Sample records for scarifying

  1. Gunite Scarifying End Effector. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    SciTech Connect


    The Gunite Scarifying End Effector (GSEE) is designed to remove a layer of the gunite tank walls, which are contaminated with radioactivity. Removing this radioactivity is necessary to close the tank.

  2. Engineering development of a lightweight high-pressure scarifier for tank waste retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Hatchell, B.K.


    The Retrieval Process Development and Enhancements Program (RPD&E) is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Tanks Focus Area to investigate existing and emerging retrieval processes suitable for the retrieval of high-level radioactive waste inside underground storage tanks. This program, represented by industry, national laboratories, and academia, seeks to provide a technical and cost basis to support site-remediation decisions. Part of this program has involved the development of a high-pressure waterjet dislodging system and pneumatic conveyance integrated as a scarifier. Industry has used high-pressure waterjet technology for many years to mine, cut, clean, and scarify materials with a broad range of properties. The scarifier was developed as an alternate means of retrieving waste inside Hanford single-shell tanks, particularly hard, stubborn waste. Testing of the scarifier has verified its ability to retrieve a wide range of tank waste ranging from extremely hard waste that is resistant to other dislodging means to soft sludge and even supernatant fluid. Since the scarifier expends water at a low rate and recovers most of the water as it is used, the scarifier is well suited for retrieval of tanks that leak and cannot be safely sluiced or applications where significant waste dilution is not acceptable. Although the original scarifier was effective, it became evident that a lighter, more compact version that would be compatible with light weight deployment systems under development, such as the Light Duty Utility Arm, was needed. At the end of FY 95, the Light Weight Scarifier (LWS) was designed to incorporate the features of the original scarifier in a smaller, lighter end effector. During FY 96, the detailed design of the LWS was completed and two prototypes were fabricated.

  3. Impact of terahertz radiation on the epithelialization rate of scarified cornea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geyko, I. A.; Smolyanskaya, O. A.; Sulatsky, M. I.; Parakhuda, S. E.; Sedykh, E. A.; Odlyanitskiy, E. L.; Khodzitsky, M. K.; Zabolotniy, A. G.


    We revealed that after exposure of scarified cornea of rabbits to low-intensity pulsed terahertz radiation 0.1 to 1.8 THz a positive effect on epithelization triggered within the first hours was higher compared to non-irradiated cornea. However, while elevating power of terahertz radiation up to 60.8 nW it resulted in retarding epithelialization process. At that, irradiation did not affect timeframe of complete corneal epithelialization. During experiments it was found that terahertz radiation was well tolerated, exhibited no toxic and allergic reactions or resulted in pathohistological changes in the eye tissues. Also, low-intensity terahertz radiation did not affect normal physiological functions of the eyes and facilitated to re-epithelialization of scarified eyes in rabbits.

  4. Hazardous waste retrieval strategies using a high-pressure water jet scarifier

    SciTech Connect

    Hatchell, B.K.; Rinker, M.W.; Mullen, O.D.


    The Waste Dislodging and Conveyance Program is sponsored by the US Department of Energy Office of Technology Development to investigate waste dislodging and conveyance processes suitable for the retrieval of high-level radioactive waste. This program, represented by industry, national laboratories, and academia, has proposed a baseline technology of high-pressure water jet dislodging and pneumatic conveyance integrated as a scarifier as a means of retrieval of waste inside Hanford single-shell tanks. A testing program has been initiated to investigate system deployment techniques to determine appropriate mining strategies, level of control, sensor requirements, and address integration issues associated with deploying the scarifier by a long robotic manipulator arm. A test facility denoted the Hydraulics Testbed (HTB) is being constructed to achieve these objectives and to allow longer-duration, multiple-pass tests on large waste fields using a versatile gantry-style manipulator. Mining strategy tests with materials simulating salt cake and sludge waste forms will be conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of mining strategies, forces related to scarifier and conveyance line, and retrieval rate. This paper will describe the testbed facility and testing program and present initial test results to date.

  5. Linear Scarifying End-Effector Developed For Wall Cleaning In Underground Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, C.L.F.


    This paper describes the development and performance of a Linear Scarifying End-Effector (LSEE) designed and fabricated for deployment by a remotely operated vehicle. The end-effector was designed to blast or scarify in-grained residual contamination from gunite tank walls using high-pressure water jets after the bulk sludge had been removed from the tanks using an integrated suite of remotely operated tools. Two generations of the LSEE were fabricated, tested, and deployed in the gunite tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, with varying levels of success. Because the LSEE was designed near the end of a four-year project to clean up the gunite tanks at Oak Ridge, a number of design constraints existed. The end-effector had to utilize pneumatic, hydraulic and electrical interfaces already available at the site; and to be deployable through one of the containment structures already in place for the other remote systems. Another primary design consideration was that the tool had to effectively extend the reach of an existing remotely operated vehicle from six ft. to at least ten ft. to allow cleaning the tank walls from floor to ceiling. In addition, the combined weight and thrust of the LSEE had to be manageable by the manipulator mounted on the vehicle. Finally, the end-effector had to follow an autonomous scarifying path such that the vehicle was only required to reposition the unit at the end of each pass after the mist had cleared from the tank. The prototypes successfully met each of these challenges, but did encounter other difficulties during actual tank operations.

  6. Measurement of Wheat Hardness by Seed Scarifier and Barley Pearler And Comparison with Single-Kernel Characterization System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new procedure based on a seed scarifier (SS) for measuring wheat hardness was described and investigated along with methods of barley pearler (BP) and single kernel characterization system (SKCS). Hardness measured by SS and BP was expressed as percentage of kernel weight remained after abrading ...

  7. Colour-Based Binary Discrimination of Scarified Quercus robur Acorns under Varying Illumination.


    Jabłoński, Mirosław; Tylek, Paweł; Walczyk, Józef; Tadeusiewicz, Ryszard; Piłat, Adam


    Efforts to predict the germination ability of acorns using their shape, length, diameter and density are reported in the literature. These methods, however, are not efficient enough. As such, a visual assessment of the viability of seeds based on the appearance of cross-sections of seeds following their scarification is used. This procedure is more robust but demands significant effort from experienced employees over a short period of time. In this article an automated method of acorn scarification and assessment has been announced. This type of automation requires the specific setup of a machine vision system and application of image processing algorithms for evaluation of sections of seeds in order to predict their viability. In the stage of the analysis of pathological changes, it is important to point out image features that enable efficient classification of seeds in respect of viability. The article shows the results of the binary separation of seeds into two fractions (healthy or spoiled) using average components of regular red-green-blue and perception-based hue-saturation-value colour space. Analysis of accuracy of discrimination was performed on sections of 400 scarified acorns acquired using two various setups: machine vision camera under uncontrolled varying illumination and commodity high-resolution camera under controlled illumination. The accuracy of automatic classification has been compared with predictions completed by experienced professionals. It has been shown that both automatic and manual methods reach an accuracy level of 84%, assuming that the images of the sections are properly normalised. The achieved recognition ratio was higher when referenced to predictions provided by professionals. Results of discrimination by means of Bayes classifier have been also presented as a reference. PMID:27548173

  8. Efficacy of chemical treatments in eliminating Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on scarified and polished alfalfa seeds.


    Holliday, S L; Scouten, A J; Beuchat, L R


    Alfalfa seeds are sometimes subjected to a scarification treatment to enhance water uptake, which results in more rapid and uniform germination during sprout production. It has been hypothesized that this mechanical abrasion treatment diminishes the efficacy of chemical treatments used to kill or remove pathogenic bacteria from seeds. A study was done to compare the effectiveness of chlorine (20,000 ppm), H2O, (8%), Ca(OH)2 (1%), Ca(OH)2 (1%) plus Tween 80 (1%), and Ca(OH)2 (1%) plus Span 20 (1%) treatments in killing Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated onto control, scarified, and polished alfalfa seeds obtained from two suppliers. The influence of the presence of organic material in the inoculum carrier on the efficacy of sanitizers was investigated. Overall, treatment with 1% Ca(OH)2 was the most effective in reducing populations of the pathogens. Reduction in populations of pathogens on seeds obtained from supplier I indicate that chemical treatments are less efficacious in eliminating the pathogens on scarified seeds compared to control seeds. However, the effectiveness of chemical treatment in removing Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 from seeds obtained from supplier 2 was not markedly affected by scarification or polishing. The presence of organic material in the inoculum carrier did not have a marked influence on the efficacy of chemicals in reducing populations of test pathogens. Additional lots of control, scarified, and polished alfalfa seeds of additional varieties need to be tested before conclusions can be drawn concerning the impact of mechanical abrasion on the efficacy of chemical treatment in removing or killing Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7. PMID:11601695

  9. Development of a multi-functional scarifier dislodger with an integral pneumatic conveyance retrieval system for single-shell tank remediation. FY93 summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, J.A.; McKinnon, M.A.; Alberts, D.A.; Steele, D.E.; Crowe, C.T.


    The Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID) is evaluating several hydraulic dislodger concepts and retrieval technologies to develop specifications for system that can retrieve wastes from single-shell tanks. Each of the dislodgers will be evaluated sequentially to determine its ability to fracture and dislodge various waste simulants such as salt cake, sludge, and viscous liquid. The retrieval methods will be evaluated to determine their ability to convey this dislodged material from the tank. This report describes on-going research that commenced in FY93 to develop specifications for a scarifier dislodger coupled with a pneumatic conveyance retrieval system. The scarifier development is described in Section 3; pneumatic conveyance development is described in Section 4. Preliminary system specifications are listed in Section 5. FY94 plans are summarized in Section 6.

  10. Strategy to develop and test a multi-function scarifier end effector with an integral conveyance system for waste tank remediation. Strategy plan

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, J.A.; Bates, J.M.; Keska, J.K.; Elmore, M.R.; Lombardo, N.J.


    This strategy plan describes a coupled analytical/experimental approach to develop a multi-functional scarifier end effector coupled with a pneumatic conveyance system to retrieve wastes from underground storage tanks. The scarifier uses ultra-high-pressure water jets to rubblize and entrain waste forms such as salt cake, sludge, and viscous liquid that can be transported pneumatically. The three waste types (hard, brittle, salt cake, viscous liquid, and deformable sludge) present increasingly complex challenges for scarification and pneumatic conveyance. Salt cake is anticipated to be the easiest to retrieve because (1) a theoretical model of hydraulic rock fracture can be applied to estimate jet performance to fracture salt cake, and (2) gas-solids transport correlations can be used to predict pneumatic transport. Deformable sludge is anticipated to be the most difficult to retrieve: no theories, correlations, or data exist to predict this performance. However order-of-magnitude gas-solid correlations indicate particulate wastes of prototypic density can be transported to a height of 20 m within allowable pressure limits provided that the volume fraction of the gaseous phase is kept above 95%. Viscous liquid is anticipated to be of intermediate complexity to retrieve. Phenomena that are expected to affect system performance are ranked. Experiments and analyses necessary to evaluate the effects of these phenomena are proposed. Subsequent strategies for experiment test plans, system deployment, and operation and control will need to be developed.

  11. Cancer complicating chronic ulcerative and scarifying mucocutaneous disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, R.P. )


    Skin affected by a burn cancer is scarred, ulcerated, and often appears as erythema ab igne clinically in adjacent skin. The latent period in burn scar malignancy is much longer for SCC than BCC. Malignant melanoma and various sarcomas are reported to arise in burn scars, too. The other extreme on the temperature scale can less often result in enough permanent acral damage that poor wound healing may eventually result in cancer, usually SCC. About 1% of patients with chronic osteomyelitis develop cancer, usually SCC in sinus tracts. As with tumors arising in burn scars and chronic leg ulcers of varied etiology, black patients are disproportionately overrepresented in osteomyelitic malignancy. In nearly all of the patients with radiation-induced skin cancer, concomitant radiodermatitis is present. As with burn scar and osteomyelitic cancer, x-ray related cancer has a long latent period. Similar to burn scar cancer, SCC predominates in osteomyelitis and occurs on the extremities. BCC, when it arises, is more common on the face and neck in burn- and radiation-induced tumors. Multiple tumors are frequent as is recurrence in x-ray malignancy. Mortality is high: one out of three to four patients with burn scar, osteomyelitic, and radiation cancer die of dermatosis-related malignancy. Recently, radioactivity-contaminated gold rings have been implicated in causing SCC. Carcinoma tends to occur in irradiated benign dermatoses whereas sarcomas tend to complicate irradiated malignancies. Stasis ulceration and anogenital fistulae may rarely lead to cancer, SCC in the former and adenocarcinoma in the latter. SCC can rarely develop in four related conditions (acne conglobata, dissecting perifolliculitis of the scalp, hidradenitis suppurativa, and pilonidal sinus) after a lengthy latent period; prognosis is poor with a high metastatic rate. 147 references.

  12. Laboratory Methods to Remove Surface Layers from Cereal Grains Using a Seed Scarifier and comparison with a barley pearler.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The distribution of nutrients and undesirable components within a cereal seed is heterogeneous, and many of the valuable nutrients are located in the outer layers. Efficient laboratory methods to remove these layers will allow for the experimental production of value-added products. A seed scarife...

  13. Potential effects of arboreal and terrestrial avian dispersers on seed dormancy, seed germination and seedling establishment in Ormosia (Papilionoideae) species in Peru

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, M.S.


    The relative effectiveness of arboreal or terrestrial birds at dispersing seeds of Ormosia macrocalyx and O. bopiensis (Fabaceae: Papilionoideae) were studied in south-eastern Peru. Seeds of both species were either scarified, to represent seed condition after dispersal by terrestrial birds, or left intact, to represent seed condition after dispersal by arboreal birds. Seeds were distributed along forest transects, and germination, seedling development and mortality were monitored to determine the successes of the two groups at producing seedlings. Scarified seeds germinated with the early rains of the dry-to-wet-season transition, when erratic rainfall was interspersed with long dry spells. Intact seeds germinated 30 d later when the rain was more plentiful and regular. Intact seeds of O. macrocalyx gave rise to significantly more seedlings (41.1% vs. 25.5%) than did scarified seeds, in part, because significantly more seedlings from scarified seeds (n = 20) than from intact seeds (n = 3) died from desiccation when their radicles failed to enter the dry ground present during the dry-to-wet-season transition. Also, seedlings from scarified seeds were neither larger nor more robust than those from intact seeds despite their longer growing period. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that dispersal effectiveness of arboreal birds, at least for O. macrocalyx, is greater than that of terrestrial birds. Screen-house experiments in which seedlings developed under different watering regimes supported this result. Numbers of seedlings developing from intact and scarified seeds of O. bopiensis did not differ significantly.

  14. Effects of seed burial on germination, protein mobilisation and seedling survival in Dodonaea viscosa.


    Benítez-Rodríguez, L; Gamboa-deBuen, A; Sánchez-Coronado, M E; Alvarado-López, S; Soriano, D; Méndez, I; Vázquez-Santana, S; Carabias-Lillo, J; Mendoza, A; Orozco-Segovia, A


    Ecological restoration of disturbed areas requires substantial knowledge of the germination of native plants and the creation of novel methods to increase seedling establishment in the field. We studied the effects of soil matrix priming on the germination of Dodonaea viscosa seeds, which exhibit physical dormancy. To this end, we buried both pre-scarified (in H2SO4, 3 min) and non-pre-scarified seeds in the Parque Ecológico de la Ciudad de México. After seeds were unearthed, they were post-scarified for 0, 2, 6 and 10 min and their germination percentages compared to the germination of a control batch of laboratory-stored seeds. For both control and unearthed seeds, the protein pattern was determined in the enriched storage protein fraction in SDS-PAGE gels stained with Coomassie blue. Percentage germination increased as the scarification time increased. Pre-scarification significantly increased percentage germination of post-scarified seeds in relation to the control and non-pre-scarified seeds. In seeds unearthed from the forest site, the buried pre-scarified seeds had relatively high percentage germination, even in the absence of post-scarification treatment. A 48-kDa protein was not found in unearthed, pre-scarified seeds nor in the control germinated seeds, indicating that mobilisation of this protein occurred during soil priming. Burying seeds for a short period, including the beginning of the rainy season, promoted natural priming, which increased protein mobilisation. Functionally, priming effects were reflected in high percentage seedling survival in both the shade house and the field. Seed burial also reduced the requirement for acidic post-scarification. PMID:24148161

  15. Sulfuric acid and hot water treatments enhance ex vitro and in vitro germination of Hibiscus seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seeds of Hibiscus dasycalyx S. F. Blake & Shiller, a federally listed candidate endangered species and native to North America, and two variants of Hibiscus acetosella Welw. ex. Hiern were scarified using sulfuric acid and hot water. The effects of the scarification methods on in vitro and ex vitro ...

  16. Comparison of lipid content and fatty acid composition and their distribution within seeds of 5 small grain species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley, oats, rice, sorghum, and wheat, each with two genotypes, were sequentially abraded by an electric seed scarifier. The pearling fines (PF) and pearled kernels (PK) at each cycle were analyzed for lipid (mostly nonpolar) content and fatty acid (FA)composition. The oil content in whole or deh...

  17. Tocopherols and tocotrienols in barley oil prepared from germ and other fractions from scarification and sieving of hulless barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two cultivars of hulless barley (Doyce and Merlin), were scarified to abrade the outer layers of the kernels (germ, pericarp, and aleurone). The resulting scarification fines fractions were then separated into four particle size subfractions using sieves. Each of the size subfractions was then extr...

  18. Global Change Education in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John; Kinnunen, Heli; Boone, Richard


    Bird species new to the Arctic call across ancient forests where the buzz is from the super sawmills, not the sound of elk hooves. Oil and gas wells plumb the tundra depths, and the pipelines scarify the surface, pumping fossil wealth south with a return flow measured in dollars and rubles. The eternal ice is going and tourist ships are coming, ironically to see the icy landscape that is disappearing. This is the Arctic today.

  19. Technique for rapid establishment of American lotus in remediation efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Ryon, M. G.; Jett, R. T.; McCracken, M. K.; Morris, G. W.; Roy, W. K.; Fortner, A. M.; Goins, K. N.; Riazi, A. S.


    A technique for increasing the establishment rate of American lotus (Nelumbo lutea) and simplifying planting was developed as part of a pond remediation project. Lotus propagation techniques typically require scarification of the seed, germination in heated water, and planting in nursery containers. Then mature (~ 1 yr) nursery-grown stock is transferred to planting site or scarified seed are broadcast applied. Mature plants should grow more quickly, but can be sensitive to handling, require more time to plant, and cost more. Scarified seeds are easier to plant and inexpensive, but have a lag time in growth, can fail to germinate, and can be difficult to site precisely. We developed an intermediate technique using small burlap bags that makes planting easier, provides greater germination success, and avoids lag time in growth. Data on survival and growth from experiments using mature stock, scarified seeds, and bag lotus demonstrate that bag lotus grow rapidly in a variety of conditions, have a high survival rate, can be processed and planted easily and quickly, and are very suitable for a variety of remediation projects

  20. Regeneration alternatives for upland white spruce after burning and logging in interior Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Densmore, R.V.; Juday, G.P.; Zasada, J.C.


    Site-preparation and regeneration methods for white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) were tested near Fairbanks, Alaska, on two upland sites which had been burned in a wildfire and salvage logged. After 5 and 10 years, white spruce regeneration did not differ among the four scarification methods but tended to be lower without scarification. Survival of container-grown planted seedlings stabilized after 3 years at 93% with scarification and at 76% without scarification. Broadcast seeding was also successful, with one or more seedlings on 80% of the scarified 6-m2 subplots and on 60% of the unscarified subplots after 12 years. Natural regeneration after 12 years exceeded expectations, with seedlings on 50% of the 6-m2 subplots 150 m from a seed source and on 28% of the subplots 230 m from a seed source. After 5 years, 37% of the scarified unsheltered seed spots and 52% of the scarified seed spots with cone shelters had one or more seedlings, but only 16% of the unscarified seed spots had seedlings, with and without funnel shelters. Growth rates for all seedlings were higher than on similar unburned sites. The results show positive effects of burning in interior Alaska, and suggest planting seedlings, broadcast seeding, and natural seedfall, alone or in combination, as viable options for similar sites.

  1. Pentek concrete scabbling system: Baseline report; Summary

    SciTech Connect


    The Pentek concrete scabbling system consists of the MOOSE{reg_sign} scabbler, the SQUIRREL{reg_sign}-I and SQUIRREL{reg_sign}-III scabblers, and VAC-PAC. The scabblers are designed to scarify concrete floors and slabs using cross section, tungsten carbide tipped bits. The bits are designed to remove concrete in 3/8 inch increments. The bits are either 9-tooth or demolition type. The scabblers are used with a vacuum system designed to collect and filter the concrete dust and contamination that is removed from the surface. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

  2. [Seeds germination of Caesalpinia paraguariensis (Fabaceae): scarificator agents and cattle effects].


    Ortega Baes, P; de Viana, M L; Larenas, G; Saravia, M


    The tree Caesalpinia paraguariensis grows in the Chaco region, Argentina. Fruits are indehiscent with many seeds. This species is an important source of wood and the fruits are consumed by cattle in Salta province. We studied seed germination under chemical, mechanical and biological scarification. Seeds from controls (without scarification) and those with biological scarification had a smaller (and similar) germination rate. The non-germinated seeds from biological treatments were mechanically scarified and their germination rate was similar to others under the mechanical treatment. Passage by digestive tracts would not enhance germination because viable seeds are still dormant due to their hard coats. PMID:11795158

  3. Neonatal herpes simplex virus.


    Berardi, Alberto; Lugli, Licia; Rossi, Cecilia; Maria, Chiara Laguardia; Guidotti, Isotta; Gallo, Claudio; Ferrari, Fabrizio


    Herpes simplex virus is an important cause of neonatal infection, which can lead to death or long-term disabilities. Rarely in utero, the transmission frequently occurs during delivery. The disease may be disseminated, localized to the central nervous system, or involving skin, eye and/or mouth. Mortality rates markedly decreased with high-dose antiviral treatment. Diagnosis of neonatal infection is based on viral isolation from ulcerated vesicles or by scarifying mucocutaneous lesions. Recently polymerase chain reaction plays a central role for both viral detection (skin, mucosal, cerebrospinal fluid samples) and response to therapy. Vertical transmission may be decreased by prophylactic antiviral treatment. PMID:21942600

  4. Extended Word-Line NAND Flash Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Jang-Gn; Park, Il Han; Kim, Wandong; Lee, Jong Duk; Park, Byung-Gook


    A NAND flash memory array having extended word-lines is proposed. Without scarifying areal density, both physical gate length and charge storage node size are increased through the word-line extension process. Simple fabrication flow is delivered and device performances in a viewpoint of the short channel effect are simulated. The effect of gate length variation on the cell threshold voltage (VTH) distribution is addressed. Programming characteristics in the inversion-type source/drain NAND flash memory are also described. Some side effects concerned with the program disturbance and cell-to-cell interference are investigated in comparison with the conventional NAND flash memory.

  5. Commensurability effects in holographic homogeneous lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Tomas; Krikun, Alexander


    An interesting application of the gauge/gravity duality to condensed matter physics is the description of a lattice via breaking translational invariance on the gravity side. By making use of global symmetries, it is possible to do so without scarifying homogeneity of the pertinent bulk solutions, which we thus term as "homogeneous holographic lattices." Due to their technical simplicity, these configurations have received a great deal of attention in the last few years and have been shown to correctly describe momentum relaxation and hence (finite) DC conductivities.

  6. Tree planters' notes, Volume 44, Number 1, Winter 1993. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Mangold, R.; Nisley, R.; Karrfalt, R.; Landis, T.; Lantz, C.


    Contents: methyl bromide--we can learn to live without it; thanks to our reviewers; seedling counter field tests; scarifiers for shelterwoods; mobile tree seedling coolers; germination math: calculating the number of seeds necessary per cavity to achieve a given number of live seedlings; germination of Alaska-cedar seed; first-year survival and growth of loblolly pine seedlings released from perennial weeds in old fields of northeastern Arkansas; vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae of western redcedar in container nurseries and on field sites after slash burning; and hardwood species trials in Oregon.

  7. Hanford Tanks Initiative alternate retrieval system demonstrations - final report of testing performed by Grey Pilgrim LLC

    SciTech Connect

    Berglin, E.J.


    A waste retrieval system has been defined to provide a safe and cost-effective solution to the Hanford Tanks Initiative. This system consists of the EMMA robotic manipulator (by GreyPilgrim LLC) and the lightweight Scarifier (by Waterjet Technology, Inc.) powered by a 36-kpsi Jet-Edge diesel powered high pressure pumping system. For demonstration and testing purposes, an air conveyance system was utilized to remove the waste from the simulated tank floor. The EMMA long reach manipulator utilized for this demonstration was 33 feet long. It consisted of 4 hydraulically controlled stages of varying lengths and coupling configurations. T

  8. Innovative technology summary report: Confined sluicing end effector

    SciTech Connect


    A Confined Sluicing End-Effector (CSEE) was field tested during the summer of 1997 in Tank W-3, one of the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). It should be noted that the specific device used at the Oak Ridge Reservation demonstration was the Sludge Retrieval End-Effector (SREE), although in common usage it is referred to as the CSEE. Deployed by the Modified Light-Duty Utility Arm (MLDUA) and the Houdini remotely operated vehicle (ROV), the CSEE was used to mobilize and retrieve waste from the tank. After removing the waste, the CSEE was used to scarify the gunite walls of Tank W-3, removing approximately 0.1 in of material. The CSEE uses three rotating water-jets to direct a short-range pressurized jet of water to effectively mobilize the waste. Simultaneously, the water and dislodged tank waste, or scarified materials, are aspirated using a water-jet pump-driven conveyance system. The material is then pumped outside of the tank, where it can be stored for treatment. The technology, its performance, uses, cost, and regulatory issues are discussed.

  9. Machine site preparation improves seedling performance on a high-elevation site in southwest Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    McNabb, D.H. . Dept. of Forest Engineering); Baker-Katz, K.; Tesch, S.D. . Dept. of Forest Science)


    Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) seedlings planted on areas receiving one of four site-preparation treatments (scarify, scarify/till, soil removal, and soil removal/till) and on unprepared control areas were compared for 5 yr at a high-elevation, nutrient-poor site in the western Siskiyou Mountains of southwest Oregon. Fifth-year survival of seedlings was at least 85% among machine-prepared plots, compared to 42% on control plots. Cover of competing vegetation remained less than 25% during the period for all machine treatments. In contrast, vegetation cover on control plots was 30% at the time of planting and increased to nearly 75% after 5 yr. Competing vegetation clearly impeded seedling performance. The effects of unusually droughty conditions at the time of planting in 1982 were examined further by interplanting additional seedlings in the soil-removal treatment in 1985. The interplanting was followed by more normal spring precipitation, and seedlings grew better over 5 yr than those planted in 1982. The slow recovery of competing vegetation and generally poor seedling growth on all treatments during both planting years are attributed to low soil fertility.

  10. Effect of soil surface conditions on runoff velocity and sediment mean aggregate diameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    César Ramos, Júlio; Bertol, Ildegardis; Paz González, Antonio; de Souza Werner, Romeu; Marioti, Juliana; Henrique Bandeira, Douglas; Andrighetti Leolatto, Lidiane


    Soil cover and soil management are the factors that most influence soil erosion by water, because they directly affect soil surface roughness and surface cover. The main effect of soil cover by crop residues consists in dissipation of kinetic energy of raindrops and also partly kinetic energy of runoff, so that the soil disaggregation is considerably reduced but, in addition, soil cover captures detached soil particles, retains water on its surface and decreases runoff volume and velocity. In turn, soil surface roughness, influences soil surface water storage and infiltration and also runoff volume and velocity, sediment retention and subsequently water and sediment losses. Based on the above rationale, we performed a field experiment to assess the influence of soil cover and soil surface roughness on decay of runoff velocity as well as on mean diameter of transported sediments (D50 index). The following treatments were evaluated: SRR) residues of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) on a smooth soil surfcace, SRV) residues of common vetch (Vicia sativa) on a smooth soil surface, SSR) scarification after cultivation of Italian ryegrass resulting in a rough surface, SSV) scarification after cultivation of common vetch resulting in a rough surface, and SBS) scarified bare soil with high roughness as a control. The field experiments was performed on an Inceptisol in South Brazil under simulated rainfall conditions during 2012. Experimental plots were 11 m long and 3.5 m wide with an area of 38.5 m2. Six successive simulated rainfall tests were applied using a rotating-boom rain simulator. During each test, rain intensity was 60 mmhr-1, whereas rain duration was 90 minutes. Runoff velocity showed no significant differences between cultivated treatments. However, when compared to bare soil treatment, SBS (0.178 m s-1) and irrespective of the presence of surface crop residues or scarification operations, cultivated soil treatments significantly reduced runoff velocity

  11. Evaluating approaches to measuring ocular pain in bovine calves with corneal scarification and infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis-associated corneal ulcerations.


    Dewell, R D; Millman, S T; Gould, S A; Tofflemire, K L; Whitley, R D; Parsons, R L; Rowe, E W; Liu, F; Wang, C; O'Connor, A M


    Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) is a common ocular disease in cattle, associated with a 6.8 to 13.6 kg decrease in weaning weight. Antibiotic therapy is available but it is unclear if pain mitigation as an adjunct therapy would reduce the weight loss associated with IBK. Before assessing the impact of pain mitigation therapies, it is first necessary to validate approaches to qualifying ocular pain. The objective of this study was to evaluate approaches to qualifying ocular pain in bovine calves (Bos taurus) with IBK. Our a priori assumption was that scarification or corneal ulcerations consistent with IBK are painful compared to normal eyes. To quantify this difference in pain, we assessed 4 tools: pressure algometry-mechanical nociceptive threshold (PA-MNT), corneal touch thresholds (CTT) obtained with the use of a Cochet-Bonnet aesthesiometer, and assessment for the presence of blepharospasm and photophobia as metrics for pain. Using a 1-eye randomized controlled challenge trial, 31 calves with healthy eyes were randomly allocated to treatment groups, and then a left or right eye was randomly assigned for corneal scarification and inoculation with Moraxella bovoculi or Moraxella bovis. A repeated measures analysis of variance was used for PA-MNT, with significance set at P < 0.05. A log (base 10) transformation was used to stabilize the variance, and Tukey's t tests were used to test differences between assessment days for each landmark. Calves had statistically significantly lower PA-MNT scores (which indicates more pain) the day after scarification relative to baseline measurements (4 d before scarification). For example, at 1 landmark the median PA-MNT (kg/force) prescarification was 4.82 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.92-5.93) and 3.43 (95% CI: 2.79-4.22) postscarification. These data suggest PA-MNT may be a tool for quantifying ocular pain in calves. No differences (P < 0.1) in PA-MNT scores between scarified and not-scarified eyes were

  12. Tanks Focus Area retrieval process development and enhancements FY96 technology development summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Rinker, M.W.; Bamberger, J.A.; Hatchell, B.K.


    The Retrieval Process Development and Enhancements (RPD&E) activities are part of the Retrieval and Closure Program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) EM-50 Tanks Focus Area. The purposes of RPD&E are to understand retrieval processes, including emerging and existing technologies, and to gather data on those processes, so that end users have the requisite technical basis to make retrieval decisions. Work has been initiated to support the need for multiple retrieval technologies across the DOE complex. Technologies addressed during FY96 focused on enhancements to sluicing, borehole mining, confined sluicing retrieval end effectors, the lightweight scarifier, and pulsed air mixing. Furthermore, a decision tool and database have been initiated to link retrieval processes with tank closure to assist end users in making retrieval decisions.

  13. A reliable wireless monitoring network for healthcare applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abou-Elnour, Ali; Safi, Ammar; Alaalu, Ahmad N.


    In the present work, a reliable wireless healthcare monitoring network which is compatible with common platforms and operating systems is designed and implemented. The main advantages of our suggested wireless monitoring network are the ability to monitor any required quantity, the usage of an efficient programming environment to allow all features of monitoring, controlling, and data processing to be implemented, the ability to extend the number of monitored patients, and the ability to transfer measurement data over wired or wireless channels. In addition to all of the above mentioned features, the system is implemented with components which achieve the minimum costs without scarifying accuracy. The use of low cost wireless communication and internet network facilities makes our suggested monitoring system reliable for all capital projects with minimum costs and ensures upgradability to adapt additional wide user requirements.

  14. Can prescribed fire be used to control Yellow Sweetclover (Meliotus officinalis) in a cool-season mixed-grass prairie?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Diane L.


    This report summarizes the results of a study on the effects of early- versus late-season fire on yellow sweetclover. The study was motivated by a desire to develop realistic management methods for yellow sweetclover at Badlands National Park. Limitations imposed by an inability to apply fire treatments at the times required made it impossible to test the hypothesis that late summer fires would be effective at reducing sweetclover. Nonetheless, I summarize data on yellow sweetclover stem counts, cover of plant species, and proportion of native and exotic cover with respect to the fire treatments in this report. In addition, I present results of a germination study, in which scarified sweetclover seeds were planted at 2-week intervals. The data summarized in the report, and included in the accompanying spreadsheet, may prove useful in future studies of effects of fire on prairie vegetation in general, and yellow sweetclover in particular.

  15. Control of Seed Coat Thickness and Permeability in Soybean 1

    PubMed Central

    Noodén, L. D.; Blakley, K. A.; Grzybowski, J. M.


    Although the seed coat, through its thickness and permeability, often regulates seed germination, very little is known about the control of its development. Using soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merrill) explants, podbearing cuttings in which defined solutions can be substituted for the roots, we have demonstrated that cytokinin and mineral nutrients moving through the xylem can control soybean seed coat development. Lack of cytokinin and minerals in the culture solution, causes a thicker, less permeable seed coat to develop. The seeds with thickened coats will imbibe water rapidly if scarified; furthermore, these scratched seeds also germinate and produce normal plants. Inasmuch as stress (e.g. drought) decreases mineral assimilation and cytokinin production by the roots, the resulting delay in germination could be an adaptive response to stress. PMID:16664447

  16. Pentek concrete scabbling system: Baseline report

    SciTech Connect


    The Pentek scabbling technology was tested at Florida International University (FIU) and is being evaluated as a baseline technology. This report evaluates it for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek concrete scabbling system consisted of the MOOSE{reg_sign}, SQUIRREL{reg_sign}-I, and SQUIRREL{reg_sign}-III scabblers. The scabblers are designed to scarify concrete floors and slabs using cross-section, tungsten carbide tipped bits. The bits are designed to remove concrete in 318 inch increments. The bits are either 9-tooth or demolition type. The scabblers are used with a vacuum system designed to collect and filter the concrete dust and contamination that is removed from the surface. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

  17. Lead paint abatement -- A technological review

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, A.C. III; Kapuscik, D.


    Abatement of lead from various surfaces proves to be a rapidly developing industry. Removal techniques and effectiveness varies greatly with varying substrates (wood, concrete, steel, etc.) and surface configurations including interior/exterior considerations, habitability and anticipated retrofit. Numerous technologies advances, and/or adaptations of long accepted removal techniques have recently emerged. Some of the more commonly used removal procedures including vacuum blasting, chemical stripping, scarifiers, grinders, sanders, etc. will be reviewed. Specific emphasis will be placed upon mode of application, positive and negative environmental aspects, and varying emissions generated. Personnel sampling data will be discussed with respect to associated personal protective equipment impact to derive the most cost productive environmentally conscious alternatives.

  18. Multi-Hybrid Power Vehicles with Cost Effective and Durable Polymer Electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Bose, Anima


    Anima Bose, the principal investigator of the project, originally proposed to develop composite membranes to operate PEMFCs at much higher temperatures than 80{degrees}C and to alleviate the flooding problems often encountered in Nafion menmbrane containing fuel cells. The PI has successfully created composite membranes by blending small quantities of octasilane-poss (OSP) with Nafion. The composite membranes exhibited temperature tolerance up to 110{degrees}C without scarifying cell performance as determined by polarization curves and proton conductivity measurements. These membranes also exhibited superior water management performance as evident from the lack of flooding. Furthermore, these fuel cells performed well under reduced humidities. Structural and thermal analyses revealed that these Nafion-octasilane composite membranes are homogenous at concentrations up to 3 wt% of the OSP and that the siloxane offers additional thermal stability.

  19. Residue depletion of tilmicosin in cattle after subcutaneous administration.


    Jiang, Haiyang; Ding, Shuangyang; Li, Jiancheng; An, Dianjin; Li, Cun; Shen, Jianzhong


    A study of tissue residue depletion of tilmicosin in cattle was conducted after a single subcutaneous injection at the therapeutic level of 10 mg per kg body weight. Eighteen cross cattle were treated with the tilmicosin oil formulation (30%). Three treated animals (two males and one female) were selected randomly to be scarified at 1, 7, 14, 28, and 35 days withdrawal after injection. Samples of the injection site and of muscle, liver, kidney, and fat were collected. Tilmicosin residue concentrations were determined using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with a UV detector at 290 nm. Using a statistical method recommended by the Committee for Veterinary Medical Products of European Medical Evaluation Agency, the withdrawal time of 34 days was established when all tissue residues except samples in the injection site were below the accepted maximum residue limits. PMID:16819937

  20. Performance and emission characteristics of the thermal barrier coated SI engine by adding argon inert gas to intake mixture

    PubMed Central

    Karthikeya Sharma, T.


    Dilution of the intake air of the SI engine with the inert gases is one of the emission control techniques like exhaust gas recirculation, water injection into combustion chamber and cyclic variability, without scarifying power output and/or thermal efficiency (TE). This paper investigates the effects of using argon (Ar) gas to mitigate the spark ignition engine intake air to enhance the performance and cut down the emissions mainly nitrogen oxides. The input variables of this study include the compression ratio, stroke length, and engine speed and argon concentration. Output parameters like TE, volumetric efficiency, heat release rates, brake power, exhaust gas temperature and emissions of NOx, CO2 and CO were studied in a thermal barrier coated SI engine, under variable argon concentrations. Results of this study showed that the inclusion of Argon to the input air of the thermal barrier coated SI engine has significantly improved the emission characteristics and engine’s performance within the range studied. PMID:26644918

  1. Performance and emission characteristics of the thermal barrier coated SI engine by adding argon inert gas to intake mixture.


    Karthikeya Sharma, T


    Dilution of the intake air of the SI engine with the inert gases is one of the emission control techniques like exhaust gas recirculation, water injection into combustion chamber and cyclic variability, without scarifying power output and/or thermal efficiency (TE). This paper investigates the effects of using argon (Ar) gas to mitigate the spark ignition engine intake air to enhance the performance and cut down the emissions mainly nitrogen oxides. The input variables of this study include the compression ratio, stroke length, and engine speed and argon concentration. Output parameters like TE, volumetric efficiency, heat release rates, brake power, exhaust gas temperature and emissions of NOx, CO2 and CO were studied in a thermal barrier coated SI engine, under variable argon concentrations. Results of this study showed that the inclusion of Argon to the input air of the thermal barrier coated SI engine has significantly improved the emission characteristics and engine's performance within the range studied. PMID:26644918

  2. Does thermal time for germination vary among populations of a tree legume (Peltophorum dubium)?


    Andrade, L F D; Cardoso, V J M


    Few works report the use of degree-days (DD) - used in crops to predict events and schedule management activities - to describe the germination of tropical trees. The cardinal temperatures (base, optimum and ceiling temperature) for germination of the species may vary depending on the seed provenance. Peltophorum dubium (Spreng.) Taub. is an early successional leguminous tree widely distributed in South America, often occurring as cultivated or naturalized trees, thus considered to be a good example for testing DD model in tree species. The main objective of this study was to describe the seed germination response of different populations of P. dubium as function of DD accumulation during germination assays in semi-controlled (fluctuating temperatures) conditions. Germination assays with manually scarified seeds sown in aluminum sheet trays filled with a composed substrate were performed under greenhouse conditions at different times. Three methods were employed in order to describe the accumulation of thermal time throughout the assays and, considering the seed lot and sowing time, a trapezoid area method was relatively more effective in describing the germination. The germination curves of P. dubium seeds from different populations, expressed in degree-days estimated directly from temperature records schedules, tend to be more clustered suggesting little variation among thermal time requirements in different seed provenances. Otherwise, the thermal time requirement can vary depending on the time of sowing, and any increase in DD requirement when the assays were performed under higher mean temperatures can be related to a thermal effect on the germination of scarified seeds. PMID:27097080

  3. Use of the Modified Light Duty Utility Arm to Perform Nuclear Waste Cleanup of Underground Waste Storage Tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, J.A.; Burks, B.L.; DePew, R.E.; Falter, D.D.; Glassell, R.L.; Glover, W.H.; Killough, S.M.; Lloyd, P.D.; Love, L.J.; Randolph, J.D.; Van Hoesen, S.D.; Vesco, D.P.


    The Modified Light Duty Utility Arm (MLDUA) is a selectable seven or eight degree-of-freedom robot arm with a 16.5 ft (5.03 m) reach and a payload capacity of 200 lb. (90.72 kg). The utility arm is controlled in either joystick-based telerobotic mode or auto sequence robotics mode. The MLDUA deployment system deploys the utility arm vertically into underground radioactive waste storage tanks located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These tanks are constructed of gunite material and consist of two 25 ft (7.62 m) diameter tanks in the North Tank Farm and six 50 ft (15.24 m) diameter tanks in the South Tank Farm. After deployment inside a tank, the utility arm reaches and grasps the confined sluicing end effecter (CSEE) which is attached to the hose management arm (HMA). The utility arm positions the CSEE within the tank to allow the HMA to sluice the tank's liquid and solid waste from the tank. The MLDUA is used to deploy the characterization end effecter (CEE) and gunite scarifying end effecter (GSEE) into the tank. The CEE is used to survey the tank wall's radiation levels and the physical condition of the walls. The GSEE is used to scarify the tank walls with high-pressure water to remove the wall scale buildup and a thin layer of gunite which reduces the radioactive contamination that is embedded into the gunite walls. The MLDUA is also used to support waste sampling and wall core-sampling operations. Other tools that have been developed for use by the MLDUA include a pipe-plugging end effecter, pipe-cutting end effecter, and pipe-cleaning end effecter. Washington University developed advance robotics path control algorithms for use in the tanks. The MLDUA was first deployed in June 1997 and has operated continuously since then. Operational experience in the first four tanks remediated is presented in this paper.

  4. Dormancy-breaking requirements of Sophora tomentosa and Erythrina speciosa (Fabaceae) seeds.


    Luzia Delgado, Carolina Maria; Souza de Paula, Alexandre; Santos, Marisa; Silveira Paulilo, Maria Terezinha


    The physical dormancy of seeds has been poorly studied in species from tropical forests, such as the Atlantic Forest. This study aimed to examine the effect of moderate alternating temperatures on breaking the physical dormancy of seeds, the morphoanatomy and histochemistry of seed coats, and to locate the structure/region responsible for water entrance into the seed, after breaking the physical dormancy of seeds of two woody Fabaceae (subfamily Faboideae) species that occur in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: Sophora tomentosa and Erythrina speciosa. To assess temperature effect, seeds were incubated in several temperature values that occur in the Atlantic Forest. For morphological and histochemical studies, sections of fixed seeds were subjected to different reagents, and were observed using light or epifluorescence microscopy, to analyze the anatomy and histochemistry of the seed coat. Treated and nonreated seeds were also analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to observe the morphology of the seed coat. To localize the specific site of water entrance, the seeds were blocked with glue in different regions and also immersed in ink. In the present work a maximum temperature fluctuation of 15 degrees C was applied during a period of 20 days and these conditions did not increase the germination of S. tomentosa or E. speciosa. These results may indicate that these seeds require larger fluctuation of temperature than the applied or/and longer period of exposition to the temperature fluctuation. Blocking experiments water inlet combined with SEM analysis of the structures of seed coat for both species showed that besides the lens, the hilum and micropyle are involved in water absorption in seeds scarified with hot water. In seeds of E. speciosa the immersion of scarified seeds into an aniline aqueous solution showed that the solution first entered the seed through the hilum. Both species showed seed morphological and anatomical features for seed coats of the

  5. Long-term effectiveness of restoration treatments on closed wilderness campsites.


    Cole, David N


    This study assessed long-term recovery of vegetation on six wilderness campsites in subalpine forests in Oregon that were closed to use and that received common restoration treatments (scarification, soil amendments, mulch, transplanting, and seeding). Vegetation cover was assessed every year for the first 7 years following treatment, as well as 10 and 15 years after treatment. This made it possible to compare long-term treatment effectiveness to short-term efficacy. Plots that were closed and not scarified had virtually no vegetation cover even after 15 years without use. If long-used campsites in these subalpine forests are simply closed and allowed to recover on their own, restoration of undisturbed conditions will require hundreds if not thousands of years. Study results show, however, that simple treatments can accelerate recovery rates substantially. Scarification and transplanting were highly effective treatments, with seeding and soil amendment with organic matter and compost also contributing to success, but to a lesser degree. The use of a mulch mat, in contrast, had no effect, either positive or negative. Assessments of success conducted within the first few years of treatment overestimate treatment efficacy, particularly the effectiveness of soil amendments and seeding. PMID:23322127

  6. Intrastromal Injection of China Painting Ink in Corneas of Male Rabbits: Clinical and Histological Study.


    Alsmman Hassan, Alahmady Hamad; Abd Elhaliem Soliman, Nesreen Gamal-Eldeen


    Background. Many patients with corneal opacity or complicated cataract in blind eye ask for cosmoses. In this study we tried to investigate the staining of corneas of male rabbits by Rotring China painting ink and to study the histological changes. Method. 10 eyes of 10 male Baladi Egyptian rabbits were injected (0.1 mL) intrastromally in the cornea by the use of China painting ink (Rotring Tinta China) through insulin syringe (27-gauge needle) by single injection; clinical follow-up is for 6 months and lastly the rabbits were scarified and the stained eyes were enucleated for histological analysis. Results. Clinically the stain was stable in color and distribution in corneas with no major complications. Histological results of the stained rabbit corneas showed blackish pigmentation in the corneal stroma without any inflammatory cellular infiltration. Some fibroblast cells had pigment granules in their cytoplasm in the adjacent layers. Conclusion. Corneal staining by China painting ink is effective and safe in staining of male rabbits cornea; however further study in human corneas with longer follow-up period is advisable. PMID:27195146

  7. Redistribution of soil nitrogen, carbon and organic matter by mechanical disturbance during whole-tree harvesting in northern hardwoods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryan, D.F.; Huntington, T.G.; Wayne, Martin C.


    To investigate whether mechanical mixing during harvesting could account for losses observed from forest floor, we measured surface disturbance on a 22 ha watershed that was whole-tree harvested. Surface soil on each 10 cm interval along 81, randomly placed transects was classified immediately after harvesting as mineral or organic, and as undisturbed, depressed, rutted, mounded, scarified, or scalped (forest floor scraped away). We quantitatively sampled these surface categories to collect soil in which preharvest forest floor might reside after harvest. Mechanically mixed mineral and organic soil horizons were readily identified. Buried forest floor under mixed mineral soil occurred in 57% of mounds with mineral surface soil. Harvesting disturbed 65% of the watershed surface and removed forest floor from 25% of the area. Mechanically mixed soil under ruts with organic or mineral surface soil, and mounds with mineral surface soil contained organic carbon and nitrogen pools significantly greater than undisturbed forest floor. Mechanical mixing into underlying mineral soil could account for the loss of forest floor observed between the preharvest condition and the second growing season after whole-tree harvesting. ?? 1992.

  8. Water entry for the black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) seeds observed by dedicated micro-magnetic resonance imaging.


    Koizumi, Mika; Kano, Hiromi


    Water entry at germination for black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) seeds which are known as hard seeds with impermeable seed coat to water, was examined using micro-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The MRI apparatus equipped with a low-field (1 T; Tesla) permanent magnet was used, which is open access, easy maintenance, operable and transportable. The excellent point of the apparatus is that T 1-enhancement of water signals absorbed in dry seeds against steeping free water is stronger than the apparatuses with high-field superconducting magnets, which enabled clear detection of water entry. Water hardly penetrated into the seeds for more than 8 h but approximately 60 % of seeds germinated by incubating on wet filter papers for several days. Hot water treatments above 75 °C for 3 min effectively induced water gap; scarification was 70 % at 100 °C and 75 °C, declined to 15 % at 50 °C and decreased further at room temperature. Water entered into the scarified seeds exclusively through the lens, spread along the dorsal side of the seeds and reached the hypocotyl, whereas water migrated slowly through hilum side to radicle within 3 h. PMID:27059756

  9. Ant-seed mutualisms: Can red imported fire ants sour the relationship?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zettler, J.A.; Spira, T.P.; Allen, C.R.


    Invasion by the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, has had negative impacts on individual animal and plant species, but little is known about how S. invicta affects complex mutualistic relationships. In some eastern forests of North America, 30% of herbaceous species have ant-dispersed seeds. We conducted experiments to determine if fire ants are attracted to seeds of these plant species and assessed the amount of scarification or damage that results from handling by fire ants. Fire ants removed nearly 100% of seeds of the ant-dispersed plants Trillium undulatum, T. discolor, T. catesbaei, Viola rotundifolia, and Sanguinaria canadensis. In recovered seeds fed to ant colonies, fire ants scarified 80% of S. canadensis seeds and destroyed 86% of V. rotundifolia seeds. Our study is the first to document that red imported fire ants are attracted to and remove seeds of species adapted for ant dispersal. Moreover, fire ants might damage these seeds and discard them in sites unfavorable for germination and seedling establishment. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Leaching of organic contaminants from storage of reclaimed asphalt pavement.


    Norin, Malin; Strömvall, A M


    Recycling of asphalt has been promoted by rapid increases in both the use and price of petroleum-based bitumen. Semi-volatile organic compounds in leachates from reclaimed asphalt pavement, measured in field samples and in laboratory column test, were analysed through a GC/MS screen-test methodology. Sixteen PAH (polyaromatic hydrocarbons) were also analysed in leachates from the column study. The highest concentrations of semi-volatile compounds, approximately 400 microg l(-1), were measured in field samples from the scarified stockpile. Naphthalene, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) were the most dominant of the identified semi-volatiles. The occurrence of these compounds in urban groundwater, also indicate high emission rates and persistent structures of the compounds, making them potentially hazardous. Car exhausts, rubber tires and the asphalt material itself are all probable emission sources, determined from the organic contaminants released from the stockpiles. The major leaching mechanism indicated was dissolution of organic contaminants from the surface of the asphalt gravels. In the laboratory column test, the release of high-molecular weight and more toxic PAH was higher in the leachates after two years than at the commencement of storage. The concentrations of semi-volatiles in leachates, were also several times lower than those from the field stockpile. These results demonstrate the need to follow up laboratory column test with real field measurements. PMID:15176747

  11. In Situ Reduction of Silver by Polydopamine: A Novel Antimicrobial Modification of a Thin-Film Composite Polyamide Membrane.


    Yang, Zhe; Wu, Yichao; Wang, Jianqiang; Cao, Bin; Tang, Chuyang Y


    We report a facile method for the antimicrobial modification of a thin-film composite polyamide reverse osmosis (RO) membrane. The membrane surface was first coated with polydopamine (PDA), whose reducing catechol groups subsequently immobilized silver ions in situ to form uniformly dispersed silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) inside the coating layer. Agglomeration of AgNPs was not observed despite a high silver loading of 13.3 ± 0.3 μg/cm(2) (corresponding to a surface coverage of 18.5% by the nanoparticles). Both diffusion inhibition zone tests and colony formation unit tests showed clear antimicrobial effects of the silver loaded membranes on model bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. Furthermore, the silver immobilized membrane had significantly enhanced salt rejection compared to the control PDA coated membrane, which is attributed to the preferential formation of AgNPs at defect sides within the PDA layer. This self-healing mechanism can be used to prepare antimicrobial RO membranes with improved salt rejection without scarifying the membrane permeability, which provides a new dimension for membrane surface modification. PMID:27479138

  12. Piperine Enhances the Protective Effect of Curcumin Against 3-NP Induced Neurotoxicity: Possible Neurotransmitters Modulation Mechanism.


    Singh, Shamsher; Jamwal, Sumit; Kumar, Puneet


    3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP) is a fungal toxin well established model used for inducing symptoms of Huntington's disease. Curcumin a natural polyphenol has been reported to possess neuroprotective activity by decreasing oxidative stress. The aim of present study was to investigate neuroprotective effect of curcumin with piperine (bioavailability enhancer) against 3-NP induced neurotoxicity in rats. Administration of 3-NP (10 mg/kg for 21 days) showed loss in body weight, declined motor function and changes in biochemical (LPO, nitrite and glutathione level), neuroinflammatory (TNF-α and IL-1β level) and neurochemical (DA, NE, 5-HT, DOPAC, 5-HIAA and HVA). Chronic treatment with curcumin (25 and 50 mg/kg) and curcumin (25 mg/kg) with piperine (2.5 mg/kg) once daily for 21 days prior to 3-NP administration. All the behavioral parameters were studied at 1st, 7th, 14th, and 21st day. On 22nd day all the animals was scarified and striatum was separated. Curcumin alone and combination (25 mg/kg) with piperine (2.5 mg/kg) showed beneficial effect against 3-NP induced motor deficit, biochemical and neurochemical abnormalities in rats. Piperine (2.5 mg/kg) with curcumin (25 mg/kg) significantly enhances its protective effect as compared with curcumin alone treated group. The results of the present study indicate that protective effect of curcumin potentiated in the presence of piperine (bioavailability enhancer) against 3-NP-induced behavioral and molecular alteration. PMID:26160706

  13. Intrastromal Injection of China Painting Ink in Corneas of Male Rabbits: Clinical and Histological Study

    PubMed Central

    Alsmman Hassan, Alahmady Hamad; Abd Elhaliem Soliman, Nesreen Gamal-Eldeen


    Background. Many patients with corneal opacity or complicated cataract in blind eye ask for cosmoses. In this study we tried to investigate the staining of corneas of male rabbits by Rotring China painting ink and to study the histological changes. Method. 10 eyes of 10 male Baladi Egyptian rabbits were injected (0.1 mL) intrastromally in the cornea by the use of China painting ink (Rotring Tinta China) through insulin syringe (27-gauge needle) by single injection; clinical follow-up is for 6 months and lastly the rabbits were scarified and the stained eyes were enucleated for histological analysis. Results. Clinically the stain was stable in color and distribution in corneas with no major complications. Histological results of the stained rabbit corneas showed blackish pigmentation in the corneal stroma without any inflammatory cellular infiltration. Some fibroblast cells had pigment granules in their cytoplasm in the adjacent layers. Conclusion. Corneal staining by China painting ink is effective and safe in staining of male rabbits cornea; however further study in human corneas with longer follow-up period is advisable. PMID:27195146

  14. Effect of Gestational Diabetes on Purkinje and Granule Cells Distribution of the Rat Cerebellum in 21 and 28 days of Postnatal Life

    PubMed Central

    Razi, Elahe Mirarab; Ghafari, Soraya; Golalipour, Mohammad Jafar


    Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is associated with nervous system alterations in both human and animal models. This study was done to determine the effect of gestational diabetes on the Purkinje and granular cells in the cerebellum of rat offspring. Methods: 10 Wistar rats Dams were randomly allocated in control and diabetic group. The experimental group received 40 mg/kg/body weight of streptozotocin (STZ) at the first day of gestation and control groups received saline injection intraperitoneally (IP). Six male offsprings of gestational diabetic mothers and control dams, at the 21, 28 postnatal days were randomly scarified and coronal sections of cerebellum (6 micrometer) serially collected. The neurons were stained with cresyl violet. Results: The Purkinje cells density in the apex and depth of cerebellum in P21, in the experimental group was reduced 23% and 15% in comparison with the control group (P<0.001). The granular cells density in the experimental group was reduced 19.58% and 18.3% in comparison with the controls (P<0.001). The Purkinje cells density of cerebellum in P28, in the diabetic group reduced to 22.12% and 12.62% in comparison with the control group (P<0.001). The granular cells density in the diabetic group reduced 17.14% and 16.12% in comparison with the control group (P<0.001). Discussion: The Purkinje and granular cells significantly reduced in gestational diabetes rat offspring.

  15. Role of the draining lymph node in scrapie agent transmission from the skin.


    Glaysher, Bridget R; Mabbott, Neil A


    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are neurodegenerative diseases that affect humans and animals. Diseases include scrapie in sheep and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. Following peripheral exposure, TSE agents usually accumulate on follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) in lymphoid tissues before neuroinvasion. Studies in mice have shown that TSE exposure through scarified skin is an effective means of transmission. Following inoculation by this route TSE agent accumulation upon FDCs is likewise essential for the subsequent transmission of disease to the brain. However, which lymphoid tissues are crucial for TSE pathogenesis following inoculation via the skin was not known. Mice were therefore created that lacked the draining inguinal lymph node (ILN), but had functional FDCs in remaining lymphoid tissues such as the spleen. These mice were inoculated with the scrapie agent by skin scarification to allow the role of draining ILN in scrapie pathogenesis to be determined. We show that following inoculation with the scrapie agent by skin scarification, disease susceptibility was dramatically reduced in mice lacking the draining ILN. These data demonstrate that following inoculation by skin scarification, scrapie agent accumulation upon FDCs in the draining lymph node is critical for the efficient transmission of disease to the brain. PMID:17292972

  16. The antimicrobial agent C31G is effective for therapy for HSV-1 ocular keratitis in the rabbit eye model.


    Hill, James M; Stern, Ethan M; Bhattacharjee, Partha S; Malamud, Daniel; Clement, Christian; Rodriguez, Paulo; Lukiw, Walter J; Ochoa, Augusto C; Foster, Timothy P; Velasco, Cruz; McFerrin, Harris E


    The amphoteric C31G solution contains equimolar alkyl dimethlyglycine and alkyl dimethyl amine oxide buffered with citric acid. C31G acts as a broad spectrum antiviral and an antibacterial. No previous in vivo studies have been done to test C31G in an animal model of HSV-1 ocular keratitis. We assessed the anti-herpetic activity of C31G in the rabbit eye model using three treatment groups: (1) 1% trifluorothymidine (TFT); (2) 0.25% C31G plus 0.5% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC); and (3) vehicle, 0.5% HPMC. Scarified rabbit corneas were inoculated with the HSV-1 strain McKrae. On post inoculation (PI) day 3, rabbits were placed in three balanced groups based on slit-lamp examination (SLE) scores. Treatment began on PI day 3, five times a day for five consecutive days. In addition to the daily, masked SLE scoring, the eyes were assessed daily for stromal opacity, scleral inflammation, neovascularization, eyelid inflammation, inflammatory discharge, and epiphora. C31G and TFT were very effective in reducing the lesions and pathogenesis associated with HSV-1 ocular keratitis. The vehicle control scores were significantly higher and did not effectively treat HSV-1 keratitis. C31G has the potential to be used to treat herpetic keratitis as well as other herpetic topical lesions in humans. PMID:23860013

  17. Rheological and mechanical properties of polyamide 6 modified by electron-beam initiated mediation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Boo Young; Kim, Jae Hong


    Polyamide (PA6) has been modified by electron-beam initiated mediator process to improve drawbacks of PA6. Glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) was chosen as a reactive mediator for modification process of PA6. The mixture of the PA6 and GMA was prepared by using a twin-screw extruder, and then the mixture was exposed to electron-beam irradiation at various doses at room temperature. The modified PA6 were characterized by observing rheological and mechanical properties and compared virgin PA6. Thermal properties, water absorption, and gel fraction were also investigated. Tight gel was not found even when PA6 was irradiated at 200 kGy. Complex viscosity and storage modulus of PA6 were remarkably increased by electron-beam irradiation with medium of GMA. Maximum increase in complex viscosity was 75 times higher than virgin PA6 at 0.1 rad/s when it was irradiated at 200 kGy with the GMA. Mechanical properties were also improved without scarifying of processability. The reaction mechanisms for the mediation process with the reactive mediator of GMA were estimated to elucidate the cause of significantly enhanced rheological and mechanical properties without loss of thermoplasticity.

  18. In vivo Comparative Studies on Antigenotoxicity of Date Palm (Phoenix Dactylifera L.) Pits Extract Against DNA Damage Induced by N-Nitroso-N-methylurea in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Diab, K. A. S.; Aboul-Ela, E. I.


    Aqueous extract of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) pits was prepared and its antigenotoxic activity was evaluated against N-Nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU) induced mutagenic effect in mice, using chromosome aberration (CA), micronuclei (MN) and DNA fragmentation assays as experimental end points in male mice. Date pits extract (DPE) was given orally to mice at the dose 25 mg/25 g mouse for successive five days in a week up to four consecutive weeks. NMU was used as mutagen and was given intraperitoneal (i.p) injection at single dose 80 mg/kg b.w., 24 hr after last dose of DPE in pre-treatment regimen and 24 hr before the first dose of DPE in the post-treatment regimen. Mice were scarified after one, two and seven days after the end of treatment. The results have shown that pre-and post-treatment regimens of DPE were significantly restored the DNA damage induced by NMU, as revealed by lowering of the occurrence of CAs and MN in bone marrow cells and inhibition of hepatic DNA fragmentation. These findings suggested that DPE produced their inhibitory activity either by desmutagenic or bioantimutagenic manner in pre-and post-treatment regimens respectively. PMID:23293467

  19. Benzo[a]pyrene-enhanced mutagenesis by man-made mineral fibres in the lung of lamda-lacI transgenic rats.


    Topinka, J; Loli, P; Hurbáková, M; Kováciková, Z; Volkovová, K; Wolff, T; Oesterle, D; Kyrtopoulos, S A; Georgiadis, P


    In an attempt to examine the interaction of man-made mineral fibres with benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), homozygous X-lacI transgenic F344 rats were intratracheally treated with rock (stone) wool RWI and glass wool MMVF 10 fibres together with B[a]P. To analyze the induction of gene mutations by fibres and B[a]P in lung, single doses of 1 and 2 mg fibres/animal or multiple doses of 2 mg fibres/animal were administered weekly on 4 consecutive weeks (total dose 8 mg/animal). B[a]P (10 mg/animal) was administered either simultaneously with fibres (for single dose treatment with fibres) or together with the last fiber treatment (for multiple dose treatment with fibres). Animals were scarified 4 weeks after the last treatment. Benzo[a]pyrene administered simultaneously with RW1 fibres exhibited a strong synergistic effect on mutagenicity, the observed mutant frequency (MF) being more than three-fold higher than the net sum of the MF induced after separate administration of both agents. Our data suggest that DNA adducts induced by simultaneous B[a]P and fiber treatment lead to a strong increase in mutatant frequencies. PMID:16375931

  20. The Mitigating Effect of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Fruit Extract against Genotoxicity Induced by Cyclophosphamide in Mice Bone Marrow Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chabra, Aroona; Naghshvar, Farshad; Ahmadi, Amirhossein


    Possible genoprotective effect of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) (CCT) fruits extract against cyclophosphamide- (CP-)induced DNA damage in mice bone marrow cells was evaluated using micronucleus assay, as an index of induced chromosomal damage. Mice were preadministered with different doses of CCT via intraperitoneal injection for 7 consecutive days followed by injection with CP (70 mg/kg b.w.) 1 hr after the last injection of CCT. After 24 hr, mice were scarified to evaluate the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs). In addition, the number of polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) among 1000 normochromatic erythrocytes (NCEs) per animal was recorded to evaluate bone marrow. Pretreatment with CCT significantly reduced the number of MnPCEs induced by CP in bone marrow cells (P < 0.0001). At 200 mg/kg, CCT had a maximum chemoprotective effect and reduced the number of MnPCEs by 6.37-fold and completely normalized the mitotic activity. CCT also led to marked proliferation and hypercellularity of immature myeloid elements after mice were treated with CP and mitigated the bone marrow suppression. Our study revealed that CCT has an antigenotoxic effect against CP-induced oxidative DNA damage in mice. Therefore, it could be used concomitantly as a supplement to protect people undergoing chemotherapy. PMID:24324391

  1. Conceptual design of equipment to excavate and transport regolith from the lunar maria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Detwiler, Mark; Foong, Chee Seng; Stocklin, Catherine


    NASA hopes to have a manned lunar outpost completed by 2005. In order to establish the base, regolith must be excavated from the lunar surface. Regolith will be used as a source for life-supporting elements and as radiation shielding for the lunar outpost. The design team from the University of Texas at Austin designed excavation and transportation equipment for initial operations of the lunar base. The design team also characterized the elements to be found in the regolith and determined the power required to excavate regolith. The characterization of the soil was based on a literature review of lunar geography. Power requirements for excavation were developed by adapting terrestrial equations for excavation power requirements and adapting them to lunar soil conditions. The design of the excavation and transportation equipment was broken into three functions: loosing, collecting, and transporting. A scarifier was selected to loosen, a bucket was selected to collect, and a load-haul system was selected to transport. The functions are powered by a modular fuel cell powered vehicle that provides power for motion of the equipment.

  2. Long-Term Effectiveness of Restoration Treatments on Closed Wilderness Campsites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, David N.


    This study assessed long-term recovery of vegetation on six wilderness campsites in subalpine forests in Oregon that were closed to use and that received common restoration treatments (scarification, soil amendments, mulch, transplanting, and seeding). Vegetation cover was assessed every year for the first 7 years following treatment, as well as 10 and 15 years after treatment. This made it possible to compare long-term treatment effectiveness to short-term efficacy. Plots that were closed and not scarified had virtually no vegetation cover even after 15 years without use. If long-used campsites in these subalpine forests are simply closed and allowed to recover on their own, restoration of undisturbed conditions will require hundreds if not thousands of years. Study results show, however, that simple treatments can accelerate recovery rates substantially. Scarification and transplanting were highly effective treatments, with seeding and soil amendment with organic matter and compost also contributing to success, but to a lesser degree. The use of a mulch mat, in contrast, had no effect, either positive or negative. Assessments of success conducted within the first few years of treatment overestimate treatment efficacy, particularly the effectiveness of soil amendments and seeding.

  3. Compressive sensing based Bayesian sparse channel estimation for OFDM communication systems: high performance and low complexity.


    Gui, Guan; Xu, Li; Shan, Lin; Adachi, Fumiyuki


    In orthogonal frequency division modulation (OFDM) communication systems, channel state information (CSI) is required at receiver due to the fact that frequency-selective fading channel leads to disgusting intersymbol interference (ISI) over data transmission. Broadband channel model is often described by very few dominant channel taps and they can be probed by compressive sensing based sparse channel estimation (SCE) methods, for example, orthogonal matching pursuit algorithm, which can take the advantage of sparse structure effectively in the channel as for prior information. However, these developed methods are vulnerable to both noise interference and column coherence of training signal matrix. In other words, the primary objective of these conventional methods is to catch the dominant channel taps without a report of posterior channel uncertainty. To improve the estimation performance, we proposed a compressive sensing based Bayesian sparse channel estimation (BSCE) method which cannot only exploit the channel sparsity but also mitigate the unexpected channel uncertainty without scarifying any computational complexity. The proposed method can reveal potential ambiguity among multiple channel estimators that are ambiguous due to observation noise or correlation interference among columns in the training matrix. Computer simulations show that proposed method can improve the estimation performance when comparing with conventional SCE methods. PMID:24983012

  4. Engineering development of waste retrieval end effectors for the Oak Ridge gunite waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Mullen, O.D.


    The Gunite and Associated Tanks Treatability Study at Oak Ridge National Laboratory selected the waterjet scarifying end effector, the jet pump conveyance system, and the Modified Light Duty Utility Arm and Houdini Remotely Operated Vehicle deployment and manipulator systems for evaluation. The waterjet-based retrieval end effector had been developed through several generations of test articles targeted at deployment in Hanford underground storage tanks with a large robotic arm. The basic technology had demonstrated effectiveness at retrieval of simulants bounding the foreseen range of waste properties and indicated compatibility with the planned deployment systems. The Retrieval Process Development and Enhancements team was tasked with developing a version of the retrieval end effector tailored to the Oak Ridge tanks, waste and deployment platforms. The finished prototype was delivered to PNNL and subjected to a brief round of characterization and performance testing at the Hydraulic Testbed prior to shipment to Oak Ridge. It has undergone extensive operational testing in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Tanks Technology Cold Test Facility and performed well, as expected. A second unit has been delivered outfitted with the high pressure manifold.

  5. EM-50 Tanks Focus Area retrieval process development and enhancements. FY97 technology development summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Rinker, M.W.; Bamberger, J.A.; Alberts, D.G.


    The Retrieval Process Development and Enhancements (RPD and E) activities are part of the US Department of Energy (DOE) EM-50 Tanks Focus Area, Retrieval and Closure program. The purpose of RPD and E is to understand retrieval processes, including emerging and existing technologies, and to gather data on these processes, so that end users have requisite technical bases to make retrieval decisions. Technologies addressed during FY97 include enhancements to sluicing, the use of pulsed air to assist mixing, mixer pumps, innovative mixing techniques, confined sluicing retrieval end effectors, borehole mining, light weight scarification, and testing of Russian-developed retrieval equipment. Furthermore, the Retrieval Analysis Tool was initiated to link retrieval processes with tank waste farms and tank geometric to assist end users by providing a consolidation of data and technical information that can be easily assessed. The main technical accomplishments are summarized under the following headings: Oak Ridge site-gunite and associated tanks treatability study; pulsed air mixing; Oak Ridge site-Old Hydrofracture Facility; hydraulic testbed relocation; cooling coil cleaning end effector; light weight scarifier; innovative tank mixing; advanced design mixer pump; enhanced sluicing; Russian retrieval equipment testing; retrieval data analysis and correlation; simulant development; and retrieval analysis tool (RAT).

  6. Waste dislodging and conveyance testing summary and conclusions to date

    SciTech Connect

    Rinker, M.W.; Hatchell, B.K.; Mullen, O.D.


    This document summarizes recent work performed by the Waste Dislodging and Conveyance technology development program to provide assistance with the retrieval of wastes from the Hanford single-shell tanks (SSTs). This work is sponsored by the Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID) Office with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development. A baseline technology of high-pressure water-jet dislodging and pneumatic conveyance integrated as a scarifier is proposed as a means of retrieval. The tests and studies described were performed to demonstrate that at least one robust technology exists that could be effectively used with low water-addition arm-based systems. These results are preliminary and do not represent an optimized baseline. The Waste Dislodging and Conveyance work thus far has demonstrated that waterjet mobilization and air conveyance can mobilize and convey SST waste simulants at the target rates while operating within the space envelope and the dynamic loading constraints of deployment devices. The recommended technologies are well proven in industrial applications and are quite robust, yet lightweight and relatively benign to the retrieval environment. The baseline approach has versatility to continuously dislodge and convey a broad range of waste forms, from hard wastes to soft sludge wastes. The approach also has the major advantage of being noncontact with the waste surface under normal operation.

  7. Severe Oral Lesions in Chickens Caused by Ingestion of Dietary Fusariotoxin T-21

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, R. D.; Weeks, B. A.; Hamilton, P. B.; Burmeister, H. R.


    Fusariotoxin T-2 is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium tricinctum which was implicated in moldy corn toxicosis of farm animals. Graded concentrations of dietary fusariotoxin T-2 (0, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 μg/g, respectively) were given to groups of 40 chickens. Raised yellowish-white lesions on the mouth parts were produced by all concentrations, and the size of the lesions was dose-related. The growth rate was reduced significantly (P < 0.05) by concentrations of 4, 8, and 16 μg/g. The mouth fluid of the affected birds contained greatly increased numbers of bacteria, including Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli, which proved avirulent when inoculated into scarified tissue of control birds. Microscopy examinations of the lesions revealed a fibrinous surface layer, intermediate layers containing invaginations filled with rods and cocci, and a heavy infiltration of the underlying tissues with granular leukocytes. These data suggest that the role of fusariotoxin T-2 in field cases of moldy corn toxicosis should be reinvestigated since oral lesions were not mentioned in the original descriptions of the disease. However, the lesions bear some features of those characteristic of the third or septic angina stage of alimentary toxic aleukia, a nutritional toxicosis of humans produced by eating grains infested with F. tricinctum. Images PMID:4561104

  8. Transendoscopic application of CO II laser irradiation using the OmniGuide fiber to treat dorsal displacement of the soft palate in the horse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tate, Lloyd P., Jr.


    Transendoscopic laser surgery has been performed in horses since 1984. It is used to treat many upper respiratory disorders, as well as urogenital diseases. Initially, the Nd:YAG laser was the laser of choice until the early 1990s, when smaller, more compact diode lasers entered the veterinary field. In the mid 1980s, several attempts were made to transmit CO II laser energy transendoscopically. True success was not obtained until 2004 when the OmniGuide CO II Fiber was fabricated. Although there is attenuation of energy, this very flexible fiber allows the CO II laser to be used transendoscopically for incision and ablation of tissue. Intermittent dorsal displacement of the soft palate has more recently been treated using a diode laser and contact fiber to scarify the caudal border of the soft palate. This procedure was initially reported as being performed in combination with a myectomy. The CO II laser's fiber was used in eight cases. It offered no touch technique and allowed improved visualization of the target tissue. Both healing and recuperation time were reduced, compared to other wavelengths transmitted through solid quartz fiber. The OmniGuide Fiber can be coupled to the output port of CO II lasers commonly used in veterinary medicine. Transendoscopic application of the CO II laser is advantageous in that there is no endoscopic white-out, no volume heating of tissue, and it provides an accurate means of performing upper respiratory surgery in the standing horse.

  9. Post-Disturbance Plant Community Dynamics following a Rare Natural-Origin Fire in a Tsuga canadensis Forest

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Bryan D.; Holmes, Stacie A.; Webster, Christopher R.; Witt, Jill C.


    Opportunities to directly study infrequent forest disturbance events often lead to valuable information about vegetation dynamics. In mesic temperate forests of North America, stand-replacing crown fire occurs infrequently, with a return interval of 2000–3000 years. Rare chance events, however, may have profound impacts on the developmental trajectories of forest ecosystems. For example, it has been postulated that stand-replacing fire may have been an important factor in the establishment of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) stands in the northern Great Lakes region. Nevertheless, experimental evidence linking hemlock regeneration to non-anthropogenic fire is limited. To clarify this potential relationship, we monitored vegetation dynamics following a rare lightning-origin crown fire in a Wisconsin hemlock-hardwood forest. We also studied vegetation in bulldozer-created fire breaks and adjacent undisturbed forest. Our results indicate that hemlock establishment was rare in the burned area but moderately common in the scarified bulldozer lines compared to the reference area. Early-successional, non-arboreal species including Rubus spp., Vaccinium angustifolium, sedges (Carex spp.), grasses, Epilobium ciliatum, and Pteridium aquilinium were the most abundant post-fire species. Collectively, our results suggest that competing vegetation and moisture stress resulting from drought may reduce the efficacy of scarification treatments as well as the usefulness of fire for preparing a suitable seedbed for hemlock. The increasing prevalence of growing-season drought suggests that silvicultural strategies based on historic disturbance regimes may need to be reevaluated for mesic species. PMID:22928044

  10. Fire cue effects on seed germination of six species of northwestern Patagonian grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, S. L.; Ghermandi, L.


    Postfire recruitment of seedlings has been attributed to a stimulation of germination by fire-related cues. The germination response to heat shock (80 °C - 5 min), smoke (60 min), the combination of both factors and no heat no smoke (control) was studied in six native species (two dominant grasses, two dominant shrubs and two annual fugitive herbs) of northwestern Patagonian grasslands. Seeds of the grasses Festuca pallescens and Stipa speciosa and the shrub Senecio bracteolatus (Asteraceae) germinated when they were exposed to heat shock, whereas seeds of the other shrub, Mulinum spinosum (Apiaceae), were killed by this fire cue. In grasses, probably the glume of caryopsis protected embryos from heat. Possibly, the seed size could explain the different responses of the two shrubs. Heat combined with smoke reduced seed germination for S. speciosa and S. bracteolatus. The heat could have scarified seeds and the longer exposure to smoke could have been toxic for embryos. The same treatment increased germination of the annual fugitive herb Boopis gracilis (Calyceraceae). We concluded that fire differentially affects the seedling recruitment of the studied species in the northwestern Patagonian grasslands.

  11. Evaluation of BCG administered by scarification for immunotherapy of metastatic hepatocarcinoma in the guinea pig.


    Hanna, M G; Peters, L C; Gutterman, J U; Hersh, E M


    In inbred guinea pigs, administration of Mycobacterium bovis strain BCG by scarification at a site distant from an excised skin tumor, but in the regional lymph node drainage, was evaluated for its immunotherapeutic effect on the development of lymph node metastases. Scarification was performed after surgical excision of intradermally transplanted syngeneic (line-10) hepatocarcinoma at a time when microscopic foci of tumor cells were present in regional lymph nodes. Various strains of BCG were evaluated for their immunotherapeutic potential: fresh-frozen Phipps, Pasteur, and Tice; and lyophilized Pasteur, Tice, and Connaught. Scarification commenced 3 days after surgical removal of the tumor and continued once a week for 5 weeks. Only lymph nodes from fresh-frozen Phipps- and Pasteur-scarified animals were significantly smaller than those in the control groups. Differences in lymph node weight correlated histologically with less detectable metastases. This cytostatic effect was short lived; eventually, the metastatic tumor growth was not significantly different from that of control animals. No significant differences were observed in mean survival time: All animals died as a result of metastases 3 months after tumor inoculation. These results demonstrated that limited scarification with BCG of certain strains temporarily inhibits the growth and proliferation of metastases in regional lymph nodes after removal of the primary tumor. PMID:186611

  12. Ultrasonograph and clinical quantitative characterization of tendinopathy by modified splitting in a goat model.


    Kavaguchi De Grandis, A; Boulocher, C; Viguier, E; Roger, T; Sawaya, S


    A tendinopathy is a clinical condition characterized by activity-related pain, focal tendons tenderness, and intratendinous imaging changes. This study characterizes a surgically induced tendinopathy in a goat model with a noninvasive in vivo longitudinal followup based on physical examination and US. Cross-sectional area (CSA) is the most objective feature for the evaluation of tendinopathy in correlation with clinical findings. The deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT) of the left hind limb of six goats was isolated and scarified by a modified splitting. Pain and lameness at walk and trot were evaluated. External width and thickness of tendon region were measured by calipers. CSA and the ratio lesion/tendon CSA were obtained at days 0, 7, 21, 42, and 84 by US. The highest value of global functional score was obtained at day 7, then decreased until day 40 and was not significantly different from day 0 at the end of the study. The external width recovered a normal value at the end of the study, but the external thickness was still significantly increased (P < 0.05). Peritendinous oedema was observed at day 7, but intratendinous lesions were visible only at day 21 as a focal hypo to anechoic area. At day 84, two tendons still presented visible lesions. US examination was reproducible, specific, and provided complementary information to the global functional score. A standardized focal tendinopathy was induced in goats. This experimental model of focal tendinopathy could be used to study the effect of different treatments. PMID:22997496

  13. Pentek concrete scabbling system: Baseline report; Greenbook (chapter)

    SciTech Connect


    The Pentek scabbling technology was tested at Florida International University (FIU) and is being evaluated as a baseline technology. This report evaluates it for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek concrete scabbling system consisted of the MOOSE, SQUIRREL-I, and SQUIRREL-III scabblers. The scabblers are designed to scarify concrete floors and slabs using cross-section, tungsten carbide tipped bits. The bits are designed to remove concrete in 318 inch increments. The bits are either 9-tooth or demolition type. The scabblers are used with a vacuum system designed to collect and filter the concrete dust and contamination that is removed from the surface. The safety and health evaluation conducted during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure was minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended. Because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place, results may be inaccurate. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment. Other areas of concern were arm-hand vibration, whole-body vibration, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

  14. Post-disturbance plant community dynamics following a rare natural-origin fire in a Tsuga canadensis forest.


    Murray, Bryan D; Holmes, Stacie A; Webster, Christopher R; Witt, Jill C


    Opportunities to directly study infrequent forest disturbance events often lead to valuable information about vegetation dynamics. In mesic temperate forests of North America, stand-replacing crown fire occurs infrequently, with a return interval of 2000-3000 years. Rare chance events, however, may have profound impacts on the developmental trajectories of forest ecosystems. For example, it has been postulated that stand-replacing fire may have been an important factor in the establishment of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) stands in the northern Great Lakes region. Nevertheless, experimental evidence linking hemlock regeneration to non-anthropogenic fire is limited. To clarify this potential relationship, we monitored vegetation dynamics following a rare lightning-origin crown fire in a Wisconsin hemlock-hardwood forest. We also studied vegetation in bulldozer-created fire breaks and adjacent undisturbed forest. Our results indicate that hemlock establishment was rare in the burned area but moderately common in the scarified bulldozer lines compared to the reference area. Early-successional, non-arboreal species including Rubus spp., Vaccinium angustifolium, sedges (Carex spp.), grasses, Epilobium ciliatum, and Pteridium aquilinium were the most abundant post-fire species. Collectively, our results suggest that competing vegetation and moisture stress resulting from drought may reduce the efficacy of scarification treatments as well as the usefulness of fire for preparing a suitable seedbed for hemlock. The increasing prevalence of growing-season drought suggests that silvicultural strategies based on historic disturbance regimes may need to be reevaluated for mesic species. PMID:22928044

  15. Woody plant establishment in grassed reclamation areas of the Athabasca oil sands

    SciTech Connect

    Fedkenheuer, A.W.


    The primary end land use for areas disturbed by the Syncrude Canada Ltd. oil sands surface mining venture is forest cover. Short term erosion control is of concern, however, and this results in the early establishment of a grass and legume cover. Problems have subsequently been encountered in attempts to establish woody plants in the grass and legume cover. Vegetation competition for soil moisture and nutrients and rodent damage to woody seedlings have been the major problem areas. A study was initiated in 1978 to evaluate methods of manipulating the grass and legume cover sufficiently to improve success rates in establishing a variety of shrubs and trees. Five replicated treatments using the chemical herbicide glyphosate, soil scarification and fire alone plus soil scarification were established on an area seeded to grass and legumes in spring 1976. Woody plant survival and rodent damage, populations and distribution are being assessed annually in spring and fall. Rodent damage to woody seedlings was heavy in fall 1978 with 80 percent of the deciduous seedlings on non-scarified plots being damaged. In June 1979, 98 percent of the deciduous plants on the control and herbicide treatment areas were damaged. Damage to conifers was approximately 30 percent less during this time. Prescribed burning and mechanical scarification substantially reduced rodent damage. Seedling survival was variable with Amelanchier alnifolia, Pinus contorta and Populus tremuloides consistently exhibiting the highest survival rates.

  16. Complete ostectomy of middle phalanx and partial ostectomy of proximal phalanx in a Brown Swiss calf for treatment of purulent arthritis of the proximal interphalangeal joint and adjacent severe osteomyelitis.


    Burgstaller, Johann; Kofler, Johann


    A five month old Brown Swiss heifer calf (212 kg body mass) with severe left hind limb lameness, caused by a wound of the lateral digit was referred to the veterinary teaching hospital. The calf showed a score 4 of 5 lameness on the left hind limb. A scarified skin lesion with a fistula formation and purulent exudate was observed at the level of the proximal interphalangeal joint (PIJ) of the lateral digit of the left hind. The PIJ region and the lateral digit were severely swollen and painful. Ultrasonography showed a moderate anechoic effusion of the lateral digital flexor tendon sheet (DFTS) and a severe heterogeneous hypoechoic effusion with some small hyperechoic areas of the plantar and dorsal pouch of the PIJ. In addition, a highly irregular contour of the dorsal and abaxial surface of the phalanx media (P2) and the distal aspect of the proximal phalanx (P1) were imaged. Based on physical examination and ultrasonographic findings, the diagnosis was chronic purulent arthritis of the PIJ, osteitis of P2 and the distal end of P1 with suspected adjacent osteomyelitis. Complete ostectomy of P2 and ostectomy of the distal part of the P1 of the lateral digit was performed with an oscillating saw through the extended debrided wound. The lameness improved subsequently and 21 days post-surgery the calf was discharged from the clinic without lameness, and with a wooden block attached to the healthy claw. A year later the heifer was pregnant and still in the herd, during this period it did not exhibit lameness. The described surgical technique resulted in an excellent long-term outcome and may be considered in cases of severe purulent joint infection of the PIJ with osteolytic processes in adjacent bones, as a digit salvage procedure especially for young cattle. PMID:27169151

  17. Tracking the Spread of a lacZ-Tagged Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 between the Eye and the Nervous System of the Mouse: Comparison of Primary and Recurrent Infection

    PubMed Central

    Shimeld, Carolyn; Efstathiou, Stacey; Hill, Terry


    The spread of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) during primary ocular infection and after reactivation of latent infection in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) was examined in the mouse using a genetically modified virus containing the lacZ reporter gene under the control of the immediate-early 110 promoter. Whole tissue mounts of the eye and lids, their sensory nerves, and TG with the attached dorsal root entry zone (DRE) into the central nervous system (CNS) were stained for β-galactosidase. Sixteen hours after inoculation of the cornea by scarification, staining was found in the scarified epithelium of the cornea and in the unscarified conjunctiva. By 24 h, staining was also seen in a few TG neurons and by 96 h their number had greatly increased and their distribution was more widespread. Stained cells (identified as Schwann cells by their staining for glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP] or S-100) in the TG were first seen close to stained neurons at 40 h, and by 48 h lines of such cells extended partway toward the periphery and toward the DRE. By 72 h, these lines had reached the periphery and the DRE where the adjacent CNS was also stained. In the cornea, stained cells with the morphology and arrangement of Schwann cells were seen from 40 to 120 h. After reactivation of latent infection, 10 of 22 samples had positively stained neurons. In eight samples, corneal and lid epithelial cells were stained. No stained Schwann cells were seen in the TG; however, branched networks of such cells were present in the cornea and the lids. This detailed sequential analysis has provided new information on the involvement of Schwann cells in the pathogenesis of primary and recurrent HSV-1 disease in the TG and the cornea. PMID:11333907

  18. Field performance of the waste retrieval end effectors in the Oak Ridge gunite tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Mullen, O.D.


    Waterjet-based tank waste retrieval end effectors have been developed by Retrieval Process Development and Enhancements through several generations of test articles targeted at deployment in Hanford underground storage tanks with a large robotic arm. The basic technology has demonstrated effectiveness for retrieval of simulants bounding a wide range of waste properties and compatibility with foreseen deployment systems. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) selected the waterjet scarifying end effector, the jet pump conveyance system, and the Modified Light Duty Utility Arm and Houdini Remotely Operated Vehicle deployment and manipulator systems for evaluation in the Gunite and Associated Tanks Treatability Study (GAAT-TS). The Retrieval Process Development and Enhancements (RPD&E) team was tasked with developing a version of the retrieval end effector tailored to the Oak Ridge tanks, waste, and deployment platforms. The conceptual design was done by the University of Missouri-Rolla in FY 1995-96. The university researchers conducted separate effects tests of the component concepts, scaled the basic design features, and constructed a full-scale test article incorporating their findings in early FY 1996. The test article was extensively evaluated in the Hanford Hydraulic Testbed and the design features were further refined. Detail design of the prototype item was started at Waterjet Technology, Inc. before the development testing was finished, and two of the three main subassemblies were substantially complete before final design of the waterjet manifold was determined from the Hanford hydraulic testbed (HTB) testing. The manifold on the first prototype was optimized for sludge retrieval; assembled with that manifold, the end effector is termed the Sludge Retrieval End Effector (SREE).

  19. Development of a waste dislodging and retrieval system for use in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory gunite tank

    SciTech Connect

    Randolph, J.D.; Lloyd, P.D.; Burks, B.L.


    As part of the Gunite And Associated Tanks (GAAT) Treatability Study the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed a tank waste retrieval system capable of removing wastes varying from liquids to thick sludges. This system is also capable of scarifying concrete walls and floors. The GAAT Treatability Study is being conducted by the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Environmental Restoration Program. Much of the technology developed for this project was cosponsored by the DOE Office of Science and Technology through the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) and the Robotics Technology Development Program. The waste dislodging and conveyance (WD&C) system was developed jointly by ORNL and participants from the TFA. The WD&C system is comprised of a four degree-of-freedom arm with back driveable motorized joints. a cutting and dislodging tool, a jet pump and hose management system for conveyance of wastes, confined sluicing end-effector, and a control system, and must be used in conjunction with a robotic arm or vehicle. Other papers have been submitted to this conference describing the development and operation of the arm and vehicle positioning systems. This paper will describe the development of the WD&C system and its application for dislodging and conveyance of ORNL sludges from the GAAT tanks. The confined sluicing end-effector relies on medium pressure water jets to dislodge waste that is then pumped by the jet pump through the conveyance system out of the tank. This paper will describe the results of cold testing of the integrated system. At the conference presentation there will also be results from the field deployment. ORNL has completed fabrication of the WD&C system for waste removal and is full-scale testing, including testing of the confined sluicing end-effector.

  20. New developed DR detector performs radiographs of hand, pelvic and premature chest anatomies at a lower radiation dose and/or a higher image quality.


    Precht, Helle; Tingberg, Anders; Waaler, Dag; Outzen, Claus Bjørn


    A newly developed Digital Radiography (DR) detector has smaller pixel size and higher fill factor than earlier detector models. These technical advantages should theoretically lead to higher sensitivity and higher spatial resolution, thus making dose reduction possible without scarifying image quality compared to previous DR detector versions. To examine whether the newly developed Canon CXDI-70C DR detector provides an improved image quality and/or allows for dose reductions in hand and pelvic bone examinations as well as premature chest examinations, compared to the previous (CXDI-55C) DR detector version. A total of 450 images of a technical Contrast-Detail phantom were imaged on a DR system employing various kVp and mAs settings, providing an objective image quality assessment. In addition, 450 images of anthropomorphic phantoms were taken and analyzed by three specialized radiologists using Visual Grading Analysis (VGA). The results from the technical phantom studies showed that the image quality expressed as IQFINV values was on average approximately 45 % higher with the CXDI-70C detector compared to the CXDI-55C detector. Consistently, the VGA results from the anatomical phantom studies indicated that by using the CXDI-70C detector, diagnostic image quality could be maintained at a dose reduction of in average 30 %, depending on anatomy and kVp level. This indicates that the CXDI-70C detector is significantly more sensitive than the previous model, and supports a better clinical image quality. By using the newly developed DR detector a significant dose reduction is possible while maintaining image quality. PMID:24221693

  1. Seed Anatomy and Water Uptake in Relation to Seed Dormancy in Opuntia tomentosa (Cactaceae, Opuntioideae)

    PubMed Central

    Orozco-Segovia, A.; Márquez-Guzmán, J.; Sánchez-Coronado, M. E.; Gamboa de Buen, A.; Baskin, J. M.; Baskin, C. C.


    Background and Aims There is considerable confusion in the literature concerning impermeability of seeds with ‘hard’ seed coats, because the ability to take up (imbibe) water has not been tested in most of them. Seeds of Opuntia tomentosa were reported recently to have a water-impermeable seed coat sensu lato (i.e. physical dormancy), in combination with physiological dormancy. However, physical dormancy is not known to occur in Cactaceae. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine if seeds of O. tomentosa are water-permeable or water-impermeable, i.e. if they have physical dormancy. Methods The micromorphology of the seed coat and associated structures were characterized by SEM and light microscopy. Permeability of the seed-covering layers was assessed by an increase in mass of seeds on a wet substrate and by dye-tracking and uptake of tritiated water by intact versus scarified seeds. Key Results A germination valve and a water channel are formed in the hilum–micropyle region during dehydration and ageing in seeds of O. tomentosa. The funicular envelope undoubtedly plays a role in germination of Opuntia seeds via restriction of water uptake and mechanical resistance to expansion of the embryo. However, seeds do not exhibit any of three features characteristic of those with physical dormancy. Thus, they do not have a water-impermeable layer(s) of palisade cells (macrosclereids) or a water gap sensu stricto and they imbibe water without the seed coat being disrupted. Conclusions Although dormancy in seeds of this species can be broken by scarification, they have physiological dormancy only. Further, based on information in the literature, it is concluded that it is unlikely that any species of Opuntia has physical dormancy. This is the first integrative study of the anatomy, dynamics of water uptake and dormancy in seeds of Cactaceae subfamily Opuntioideae. PMID:17298989

  2. Follicular dendritic cell dedifferentiation reduces scrapie susceptibility following inoculation via the skin.


    Mohan, Joanne; Bruce, Moira E; Mabbott, Neil A


    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a group of subacute infectious neurodegenerative diseases that are characterized by the accumulation in affected tissues of PrP(Sc), an abnormal isoform of the host prion protein (PrPc). Following peripheral exposure, TSE infectivity and PrP(Sc) usually accumulate in lymphoid tissues prior to neuroinvasion. Studies in mice have shown that exposure through scarified skin is an effective means of TSE transmission. Following inoculation via the skin, a functional immune system is critical for the transmission of TSEs to the brain, but until now, it has not been known which components of the immune system are required for efficient neuroinvasion. Temporary dedifferentiation of follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) by treatment with an inhibitor of the lymphotoxin-beta receptor signalling pathway (LTbetaR-Ig) 3 days before or 14 days after inoculation via the skin, blocked the early accumulation of PrP(Sc) and TSE infectivity within the draining lymph node. Furthermore, in the temporary absence of FDCs before inoculation, disease susceptibility was reduced and survival time significantly extended. Treatment with LTbetaR-Ig 14 days after TSE inoculation also significantly extended the disease incubation period. However, treatment 42 days after inoculation did not affect disease susceptibility or survival time, suggesting that the infection may have already have spread to the nervous system. Together these data show that FDCs are essential for the accumulation of PrP(Sc) and infectivity within lymphoid tissues and subsequent neuroinvasion following TSE exposure via the skin. PMID:15667567

  3. Deoxynivalenol in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Immature Gilts under per os Toxin Application

    PubMed Central

    Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Beszterda, Monika; Kostecki, Marian; Zielonka, Łukasz; Goliński, Piotr; Gajęcki, Maciej


    Deoxynivalenol is also known as vomitoxin due to its impact on livestock through interference with animal growth and acceptance of feed. At the molecular level, deoxynivalenol disrupts normal cell function by inhibiting protein synthesis via binding to the ribosome and by activating critical cellular kinases involved in signal transduction related to proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Because of concerns related to deoxynivalenol, the United States FDA has instituted advisory levels of 5 µg/g for grain products for most animal feeds and 10 µg/g for grain products for cattle feed. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of low doses of deoxynivalenol applied per os on the presence of this mycotoxin in selected tissues of the alimentary canal of gilts. The study was performed on 39 animals divided into two groups (control, C; n = 21 and experimental, E; n = 18), of 20 kg body weight at the beginning of the experiment. Gilts received the toxin in doses of 12 µg/kg b.w./day (experimental group) or placebo (control group) over a period of 42 days. Three animals from two experimental groups were sacrificed on days 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42, excluding day 1 when only three control group animals were scarified. Tissues samples were prepared for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses with the application of solid phase extraction (SPE). The results show that deoxynivalenol doses used in our study, even when applied for a short period, resulted in its presence in gastrointestinal tissues. The highest concentrations of deoxynivalenol reported in small intestine samples ranged from 7.2 (in the duodenum) to 18.6 ng/g (in the ileum) and in large intestine samples from 1.8 (in transverse the colon) to 23.0 ng/g (in the caecum). In liver tissues, the deoxynivalenol contents ranged from 6.7 to 8.8 ng/g. PMID:24603665

  4. Effect of agomelatine on adult hippocampus apoptosis and neurogenesis using the stress model of rats.


    Yucel, Atakan; Yucel, Nermin; Ozkanlar, Seckin; Polat, Elif; Kara, Adem; Ozcan, Halil; Gulec, Mustafa


    Agomelatine (AG) is an agonist of melatonin receptors and an antagonist of the 5-HT2C-receptor subtype. The chronobiotic properties of AG are of significant interest due to the disorganization of internal rhythms, which might play a role in the pathophysiology of depression. The present study was designed to assess the effects of the antidepressant-like activity of AG, a new antidepressant drug, on adult neurogenesis and apoptosis using stress-exposed rat brains. Over the period of 1 week, the rats were exposed to light stress twice a day for 1h. After a period of 1 week, the rats were given AG treatment at a dose of either 10mg/kg or 40mg/kg for 15 days. The animals were then scarified, and the obtained tissue sections were stained with immuno-histochemical anti-BrdU, Caspase-3, and Bcl-2 antibodies. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations were measured biochemically using a BDNF Elisa kit. Biochemical BDNF analysis revealed a high concentration of BDNF in the serum of the stress-exposed group, but the concentrations of BDNF were much lower those of the AG-treated groups. Immuno-histochemical analysis revealed that AG treatment decreased the BrdU-positive and Bcl-2-positive cell densities and increased the Caspase-3-positive cell density in the hippocampus of stress-induced rats as compared to those of the stress group. The results of the study demonstrated that AG treatment ameliorated the hippocampal apoptotic cells and increased hippocampal neurogenesis. These results also strengthen the possible relationship between depression and adult neurogenesis, which must be studied further. PMID:26970810

  5. Joint action of a chemical carcinogen and a neoplastic virus to induce cancer in rabbits; results of exposing epidermal cells to a carcinogenic hydrocarbon at time of infection with the Shope papilloma virus.




    Areas of rabbit skin previously rendered hyperplastic with turpentine were scarified, inoculated with the Shope papilloma virus, and covered with a dressing that contained 20-methylcholanthrene (MC) or 9:10-dimethyl-1:2-benzanthracene (9:10). The dressing was left on until healing had been well completed, a matter of 5 to 7 days. The papillomas which subsequently arose often appeared later, were fewer, and remained less vigorous than those due to the action of virus alone, but throughout several months they appeared to differ from these in no other ways. Then, more or less abruptly, the large majority became carcinomatous, frequently at several situations, whereas with few exceptions the control growths underwent no such alteration. The cancers were of the sorts ordinarily deriving, by secondary change, from epidermal cells infected with the virus. Collateral data have made plain that the hydrocarbons acted in their carcinogenic capacity to bring on the cancers. Indeed in control tests 9: 10 sometimes conferred latent neoplastic potentialities on uninoculated epidermis exposed to it while healing after scarification, a fact disclosed months later by painting these expanses with chloroform until hyperplasia occurred. Under the promoting influence of this agent papillomas formed which had the distinctive morphology of those induced by the chemical carcinogens. So strong and enduring were the effects of MC and 9:10 as to cause cancers to arise from many virus papillomas which were retrogressing after months of proliferation, that is to say under circumstances ordinarily unfavorable to malignant change. The facts justify the conclusion that the virus and the hydrocarbons acted jointly and in their carcinogenic capacities. PMID:14832395

  6. The Effect of Systemic Delivery of Aminoguanidine versus Doxycycline on the Resorptive Phase of Alveolar Bone Following modified Widman Flap in Diabetic Rats: A Histopathological and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) study

    PubMed Central

    Tella, E; Aldahlawi, S; Eldeeb, A; El Gazaerly, H


    Objectives Aminoguanidine (guanylhydrazinehydrochloride) is a drug that prevents many of the classical systemic complications of diabetes including diabetic osteopenia through its inhibitory activity on the accumulation of advanced glycation end –products (AGEs). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of aminoguanidine versus doxycycline in reducing alveolar bone resorption following mucoperiosteal flap in diabetic rats, using the conventional histopathology and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Methods Twenty-seven male albino rats were used in this study. Periodontal defects were induced experimentally on lower anterior teeth. All rats were subjected to induction of diabetes, by IV injection of the pancreatic B-cells toxin alloxan monohydrate. After eight weeks following the establishment of periodontal defects in all rats, the ligation was removed and 3 rats were scarified as negative control (group 1). The remaining animals were divided into three group based on treatment applied following mucoperiosteal flap surgery. Group 2 received saline treatment only, group 3 received doxycycline periostat (1.5 mg/kg/day) for 3 weeks, and group 4 received aminoguanidine (7.3 mmol/kg) for 3 weeks. The fasting glucose level was measured weekly post operatively. After 21 days all rats were sacrificed. Three anterior parts of the mandible of each group was prepared for histopathological examination and two parts were prepared for SEM. Results Aminoguanidine treated group (group 4) showed statistically significant increased new bone formation, higher number of osteoblasts and decrease osteoclasts number, resorptive lacunae and existing inflammatory cell infiltration as compared to positive control group (group 2) (P<0.05). Doxycycline was also effective in reducing bone loss as documental by histopathological study. Conclusion The present study showed that aminoguanidine was significantly effective in reducing alveolar bone loss and can modify the

  7. Ocular avirulence of a herpes simplex virus type 1 strain is associated with heightened sensitivity to alpha/beta interferon.

    PubMed Central

    Su, Y H; Oakes, J E; Lausch, R N


    BALB/c mice infected on the scarified cornea with herpes simplex virus type 1 strain 35 [HSV-1(35)] rarely developed ocular disease even at challenge doses as high as 10(7) PFU per eye. In contrast, HSV-1(RE) consistently induced stromal keratitis at an inoculum of 2 x 10(4) PFU. The goal of this study was to determine the reason for the difference in virulence between the two HSV strains. Both HSV-1 strains replicated to similar titers in excised corneal "buttons." However, after in vivo infection of the cornea, the growth of strain 35 was evident only during the first 24 h postinfection, whereas the replication of strain RE persisted for at least 4 days. In vitro tests revealed that HSV-1(35) was greater than 10 times more sensitive to alpha/beta interferon (IFN-alpha/beta) than HSV-1(RE). Both strains induced comparable serum levels of IFN after intraperitoneal inoculation. The kinetics of HSV-1(35) clearance from the eye was markedly altered by treatment with rabbit anti-IFN-alpha/beta. Virus titers exceeding 10(4) PFU per eye could be demonstrated 4 to 5 days postinfection in mice given a single inoculation of antiserum 1 h after infection. Furthermore, anti-IFN treatment in 3-week-old mice infected with HSV-1(35) led to the development of clinically apparent corneal disease which subsequently progressed to stromal keratitis in the majority of recipients. These results indicate that the striking difference in the capacity of HSV-1(35) and HSV-1(RE) to induce corneal disease was related to the inherently greater sensitivity of strain 35 to IFN-alpha/beta produced by the host in response to infection. PMID:2157880

  8. North Tank Farm data report for the Gunite and Associated Tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Rule, V.A.; Burks, B.L.; Hoesen, S.D. van


    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science and Technology, in cooperation with the Oak Ridge Environmental Management Program, has developed and demonstrated the first full-scale remotely operated system for cleaning radioactive liquid and waste from large underground storage tanks. The remotely operated waste retrieval system developed and demonstrated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is designed to accomplish both retrieval of bulk waste, including liquids, thick sludge, and scarified concrete, and final tank cleaning. This report provides a summary of the North Tank Farm (NTF) operations data and an assessment of the performance and efficiency of the waste retrieval system during NTF operations data and an assessment of the performance and efficiency of the waste retrieval system during NTF operations. The organization of this report is as follows: Section 1 provides an introduction to the report. Section 2 describes the NTF tank structures (W-3 and W-4 only) and the contents of the tanks. Section 3 outlines the objectives of the NTF testing and explains how these objectives were met. Section 4 provides a description of the various operating systems used in the NTF operations. Sections 5 and 6 present a summary of the data collected during NTF operations. Section 7 summarizes the maintenance activities performed and Section 8 summarizes the on-the-job training performed in the NTF. Section 9 summarizes the capital cost for the waste retrieval and characterization equipment and operating costs for performing the NTF work. Section 10 provides observations and lessons learned, and Section 11 provides a summary and conclusions.

  9. FY94 Office of Technology Development Mixed Waste Operations Robotics Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.M.


    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) develops technologies to help solve waste management and environmental problems at DOE sites. The OTD includes the Robotics Technology Development Program (RTDP) and the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Together these programs will provide technologies for DOE mixed waste cleanup projects. Mixed waste contains both radioactive and hazardous constituents. DOE sites currently store over 240,000 cubic meters of low level mixed waste and cleanup activities will generate several hundred thousand more cubic meters. Federal and state regulations require that this waste must be processed before final disposal. The OTD RTDP Mixed Waste Operations (MWO) team held several robotic demonstrations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during November of 1993. Over 330 representatives from DOE, Government Contractors, industry, and universities attended. The MWO team includes: Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Oak Ridge National Engineering Laboratory (ORNL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), and Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). SRTC is the lead site for MWO and provides the technical coordinator. The primary demonstration objective was to show that robotic technologies can make DOE waste facilities run better, faster, more cost effective, and safer. To meet the primary objective, the demonstrations successfully showed the following remote waste drum processing activities: non-destructive drum examination, drum transportation, drum opening, removing waste from a drum, characterize and sort waste items, scarify metal waste, and inspect stored drums. To further meet the primary objective, the demonstrations successfully showed the following remote waste box processing activities: swing free crane control, workcell modeling, and torch standoff control.

  10. Evaluation of the Infectiousness to Mice of Soil Contaminated with Yersinia pestis-Infected Blood

    PubMed Central

    Boegler, Karen A.; Graham, Christine B.; Montenieri, John A.; MacMillan, Katherine; Holmes, Jennifer L.; Petersen, Jeannine M.; Gage, Kenneth L.; Eisen, Rebecca J.


    Plague, an often-fatal zoonotic disease caused by Yersinia pestis, is characterized by epizootic and quiescent periods. How Y. pestis is maintained during inter-epizootic periods is poorly understood, but soil has been implicated as a potential reservoir. Although previous studies have suggested that Y. pestis is able to survive in soil for weeks or months, it is unclear whether or not it is infectious to susceptible hosts. Here we investigate the potential for Y. pestis to infect mice through close contact with contaminated soil under laboratory conditions. In an attempt to approximate the natural conditions under which animals would be exposed to Y. pestis-contaminated soil, mouse cages filled with soil from a plague-endemic region were held at temperature and humidity ranges observed in ground squirrel burrows. These laboratory “burrows” were contaminated with highly bacteremic blood (> 108 cfu/mL) to simulate the introduction of infectious material from a dying animal during an epizootic. Outbred Swiss-Webster mice with scarified skin patches were held on contaminated soil for 10 days and monitored for signs of illness. Following exposure to contaminated soil, one animal of 104 became infected with Y. pestis. None of the remaining animals seroconverted following a 21-day holding period. Under our experimental conditions, which maximized the likelihood of contact between susceptible mice and contaminated soil, transmission efficiency from soil to mice was 0.96% (95% CI 0.17, 5.25%). This suggests that although transmission of Y. pestis from contaminated soils is possible, it is not likely a major transmission route under natural conditions. PMID:22925020

  11. Proinflammatory chemokines during Candida albicans keratitis.


    Yuan, Xiaoyong; Hua, Xia; Wilhelmus, Kirk R


    Chemotactic cytokines mediate the recruitment of leukocytes into infected tissues. This study investigated the profile of chemokines during experimental Candida albicans keratitis and determined the effects of chemokine inhibition on leukocyte infiltration and fungal growth during murine keratomycosis. Scarified corneas of BALB/c mice were topically inoculated with C. albicans and monitored daily over one week for fungal keratitis. After a gene microarray for murine chemokines compared infected corneas to controls, real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunostaining assessed chemokine expression in infected and mock-inoculated corneas. An anti-chemokine antibody was then administered subconjunctivally and evaluated for effects on clinical severity, corneal inflammation, fungal recovery, and cytokine expression. Of 33 chemokine genes examined by microarray, 6 CC chemokines and 6 CXC chemokines were significantly (P<0.05) upregulated more than two-fold. Chemokine (CC-motif) ligand 3 (CCL3) was upregulated 108-fold (P=0.03) by real-time RT-PCR within one day after fungal inoculation and remained increased 28-fold (P=0.02) at one week, and its in situ expression increased in the epithelium and stroma of infected corneas. Compared to the control antibody-treated group, eyes treated with anti-CCL3 antibody showed reduced clinical severity (P<0.05), less corneal neovascularization (P=0.02), and fewer inflammatory cells infiltrating corneal tissue, but the amount of recoverable fungi was not significantly (P=0.4) affected. Anti-CCL3 treatment significantly (P=0.01) reduced the expression of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1beta in infected corneas. These results indicate that chemokines, especially the CC chemokine CCL3, play important roles in the acute inflammatory response to C. albicans corneal infection. PMID:20005222

  12. Prevention of Herpes Simplex Virus Induced Stromal Keratitis by a Glycoprotein B-Specific Monoclonal Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Krawczyk, Adalbert; Dirks, Miriam; Kasper, Maren; Buch, Anna; Dittmer, Ulf; Giebel, Bernd; Wildschütz, Lena; Busch, Martin; Goergens, Andre; Schneweis, Karl E.; Eis-Hübinger, Anna M.; Sodeik, Beate; Heiligenhaus, Arnd; Roggendorf, Michael; Bauer, Dirk


    The increasing incidence of acyclovir (ACV) and multidrug-resistant strains in patients with corneal HSV-1 infections leading to Herpetic Stromal Keratitis (HSK) is a major health problem in industrialized countries and often results in blindness. To overcome this obstacle, we have previously developed an HSV-gB-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb 2c) that proved to be highly protective in immunodeficient NOD/SCID-mice towards genital infections. In the present study, we examined the effectivity of mAb 2c in preventing the immunopathological disease HSK in the HSK BALB/c mouse model. Therefore, mice were inoculated with HSV-1 strain KOS on the scarified cornea to induce HSK and subsequently either systemically or topically treated with mAb 2c. Systemic treatment was performed by intravenous administration of mAb 2c 24 h prior to infection (pre-exposure prophylaxis) or 24, 40, and 56 hours after infection (post-exposure immunotherapy). Topical treatment was performed by periodical inoculations (5 times per day) of antibody-containing eye drops as control, starting at 24 h post infection. Systemic antibody treatment markedly reduced viral loads at the site of infection and completely protected mice from developing HSK. The administration of the antiviral antibody prior or post infection was equally effective. Topical treatment had no improving effect on the severity of HSK. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that mAb 2c proved to be an excellent drug for the treatment of corneal HSV-infections and for prevention of HSK and blindness. Moreover, the humanized counterpart (mAb hu2c) was equally effective in protecting mice from HSV-induced HSK when compared to the parental mouse antibody. These results warrant the future development of this antibody as a novel approach for the treatment of corneal HSV-infections in humans. PMID:25587898

  13. Inhibitory effect of spinal mGlu(5) receptor antisense oligonucleotide on the up-regulated expression of spinal G protein associated with chronic morphine treatment.


    Chen, Moxi; Zhang, Xiaoli; Xu, Hao; Ma, Xiaqing; Jiang, Wei; Xu, Tao


    Knockdown of spinal metabotropic glutamate 5 (mGlu5) receptor was shown to inhibit the development of intrathecal morphine antinociceptive tolerance. The present work was designed to evaluate the expression of spinal G-protein during morphine tolerance and knockdown of spinal mGlu5 receptor with antisense oligonucleotide (ODN). Rats were treated with saline, morphine, mGlu5 receptor antisense or mismatch ODN intrathecally. Behavioral tests were employed to test the thermal and mechanical pain thresholds. Five days later, rats were scarified and spinal expression of spinal Gαi, Gαo, Gαq and Gβ were detected. Consistent with the previous results, knockdown of spinal mGlu5 receptor could inhibit spinal morphine antinociceptive tolerance in behavioral tests (P<0.05). The mGlu5 receptor antisense ODN produced a significant reduction in mGlu5 receptor protein of about 56.6% compared with the control group (P<0.05). Expression of spinal Gαi, Gαo, Gαq and Gβ were up-regulated while morphine tolerance developed (P<0.05). Antisense ODN of spinal mGlu5 receptor, but not mismatched ODN, reduced the spinal dorsal horn levels of Gαi, Gαo, Gαs, Gαq and Gβ (P<0.05). We conclude that expression of spinal G (αi, αo, αs, αq and β) protein may be up-regulated after chronic morphine treatment which could be attenuated by knockdown of spinal mGlu5 receptor with antisense ODN. PMID:24296320

  14. From seed production to seedling establishment: Important steps in an invasive process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreras, Ana Elisa; Galetto, Leonardo


    It is widely accepted that exotic invasive species are one of the most important ecological and economic problems. Reproductive and establishment traits are considered key features of a population expansion process, but few works have studied many of these simultaneously. This work examines how large the differences are in reproductive and establishment traits between two Fabaceae, the exotic invasive, Gleditsia triacanthos and the native, Acacia aroma. Gleditsia is a serious leguminous woody invader in various parts of the world and Acacia is a common native tree of Argentina. Both species have similar dispersal mechanisms and their reproductive phenology overlaps. We chose 17 plants of each species in a continuous forest of the Chaco Serrano Forest of Córdoba, Argentina. In each plant we measured fruit production, fruit removal (exclusion experiments), seed predation (pre- and post-dispersal), seed germination, seed bank (on each focal tree, three sampling periods during the year), and density of seedlings (around focal individuals and randomly in the study site). Gleditsia presented some traits that could favour the invasion process, such as a higher number of seeds per plant, percentage of scarified seed germination and density of seedlings around the focal individuals, than Acacia. On the other hand, Gleditsia presented a higher percentage of seed predation. The seed bank was persistent in both species and no differences were observed in fruit removal. This work highlights the importance of simultaneously studying reproductive and establishment variables involved in the spreading of an exotic invasive species. It also gives important insight into the variables to be considered when planning management strategies. The results are discussed from the perspective of some remarkable hypotheses on invasive species and may contribute to rethinking some aspects of the theory on invasive species.

  15. Cleft lip: The historical perspective.


    Bhattacharya, S; Khanna, V; Kohli, R


    The earliest documented history of cleft lip is based on a combination of religion, superstition, invention and charlatanism. While Greeks ignored their existence, Spartans and Romans would kill these children as they were considered to harbour evil spirits. When saner senses prevailed Fabricius ab Aquapendente (1537-1619) was the first to suggest the embryological basis of these clefts. The knowledge of cleft lip and the surgical correction received a big boost during the period between the Renaissance and the 19th century with the publication of Pierre Franco's Petit Traite and Traite des Hernies in which he described the condition as "lievre fendu de nativite" (cleft lip present from birth). The first documented Cleft lip surgery is from China in 390 BC in an 18 year old would be soldier, Wey Young-Chi. Albucasis of Arabia and his fellow surgeons used the cautery instead of the scalpel and Yperman in 1854 recommended scarifying the margins with a scalpel before suturing them with a triangular needle dipped in wax. The repair was reinforced by passing a long needle through the two sides of the lip and fixing the shaft of the needle with a figure-of-eight thread over the lip. Germanicus Mirault can be credited to be the originator of the triangular flap which was later modified by C.W. Tennison in 1952 and Peter Randall in 1959. In the late 50s, Ralph Millard gave us his legendary 'cut as you go' technique. The protruding premaxilla of a bilateral cleft lip too has seen many changes throughout the ages - from being discarded totally to being pushed back by wedge resection of vomer to finally being left to the orthodontists. PMID:19884680

  16. A modified procedure for measuring oxygen-18 content of nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, M. A.; Aly, A. I. M.; Abdel Monem, N.; Hanafy, M.; Gomaa, H. E.


    SummaryMass spectrometric analysis of O-isotopic composition of nitrate has many potential applications in studies of environmental processes. Through this work, rapid, reliable, precise, broadly applicable, catalyst-free, low-priced and less labor intensive procedure for measuring δ18O of nitrate using Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer has been developed and implemented. The conditions necessary to effect complete nitrate recovery and complete removal of other oxygen containing anions and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) without scarifying the isotopic signature of nitrate were investigated. The developed procedure consists of two main parts: (1) wet chemistry train for extraction and purification of nitrate from the liquid matrix; (2) off-line pyrolysis of extracted nitrate salt with activated graphite at 550 °C for 30 min. The conditions necessary to effect complete nitrate recovery and complete removal of other oxygen containing compounds were investigated. Dramatic reduction in processing times needed for analysis of δ18O of nitrate at natural abundance level was achieved. Preservation experiments revealed that chloroform (99.8%) is an effective preservative. Isotopic contents of some selected nitrate salts were measured using the modified procedure and some other well established methods at two laboratories in Egypt and Germany. Performance assessment of the whole developed analytical train was made using internationally distributed nitrate isotopes reference materials and real world sample of initial zero-nitrate content. The uncertainty budget was evaluated using the graphical nested hierarchal approach. The obtained results proved the suitability for handling samples of complicated matrices. Reduction of consumables cost by about 80% was achieved.


    SciTech Connect

    Rachel Landry


    The objective of this contract between Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS) and the Department of Energy (DOE) was to provide a tool for the DOE to inspect the inside tank walls of underground radioactive waste storage tanks in their tank farms. Some of these tanks are suspected to have leaks, but the harsh nature of the environment within the tanks precludes human inspection of tank walls. As a result of these conditions only a few inspection methods can fulfill this task. Of the methods available, OSS chose to pursue Alternating Current Field Measurement (ACFM), because it does not require clean surfaces for inspection, nor any contact with the Surface being inspected, and introduces no extra by-products in the inspection process (no coupling fluids or residues are left behind). The tool produced by OSS is the Robotic Tank Inspection End Effector (RTIEE), which is initially deployed on the tip of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA). The RTEE combines ACFM with a color video camera for both electromagnetic and visual inspection The complete package consists of an end effector, its corresponding electronics and software, and a user's manual to guide the operator through an inspection. The system has both coarse and fine inspection modes and allows the user to catalog defects and suspected areas of leakage in a database for further examination, which may lead to emptying the tank for repair, decommissioning, etc.. The following is an updated report to OSS document OSS-21100-7002, which was submitted in 1995. During the course of the contract, two related subtasks arose, the Wall and Coating Thickness Sensor and the Vacuum Scarifying and Sampling Tool Assembly. The first of these subtasks was intended to evaluate the corrosion and wall thinning of 55-gallon steel drums. The second was retrieved and characterized the waste material trapped inside the annulus region of the underground tanks on the DOE's tank farms. While these subtasks were derived from the original intent of

  18. Anti-glycoprotein D monoclonal antibody protects against herpes simplex virus type 1-induced diseases in mice functionally depleted of selected T-cell subsets or asialo GM1+ cells.

    PubMed Central

    Staats, H F; Oakes, J E; Lausch, R N


    Passive transfer of a monoclonal antibody (MAb) specific for glycoprotein D (gD) is highly effective in preventing the development of herpes simplex virus type 1-induced stromal keratitis. In the present study, we investigated whether animals which had been functionally depleted of T-cell subsets or asialo GM1+ cells would continue to be responsive to MAb therapy. BALB/c mice were depleted of CD4+, CD8+, or asialo GM1+ cells by treatment with anti-L3T4, anti-Lyt 2.2, or anti-asialo GM1 antibodies, respectively. Functional depletion of CD4+ cells was documented by the loss of delayed-type hypersensitivity responsiveness, while CD8+ cell depletion was accompanied by abrogation of cytotoxic lymphocyte activity. Anti-asialo GM1 treatment led to the loss of natural killer cell lytic activity. Mice depleted of the desired cell population and infected on the scarified cornea with herpes simplex virus type 1 uniformly developed necrotizing stromal keratitis by 3 weeks postinfection. A single inoculation of anti-gD MAb (55 micrograms) given intraperitoneally 24 h postinfection strongly protected hosts depleted of CD4+ cells against stromal keratitis. Likewise, antibody treatment in CD8+ or asialo GM1+ cell-depleted hosts was as therapeutically effective as that seen in non-cell-depleted mice. We also observed that in cell-depleted mice, the virus spread into the central nervous system and caused encephalitis. The CD4+ cell-depleted mice were the most severely affected, as 100% developed fatal disease. Anti-gD MAb treatment successfully protected all (32 of 32) CD4+-, CD8+-, or asialo GM1(+)-depleted hosts against encephalitis. We therefore conclude that antibody-mediated prevention of stromal keratitis and encephalitis does not require the obligatory participation of CD4+, CD8+, or asialo GM1+ cells. However, when mice were simultaneously depleted of both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets, antibody treatment could not prevent fatal encephalitis. Thus, antibody can compensate for

  19. Smoke-induced seed germination in California chaparral

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, J.E.; Fotheringham, C.J.


    smoke. While the mechanism behind smoke-induced germination is not known, it appears that smoke may be involved in overcoming different blocks to germination in different species. For example, in Emmenanthe penduliflora, NO2 in smoke was sufficient to induce germination, and most forms of physical or chemical scarification also induced germination. For Romneya coulteri, NO2 alone failed to induce germination, and scarified seeds required addition of gibberellic acid. In Dicentra chrysantha, none of these treatments, nor smoke alone, induced germination, but germination was triggered by a combination of soil burial followed by smoke treatment. Smoke-stimulated species differed substantially in the duration of smoke exposure required to induce germination, and this was inversely correlated with tolerance to smoke exposure. We suggest that such differences in response may affect postfire community structure.

  20. Evaluating the ecological impacts of salvage logging: can natural and anthropogenic disturbances promote coexistence?


    Royo, Alejandro A; Peterson, Chris J; Stanovick, John S; Carson, Walter P


    Salvage logging following windthrow is common throughout forests worldwide even though the practice is often considered inimical to forest recovery. Because salvaging removes trees, crushes seedlings, and compacts soils, many warn this practice may delay succession, suppress diversity, and alter composition. Here, over 8 yr following windthrow, we experimentally evaluate how salvaging affects tree succession across 11 gaps in Eastern deciduous forests of Pennsylvania, wherein each gap was divided into salvaged and control (unsalvaged) halves. Our gaps vary in size and windthrow severity, and we explicitly account for this variation as well as variation in soil disturbance (i.e., scarification) resulting from salvaging so that our results would be generalizable. Salvage logging had modest and ephemeral impacts on tree succession. Seedling richness and density declined similarly over time in both salvaged and unsalvaged areas as individuals grew into saplings. The primary impact of salvaging on succession occurred where salvaging scarified soils. Here, salvaging caused 41 to 82% declines in sapling abundance, richness, and diversity, but these differences largely disappeared within 5 yr. Additionally, we documented interactions between windthrow severity and scarification. Specifically, low-severity windthrow and scarification combined reinforced dominance by shade-tolerant and browse-tolerant species (Acer pensylvanicum, Fagus grandifolia). In contrast, high windthrow severity and scarification together reduced the density of a fast-growing pioneer tree (Prunus pensylvanica) and non-tree vegetation cover by 75% and 26%, respectively. This reduction enhanced the recruitment of two mid-successional tree species, Acer rubrum and Prunus serotina, by 2 and 3-fold, respectively. Thus, our findings demonstrate that salvaging creates novel microsites and mitigates competing vegetation, thereby enhancing establishment of important hardwoods and promoting tree species

  1. Effect of some surface and subsurface attributes on soil water erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertol, Ildegardis; César Ramos, Júlio; Vidal Vázquez, Eva; Mirás Avalos, José Manuel


    Soil erosion is a complex phenomenon depending on climate, topography, soil intrinsic characteristics, crop and residue cover, and management and conservation practices that may be accelerated by man activities. Within the above mentioned factors, soil cover and soil management most influence soil erosion. Soil management includes mechanical mobilization and in soil conservationist systems soil residues are mobilized for increasing soil surface roughness. Even if soil roughness is ephemeral, it increases soil water storage and sediment retention in surface microdepressions, which contributes to decrease water erosion. Conservationist soil management systems also maintain the soil surface covered by crop residues, which are more persistent than roughness and contribute to dissipate kinetic energy from raindrops and partly also from runoff. Crop residues are more efficient than soil roughness in controlling water erosion because of its ability to retain detached soil particles. The objective of this study was to assess the efficiency of both soil cover by crop residues and soil surface roughness in controlling water erosion. A field experiments was performed on an Inceptisol in South Brazil under simulated rainfall conditions during 2012. The following treatments were evaluated: 1) residues of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), 2) residues of common vetch (Vicia sativa), 3) scarification after cultivation of Italian ryegrass, 4) scarification after cultivation of common vetch, 5) scarified bare soil with high roughness as a control. Treatments #1 and 2 involved no-tilled soil with a rather smooth soil surface, where roots and crop residues of the previous crop were maintained. Treatments # 3 and 4 involved a rather high roughness, absence of previous crop residues and maintenance of antecedent roots. Experimental plots were 11 m long and 3.5 m wide with an area of 38.5 m2. Six successive simulated rainfall tests were applied using a rotating-boom rain simulator

  2. Long-term effects of clear-cutting and site preparation on carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and suspended solids export to boreal first order streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palviainen, Marjo; Finér, Leena; Laurén, Ari; Launiainen, Samuli; Piirainen, Sirpa; Mattsson, Tuija; Starr, Mike


    Clear-cutting has been observed to generally increase leaching and element exports to adjacent watercourses. Most studies on the effects of clear-cutting on nutrient export in north European boreal forests have been short-term and were carried out in the 1970s and 1980s when forestry practices were different from those of today. Nowadays clear-cut areas are smaller, soil preparation methods are lighter (less soil disturbance), and buffer zones are left along watercourses. Several hundred thousand hectares of forests are clear-cut and soils are scarified before regeneration operations in Fennoscandia, but little is known of the long-term impacts of the current methods on the surface water quality. We studied the long-term (14 years) effects of clear-cutting and site preparation on runoff (mm) and the export of total nitrogen (total N), total organic nitrogen (TON), ammonium (NH4-N), nitrate (NO3-N), total phosphorus (total P), phosphate (PO4-P), total organic carbon (TOC) and suspended solids (SS) in two paired-catchments in Eastern Finland. In accordance with current forest management guidelines, clear cutting (stem-only removal) were carried out on 34% (C34) and 12% (C12) of the area of the treated catchments, scarification carried out after 2 years and planting with Scots pine seedlings after 3 years. Buffer zones were left between the clear-cut areas and the catchment outlet stream. In the case of the C34 catchment, clear-cutting increased annual runoff and exports of total N, TON, NO3-N, PO4-P and SS. Annual runoff increased by 4 - 102 mm (1-30%). The annual exports of total N, TON, NO3-N, PO4-P and SS increased by at most 0.36 (72%), 0.35 (76%), 0.15 (1056%), 0.002 (35%) and 2.0 (715%) kg/ha, respectively. For the C12 catchment, annual runoff did not change and only exports of PO4-P and SS increased. Annual export of PO4-P increased by at maximum 0.007 kg/ha (69%) and that of SS by at maximum 0.55 kg/ha (271%). Clear-cutting induced increases in runoff and

  3. Final amended report on the safety assessment of Mink Oil.



    Mink Oil, obtained from the fatty tissues of minks, is a mixture of the natural glycerides of 14 to 20 carbon chain fatty acids. There are 100 current reported uses as a hair-conditioning agent, an occlusive skin-conditioning agent, and as a surfactant; up to a maximum concentration of 3%. Mink Oil is manufactured by harvesting animal hides and scraping the fat layer from the hide. It is rendered and refined using high temperature processes (230 degrees F to 240 degrees F) and saponification to reduce free fatty acids. Analyses demonstrate that Mink Oil can be substantially free of impurities, including pesticides. Mink Oil does not absorb significant UVA or UVB radiation. In a clinical test of skin penetration, 1 h after application, Mink Oil was detected on the skin surface of all five panelists; it was detected within the stratum corneum in 2/5 panelists. Mink Oil has an oral LD50 of > 64.0 cc/kg in albino rats. No erythema or edema was noted after refined Mink Oil was applied for 24 h to intact and scarified area of albino rabbits. A 50% dilution of a Mink Oil cream did not sensitize guinea pigs in a maximization test. Mink Oil was not an ocular irritant to albino rabbits. Clinical studies using single occlusive patches found no irritation with up to 2.8% Mink Oil, although transient mild to no irritation was noted in two exaggerated-use studies. Mink Oil is used in aerosols and sprays. Although there are no inhalation toxicity data available on Mink Oil, the available data on particle sizes of cosmetic aerosols and sprays indicates diameters more than an order of magnitude larger than the diameter of respirable particles. Most of the glycerides in Mink Oil are triglycerides (glyceryl triesters), the safety of which has been substantiated in previous safety assessments; e.g., dermal absorption is nil to slight; there is little or no acute, subchronic, or chronic oral toxicity; dermal application was not associated with significant irritation or sensitization

  4. Protective effect of naringenin on acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rejaie, Salim S; Abuohashish, Hatem M; Al-Enazi, Maher M; Al-Assaf, Abdullah H; Parmar, Mihir Y; Ahmed, Mohammed M


    AIM: To evaluate the ameliorative effect of naringenin (NG) during ulcerative colitis (UC) in rats. METHODS: Rats were treated with three different doses (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg per day) of NG and a single dose of mesalazine (MES, 300 mg/kg per day) for seven days prior to ulcerative colitis induction by 4% acetic acid (AA). Twenty four hours after AA rectal administration, animals were scarified and the colonic tissues were dissected. Colonic mucus content was estimated using Alcian blue dye binding technique. In colon tissues, levels of total glutathione sulphadryls (T-GSH), non-protein sulphadryls (NP-SH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were evaluated. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured. Concentrations of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and total protein were also estimated in colon tissues. Colonic levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO) were estimated. In cross section of colitis tissue the histopathological changes were observed. RESULTS: Colonic mucus content was decreased in AA compared to controls (587.09 ± 65.59 mg/kg vs 941.78 ± 68.41 mg/kg, P < 0.001). AA administration markedly reduced T-GSH (5.25 ± 0.37 nmol/L vs 3.04 ± 0.24 nmol/L, P < 0.01), NP-SH (3.16 ± 0.04 nmol/L vs 2.16 ± 0.30 nmol/L, P < 0.01), CAT (6.77 ± 0.40 U/mg vs 3.04 ± 0.2 U/mg, P < 0.01) and SOD (3.10 ± 0.11 U/mg vs 1.77 ± 0.18 U/mg, P < 0.01) while TBARS, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, PGE2 and NO levels (15.09 ± 3.84 nmol/L vs 59.90 ± 16.34 nmol/L, P < 0.01; 113.56 ± 1.91 pg/mg vs 134.24 ± 4.77 pg/mg, P < 0.01; 209.20 ± 36.38 pg/mg vs 422.19 ± 31.47 pg/mg, P < 0.01; 250.83 ± 25.09 pg/mg vs 638.58 ± 115.9 pg/mg, P < 0.01; 248.19 ± 36.98 pg/mg vs 541.74 ± 58.34 pg/mg, P < 0.01 and 81.26 ± 2.98 mmol/g vs 101.90 ± 10.73 mmol/g, P < 0.001) were increased in colon of rats with UC compared controls