

    Scanned probe microscopy is a general term encompassing the science of imaging based on piezoelectric driven probes for measuring local changes in nanoscale properties of materials and devices. Techniques like scanning tunneling microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning potentiometry are becoming common tools in the production and development labs in the semiconductor industry. The author presents several examples of applications specific to the development of high temperature superconducting thin films and thin-film devices.

  5. Frequency-agile, rapid scanning spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truong, G.-W.; Douglass, K. O.; Maxwell, S. E.; van Zee, R. D.; Plusquellic, D. F.; Hodges, J. T.; Long, D. A.

    2013-07-01

    Challenging applications in trace gas measurements require low uncertainty and high acquisition rates. Many cavity-enhanced spectroscopies exhibit significant sensitivity and potential, but their scanning rates are limited by reliance on either mechanical or thermal frequency tuning. Here, we present frequency-agile, rapid scanning spectroscopy (FARS) in which a high-bandwidth electro-optic modulator steps a selected laser sideband to successive optical cavity modes. This approach involves no mechanical motion and allows for a scanning rate of 8 kHz per cavity mode, a rate that is limited only by the cavity response time itself. Unlike rapidly frequency-swept techniques, FARS does not reduce the measurement duty cycle, degrade the spectrum's frequency axis or require an unusual cavity configuration. FARS allows for a sensitivity of ~2 × 10-12 cm-1 Hz-1/2 and a tuning range exceeding 70 GHz. This technique shows promise for fast and sensitive trace gas measurements and studies of chemical kinetics.

  6. Three-dimensional Analysis of Nanomaterials by Scanning Probe Nanotomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efimov, Anton E.; Agapova, Olga I.; Mochalov, Konstantin E.; Agapov, Igor I.

    Micro and nanostructure of scaffolds made from fibroin of Bombyx mori silkworm by salt leaching technique was studied by scanning probe nanotomography. Nanopores with dimensions in range from 30 to 180 nm are observed in the scaffold volume. Three - dimensional analysis of obtained data shows that degree of scaffold nanoporosity is 0.5% and nanopores are not interconnected with each other. Usage of scanning probe nanotomography technique enables to obtain unique nanoscale information of 3D structure of biopolymer nanomaterials.

  7. Fabrication of all diamond scanning probes for nanoscale magnetometry.

    PubMed

    Appel, Patrick; Neu, Elke; Ganzhorn, Marc; Barfuss, Arne; Batzer, Marietta; Gratz, Micha; Tschöpe, Andreas; Maletinsky, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    The electronic spin of the nitrogen vacancy (NV) center in diamond forms an atomically sized, highly sensitive sensor for magnetic fields. To harness the full potential of individual NV centers for sensing with high sensitivity and nanoscale spatial resolution, NV centers have to be incorporated into scanning probe structures enabling controlled scanning in close proximity to the sample surface. Here, we present an optimized procedure to fabricate single-crystal, all-diamond scanning probes starting from commercially available diamond and show a highly efficient and robust approach for integrating these devices in a generic atomic force microscope. Our scanning probes consisting of a scanning nanopillar (200 nm diameter, 1-2 μm length) on a thin (<1 μm) cantilever structure enable efficient light extraction from diamond in combination with a high magnetic field sensitivity (ηAC≈50±20nT/Hz). As a first application of our scanning probes, we image the magnetic stray field of a single Ni nanorod. We show that this stray field can be approximated by a single dipole and estimate the NV-to-sample distance to a few tens of nanometer, which sets the achievable resolution of our scanning probes. PMID:27370455

  8. Fabrication of all diamond scanning probes for nanoscale magnetometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appel, Patrick; Neu, Elke; Ganzhorn, Marc; Barfuss, Arne; Batzer, Marietta; Gratz, Micha; Tschöpe, Andreas; Maletinsky, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    The electronic spin of the nitrogen vacancy (NV) center in diamond forms an atomically sized, highly sensitive sensor for magnetic fields. To harness the full potential of individual NV centers for sensing with high sensitivity and nanoscale spatial resolution, NV centers have to be incorporated into scanning probe structures enabling controlled scanning in close proximity to the sample surface. Here, we present an optimized procedure to fabricate single-crystal, all-diamond scanning probes starting from commercially available diamond and show a highly efficient and robust approach for integrating these devices in a generic atomic force microscope. Our scanning probes consisting of a scanning nanopillar (200 nm diameter, 1-2 μm length) on a thin (<1 μm) cantilever structure enable efficient light extraction from diamond in combination with a high magnetic field sensitivity ( η AC ≈ 50 ± 20 nT / √{ Hz } ). As a first application of our scanning probes, we image the magnetic stray field of a single Ni nanorod. We show that this stray field can be approximated by a single dipole and estimate the NV-to-sample distance to a few tens of nanometer, which sets the achievable resolution of our scanning probes.

  9. Remote adjustable focus Raman spectroscopy probe

    DOEpatents

    Schmucker, John E.; Blasi, Raymond J.; Archer, William B.

    1999-01-01

    A remote adjustable focus Raman spectroscopy probe allows for analyzing Raman scattered light from a point of interest external probe. An environmental barrier including at least one window separates the probe from the point of interest. An optical tube is disposed adjacent to the environmental barrier and includes a long working length compound lens objective next to the window. A beam splitter and a mirror are at the other end. A mechanical means is used to translated the prove body in the X, Y, and Z directions resulting in a variable focus optical apparatus. Laser light is reflected by the beam splitter and directed toward the compound lens objective, then through the window and focused on the point of interest. Raman scattered light is then collected by the compound lens objective and directed through the beam splitter to a mirror. A device for analyzing the light, such as a monochrometer, is coupled to the mirror.

  10. Scanning photoluminescent spectroscopy of bioconjugated quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chornokur, G.; Ostapenko, S.; Oleynik, E.; Phelan, C.; Korsunska, N.; Kryshtab, T.; Zhang, J.; Wolcott, A.; Sellers, T.

    2009-04-01

    We report on the application of the bio-conjugated quantum dots (QDs) for a "sandwich" enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) cancer testing technique. Quantum dot ELISA detection of the cancer PSA antigen at concentrations as low as 0.01 ng/ml which is ˜50 times lower than the classic "sandwich" ELISA was demonstrated. Scanning photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy was performed on dried ELISA wells and the results compared with the same QD samples dried on a solid substrate. We confirmed a "blue" up to 37 nm PL spectral shift in a case of QDs conjugated to PSA antibodies. Increasing of the "blue" spectral shift was observed at lower PSA antigen concentrations. The results can be used to improve sensitivity of "sandwich" ELISA cancer antigen detection.

  11. Quantification of thermal and contact resistances of scanning thermal probes

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kyeongtae E-mail: meyhofer@umich.edu Jeong, Wonho; Lee, Woochul; Sadat, Seid; Thompson, Dakotah; Meyhofer, Edgar E-mail: meyhofer@umich.edu; Reddy, Pramod E-mail: meyhofer@umich.edu

    2014-11-17

    Scanning thermal probes are widely used for imaging temperature fields with nanoscale resolution, for studying near-field radiative heat transport and for locally heating samples. In all these applications, it is critical to know the thermal resistance to heat flow within the probe and the thermal contact resistance between the probe and the sample. Here, we present an approach for quantifying the aforementioned thermal resistances using picowatt resolution heat flow calorimeters. The measured contact resistance is found to be in good agreement with classical predictions for thermal contact resistance. The techniques developed here are critical for quantitatively probing heat flows at the nanoscale.

  12. Micromachined photoplastic probe for scanning near-field optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genolet, G.; Despont, M.; Vettiger, P.; Staufer, U.; Noell, W.; de Rooij, N. F.; Cueni, T.; Bernal, M.-P.; Marquis-Weible, F.

    2001-10-01

    We present a hybrid probe for scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM), which consists of a micromachined photoplastic tip with a metallic aperture at the apex that is attached to an optical fiber, thus combining the advantages of optical fiber probes and micromachined tips. The tip and aperture are batch fabricated and assembled to a preetched optical fiber with micrometer centering precision. Rectangular apertures of 50 nm×130 nm have been produced without the need of any postprocessing. Topographical and optical imaging with a probe having an aperture of 300 nm demonstrate the great potential of the photoplastic probe for SNOM applications.

  13. Carbon nanotube scanning probe for imaging in aqueous environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, Ramsey M.; Nguyen, Cattien V.; Meyyappan, M.

    2004-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) used as a probe for scanning probe microscopy has become one of the many potential usages of CNTs that is finding real applications in scientific research and industrial communities. It has been proposed that the unique mechanical buckling properties of the CNT would lessen the imaging force exerted on the sample and, thus, make CNT scanning probes ideal for imaging soft materials, including biological samples in liquid environments. The hydrophobic nature of the CNT graphitic sidewall is clearly chemically incompatible with the aqueous solution requirements in some biological imaging applications. In this paper, we present electron micrograph results demonstrating the instability of CNT scanning probes when submerged in aqueous solution. Moreover, we also introduce a novel approach to resolve this chemical incompatibility problem. By coating the CNT probe with ethylenediamine, thus rendering the CNT probe less hydrophobic, we demonstrate the liquid imaging capability of treated CNT probes. Experimental data for imaging in aqueous solutions are presented, which include an ultrathin Ir film and DNA molecules on a mica surface.

  14. Correcting nonlinear drift distortion of scanning probe and scanning transmission electron microscopies from image pairs with orthogonal scan directions.

    PubMed

    Ophus, Colin; Ciston, Jim; Nelson, Chris T

    2016-03-01

    Unwanted motion of the probe with respect to the sample is a ubiquitous problem in scanning probe and scanning transmission electron microscopies, causing both linear and nonlinear artifacts in experimental images. We have designed a procedure to correct these artifacts by using orthogonal scan pairs to align each measurement line-by-line along the slow scan direction, by fitting contrast variation along the lines. We demonstrate the accuracy of our algorithm on both synthetic and experimental data and provide an implementation of our method. PMID:26716724

  15. Tuning Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance in Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy Probes.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Thiago L; Archanjo, Bráulio S; Fragneaud, Benjamin; Oliveira, Bruno S; Riikonen, Juha; Li, Changfeng; Ribeiro, Douglas S; Rabelo, Cassiano; Rodrigues, Wagner N; Jorio, Ado; Achete, Carlos A; Cançado, Luiz Gustavo

    2015-06-23

    A reproducible route for tuning localized surface plasmon resonance in scattering type near-field optical microscopy probes is presented. The method is based on the production of a focused-ion-beam milled single groove near the apex of electrochemically etched gold tips. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy are employed to obtain highly spatially and spectroscopically resolved maps of the milled probes, revealing localized surface plasmon resonance at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. By changing the distance L between the groove and the probe apex, the localized surface plasmon resonance energy can be fine-tuned at a desired absorption channel. Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy is applied as a test platform, and the results prove the reliability of the method to produce efficient scattering type near-field optical microscopy probes. PMID:26027751

  16. Thermal Wave-Based Scanning Probe Microscopy and Its Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelzl, J.; Chirtoc, M.; Meckenstock, R.

    2013-09-01

    In the last two decades scanning thermal microscopes (SThM) with DC- and AC-heating have been developed offering resolutions down to the nanometer scale. The SThM is based on an atomic force microscope (AFM) that is equipped with a temperature sensitive nanoprobe. Most frequently a tip with a temperature-dependent electrical resistor is used which can be operated as a thermometer or as a heater. The lateral resolution of about 100 nm is determined by the tip radius. Alternatively, if the thermoelastic response is detected by a smaller AFM probe, a spatial resolution of about 10 nm can be attained. Thermal wave-based SThM-techniques (AC-SThM) are used (i) to control the thermal management of electronic devices and to image thermal parameters with submicron resolution and (ii) to study resonance absorption processes of optical, infrared, and microwave radiation on the nanometer scale. Examples presented comprise the thermal imaging of hot spots in high power and in-plane-gate transistors and local studies of the temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity of nano-structured NiTi shape memory alloys by the method. The use of the SThM as a tool for a spatially resolved spectroscopy is demonstrated by locally resolved ferromagnetic resonance measurements in thin iron and nickel films deposited on various substrates.

  17. Four-probe measurements with a three-probe scanning tunneling microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Salomons, Mark; Martins, Bruno V. C.; Zikovsky, Janik; Wolkow, Robert A.

    2014-04-15

    We present an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) three-probe scanning tunneling microscope in which each probe is capable of atomic resolution. A UHV JEOL scanning electron microscope aids in the placement of the probes on the sample. The machine also has a field ion microscope to clean, atomically image, and shape the probe tips. The machine uses bare conductive samples and tips with a homebuilt set of pliers for heating and loading. Automated feedback controlled tip-surface contacts allow for electrical stability and reproducibility while also greatly reducing tip and surface damage due to contact formation. The ability to register inter-tip position by imaging of a single surface feature by multiple tips is demonstrated. Four-probe material characterization is achieved by deploying two tips as fixed current probes and the third tip as a movable voltage probe.

  18. Non-Contact Measurement Using A Laser Scanning Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modjarrad, Amir

    1989-03-01

    Traditional high accuracy touch-trigger probing can now be complemented by high speed, non-contact, profile scanning to give another "dimension" to the three-dimensional Co-ordinate Measuring Machines (CMMs). Some of the features of a specially developed laser scanning probe together with the trade-offs involved in the design of inspection systems that use triangulation are examined. Applications of such a laser probe on CMMs are numerous since high speed scanning allows inspection of many different components and surfaces. For example, car body panels, tyre moulds, aircraft wing skins, turbine blades, wax and clay models, plastics, etc. Other applications include in-process surveillance in manufacturing and food processing, robotics vision and many others. Some of these applications are discussed and practical examples, case studies and experimental results are given with particular reference to use on CMMs. In conclusion, future developments and market trends in high speed non-contact measurement are discussed.

  19. Optimization of Designs for Nanotube-based Scanning Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harik, V. M.; Gates, T. S.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Optimization of designs for nanotube-based scanning probes, which may be used for high-resolution characterization of nanostructured materials, is examined. Continuum models to analyze the nanotube deformations are proposed to help guide selection of the optimum probe. The limitations on the use of these models that must be accounted for before applying to any design problem are presented. These limitations stem from the underlying assumptions and the expected range of nanotube loading, end conditions, and geometry. Once the limitations are accounted for, the key model parameters along with the appropriate classification of nanotube structures may serve as a basis for the design optimization of nanotube-based probe tips.

  20. Fast and reliable method of conductive carbon nanotube-probe fabrication for scanning probe microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Dremov, Vyacheslav Fedorov, Pavel; Grebenko, Artem; Fedoseev, Vitaly

    2015-05-15

    We demonstrate the procedure of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) conductive probe fabrication with a single multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) on a silicon cantilever pyramid. The nanotube bundle reliably attached to the metal-covered pyramid is formed using dielectrophoresis technique from the MWNT suspension. It is shown that the dimpled aluminum sample can be used both for shortening/modification of the nanotube bundle by applying pulse voltage between the probe and the sample and for controlling the probe shape via atomic force microscopy imaging the sample. Carbon nanotube attached to cantilever covered with noble metal is suitable for SPM imaging in such modulation regimes as capacitance contrast microscopy, Kelvin probe microscopy, and scanning gate microscopy. The majority of such probes are conductive with conductivity not degrading within hours of SPM imaging.

  1. Fast and reliable method of conductive carbon nanotube-probe fabrication for scanning probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dremov, Vyacheslav; Fedoseev, Vitaly; Fedorov, Pavel; Grebenko, Artem

    2015-05-01

    We demonstrate the procedure of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) conductive probe fabrication with a single multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) on a silicon cantilever pyramid. The nanotube bundle reliably attached to the metal-covered pyramid is formed using dielectrophoresis technique from the MWNT suspension. It is shown that the dimpled aluminum sample can be used both for shortening/modification of the nanotube bundle by applying pulse voltage between the probe and the sample and for controlling the probe shape via atomic force microscopy imaging the sample. Carbon nanotube attached to cantilever covered with noble metal is suitable for SPM imaging in such modulation regimes as capacitance contrast microscopy, Kelvin probe microscopy, and scanning gate microscopy. The majority of such probes are conductive with conductivity not degrading within hours of SPM imaging.

  2. Cantilevers with integrated organic LEDs for scanning probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Kwang Hyup; O'Connor, Brendan; Zhao, Yiying; Loh, William; Pipe, Kevin P.; Shtein, Max

    2007-02-01

    Organic thin films which are based on Van der Waals-bonded molecular organic compounds can be deposited onto a variety of substrates including scanning probe cantilevers without the lattice-matching constraints of conventional covalently-bonded semiconductors. Here we demonstrate organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) fabricated on scanning probe cantilevers using thermal evaporation of molecular organic compounds and metallic electrodes. Ion beam lithography was used to define the emissive region in the shape of a ring having a diameter of 5 micrometers. The width of the ring emission was less than a micron as measured in the far field. Stable light emission was observed from the device at forward bias, with a current-voltage response similar to that of archetypal OLEDs. Such a probe can enable a new form of electrically-pumped SNOM compatible with existing atomic force microscopy tools and techniques. The emission wavelength can be tuned across the entire visible spectrum, including white light emission, by altering the composition of the emissive layer with a wide range of luminescent dyes. Should the ring-shaped light emission be used for imaging, the sample image can be deconvolved using a ring filter to achieve high resolution. The OLED probe can also be used to transfer excitons through the cathode to a sample via plasmon-assisted energy transfer; such a probe would be valuable for studying exciton dynamics in organic or organic/inorganic hybrid photovoltaic devices. By demonstrating the first active organic device on a scanning probe cantilever, this work opens the door to a wide range of new scanning probe techniques based on this class of materials for areas such as biological imaging.

  3. Handheld probes and galvanometer scanning for optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duma, V.-F.; Dobre, G.; Demian, D.; Cernat, R.; Sinescu, C.; Topala, F. I.; Negrutiu, M. L.; Hutiu, Gh.; Bradu, A.; Rolland, J. P.; Podoleanu, A. G.

    2015-09-01

    As part of the ongoing effort of the biomedical imaging community to move Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) systems from the lab to the clinical environment and produce OCT systems appropriate for multiple types of investigations in a medical department, handheld probes equipped with different types of scanners need to be developed. These allow different areas of a patient's body to be investigated using OCT with the same system and even without changing the patient's position. This paper reviews first the state of the art regarding OCT handheld probes. Novel probes with a uni-dimensional (1D) galvanometer-based scanner (GS) developed in our groups are presented. Their advantages and limitations are discussed. Aspects regarding the use of galvoscanners with regard to Micro-Electro- Mechanical Systems (MEMS) are pointed out, in relationship with our studies on optimal scanning functions of galvanometer devices in OCT. These scanning functions are briefly discussed with regard to their main parameters: profile, theoretical duty cycle, scan frequency, and scan amplitude. The optical design of the galvoscanner and refractive optics combination in the probe head, optimized for various applications, is considered. Perspectives of the field are pointed out in the final part of the paper.

  4. Endoscope two dimensional scanning fiber probe and the driving method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guangping; Gao, He; Zhou, Ai; Liu, Zhihai

    2011-11-01

    We design and fabricate an endoscope scanning fiber probe based on the piezoelectric transducer (PZT) for optical coherence tomography (OCT) to perform two-dimensional scanning. The driving part of the optical fiber probe is composed of two piezoelectric ceramics and a thin conductive substrate. The optical fiber is fixed in the middle of the piezoelectric ceramics to form a configuration of cantilever. A sine wave is employed for driving the PZT to make the cantilever vibrate along the vertical direction and form a line scanning. A saw tooth wave is load on the PZT to make the cantilever vibrate along the horizontal direction and form the field scanning. The frequency of the sine wave is set to be close to the resonance frequency of the fiber cantilever to increase the scanning range, whereas the frequency of the saw tooth wave is much lower than the resonance frequency to avoid the generation of blind spots. The finite element model is established for the theorical analysis of the device. Experimental results show that the scanning range can reach to 500x500 μm, and the scanning range can be adjusted by changing the amplitude of the drive signals.

  5. Massively Multiplexed Cantilever-free Scanning Probe Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Keith A.; Eichelsdoerfer, Daniel J.; Shim, Wooyoung; Boya, Radha; Schmucker, Abrin L.; Liu, Guoliang; Mirkin, Chad A.

    2013-03-01

    Cantilever-free scanning probe lithography has emerged as a low-cost technique for rapidly patterning nanoscale materials. In this architecture, an array of probes is fabricated on a soft backing layer that provides mechanical compliance to each probe while an underlying hard surface maintains the structural integrity of the array. One drawback of this technique is that each probe in the array acts simultaneously and thus generates a copy of the same pattern. Here, we discuss recent efforts to incorporate heaters into these probe arrays so that when a given heater is activated, the thermal expansion of the elastomer actuates a single tip. We find thermal actuation to be powerful enough to actuate individual tips over 4 μm with minimal crosstalk, fast enough to actuate on relevant time scales (20 ms), and scalable by virtue of being electrically addressable. Furthermore, tuning the individual heaters allows for variability in the arrays to be compensated for precisely, resulting in high quality nanopatterning. The addition of tunable actuators transforms cantilever-free scanning probe lithography into a technique capable of true desktop nanofabrication.

  6. Plant cell wall characterization using scanning probe microscopy techniques

    PubMed Central

    Yarbrough, John M; Himmel, Michael E; Ding, Shi-You

    2009-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is today considered a promising renewable resource for bioenergy production. A combined chemical and biological process is currently under consideration for the conversion of polysaccharides from plant cell wall materials, mainly cellulose and hemicelluloses, to simple sugars that can be fermented to biofuels. Native plant cellulose forms nanometer-scale microfibrils that are embedded in a polymeric network of hemicelluloses, pectins, and lignins; this explains, in part, the recalcitrance of biomass to deconstruction. The chemical and structural characteristics of these plant cell wall constituents remain largely unknown today. Scanning probe microscopy techniques, particularly atomic force microscopy and its application in characterizing plant cell wall structure, are reviewed here. We also further discuss future developments based on scanning probe microscopy techniques that combine linear and nonlinear optical techniques to characterize plant cell wall nanometer-scale structures, specifically apertureless near-field scanning optical microscopy and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy. PMID:19703302

  7. Cleaved thin-film probes for scanning tunneling microscopy.

    PubMed

    Siahaan, T; Kurnosikov, O; Barcones, B; Swagten, H J M; Koopmans, B

    2016-01-22

    We introduce an alternative type of probe for scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Instead of using a needle-like tip made from a piece of metallic wire, a sharp-edged cleaved insulating substrate, which is initially covered by a thin conductive film, is used. The sharp tip is formed at the intersection of the two cleaved sides. Using this approach a variety of materials for STM probes can be used, and functionalization of STM probes is possible. The working principle of different probes made of metallic (Pt, Co, and CoB), indium-tin oxide, as well as Cu/Pt and Co/Pt multilayer films are demonstrated by STM imaging of clean Cu(001) and Cu(111) surfaces as well as the epitaxial Co clusters on Cu(111). PMID:26636763

  8. Single-molecule chemistry and physics explored by low-temperature scanning probe microscopy.

    PubMed

    Swart, Ingmar; Gross, Leo; Liljeroth, Peter

    2011-08-28

    It is well known that scanning probe techniques such as scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) routinely offer atomic scale information on the geometric and the electronic structure of solids. Recent developments in STM and especially in non-contact AFM have allowed imaging and spectroscopy of individual molecules on surfaces with unprecedented spatial resolution, which makes it possible to study chemistry and physics at the single molecule level. In this feature article, we first review the physical concepts underlying image contrast in STM and AFM. We then focus on the key experimental considerations and use selected examples to demonstrate the capabilities of modern day low-temperature scanning probe microscopy in providing chemical insight at the single molecule level. PMID:21584325

  9. Scanning probe lithography approach for beyond CMOS devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrani, Zahid; Jones, Mervyn; Kaestner, Marcus; Hofer, Manuel; Guliyev, Elshad; Ahmad, Ahmad; Ivanov, Tzvetan; Zoellner, Jens-Peter; Rangelow, Ivo W.

    2013-03-01

    As present CMOS devices approach technological and physical limits at the sub-10 nm scale, a `beyond CMOS' information-processing technology is necessary for timescales beyond the semiconductor technology roadmap. This requires new approaches to logic and memory devices, and to associated lithographic processes. At the sub-5 nm scale, a technology platform based on a combination of high-resolution scanning probe lithography (SPL) and nano-imprint lithography (NIL) is regarded as a promising candidate for both resolution and high throughput production. The practical application of quantum-effect devices, such as room temperature single-electron and quantum-dot devices, then becomes feasible. This paper considers lithographic and device approaches to such a `single nanometer manufacturing' technology. We consider the application of scanning probes, capable of imaging, probing of material properties and lithography at the single nanometer scale. Modified scanning probes are used to pattern molecular glass based resist materials, where the small particle size (<1 nm) and mono-disperse nature leads to more uniform and smaller lithographic pixel size. We also review the current status of single-electron and quantum dot devices capable of room-temperature operation, and discuss the requirements for these devices with regards to practical application.

  10. Compact piezoelectric transducer fiber scanning probe for optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Ahsen, Osman O; Liang, Kaicheng; Lee, Hsiang-Chieh; Xue, Ping; Li, Xingde; Fujimoto, James G

    2014-01-15

    We developed a compact, optical fiber scanning piezoelectric transducer (PZT) probe for endoscopic and minimally invasive optical coherence tomography (OCT). Compared with previous forward-mount fiber designs, we present a reverse-mount design that achieves a shorter rigid length. The fiber was mounted at the proximal end of a quadruple PZT tube and scanned inside the hollow PZT tube to reduce the probe length. The fiber resonant frequency was 338 Hz using a 17-mm-long fiber. A 0.9 mm fiber deflection was achieved with a driving amplitude of 35 V. Using a GRIN lens-based optical design with a 1.3× magnification, a ∼6 μm spot was scanned over a 1.2 mm diameter field. The probe was encased in a metal hypodermic tube with a ∼25 mm rigid length and covered with a 3.2 mm outer diameter (OD) plastic sheath. Imaging was performed with a swept source OCT system based on a Fourier domain modelocked laser (FDML) light source at a 240 kHz axial scan rate and 8 μm axial resolution (in air). En face OCT imaging of skin in vivo and human colon ex vivo was demonstrated. PMID:24562102

  11. Tip Based Nanofabrication Using Multi-mode Scanning Probe Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Weihua

    Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) based nanotechnology is a promising technology in nano-device fabrication. It is able to both manipulate nanostructures and characterize the created nanopatterns using the nano-tip of the scanning probe on a mechanical basis or electrical basis. With the tip and device on similar scales, nano-tip based fabrication permits accurate control over the device geometry through tip manipulation with nanometer (or better) accuracy. However, SPM based nanofabrication is a slow process because the scanning velocity of the microscopy is low. Large, multi-tip arrays offer the possibility for parallel device fabrication, allowing mass fabrication with nanometer control. The goal of Tip-directed Field-emission Assisted Nanofabrication (TFAN) project was to realize parallel fabrication using our probe arrays. We started by fabricating nanodevice using one single probe. In this work, we investigated the study of fabricating single electron transistor (SET) using one single SPM probe. There were four stages we went through toward fabricating a SET. The first stage was to accomplish atomic-precision lithography in TFAN system. Atomic level lithography was achieved by desorbing hydrogen atoms, which were previously adsorbed to the Si(100)-2 × 1 surface, in ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy (UHV-STM). The second stage was to develop method for fabricating SET. SPM based local oxidation was chosen as the method to fabricate a SET on a thin titanium (Ti) film. A multi-mode SPM oxidation method was developed, in which both scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) mode and atomic microscopy (AFM) mode local oxidation were used to fabricated Ti-TiOx-Ti structures with the same conductive AFM probe. This multi-mode method enabled significantly fine feature size control by STM mode, working on insulating SiO2 substrates needed to isolate the device by AFM mode and in situ electrical characterization with conductive AFM mode. After developing the multi

  12. Integration of Ion Implantation with Scanning ProbeAlignment

    SciTech Connect

    Persaud, A.; Rangelow, I.W.; Schenkel, T.

    2005-03-01

    We describe a scanning probe instrument which integrates ion beams with imaging and alignment functions of a piezo resistive scanning probe in high vacuum. Energetic ions (1 to a few hundred keV) are transported through holes in scanning probe tips [1]. Holes and imaging tips are formed by Focused Ion Beam (FIB) drilling and ion beam assisted thin film deposition. Transport of single ions can be monitored through detection of secondary electrons from highly charged dopant ions (e. g., Bi{sup 45+}) enabling single atom device formation. Fig. 1 shows SEM images of a scanning probe tip formed by ion beam assisted Pt deposition in a dual beam FIB. Ion beam collimating apertures are drilled through the silicon cantilever with a thickness of 5 {micro}m. Aspect ratio limitations preclude the direct drilling of holes with diameters well below 1 {micro}m, and smaller hole diameters are achieved through local thin film deposition [2]. The hole in Fig. 1 was reduced from 2 {micro}m to a residual opening of about 300 nm. Fig. 2 shows an in situ scanning probe image of an alignment dot pattern taken with the tip from Fig. 1. Transport of energetic ions through the aperture in the scanning probe tip allows formation of arbitrary implant patterns. In the example shown in Fig. 2 (right), a 30 nm thick PMMA resist layer on silicon was exposed to 7 keV Ar{sup 2+} ions with an equivalent dose of 10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2} to form the LBL logo. An exciting goal of this approach is the placement of single dopant ions into precise locations for integration of single atom devices, such as donor spin based quantum computers [3, 4]. In Fig. 3, we show a section of a micron size dot area exposed to a low dose (10{sup 11}/cm{sup 2}) of high charge state dopant ions. The Bi{sup 45+} ions (200 keV) were extracted from a low emittance highly charged ions source [5]. The potential energy of B{sup 45+}, i. e., the sum of the binding energies required to remove the electrons, amounts to 36 ke

  13. Multifrequency scanning probe microscopy study of nanodiamond agglomerates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravind, Vasudeva; Lippold, Stephen; Li, Qian; Strelcov, Evgheny; Okatan, Baris; Legum, Benjamin; Kalinin, Sergei; Clarion University Team; Oak Ridge National Laboratory Team

    Due to their rich surface chemistry and excellent mechanical properties and non-toxic nature, nanodiamond particles have found applications such as biomedicine, tribology and lubrication, targeted drug delivery systems, tissue scaffolds and surgical implants. Although single nanodiamond particles have diameters about 4-5nm, they tend to form agglomerates. While these agglomerates can be useful for some purposes, many applications of nanodiamonds require single particle, disaggregated nanodiamonds. This work is oriented towards studying forces and interactions that contribute to agglomeration in nanodiamonds. In this work, using multifrequency scanning probe microscopy techniques, we show that agglomerate sizes can vary between 50-100nm in raw nanodiamonds. Extremeties of particles and Interfaces between agglomerates show dissipative forces with scanning probe microscope tip, indicating agglomerates could act as points of increased adhesion, thus reducing lubricating efficiency when nanodiamonds are used as lubricant additives. This research was conducted at the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, which is a DOE Office of Science User Facility.

  14. Quantum metrology with a scanning probe atom interferometer.

    PubMed

    Ockeloen, Caspar F; Schmied, Roman; Riedel, Max F; Treutlein, Philipp

    2013-10-01

    We use a small Bose-Einstein condensate on an atom chip as an interferometric scanning probe to map out a microwave field near the chip surface with a few micrometers resolution. With the use of entanglement between the atoms, our interferometer overcomes the standard quantum limit of interferometry by 4 dB and maintains enhanced performance for interrogation times up to 10 ms. This corresponds to a microwave magnetic field sensitivity of 77 pT/√Hz in a probe volume of 20 μm(3). Quantum metrology with entangled atoms is useful in measurements with high spatial resolution, since the atom number in the probe volume is limited by collisional loss. High-resolution measurements of microwave near fields, as demonstrated here, are important for the development of integrated microwave circuits for quantum information processing and applications in communication technology. PMID:24138235

  15. Tailored molecular glass resists for scanning probe lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuber, Christian; Schmidt, Hans-Werner; Strohriegl, Peter; Ringk, Andreas; Kolb, Tristan; Schedl, Andreas; Fokkema, Vincent; van Veghel, Marijn G. A.; Cooke, Mike; Rawlings, Colin; Dürig, Urs; Knoll, Armin; de Marneffe, Jean-François; el Otell, Ziad; Kaestner, Marcus; Krivoshapkina, Yana; Budden, Matthias; Rangelow, Ivo W.

    2015-03-01

    In the presented work solvent-free film preparation from tailored molecular glass resists, their thermal analysis, the characterization of etch resistance for plasma etching transfer processes, and the evaluation of the patterning performance using scanning probe lithography (SPL) tools, in particular electric field and thermal based SPL, are demonstrated. Therefore a series of fully aromatic spiro-based and tris-substituted twisted resist materials were systematically investigated. The materials feature very high glass transition temperatures of up to 173 °C, which allows solvent-free thin film preparation by physical vapor deposition (PVD) due to their high thermal stability. The PVD prepared films offer distinct advantages compared to spin coated films such as no pinholes, defects, or residual solvent domains, which can locally affect the film properties. In addition, PVD prepared films do not need a post apply bake (PAB) and can be precisely prepared in the nanometer range layer thickness. An observed sufficient plasma etching resistance is promising for an efficient pattern transfer even by utilizing only 10 nm thin resist films. Their lithographic resolution potential is demonstrated by a positive and a negative tone patterning using electric field, current controlled scanning probe lithography (EF-CC-SPL) at the Technical University of Ilmenau or thermal scanning probe lithography (tSPL) investigations at the IBM Research - Zurich. High resolution tSPL prepared patterns of 11 nm half pitch and at 4 nm patterning depth are demonstrated.

  16. Structurally induced FEES from nanotips: implications for scanning tunneling spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, N.; Binh, Vu Thien; Purcell, S. T.

    1993-08-01

    Recent theoretical studies and experimental data show the existence of energy levels at the apex atom of nanotips. We report here experimental measurements, by field emission electron spectroscopy (FEES), of strong modifications of the local density of states for varying atomic configurations of the nanotips. The local density of states specific to each protrusion must then be considered in interpreting scanning tunneling microscopy and scanning tunneling spectroscopy experiments with atomic resolution instead of the commonly used free-electron model.

  17. Structurally induced FEES from nanotips: implications for scanning tunneling spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, N.; Binh, Vu Thien; Purcell, S. T.

    Recent theoretical studies and experimental data show the existence of energy levels the apex atom of nanotips. We report here experimental measurements, by field emission electron spectroscopy (FEES), of strong modifications of the local density of states for varying atomic configurations of the nanotips. The local density of states specific to each protrusion must then be considered in interpreting scanning tunneling microscopy and scanning tunneling spectroscopy experiments with atomic resolution instead of the commonly used free-electron model.

  18. Potential Applications of Scanning Probe Microscopy in Forensic Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, G. S.; Watson, J. A.

    2007-04-01

    The forensic community utilises a myriad of techniques to investigate a wide range of materials, from paint flakes to DNA. The various microscopic techniques have provided some of the greatest contributions, e.g., FT-IR (Fourier-transform infrared) microspectroscopy utilised in copy toner discrimination, multi-layer automobile paint fragment examination, etc, SEM-EDA (scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis) used to investigate glass fragments, fibers, and explosives, and SEM in microsampling for elemental analysis, just to name a few. This study demonstrates the ability of the Scanning Probe Microscope (SPM) to analyse human fingerprints on surfaces utilising a step-and-scan feature, enabling analysis of a larger field-of-view. We also extend a line crossings study by incorporating height analysis and surface roughness measurements. The study demonstrates the potential for SPM techniques to be utilised for forensic analysis which could complement the more traditional methodologies used in such investigations.

  19. Three-axis positional drift correction in scanning probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Follin, Nathan D.; Musalo, Christopher J.; Trawick, Matthew L.

    2011-03-01

    Positional drift in scanning probe microscopy can cause image distortion and metrological errors of tens of nanometers or more. It can arise from thermal drift, due to thermal expansion of materials in the sample and microscope while scanning, or from piezo creep, particularly along the z axis. We present a technique for correcting positional drift errors in all three axes. Our method works by comparing each scanned topographical image to a second, partial scan, taken immediately afterwards, on which the fast and slow scan axes have been reversed. We model the positional distortion as a low-order polynomial function in three dimensions, searching for the set of correctional coefficients that minimizes the difference between the two scans. Using this technique we have successfully reduced positional errors from 50 nm to 0.5 nm in the z axis, and from 40 nm to 2 nm (about half of a single pixel) in the xy plane. Supported by an award from Research Corporation for Science Advancement, and by the American Chemical Society Petroleum Research Fund through Grant number 46380-GB7.

  20. Thermal scanning probe microscopy in the development of pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xuan; Moffat, Jonathan G; Wood, John; Reading, Mike

    2012-04-01

    The ability to characterize the physical and chemical properties of dosage forms is crucial to a more complete understanding of how vehicles for drug delivery behave and therefore how effective they are. Spatially resolved characterization that enables the visualization of properties on the nanoscale is particularly powerful. The usefulness of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) in the field of drug delivery is becoming increasingly well established and the use of thermal probes offers new capabilities thus enabling SPM to provide more and sometimes unique information. One type of measurement enabled by thermal probes is determining transition temperatures by means of local thermal analysis. The ability to identify and characterize materials in this way has found applications in characterizing a wide range of dosage forms. A complimentary thermal probe technique is photothermal infrared microspectroscopy (PTMS). PTMS offers a variety of advantages over more conventional approaches including the ability analyze compacts without the need for thin sections. It is also able to achieve sub-micron spatial resolution. Thermal probe techniques can characterize pharmaceutical dosage forms in terms of their physical properties and their chemical composition. PMID:21856345

  1. Correlation-steered scanning for scanning probe microscopes to overcome thermal drift for ultra-long time scanning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liansheng; Long, Qian; Liu, Yongbin; Zhang, Jie; Feng, Zhihua

    2016-07-01

    The thermal effect is one of the most important factors that influence the accuracy of nanoscale measurement and the surface topography of samples in scanning probe microscopes (SPMs). We propose a method called correlation-steered scanning, which is capable of overcoming three-dimensional thermal drifts in real time for ultra-long time scanned images. The image is scanned band by band with overlapping parts between adjacent bands. The vertical drift can be considered as linear and can thus be eliminated together with the tilt of the sample by applying the flattening method. Each band is artificially divided into several blocks for conveniently calculating lateral drifts on the basis of the overlapping area of adjacent bands through digital image correlation. The calculated lateral drifts are compensated to steer the scanning of the subsequent blocks, thus ensuring that all bands are parallel to one another. Experimental results proved that images scanned by the proposed method exhibited less distortions than those obtained from the traditional raster scanning method. The nanoscale measurement results based on the image obtained by the proposed method also showed high accuracy, with an error of less than 1.5%. By scanning as many bands as needed, the correlation-steered scanning method can obtain a highly precise SPM image of an ultra-large area. PMID:27107628

  2. Low-Temperature Scanning Capacitance Probe for Imaging Electron Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhandari, S.; Westervelt, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Novel techniques to probe electronic properties at the nanoscale can shed light on the physics of nanoscale devices. In particular, studying the scattering of electrons from edges and apertures at the nanoscale and imaging the electron profile in a quantum dot, have been of interest [1]. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of a cooled scanning capacitance probe that operates at liquid He temperatures to image electron waves in nanodevices. The conducting tip of a scanned probe microscope is held above the nanoscale structure, and an applied sample-to-tip voltage creates an image charge that is measured by a cooled charge amplifier [2] adjacent to the tip. The circuit is based on a low-capacitance, high- electron-mobility transistor (Fujitsu FHX35X). The input is a capacitance bridge formed by a low capacitance pinched-off HEMT transistor and tip-sample capacitance. We have achieved low noise level (0.13 e/VHz) and high spatial resolution (100 nm) for this technique, which promises to be a useful tool to study electronic behavior in nanoscale devices.

  3. Pump-Probe Noise Spectroscopy of Molecular Junctions.

    PubMed

    Ochoa, Maicol A; Selzer, Yoram; Peskin, Uri; Galperin, Michael

    2015-02-01

    The slow response of electronic components in junctions limits the direct applicability of pump-probe type spectroscopy in assessing the intramolecular dynamics. Recently the possibility of getting information on a sub-picosecond time scale from dc current measurements was proposed. We revisit the idea of picosecond resolution by pump-probe spectroscopy from dc measurements and show that any intramolecular dynamics not directly related to charge transfer in the current direction is missed by current measurements. We propose a pump-probe dc shot noise spectroscopy as a suitable alternative. Numerical examples of time-dependent and average responses of junctions are presented for generic models. PMID:26261965

  4. Combined fiber probe for fluorescence lifetime and Raman spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Dochow, Sebastian; Ma, Dinglong; Latka, Ines; Bocklitz, Thomas; Hartl, Brad; Bec, Julien; Fatakdawala, Hussain; Marple, Eric; Urmey, Kirk; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian; Schmitt, Michael; Marcu, Laura; Popp, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution we present a dual modality fiber optic probe combining fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIm) and Raman spectroscopy for in vivo endoscopic applications. The presented multi-spectroscopy probe enables efficient excitation and collection of fluorescence lifetime signals for FLIm in the UV/visible wavelength region, as well as of Raman spectra in the near-IR for simultaneous Raman/FLIm imaging. The probe was characterized in terms of its lateral resolution and distance dependency of the Raman and FLIm signals. In addition, the feasibility of the probe for in vivo FLIm and Raman spectral characterization of tissue was demonstrated. PMID:26093843

  5. Cone penetrometer fiber optic raman spectroscopy probe assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kyle, Kevin R.; Brown, Steven B.

    2000-01-01

    A chemically and mechanically robust optical Raman spectroscopy probe assembly that can be incorporated in a cone penetrometer (CPT) for subsurface deployment. This assembly consists of an optical Raman probe and a penetrometer compatible optical probe housing. The probe is intended for in-situ chemical analysis of chemical constituents in the surrounding environment. The probe is optically linked via fiber optics to the light source and the detection system at the surface. A built-in broadband light source provides a strobe method for direct measurement of sample optical density. A mechanically stable sapphire window is sealed directly into the side-wall of the housing using a metallic, chemically resistant, hermetic seal design. This window permits transmission of the interrogation light beam and the resultant signal. The spectroscopy probe assembly is capable of accepting Raman, Laser induced Fluorescence, reflectance, and other optical probes with collimated output for CPT deployment.

  6. Cone penetrometer fiber optic Raman spectroscopy probe assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Kyle, K.R.; Brown, S.B.

    2000-01-25

    A chemically and mechanically robust optical Raman spectroscopy probe assembly is described that can be incorporated in a cone penetrometer (CPT) for subsurface deployment. This assembly consists of an optical Raman probe and a penetrometer compatible optical probe housing. The probe is intended for in-situ chemical analysis of chemical constituents in the surrounding environment. The probe is optically linked via fiber optics to the light source and the detection system at the surface. A built-in broadband light source provides a strobe method for direct measurement of sample optical density. A mechanically stable sapphire window is sealed directly into the side-wall of the housing using a metallic, chemically resistant, hermetic seal design. This window permits transmission of the interrogation light beam and the resultant signal. The spectroscopy probe assembly is capable of accepting Raman, Laser induced Fluorescence, reflectance, and other optical probes with collimated output for CPT deployment.

  7. Metallized Capillaries as Probes for Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelletier, Michael

    2003-01-01

    A class of miniature probes has been proposed to supplant the fiber-optic probes used heretofore in some Raman and fluorescence spectroscopic systems. A probe according to the proposal would include a capillary tube coated with metal on its inside to make it reflective. A microlens would be hermetically sealed onto one end of the tube. A spectroscopic probe head would contain a single such probe, which would both deliver laser light to a sample and collect Raman or fluorescent light emitted by the sample.

  8. Ion Channel Probes for Scanning Ion Conductance Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The sensitivity and selectivity of ion channels provide an appealing opportunity for sensor development. Here, we describe ion channel probes (ICPs), which consist of multiple ion channels reconstituted into lipid bilayers suspended across the opening of perflourinated glass micropipets. When incorporated with a scanning ion conductance microscope (SICM), ICPs displayed a distance-dependent current response that depended on the number of ion channels in the membrane. With distance-dependent current as feedback, probes were translated laterally, to demonstrate the possibility of imaging with ICPs. The ICP platform yields several potential advantages for SICM that will enable exciting opportunities for incorporation of chemical information into imaging and for high-resolution imaging. PMID:25425190

  9. Optical spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy studies of molecular adsorbates and anisotropic ultrathin films. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hemminger, J.C.

    1998-09-01

    The bonding, chemistry and ordering of molecular adsorbates on well defined single crystal surfaces and in ultrathin films was to be studied in an effort to develop sufficient fundamental understanding to allow the controlled preparation of anisotropic ultrathin films of organic monolayers. In this research the authors combine the use of optical probes (Raman spectroscopy, laser induced thermal desorption with Fourier transform mass spectrometry detection) with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and conventional methods of UHV surface science (Auger electron spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, low energy electron diffraction, and thermal desorption spectroscopy). The conventional surface probes provide well tested methods for the preparation and characterization of single crystal substrates. The optical probes used in the experiments provide powerful methods for the molecular identification of adsorbates in monolayers and ultrathin films. Scanning tunneling microscopy provides one with the ability to determine the detailed molecular level ordering of the molecular adsorbates. The emphasis of this research is on more complex molecular absorbates some of which are monomer precursors to ultrathin polymer films. Enhanced methods of Raman spectroscopy have been developed for the study of monolayer adsorbates on surfaces in ultrahigh vacuum environments. This report gives an overview of recent research results, including the construction of UHV variable temperature STM, analysis of STM images, growth and chemistry of intermetallic single crystal ultrathin films, and electron beam induced chemistry of tetracyanoquinodimethane.

  10. Method for nanoscale spatial registration of scanning probes with substrates and surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, Lawrence A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Embodiments in accordance with the present invention relate to methods and apparatuses for aligning a scanning probe used to pattern a substrate, by comparing the position of the probe to a reference location or spot on the substrate. A first light beam is focused on a surface of the substrate as a spatial reference point. A second light beam then illuminates the scanning probe being used for patterning. An optical microscope images both the focused light beam, and a diffraction pattern, shadow, or light backscattered by the illuminated scanning probe tip of a scanning probe microscope (SPM), which is typically the tip of the scanning probe on an atomic force microscope (AFM). Alignment of the scanning probe tip relative to the mark is then determined by visual observation of the microscope image. This alignment process may be repeated to allow for modification or changing of the scanning probe microscope tip.

  11. Temperature mapping of operating nanoscale devices by scanning probe thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menges, Fabian; Mensch, Philipp; Schmid, Heinz; Riel, Heike; Stemmer, Andreas; Gotsmann, Bernd

    2016-03-01

    Imaging temperature fields at the nanoscale is a central challenge in various areas of science and technology. Nanoscopic hotspots, such as those observed in integrated circuits or plasmonic nanostructures, can be used to modify the local properties of matter, govern physical processes, activate chemical reactions and trigger biological mechanisms in living organisms. The development of high-resolution thermometry techniques is essential for understanding local thermal non-equilibrium processes during the operation of numerous nanoscale devices. Here we present a technique to map temperature fields using a scanning thermal microscope. Our method permits the elimination of tip-sample contact-related artefacts, a major hurdle that so far has limited the use of scanning probe microscopy for nanoscale thermometry. We map local Peltier effects at the metal-semiconductor contacts to an indium arsenide nanowire and self-heating of a metal interconnect with 7 mK and sub-10 nm spatial temperature resolution.

  12. Temperature mapping of operating nanoscale devices by scanning probe thermometry.

    PubMed

    Menges, Fabian; Mensch, Philipp; Schmid, Heinz; Riel, Heike; Stemmer, Andreas; Gotsmann, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Imaging temperature fields at the nanoscale is a central challenge in various areas of science and technology. Nanoscopic hotspots, such as those observed in integrated circuits or plasmonic nanostructures, can be used to modify the local properties of matter, govern physical processes, activate chemical reactions and trigger biological mechanisms in living organisms. The development of high-resolution thermometry techniques is essential for understanding local thermal non-equilibrium processes during the operation of numerous nanoscale devices. Here we present a technique to map temperature fields using a scanning thermal microscope. Our method permits the elimination of tip-sample contact-related artefacts, a major hurdle that so far has limited the use of scanning probe microscopy for nanoscale thermometry. We map local Peltier effects at the metal-semiconductor contacts to an indium arsenide nanowire and self-heating of a metal interconnect with 7 mK and sub-10 nm spatial temperature resolution. PMID:26936427

  13. Temperature mapping of operating nanoscale devices by scanning probe thermometry

    PubMed Central

    Menges, Fabian; Mensch, Philipp; Schmid, Heinz; Riel, Heike; Stemmer, Andreas; Gotsmann, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Imaging temperature fields at the nanoscale is a central challenge in various areas of science and technology. Nanoscopic hotspots, such as those observed in integrated circuits or plasmonic nanostructures, can be used to modify the local properties of matter, govern physical processes, activate chemical reactions and trigger biological mechanisms in living organisms. The development of high-resolution thermometry techniques is essential for understanding local thermal non-equilibrium processes during the operation of numerous nanoscale devices. Here we present a technique to map temperature fields using a scanning thermal microscope. Our method permits the elimination of tip–sample contact-related artefacts, a major hurdle that so far has limited the use of scanning probe microscopy for nanoscale thermometry. We map local Peltier effects at the metal–semiconductor contacts to an indium arsenide nanowire and self-heating of a metal interconnect with 7 mK and sub-10 nm spatial temperature resolution. PMID:26936427

  14. Probing ultrafast spin dynamics with optical pump-probe scanning tunnelling microscopy.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Shoji; Aizawa, Yuta; Wang, Zi-han; Oshima, Ryuji; Mera, Yutaka; Matsuyama, Eiji; Oigawa, Haruhiro; Takeuchi, Osamu; Shigekawa, Hidemi

    2014-08-01

    Studies of spin dynamics in low-dimensional systems are important from both fundamental and practical points of view. Spin-polarized scanning tunnelling microscopy allows localized spin dynamics to be characterized and plays important roles in nanoscale science and technology. However, nanoscale analysis of the ultrafast dynamics of itinerant magnetism, as well as its localized characteristics, should be pursued to advance further the investigation of quantum dynamics in functional structures of small systems. Here, we demonstrate the optical pump-probe scanning tunnelling microscopy technique, which enables the nanoscale probing of spin dynamics with the temporal resolution corresponding, in principle, to the optical pulse width. Spins are optically oriented using circularly polarized light, and their dynamics are probed by scanning tunnelling microscopy based on the optical pump-probe method. Spin relaxation in a single quantum well with a width of 6 nm was observed with a spatial resolution of ∼ 1 nm. In addition to spin relaxation dynamics, spin precession, which provides an estimation of the Landé g factor, was observed successfully. PMID:24974938

  15. Probing ultrafast spin dynamics with optical pump-probe scanning tunnelling microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Shoji; Aizawa, Yuta; Wang, Zi-Han; Oshima, Ryuji; Mera, Yutaka; Matsuyama, Eiji; Oigawa, Haruhiro; Takeuchi, Osamu; Shigekawa, Hidemi

    2014-08-01

    Studies of spin dynamics in low-dimensional systems are important from both fundamental and practical points of view. Spin-polarized scanning tunnelling microscopy allows localized spin dynamics to be characterized and plays important roles in nanoscale science and technology. However, nanoscale analysis of the ultrafast dynamics of itinerant magnetism, as well as its localized characteristics, should be pursued to advance further the investigation of quantum dynamics in functional structures of small systems. Here, we demonstrate the optical pump-probe scanning tunnelling microscopy technique, which enables the nanoscale probing of spin dynamics with the temporal resolution corresponding, in principle, to the optical pulse width. Spins are optically oriented using circularly polarized light, and their dynamics are probed by scanning tunnelling microscopy based on the optical pump-probe method. Spin relaxation in a single quantum well with a width of 6 nm was observed with a spatial resolution of ~1 nm. In addition to spin relaxation dynamics, spin precession, which provides an estimation of the Landé g factor, was observed successfully.

  16. Development and demonstration of table-top synchronized fast-scan femtosecond time-resolved spectroscopy system by single-shot scan photo detector array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabushita, Atsushi; Kao, Chih-Hsien; Lee, Yu-Hsien; Kobayashi, Takayoshi

    2015-07-01

    Ultrafast dynamics is generally studied by pump-probe method with laser pulse, which scans optical delay by motorized stage step by step. Using ultrashort laser pulse shorter than typical molecular vibration periods, the pump-probe measurement can study both of electronic dynamics and vibration dynamics simultaneously. The probe wavelength dependence of the ultrafast electronic and vibration dynamics (UEVD) helps us to distinguish the signal contributions from the dynamics of the electronic ground state and that of the electronic excited states, which elucidates primary reaction mechanism after photoexcitation. Meanwhile, the measurement time of UEVD spectroscopy takes too long time to be used in realistic application. In our previous work, we have developed multi-channel lock-in amplifying (MLA) detectors to study UEVD at all probe wavelengths simultaneously, and synchronized it with laser and fast-scan delay stage to scan the data in five seconds. It enabled us to study UEVD spectroscopy even for photo-fragile materials. However, the home-made MLA detectors required for the measurement is expensive and massive in size and weight, thus not suitable for general researchers in the field of ultrafast time-resolved spectroscopy. In the present work, we have developed a table-top synchronized fast-scan femtosecond time-resolved spectroscopy system using single shot scan line CCD. This system measures time-resolved trace at all probe wavelengths simultaneously in five seconds. The CCD-based fast-scan time-resolved spectroscopy system enables us to study ultrafast dynamics of various materials even biomaterials, which have been thought to be hard or even impossible to be studied in previous methods.

  17. Multiple-scanning-probe tunneling microscope with nanoscale positional recognition function

    SciTech Connect

    Higuchi, Seiji; Kuramochi, Hiromi; Machida, Shinichi; Aono, Masakazu; Laurent, Olivier; Komatsubara, Takashi; Obori, Kenichi; Nakayama, Tomonobu

    2010-07-15

    Over the past decade, multiple-scanning-probe microscope systems with independently controlled probes have been developed for nanoscale electrical measurements. We developed a quadruple-scanning-probe tunneling microscope (QSPTM) that can determine and control the probe position through scanning-probe imaging. The difficulty of operating multiple probes with submicrometer precision drastically increases with the number of probes. To solve problems such as determining the relative positions of the probes and avoiding of contact between the probes, we adopted sample-scanning methods to obtain four images simultaneously and developed an original control system for QSPTM operation with a function of automatic positional recognition. These improvements make the QSPTM a more practical and useful instrument since four images can now be reliably produced, and consequently the positioning of the four probes becomes easier owing to the reduced chance of accidental contact between the probes.

  18. Scanning thermal microscopy with heat conductive nanowire probes.

    PubMed

    Timofeeva, Maria; Bolshakov, Alexey; Tovee, Peter D; Zeze, Dagou A; Dubrovskii, Vladimir G; Kolosov, Oleg V

    2016-03-01

    Scanning thermal microscopy (SThM), which enables measurement of thermal transport and temperature distribution in devices and materials with nanoscale resolution is rapidly becoming a key approach in resolving heat dissipation problems in modern processors and assisting development of new thermoelectric materials. In SThM, the self-heating thermal sensor contacts the sample allowing studying of the temperature distribution and heat transport in nanoscaled materials and devices. The main factors that limit the resolution and sensitivities of SThM measurements are the low efficiency of thermal coupling and the lateral dimensions of the probed area of the surface studied. The thermal conductivity of the sample plays a key role in the sensitivity of SThM measurements. During the SThM measurements of the areas with higher thermal conductivity the heat flux via SThM probe is increased compared to the areas with lower thermal conductivity. For optimal SThM measurements of interfaces between low and high thermal conductivity materials, well defined nanoscale probes with high thermal conductivity at the probe apex are required to achieve a higher quality of the probe-sample thermal contact while preserving the lateral resolution of the system. In this paper, we consider a SThM approach that can help address these complex problems by using high thermal conductivity nanowires (NW) attached to a tip apex. We propose analytical models of such NW-SThM probes and analyse the influence of the contact resistance between the SThM probe and the sample studied. The latter becomes particularly important when both tip and sample surface have high thermal conductivities. These models were complemented by finite element analysis simulations and experimental tests using prototype probe where a multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) is exploited as an excellent example of a high thermal conductivity NW. These results elucidate critical relationships between the performance of the SThM probe on

  19. Role of space charge in scanned probe oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagata, J. A.; Inoue, T.; Itoh, J.; Matsumoto, K.; Yokoyama, H.

    1998-12-01

    The growth rate and electrical character of nanostructures produced by scanned probe oxidation are investigated by integrating an in situ electrical force characterization technique, scanning Maxwell-stress microscopy, into the fabrication process. Simultaneous topographical, capacitance, and surface potential data are obtained for oxide features patterned on n- and p-type silicon and titanium thin-film substrates. The electric field established by an applied voltage pulse between the probe tip and substrate depends upon reactant and product ion concentrations associated with the water meniscus at the tip-substrate junction and within the growing oxide film. Space-charge effects are consistent with the rapid decline of high initial growth rates, account for observed doping and voltage-pulse dependencies, and provide a basis for understanding local density variations within oxide features. An obvious method for avoiding the buildup of space charge is to employ voltage modulation and other dynamic pulse-shaping techniques during the oxidation pulse. Voltage modulation leads to a significant enhancement of the growth rate and to improvements in the aspect ratio compared with static voltage pulses.

  20. Combined fiber probe for fluorescence lifetime and Raman spectroscopy (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dochow, Sebastian; Ma, Dinglong; Latka, Ines; Bocklitz, Thomas; Hartl, Brad; Bec, Julien; Fatakdawala, Hussain; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian; Marple, Eric; Urmey, Kirk; Schmitt, Michael; Marcu, Laura; Popp, Jürgen

    2016-03-01

    Raman spectroscopy has been proven to have tremendous potential as biomedical analytical tool for spectroscopic disease diagnostics. The use of fiberoptic coupled Raman spectroscopy systems can enable in-vivo characterization of suspicious lesions. However, Raman spectroscopy has the drawback of rather long acquisition times of several hundreds of milliseconds which makes scanning of larger regions quite challenging. By combining Raman spectroscopy with a fast imaging technique this problem can be alleviate in part. Fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIm) offers a great potential for such a combination. FLIm can allow for fast tissue area pre-segmentation and location of the points for Raman spectra acquisition. Here, we introduce an optical fiber probe combining FLIm and Raman spectroscopy with an outer diameter of 2 mm. Fluorescence is generated via excitation with a fiber laser at 355 nm. The fluorescence emission is spectrally resolved using a custom-made wavelength-selection module (WSM). The Raman excitation power at 785 nm was set to 50 mW for the in-vivo measurements to prevent sample drying. The lateral probe resolution was determined to be <250 μm for both modalities. This value was taken as step size for several raster scans of different tissue types which were conducted to show the overlap of both modalities under realistic conditions. Finally the probe was used for in vivo raster scans of a rat's brain and subsequently to acquire FLIm guided Raman spectra of several tissues in and around the craniotomy.

  1. Multidimensional NMR spectroscopy in a single scan.

    PubMed

    Gal, Maayan; Frydman, Lucio

    2015-11-01

    Multidimensional NMR has become one of the most widespread spectroscopic tools available to study diverse structural and functional aspects of organic and biomolecules. A main feature of multidimensional NMR is the relatively long acquisition times that these experiments demand. For decades, scientists have been working on a variety of alternatives that would enable NMR to overcome this limitation, and deliver its data in shorter acquisition times. Counting among these methodologies is the so-called ultrafast (UF) NMR approach, which in principle allows one to collect arbitrary multidimensional correlations in a single sub-second transient. By contrast to conventional acquisitions, a main feature of UF NMR is a spatiotemporal manipulation of the spins that imprints the chemical shift and/or J-coupling evolutions being sought, into a spatial pattern. Subsequent gradient-based manipulations enable the reading out of this information and its multidimensional correlation into patterns that are identical to those afforded by conventional techniques. The current review focuses on the fundamental principles of this spatiotemporal UF NMR manipulation, and on a few of the methodological extensions that this form of spectroscopy has undergone during the years. PMID:26249041

  2. Dual-probe scanning tunneling microscope for study of nanoscale metal-semiconductor interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, W.; Kaya, I. I.; Altfeder, I. B.; Appelbaum, I.; Chen, D. M.; Narayanamurti, V.

    2005-06-01

    Using a dual-probe scanning tunneling microscope, we have performed three-terminal ballistic electron emission spectroscopy on Au /GaAs(100) by contacting the patterned metallic thin film with one tip and injecting ballistic electrons with another tip. The collector current spectra agree with a Monte-Carlo simulation based on modified planar tunneling theory. Our results suggest that it is possible to study nanoscale metal-semiconductor interfaces without the requirement of an externally-contacted continuous metal thin film.

  3. Probing the Inelastic Interactions in Molecular Junctions by Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chen

    With a sub-Kelvin scanning tunneling microscope, the energy resolution of spectroscopy is improved dramatically. Detailed studies of finer features of spectrum become possible. The asymmetry in the line shape of carbon monoxide vibrational spectra is observed to correlate with the couplings of the molecule to the tip and substrates. The spin-vibronic coupling in the molecular junctions is revisited with two metal phthalocyanine molecules, unveiling sharp spin-vibronic peaks. Finally, thanks to the improved spectrum resolution, the bonding structure of the acyclic compounds molecules is surveyed with STM inelastic tunneling probe, expanding the capability of the innovative high resolution imaging technique.

  4. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy of chemical vapor deposition grown graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cormode, Daniel; Reynolds, Collin; Leroy, Brian

    2011-03-01

    The electronic properties of CVD grown graphene were investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy. Mono and multi layered samples were prepared by growth on copper and transferred to 300 nm Si O2 substrates. Raman spectroscopy mapping was used to determine the thickness of the samples as well as characterize regions of higher disorder as evidenced by an increased D peak. The samples were then measured in ultra high vacuum by scanning tunneling spectroscopy at 5 K. The type and density of defects measured with the STM were compared with measured D peak intensity. We have examined the correlation between changes in the local density of states and disorder in monolayer graphene.

  5. Potentiostatic deposition of DNA for scanning probe microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, S M; Tao, N J; DeRose, J A; Oden, P I; Lyubchenko YuL; Harrington, R E; Shlyakhtenko, L

    1992-01-01

    We describe a procedure for reversible adsorption of DNA onto a gold electrode maintained under potential control. The adsorbate can be imaged by scanning probe microscopy in situ. Quantitative control of a molecular adsorbate for microscopy is now possible. We found a potential window (between 0 and 180 mV versus a silver wire quasi reference) over which a gold (111) surface under phosphate buffer is positively charged, but is not covered with a dense adsorbate. When DNA is present in these conditions, molecules adsorb onto the electrode and remain stable under repeated scanning with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). They become removed when the surface is brought to a negative charge. When operated at tunnel currents below approximately 0.4 nA, the STM yields a resolution of approximately 1 nm, which is better than can be obtained with atomic force microscopy (AFM) at present. We illustrate this procedure by imaging a series of DNA molecules made by ligating a 21 base-pair oligonucleotide. We observed the expected series of fragment lengths but small fragments are adsorbed preferentially. Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 PMID:1617139

  6. Fluorescent probes for shock compression spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banishev, Alexandr; Christensen, James; Dlott, Dana

    We have demonstrated the capability of using Rhodamine 6G dye as an ultrafast emission probe in high-speed shock compression of condensed matter. The ultimate time response of the probe, which functions as a high-speed pressure sensor, is limited by fundamental photophysical processes such as radiative rates, internal conversion rates and intersystem crossing rates. The time response has been greatly improved by encapsulating the dye in silica nano or microparticles. This probe was used to observed nanosecond viscoelastic shock compression of a polymer (PMMA), and has been used to monitor the response of individual grains of sand to high-speed impact.

  7. Scanning gate spectroscopy of a quantum Hall island near a quantum point contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackens, Benoit; Martins, Frederico; Faniel, Sebastien; Bayot, Vincent; Rosenow, Bernd; Desplanque, Ludovic; Wallart, Xavier; Pala, Marco; Sellier, Hermann; Huant, Serge

    2013-03-01

    We report on low temperature (100 mK) scanning gate experiments performed at high magnetic field (around 10 T) on a mesoscopic device patterned in an InGaAs/InAlAs heterostructure. Magnetotransport measurements yield signatures of ultra-small Quantum Hall Islands (QHI) formed by closed quantum Hall edge states and connected to propagating edge channels through tunnel barriers. Scanning gate microscopy and scanning gate spectroscopy are used to locate and probe a single QHI near a quantum point contact. The presence of Coulomb diamonds in the local spectroscopy confirms that Coulomb blockade governs transport across the QHI. Varying the microscope tip bias as well as current bias across the device, we uncover the QHI discrete energy spectrum arising from electronic confinement and we extract estimates of the gradient of the confining potential and of the edge state velocity.

  8. Characterization of probe contact effects on diffuse reflectance spectroscopy measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reistad, Nina; Mayjonade, Mallory; Ahadi, Aylin; Andersson-Engels, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is a rapid, non-invasive optical method widely adopted to gain diagnostic information of tissue. The most flexible approach to this method is a fiber-optic contact-probe used with a spectroscopy system. A challenge of this method is that the external pressure brought by the probe can significantly affect the tissue optical properties as well as the light coupling into the probe, and thus influence the collected DRS-spectrum. In this study we investigate and characterize the effect of probe pressure on DRS-spectra obtained with a calibrated loaded-spring system used with a fiber optic probe in the range (400 - 1600) nm. A multilayer FE-model of the indentation is developed to get a better insight of the distribution of pressure and stresses inside the skin under indentation.

  9. Nanoscale Electromechanics of Ferroelectric and Biological Systems: A New Dimension in Scanning Probe Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kalinin, Sergei V; Rodriguez, Brian J; Jesse, Stephen; Karapetian, Edgar; Mirman, B; Eliseev, E. A.; Morozovska, A. N.

    2007-01-01

    Functionality of biological and inorganic systems ranging from nonvolatile computer memories and microelectromechanical systems to electromotor proteins and cellular membranes is ultimately based on the intricate coupling between electrical and mechanical phenomena. In the past decade, piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) has been established as a powerful tool for nanoscale imaging, spectroscopy, and manipulation of ferroelectric and piezoelectric materials. Here, we give an overview of the fundamental image formation mechanism in PFM and summarize recent theoretical and technological advances. In particular, we show that the signal formation in PFM is complementary to that in the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques, and we discuss the implications. We also consider the prospect of extending PFM beyond ferroelectric characterization for quantitative probing of electromechanical behavior in molecular and biological systems and high-resolution probing of static and dynamic polarization switching processes in low-dimensional ferroelectric materials and heterostructures.

  10. Nanopatterning reconfigurable magnetic landscapes via thermally assisted scanning probe lithography.

    PubMed

    Albisetti, E; Petti, D; Pancaldi, M; Madami, M; Tacchi, S; Curtis, J; King, W P; Papp, A; Csaba, G; Porod, W; Vavassori, P; Riedo, E; Bertacco, R

    2016-06-01

    The search for novel tools to control magnetism at the nanoscale is crucial for the development of new paradigms in optics, electronics and spintronics. So far, the fabrication of magnetic nanostructures has been achieved mainly through irreversible structural or chemical modifications. Here, we propose a new concept for creating reconfigurable magnetic nanopatterns by crafting, at the nanoscale, the magnetic anisotropy landscape of a ferromagnetic layer exchange-coupled to an antiferromagnetic layer. By performing localized field cooling with the hot tip of a scanning probe microscope, magnetic structures, with arbitrarily oriented magnetization and tunable unidirectional anisotropy, are reversibly patterned without modifying the film chemistry and topography. This opens unforeseen possibilities for the development of novel metamaterials with finely tuned magnetic properties, such as reconfigurable magneto-plasmonic and magnonic crystals. In this context, we experimentally demonstrate spatially controlled spin wave excitation and propagation in magnetic structures patterned with the proposed method. PMID:26950242

  11. Ferroelectric Switching by the Grounded Scanning Probe Microscopy Tip

    SciTech Connect

    Ievlev, Anton V.; Morozovska, A. N.; Shur, Vladimir Ya.; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2015-06-19

    The process of polarization reversal by the tip of scanning probe microscope was intensively studied for last two decades. Number of the abnormal switching phenomena was reported by the scientific groups worldwide. In particularly it was experimentally and theoretically shown that slow dynamics of the surface screening controls kinetics of the ferroelectric switching, backswitching and relaxation and presence of the charges carriers on the sample surface and in the sample bulk significantly change polarization reversal dynamics. Here we experimentally demonstrated practical possibility of the history dependent polarization reversal by the grounded SPM tip. This phenomenon was attributed to induction of the slowly dissipating charges into the surface of the grounded tip that enables polarization reversal under the action of the produced electric field. Analytical and numerical electrostatic calculations allow additional insight into nontrivial abnormal switching phenomena reported earlier.

  12. Ferroelectric Switching by the Grounded Scanning Probe Microscopy Tip

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ievlev, Anton V.; Morozovska, A. N.; Shur, Vladimir Ya.; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2015-06-19

    The process of polarization reversal by the tip of scanning probe microscope was intensively studied for last two decades. Number of the abnormal switching phenomena was reported by the scientific groups worldwide. In particularly it was experimentally and theoretically shown that slow dynamics of the surface screening controls kinetics of the ferroelectric switching, backswitching and relaxation and presence of the charges carriers on the sample surface and in the sample bulk significantly change polarization reversal dynamics. Here we experimentally demonstrated practical possibility of the history dependent polarization reversal by the grounded SPM tip. This phenomenon was attributed to induction ofmore » the slowly dissipating charges into the surface of the grounded tip that enables polarization reversal under the action of the produced electric field. Analytical and numerical electrostatic calculations allow additional insight into nontrivial abnormal switching phenomena reported earlier.« less

  13. Design and manufacturing of scanning probe acoustic microscope test phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaohui; Fang, Xiaoyue; Song, Jitao; Ding, Mingyue

    2015-03-01

    Acquiring nondestructive internal structures acoustic image as well as the morphology images using scanning probe acoustic microscope (SPAM) is a challenge and no known metrology tools to identify the ultrasonic internal resolution and detectable depth of SPAM in a nondestructive way. Monitoring these defects necessitates the identification of their technical parameters of SPAM. In this paper, the specific materials (test phantoms) were designed and processed so that the ultrasound internal resolution of SPAM in nondestructive imaging of the embedded or buried substructures as well as the morphology images were measured. Experimental results demonstrated the successful identification of embedded or buried defects under the test phantom with the resolution of 50nm for SPAM as well as the detectable depth of more than 100μm.

  14. Nanopatterning reconfigurable magnetic landscapes via thermally assisted scanning probe lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albisetti, E.; Petti, D.; Pancaldi, M.; Madami, M.; Tacchi, S.; Curtis, J.; King, W. P.; Papp, A.; Csaba, G.; Porod, W.; Vavassori, P.; Riedo, E.; Bertacco, R.

    2016-06-01

    The search for novel tools to control magnetism at the nanoscale is crucial for the development of new paradigms in optics, electronics and spintronics. So far, the fabrication of magnetic nanostructures has been achieved mainly through irreversible structural or chemical modifications. Here, we propose a new concept for creating reconfigurable magnetic nanopatterns by crafting, at the nanoscale, the magnetic anisotropy landscape of a ferromagnetic layer exchange-coupled to an antiferromagnetic layer. By performing localized field cooling with the hot tip of a scanning probe microscope, magnetic structures, with arbitrarily oriented magnetization and tunable unidirectional anisotropy, are reversibly patterned without modifying the film chemistry and topography. This opens unforeseen possibilities for the development of novel metamaterials with finely tuned magnetic properties, such as reconfigurable magneto-plasmonic and magnonic crystals. In this context, we experimentally demonstrate spatially controlled spin wave excitation and propagation in magnetic structures patterned with the proposed method.

  15. Scanning Hall probe microscopy of a diluted magnetic semiconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Kweon, Seongsoo; Samarth, Nitin; Lozanne, Alex de

    2009-05-01

    We have measured the micromagnetic properties of a diluted magnetic semiconductor as a function of temperature and applied field with a scanning Hall probe microscope built in our laboratory. The design philosophy for this microscope and some details are described. The samples analyzed in this work are Ga{sub 0.94}Mn{sub 0.06}As films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. We find that the magnetic domains are 2-4 mum wide and fairly stable with temperature. Magnetic clusters are observed above T{sub C}, which we ascribe to MnAs defects too small and sparse to be detected by a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer.

  16. Probing Access Resistance of Solid-state Nanopores with a Scanning Probe Microscope Tip.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Changbae; Rollings, Ryan; Li, Jiali

    2012-02-01

    An apparatus that integrates solid-state nanopore ionic current measurement with a Scanning Probe Microscope has been developed. When a micrometer-scale scanning probe tip is near a voltage biased nanometer-scale pore (10-100 nm), the tip partially blocks the flow of ions to the pore and increases the pore access resistance. The apparatus records the current blockage caused by the probe tip and the location of the tip simultaneously. By measuring the current blockage map near a nanopore as a function of the tip position in 3D space in salt solution, we estimate the relative pore resistance increase due to the tip, ΔR/R(0), as a function of the tip location, nanopore geometry, and salt concentration. The amplitude of ΔR/R(0) also depends on the ratio of the pore length to its radius as Ohm's law predicts. When the tip is very close to the pore surface, ~10 nm, our experiments show that ΔR/R(0) depends on salt concentration as predicted by the Poisson and Nernst-Planck equations. Furthermore, our measurements show that ΔR/R(0) goes to zero when the tip is about five times the pore diameter away from the center of the pore entrance. The results in this work not only demonstrate a way to probe the access resistance of nanopores experimentally, they also provide a way to locate the nanopore in salt solution, and open the door to future nanopore experiments for detecting single biomolecules attached to a probe tip. PMID:22393313

  17. Probing access resistance of solid-state nanopores with a scanning-probe microscope tip.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Changbae; Rollings, Ryan; Li, Jiali

    2012-02-01

    An apparatus that integrates solid-state nanopore ionic current measurement with a scanning-probe microscope is developed. When a micrometer-scale scanning-probe tip is near a voltage-biased nanometer-scale pore (10–100 nm), the tip partially blocks the flow of ions to the pore and increases the pore access resistance. The apparatus records the current blockage caused by the probe tip and the location of the tip simultaneously. By measuring the current blockage map near a nanopore as a function of the tip position in 3D space in salt solution, the relative pore resistance increases due to the tip and ΔR/R0 is estimated as a function of the tip location, nanopore geometry, and salt concentration. The amplitude of ΔR/R0 also depends on the ratio of the pore length to its radius as Ohm's law predicts. When the tip is very close to the pore surface, ≈10 nm, experiments show that ΔR/R0 depends on salt concentration as predicted by the Poisson and Nernst–Planck equations. Furthermore, the measurements show that ΔR/R0 goes to zero when the tip is about five times the pore diameter away from the center of the pore entrance. The results in this work not only demonstrate a way to probe the access resistance of nanopores experimentally; they also provide a way to locate the nanopore in salt solution, and open the door to future nanopore experiments for detecting single biomolecules attached to a probe tip. PMID:22287084

  18. Simulation of near-field scanning optical microscopy using a plasmonic gap probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Kazuo; Tanaka, Masahiro; Katayama, Kiyofumi

    2006-10-01

    Imaging by near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) with a plasmonic gap probe (PGP) is simulated to confirm the operation of the recently proposed PGP. The simulations demonstrate that the probe works in illumination, collection-reflection and collection mode, and that is it not necessary to vibrate the probe tip in order to remove background noise. The resolution of the scanned image is also shown to be approximately equal to the diameter of the probe tip. Furthermore, the throughput of the probe is much higher than conventional aperture probes providing similar resolution. The proposed probe thus has the advantages of both aperture probes and scattering probes, and is expected to have excellent characteristics for use as a scanning probe for NSOM.

  19. Three axis vector magnet set-up for cryogenic scanning probe microscopy.

    PubMed

    Galvis, J A; Herrera, E; Guillamón, I; Azpeitia, J; Luccas, R F; Munuera, C; Cuenca, M; Higuera, J A; Díaz, N; Pazos, M; García-Hernandez, M; Buendía, A; Vieira, S; Suderow, H

    2015-01-01

    We describe a three axis vector magnet system for cryogenic scanning probe microscopy measurements. We discuss the magnet support system and the power supply, consisting of a compact three way 100 A current source. We obtain tilted magnetic fields in all directions with maximum value of 5T along z-axis and of 1.2T for XY-plane magnetic fields. We describe a scanning tunneling microscopy-spectroscopy (STM-STS) set-up, operating in a dilution refrigerator, which includes a new high voltage ultralow noise piezodrive electronics and discuss the noise level due to vibrations. STM images and STS maps show atomic resolution and the tilted vortex lattice at 150 mK in the superconductor β-Bi2Pd. We observe a strongly elongated hexagonal lattice, which corresponds to the projection of the tilted hexagonal vortex lattice on the surface. We also discuss Magnetic Force Microscopy images in a variable temperature insert. PMID:25638089

  20. Three axis vector magnet set-up for cryogenic scanning probe microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Galvis, J. A.; Herrera, E.; Buendía, A.; Guillamón, I.; Vieira, S.; Suderow, H.; Azpeitia, J.; Luccas, R. F.; Munuera, C.; García-Hernandez, M.; and others

    2015-01-15

    We describe a three axis vector magnet system for cryogenic scanning probe microscopy measurements. We discuss the magnet support system and the power supply, consisting of a compact three way 100 A current source. We obtain tilted magnetic fields in all directions with maximum value of 5T along z-axis and of 1.2T for XY-plane magnetic fields. We describe a scanning tunneling microscopy-spectroscopy (STM-STS) set-up, operating in a dilution refrigerator, which includes a new high voltage ultralow noise piezodrive electronics and discuss the noise level due to vibrations. STM images and STS maps show atomic resolution and the tilted vortex lattice at 150 mK in the superconductor β-Bi{sub 2}Pd. We observe a strongly elongated hexagonal lattice, which corresponds to the projection of the tilted hexagonal vortex lattice on the surface. We also discuss Magnetic Force Microscopy images in a variable temperature insert.

  1. Thermochemical scanning probe lithography of protein gradients at the nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Albisetti, E; Carroll, K M; Lu, X; Curtis, J E; Petti, D; Bertacco, R; Riedo, E

    2016-08-01

    Patterning nanoscale protein gradients is crucial for studying a variety of cellular processes in vitro. Despite the recent development in nano-fabrication technology, combining nanometric resolution and fine control of protein concentrations is still an open challenge. Here, we demonstrate the use of thermochemical scanning probe lithography (tc-SPL) for defining micro- and nano-sized patterns with precisely controlled protein concentration. First, tc-SPL is performed by scanning a heatable atomic force microscopy tip on a polymeric substrate, for locally exposing reactive amino groups on the surface, then the substrate is functionalized with streptavidin and laminin proteins. We show, by fluorescence microscopy on the patterned gradients, that it is possible to precisely tune the concentration of the immobilized proteins by varying the patterning parameters during tc-SPL. This paves the way to the use of tc-SPL for defining protein gradients at the nanoscale, to be used as chemical cues e.g. for studying and regulating cellular processes in vitro. PMID:27344982

  2. Thermochemical scanning probe lithography of protein gradients at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albisetti, E.; Carroll, K. M.; Lu, X.; Curtis, J. E.; Petti, D.; Bertacco, R.; Riedo, E.

    2016-08-01

    Patterning nanoscale protein gradients is crucial for studying a variety of cellular processes in vitro. Despite the recent development in nano-fabrication technology, combining nanometric resolution and fine control of protein concentrations is still an open challenge. Here, we demonstrate the use of thermochemical scanning probe lithography (tc-SPL) for defining micro- and nano-sized patterns with precisely controlled protein concentration. First, tc-SPL is performed by scanning a heatable atomic force microscopy tip on a polymeric substrate, for locally exposing reactive amino groups on the surface, then the substrate is functionalized with streptavidin and laminin proteins. We show, by fluorescence microscopy on the patterned gradients, that it is possible to precisely tune the concentration of the immobilized proteins by varying the patterning parameters during tc-SPL. This paves the way to the use of tc-SPL for defining protein gradients at the nanoscale, to be used as chemical cues e.g. for studying and regulating cellular processes in vitro.

  3. Nanoscale ferroelectric field-effect writing and reading using scanning tunnelling spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kuffer, Olivier; Maggio-Aprile, Ivan; Fischer, Øystein

    2005-05-01

    Control of the density of mobile charge carriers using electric fields is widely used in a variety of metal-insulator-semiconductor structures and is the governing principle behind the operation of field-effect transistors. Ferroelectric materials possessing a switchable and non-volatile polarization field can be used as insulating layers, revealing new opportunities for device applications. Advances in material processing and in particular complex oxide thin-film growth mean that high-quality field-effect devices can be based on ferroelectric/metallic oxide heterostructures. In addition, advances in local probe techniques such as atomic force microscopy allow them to be used in the imaging and study of small ferroelectric domain structures in bulk crystals and thin films. Meanwhile, scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy have established themselves as powerful techniques for atomic manipulation and nanometre-resolution electron tunnelling spectroscopy. Here, a scanning tunnelling microscope is used to investigate the ferroelectric field effect in all-perovskite heterostructures. Scanning tunnelling spectroscopy allows us to probe the local electronic properties of the polarized channel of a ferroelectric field-effect device as a function of the field orientation. This technique can be used to read and write ferroelectric field-induced regions with a size as low as 20 nm. PMID:15834416

  4. Integrated scanning Kelvin probe-scanning electrochemical microscope system: development and first applications.

    PubMed

    Maljusch, Artjom; Schönberger, Bernd; Lindner, Armin; Stratmann, Martin; Rohwerder, Michael; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2011-08-01

    The integration of a scanning Kelvin probe (SKP) and a scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM) into a single SKP-SECM setup, the concept of the proposed system, its technical realization, and first applications are presented and discussed in detail. A preloaded piezo actuator placed in a grounded stainless steel case was used as the driving mechanism for oscillation of a Pt disk electrode as conventionally used in SECM when the system was operated in the SKP mode. Thus, the same tip is recording the contact potential difference (CPD) during SKP scanning and is used as a working electrode for SECM imaging in the redox-competition mode (RC-SECM). The detection of the local CPD is established by amplification of the displacement current at an ultralow noise operational amplifier and its compensation by application of a variable backing potential (V(b)) in the external circuit. The control of the tip-to-sample distance is performed by applying an additional alternating voltage with a much lower frequency than the oscillation frequency of the Kelvin probe. The main advantage of the SKP-SECM system is that it allows constant distance measurements of the CPD in air under ambient conditions and in the redox-competition mode of the SECM in the electrolyte of choice over the same sample area without replacement of the sample or exchange of the working electrode. The performance of the system was evaluated using a test sample made by sputtering thin Pt and W films on an oxidized silicon wafer. The obtained values of the CPD correlate well with known data, and the electrochemical activity for oxygen reduction is as expected higher over Pt than W. PMID:21675763

  5. Monolithically Integrated, Mechanically Resilient Carbon-Based Probes for Scanning Probe Microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, Anupama B.; Megerian, Krikor G.; Jennings, Andrew T.; Greer, Julia R.

    2010-01-01

    Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is an important tool for performing measurements at the nanoscale in imaging bacteria or proteins in biology, as well as in the electronics industry. An essential element of SPM is a sharp, stable tip that possesses a small radius of curvature to enhance spatial resolution. Existing techniques for forming such tips are not ideal. High-aspect-ratio, monolithically integrated, as-grown carbon nanofibers (CNFs) have been formed that show promise for SPM applications by overcoming the limitations present in wet chemical and separate substrate etching processes.

  6. Sparse sampling and reconstruction for electron and scanning probe microscope imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Hyrum; Helms, Jovana; Wheeler, Jason W.; Larson, Kurt W.; Rohrer, Brandon R.

    2015-07-28

    Systems and methods for conducting electron or scanning probe microscopy are provided herein. In a general embodiment, the systems and methods for conducting electron or scanning probe microscopy with an undersampled data set include: driving an electron beam or probe to scan across a sample and visit a subset of pixel locations of the sample that are randomly or pseudo-randomly designated; determining actual pixel locations on the sample that are visited by the electron beam or probe; and processing data collected by detectors from the visits of the electron beam or probe at the actual pixel locations and recovering a reconstructed image of the sample.

  7. Electrical Measurements and Nanomechanics Using Scanning Probe Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yong

    2002-10-01

    In the early 1980s, G. Binnig et al. invented the Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) [1], making it possible to obtain atomic resolution images of conducting surfaces. After that, many different types of Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) were invented and some of the most useful representatives are Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) [2], Electrostatic Force Microscopy (EFM) [3] and Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (KPFM) [4,5]. In 1985, G. Binnig et al. [2] invented the AFM, which now is used as a fundamental tool in many fields of research. Developed from AFM, Y. Martin et al. [3] invented EFM in 1987. The development of AC mode AFM allows the detection of weak long-range forces. EFM has also been used to study other systems and phenomena, such as thin liquid films on solid surfaces [6], electrically stressed gold nanowires [7], and spatial charge distribution in quantum wires [8]. In 1991, M. Nonnenmacher et al. [5] invented Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy. KPFM is used to study any property that affects the tip-surface Contact Potential Difference (CPD), such as voltage signals in integrated circuits (IC) [9], charged grain boundaries in polycrystalline silicon [10] and surface potential variations in multilayer semiconductor devices [11]. The aim of this poster is to discuss the application of SPM to electrical measurements. The theory of SPM was presented. The AFM was firstly introduced as it was developed before the other two. The design and theory were discussed. The force-distance curve was introduced. After this EFM was presented. EFM was developed from AC mode AFM. The technique was achieved by applying a DC voltage between the tip and the sample. The design, theory and features of it were surveyed. KPFM was also discussed. KPFM was developed from EFM. The central part of this technique is to measure the CPD. Experimental measurements of SPM were described after theory part. Research work using AFM was presented. The newest technique of AFM, UHV-AFM has been used in

  8. Note: Electron energy spectroscopy mapping of surface with scanning tunneling microscope.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng; Xu, Chunkai; Zhang, Panke; Li, Zhean; Chen, Xiangjun

    2016-08-01

    We report a novel scanning probe electron energy spectrometer (SPEES) which combines a double toroidal analyzer with a scanning tunneling microscope to achieve both topography imaging and electron energy spectroscopy mapping of surface in situ. The spatial resolution of spectroscopy mapping is determined to be better than 0.7 ± 0.2 μm at a tip sample distance of 7 μm. Meanwhile, the size of the field emission electron beam spot on the surface is also measured, and is about 3.6 ± 0.8 μm in diameter. This unambiguously demonstrates that the spatial resolution of SPEES technique can be much better than the size of the incident electron beam. PMID:27587179

  9. Note: Electron energy spectroscopy mapping of surface with scanning tunneling microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Meng; Xu, Chunkai; Zhang, Panke; Li, Zhean; Chen, Xiangjun

    2016-08-01

    We report a novel scanning probe electron energy spectrometer (SPEES) which combines a double toroidal analyzer with a scanning tunneling microscope to achieve both topography imaging and electron energy spectroscopy mapping of surface in situ. The spatial resolution of spectroscopy mapping is determined to be better than 0.7 ± 0.2 μm at a tip sample distance of 7 μm. Meanwhile, the size of the field emission electron beam spot on the surface is also measured, and is about 3.6 ± 0.8 μm in diameter. This unambiguously demonstrates that the spatial resolution of SPEES technique can be much better than the size of the incident electron beam.

  10. Spatial heterodyne spectroscopy - Interferometric performance at any wavelength without scanning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roesler, F. L.; Harlander, J.

    1990-01-01

    Spatial heterodyne spectroscopy (SHS) employing a two-beam dispersive interferometer producing a Fizeau fringe pattern having wavelength-dependent spatial frequencies is presented. The pattern is recorded on an imaging detector and Fourier transformed to recover the input stream. It is pointed out that spectrometers operating on the SHS principle can achieve the theoretical resolution limit of the gratings without scanning, retaining at the same time the large angular input tolerance and multiplexing properties of conventional scanning Fourier-transform spectrometers. Additionally, broad spectral coverages can be achieved, and field widening can be accomplished without moving parts.

  11. Ultrasonic Wave Field Modeling in a Conical Scanning Probe Tip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Every, Arthur; Wenke, Ingo; Aebi, Laurent; Dual, Jurg

    2011-06-01

    The ultrasonic wave field modeling reported in this paper has been undertaken with a view to optimizing the design of a conical scanning probe microscope tip to be used in measuring the near surface elastic properties of solids at high frequencies and high spatial resolution. The modeling is concerned with the evolution of a pulse which is launched from the upper spherical shaped surface of the tip, and is aimed at achieving the greatest possible concentration of acoustic energy at the lower sharp end of the tip. The calculations assume a transversely isotropic medium. Two complementary approaches have been taken, firstly the discretization of the equations of motion on a 1000×1000 mesh and solution using the commercial FE package ABAQUS, and secondly an analytical approach based on the angular spectrum method and stationary phase approximation. A high degree of consistency is achieved between the two approaches regarding the characteristics of the focal region, dispersion of the pulse attendant on the discretization of the system, and other features of the wave field. With the combination of the two approaches we are able to model the wave field over a very wide range of frequencies from low frequencies, where advantage lies with the FE method, to high frequencies where the computational cost of the FE method is inordinate and the analytical approach becomes progressively more accurate.

  12. Laser scanning dental probe for endodontic root canal treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blank, Molly A. B.; Friedrich, Michal; Hamilton, Jeffrey D.; Lee, Peggy; Berg, Joel; Seibel, Eric J.

    2011-03-01

    Complications that arise during endodontic procedures pose serious threats to the long-term integrity and health of the tooth. Potential complexities of root canals include residual pulpal tissue, cracks, mesial-buccal 2 and accessory canals. In the case of a failed root canal, a successful apicoectomy can be jeopardized by isthmuses, accessory canals, and root microfracture. Confirming diagnosis using a small imaging probe would allow proper treatment and prevent retreatment of endodontic procedures. An ultrathin and flexible laser scanning endoscope of 1.2 to 1.6mm outer diameter was used in vitro to image extracted teeth with varied root configurations. Teeth were opened using a conventional bur and high speed drill. Imaging within the opened access cavity clarified the location of the roots where canal filing would initiate. Although radiographs are commonly used to determine the root canal size, position, and shape, the limited 2D image perspective leaves ambiguity that could be clarified if used in conjunction with a direct visual imaging tool. Direct visualization may avoid difficulties in locating the root canal and reduce the number of radiographs needed. A transillumination imaging device with the separated illumination and light collection functions rendered cracks visible in the prepared teeth that were otherwise indiscernible using reflected visible light. Our work demonstrates that a small diameter endoscope with high spatial resolution may significantly increase the efficiency and success of endodontic procedures.

  13. Probing Individual Ice Nucleation Events with Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bingbing; China, Swarup; Knopf, Daniel; Gilles, Mary; Laskin, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Heterogeneous ice nucleation is one of the processes of critical relevance to a range of topics in the fundamental and the applied science and technologies. Heterogeneous ice nucleation initiated by particles proceeds where microscopic properties of particle surfaces essentially control nucleation mechanisms. Ice nucleation in the atmosphere on particles governs the formation of ice and mixed phase clouds, which in turn influence the Earth's radiative budget and climate. Heterogeneous ice nucleation is still insufficiently understood and poses significant challenges in predictive understanding of climate change. We present a novel microscopy platform allowing observation of individual ice nucleation events at temperature range of 193-273 K and relative humidity relevant for ice formation in the atmospheric clouds. The approach utilizes a home built novel ice nucleation cell interfaced with Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (IN-ESEM system). The IN-ESEM system is applied for direct observation of individual ice formation events, determining ice nucleation mechanisms, freezing temperatures, and relative humidity onsets. Reported microanalysis of the ice nucleating particles (INP) include elemental composition detected by the energy dispersed analysis of X-rays (EDX), and advanced speciation of the organic content in particles using scanning transmission x-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). The performance of the IN-ESEM system is validated through a set of experiments with kaolinite particles with known ice nucleation propensity. We demonstrate an application of the IN-ESEM system to identify and characterize individual INP within a complex mixture of ambient particles.

  14. Probing nanoscale ferroelectricity by ultraviolet Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenne, Dmitri

    2007-03-01

    Conventional vibrational spectroscopies operating in visible and infrared range fail to measure the phonon spectra of nanoscale ferroelectric structures because of extremely weak signals and the overwhelming substrate contribution. In this talk, application of ultraviolet (UV) Raman spectroscopy for studies of lattice dynamics and ferroelectric phase transitions in nanoscale ferroelectrics will be presented. We demonstrate that UV Raman spectroscopy is an effective technique allowing the observation of phonons and determination of the ferroelectric phase transition temperature (Tc) in nanoscale ferroelectrics, specifically, BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices having the ferroelectric BaTiO3 layers as thin as 1 unit cell, and single BaTiO3 layers as thin as 4 nm. BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices and ultrathin BaTiO3 films studied were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on SrTiO3 as well as GdScO3 and DyScO3 substrates. Excellent epitaxial quality and atomically abrupt interfaces are evidenced by X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. UV Raman results show that one-unit-cell thick BaTiO3 layers in BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices are ferroelectric with the Tc as high as 250 K, and induce the polarization in much thicker SrTiO3 layers adjacent to them. The Tc in superlattices was tuned by hundreds of degrees from ˜170 to 650 K by varying the thicknesses of BaTiO3 and SrTiO3 layers. Using scandate substrates enables growth of superlattices with systematically changed coherent strain, thus allowing studying the stress effect on the ferroelectric phase transitions. UV Raman data are supported by the thermodynamic calculations of polarization in superlattices as a function of temperature. The work was done in collaboration with A. Soukiassian, W. Tian, D.G. Schlom, Y.L. Li, L.-Q. Chen, X.X. Xi (Pennsylvania State University), A. Bruchhausen, A. Fainstein (Centro Atomico Bariloche & Instituto Balseiro, Argentina), R. S. Katiyar (University of Puerto Rico), A

  15. Probing Cancer Cell Metabolism Using NMR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hollinshead, Kate E R; Williams, Debbie S; Tennant, Daniel A; Ludwig, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Altered cellular metabolism is now accepted to be at the core of many diseases including cancer. Over the past 20 years, NMR has become a core technology to study these metabolic perturbations in detail. This chapter reviews current NMR-based methods for steady-state metabolism and, in particular, the use of non-radioactive stable isotope-enriched tracers. Opportunities and challenges for each method, such as 1D (1)H NMR spectroscopy and (13)C carbon-based NMR spectroscopic methods, are discussed. Ultimately, the combination of NMR and mass spectra as orthogonal technologies are required to compensate for the drawbacks of each technique when used singly are discussed. PMID:27325263

  16. Probing core-electron orbitals by scanning transmission electron microscopy and measuring the delocalization of core-level excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Jong Seok; Odlyzko, Michael L.; Xu, Peng; Jalan, Bharat; Mkhoyan, K. Andre

    2016-04-01

    By recording low-noise energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy maps from crystalline specimens using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy, it is possible to probe core-level electron orbitals in real space. Both the 1 s and 2 p orbitals of Sr and Ti atoms in SrTi O3 are probed, and their projected excitation potentials are determined. This paper also demonstrates experimental measurement of the electronic excitation impact parameter and the delocalization of an excitation due to Coulombic beam-orbital interaction.

  17. Improved optical fiber probes for scanning near field optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheaton, Bryan R.

    2004-12-01

    The motivation behind this work stems from a combination of my interest in atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the need to apply AFM to several areas of glass research. AFM was used as the main characterization tool in the study of near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) tip formation, evaluation of phase separation in glasses and copper oxide semiconductor film formation. The use of atomic force microscopy (AFM) to evaluate the evolving tip structure of an optical fiber probe for NSOM was studied. This study demonstrates the feasibility of predicting the final tip cone angle, without taking the etching process to completion. Cone angles reported in this study ranged from 58 to 152 degrees, depending on the fiber type and etch conditions. The ability to vary the probe cone angle, and utilize AFM to evaluate the cone angle that results from a set of etch conditions, are valuable additions to the development of NSOM fiber tips. The chemical and spatial variation of phase separated morphologies in glasses can range from a few angstroms to microns, often requiring very high magnification for detection. Historically phase separated glasses have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), a time consuming and costly technique. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) provides an inexpensive alternative to TEM and has proven to be a powerful tool in the evaluation of type, degree and scale of phase separation in glasses down to the nanometer level. AFM was used to show that the thickness and uniformity of the CuO films grown in-situ on the surface of copper containing alkali borosilicate glasses increased with time and temperature, however an upper time limit was reached in which no further thickness increases were realized. Tenorite, cuprite and copper metal films were produced depending on the heat treatment environment. XPS was utilized to confirm that copper oxide film formation during heat treatments of glasses near Tg results from the oxidation of copper

  18. Electronic linearization of piezoelectric actuators and noise budget in scanning probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloisi, G.; Santucci, A.; Carlà, M.; Dolci, D.; Lanzi, L.

    2006-07-01

    The maximum resolution achievable with a scanning probe microscope is limited by the probe size, by the mechanism of interaction with the sample, as is widely known, and by the electronic noise in the instrument. The evaluation of this noise for the three motion axes of a linearized high resolution scanning electrochemical microscope has been carried through and the intrinsic maximum resolution is discussed.

  19. Local tunneling decay length and Kelvin probe force spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Florian; Fleischmann, Martin; Scheer, Manfred; Gross, Leo; Repp, Jascha

    2015-12-01

    In the past, current-distance spectroscopy has been widely applied to determine variations of the work function at surfaces. While for homogeneous sample areas this technique is commonly accepted to yield at least qualitative results, its applicability to atomic-scale variations has not been proven neither right nor wrong. Here we benchmark measurements of the current-distance decay constant against the well established Kelvin probe force spectroscopy for four distinctly different cases with atomic-scale variations of the local contact potential. The two techniques yield quite different results. Whereas the maps of the current-distance decay constant are consistent with being topographical artifacts, the Kelvin probe force spectroscopy maps show variations of the local contact potential difference in agreement with expected surface dipoles. This comparison clarifies that maps of the current-distance decay constant are not suited to directly characterize contact potential variations at surfaces on atomic length scales.

  20. Scanning Hall probe microscopy of supercurrents in YBCO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinner, Rafael Baruch

    High-temperature superconductors were discovered 20 years ago, inspiring dreams of levitating trains fed by superconducting power lines. The cuprates, particularly YBa2Cu3O7-delta (YBCO), still promise to fulfill such applications, but must be made to carry higher current density, Jc, which is limited by the rapid onset of dissipation. The dissipation arises from the movement of magnetic vortices in the material, driven by the magnetic field of the current. It is therefore natural to use magnetic imaging to understand these limits on the current. Initially, I fix a mesoscopic ring of YBCO to a micro-Hall sensor and demonstrate that the sensor is capable of detecting small numbers of vortices. I then proceed with magnetic imaging, constructing a cryogenic scanning Hall probe microscope that combines a 1 x 4 cm scan range with 200 nm positioning resolution by coupling stepper motors to high-resolution drivers and reducing gears. It enables me to image an entire sample, then zoom in on regions of interest, down to the level of an individual quantized vortex. Applying this capability to current-carrying YBCO strips, I generate magnetic movies of the materials' periodic response to applied ac currents. From the movies, I reconstruct current density by inverting the Biot-Savart law, and electric field by approximating dB/dt and using Faraday's law. I thereby obtain complete, space- and time-resolved characterizations of the materials, including maps of ac power losses. After demonstrating this analysis on a single-crystal film, I image two "coated conductors"---YBCO grown on metal tape. I find relatively homogeneous flux penetration in a film grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on an ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) substrate, which contrasts with the weak-link behavior of grain boundaries in a film grown by metalorganic deposition (MOD) on rolling assisted biaxially textured substrate (RABiTS). Nonetheless, the in-plane meandering of the MOD film's boundaries

  1. Miniaturized magnetic-driven scanning probe for endoscopic optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Pang, Ziwei; Wu, Jigang

    2015-06-01

    We designed and implemented a magnetic-driven scanning (MDS) probe for endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT). The probe uses an externally-driven tiny magnet in the distal end to achieve unobstructed 360-degree circumferential scanning at the side of the probe. The design simplifies the scanning part inside the probe and thus allows for easy miniaturization and cost reduction. We made a prototype probe with an outer diameter of 1.4 mm and demonstrated its capability by acquiring OCT images of ex vivo trachea and artery samples from a pigeon. We used a spectrometer-based Fourier-domain OCT system and the system sensitivity with our prototype probe was measured to be 91 dB with an illumination power of 850 μW and A-scan exposure time of 1 ms. The axial and lateral resolutions of the system are 6.5 μm and 8.1 μm, respectively. PMID:26114041

  2. Scanning thermal microscopy probe capable of simultaneous electrical imaging and the addition of diamond tip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, E.; Hao, L.; Cox, D. C.; Gallop, J. C.

    2008-03-01

    Scanning Thermal Microscopy (SThM) is a scanning probe technique that allows the mapping of the thermal properties and/or temperature of a substrate. Developments in this scanning probe technique are of great importance to further the study of thermal transport at the micron and at the nano scale, for instance to better the understanding of heat transport in nano-electronic devices or energy transfer in biological systems. Here we describe: 1) the scanning technique developed to acquire simultaneous images of the topography, the thermal and electrical properties of the substrate using a commercially available Veeco SThM probe; 2) how the SThM probe was modified by mounting a micron-sized diamond pyramid on its tip in order to improve the probe's lateral resolution and the topography resolution tests on the performance of the modified probe.

  3. Multispectral scanning time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) technique for intravascular diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Hongtao; Bec, Julien; Liu, Jing; Sun, Yang; Lam, Matthew; Yankelevich, Diego R.; Marcu, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This study describes a scanning time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) system designed to continuously acquire fluorescence emission and to reconstruct fluorescence lifetime images (FLIM) from a luminal surface by using a catheter-based optical probe with rotary joint and pull-back device. The ability of the system to temporally and spectrally resolve the fluorescence emission from tissue was validated using standard dyes and tissue phantoms (e.g., ex vivo pig aorta phantom). Current results demonstrate that this system is capable to reliably resolve the fluorescence emission of multiple fluorophores located in the lumen; and suggest its potential for intravascular detection of distinct biochemical features of atherosclerotic plaques. PMID:22808425

  4. PVD prepared molecular glass resists for scanning probe lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuber, Christian; Schmidt, Hans-Werner; Strohriegl, Peter; Wagner, Daniel; Krohn, Felix; Schedl, Andreas; Bonanni, Simon; Holzner, Felix; Rawlings, Colin; Dürig, Urs; Knoll, Armin W.

    2016-03-01

    In the presented work solvent-free film preparation from molecular glass resists, the evaluation of the patterning performance using thermal scanning probe lithography (tSPL) and an efficient etch transfer process are demonstrated. As the presented materials have a high tendency to crystallize and thus form crystalline films of bad quality when processed by solution casting, two component mixtures prepared by coevaporation were investigated. Stable amorphous films were obtained by selecting compatible material pairs for the coevaporation. One optimized material pair is based on trissubstituted, twisted resist materials with a distinct difference in molecular design. Here a high resolution tSPL prepared pattern of 18 nm half pitch in a 10 nm thick film is demonstrated. A further optimization is reported for "small" cubic silsequioxane molecules. Again single component films show independent to applied film preparation techniques bad film forming properties due to the high crystallinity of the symmetric cubic silsequioxane molecules. But coevaporation of the phenyl substituted octaphenylsilsequioxane combined with the fully aromatic 2,2',7,7'-tetraphenyl-9,9'-spirobi[fluorene] results in stable amorphous thin films. tSPL investigations demonstrate the patternability by writing high resolution line features of 20 nm half pitch. An important advantage of such a silicon rich resist material is that it can be directly converted to SiO2, yielding to a patterned hardmask of SiO2. This proof of principle is demonstrated and an efficient pattern transfer of 60 nm half pitch line into the underlying HM8006 is reported.

  5. A resonant scanning dipole-antenna probe for enhanced nanoscale imaging.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Lars; van 't Oever, Jorick; van Hulst, Niek F

    2013-11-13

    We present a scanning antenna probe that provides 35 nm optical hotspots with a 16-fold excitation enhancement. A resonant optical antenna, tuned to operation in the visible, is carved into the aluminum-coated scanning probe. The antenna resonances, field localization, excitation, and polarization response are probed in the near-field by scanning over single fluorescent nanobeads. At the same time, the distance-dependent coupling of the emission to the antenna mode is mapped. Good agreement with theory is obtained. The presented scanning antenna approach is useful for both nanoscale plasmonic mode imaging and (bio)imaging. PMID:24124987

  6. Coherence specific signal detection via chiral pump-probe spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Holdaway, David I H; Collini, Elisabetta; Olaya-Castro, Alexandra

    2016-05-21

    We examine transient circular dichroism (TRCD) spectroscopy as a technique to investigate signatures of exciton coherence dynamics under the influence of structured vibrational environments. We consider a pump-probe configuration with a linearly polarized pump and a circularly polarized probe, with a variable angle θ between the two directions of propagation. In our theoretical formalism the signal is decomposed in chiral and achiral doorway and window functions. Using this formalism, we show that the chiral doorway component, which beats during the population time, can be isolated by comparing signals with different values of θ. As in the majority of time-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy, the overall TRCD response shows signatures of both excited and ground state dynamics. However, we demonstrate that the chiral doorway function has only a weak ground state contribution, which can generally be neglected if an impulsive pump pulse is used. These findings suggest that the pump-probe configuration of optical TRCD in the impulsive limit has the potential to unambiguously probe quantum coherence beating in the excited state. We present numerical results for theoretical signals in an example dimer system. PMID:27208941

  7. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy study of the Dirac spectrum of germanene.

    PubMed

    Walhout, C J; Acun, A; Zhang, L; Ezawa, M; Zandvliet, H J W

    2016-07-20

    The temperature dependence of the density of states of germanene, synthesized on Ge/Pt crystals, has been investigated with scanning tunneling spectroscopy. After correction for thermal broadening, a virtually perfect V-shaped density of states, which is a hallmark of a two-dimensional Dirac system, has been found. In an attempt to directly measure the energy dispersion relation via quasiparticle interference we have recorded spatial maps of the differential conductivity near the edges and defects of germanene. Unfortunately, we did not find any sign of Friedel oscillations. The absence of these Friedel oscillations hints to the occurrence of Klein tunneling. PMID:27227390

  8. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy study of the Dirac spectrum of germanene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walhout, C. J.; Acun, A.; Zhang, L.; Ezawa, M.; Zandvliet, H. J. W.

    2016-07-01

    The temperature dependence of the density of states of germanene, synthesized on Ge/Pt crystals, has been investigated with scanning tunneling spectroscopy. After correction for thermal broadening, a virtually perfect V-shaped density of states, which is a hallmark of a two-dimensional Dirac system, has been found. In an attempt to directly measure the energy dispersion relation via quasiparticle interference we have recorded spatial maps of the differential conductivity near the edges and defects of germanene. Unfortunately, we did not find any sign of Friedel oscillations. The absence of these Friedel oscillations hints to the occurrence of Klein tunneling.

  9. Scanning probe microscopy investigation of complex-oxide heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Feng

    Advances in the growth of precisely tailored complex-oxide heterostructures have led to new emergent behavior and associated discoveries. One of the most successful examples consists of an ultrathin layer of LaAlO 3 (LAO) deposited on TiO2-terminated SrTiO3 (STO), where a high mobility quasi-two dimensional electron liquid (2DEL) is formed at the interface. Such 2DEL demonstrates a variety of novel properties, including field tunable metal-insulator transition, superconductivity, strong spin-orbit coupling, magnetic and ferroelectric like behavior. Particularly, for 3-unit-cell (3 u.c.) LAO/STO heterostructures, it was demonstrated that a conductive atomic force microscope (c-AFM) tip can be used to "write" or "erase" nanoscale conducting channels at the interface, making LAO/STO a highly flexible platform to fabricate novel nanoelectronics. This thesis is focused on scanning probe microscopy studies of LAO/STO properties. We investigate the mechanism of c-AFM lithography over 3 u.c. LAO/STO in controlled ambient conditions by using a vacuum AFM, and find that the water molecules dissociated on the LAO surface play a critical role during the c-AFM lithography process. We also perform electro-mechanical response measurements over top-gated LAO/STO devices. Simultaneous piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) and capacitance measurements reveal a correlation between LAO lattice distortion and interfacial carrier density, which suggests that PFM could not only serve as a powerful tool to map the carrier density at the interface but also provide insight into previously reported frequency dependence of capacitance enhancement of top-gated LAO/STO structures. To study magnetism at the LAO/STO interface, magnetic force microscopy (MFM) and magnetoelectric force microscopy (MeFM) are carried out to search for magnetic signatures that depend on the carrier density at the interface. Results demonstrate an electronicallycontrolled ferromagnetic phase on top-gated LAO

  10. Principles and Application of Heterodyne Scanning Tunnelling Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Matsuyama, Eiji; Kondo, Takahiro; Oigawa, Haruhiro; Guo, Donghui; Nemoto, Shojiro; Nakamura, Junji

    2014-01-01

    Detection of the extremely weak signals in spectroscopy over an extremely wide frequency region is central to diverse sciences, including materials science, biology, astronomy and chemistry. Here we show a new type of atomic-scale spectroscopy, heterodyne scanning tunnelling spectroscopy (HSTS), which is based on the innovative application of the nonlinear heterodyne-mixing detection at the metal-insulator-metal (MIM) heterojunction of STM tip–vacuum–sample. The principle of HSTS is identical to that of the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) space telescope in terms of using heterojunction for detecting extremely weak signals by converting from terahertz region to lower frequency regions. The MIM detector of ALMA, which is composed of niobium–titanium–nitride (NbTiN) tip-insulator-NbTiN, is very similar in shape and size to that of HSTS. We successfully detect a heterodyne beat signal f3 (= |f2 − f1|) and intermodulation distortion via tunnelling current by superimposing two different AC signals, f1 and f2, onto the DC tunnelling current at a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface. We then obtain spectra of the localized electronic states of HOPG by using f3. HSTS can be performed with a high resolution and over a wide energy range, including the terahertz range. PMID:25342108

  11. Principles and application of heterodyne scanning tunnelling spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Eiji; Kondo, Takahiro; Oigawa, Haruhiro; Guo, Donghui; Nemoto, Shojiro; Nakamura, Junji

    2014-01-01

    Detection of the extremely weak signals in spectroscopy over an extremely wide frequency region is central to diverse sciences, including materials science, biology, astronomy and chemistry. Here we show a new type of atomic-scale spectroscopy, heterodyne scanning tunnelling spectroscopy (HSTS), which is based on the innovative application of the nonlinear heterodyne-mixing detection at the metal-insulator-metal (MIM) heterojunction of STM tip-vacuum-sample. The principle of HSTS is identical to that of the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) space telescope in terms of using heterojunction for detecting extremely weak signals by converting from terahertz region to lower frequency regions. The MIM detector of ALMA, which is composed of niobium-titanium-nitride (NbTiN) tip-insulator-NbTiN, is very similar in shape and size to that of HSTS. We successfully detect a heterodyne beat signal f₃(= |f₂- f₁) and intermodulation distortion via tunnelling current by superimposing two different AC signals, f₁ and f₂, onto the DC tunnelling current at a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface. We then obtain spectra of the localized electronic states of HOPG by using f₃. HSTS can be performed with a high resolution and over a wide energy range, including the terahertz range. PMID:25342108

  12. Spatial-scanning hyperspectral imaging probe for bio-imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Hoong-Ta; Murukeshan, Vadakke Matham

    2016-03-01

    The three common methods to perform hyperspectral imaging are the spatial-scanning, spectral-scanning, and snapshot methods. However, only the spectral-scanning and snapshot methods have been configured to a hyperspectral imaging probe as of today. This paper presents a spatial-scanning (pushbroom) hyperspectral imaging probe, which is realized by integrating a pushbroom hyperspectral imager with an imaging probe. The proposed hyperspectral imaging probe can also function as an endoscopic probe by integrating a custom fabricated image fiber bundle unit. The imaging probe is configured by incorporating a gradient-index lens at the end face of an image fiber bundle that consists of about 50 000 individual fiberlets. The necessary simulations, methodology, and detailed instrumentation aspects that are carried out are explained followed by assessing the developed probe's performance. Resolution test targets such as United States Air Force chart as well as bio-samples such as chicken breast tissue with blood clot are used as test samples for resolution analysis and for performance validation. This system is built on a pushbroom hyperspectral imaging system with a video camera and has the advantage of acquiring information from a large number of spectral bands with selectable region of interest. The advantages of this spatial-scanning hyperspectral imaging probe can be extended to test samples or tissues residing in regions that are difficult to access with potential diagnostic bio-imaging applications.

  13. Pump and probe spectroscopy with continuous wave quantum cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkbride, James M. R.; Causier, Sarah K.; Dalton, Andrew R.; Ritchie, Grant A. D.; Weidmann, Damien

    2014-02-07

    This paper details infra-red pump and probe studies on nitric oxide conducted with two continuous wave quantum cascade lasers both operating around 5 μm. The pump laser prepares a velocity selected population in a chosen rotational quantum state of the v = 1 level which is subsequently probed using a second laser tuned to a rotational transition within the v = 2 ← v = 1 hot band. The rapid frequency scan of the probe (with respect to the molecular collision rate) in combination with the velocity selective pumping allows observation of marked rapid passage signatures in the transient absorption profiles from the polarized vibrationally excited sample. These coherent transient signals are influenced by the underlying hyperfine structure of the pump and probe transitions, the sample pressure, and the coherent properties of the lasers. Pulsed pump and probe studies show that the transient absorption signals decay within 1 μs at 50 mTorr total pressure, reflecting both the polarization and population dephasing times of the vibrationally excited sample. The experimental observations are supported by simulation based upon solving the optical Bloch equations for a two level system.

  14. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy based deminers' probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauck, James P.; Walker, Mark; Hamadani, Siavosh; Bloomhardt, Natalie; Eagan, Justin

    2009-05-01

    We report on a prototype Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) Deminers' Probe used to identify underground objects. We have built a prototype, and are in the process of developing a more advanced LIBS based Deminer' s Probe used to prod objects underground, and then sense them by creating a micro-plasma plume of the surface material and analyzing the spectrum of the emitted light to identify the object. It is expected that the Deminer will be able to eliminate many false positives, which consume most of the Deminers' time. SARA Fiber-Optics coupled LIBS system consists in a probe that can be inserted into the ground to provide a path for both the laser beam to the target, and for the micro-plasma plume fluorescence from the target to a spectrometer or spectrometers for analysis. The probe is closely modeled after the conventional Deminers' probe, resembling a saber. We have demonstrated that this simple system is capable of producing remarkably different spectra from different materials. Our next steps are to add a number of features to the Deminers' Probe. These include: a new optical configuration to increase the irradiance and fluence created by the pulsed laser at the target, a multiple channel fluorescence reception system that can increase the amount of light delivered to the spectrometers, a fluidic system to clear the detritus away from the probe tip, and a complete operational/control and readout system for the Deminer to use. Mine-lane tests are planned to be performed in the later part of 2009, or shortly thereafter.

  15. Using photoemission spectroscopy to probe a strongly interacting Fermi gas.

    PubMed

    Stewart, J T; Gaebler, J P; Jin, D S

    2008-08-01

    Ultracold atomic gases provide model systems in which to study many-body quantum physics. Recent experiments using Fermi gases have demonstrated a phase transition to a superfluid state with strong interparticle interactions. This system provides a realization of the 'BCS-BEC crossover' connecting the physics of Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) superconductivity with that of Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs). Although many aspects of this system have been investigated, it has not yet been possible to measure the single-particle excitation spectrum (a fundamental property directly predicted by many-body theories). Here we use photoemission spectroscopy to directly probe the elementary excitations and energy dispersion in a strongly interacting Fermi gas of (40)K atoms. In the experiments, a radio-frequency photon ejects an atom from the strongly interacting system by means of a spin-flip transition to a weakly interacting state. We measure the occupied density of single-particle states at the cusp of the BCS-BEC crossover and on the BEC side of the crossover, and compare these results to that for a nearly ideal Fermi gas. We show that, near the critical temperature, the single-particle spectral function is dramatically altered in a way that is consistent with a large pairing gap. Our results probe the many-body physics in a way that could be compared to data for the high-transition-temperature superconductors. As in photoemission spectroscopy for electronic materials, our measurement technique for ultracold atomic gases directly probes low-energy excitations and thus can reveal excitation gaps and/or pseudogaps. Furthermore, this technique can provide an analogue of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy for probing anisotropic systems, such as atoms in optical lattice potentials. PMID:18685703

  16. Multifunctional cantilever-free scanning probe arrays coated with multilayer graphene.

    PubMed

    Shim, Wooyoung; Brown, Keith A; Zhou, Xiaozhu; Rasin, Boris; Liao, Xing; Mirkin, Chad A

    2012-11-01

    Scanning probe instruments have expanded beyond their traditional role as imaging or "reading" tools and are now routinely used for "writing." Although a variety of scanning probe lithography techniques are available, each one imposes different requirements on the types of probes that must be used. Additionally, throughput is a major concern for serial writing techniques, so for a scanning probe lithography technique to become widely applied, there needs to be a reasonable path toward a scalable architecture. Here, we use a multilayer graphene coating method to create multifunctional massively parallel probe arrays that have wear-resistant tips of uncompromised sharpness and high electrical and thermal conductivities. The optical transparency and mechanical flexibility of graphene allow this procedure to be used for coating exceptionally large, cantilever-free arrays that can pattern with electrochemical desorption and thermal, in addition to conventional, dip-pen nanolithography. PMID:23086161

  17. Multifunctional cantilever-free scanning probe arrays coated with multilayer graphene

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Wooyoung; Brown, Keith A.; Zhou, Xiaozhu; Rasin, Boris; Liao, Xing; Mirkin, Chad A.

    2012-01-01

    Scanning probe instruments have expanded beyond their traditional role as imaging or “reading” tools and are now routinely used for “writing.” Although a variety of scanning probe lithography techniques are available, each one imposes different requirements on the types of probes that must be used. Additionally, throughput is a major concern for serial writing techniques, so for a scanning probe lithography technique to become widely applied, there needs to be a reasonable path toward a scalable architecture. Here, we use a multilayer graphene coating method to create multifunctional massively parallel probe arrays that have wear-resistant tips of uncompromised sharpness and high electrical and thermal conductivities. The optical transparency and mechanical flexibility of graphene allow this procedure to be used for coating exceptionally large, cantilever-free arrays that can pattern with electrochemical desorption and thermal, in addition to conventional, dip-pen nanolithography. PMID:23086161

  18. Carbon Nanotube Tip Probes: Stability and Lateral Resolution in Scanning Probe Microscopy and Application to Surface Science to Semiconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Cattien V.; Chao, Kuo-Jen; Stevens, Ramsey M. D.; Delzeit, Lance; Cassell, Alan; Han, Jie; Meyyappan, M.; Arnold, James (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we present results on the stability and lateral resolution capability of carbon nanotube (CNT) scanning probes as applied to atomic force microscopy (AFM). Surface topography images of ultra-thin films (2-5 nm thickness) obtained with AFM are used to illustrate the lateral resolution capability of single-walled carbon nanotube probes. Images of metal films prepared by ion beam sputtering exhibit grain sizes ranging from greater than 10 nm to as small as approximately 2 nm for gold and iridium respectively. In addition, imaging stability and lifetime of multi-walled carbon nanotube scanning probes are studied on a relatively hard surface of silicon nitride (Si3N4). AFM images Of Si3N4 surface collected after more than 15 hrs of continuous scanning show no detectable degradation in lateral resolution. These results indicate the general feasibility of CNT tips and scanning probe microscopy for examining nanometer-scale surface features of deposited metals as well as non-conductive thin films. AFM coupled with CNT tips offers a simple and nondestructive technique for probing a variety of surfaces, and has immense potential as a surface characterization tool in integrated circuit manufacturing.

  19. Invited review article: A 10 mK scanning probe microscopy facility.

    PubMed

    Song, Young Jae; Otte, Alexander F; Shvarts, Vladimir; Zhao, Zuyu; Kuk, Young; Blankenship, Steven R; Band, Alan; Hess, Frank M; Stroscio, Joseph A

    2010-12-01

    We describe the design, development and performance of a scanning probe microscopy (SPM) facility operating at a base temperature of 10 mK in magnetic fields up to 15 T. The microscope is cooled by a custom designed, fully ultra-high vacuum (UHV) compatible dilution refrigerator (DR) and is capable of in situ tip and sample exchange. Subpicometer stability at the tip-sample junction is achieved through three independent vibration isolation stages and careful design of the dilution refrigerator. The system can be connected to, or disconnected from, a network of interconnected auxiliary UHV chambers, which include growth chambers for metal and semiconductor samples, a field-ion microscope for tip characterization, and a fully independent additional quick access low temperature scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) system. To characterize the system, we present the cooling performance of the DR, vibrational, tunneling current, and tip-sample displacement noise measurements. In addition, we show the spectral resolution capabilities with tunneling spectroscopy results obtained on an epitaxial graphene sample resolving the quantum Landau levels in a magnetic field, including the sublevels corresponding to the lifting of the electron spin and valley degeneracies. PMID:21198007

  20. Magnetic hydroxyapatite coatings as a new tool in medicine: A scanning probe investigation.

    PubMed

    Gambardella, A; Bianchi, M; Kaciulis, S; Mezzi, A; Brucale, M; Cavallini, M; Herrmannsdoerfer, T; Chanda, G; Uhlarz, M; Cellini, A; Pedna, M F; Sambri, V; Marcacci, M; Russo, A

    2016-05-01

    Hydroxyapatite films enriched with magnetite have been fabricated via a Pulsed Plasma Deposition (PPD) system with the final aim of representing a new platform able to disincentivate bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. The chemical composition and magnetic properties of films were respectively examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) measurements. The morphology and conductive properties of the magnetic films were investigated via a combination of scanning probe technologies including atomic force microscopy (AFM), electrostatic force microscopy (EFM), and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Interestingly, the range of adopted techniques allowed determining the preservation of the chemical composition and magnetic properties of the deposition target material while STM analysis provided new insights on the presence of surface inhomogeneities, revealing the presence of magnetite-rich islands over length scales compatible with the applications. Finally, preliminary results of bacterial adhesion tests, indicated a higher ability of magnetic hydroxyapatite films to reduce Escherichia coli adhesion at 4h from seeding compared to control hydroxyapatite films. PMID:26952445

  1. Metamaterial-inspired miniaturized microwave edge coupled surface scanning probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiwatcharagoses, Nophadon; Park, Kyoung Y.; Chahal, Premjeet; Udpa, Lalita

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a new concept on sub-wavelength resolution imaging and surface scanning using metamaterial based near field sensor array. Multiple split ring resonator structures (SRRs), having different band stop frequencies, are implemented in a microstrip transmission line configuration. A mirror image copy of these resonators is also incorporated on the transmission line to achieve built in frequency references. A smart card is scanned to detect buried antenna and Si chip within the plastic card.

  2. Probing battery chemistry with liquid cell electron energy loss spectroscopy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Unocic, Raymond R.; Baggetto, Loic; Veith, Gabriel M.; Unocic, Kinga A.; Sacci, Robert L.; Dudney, Nancy J.; More, Karren Leslie; Aguiar, Jeffery A.

    2015-09-15

    Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) was used to determine the chemistry and oxidation state of LiMn2O4 and Li4Ti5O12 thin film battery electrodes in liquid cells for in situ scanning/transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM). Using the L2,3 white line intensity ratio method we determine the oxidation state of Mn and Ti in a liquid electrolyte solvent and discuss experimental parameters that influence measurement sensitivity.

  3. Moessbauer spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy of the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Christopher L.; Oliver, Frederick W.; Hammond, Ernest C., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Meteorites provide a wealth of information about the solar system's formation, since they have similar building blocks as the Earth's crust but have been virtually unaltered since their formation. Some stony meteorites contain minerals and silicate inclusions, called chondrules, in the matrix. Utilizing Moessbauer spectroscopy, we identified minerals in the Murchison meteorite, a carbonaceous chondritic meteorite, by the gamma ray resonance lines observed. Absorption patterns of the spectra were found due to the minerals olivine and phyllosilicate. We used a scanning electron microscope to describe the structure of the chondrules in the Murchison meteorite. The chondrules were found to be deformed due to weathering of the meteorite. Diameters varied in size from 0.2 to 0.5 mm. Further enhancement of the microscopic imagery using a digital image processor was used to describe the physical characteristics of the inclusions.

  4. Scanning Gate Spectroscopy and its Application to Carbon Nanotube Defects

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Steven R.; Wan, Danny; Khalap, Vaikunth R.; Corso, Brad L.; Collins, Philip G.

    2011-01-01

    A variation of scanning gate microscopy (SGM) is demonstrated in which this imaging mode is extended into an electrostatic spectroscopy. Continuous variation of the SGM probe’s electrostatic potential is used to directly resolve the energy spectrum of localized electronic scattering in functioning, molecular scale devices. The technique is applied to the energy-dependent carrier scattering that occurs at defect sites in carbon nanotube transistors, and fitting energy-resolved experimental data to a simple transmission model determines the electronic character of each defect site. For example, a phenolic type of covalent defect is revealed to produce a tunnel barrier 0.1 eV high and 0.5 nm wide. PMID:21280660

  5. Cryogenic Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy of Superconducting Iron Chalcogenide Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, J. Y. T.; Fridman, Igor; Yeh, Kuo-Wei; Wu, Maw-Kuen; Hu, Rongwei; Petrovic, C.

    2011-03-01

    We report scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements on the iron-based superconductors of the ``11'' family including Fe 1-y Te 1-x Se x and Fe 1-y Te 1-x Sx . Conductance spectra and atomically-resolved images are obtained on single crystals down to 300 mK. A gap-like structure is observed, showing an asymmetric spectral background, non-trivial spatial variation and temperature dependence. We discuss our data in terms of possible gap anisotropy and doping inhomogeneities, and in relation to other recent spectroscopic measurements on iron-based superconductors. Work supported by NSERC, CFI/OIT, CIFAR, Taiwan National Science Council, U.S. DOE and Brookhaven Science Associates (No. DE-Ac02-98CH10886), and in part by the Center for Emergent Superconductivity, an Energy Frontier Research Center.

  6. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Spectroscopy of Compound Semiconductor Heterojunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwo, Shang-, Jr.

    Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM/S) were used to investigate the structural and electronic properties of III-V compound semiconductor heterojunctions in cross section. The most important properties of heterostructures can now be measured in real space with unprecedented resolution. By using prototypical Al_{0.3}Ga _{0.7}As/GaAs heterojunction and GaAs pn-junction systems, we demonstrate the unique capability of STM/S to precisely map out the detailed band structure across semiconductor junctions with nanometer resolution. An ultra-high vacuum STM system was designed and constructed in our laboratory for this work. The details of this system as well as the methodology used for the cross-sectional study are presented here. Because of its capability to provide valuable information on solid/solid interfaces, the cross-sectional STM/S characterization method reported here may have an important technological impact as device miniaturization continues.

  7. Scanning, non-contact, hybrid broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy system.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Johannes D; Mireles, Miguel; Morales-Dalmau, Jordi; Farzam, Parisa; Martínez-Lozano, Mar; Casanovas, Oriol; Durduran, Turgut

    2016-02-01

    A scanning system for small animal imaging using non-contact, hybrid broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy (ncDOS) and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (ncDCS) is presented. The ncDOS uses a two-dimensional spectrophotometer retrieving broadband (610-900 nm) spectral information from up to fifty-seven source-detector distances between 2 and 5 mm. The ncDCS data is simultaneously acquired from four source-detector pairs. The sample is scanned in two dimensions while tracking variations in height. The system has been validated with liquid phantoms, demonstrated in vivo on a human fingertip during an arm cuff occlusion and on a group of mice with xenoimplanted renal cell carcinoma. PMID:26977357

  8. Scanning, non-contact, hybrid broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy system

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Johannes D.; Mireles, Miguel; Morales-Dalmau, Jordi; Farzam, Parisa; Martínez-Lozano, Mar; Casanovas, Oriol; Durduran, Turgut

    2016-01-01

    A scanning system for small animal imaging using non-contact, hybrid broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy (ncDOS) and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (ncDCS) is presented. The ncDOS uses a two-dimensional spectrophotometer retrieving broadband (610-900 nm) spectral information from up to fifty-seven source-detector distances between 2 and 5 mm. The ncDCS data is simultaneously acquired from four source-detector pairs. The sample is scanned in two dimensions while tracking variations in height. The system has been validated with liquid phantoms, demonstrated in vivo on a human fingertip during an arm cuff occlusion and on a group of mice with xenoimplanted renal cell carcinoma. PMID:26977357

  9. Two Simple Classroom Demonstrations for Scanning Probe Microscopy Based on a Macroscopic Analogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hajkova, Zdenka; Fejfar, Antonin; Smejkal, Petr

    2013-01-01

    This article describes two simple classroom demonstrations that illustrate the principles of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) based on a macroscopic analogy. The analogy features the bumps in an egg carton to represent the atoms on a chemical surface and a probe that can be represented by a dwarf statue (illustrating an origin of the prefix…

  10. Broadband pump-probe spectroscopy at 20-MHz modulation frequency.

    PubMed

    Preda, Fabrizio; Kumar, Vikas; Crisafi, Francesco; Figueroa Del Valle, Diana Gisell; Cerullo, Giulio; Polli, Dario

    2016-07-01

    We introduce an innovative high-sensitivity broadband pump-probe spectroscopy system, based on Fourier-transform detection, operating at 20-MHz modulation frequency. A common-mode interferometer employing birefringent wedges creates two phase-locked delayed replicas of the broadband probe pulse, interfering at a single photodetector. A single-channel lock-in amplifier demodulates the interferogram, whose Fourier transform provides the differential transmission spectrum. Our approach combines broad spectral coverage with high sensitivity, due to high-frequency modulation and detection. We demonstrate its performances by measuring two-dimensional differential transmission maps of a carbon nanotubes sample, simultaneously acquiring the signal over the entire 950-1350 nm range with 2.7·10-6  rms noise over 1.5 s integration time. PMID:27367078

  11. Optical depletion spectroscopy for probing evaporatively cooled OH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummon, Matthew; Wu, Hao; Stuhl, Benjamin; Reens, David; Yeo, Mark; Ye, Jun

    2013-05-01

    Pulsed laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) measurements provide a sensitive probe for the detection of molecular species. However, the broad linewidth of the pulsed lasers used for molecular excitation obscures spectral information useful for determination of molecule temperature. This limitation can be overcome by the use of a second, narrowband source of radiation that can deplete a subset of the molecules detected using PLIF, and a high resolution depletion spectrum can be obtained. In the past, we have demonstrated the use of microwave depletion spectroscopy to measure magnetically trapped, evaporatively cooled OH temperatures in the range of 5-50 mK. The lower limit of 5 mK is set by the details of the microwave transition. Here we present temperature measurements of trapped OH using an optical depletion technique, which is in principle capable of probing temperatures as low as 50 microkelvin. We acknowledge funding from the NSF Physics Frontier Center, NIST, DOE, and the AFOSR MURI on Cold Molecules.

  12. Fast scanning probe for the NSTX spherical tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boedo, J. A.; Crocker, N.; Chousal, L.; Hernandez, R.; Chalfant, J.; Kugel, H.; Roney, P.; Wertenbaker, J.; NSTX Team

    2009-12-01

    We describe a fast reciprocating Langmuir probe and drive system, which has four main new features: (1) use of high-temperature, vacuum, circuit boards instead of cables to reduce weight and increase to 21 the number of possible connections, (2) rotatable and removable shaft, (3) 10 tip construction with designed hardware bandwidth up to 10 MHz, and (4) a detachable and modular tip assembly for easy maintenance. The probe is mounted in a fast pneumatic drive capable of speeds ˜7 m/s and ˜20g's acceleration in order to reach the scrape-off layer (SOL) and pedestal regions and remain inserted long enough to obtain good statistics while minimizing the heat deposition to the tips and head in a power density environment of 1-10 MW/m2. The National Spherical Torus Experiment SOL features electron temperature, Te˜10-30 eV, and electron density, ne˜0.1-5×1012 cm-3 while the pedestal features ne˜0.5-1.5×1013 cm-3 and Te˜30-150 eV. The probe described here has ten tips which obtain a wide spectrum of plasma parameters: electron temperature profile Te(r), electron density profile ne(r) and Mach number profile M(r ), floating potential Vf(r), poloidal and radial electric field profiles Eθ(r) and Eρ(r), saturation current profile Isat(r), and their fluctuations up to 3 MHz. We describe the probe and show representative radial profiles of various parameters.

  13. Fast scanning probe for the NSTX spherical tokamak.

    PubMed

    Boedo, J A; Crocker, N; Chousal, L; Hernandez, R; Chalfant, J; Kugel, H; Roney, P; Wertenbaker, J

    2009-12-01

    We describe a fast reciprocating Langmuir probe and drive system, which has four main new features: (1) use of high-temperature, vacuum, circuit boards instead of cables to reduce weight and increase to 21 the number of possible connections, (2) rotatable and removable shaft, (3) 10 tip construction with designed hardware bandwidth up to 10 MHz, and (4) a detachable and modular tip assembly for easy maintenance. The probe is mounted in a fast pneumatic drive capable of speeds approximately 7 m/s and approximately 20g's acceleration in order to reach the scrape-off layer (SOL) and pedestal regions and remain inserted long enough to obtain good statistics while minimizing the heat deposition to the tips and head in a power density environment of 1-10 MW/m2. The National Spherical Torus Experiment SOL features electron temperature, T(e) approximately 10-30 eV, and electron density, n(e) approximately 0.1-5x10(12) cm(-3) while the pedestal features n(e) approximately 0.5-1.5x10(13) cm(-3) and T(e) approximately 30-150 eV. The probe described here has ten tips which obtain a wide spectrum of plasma parameters: electron temperature profile T(e)(r), electron density profile n(e)(r) and Mach number profile M(r), floating potential V(f)(r), poloidal and radial electric field profiles E(theta)(r) and E(rho)(r), saturation current profile I(sat)(r), and their fluctuations up to 3 MHz. We describe the probe and show representative radial profiles of various parameters. PMID:20073119

  14. Nanoscale infrared spectroscopy as a non-destructive probe of extraterrestrial samples.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Gerardo; Mcleod, A S; Gainsforth, Zack; Kelly, P; Bechtel, Hans A; Keilmann, Fritz; Westphal, Andrew; Thiemens, Mark; Basov, D N

    2014-01-01

    Advances in the spatial resolution of modern analytical techniques have tremendously augmented the scientific insight gained from the analysis of natural samples. Yet, while techniques for the elemental and structural characterization of samples have achieved sub-nanometre spatial resolution, infrared spectral mapping of geochemical samples at vibrational 'fingerprint' wavelengths has remained restricted to spatial scales >10 μm. Nevertheless, infrared spectroscopy remains an invaluable contactless probe of chemical structure, details of which offer clues to the formation history of minerals. Here we report on the successful implementation of infrared near-field imaging, spectroscopy and analysis techniques capable of sub-micron scale mineral identification within natural samples, including a chondrule from the Murchison meteorite and a cometary dust grain (Iris) from NASA's Stardust mission. Complementary to scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy probes, this work evidences a similarity between chondritic and cometary materials, and inaugurates a new era of infrared nano-spectroscopy applied to small and invaluable extraterrestrial samples. PMID:25487365

  15. Atomic-Scale Imaging and Spectroscopy Using Scanning Tunneling Microscopy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youngquist, Michael George

    Advances in scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) instrumentation and applications are presented. An ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) scanning tunneling microscope incorporating computer-controlled two-dimensional sample translation and in vacuo tip and sample transfer was developed. Its performance is documented through large-area and atomic -resolution imaging of highly stepped Si(111) 7 x 7 reconstructed surfaces and physisorbed clusters on graphite. An STM with automated approach and intra-Dewar spring suspension was developed for operation in cryogenic liquids. A high performance digital signal processor (DSP) based control system was constructed, and software with advanced spectroscopic imaging and data processing capabilities was developed. The feasibility of individual-molecule vibrational spectroscopy via STM-detected inelastic electron tunneling is assessed. In preliminary experiments, a low-temperature STM was used for energy gap and phonon spectroscopy of superconducting Pb films. The first STM observation of phonon density of states effects in a superconductor is reported. A systematic UHV STM imaging and spectroscopy study of 2H-MoS_2 was conducted. Atom -resolved images from three distinct imaging modes are presented. Occasional appearance of negative differential resistance (NDR) in I vs. V measurements is traced to changing tip electronic structure rather than localized surface states. Other potential NDR mechanisms are discussed including electron trap charging and resonant tunneling through a double-barrier quantum well structure arising from layer separation in the MoS_2 crystal. DNA was imaged at atomic resolution with a UHV STM. Images show double-helical structure, base pairs, and atomic-scale substructure. Experimental STM profiles have atom-for-atom correlation with the A-DNA van der Waals surface. This work demonstrates the potential of the STM for characterization of large biomolecular structures. Impurity-pinned steps on silicon and gold surfaces

  16. Characterization of charge motion in Poly(3-alkylthiophene) field effect transistors with Scanning Probe Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moscatello, Jason P.; Patterson, Morgen; Davis, Andrew R.; Carter, Kenneth R.; Aidala, Katherine E.

    2014-03-01

    Poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) is a promising conductive organic polymer for applications such as organic FETs and photovoltaics. Key to proper utilization of P3HT is the understanding of how charges move and are trapped in the polymer, which directly affects the mobility of the charges as well as device efficiency. Scanning probe techniques, such as Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy, offer the advantage of being able to observe charges and local potentials down to the nano-scale. We present our work using scanning probe techniques to study charge injection and flow through P3HT FETs.

  17. Probing microscopic mechanical properties of hard tissues with Brillouin spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Zhaokai; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.

    2015-02-01

    Mechanical properties of hard tissues play an important role in understanding underlying biological structures, as well as assessing the quality of artificial bone replacement materials. In this study, we employed Brillouin spectroscopy as a non-invasive approach to probe the microscopic elasticity of hard tissues, such as bones. Brillouin spectra were collected using a background free virtually imaged phased array spectrometer. As a reference, Raman spectra were also acquired for each imaging point. Experimental results reveal a positive correlation between the local concentration of the mineral content and the corresponding tissue stiffness, assessed through a Brillouin shift.

  18. Probing Intermolecular Interaction through Thermal-Lens Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Indrajit; Kumar, Pardeep; Goswami, Debabrata

    2013-01-01

    Binary liquid mixtures are studied using femtosecond pump–probe thermal-lens (TL) spectroscopy. Changes in the measured TL signals as a function of relative concentration of binary mixtures show that these result from a combined effect of physical and molecular properties of the constituent binary liquids. The experimental TL values deviate from the ones calculated from phenomenological equations. These, we argue, are due to an underestimation of the influence of molecular interactions when the TL signals are calculated by using physical parameters only. PMID:21166402

  19. Handheld scanning probes for optical coherence tomography: developments, applications, and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duma, V.-F.; Demian, D.; Sinescu, C.; Cernat, R.; Dobre, G.; Negrutiu, M. L.; Topala, F. I.; Hutiu, Gh.; Bradu, A.; Podoleanu, A. G.

    2016-03-01

    We present the handheld scanning probes that we have recently developed in our current project for biomedical imaging in general and for Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) in particular. OCT is an established, but dynamic imagistic technique based on laser interferometry, which offers micrometer resolutions and millimeters penetration depths. With regard to existing devices, the newly developed handheld probes are simple, light and relatively low cost. Their design is described in detail to allow for the reproduction in any lab, including for educational purposes. Two probes are constructed almost entirely from off-the-shelf components, while a third, final variant is constructed with dedicated components, in an ergonomic design. The handheld probes have uni-dimensional (1D) galvanometer scanners therefore they achieve transversal sections through the biological sample investigated - in contrast to handheld probes equipped with bi-dimensional (2D) scanners that can also achieve volumetric (3D) reconstructions of the samples. These latter handheld probes are therefore also discussed, as well as the possibility to equip them with galvanometer 2D scanners or with Risley prisms. For galvanometer scanners the optimal scanning functions studied in a series of previous works are pointed out; these functions offer a higher temporal efficiency/duty cycle of the scanning process, as well as artifact-free OCT images. The testing of the handheld scanning probes in dental applications is presented, for metal ceramic prosthesis and for teeth.

  20. Nano-material processing with laser radiation in the near field of a scanning probe tip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jersch, J.; Demming, F.; Hildenhagen, J.; Dickmann, K.

    1998-04-01

    We report preliminary results of using a scanning probe microscope/laser combination to perform nanostructuring on insulator and metal surfaces in air. This technique enables processing of structures with a lateral resolution of approximately 10 nm. In this paper we present our last structuring results with both scanning tunnelling and scanning force microscopy. Some possible interaction mechanisms responsible for the structuring will be discussed.

  1. Wall scanning probe for high-field side plasma measurements on Alcator C-Mod.

    PubMed

    Smick, Noah; LaBombard, Brian

    2009-02-01

    A new, high-field side scanning probe has been added to Alcator C-Mod's complement of edge diagnostics. The wall scanning probe is designed to provide all the benefits of a linear plunge, multielectrode scanning probe while working from the confined space of the inner tokamak wall. The drive mechanism is an embedded coil which produces a torque with the ambient toroidal magnetic field when energized, thus allowing the probe to plunge to different preprogramed depths at different times during a plasma discharge. The probe tip is designed for easy replacement and is presently configured to operate as a modified, high heat-flux "Gundestrup-type" probe with four tungsten electrodes. The probe has demonstrated the ability to obtain cross-field profiles for electron temperature, density, floating potential, and plasma flow information (parallel and perpendicular to B) up to a depth of a few millimiters inside the last-closed flux surface in standard C-Mod discharges. The tungsten-tipped probe has proved very robust and shows little or no damage though it routinely handles surface heat fluxes on the order of 100 MW/m(2) at peak insertion. PMID:19256643

  2. Double-resonance probe for near-field scanning optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherkun, A. P.; Serebryakov, D. V.; Sekatskii, S. K.; Morozov, I. V.; Letokhov, V. S.

    2006-03-01

    A surface-contact transducer is developed for scanning probe microscopes, whose operating principle is based on the coincidence between the resonance frequency of a 32kHz quartz tuning fork and that of the probe attached to it. This allows the transducer to have a high quality factor and, if the vibration amplitude of the probe tip exceeds that of the tuning fork prongs, materially improves its force sensitivity. The resonance transducer proposed by us has an experimentally verified force sensitivity of 8pN (rms) in the 300Hz frequency band, which is of the same order of magnitude as the sensitivity of atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever sensors. The manufacture of such transducers equipped with optical-fiber probes for near-field scanning optical microscopy and with tungsten probes for AFM is described as an example.

  3. Complex structural dynamics of nanocatalysts revealed in Operando conditions by correlated imaging and spectroscopy probes.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Zakharov, D; Zhao, S; Tappero, R; Jung, U; Elsen, A; Baumann, Ph; Nuzzo, R G; Stach, E A; Frenkel, A I

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how heterogeneous catalysts change size, shape and structure during chemical reactions is limited by the paucity of methods for studying catalytic ensembles in working state, that is, in operando conditions. Here by a correlated use of synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy in operando conditions, we quantitatively describe the complex structural dynamics of supported Pt catalysts exhibited during an exemplary catalytic reaction-ethylene hydrogenation. This work exploits a microfabricated catalytic reactor compatible with both probes. The results demonstrate dynamic transformations of the ensemble of Pt clusters that spans a broad size range throughout changing reaction conditions. This method is generalizable to quantitative operando studies of complex systems using a wide variety of X-ray and electron-based experimental probes. PMID:26119246

  4. Complex structural dynamics of nanocatalysts revealed in Operando conditions by correlated imaging and spectroscopy probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Zakharov, D.; Zhao, S.; Tappero, R.; Jung, U.; Elsen, A.; Baumann, Ph.; Nuzzo, R. G.; Stach, E. A.; Frenkel, A. I.

    2015-06-01

    Understanding how heterogeneous catalysts change size, shape and structure during chemical reactions is limited by the paucity of methods for studying catalytic ensembles in working state, that is, in operando conditions. Here by a correlated use of synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy in operando conditions, we quantitatively describe the complex structural dynamics of supported Pt catalysts exhibited during an exemplary catalytic reaction--ethylene hydrogenation. This work exploits a microfabricated catalytic reactor compatible with both probes. The results demonstrate dynamic transformations of the ensemble of Pt clusters that spans a broad size range throughout changing reaction conditions. This method is generalizable to quantitative operando studies of complex systems using a wide variety of X-ray and electron-based experimental probes.

  5. Complex structural dynamics of nanocatalysts revealed in Operando conditions by correlated imaging and spectroscopy probes

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.; Zakharov, D.; Zhao, S.; Tappero, R.; Jung, U.; Elsen, A.; Baumann, Ph.; Nuzzo, R. G.; Stach, E. A.; Frenkel, A. I.

    2015-06-29

    Understanding how heterogeneous catalysts change size, shape and structure during chemical reactions is limited by the paucity of methods for studying catalytic ensembles in working state, that is, in operando conditions. Here by a correlated use of synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy in operando conditions, we quantitatively describe the complex structural dynamics of supported Pt catalysts exhibited during an exemplary catalytic reaction—ethylene hydrogenation. This work exploits a microfabricated catalytic reactor compatible with both probes. The results demonstrate dynamic transformations of the ensemble of Pt clusters that spans a broad size range throughout changing reaction conditions. Lastly, this method is generalizable to quantitative operando studies of complex systems using a wide variety of X-ray and electron-based experimental probes.

  6. Complex structural dynamics of nanocatalysts revealed in Operando conditions by correlated imaging and spectroscopy probes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Li, Y.; Zakharov, D.; Zhao, S.; Tappero, R.; Jung, U.; Elsen, A.; Baumann, Ph.; Nuzzo, R. G.; Stach, E. A.; Frenkel, A. I.

    2015-06-29

    Understanding how heterogeneous catalysts change size, shape and structure during chemical reactions is limited by the paucity of methods for studying catalytic ensembles in working state, that is, in operando conditions. Here by a correlated use of synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy in operando conditions, we quantitatively describe the complex structural dynamics of supported Pt catalysts exhibited during an exemplary catalytic reaction—ethylene hydrogenation. This work exploits a microfabricated catalytic reactor compatible with both probes. The results demonstrate dynamic transformations of the ensemble of Pt clusters that spans a broad size range throughout changing reaction conditions. Lastly,more » this method is generalizable to quantitative operando studies of complex systems using a wide variety of X-ray and electron-based experimental probes.« less

  7. Complex structural dynamics of nanocatalysts revealed in Operando conditions by correlated imaging and spectroscopy probes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Y.; Zakharov, D.; Zhao, S.; Tappero, R.; Jung, U.; Elsen, A.; Baumann, Ph.; Nuzzo, R.G.; Stach, E.A.; Frenkel, A.I.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how heterogeneous catalysts change size, shape and structure during chemical reactions is limited by the paucity of methods for studying catalytic ensembles in working state, that is, in operando conditions. Here by a correlated use of synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy in operando conditions, we quantitatively describe the complex structural dynamics of supported Pt catalysts exhibited during an exemplary catalytic reaction—ethylene hydrogenation. This work exploits a microfabricated catalytic reactor compatible with both probes. The results demonstrate dynamic transformations of the ensemble of Pt clusters that spans a broad size range throughout changing reaction conditions. This method is generalizable to quantitative operando studies of complex systems using a wide variety of X-ray and electron-based experimental probes. PMID:26119246

  8. Resonance oscillation damping of a scanning microscope probe by a near-surface viscous liquid layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslenikov, I. I.; Reshetov, N. V.

    2016-05-01

    Viscous liquid layer motion between a probe with a tip shaped as a paraboloid of revolution and a surface is considered for semicontact-mode operation of a scanning probe microscope. The presence of a viscous liquid layer leads to energy dissipation and is one of the factors responsible for the decrease in the probe oscillation amplitude. The Reynolds equation for viscous liquid motion is used to obtain an analytic solution to the problem. The formula derived for the loss is compared with experimental data obtained for probes and layers with various curvature radii and viscosities.

  9. Pump probe spectroscopy of quasiparticle dynamics in cuprate superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Segre, Gino P.

    2001-05-01

    Pump probe spectroscopy is used to examine the picosecond response of a BSCCO thin film, and two YBCO crystals in the near infrared. The role of pump fluence and temperature have been closely examined in an effort to clarify the mechanism by which the quasiparticles rejoin the condensate. BSCCO results suggest that the recombination behavior is consistent with the d-wave density of states in that quasiparticles appear to relax to the nodes immediately before they rejoin the condensate. The first substantial investigation of polarized pump probe response in detwinned YBCO crystals is also reported. Dramatic doping dependent anisotropies along the a and b axes are observed in time and temperature resolved studies. Among many results, we highlight the discovery of an anomalous temperature and time dependence of a- axis response in optimally doped YBCO. We also report on the first observation of the photoinduced response in a magnetic field. We find the amplitude of the response, and in some cases, the dynamics considerably changed with the application of a 6T field. Finally, we speculate on two of the many theoretical directions stimulated by our results. We find that the two-fluid model suggests a mechanism to explain how changes at very low energies are visible to a high-energy probe. Also discussed are basic recombination processes which may play a role in the observed decay.

  10. Probing Battery Chemistry with Liquid Cell Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Unocic, Raymond R.; Baggetto, Loic; Veith, Gabriel M.; Aguiar, Jeffery A.; Unocic, Kinga A.; Sacci, Robert L.; Dudney, Nancy J.; More, Karren L.

    2015-11-25

    We demonstrate the ability to apply electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) to follow the chemistry and oxidation states of LiMn2O4 and Li4Ti5O12 battery electrodes within a battery solvent. The use and importance of in situ electrochemical cells coupled with a scanning/transmission electron microscope (S/TEM) has expanded and been applied to follow changes in battery chemistry during electrochemical cycling. Furthermore, we discuss experimental parameters that influence measurement sensitivity and provide a framework to apply this important analytical method to future in situ electrochemical studies.

  11. Probing battery chemistry with liquid cell electron energy loss spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Unocic, Raymond R; Baggetto, Loïc; Veith, Gabriel M; Aguiar, Jeffery A; Unocic, Kinga A; Sacci, Robert L; Dudney, Nancy J; More, Karren L

    2015-11-25

    We demonstrate the ability to apply electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) to follow the chemistry and oxidation states of LiMn2O4 and Li4Ti5O12 battery electrodes within a battery solvent. This is significant as the use and importance of in situ electrochemical cells coupled with a scanning/transmission electron microscope (S/TEM) has expanded and been applied to follow changes in battery chemistry during electrochemical cycling. We discuss experimental parameters that influence measurement sensitivity and provide a framework to apply this important analytical method to future in situ electrochemical studies. PMID:26404766

  12. Probing battery chemistry with liquid cell electron energy loss spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Unocic, Raymond R.; Baggetto, Loic; Veith, Gabriel M.; Unocic, Kinga A.; Sacci, Robert L.; Dudney, Nancy J.; More, Karren Leslie; Aguiar, Jeffery A.

    2015-09-15

    Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) was used to determine the chemistry and oxidation state of LiMn2O4 and Li4Ti5O12 thin film battery electrodes in liquid cells for in situ scanning/transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM). Using the L2,3 white line intensity ratio method we determine the oxidation state of Mn and Ti in a liquid electrolyte solvent and discuss experimental parameters that influence measurement sensitivity.

  13. A Scanning Probe Microscope for Surface Measurement in Nano-Scale.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huijuan; Huang, Qiangxian; Zhang, Rui; Li, Zhibo; Cheng, Zhenying

    2016-06-01

    A tapping mode scanning probe microscopy (TM SPM) system for surface measurement in nanoscale is developed, of which the main element is a scanning probe consisting of quartz tuning fork and a long sharp tungsten tip. Quartz tuning fork is a very good resonant element with piezoelectrical characteristic, and it acts as an actuator and a force sensor simultaneously in the probe. The vertical spatial resolution of the TM SPM is up to sub-nanometer (0.11 nm) and the measuring force is in micro Newton magnitude (about 30 μN). In the scanning operation, the probe vibrates at its resonant frequency, so that the amplitude or frequency (or phase) of the resonant tuning fork is very sensitive to external forces (Its quality factor in air is about 3138). Using the TM SPM constructed by this probe, silicon samples are scanned. Their topography and phase images which indicate the surface material characteristics are reconstructed effectively with a high resolution and low destructiveness. Soft materials, such as Protein structure can also be scanned theoretically without damage. In addition, because of the using of the long sharp tungsten tip, the system has the capacity of measuring micro structures with large aspect ratio, such as large micro steps, deep micro trenches, etc. PMID:27427664

  14. Development of a micro-CMM with five-axis scanning touch probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Chih-Liang; Chen, Hung-Chi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop with low cost, high precision, low contact force micro-CMM that has fiveaxis scanning touch probe. In this study, the measurement performance of the proposed system is enhanced through the use of a rigid aluminum double-arch-bridge structure to support the five-axis scanning touch probe. Furthermore, the reliability of the scanning probe mechanism of three degrees of freedom was analyzed and validated. in addition two axis (A-axis and C-axis) was added on the scanning probe. This design can be achieved independent of measurement, and minimize the dynamic error. In terms of software, a PC-Based controller was integrates five-axis motion systems with the measurement system through a five-axis control card and a data acquisition card. It also completed the functional modules of Set, Manual and Measurement. In the measurement system, we used our own developed coordinate measurement software, with the XYZ platforms system, rotating mechanism and scanning probe to achieve complex surface measurements. The micro-CMM has a working volume the micro-CMM has a working volume of 80×80×40 mm3 , and the overall dimensions is 486 × 486 × 448 mm.

  15. Development of a scanning touch probe with 5-axis measuring functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Chih-Liang; Lai, Kuan-Wen; Chen, Hung-Chi

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a five-axis scanning touch probe with high precision and low contact force. The development of scanning touch probe is consisted of three parts: mechanism design, optical path design, and rotation structure design. The mechanism design contains three parts, Z-axis system, XY-axis system, and probe mechanism. The Z-axis system applies the characteristic of the thin sheet spring to move vertically. In the design of XY-axis system, a micro-beam is employed, through which length, width, and thickness of the micro-beam and corresponding dimensions of the leaf spring are designed according to the selected contact force. The freedom degree is limited to three. And the center of the mechanism is equipped with a stylus to inhibit displacement of the Z-axis. The contact between the probe and the work piece only leads to change in the angles of X- and Y-axes, achieving the feature of 2-degree freedom. To enable rapid change for the probes, this study designs a probe mechanism, reliability of which is analyzed and validated with ANSYS software, so that the design of 3-degree freedom mechanism is completed. The sensor has a laser diode to coordinate with Position Sensor Detector (PSD) which works with the optical path designed to measure placement of Z-axis and angle placement of XY-axis. The rotation structure refers to the principle of 5-axis machining design, and the two rotary axes (A- and C-axis) to join the self-developed scanning probe. This design can achieve independent measurements and eliminate the dynamic measurement error that three-axis scanning systems typically have. By validation through an experiment, the three-dimensional scanning touch probe developed by this study has a measuring range of +/-1mm×+/-1mm×1mm, and unidirectional repeatability of 0.6μm.

  16. A fast spatial scanning combination emissive and mach probe for edge plasma diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Lehmer, R.D.; LaBombard, B.; Conn, R.W.

    1989-04-01

    A fast spatially scanning emissive and mach probe has been developed for the measurement of plasma profiles in the PISCES facility at UCLA. A pneumatic cylinder is used to drive a multiple tip probe along a 15cm stroke in less than 400msec, giving single shot profiles while limiting power deposition to the probe. A differentially pumped sliding O-ring seal allows the probe to be moved between shots to infer two and three dimensional profiles. The probe system has been used to investigate the plasma potential, density, and parallel mach number profiles of the presheath induced by a wall surface and scrape-off-layer profile modifications in biased limiter simulation experiments. Details of the hardware, data acquisition electronics, and tests of probe reliability are discussed. 30 refs., 24 figs.

  17. Localized Electroless Ag Plating at a Tip Apex for Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chun-Ting; Yu, Ming-Han; Su, James; Chen, Po-Li; Shiao, Ming-Hua; Nemcsics, Akos; Chang, Mao-Nan

    2013-06-01

    A typical probe for scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM) consists of an atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe with a metallic coating. Such probes result in a large sensing area and lead to poor spatial resolution due to the stray-field effect. With electroless Ag plating (EAP), we employed an AFM system to form a Ag nanodot (AND) at the apex of the probe tip, which reduces the sensing area of the SKPM probe, thereby suppressing the stray-field effect. It was revealed that the tip with an AND structure had improved the spatial resolution in SKPM. Our experimental results showed that the EAP process can be completed in a few seconds, implying that localized EAP is a simple and rapid process for preparing an AND structure at the tip apex in SKPM measurements.

  18. Probing electrode/electrolyte interfaces in situ by X-ray spectroscopies: old methods, new tricks.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cheng Hao; Weatherup, Robert S; Salmeron, Miquel B

    2015-11-11

    Electrode/electrolyte interfaces play a vital role in various electrochemical systems, but in situ characterization of such buried interfaces remains a major challenge. Several efforts to develop techniques or to modify existing techniques to study such interfaces are showing great promise to overcome this challenge. Successful examples include electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy (EC-STM), surface-sensitive vibrational spectroscopies, environmental transmission electron microscopy (E-TEM), and surface X-ray scattering. Other techniques such as X-ray core-level spectroscopies are element-specific and chemical-state-specific, and are being widely applied in materials science research. Herein we showcase four types of newly developed strategies to probe electrode/electrolyte interfaces in situ with X-ray core-level spectroscopies. These include the standing wave approach, the meniscus approach, and two liquid cell approaches based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy. These examples demonstrate that with proper modifications, many ultra-high-vacuum based techniques can be adapted to study buried electrode/electrolyte interfaces and provide interface-sensitive, element- and chemical-state-specific information, such as solute distribution, hydrogen-bonding network, and molecular reorientation. At present, each method has its own specific limitations, but all of them enable in situ and operando characterization of electrode/electrolyte interfaces that can provide important insights into a variety of electrochemical systems. PMID:26514115

  19. Scanning gate transconductance microscopy and spectroscopy of a mesoscopic ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackens, Benoit; Martins, Frederico; Faniel, Sebastien; Bayot, Vincent; Pala, Marco; Sellier, Hermann; Huant, Serge; Desplanque, Ludovic; Wallart, Xavier

    2011-03-01

    In scanning gate microscopy (SGM), a dc voltage is applied to a sharp tip moving in the vicinity of a device. This alters the electrostatic potential seen by electrons inside the device, and consequently changes the device conductance. Here, we superimpose a small ac voltage to the dc bias applied on the tip, and record the change of device conductance at the tip bias modulation frequency, i.e. the local transconductance. We first image the low temperature transconductance of a mesoscopic ring patterned in a two-dimensional electron system (2DES) hosted in an InGaAs/InAlAs heterostructure. The tranconductance images are decorated by concentric features that we associate with charging of electron traps located close to the 2DES. We perform spectroscopy of these traps by positioning the tip close to them, and recording the ring transconductance as a function of the tip dc voltage and the bias accross the quantum ring. We observe Coulomb diamonds in our spectroscopic data, which confirms that Coulomb blockade is at play.

  20. Spin excitations and correlations in scanning tunneling spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ternes, Markus

    2015-06-01

    In recent years inelastic spin-flip spectroscopy using a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope has been a very successful tool for studying not only individual spins but also complex coupled systems. When these systems interact with the electrons of the supporting substrate correlated many-particle states can emerge, making them ideal prototypical quantum systems. The spin systems, which can be constructed by arranging individual atoms on appropriate surfaces or embedded in synthesized molecular structures, can reveal very rich spectral features. Up to now the spectral complexity has only been partly described. This manuscript shows that perturbation theory enables one to describe the tunneling transport, reproducing the differential conductance with surprisingly high accuracy. Well established scattering models, which include Kondo-like spin-spin and potential interactions, are expanded to enable calculation of arbitrary complex spin systems in reasonable time scale and the extraction of important physical properties. The emergence of correlations between spins and, in particular, between the localized spins and the supporting bath electrons are discussed and related to experimentally tunable parameters. These results might stimulate new experiments by providing experimentalists with an easily applicable modeling tool.

  1. Recovery of local density of states using scanning tunneling spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passoni, M.; Donati, F.; Li Bassi, A.; Casari, C. S.; Bottani, C. E.

    2009-01-01

    Scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) provides a unique method for the investigation of the local surface-projected electron density of states (DOS), mostly for its capability of reaching atomic resolution. Such information is contained in a nonobvious way in STS data, and a proper understanding of the overall features of the system (sample+tip) is mandatory in order to obtain quantitative information. Several approaches have been proposed in the literature to tackle this problem. A common feature of these methods is that they are mostly based on a one-dimensional (1D) WKB description of the tunneling current. We present a critical analysis and an extension of the methods so far proposed, with the main goal of applying the results to STS experimental data. This study has been conducted by modeling the tip-sample system within the frame of 1D-WKB theory, investigating key open issues, such as the estimation of required but usually experimentally unknown parameters such as the tip-sample distance and the role played by the presence of a nonconstant tip local DOS on STS data. This investigation allows us to ascertain strengths and weaknesses of the existing methods and leads to an optimized and improved strategy which we propose for the analysis of STS data. We tested our conclusions on STS measurements of the Si(111)-7×7 and Au(111) surfaces, acquired with W and Cr tips.

  2. Differentiating Ferroelectric and Nonferroelectric Electromechanical Effects with Scanning Probe Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Balke, Nina; Maksymovych, Petro; Jesse, Stephen; Herklotz, Andreas; Tselev, Alexander; Eom, Chang-Beom; Kravchenko, Ivan I; Yu, Pu; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2015-06-23

    Ferroelectricity in functional materials remains one of the most fascinating areas of modern science in the past several decades. In the last several years, the rapid development of piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) and spectroscopy revealed the presence of electromechanical hysteresis loops and bias-induced remnant polar states in a broad variety of materials including many inorganic oxides, polymers, and biosystems. In many cases, this behavior was interpreted as the ample evidence for ferroelectric nature of the system. Here, we systematically analyze PFM responses on ferroelectric and nonferroelectric materials and demonstrate that mechanisms unrelated to ferroelectricity can induce ferroelectric-like characteristics through charge injection and electrostatic forces on the tip. We will focus on similarities and differences in various PFM measurement characteristics to provide an experimental guideline to differentiate between ferroelectric material properties and charge injection. In the end, we apply the developed measurement protocols to an unknown ferroelectric material. PMID:26035634

  3. Scanning probe measurements on a magnetic bead biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megens, Mischa; de Theije, Femke; de Boer, Bart; van Gaal, Frans

    2007-07-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the sensitivity of an integrated detection scheme for small superparamagnetic beads, intended for medical diagnostic applications. Detection is based on the giant magnetoresistance effect of a 100×3μm2 magnetic multilayer strip. A conductive wire to magnetize the superparamagnetic beads is integrated on the same substrate. By scanning a single bead over the wires and sensor strip using an atomic force microscope, we simultaneously measure topography and sensor resistivity in a three-dimensional volume above the sensor. The observations can be explained well by means of the macroscopically measured sensor resistivity curve and the magnetization of the beads, combined with the Biot-Savart law for the magnetic field of the wire. From these encouraging results, we project that it is possible to detect even a single 300nm superparamagnetic bead on our sensor.

  4. Application of Scanning Probe Microscopy to Genetic Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Shigeru; Yoshino, Tomoyuki; Tsukamoto, Kazumi; Sasou, Megumi; Kuwazaki, Seigo; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Suetsugu, Yoshitaka; Narukawa, Junko; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Ohtani, Toshio

    2006-03-01

    We are developing an integrated technique involving of nanometer-size dissection of chromosome fragments by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and direct detection of the location of genome library clones by scanning near-field optical/atomic force microscopy (SNOM/AFM). The locations of nucleus organizer regions (NORs) on barley chromosomes and a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone were successfully detected by SNOM/AFM. Nanometer-scale dissection of silkworm pachytene chromosomes was also performed by AFM, and we succeeded in three successive dissection events of the chromosome region approximately 250 nm apart from each other. If this type of integrated method can be established in the near future, we will easily obtain the nucleotide sequences with positional information on chromosomes, which lead to a time- and cost-saving genome analysis technique.

  5. Scanning mass spectrometry probe: a scanning probe electrospray ion source for imaging mass spectrometry of submerged interfaces and transient events in solution.

    PubMed

    Kottke, Peter A; Degertekin, F Levent; Fedorov, Andrei G

    2010-01-01

    The scanning mass spectrometry (SMS) probe is a new electrospray ion source. Motivated by the need for untargeted chemical imaging of dynamic events in solution, we have exploited an approach to electrospray ionization (ESI) that allows continuous sampling from a highly localized volume (approximately picoliters) in a liquid environment, softly ionizes molecules in the sample to render them amenable for mass spectrometric analysis, and sends the ions to the mass spectrometer. The key underlying concepts for our approach are (1) treating the electrospray capillary inlet as a chemical scanning probe and (2) locating the electrospray point as close as possible to the sampling point, thus providing the shortest response time possible. This approach enables chemical monitoring or imaging of submerged interfaces, providing access to details of spatial heterogeneity and temporal changes within liquid samples. It also permits direct access to liquid/ liquid interfaces for ESI-MS analysis. In this letter we report the first demonstrations of these capabilities of the SMS probe and describe some of the probe's basic characteristics. PMID:19904914

  6. Probing electron transport and structural properties of nanostructures on Si with a quadraprobe scanning tunneling microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Tae Hwan; Wendelken, J F; Li, An-Ping

    2008-01-01

    The electron transport and structural properties of nanostructured materials have been examined with a newly developed low temperature quadraprobe scanning tunneling microscope (STM) system. The quadraprobe STM system, as a "nano" version of a four-probe station provides an integrated research platform with a low temperature four-probe STM, a molecular-beam epitaxy growth chamber, a high resolution scanning electron microscope, and a scanning Auger microscope. The four STM probes can be driven independently with sub-nanometer precision, enabling conventional STM imaging and four-point electrical transport study of surface electronic systems and nanostructured materials at temperatures down to 10 K. Self-assembled nanostructures grown on Si by doping with metal atoms (Au, Gd, Ag) have been fabricated and characterized in situ.

  7. Multi-scale Imaging of Cellular and Sub-cellular Structures using Scanning Probe Recognition Microscopy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Q.; Rice, A. F.

    2005-03-01

    Scanning Probe Recognition Microscopy is a new scanning probe capability under development within our group to reliably return to and directly interact with a specific nanobiological feature of interest. In previous work, we have successfully recognized and classified tubular versus globular biological objects from experimental atomic force microscope images using a method based on normalized central moments [ref. 1]. In this paper we extend this work to include recognition schemes appropriate for cellular and sub-cellular structures. Globular cells containing tubular actin filaments are under investigation. Thus there are differences in external/internal shapes and scales. Continuous Wavelet Transform with a differential Gaussian mother wavelet is employed for multi- scale analysis. [ref. 1] Q. Chen, V. Ayres and L. Udpa, ``Biological Investigation Using Scanning Probe Recognition Microscopy,'' Proceedings 3rd IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology, vol. 2, p 863-865 (2003).

  8. Resolving 2D Amorphous Materials with Scanning Probe Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burson, Kristen M.; Buechner, Christin; Lewandowski, Adrian; Heyde, Markus; Freund, Hans-Joachim

    Novel two-dimensional (2D) materials have garnered significant scientific interest due to their potential technological applications. Alongside the emphasis on crystalline materials, such as graphene and hexagonal BN, a new class of 2D amorphous materials must be pursued. For amorphous materials, a detailed understanding of the complex structure is necessary. Here we present a structural study of 2D bilayer silica on Ru(0001), an insulating material which is weakly coupled to the substrate. Atomic structure has been determined with a dual mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) sensor in ultra-high vacuum (UHV) at low temperatures, revealing a network of different ring sizes. Liquid AFM measurements with sub-nanometer resolution bridge the gap between clean UHV conditions and the environments that many material applications demand. Samples are grown and characterized in vacuum and subsequently transferred to the liquid AFM. Notably, the key structural features observed, namely nanoscale ring networks and larger holes to the substrate, show strong quantitative agreement between the liquid and UHV microscopy measurements. This provides direct evidence for the structural stability of these silica films for nanoelectronics and other applications. KMB acknowledges support from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation.

  9. Nanoscale thermal imaging using a scanning spin probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laraoui, Abdelghani; Aycock-Rizzo, Halley; Gao, Yang; Riedo, Elisa; Meriles, Carlos

    We use a 30-nm diamond-nanocrystal-hosted nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center attached to the apex of a silicon tip as a local temperature sensor. First, we apply an electrical current to heat up the tip to a predefined operating temperature and rely on the NV to monitor the small thermal changes the tip experiences as it is brought into contact with surfaces of varying thermal conductivity. With the aid of a combined AFM/confocal setup, we image engineered microstructures with nanoscale resolution, and attain excellent agreement between the thermal conductivity and topographic maps. Given the small mass of the NV-hosting diamond nanoparticle, our technique shows a fast time response of order hundred microseconds, limited by the heat dissipation time of the tip. In a second approach, we heat nanostructured gold deposited on glass substrate by injecting a direct current. By monitoring the frequency shift of NV spin transitions upon scanning the AFM tip we reconstruct nanometer-resolved temperature maps. Our technique promises multiple applications ranging from the investigation of phonon dynamics in nanostructures to the characterization of heterogeneous phase transitions in various solid-state systems.

  10. Solid-state electrochemistry on the nanometer and atomic scales: the scanning probe microscopy approach

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Strelcov, Evgheni; Yang, Sang Mo; Jesse, Stephen; Balke, Nina; Vasudevan, Rama K.; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2016-04-21

    Energy technologies of the 21st century require an understanding and precise control over ion transport and electrochemistry at all length scales – from single atoms to macroscopic devices. Our short review provides a summary of recent studies dedicated to methods of advanced scanning probe microscopy for probing electrochemical transformations in solids at the meso-, nano- and atomic scales. In this discussion we present the advantages and limitations of several techniques and a wealth of examples highlighting peculiarities of nanoscale electrochemistry.

  11. Solid-state electrochemistry on the nanometer and atomic scales: the scanning probe microscopy approach.

    PubMed

    Strelcov, Evgheni; Yang, Sang Mo; Jesse, Stephen; Balke, Nina; Vasudevan, Rama K; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2016-08-01

    Energy technologies of the 21(st) century require an understanding and precise control over ion transport and electrochemistry at all length scales - from single atoms to macroscopic devices. This short review provides a summary of recent studies dedicated to methods of advanced scanning probe microscopy for probing electrochemical transformations in solids at the meso-, nano- and atomic scales. The discussion presents the advantages and limitations of several techniques and a wealth of examples highlighting peculiarities of nanoscale electrochemistry. PMID:27146961

  12. Use of scanning probe microscopy to study the evolution of nanometer sized liquid structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloisi, Giovanni; Bacci, Federico; Carlà, Marcello; Dolci, David

    2011-10-01

    The evolution of the profile of nanometer sized water drops on a mica surface has been studied through hydration scanning probe microscopy. A time range from a few seconds down to a fraction of millisecond after the formation of the drop has been explored. This high time resolution has been obtained by sampling a series of statistically equivalent drops. This approach also avoids any probe interference during the drop evolution process.

  13. Solid-state electrochemistry on the nanometer and atomic scales: the scanning probe microscopy approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strelcov, Evgheni; Yang, Sang Mo; Jesse, Stephen; Balke, Nina; Vasudevan, Rama K.; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2016-07-01

    Energy technologies of the 21st century require an understanding and precise control over ion transport and electrochemistry at all length scales - from single atoms to macroscopic devices. This short review provides a summary of recent studies dedicated to methods of advanced scanning probe microscopy for probing electrochemical transformations in solids at the meso-, nano- and atomic scales. The discussion presents the advantages and limitations of several techniques and a wealth of examples highlighting peculiarities of nanoscale electrochemistry.

  14. Efficient electrochemical etching method to fabricate sharp metallic tips for scanning probe microscopes

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Pilkyu; Kim, Jun Ho; Jeong, Mun Seok; Ko, Do-Kyeong; Lee, Jongmin; Jeong, Sungho

    2006-10-15

    A new technique based on electrochemical etching for the fabrication of sharp metallic tips for scanning probe microscopes is introduced. In the proposed method, a small Teflon mass is attached to the end of an immersed tungsten wire using an aluminum tape, which leads to a significant enhancement of yield rate of sharp tungsten tips with an apex size below 100 nm to over 60%. The functionality of the tungsten tips fabricated by the proposed method is verified by measuring the topography of a standard sample using a shear-force scanning probe microscope.

  15. Investigation of the depletion layer by scanning capacitance force microscopy with Kelvin probe force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uruma, Takeshi; Satoh, Nobuo; Yamamoto, Hidekazu

    2016-08-01

    We have developed a scanning probe microscope (SPM) that combines atomic force microscopy (AFM) with both Kelvin probe force microscopy (KFM — to measure the surface potential) and scanning capacitance force microscopy (SCFM — to measure the differential capacitance). The surface physical characteristics of a commercial Si Schottky barrier diode (Si-SBD), with and without an applied reverse bias, were measured over the same area by our AFM/KFM/SCFM system. We thus investigated the discrete power device by calculating the depletion-layer width and drawing an energy-band diagram.

  16. Study of wear of diamond-coated probe tips when scanning on different materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Küng, A.; Nicolet, A.; Meli, F.

    2015-08-01

    The accuracy of today’s coordinate measuring machines (CMM) has reached a level at which the exact knowledge of each component is required. The role of the probe tip is particularly crucial because it is in contact with the sample surface. Understanding how the probe tip wears off will help to narrow the measurement errors. Today, diamond-coated probes of excellent quality are becoming commercially available. In the present work, the wear of those probes was studied when scanning on different sample materials and under different measuring conditions. The wear rate was quantified in terms of the rate of the removed diamond volume per meter scan length. It cannot be simply derived from material properties or scanning conditions. A simple calculation also shows that only a very small fraction of the friction energy is devoted to the removal of atoms from the diamond crystal. The wear rate of diamond-coated probes was found to be orders of magnitude smaller compared with the wear of traditional sapphire probes.

  17. Nondestructive millimeter wave imaging and spectroscopy using dielectric focusing probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejase, Jose A.; Shane, Steven S.; Park, Kyoung Y.; Chahal, Premjeet

    2014-02-01

    A tool for interrogating objects over a wide band of frequencies with subwavelength resolution at small standoff distances (near field region) in the transmission mode using a single source and detector measurement setup in the millimeter wave band is presented. The design utilizes optics like principles for guiding electromagnetic millimeter waves from large cross-sectional areas to considerably smaller sub-wavelength areas. While plano-convex lenses can be used to focus waves to a fine resolution, they usually require a large stand-off distance thus resulting in alignment and spacing issues. The design procedure and simulation analysis of the focusing probes are presented in this study along with experimental verification of performance and imaging and spectroscopy examples. Nondestructive evaluation will find benefit from such an apparatus including biological tissue imaging, electronic package integrity testing, composite dielectric structure evaluation for defects and microfluidic sensing.

  18. Nondestructive millimeter wave imaging and spectroscopy using dielectric focusing probes

    SciTech Connect

    Hejase, Jose A.; Shane, Steven S.; Park, Kyoung Y.; Chahal, Premjeet

    2014-02-18

    A tool for interrogating objects over a wide band of frequencies with subwavelength resolution at small standoff distances (near field region) in the transmission mode using a single source and detector measurement setup in the millimeter wave band is presented. The design utilizes optics like principles for guiding electromagnetic millimeter waves from large cross-sectional areas to considerably smaller sub-wavelength areas. While plano-convex lenses can be used to focus waves to a fine resolution, they usually require a large stand-off distance thus resulting in alignment and spacing issues. The design procedure and simulation analysis of the focusing probes are presented in this study along with experimental verification of performance and imaging and spectroscopy examples. Nondestructive evaluation will find benefit from such an apparatus including biological tissue imaging, electronic package integrity testing, composite dielectric structure evaluation for defects and microfluidic sensing.

  19. Determination of diffusion tensors from oscillating and circulating scanning probe tips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahne, Susanne; Rahe, Philipp; Maass, Philipp

    2015-06-01

    We develop two methods for determining anisotropic diffusion properties of molecules on surfaces. These methods are based on the analysis of signal fluctuations recorded with moving probe tips, of, for example, a scanning tunneling microscope. In the first method, the probe tip oscillates along a straight line, which allows to quantify the effective diffusion perpendicular to the line. By varying the line orientation, the diffusion tensor is obtained. In the second method, the probe tip rotates along a circle and the diffusion tensor is determined by analysis of cross-correlations between antipodal points. Both methods are successfully validated against surrogate data from kinetic Monte Carlo simulations.

  20. Mitochondrial respiratory complex I probed by delayed luminescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baran, Irina; Ionescu, Diana; Privitera, Simona; Scordino, Agata; Mocanu, Maria Magdalena; Musumeci, Francesco; Grasso, Rosaria; Gulino, Marisa; Iftime, Adrian; Tofolean, Ioana Teodora; Garaiman, Alexandru; Goicea, Alexandru; Irimia, Ruxandra; Dimancea, Alexandru; Ganea, Constanta

    2013-12-01

    The role of mitochondrial complex I in ultraweak photon-induced delayed photon emission [delayed luminescence (DL)] of human leukemia Jurkat T cells was probed by using complex I targeting agents like rotenone, menadione, and quercetin. Rotenone, a complex I-specific inhibitor, dose-dependently increased the mitochondrial level of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), decreased clonogenic survival, and induced apoptosis. A strong correlation was found between the mitochondrial levels of NADH and oxidized flavin mononucleotide (FMNox) in rotenone-, menadione- and quercetin-treated cells. Rotenone enhanced DL dose-dependently, whereas quercetin and menadione inhibited DL as well as NADH or FMNox. Collectively, the data suggest that DL of Jurkat cells originates mainly from mitochondrial complex I, which functions predominantly as a dimer and less frequently as a tetramer. In individual monomers, both pairs of pyridine nucleotide (NADH/reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) sites and flavin (FMN-a/FMN-b) sites appear to bind cooperatively their specific ligands. Enhancement of delayed red-light emission by rotenone suggests that the mean time for one-electron reduction of ubiquinone or FMN-a by the terminal Fe/S center (N2) is 20 or 284 μs, respectively. All these findings suggest that DL spectroscopy could be used as a reliable, sensitive, and robust technique to probe electron flow within complex I in situ.

  1. Apertureless scanning microscope probe as a detector of semiconductor laser emission

    SciTech Connect

    Dunaevskiy, Mikhail; Dontsov, Anton; Monakhov, Andrei; Alekseev, Prokhor; Titkov, Alexander; Baranov, Alexei; Girard, Paul; Arinero, Richard; Teissier, Roland

    2015-04-27

    An operating semiconductor laser has been studied using a scanning probe microscope. A shift of the resonance frequency of probe that is due to its heating by laser radiation has been analyzed. The observed shift is proportional to the absorbed radiation and can be used to measure the laser near field or its output power. A periodical dependence of the measured signal has been observed as a function of distance between the probe and the surface of the laser due to the interference of the outgoing and cantilever-reflected waves. Due to the multiple reflections resulting in the interference, the light absorption by the probe cantilever is greatly enhanced compared with a single pass case. Interaction of infrared emission of a diode laser with different probes has been studied.

  2. Steady-state spectroscopy of new biological probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abou-Zied, Osama K.

    2007-02-01

    The steady state absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy of 2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl)benzoxazole (HBO) and (2,2'-bipyridine)-3,3'-diol (BP(OH) II) were studied here free in solution and in human serum albumin (HSA) in order to test their applicability as new biological probes. HBO and BP(OH) II are known to undergo intramolecular proton transfers in the excited state. Their absorption and fluorescence spectra are sensitive to environmental change from hydrophilic to hydrophobic, thus allowing the opportunity to use them as environment-sensitive probes. The effect of water on the steady state spectra of the two molecules also shows unique features which may position them as water sensors in biological systems. For HBO in buffer, fluorescence is only due to the syn-keto tautomer, whereas in HSA the fluorescence is due to four species in equilibrium in the excited state (the syn-keto tautomer, the anti-enol tautomer, the solvated syn-enol tautomer, and the anion species of HBO). Analysis of the fluorescence spectra of HBO in HSA indicates that HBO is exposed to less water in the HBO:HSA complex. For the BP(OH) II molecule, unique absorption due to water was observed in the spectral region of 400-450 nm. This absorption decreases in the presence of HSA due to less accessibility to water as a result of binding to HSA. Fluorescence of BP(OH) II is due solely to the di-keto tautomer after double proton transfer in the excited state. The fluorescence peak of BP(OH) II shows a red-shift upon HSA recognition which is attributed to the hydrophobic environment inside the binding site of HSA. We discuss also the effect of probe-inclusion inside well-defined hydrophobic cavities of cyclodextrins.

  3. Aqueous hydrogen bonding probed with polarization and matrix isolation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shultz, Mary Jane; Bisson, Patrick; Buch, Victoria; Groenzin, Henning; Li, Irene

    2010-05-01

    A major challenge in hydrogen-bond research is interpreting the vibrational spectrum of water, arguably the most fundamental hydrogen bonding system. This challenge remains despite over a half century of progress in vibrational spectroscopy, largely due to a combination of the huge oscillator strength and the enormous width of the hydrogen-bond region. Lack of assignment of the resonances in the hydrogen-bond region hinders investigation of interactions between water and solutes. This lack-of-interpretation issue is an even more significant problem for studies of the aqueous interface. Numerous solutes are known to have an effect, some very dramatic, on the shape of the surface spectrum. These effects, however, are but tantalizing teasers because lack of interpretation means that the changes cannot be used to diagnose the effect of solutes or impinging gas-phase molecules on the surface. In the reported work two techniques are used to probe the origin of vibrational resonances in the H-bonded region: the surface sensitive technique sum frequency generation (SFG) and room-temperature matrix isolation spectroscopy (RT-MIS). A polarization technique called polarization angle null (PAN) has been developed that extends SFG and enables identification of resonances. The result of applying PAN-SFG to single crystal, I h ice is identification of at least nine underlying resonances and assignment of two of these. One resonance is correlated with the crystal temperature and is a sensitive probe for interactions that disrupt long range order on the surface - it is a morphology reporter. The second is associated with weakly bonded, double-donor water molecules. This resonance is sensitive to interaction of hydrogen bond donors, i.e. acids, with the surface. Both modes are more correctly pictured as collective modes. These two assignments are the first definitive assignments in the hydrogen-bond region for the aqueous surface. The effect of salts on the vibrational spectrum of

  4. Nanoscale electrical property studies of individual GeSi quantum rings by conductive scanning probe microscopy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The nanoscale electrical properties of individual self-assembled GeSi quantum rings (QRs) were studied by scanning probe microscopy-based techniques. The surface potential distributions of individual GeSi QRs are obtained by scanning Kelvin microscopy (SKM). Ring-shaped work function distributions are observed, presenting that the QRs' rim has a larger work function than the QRs' central hole. By combining the SKM results with those obtained by conductive atomic force microscopy and scanning capacitance microscopy, the correlations between the surface potential, conductance, and carrier density distributions are revealed, and a possible interpretation for the QRs' conductance distributions is suggested. PMID:23194252

  5. Advanced electric-field scanning probe lithography on molecular resist using active cantilever

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaestner, Marcus; Aydogan, Cemal; Lipowicz, Hubert-Seweryn; Ivanov, Tzvetan; Lenk, Steve; Ahmad, Ahmad; Angelov, Tihomir; Reum, Alexander; Ishchuk, Valentyn; Atanasov, Ivaylo; Krivoshapkina, Yana; Hofer, Manuel; Holz, Mathias; Rangelow, Ivo W.

    2015-03-01

    The routine "on demand" fabrication of features smaller than 10 nm opens up new possibilities for the realization of many novel nanoelectronic, NEMS, optical and bio-nanotechnology-based devices. Based on the thermally actuated, piezoresistive cantilever technology we have developed a first prototype of a scanning probe lithography (SPL) platform able to image, inspect, align and pattern features down to single digit nano regime. The direct, mask-less patterning of molecular resists using active scanning probes represents a promising path circumventing the problems in today's radiation-based lithography. Here, we present examples of practical applications of the previously published electric field based, current-controlled scanning probe lithography on molecular glass resist calixarene by using the developed tabletop SPL system. We demonstrate the application of a step-and-repeat scanning probe lithography scheme including optical as well as AFM based alignment and navigation. In addition, sequential read-write cycle patterning combining positive and negative tone lithography is shown. We are presenting patterning over larger areas (80 x 80 μm) and feature the practical applicability of the lithographic processes.

  6. Cavity-Enhanced Frequency-Agile Rapid Scanning (fars) Spectroscopy: Measurement Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges, Joseph T.; Long, David A.; Truong, Gar-Wing; Douglass, Kevin O.; Maxwell, Stephen E.; Zee, Roger Van; Plusquellic, David F.

    2013-06-01

    We present the principles of frequency-agile, rapid scanning (FARS) spectroscopy, a new technique for high-bandwidth, cavity-enhanced, laser absorption measurements. This method enables a visible or near-infrared probe laser beam to be frequency tuned over several tens of GHz using a microwave source, a waveguide phase modulator and a filter cavity. For the types of cavity-enhanced methods discussed here, the optical resonator itself is used to select a single sideband of the modulated laser spectrum, obviating the need for a separate filter cavity. FARS offers several important advantages over conventional cw laser tuning methods based on thermal or mechanical methods. These include, high speed tuning with sub-ms switching times, the ability to select arbitrary frequency steps or chirp rates, and the realization of a spectrum detuning axis with sub-kHz level precision. We discuss how FARS can be applied to cavity ring-down spectroscopy and other cavity-enhanced methods to enable rapid and accurate measurements of line parameters and to give noise-equivalent absorption coefficients at the 10^{-12} cm^{-1} Hz^{-1/2} level.

  7. Combining scanning haptic microscopy and fibre optic Raman spectroscopy for tissue characterization.

    PubMed

    Candefjord, S; Murayama, Y; Nyberg, M; Hallberg, J; Ramser, K; Ljungberg, B; Bergh, A; Lindahl, O A

    2012-08-01

    The tactile resonance method (TRM) and Raman spectroscopy (RS) are promising for tissue characterization in vivo. Our goal is to combine these techniques into one instrument, to use TRM for swift scanning, and RS for increasing the diagnostic power. The aim of this study was to determine the classification accuracy, using support vector machines, for measurements on porcine tissue and also produce preliminary data on human prostate tissue. This was done by developing a new experimental set-up combining micro-scale TRM-scanning haptic microscopy (SHM)-for assessing stiffness on a micro-scale, with fibre optic RS measurements for assessing biochemical content. We compared the accuracy using SHM alone versus SHM combined with RS, for different degrees of tissue homogeneity. The cross-validation classification accuracy for healthy porcine tissue types using SHM alone was 65-81%, and when RS was added it increased to 81-87%. The accuracy for healthy and cancerous human tissue was 67-70% when only SHM was used, and increased to 72-77% for the combined measurements. This shows that the potential for swift and accurate classification of healthy and cancerous prostate tissue is high. This is promising for developing a tool for probing the surgical margins during prostate cancer surgery. PMID:22762445

  8. Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy on InAs-GaSb Esaki Diode Nanowire Devices during Operation.

    PubMed

    Persson, Olof; Webb, James L; Dick, Kimberly A; Thelander, Claes; Mikkelsen, Anders; Timm, Rainer

    2015-06-10

    Using a scanning tunneling and atomic force microscope combined with in-vacuum atomic hydrogen cleaning we demonstrate stable scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) with nanoscale resolution on electrically active nanowire devices in the common lateral configuration. We use this method to map out the surface density of states on both the GaSb and InAs segments of GaSb-InAs Esaki diodes as well as the transition region between the two segments. Generally the surface shows small bandgaps centered around the Fermi level, which is attributed to a thin multielement surface layer, except in the diode transition region where we observe a sudden broadening of the bandgap. By applying a bias to the nanowire we find that the STS spectra shift according to the local nanoscale potential drop inside the wire. Importantly, this shows that we have a nanoscale probe with which we can infer both surface electronic structure and the local potential inside the nanowire and we can connect this information directly to the performance of the imaged device. PMID:25927249

  9. Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy on InAs–GaSb Esaki Diode Nanowire Devices during Operation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Using a scanning tunneling and atomic force microscope combined with in-vacuum atomic hydrogen cleaning we demonstrate stable scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) with nanoscale resolution on electrically active nanowire devices in the common lateral configuration. We use this method to map out the surface density of states on both the GaSb and InAs segments of GaSb–InAs Esaki diodes as well as the transition region between the two segments. Generally the surface shows small bandgaps centered around the Fermi level, which is attributed to a thin multielement surface layer, except in the diode transition region where we observe a sudden broadening of the bandgap. By applying a bias to the nanowire we find that the STS spectra shift according to the local nanoscale potential drop inside the wire. Importantly, this shows that we have a nanoscale probe with which we can infer both surface electronic structure and the local potential inside the nanowire and we can connect this information directly to the performance of the imaged device. PMID:25927249

  10. Scanning elastic scattering spectroscopy detects metastatic breast cancer in sentinel lymph nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austwick, Martin R.; Clark, Benjamin; Mosse, Charles A.; Johnson, Kristie; Chicken, D. Wayne; Somasundaram, Santosh K.; Calabro, Katherine W.; Zhu, Ying; Falzon, Mary; Kocjan, Gabrijela; Fearn, Tom; Bown, Stephen G.; Bigio, Irving J.; Keshtgar, Mohammed R. S.

    2010-07-01

    A novel method for rapidly detecting metastatic breast cancer within excised sentinel lymph node(s) of the axilla is presented. Elastic scattering spectroscopy (ESS) is a point-contact technique that collects broadband optical spectra sensitive to absorption and scattering within the tissue. A statistical discrimination algorithm was generated from a training set of nearly 3000 clinical spectra and used to test clinical spectra collected from an independent set of nodes. Freshly excised nodes were bivalved and mounted under a fiber-optic plate. Stepper motors raster-scanned a fiber-optic probe over the plate to interrogate the node's cut surface, creating a 20×20 grid of spectra. These spectra were analyzed to create a map of cancer risk across the node surface. Rules were developed to convert these maps to a prediction for the presence of cancer in the node. Using these analyses, a leave-one-out cross-validation to optimize discrimination parameters on 128 scanned nodes gave a sensitivity of 69% for detection of clinically relevant metastases (71% for macrometastases) and a specificity of 96%, comparable to literature results for touch imprint cytology, a standard technique for intraoperative diagnosis. ESS has the advantage of not requiring a pathologist to review the tissue sample.